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Title: The Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics - A Practical Handbook for the Dyer and Student
Author: Beech, Franklin
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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THE

DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS

_A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK FOR THE DYER AND STUDENT_

BY

FRANKLIN BEECH

PRACTICAL COLOURIST AND CHEMIST

_ILLUSTRATED BY FORTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS_

LONDON SCOTT, GREENWOOD & CO. 19 LUDGATE HILL, E.C.

1901

[_All rights reserved_]



PREFACE.


In writing this little book the author believes he is supplying a want
which most Students and Dyers of Cotton Fabrics have felt--that of a
small handbook clearly describing the various processes and operations
of the great industry of dyeing Cotton.

The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate treatise but rather a
book of a convenient size, and in order to do so it has been necessary
to be brief and to omit many matters that would rightfully find a place
in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that nothing of importance
has been omitted. The most modern processes have been described in some
detail; care has been taken to select those which experience shows to be
thoroughly reliable and to give good results.

FRANKLIN BEECH.

_May, 1901._



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
                                                                    PAGE
STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE                            1
  Action of Alkalies                                                   6
  Action of Acids on Cellulose                                         9
  Action of Sulphuric Acid on Cotton                                  10
  Action of Hydrochloric Acid                                         11
  Action of Nitric Acid                                               12
  Action of Oxidising Agents on Cellulose or Cotton                   16

CHAPTER II.

SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON                                      23
  Stains and Damages in Bleached Goods                                50

CHAPTER III.

DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS                             53
  Hand Dyeing                                                         53
  Dyeing Machines                                                     57
  Dyeing, Slubbing, Sliver or Carded Cotton and Wool                  58
  Cop Dyeing                                                          64

CHAPTER IV.

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING                          82
  (1) Direct Dyeing                                                   85
  (2) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts         112
  (3) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Developers             128
  (4) Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Couplers               139
  (5) Dyeing on Tannic Mordant                                       147
  (6) Dyeing on Metallic Mordants                                    156
  (7) Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton Fibres                 181
  (8) Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution          198

CHAPTER V.

DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS                         208

CHAPTER VI.

DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS                        225
  Method of Dyeing                                                   225

CHAPTER VII.

OPERATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING                                          239
  Washing, Soaping, Drying                                           239

CHAPTER VIII.

TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYED FABRICS                                257

CHAPTER IX.

EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING                      262



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.                                                                PAGE
1.  Cotton Fibre                                                       5
1A. Cross-section of Cotton Fibre                                      5
2.  Mercerised Cotton Fibre                                            7
2A. Cross-section of Mercerised Cotton Fibre                           7
3.  Silkified Cotton Fibre                                             9
3A. Cross-section of Silkified Cotton Fibre                            9
4.  Mather & Platt's Low-pressure Bleaching Kier                      31
5.  Mather & Platt's Yarn-bleaching Kier                              49
6.  Rectangular Dye-tank                                              54
7.  Round Dye-tub                                                     54
8.  Section of Dye-vat                                                56
9.  Delahunty's Dyeing Machine                                        58
10. Obermaier Dyeing Machine                                          59
11. Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine                                    60
12. Klauder-Weldon Dyeing Machine                                     62
13. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine                                      65
14. Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine                                      66
15. Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine                                     67
16. Warp-dyeing Machine                                               70
17. Warp-dyeing Machine                                               71
18. Dye-jiggers                                                       72
19. Dye-jigger                                                        73
20. Jig Wince                                                         75
21. Cloth-dyeing Machine                                              76
22. Dye Beck                                                          77
23. Holliday's Machine for Hawking Cloth                              78
24. Continuous Dyeing Machine                                         79
25. Padding Machine                                                   80
26. Padding Machine                                                   81
27. Dye-tub for Paranitroaniline Red                                 191
28. Padding Machine for Paranitroaniline Red                         192
29. Developing Machine for Paranitroaniline Red                      194
30. Indigo Dye-vat for Cloth                                         199
31. Squeezing Rollers                                                240
32. Yarn-washing Machine                                             243
33. Dye-house Washing Machine                                        244
34. Cloth-washing Machine                                            245
35. Cloth-washing Machine                                            247
36. Washing and Soaping Vats                                         248
37. Steaming Cottage                                                 249
38. Steaming and Ageing Chamber                                      250
39. Hydro-extractor                                                  251
40. Hydro-extractor                                                  252
41. Automatic Yarn-dryer                                             253
42. Truck Yarn-dryer                                                 254
43. Drying Cylinders                                                 255
44. Experimental Dye-bath                                            263



CHAPTER I.

STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE COTTON FIBRE.


There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the bleacher,
textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the structure and chemistry
of the cotton fibre with which he has to deal. By the term chemistry we
mean not only the composition of the fibre substance itself, but also
the reactions it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact with
various chemical substances--acids, alkalies, salts, etc. These
reactions have a very important bearing on the operations of bleaching
and dyeing of cotton fabrics.

A few words on vegetable textile fibres in general may be of interest.
Fibres are met with in connection with plants in three ways.

