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Title: The Delta of the Triple Elevens - The History of Battery D, 311th Field Artillery US Army, - American Expeditionary Forces
Author: Bachman, William Elmer
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Delta of the Triple Elevens - The History of Battery D, 311th Field Artillery US Army, - American Expeditionary Forces" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's notes: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected
(e.g. gunnner for gunner), recurrent misspelling of the author haven't
(e.g. Montlucon for Montluçon, canvass for canvases, incidently for
incidentally, paraphanelia for paraphernalia, calesthenics for
calisthenic, etc...).

Chapter III: The word "by" has been changed to "from" (partially sheltered
         from the Southern sun).
Chapter XVII: The spelling of Sommbernont has been changed to Sombernon.
Chapter XX: The word casual has been changed to casualty
         (sent him home as a casualty).
Chapter XXV: It is not clear if the printed word is trained or roamed
         (where he last trained/roamed).

Cootie: Noun US: a head-louse (Macquarie Online Dictionnary - Book
        of slang).]

                              THE DELTA OF THE
                               TRIPLE ELEVENS

                               THE HISTORY OF

                      BATTERY D, 311th FIELD ARTILLERY
                             UNITED STATES ARMY,



                            WILLIAM ELMER BACHMAN

                           Standard-Sentinel Print
                                 Hazleton, Pa.

                               COPYRIGHT 1920


                            WILLIAM ELMER BACHMAN

[Illustration: GROUP PHOTO OF BATTERY D. 311th F. A.
Taken at Benoite Vaux, France, March 14, 1919. Reproduced from the
Official Photo taken by the Photographic Section of the Signal Corps,
U. S. A.]

                            The memory of our pals
                           whom we buried in France
                                 This Book
                                Is Dedicated

[Illustration: WILLIAM E. BACHMAN


Inducted into service at Hazleton, Penna., November 1st, 1917. Sent
to Camp Meade, Md., November 2nd, 1917, and assigned as Private to
Battery D, 311th Field Artillery. Received rank of Private First
Class, February 4th, 1918. Placed on detached service, May 18th, 1918,
and assigned as Battery Clerk, First Provisional Battery, Fourth
Officers' Training School, Camp Meade. Rejoined Battery D June 27th,
1918, and accompanied outfit to France. Assigned to attend Camouflage
School at Camp La Courtine, September 30th, 1918, and qualified as
artillery camouflager. On October 3rd, 1918, was registered, through
Major A. L. James. Jr., Chief G-2-D, G. H. Q., A. E. F., with the
American Press Section, 10 Rue St. Anne, Paris, which registration
carried grant to write for publication in the United States. Remained
with battery until March 7th, 1919, when selected to attend the
A. E. F. University, at Beaune, Cote D'Or. Rejoined battery at St.
Nazaire May 1st, 1919. Discharged at Camp Dix, N. J., June 4th, 1919.]


"You're in the Army now."

"So this is France!"

Oft I heard these phrases repeated as more and more the realization
dawned, first at Camp Meade, Md., and later overseas, that war seemed
mostly drudgery with only the personal satisfaction of doing one's
duty and that Sunny France was rainy most of the time.

The memory of Battery D, 311th U. S. F. A., will never fade in utter
oblivion in the minds of its members. 'Tis a strange fancy of nature,
however, gradually to forget many of the associations and
circumstances of sombre hue as the silver linings appear in our
respective clouds of life in greater radiance as each day finds us
drifting farther from ties of camp life.

Soldiers, who once enjoyed the comradeship of camp life, where they
made many acquaintances and mayhap friends, are now scattered in all
walks of civilian life. While their minds are yet alive with facts and
figures, time always effaces concrete absorptions. The time will come
when a printed record of Battery D will be a joyous reminder.

With these facts in mind I have endeavored to set forth a history of
the events of the battery and the names and addresses of those who

The records are true to fact and figure, being compilations of my
diaries, note-books and address album, all verified with utmost care
before publication.

In future years when the ex-service men and their friends glance over
this volume, if a moment of pleasant reminiscence is added, this book
will have fully served its purpose.

                                           WILLIAM ELMER BACHMAN,
1920.                                                 Hazleton, Penna.


An effort has been made in this volume to state as concisely and
clearly as possible the main events connected with the History of
Battery D.

To recount in print every specific incident connected with the life of
the organization, or to attempt a military biographical sketch of
every battery member, would require many volumes.

My soldier-comrade readers will, no doubt, recall many instances which
could have been included in this volume with marked appropriateness.

The selection of the material, however, has been with utmost
consideration and for the expressed purpose of having the complete
narrative give the non-military reader a general view of the
conditions and experiences that fell to the lot of the average unit in
the United States Army in service in this country and overseas.

Grateful acknowledgment is due to those who aided in the verification
of all material used. Many of the battery members made suggestions
that have been embodied in the text.

To A. Ernest Shafer, D. C., and Conrad A. Balliet, of Hazleton,
Penna., belongs credit for information supplied covering periods when
the author was on detached service from the battery. To Dr. Shafer
acknowledgment is also due for the use of photographs from which a
number of the illustrations have been reproduced.

From Prof. Fred H. Bachman, C. A. C., of Hazleton, Penna., who read
over the manuscript, many valuable suggestions were received.

                                                         W. E. B.
Hazleton, Penna., 1920.



     World Events--The Nucleus--Declaration of War. U. S.
     Joins--Selective Service Plans.


     Selection of Camp Meade Site--Cantonment Construction
     Building Progresses--Home Leaving Preparations.


     Officers at Fort Niagara--Assignment of Officers
     Barrack org.--New Soldiers Arrive.


     Description of Barracks--A Day's Routine--Getting
     Catalogued--Inoculations and Drills--Soldiers Arrive
     and Leave.


     First Non-Commissioned Personnel--Effects of
     Transfers--Schools--Hikes--Athletics--Idle Hours.


     Holiday Season Approaches--Thanksgiving Feast Practice
     Marches--Barrack 0103--Christmas 1917.


     Stable Police--Inspections--Staff Changes.


     Formal Retreat--Quarantine--Celebration--Rumors. Baltimore
     Parade--West Elkridge Hike.


     Getting Ready--Advance Detail--Departure.


     Set-Sailing--Coastland Appears--Halifax Harbor--Convoy


     Ocean Journey Starts--Transport Life--Sub Scares. Destroyers
     Delayed--Battle With Subs.


     Barry, South Wales--Parade--His Majesty's Letter. English
     Rail Journey.


     Crowded Tenting--English Mess--A Rainy Hike. Off for
     Southampton--Flight Across the Channel.


     Cherbourg--A Battery Bath--Side-Door Pullmans. Montmorillon.


     Racial Difficulties--French Billets--Impressions. The


     To La Courtine--French Artillery Camp--Russian Revolt--Life
     on the Range--Sickness--Casualties.


     November 7th--November 11th--Celebration--Farewell
     Banquet--Ville Sous La Ferte--Fuel Details--Delayed Departure.


     Mud and Rats--Historic Monteclair--Thanksgiving 1918--Candle
     Mystery--Sick Horses Arrive.


     Belgian Trip Proposed--100 Volunteers--Remount 13--Convoying
     Mules--Christmas 1918.


     Anxious to Join Division--First Service Stripe--A. E. F. Leave
     Centers--Mounted Hikes--Overland to Benoite Vaux.


     Two Battery Mascots--Battalion and Regimental Shows--Division
     and Corps Shows--More Personnel Changes--Maneuvres--More
     Sickness and Casualties.


     Boncourt--Cirey les Mareilles--Divisional Review. Camp
     Montoir--St. Nazaire--Edward Luckenbach--New York--Camp


     Story of the Seventy-Ninth Divisional Insignia.


     Names of Those Who Died and Graves Where Buried.


     Tribute to Private First Class Joseph A. Loughran.


     In Memory of Departed Comrades.


     First Commissioned and Non-Commissioned Personnel.


     Complete List of Officers Associated With the Battery.


     List of Names That Comprised the Sailing List of the U. S. S.
     Edward Luckenbach.


     Those Who Gained Commissions--List of Men Transferred to Other


     A Few Battery Reflections.


     Messages From Several of the Officers.


     Calendar of Battery's Eventful Dates.


Group Photo of Battery D

William Elmer Bachman

Albert L. Smith

David A. Reed

Perry E. Hall

Sidney F. Bennett

C. D. Bailey

Frank J. Hamilton

Third Class French Coach

Side-Door Pullman Special

Interior of French Box Car

A Real American Special

Montmorillon Station

Montmorillon Street Scene

Entrance to Camp La Courtine

American Y. M. C. A. at Camp La Courtine

A Battery D Kitchen Crew

Group of Battery D Sergeants

Battery D on the Road

Aboard The Edward Luckenbach

At Bush Terminal

Serving Battery Mess Along the Road

Battery D on the Road

Lorraine Cross

Joseph A. Loughran

Cemetery at La Courtine

Horace J. Fardon

Grave of William Reynolds

Barrack at Camp La Courtine



Official records in the archives of the War Department at Washington
will preserve for future posterity the record of Battery D, of the
311th United States Field Artillery.

In those records there is written deep and indelibly the date of May
30th, 1919, as the date of Battery D's official demobilization. The
history of Battery D, therefore, can be definitely terminated, but a
more difficult task is presented in establishing a point of inception.

The development of Battery D was gradual--like a tiny stream, flowing
on in its course, converging with the 311th Regimental, 154th Brigade,
and 79th Division tides until it reached the sea of war-tossed Europe;
there to flow and ebb; finally to lose its identity in the ocean of
official discharge.

The Egyptians of old traversed the course of their river Nile, from
its indefinite sources along the water-sheds of its plateaux and
mountains, and, upon arriving at its mouth they found a tract of land
enclosed by the diverging branches of the river's mouth and the
Mediterranean seacoast, and traversed by other branches of the river.
This triangular tract represented the Greek letter "Delta," a word
which civilization later adopted as a coinage of adequate description.

Fine silt, brought down in suspension by a muddy river and deposited
to form the Delta when the river reaches the sea, accumulates from
many sources.

In similar light the silt of circumstances that resulted in the
formation of the Delta of the Triple Elevens, accumulated from many
sources, the very nucleus transpiring on June 28, 1914, when the heir
to the Austrian throne, the archduke of Austria, and his wife, were
assassinated at Sarajevo, in the Austrian province of Bosnia, by a
Serbian student.

Austria immediately demanded reparation from Serbia. Serbia declared
herself willing to accede to all of Austria's demands, but refused to
sacrifice her national honor. Austria thereby took the pretext to
renew a quarrel that had been going on for centuries.

Long diplomatic discussions resulted--culminating on July 28, 1914,
with a declaration of war by Austria against Serbia. This, so to
speak, opened the flood-gates, letting loose the mighty river of blood
and slaughter that flowed over all Europe.

The days that followed added new sensations and thrills to
every life. The river of war flowed nearer our own peaceful shores as
the days passed and the news dispatches brought us the intelligence of
Germany's declaration of relentless submarine warfare and the
subsequent announcement of the United States' diplomatic break with

Momentum was gained as reports of disaster and wilful acts followed
with increasing rapidity. The sinking of American vessels disclosed a
ruthlessness of method that was gravely condemned in President
Wilson's message of armed-neutrality, only to be followed by acts of
more wilful import--finally evoking the proclamation, April 6, 1917,
declaring a state of war in existence between the United States and
the Imperial German government.

Clear and loud war's alarm rang throughout the United States. All
activity centered in the selection of a vast army to aid in the great
fight for democracy. Plans were promulgated with decision and
preciseness. On June 5th, 1917, ten millions of Americans between the
ages of 21 and 31 years, among the number being several hundred who
were later to become associated with Battery D, of the 311th F. A.,
registered for military service.

The war department issued an order, July 13, 1917, calling into
military service 678,000 men, to be selected from the number who
registered on June 5th. Days of conjecture followed. Who would be
called first?

July 20th brought forth the greatest lottery of all time. The drawing
of number 258 by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker started the list of
selective drawings to determine the order of eligibility of the young
men in the 4,557 selective districts in the United States.

War's preparations moved rapidly. Selective service boards, with due
deliberation, made ready for the organization of the selective
contingents. While the boards toiled and the eligible young men went
through the process of examination, resulting in acceptance or
rejection, officials of the war department were planning the camps.

Battery D and the 311th Field Artillery were in the stages of
organization but plans of military housing had to mature before the
young men who were to form the organization, could be inducted into
service, thereby bringing to official light The Delta of the Triple



On that eventful day in 1914, when the war clouds broke over Europe,
the farmers of Anne Arundel county, Maryland, in the then peaceful
land of the United States, toiled with their ploughshares under the
glisten of the bright sun; content with their lot of producing more
than half of the tomato crop of the country; content to harvest their
abundant crops of strawberries and cucumbers and corn, to say nothing
of the wonderful orchards of apples and pears, and not forgetting the
wild vegetation of sweet potatoes.

The peaceful, pastoral life in the heart of Maryland, however, was
destined to be disturbed. A vast American army was needed and the vast
army, then in the process of organization, needed an abode for
training. Battery D and the 311th Field Artillery was organized on
paper soon after the call for 678,000 selected service men was decided
upon. The personnel of the new organization was being determined by
the selective service boards. Officers to command the organization
were under intensive instruction at Fort Niagara, New York. All that
was needed to bring the organization into official military being was
a point of concentration.

The task of locating sites for the sixteen army cantonments, decreed
to birth throughout the United States, presented many difficulties.
What could be more natural, however, than the fertile farm lands of
Anne Arundel county, almost within shadow of the National Capital, to
be selected as the site of a cantonment to be named after General
George Gordon Meade?

Territory in the immediate vicinity of Admiral and Disney was the
ideal selection: ideal because the territory is only eighteen miles
from Baltimore, the metropolis of the South; one hundred miles from
Philadelphia, the principal city of the State which was to furnish
most of the recruits; and twenty-two miles from Washington, the
Capital of the Nation.

Situated between the heart of the South and the heart of the Nation,
Camp Meade is easily accessible by rail. Ease of access through
mail-line facilities, was a necessity for transportation of building
materials and supplies before and during construction. The same
facilities furnished the transportation for the large bodies of troops
that were sent to and from the camp; also assured the cantonment its
daily supply of rations.

Admiral Junction furnished adequate railroad yard for the camp.
The Baltimore and Ohio railroad station is at Disney, about one-half
mile west of Admiral; while the Pennsylvania Railroad junction on the
main line between Baltimore and Washington is at Odenton, about one
and one-half miles east of Admiral. Naval Academy Junction is near
Odenton and is the changing point on the electric line between the two
chief cities. The magic-like upbuild of the cantonment, moreover, was
the signal for the extension of the electric line to encircle the very
center of the big military city, thus adding an additional link of

Camp Meade having been officially decided upon as the home of the 79th
Division, a sanitary engineer, a town planner, and an army officer,
representing the commanding general, were named to meet on the ground,
where they inspected the location, estimated its difficulties, and
then proceeded to make a survey in the quickest way possible, calling
upon local engineers for assistance and asking for several railroad
engineering corps.

The town-planner, or landscape architect, then drew the plans for the
cantonment, laying it out to conform with the topography of the
location and taking into consideration railroad trackage, roads,
drainage, and the like. Given the site it was the job of the
town-planner to distribute the necessary buildings and grounds of a
typical cantonment as shown in type plans.

The general design for the camp was prepared by Harlan P. Kelsey, of
"city beautiful" fame, who was one of the experts called on by the war
department to aid the government in the emergency of preparing for

After the town-planner came Major Ralph F. Proctor, of Baltimore, Md.,
who on July 2nd, 1917, as constructing quartermaster, look charge of
the task of building the cantonment. Standing on the porch of a little
frame-house situated on a knoll, set in the midst of a pine forest,
Major Proctor gave the order that set saw and axe in motion; saws and
axes manned by fifteen thousand workmen, consecrated to the task of
throwing up a war-time city in record time.

Chips flew high and trees were felled and soon the knoll belched forth
a group of buildings, fringed by the pine of the forest--to be
dedicated as divisional headquarters--around which, with speed
none-the-less magic-like, land encircling was cleared and buildings
and parade grounds sprang up in quick succession.

The dawn of September month saw over one thousand wooden barracks
erected on the ground, most of which were spacious enough to provide
sleeping quarters for about two hundred and fifty men; also hundreds
of other buildings ready to be occupied for administrative purposes.

While workmen of all trades diligently plied their hands to the work
of constructing the cantonment, hundreds of young men were getting
ready to leave their homes on September 5th, as the van-guard of the
40,000 who were in the course of time to report to Camp Meade for
military duty. The cantonment, however, was not fully prepared to
receive them and while the first contingent of Battery D men were
inducted into service on September 5th, the cantonment was not deemed
sufficiently ready to receive them until almost two weeks later.

[Illustration: *CAPT. ALBERT L. SMITH*]


Discharged from the National Guard of Pennsylvania, First Troop,
Philadelphia City Cavalry, after seven years of service, to enter
First Officers' Training Camp at Camp Niagara, N. Y., May 8th, 1917.
Commissioned Captain, Field Artillery Reserve, August 15th, 1917, and
ordered to report to Camp Meade, Md., August 29th, 1917. Placed in
command of Battery D, 311th Field Artillery. Accompanied battery to
France and remained with outfit until ordered to Paris on temporary
duty in the Inspector General's Department, February, 1919. Rejoined
regiment to become Regimental Adjutant May 6th, 1919. Discharged at
Camp Dix, N. J., May 30th, 1919.]



At Fort Niagara, situated on the bleak shores of the River Niagara,
New York State, the nucleus of the first commissioned personnel of
Battery D assembled, after enlistment, during the month of May, 1917,
and began a course of intensive training at the First Officers'
Training School, finally to be commissioned on August 15th in the
Field Artillery Reserve.

On August 13th, pursuant to authority contained in a telegram from the
Adjutant General of the Army, a detachment of the Reserve Officers
from the Second Battery at Fort Niagara were ordered to active duty
with the New National Army, proceeding to and reporting in person not
later than August 29th to the Commanding General, Camp Meade, for

A day's brief span after their arrival at Camp Meade--while the
officers, who were the first of the new army units on the scene of
training, were busily engaged in dragging their brand new camp
paraphernalia over the hot sands of July-time Meade,--the dirt and
sand mingling freely with the perspiration occasioned by the broiling
sun,--to their first assigned barracks in B block, an order arrived on
August 30th, assigning the officers to the various batteries,
headquarters, supply company, or regimental staff of the 311th Field
Artillery, that was to be housed in O block of the cantonment.

Captain Albert L. Smith, of Philadelphia, Pa., was placed in command
of Battery D. Other assignments to Battery D included: First
Lieutenant Arthur H. McGill, of New Castle, Pa.; Second Lieutenant
Hugh M. Clarke, of Pittsburgh, Pa.; Second Lieutenant Robert S.
Campbell, of Pittsburgh, Pa.; Second Lieutenant Frank F. Yeager, of
Philadelphia, Pa.; Second Lieutenant Frank J. Hamilton, of
Philadelphia, Pa.; Second Lieutenant Berkley Courtney, of Fullerton,

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles G. Mortimer was placed in command of the
regiment on August 28, 1917. He remained in command until January 17,
1918, when Colonel Raymond W. Briggs was assigned as regimental
commander. Both are old army men and were well trained for the post of
command. On March 31st, Col. Briggs, who had been in France and
returned to take command of the 311th, was again relieved of command,
being transferred to another outfit to prepare for overseas duty a
second time. Lieut. Col. Mortimer had charge until June 10th,
1918, when he was promoted to Colonel, remaining in command
until the regiment was mustered out of service.

Major David A. Reed, of Pittsburgh, Pa., was placed in command of the
2nd Battalion of the 311th at organization and remained with the
outfit until put on detached service in France after the signing of
the armistice. Major Herbert B. Hayden, a West Point cadet, was
assigned to the command of the 1st Battalion of the regiment. When
time to depart for overseas came he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel
of the regiment. Capt. Wood, of Battery A, was made Major of the 1st
Battalion and First-Lieut. Arthur McGill, of Battery D, was placed in
command of Battery A. Later he was given the rank of captain.

Major-General Joseph E. Kuhn was commanding officer of the 79th
Division and Brigadier General Andrew Hero, Jr., commanded the 154th
Field Artillery Brigade.

"O" block, in the plan of Camp Meade, was designated as the training
center of the 311th Field Artillery and barrack No. 19 was the shelter
selected for Battery D.

Barrack 019 was situated in a small glade of trees which fringed the
edge of the horse-shoe curve that the general plan of cantonment
construction assumed. The spurs of the great horse-shoe were at Disney
and Admiral. The blocks of regimental areas starting at Disney,
designated by A block, followed the horse-shoe, encircling at the base
hospital in alphabetical designation. "N" and "O" blocks nestled in a
glade of trees, partially sheltered from the Southern sun, just around
the bend in the curve of the road from the base-hospital. "Y" block
formed the other end of the spur at Admiral--while divisional
headquarters rested on the knoll in the center of the horse-shoe.

It was at "O" block the newly assigned officers established themselves
and made ready to receive the first influx of the selected personnel.
Blankets and cots and barrels and cans and kitchen utensils began to
arrive by the truck load and the officers in feverish haste divided
the blankets, put up as many cots as they could, and established some
semblance of order in the mess hall. They were pegging diligently at
their tasks when the first troop trains pulled in at Disney on
September 19th and unloaded the first detachment of future soldiers.

Scenes of home-leaving and farewells to the home-folks and loved ones,
which first transpired on September 19th, to be repeated with
similarity as subsequent quotas of recruits entrained for military
service, were of too sacred a nature to attempt an adequate

What might have been the thoughts of the individual at the breaking of
home-ties and during the long, tiresome railroad journey to Camp
Meade, were buried deep in the heart, to be cherished as a future
memory only. Personal griefs were hidden as those seven hundred young
men in civilian clothes stepped from the train at Disney, grasped
their suit case, box, or bundle, firmly and set out on the mile and a
quarter hike through the camp--past divisional headquarters;
perspiring freely under the heat of the setting sun. It was with an
appearance of carelessness and humor they jaunted along, singing at
times, "You're in the Army Now"--finally to breast the rise of the
hill previous to "O" block, the descent thereof which was to mark the
first stage of their transformation from civilian to soldier.

Descent of the hill lead down to a sandy square in front of a long
building that housed regimental headquarters. After, what seemed like
hours to the recruits lined-up, roll of the seven hundred was called,
divisions made, and the first quota of Battery D was marched to 019.

[Illustration: *MAJOR DAVID A. REED*


Enlisted in the service of the United States Army, May 11th, 1917,
and received commission as Major at the First Officers' Training Camp,
Fort Niagara. N. Y. Was ordered to Camp Meade. Md., August 29th, 1917,
and placed in command of the Second Battalion, 311th Field Artillery.
Accompanied the outfit to France. On detached service with the
Interallied Armistice Commission, Spa, Belgium, from November 20th,
1918, to February 1st, 1919. Was awarded the French Legion of Honor
medal April 4th, 1919. Discharged February 26th, 1919. Got commission
as Lieutenant-Colonel in the Field Artillery Reserve, August 6th,



Iron-bound was the rule. You couldn't escape it. Every selected man
who entered Camp Meade had to submit. Of course, the new recruits were
given a dinner shortly after their arrival--but not without first
taking a bath.

019, like all the other barracks of the cantonment, was a wooden
structure, 150 x 50 feet, two stories in height. Half of the first
floor housed the kitchen and dining hall while the remainder of the
building was given over to sleeping quarters, with the exception of a
corner set apart as the battery office and supply room--a most
business-like place, from which the soldier usually steered shy,
unless he wanted something, or had a kick to register about serving as
K. P., or on some other official detail when he remembered having done
a turn at the said detail just a few days previous.

The rows of army cots and army blankets presented a different picture
to the new soldier at first appearance, in comparison to the snug bed
room, with its sheets and comfortables, that remained idle back home.
The first night's sleep, however, was none-the-less just, the same
Camp Meade cot furnishing the superlative to latter comparisons when a
plank in a barn of France felt good to weary bones.

Before rolling-in the first night every one was made acquainted with
reveille, but no one expected to be awakened in the middle of the
night by the bugle calling, "I Can't Get 'Em Up, etc., etc." Could it
be a mistake? No, indeed, it was 5:15 a. m., and the soldier was
summoned to roll-out and prepare for his first real day as a soldier.

"Get dressed in ten minutes and line up outside in battery-front for
roll call," was the first order of the day. Then followed a few
precious moments for washing up in the Latrine, which was a large bath
house connected with the barrack.

Before the call, "Come and Get It" was sounded the more ambitious of
the recruits folded their blankets and tidied up their cots. When mess
call was sounded but few had to be called the second time.

The hour of 7:30 was set for the day's work to begin, the first
command of which was "Outside, and Police-Up." In the immediate
vicinity of the battery area there was always found a multitude of
cigarette butts, match stems, chewing gum wrappers, and what not, and
the place had to be cleaned up every morning. If Battery D had
saved all the "snips" and match stems they policed-up and placed them
end by each the Atlantic could have been spanned and the expense of
the Steamship Morvada probably saved.

The first few weeks of camp life were not strenuous in the line of
military routine. Detail was always the long-suit at Camp Meade.
During the first few days at camp if the new recruit was lucky enough
to be off detail work, the time was usually employed in filling out
qualification cards, identification cards; telling your family
history; making application for government insurance; subscribing to
Liberty bonds; telling what you would like to be in the army; where
you wanted your remains shipped; getting your finger-prints taken, and
also getting your first jab in the arm which gave the first insight
into a typhoid inoculation.

When a moment of ease presented itself during the life
examination--the supply sergeant got busy and started to hand out what
excess supplies he had and, in the matter of uniforms, of which there
was always an undercess, measurements were taken with all the
exactness and precision befitting a Fifth Avenue tailoring
establishment. Why measurements were ever taken has ever remained a
mystery, because almost every soldier can remember wearing his
civilian clothes thread-bare by the time the supply sergeant was able
to snatch up a few blouses and trousers at the quartermasters. And
these in turn were passed out to the nearest fits. It was a case of
line-up and await your turn to try and get a fit, but a mental fit
almost always ensued in the game of line-up for this and line-up for
that in the army.

After being enmeshed in such a coil of red tape all of one whole day,
5 o'clock sounded Retreat, when instruction was given on how to stand
at ease; how to assume the position of "parade-rest"; then, to snap
into attention.

Evening mess was always a joyful time, as was the evening, when the
soldier was free to visit the Y. M. C. A. and later the Liberty
Theatre, or partake of the many other welfare activities that
developed in the course of time. From the first day, however, 9:45 p.
m. was the appointed hour that called to quarters, and taps at 10
o'clock each night sounded the signal for lights out and everybody in

The inoculations were three in number, coming at ten day intervals.
When it came time for the second "jab", the paper work was well under
way and the call was issued for instruction on the field of drill
to begin. Many a swollen arm caused gentle memories as part of each
day was gradually being given over to, first calesthenics, then to a
knowledge of the school of the soldier. The recruit was taught the
correct manner of salute, right and left face, about face, and double

Newly designated sergeants and corporals were conscripted to the task
of squad supervision and many exasperating occasions arose when a
recruit got the wrong "foots" in place and was commanded to "change
the foots."

Meals for the first contingent of pioneer recruits ranged from rank to
worse, until the boys parted company with their French civilian cooks
and set up their own culinary department with Sergeant Joseph A.
Loughran, of Hazleton. Pa., in charge. August H. Genetti and Edward
Campbell, both of Hazleton. Pa.; George Musial, of Miners Mills, Pa.,
and Charles A. Trostel, of Scranton, Pa., were installed as the
pioneer cooks. By this mess change the soldiers who arrived in later
contingents were served more on the American plan of cooking.

On September 21st, 1917, came the second section of the selected
quotas, bringing more men to Battery D. Their reception varied little
from the first contingent's, with the exception that the first arrived
soldiers were on the ground to offer all kinds of advice--some of the
advice almost scaring the new men stiff.

