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Title: Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Exeter - A Description of Its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See
Author: Addleshaw, Percy, 1866-1916
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Exeter - A Description of Its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See" ***

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CHURCH OF EXETER***


Transcriber's notes:

      1) Words and phrases which were italicized in the original
         have been surrounded by underscores('_') in this version.
         Words or phrases which were in bold face have been
         surrounded by pound signs('#').

      2) Obvious printer's errors have been corrected without note.



THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF EXETER

A Description of Its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See

by

PERCY ADDLESHAW, B.A. (Oxon.)

With XXXVII [Illustration] Illustrations



[Illustration: EXETER CATHEDRAL--FROM THE SOUTH-WEST.
               The Photochrom. Co. Ld. Photo.]



London G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. 1921
First Published, January 1898
Second Edition, Revised, 1899
Third Impression, 1907
Fourth Impression, 1912
New and Revised Edition, 1921.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE


Among various books consulted the author specially owes his
acknowledgments to "The Fabric Rolls"; Leland's "Itinerary"; Holler's
"History"; Izacke's "Antiquities of Exeter"; Britton's "History and
Antiquities of Exeter"; "Transactions of Exeter Architectural Society";
Oliver's "Lives of the Bishops of Exeter"; Murray's "Handbook of
Exeter"; Archdeacon Freeman's "Architectural History of Exeter
Cathedral"; Professor Freeman's "Exeter" (Historic Towns Series);
Prince's "Worthies of Devon"; Worth's "History of Devonshire"; Fuller's
"Worthies of Devon"; Macaulay's "History of England"; and Green's "Short
History of the English People." The author would also express his
special thanks to the late Canon Hingeston-Randolph, the learned editor
of the Episcopal Registers of the Diocese, for information which
contributed largely to the improvement of the second edition of this
book.



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION


In reissuing this handbook, which during the lapse of twenty-three years
had become out of date in many ways, the editor has introduced
considerable alterations in the arrangement of the matter, with a view
to facilitating its use as a guide to the various parts of the
Cathedral. For suggestions as to this, and for numerous improvements and
corrections in detail he is particularly indebted to Miss Beatrix F.
Cresswell, whose published works "Exeter Churches," "Notes on the
Churches of the Deanery of Ken," and "Edwardian Inventories for the City
and County of Exeter" have made her an authority on the ecclesiology of
the Diocese.

E.B.

_June_, 1921.



CONTENTS

                                                          PAGE
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY AND ST. PETER IN EXETER    1

THE FABRIC OF THE CATHEDRAL. EXTERIOR                       19
  The Towers                                                23
  The Roof                                                  24
  The North Porch                                           24
  The West Front                                            27

THE FABRIC OF THE CATHEDRAL. INTERIOR                       31
  The Nave                                                  31
  The Minstrels' Gallery                                    36
  St. Radegunde's Chapel                                    36
  St. Edmund's Chapel                                       39
  Monuments in the Nave                                     39
  The North Transept                                        43
  Sylke Chantry                                             44
  St. Paul's Chapel                                         44
  The South Transept                                        44
  Monuments in the South Transept                           47
  The Choir Screen                                          48
  The Organ                                                 52
  The Choir                                                 52
  The Choir Stalls                                          55
  The Reredos                                               56
  The Bishop's Throne                                       56
  The Sedilia                                               56
  St. James' Chapel                                         59
  St. Andrew's Chapel                                       61
  The Ambulatory                                            61
  Speke's Chantry                                           63
  Bishop Oldham's Chantry                                   63
  The Lady Chapel                                           65
  Bronscombe's Tomb                                         66
  Stafford's Tomb                                           66
  Tomb of Sir John and Lady Doddridge                       67
  St. Gabriel's Chapel                                      69
  Quivil's Tomb                                             69
  St. Mary Magdalen Chapel                                  69

TOMBS IN THE CHOIR AND CHOIR AISLES                         71

THE CHAPTER HOUSE AND CLOISTER                              73

THE CLOSE AND CATHEDRAL LIBRARY                             78

THE BISHOP'S PALACE                                         79

THE DIOCESE OF EXETER                                       83

ROUGEMONT CASTLE AND THE GUILDHALL                          91

DIMENSIONS                                                  96

INDEX                                                       97



ILLUSTRATIONS

                                                          PAGE
Exeter Cathedral--from the South-west            _Frontispiece_
Arms of the Diocese                                     _Title_
View of the Cathedral from the South                       xii
Interior--Chapter House                                     13
Exeter Cathedral, from an old print                         21
The Cathedral--from the South-east                          22
The Northern Tower                                          25
The West Front                                              26
Portals of the West Front                                   29
The Nave--from the South Transept                           30
The Nave--looking West                                      33
Corbels and Bosses                                          34
The Minstrels' Gallery                                      35
Bays of Nave                                                37
The "Patteson" Pulpit                                       38
The Nave--looking East                                      41
The Transept--looking North                                 45
Interior in the last century                                49
The Choir Screen                                            51
The Choir--looking West                                     53
The Choir before Restoration                                54
The Choir--looking East                                     57
The Sedilia                                                 58
Pulpit in the Choir                                         60
St. James' Chapel                                           61
St. George's Chapel                                         62
The Lady Chapel                                             64
Bishop Bronscombe's Monument                                66
Screen of St. Gabriel's Chapel                              68
Tomb of Bishop Stapledon                                    72
Monument of Bishop Marshall                                 73
The East Gate (pulled down in 1784)                         77
The Bishop's Palace                                         81
Old Houses in Fore Street                                   90
Rougemont Castle                                            93
The Guildhall, Exeter                                       94

PLAN OF THE CATHEDRAL                                  _at end_



[Illustration: EXETER CATHEDRAL, FROM THE SOUTH.]



EXETER CATHEDRAL.



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY AND ST. PETER IN EXETER.


The history of any ancient cathedral must always be interesting, and
that of Exeter is no exception, though "it supplies less of
architectural history than those churches whose whole character has been
altered over and over again." A cathedral represents not only the
spiritual, but the active, laborious, and artistic life of past
generations. The bishop, too, was in many ways the head man of the
province, and combined, not seldom, the varied qualities of priest,
warrior, and statesman. The acts of such ecclesiastics were full of
importance, not for their own city only, but often also for the whole
nation. As men who had frequently travelled much and studied deeply,
they summoned to their aid in the building and beautifying of their
churches the most skilled artists end artificers of their time; so, with
the story of the lives of the bishops of a diocese, the history of a
cathedral's building is inextricably woven. To be elevated to a
bishopric generally meant to be put into possession of great
wealth--when Veysey became bishop the revenues of the see of Exeter
have, by some authors, been computed at £100,000; Canon Hingeston-Randolph
puts them, with more reason and authority, at the sum of £30,000--and a
large portion of this money was spent on works connected with the chief
church of the diocese. It is not wonderful, therefore, this generosity
being joined to marvellous skill and taste, that our old cathedrals are
at once the despair and envy of the modern architect. And it is with a
feeling of reverence that one recalls the history of those who built in
the heart of each populous city "grey cliffs of lonely stone into the
midst of sailing birds and silent air."

The story of Exeter has an unique interest, and its church, as we shall
see, is in many respects without a rival. The fact that a building of
such great beauty should adorn a city so situated is remarkable; for
long after--as we read in Macaulay--weekly posts left London for various
parts of England, Exeter was still, as it were, on the borders of
territories scarcely explored, and was the furthest western point to
which letters were conveyed from the metropolis. Fuller thus describes
the county of Devonshire in his day (1646): "Devonshire hath the narrow
seas on the South, the Severn on the North, Cornwall on the West, Dorset
and Somersetshire on the East. A goodly province, the second in England
for greatness, clear in view without measuring, as bearing a square of
fifty miles. Some part thereof, as the South Hams, is so fruitful it
needs no art; but generally (though not running of itself) it answers to
the spur of industry. No shire showes more industrious, or so many
Husbandmen, who by Marle (blew and white), Chalk, Lime, Seasand,
Compost, Sopeashes, Rags and what not, make the ground both to take and
keep a moderate fruitfulness; so that Virgil, if now alive, might make
additions to his Georgicks, from the Plough-practice in this county. As
for the natives thereof, generally they are dexterous in any employment,
and Queen Elizabeth was wont to say of the gentry: _They were all born
courtiers with a becomming confidence_."

The city of Exeter is of great age. "Isca Damnoniorum, Caer Wise,
Exanceaster, Exeter, keeping essentially the same name under all
changes, stands distinguished as the one great city which has, in a more
marked way than any other, kept its unbroken being and its unbroken
position throughout all ages." But though Whitaker asserts that in the
middle of the fifth century it was the seat of a bishop, Professor
Freeman, with more authority, declares that the city did not become a
bishop's see till the latter half of the eleventh century, at which
period the bishopstools were removed from the small to the great towns.
Until 703 A.D. Devonshire formed part of the vast diocese of Wessex.
About the year 900 A.D. the diocese of Devon and Cornwall was divided
into two--the former with its bishop's seat at Crediton--only to be
reunited again a hundred and fifty years later when Leofric was
appointed bishop.

The first record of a church dedicated to SS. Mary and Peter in Exeter,
is that of an abbey church founded by Athelstan. But Sweyn destroyed it
seventy years later, and it seems frequently to have been attacked by
invaders previous to its destruction. But in 1019 Canute endowed a new
church and confirmed by charter their lands and privileges to the monks.
This building must have been of some pretensions, for it was given to
Leofric for his cathedral church in 1050. It occupied the site of the
present Lady Chapel. When Warelwast and Marshall built their Norman
church they placed it on the east of the old church, leaving an
intervening space. Their nave occupied the site of the present nave, the
transeptal towers were the same, but the choir was shorter and probably
terminated in an apse flanked by smaller apses at the ends of the choir
aisles. Traces of one of these have been found at the end of the third
bay of the north choir aisle. Bronscombe and Quivil (see p. 5) began
their reconstruction at this end, and by adding the ambulatory and Lady
Chapel linked together the sites of the old and new churches.

With the episcopate of Leofric, Exeter first assumes the rank of a
cathedral city. The sees of Devon and Cornwall had been held together by
Lyfing, the last bishop of Crediton. But Crediton, an unfortified
"vill," was an easy prey to the Irish, Danes, and other pirates, who
devastated the diocese from time to time. Leofric felt the urgent
necessity for a change, and fixed on the walled town of Exeter to be his
cathedral city. He sent a clerk to the pope asking him to write to the
king recommending the change. The king readily consented, and the church
of St. Mary and St. Peter was given to the bishop as his cathedral
church. The event was clearly regarded as of considerable importance,
for at his installation Edward the Confessor "supported his right arm
and Queen Eadgytha his left." Archbishops, bishops, and nobles also
assisted at the ceremony. Leofric proved a hard-working and wise
prelate, and gave generously of lands and moneys to his church. He had
found it but poorly furnished, the wardrobe only containing "one
worthless priest's dress." He also remembered it in his will, and the
great "Liber Exoniensis" was his gift.

But if the history of the see has its birth with Leofric, the story of
the cathedral begins with the appointment in 1107 of Warelwast as
bishop. This noteworthy man was a nephew of the Conqueror and chaplain
to both William II and Henry I. Inheriting to the full the Norman
passion for building, he pulled down the Saxon edifice and began to
erect a great Norman cathedral in its stead. The transeptal towers
attest the magnificence of his scheme. There is nothing quite like them
anywhere else, though at Barcelona and Chalons-sur-Marne may be seen
something similar. But they suffice to stamp him as an architect of
exceptional genius. He laboured zealously in other matters, founding at
Plympton a wealthy Augustinian priory; he also represented the king at
Rome in his famous quarrel with Anselm. It is said that he became blind
and died, an old man, at his priory of Plympton.

The next important date to notice is 1194, when Henry Marshall, brother
of Walter Earl Marshall, was made bishop. For two years the episcopal
throne had remained empty, the king being absent from England in the
Holy Land. But with the appointment of Marshall a most important stage
is reached. King John gave to the see the tithes of the tin in
Devonshire and Cornwall. This must have largely increased the episcopal
income, for Marshall quickly set about completing the work Warelwast had
begun a hundred years before. To this end he granted the emoluments of
St. Erth's Church, near Hayle, Cornwall, to be used towards defraying
the cost of repairs. He also called upon each householder to show his
interest in the work by subscribing, at Pentecost, an alms of "unum
obolum ad minim." For the sufficient remuneration of the choral vicars
he made over to them the church of St. Swithun in Woodbury, "with all
its appurtenances."

To Marshall we owe extensive additions to the nave, the north porch, and
the cloister doorway. He completed the Norman church begun by Warelwast,
but there is no evidence that he extended to the eastward, as is
sometimes stated. The position of the tomb in the "founder's place" on
the north side of the choir indicates that it terminated only a few
yards farther to the east. Beyond there must have been an open space
between the Norman and the old Saxon cathedrals.

For nearly fifty years there are but scant records of work done to the
building. Though Professor Freeman[1] speaks of its "not long-lived
perfection," it is quite possible that Marshall's work was considered,
by his own and the succeeding generation, to be final. Any interest
there may be in the lives of two of the succeeding bishops, until the
election of Bronscombe in 1257, is for the most part due to their
labours in other matters. For example, under Simon de Apulia, the city
of Exeter was divided into parishes; and by William Bruere the chapter
house and stalls of the old choir were completed. He was one of the
leaders of the English army at Acre in 1228. He also created the deanery
of Exeter.

    [1] "Exeter" (Historic Towns Series), by Prof. E.A. Freeman
    (Longmans).

But with the arrival of Walter Bronscombe a new career of architectural
energy begins. Now dawns that wonderful transformation period, at the
close of which the church stood pretty much as we now know it.
Concerning Bronscombe's character there has been somewhat bitter
dispute. It is certain that he was accused of craftiness and meanness.
But William of Worcester, whose testimony is valuable, called him Walter
le Good. Whatever may be the real truth of the matter, he seems to have
made an admirable bishop, his election reflecting considerable credit on
the acumen of those concerned in it. For he had not, surely, much to
recommend him, at first sight, for so important a position. Though he
was Archdeacon of Surrey at the time of his appointment, he was not a
priest, and he was quite a young man. He was a vigorous supporter of
learning throughout the diocese, probably because of his anxiety to give
other men of humble origin a fair chance of making their way in the
world. He restored the College of Crediton, and built one at Glaseney.
Bronscombe may be credited with giving the first impetus to the
reconstruction of the cathedral by his work in the Lady Chapel and the
chapels on either side of it, viz., that of St. Mary Magdalen on the
north, and St. Gabriel on the south, the latter being destined for his
own tomb. To his Dean and Chapter he appropriated the church of St.
Bruared in Cornwall, that the feast of his patron saint, Gabriel, might
be worthily maintained.

Peter Quivil, his successor in the see, was probably working with him,
as he was a canon of the cathedral before being raised to the bishopric.
He invented and designed the Decorated cathedral, and transformed the
transepts. He must be classed with Warelwast as the chief of the
building bishops. Admirably and sympathetically as his work was
continued by those who followed him, their claim on our recognition and
gratitude is less. His skill, too, seems to have been almost equalled by
his generosity, for out of gratitude the Chapter promised to maintain
his yearly obit. In the office of the mass, in the memento for the dead,
his name was ordered to be spoken _primum et praecipium._ He seems to
have given the Franciscans some cause for anger; it is suggested that
his Dominican confessor urged him to treat the followers of St. Francis
with severity. Anyhow, the aggrieved ones had their revenge, for the
bishop's death, which happened on the eve of St. Francis, "after
drinking of a certain sirrop," was popularly attributed to the direct
intervention of the saint himself. He is buried in the Lady Chapel,
which he had transformed and decorated with such tender care, and a slab
in the centre of the pavement, bearing the legend "Petra tegit Petrum
nihil officiat sibi tetrum," is dedicated to his memory.

It has been ascertained by Canon Hingeston-Randolph that Bishop Quivil
was the first to endow the office of chaunter with an adequate salary,
and that the first to enjoy the benefit of it was Walter de Lecchelade
or Lechlade, though he was by no means the first chaunter or precentor.
A dispute that long agitated antiquaries has thus been settled. For it
was contended by some that John the chaunter was the first to hold the
office, by others that Quivil founded the office and that the bishop's
name was really John Cauntor. But the explanation that the stipend was
only increased by Quivil, and that it existed before his day, was
entirely satisfactory, we may hope, to the supporters of the rival
theories. The above-mentioned Walter Lechlade was murdered "about two in
the morning" on his return from matins in the cathedral cloisters. The
murderers escaped through the south gate of the city, which was left
open. An extraordinary sensation was created, not in Exeter only but
throughout England. The bishop invited Edward I. and his queen to keep
their Christmas at the Palace. We are told "they were very industrious
in finding out the murtherers." At last Alfred Dupont, an ex-mayor and
porter of the south gate, was found guilty and executed accordingly.
Perhaps, had the office of chaunter not been endowed, Walter Lechlade
might have continued for many long years to chaunt in sonorous voice
"matins, vespers, obits, and the like." At any rate the story is worth
telling, being an interesting picture of manners in the middle ages. It
will be found given, with many interesting details, in an appendix by
Canon Hingeston-Randolph to his edition of the Register of Bishop Quivil
(p. 438).