First, as cuticle or ciliary fibres or hairs; these are of no practical
use, being much too short for preparing textile fabrics from, but they
play an important part in the physiology of the plant.

Second, as seed hairs; that is fibres that are attached to the seeds of
many plants, such, for instance, as the common thistle and dandelion;
the cotton fibre belongs to this group of seed hairs, while there are
others, kapok, etc., that have been tried from time to time in spinning
and weaving, but without much success. These seed hairs vary much in
length, from 1/4 inch to 1-1/2 inches or even 2 inches; each fibre
consists of a single unit. Whether it is serviceable as a textile fibre
depends upon its structure, which differs in different plants, and also
upon the quantity available.

The third class of fibre, which is by far the most numerous, consists of
those found lying between the bark or outer cuticle and the true woody
tissues of the plant. This portion is known as the bast, and hence these
fibres are known as "bast fibres". They are noticeable on account of the
great length of the fibres, in some cases upwards of 6 feet, which can
be obtained; but it should be pointed out that these long fibres are not
the unit fibres, but are really bundles of the ultimate fibres
aggregated together to form one long fibre, as found in and obtained
from the plant. Thus the ultimate fibres of jute are really very
short--from 1/10 to 1/8 of an inch in length; those of flax are somewhat
longer. Jute, flax, China grass and hemp are common fibres which are
derived from the bast of the plants.

There is an important point of difference between seed fibres and bast
fibres, that is in the degree of purity. While the seed fibres are
fairly free from impurities--cotton rarely containing more than 5 per
cent.--the bast fibres contain a large proportion of impurity, from 25
to 30 per cent. as they are first obtained from the plant, and this
large quantity has much influence on the extent and character of the
treatments to which they are subjected.

As regards the structure of the fibres, it will be sufficient to say
that while seed hairs are cylindrical and tubular and have thin walls,
bast fibres are more or less polygonal in form and are not essentially
tubular, having thick walls and small central canals.

=The Cotton Fibre.=--The seed hairs of the cotton plant are separated
from the seeds by the process of ginning, and they then pass into
commerce as raw cotton. In this condition the fibre is found to consist
of the actual fibrous substance itself, containing, however, about 8 per
cent. of hygroscopic or natural moisture, and 5 per cent. of impurities
of various kinds, which vary in amount and in kind in various
descriptions of cotton. In the process of manufacture into cotton
cloths, and as the material passes through the operations of bleaching,
dyeing or printing, the impurities are eliminated.

=Impurities of the Cotton Fibre.=--Dr. E. Schunck made an investigation
many years ago into the character of the impurities, and found them to
consist of the following substances:--

=Cotton Wax.=--This substance bears a close resemblance to carnauba wax.
It is lighter than water, has a waxy lustre, is somewhat translucent, is
easily powdered, and melts below the boiling point of water. It is
insoluble in water, but dissolves in alcohol and in ether. When boiled
with weak caustic soda it melts but is not dissolved by the alkali; it
can, however, be dissolved by boiling with alcoholic caustic potash.
This wax is found fairly uniformly distributed over the surface of the
cotton fibre, and it is due to this fact that raw cotton is wetted by
water only with difficulty.

=Fatty Acids.=--A solid, fatty acid, melting at 55° C. is also present
in cotton. Probably stearic acid is the main constituent of this fatty
acid.

=Colouring Matter.=--Two brown colouring matters, both containing
nitrogen, can be obtained from raw cotton. One of these is readily
soluble in alcohol, the other only sparingly so. The presence in
relatively large quantities of these bodies accounts for the brown
colour of Egyptian and some other dark-coloured varieties of cotton.

=Pectic Acid.=--This is the chief impurity found in raw cotton. It can
be obtained in the form of an amorphous substance of a light yellow
colour, not unlike gum in appearance. It is soluble in boiling water,
and the solution has a faint acid reaction. Acids and many metallic
salts, such as mercury, chloride and lead acetate, precipitate pectic
acid from its solutions. Alkalies combine with it, and these compounds
form brown substances, are but sparingly soluble in water, and many of
them can be precipitated out by addition of neutral salts, like sodium
and ammonium chlorides.

=Albumens.=--A small quantity of albuminous matter is found among the
impurities of cotton.

=Structure of the Cotton Fibre.=--The cotton fibre varies in length from
1 to 2 inches, not only in fibres of the same class but also in fibres
from different localities--Indian fibres varying from 0.8 in the
shortest to 1.4 in the longest stapled varieties; Egyptian cotton fibres
range from 1.1 to 1.6 inches long; American cotton ranges from 0.8 in
the shortest to 2 inches in the longest fibres. The diameter is about
1/1260 of an inch. When seen under the microscope fully ripe cotton
presents the appearance of irregularly twisted ribbons, with thick
rounded edges. The thickest part is the root end, or point of attachment
to the seed. The free end terminates in a point. The diameter is fairly
uniform through 3/4 to 7/8 of its length, the rest is taper. In Fig. 1
is given some illustrations of the cotton fibre, showing this twisted
and ribbon-like structure, while in Fig. 1A is given some transverse
sections of the fibre. These show that it is a collapsed cylinder, the
walls being of considerable thickness when compared with the internal
bore or canal.