The future contingents were greeted with a more completed camp,
because the construction work was continued many weeks after the
soldiers began to arrive. And, in passing, it might be recorded, that
the construction work continued long after the contractors finished
their contracts. Military-like it was done by "detail."

On October 4th and 5th more recruits arrived and then on November 2nd
another large contingent arrived and was assigned to Battery D. This
was the last selected quota to be received directly into the regiment,
for, thereafter, the Depot Brigade received all the newly selected

Almost all of the recruits of the first few contingents, including the
delegation that arrived on November 2nd, came from Eastern
Pennsylvania, from the Hazleton, Scranton, and Wilkes-Barre districts
of the Middle Anthracite Coal Fields. The delegation that arrived on
November 2nd was accompanied by St. Ann's Band, of Freeland, Pa. The
band remained in camp over the week-end, during which time a
number of concerts were rendered. The band was highly praised for its
interest and patriotism.

All the men originally assigned to Battery D were not to remain with
the organization throughout their military life. On October 15th,
1917, Battery D lost about half of its members in a quota of 500 of
the regiment who were transferred to Camp Gordon, Georgia. On November
5th, two hundred more were transferred from the regiment and on
February 5th, seventy-two left to join the Fifth Artillery Brigade at
Camp Leon Springs, Texas.

The latter part of May Battery D received a share of 931 recruits sent
to the regiment from the 14th Training Battalion of the 154th Depot
Brigade at Camp Meade. On July 2nd and 3rd, one hundred and fifty more
came to the regiment from the Depot Brigade; 540 from Camp Dix, N. J.,
and Camp Upton, N. Y.; fifty from the aviation fields of the South;
and a quota from the Quartermaster Corps in Florida.

Many of these did not remain long with the battery. In the latter part
of June and the beginning of July the battery was reduced to nearly
one-half and the March replacement draft to Camp Merritt took
thirty-two picked men from the regiment. This ended the transfers.
While in progress, the transfers rendered the regiment like unto a
Depot Brigade. Over four thousand men passed through the regiment,
five hundred of the number passing through Battery D.



"Dress it up!"


"Make it snappy!"

"One, two, three, four."

"Now you've got it!"

"That's good. Hold it!"


Battery D had lots of "pep" during the days of Camp Meade regime.

First Sergeant William C. Thompson, of Forest, Mississippi, kept
things lively for the first few months with his little whistle,
followed by the command, "Outside!"

Merrill C. Liebensberger, of Hazleton, Penna., served as the first
supply sergeant of the battery. David B. Koenig, also of Hazleton,
Penna., ranking first as corporal and later as sergeant, was kept busy
with office work, acting in the capacity of battery clerk. Lloyd E.
Brown, of East Richmond, Indiana, served as the first instrument
sergeant of the battery. John M. Harman, of Hazleton, Penna., was the
first signal-sergeant to be appointed.

It might be remarked in passing that Messrs. Thompson, Liebensberger,
and Harman were destined for leadership rank. Before the outfit sailed
for overseas all three had gained application to officers' training
schools, and were, in the course of time, commissioned as lieutenants.
Battery Clerk Koenig continued to serve the outfit in an efficient
manner throughout its sojourn in France. Instrument-Sergeant Brown
early in 1918 answered a call for volunteers to go to France with a
tank corps. While serving abroad he succumbed to an attack of
pneumonia and his body occupies a hero's resting place in foreign

A wonderful spirit was manifested in the affairs of Battery D despite
the fact that the constant transfer of men greatly hampered the work
of assembling and training a complete battery for active service in
France. Men who spent weeks in mastering the fundamentals of the
soldier regulations were taken from the organization, to be replaced
by civilians, whereby the training had to start from the
beginning. This caused many changes in plans, systems, and policies.
Rejections were also made for physical disabilities.

For the greater part of the Camp Meade history of the battery, the
organization lacked sufficient men to perform all the detail work.
Thus days and days passed without any military instruction being

Instruction in army signalling by wigwag and semaphore was started
whenever a squad or two could be spared from the routine of detail.
Then followed instruction on folding horse blankets, of care of horses
and harness, and lessons in equitation, carried out on barrels and

Stables and corrals were in the course of construction. By the time
snow made its appearance in November horses were received, also more

First lessons in the duties of gun-crews and driving squads were also
attempted. Matériel was a minus quantity for a long time, wooden
imitations sufficing for guns until several 3.2's were procured for
the regiment. Later on the regiment was furnished with five 3-inch
U. S. field pieces. Training then assumed more definite form. For
weeks and weeks the gun crews trained without any prospects of ever
getting ammunition and firing actual salvos.

Learning to be a soldier also developed into a process of going to
school. Men were assigned to attend specialty classes. Schools were
established for gunners, schools for snipers, schools for
non-commissioned officers. Here it might be stated that the first
non-coms envied the buck-privates when it came to attending
non-commissioned officers' school one night a week when all the bucks
were down enjoying the show at the Y hut or the Liberty Theatre.

Schools were started for all kinds of special and mechanical duty men;
schools to teach gas-defense; buzzer schools; telephone schools;
smoke-bomb and hand-grenade courses; and map-reading and sketching
schools. Sergeant Earl H. Schleppy, of Hazleton, Penna., who assisted
in the battery office work before he was appointed supply-sergeant,
developed extra lung capacity while the various schools were in
progress. It became his duty to assemble the diverse classes prior to
the start of instruction. He was kept busy yelling for the soldiers to
assemble for class work.

It soon developed in the minds of the men that war-time military life
was mostly drudgery with only the personal satisfaction of doing
one's duty. Hardships and drudgery, however, did not mar the
ambition of the soldier for recreation. Baltimore and Washington were
nearby and passes were in order every Saturday to visit these cities.

Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, during the first few months of camp
life, were off-periods for the soldiers, but later Wednesday afternoon
developed as an afternoon of sport and the men took keen interest in
the numerous athletic interests which were promoted.

On Tuesday, November 6th, a half-holiday was proclaimed and Election
Day observed throughout the camp. The soldiers who availed themselves
of the opportunity of marking the complicated soldier ballot that was
provided, cast the last vote, in many instances, until after their
official discharge.

Daily hikes were on the program in the beginning to develop a hardness
of muscle in the new soldiers. Lieut. Robert Campbell was in charge of
the majority of the daily hikes at the off-set. His hobby was to hike
a mile then jaunt a mile. When it came to long distant running Lieut.
Campbell was on the job. He made many a soldier sweat in the attempt
to drag along the hob-nailed field shoes on a run. Hikes later were
confined to Wednesday afternoon.

Battery D always put up a good showing in the numerous athletic
contests. On Saturday, November 10th, the Battery won the second
banner in the Inter-Battalion Meet; in celebration of which a parade
and demonstration was held on the afternoon of the victory day.

Music was not lost sight of. The boys of Battery D collected the sum
of $175 for the purchase of a piano for barrack 019. Phil Cusick, of
Parsons, Penna., was the one generally sought out to keep the ivories
busy. November 19th witnessed the first gathering together of the
regiment on the parade grounds for a big song fest under the
leadership of the divisional music director. Battery and battalion
song jubilees were conducted at intervals in the O block Y hut.



Towering like a giant over the uniform type of barrack and buildings
at Camp Meade, stood a large observation tower, situated on what was
known as the "plaza," the site of divisional headquarters. A general
panorama from this tower was an inspiring sight. Radiating from the
plaza, extending for several miles in any direction the gaze was
focused, there appeared the vista of the barracks of the troops
together with the sectional Y. M. C. A.'s canteens, stables, corrals
and other supply and administration buildings; also the interposing,
spacious drill fields.

The beauty of this scene was enhanced by the mantle of snow that often
garbed it during the winter mouths. To see a city of 40,000 in such
uniformity as marked the cantonment construction; with its buildings
covered with snow; the large drill fields spread with a blanket of
snow; and, a snow storm raging--is a tonic for any lover of nature.

On the night of Wednesday, November 28th, the first snow greeted the
new soldiers at Camp Meade. The ground, robed in white, breathed the
spirit of the approaching holiday season. The coming of Thanksgiving
found discussion in 019 centered on the subject of passes to visit

On November 24th fifteen of D battery men were granted forty-eight
hour leaves and departed for their respective homes. All the officers
remained in camp and planned with the men to enjoy the holiday.

The Thanksgiving dinner enjoyed by Battery D was one never to be
forgotten in army life. Mess-Sergeant Al Loughran and the battery
cooks, ably championed by the K. P.'s, worked hard for the success of
the Thanksgiving battery dinner. Battalion and battery officers dined
with the men, the noon-mess being attendant by the following menu:

                          Oyster Cocktail
Snowed Potatoes            Roast Turkey                Turkey Filling
      Cranberry Sauce            Celery                  Peas
        Oranges     Apples     Candy       Cake       Nuts
                Bread        Butter       Coffee
                            Mince Pie
                  Cigarettes          Cigars

Sweet dreams of this dinner often haunted the boys when
"bully-beef" was the mainstay day after day many times during the
sojourn in France.

After the dinner officers and battery members adjourned to the second
floor of the barrack where battery talent furnished an entertainment,
consisting of instrumental and vocal numbers and winding up with
several good boxing bouts. Barney McCaffery, of Hazleton, Penna., a
professional pugilist, was the pride of the battery in the ring.

Corporal Frank McCabe, of Parsons, Penna., was one of the real
comedians of the battery. His character impersonations enlivened many
an evening in 019. Every member of the outfit was deeply grieved when
Corporal McCabe was admitted to the base-hospital the latter part of
January, suffering with heart trouble. On January 24th at 8:20 p. m.,
Corporal McCabe died. This first casualty of the battery struck a note
of sympathetic appeal among the battery members. A guard of honor from
the battery accompanied the body to Parsons where interment was made
with military honors.

After Thanksgiving Battery D settled down to an intensive schedule of
instruction. Days of rain, snow, and zero weather followed, making the
routine very disagreeable at times, but never acting as a demoralizer.
Days that could not be devoted to out-door work were used to advantage
for the schedule of lecture periods during which the officers
conducted black board drills to visualize many of the problems
connected with artillery work.

On December 6th, 1917, a series of regimental practice marches were
instituted, first on foot, then on mount. The first mounted marches,
however, were rather sore-ending affairs, as were the first lessons in
equitation. Saddles and bridles were lacking as equipment for many
weeks after the receipt of the horses. Mounted drill, riding
bare-back, with nothing but a halter chain as a bridle, was the
initiatory degree of Battery D's equitation.

Barrack 0103, about half the size and situated in the rear of 019, was
completed on December 19th, when a portion of Battery D men were
quartered in the new structure, thereby relieving the congestion in

Christmas and New Year's of 1917 furnished another controversy on the
question of holiday furloughs. On Saturday, December 15th, inspection
was called off and forty men were detailed to bring more horses
from the Remount station for use in the battery. The detail completed
its task faithfully, the men being happy in the thought that,
according to instructions, they had, the night previous, made
application for Christmas passes. Gloom greeted the end of the day's
horse convoy. Announcement was made that all Christmas pass orders had
been rescinded in the camp.

The gloom was not shattered until December 20th, when announcement was
made at retreat formation that half of the battery would be allowed
Christmas passes and the other half would be given furloughs over New
Year's Day. The loudest yell that ever greeted the "dismissed" command
at the close of retreat, rent the atmosphere at that time.

More disappointments were in store for the boys before their dreams of
a furlough home were realized. Saturday, December 22nd, was decreed a
day of martial review at Camp Meade. Secretary of War Newton D. Baker
visited the cantonment that day and the review was staged in his
honor. Battery D formed with the regiment on the battery street in
front of 019 at 1:20 o'clock on the afternoon of the review. The
ground was muddy and slushy. The regiment stood in formation until
3:15 o'clock when the march to pass the reviewing stand started. At
4:30 o'clock the review formation was dismissed and the boys dashed
back to 019 to get ready to leave on their Christmas furloughs.

It was a happy bunch that left 019 at 5:15 p. m. that day, under the
direction of Lieut. Berkley Courtney, bound for the railroad station
and home. An hour later the same bunch were seen trudging back to 019.
Their happiness had suddenly taken wing. A mix-up in train schedules
left them stranded in camp for the night, while the hours of their
passes slowly ticked on, to be lost to their enjoyment.

The "get-away" was successfully effected the next morning, Sunday,
December 23rd, when the same contingent marched to Disney, reaching
the railroad yard at 7:30 o'clock, where they were doomed to wait
until 9:15 a. m. until the train left for Baltimore.

More favorable train connections fell to the lot of the New Year's
sojourners to the land of "home."



"This is some job."

And the opinion was unanimous when stable detail at Camp Meade was in
question, especially during the winter of 1917-18, which the Baltimore
weather bureau recorded as the coldest in 101 years. Stable detail at
first consisted of five "buck" privates, whose duty it was to take
care of "Kaiser," "Hay-Belly," and all the other battery horses for a
period of three days.

When on stable detail you arose at 5:45 a. m.; quietly dressed,
without lights, went to the stables and breakfasted the animals. If
you were a speed artist you might get back in time for your own

After breakfast you immediately reported to the stable-sergeant, who
was Anthony Fritzen, of Scranton, Penna. The horses were then led to
the corral and the real stable duties of the day commenced. In leading
the horses through the stable to the corral, the length of your life
was dependant upon your ability to duck the hoofs of the ones
remaining in the stables.

When it came to cleaning the stables, many a "buck" private made a
resolve that in the next war he was going to enlist as a
"mule-skinner." Driving the battery wagon bore the earmarks of being a
job of more dignity than loading the wagon.

Besides cleaning the stables and "graining-up" for the horses, the day
of the stable police was spent in miscellaneous jobs, which Sergeant
Fritzen never ran out of.

The stable detail underwent changes as time wore on. A permanent
stable man was assigned for every stable and the detail was reduced to
three privates.

Stable police was of double import on Saturday mornings, preparatory
to the weekly inspection. Every branch and department of military life
has a variety of inspections to undergo at periodical times. The
inspections keep the boys in khaki on the alert; cleanliness becoming
second nature. Nowhere can a vast body of men live bachelor-like as
soldiers do and maintain the degree of tidiness and general sanitary
healthfulness, as the thorough arm of camp inspection and discipline
maintains in the army.

A daily inspection of barracks was in order at Camp Meade.
Before the boys answered the first drill formation each morning they
did the housework. Everything had to be left spick and span. There was
a specific place for everything and everything had to be kept in its

With mops and brooms and plenty of water the barracks were given a
good scrubbing on Friday afternoons and things put in shape for the
Saturday morning inspection. Besides the cleanup features a display of
toilet articles and wearing apparel had to be made. When the
inspectors made their tour each bunk had to show a clean towel, tooth
brush, soap, comb, pair of socks, and suit of underwear. The articles
had to be displayed on the bunk in a specific manner.

"Show-Down" inspections were a big feature of the routine. This
inspection required the soldier to produce all his wares and equipment
for inventory. The supply officer and supply sergeant of the battery
made many rounds taking account of equipment that was short, but
several more "show-downs" usually transpired before the lacking
equipment was supplied.

There was also a field inspection every Saturday morning, where the
general appearance of the soldier could be thoroughly scrutinized.
Clean-shaven, neatly polished shoes, clean uniform with buttons all
present and utilized, formed the determining percentage features. When
the inspection was mounted, horses and harness had to shine, the same
as the men.

January 1920 ushered in a period of changes in the staff of officers
for Battery D, some of the changes being temporary, others permanent.
Trials of sickness and quarantine were also in store for the battery.

Early in January Capt. A. L. Smith was called away from his military
duties on account of the death of his father, Edward B. Smith, of
Philadelphia, Penna.; a bereavement which brought forth many
expressions of sympathy from the men of his command.

Captain Smith returned to camp the latter part of the month. Some time
later he was ordered to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, to attend the artillery
school of fire. Lieut. Hugh M. Clarke also left the battery to attend
the school of fire. First-Lieut. Arthur H. McGill was detached from
the battery about this time and assigned as an instructor at the
Officers' Training School that was opened at Camp Meade. Lieut. Robert
S. Campbell was transferred from Battery D at this time.

First-Lieut. Robert Lowndes, of Elkridge. Md., was assigned to
temporary command of the battery. First-Lieut. J. S. Waterfield, of
Portsmouth, Va., served as an attached officer with D Battery for some

First Sergeant William C. Thompson and Supply Sergeant Merle
Liebensberger were successful applicants to the officers' training
school at Meade. James J. Farrell, of Parsons, Penna., was appointed
acting first-sergeant and Thomas S. Pengelly, of Hazleton, Penna., was
appointed acting supply sergeant, both appointments later being made



"Retreat," the checking-in or accounting for all soldiers at the close
of a day's routine, was made a formal affair for the 311th Field
Artillery on January 13th, 1918. The erection of a new flag pole in
front of regimental headquarters furnished occasion for the formal
formation when the Stars and Stripes are lowered to the strain of "The
Star Spangled Banner" or the "Call to the Colors."

When the formal retreat was established Battery D was in the throes of
a health quarantine. A case of measles developed in the battery and an
eighteen-day quarantine went into effect on January 19th. About a
score of battery members, who were attending speciality schools and on
special detail work, were quartered with Battery E of the regiment
while the quarantine lasted.

On March 24th scarlet fever broke out and a second quarantine was put
into effect. This quarantine kept Battery D from sharing in the Easter
furloughs to visit home.

The regular routine of fatigue duty and drill formations took place
during the quarantine periods, the restrictions being placed on the
men leaving the battery area between drill hours.

On March 6th Battery D took occasion to celebrate. The battery kitchen
had been thoroughly renovated by Mechanic Grover C. Rothacker and
Mechanic Conrad A. Balliet, both of Hazleton, Penna., the renovation
placing it in the class of "The best kitchen and mess hall in camp,"
to quote the words of Major General Joseph E. Kuhn, divisional
commander, when he inspected Battery D on Saturday, March 23rd.

A fine menu was prepared for the banquet that was held on the night of
March 6th. Col. Raymond Briggs and the battalion officers were guests
at the banquet and entertainment that was furnished in the barracks
until taps sounded an hour later than usual that night.

Details continued to play a big part in the life of Battery D. On
March 11th the first detail of fifty men was sent to repair the
highway near Portland. These details had a strenuous time of it; the
hardest work most of the detail accomplished was dodging lieutenants.

Transfers had made big inroads in the battery's strength. Guard duty
fell to the lot of the battery once a week. When the guard detail was
furnished there were scarcely enough men left to do the kitchen
police work and other detail work. It was a time when rank imposed
obligation. Sergeants and corporals had to get busy and chop wood and
carry coal and wash dishes and police up and in many other ways
imitate the buck private.

On March 5th Lieut. Frank Yeager inaugurated a system of daily
inspections at retreat, when the two neatest appearing men in line
were cited each day and rewarded with a week-end pass to visit
Baltimore or Washington, while those who got black marks for the week
were put on detail work over the week-end. A list of honorable
mentions was also established for general tidiness at "bunk"

Rumor was ever present at Camp Meade. Almost every event that
transpired was a token of early departure overseas, or else the
"latrine-dope" had it that the outfit was to be sent to Tobyhanna for
range practice.

The first real evidence of overseas service presented itself during
March when physical examinations were in order to test the physical
fitness for overseas duty. Several, who it was deemed could not
physically stand foreign service, were in due time transferred to
various posts of the home-guards. Several transfers were also made to
the ordnance department; a number of chemists were detached from the
battery, and transfers listed for the cooks' and bakers' school, for
the quartermasters, for the engineers, for the signal corps, in fact
men were sent to practically all branches in the division.

On Saturday, March 30th, wrist watches were turned to 11 o'clock when
taps sounded, ushering in the daylight savings scheme that routed the
boys out for reveille during the wee dark hours of the morning.

Training during April centered on actual experience in taking to the
march with full mounted artillery sections. April 4th, 1918, found a
detail from Battery D leaving camp at 8 a. m., with a section of
provisional battery, enroute to Baltimore to take part in the big
parade in honor of the opening of the Liberty Loan drive on the first
anniversary of America's entrance into the war. While in Baltimore the
outfit pitched camp in Clifton Park. The parade, which was reviewed by
President Woodrow Wilson, took place on Saturday, April 6th. The
detachment returned to camp by road on Sunday, April 7th.

During April a decree went forth to the Battery that set details
at work every day clipping horses. Every one of the one hundred and
sixty-four battery horses was clipped.

The morning of Friday, April 26th, was declared a holiday at Camp
Meade; all units being called forth to participate in a divisional
parade and Liberty Loan rally.

A battery hike in march order was set for May 6th. The battery took to
the road at 8 a. m., and drove through Jessup, thence to West
Elkridge, Md., a distance of sixteen miles, where camp was pitched and
the battery remained for the night, returning to camp the following
afternoon after several firing problems in the field were worked out
by proxy fire.

Chances for a quick departure overseas began to warm up about the
middle of May, which perhaps was responsible for the big divisional
bon-fire that was burned on the night of May 13th.

C. D. BAILEY LIEUT. FRANK J. HAMILTON _Officers Associated with
Battery D._]



First authentic signs of departure from Camp Meade came during the
month of June when the boys witnessed the departure of the infantry
regiments of the division.

Void of demonstrative sendoff, regiment after regiment, fully and
newly equipped, was departing on schedule; thousands and thousands of
sturdy Americans, ready to risk all for the ideals of liberty and

It was with no unsteady step they marched through the streets of the
military city that had sheltered, trained, tanned, and improved them
aright for the momentous task which was before them.

The scene, as they marched, is one that will live in memory of the
boys of Battery D. It was no dress parade such as the march of like
thousands in a civilian city would occasion. Battery D men and others
were spectators, it is true, and the departing ones were sent off, as
was later the case with Battery D, with cheers of encouragement and
words of God-speed--the spirit breathed being of hearty, thoughtful
patriotism such as can come only from a soldier who is bidding adieu
to a comrade in arms, whom he will meet again in a common cause.

Wonderful days of activity within Battery D foretold the news of
departure. The regiment was in first class shape to look forward to
service overseas, despite the fact that range-practice was a
negligible factor. During the latter part of May, firing, to a limited
extent, was practiced from the three-inch field pieces directed over
the Remount station, but the experience thus gained was too light to
be important. About this time a French type of 75 mm. field piece was
shipped to the regiment. Major David A. Reed became the instructor on
this gun, when it became known that the outfit would likely be given
French equipment upon arrival overseas. One gun for the regiment,
however, and especially when received only several weeks in advance of
the departure for overseas, afforded but little opportunity for
general instruction on the mechanism of the new field piece.

France, moreover, was the goal and the real range practice was left as
a matter of course for over there.

All activity centered on getting ready to depart. The battery
carpenters and painters were kept busy making boxes and labelling
them properly for the "American E. F." Harness was being cleaned
and packed. The time came for the horses to be returned to the Remount
station. Supply sergeants were busy as bees supplying everybody with
foreign service equipment. It proved a common occurrence to be routed
out of bed at midnight to try on a pair of field shoes. All articles
of clothing and equipment had to be stamped, the clothing being
stamped with rubber stamps, while the metal equipment was stamped with
a punch initial. Each soldier got a battery number which was stamped
on his individual equipment.

On June 28th, Joseph Loskill, of Hazleton, Penna., and William F.
Brennan, of Hazleton and Philadelphia, Penna., were assigned to
accompany the advance detail of the regiment. Lieut. Arthur H. McGill
was the Battery D officer to accompany the advance detail, which left
Camp Meade about 7 p. m., proceeding to Camp Merritt, N. J., for
embarkation. The advance guard arrived at Jersey City the following
morning at 6 o'clock, where they detrained and marched to the Ferry to
get to Hoboken. There the detachment was divided, the officers
boarding the S. S. Mongolia, the enlisted men the S. S. Duc d'Abruzzi.
The ships left Hoboken at 10:30 a. m., May 30th, bound for Brest.

Battery D was filled to full war-strength during the first week of
July, just before departure, when the outfit received a quota of 150
men who came to the regiment from the Depot Brigade. Five hundred and
forty came to the regiment from Camp Upton, N. Y., and Camp Dix,
N. J., and fifty from the signal corps in Florida.

In the front door and out of the back of 019 the battery passed in
alphabetical line in rehearsal of the manner in which the gang plank
of the ship was to be trod. Departure instruction likewise included
hikes to the electric rail siding to practice boarding the cars with

The last few days in camp were marked by daily medical inspections,
also daily inspections of equipment. Everybody had to drag all their
equipment outside for inspection. The men were fully and newly
equipped with clothing and supplies upon leaving. Two new wool
uniforms, two pairs of field shoes, new underwear, socks, shirts,
towels, toilet articles, and a score of other soldier necessities,
were issued before leaving. All old clothing and equipment was turned

Each man was allotted a barrack-bag as cargo. The barrack-bag was made
of heavy blue denim with about a seventy-five pound capacity,
which weight was cited as the limit a soldier could obtain storage for
in the ship's baggage compartments.

Although seventy-five pounds was the order, all the boys resorted to
some fine packing. There were not many under the limit. Most of the
boys had their knitted garments in the bag, also a plentiful supply of
soap, because rumor had struck the outfit that soap was a scarce
article in France. Milk chocolate and smokes were also well stocked

Besides the barrack-bag each soldier was provided with a haversack and
pack-carrier, in which were carried--on the back--two O. D. blankets,
toilet articles, extra socks, clothing, and the various articles that
would be needed on the voyage across.

Saturday, July 13th, 1918, was the memorable day of departure from
Camp Meade. Battery D furnished the last guard detail of the regiment
at Meade. The 13th, as luck would have it, dawned in a heavy shower of
rain. Reveille sounded at 5:15 a. m., after which, those who had not
done so the night previous, hiked out in the rain and emptied the
straw from their bed-ticks; completed the packing of their bags and
packs and loaded the bags on trucks while the rain came down in

As was usually the case in army routine, early reveille did not vouch
for an early departure from camp. Detail aplenty was in store for the
boys all day. The last meal was enjoyed in 019 mess-hall at 5 p.m.,--then
started a thorough policing up of barracks. Sweeping squads were sent
over the ground a dozen times and finally the boys assembled outside
on the battery assembling grounds, at 7:30 p. m., with packs ready and
everything set to begin the march to entrain.

During the hours of waiting that followed the boys indulged in a few
sign painting decorations. Among the numerous signs tacked to 019

"For Sail. Apply Abroad."

"For Rent, for a large family; only scrappers need apply. Btry D,
311th F. A."

"Von Hindenberg dropped dead. We're coming."

It was a grand sight to see the regiment depart at 8:45 p. m. The band
was playing; colors were flying at the head of the column--everybody
was in high spirits. But there were no civilians to enjoy the
spectacle. It was night and but few knew of the departure. The rain
had ceased and twilight was deepening into darkness as the regiment,
excepting Battery A, which was left in camp for police detail, to
follow a few days later, started on the hike; back over
practically the same route the soldiers were marched from Disney to
019 when they first arrived in camp. This time they were leaving 019;
marching for the last time with Battery D through the reservation of
Camp Meade; marching to the railroad yards at Disney where trains were
being made up to convey the regiment to a point of embarkation. But
few knew whether it was to be Philadelphia, New York, or Hoboken. The
men were leaving home and home-land and departing for a land of which
they knew nought. What the ocean and Germany's program of relentless
submarine warfare had in store for them, no one knew. All hearts were
strong in the faith and all stout hearts were ready to do and to dare;
content in the knowledge that they were doing their duty to their home
and their country.



Land appeared in rugged outline along the horizon as the Steamship
Morvada swept the waves when dusk was falling on the Tuesday evening
of July 16th, 1918. It was a beautiful mid-summer's night and the boys
of Battery D, in common with the members of the 311th regiment, stood
at the deck railings of the S. S. Morvada and watched the outline of
shore disappear under cover of darkness. The ship had been sailing
since 11:30 a. m., Sunday, July 14th, at which time the Morvada had
lifted anchor and slowly pushed its nose into the Delaware River;
leaving behind the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad docks at Port
Richmond, Philadelphia, Penna., the last link that held them to their
native shores.