Quivil's successor was Thomas De Bytton, Dean of Wells. Under his
guidance the work of transformation planned by his predecessor was
loyally continued, for he faithfully adhered to the original design.
Though Bytton appears to have been less active outside his diocese than
many of the Exeter bishops, his mode of life must have commended itself
to a large circle. A grant of forty days' indulgence was the reward of
all those who availed themselves of his spiritual ministrations, or
offered prayers for his prosperity during his life and after death.
Among the signatures appended to the document notifying this singular
privilege are those of numerous archbishops and bishops, among them
being those of the archbishops of Cosensa and Jerusalem, and Manfred,
Bishop of St. Mark's, Venice. "The seal of Manfred," Dr. Oliver says,
"is perfect; he stands robed, with a piece of embroidery on his alb. The
crozier is simply curved. His legend is S. MANFREDI. DEI. GRA. EPISCOP.
SCI. MARCHI." It was dated at Rome in the year 1300. Possibly Bytton's
great learning, by which he had risen to be Professor of Canon Law at
Oxford and Pope's Chaplain, was partly the reason of so notable a
compliment. But the noble work he was doing in the cathedral church of
his diocese, we may hope, had not a little to do with the honour. For to
him we owe the entire transformation of the choir with its aisles.
Bytton's labours were, indeed, very great. We hear of large quantities
of stone procured from Barley, and of sandstone from Salcombe and
Branscombe. He also put a good deal of stained glass into the windows;
so that in the eleventh year of his episcopate the following item is
recorded: "Master Walter le Verrouer for setting the glass of the upper
gable and of eight upper windows, and of six windows in the aisles of
the new work, in gross, £4 l0s." Bytton was succeeded, in 1308, by
Walter de Stapledon, the most famous of all the bishops of Exeter. A
younger son of Sir Richard Stapledon of Annery, his appointment was the
first of a succession of aristocratic nominations. He, too, had been a
professor of canon law at Oxford, was a chaplain to the Pope and
precentor of the cathedral church of Exeter. The feast given after his
enthronement was unusually splendid, the revenues for a whole year being
spent on the festivities. It seems as though, conscious of his great
talents, he determined to signalize his accession to the episcopal
office by some event of unusual magnificence. It must be remembered that
Exeter was at this time one of the largest and richest sees in England.
As Professor Freeman has pointed out, "The Bishop of Exeter, like the
Archbishop of York, was the spiritual head of a separate people."
Stapledon set about expediting the work of transforming the cathedral
into the Decorated style in vigorous fashion. The Fabric Rolls record
that he himself gave the (then) enormous sum of £1,800 towards defraying
the cost. His generosity encouraged others to subscribe liberally
towards the building fund. One of his first duties was to complete the
choir, a payment being made to William Canon of £35 2s. 8d. for "marble
from Corfe for the columns." But the choir was really Bytton's, the new
bishop had only to give to it "a few final, though not unimportant,
touches." Still he found plenty of work to hand that might receive the
impress of his sole initiative. He designed and completed the triforium
arcade above the choir arches, and directed the colouring of the choir
vault, the total expenses for oil and colour being estimated at £1 9s.
7¾d. By these "final touches" the transformation of the choir into the
Decorated style was completed. But Stapledon determined to further
enrich his already beautiful church with accessories of surpassing
splendour. He erected a high altar of silver, also the beautiful
sedilia, and though there has been a good deal of dispute about the
matter, the more trustworthy authorities attribute to him the bishop's
throne of carved wood. At any rate, in 1312, there is a charge of £6
12s. 8½d. for "timber for the bishop's seat." The altar, unfortunately,
has disappeared, but it is reputed to have cost a sum equivalent to
£7,000 of our money. Canon Freeman thus describes it: "Above, as it
should seem (for the entries are very obscure), was a canopy of
considerable extent, wrought with bosses internally. The whole seems to
have been surmounted by a figure of our Lord." With Stapledon building
seems to have been a favourite recreation; for though he gave most
largely both of time and money to the cathedral work, he found
opportunity to build and endow Harts Hall, Stapledon Inn--now Exeter
College--Oxford, and the "very fair" Essex House in London. In 1320 he
was created Lord High Treasurer by Edward II., and later in the same
year received from his sovereign the power of holding pleas of "hue and
cry" in the lands, tenements, and fees of the bishopric in the county of
Cornwall. The neglected condition of many of the parish churches in his
diocese distressed him, and almost his last public appearance in the
west of England was at Lawhitton, where he spoke severely on this matter
to his Dean and Chapter, and bade them see to it that in future there
should be no good cause of complaint. In the autumn of 1324 he set out
for France, accompanying the young Prince Edward, who was about to do
homage to the French king for the duchies of Aquitaine and Poitou. But
his "irreproachable integrity" made him unpopular, and his life was
threatened. On his return to England he saw that a crisis was at hand,
and almost immediately after his arrival Queen Eleanor landed on the
coast of Suffolk. Edward II., in a brief moment of wisdom, assigned to
the faithful bishop the government of London and retreated to Bristol.
But it was too late to effect a reconciliation or prevent a catastrophe.
With a firm hand Stapledon endeavoured to restore order and quiet, and
promulgated a decree by which all rebels were excommunicated. But the
citizens, wisely perhaps, sided with the conquerors, and the bishop died
a martyr to duty. The story is well told in the French chronicles quoted
by Dr. Oliver. "The Bishop of Exeter, riding towards his inn or hotel,
in Eldeanes-lane for dinner, encountered the mob, and, hearing them
shout Traitor, he rode rapidly to St. Paul's for sanctuary, but was
unhorsed, taken to Cheapside, stripped and beheaded. About the hour of
vespers, the same day, October 15th, the choir of St. Paul's took up the
headless body of the prelate and conveyed it to St. Paul's, but, on
being informed that he died under sentence, the body was brought to St.
Clement's beyond the Temple, but was ejected; so that the naked corpse,
with a rag given by the charity of a woman, was laid on the spot called
'Le Lawles Cherche,' and without any grave, lay there with those of his
two esquires, without office of priest or clerk. His house was attacked,
the gates burned, quantities of jewels and plate plundered."

In another account of his death it is stated that his head was "fixed on
a long pole by way of trophy, that it might be to all beholders a
lasting memorial of his attempted crime." There was a personal reason
why the bishop was unpopular among the citizens, for "he procured that
the justices in eyre should sit in London; on which occasion, because
the citizens had committed various offences, they were heavily punished
by the loss of their liberties, by pecuniary mulcts, and by bodily
chastisment, as they deserved." But the queen caused his body to be
rescued from the "hepe of rubische," and it was removed to Exeter, where
it lies on the north side of the choir. He left behind him large sums of
money and plate, a valuable library and, unique item, ninety-one rings.
He was certainly one of the greatest prelates in English history, and
though he may have been, as his detractors asserted, "fumische and
without pite," he was revered in his diocese, and left an example of
courage and honesty to succeeding generations. His executors, animated
by a wish to do what he would have desired, distributed £210 8s. 8d. in
charities, and gave considerable sums to other worthy objects. And the
Abbot of Hartland caused the 15th of October to be solemnly observed,
out of gratitude for the late bishop's bounty, and decreed that on that
day "for all future times 'XIII. pauperes in aulâ abbatis, pro ipsius
anima, pascantur.'"

To follow so redoubtable a prelate as Stapledon must have been an
extremely difficult task. But Grandisson, who was appointed after
Berkeley's short episcopate ended, has sometimes been called the most
magnificent prelate who ever filled the see. He was nominated directly
by the pope, and consecrated by his holiness at Avignon. His chief glory
is that he allowed the splendour of the see in no wise to diminish, and
he kept up the Stapledon traditions of princely hospitality and
well-doing. His reputation of "grave, wise, and politick" seems to have
been fairly earned. As a descendant of the great ducal house of
Burgundy, he had lived much with princes and held the position of nuncio
"at the courts of all the mightiest princes of Christendom." His
election was carried out in direct opposition to the wishes of the
canons of Exeter, but a wise choice had been made, and by his long
episcopate of forty years he gained honour for himself and good fortune
for his people. He had to face many difficulties at first that might
well have appalled a weaker man. The tragic death of Stapledon had
terrified all men, the great work of that giant intellect remained
unfinished, and required some one of exceptional energy to complete it
fitly. Added to these difficulties, the episcopal manors had been
plundered and the accounts were terribly muddled. Grandisson, luckily,
was a man who looked upon difficulties as things to be overcome. He
applied to the members of his family for funds, and the negotiations are
to his family and subsequently to the diocese at large for funds. The
negotiations are interesting, for the borrower is the only person who
maintained his dignity unimpaired. With courteous pertinacity and a
fitting show of anger, he got the supplies he needed. With indomitable
energy he managed to arrange in perfect order the confused affairs of
his diocese. Turning eagerly to the task of completing the building of
his church, he transformed the six west bays of the nave, vaulting,
aisles, west window, and north cloister. In spiritual and temporal
affairs he was equally busy. Twice at least he was the host of royalty,
once the Black Prince visited his diocese with the captive king of
France. The same illustrious warrior, shortly before his death, again
enjoyed the bishop's hospitality.

In 1343 Grandisson was sent as ambassador to Rome, and the sound sense
he had shown at Exeter was equally apparent in the conduct of his
mission, so that it was written of him that "he did his message with
much wisdom and honour." Certainly, few bishops have had so exalted a
view of the dignity and importance of the episcopal office, and none
ever dared to fight more boldly for his imagined rights. When the
Archbishop Mepham determined to make a personal visitation, Grandisson's
anger was kindled. Gathering round him a body of armed retainers, he met
the archbishop at the north-west gate of the close. There might have
been a bloody conflict, for neither prelate was likely to give way.
Fortunately, sober counsels prevailed, and the quarrel was referred to
the pope. His holiness decided in Grandisson's favour, and "the dispute
did half break Mepham's heart, and the Pope, siding with the Bishop of
Exeter, did break the other half." So writes Fuller, and the quaint
sentence does not lack authority, for the archbishop died shortly after
the termination of the quarrel.

Grandisson remembered his cathedral in his will. He bequeathed to his
successors his crozier and mitre, and to the diocese 2,000 marks. At his
funeral, in accordance with his instructions, a hundred poor persons
were clothed and money was distributed among the prisoners and the sick.
He remembered, too, the needs of the poorer clergy and the hospitals,
while to Pope Urban and Edward III. he left splendid legacies. His
funeral, as his life, was simple and economical. For his magnificent
presents, his gorgeous works on the structure of his church, were made
possible by his own simple, almost parsimonious manner of living. He was
buried in the chapel of St. Radegunde, but the tomb was destroyed in
Elizabeth's time, and his ashes lie "no man knows where."

Brantyngham, the next bishop, completed the cloisters, the east window
and west front. But, as Canon Freeman has said, "the rest of the works
of this and the following century are little else than petty
restorations; of course in a later and inferior style, and generally to
the detriment of the building." But there is still much in the history
of the church and the see that deserves a passing notice. Under
Brantyngham, the old feud that Grandisson had finished so satisfactorily
to himself, began again. But the victory this time was with the
archbishop. At Topsham, a village not far from the city, the bishop's
servants attacked savagely the archbishop's mandatory. Full of zeal for
the honour, as they conceived it, of their own prelate, they made the
wretched creature eat the archbishop's writ and seal. But the meal of
parchment and wax did not by any means settle the dispute. The bishop's
cause, indeed, was irretrievably damaged, the king was furious, an
appeal to the pope was unsuccessful, and Brantyngham had to make full
submission to the offended primate. Henceforth the archbishop's right of
visitation was not opposed. Had another than Grandisson been bishop in
Mepham's day the dispute would never, probably, have arisen; for the
archbishop was undoubtedly only exercising his rights, such visitations
being according to canon, and of ancient usage.

The next bishop whose episcopate is important is Lacy, who glazed the
nave windows and raised the chapter house. He has, too, an unique claim
on our regard because of his saintly character. As yet no saint had made
the cathedral venerable, and the sentimental affection and profit which
saintly relics were wont to cause was still lacking. It is said that
Iscanus had contrived to get some relics of Becket for his cathedral,
but there was no local saint, and this want Lacy supplied. Yet the days
of his episcopacy were by no means absolutely calm. At the very moment
of his accession he involved himself in a dispute with the city
corporation as to the liberties of his cathedral. Nor was he, though
meek and holy, at all inclined to submit to any infringement of his
prerogatives, even when the transgressor happened to wear a crown.
Indeed, he most successfully protested against the conduct of Henry VI.,
who held a jail delivery in the bishop's hall. Two men were condemned to
death, but the bishop remonstrated so forcibly against this exercise of
temporal authority within the precincts of the sanctuary, that they were
released. As an author Lacy gained a considerable reputation. His "Liber
Pontificalis" is still preserved, his office in honour of Raphael the
Archangel was admired and used in many cathedrals and churches. When he
died miracles were performed at his tomb, and pilgrimages were
constantly made to it by the common people.

[Illustration: THE CHAPTER HOUSE (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER', 1826).]

From this time onward the architectural history of the cathedral becomes
less important. Its great periods may thus be summed up, 1107 to 1206
Warelwast and Marshall built the Norman church; 1257 to 1280 Bronscombe
and Quivil began the Decorated work; 1292 to 1308 Bytton and Stapledon
completed the eastern part; 1327 to 1369 Grandisson and Brantyngham
completed the nave, west front, and cloister. The fifth and last change
is the introduction of Perpendicular work, chiefly noticeable in the
chapter house, the west screen, and the great east window. The day of
the great builders was waning fast. The old faith that inspired them was
dwindling, the attraction of national concerns was too great for local
effort. Moreover, the desire to make intricately beautiful, right enough
in itself, had vitiated, as it was bound to do, the taste of architect
and builder. The old Norman cathedrals, however rugged, were imposing in
their stern and simple strength. The desire for decoration affected
various transformations, which at first left the building more beautiful
and not less strong. But gradually the simplicity and strength disappear
altogether. Luckily, as we shall see, the great church of St. Mary and
St. Peter has suffered less than most buildings that have undergone so
many changes. "As it is, the church of Exeter is a remarkable case of
one general design being carried out through more than a hundred years."
The church is Quivil's design, and the variations, though important, do
not seriously detract from it.

The events of the next five hundred years belong more to the history of
the see, and even of England, than to the church. In the election of
George Neville (1458) we notice the immense value put on noble birth.
Only one other reason can be alleged as weighing with those responsible
for the choice. And this reason is so ridiculous as to be almost
incredible. None the less it had, doubtless, a good deal to do with
Neville's election to the bishopric. He was not only a brother to the
great Earl of Warwick, but he early showed his intention of keeping up
the almost kingly traditions of his family. Here is an account of the
festivities that took place at Oxford after he had performed "his
exercises in the nave of St. Mary's Church, as the custom now is, and
before was, for nobleman's sons." "Such entertainment was given for two
days space that the memory of man being not now able to produce, I have
thought it worth my pains to remember. On the first day therefore were
600 messes of meat, and on the second 300 for the entertainment only of
scholars and certain of the Proceeders, relations and acquaintances." A
later Oxford historian asserts that Neville was elected chancellor the
very next year "by an appreciative university!" It is not at all
unlikely, therefore, that this display of hospitality had something to
do with his being chosen bishop, as a fitting successor to the office
once filled by Grandisson. For four years after his election he was
unable, owing to his youth, to be consecrated. But by one of those
ecclesiastical scandals, which seem not to have annoyed or astonished
his contemporaries, he was permitted to enjoy the temporalities of the
see. At the age of twenty-seven he was fully ordained bishop, and a few
years later was transferred to York. During the episcopate of his
successor, Bothe, the city was besieged by Perkin Warbeck. In 1495
Oliver King, who was elected in 1492, was translated to the see of Bath
and Wells, and to him is due the rebuilding of the abbey church of Bath
which was then ruinous.

From 1504 to 1519 Oldham, a Lancashire man, was bishop. He built the
Oldham and Speke chapels.