Perfectly developed, well-formed cotton fibres always present this
appearance. But all commercial cottons contain more or less of fibres
which are not perfectly developed or are unripe. These are known as
"dead fibres"; they do not spin well and they do not dye well. On
examination under the microscope it is seen that these fibres have not
the flattened, twisted appearance of the ripe fibres, but are flatter,
and the central canal is almost obliterated and the fibres are but
little twisted. Dead fibres are thin, brittle and weak.

=Composition of the Cotton Fibres.=--Of all the vegetable textile fibres
cotton is found to have the simplest chemical composition and to be, as
it were, the type substance of all such fibres, the others differing
from it in several respects. When stripped of the comparatively small
quantities of impurities, cotton is found to consist of a substance to
which the name of cellulose has been given.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Cotton Fibre.]
[Illustration: FIG. 1A.]

Cellulose is a compound of the three elements, carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen, in the proportions shown in the following analysis:--

Carbon, 44.2 per cent.,
Hydrogen, 6.3 per cent.,
Oxygen, 49.5 per cent.,

which corresponds to the empirical formula C{6}H{10}O{5}, which shows
it to belong to the group of carbo-hydrates, that is, bodies which
contain the hydrogen and oxygen present in them in the proportion in
which they are present in water, namely H{2}O.

Cellulose may be obtained in a pure condition from cotton by treatment
with alkalies, followed by washing, and by treatment with alkaline
hypochlorites, acids, washing and, finally, drying. As thus obtained it
is a white substance having the form of the fibre from which it is
procured, showing a slight lustre, and is slightly translucent. The
specific gravity is 1.5, it being heavier than water. It is
characterised by being very inert, a property of considerable value from
a technical point of view, as enabling the fibres to stand the various
operations of bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc. Nevertheless,
by suitable means, cellulose can be made to undergo various chemical
decompositions which will be noted in some detail.

Cellulose on exposure to the air will absorb moisture or water. This is
known as hygroscopic moisture, or "water of condition". The amount in
cotton is about 8 per cent., and it has a very important bearing on the
spinning properties of the fibre, as it makes the fibre soft and
elastic, while absolutely dry cotton fibre is stiff, brittle and
non-elastic; hence it is easier to spin and weave cotton in moist
climates or weather than in dry climates or weather. Cotton cellulose is
insoluble in all ordinary solvents, such as water, ether, alcohol,
chloroform, benzene, etc., and these agents have no influence in any way
on the material, but it is soluble in some special solvents that will be
noted later on.


ACTION OF ALKALIES.

The action of alkalies on cellulose or cotton is one of great importance
in view of the universal use of alkaline liquors made from soda or
caustic soda in the scouring, bleaching and dyeing of cotton, while
great interest attaches to the use of caustic soda in the "mercerising"
of cotton.

Dilute solutions of the caustic alkalies, caustic soda or caustic
potash, of from 2 to 7 per cent. strength, have no action on cellulose
or cotton, in the cold, even when a prolonged digestion of the fibre
with the alkaline solution takes place. Caustic alkali solutions of from
1 to 2 per cent. strength have little or no action even when used at
high temperatures and under considerable pressure--a fact of very great
importance from a bleacher's point of view, as it enables him to subject
cotton to a boil in kiers, with such alkaline solutions at high
pressures, for the purpose of scouring the cotton, without damaging the
fibre itself.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Mercerised Cotton Fibre.]
[Illustration: FIG. 2A.]

Solutions of caustic soda of greater strength than 3 per cent. tend,
when boiled under pressure, to convert the cellulose into soluble
bodies, and as much as 20 per cent. of the fibre may become dissolved
under such treatment. The action of strong solutions of caustic soda or
caustic potash upon cellulose or cotton is somewhat different. Mercer
found that solutions containing 10 per cent. of alkali had a very
considerable effect upon the fibre, causing it to swell up and become
gelatinous and transparent in its structure, each individual cotton
fibre losing its ribbon-like appearance, and assuming a rod-like form,
the central canal being more or less obliterated. This is shown in Fig.
2 and 2A, where the fibre is shown as a rod and the cross section in
Fig. 2A has no central canal. The action which takes place is as
follows: The cellulose enters into a combination with the alkali and
there is formed a sodium cellulose, which has the formula
C{6}H{10}O{5}2NaOH. This alkali cellulose, however, is not a stable
body; by washing with water the alkali is removed, and hydrated
cellulose is obtained, which has the formula C{6}H{10}O{5}H{2}O.
Water removes the whole of the alkali, but alcohol only removes one
half. It has been observed that during the process of washing with water
the fibre shrinks very much. This shrinkage is more particularly to be
observed in the case of cotton. As John Mercer was the first to point
out the action of the alkaline solutions on cotton, the process has
become known as "mercerisation".