Surmises and guesses were rife as the ship rolled on in the darkness,
leaving the boys either arguing as to the destination or else seeking
their "bunk" down in the "hatch" and rolling in for the night.

It was generally agreed that the course thus far was along the coast.
It was apparent that the ship was skirting coastline, because convoy
protection had been given by sea-planes flying out from the naval
coast stations, accompanying the transport for a distance, then
disappearing landward. The boys on the transport spent many an idle
hour watching the aviators circle the ship time and time again, often
coming within voice range of the transport's passengers.

It was also settled that the course had been Northeast, but no one was
quite certain as to location.

The morning of July 17th found the Morvada approaching land. A
lighthouse appeared in the dim distance, then, as the hours passed and
the ship sped on, the coast became visible and more visible,
disclosing rugged country, rising high from out of the water's edge.
The country, moreover, appeared waste and devastated; the land being
covered with wrecked buildings that showed signs of explosive force.

Location finally became apparent as harbor scenes presented an unique
picturesqueness of territory. The S. S. Morvada was in Halifax harbor,
Nova Scotia, and the surrounding territory was the scene of the famous
T. N. T. explosion. It was 11 o'clock on the morning of July 17th that
the ship cast anchor in Halifax harbor and word was passed that all on
board could remove life preservers and breathe a sigh of relief.

To be suddenly found in Canadian environment furnished a new
thrill for the soldiers. The Saturday night previous the same soldiers
were making the trip from Camp Meade to port of embarkation.

Everybody was expecting a lay over in an embarkation camp before
embarking, therefore the surprise was the greater when the train that
left Camp Meade at midnight on the evening of July 13th, deposited its
cargo of soldiers on the pier at Port Richmond within a short distance
of the ship that was waiting for its cargo of human freight before
pulling anchor for the first lap of the France-bound journey.

Orders to detrain were given at 8:29 a. m. Tired and hungry the
soldiers were greeted on the pier by a large delegation of Red Cross
workers who had steaming hot coffee, delicious buns, cigarettes and
candy to distribute to the regiment as a farewell tribute and morning
appetizer. Postal cards were also distributed for the soldiers to
address to their home-folks. The messages were farewell messages and
were held over at Washington. D. C., until word was received that the
Morvada had landed safely overseas.

At 8 a. m. the repeat-your-last-name-first-and-your-first-name-last
march up the gang-plank started. Each man got a blue card with a
section and berth number on; also a meal ticket appended, after which
it was a scramble to find your right place in the hatch.

At 11:30 o'clock anchor was lifted; the little river tug boat nosed
the steamship about; then, with colors flying, the band playing, the
Morvada steamed down the Delaware; passing Hog Island in a midway of
ships from which words of farewell and waves of good-bye wafted across
to the Morvada. The sky-line of Brotherly Love, guarded over by
William Penn on City Hall, gradually faded from view and the Sunday
afternoon wore on, as the boys spent most of their first day aboard a
transport on deck, watching the waves and admiring the beauties of
nature, revealed in all splendor as the ever-fading shore line, viewed
from the promenade deck, lost itself into the mist-like horizon of sky
and water, richly enhanced by the brilliancy of a superb sunset.

The S. S. Morvada skirted the shore for some time and for the first
few hours all was calm on deck. By night, however, sea-sickness began
to manifest itself and there was considerable coughing up over the

Besides watching the waves and the various-sized and colored fishes of
the deep make occasional bounds over the crest of the foam, the
soldiers spent their time trying to get something to eat, which was a
big job in itself.

The Morvada was an English boat, of small type, that was built in 1914
to ply between England and India, carrying war materials. The voyage
of the 311th was the second time the Morvada was used as a transport.
Except for officer personnel the ship was manned by a crew of East
Indians, whose main article of wearing apparel was a towel and whose
main occupation was scrubbing and flushing the decks with a hose, just
about the time mess call found the soldiers looking for a nice spot to
settle down with mess-kit and eating-irons. Up forward were batteries
B, D, E, and F, and the Supply Company, and aft were Headquarters
Company, Battery C, and the Medical Detachment. Each end of the ship
had its galley along which the mess lines formed three times a day.
The khaki-clad soldiers could not get used to the English system of
food rationing with the result that food riots almost occurred until
the officers of the regiment intervened and secured an improvement in
the mess system.

The first night in Halifax harbor was a pleasant relief from the
strain of suspense that attended the journey to Canadian waters. Deck
lights were lighted for the first time and vied for brilliancy in the
night with the other ocean-going craft assembled in the harbor. The
Morvada did not dock, but remained anchored in the harbor, from where
the soldiers on board could view the city and port of entry that was
the capital of the Province of Nova Scotia.

To the Southeast the city of Halifax, situated on a fortified hill,
towering 225 feet from the waters of the harbor, showed its original
buildings built of wood, plastered or stuccoed; and dotted with fine
buildings of stone and brick of later day creation.

When the soldiers on board the Morvada arose on the morning of July
18th the Halifax harbor was dotted with several more transports that
had arrived during the night. The day was spent in semaphoring to the
various transports and learning what troops each quartered. Official
orders, however, put a stop to this form of pastime and discussion was
shifted to the whys and wherefores of the various camouflage designs
the troop ships sported.

During the stay at Halifax the first taste of mail censorship was
doled out. Letters were written in abundance, which were treated
rather roughly by two-edged scissors before the mail was conveyed to
Halifax to be sent to Washington, D. C., to await release upon
notification that the Morvada had arrived safely overseas. Many of
these first letters are still held as priceless mementos by the

Each morning of the succeeding days that the Morvada was anchored in
Halifax harbor brought several new ships to cluster about in the wide
expanse of water. A sufficient number for convoy across the Atlantic
was gradually assembling, each ship appearing in a different regalia
of protective coloration that made the harbor sight vastly

Newspapers from the Canadian shore were brought on board each day. On
July 19th the papers conveyed the information that the United States
Cruiser, San Diego, was sunk that day ten miles off Fire Island by
running on an anchored mine placed there by German U-boats. The
Morvada had traversed the same course several days previous.

To read of such occurrence, in such environment was to produce silent
thought. To be in the harbor of Halifax, within shadow of McNalis
Island that rested on the waves at the mouth of the harbor, was to be
in the same environment as the confederate cruiser, "Tallahassee,"
which slipped by night through the Eastern passage formed by McNalis
Island, and escaped the Northern vessels that were watching off the
western entrance formed by the island.

The time was drawing near when the Morvada was destined to creep
stealthily through the night, to cross the 3,000 miles of submarine
infested Atlantic.



Under serene skies on the morning of July 20th, seventeen ships,
assembled in Halifax harbor, made final preparations to steam forth to
the highways of the broad Atlantic.

At 9:30 o'clock that morning the convoy maneuvered into battle
formation with a U. S. cruiser leading the convoy while four small sub
chasers circled about in high speed and an army dirigible flew
overhead. Each ship was directed in a zig zag course, a new angle of
the zig zag being pointed every few minutes, a course of propellation
that continued the entire route of the water way.

Good-byes were waved from ships stationed along the several miles of
water course that marked the harbor's length, until the open Atlantic
was reached, then the sub chasers and the dirigible turned about,
leaving the seventeen transports and supply ships under the wing of
the battle cruiser that proceeded to pick out the course across the
ocean, to where bound no one on board, save the captain of the ship,

Clad in their life preservers the soldiers idled about the decks as
the convoy sped on. It was a source of delight to stand at the deck
rail and watch the waves dash against the steel clad sides of the
ship. On several occasions when the waves rolled high, many on board
experienced the sensation of a sea bath, the stiff sea breeze carrying
the seething foam high over the rail on to the deck.

To see the waves roll high created the impression of mightiness of
creation; the impression of mountains rising magic like at the side of
the vessel. Suddenly the ship rises to the crest of the wave and the
recedence leaves one looking down into what appears like a deep

When the sun was rising in the direction one was thrilled by the
beauties of the rainbow observed in the clearness of the waves, when,
at the height of dashing resplendence the surging sprays descend in
fountain semblance, drinking in, as it were, the very beauty of God's

The same position on deck the boys found none the less attractive when
the shades of night had fallen. On one of the first nights out the
ship passed through an atmosphere of dense fog, suddenly to emerge
into elements of star lit splendor, the moon, in full radiance,
casting a silvery luminous path on the sparkling waves. It was a
phenomena worthy of the tallest submarine risks to witness. The full
moon and the very repleteness of things aesthetic gave opportunity for
those who were able to portray an attitude of indifference, to tell
gravely how the radiance of the night fully exposed the convoy to the
U-boats that were lurking in every wave.

Established routine of transport duties and formations was continued
during the ocean voyage. Ship-abandon and fire drills were a daily
feature of life aboard. Each outfit had a specific place to congregate
when the signal for ship-abandon drill was sounded. All that was
necessary was to stand at the appointed place while the coolies,
comprising the crew, scampered to the life-boats and made miniature
attempts at hacking the ropes and dropping to the waves.

The promenade deck, both port and starboard sides, was in use each day
accommodating group after group for half-hour periods of physical
exercise. The tossing of the vessel lent itself in rhythm to the
enjoyment of the calisthenics, or else it was physical exercise enough
in trying to maintain an equilibrium while the arms and legs were
raised alternately in eight counts.

Guard duty was firmly established on board. A guard roster numbered
more men than a guard detail at Camp Meade ever required. The
significance of the precise guard forms another of the mysteries of
Battery D. No one went A. W. O. L. while enroute and when it came to
challenging after taps, a sentry in most cases could not be greeted by
the customary answer, "a friend," although the challenged party was a
friend indeed, also a friend in need. How could he answer when he had
his hand over his mouth and his primary object was to get to the rail
quick. After several days out, however, a majority of the boys "got
their sea legs," as evinced by the mess line three times daily.

A schedule of formations, similar to Camp Meade routine, was
promulgated on board. Reveille was set for 7 o'clock each morning.
When the time came to assemble on deck the space was so small and the
crowd was so large that many a recruit slept-in until the last mess
line was treading the beat. Reform measures were instituted and extra
duty lists published, offenders being added to the regular details
that were selected to daily wash up the deck and clean up the hatch.

A permanent submarine guard was detailed, the members of this detail
landing state rooms for the journey; living next door to the officers.
During the trip this guard sighted several score of "subs" but
generally their "object port-bow" proved to be a keg that had
become prohibition and therefore found itself abandoned in mid-ocean.

Outside of bunk inspection, medical inspection, feet inspection,
several kinds of arm inspection, with details, drill formations and
exercise periods, the life of the American soldier aboard a transport
was an idle one. The ship's canteen did a big business during office
hours. A world's series bleacher crowd had nothing on the canteen line
of the Morvada. A place in the line commanded a high premium, which
led to speculation in canteen supplies.

The afternoon of July 21st was attendant by a high wind, making it
very cool on deck, while the wind lashed the waves with great fury.
The cold wind blew all day July 22nd, the day when the first wireless
reports were posted on board, telling of the Germans being driven over
the Marne and thousands of prisoners captured.

The sea became calm on Tuesday, July 23rd, the gale having died down.
The ship was traveling East and each morning watches had to be
readjusted to correspond to the change in longitude.

At 3 a. m. on the third morning out a great commotion was occasioned
on board. Everybody was awakened by a loud rumbling. A majority
thought a submarine had been encountered. Several dashed up the steps
of the hatchway to be ready for action. Someone shouted, "Don't get
excited, but make room for me to get out first." Later it was
ascertained that the noise was caused by the ships' anchor slipping
several rods of anchor chain.

The first taste of real excitement was occasioned at 1 o'clock on the
afternoon of July 25th when a strange craft was sighted on the distant
horizon. The cruiser of the convoy was all action immediately. Warning
flashed to all the convoy party and a wild series of zigzagging ensued
while the cruiser chased pell-mell in the direction of the sighted
craft. A shot was fired from the cruiser in the dash, but only a
mountain of water was blasted by the discharge.

The convoy continued Eastward while the cruiser investigated. Finally
the cruiser returned to the convoy and reported everything O. K. The
troops never learned the official identity of the strange vessel that
sent the first sub-chasers up the vertebrae of many.

Word was passed about on Saturday, July 27th, that the convoy was
approaching the imaginary line in the ocean that Germany had
established as the dead-line, past which her U-boats were operating in
unrestricted warfare. The approach of the danger zone was the signal
for all on board to remove no article of clothing while asleep at
night and to carry a canteen of fresh water strapped to the belt at
all times. In this manner everybody was prepared to take to the waves
at a minute's sub-warning.

As the journey continued the officers of Battery D instituted a series
of battery lectures, also took up plans for the organization of a
permanent battery commander's detail.

Sunday, July 28th, found the sea calm in the morning, but a strong
gale set in at noon, followed by a heavy rain during the afternoon. A
dense fog enveloped the convoy. Fog horns came into play and it was a
miserable night aboard for everybody. Standing at the deck rail one
could not pierce the fog, although it was known that within a short
radius all the other ships of the convoy were groping their way
through the darkness; each creeping as a black monster through the
gloomy night, depending upon the fog-horn to keep aloof from their
sister convoy ships; a sense of loneliness enshrouded the scene. It
was a wild night for the timid with sub-scares, especially when the
information leaked out that the sub-chasers which were scheduled to
meet the convoy and escort it through the danger zone, were overdue
and still missing.

Fog still lay close to the water on the morning of Monday, July 29th,
as eager watch was kept for the new convoy. The transports had reached
the danger line and the destroyers were not in sight.

Finally at 10 a. m. on the morning of the 29th, the first of the
sub-chasers was sighted. It was not long before others appeared,
bobbing up and down. The waves dashed high about the light craft and
at times seemed to submerge the shells as they bore down upon the
groups of transports. Eight sub-chasers appeared on the scene. A great
shout went up from the transports as the convoy was sighted. They
circled the transports and the last and most dangerous lap of the
journey was started.

Thoughts strange and varied filled the minds of the majority aboard as
they tossed in their bunks on the night of July 29th. Realization of
location in the danger zone was keen. Those who were at ease
sufficiently to sleep were annoyed and disturbed by the noises of
whistles and signal horns as the ships and the convoy kept ever alert
for submarines.

On the morning of July 30th the eight sub-chasers encircled the convoy
party in closer proximity. The dash through the danger zone continued
unmolested until 3 o'clock in the afternoon when the first real
periscope was discovered by the look-outs.

The cruiser at the head of the convoy lurched forth; fired a shot and
tossed up the waves in answer. The resonance against the steel sides
of the transport rang out clear, bringing hundreds scampering out of
the hatches and state rooms of the ship, on to the decks, to peer out
over the rail and watch in awe the great drama that was being enacted
in serious reality upon the waves of the ocean.

The sun was shining brightly. Every transport in the party struck out
at full speed, while the zigzagging was increased in comparison. Eight
sub-chasers cut the waves with frantic speed. The circle-convoy
formation was abandoned. The destroyers cut short to make for the
scene of action, which held forth and was witnessed to good advantage
from the starboard side of the Morvada.

As the transports fled under full steam the cruiser and sub-chasers
snorted and crashed and roared in the vicinity the periscopes had been
discovered. Depth-bombs came into play. Those missiles of destruction
were hurled from the destroyers as they combed the waves for miles and
miles around the spot where danger threatened. Each discharge of
depth-bomb raised an avalanche of water; the deadly bombs blasting the
depths for great distances, while the reverberation shook the
transports, creating the impression that the transport was in direct
contact with each explosion.

For fully an hour the detonations continued as the depth-bombs were
discharged. Finally the destroyers swept back and the convoy formation
was resumed. The news was spread that the final result of the battle
was success, as vouched for by films of oil the destroyers saw appear
on the water's surface. General report had it that five submarines
composed the attacking party and that wreckage and oil coming to the
surface gave evidence of two having been destroyed.

The convoy continued on its journey. Sailing orders were executed in
detail. It was 4 o'clock, one hour after the sub-battle, that the
convoy parted, the various ships bound for different ports of
debarkation, which were soon to loom in sight.

At 6 p. m. that same day the soldiers on board the Morvada sighted
land. Throughout the night the ships sped on but land was dimly
discernible, the rugged outline appearing through the shadows of the
night, while the appearance of fishing smacks, which the transport
passed without fear or sign, created the impression that friendly
shores were near.

Unable to ply their nets at their life's occupation as fishermen
the sturdy shoresmen of Brittany's coast gave of their time and their
smacks to the perilous task of combing adjacent water for mines and
explosive obstacles.

It was these the Morvada passed out in the darkness of night, on the
eve before landing and setting foot on foreign soil. The Morvada crept
on, the contrasting stillness of the waves showing that channel waters
had been reached. But few on board knew, or could rightly guess what
shore was to greet their eyes on the dawn of the morrow.



A surprise reception was in store for the soldiers aboard the S. S.
Morvada when it came to debarking on foreign soil. As the ship plied
the channel waters on the night of July 30th, 1918, but few on board
knew what port was its destination; but not so with the people of the
British Isles. They knew the plans for the arrival of the American
army transports. On July 31st, the people of Barry and Cardiff, in
common with Newport, in the province of South Wales, did honor to the
American troops.

Barry, the urban district and seaport of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the
Bristol channel, was the foreign shore that greeted the troops on the
Morvada early in the morning of July 31st.

It was perfect weather for such a visit, the first ever paid to Barry
by a large body of American troops, and Barry's reception was
whole-hearted. The citizens turned out in great force. Enthusiasm was
manifest on every side, and this, despite the fact that, owing to the
unavoidable delay in the ship's arrival, the people had to wait
several hours while the Morvada rested at anchor in the harbor until
docking could be accomplished at 9 a. m.

While preparations to dock were in progress crowds lingered on the
piers. The soldiers amused themselves by tossing one-cent pieces to
the Welsh children. Immediately a demand for American cigarettes and
chewing gum arose among the older Welshmen.

The crowds and the town itself were in holiday attire. The vessels in
dock were gay with bunting. Flags were displayed from shop-windows,
the municipal offices and the fire-brigade station, while from the
summit of the Barry Railway Company's offices "Old Glory" was flying
to the breeze.

As the Morvada docked and the command was given for the troops to
debark, loud welcome was sounded by sonorous "hooters," screaming
sirens and shrill ship and loco whistles.

At 10 o'clock the soldiers were assembled on terra firma once more.
Parade formation was ordered in answer to the glad welcome plans of
the inhabitants.

Headed by the regimental band the 311th Artillery skirted the banks of
a small brook named Barri, whose waters encircled an island--the
island which in the 7th century is supposed to have contained the cell
of the Welsh saint, named Barri, from which the name of the island and
the river is derived.

British troops, with rifles at present arms and bayonets glistening in
the sun, formed a guard of honor that lined both sides of the streets
of Barry, through which the American troops passed in royal welcome.
The march proceeded until King's square was reached, where official
ceremony of welcome to the town was enacted.

Here the officers and men formed in the large public square in front
of the municipal offices, where Councillor George Wareham, J. P., as
chairman of the district council, extended to the Americans a hearty

Lieut.-Col. Bradbridge, of the Lancashire Fusiliers, addressing Col.
C. G. Mortimer, in command of the 311th, said he had been commanded by
His Majesty, the King, to welcome all to the shores of Great Britain.

Each soldier was then presented with a copy of an autographed letter
from King George V., bidding God-speed and every success. The letter
was as follows:

                                                 _Windsor Castle.
     Soldiers of the United States--The people of the British Isles
     welcome you on your way to take your stand beside the armies of
     many nations now fighting in the Old World the great battle for
     human freedom. The Allies will gain new heart and spirit in your
     company. I wish that I could shake the hand of each one of you,
     and bid you God-speed on your mission._
                                                     GEORGE R. I.

Col. Mortimer expressed his appreciation of the very hearty welcome
his men had received. "We are here," he said, "for one purpose, and
you all know what that is. We are young at the business, but if spirit
counts for anything, it will surely win out. We have been looking
forward to this for some little time, and I can assure you we will do
our part."

Then the band struck up the National anthem of America and this was
followed by "God Save the King," and the soldiers moved on amid the
cheers of the people.

The last mess on the Morvada was partaken of at the conclusion of the
parade. At 2 o'clock that afternoon all packs were removed from
the boat, the troops assembled in a large warehouse on the pier;
British Red Cross workers distributed refreshments while trains were
being made up to convey the soldiers to their first foreign training

A combination of first, second, and third-class coaches of the
compartment type characteristic of the English rail system made up the
section of train that was assigned to Battery D. The coaches and
British locomotives were the source of considerable interest to the
soldiers. Each compartment accommodated eight men, which allowed a
division of squads being made for the journey.

At 4:30 o'clock the wheels began to grind the rails and the first ride
on foreign soil was started.

Fast-fleeting stretches of fertile farm land and extensive pasture
field, rich in verdure, with cattle grazing drowsily at the close of
day, presented the picture of a peaceful pastoral life of British
subjects as the train continued to add up mileage. Station after
station was passed without stop by the American troop special. Battery
D displayed an American flag from its section and the inhabitants in
the vicinity of the railroad station as the special passed through
their town or hamlet, could not mistake the identity of the Americans.

From Barry the route stretched to Penarth and Cardiff; passed through
Newport, Christ Church, and Major, thence across the funnel waters of
the Bristol channel to the thriving city of Bristol; into the rural
districts of Wiltshire; passing Bath, Trowbridge, and Warminster.

Rations of hard bread, corned-beef, corned-beef hash, canned tomatoes,
and jam, had been distributed to the squads before leaving the
Morvada. When the troop special was nearing Salisbury, evening was
well advanced and the appetites of the soldiers were being gradually
appeased enroute, stop was made at Wilton, where everybody on board
took advantage of permission to get off at the station and enjoy a cup
of hot coffee that a contingent of British Red Cross workers handed

The journey was resumed after a twenty-minute lay-over. The South of
England was penetrated farther as the boys tried to figure out whether
they would remain on British territory long, or whether France was to
be the first active training center.







At 9 p. m., it was yet daylight. The boys were weary and tired as the
troop train on the London and Southwestern railway pulled into a
station, the sign-boards of which gave the name as Romsey. Orders to
detrain were passed along.

All soldiers and packs were soon off the train; then, line-up as per
usual, and march, first under a stone railroad bridge, through the
town, soon to strike a highway leading out of the town.

The pack on the back got heavier every minute, but the march
continued; one mile, two miles, then along the stretch of the third
there appeared scenes of buildings and tents. Post-signs glared the
information that Camp Woodley had been reached. There appeared to be
many parts to the camp. Battery D did not stop at the first, nor the
second, but halt was made at what was designated as C Camp.

It was a welcome order that allowed the troops to fall-out along the
roadside as official parlance was started with the powers that ruled
the destinies of C Camp. The vicinity was closely guarded by American
M. P.'s., who proceeded to communicate stories, savoring the good,
bad, and indifferent prospects of the abode that was to shelter the
311th for one night at least. "It's a rest camp", they said. The words
sounded peaceful to the tired troops assembled. It required only one
day, however, to find out that the only part of a soldier that got
rest at a "rest-camp" was the stomach.

The hour was almost 10:30 when it was finally decided what area
Battery D was to occupy for the night. C Camp was a tented camp, the
tents being spacious enough to comfortably house about four army cots
for a healthy soldier to rest his weary bones on. The cots, however,
were missing. Battery D was marched down the main road of the selected
area. Halt was made at the first tent. Twenty-six men were ordered
inside. The remainder continued to the next tent in order where
twenty-six more were registered for the night; and so on down the
roster, until Battery D was under canvass.

The battery cooks and details were put to work immediately to prepare
something to eat, but a majority of the soldiers either got tired
waiting or else had such a hard job finding what was prepared that
they wended their way through the tented city and after considerable
wandering found the tent wherein they were to be one of the twenty-six
registered for the night.

Twenty-six men and twenty-six packs in one tent. Crowding was more
than a necessity; it was a torture, as was soon evinced when twenty-six
men stretched themselves out on the board floor of the tent for the
seeming purpose of sleeping. Extra blankets had been drawn from the
quartermaster, which, combined with the blankets the soldier carried
in his pack, furnished mattress and coverings for the sweet but hard
repose. No blue-print diagram was furnished as to how the sleeping
space was to be allotted in twenty-six portions; with the result that
one fellow was awakened out of a sweet dream of eating pie and cake,
to find his buddy's feet pushing him in the face.

Reveille sounded at C Camp Woodley at 7:20 o'clock on the morning of
August 1st, when Battery D received its first taste of British mess.
Details of varied description were furnished from the battery roster,
while the battery spent most of the first day in camp trying to figure
out the English system of mess. The outfit was assigned places at
tables, by squads, in mess-tents. Two from each squad were delegated a
committee to go to the kitchen and bring on the chow.

For breakfast the committee brought back an iron-bound kettle of
oatmeal; another kettle of prunes and a quantity of bread. The system
then was one of "help yourself and pass it on," which was all right
for the fellow at the head of the table, but the fellows on the
opposite end had to do the figuring.

The same procedure was followed at noon when slum was served. Night
mess in England invariably was cheese and tea and jam, which was
always good as far as it went. The entire 311th regiment was served
from one kitchen. It was good fortune that the Americans had
individual mess kits with them and that there occurred no sanitary
inspections of said eating utensils while in C Camp where fifteen
hundred mess kits were washed in a two by four bucket.

During the first day in an English camp many of the soldiers slipped
past the M. P.'s and made their way to the town; a quaint market town
and municipal borough, numbering almost 4,000 inhabitants, in the New
Forest Parliamentary division of Hampshire. As far as sight seeing,
the only thing of interest in the town was an old abbey. Cafes were
numerous, while English ale signs were more numerous.

An American Y. M. C. A. was housed under canvas at Camp Woodley. The
workers in charge prepared a royal entertainment, while the regimental
band gave a concert the second night of the soldiers' stay in
camp. Members of a Romsey dramatic club furnished the entertainment.
Towards the close the band struck up, "The Star Spangled Banner,"
then, "God Save the King." The Romsey entertainers started to sing
their National Anthem, while the Americans joined in with, "My Country
'Tis of Thee." All that was needed to complete the effect of the Babel
scene was John J. Jlosky and Otto Skirkie to sing, "Down Where the
Green River Flows."

Reveille for Friday, August 2nd, had been set for 7:30 a. m. All heads
were awakened by the bugle at 6:45 o'clock that morning. No one in
Battery D stirred. The impression was that the call was for another
outfit. Six fifty-five found First Sergeant James J. Farrell going
from tent to tent to find out the cause of the silence. Then there was
great hustling to get out in line and many a woolen puttee was missing
that morning.

The day was destined to be a rough one. It was raining at reveille
call and still raining when call was sounded at 9:30 o'clock for a
hike. The hike was started and continued for three miles, so did the
rain. The longer the soldiers walked the faster it rained. The scenery
was beautiful through the stretch of pleasantly situated country in
the rich valley of the Test. Picturesque English homesteads, set amid
hedges and roses, with moss-overgrown thatched roofs, dotted the
wayside. At a cross-roads the battery halted for rest. Along the road
came a baker's wagon. There was a raid on its gingerbread cookies. The
bakerman reaped a harvest of good American quarters for every three
cookies he handed out.

Drenched through slicker, et al. the soldiers retraced their step to
Camp Woodley, the beauties of the flowery countryside being lost to a
majority by the far-soaking rain. When Lieut. Hugh Clarke dismissed
the watery battery admonition was added for everybody to change to dry
clothing. But, alas, the advice was far better than expedient. The
only clothes the soldiers possessed at the time were wet on their
backs. Their extra uniform and clothing was in their barrack-bags,
which had not been seen since leaving Camp Meade. No fire was
available. The only open course was to let the clothes dry on the
back. The boys of Battery D spent a very lonely afternoon, sitting in
the tents, with wet clothes. And, it continued raining on the outside.