Veysey, who succeeded him, lived during the reign of Henry VIII. His
courtly manners made him popular. In addition to his rich ecclesiastical
office, he became Lord President of Wales and tutor to the Princess
Mary. He founded the town of Sutton Coleshill, now Sutton Coldfield, and
introduced there the making of kersies. On this enterprise he spent the
larger part of his fortune. At the accession of Edward VI. he was left
undisturbed, though suspected of favouring the old religion. But when a
rising in favour of the unreformed church disturbed the western
counties, he was accused of participation in the movement, and resigned
his charge. But he retained the temporalities, and on Mary's accession
was reinstated. But he was nearly 103 years old, and soon after died at
his town of Sutton Coleshill in 1555.

Miles Coverdale, the translator, with Tyndale, of the Bible, his
successor, was bishop for only two years. He was unpopular, although his
life was "most godly" and virtuous. But "the common people," says Hoker,
"whose bottles would receive no new wine, could not brook or digest him,
for no other cause but because he was a preacher of the Gospel, an enemy
to Papistry, and a married man." This dislike is easily accounted for.
Exeter was very far from London, the new ideas travelled slowly, and the
west was staunchly conservative. As with many reformers, too, his zeal
was spoilt by indiscretion; the sternness of the Puritan militated
against his success, and people preferred the old errors more becomingly
supported. His successor, Turberville, was a man quite after the heart
of the people, and he won praise from Protestant and Catholic alike.

He was succeeded by William Alleyn, and as a result of Veysey's
extravagance and Henry's greed it may be noticed that, by royal charter,
the number of canons was limited to nine.

In 1627 the see was held by Joseph Hall, a man of great distinction.
Though too conciliatory to care greatly for Laud's policy, he wrote a
justly famous "Defence of the Church of England and her doctrines."
After his translation to Norwich he underwent a good deal of
persecution, which he himself has recorded, and was for six months a
prisoner in the Tower. He is buried in Higham parish church, his
monument a skeleton holding "in the right hand a bond to death sealed
and signed, 'Debemus morti nos nostrique,' and in his left the same bond
torn and cancelled, with the endorsement 'Persolvit et quietus est.'"
Fuller says of the famous satirist that he was "not unhappy at
controversies, more happy at comments, very good in his characters,
better in his sermons, best of all in his meditations."

John Gauden, who became bishop in 1660, was far more fortunate, though
probably not more happy. He does not seem to have been over scrupulous,
and his desire for "a good manger" is unpleasantly obvious. But as the
author of the [Greek: EIKÔN BASILIKÊ] he is remembered. The authorship
has been disputed, but Charles II. certainly recognized his claim, and
Clarendon believed his assertions about it. He was clever enough to have
written even a better book, and there is no sufficient ground for
depriving him of this honour. It is certain that he owed his preferment
to his reputed merit as its author; though, oddly enough, he had taken
the covenant and preached a notorious sermon against "pictures, images,
and other superstitions of popery." But he publicly recanted, later, and
protested against the murder of the king, whose supposed last prayers
and meditations he was skilfully inventing. After being in Exeter two
years he was removed to Worcester. But he had looked to become bishop of
Winchester, and it is said that his death was hastened by
disappointment.

Seth Ward, who followed him, had, as dean of Exeter, distinguished
himself by his zeal and courage. He drove from the cathedral precincts
the buyers and sellers who had encroached thereon, and the partition
wall that divided the cathedral was taken down at his request. During
the Commonwealth "the building which was now formally called 'the late
cathedral church' was divided by a brick wall into two places of
worship, known as East Peter's and West Peter's." The east portion was
used by the Independents and the west by Presbyterians. Ward spent
£20,000 on redeeming the cathedral from the degradation it had suffered,
and bought an organ, "esteemed the best in England," which cost him
£2,000. He was translated to Salisbury in 1667. He was a man of
considerable ability and was a founder of the Royal Society.

Sparrow succeeded to the see in 1667. During his episcopate the Grand
Duke Cosmo visited Exeter and wondered at the worthy bishop, his wife,
and his nine children. The Duke of Tuscany was spoken of in the local
reports as the Duke of Tuskey, and he received from the corporation a
gift of "£20, or thereabouts." Sparrow, on his translation to Norwich,
was succeeded by Lamplugh, whose political acumen, at any rate, compels
admiration, if not respect. He fervently bade his flock rally round the
unfortunate James II, and then, posting to London, was rewarded by the
grateful king with the archbishopric of York. He then without any
compunction crowned William of Orange, King of England. But his
smartness availed little, "for within three years continuance of that
high throne of York he was summoned before an higher." Macaulay has
finely described the entrance of the prince into the cathedral. "As he
passed under the gorgeous screen, that renowned organ, scarcely
surpassed by any of those which are the boast of his native Holland,
gave out a peal of triumph. He mounted the bishop's seat, a stately
throne, rich with the carving of the fifteenth century. Burnet stood
below, and a crowd of warriors and nobles appeared on the right hand and
on the left. The singers robed in white sang the 'Te Deum.' When the
chaunt was over Burnet read the Prince's declaration; but as soon as the
first words were uttered, prebendaries and singers crowded in all haste
out of the choir. At the close, Burnet, in a loud voice, cried, 'God
save the Prince of Orange,' and many fervent voices answered 'Amen.'"
This is certainly the most remarkable, as it is also the last, of the
great historical events that have happened under the shadow of the
cathedral walls. There had been nothing to compare with it since the day
when Grandisson with his armed retainers met Mepham at the close gate
three hundred years before. Offspring Blackall is the last bishop we
need mention. He was a famous preacher, and worked hard for the comfort
and education of the indigent classes. To him Exeter owes her charity
schools.

Of the remaining bishops there is nothing of moment to record.

It has seemed wiser in this brief sketch to devote a paragraph to each
of those bishops who either architecturally or historically made their
episcopates events of national importance. The early bishops,
especially, busied themselves exceedingly in making beautiful their
principal church. It is by knowing something of their lives and times
that one can best appreciate their labours, and trace with intelligent
interest the causes of the splendid result to be studied minutely in the
remaining chapters of this book.

Moreover, all lovers of the great in art, all who love what is
beautiful, as all may with a little trouble, will not be sorry to have
even a passing acquaintance with those who have wrought so nobly. And
this short notice of the most famous of the bishops of Exeter proves
that they were for the most part chosen, not for their lineage, however
splendid, nor the favour they had gained as gracious courtiers, but for
their excellent lives, their plain living and high thinking, their taste
and learning, and for qualities which, if rarer now, were not common
even hundreds of years ago.



THE FABRIC OF THE CATHEDRAL.

THE EXTERIOR.


Before examining the various details, it may be well to recall the
following facts, which have already been referred to. First, the
cathedral was Saxon and remained so for nearly seventy years; then came
a Norman bishop who pulled down the existing building and replaced it by
the foundations and towers of a finer one. For ninety-nine years,
sometimes languishingly, sometimes vigorously, the work continued: so
that by the end of Marshall's episcopate (1206) Warelwast's noble
ambition was realized. Between this date and 1280 the church was
scarcely touched, but a chapter house was built by Bishop Bruere "to God
and the Church of St. Mary and St. Peter, a sufficient area to make a
Chapter House in our garden near the Tower of St. John." A third style,
Early English, was then introduced, to be followed by the almost
complete transformation of the entire building into the Decorated style.
Following on this we get some examples of Perpendicular work. Now, this
series of changes is noticeable in itself, and remarkable because it has
not affected the building in a way that might have been expected. The
first impression, indeed, that a view of the exterior gives one, is that
it is the result of one design, which is largely the case. It is only on
closer inspection that the remnants of the pre-decorated periods are
visible. "The Church," as Professor Freeman neatly puts it, "grew up
after one general pattern, but with a certain advance in detail as the
work went westward."

The second thing that strikes the visitor is that he has never seen a
church quite like it. "It forms a class by itself, and can be compared
with nothing save its own miniature at Ottery."

Putting aside the Saxon cathedral of Leofric it is possible to trace
four distinct styles in what has been wisely called "the noblest
monument of religious zeal of our forefathers in the west of England."
But in discovering these the feeling of wonder increases as the building
is found to be not a mere jumble but a complete whole. Though it is
possible to date the separate parts of the edifice, and recognize the
varying forms of workmanship, the architects laboured with so clear an
understanding of a beautiful result to be attained, that there is no
appearance of patchwork.

The best views of the building are those to be got from a distance. In
some ways this is not without compensation; for the cathedral church
was, and is, not only splendid as a building, but the centre of the
spiritual life of the diocese. It is, therefore, appropriate that it
should seem most beautiful to the dwellers in the villages and hamlets
beyond the city, giving them, as it were, a kind of property in the
building, which they might not have felt had it been less visible.
Nearing Exeter by train, from the Plymouth side, the noble roof and
towers are seen above the red houses of the city. The site, indeed, was
well chosen. Below the hill on which the city stands are gardens gay
with flowers and fair apple orchards. Above, there is a blue sky richer
and deeper than is usual in England. On all sides but one stretches the
beautiful Devonshire country, meadow, hedgerow, and wooded hill. On that
side the Exe flows rapidly, broadening as it goes, towards the sea.
Southward but a few miles, the blue channel waters creep up against the
yellow sand dunes. No cathedral, not even Lincoln, boasts a more lovely
and appropriate position. "In the minds of all early Christians," says
Mr. Ruskin, "the church itself was most frequently symbolized under the
image of a ship," There is no country so saturated with traditions of
the sea as Cornwall and Devon. "Exe terra"--out of the earth--is
sometimes declared to be the derivation of the name Exeter. Maybe this
was only the grateful jest of some seaman who found himself, after the
winter storms, gliding up the quiet river with the city walls rising up
before him. Yet the remembrance of such western heroes as Raleigh and
Drake, who bade their followers sit well in order, and strike--

    "The sounding furrows, for my purpose holds
    To sail beyond the sunset and the baths
    Of all the Western stars until I die,"[2]

makes one realize how fit it is that the towers of the cathedral should
look across the country to the "deep waters," and be to the mariner as
the masts of a vessel whereon was safety, however fierce the storm.

    [2] Tennyson's "Ulysses."

[Illustration: EXETER CATHEDRAL, FROM AN ENGRAVING BY DANIEL KING,
               c. 1650.]

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL--FROM THE SOUTH-EAST.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

From many parts of the surrounding country fine views may be obtained,
from Waddlesdown, Alphington Causeway, and many a canal and river bank.

A closer view may seem at first disappointing. Every writer has echoed
Dr. Oliver's regret that it should be surrounded "by dwelling-houses of
such disparate character." But even a nearer survey is, with patience,
rewarded. The towers, exquisitely traceried windows, sculptured
doorways, and magnificent roof, easily persuade us to forget its mean
surroundings.

#The Towers.#--To many these will be the most interesting portion of the
building. The exterior of no other cathedral boasts so unusual a
feature. Their position is extraordinary and has given rise to endless
controversies. It has been suggested that they were meant to stand as
western towers, and that the building was to stand east of them, and
that, as an afterthought, they were converted into transepts. But Canon
Freeman, in his history,[3] dismisses this view as merely attractive.
They would certainly be more elaborate, he thinks, if they had been
built as western towers, but they have neither portal nor ornamental
work. Indeed, up to more than half their height they have very much the
appearance of fortresses. It may well be that they served as such in
Stephen's time, for the northern one was severely battered. It differs
somewhat in detail from that on the south side, there being an
interlacing arcade half-way up, possibly being so rebuilt when the
devastation caused by the siege was being repaired. There are six stages
on each tower, but only the uppermost four are in any way ornamented.
These have blind arcades and window openings of circular form; but the
details differ slightly on each. The turrets at the angles of the
summits, and the battlements were added in the fifteenth century, but
the effect is not inharmonious, and the original details are well
preserved. According to an old seventeenth-century print, the north
tower formerly had an attic with a pyramidal roof. This was probably an
addition when the great bell was first hung (see p. 74). The effect of
these transeptal towers is so fine as to make us regret their rarity. A
case in which they were obviously imitated is to be seen in the fine
parish church of Ottery S. Mary, Devon. There are also most practical
reasons in their favour, and a consideration of them tends to increase
one's wonder that they should not be found more frequently. In the first
place it is possible to get a continuous, uniform, stretch of vault, the
roof being broken by no central tower. Also the plan is simplified, and
nave and choir have more architectural continuity. Again, by building
transeptal towers and discarding the usual central tower, the interior
escapes a danger it is often hard to overcome, the difficulty of holding
up the central tower. It is quite possible that Warelwast was far-seeing
enough to anticipate this trouble. The histories of other cathedrals
prove it to be a very real one. In 1107 the tower of Winchester fell in.
At Salisbury the spire is still a constant source of anxiety, despite "a
complex arrangement of iron bands and ties," which has been reinforced
more than once. The tower of Chichester collapsed in 1861. There is a
legend of the fall of a central tower at Christchurch Priory, and other
warnings could be cited, such as Hereford, Selby, Peterborough, and
Wells.

    [3] "Architectural History of Exeter Cathedral," by Philip
        Freeman, Archdeacon and Canon of Exeter (Bell), 1888.

Originally these two towers were cut off, by two arches underneath, from
the body of the church. But Quivil, wishing to enlarge the interior, did
so by "throwing the Tower spaces into it."

#The Roof# is one of the most striking features of the building,
especially as it is seen from a distance. The long line of the ridge of
nave and choir, unbroken by a central tower, give it a unique
distinction amongst English cathedrals. The delicate cresting of
fleurs-de-lis, and the pinnacles which crown the supporting buttresses
obviate any impression of heaviness, and together with the long series
of clerestory windows, alike in form yet differing in their admirable
tracery, give a singular impression of beauty.

#The North Porch.#--This was the northern entrance of the Norman church,
and from the outside it is possible to trace the line where the
fifteenth-century front was added to the old structure. It is decorated
with seven canopied niches in the style of that period. These, however,
remained vacant until 1920, when they were filled with statues, by Mr.
H. Read of Exeter, representing the patron saints of England and the
Allies: St. George, St. Denys, St. Joseph; SS. Cyril and Methodius; St.
Vladimir, and St. Ambrose. The roof is vaulted, and on the central boss
is a finely-carved Agnus Dei. Within a recess of the eastern wall are
three headless figures, representing, in the centre, the Crucifixion,
St. Mary and St. John standing on either side. Over the inside doorway
is a niche that probably once held a figure of the Virgin.

[Illustration: THE NORTHERN TOWER.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: EXETER CATHEDRAL--THE WEST FRONT.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

#The West Front# is one of the features which gives a peculiar character
to this cathedral. In the wealth of imagery on the projecting screen
which forms the lowest stage of the front it is second only to Wells
amongst English cathedrals. The actual west wall of the church is the
work of Bishop Grandisson, who formed on the south side of the central
doorway the small chapel of St. Radegunde as a burial place for himself.
The greater part of the end wall of the nave is filled by a large window
with remarkably beautiful tracery in its head. The date must be about
1350. Above this is a battlemented parapet sloped at each end to follow
the lines of the aisle-roofs. Above this parapet appears the gable of
the main roof in which is inserted a triangular window, with elegant
tracery, lighting the space between the vault and outer roof. At the
apex of the gable is a niche containing a small statue of St. Peter.

The screen, which forms the lowest stage of this front, must have been
finished in Brantyngham's time, though it seems probable that it was
designed if not begun by Grandisson. It contains eighty-eight figures,
in three rows, representing angels, warriors, kings, and saints. Their
costume and armour are characteristic of the fashions of Richard II.'s
reign. The lowest row consists of angelic figures each sustaining a
triple pilaster with capitals. On these capitals stand the statues of
the second row, a long line of knights and kings, above which are the
angels and apostles of the third row. Above the third row stand two
figures, said to represent Athelstan and Edward the Confessor. The
former once drove out the Britons from the city; the latter, as we know,
founded the bishopric.

This group of statues has been the subject of a monograph by Miss E.K.
Prideaux, who shows that the intention was to symbolize the Heavenly
Jerusalem, where angels, saints, and monarchs unite to honour the
enthroned Saviour and His Blessed Mother, who, as representative of the
Church Triumphant, is being crowned by her Son. The Coronation of the
Virgin was depicted in the central group immediately over the great
doorway, the figures being those of St. Peter, Our Lady, Our Lord, and
St. Paul. At some unknown date the statue of the Virgin was destroyed,
and a figure intended to represent Richard II was substituted in 1818.
Two other figures, assigned to James the Less and King William I, are
modern reproductions by Alfred Stevens; some new heads were also added.
Many circumstances have combined with the action of time to injure these
sculptures: but the general effect is rich if somewhat heavy. Above the
screen is a platform, from which the bishop probably blessed the people,
and the minstrels welcomed with song the approach of royal or
illustrious visitors.

The three doorways in the screen are worthy of notice, being richly
decorated. That on the south side is the most beautiful, and contains
two fine pieces of sculpture, one generally declared to be an angel
appearing to Joseph in a dream, the other certainly recording the
Adoration of the Shepherds. The central porch is decorated with
sculptured foliage, and the Crucifixion is exhibited on the central boss
of the groined roof tracery.