Solutions of caustic soda of 1.000 or 20° Tw. in strength have very
little mercerising action, and it is only by prolonged treatment that
mercerisation can be effected. It is interesting to observe that the
addition of zinc oxide to the caustic solution increases its mercerising
powers. Solutions of 1.225 to 1.275 (that is from 45° to 55° Tw. in
strength) effect the mercerisation almost immediately in the cold, and
this is the best strength at which to use caustic soda solutions for
this purpose. In addition to the change brought about by the shrinking
and thickening of the material, the mercerised fibres are stronger than
the untreated fibres, and at the same time they have a stronger affinity
for dyes, a piece of cloth mercerised taking up three times as much
colouring matter as a piece of unmercerised cloth from the same
dye-bath.

The shrinkage of the cotton, which takes place during the operation of
washing with water, was for a long time a bar to any practical
application of the "mercerising" process, but some years ago Lowe
ascertained that by conducting the operation while the cotton was
stretched or in a state of tension this shrinkage did not take place;
further, Thomas and Prevost found that the cotton so treated gained a
silky lustre, and it has since been ascertained that this lustre is
most highly developed with the long-stapled Egyptian and Sea Island
cottons. This mercerising under tension is now applied on a large scale
to produce silkified cotton. When viewed under the microscope, the
silkified cotton fibres have the appearance shown in Fig. 3, long
rod-like fibres nearly if not quite cylindrical; the cross section of
those fibres has the appearance shown in Fig. 3A. This structure fully
accounts for the silky lustre possessed by the mercerised fibres. Silky
mercerised cotton has very considerable affinity for dye-stuffs, taking
them up much more readily from dye-baths, and it is dyed in very
brilliant shades.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Silkified Cotton Fibre.]

[Illustration: FIG 3A.]

In the chapter on Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton, some reference will
be made to the action of alkalies on cotton.


ACTION OF ACIDS ON CELLULOSE.

The action of acids on cellulose is a very varied one, being dependent
upon several factors, such as the particular acid used, the strength of
the acid, duration of action, temperature, etc. As a rule, organic
acids--for example acetic, oxalic, citric, tartaric--have no action on
cellulose or cotton. Solutions of sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid of
2 per cent. strength have practically no action in the cold, and if
after immersion the cotton or cellulose be well washed there is no
change of any kind. This is important, as in certain operations of
bleaching cotton and other vegetable fibres it is necessary to sour
them, which could not be done if acids acted on them, but it is
important to thoroughly wash the goods afterwards. When the acid
solutions are used at the boil they have a disintegrating effect on the
cellulose, the latter being converted into hydrocellulose. When dried,
the cellulose is very brittle and powdery, which in the case of cotton
yarn being so treated would show itself by the yarn becoming tender and
rotten. The degree of action varies with the temperature (the higher
this is the stronger the action), and also according to the strength of
the acid solution. Thus a 10 per cent. solution of sulphuric acid used
at a temperature of 80° C. begins to act on cotton after about five
minutes' immersion, in half an hour there is a perceptible amount of
disintegration, but the complete conversion of the cotton into
hydrocellulose requires one hour's immersion. A dilute acid with 8
volumes of water, used in the cold, takes three hours' immersion before
any action on the cotton becomes evident.


ACTION OF SULPHURIC ACID ON COTTON.

When cellulose (cotton) is immersed in strong sulphuric acid the cotton
becomes gradually dissolved; as the action progresses cellulose
sulphates are formed, and some hydrolytic action takes place, with the
formation of sugar. This fact has long been known, but only recently has
it been shown that dextrose was the variety of sugar which was formed.
On diluting the strong acid solution with water there is precipitated
out the hydro or oxycelluloses that have been formed, while the
cellulose sulphates are retained in solution.

By suitable means the calcium, barium, or lead salts of these
cellulose-sulphuric acids can be prepared. Analysis of them shows that
these salts undergo hydrolysis, and lose half their sulphuric acid.

The action of strong sulphuric acid has a practical application in the
production of parchment paper; unsized paper is immersed in strong acid
of the proper strength for about a minute, and then immediately rinsed
in water. The acid acts upon the surface of the paper and forms the
cellulose-sulphuric acid which remains attached to the surface. On
passing into the water this is decomposed, the acid is washed away, and
the cellulose is deposited in an amorphous form on the paper, filling up
its pores and rendering it waterproof and grease-proof. Such papers are
now largely used for packing purposes.


ACTION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

Dilute hydrochloric acid of from 1° to 2° Tw. in strength, used in the
cold, has no action on cellulose. Cotton immersed in acids of the
strength named and then well washed in water is not materially affected
in any way, which is a feature of some value in connection with the
bleaching of cotton, where the material has to be treated at two points
in the process with weak acids. Boiling dilute hydrochloric acid of 10°
Tw. disintegrates cellulose very rapidly. The product is a white very
friable powder, which if viewed under the microscope appears to be
fragments of the fibre that has been used to prepare it. The product has
the composition C{12}H{22}O{11}, and is therefore a hydrate of
cellulose, the latter having undergone hydrolysis by taking up the
elements of water according to the equation 2C{6}H{10}O{5} + H{2}O
= C{12}H{22}O{11}. By further digestion with the acid, the
hydrocellulose, as it is called, undergoes molecular change, and is
converted into dextrine. In composition hydrocellulose resembles the
product formed by the addition of sulphuric acid which has received the
name of amyloid. It differs from cellulose in containing free carboxyl,
CO, groups, while its hydroxyl groups, HO, are much more active in their
chemical reactions.