When the battery drew individual rations, consisting of one can of
corned-beef; a hunk of cheese; a box of hard bread and a can of jam,
at 9:30 o'clock, Saturday morning, August 3rd, the sun was shining
and the day was waxing warm. Under full pack the command started for
the seaport of Southampton.

Romsey is seven miles Northwest of Southampton by the London and
Southwest railway, but the 311th did not take the L. & S. W. The
hob-nail limited was the official troop train and the route covered
nine miles by winding road.

It was on this hike that "Corona" became lost. David B. Koenig, the
battery clerk, was the chaperon of "Corona." But he could not carry
her all the way, so the boys took turns at carrying the precious
thing. During one of the rest-halts, however, some one left poor
little "Corona" lay by the roadside. When her disappearance was
discovered it was necessary for Lieut. Clarke to hike back several
miles and find the lost. "Corona" was the battery typewriter.

Southampton was reached at 12:30 o'clock. Stop was made at the British
rest camp at the Commons where refreshments, in addition to the cheese
and jam rations, were secured at the British Y. M. C. A. canteen. At 2
p. m. that day it started to rain and at 2:15 the regiment resumed its
march and reached the docks at 3:15 o'clock.

It was a regiment of tired soldiers who sat on their packs in the big
warehouse pier at Southampton waiting for word to go up the gang-plank
of the vessel that was to take them across the English Channel.

"The King Edward" was the name of the channel-going vessel that drew
alongside the pier late in the afternoon. It was a cute-looking boat,
just big enough to transport Battery D across the channel in comfort.
At 6:30 p. m., Battery D and 1200 other members of the 311th were
loaded on the King Edward. Everybody had a pleasant time. No space
went to waste, whatever. Some tried to sleep during the long night
that ensued while standing against a post and others tried to strap
themselves to the ceiling with their cartridge belts. In general the
scene was like unto a large meat-cooler in a butcher shop, with the
exception that the ship furnished life-preservers instead of
meat-hooks and the temperature was the extreme of zero.

Convoyed by several destroyers with piercing search lights, which
scanned the same waters that held the dead of the Hospitalship
Walrilda, which was torpedoed in the English Channel while conveying
wounded back to England, the King Edward started on its dash across
the channel at 8:30 p. m., on the night of the day that the Walrilda
met its fate.

The troops huddled together in the small hatches of the King
Edward did not have much thought where they were or whither bound.
They did not recall at the time that they were passing the Isle of
Wight and the spot in the English Channel that witnessed the defeat of
the Armada in the same month, back in the year 1588.

Sufficient unto the night was the misery thereof. Sea sickness came
over quite a few, which was duly abetted by the stifling air. Those
near the hatch-ways were fortunate in getting to the deck rails when
their inner recesses were most severely tempest-tossed. Those who were
hemmed in on all sides by human forms, who lay stretched on the
stairs, in hallways, benches and wherever there was an inch of space,
had a difficult time when they attempted to find a passage way through
the closely matted carpet of humanity.

Col. C. G. Mortimer, the regimental commander, came down from his
station on the deck and found it well-nigh impossible to get through
the corridor of the forward saloon.

Through the hours of the long night the King Edward was convoyed
across the channel at a speed nearing 25 knots an hour. Early morning
of Sunday, August 4th, drew the King Edward near the shores of
Northern France. At 2 p. m. the ship approached a harbor, but it was
not until daylight that those on board could see a sign on a warehouse
of a pier, bearing the name Cherbourg.



"So this is France!"

For the first time the boys of Battery D repeated this phrase in all
its reality as they stood upon elevated ground in the vicinity of the
British Rest Camp at Cherbourg and viewed the vista of harbor, four
miles distant, where, from the gang-plank of the King Edward they set
foot on French soil on Sunday morning, August 4th, at 8 o'clock.

The panorama presented the naval and commercial harbors, from which
Cherbourg, the seaport of Northwestern France, derives its chief
importance. The eye can see the three main basins, cut out of the
rock, with an area of fifty-five acres, which forms the naval harbor
and to which are connected dry-docks; the yards where the largest
ships in the French navy are constructed; magazines and the various
workshops required for an arsenal of the French navy.

A glance about reveals surrounding hills, in which batteries are
located in fortification of the works and the town.

A second glance toward the harbor shows a large naval hospital close
to the water's-edge, at the mouth of the Divette, on a small bay at
the apex of the indentation formed by the Northern shore of the
Peninsula of Cotentin. There is also at the mouth of Divette, the
commercial harbor, connecting with the sea by a channel. This harbor
consists of two parts, an outer harbor and an inner basin. Outside
these harbors is the triangular bay, which forms the road-stead of

The bay is admirably sheltered by the land on three sides, while on
the North it is sheltered by a large breakwater, which is protected
and leaves passage for vessels. The passages are guarded by forts
placed on islands intervening between the breakwater and the mainland,
and themselves united to the mainland by breakwaters.

Glimpses of the town of Cherbourg which the boys received as they
hiked the four miles from the docks to the rest camp, through narrow
and crooked streets, revealed no buildings of special interest, apart
from the church of La Trinite dating from the 15th century; a statue
of the painter J. F. Millet, born near Cherbourg, stands in the public
gardens and there is an equestrian statue of Napoleon I in the square
named after him. After reaching the rest camp the soldiers were
unable to get down to the town again, although they had been told that
the Hotel de Ville housed a rich collection of paintings.

It was at 10 a. m. when the regiment arrived at the British Rest Camp
at Cherbourg. Halt was made on a large parade ground in front of a
Y. M. C. A. hut. The boys stretched themselves on the ground while
search was instituted for the area the outfit was to occupy at its
second rest camp.

Rest had just been commanded a few minutes when the command to
"fall-in" was sounded. Everybody hustled to their feet, shouldered the
heavy pack and awaited the next order.

"About-Face" was ordered. And the regiment obeyed. "Rest" was next.
This was the first time in the history of the battery that it was
necessary to shoulder packs to execute an about-face.

The camp consisted of dome-shaped, sheet-iron barracks and tented
areas. After an hour's wait Battery D was assigned to the 13th row of
Section C of the tented area. Tents were pyramid in shape. Fourteen
men were crowded into each tent that was originally intended for

By laying in wheel formation, with fourteen pairs of feet meeting at
the center pole, the boys rested themselves on the board floors of the
tents that night. There was no room for packcarriers and other
paraphanelia in the tents. Most of the soldiers deposited their excess
luggage on the outside. About midnight it started to rain. There was a
scurry to get the equipment in out of the rain, which also disturbed
the sweet slumbers as water trickled in under the canvass or else came
through leaks in the roof.

Reveille sounded at 5:30 the next morning. Orders were given for packs
to be rolled preparatory to moving. A move was made from Section C to
row 19 of D Section of the same tented area. The remainder of the
morning was set apart for Battery D to take a bath. The soldiers' bath
had been a negligible quantity since leaving Camp Meade, with the
exception of some few who attempted to work up a lather with salt
water on the Morvada. To the boys, therefore, the prospect of a good
bath was hailed with delight.

No dressing room was attached to the bathhouse that was situated at
one end of the Cherbourg rest camp. Therefore the boys had to make
ready for the bath in their tents. With slickers and shoes on the
battery lined up and marched to the bathhouse, while the rain came
down and the wind was wont to play with the flaps of the raincoats, as
a battery of bare-legs was exposed to the elements.

Arrived at the bathhouse, it was discovered that the showers would
accommodate eight at one time. The first squad in line went into the
water sanctum, while everybody else waited their turn on the outside.

The showers consisted of three half-inch pipes suspended from the
ceiling. There were three lengths of pipe, each length being
perforated at two places to emit the shower of water. The perforations
comprised about four holes, each hole about one-sixteenth of an inch
in diameter.

The first eight who entered the bathhouse were eager to get under the
showers and consequently did not glance about to inspect the equipment
of the room. The eight soldiers braced themselves under the showers
and yelled for the man in charge to turn on the water. Instead of
being washed away by the force of the current, as the firmly braced
attitude of each gave evidence that such was to be the case, the
opening wide of the flood-gates let four needle-like streams of water
descend upon each figure.

The eight took the bath good-naturedly and as they passed out of the
bathhouse, making room for the next eight to enter, they passed word
along the end of the waiting line to the effect that it would be just
as expedient to take off the slicker and stand out in the rain, that
was still falling.

The same evening orders to leave the rest camp came forth. At 6 p. m.
the regiment was assembled on the parade ground and soon started its
march back over the four miles, through Cherbourg, to the railroad
yards of the Ouest-Etat railway, which skirted the docks.

Arrived there at 7:45 p. m., sections of French trains were assembled
ready to receive the soldiers. This assemblage of coaches was of
infinitely greater variety than those of English ownership. Third
class coaches were in evidence, but of greater import were the box
cars containing the inscription, "40 Hommes or 8 Chevaux."

Forty men or eight horses may have been the official capacity but when
forty soldiers with equipment C were assigned to such a car to spend
the night and several succeeding nights, all that was needed to make
sardines was a little oil.

Several sections of the battery were fortunate in securing third-class
accommodations, but the remainder prepared to settle themselves in the
box cars, the majority of which cars turned out to have flat wheels as
the journey started.

Daylight remained abroad for the first two hours of the journey;
while the cars jolted over the rails the boys sang and kept alive the
spirit. Then came darkness. No lights in the car. Forty men stretched
out in a small box-car. Incidently it might be added that a French
box-car is about one-half the size of similar type of car used on the
railroads in the United States. It wasn't fair to kick your buddy in
the face or get on his ear. The night, however, gradually wore on and
the towns of Valognes, Isigny and Manche St. Lo, were passed. Thence
out of the Manche department, through the railroad center at Vire, in
Calvados, the special, with its side-door Pullmans, rolled on, enroute
through Flers, Coutenne and Pre during the early hours of the morning
of August 6th. Daylight dawned as Alencon was reached and at 11:30 a.
m., Le Mans loomed in sight. A half-hour's ride from Le Mans and an
half-hour lay-over was ordered. The troops were allowed to alight for
the time. A supply of iron rations was also furnished each car from
the supply car of the special.

The next stop was made at Tours from 6 to 8 p. m. A short lay-over was
also made at Poitiers at 11 p. m. The troop special was then nearing
its destination. But few on board were aware that at the end of the
next thirty-four kilometers was Montmorillon, in the department of
Vienne, which was to be the stopping off place of Battery D for a stay
of several weeks.

The troop special of thirty-five coaches and box cars, pulled into the
station at Montmorillon at 1 a. m.; all was quiet about the station. A
majority of the soldiers were too tired to care about location. They
slumbered on as best they could in their box-car berths, while the
special was pulled in on a siding, to remain until daylight when the
order to detrain was to be issued.

Where Battery D Detrained in France After Leaving British Rest Camp
at Cherbourg.]

Building Marked X was Billet for Half of the Battery During the First
Month Spent on French Soil.]



Dotted with quaint architecture of 12th and 13th century Romanesque
and Gothic design, the hills of Vienne department, France, cradle the
crystal-clear and drowsy-moving waters of the Gartempe, a river, which
in its course winds through the town of Montmorillon, where four
thousand French peasantry, on August 7th, received their first lesson
in American cosmopolitism.

Montmorillon, where the boys of Battery D were billeted for the first
time in the midst of the French people; where they received their
first impressions on French life and mannerisms, lives in memory of
the boys as the prettiest, cleanest and most-comfortable place of any
the outfit visited during its sojourn in France.

Despite the fact that a feeling of strained hospitality attended the
reception of the 311th Artillery, the first body of white American
troops to visit Montmorillon, the cloud of suspicion was soon lifted
and four weeks of smiling August sunshine days, undarkened by
rainclouds, were spent along the banks of the Gartempe.

When the 311th troops alighted from the troop special early on the
morning of their arrival, the station and avenues of approach to the
town were guarded by American negro M. P.'s, members of the 164th
Artillery Brigade, who had arrived in the town several weeks previous
and had made themselves at home with the natives.

The 311th was not in Montmorillon many days before the explanation of
the half-hearted reception came to light. An element of negro troops
had started the story on its rounds among the guileless French
peasants that the white troops, who had just arrived, comprised the
"Scum of America," and that they (the negroes) were the real
Americans; the whites being the so-called "American Indians." As the
flames of gossip spread from tongue to tongue, admonition was added
that the white arrivals were dangerous and corrupt and the French
should refrain from associating with the new arrivals.

Thus there was created an intense and bitter racial feeling that
loomed gigantic and threatened open racial hostilities as the white
and colored American troops traveled the same streets of a foreign
village; were admitted to the same cafes and vied with each other for
the friendship of the French populace.

Street fights were not infrequent, while scenes in cafes were
enacted wherein white refused to sit in the same room with colored
troops or vice-versa.

Persisting in their set standard of chivalry, the element of the white
soldiers often took it as ordained to induce the French demoiselles to
leave the company of their opposite in blood. Many of the colored
troops were equally persistent, with the result that the breach of
ill-feeling gaped bigger, until official cognizance came to bear.

Within a short time the 164th Brigade was withdrawn from Montmorillon,
leaving the 311th to commence its active and intensive course of
training on foreign soil.

On August 7th, the day of the 311th's arrival, the troops waited at
the station for several hours while the billeting officers were
locating billets throughout the town. Iron rations were partaken of at
the station and everybody was glad that battery mess outfits would
soon set up shop and the American Q. M. system of rationing would be

The march through the town to the various assigned billeting districts
was started from the station at 9:30 o'clock. The batteries of the
regiment were scattered in various billets throughout the town. Every
vacant house, barn or shed that possibly could be pressed into
service, was designated as a billet for the troops.

Battery D continued its march through the town; across the cement
bridge over the Gartempe; into an octagon-shaped intersection of
public streets, lined with several three-story buildings, the
principal one of which gave evidence of being a cafe and bore the
sign, "Cafe du Commerce."

Opposite the bridge, the route was along Rue de Strasburg, where, in
the rear of the Cafe du Commerce, Battery D halted before a
three-story stone structure that bore signs of having been vacated for
many years.

The area billeting officer produced a large key, threw open the door
and half the battery was ushered inside. It immediately fell their
task to brush the cow-webs from the ceilings; gather up the fallen
plaster from the floor; sweep out several years' accumulation of dirt
and dust; while the old-fashioned shutters were pried open for the
first time in many years and the sunshine streamed into the rooms, to
drive away, to some degree, the mustiness of environment.

The other half of the battery was directed to a barn structure
about a block distant from the first battery abode. Clean-up
activities of similar nature were instituted in the barn.

About 3 o'clock that afternoon the barrack bags of the regiment were
received and distributed to the soldiers. The bags had been in transit
ever since leaving Camp Meade.

Arrangements were made with several French farmers to bring a quantity
of straw to the public square, where the soldiers, later in the
afternoon, filled their bed ticks. It was on a tick of straw, thrown
on the floor of the old dilapidated, vacated house, that one hundred
of the battery spent their nights of sleep in Montmorillon while the
other half occupied similar beds on the upper-lofts of the barn.

There were no formations the morning after arrival. The battery men
spent most of the time about town. It was strange to observe the
peasantry hobbling along in their wooden shoes, the flopping of the
loose footwear at the heels beating a rhythmic clap, clap on the
cobblestone pave.

Each day brought new scenes of peasant life. Quaintly and slowly oxen
under yoke were used on the streets to haul the farmers' grain to the
large public square, where, under the scorching sun the farmer and his
helpers toiled with hand flailers, thrashing the grain. Strange
looking carts, drawn by donkeys with large ears, vied with the
ox-carts for supremacy of traffic.

Along the river's edge were located public places for clothes-washing.
The peasant whose house adjoined the river had a private place at the
water's-edge where the family washing was done. The river served as a
huge tub for the entire community, the women carrying their wash to
the river, where, kneeling at special devised wash-boards, garments
were rubbed and paddled until they shown immaculate.

Washing was greatly increased at the river when the 311th came to
town. The hundreds of soldiers sought out washer-women. The peasant
women welcomed the opportunity of earning a few francs doing American
washing. The more active of the washer-women spent entire days washing
at the river for the soldiers. At first one franc was a standard price
for having a week's laundry done, but as days passed and business
became brisker, rates went up to two, five and in some instances

To the Americans the town of Montmorillon, as was the case of most of
the ancient towns visited in France, presented an impression of
isolation. Houses built during the 12th century with their high walls
surrounding and barricaded entrances, were greatly in evidence; houses
of such nature, history records, as furnishing protection in the days
when feudalism fought at spear-points. The stages and wages of war
advanced with the centuries, but not so with the ancient French town;
where the peasants live content with no sewerage or drainage system;
content to pursue the antiquated customs. To be thrown in the midst of
this 12th century environment was productive of lasting impressions on
the part of the American troops who were suddenly transplanted from a
land of 20th century civilization and advancement, to an old and
foreign soil.

The first night the 311th was in Montmorillon fire broke out in "The
Baines," an ornate and modern French homestead near the Cafe du
Commerce. Several officers of the 311th regiment had secured quarters
in the Baines. They were forced to vacate by the fire. Bucket brigades
was the only fire protection the prefecture afforded its citizenry.
The fire drew a large crowd of the new soldiers, a score of whom took
active charge of fighting the blaze; giving the Frenchmen a real
exhibition in the art of bucket-brigade fire extinction.

Time, however, was not to view French scenery. Training activity was
the official topic of interest. It was decreed that instruction in the
school of the soldier should begin immediately. Fifty per cent of the
regiment comprised new recruits, who had been assigned to the outfit
previous to departure from Camp Meade. It was necessary to begin the
training at the beginning.

Out from the town, among the open farm lands, a large grain field was
secured as a drill field for the battery. It required a thirty-five
minute hike from the battery billeting area to reach the drill field.
This hike was in order every morning and afternoon. The time on the
drill field was spent in learning the rudiments in much the same
manner as the training was started and progressed with the first
recruits at Camp Meade.

When 4 o'clock of each afternoon came, the order was established for a
swim in the river as the parting day's rejuvenator. Montmorillon was
the only place in France where the battery got frequent baths.

Saturday morning for the troops at Montmorillon was generally inspection
time. Inspections were held on the public plaza. Showdown inspections
were as exacting as Camp Meade days. Saturday afternoon and Sunday
were days of rest for those who were lucky enough to escape detail.

Regimental services were held in the public square on Sunday mornings,
while many of the soldiers visited the curious, two-storied chapel of
octagonal form and Romanesque style, that was built in the 12th
century, in which services were still conducted. The chapel is
connected with the ecclesiastical seminary that occupies a building
that was formerly an Augustinian convent.

The Church of the Notre Dame is another ancient landmark of
Montmorillon that held interest for the Americans. It, also, is a 12th
century building, built on a high slope, with its chapel undermined
with a series of catacombs. Trips of inspection to these subalterean
chambers, where the worship of the early ages was conducted, were
numerous and interesting to the soldiers.

Various schools for instruction of the officers of the regiment were
established at Montmorillon. A detachment of new officers from the
Saumur school arrived in town to take charge of the training work
while the regular officers attended the schools. Second Lieut. Sidney
F. Bennett of Derby, Vermont, was assigned to Battery D at this time
and was given plenty of work in supervising the morning drill and
battery instructions. Lieut. Bennett immediately won great favor among
the men. He varied his periods of drill and training with athletics.
"O'Grady," "Crow and Crane," "Belt 'Round the ring," and numerous
other sport contests were indulged in with great vim.

A battery kitchen, utilizing the field range, was set up in close
proximity to the two battery billets. Here the boys lined up with
their mess-kits three times a day. They sat out in the narrow French
street as they appeased their appetites. Gone were the mess hall
tables of Camp Meade days. Gone were the cots of Camp Meade memory.
Cheer was added, however, when mail from the United States and home
began to reach the outfit. The first despatch of mail to reach Battery
D overseas was at Montmorillon on August 13th.

Then on August 14th came the first overseas payday. The battery
members were paid with an addition of ten per cent for foreign
service. The first pay was in French currency, the rate of exchange at
the time being 5:45 francs to the American dollar.

When French peasants toiled a whole day for several francs and when
the pay of the French soldier was not equalling one franc a day,
the French, when the American private was paid $33 a month in
179.85 francs, gained the idea that all Americans were millionaires.
The result was the establishment of two standards of price in French
shops; one price for the French and a higher price for the Americans.

Souvenir postcards sold anywhere from 10 centimes to five francs
apiece. In the matter of fruits, peaches commanded one franc for three
during the peach season; apples sold two for one franc; while tomatoes
that should have sold for one franc a basket, brought one franc for

The soldiers were allowed to be on the streets until 9 o'clock each
night. Many spent their money freely. The wine shops did a thriving
business and as is usual in large crowds, the element was present that
was not satisfied with sampling the large assortment of wine-vintages
but indulged in Cognac. Strict disciplinary measures were immediately
adopted. Several of the first offenders, none of whom, however, were
from Battery D ranks, were reduced in rank at a public battalion
formation on the public square.

The cognac proclivities of the few endangered the privileges of the
many in having freedom to visit in the town at night. Battery
punishment was inflicted at times, which constituted carrying a full
pack on the back at drill formation or for a certain period after
drill hours.

Toward the latter part of August steps were taken to organize a
battery commander's detail. Lieut. Hugh M. Clarke took charge of the
instruction work. Special instruction was started in map and road
sketching, orientation and signal work. The battery in general was
also put through a strenuous course in the use of the semaphore and
the wigwag.

On August 21st the regiment passed in review on the large regimental
drill ground, under a burning sun. The swim in the river at the close
of that day was especially inviting.

While in Montmorillon Lieut. Sidney F. Bennett instituted a series of
battalion and regimental setting-up exercises. Calesthenics, to the
music of the regimental band, was the feature of the exercises.

The long hike to the grain field drill ground was abandoned after two
weeks and the village plaza was used for drill purposes. About this
time several French army sergeants were attached to the regiment and
instruction in gun pit construction was started. Details were kept
busy for several days digging gun pits near the regimental drill
grounds, but before the job was fully completed orders came for
the regiment to leave Montmorillon.

Present day reminiscences vouch for the fact that the stay in
Montmorillon was most pleasant. The weather had been ideal throughout
the month of August. Except for a detachment from the regiment who
replaced the negro M. P.'s no guard duty was necessary in the town.
During the first week of September, 1918, however, all that the boys
had to compare their lots and life in Montmorillon with was Camp Meade
regime. In the light of this comparison many expressed words of
approval that the outfit was finally getting away from such a horrid
place. Those who failed to see the good points of Montmorillon,
moreover, were without knowledge of what the future held in store for
the outfit in its journey through France.



La Courtine, a village in the Department of Creuse, France, is
surrounded by hilly country, the very nature of the hills affording
ideal artillery range. La Courtine, therefore, was the site of a
French artillery camp for many years.

The village is divided into two parts; that which is gathered around a
progressive looking station, and part is on a hill, which part is
called Hightown. Both parts are confined to one street, replete with
bars and cafes.

It was to La Courtine that the 311th was bound after leaving
Montmorillon. The French had turned the artillery camp over to the
Americans and thither the 311th regiment was sent to get active and
intense training in range fire with the use of the French 75's.

The troop special assigned to the regiment upon leaving Montmorillon
was made up of box cars, many of which had recently been used to
transport crude oil, evinced by the oil on the floor of the cars. Onto
every box car was loaded anywhere from 36 to 50 soldiers and a supply
of iron-rations for the trip.

Montmorillon was last seen at 10 a. m., September 4th, when the trip
of box cars began to jolt and bang and back and switch over the rails,
with the troops aboard making the best of the situation, reclining on
straw that had been secured to partly cover the crude oil.

The route was through Dorat, Gueter, Busseau and Feletin. La Courtine
was reached at 9 o'clock. As per usual the first few sections of the
battery were left at the station as a baggage detail, while the
remainder of the battery marched through the village to the camp on
the outskirts.

The camp consisted of concrete barracks, with no lights at night and a
majority of the windows broken. The floor and ceiling, however, was
solid, which, at least, meant dry shelter during the nights of
France's rainy season, soon to be experienced.

Besides having a majority of the window panes broken, the barracks
bore marks of having been the target for machine-gun bullets. The
exterior walls were pitted with holes. Battery D was not in camp long
before the members knew the story of the Russian revolt that had been
staged at La Courtine during the days of Russia's exit from the war.
When Russia withdrew from the fighting Camp La Courtine sheltered
Russian troops. When the crash came part of the Russian army encamped
there revolted against a portion that sought to remain loyal to
France. The result was battle. The revolutionists fortified the
surrounding hills with machine-guns and opened fire on the barracks of
the camp below. Many Russians were slain in the revolt and lie buried
in a cemetery in the camp. The revolt was finally suppressed by a
detachment of French cavalry dispatched to the scene.

Sleeping quarters at Camp La Courtine contained bunks made of two-inch
plank, on which the Americans used their bed-ticks filled with straw.

Battery kitchens were set up the morning after arrival. The kitchens
were located under a tented roof. Mess was enjoyed by the soldiers out
in the open, as there was no mess hall for Battery D.

Except a slight rain the first day at Montmorillon, the four weeks
spent by the outfit in Vienne Department were weeks of sunshine
without a single day of rain, save the slight shower on the day of
arrival. It was the declining days of the French dry-season. Advent of
the outfit at La Courtine was with the rainy season. It rained the
first night in camp and it kept raining almost continuously during the
two months the battery spent at range practice.

The weather, however, affected no training schedules. The first days
at La Courtine were given over to hours of intensive exercise, drill
and instruction in all lines of artillery work. Specialty schools were
started in orientation, telephone, radio, machine-gunners, etc.

It was at La Courtine that Bill Brennan and Joe Loskill, who
accompanied the advance detail of the regiment to France, rejoined the
battery. They had arrived at La Courtine several weeks previous to
attend the machine-gun school. The machine-gunners, who left the
battery at Montmorillon to attend the school, were also at La Courtine
when the battery arrived.

Instruction was continued from early morning until nightfall. A large
Russian cannon was discharged in the camp each morning at 5 o'clock,
also at retreat time each night. Reveille was a daily formation but,
as was the case at Montmorillon, retreat was suspended during the
months the war continued. All energy was devoted to essential
war-training formations.

Camp La Courtine housed a large and well-equipped American Y. M. C. A.,
presided over by a large and capable staff of secretaries. To a
majority of the troops the Y. M. C. A. furnished greater inducement
for an evening's entertainment than did the numerous wineshops
down town, that always stood open and ready to receive the cash of the
American soldiers.

On September 10th matériel began to arrive for the regiment. Within a
few days the regiment was equipped with French artillery equipment,
the field pieces being the famous French 75 millimetre guns.

It was the first time that a majority of the boys of the regiment ever
came in contact with a 75. During the period of training at Camp
Meade, Md., U. S. A., the old members of Battery D spent eight months
in learning the 3-inch American field gun. It was an entirely new
proposition when equipped with 75's and ordered to range practice.

Instruction was also started in equitation and harnessing. French
artillery harness presented many new problems to the Americans. Many a
soldier became highly exasperated in a vain attempt to untangle a set
of French harness.

About twenty horses were furnished the regiment at La Courtine.
Several motor trucks were also supplied, whereby sufficient traction
was secured to drag the guns out among the surrounding hills for
actual firing practice.

Battery D was not long in getting acquainted with the French 75's. On
September 16th, just a brief span after the first instruction on the
mechanism of the gun, the boys fired the first salvos on the range at
La Courtine.

September 19th was the beginning of what was almost incessant work on
the range. Rolling out at 5 a. m., the boys toiled on the range
through the rain and mud, returning to barracks at 6:30 p. m.

Training continued in intensity. September 30th was one of the days
reveille sounded at 4:30 a. m. The weather was miserable--rainy,
windy, dreary. The battery left the barracks at day-break and hiked to
the range with field-packs, to sleep in pup tents on range grounds, to
be on hand early the following morning.