[Illustration: PORTALS OF WEST FRONT.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: THE NAVE, FROM THE SOUTH TRANSEPT
               (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).]



THE FABRIC OF THE CATHEDRAL.

THE INTERIOR.


Fine as is the exterior, the interior of the building is quite as
beautiful. Restoration of an unusually careful and discreet style has
done much to revive the deteriorated splendours of the place. Sixty
years ago the nave was filled with hideous and cumbersome pews, and such
work as had been done towards keeping the place in repair was in the
worst possible taste. But a change has been wrought of the happiest kind
in recent years, so that no cathedral in the country can boast a more
admirable interior.

It has been the custom to deplore the lack of elevation, and its lowness
has compelled comparisons with the cathedrals of France. But this
objection is, surely, rather trivial. For though the long vaulted roof,
uninterrupted the whole length of the building, might tend to take away
from the appearance of height, the work on the roof itself, the delicate
ornaments on capitals and windows, do much to atone for this effect. To
the ordinary visitor, it may safely be asserted, lack of height will
only be obvious when pointed out to him.

#The Nave.#--Little of the Norman masonry is now to be seen, yet it is
clear that when Marshall completed Warelwast's design he found the nave
finished. To quote Canon Freeman, whose book, too technical for the
general public, is of incalculable value to the student: "On the
interior face of both north and south walls of the nave aisles,
disturbances of masonry occurring at regular intervals indicate the
position of a series of Norman pilasters, the base of one of them having
recently been found _in situ_ beneath the stone seat. Outside, and
corresponding to the position of each several pilaster, may be observed
either flat buttresses of Norman form and masonry, or else traces of
their removal. These remains, linking together the obviously Norman
towers and the massive west wall, point to the conclusion that the
Norman cathedral, as Marshall found it, included the entire nave."

When the changes began, the Fabric Rolls, if they "do not entirely
desert us," give us but meagre help, so that the exact date and cost of
each detail is only to be guessed at. Stapledon probably intended, as
early as 1325, to begin the work of recasting the nave. In that year he
made purchases of "15 great poplar trees bought for scaffolds, and 100
alder trees." Further entries tell us of seven and eightpence worth of
timber "bought by the Bishop at London," and "48 great trees from
Langford." The work hitherto attempted by Stapledon did not demand an
outlay of this kind; so, though Grandisson gets the honour of having
finished the nave, something is due to Stapledon for having given the
initiative. The large balances of the preceding nine years had left a
great sum of money in the latter's hands, and a donation of Stapledon's
further increased that balance by the substantial sum of £600. In
January, 1333, is a record of William Canon's bill for marble he had
been commissioned to furnish. He had agreed to supply the Purbeck
pillars for the nave, receiving £10 16s. for eleven large columns, and
5s. a-piece for bases and capitals. This is one of the most interesting
items we have of the building and cost of the cathedral, and occurs
fortunately at a time when such information is unusually scanty. In
addition to the above-mentioned Purbeck marble, stone from the quarries
of Caen in Normandy, and other places nearer home, was procured in large
quantities. In 1338 the bishop gave permission to the Dean and Chapter
to obtain from his agents at Chudleigh "twelve suitable oaks from his
wood there." About 1350 the building of the nave was completed. It was
extensively restored in recent years under the guidance of Sir Gilbert
Scott. The Purbeck columns had fallen into a most dilapidated state, and
were carefully repaired, the material used being obtained from those
spots which had supplied the original builders.

The view of the nave as one enters the west door is most impressive. Its
full height of seventy feet is not dwarfed by the unhindered stretch of
roof. The groined and ribbed roof itself is of marvellous beauty and
springs from slender vaulting shafts, of which the bosses are
exquisitely carved with a strange mixture of religious and legendary
figures, foliage and animals. The artists seem to have ransacked the
whole universe for subjects, and to have interpreted their ideas with
great cunning. The corbels that support the vaulting shafts are equally
elaborately carved.

[Illustration: THE NAVE, LOOKING WEST.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: CORBELS AND BOSSES (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).

               (2) Virgin and Child. (3) Minstrel and tumbler. (4)
               Coronation of the Virgin. (5) Murder of S. Thomas
               (Becket), from Nave. (6) From Lady Chapel. (7) From
               Choir. (8) and (11) Heads popularly identified with
               Edward III and Q. Philippa. (10) The Virgin and her
               Coronation. (See Prideaux and Shafto, "Bosses and
               Corbels of Exeter Cathedral.")]

They consist of figures and foliage, and the variety of subjects chosen
is no less surprising than the skill the artists have shown in the
realization of their ideas. Whether they are peculiar to Exeter or not,
it may be safely said that one could not easily find their equals either
in design or execution. The subjects treated are too numerous for
detailed treatment in this place, but the carving of vines and acorns
and oakleaves will be readily admired.

[Illustration: THE MINSTRELS' GALLERY.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

The nave has seven bays, and the arcades are supported by clustered
pillars of Purbeck marble, showing various tints of blue and grey. There
are sixteen shafts in each pier corresponding with the eight subordinate
mouldings in each pair of arches, and the diagonal position of each
cluster adds much to its graceful appearance. In the retro-choir there
are earlier examples of this kind of pier, showing how the builders
experimented with the grouping of the shafts before they attained the
perfect proportions of the pillars in the nave and choir. It seems that
they utilized the Norman pillars as the central core round which to
group the Purbeck shafts. The triforium, in groups of four arches, is
unusually low, and rests on small clustered columns, broken in one place
only on the north side to make way for the Minstrels' Gallery.

#The Minstrels' Gallery.#--This is the most beautiful gallery of its
kind to be found in England, its twelve decorated niches containing
figures of musicians. The musical instruments represented include the
cittern, bagpipe, hautboy, crowth, harp, trumpet, organ, guitar,
tambour, and cymbals, with two others which are uncertain. The tinted
figures of the angels, standing out against an orange-coloured
background--each in a separate niche with an elaborately carved
canopy--playing upon the various instruments, are admirably carved and
most graceful in form and arrangement. The two niches on either side of
the gallery contained figures of St. Mary and St. Peter; the niches are
supported by corbelled heads of Edward III and Queen Philippa. Edward
III created the Black Prince Duke of Cornwall in 1337, and made the city
of Exeter part of the duchy. "The city," according to Izacke, "being
held of the said duke, as parcel of the dutchy, by the fee farm rent of
twenty pounds per ann." To this connexion has been traced the erection
of the gallery, for such duchies "were territorial realities," and the
prince would be received by minstrels chaunting in the gallery whenever
he paid a visit to his feudal dependency. It is asserted that it was
first used after the battle of Poictiers, when the Black Prince brought
with him to England, visiting Exeter _en route_ for London, the captured
French King. But Professor Freeman thinks the Duke did not pay a visit
to Exeter at that time, and that local tradition refers really to a
later date when "he came home as a sick man" not long before his death.

The lofty character of the clerestory above the gallery, and set
somewhat farther back, is remarkable. The tracery of all the windows is
of the best type of the fourteenth century and is unrivalled by that of
any other English cathedral of similar date. In their main features the
opposite windows are alike, though they vary in detail.

[Illustration: BAYS OF NAVE, WITH THE MINSTRELS' GALLERY
               (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).]

[Illustration: THE 'PATTESON' PULPIT.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

#St. Radegunde's Chapel.#--On the south side of the main entrance and
within the thickness of the western wall is the chapel of St. Radegunde,
one of the most interesting in the cathedral. As early as 1220 a deed
belonging to the Chapter makes mention of this chapel "within St.
Peter's cemetery," and is dated in the mayoralty of one Turbest and
attested by the then bishop, Simon de Apuliâ. Grandisson, in accordance
with the custom of his day, while completing the work of transforming
the cathedral, looked out for a suitable place of burial for himself. He
chose this chapel, and in 1350 the Fabric Rolls contain a reference to
the glazing of the windows and the better securing of them with nine
bars of iron. In accordance with a clause in his will, "Corpus vero meum
volo quod sepeliatur extra ostium occidentale Ecclesiae Exon. ita
celeriter sicut fieri poterit," his remains were placed under the low
arch in the east of the chapel. Here they lay for many years, but in the
later years of Elizabeth, apparently without creating any public
indignation, his tomb was rifled and his ashes scattered to the "four
winds." There seems to be no good reason why religious fanaticism should
have caused the tomb of so great and good a man to be despoiled. Two
interesting details are the carved figure of Christ on the roof and the
holes in the stones from which the lamps were formerly hung.

#St. Edmund's Chapel#, in the north-west corner of the nave, was part of
the Norman church, and was incorporated in his new work by Bishop
Grandisson. In it is a large font of modern Gothic style, presented in
the nineteenth century by Archdeacon Bartholomew.

#The Font.#--At the south-west side of the nave stands the
chalice-shaped font of white marble, purposely made in 1644 for the
baptism of Henrietta Anne, youngest child of Charles I, afterwards
Duchess of Orleans, who was born in Exeter during the Parliamentary
wars. The font is said to have been made in a fortnight, which may
account for the inferior character of the sculpture. But if not of
artistic merit, it is certainly of historic interest, and after being
set aside for some years, was replaced in its present position in 1891,
and is now always used for baptisms.

#The Patteson Pulpit# was placed in the nave in 1877. It is of Mansfield
stone, and is a beautiful example of modern sculpture. The panels
represent the Martyrdom of St. Alban, the embarkation of St. Boniface
and his companions for Germany, and the natives of Nukapu, Melanesia,
placing the body of Bishop Patteson in a canoe. The Martyred Bishop is
shown wrapped in a native mat, a relic still preserved in his family.


MONUMENTS IN THE NAVE

The great west window was filled with stained glass in 1904 in
commemoration of Dr. Temple, Bishop of Exeter 1869, of London 1885, and
in 1896 Archbishop of Canterbury. Figures in the lower lights represent
the most notable Bishops of Exeter from Leofric to Frederick Temple.

The monument under the west window commemorates services and losses of
the 1st Battalion of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, which, as
the 32nd Regiment, greatly distinguished itself during the Sepoy revolt
in India in 1857-8.

On the north-west is a mural tablet with medallion portrait
commemorating Richard Blackmore, the author of _Lorna Doone_, 1825-1900.
The three lights of the small window above are filled with stained glass
in connexion with this memorial. The corresponding window on the south
side was filled with stained glass by Dean Cowie.

The largest monument in the north aisle is that to the memory of
officers and men of the 9th Lancers who fell during long and
distinguished service in India.

Farther on is a large brass, of no particular merit, to the memory of
the men of the 2nd Battalion of the North Devon Regiment who fell in the
Afghan War of 1880-81. It is surmounted by two regimental flags.

Above a mural tablet to Lieutenant G.A. Allen is a window of stained
glass erected to the memory of the 11th Earl of Devon. The colour scheme
is particularly good, and the design, representing Jacob's dream, is not
unsuccessful.

A plain tablet to the memory of Samuel Sebastian Wesley, the famous
musician, is the only other monument in the aisle of general interest.

In the same aisle have recently been placed the colours of those
battalions of the Devons who served in the great European War, 1914-18.

To complete the examination of the nave we must cross to the south
aisle, in the first bay of which is the ancient doorway, probably built
by Bishop Bruere, leading into the cloister. At the end of the aisle is
the monument of Colonel John Macdonald, who died in 1831, a son of the
celebrated Flora Macdonald. The most eastern window of the aisle is
filled with stained glass representing four bishops of the Courtenay
family. Peter Courtenay, Bishop of Exeter, will be recognized as he
holds the great "Peter" bell, his gift to the cathedral, which hangs in
the north tower. He is the bishop alluded to by Shakespeare (_Richard
III._, Act iv, Sc. 4):

                   "In Devonshire
  Sir Edward Courtenay, and the haughty Prelate,
  Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother,
  With many more confederates are in arms."

After the accession of Henry VII., he was translated to Winchester.

[Illustration: THE NAVE, LOOKING EAST.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

Formerly there was a Courtenay chantry in the last bay of this aisle,
corresponding with Bishop Brantyngham's chantry on the north side. These
became ruinous and were removed early in the nineteenth century. The
Courtenay tomb in the south transept is entirely a restoration. The
effigies represent Sir Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon, and Margaret
de Bohun, his wife. The great brass of their son, Sir Peter Courtenay,
also formerly in the chantry, is now in the south choir aisle: it has
been sadly injured by being trodden under foot for many hundred years,
and is now protected by matting. He was standard bearer to Edward III.
and Richard II., and one of the first Knights of the Garter.

The centre window of the south nave aisle is filled with stained glass
in memory of those of the Devon Regiment who served in the South African
War, 1899-1901. The tablets with their names are in St. Edmund's Chapel.
Their flags hang on either side of the window.

The large brass tablet, though, like too many of the memorials in the
nave, unnecessarily large and far from meritorious in design, is not
without interest. It is to the memory of Major-General Howard
Elphinstone, V.C., who was drowned off Ushant in 1890.

Above a tablet of brass to Hugh, 2nd Earl of Devon, and his wife, is a
window erected by Sir Edwin Watkin to the memory of Thomas Latimer. The
small window to the left, erected by Dean Cowie in memory of his wife,
should be noticed.

#North Transept.#--We have already seen that the two great towers of the
cathedral were in their nature transeptal from the beginning. But they
were quite separated from the body of the church, the arches connecting
them being filled in with strongly built masonry, forming a complete
wall. But Quivil, wishing to enlarge the interior of the building, took
down these walls, and he set about altering the arches and converting
them into the same Decorated style to match this work in the rest of the
building. He also altered and transformed the Norman chapels that
projected on the east side of each transept. In the north transept one
window and two narrow doorways still betray their Norman origin. The
open galleries in each transept are connected by a passage with the
clerestory. This, too, is Quivil's work, and his windows in the two
chapels of St. John and St. Paul, easily distinguishable by their
wheel-shape, are interesting.

Here is Chantry's fine statue of the Devonshire artist Northcote, and a
tablet to the memory of the men and officers of the 20th (Devon)
Regiment who fell in the Crimea. Visitors will notice with interest a
fairly successful mural painting representing the resurrection, the
soldiers in armour being drawn with considerable spirit.

#Sylke Chantry# is in the north transept. Sylke was a person of
considerable importance in his day, and one who deserved and obtained no
little honour from his contemporaries. He administered the affairs of
the diocese as vicar-general during the absence of Bishop Courtenay, and
also during that of Bishop Fox. In 1499 he was made precentor, and held
that office till his death. The priests, grateful for the efforts he had
made to further their comfort, decided to keep his obit. The abbot and
convent of St. Mary of Cleeve, in Somersetshire, willing to show their
sense of obligation to him and Canon Moore, gave yearly to the Dean and
Chapter the sum of £6 13s. 4d. to be spent in celebrating their
anniversary. Sylke's tomb represents a very ghostly figure with the
epitaph, "Sum quod eris, fueram quod es, pro me, precor, ora." The
chantry is in the style of the later Gothic, and is one of those "final
touches" to the cathedral Archdeacon Freeman esteems so happily imparted
to it. The ancient works of the thirteenth-century clock, upon the north
wall, have been placed in this chantry, the machinery being in motion
though it does not now work any part of the actual clock. The various
parts are of different dates; the oldest wheel has been working more or
less regularly for about 700 years. The dial represents the sun and moon
revolving round the earth in the centre, the varying phases of the moon
being indicated.

#St. Paul's Chapel# is on the east side of the north transept.
Attributed to the time of Marshall or his immediate predecessors. On the
tiles are the arms of Henry III.'s brother, Richard of Cornwall, who was
elected King of the Romans. It is used as a vestry for the lay choral
vicars.

#South Transept.#--Opening from the east wall is the #Chapel of St. John
the Baptist#. It corresponds with that of St. Paul in the north
transept. Some of the glass in the windows was placed there at the
restoration of 1870. The screen dividing it from the transept is
Oldham's work. The chapel is now furnished for private meditation and
prayer.

[Illustration: THE TRANSEPT, NORTH, SHOWING THE ORGAN AND CLOCK.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

#Chapel of the Holy Ghost.#--This, one of the most ancient parts of the
cathedral, lies between the south tower and chapter house. It occupies
the place of the passage known as the slype in monastic churches. The
plain stone barrel roof should be noted. It is now used as the
choristers' vestry.

The south transept contains a very interesting collection of monuments.

#Monuments in South Transept.#--On the east wall a shallow recess, in
which are set some fragments of sculpture, is traditionally described as
the tomb of Leofric, first Bishop of Exeter. Hoker thus tells the story:
"This Leofricus died an. 1073, and was buried in the cemetery or
churchyard of his own church, under a simple or broken marble stone;
which place, by the since enlarging of his church is now within the
South Tower of the same, where of late, anno 1568, a new monument was
erected to the memory of so good, worthy & noble a personage, by the
industry of the writer hereof but at the charges of the Dean & Chapter."