Hydrocellulose is soluble in nitric acid, 1.5 specific gravity, without
undergoing oxidation. Nitrates are formed varying in composition.

The formation of hydrocellulose has a very important bearing in woollen
manufacture. It is practically impossible to obtain wool free from
vegetable fibres, and it is often desirable to separate these vegetable
fibres. For this purpose the goods are passed into a bath of
hydrochloric acid or of weak sulphuric acid. On drying the acid converts
the cotton or vegetable fibre into hydrocellulose which, being friable
or powdery, can be easily removed, while the wool not having been acted
on by the acid remains quite intact. The process is known as
"carbonising". It may not only be done by means of the acids named but
also by the use of acid salts, such as aluminium chloride, which on
being heated are decomposed into free acid and basic oxide. For the same
reason it is important to avoid the use of these bodies, aluminium
chloride and sulphate, zinc and magnesium chlorides, etc., in the
treatment of cotton fabrics; as in finishing processes, where the goods
are dried afterwards, there is a great liability to form hydrocellulose
with the accompaniment of the tendering of the goods.


ACTION OF NITRIC ACID.

The action of nitric acid on cellulose is a variable one, depending on
many factors, strength of acid, duration of action and temperature.
Naturally as nitric acid is a strong oxidising agent the action of
nitric acid on cellulose is essentially in all cases that of an oxidant,
but the character of the product which is obtained varies very much
according to the conditions just noted. When cellulose or cotton in any
form is immersed in nitric acid of 1.4 to 1.5 specific gravity for a
moment, and the fibre be well washed, there is a formation of hydrate of
cellulose which has a gelatinous nature. This is deposited on the rest
of the material, which is not materially affected so far as regards
strength and appearance, but its power of affinity for dyes is
materially increased. There is some shrinkage in the size of the cotton
or paper acted upon.

Nitric acid changes all kinds of cellulose into nitro products, the
composition of which depends upon the strength of the acid, the duration
of treatment, and one or two other factors. The nitrocelluloses are all
highly inflammable bodies, the more highly nitrated burning with
explosive force. They are produced commercially and are known as "gun
cotton" or "pyroxyline". The most highly nitrated body forms the basis
of the explosive variety; the least highly nitrated forms that of the
soluble gun cotton used for making collodion for photographic and other
purposes.

The products formed by the action of nitric acid are usually considered
to be nitrocelluloses. It would appear that they are more correctly
described as cellulose-nitrates, for analysis indicates the presence of
the NO{3} group, which is characteristic of nitrates, and not of the
NO{2} group, which is the feature of nitro bodies in general. Further,
nitro compounds, when subject to the action of reducing agents, are
converted into amido compounds, as is the case, for instance, with
nitro-benzene, C{6}H{5}NO{2}, into aniline, C{6}H{5}NH{2}, or with
nitro-naphthalene, C{10}H{7}NO{2}, which changes into naphthylamine,
C{10}H{7}NH{2}.

But the nitric acid derivatives of cellulose are not capable of
conversion by reducing agents into similar amido compounds. They have
the following properties, which accord more closely with nitrates than
with nitric bodies: alkalies remove the nitric acid; cold sulphuric acid
expels the nitric acid, cellulose sulphates being formed; boiling with
ferrous sulphate and hydrochloric acid causes the elimination of the
nitric acid as nitric oxide (on which reaction a method for determining
the degree of nitration of gun cotton is based). It is best therefore to
consider them as cellulose nitrates. Several well-characterised
cellulose nitrates have been prepared, but is an exceedingly difficult
matter to obtain any one in a state of purity, the commercial articles
being always mixtures of two or three. Those that are best known and of
the most importance are the following:--

Cellulose Hexa-nitrate, C{6}H{4}O{5}(NO{3}){6}. This forms the
principal portion of the commercial explosive gun cotton, and is made
when a mixture of strong nitric acid and strong sulphuric acid is
allowed to act on cotton at from 50 to 55° F. for twenty-four hours. The
longer the action is prolonged, the more completely is the cotton
converted into the nitrate, with a short duration the finished product
contains lower nitrates. This hexa-nitrate is insoluble in ether,
alcohol, or in a mixture of those solvents, likewise in glacial acetic
acid or in methyl alcohol.

Cellulose Penta-nitrate, C{6}H{5}O{5}(NO{3}){5}, is found in
explosive gun cotton to a small extent. When gun cotton is dissolved in
nitric acid and sulphuric acid is added, the penta-nitrate is thrown
down as a precipitate. It is not soluble in alcohol, but is so in a
mixture of ether and alcohol, it is also slightly soluble in acetic
acid. Solutions of caustic potash convert it into the di-nitrate.