Gas masks and steel helmets were additional implements of war issued
to the soldiers at La Courtine. Then followed hour after hour of gas
instruction. Gas masks were carried by the battery on all hikes and
drill formations. Besides adjusting the mask a countless number of
times a day, a regimental order made it mandatory that the masks be
worn for at least one-half hour continuously each day.

Influenza struck the regiment while encamped at La Courtine early
in October. On October 5th, the camp Y. M. C. A. was closed under
quarantine. The quarantine in the regiment was accompanied by strict
daily inspections. The barrack squad rooms were thoroughly cleaned and
disinfected each day and all blankets were taken out for a daily

There was a plentiful supply of ammunition at La Courtine. The battery
spent the days at range practice when thousands of dollars worth of
shells were fired at a great variety of targets from several different
battery positions that were established.

While the battery was fitting itself at range practice, specialists
were qualifying in all the attendant duties of artillery work. Toward
the last of October it looked as though the outfit would soon see
active service, as perfection in firing was rapidly being reached.

On October 15th the battery camouflage detail, headed by Sergeant Leo
Delaney, of Pittston, Penna., began the construction of camouflaged
gun positions on the range, after which Battery D participated in the
firing of a brigade problem.

Several days previous, October 11th, William Reynolds, of Pottsville,
Penna., was killed when acting as No. 1 man of the first gun crew, in
charge of Sergeant James Duffy, of Parsons, Penna. Standing in the
rear of the piece, Sergeant Duffy had given the command to fire. The
execution of the command was immediately followed by an explosion in
the gun's tube, a portion of steel flying and striking Private
Reynolds, almost decapitating him. Nicholas Young, of Pottsville,
Penna., acting as Number 2 man on the gun-crew, sustained a compound
fracture of the leg. Gunner-Corporal John Chardell, of Hazleton,
Penna., sustained injuries about the body which confined him to the
camp hospital for several weeks.

Private Reynolds was buried in the American cemetery at Camp La
Courtine on Saturday, October 12th, at 2 p. m., with military honors.
This first casualty overseas awakened a new cord of sympathy among the
battery members and it was with thoughtful determination they turned
from the grave of their departed comrade and went back to their tasks
of preparing for active war.

Training was continued amid rumors of early departure for active
battle sectors. As early as October 10th orders were received for the
outfit to prepare to move. Supply wagons, etc., were immediately
packed. Days passed, but no transportation was in sight. Each day
the boys looked for an order to entrain, but the R. T. O.'s were not
heard from.

Thrilling news of the final stages of the drives reached the boys
through the Paris editions of the New York Herald and Chicago Tribune,
that were sold in the camp each day. The news enthused the soldiers
and thrilled them with the desire to move forward and get in on the
grand finale. They had toiled early and late, in all kinds of weather,
to learn how, and it is natural to presume that a red-blooded soldier
yearned the opportunity to make use of that knowledge acquired with
such sacrifice and toil.

While waiting orders to move the battery took up a new position on the
range. A brigade firing problem including a night barrage was fired on
October 21st, with the signal details at work with signal rockets.

The brigade problem, which was the last firing the battery did in
France, ended on October 30th with the laying down of a defensive
barrage. The problem required twenty-four consecutive hours.

On October 28th, First Lieutenant C. D. Bailey joined the battery at
La Courtine. Lieut. Bailey was formerly of the ambulance service of
the French army and the S. S. U., No. 5. and at that time, he was the
only man in the regiment entitled to wear a French decoration.

Meanwhile the outfit was packed up in the main, and was ready to move
at short notice. With the approach of November the boys thought their
movement was assured and plans were laid for a "feed," consisting of a
pig-roast, to be held on November 2nd.

Late in the afternoon of November 2nd death claimed First-Sergeant
James J. Farrell, of Parsons, Penna., who died a victim of pneumonia.
Sergeant Farrell, who was a regular army service man, was buried at La
Courtine on Monday, November 4th.

The same day, November 4th, another battery member was claimed in
death by Influenza. He was Private Horace Fardon, of Paterson, N. J.,
who was buried on November 5th. That evening at 6:55 o'clock Private
First-Class Joseph A. Loughran, of Hazleton, Penna., fell a victim to
pneumonia. Private Loughran was buried alongside Private Fardon, on
the morning of November 6th.

Besides paying last military honors to their departed comrades the
boys spent the days previous to the cessation of the fighting on the
pistol range, developing their proficiency with side-arms.

On the evening of Wednesday, November 6th, a battery entertainment
was staged in the auditorium of the camp Y. M. C. A. A mock trial was
the feature of the entertainment.

On one of the trips to the pistol range, on November 5th, Private
William Van Campen, of Ridgewood, N. J., walked into a loaded hand
grenade, which he kicked. The resultant explosion caught him in the
knee and incapacitated him on the hospital list. Corporal James F.
Kelly, of Plains, Penna., almost collided with a grenade on the same

An order was issued, November 9th, for front-line packs to be rolled;
transportation was in sight. The inevitable delay resulted, however.
All transportation facilities were busy hauling ammunition to the
front where the Allies were giving the Germans the rain of fire that
caused them to think seriously and quick about an armistice.

Road Leading from the Village Street to the Artillery Camp. The Scene of
the Armistice Celebration.]

Officers' Mess Hall of French Camp Used as a Recreational Center by the
American Army.]



November 11th, 1918, was a memorable day to the populace of La
Courtine, France, as was the case in every hamlet, village, town or
city in the world, when the news was flashed that Germany had accepted
the terms of an Allied armistice and that fighting was to cease at 11
a. m. that day. The armistice that ended the World War was signed at 5
a. m., Paris time, and hostilities ceased six hours later, which was 6
o'clock Washington time.

The American troops encamped at La Courtine this eventful time
received the tidings with great joy. The roads leading from the camp
to the village were crowded with soldiers who paraded up and down in
hysterical good humor. The crowds thronged into the village where the
one main street was ablaze with celebration. The French populace were
out to celebrate with the Americans. The cafes did a land office
business. Wine flowed freely. The French kissed the Americans in some
instances as the celebrators swayed through the street. The band was
out. The crowds shouted, yelled, sang and cut-up all kinds of antics.

The scene, however, was similar to that enacted everywhere throughout
the Allied world. The end of the fighting was officially announced and
everybody was glad. The same hysterical good humor swayed the crowds
at La Courtine that prompted like celebrations throughout the United

Great as was the enthusiasm and celebration of November 11th, the big
gusto of celebration had been spent at La Courtine, as was the case
everywhere else, on Thursday evening, November 7th, when a premature
and unofficial announcement of the armistice was made.

Battery D spent the afternoon of November 7th on the pistol range.
About 5 o'clock the news quickly spread that a bulletin announcing the
end of the fighting had been posted at the Y. M. C. A. The bulletin
was up only a short time when it was removed, with the explanation
that it was unofficial, also contradicted.

But the anxious hearers, as was the case everywhere, wanted no
denials. The enthusiasm of the hour made people speak of the thing
which they had been hoping for as though it had come true.
Consequently the enthusiasm led to celebration.

It was a gala night in La Courtine. The days following brought sober
realization that the end had not yet come. Stern realities of war
loomed big in Battery D circles on Saturday, November 9th, when a
front-line pack inspection was in order.

A quiet Sunday followed, then, at noon on Monday, November 11th, came
the authentic news of the armistice signing. Joyous celebration
started immediately and assumed its peak during the afternoon when
special passes were issued to the soldiers to visit in the village.
The celebration continued until late at night.

Official recognition of the news was thundered from the cannon at Camp
La Courtine at retreat, when a royal salute of twenty-one guns was

The following day was also an off day for Battery D. Passes to visit
the town were issued to half the outfit from reveille to 3 p. m.,
while the other fifty per cent were given the privilege from 3 p. m.
until 11 p. m.

Word was received that the regiment was to entrain at La Courtine on
November 14th. Preparations were immediately made for a farewell
banquet. After great preparation by the cooks and the K. P.'s, the
banquet was staged at 6 o'clock on November 13th, with stewed chicken
as the mainstay of the menu. A number of the Y. M. C. A. girls were
guests at the banquet.

Thursday, November 14th, the regiment had the task of getting its
matériel to the station at La Courtine for transportation by rail to a
new billeting area of France. No one could guess where it was to be or
what the future held in store for the troops in the way of service and
training during the months that were sure to intervene before it was a
question of homeward bound.

The regiment was well supplied with matériel, but had no horses. A
number of motor trucks were sought out to haul the heavier of the
supply wagons. It was necessary for the soldiers to furnish the power
to drag the guns and caissons from the camp to the station, a distance
of over a mile.

The matériel was loaded on flat cars at the station. Then the soldiers
were ushered to side-door Pullmans once again. Bed ticks were not
emptied of their straw before leaving camp. Thus the soldiers entered
the box cars with their bed ticks as a mattress to recline on the
floor of the car.

The first section of flat cars and box cars with Battery D left La
Courtine at 2:30 o'clock. Another seeing France by box-car trip was

An improvement in mess enroute was experienced during this trip.
A flat car was used for the rolling kitchen. Hot meals were prepared
in transit. Back over the same route, through Feletin and Abusson, to
the junction point at Busseau, the troop special proceeded, reaching
the junction at 6:30 o'clock when mess call was sounded. Here the
first section of the train waited until 8:27 for the arrival of the
second section at the junction point.

It was dark when the trip was resumed. Deprived by the darkness from
sight-seeing privileges, all that remained for the troops to do was to
stretch out on the floor and try to sleep. The nights were long and
dark while traveling in a French box car.

During the night the towns of Jarnages and Montlucon were passed. The
train entered the Department of Allier, traveling Northeast, through
Commentry, Villefranche, le Montel and Moulins.

Daylight was breaking by the time Moulins was sighted. Stop was made
at Paray le Monial from 7:30 to 8 a. m., when breakfast was served
from the flat truck dining car.

The next day, November 15th, was spent traveling through a beautiful
stretch of country. The railroad ran almost parallel with the Boninoe
river, a branch of the Loire. Through pasture lands and farming
country, the road stretched along Palinges, Montceau, Changy, Beaune.
A lay-over for lunch was made at Nuits St. Georges at 1 p. m.

In the afternoon stop was made at Dijon, where the troops got a chance
to detrain and partake of refreshments that a corps of French Red
Cross workers served at the station.

Soon after leaving Dijon darkness fell upon the troop special. The sun
had not yet gone to rest. The famous tunnel between Sombernon and
Blaizy-Bas had been penetrated. This tunnel, on the road to Paris, may
be a note-worthy piece of engineering skill, but its designers
evidently never dreamed of a troop special of thirty or forty old box
cars, many with rust-corroded doors that could not be closed, whizzing
through; leaving the passengers to eat up the exhaust from the smoke
stacks of the locomotive.

At this time the troop train was headed Northwest, toward Paris, but
hopes of getting near Gay Paree were soon shattered. When Nuits sous
Ravieres was reached, switch over to another branch was made and the
direction then was Northeast, toward Chaumont, the A. E. F.
headquarters town.

Stop for night mess was made at Les Laumes, where orders were also
issued for the troops to get their packs ready as the outfit would
detrain in about three hours time.

A heavy frost developed that night and the troops almost froze in the
boxcars. After delay in getting started from Les Laumes the journey
continued over a considerable longer period than three hours. Laigne
and St. Colombre were passed and La Tracey, the detraining point, was
reached at 3 a. m., Saturday, November 16th, 1918.

Reveille was not sounded until 6 a. m. During the interim most of the
troops left the boxcars and built fires in the railroad yards, around
which they sought warmth during the early morning hours.

The hustle to get all the matériel from the flat trucks started at 6
o'clock. A section of a motor transportation corps was dispatched to
La Tracey to convey the regiment to its new billeting district. The
motor outfit was late in arriving, but finally start was made. Three
and four guns and caissons were attached to each truck, the truck
loaded with soldiers and packs, then for a thirty kilometer race
through the Marne Department in motorized artillery form. The last
detail did not leave La Tracey until 4 p. m.

The first details arrived at Ville sous La Ferte, a small village in
the Department of Aube. This village was the billeting center for the
2nd Battalion of the regiment. Regimental headquarters was established
at Clairvaux, four kilometers from Ville sous La Ferte. The 1st
Battalion went to Juvancourt, about a kilometer distant.

Farm lands and vineyards surrounded these villages. The inhabitants
were of the quiet peasant type. With nothing of interest and no form
of amusement, Ville sous La Ferte was a quiet place for Battery D. The
battery was divided among a score of barns, lofts, sheds and houses,
covering considerable length of a village street. A grist mill with
its water-wheel and mill-pond was situated near the building in which
the battery office was established. All formations were assembled in
the street in front of the battery office. Difficulty was experienced
during the stay at this place in getting the battery out at all
formations, especially those members who were billeted in the loft of
a barn at the extreme end of the battery street. As a remedy the
battery buglers were given the job of traversing the street each
morning and routing out the fellows.

It was mid-November. The days and evenings were getting damp and
chilly. Fires were comfortable things those days, but heating stoves
were unknown to the peasant homes of Ville sous La Ferte. The
houses were equipped with fire-places. The big question, however,
was to procure fuel. It was all the battery could do to get a supply
of wood from nearby woodlands to supply the needs of the battery
kitchen. At first the fellows started to make raids on the wood pile
that came in for the kitchen, but this soon had to be stopped under
necessity of suspension of the commissary department.

For many of the squads billeted in the barns and sheds there was no
chance for warmth as there were no fire-places. During the damp, cold
nights the only choice the inhabitants of those billets had was to
roll in and keep warm under the blankets.

To chop a tree down in the numbered forests of France was to commit a
crime, so the fellows who were in billets that did have fire places
faced a series of crimes to get wood. The inhabitants of such billets
took it upon themselves to devise ways and means to obtain fuel. The
occupants of one billet sent details out to root up old fence posts
from adjacent farm-lands; while in another instance eighteen men
housed in a billet borrowed several French wheel-barrows and at night
made a raid on a large pile of newly cut tree trunks which was located
a kilometer from the village.

The result of this night's work provided fuel and light for several
days in the billet of the raiding party. Light was another essential
feature. With candles selling as high as a franc apiece, letter
writing home was sadly neglected in many cases. So the receipt of an
extra letter written by the light of a log-blaze, kindled with wood
secured through great difficulty, has had to act as savoring
repentance for any misconduct employed in acquiring possession of the
means of light and heat.

The battery had among its equipment dozens of new horse-blankets. With
the exception of a few stray animals, no horses had been received by
the battery in France thus far. Several were in care of the outfit at
Ville sous La Ferte, where six horses caused as much stable detail
work as a complete battery of mounts occasioned at Camp Meade. The
main feature, moreover, was the distribution of the horse-blankets
among the troops in an effort to keep warm at night.

There was no room in Ville sous La Ferte to do any maneuvering, so the
guns and caissons were parked in a field and were not used during the
stay. The time of the soldier was employed in hikes and various forms
of athletics. Soccer developed as the leading sport and great rivalry
resulted in games that were played on furrowed ground of a large wheat

War was over, so official orders again gave birth to Retreat
formation, which was held with much disciplinary ado in front of the
Hotel de Ville at 4:15 o'clock each afternoon. Guard mount was also
decreed and last, but not least, regimental reviews came into their
own with great official solemnity.

On Thursday, November 21st, a wild boar hunt that had been planned by
the battery, had to be called off. A regimental review was to be held
at Clairvaux that afternoon.

The 2nd Battalion formed at 1 p. m. and hiked to Clairvaux with colors
flying for the big review. A mix-up in giving commands "flunked" the
first attempt at passing in review. The entire ceremony of dignity had
to be executed a second time. Close order drill then came into its
own. The following day, November 22nd, the battalion again hiked to
Clairvaux, where another review was staged and the regiment kept at
battalion close-order drill until 4 o'clock.

Sunday, November 24th, reveille sounded at 6 o'clock. Orders were
given to make rolls preparatory to moving. When the soldiers were
ready to move the order was changed. It was discovered that the motor
trucks would not arrive until the following day.

The motor transportation squad was expected to arrive early on Monday
morning. It was 9 o'clock at night when they arrived. Departure was
delayed until next morning, but this did not keep back an order that
called the battery out in detail during a heavy rain at 9:30 Monday
night to pull the guns and caissons through the mud, from the field
where they had been parked to the road, so that they could be attached
to the motor trucks. There was a great tendency to "duck detail" that

Ville sous La Ferte was finally left in the distance, Tuesday,
November 26th, at 10 o'clock. The soldiers and their packs had to pile
in the few motor trucks that were furnished. A few of the boys rode
the matériel attached to the trucks and had a wild ride. The rolling
kitchen of the battery, with ovens blazing away, covered the roads at
a fine clip behind a motor truck, with George Musial having his hands
full trying to manipulate the brake.

The trip continued through Maranville and Bricon. Chaumont was circled
about 4 o'clock and stop was made about twenty-one kilometers from
A. E. F. Headquarters, at a sleepy little hamlet of about fifty houses
and barns, called Blancheville.

Photo Taken at Mess Tent at Camp La Courtine, France.]

Capts. Clarke, Smith, and Hall in foreground.]



Blancheville, mud and mules are associated in memory of the holiday
season of 1918-19 that Battery D spent in France.

It was Thanksgiving week when Battery D arrived in Blancheville. The
auto convoy deposited the battery paraphernalia in the vicinity of the
old stone church and graveyard that stood along the main highway as
the landmark and chief building of the village. Nearby stood the only
other building of import--a stone structure that housed a pool of
water in the manner of the ancients. This was the public pool where
the women of the village came to do the family washing, as the village
was deprived of the natural advantages of a river. Watering troughs
surrounded this wash-house on two sides. Twice daily the cattle and
live-stock from all the village barns were led to this watering place.
Water for drinking purposes was also supplied the village from a
special fountain on the exterior side opposite the water troughs.

Mud was the chief characteristic of Blancheville. It was a farming
community of unusual quietude. Plenty of barns and roosts were found
in which to billet the battery. The natives were very hospitable. They
readily chased out the cows and the chickens to make room for the
Americans. The boys lived next door to animal nature. In one billet an
adjacent room housed the live stock and it was not uncommon to have
slumbers awakened by the cow walking into the sleeping quarters of the

While in Blancheville the boys got used to the largest of the French
rat species. During the hours of the night they traveled flat-footed
over the faces and forms of sleeping soldiers, also played havoc with
all soldier equipment stored in the billet. It may sound like myth,
but it is a fact that a rat in one billet dragged an army mess kit
across the floor--they were some rats.

On the road opposite the church stood an old, one-story stone building
that was built in its present form, eight hundred years ago. The roof
was overgrown with moss and one corner had started to crumble in from
old age. In this building Corporals James Cataldo and Michael A. Tito,
the battery barbers, set up a barber shop. They did good business
after they were able to convince the battery in general that the roof
would not cave in for another hundred years.

The first day in Blancheville was spent in parking the guns and
caissons, digging Latrines and the usual duties attendant upon
establishing a new battery home. It was also a job in itself to make
some semblance at getting some of the billets cleaned up and half fit
to sleep in.

Reveille for the first few mornings was at 8 o'clock. Thursday,
November 28th, was an off day for the outfit, except those on K. P.,
who got an extra job in preparing a battery Thanksgiving spread. The
day was spent by the idle mostly in hiking over the roads and visiting
some of the nearby villages where the other units of the regiment were
quartered. Regimental Headquarters, Headquarters Company, Supply
Company, Battery C, and the Medical detachment were at Andelot, about
four kilos from Blancheville. The 2nd Battalion Hqrs. and E Battery
were at Cirey-les-Mareilles; A Battery was at Vignes; Battery B at
Montot, and F Battery at Mareilles.

The town of Andelot, built in the shape of an amphitheatre on the
slope which forms the base of the hill of Monteclair, is situated on
the banks of the little river Rognon, 21 kilometers from Chaumont,
seat of the Department of Haute Marne.

On this hill of Monteclair, on which there was a strong-castle during
the years 101 to 44 B. C., Caesar established a camp. Under
Constantine (306 A. D.) Andelot became the seat of a province. A Court
of Champagne fortified the position of Monteclair (440 A. D.). On the
28th of November, 587, the treaty of Andelot was made between Gontran,
King of Burgundy, and Cnideberft, King of Austrasia, who was
accompanied by his mother, Brunehaut.

In 871 A. D., Andelot became the seat of a county, which was broken up
in the course of the tenth century, and which was a dependency of the
Duke of Lorraine. From 1201 to 1253 the fortifications of Monteclair
were strengthened and enlarged, the town was beautified and surrounded
by walls, which were demolished in 1279. Andelot became the seat of a
prefecture of which Domremy, the birthplace of Joan of Arc, was a

In 1356 and again in 1431 Monteclair was taken by the English. It was
returned to France in 1434. In 1523 a German army occupied Andelot and
the castle of Monteclair for a short time. There followed famine and
pestilence. Francis I, King of France (1494 to 1547) repaired the
fortifications and ordered a great amount of work to be done on the
fortress. During the religious wars (1337 to 1453) Andelot was taken
and re-taken by the Catholics and Protestants, its church was
burned and its bells melted down. Monteclair came again under the
authority of the King in 1594.

The fortress of Monteclair was dismantled in 1635, and in the
following year the Germans devastated the town of Andelot. The
fortress was finally destroyed in 1697. From that time until the
present Monteclair and the towns in its vicinity have been rich in

It was among these scenes Battery D idled the Thanksgiving day. At 5
p. m. a special feed was put on in the battery mess hall in general
celebration. The feasting was getting along nicely; everybody was
enjoying the menu of roast pig and prune pie and nuts and candy, when
it was suddenly discovered that a number of the candles used to light
the mess hall had suddenly disappeared. The aftermath was felt for
several days. A thorough search for the lost candles was instituted.
They could not be found. An official battery order was then
promulgated, stating that if the candles were not returned within a
certain time a very heavy battery guard would be put on for the
remainder of the stay in Blancheville.

About a half dozen candles had disappeared. When the ultimatum was
issued about two dozen candles of all sizes and descriptions were
returned to the battery kitchen. The guard never went on. Candles
continued to sell in Blancheville for fancy prices and the battery in
general suffered in its letter writing for the want of light at night.

Leather jerkins were first issued the battery at Blancheville on
November 29th, which was the signal for horses to be received. The
receipt of horses started a long and hard battle with the mud. To
multiply miseries mules played an important part in the life of the
battery. All told it is a long, muddy tale.

On Friday, December 6th, fourteen sick horses arrived in Blancheville
to be cared for by Battery D. The following day another consignment of
horses arrived. The majority of the animals were afflicted with the
mange. All had seen active service and were badly used up. Many
suffered from neglect, the troops having but little time for the
proper care of the animals while up in the front lines. Some were
minus pieces of their ears, which had been shot off in battle.

Two large, open artillery stables had been erected at Blancheville by
a previous contingent of troops, so Battery D had stable facilities.
The constant rain, however, soon played havoc with the ground in the
vicinity of the stables and it was not long after the horses were
received that the heavy traffic in the vicinity of the stables
created a regular sea of mud. Hip rubber boots were issued and it was
a grand battle with the mud each day. The animals had to be led
through the mud three times a day to the public water troughs in the

Besides caring for the horses the time at Blancheville was spent in
hiking, at physical exercise and in the enjoyment of various forms of
athletics. The manual of the pistol again came into its own and the
guns were not neglected, as gun drill was finally returned to the

At least once a week the battery hiked to Cirey les Mareilles, three
kilos distant, where the only bath house was located.

Thoughts of the Christmas season came to the battery at Blancheville
when the first Christmas boxes from the folks back home were received
during the second week in December. The boxes continued to arrive
until the festal holiday.

Sunday, December 15th, was payday for the soldiers in Blancheville.
This particular payday was of ill omen for the battery. A number of
the boys indulged too freely at the cafes in Chantraines, with a
to-be-regretted fracas resulting. A guard of military police was put
on at Chantraines following this escapade.

Monday, December 16th, thirty-five additional horses were received by
the battery. Considerable time was spent in getting the harness in
shape, especially the saddles, after which lessons in equitation were
again started, also a number of battery mounted hikes inaugurated.

Early in December announcement was made of a proposed horse convoy to
the Belgian border. The topic was discussed for many weeks, the
proposed trip having been scheduled and cancelled several times before
a convoy finally materialized. What the one hundred volunteers for
this convoy had to contend with during the trip is a tale of its own,
which must be related in terms of hardship, rain, mud, and mules.



What could be more pleasant or soothing to an adventurous spirit than
a trip in the saddle through the scarred and devastated battle sector
along the Lorraine border? This is what appealed to the boys of
Battery D when announcement was made at Blancheville early in December
that one hundred men were wanted to accompany a horse convoy to Longwy
on the Belgian border. One hundred volunteers were asked for, and it
was not long before the required number was enlisted from the military

The first convoy was to have left Blancheville on December 13th, but
at the eleventh hour the trip was cancelled. Various other dates were
set. Finally, on Wednesday night, December 18th, Capt. Smith assembled
the battery in the Y. M. C. A. tent that stood near the old church,
when announcement was made that the horse trip was to start on the
morrow and the names of the one hundred men who were to make the trip,
were called off.

In high spirits the volunteers made ready for the trip. Each man
packed a set of saddle bags; made ready a driver's roll with shelter
half and blankets. All the other individual equipment was gathered
together and left in the Y. M. C. A. tent, as rumor had it that the
regiment was soon to move to another billeting area and the order to
move might come when the horse convoy was on the road. Thus the extra
equipment was left with the remainder of the battery, on whose hands
evolved the task of remaining in Blancheville and caring for the
battery horses and doing the other detail work. The schedule worked
hardship both ways. There was more than enough work for those who
remained at the battery area, and those who volunteered for the convoy
were not long in realizing that they had a tough job on their hands.

The detail of one hundred men left Blancheville at 7:25 a. m.,
Thursday, December 19th, in five auto trucks. The trucks also conveyed
a saddle and equipment, also driver's roll, for each member of the

The auto convoy proceeded through Chaumont; then came a pleasant ride
along the Marne river, passing through the towns of Luzy, Vesaignes,
Rolampont and Langres. Stop was made at the latter fortified town,
where the soldiers visited the town and procured refreshments. The
trip was continued and at 12:30 p. m. the party reached Remount No.
13. at Lux, situated about three kilometers beyond Is-sur-Tille.

In fighting the mud at Blancheville the battery members thought they
had struck the muddiest spot in France. Nothing could be muddier, they
thought. But this thought was soon shattered when the volunteer convoy
reached Lux. Perhaps it was due to the Remount being numbered 13, but
the mud that surrounded it is beyond adequate description.

It was raining heavily when the battery arrived at Lux. Slimy mud,
three feet thick in places, covered the territory of the remount.

The original order was for the detail from Battery D to remain at the
remount over Friday and start with the horses for the Belgian border
on Saturday morning. Arriving at the remount the battery detail was
housed in a sheet-iron barrack with corrugated sheet-iron bunks. And
everything was covered with mud.

Thursday night, while the detail lingered at the remount, official
orders came changing the plan for the convoy party. Instead of taking
horses to Longwy the detail was ordered to start the following morning
to return to the 311th Regiment with several hundred mules.

Friday morning, December 20th, reveille was held in the rain at 5:45
o'clock. Immediately after mess the auto trucks were loaded and made
ready for the trip. The detail, in charge of Capt. Smith, and
accompanied by Lieutenants Yeager and Bennett, ploughed through the
mud to the section of the remount that housed the horses the convoy
was to escort.

Each member of the convoy selected a horse to saddle. The animals were
of various spirits. Many of the battery detail were recruits who did
not have the lessons in equitation at Camp Meade that the older
members of the battery experienced. After considerable difficulty the
horses were saddled and the convoy assembled in a large field to
receive the consignment of mules.

Many of the horses had never been ridden in the saddle before, with
the result that a regular wild-west exhibition transpired on the
field. Riders were thrown from the saddle into the mud, but all the
boys had their nerve with them and stuck to the horses, bringing them
under control.