In the corner at the south-east is the grave of Bishop John the
Chaunter, who died in 1191. He was for thirty years precentor of the
cathedral, and was consecrated bishop by Baldwin, Archbishop of
Canterbury, "preacher and pilgrim of the Crusade," and a native of
Exeter. Bishop John assisted at the coronation of Richard I. He held the
see for six years.

Sir Peter Carew, whose mural tablet is a conspicuous feature, was buried
at Waterford in Ireland. He is one of the most distinguished members of
an ancient western family. On the Whitsunday of 1549, the village of
Samford Courtenay rose in revolt against the new prayer-book that Edward
VI. had ordered to be used in the churches, and the whole diocese
speedily followed the lead. The people swore that "they would keep the
old and ancient religion as their forefathers before them had done." Sir
Gawain Carew, Sir Peter Carew, and Sir Thomas Dennis, the sheriff, were
busy in stemming the tide of rebellion. Efforts at compromise were
useless. The people bitterly demanded the old religion, and called the
new form of worship "a Christian game," while the Cornishmen declared
that they, since "certain of us understand no English, utterly refuse
the new English." Early in July the malcontents set siege to Exeter. The
wealth of the civic dignitaries stimulated the besiegers, who summoned
the city to surrender three times, vowing that "they would enter by
force and take the spoil of it," were their demands refused. There was
discontent and plotting within the walls, and food gave out. Many were
eager to let in the rebels, and Hoker records that "but two days before
the delivery of the city," the malcontents paraded the streets, crying
out: "Come out these heretics and twopenny bookmen! Where be they! By
God's wounds and blood we will not be pinned in to serve their turn: we
will go out and have in our neighbours; they be honest good and godly
men." But the principal citizens, though nurtured in the old faith, held
out grimly for the king. The siege was raised by John, Lord Russell,
whom Sir Peter had hastily summoned from Hinton St. George, in
Somersetshire. Food was supplied to the city "by the special industry
and travels of a thousand Welshmen under Sir William Herbert." Sir
Peter, on his arrival in London, was threatened with hanging by the Lord
Protector "as having caused the commotion by burning the barns at
Crediton. He pleaded the king's letter under his hand and privy signet."
But he escaped with difficulty, though he obtained from Lord Russell the
lands of Winislacre as a reward. Later on he opposed Queen Mary's
marriage with the King of Naples, and as Fuller puts it: "This active
gentleman had much adoe to expedite himself, and save his life, being
imprisoned for his compliance with Sir Thomas Wyate." He lived an
active, reckless life to the last, closing his career by some "signal
service" in Ireland. He was a brother of the Earl of Totnes. The
handsome Elizabethan monument is to Sir John Gilbert, brother of the
more famous Humphrey, and his wife, Elizabeth Chudleigh. He was one of
the merchant adventurers and a half-brother of Raleigh. His relations
with Exeter were very friendly, the merchants being keenly interested in
maritime discoveries, for they hoped in far away Asia to get a new
market for their cloth.

Heroes of later days are not forgotten in this gallant company, and a
tablet on the east wall commemorates the men of the 32nd Regiment
(Cornwall Light Infantry) who fell in the Indian Mutiny. The colours of
the regiment show the names of Waterloo and Lucknow.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE NAVE IN THE LAST CENTURY
               (FROM A PRINT IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM).]

#The Choir Screen.#--This is the work of Bishop Stapledon, and was
probably completed about 1324. The Dean and Chapter anticipated the
admiration which this screen would cause in after ages, and we read that
they presented William Canon, the executor of the marble work, "£4, out
of their courtesy." High above the screen, as we learn from the Fabric
Rolls, the rood with Mary and John rested on an iron bar.

[Illustration: CHOIR SCREEN, LOOKING N.E.
               (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).]

The paintings within the panels above the beautifully carved spandrils
have little interest or merit, though it is thought that they date from
the same period as the screen itself. It is difficult, however, to
believe that they can be so old, or that such good and bad work could
belong to the same period. James I. introduced into the foliage of the
spandrils the rose and thistle; but this uncalled-for emendation was
summarily removed in the year 1875. The side arches of the screen were
at one period filled up with thick walls, and two strong doors barred
the arch of entrance, but this was altered by the restorers in 1875.

#The Organ# was originally built by John Loosemore about 1665. In its
existing form it is an enlarged reconstruction by Messrs. Willis, the
old instrument being incorporated in it as a choir-organ. The organ
case, which was an elegant specimen of Renaissance woodwork, has also
undergone alteration and renovation.

#The Choir.#--If the chief glory with regard to the exterior of the
cathedral remains undoubtedly with the designer and builder of the great
towers, the choir, the work of Bytton and Stapledon, is no less
certainly the supreme glory of the interior. The Norman choir reached no
farther than the third bay, counting from the choir screen. Traces
recently discovered seem to prove that it had an apsidal termination.
Bishop Marshall, in completing Warelwast's work, added four bays and
destroyed the triple apse. It is also possible that, as the transition
period to Early English was in its birth, some of the vaulting was
pointed. Bytton converted the choir as left by Marshall into the
Decorated style, inspired to the work by the success which had attended
Quivil's efforts in the easternmost bay of the nave. The whole work--the
transformation of the choir with its aisles--took about fifteen years to
complete, the speed and skill with which it was accomplished being due
to the fact that the task was not entirely in the hands of one body of
labourers. It seems to have been divided into two portions, at which the
builders worked simultaneously. Admirable as Quivil's work in the nave
had been, that of Bytton in the choir is an improvement. Doubtless he
had learnt something from the difficulties his predecessor encountered,
and knew how to avoid them. At any rate, he pushed forward the work with
great vigour and boldness. He formed his pillars of horizontal sections
of Purbeck marble from nine to fifteen inches thick: five boutelles on
each side presenting "the appearance of twenty-five shafts bound in
one." In the pavement of the choir more than ten thousand tiles were
used. For the vaulting of the choir, also his work, though the honour
due to him has till lately been denied, he procured quantities of
Portland stone. Material for bases and capitals was imported also from
Portland: the entry in the Fabric Rolls runs: "For the purchase of 18
great blocks of stone at Portland for the keys or bosses, together with
60 bases and capitals, including carriage by sea £4 16 8." The colouring
of the keystones was due to Stapledon in the first year of his
episcopate.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR, LOOKING WEST.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: THE CHOIR BEFORE RESTORATION
               (FROM AN ENGRAVING AFTER CHARLES WILD).]

Between 1870 and 1875 the choir underwent very extensive repairs. For
the most part they were successful, and if in particular instances
objection may be taken, it would be hyper-criticism to detract from
their value. Wherever possible, the stone was taken from the quarries
used by the first builders. The Purbeck marbles especially had severely
suffered, and the mouldings and bases ruthlessly destroyed for the
better accommodation of the wainscoting to the stalls; moreover, the
differences in the nature of the stone were rendered null by a hideous
yellow wash with which they had been lavishly besprinkled. During the
restoration the corbels and roof-bosses were cleaned and carefully
repaired. These, though of the same character as those in the nave, are
both richer and more varied in design and more skilfully carved.

#The Choir Stalls.#--The stalls are entirely modern, and the work of Sir
Gilbert Scott. Originally, no doubt, they were similar in style to the
bishop's throne, one of the most admirable of Stapledon's additions to
the cathedral. They were probably surmounted with canopies, with an open
arcade of stone behind them. The modern designer has so constructed his
stalls as to bear out this idea, since as far as possible they are meant
to replace the earlier ones. The misericords of Bishop Bruere have been
placed beneath the seats. These misericords have not their equal in
England. They are richly carved, representing foliage, wild beasts, an
elephant, men fighting, others playing musical instruments, and
legendary monsters. The introduction of an elephant proves that these
misericords were not completed until after Bruere's death in 1244; the
elephant having been first brought into England in 1255. There is also a
representation of a knight in a swan-boat, showing that the legend of
Lohengrin was known in England.

#The Reredos.#--This, too, is modern work, and most successfully has
Earp carried out the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott. It is of alabaster,
inlaid with agate, carnelian, and jasper. In the centre of the three
compartments into which it is divided is the Ascension, the other two
groups representing the Descent of the Holy Ghost and the
Transfiguration. As the work has met with considerable opposition, it is
well to remember Archdeacon Freeman's words, he having the best of all
rights to speak. "With its delicate canopies of alabaster, and
sculptures wrought in bold relief, its inlay of choice marbles, its
redundance of costly stones, and its attendant angel figures, it
enshrines a multitude of ideas well harmonizing with its place and
purpose." The ancient altar of Stapledon's has long since disappeared.
This was mostly of silver, the mensa only being of marble. In the
monument of Leofric, erected by Hoker, the historian, was found a large
slab of marble marked with crosses. This possibly was a portion of
Stapledon's altar destroyed by an Order in Council, 1550 (see below, p.
69).

#The Bishop's Throne# was Stapledon's work, erected in 1316. It is
notable for not having a single nail in it, being entirely fixed
together with wooden pegs. This "magnificent sheaf of carved oak," as it
has been called, rises to the height of fifty-seven feet. The carving
shows foliage and finials of great beauty, and beneath the canopies are
angel figures bearing the insignia of the Bishop's office. On one side
the chalice and Host of blessing; on the other, the bell, book, and
candle that conveyed the Bishop's curse.

At the date of the 1870 restorations the throne was in a very defective
state. It had been covered with brown paint, and the lower panels were
not a little damaged. There are traces of ancient colouring still, but
only the paintings at the base have been renovated, which commemorate
the quartette of famous bishops, Warelwast, Quivil, Stapledon, and
Grandisson, and were, no doubt, somewhat later than the throne itself.
Originally the niches of the tabernacle work were filled with figures,
but these have disappeared.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR, LOOKING EAST.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: SEDILIA IN THE CHOIR.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

#The Sedilia.#--It is natural after an examination of the throne in wood
to turn to Stapledon's equally splendid achievement in stone. The
sedilia were most carefully restored under Sir Gilbert Scott. There are
three arches, each ten feet high, of openwork, above which is a rich
display of tabernacle work. The niches once contained statues, for the
sockets are visible. The carving, extraordinarily skilful and intricate,
consists of leaves and animals' heads. Like much of the carving in the
cathedral that is attributed to this date, it was the work of De
Montacute, a French artist. The seats are divided by metal shafts, the
terminal divisions being supported by lions. It has been contended that
these lions are of considerably earlier date than the rest of the work;
but there is no evidence to go upon except a fancied resemblance to
Early English work. There seems no reason why Stapledon should not have
chosen lions as a fitting decoration, and carved them in a style more or
less traditional. Three small heads are carved on the back of the
sedilia, the centre one being that of Leofric, and on either side the
heads of Edward the Confessor and his wife Eadgytha. It will be
remembered that they were present, with their whole court, at the
installation of Leofric. The central seat is known as Leofric's stone,
on which he is traditionally said to have sat, and there is an entry in
the year 1418 recording that twenty pence was paid "for writing on the
stone of my Lord Leofric."

On the triforium arcading, just over the sedilia, the heads of Leofric,
Edward, and Eadgytha are repeated.

The decoration of the choir vault is by Messrs. Clayton and Bell. The
attempt to give life to the roofing by gilding the bosses and painting
the ribs red and blue and gold, while the ground colour is a dull white,
is not without merit.

#Pulpit in Choir# of Devon marbles and alabaster, erected in 1871. The
beautifully carved panels represent our Lord blessing the children; the
Sermon on the Mount; St. Peter preaching on the day of Pentecost; St.
Paul at Athens; and St. Paul before Festus.

#The East Window.#--Henry de Blakeborn, a canon of the cathedral,
enlarged "this Gable window in the Perpendicular style." Although it was
damaged a good deal in Cromwell's time, much of the old glass remains.
The shields on the upper part of the window are modern, but those at the
bottom are those of the first bishops and benefactors. The three centre
figures in the lowest row were added in Brantyngham's day.

[Illustration: PULPIT IN THE CHOIR.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

[Illustration: ST. JAMES' CHAPEL (DRAWN BY H.P. CLIFFORD).]

#St. James' Chapel.#--In the aisle on the south of the choir. In the
north aisle immediately opposite is the companion chapel of St. Andrew.
It will be noticed how frequently one part balances another throughout
the building. These chapels are partly Marshall's work. When the apsidal
chapels were pulled down at the time the apse was destroyed, Marshall
built the present chapels of St. James and St. Andrew. Bronscombe
altered them considerably, and the first item in the Fabric Rolls is,
"for 3 windows for St. James Chapel 8s. 9d.; for glass 16s." This is the
last year of Bronscombe's episcopate, and proves he had, at any rate,
almost finished the renovation of this chapel. The most noticeable
features are the upper chamber, and the magnificent but half-destroyed
monument popularly known as Leofric's tomb. The chapel contained two
altars, one dedicated to St. James and the other probably to St. Thomas
of Canterbury.

Nearly opposite this chapel are the effigies of two knights, dating from
the fourteenth century; their cross-legged attitude leading to the
erroneous notion that they were Crusaders. They probably represent
Humphrey de Bohun, father of Margaret, wife of Hugh Courtenay, 1332, and
Sir Arthur Chichester of Raleigh, 1301. Old histories describe armorial
bearings painted on their shields, but these have long since perished.

#St. Andrew's Chapel.#--Opposite to, and corresponding with that of St.
James'. It was Marshall's work originally, like its fellow chapel, being
a substitute for one of the old apsidal chapels of the Norman choir.
Stapledon completed the renovations so as to make it a parallel to
Bronscombe's restored chapel of St. James. The detached shafts are
clearly an imitation of the earlier bishop's work. The chapel contains
an upper chamber, formerly used as a muniments room. The chapel
originally contained altars to St. Andrew and St. Catherine. In 1305 is
an order of Bytton's that chantry services should be held here for
Andrew de Kilkenny, late dean, and others. Among the names we find that
of Henry de Kilkenny, who was at the time of Bytton's order still
living, and a canon of the cathedral.

[Illustration: ST. GEORGE'S CHAPEL (OR SPEKE'S CHANTRY).
               DRAWN BY H.P. CLIFFORD.]

#The Ambulatory.#--Between the high altar and the Lady Chapel is the
ambulatory. It is noticeable that the shafts differ from those in other
parts of the building. The north and south windows are of the time of
Bishop Bruere (thirteenth century). The architecture throughout the
retrochoir is Early Decorated.

Two old oak bible-boxes are attached, one to each pillar: though ugly
and clumsy they are distinctly interesting.

The windows are modern and excellent. Messrs. Clayton and Bell have
seldom done anything better. The colours are quite admirable and well
blended. Two monuments of Jacobean work are well worthy of attention.
Concerning the subject of one, Jacob Railard, there is nothing to be
learnt; but the other, John Bidgood, was "one of the most accomplished
and beneficial physicians of his age," and was born in 1623. He was
deprived of his fellowship at Exeter College in 1648 "for drinking of
healths to the confusion of Reformers." Like many another good man he
had to suffer for his loyalty. He obtained his doctor's degree at Padua
and won a great reputation as a skilful and humane practitioner. With
the Restoration he obtained his Oxford degree but continued to practise
in his native city. He died in his sixty-eighth year.

At the north end of the ambulatory is #Speke's Chantry#, also called St.
George's Chapel. It is of late, and exceedingly rich, Perpendicular
work. Oliver notices that in 1657 the east window and altar were
destroyed to make a passage "into the great church of St.
Peter's-in-the-East, partitioned from West Peter's by a brick wall
erected, plastered, and whitened on both sides by Walter Deeble, at the
expense of £150." The effigy of Sir John Speke rests in the chapel; the
carving behind the figure is very elaborate. His home was at White
Lackington in Somersetshire, and he was the owner of Brampford Speke
near Exeter. To secure the observance of his and his wife's obit, he
endowed the chapel with the "lands, tenements, and hereditaments in
Langford, Frehead, and Ashill, in Somersetshire."

The north window is to the memory of Archdeacon Bartholomew, and was
placed here in 1865.

[Illustration: THE LADY CHAPEL.
               The Photochrom. Co. Photo.]

At the other end of the ambulatory is #Bishop Oldham's Chantry#,
dedicated to our Saviour. It was richly restored by Bishop Oldham, who
also restored the Speke--or St. George--Chantry immediately opposite. It
is to this bishop we owe the "delicate and elegant screening which
imparts distance and veiling to all nine chapels and to Prior Sylke's
chantry in the north transept." The walls and vaulting are richly
decorated, and the panelling and rebus at the north-east corner contain
a rebus on the bishop's name (oul-dom), being decorated with owls. In
accordance with his object in restoring the chapel, his body was buried
there and his effigy lies in a niche of the south wall. Oldham was a
part founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, by whose orders the
chapel was restored some years ago. He settled the arms of the
see--gules, a sword erect in pale argent, pommelled and hilted or,
surmounted with two keys in saltire of the last. He was a native of
Manchester, founded the grammar school there, and held the post of
warden. He was a man of very methodical habits, according to Hoker. He
dined regularly at eleven, and supped at five. "To ensure precision he
had a house clock to strike the hours and a servant to look after it.
Should his lordship be prevented by important business from coming to
table at the appointed time, the servant would delay the clock's
striking the hour until he knew that his master was ready. Sometimes, if
asked what was the hour, he would humorously answer, 'As your lordship
pleaseth,' at which the bishop would smile and go away."