Cellulose Tetra-nitrate, C{6}H{6}O{5}(NO{3}){4}, and Cellulose
Tri-nitrate, C{6}H{7}O{5},(NO{3}){3}, form the basis of the
pyroxyline or soluble gun cotton of commerce. It has not been found
possible to separate them owing to their behaviour to solvents being
very similar. These nitrates are obtained by treating cotton with nitric
acid for twenty or thirty minutes. They are characterised by being more
soluble than the higher nitrates and less inflammable. They are freely
soluble in a mixture of ether and alcohol, from which solutions they are
precipitated in a gelatinous form on adding chloroform. Acetic ether,
methyl alcohol, acetone and glacial acetic acid, will also dissolve
these nitrates.

Cellulose Di-nitrate, C{6}H{8}O{5}(NO{3}){2}, is obtained when
cellulose is treated with hot dilute nitric acid, or when the high
nitrates are boiled with solutions of caustic soda or caustic potash.
Like the last-mentioned nitrates it is soluble in a mixture of alcohol
and ether, in acetic ether, and in absolute alcohol. The solution of the
pyroxyline nitrates in ether and alcohol is known as collodion, and is
used in photography and in medical and surgical work.

One of the most interesting applications of the cellulose nitrates is in
the production of artificial silk. Several processes, the differences
between which are partly chemical and partly mechanical, have been
patented for the production of artificial silk, those of Lehner and of
Chardonnet being of most importance. They all depend upon the fact that
when a solution of cellulose nitrate is forced through a fine aperture
or tube, the solvent evaporates almost immediately, leaving a gelatinous
thread of the cellulose nitrate which is very tough and elastic, and
possesses a brilliant lustre. Chardonnet dissolves the cellulose nitrate
in a mixture of alcohol and ether, and the solution is forced through
fine capillary tubes into hot water, when the solvents immediately
evaporate, leaving the cellulose nitrate in the form of very fine fibre,
which by suitable machinery is drawn away as fast as it is formed.
Lehner's process is very similar to that of Chardonnet. Lehner uses a
solution of cellulose nitrate in ether and alcohol, and adds a small
quantity of sulphuric acid; by the adoption of the latter ingredient he
is able to use a stronger solution of cellulose nitrate, 10 to 15 per
cent., than would otherwise be possible, and thereby obtains a stronger
thread which resists the process of drawing much better than is the case
when only a weak solution in alcohol and ether is employed. By
subsequent treatment the fibre can be denitrated and so rendered less
inflammable.

The denitrated fibres thus prepared very closely resemble silk in their
lustre; they are not quite so soft and supple, nor are they in any way
so strong as ordinary silk fibre of the same diameter.

Artificial silk can be dyed in the same manner as ordinary silk.


ACTION OF OXIDISING AGENTS ON CELLULOSE OR COTTON

Cellulose resists fairly well the action of weak oxidising agents; still
too prolonged an action of weak oxidising agents has some influence upon
the cotton fibre, and it may be worth while to point out the action of
some bodies having an oxidising effect.

Nitric acid of about 1.15 specific gravity has little action in the
cold, and only slowly on it when heated. The action is one of oxidation,
the cellulose being transformed into a substance known as oxycellulose.
This oxycellulose is white and flocculent. It tends to form gelatinous
hydrates with water, and has a composition corresponding to the formula
C{6}H{10}O{6}. It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric
acids, and on diluting this solution with water a tri-nitrate
precipitates out. A weak solution of soda dissolves this oxycellulose
with a yellow colour, while strong sulphuric acid forms a pink
colouration. It is important to note that nitric acid of the strength
given does not convert all the cellulose into oxycellulose, but there
are formed also carbonic and oxalic acids. When cotton is passed into
strong solutions of bleaching powder and of alkaline hypochlorites and
then dried, it is found to be tendered very considerably. This effect of
bleaching powder was first observed some thirteen years ago by George
Witz, who ascribed the tendering of the cotton to the formation of an
oxycellulose. Although the composition of this particular oxycellulose
so formed has not yet been ascertained, there is reason to think that it
differs somewhat from the oxycellulose formed by the action of the weak
nitric acid. A notable property of the oxycellulose now under
consideration is its affinity for the basic coal-tar dyes, which it will
absorb directly. The oxycellulose is soluble in alkaline solutions.

In the ordinary bleaching process there is considerable risk of the
formation of oxycellulose by the employment of the bleaching solutions
of too great a strength, or in allowing the goods to lie too long before
the final washing off. The presence of any oxycellulose in bleached
cotton may be readily determined by immersing it in a weak solution of
Methylene blue, when, if there be any oxycellulose present, the fibre
will take up some of the dye-stuff.

Permanganate of potash is a very powerful oxidising agent. On cellulose
neutral solutions have but little action, either in the cold or when
heated. They may, therefore, be used for the bleaching of cotton or
other cellulose fibres.