Lieut. Yeager was induced by the remount officers to saddle a large
and fiery stallion, but after a brave attempt on the part of Lieut.
Yeager to break and ride the stallion, during which the rider was
precipitated into a large, muddy pool and covered with mud from head
to foot, change had to be made for another animal, the stallion being
left behind when the convoy started.

When all was set with the detail mounted, the remount attaches trotted
out 237 mules, tied in series of three.

The mules were divided among the mounted men, each man getting three
mules to lead, besides having to manage the horse he was riding. All
the mules were frisky, having remained unworked for a considerable
period. There was great prancing around as the convoy assembled. The
mules, in many cases, started to pull one way and the horse pulled the
opposite. Many of the mules were tied up in various speed
combinations. Ones that were always on the run were coupled with ones
that did not know how to step lively, or else the horse of the mounted
party was either too fast or too slow for the trio of mules the driver
had to lead along.

At 9:30 a. m. the convoy got started on the road. The convoy consisted
of 96 mounted men leading 237 mules, the rolling kitchen drawn by four
mules, in charge of George Musial, who had the assistance of Cook
Burns and two K. P.'s in preparing meals enroute. Five auto trucks,
carrying the forage and picket-line equipment, formed the remainder of
the train.

Slowly the convoy proceeded over the mud-covered road leading from
Lux. At noon stop was made at Fontaine-Francais, where the animals
were watered in a stream and given nose-bags. Then the rolling kitchen
came along the road and hot slum and coffee was served to the horsemen
stretched out along the side of the road. It was against orders to tie
the animals anywhere while on the march. Each driver had to hold his
charges at rein's length with one hand, and attempt to eat the slum
with the other hand.

After a two and one-half hour lay-over the march was resumed, a
distance of thirty kilometers having been set for the day. The route
was through Montigny in the afternoon and at 5:15 p. m., under a cover
of darkness the convoy reached Champlitte. Through the town the road
stretched, past a large chateau, then came a long hill, down which the
horses and mules galloped, wild with hunger and fatigue. It was a dark
night and difficulty was experienced in keeping to the unknown road.
In making the descent of the hill leading from Champlitte several
riders and mules almost struck the edge of the elevated road and had a
narrow escape from going mounted over a precipice.

It was about 6 p. m. when stop was made at the base of the hilly
road, where orders to remain for the night were issued. There were no
stable accommodations, or nothing ready to receive the animals. A
picket line had to be erected in a muddy ravine. The animals had to be
led to a nearby stream and watered by bucket as there was no shallow
approach to the stream. As the animals were watered and lead to the
hastily thrown up picket-lines they began to bite and kick each other.
A miniature stampede resulted until the several hundred nose-bags were
adjusted and hay shook out along the picket line. Then all horses and
mules had to be blanketed for the night. The detail secured the
blankets from the auto trucks and started the task, which took
considerable time and which was finally accomplished at the risk of
life and limb. A limited amount of picket line had been erected and
the mules especially were tied in very close proximity. To get between
them and blanket the frisky jacks was to dodge bites and hoofs in all

Mud was kicked up in all directions while the animals were receiving
attention. It was a tired, muddy and dirty lot of soldiers that
finished their tasks at the picket line at 11:30 p. m., and started to
march up the dark hill to Champlitte; to the old chateau that was to
house the troops for the night. It was midnight when the troops got
something to eat from the rolling kitchen. Then they stretched out on
the floors of the old chateau to rest for the night.

Next morning was Saturday. It was decided that the convoy would remain
over at Champlitte and rest for the day. There was but little rest,
however, as everybody was kept busy caring for the horses and mules;
watering, feeding and grooming being in order. When it came to
grooming the mud was caked thick on all hides.

It rained Saturday night. The guard detail at the picket line had a
merry time chasing mules that broke loose and started to roam over
adjacent hills.

All hands were up and on the job at the picket line at 5:30 a. m.,
Sunday morning, December 22nd. It was 8:30 o'clock before all sections
were watered and fed, the picket lines packed in the trucks and things
made ready to start. With the sections lined up on the road ready to
start, count of the mules was taken and it was discovered that five
were missing. An hour's wait resulted until all mules were present and
accounted for.

The drive continued through the rain, until 11:30 p. m., when the town
of Pierrefitte was reached. Detailed work in throwing up a picket
line in the yard of an old chateau and duties equally as strenuous and
similar to the first night's stop at Champlitte, were in order until
all the animals were cared for. Bean soup was served for the battery
mess and the night spent in the chateau.

During the night the rain turned into a sleet storm, attended by a
strong wind. The wind and the sleet caused a stampede at the picket
line. Morning found the picket lines completely demolished, and horses
and mules roamed all over the lot. They were tied in all shapes and
forms, the halter shanks being twisted in knots galore.

The battery men were up and doing at 5:15 Monday morning. It was 10 a.
m. before all the animals were captured and tied up properly. The
first section got started on the march shortly after 10 o'clock.
Sleet, rain and snow continued to fall during the day. Through large
expanses of open road, the convoy journeyed. The sleet drove in the
faces of the mules, causing them to gallop at top speed. The riders
had their strength severely tried and tested in keeping the situation
under control.

Stop was made about 3 kilos from the town of Bourbonne where the
animals were watered at a stream. The convoy entered Bourbonne at 3:30
p. m. and found to its great joy that the town housed an American army
veterinarian section and had stable accommodations. The stable
facilities lightened the work of the convoy and it was 5 o'clock when
the men went to the town to seek quarters for the night. The large
auditorium of the American Y. M. C. A. had been scheduled as the place
of abode for the night. When the outfit applied for admission a
conflict of dates was brought to light. It took great persuasive
force, bordering close unto mob rule, before the officious officer in
charge of the Y. M. C. A. was induced to allow the tired and muddy
party to break in upon the quietude of the few sections of troops
occupying part of the Y. M. C. A. for the night.

Before the convoy resumed the journey on Tuesday morning, December
24th, army veterinarians examined all animals in the convoy party.
Many loose shoes had to be fixed by the blacksmiths, while twenty-two
of the horses showed symptoms of lameness else had developed sores
that barred them from continuing the journey. The veterinarian section
also took over a number of the sound horses and mules.

The first sections got started from Bourbonne at 9 a. m. Twenty-six of
the men, under Capt. Smith, were detailed to take the lame horses to a
nearby remount and exchange them for sound animals. It was 11:30
when the detail of twenty-six left Bourbonne with the thought of
overtaking the remainder of the convoy.

The main convoy rode hard all day. It was the day before Christmas and
it was raining. Stop was made for the night at Clefmont, where stable
accommodations were secured for the horses, while the mules had to be

The detail of twenty-six that was following had difficulty in finding
the road the convoy had taken. It was dark when Clefmont was reached.
The main detail had sent out a guard with a lantern to locate Capt.
Smith and his detail, but the guard got on the wrong road; leaving the
detail with Capt. Smith passing out Clefmont in the blackness of the
night. By a stroke of luck, however, inquiries from French peasants
finally steered the lost detail on the road where the advance guard
with the lantern was located.

After caring for the horses the convoy spent Christmas eve in an old,
dirty, combination barn and dwelling. Reclining on bunches of live
straw that was found in the building, the soldiers dreamt of Christmas
eve back home, wishing they were there, instead of where they were.

Christmas morning, Wednesday, December 25th, dawned clear and cold.
Clefmont was left behind at 9 a. m., when the soldiers determined to
drive hard so that the trip could be terminated by noon. The route lay
through Longchamp. As the morning wore on a snow storm developed.
Through the snow the riders pressed on, until 1 p. m., when
Cirey-les-Mareilles was reached. Orders were to leave the majority of
the animals at Cirey. A detail of Battery E men were on hand to meet
the convoy and assist in caring for the animals at that point.

Relieved of their charges, the members of Battery D secured auto
trucks to take them to Blancheville. It was a relief to get washed and
cleaned up, as there was very little washing and shaving done during
the five days on the road. It was a pleasure, also, to be back at the
old stamping ground. And, to think it was Christmas. A few peaceful
hours during the afternoon and evening were enjoyed by the convoy
detail. A large amount of mail had accumulated while the men were on
the road. It was Christmas mail, in which cheering words were received
from the home folks. Christmas boxes despatched through the Red Cross
came into their own. It was a rejuvenated bunch that partook of
Christmas dinner in the battery's old mess hall at Blancheville at 5
o'clock that night.

[Illustration: BATTERY D ON THE ROAD
Passing Through a French Village.]

Battery D Homeward Bound.]

Home. At Last.]



During the month of January it was reported in official circles that
the 154th Artillery Brigade was to accompany the 79th Division into
Germany as a unit of the Army of Occupation. The artillerymen were
enthused with the prospects of joining their division and getting in
the midst of the big scenery. The movement, however, never
materialized. The outfit was forced to bear a disappointment like unto
the shattering of expectations of getting in on the finale of the

As has been recorded, as early as October, 1918, the instructors had
decided that the 311th artillery was in a position to take up active
front-line duties. Several weeks previous the infantry and machine-gun
regiments of the 79th Division had entered the fight and made their
famous attack on Montfaucon, one of the most difficult positions to
take in the Argonne sector. Twenty-seventh Division artillery had
furnished the support at Montfaucon. The 79th Division artillerymen
were eager to replace them and aid in the fighting of the division
along the Meuse river.

After the holiday season Battery D spent its time in Blancheville with
mounted hikes forming the mainstay of the schedule. Each day the
outfit looked for orders to join the division and proceed to German

The horses and mules brought to the regiment by the convoy, were
distributed to the various batteries. Driver squads were immediately
reorganized and great preparation attended all the hikes.

The latter part of January an official order was issued citing the
individual members of Battery D as entitled to wear a gold service
chevron, an indication of six months service on foreign soil. With the
award of the gold stripe came the selection of the Lorraine Cross as
the divisional insignia and the granting of leaves of absence to visit
the beauty spots of France, with Paris included in the schedule as a
possible three-day leave center. The first men left the battery on a
fourteen day leave, at Blancheville. A waiting list was established
and passes were issued in order of application. During the remainder
of the battery's stay in France names were on the leave list.

The famous Mediterranean Riviera was the favorite leave center,
although St. Malo and Grenoble were cited in official division
orders. Many of the members of Battery D got the opportunity to
spend a vacation in the Southern part of France, where the land is
sheltered by the mountains from the North winds, and lit and warmed by
a resplendent sun in a sky, the azure of which is seldom dulled by
clouds. Nice, Monaco with its Monte Carlo and a trip across the
Italian border near Menton, were included in the majority of the leave
itineraries. While en route to the Southern clime it was customary for
the soldier on leave to mistake trains; get on the wrong train and
find himself landed in the City of Paris. This, in most cases, was the
only opportunity the majority had of seeing the French metropolis,
although a number of three-day leaves to the capital city were granted
battery men.

Leave privileges in the A. E. F. kept the French railroads busy. The
demand for furloughs became so popular that troop specials to the
leave centers came into being and opportunity of individual travel was
curtailed. Scores, however, took advantage of the troop specials to
the land of vacation ease.

While Battery D was in Blancheville Lieut. Hugh M. Clarke was
transferred to the Supply Company of the regiment and Lieutenant Leo
C. Julian, of Lakeland, Fla., was attached to the battery.

The horses were the main care of the battery. Forage was scarce, which
caused the animals to become mean-tempered as they gnawed at the
hay-racks and discovered that about one pound of hay had to do each
horse a day while the forage scarcity lasted.

Many of the battery members received severe kicks while attending to
stable duties. The most serious injury through a kick was inflicted
upon Private Frederick M. Bowen, of E. Rutherford, N. J., who was sent
to the Base Hospital at Rimaucourt with injuries that separated him
from the outfit and sent him home as a casualty.

When the hikes became a daily occurrence at Blancheville stable duties
were set for the entire battery to share in. Watering and feeding was
done immediately after reveille was dismissed each morning.

On January 3rd the battery was ordered to pack everything to take to
the road. The rolling kitchen accompanied the battery caravan that
left Blancheville to return again to the village after a 7 kilometer
hike. A similar hike was held the day following, when it was announced
the regiment was to move forward and join the division for the trip
into occupation territory. The same day a detail of five men were
were dispatched to the new billeting area to make ready the new
battery location.

It was decided that the battery would proceed to the new area by
taking to the road in march-order. The battery was ordered to be ready
to move by January 9th.

On January 8th another hike with everything packed was accomplished,
the outfit getting back to Blancheville at 12:30 p. m. All the
matériel was left out along the road leading from the village that
night, so all that was needed for an early start the following morning
was for the horses to be hitched to the guns, caissons and

The battery left Blancheville at 7:30 a. m., Thursday, January 9th,
proceeding to Andelot where the entire regiment assembled on the road
for the journey. A detail of men were left at Blancheville to cleanup;
overtaking the outfit later on single mount.

After leaving Andelot the route was through Vignes and Busson; halt
for noon-mess was made at the latter place. A distance of 22
kilometers was set for the day's journey, terminating at the village
of Epizon, which was reached at 3:30 p. m. The regiment parked its
matériel and established its picket line in a large grain field, then
had to wait for two hours until the supply train brought up the
forage. The battery men found sleeping quarters for the night in the
barns and sheds of the village.

The outfit was astir at 4:45 o'clock the next morning and was moving
on the road at 8:30 a. m. Stop was made at noon at Soulaincourt, where
the 311th passed the 211th motorized French artillery regiment, going
in the opposite direction along the narrow road. In the afternoon the
regiment passed through the town of Montiers and went into park for
the night at 6 p. m., at Morley. The village furnished an abundance of
haylofts for the artillerymen to crawl into the straw for the night.

Saturday, January 11th, found the regiment ready to resume the journey
at 7:15 a. m. The trip continued through Le Bouchon, Serenier and
Stainville, the latter place being the noon-mess stopover junction.
Here the train of horses were watered by bucket. During the afternoon
Bazincourt, Haironville, and Bullon were invaded in order. The horses
were watered in the community watering trough in the village of
Combles at 3:30 p. m., after which the regiment proceeded to Veel and
stopped for the night. It rained heavy during the night, but the
outfit was fortunate in locating a number of army barracks in the village
that furnished a night's shelter.

Sunday, January 12th, it was raining when the troops answered reveille
at 5 o'clock. The rain turned into snow an hour later when the
regiment was ready to resume the journey. Under a canopy of snow the
troops passed through the city of Bar Le Duc. After leaving Naives in
the distance, stop was made at noon at Le Petit Rumont.

The cannoneers were forced to walk a great part of the distance. They
were also compelled to wear their field shoes on the march instead of
the rubber boots which the drivers wore. They trudged along the slushy
road with wet feet, while it grew colder and more miserable. It was
welcome relief when camp was ordered for the night at Violette and the
troops assigned to old hospital barracks for the night.

A farming community, named Benoite Vaux, in the Department of Meuse,
about twenty-five kilometers from the celebrated American battle
sector of Saint Mihiel, was selected as the new billeting district for
the regiment. Benoite Vaux was reached at noon on Monday, January
13th, after the regiment had been on the road for the day since 8 a.
m., passing through Belrain, Pierrefitte and Courouve.

Benoite Vaux was a quiet hamlet of a score of peasant homes and an old
stone church. The 2nd Battalion was stationed in and about the town;
Battery D was assigned to barracks that formerly were used as a French
army hospital. The 1st Battalion was scattered here and there on the
hills and in the woods outside the village.



Almost every outfit of the A. E. F., in France, adopted a mascot--a
real, live mascot, to be sure; not out of mere pet fancy, but the
natural outcrop of the American spirit of benevolence. Through the
Bureau of War Orphans of the American Red Cross, units of the A. E. F.
made contributions to the Adoption Fund for French War Orphans. The
aid in each case was administered by the Red Cross to the welfare of
an orphan.

The members of Battery D adopted little four-year-old Denise Ferron
during the month of February, 1919, as their mascot, and, by
additional contributions a ward was selected in memory of First
Sergeant James J. Farrell. The second ward was three-year-old Georges
Lemoine, who was much in need of assistance.

Denise Ferron, with brown eyes and brown hair, was born April 25,
1914, the daughter of Madame Vve Ferron, of Fericy, Seine et Marne,

Mr. and Mrs. Ferron had just established a butcher shop when war came
on. The father was then mobilized at the first call. He went to the
front where he was wounded. In 1916 at Verdun, he held the Croix de
Guerre and was mortally wounded in April, 1918.

When he joined his regiment his wife was left with no resources,
having given all of their earnings for the purchase of the butcher
shop. The difficulty to find meat and some one to help her, forced her
to give up her business.

She had another child, Simonne, who was born July 8, 1917. This
blonde, grey eyed brother of Denise was cared for by another A. E. F.
unit. As her children were too small, Mme. Ferron was not able to take
any work and her only means of support was a military allocation
amounting to 105 francs monthly.

Although his body rests in the American military cemetery at La
Courtine, France, the memory of James J. Farrell is revered in unison
by all who knew him and the family of Vve Memoine, Ville Billy, St.
Lunaire, Ille et Vilaine, France, who have come to know him in spirit
since the youngest son, Georges, was adopted. Georges Lemoine was born
February 1, 1915. He had five other brothers and sisters, viz; Pierre,
Louis, Marie, Marcelle and Anna, the oldest 15 and the youngest 6

These children were in a truly lamentable plight. Their father was
a farmer but on such a small scale that what he got from his small
piece of land was insufficient for the needs of his family. He was
conscripted but sent back because he was the father of six children.
He had never been strong, and during the prolonged stay at the front
tuberculosis developed, from which he died on May 18, 1917.

Unfortunately his wife contracted this terrible illness. But before
she realized her plight she had taken over a neighboring farm, for she
was anxious to shoulder her burden as well as possible. This overtaxed
her strength and hastened her decline.

These are passing incidents of the period the battery spent in Benoite
Vaux. Other incidents of import to the battery were the erection of
stables and the conduct of horse shows.

When the outfit arrived at Benoite Vaux there were stable
accommodations for some of the batteries encamped out in the woods but
Battery D, stationed in the village, was without accommodation for the
horses. For the first few weeks of the stay the horses were kept out
in the open on picket lines. The weather and the mud became very
severe and temporary stables were secured in a wooded section near
where Battery C was stationed. These stables were about two kilometers
from the battery billets. While the horses were stabled there the
soldiers had to hike the two kilometers three times a day and drive
the horses to the watering troughs in the center of the village.

Orders were soon issued for the battery to build stables in the
woodland on the opposite side of the road from the battery quarters.
The ground selected as the site was very muddy. The first duty,
therefore, was the opening of a stone quarry and the hauling of many
loads of cracked stone to form the base of the new stable. Between the
work of building the stables and preparing for the horse shows, the
time of the troops at Benoite Vaux was well occupied.

On February 21st, the 2nd Battalion of the 311th conducted a Horse
Show to pick entries for the regimental Horse Show which was
announced. In this show Battery D carried off a good share of the
ribbons. John E. Jones, of Hazleton, Penna., was awarded the blue
ribbon and a cash donation of francs, as first prize winner for
individual mounts. Concetti Imbesi, of Scranton, Penna., captured the
second place in this event and was awarded the red ribbon. Imbesi was
a prize winner in the hurdling, taking the yellow ribbon.

For the entry of 75 mm. gun and caisson with personnel, Battery D
took second and third places. The 2nd section of D took the red ribbon
and the 1st section received the yellow decoration. Each battery had
six mounted sections in this event. Battery F took first in this

The battalion, as well as the regimental show, was held on a specially
constructed course between Benoite Vaux and Issoncourt.

In the regimental show, which took place on Monday, February 24th,
John E. Jones was adorned with the blue ribbon for guidon mounts.
Jones also finished third in the regimental hurdles, in which event
Imbesi also cantered from the track with the blue ribbon on his

The officers of Battery D added their share to the trophies of the
day. First Lieutenant C. D. Bailey, in the officers' single mounts and
hurdles, captured second place in both events. The 2nd section of 75
mm. gun and caisson, the Battery D winner in the battalion show, was
ruled out of the regimental decision. Battery A took first in this
event, while the 1st section of Battery D got the yellow ribbon.

The Divisional Show was held at Pierrefitte on Thursday, February
27th. The best Battery D could do in the divisional competition was a
good record of two third places with the yellow ribbons. The show was
conducted in inclement weather, a combination of rain, hail and snow
worrying many of the high-spirited chevaux as they walked, trotted and
cantered over the course. Jones was judged third for guidon mount and
Capt. A. L. Smith got third for officer's saddle horse.

The official standing of the organizations in the regimental show was
as follows:

  Headquarters Company        27
  Battery D                   18
  Battery B                   18
  Battery F                   13
  Supply Company              10
  Battery E                    7
  Battery A                    5
  Battery C                    5
  Medical Detachment           0

The points scored at the Divisional Show were:

  311th Field Artillery                       38
  310th Field Artillery                       29
  315th Infantry                              25
  313th Infantry                              15
  304th Signal Battalion                      10
  304th Sanitary Train                         8
  154th F. A. Brigade Hqrs.                    6
  Headquarters Troop                           6
  314th Infantry                               6
  79th Military Police Company                 5
  311th Machine-Gun Battalion                  5
  316th Infantry                               3
  312th Machine-Gun Battalion                  3
  158th Infantry Brigade Headquarters          3
  304th Ammunition Train                S. O. L.

The Ninth Army Corps held a Horse Show at Lerouville, March 21, 1919,
with the 79th, the 88th and the 9th Army Corps Detachment, competing.
Honors were awarded as follows:

  79th Division                       137 points
  88th Division                        87 points
  9th Corps Det.                       26 points

At this show Jones, of Battery D, won third prize in the quarter mile

The horse shows entailed a large amount of work. The soldiers were
kept busy shining harness, grooming horses and painting matériel. The
road between Benoite Vaux and Issoncourt, where the battalion and
regimental shows were held, was a stretch of mud. It was a serious
proposition to get the horses to the show-course without having them
look as if they had taken a mud bath.

In the regimental show Arthur H. Jones, familiarly known to the
battery members as "Boundbrook," the name of the New Jersey town he
claims as home, had entered the battery water cart in the show. The
water cart was one of the most valuable of battery vehicles. While at
Benoite Vaux all the water for drinking and cooking purposes had to be
hauled to the battery kitchen from a well about a kilometer distant.

"Boundbrook" Jones had charge of the cart, driving to the well for
water several times each day. "Boundbrook" also prided himself as
having the best horse of any of the water carts in the regiment. When
it came time for the regimental horse show Jones was certain that
his charge would carry off first prize in the water cart entry.

To the great chagrin of "Boundbrook" Battery D's cart was disqualified
by the judges because it did not have the proper spigots attached to
the water tank. Jones drove back to Benoite Vaux in a dejected mood.
Meeting Lieut. Bailey he exclaimed: "Say, Lieutenant, I thought this
was a horse show and not a plumbing show."

During the stay in Benoite Vaux the Battery members took advantage of
every opportunity afforded to visit battle sectors. St. Mihiel was
visited by many, while Verdun, with its underground city, and the
country in that vicinity was also explored to great extent. The
soldiers were granted mounted passes at times, which entitled them to
saddle battery horses to go on a day's sight-seeing trip.

During the latter part of February Capt. Smith was ordered to Paris on
temporary duty in the Inspector General's Department. Lieut. Yeager
and Lieut. Julian were also detached from the battery at Benoite Vaux.
Lieut. Yeager gained admission to an English University, while Lieut.
Julian was admitted to a French institution under the A. E. F.
educational plans.

Capt. Perry E. Hall, of Springfield, N. J., was assigned to the
command of D Battery when Capt. Smith was ordered to Paris. First
Lieut. Frank J. Hamilton, who had been associated with the battery at
Camp Meade, was reassigned to the organization from Headquarters
Company of the regiment, during the early part of March, 1919.

Private Stuart E. Prutzman, of Palmerton, Penna., left the outfit at
Benoite Vaux to attend a French university. Private William E.
Bachman, of Hazleton, Penna., was a successful applicant to the
A. E. F. University that was established at Beaune.

The daily sick call of the battery was exceptionally large at Benoite
Vaux. Colds and cooties played havoc with the boys for several weeks.

Another passing incident connected with the life at Benoite Vaux was
the Divisional Maneuvres that were planned with great enthusiasm but
which materialized rather humorously. The battery in general did not
enjoy this drama. The maneuvres were conducted with guidon-bearers
representing the batteries for the benefit of the Field Officers, who
consumed much paper and speech in issuing a multitude of orders to
guide the movements of the guidon-bearers as the latter represented
the entire regiment, assuming various strategic formations on a well
planned field of bloodless battle.

Lieut. Yeager, before being detached from the battery, and Cpl.
Thomas J. Brennan, of Pottsville, Penna., were candidates for the
divisional foot ball team that played at Souilly with a number of
other divisional elevens. Philip J. Cusick, of Parsons, Penna., the
battery's favorite pianist, was selected to make a tour with the
regimental minstrel show that was put on to tour the circuit of
A. E. F. playhouses. Cusick was recalled to the battery the latter
part of February when he received notice of his early discharge from
the army on account of the death of his father.

The sickness that laid its hand heavily on the men of the battery at
Benoite Vaux also affected the horses. The rain that fell almost
daily, kept the mud knee-deep and the roads slushy. The well members
of the battery toiled hard to complete the stables and save the horses
from cruel exposure to the weather. The stables were completed in
February and were in use long enough for an order to be issued to
clean them out by way of demonstration, then the battery was ordered
to proceed to another billeting district. It was announced about this
time that the 311th regiment was to sail for home in June.

The siege of sickness claimed in death two of Battery D's men, who had
been admitted to the base hospital at Commercy.

Private Patrick J. Dooling, of Metuchen, N. J., died on March 6, 1919,
with Broncho-pneumonia. He was buried in the Post Cemetery at

Corporal Guy W. Mortimer, of Pottsville, Penna., died on March 8th and
was buried in the same cemetery as Private Dooling.

In March regimental post schools were opened near Souilly. A number of
Battery D men were admitted to the various courses. The boys had been
at school for only one week when they were ordered back to the outfit,
which was then moving towards Commercy.

Serving Mess Along the Road While on a Move from Benoite Vaux to
Lerouville, France. Reproduced from Official Photo of the Signal
Corps. U. S. A.]

Showing Battery D Near Courouve, France. Reproduced from
Official Photo of the Signal Corps. U. S. A.]



When the battery left Benoite Vaux the soldiers knew they had started
on the first lap of their "homeward bound" trip. Weeks of hard work
were yet before the battery, but the thought of getting home in June,
or possibly earlier, as rumor had it that the A. E. F. sailing
schedules were operating several weeks ahead of time, kept up the
spirit of the artillerymen.

The trip from Blancheville was made by road. A short journey on March
19th found Battery D in Boncourt, a small town near Commercy. The
other batteries of the regiment moved to nearby towns. On March 31st,
Lerouville, Pont sur Meuse and Boncourt held the regiment between

On April 1st Battery D was ordered to make another trip overland. The
trip required three days. The first night's stop was made at Ligny en
Barcis, a large town where the entire regiment found accommodation and
the boys enjoyed themselves for the night. The second night the
regiment had to scatter for billeting at Bure, Echenay, Saudron, and
Guillaume. Battery D was quartered in Bure.

The journey was southward in the direction of Andelot. It was one trip
the soldiers enjoyed. It didn't rain during the three days enroute.
The end of the third day found the battery in Cirey les Mareilles, the
town near Blancheville in which district the outfit was previously
billeted. Cirey les Mareilles housed E Battery when D was at
Blancheville. When the regiment returned to the old stamping ground
Batteries D and E were billeted at Cirey. The Supply Company of the
regiment was billeted in Blancheville during this stay. Regimental
Headquarters Company and Battery A established themselves at
Briancourt, Battery F at Mareilles, Battery B at Rochfort, and Battery
C at Chantraines.