#The Lady Chapel.#--It has been suggested that this chapel occupies the
site of the choir in the old cathedral of Leofric. The earliest mention
of it is in a deed of Bishop Bruere's in 1237. It was remodelled by
Bronscombe and Quivil. But the "two pointed arches with solid
piers--totally different from any others in the Cathedral--dividing the
Chapel from the side chapels," though their moulding has been altered
very considerably in order to tally with a later style, show evidence of
much earlier date. The shafts are of Purbeck marble, and the windows,
arranged as in the nave, contain the last importation of glass from
abroad, save that in the transeptal windows, used in the cathedral. The
bosses in the eastern bay, with the evangelists' emblems and head of
Christ, should be noticed. The elaborate fourteenth century reredos is
the work of Grandisson. The central niche contained a figure of the
Virgin, before which a lamp was suspended. The sedilia and double
piscina on the south side are interesting.

The Lady Chapel contains several monumental tombs of interest. Beneath
the arches conducting to the side chapels are the effigies of Bishops
Bronscombe and Stafford.

Bronscombe died in 1280, Stafford in 1419; but with a regard to
symmetry, which is conspicuous in the cathedral, the earlier effigy of
Bronscombe was raised and provided with a new canopy to correspond with
Stafford's tomb on the opposite side. Bronscombe lies on the south side,
at the entrance to, or the north side of, his chapel of St. Gabriel. The
colouring on the effigy must have been uncommonly splendid, and even the
remnants of the patterns have not faded out of all beauty.

[Illustration: BISHOP BRONSCOMBE'S MONUMENT
               (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).]

Stafford's tomb is on the north side at the entrance to the chapel of
St. Mary Magdalen. It has had to contend with severer enemies than old
age, but shockingly as the effigy has suffered, it still preserves
something of its original beauty and stateliness. The attitude is
simple; the gloved hands of the bishop are joined over his breast in an
attitude of prayer. The face is thin and ascetic, its saintly austerity
being rendered more noticeable owing to the rich mitre that crowns the
head. The folds of the robe are managed with a consummate simplicity and
skill. In Leland's "Itinerary" the bishop's epitaph is preserved:

  "Hic jacet Edmundus de Stafforde intumulatus,
  Quondam profundus legum doctor reputatus,
  Verbis facundus, Comitum de stirpe creatus,
  Felix et mundus Pater hujus Pontificatus."

#Tomb of Sir John and Lady Doddridge.#--Sir John Doddridge came of an
old Devonshire family, for in 1285 one Walter Doddridge and his wife
surrendered to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter a right of entrance into
the close from their house in High Street. Fuller says of him that it
were "hard to say, whether he was better artist, divine, Cure, or Common
Lawyer, though he fixed on the last for his publick Profession." He was
second justice of the King's Bench, and gained great renown as a judge
of stern integrity. Sir John was three times married, the lady whose
effigy is here represented being his third wife, Dorothy, daughter of
Sir Amias Bampfylde. She died in 1615. Sir John, who became a judge of
the King's Bench, lived till 1628. He won the nickname of the "sleepy
judge," for he always closed his eyes in court, the better to keep his
attention fixed on the case. The monument is very elaborate, and if not
beautiful is well worth attention on account of its technical qualities
and the probable accuracy of its representation. The dress of Lady
Dorothy Doddridge exhibits a good example of costume; the skirt
embroidered with pansies and carnations; the ruff and cuffs showing old
Devonshire "bone lace." It was no doubt copied from one of the lady's
actual gowns.

On the south side of the Lady Chapel are two most interesting monuments
of early bishops. That towards the east has been assigned to Bartholomew
Iscanus (1161-84), but in all probability it represents one of his far
earlier predecessors. The sculpture is almost archaic in style, the
mitre low, the face bearded, and the type extraordinarily Byzantine. The
left hand holds the pastoral staff, the point of which impales a winged
dragon, with a sphinx-like head, at his feet. In the angles of the
archway at the tomb are the figures of two angels with censers.

The other tomb is that of Simon de Apulia (d. 1223). It presents a great
contrast to that just described. The great advance made in the art of
sculpture is noticeable in the more human character of the face, which
is clean shaven, and the more skilful management of the hands. The
artist, too, seems to have courted difficulties, for the bishop's robe
and mitre are richly jewelled, and the foliage and animal at his feet,
though conventional, are most elaborately designed.

[Illustration: SCREEN OF ST. GABRIEL'S CHAPEL.]

#Bishop Peter Quivil# (1291).--This tombstone in the centre of the
pavement was restored here in 1820 on the representation of Mr. John
Jones of Franklyn; the cross and letters were re-cut under his
directions. The epitaph is "Petra tegit Petrum, nihil officiat sibi
tetrum," and Westcott in his "View of Devon" writes, "which verse was
written in an ancient character, each letter distant from the other at
least four inches; so that this short verse supplied the whole large
circumference, and cost me some labour in finding out and reading it."

Certainly this is one of the most interesting memorials in the
cathedral; indeed, it may be well considered the most interesting, for
it is dedicated to the man by whose genius the whole great design was
begotten. Its simplicity is noteworthy. But Quivil required no elaborate
sepulture; the cathedral itself is his mighty monument, since it was he
who founded--

    "A fane more noble than the vestal trod--
     The Christian's temple, to the Christian's God."[4]

    [4] Richard Clarke Sewell, 1825, Magdalen College.

#St. Gabriel's Chapel.#--This chapel was transformed by Bishop
Bronscombe (1257-80). The vaulting has been recoloured in conformity
with the ancient tints and patterns. The chapel contained several
monuments, but these have been removed to other parts of the cathedral.
Bronscombe transformed the chapel that it might be used for his burial
place. St. Gabriel was his patron saint, and he caused the day of the
archangel to be celebrated with honours similar to Easter Day and
Christmas Day. There is some old glass in the windows. Note the kneeling
figure of the bishop with the scroll: "O Sancte Gabriel Archangele,
intercede pro gratia." The skilful restoration of the south window with
pieces of old glass is one of the most happy results of later work in
the cathedral. The altar slab marked with five crosses, appears to have
been used in Leofric's monument, where it was found in the last century.
It was placed here by Dean Cowie.

#St. Mary Magdalen Chapel#, first mentioned in the Fabric Rolls for
1284. It was probably Marshall's work originally, Bronscombe further
improved it, and Quivil entirely remodelled it. With the exception of
the Perpendicular screen shutting it off from the north aisle, it is of
the same date as the Lady Chapel. The north window is Bronscombe's work,
and the still finer east window, containing a good deal of the early
fifteenth-century glass, is Quivil's. The chapel originally contained an
altar to St John the Evangelist and a figure of the Magdalene, for in
Bishop Lacy's register are the words, "extra vestibulum coram ymagine
Sanctae Marie Magdalene." On the floor of the chapel is a brass to Canon
Langton, dated 1413. He was a cousin of Bishop Stafford. He is
represented kneeling, clothed in a most rich cope and alb, on which is
designed the Stafford knot. His hands are met in prayer. The epitaph
only gives the date of his death, and refers to his relationship with
the above-named bishop.

In this chapel also is a magnificent monument to Sir Gawain Carew and
his wife, and their nephew, Sir Peter. It is in two parts: on the upper
lie the figures of Sir Gawain and his dame, on the lower that of the
more famous nephew, with his legs crossed, an unusual position for a
figure on so late a tomb. Sir Peter and his uncle took an active part in
quashing the rebellion that disturbed the western counties in the reign
of Edward VI. The former died at Waterford, in Ireland, 1575. Sir Peter
Carew sat on the King's Commission of 1552, which summoned the Dean and
Chapter to the bishop's palace, "then and there to answer all demands
and questions concerning the jewells plate and other ornaments of your
cathedrall churche."

In 1857 the monument was admirably restored by the members of the Carew
family, the whole being gilded and coloured.


TOMBS IN THE CHOIR AND CHOIR AISLES.

The first tomb to notice on the north side of the choir is that of the
murdered bishop, Stapledon. The canopy was judiciously restored at the
beginning of the century. From beneath it one observes a great image of
Christ, the pierced hands raised to bless. The wounded feet stand upon a
sphere, possibly to represent His dominion over the world, and an
insignificant earthly king, in scarlet robes, seems to take refuge in
the shadow of the Saviour. Beneath the canopy lies the figure of the
bishop, grasping the crozier in his left hand and a book in his right.
The keys upon his sleeve represent the arms of the see. Above the
monument the arms of the bishop figure on the choir screen, and over the
tombs of Lacy and Marshall the same plan has been observed. This screen
was erected about the close of the fourteenth century.

Below the sacrarium, on the north, are the tombs of the Elizabethan
bishop, William Bradbridge, and that of Bishop Lacy (1420-55). His arms,
"Three shovellers heads erased," may be seen on the screen work above
it. The tomb is despoiled of the brass that once adorned it--said to
have been taken out by the Reformation Dean, Simon Hayes (who also
despoiled St. Radegunde's Chapel), because pilgrims resorted to Lacy's
tomb, and regarded him as a saint.

The next tomb, that of Marshall, is of peculiar interest, and it is
unfortunate that a good view is not easily attainable. It has been
pointed out by a specialist that the ornament on the chasuble is almost
unique, reminding one of the foliage in Early English work. The
medallions at the side are especially interesting.

At the west, near the Speke Chantry, is the remarkable monument,
generally supposed to be the tomb of Sir Richard de Stapledon, an elder
brother of the great bishop whose tragic death we have already described
in the first chapter of this book. He was a lawyer and one of his
Majesty's judges. Prince's quaint description of his tomb is worth
quoting in full: "In a niche in the wall is a monument erected to his
Memory, representing his Figure lively cut in stone sitting on
horseback; where is cut out also in the same, a cripple taking hold of
the foreleg of his horse: which seems to confirm the Tradition, That a
certain Cripple, as Sir Richard was riding into the City of London with
his Brother, lying at the gate, laid hold on one of his Horse's
Fore-legs, and by crossing of it threw Horse and Rider to the Ground; by
which means he was soon slain; and that from this occasion the place
obtain'd the name of Cripple-gate, which it retains to this day." It is
a pity so quaint a story belongs to the realm of legend, for there is no
substantial proof forthcoming of its truth.

[Illustration: TOMB OF BISHOP STAPLEDON.]

The next monument on this side is an emaciated figure, or _Memento
Mori_, a gruesome style popular in the fifteenth century. It may have
been intended for a cenotaph of Bishop Bothe, the legend, nearly erased,
at the top, being the same as that on his brass in the church of East
Horsley, Surrey, where he is buried.

[Illustration: MONUMENT OF BISHOP MARSHALL
               (FROM BRITTON'S 'EXETER,' 1826).]

The monument to Anthony Harvey of Colomb John is of no great interest,
being poorly designed. Its date is 1564. Harvey was steward of the
abbeys of Hartland, Buckland, and Newenham at the time when the
religious houses were suppressed. He is said to have amassed very
considerable wealth; for, in addition to the profits derived from the
spoliation of the above monasteries, he received from Henry VIII
considerable lands belonging to the abbey of Tewkesbury, which he sold,
probably most advantageously, to a clothier of Crediton. Harvey was
connected with the Carews through the marriage of his daughter, and
heiress, with George Carew, Dean of Exeter, the notorious pluralist.
Their son, Harvey's grandson, was created Earl of Totnes, but died
without issue.

At the west end of the south aisle is the monument of Bishop Gary
(1621-26) and a mural tablet commemorating Robert Hall, eldest son of
Bishop Hall, and treasurer of the cathedral. To him Exeter owes a
perpetual debt of gratitude, for, when the city surrendered to Fairfax
in 1646, he took down the Bishop's Throne and concealed it (buried it
according to local tradition), and after the Restoration was able to
re-erect in its proper place the most magnificent Bishop's throne in
England.

Neither the effigy of Bishop Cotton (1621) nor the angel resting on the
sarcophagus of Bishop Weston--a typical Georgian monument--are of much
intrinsic merit. Flaxman's statue to General Simcox, the hero of the
Queen's Rangers in the American War, is the only other notable
monumental achievement in the south choir aisle.

The Peter, or Great Bell, of Exeter is said to have been a gift of
Bishop Courtenay's. This opinion is very much disputed, as the Fabric
Rolls show that there were bells here in the time of Edward II. As early
as 1351 is an entry of 6s. for mending the Peter Bell. Again in 1453,
twenty-five years before Courtenay was created bishop, mention is made
of the spending of twenty pence "in una bauderick pro Maxima Campana in
Campanili Boreali." Oliver, however, acutely points out that this last
entry is dated the very year that Courtenay was appointed Archdeacon of
Exeter, and suggests that "on that occasion he may have offered such
valuable presents." On the 5th November, 1611, the bell was crazed, but
was recast in 1676. Its reputed weight is 12,500 lb. If this is correct,
it is the second largest bell in England. Great Tom of Christ Church,
Oxford, is more than 5,000 lb. heavier, but it easily exceeds its other
rivals, Tom of Lincoln and the Great Bell of St. Paul's, which weigh
respectively 11,296 lb. and 8,400 lb.

       *       *       *       *       *

#The Chapter House# lies at the south end of the transept beyond the
Chapel of the Holy Ghost. The lower part of the room is the original
building of the early thirteenth century, between 1224 and 1244, and the
face of the wall is decorated with Early English arcades separated by
delicate shafts. This building probably had a stone vaulted roof. Lacy
heightened it, adding lofty Perpendicular windows; and the whole is
completed by a rich tie-beam roof, partly the work of Bishop Bothe
(1465-78), whose arms, with Lacy's, are painted on it (see p. 13). The
east window, recently restored, contains many coats of arms in ancient
glass. Among these is the Austrian eagle quartered with the lion of
Bohemia, reminding us that Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry
III, and lord of Rougemont Castle, Exeter, was about 1260 elected King
of the Romans, thus associating Exeter with the highest secular honour
then known to Europe.

#The Cloister.#--Archdeacon Freeman thinks that originally the cloister
"was confined to the east side, as a necessary communication between the
chapter house and the great south door of the nave." During Stapledon's
time a desire had been evinced to enlarge this cloister; and in 1323
there is a record to the effect that eight heads had been carved for
vaulting the cloister. In the Fabric Rolls are entries that show the
work of building proceeded with some activity and considerable
cheapness. Here are a few extracts that are interesting:

"Twenty-five horse-loads of sand for the cloister, 9d. A thousand lath
nails and healing pins for do. S. Clifford sculpanti 18 capites 3/9: 10
do. 2/-."

By 1342 the work was probably finished to the north, and forty years
later the whole must have been completed. It has been said that the old
cloister was inferior to those of Worcester and Gloucester. But they
must have had considerable merit if Mr. Pearson's restoration really
represents, and there is little doubt it does, the old structure.

It is curious that the cloister, certainly the least offensive and not
the most beautiful part of the cathedral, should have suffered so
severely at the hands of the Puritans. For on the whole the cathedral
proper escaped with but small damage. Professor Freeman, in discussing
the alleged desecrations suffered by St. Mary and St. Peter, after the
entrance of Fairfax and his army into the city, writes thus: "The
account in Mercurius Rusticus, which has given vogue to the common story
is wholly untrue." He further adds: "Some fanatic soldier may, indeed,
according to the story, have broken off the head of Queen Elizabeth,
mistaking her for our Lady. But no general mutilation or desecration
took place at this time. And at Exeter, one form of mutilation, which
specially affected the west front, was not the work of enemies but of
devotees. For ages the country folk who came into the city loved to
carry home a Peter stone for the healing of their ailments." It is only
fair to add that Archdeacon Freeman refers in very different language to
the result of the occupation by the Puritans, but though the decorative
portions of the cloister may have suffered, we cannot account for the
disappearance of the exterior walls without a better reason for their
destruction. It should be noted, however, that in the fifteenth century
the Dean and Chapter bitterly complained of the conduct of the Exeter
boys, who played "unlawfull games as the toppe, queke, penny pryke &
most atte tenys" in the cloister, whereby they were "defowled & the glas
windows all to-brost." But at this time the cathedral and municipal
authorities were far from friendly to each other. Dr. Oliver writes of
the ruins in his day that they "have disappeared with the exception of
part of a fluted column at the west corner of the carpenter's shop."
With the debris small and mean houses were built. On the 30th of
October, 1657, we are given a hint as to what may have been the meaning
of this wanton destruction. Apparently the ground set apart for "the
convenience of the studious and contemplative" was found to have
valuable attributes as a market-place, for on the above day the "Friday
cloth market for serges and other drapery" was ordered to be held in
this place. Commerce did not triumph for long, though, as only three
years later the buyers and sellers were bundled back into South Street.