Alkaline solutions of permanganate convert the cellulose into
oxycellulose, which resembles the oxycellulose obtained by the action of
the nitric acid.

Chromic acid, when used in the form of a solution, has but little action
on cellulose. In the presence of mineral acids, and used warm or
boiling, chromic acid oxidises cellulose into oxycellulose and other
products.

It is therefore always advisable in carrying out any technical process
connected with cotton which involves its treatment with oxidising agents
of any kind, and where it is desired not to alter the cotton, to allow
these actions to be as short as possible.

=Dyes and Cotton Dyeing.=--An account of the chemistry of the cotton
fibre would not be complete unless something is said about the reactions
involved in the processes of dyeing and printing cotton. This is a most
interesting subject and opens up quite a number of problems relating to
the combination of the fibre with colouring matter of various kinds, but
here only a brief outline of the principles that present themselves in
considering the behaviour of the cotton fibre as regards colouring
matter will be given.

When the question is considered from a broad point of view, and having
regard to the various affinities of the dyes for cotton; we notice (1)
that there is a large number of dye-stuffs--the Benzo, Congo, Diamine,
Titan, Mikado, etc., dyes--that will dye the cotton from a plain bath or
from a bath containing salt, sodium sulphate, borax or similar salts;
(2) that there are dyes which, like Magenta, Safranine, Auramine and
Methyl violet, will not dye the cotton fibre direct, but require it to
be mordanted or prepared with tannic acid; (3) that there are some dyes
or rather colouring matters which, like Alizarine, Nitroso-resorcine,
barwood, logwood, etc., require alumina, chrome and iron mordants; (4)
that there are some dyes which, like the azo scarlet and azo colours in
general, cannot be used in cotton dyeing; (5) that there are a few dyes,
_i.e._, indigo, which do not come under this grouping.

From the results of recent investigations into the chemistry of dyeing
it is now considered that for perfect dyeing to take place there must be
formed on the fibre a combination which is called a "colour lake," which
consists of at least two constituents; one of these is the dye-stuff or
the colouring matter itself, the other being either the fibre or a
mordant, if such has to be used. The question of the formation of colour
lakes is one connected with the molecular constitution of the colouring
matter, but much yet remains to be done before the proper functions and
mode of action of the various groups or radicles in the dye-stuffs can
be definitely stated. While the constitution of the dye-stuff is of
importance, that of the substance being dyed is also a factor in the
question of the conditions under which it is applied.

In dealing with the first of the above groups of dyes, the direct dyes,
the colourist is somewhat at a loss to explain in what manner the
combination with the cotton fibre is brought about. The affinity of
cellulose for dyes appears to be so small and its chemical activities so
weak, that to assume the existence of a reaction between the dye-stuff
and the fibre, tending to the formation of a colour lake, seems to be
untenable. Then, again, the chemical composition and constitution of the
dyes of this group are so varied that an explanation which would hold
good for one might not do so for another. The relative fastness of the
dyes against washing and soaping precludes the idea of a merely
mechanical absorption of the dye by the fibre; on the other hand the
great difference in the fastness to soaping and light between the same
dyes on cotton and wool would show that there has not been a true
formation of colour lake.

The dyeing of cotton with the second group of dyes is more easily
explained. The cotton fibre has some affinity for the tannic acid used
in preparing it and absorbs it from the mordanting bath. The tannic acid
has the property of combining with the basic constituents of these dyes
and forms a true colour lake, which is firmly fixed on the fibre. The
colour lake can be formed independently of the fibre by bringing the
tannic acid and the dye into contact with one another.

In the case of the dyes of the third group, the formation of a colour
lake between the metallic oxide and the colouring matter can be readily
demonstrated. In dyeing with these colours the cotton is first of all
impregnated with the mordanting oxide, and afterwards placed in the
dye-bath, the mordant already fixed on the fibre then reacts with the
dye, and absorbs it, thus dyeing the cotton. To some extent the dyeing
of cotton with the basic dyes of the second group and the mordant dyes
of the third group is almost a mechanical one, the cotton fibre taking
no part in it from a chemical point of view, but simply playing the part
of a base or foundation on which the colour lake may be formed. In the
case of the dyes of the fourth group, there being no chemical affinity
of the cotton known for them, these dyes cannot be used in a successful
manner; cotton will, if immersed in a bath containing them, more or less
mechanically take up some of the colour from the liquor, but such colour
can be almost completely washed out again, hence these dyes are not used
in cotton dyeing, although many attempts have been made to render them
available.

Indigo is a dye-stuff that stands by itself. Its combination with the
cotton fibre is chiefly of a physical rather than a chemical nature; it
does not form colour lakes in the same way as Alizarine and Magenta do.

Cellulose can be dissolved by certain metallic solutions and
preparations:--

(1) =Zinc Chloride.=--When cotton or other form of cellulose is heated
with a strong solution, 40 to 50 per cent., it slowly dissolves to a
syrupy liquid. On diluting this liquid with water the cellulose is
thrown down in a gelatinous form, but more or less hydrated, and
containing some zinc oxide, 18 to 25 per cent., in combination.