While at Boncourt the matériel of the regiment was inspected by an
ordnance officer and passed inspection. Before the matériel was to be
finally turned in, however, a big review before General John J.
Pershing, Commander in Chief of the A. E. F., was to take place.

Battery D left Cirey les Mareilles at noon, Friday, April 11th,
proceeding to and arriving on the reviewing field at Orquenaux at 4:30
p. m. It was 8:30 o'clock before the horses were cared for and a
battery of dog tents erected on the field, where the soldiers spent
the night. It did not rain during the night, but the following
day, when the review was being staged, it rained in torrents.

The review started at 10:30 a. m., Saturday, April 12, 1919. First the
outfit stood inspection mounted but not moving. Then the divisional
march in front of the reviewing stand started. It was a grand military
sight to see an entire army division together on one field, at one
time, with all equipment. It was late in the afternoon when the review
ended by which time all the soldiers were thoroughly soaked by the

It was 4 o'clock when Battery D left the reviewing ground, and
hastened on its way to Andelot. The entire distance was covered at
what was almost a steady trot. Andelot was reached at 7 p. m. It was a
wet and tired battery, but the rain and fatigue were soon forgotten
when orders were issued for all matériel to be turned in at Andelot,
to be delivered to the railhead at Rimaucourt. Despite the fact that
everybody was drenched to the skin, also cold and miserable, happy
smiles lit the faces of all when farewell was bid the guns and
caissons. The soldiers, in a happy mood, walked from Andelot to Cirey
les Mareilles, singing and whistling.

During the following week the horses and practically all the equipment
was turned in and preparations made for the trip to the embarkation
port. Everything in the line of equipment that was not needed, was

On Monday, April 7th, another attempt was made by the regimental
officers to establish a post school near Neuf Chateau. A number of
Battery D men were sent to attend the school. The school, however, was
broken up the first day of its existence, an official order returning
the scholars to their respective commands. Orders to detrain for an
embarkation center were momentarily expected.

On Saturday, April 19th, the regiment entrained at Rimaucourt, bound
for the port of St. Nazaire, which was to be the exit to the land of
home. The trip was made by box car, the route being through Bologne,
Chaumont, Langres, south of Nevers, through Angers and Nantes. Battery
D continued its journey until Camp Montoir, eight kilometers from the
port, was reached at 4:45 p. m., April 21st.

Sergeant Koenig and Corporal Shafer were the busiest men of the
battery during the stay at Camp Montoir. Yards and yards of paper work
had to be completed before the outfit was finally cleared and ready to
walk up the gang plank. The battery office force worked day and
night and established a new record in getting a battery sailing list
o. k'd.

The stay at Montoir was pleasant despite the fact that physical
inspections were endured in great number and all soldiers and clothing
had to go through a thorough process of cootiizing. The camp was well
equipped with recreational centers where the soldiers enjoyed their
idle hours.

Various detail work was assigned the battery while at Montoir. Details
assisted in the erection of a new theatre on the camp grounds. Drill
and physical exercise periods were in order when examinations and
inspections lulled. After passing in a brigade review before Brigadier
General Andrew Hero, on Friday, May 9th, the outfit was declared ready
to board the next ship that docked at the port of St. Nazaire. On
Monday, May 12th, the boys changed what francs they had left, into
United States currency. Then they were ready to say good-bye to

Reveille sounded at 4 a. m., on Wednesday, May 14th. Nobody slept in
that morning. Rolls were made in short order and the battery area
policed-up. At 6 a. m. the regiment left Camp Montoir on an eight
kilometer hike to St. Nazaire, which port was reached at 8:30 a. m.

The U. S. S. Edward Luckenbach was lying at anchor in the basin at St.
Nazaire. The vessel had been coaled and supplied for the return to
American shores. In the morning of May 14th the Edward Luckenbach
waited for its troop passengers before setting sail.

After the soldiers waited on the pier for some time the huge
gang-planks were extended and the regiment started its march to the
decks of the ship. The gang-planks were lifted at 11 a. m. The ship
was loosened from its moorings and slowly piloted through the
congested basin. Slowly the transport passed the draw bridge, through
the locks and out into the wide expanse of bay. It was 2:10 p. m. when
open water course was reached.

The U. S. S. Edward Luckenbach carried 29 officers and 2,247 enlisted
men, including 14 officers and 1,338 men of the 311th Field Artillery:
8 officers and 547 men of the 314th Machine Gun Battalion, and three
casual companies.

Capt. Perry Hall was the only Battery D officer able to find
accommodation on the battery's transport. All the other officers had
to wait for other transportation. Capt. A. L. Smith rejoined the
the regiment at St. Nazaire and was assigned as regimental adjutant.
He accompanied the troops on the Edward Luckenbach.

Late in the afternoon on the day of set-sailing the vessel was stopped
to allow the pilot to be taken off into a sail boat. Mine sweepers
were also let down on both sides the vessel. Without convoy and with
freedom of light at night the transport pushed its way through the
waves that formerly were in the danger zone. The mine sweepers
continued to comb the waves for any stray mine missiles that by chance
might have still floated from war operations.

No difficulty was encountered, however, and the danger zone once
passed, the trip continued at an average rate of 9 knots an hour. The
Edward Luckenbach was a 6100 ton cargo vessel converted into a
transport for the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. It was manned
by an American naval crew. The vessel was an oil burner and trouble
was experienced with the engines, whereby the speed of the vessel was
retarded. It was feared at times that the engines would give out
before port was reached. Slow, but sure the troops were brought to
friendly shores.

It might be noted in passing that on the next trip made by the Edward
Luckenbach as a transport, the vessel became crippled through the
breaking of her port shaft and her main journal and had to be towed
for 600 miles into the harbor at South Boston, Mass.

Outside of the monotony, the trip was an uneventful one. The first two
days were attended with fine weather and calm sea, but the third day a
rain and wind storm developed. Bunks, down in the hatch, collapsed and
things in general were topsy turvy all night. Sea sickness was
rampant. It was a case of six meals a day for the next three or four
turns of the clock--three down and three up.

The high sea gales blew for several days in succession. Mess line was
the only formation of the day while K. P.'s and Hatch cleanup were the
only details furnished.

After thirteen days on the water, land was sighted late in the
afternoon of Tuesday, May 27th. It was a welcome sight to the soldiers
to see New York's famous sky-line in the distance. A mist hung over
the harbor and it was 5 p. m. when the outline of the Statue of
Liberty became plainly discernible. As the Edward Luckenbach was
piloted through the roadway of commerce that thronged the harbor, the
U. S. S. Leviathan steamed majestically seaward, carrying a cargo of
soldiers to France to relieve members of the Army of Occupation.

Following the triumphal entry into New York harbor, the vessel
cast another anchor and remained undocked for the night. Thus the boys
spent one night within the beam of Miss Liberty, whose drawing power
had been distinct in memory for many a weary month in France.

A big welcome had been planned for the soldiers on the Edward
Luckenbach. One of the police patrol tugs, bearing the sign: "The
Mayor's Reception Committee," came out to meet the transport. The
river tug had as passengers a band, besides many friends and relatives
of soldiers aboard the transport. A noisy welcome home was sounded as
the patrol boat encircled the steamer several times.

Cheers, and tears also, greeted the 311th boys when the Herman
Caswell, a water front yacht, that had been chartered by three hundred
excursionists from the Hazleton, Wilkes-Barre, and Scranton districts
of Pennsylvania, encircled the Edward Luckenbach, with St. Ann's Band
of Freeland, Penna., on board, playing "Home, Sweet Home."

The three hundred excursionists, who had journeyed from the Anthracite
fields of Pennsylvania to welcome the 311th boys, had a difficult time
to locate the Edward Luckenbach. At 6 o'clock that night they sailed
out to find the vessel, reported as advancing past Ambrose Channel.
They traversed the entire waterfront, both on the North and East River
sides, before the hospital ship Comfort located the transport by
radio, up the Hudson. The excursion delegates stayed near the
transport until dark.

It was with rejuvenated spirits that the soldiers spent their last
night on board the transport, lying in New York harbor. On Wednesday
morning, May 28th, the troops debarked at Pier 6, Bush Terminal,
Brooklyn. Only a few of the friends and relatives got to see the
soldier boys at the terminal. While the soldiers lingered at the
terminal, partaking of refreshments furnished by the Red Cross and the
welfare associations, the crowds beat the ferry boat that carried the
soldiers to Jersey City and formed two lines through which the boys
passed to entrain for Camp Dix, N. J.

Plans were under way to hold a Seventy-Ninth Division parade in
Philadelphia, Penna., but the boys voiced protests against being held
in camp, with the result that the work of putting the outfit through
the process of sterilization and cootiization was expedited.

After going through the "delouser" at Camp Dix, Battery D was moved to
another section of barracks, near the discharge center. Clerical
details were sent to the discharge center, known as the "madhouse,"
each day, to assist in getting out the paper work for official
discharge of the outfits scheduled for muster out before Battery D.

Battery D was officially discharged from the United States Army
Service on May 30th, 1919, when all its members were assigned to
various discharge units. On May 30th the soldiers whose homes were in
Western States, were detached from the battery to be sent to Western
camps for discharge.

Those who were scheduled to remain at Dix to receive their discharge
papers, their pay and the $60 bonus, idled about the camp until
Wednesday, June 4th, when they were called to the discharge center to
be paid off. It required a long wait before the members of the casual
detachments that once formed Battery D were admitted to the Central
Records office.

The soldiers "beat it" from camp as soon as they had the coveted
discharge certificates. The outfit separated in driblets during the
day. The first ones called got clear of military service in the
morning, while others were not called until late that afternoon.

By nightfall of June 4th, 1919, however, Battery D members, for the
main part, were headed for HOME, to take up the thread of civilian
life where they had severed it months before when they answered the
call of selective service.






Its Origin and Its Significance.

       (Extracts from a Document)
       Written from data furnished
          E. F. HENRI VIARD
        B. A. Paris University
 Late London Correspondent of "Le Journal"
Sometime Technical Translator to the Ordnance
          Department A. E. F.

The Lorraine Cross, official insignia of the Seventy-Ninth Division,
United States Army, was adopted shortly after the armistice was

Despite the fact that the Seventy-Ninth Division Artillery did not
share in the fighting with the rest of the division, the artillerymen
were accorded the privilege of wearing the emblem.

In all its war operations, the Seventy-Ninth Division faced the enemy
in Lorraine, the province which the United States was pledged to win
back for France.

Victory, in the face of stubborn opposition, crowned the efforts of
the Seventy-Ninth Division. It was only appropriate, therefore, that
the division should select as its emblem the ancient symbol of
victory, The Lorraine Cross.

The divisional insignia was worn on the left sleeve of the uniform
blouse at the shoulder.


A national emblem of the independent Duchy of Lorraine for centuries,
and even now a distinctive cognizance of the Border Province of
France, the double traverse cross, known as the Cross of Lorraine,
forms part of the armorial bearings of no less than 163 noble
families. And several military units engaged in the world war adopted
the cross as an emblem. These units include, besides the Lorraine
Detachment of the French Army, the Seventy-Ninth Division.

Before its adoption as an emblem by the reigning house of Lorraine,
the double traverse cross had a long and interesting history.
Important in the history of the development of the shape of the Cross
with its two beams, the design being Byzantine and emblematic of the
triumph of Christ over Death, are ancient double traverse crosses,
each containing fragments of the Real Cross of the Crucifixion. They
are preserved in different sections of France.

The double traverse of the Cross of Lorraine comes from the
substitution, for the Titulus, or inscription originally used to mark
the Cross upon which Christ was crucified, of a plain horizontal arm.
The origin of the double traverse cross is Eastern, and, students of
the subject point out, it undoubtedly represents the Jerusalem
Cross--the True Cross--with its main horizontal beam and the Titulus,
represented by a plain beam in the Cross of Lorraine.

Reliquaries containing parts of the Red Cross upon which the Savior
was crucified, including the reliquaries in Poitiers and Limoges, are
double traverse in form. On an enamelled plate in the Treasury of Graz
Cathedral, Hungary, the figure of Saint Helena, credited with the
recovery of the True Cross, is represented draped in a dress which is
emblazoned with a double traverse cross.

The double traverse cross came to have its association with Lorraine
in 1477 after Rene II, reigning head of the Duchy of Lorraine, had
defeated Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, at the Battle of Nancy.
Rene was of the house of Anjou and the emblem had been known as the
Cross of Anjou to earlier members of the house.

Succession to the Duchy of Lorraine came to Rene II through the female
line. His mother was Yolande of Anjou, daughter of Rene I. Through his
father, Ferri of Vaudemont, Rene claimed descent from the Ancient
dynasty of the Dukes of Lorraine, who traced their history to Gerard
of Alsace, and who had ruled the Duchy uninterruptedly for almost four

At the time of the accession of Rene II, the neighboring Duchy of
Burgundy was ruled by Charles the Bold, who made a reputation as a
general and warrior. In the forwarding of his ambition for greater
territory and more widespread authority, he had roused the enmity of
Lorrainers. In 1476, following the accession of Rene II, the Duke of
Burgundy laid siege to Nancy and took the city.

Rene went abroad to hire troops, and, returning in the early days of
1477 with considerable forces, especially Italian and Swiss
mercenaries, gave battle to Charles within sight of Nancy, whose
soldier citizens sallied forth to his help. Despite their assistance,
Rene might have lost the fight had it not been for Campo Basso, an
Italian condettieri in the service of Charles the Bold, who, having
some grudge against the latter and being bribed by the other side,
went over to the Lorrainers at the critical moment.

The Burgundians were cut to pieces. Charles the Bold, in trying to
break away, was slain by a Lorraine officer who did not recognize him
and who committed suicide when, the body of the famous Duke having
been identified a couple of days later from an old scar behind the
ear, he realized that it was he who had killed "so great a Prince."

The Battle of Nancy was not only the greatest event in the History of
Lorraine, but one of the most momentous in the History of France, and
even of Europe. If Burgundy alone was defeated, three parties
benefitted by the victory, namely; Switzerland, for whom it meant
final acquisition of independence; the King of France, and the Duke of
Lorraine. The disappearance of Charles the Bold ensured at one stroke
the unity of France, which it rid of the last ever powerful vassal,
and the independence of Lorraine. No doubt Louis XI would rather have
been the only profiteer by the death of his rival. No doubt, also, he
meant to get hold of Lorraine and, as the event proved, laid hands
shortly afterward on the Duchy of Bar and tried to prevent Rene II
from coming into this comparatively small portion of Rene of Anjou's
inheritance. But his wily plans were foiled by the very fact that,
whatever his motives, he had made a show of fostering and supporting
the Lorrainer against the Burgundian. Had Lorraine become a part of
Charles the Bold's dominions, even the Mighty House of Austria would
have been unable to keep it independent from France; Henry II's
efforts would have been exerted against Lorraine, and Lorraine it is
that France would have occupied at the same time as the three
bishoprics, Toul, Metz, and Verdun and before Alsace. France's
influence made itself felt in the Duchy as early as 1552, but
annexation was put off until 1766.

Not only did Rene II's reign ensure the independence of Lorraine,
but it secured the adjunction of Barrois, for there can be no doubt
that the Duchy of Bar would have been annexed to France right away had
not Charles VIII found it politic to give back the territory
confiscated by his father, Louis XI, as an inducement to Duke Rene II
not to press his claims regarding such parts of Rene of Anjou's
inheritance as Anjou and Provence which France wanted and secured out
of the deal.

Considering the importance of the Battle of Nancy in the eyes of
Lorrainers, the historical value of the badge worn by their victorious
ancestors at that famous fight is easily understood. That badge was a
double traverse cross. We have Duke Rene II's own word for it. In the
account of operation and conduct of the Battle of Nancy, dictated by
the Duke himself to his secretary, Joannes Lud, we read: "And I had on
my harness a robe of gold cloth, and the armour of my horse was also
covered with gold cloth trappings and on the said robe and trappings
were three white double traverse crosses."

The Burgundian badge was the St. Andrew Cross. To differentiate his
men from their opponents, Rene II naturally thought of the
conspicuously distinct double-traverse cross his grandfather Rene I
had brought over from Anjou and made so much of.

In another account of the battle, to be found in the Chronicle of
Lorraine, written at very nearly the same time, the following passage
occurs relating to the period of the fight when Campo Basso and his
mercenaries went over from the Burgundian to the Lorraine side; "They
all tore off their St. Andrew crosses and put on the Jerusalem one,
which Duke Rene was wearing."

The Jerusalem Cross obviously is a misnomer, as proven by the context,
the very next sentence of which reads: "And many of the Nancians,
sallying from their city to take part in the pillage of the Bold One's
Camp, were in great danger of being slaughtered by the Swiss and by
their own countrymen because they had not the double traverse cross on
them." Again in several other passages the cross is specifically
described as a double traverse cross.

January 5, 1477, was the birthday of the Cross of Lorraine. From that
day, ceasing to be merely reminiscent of Anjou, the double traverse
cross became the Lorraine National Emblem.

Since the war in 1870-71, which resulted in the annexation of part of
Lorraine to Germany, a significant use has been made of the old
cross. Shortly after the signature of the Treaty of Frankfurt, a
meeting of the inhabitants of Metz was held on Sion Hill. As a result
of the meeting a marble monument was erected, having carved on it a
broken Lorraine Cross. An inscription in local dialect was added,
reading "_C'name po tojo_" ("'Twill not be forever"). The world war
ended in the realization of this prophecy.

So the soldiers of the Seventy-Ninth Division can look at the insignia
they have been privileged to wear and think of the memories associated
with it.



CORPORAL FRANK McCABE--Plains, Pa., died January 24, 1918, at the Base
Hospital, Camp Meade, Md., at 7:40 p. m., with an attack of acute
rheumatism. Body was sent to Plains with a military escort. Buried in

PRIVATE WILLIAM REYNOLDS--Pottsville, Pa., was killed by the explosion
of a French field gun on the range at La Courtine, France, at 3 p. m.
October 11, 1918. Buried in the American Military Cemetery at Camp La
Courtine, October 12th. Grave No. 37.

FIRST-SERGEANT JAMES J. FARRELL--Plains, Pa., died November 2, 1918,
at the Base Hospital, Camp La Courtine, France, at 4:30 p. m., with an
attack of pneumonia. Buried in the American Military Cemetery at Camp
La Courtine, November 4th, at 11 a. m. Grave No. 80.

PRIVATE HORACE J. FARDON--Paterson, N. J., died November 4, 1918, at
the Base Hospital, Camp La Courtine, France, at 11:45 p. m. from
Influenza. Buried in the American Military Cemetery at Camp La
Courtine, November 5th, at 11 a. m. Grave No. 82.

November 5, 1918, at the Base Hospital, Camp La Courtine, France, at
6:55 p. m. with an attack of pneumonia. Buried in the American
Military Cemetery at Camp La Courtine, November 6th, at 2 p. m. Grave
No. 84.

PRIVATE PATRICK J. DOOLING--Metuchen, N. J., died March 6, 1919, at
Base Hospital No. 91 at Commercy, France, at 11:40 p. m., with
broncho-pneumonia. Buried in the Post Cemetery at Commercy. Grave No.

CORPORAL GUY W. MORTIMER--Pottsville, Pa., died March 8, 1919,
at Base Hospital No. 91, Commercy, France, at 4:55 a. m. with
broncho-pneumonia. Buried in the Post Cemetery at Commercy. Grave No.

[Illustration: PVT. 1 CL. JOSEPH A. LOUGHRAN
Died In France.]

Pvt 1 Cl. Conrad Baffiel Standing at
the Grave of Joseph A. Loughran.]



The following is a reproduction of extracts from an article written by
the author of this volume, on the afternoon of November 6, 1918,
following the burial of Private Joseph A. Loughran, and published in
the Standard-Sentinel, a daily newspaper of Hazleton, Pa., on December
11, 1918.

In general the article expresses the bond of feeling each battery
casualty called forth.

     "I have lost a friend; the United States has lost a good soldier;
     and Hazleton, Pennsylvania, has lost another flower of its noble
     manhood--was the total of my thoughts this afternoon as I stood,
     one of a military escort, and saw the remains of Joseph A.
     Loughran consigned to a resting place in the sacred soil of

     "He was truly 'One of Us.' To the military records he was known
     as a Private First Class, but to us he was 'Al,' one in common
     and ever affectionate.

     "Twenty of us, comrades-in-arms, all from the same city in dear
     old Pennsylvania, who formed the escort, listened in profound
     sympathy, as we, with the battery in line at our side, paid the
     last military honors to our deceased comrade.

     "The sun was shining serenely overhead; all was calm and quiet as
     a moment of silent homage followed the last note of Taps sounded
     over the grave.

     "The casket, enshrouded in Old Glory, for which he endured and
     died, was lowered, but his soul, no one could doubt, had already
     winged itself to the portals of eternity; there to repose in
     well-earned rest, to ever serve his God as he served God and
     country his mortal while.

     "He died in the height of his development as a trained soldier.
     Although removed from the scene of actual warfare and listed as
     'Died of Disease' in the casualty records, not one of the
     thousands of the A. E. F. fallen on the field of battle suffered
     a more heroic or noble death.

     "He was prepared, ready and willing. Months of strenuous effort
     spent in mastering the soldier game were cut short on the eve of
     material advantage to the cause, but the spirit of his endeavors
     lives in the heart of the outfit he served. It is the spirit,
     sometimes called morale, that is the decisive factor.

     "At the tomb of the dead the regimental chaplain vouched the
     fact that the departed soldier communed every Sunday of his army

     "In civil life, before entering the call of selectiveness, his
     worth and devoutness was well known to a large circle of friends.
     His military associations were none the less extensive and

     "It was while doing his duty, along lines of communication as a
     member of the Battery Commander's Detail, on the range at La
     Courtine, that he fell a victim to pneumonia, resulting in early

     "There are many incidents connected with the life of our fallen
     soldier and friend that could be extolled. But those who knew him
     need no words. His life shines out as a true beacon.

     "The boys of the battery in which he served bow in heartfelt
     sympathy to his wife, parents, brothers, sisters, relatives and
     friends. He died, but his death has not been in vain. His spirit
     lives to cheer his comrades on to greater deeds of patriotism.
     His loved ones at home can be proud of 'Al.' He died every inch a
     man and patriotic to the core.

     "His grave was not neglected. The boys tenderly sodded its mound
     and placed a wreath of holly, plucked from the hills of Creuse,
     where he last trained. The grave is marked with a wooden cross,
     on which is inscribed his name, rank, and command, and to which
     is attached the soldier's identification disc.

     "It is Grave No. 84 in the American cemetery, situated on a
     gentle slope of one of the picturesque hills of Creuse province,
     overlooking Camp La Courtine."



In the moment of laying aside the uniform there surged through the
heart of every member of Battery D emotions too deep for words.

The rainy days and mud of France were at last a thing of the past.
Yes, truly a thing of the past to those staunch comrades who survived
not the ordeal to return home.

Those who survived and returned home, have had an invaluable
experience. With memories of those experiences there will always
linger the thoughts and associations of departed comrades.

As battery members they all toiled together in France for a common
cause. All shared the common thought of seeing the war period through
bravely, then to return home, bigger, better and stronger as a

The comrades of Battery D whose lives were cut short by the Grim
Reaper when they were at the height of their development as trained
soldiers, all cherished thoughts of getting back home. They gave
expression to such thoughts in their letters home.

Joseph A. Loughran, in a letter written to his parents just before he
was stricken with the illness to which he succumbed, wrote these
words: "Save a couple of chairs for my wife and myself at the Xmas
dinner table, for God willing we will surely be there."

In another portion of the same letter Private Loughran wrote: "Oh,
boy, won't it be great to get back home again after going through all
the trials that I had. If any one told me a few years ago that I could
go through what I have and still be as healthy as I am, I would not
believe them. I am as healthy as an ox and weigh 180 pounds."

Thus it is that thoughts of departed comrades stir emotions too deep
for words; emotions that flood the heart with memorials that will live
on as silent tributes to the worth of those who gave up their lives
while in the service of their country.




  Captain Albert L. Smith
  1st Lieut. Arthur H. McGill
  2nd Lieut. Hugh M. Clarke
  2nd Lieut. Robert S. Campbell
  2nd Lieut. Frank F. Yeager
  2nd Lieut. Berkley Courtney
  2nd Lieut. Frank J. Hamilton

*Non-Commissioned Officers.*

  1st Sgt. William C. Thompson
  Supply Sgt. Merrill C. Liebensberger
  [A]Mess Sgt. Joseph A. Loughran
  [A]Instrument Sgt. Lloyd E. Brown
  Signal Sgt. John M. Harman


  Hugh A. Coll
  William E. Ritter
  James M. Duffy
  James J. Farrell
  Abraham Kahn
  Earl B. Schleppy


  Joseph Conlon
  John C. Demcik
  Gerald F. Farrell
  Edward J. Kane
  Harry T. Kenvin
  David B. Koenig
  John Koslap
  Frank McCabe
  Arthur D. Roderick
  Joseph Yeselski


  Edward Campbell
  George A. Musial
  Charles A. Trostel
  August H. Genetti

[Footnote A: Deceased.]

[Illustration: PVT. HORACE J. FARDON
Died in France with Influenza. Buried in the American Military
Cemetery at Camp La Courtine.]

Section of the American Military Cemetery at Camp La Courtine. Pvt.
Reynolds Was Killed by Gun Explosion.]

Battery D was Quartered in This Building While Under Intensive
Training at Range Practice Among the Hills of Creuse Department.]



The following officers were associated with Battery D during its
career, either as a unit of the New National Army, or as part of the
United States Army, the classification of the combined regular and
selected divisions:

  Captain Albert L. Smith, Philadelphia. Pa.
  Captain Perry E. Hall, Springfield. N. J.
  First Lieutenant Hugh M. Clarke, Pittsburgh. Pa.
  [A]First Lieutenant Arthur H. McGill. New Castle, Pa.
  First Lieutenant Robert Lowndes, Elkridge, Md.
  First Lieutenant C. D. Bailey, Summit. N. J.
  First Lieutenant J. S. Waterfield, Portsmouth, Va.
  Second Lieutenant Frank F. Yeager. Philadelphia, Pa.
  Second Lieutenant Sidney F. Bennett, Ottawa, Canada.
  Second Lieutenant Berkley Courtney, Fullerton, Md.
  Second Lieutenant Leo C. Julian, Lakeland. Fla.
  Second Lieutenant Robert S. Campbell, Pittsburgh. Pa.

[Footnote A: Deceased.]



This list contains the names and home-addresses of the enlisted
personnel of Battery D, who served overseas and whose names were
on the sailing list of the U. S. S. Edward Luckenbach.

Marinus Abrahmse, Pvt.,
196 Washington St., Lodi, N. J.

Eben C. Allen, Pvt.,
Main St., Closer. N. J.

Abel R. Anderson, Pvt.,
36 West 6th St.,
Ridgefield Park, N. J.

John J. Anderson, Cpl.,
R. F. D., No. 1. Perth Amboy, N. J.

Curran B. Armstrong, Pvt. 1 Cl.,
Dreyton, N. D.

Harold J. Arnold, Cpl.,
456 E. Broad St., Hazleton, Pa.

William E. Bachman, Pvt. 1 Cl.,
120 West Fourth St., Hazleton. Pa.

Conrad A. Balliet, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
597 Lincoln St., Hazleton. Pa.

Joseph T. Becker, Pvt., 1 Cl.-Cpl.,
913 West 38th St., Chicago, Ill.

Louis F. Bracco, Pvt.,
156 Orient Way, Rutherford, N. J.

Harold C. Bratt, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
58 Cleveland St., Hackensack, N. J.

Joseph Brazina, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
127 Muir Ave., Hazleton, Hts., Pa.

Cornelius Breen, Pvt.,
25 Hobart Place, Garfield, N. J.

Thomas J. Brennan, Pvt., 1 Cl.-Cpl.,
R. F. D., Box 394, Pottsville, Pa.