[Illustration: THE EAST GATE, PULLED DOWN IN 1784.]

A large number of bosses and carvings of the original structure,
discovered during the recent excavations, have been skilfully
incorporated by Mr. Pearson in his restoration. Above the cloister is a
library containing 8,000 volumes, many of them bequeathed by the late
Chancellor Harrington.

#The Close.#--This was an important adjunct to all cathedrals in the
days following the Conquest. We have seen that on one occasion at least
the cathedral church of Exeter was severely bombarded, with the result
that the northern tower differs considerably from the southern in
places. The church, then, we may presume, was intended to be used, when
necessary, as a fortress: but as it was also something else very
different, this necessity was rather shunned than courted. Therefore it
was customary to separate the church from the world by walls and gates
of proved strength. This space so secured formed an outer fortress,
against which the attacks of an enemy must, perforce, have been directed
first. It placed entirely in the hands of the clergy the defence of
their own church, a task they were quite capable of performing with
credit; for Matthew Paris tells us of one bishop of Exeter, Bruere, that
he displayed activity both "spiritual and temporal" in the Holy Land.
The defence of the city, that of the sacred building being thus provided
for, was the business of the captains and men-at-arms. The walls and
gates of the close have vanished, without leaving a trace of their
existence. One privilege, however, yet haunts the place--the corporation
have no jurisdiction over it.

In the close at the north side of the cathedral has been placed a statue
of Richard Hooker, the theologian (1553-1600), author of "The Laws of
Ecclesiastical Polity." The "Judicious Hooker" was born in Exeter, and
was a nephew of John Vowel, alias Hoker, Chamberlain and Historian of
the city.

#The Cathedral Library# was founded by Leofric himself. One of his
principal reasons for translating the see from Crediton to Exeter being
his fear lest the valuable books he had collected should at any time be
destroyed by raiders in an unfortified town.

When, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, Sir Thomas Bodley,
himself a native of Exeter, founded the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the
Dean and Chapter of Exeter presented to it a large number of books and
manuscripts, many of which had belonged to Leofric. Fortunately one
volume remained in Exeter, overlooked by owners then unaware of its
value, possibly of its very existence. This volume, "The Exeter Book,"
is the greatest treasure possessed by the Dean and Chapter, being an
Anglo-Saxon manuscript, containing almost a third of all the Anglo-Saxon
literature that is known. The contents include "Cynewulf's Christus," a
poem on the life of our Lord; some legends of saints; and a quaint
collection of riddles and jokes. The ink of its writing, nearly one
thousand years old, is as fresh as if it had been inscribed but
recently.

As already mentioned, the muniments room was formerly above St. Andrew's
Chapel. At a later date the library was placed in the Lady Chapel, and
was thence removed to the chapter house. Towards the end of the last
century Canon Cook and Chancellor Harrington left their valuable
libraries to the Dean and Chapter, and in order to accommodate the books
Dean Cowie restored the south side of the cloister, and built a new
library over it.

Here may be seen the Exeter Book, the Exeter Domesday, Grandisson's
Ordinale, Lacy's Pontifical, and other beautiful examples of
illumination. Also the original charter of Edward the Confessor
appointing Leofric Bishop of Exeter, signed by the King and Queen, Earl
Godwin, and a notable group of Saxon Thanes.

Among the printed books are a First Folio of Shakespeare, and the sealed
Prayer Book of King Charles II.

The library is open to the public after Matins on Tuesdays and Fridays.

#The Palace# is a building so closely associated with the cathedral as
to demand a brief notice. In it is the chapel of St. Mary, which seems
to have been frequently used in preference to the cathedral for the
celebration of espiscopal functions. Ordination services were often held
within its walls. It was originally built that services might be said
there for the repose of the souls of dead bishops of Exeter. A document
is quoted by Oliver, in which the parish of Alwyngton is called upon to
pay the officiating chaplain a yearly sum of four marks and that of
Harberton two. This chapel, now restored, is used for domestic purposes.
But at one time it was clearly regarded as pertaining to the cathedral,
for the Dean and Chapter, on the festival of St. Faith, presented to it
a pair of wax candles. Brantyngham, in 1381, mentions the "fructus et
proventus cantariae infra Palatium nostrum Exonie, pro animabus
predecessorum nostorum ipsius fundatorum." The old entrance was under
the great archway, and battlements, by gracious permission of royalty,
surrounded the whole. In the great hall feasts were held for 100 poor
people; but the palace now is shorn of a good deal of its grandeur. The
Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1845 decided to rebuild and repair what
remained.

[Illustration: THE BISHOP'S PALACE.
               Alfred Pumphrey Photo.]


THE DIOCESE OF EXETER.

A chronological list of the bishops of the diocese, from the days of
Leofric, when the seat of the bishopric was removed from Crediton, to
our own day, when the diocese of Truro has been carved out from that of
Exeter, is here given briefly, since the more notable holders of the see
have been already mentioned in the first chapter.

#Leofric# (1046-1072). In 1050 the see was removed from Crediton and the
new See of Exeter founded.

#Osbern# (1072-1103). No alterations were made to the building during
this period. The bishop was admired for his "simplicity of English
manners and habits," for although Norman by birth he had been educated
in England.

#William Warelwast# (1107-1136), a nephew of William the Conqueror,
began to demolish the Saxon Church. To him may be attributed the towers,
choir, apse, and nave of the Norman building. The story of his
blindness, and of his being sent on an embassy to Rome, rests on
somewhat slender authority.

#Robert Chichester# (1138-1155) was promoted from the deanery of
Salisbury at the Council of Northampton. He continued Warelwast's work.

#Robert Warelwast# (1155-1160) was a nephew of the former bishop of that
name.

#Bartholomæus Iscanus# (1161-1184), a native of Exeter, was of humble
birth. He is said to have been an enemy of Becket's and was called by
Pope Alexander III. "the luminary of the English Church."

#John the Chaunter# (1186-1191) continued the buildings which had been
suspended during the last episcopate.

#Henry Marshall# (1194-1206), brother to the Earl of Pembroke, Marshal
of England, was promoted from York, of which cathedral he was dean. He
completed the buildings as designed by the first Warelwast. To him we
owe the Lady Chapel, the larger choir, the north porch, cloister
doorway, and six chapels. He assisted at the coronation of King Richard
at Winchester in 1194, and at that of John in 1199.

#Simon de Apulia# (1214-1223). But little is recorded of this bishop. He
assisted at Henry III.'s coronation at Gloucester when the king was a
lad of ten. To him also is attributed the fixing of the boundaries of
the city parishes. His tomb is in the Lady Chapel.

#William Bruere# (1224-1244) served as Precentor of Exeter before he was
made bishop. To him are due the chapter house and stalls in the old
choir. For five years he was in the Holy Land, and Matthew Paris writes
of his energy and untiring devotion in administering to the wants of his
countrymen.

#Richard Blondy# (1245-1257). According to Hoker this bishop was the son
of Hilary Blondy, Mayor of Exeter in 1227.

#Walter Bronescombe# (1257-1280), a native of Exeter, was only in
deacon's orders when chosen bishop. He restored the chapels of St.
Gabriel, St. Mary Magdalene and St. James. He also founded a college at
Glasney and restored "the establishment of Crediton" to much of its
former splendour.

#Peter Quivil# (1280-1291) was born in Exeter, and a _protégé_ of
Bronescombe's. His first preferment was as Archdeacon of St. David's,
from whence he was promoted bishop of his native city. He it was who
designed the Decorated cathedral and transformed transepts with chapels,
eastern bay of the nave, and the Lady Chapel.

#Thomas de Bytton# (1292-1307) continued Quivil's work, transforming the
choir and its aisles. He was a native of Gloucestershire and had been
Dean of Wells. An indulgence of forty days was granted by the Pope,
Boniface VIII., three archbishops and five bishops, to all who should
pray for his prosperity. The rules he made for the government of the
collegiate church at Crediton won general approval.

#Walter de Stapledon# (1308-1326) was Professor of Canon Law at Oxford
and a chaplain to Pope Clement V. He was killed by a London mob. The
transformed choir transepts are his work, and he erected the organ
screen, bishop's throne, and sedilia. During his episcopate, also, the
cloisters were begun.

#James Berkeley# (1326-1327), Archdeacon of Huntingdon, and grandson of
William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, died a few weeks after his
consecration.

#John Grandisson# (1327-1369) was born in Herefordshire, of good family.
His long tenure of the see is one of the most memorable chapters in the
history of Exeter. The fatal Black Death occurred during his episcopacy,
1348-1369. He inherited the transforming zeal of his predecessors and
set his seal on the six western bays of the nave, the great west
windows, and the vaulting and the aisles. He completed the north
cloister.

#Thomas Brantyngham# (1370-1394) was educated at the Court of Edward
III., and was a canon of Exeter when chosen bishop. He was a constant
adviser of the king, only being released from his privy council and
parliamentary duties when his advanced age made them irksome to him. He
was very busy in all the affairs of the diocese, but found time to
complete the cloisters, east window, and west front.

#Edmund Stafford# (1395-1419) came of a greatly distinguished family. He
was a canon of York when Pope Boniface IX. advanced him to the See of
Exeter. For a time he served the king as Lord High Chancellor. He has
been abused by Campbell in his "Lives of the Lord Chancellors of
England": but there seems little doubt that he deserved the reputation
he certainly got of being learned, grave, and wise, and "very well
accounted generally of all men." To him are attributed the canopies over
the tombs in the Lady Chapel.

#John Ketterick# or #Catterick# (1419) died at Florence a month after
his appointment.

#Edmund Lacy# (1420-1455), composer of an office in honour of the
Archangel Raphael, left a saintly reputation, and pilgrimages were, for
long, made to his tomb. According to Canon Freeman he raised the chapter
house and glazed the nave windows.

#George Neville# (1458-1465) was a son of the Earl of Salisbury. He was
Chancellor of Oxford, and only twenty-four when made bishop. Though for
several years Lord High Chancellor, and translated to York, he died in
disgrace and comparative poverty.

#John Bothe# (1465-1478) was the son of a Cheshire knight. He has often,
but wrongly, been credited with being the donor of the throne. With more
certainty the roof of the chapter house has been acknowledged as his
work.

#Peter Courtenay# (1478-1486), son of Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham,
had been Archdeacon of Exeter and Wiltshire, and Dean of Windsor and
Exeter before he was appointed Bishop of Exeter. He assisted at the
coronation of Richard III., but was none the less translated, for his
services, by Henry to the diocese of Winchester.

#Richard Fox# (1487-1491), the next bishop, was held in great esteem by
Henry VII., whom he represented for a time as Ambassador at the Court of
Scotland. He arranged the preliminaries of the marriage of Henry's
daughter Margaret with James IV. He was translated to Bath and Wells,
then to Durham, and finally to Winchester. He is said to have refused
the dignity of Archbishop of Canterbury, which his godson, Henry VIII.,
was anxious he should accept.

#Oliver King# (1492-1495) was Bishop of Exeter for a short time only,
being translated to Bath and Wells. He began building the Abbey Church
at Bath, but did not live to see much of it completed.

#Richard Redman# (1496-1501) was translated to Exeter from St. Asaph. He
resigned the see on becoming Bishop of Ely.

#John Arundell# (1502-1503) was translated from the See of Lichfield and
Coventry. He was famous for his benevolence and hospitality. He died
after barely two years' tenancy of the western bishopric.

#Hugh Oldham# (1504-1519) came of an ancient Lancashire family. A large
and flourishing manufacturing town in that county bears his name. He
founded the grammar school in Manchester, and on his elevation became
famous throughout the west of England for his learning and piety.

#John Vesey (Harman)# (1519-1551). A lengthy account is given of this
bishop in the first chapter.

#Miles Coverdale# (1551-1553) was a famous reformer, and revised
Tyndale's translation of the Bible. He was not popular in the diocese,
and on Queen Mary's accession was deprived of his see, to the great
satisfaction of his flock.

#James Turberville# (1555-1559) was deprived of his see on his refusal
to acknowledge the ecclesiastical supremacy of Elizabeth. He had been
popular in the west of England, where the Reformation was at first
heartily disliked.

#William Alleyn# (1560-1570). Oliver writes the surname Alley. The
diocese was now so poor that he was compelled to reduce the number of
canons from twenty-four to nine. Only by accepting the rectorship of
Honiton was the bishop himself able to support the dignity of his
office. He was the author of several religious books that had
considerable popularity in their day.

#William Bradbridge# (1570-1578) is said to have speculated largely in
agricultural land, and to have died a debtor for a large amount,
including £1,400 owed to Queen Elizabeth. Beyond this little is recorded
of him except that he lived at Newton Ferrers, of which he held the
living _in commendam_, which must have put his clergy to great
inconvenience.

#John Wolton# (1579-1594). During Wolton's episcopate the revenues were
restored to the chapter, the crown reserving to itself the sum of £145
yearly. The priest-vicars, also, received back from the queen the
greater portion of their possessions.

#Gervase Babington# (1595-1597) was translated from Llandaff. He
remained at Exeter but a short time. He seems to have been a favourite
with the queen, who took an early opportunity to promote him to the
wealthy See of Worcester.

#William Cotton# (1598-1621).

#Valentine Carey# (1621-1626) had been Master of Christ's College,
Cambridge, and Dean of St. Paul's.

#Joseph Hall# (1627-1641) was Dean of Worcester when promoted to the See
of Exeter. He was a famous theological writer, and was translated to
Norwich in 1641. There he suffered a great deal of unmerited
persecution, which he bore bravely, though the ill-treatment of his
enemies killed him.

#Ralph Brownrigg# (1642-1659), Master of St. Catharine's, Cambridge, was
bishop in troublous times. He had to retire to a friend's house in
Berkshire. He was elected Preacher of the Temple, and was buried at the
cost of the Inn.

#John Gauden# (1660-1662) was Master of the Temple. His title to fame is
as the reputed author of the [Greek: EIKÔN BASILIKÊ]. Being the first
bishop appointed after the Restoration, his arrival in Exeter was gladly
welcomed by the loyal citizens. But he does not seem to have been a
lovable man, and was over-eager for riches. He was translated to
Worcester on his complaint of poverty reaching the king's ears.

#Seth Ward# (1662-1667) was already popular as dean when he succeeded
Gauden as bishop. He cleared the cathedral of the small traders who
desecrated the precincts, and gave to his church the finest organ then
known in England. He was translated to Salisbury, and became Chancellor
of the Order of the Garter. He obtained an enviable reputation for his
good sense, piety, learning, and generosity.

#Anthony Sparrow# (1667-1676) was Master of King's College, Cambridge,
when consecrated bishop. Cosmo III. visited Exeter during his tenancy of
the see.

#Thomas Lamplugh# (1676-1688) seems to have been a clever politician. By
expressing his loyalty to James II., when William had landed at Torbay,
he was created Archbishop of York; thereupon he actively supported the
Prince of Orange. "My Lord, you are a genuine old Cavalier," was the
king's greeting. One hopes the memory of those words troubled the
archbishop during his three years' experience of an ill-deserved
dignity.

#Jonathan Trelawny# (1689-1707) came of a famous Cornish family. As
Bishop of Bristol he was already famous, for he was one of the seven
bishops whose trial and acquittal hastened the downfall of the last
Stuart king. He was translated to Winchester. A popular refrain, wedded
to verses by the celebrated parson Hawker, of Morwenstow, keeps his
memory alive in the western counties.

#Offspring Blackball# (1708-1716) was chiefly and honourably known as a
promoter of charity schools.

#Launcelot Blackburne# (1717-1724). Of this bishop there is little to
record. He was translated to the Archbishopric of York in 1724.

#Stephen Weston# (1724-1742). The episcopal registers were now kept for
the first time in English. His long reign seems to have been quite
uneventful, and probably was, therefore, entirely successful.

#Nicholas Claggett# (1742-1746) was translated from St. David's.

#George Lavington# (1747-1762).

#Frederick Keppel# (1762-1777), a son of the Earl of Albemarle, was a
canon of Windsor when appointed Bishop of Exeter.

#John Ross# (1778-1792).

#William Buller# (1792-1796), of an old west country family, was
promoted from the deanery of Canterbury.

#Henry Reginald Courtenay# (1797-1803), translated to this see from
Bristol.

#John Fisher# (1803-1807) was tutor to the Duke of Kent, father of Queen
Victoria. He was translated to Salisbury in 1807.

#George Pelham# (1807-1820) was translated from Bristol. After,
according to Oliver, "for thirteen years expecting higher preferment,"
he was promoted to Lincoln.

#William Carey# (1820-1830), head master of Westminster School. When he
had been ten years at Exeter he was translated to St. Asaph, a curious
reversal of the usual proceeding. For although a Welsh bishopric often
led to an English one, a change from Exeter to St. Asaph could hardly
have been "preferment" in the ordinary sense.

#Christopher Bethell# (1830-1831). Exeter, for this bishop also, was
merely a stepping-stone between Gloucester and Bangor.

#Henry Phillpotts# (1831-1868) was the most famous bishop who has held
the see in this century. He restored the palace, which had fallen into a
ruined condition. He was energetic about the affairs of his diocese, a
born ruler of men, and a scholar of eminence. The story of his
episcopate is a well-known chapter to students of the ecclesiastical
history of the first half of the queen's reign.

#Frederick Temple# (1869-1885), head master of Rugby, 1858-1869; Bishop
of Exeter, 1869; translated to London, 1885, and to the Metropolitan See
of Canterbury, 1896.

#Edward Henry Bickersteth# (1885-1901) was Dean of Gloucester when
appointed bishop. Resigned.

#Herbert Edward Ryle# (1901-1903) translated to Winchester. On resigning
the see of Winchester he became Dean of Westminster.

#Archibald Robertson# (1903-1916). Resigned.

#Rupert Ernest William Gascoyne Cecil# (1916- ).

[Illustration: OLD HOUSES IN FORE STREET. A. Pumphrey Photo.]



ROUGEMONT CASTLE AND THE GUILDHALL.


It is related that when Gytha fled towards the river and William the
Conqueror marched through the eastern gate of the city, claiming it as
his prize, he promised the citizens their lives, goods, and limbs. But,
although he adhered strictly to his promise, and took care that his
victorious soldiers should not pillage or insult the inhabitants, he was
well aware of the supreme value of his conquest. The taking of Exeter
was practically the taking of all western England. So he determined to
make his position impregnable, and to this end set about the building of
a castle on the Red Mount. The task was not a hard one: the Norman
engineers had little need to display their peculiar ingenuity. Nature
had done much, and to her work Briton, Roman, and Englishman had made
additions. As Professor Freeman puts it: "The hillside was ready
scarped, the ditch was ready dug." Baldwin de Molles was appointed
superintendent and commander, and so well did he carry out his trust
that within a year the castle was built and the men of Cornwall and
Devon had attacked its walls in vain. Perhaps because William had been a
merciful conqueror, not despoiling or ill-using the citizens, perhaps
because the citizens were afraid, knowing the just man was strong and
his hand heavy in anger, the besiegers found no help within the city
walls. Henceforth Exeter was for the king.

A curious example of its loyalty was shown in the troubled days of King
Stephen. Earl Baldwin, from all accounts a cruel and violent man, took
arms against the king. Stephen demanded that the castle should be
delivered up. For his answer the Earl laid in provisions, and at the
head of his followers patrolled the streets of the city threatening
vengeance on those who opposed his will. Stephen, speedily apprised by
his faithful citizens of these riotous doings, sent two hundred knights
to confront the rebel. Later he came himself, and the castle was closely
besieged. After three months' heavy fighting the wells in the castle
gave out. Deprived of water, Baldwin, who was brave enough, made shift
with wine, using it both for cookery and extinguishing the fires. But at
last the king was victorious and, not heeding the wise counsel of his
brother Henry of Winchester, permitted the followers of Baldwin to "go
forth with their goods and follow what lord they would."

In 1483, Richard III., fearing that the west favoured the claims of
Henry, Earl of Richmond, hastened to Exeter. He was civilly greeted by
John Attwill, the mayor. But his coming was not very welcome, nor did
his conduct contribute to the gaiety of the inhabitants. In his train
was Lord Scrope, whose business it was to try the rebels. None could be
found, however, save the king's brother-in-law, St. Leger, and his
esquire, John Rame. Richard none the less determined to strike terror
into the hearts of all who wavered in their allegiance. So both men were
beheaded at the Carfax. This done, the king busied himself in studying
the surrounding country, and made careful note of the city and castle.
The military strength of Rougemont pleased him, though the name did not.
A west country accent, some say, gave it a sound like Ridgemount, too
close an echo of his rival's title. The incident is referred to by
Shakespeare in these well-known lines:

  "Richmond! when I last was at Exeter,
  The mayor in courtesy showed me the castle,
  And called it Rougemont--at which name I started;
  Because a bard of Ireland told me once,
  I should not live long after I saw Richmond."

The castle was considerably injured a few years later when Perkin
Warbeck, at the head of his Cornishmen, attacked the city. The fight
seems to have been a long and furious one. The North Gate was burned,
and both there and at the East Gate the rebels were temporarily
successful. But after the Earl of Devon and his retinue came to the help
of the citizens the rebels were expelled and had to make their way to
Taunton, unsuccessful. Henry soon afterwards arrived bringing Perkin
Warbeck with him. By his clemency towards the rebels he created real
enthusiasm, so that the prisoners "hurled away their halters and cried
God Save the King."

By the time Charles I. came to the throne the castle was already showing
"gaping chinks and an aged countenance." Fairfax and his Roundheads
completed the ruin. But it was not war only which left the building as
we now see it. An ivy-covered gateway is all that remains. Yet from its
summit one has a fine view of the surrounding country, and can readily
understand of what strategical value its possession must have been in
"battles long ago."

[Illustration: ROUGEMONT CASTLE.
               Photochrom Co. Ltd. Photo.]

[Illustration: THE GUILDHALL, EXETER.
               The Photochrom Co. Photo.]

The hand of the reformer proved stronger than that of the victorious
captain. What war had failed to do enterprising citizens accomplished in
times of peace. About the year 1770 the city fathers seem to have been
animated by an unholy passion for destruction. Not only was the house of
the Earls of Bedford, a house full of historic and majestic memories,
pulled down, but the venerable fortress attracted attention. First a
gateway, then the chapel, later the castellan's house disappeared. New
assize courts, superlatively ugly, proudly rose in their stead. But even
then the zeal of the reformers was not satiated. "Ten years later the
Eastern Gate, with its two mighty flanking towers soaring over the
picturesque house on each side with its wide and lofty Tudor arch
spanning the road, its statue of Henry the Seventh, commemorating its
rebuilding after the siege by Perkin Warbeck--the gate which was heir to
that through which the conqueror made his way--all perished, to the
great satisfaction of the Exeter of that day; for 'a beautiful Vista was
opened from St. Sidwell's into the High Street, a very great and
necessary improvement.'" It is easy to share Professor Freeman's
indignation; less easy, unhappily, to persuade men of our own day to
deal kindly by the ancient monuments that are still left to us.

Another building that has played a notable part in the history of the
city is the #Guildhall#, of which the portico makes so pleasing an
ornament to the High Street. The building is a picturesque medley,
"English windows and Italian pillars," and Professor Freeman wittily
suggests that it serves to remind us of the jumble of tongues
characterizing "much of the law business that has been done within it."
The present building was built in 1464, replacing one of earlier date.
There are many pictures of local interest in the hall, and also
portraits by Sir Peter Lely of Princess Henrietta, Anne, Duchess of
Orleans, and of General Monk. The Princess was born in Exeter, and the
portrait was presented to the city by Charles II after the Restoration.
General Monk belonged to a Devonshire family whose residence was near
Torrington. There seems to have been at one time a guild or
confraternity connected with the chapel of St. George, erected over the
hall about the last year of Richard III. In the accounts are found
entries such as this: "Principae and others for exequis and masses said
in the chapel of Guildhall for the repose of the souls for the brothers
and sisters of the fraternity of St. George."

When Richard III was nearing the end of his reign, the roof was
fortified by a gun placed in charge of John Croker and ten soldiers. It
is a strange coincidence that the chapel should have been built at this
time. Evidently the wise citizens were determined to protect their
interests both here and hereafter.



DIMENSIONS.

  Internal length                383 ft.
  Nave, length                   140 ft.
    "   breadth (with aisles)     72 ft.
    "   height                    66 ft.
  Choir, length                  123 ft.
  Transept, length               140 ft.
  Area                    29,600 sq. ft.



INDEX


  Ambulatory, 61.

  Bell, great, 74.
  Bishops, list of, 83-89.
  Bishop's throne, 56.
  Blackall, Offspring, Bishop, 18.
  Brantyngham, Th., Bishop, 11.
  Bronscombe, Walter, Bishop, 4;
    his tomb, 66.
  Bruere, Wm., Bishop, 4, 8.
  Bytton, Thomas de, Bishop, 6, 78.

  Carew monument, 70.
  Chapels and Chantries:
    St. Andrew's, 61.
    St. Edmund's, 39.
    St. Gabriel's, 69.
    Holy Ghost, of the, 47.
    St. James', 59.
    St. John Baptist's, 44.
    Lady, 65.
    St. Mary Magdalen's, 69.
    Oldham's, 63.
    St. Paul's, 44.
    St. Radegunde's, 36.
    Speke's, 63.
    Sylke's, 44.
  Chapter House, 75.
  Choir, 52-61.
  Choir screen, 48.
  Choir stalls, 55.
  Clock, 44.
  Cloister, 75.
  Close, 78.
  Corbels and Bosses, 32, 35.
  Courtenay memorials, 40, 57.

  Dimensions, 96.
  Doddridge Tomb, 67.

  Font, 39.

  Gauden, John, Bishop, 16.
  Grandisson, John, Bishop, 10;
    his tomb, 38.
  Guildhall, 95.

  Hall, Joseph, Bishop, 16.

  Lacy, Edmund, Bishop, 12.
  Lady Chapel, 65.
  Lamplugh, Thomas, Bishop, 17.
  Lechlade, Walter de, Cantor, 6.
  Leofric, 1st Bishop, 3.
  Liber Exoniensis, 3.
  Library, Cathedral, 78.

  Marshall, Henry, Bishop, 4.
  Minstrels' gallery, 36.
  Misericords, 55.
  Monuments, nave, 39-43;
    transepts, 44, 47.

  Nave, interior, 31-43.
  Neville, George, Bishop, 14.

  Oldham, Hugh, Bishop, 15, 63.
  Organ, 52.

  Palace, 79.
  Porch, north, 24.
  Pulpits, 39, 59.

  Quivil, Peter, Bishop, 5;
    his tomb, 69.

  Radegunde, St., chapel of, 36.
  Reredos, 56.
  Richard III, at Exeter, 96.
  Roof, 24; interior, 32.
  Rougemont Castle, 91.

  Sedilia, 56-59.
  Simon de Apulia, Bishop, 4; his tomb, 67.
  Stafford, Edmund, Bishop, his tomb, 66.
  Stapledon, Walter de, Bishop, 7-10.
  Sylke, his chantry, 44.

  Tombs:
    Bradbridge, 71.
    Bronscombe, 66.
    Stafford, 66.
    Sir John and Lady Doddridge, 67.
    Iscanus. 67.
    Simon de Apulia, 67.
    Quivil, 69.
    Marshall, 71.
    Simcox, 74.
    Stapledon, 71.
  Towers, 23.
  Transept, North, 43; South, 44.
  Triforium, 35.

  Vault, 32.
  Vesey, John, Bishop, 15.

  Ward, Seth, Bishop, 17.
  Warelwast, Bishop, 3.
  West Front, 27-29.
  William III, at Exeter, 17.
  Window, East, 59.
  Windows of nave, 39-43; tracery, 36.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: PLAN OF EXETER CATHEDRAL
               From Britton's 'Antiquities of Exeter.'

               #REFERENCES TO PLAN.#

               A. B. West Doors.
                  C. The Nave.
               D. D. Nave Aisles.
                  E. Chapel of St. Edmund.
                  F. North Porch
                  G. Transept North (St. Paul's Tower).
                  H. Chapel of St. John the Baptist.
                  I. Canon's Vestry.
                  J. The Choir.
               K. K. Choir Aisles.
                  L. Syke's Chantry.
                  M. Chapel of St. James.
                  N. Chapel of St. George (Speke's Chantry).
                  O. Chapel of St. Saviour (Bishop Oldham's Chantry).
                  P. Lady Chapel.
                  Q. Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen.
                  R. Chapel of St. Gabriel.
                  T. Transept South (St. Peter's Tower).
                  U. Chapel of the Holy Ghost.
                  V. The Chapter House.
                  Y. St. Paul's Chapel (North Transept).
                  Z. St. Radegunde's Chapel.]

       *       *       *       *       *

    CHISWICK PRESS: CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND GRIGGS (PRINTERS), LTD.
                 TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *



           BELL'S CATHEDRAL SERIES


BANGOR. By P.B. IRONSIDE-BAX.
BRISTOL. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ, M.A. 2nd Edition.
CANTERBURY. By HARTLEY WITHERS. 9th Edition.
CARLISLE. By C.K. ELEY. 2nd Edition.
CHESTER. By CHARLES HIATT. 4th Edition.
CHICHESTER. By H.C. CORLETTE, A.R.I.B.A. 3rd Edition.
DURHAM. By J.E. BYGATE, A.R.C.A. 4th Edition.
ELY. By Rev. W.D. SWEETING, M.A. 5th Edition.
EXETER. By PERCY ADDLESHAW, B.A. 5th Edition, revised.
GLASGOW. By P. MACGREGOR CHALMERS.
GLOUCESTER. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ, M.A. 6th Edition.
HEREFORD. By A. HUGH FISHER, A.R.E. 2nd Edition, revised.
LICHFIELD. By A.B. CLIFTON. 3rd Edition, revised.
LINCOLN. By A.F. KENDRICK, B.A. 5th Edition.
LLANDAFF. By E.C. MORGAN-WILLMOTT, A.R.I.B.A.
MANCHESTER. By the Rev. T. PERKINS, M.A., F.R.A.S.
NORWICH. By C.H.B. QUENNELL. 2nd Edition, revised.
OXFORD. By Rev. PERCY DEARMER, M.A. 2nd Edition, revised.
PETERBOROUGH. By Rev. W.D. SWEETING, M.A. 4th Edition, revised.
RIPON. By CECIL HALLET, B.A. 2nd Edition.
ROCHESTER. By G.H. PALMER, B.A. 2nd Edition, revised.
ST. ALBANS. By Rev. T. PERKINS, M.A.
ST. ASAPH. By P.B. IRONSIDE-BAX.
ST. DAVID'S. By PHILIP ROBSON, A.R.I.B.A. 2nd Edition.
ST. PATRICK'S, DUBLIN. By the Rt. Rev. the BISHOP OF OSSORY, M.A. 2nd
  Edition.
ST. PAUL'S. By Rev. ARTHUR DIMOCK, M.A. 5th Edition, revised.
SALISBURY. By GLEESON WHITE. 6th Edition, revised.
SOUTHWARK, ST. SAVIOUR'S. By GEORGE WORLEY.
SOUTHWELL. By Rev. ARTHUR DIMOCK, M.A. 2nd Edition, revised.
WELLS. By Rev. PERCY DEARMER, M.A. 6th Edition, revised.
WINCHESTER. By P.W. SERGEANT. 4th Edition, revised.
WORCESTER. By EDWARD F. STRANGE. 3rd Edition.
YORK. By A. CLUTTON BROCK. 6th Edition.

          _Uniform with above Series._

BEVERLEY MINSTER. By CHARLES HIATT. 47 Illustrations. 3rd Edition.
THE CHURCHES OF COVENTRY. By FREDERIC W. WOODHOUSE.
ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH, CANTERBURY. By Rev. CANON ROUTLEDGE, M.A.,
  F.S.A. 24 Illustrations. 2nd Edition.
ST. MARY REDCLIFFE. BRISTOL. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ, M.A. _In the Press._
STRATFORD-ON-AVON. By HAROLD BAKER, 2nd Edition.
ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S, SMITHFIELD. By GEORGE WORLEY.
TEWKESBURY ABBEY AND DEERHURST PRIORY. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ,
  M.A. 44 Illustrations. 4th Edition.
WESTMINSTER ABBEY. By CHARLES HIATT. 4th Edition.
MALVERN PRIORY. By REV. ANTHONY DEANE.


       BELL'S HANDBOOKS TO CONTINENTAL CHURCHES.

  _Profusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. net each._

CHARTRES: The Cathedral and Other Churches. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ, M.A.
ROUEN: The Cathedral and Other Churches. By the Rev. T. PERKINS, M.A.
AMIENS. By the Rev. T. PERKINS, M.A., F.R.A S.
MONT ST. MICHEL. By H.J.L.J. MASSÉ, M.A.
BAYEUX. By the Rev. R.S. MYLNE, M.A.


LONDON: G. BELL AND SONS, LTD.





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