William F. Brennan, Cpl.,
713 W. Tioga St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Leslie S. Brooks, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Box 60, Fort Edward, N. Y.

Hugh P. Burke, Sgt.,
312 Wells Ave., Parsons, Pa.

Alexander Calderwood, Cpl.,
Gwyneed Valley, Pa.

Milton O. Campbell, Pvt.,
Box 65, Waldwick, N. J.

Jason Canfield, Cpl.,
Kenton, Ohio.

James Cataldo, Cpl.,
191 S. Pine St., Hazleton, Pa.

John Chardell, Cpl.-Sgt.,
561 Garfield St., Hazleton, Pa.

Hugh A. Coll, Cpl.-Sgt.,
627 N. Wyoming St., Hazleton, Pa.

John L. Conley, Pvt.-1 Cl.,
501 E. Clenton St., Frankfort, Ind.

Joseph E. Conlon, Cpl.,
22 Ulmer St., Hudson, Pa.

Leo C. Connor, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
137 Center St., Ashland, Pa.

James E. Corcoran, Pvt.,
470 Gregory Ave., Weehawken, N. J.

Charles Cuttito, Cook,
16 Avenue A, Lodi, N. J.

William H. Decker, Jr., Pvt.,
277 Forest St., Jersey City, N. J.

Frank De Graff, Pvt.,
192 Spring St., Lodi, N. J.

Meyer Deitch, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
858 Union Ave., Bronx, N. Y.

Leo C. Delaney, Sgt.,
1327 Main St., Pittston, Pa.

Philip Den Bleyker, Pvt.,
R. F. D., No. 1, Rohway, N. J.

George Dorsey, Cpl.,
328 S. Keyser Ave., Scranton, Pa.

Fred Downsbrough, Cpl.,
Box 153, Firthcliffe, N. Y.

Albert Dransfield, Pvt.,
29 Wayne Ave., Paterson, N. J.

James M. Duffy, Sgt.-1st Sgt.,
224 Hollenback Ave., Parsons, Pa.

James A. Durkin, Hs.,
77 Henry St., Plains, Pa.

Adam O. Dyker, Pvt.,
196 Monroe St., Garfield, N. J.

William Ellert, Pvt.,
Willow St., Moonachie, N. J.

Arden C. Evans, Pvt., 1 Cl., Cpl.,
R. F. D., No. 3, Benton, Pa.

Thomas Evans, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
1922 Cedar St., Anderson, Ind.

Gerald F. Farrell, Pvt.-Cpl.,
78 E. Carey Ave., Plains, Pa.

Walter R. Farrell, Pvt.-Sgt.,
Box 405, Kellogg, Idaho.

Ermino (Buck) Favo, Pvt.,
16 Erving Place, Garfield, N. J.

Victor J. Feinour, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Jacksonville, Pa.

Leroy H. Fish, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
30 Wren St., Pittston, Pa.

Fred N. Fisher, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
28 S. Front St., Minersville, Pa.

Fay H. Freadhoff, Pvt.-Cpl.,
503 Third Ave., Sterling, Ill.

Howard C. Freitag, Pvt.,
Box 44, Fair View, N. J.

Anthony J. Fritzen, S. Sgt.,
1724 Jackson St., Scranton, Pa.

John M. Frye, Jr., Pvt., 1 Cl.,
2519 S. 62nd St., W. Phila., Pa.

Gomer P. Gealy, Pvt.,
634 N. Hyde Park Ave., Scranton, Pa.

William R. Geiger, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
South 2nd St., St. Clair, Pa.

Charles W. Geiswalt, Pvt.,
335 N. George St., Pottsville, Pa.

Hugh A. Gildea, Cpl.-Sgt.,
84 Merritt Ave., Plains, Pa.

John Gripp, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
938 Mt. Vernon Ave., Scranton, Pa.

Michael Guresh, Pvt.,
R. F. D., No. 2, Box 18, Tamaqua, Pa.

Christian Hagedorn, Pvt.,
28 Sicomac Lane,
Midland, Park, N. J.

Stephen A. Hurtz, Pvt.,
134 Ryerson Ave., Paterson, N. J.

Curtis F. Horne, Pvt.,
612 21st St., Windber, Pa.

Patrick J. Hughes, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
73 Second St., Paterson, N. J.

Charles W. Hunt, Pvt.,
775 Dalton, Ave., Pittsfield, Mass.

Concetti Imbesi, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
925 Scranton St., Scranton, Pa.

Nels C. Jacobsen, Pvt.,
Farmont, Minn.

Ollie S. Jay, Pvt.,
Waelder, Texas.

John J. Jlosky, Pvt.,
49 William St., Englewood, N. J.

Albert R. Johnson, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Kipp, Kansas.

John E. Jones, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
300 E. Beech St., Hazleton, Pa.

Reggie L. Jones, Pvt.,
Pembroke, Ky.

Charles L. Jourdren, Pvt.,
123 Elm Ave., Bogota, N. J.

Charles Karsch, Pvt.,
Washington Ave.,
Little Ferry, N. J.

James F. Kelly, Cpl.,
123 Burke St., Plains, Pa.

John A. King, Cpl.,
515 Main St., Pittston, Pa.

David B. Koenig, Cpl.-Sgt.,
533 Peace St., Hazleton, Pa.

Erik W. Kolmodin, Pvt.,
39 Central Ave.,
Ridgefield Park, N. J.

John Kontir, Pvt., 1 Cl.-Cpl.,
538 Cleveland St., Hazleton, Pa.

Anthony P. Lally, Pvt.,
Girardville, Pa.

Charles C. Lang, Pvt.,
199 Wetmore Park, Rochester, N. Y.

Walter F. Licalzi, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
131 Fulton Ave.,
Astoria, L. I., N. Y.

Joseph T. Loskill, C. M.,
546 E. Broad St., Hazleton, Pa.

Wasyl Lugowy, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
221 Berner Ave.,
Hazleton Heights, Pa.

Saverio Lupas, Hs.,
80 W. Carey Ave., Plains, Pa.

Louis F. Maslakosky, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
662 Lincoln St., Hazleton, Pa.

Frank Miller, Pvt.,
Orchard St., Wortendyke, N. J.

William C. Minnich, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
202 E. Holly St., Hazleton, Pa.

John J. Mooney, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
1543 N. Morvine St., Phila., Pa.

Thomas E. Morgan, Pvt.,
Ellendon, Fla.

Joseph A. Morowitz, Pvt.,
22--44th St., Corona, L. I.

Daniel R. Mullery, Bg.,
1113 Main St., Pittston, Pa.

George A. Musial, Cook,
47 E. Sheridan St., Miners Mills, Pa.

Joseph J. McAtee, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
404 Schuylkill Ave., Pottsville, Pa.

Bernard A. McCaffrey, Pvt., 1 Cl.,-Cpl.,
R. F. D., Fisher's Hill,
Hazleton, Pa.

Joseph McCann, Pvt.,
10 Morton St., Paterson, N. J.

John J. X. McGeehan, Pvt.,
116 S. Church St., Hazleton, Pa.

Joseph T. McGovern, Pvt.,
507 N. 21st St., Phila., Pa.

Herbert G. Nankivell, Mec.,
1520 Price St., Scranton, Pa.

Walter A. Nebiker, Pvt.,
32 Wood St., Garfield, N. J.

Lewis Nedwood, Pvt.,
965--2nd Ave.,
Astoria, L. I., N. Y.

Joseph E. O'Donnell, Pvt.-Cpl.,
319 E. Walnut St., Hazleton, Pa.

Joseph J. O'Donnell, Pvt.,
Kelayres, Pa.

Stanley J. Ogrydiak, Sgt.,
655 Seybert St., Hazleton, Pa.

Gennaro Paladino, Pvt.,
280 Harrison Ave., Lodi, N. J.

Joseph C. Parella, Pvt.,
21 5th Ave., Lyndhurst, N. J.

Joseph H. Petrask, Pvt.,
6 S. Main St., Lodi, N. J.

Herman Petrett, Pvt.,
Box 113, Waldwick, N. J.

John Petrilla, Pvt.,
222 S. Bennett St., Hazleton, Pa.

August C. Pfancook, Sgt.,
20 E. Tamarack St., Hazleton, Pa.

Robert C. Phillips, Cpl.,
Box 825, New Richmond, Wis.

Harold V. Pierce. Pvt.,
Sunset Hill, Kansas City, Mo.

Homer D. Pifer, Pvt.,
Rochester Mills, Pa.

Arle J. Ploeger, Pvt.,
c/o Westbury Rose Co.,
Westbury, L. I.

Joseph Popso, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
228 Carleton Ave.,
Hazleton Heights, Pa.

Luke F. Proulx, Pvt.,
929 Atwell Ave., Providence, R. I.

John S. Quade. Pvt., 1 Cl., Cpl.,
Lansdale, Pa.

A. Eli Quinett,
607 N. Park St., Shawnee, Okla.

Walter L. Reece, Pvt. 1 Cl.,
425 S. Walker St., Webb City, Mo.

Clinton Reese, Sgt.,
323 N. Everett Ave., Scranton, Pa.

John F. Reilly, Pvt.,
2843 Jasper St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Charles M. Reisch, Pvt.,
238 Centre St., Ashland, Pa.

Petro Repole, Pvt.,
351 West 47th St., New York City.

Philip Rheiner, Pvt.,
89 N. 6th St., Paterson, N. J.

Harry J. Ritzel, Pvt.,
428 W. Sunbury St.,
Minersville, Pa.

Nathan Rosen, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
48 N. Wyoming St., Hazleton, Pa.

Grover C. Rothacker, Mec.,
37 E. Broad St., Hazleton, Pa.

John E. Rowland, Pvt.,
130 Linden St., Yonkers, N. Y.

Nathan Ruderman, Pvt.,
193 Scholes St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

William H. Rudolph, Sd.,
171 S. Laurel St., Hazleton, Pa.

Harry Scheiblin, Pvt.,
415 9th St., Carlstad, N. J.

Earl B. Schleppy, Sgt.,
N. Church St., Hazleton, Pa.

Alfred G. Schoonmaker, Jr., Cpl.,
33 Clinton Place.
Hackensack, N. J.

Alexander Seaton, Pvt.,
Hudson Heights, N. J.

A. Ernest Shafer, Cpl.,
208 Markle Bank Bldg.,
Hazleton, Pa.

Walter T. Shaw, Pvt.,
3520 Longshore St.,
Faconu, Phia., Pa.

Raymond Sheldrake, Pvt.,
141 N. 4th St., Paterson, N. J.

Albert J. Sheridan, Pvt.,
413 E. Norweigian St.,
Pottsville, Pa.

William Seivers, Pvt.,
c/o Norwegian-American A. C.,
208 E. 128th St., New York City.

August H. Simmler, Jr., Pvt.,
149 Clinton St., Paterson, N. J.

Ray S. Skidmore, Bg.,
153 Abbott St., Miners Mills, Pa.

Otto J. Skirkie, Jr., Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Ridgefield Park, N. J.

Edward J. Skrenda, Pvt.,
Smithville South, L. I., N. Y.

Charles W. Smith, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
226 Georgia Ave., Parsons, Pa.

Albert W. Soule, Pvt.,
Musselshell, Mont.

Charles L. Stark, Pvt.,
33 E. Thorton St., Akron, Ohio.

William C. Steidle, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
711 E. Norweigian St.,
Pottsville, Pa.

John R. Sweeney, Pvt., Cp.,
16 E. Birch St., Hazleton, Pa.

John Sysling, Pvt.,
18 Grand St., Garfield, N. J.

George M. Thompson, Pvt., 1 Cl., Cpl.,
571 Grant St., Hazleton, Pa.

Michael A. Tito, Cpl.,
523 Seybert St., Hazleton, Pa.

Edward G. Tracey, Pvt.,
1129 Sophie St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Charles A. Trostel, Mess Sgt.,
1119 Jackson St., Scranton, Pa.

Mattiejus Tuinali, Hs.,
1931 Albright Ave., Scranton, Pa.

Charles S. Umbenhauer, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Box 56, First St., Port Carbon, Pa.

Barney Van De Brink, Pvt.,
74 Hill St., Midland Park, N. J.

[B]Leonard J. Van Houton, Pvt.,
29 Hamburg Ave., Paterson, N. J.

Wilbert Weber, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
146 Woodbine Ave.,
Toronto, Ont., Canada.

Harry L. Whitfield, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
597 N. Locust St., Hazleton, Pa.

William S. Willier, Pvt., 1 Cl.,
Box 15, Hegins, Schuylkill Co., Pa.

John A. Yanoshik, Pvt.,
Lofty, Pa.

Frank Yeosock, Cpl., Sgt.,
285 River St., Coalridge, Pa.

Frederick D. Young, Mec.,
1516 Market St., Ashland, Pa.

[Footnote B: Leonard Joseph Van Houten died at his home in Paterson,
N. J., on October 7, 1919, four months after discharge from Battery



As previously recorded in this volume, a large number of men were
transferred from the ranks of Battery D during the period of
organization. Scores of others also left the battery during the latter
days of its existence. No official record in concise form exists of
the scores of transfers effected during the first few months of the
battery's history.

The following list gives information of transfers that a thorough
search of the records now reveals. It is the most accurate list that
can be compiled under the circumstances.


The following members of Battery D were transferred from the outfit as
successful applicants to officers' training schools. All were, in the
course of time commissioned as lieutenants. Messrs. Sword and McAloon
were commissioned in France, while the others attended training
schools in the United States.

  William C. Thompson, Jackson, Miss.
  Merrill C. Liebensberger, Hazleton, Pa.
  Harry T. Kenvin, Hazleton, Pa.
  Thomas S. Pengelly, Hazleton, Pa.
  John M. Harman, Hazleton, Pa.
  Edward J. Kane, Plains, Pa.
  Willard F. Jones, Scranton, Pa.
  Joseph B. McCall, Philadelphia, Pa.
  William O. Sword, Parsons, Pa.
  Timothy McAloon, Scranton, Pa.

John G. Young, of La Grange, Ga., serving with Battery D in rank of
corporal, was promoted to sergeant during September, 1918, at La
Courtine, then left the battery for the A. E. F. Artillery School at
Saumur. He was made a "third lieutenant" of coast artillery January,
1919, and returned to Battery D the latter part of January of the same
year at Benoite Vaux. Early in February he was sent to the field
hospital at Chaumont Perfitte and sailed for the U. S. from Brest
April 10th as hospital patient. On May 1st Young was transferred to
Camp Gordon, Ga., and made first-sergeant of a convalescent battalion.
On January 1st, 1920, First Sergeant Young was made Army Field Clerk
and transferred to Newport News and Norfolk, Army Supply Base. He was
discharged from the service, March 12th, 1920.


On February 5, 1918, Battery D was called upon and furnished the
following men for service with the Fifth Artillery Brigade at Camp
Leon Springs, Texas:

  John E. Bayarsky, Hazleton, Pa.
  Frederick J. Boddin, Hazleton, Pa.
  Anthony Correale, Hazleton, Pa.
  Karl L. Lubrecht, Hazleton, Pa.
  Alfonso Lupattelli, Scranton, Pa.
  James J. McDermott, Freeland, Pa.
  Edward V. McGee, Hazleton, Pa.
  John McGrady, Plains, Pa.
  Bernard A. McKenna, Hazleton, Pa.
  Frank J. Monahan, Plains, Pa.
  Joseph Smith, Freeland, Pa.
  Earl G. Spitzner, Harleigh, Pa.
  Stephen J. Thompson, Hazleton, Pa.
  George H. Throne, Hazleton, Pa.
  John M. Tusko, Hazleton, Pa.


Battery D sent a number of men to the 28th Division at Camp Hancock,
Ga., who joined with the Keystoners on the eve of departure for
overseas. This transfer included:

  Patrick J. Campbell, Freeland, Pa.
  Edward T. Edgerton, Plains, Pa.
  William H. Ringlaben, Jr., West Hazleton, Pa.
  William E. Ritter, Plains, Pa.
  Henry L. Schleppy, Hazleton, Pa.
  Joseph Welky, Hazleton, Pa.


On January 28, 1918, the following men were transferred from Battery D
to the 304th Engineers at Camp Meade:

  Bernard A. Malloy, Hazleton, Pa.
  Day M. Roth, Hazleton, Pa.
  Harry R. Schmeer, Hazleton, Pa.
  Paul W. Schmeer, Hazleton, Pa.
  John Shigo, Freeland, Pa.

The 19th Engineers at Camp Meade received in its personnel on February
15, 1918, from Battery D:

  James A. Kenney, Plains, Pa.
  Clark Burt, Plains, Pa.

The February Replacement Draft at Meade took several Battery D men
from the engineers, as follows:

  Condidio Gentelezza, Scranton, Pa.
  Harry A. Nelson, Plains, Pa.
  Orelio Rosi, Plains, Pa.


While preparations for departure overseas were under way transfers
were made to the various training battalions of the 154th Depot
Brigade, as follows:

  John C. Demcik, Hazleton, Pa.
  August H. Genetti, Hazleton, Pa.
  Michael V. Hughes, Plains, Pa.
  Abraham Kahn, Hazleton, Pa.
  Francis A. Kenney, Scranton, Pa.
  Thomas Murray, Plains, Pa.
  Peter Sasarack, Jr., Hazleton, Pa.
  Frederick L. Smith, 2nd, Hazleton, Pa.

A number of these men were reassigned to other units. Michael V.
Hughes was assigned to the 79th Divisional Staff and accompanied the
division overseas. Frederick L. Smith, 2nd, was assigned to special
duty as a chemist. Thomas Murray was seriously ill at the Camp Meade
base hospital when the outfit departed.

John Dempsey and George D. Vogt, both of Hazleton, Pa., were, on March
17, 1918, assigned to the Q. M. C. school for cooks and bakers at Camp


Transfers were made to the 311th F. A. Supply Co., as follows:

  George Kolessar, Hazleton, Pa.
  Christy McAvaney, Scranton, Pa.
  George Novotney, Hazleton, Pa.
  Stanley Reese, Hazleton, Pa.
  Harry B. Stair, Mt. Top, Pa.
  Joseph Yeselski, Hazleton, Pa.


A number of changes in the battery roster were necessitated at Benoite
Vaux, France, due to men being sent to hospitals for sickness. Some
left to attend schools, while Philip J. Cusick, of Parsons, Pa.,
received word through the Red Cross of his early discharge due to the
death of his father.

The transfers at Benoite Vaux included the following:

  Howard A. Bain, Kansas City, Mo.
  Thomas A. Davis, Scranton, Pa.
  Philip J. Cusick, Parsons, Pa.
  Stuart E. Prutzman, Palmerton, Pa.
  Joseph Silock, Hazleton, Pa.
  Harry Dauberman, Lawrence, Kansas.
  Michael V. McHugh, Hazleton, Pa.
  Anthony Esposito, Hackensack, N. J.
  Reed F. Hulling, Charlestown, W. Va.
  Clarence V. Smith, Hazleton, Pa.
  Arthur A. Jones, Boundbrook, N. J.
  Charles E. King, Pottsville, Pa.
  John Verchmock, Hazleton, Pa.
  Charles Nace, Philadelphia, Pa.
  Arthur Van Valen, Englewood, N. J.
  James F. Burns, Pottsville, Pa.


Joseph Delosaro and John Sharawarki, both of Hazleton, Pa., were
discharged from Battery D February 5th and 14th respectively, for
physical disabilities.

Carl G. Brattlof, of Newark. N. J., was assigned to the 154th Brigade
Headquarters, Dec. 1918.

James J. Gillespie, of Hazleton, Pa., Feb. 11th, 1918, was
transferred to the Railway Transportation Corps.

George F. Haniseck, James F. McKelvey and Mathew Talkouski, all of
Hazleton, Pa., May 31st, 1918, were sent to join the U. S. Guards,
Fort Niagara, N. Y.

John F. Kehoe of Hazleton, Pa., Feb. 3, 1918, was transferred to
Headquarters Bn. G. H. Q. A. E. F., France. He left Camp Meade
February 27th, being the first man from the organization to get

Otto Kopp, of Hazleton, Pa., transferred June 1, 1918, to Headquarters
Co., 311th F. A.

Donald H. Durham, of Newark, N. J., and R. L. Krah, of Lavelle, Pa.,
were transferred to the regimental Headquarters Co., while in France.

William M. Powell. Jr., of Hazleton, Pa., February 5th, 1918, assigned
to the Ordnance Depot Co., No. 101, Camp Meade.

On October 12, 1918, Raymond Stegmaier, of Jamaica, N. Y., was
detached from the battery on special duty as orderly to Lieut.-Col.

William Van Campen, of Ridgewood, N. J., was injured by an explosion
of a hand-grenade on Nov. 5, 1918. The following day he was sent to
Base Hospital No. 24 at Limoge. Nicholas J. Young, of Pottsville, Pa.,
was transferred to the same hospital, October 16th, following the gun
explosion at La Courtine.

David L. Grisby, of Terre Haute, Ind., was transferred to Base
Hospital No. 15 to undergo an operation. He left the battery at Ville
sous La Ferte on November 22nd.

Charles A. Weand, of Pottsville, Pa., Nov. 30, 1918, was sent to Base
Hospital No. 11, A. P. O. 767, France.

Henry J. Buhle, of New Brunswick, N. J., was sick in the hospital at
La Courtine when the regiment left the artillery range, in France,
November 14, 1918.

Carl J. O'Malia, of Scranton, Pa., and Frederick M. Bowen, of
East Rutherford, N. J., were patients at the hospital in Rimaucourt
when the outfit left Blancheville, France.

Arthur D. Roderick, of Hazleton, Pa., and William R. Jones, of
Bergenfield, N. J., became detached from the battery while on leave.
They were taken ill in Paris and sent to a hospital in the French

Edward Campbell, of Hazleton, Pa., one of the battery cooks, remained
at the embarkation camp at St. Nazaire, France, to take charge of camp
bakery. Cook Campbell returned to the States the latter part of July.



September 20, 1918. Adam O. Dyker was re-christened "Honey-Bee" Dyker.
The event took place in a rather stinging manner at Camp La Courtine,

On the night in question Private Dyker was on guard duty at the
battery kitchen, which was situated under a canvas roof in a locality
that was infested at that particular time with bees and yellow

While walking his post at the midnight hour Dyker thought of a can of
strawberry jam that he knew the cooks had deposited in a certain
place. Groping his way through the dark Dyker found the can of
preserves, also a spoon, and immediately started to fill a sweet

In a short time the entire battery guard was aroused by a distressing
cry from one of the outposts. At first it was difficult to determine
whether the call was from a 311 Regiment post or a 312th Regiment

The question was soon settled, however, when Dyker appended to the
customary outpost call the designation of both the battery and the
regiment, and added these words. "For God's sake hurry up, I'm all
bee'd up."

The jam which he devoured was full of bees and yellow jackets. While
the humor of the incident appealed to the boys of the battery, all
sympathized with the unfortunate guard, who had an agonizing time of
it in the camp hospital for several weeks as a result of eating

       *       *       *       *       *

Shortly after the armistice was signed John J. Jlosky drank too much
cognac and fell out of line at retreat one night. He was ordered to
report at the battery office. When asked why he did not stand at
attention he replied to Lieut. Bailey: "How do you expect a man to
stand at attention with sand-paper underwear on?"

The battery had just been issued woolen underwear that day.

       *       *       *       *       *

In recalling stable-police duty at Camp Meade, Md., there is one
incident that always amused Bill Powell. Here's the story in his own

"After the usual morning duties as stable police, 'Mad Anthony'
assigned me to load a wagon of manure. After struggling with it for
perhaps an hour I felt extremely proud of the transference of the
large amount of material from the ground to the wagon. I was then
ordered to go with the driver. I thought this pretty soft. It was a
zero day and I soon found that I was mistaken. We were on our way to
unload the manure in flat cars.

"When we got to Disney, half frozen, the driver disappeared to a
position near a roaring log fire and I commenced to unload. Here's
where I realized the advantage of being a driver.

"While resting I noticed another wagon being unloaded nearby with a
detail of three negroes doing the heaving. This got my ire, and when I
got back I looked up 'Mad Anthony' and related what I had seen.

"'Mad Anthony' looked at me and replied, 'Hell, isn't one white man as
good as three niggers?'

"Not wishing to admit differently I left--satisfied."



     "I desire to express to all the men with whom I was fortunate
     enough to serve, sincere thanks for their universal loyalty and
     courtesy to me and the other officers who were with me. It was
     difficult during the active life of the battery to express to its
     members the affection I felt for them collectively and
     individually, and the high personal regard I had for them all,
     both as soldiers and friends.

     "We were never fortunate enough to be called into action, but at
     all times, I am sure, that all those who came in contact with
     Battery D felt that its personnel could be depended upon to do
     the right thing at the right time. We all had our blue moments,
     but, wherever we may go, or whatever we do, the spirit of Battery
     D and the friendships we made will help us.

     "Let me conclude by wishing a life of health, happiness and
     success to all my old friends in Battery D, and may I further add
     that, in looking back, I could have no greater wish than to feel
     that their friendship and respect for me could be as great as the
     friendship and respect I hold for them all."
                                               CAPT. A. L. SMITH.
"Stepping Stones," Gwynedd Valley, Pa., 1920.

     "I had the good fortune to serve with the best Battalion of Field
     Artillery in the United States Army--the Second Battalion, 311th
     F. A."
                                                MAJOR D. A. REED.
909 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa., 1920.

     "My memories of Battery D are the most pleasant of my army
     experiences. I know that your book will fulfill the very definite
     need for a complete and accurate account of the experiences and
     travels of the members of the battery."
                                             CAPT. PERRY E. HALL.
Springfield, N. J., 1920.

     "It would indeed be most regrettable should there be nothing
     permanent to remind us of those ties of friendship, far greater
     than those of organization, which bound us together for the
     greater part of two years. The recollection of the
     wonderful spirit and morale of those with whom we were so
     intimately associated must ever bring back that old feeling of
     just pride which we all felt in our battery."
                                        LIEUT. FRANK J. HAMILTON.
4822 N. Camac St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1920.

     "The happiest days of my life were spent in the 311th F. A. and
     one of my best friends is Captain Smith of Battery D."
                                   LIEUT.-COL. HERBERT H. HAYDEN.
Army & Navy Club, Washington, D. C., 1920.




  July 13--Left Camp Meade, Md., U. S. A.
  July 14--Set sail from Port Richmond, Philadelphia, Pa.
  July 17--At anchor in Halifax harbor, Nova Scotia.
  July 20--Left Halifax bound overseas.
  July 30--Battle with German U-Boats.
  July 31--Landed in Barry, South Wales.
  August 3--Hiked to Southampton, England.
  August 4--Landed in Cherbourg, France.
  August 5--Left Cherbourg via rail.
  August 7--Arrived in Montmorillon.
  September 4--Left Montmorillon via box car.
  September 4--Arrived at La Courtine.
  November 14--Left La Courtine via box car.
  November 16--Detrained at La Tracey.
  November 16--Landed in Ville sous La Ferte.
  November 26--Left Ville sous La Ferte via motor train.
  November 26--Arrived at Blancheville.
  December 19--One hundred left on horse convoy.
  December 25--Mule convoy arrived at Cirey les Mareilles.


  January 9--Left Blancheville mounted.
  January 13--Arrived at Benoite Vaux.
  March 19--Trip by road to Boncourt.
  April 1--Left Boncourt mounted.
  April 3--Arrived in Cirey Les Mareilles.
  April 12--Matériel turned in at Andelot.
  April 19--Entrained at Rimaucourt.
  April 21--Arrived at St. Nazaire.
  May 14--Set sail for United States.
  May 27--Arrived in New York harbor.
  May 28--Debarked at Bush Terminal, Brooklyn.
  May 28--Arrived in Camp Dix, N. J.
  May 30--Battery officially discharged.
  June 4--Discharge papers distributed.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Delta of the Triple Elevens - The History of Battery D, 311th Field Artillery US Army, - American Expeditionary Forces" ***

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