(2) =Zinc Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid.=--When zinc chloride is
dissolved in hydrochloric acid a liquid is obtained which dissolves
cellulose; on dilution the cellulose is re-precipitated in a hydrated
form. It is worth noting that the solution is not a stable one: on
keeping, the cellulose changes its character and undergoes hydrolysis to
a greater or less extent.

(3) =Ammoniacal Copper.=--When ammonia is added to a solution of copper
sulphate, there is formed at first a pale blue precipitate of copper
hydroxide, which on adding excess of ammonia dissolves to a deep blue
solution--a reaction highly characteristic of copper. The ammoniacal
copper solution thus prepared has, as was first observed by John Mercer,
the property of dissolving cellulose fairly rapidly, even in the cold.

If instead of preparing the ammoniacal copper solution in the manner
indicated above, which results in its containing a neutral ammonium
salt, the copper hydroxide be prepared separately and then dissolved in
ammonia a solution is obtained which is stronger in its action.

The cupra-ammonium solutions of cellulose are by no means stable but
change on keeping. When freshly prepared, the cellulose may be
precipitated from them almost unchanged by the addition of such bodies
as alcohol, sugar and solutions of neutral alkaline salts. On keeping
the cellulose undergoes more or less hydrolysis or even oxidation, for
it has been observed that oxycellulose is formed on prolonged digestion
of cellulose with cupra-ammonium solutions, while there is formed a
fairly large proportion of a nitrite.

On adding lead acetate to the cupra-ammonium solution of cellulose, a
compound of lead oxide and cellulose of somewhat variable composition is
precipitated. It is of interest also to note that on adding metallic
zinc to the cupra-ammonium solution the copper is thrown out and a
solution containing zinc is obtained.

This action of cupra-ammonium solutions on cellulose has been made the
basis for the production of the "Willesden" waterproof cloths. Cotton
cloths or paper are passed through these solutions of various degrees of
strength according to requirements, they are then passed through rollers
which causes the surface to become more compact. There is formed on the
surface of the goods a deposit of a gelatinous nature which makes the
surface more compact, and the fabric becomes waterproof in character
while the copper imparts to them a green colour and acts as a
preservative. The "Willesden" fabrics have been found very useful for a
variety of purposes.



CHAPTER II.

SCOURING AND BLEACHING OF COTTON.


Preparatory to the actual dyeing operations, it is necessary to treat
cotton in any condition--loose cotton, yarn, or piece--so that the
dyeing shall be properly done. Raw cotton contains many impurities,
mechanical and otherwise; cotton yarns accumulate dirt and impurities of
various kinds during the various spinning operations, while in weaving a
piece of cotton cloth it is practically impossible to keep it clean and
free from dirt, etc. Before the cotton can be dyed a perfectly level and
uniform shade, free from dark spots or light patches, these impurities
must be removed, and therefore the cotton is subjected to various
scouring or cleansing operations with the object of effecting this end.
Then again cotton naturally, especially Egyptian cotton, contains a
small quantity of a brown colouring matter, and this would interfere
with the purity of any pale tints of blue, rose, yellow, green, etc.,
which may be dyed on the cotton, and so it becomes necessary to remove
this colour and render the cotton quite bright. This is commonly called
"bleaching". It is these preparatory processes that will be dealt with
in this chapter.

=Scouring Cotton.=--When dark shades--blacks, browns, olives, sages,
greens, etc., are to be dyed it is not needful to subject the cotton to
a bleaching operation, but simply to a scouring by boiling it with soda
or caustic soda. This is very often-carried out in the same machine as
the goods will be dyed in; thus, for instance, in the case of pieces,
they would be charged in a jigger, this would be filled with a liquor
made from soda or from caustic soda, and the pieces run from end to end,
while the liquor is being heated to the boil--usually half to
three-quarters of an hour is sufficient. Then the alkali liquor is run
out, clean water run into the jigger and the pieces washed, after which
the dyes, etc., are run into the jigger and the dyeing done. There is
usually used 2 lb. to 3 lb. of caustic soda, or 3 lb. to 4 lb. of soda
for each 100 lb. of goods so treated.

If the ordinary dyeing machines are not used for this purpose, then the
ordinary bleachers' kiers may be used. These will be described
presently.

=Bleaching of Cotton.=--Cotton is bleached in the form of yarn, or in
the finished pieces. In the latter case the method depends very largely
on the nature of the fabric; it is obvious that fine fabrics, like
muslins or lace curtains, cannot stand the same rough treatment as a
piece of twilled calico will. Then, again, the bleaching process is
varied according to what is going to be done with the goods after they
are bleached; sometimes they are sent out as they leave the
bleach-house; again, they may have to be dyed or printed. In the first
case the bleach need not be of such a perfect character as in the last
case, which again must be more perfect than the second class of bleach.
There may be recognised:--

(1) Market or white bleach.
(2) Dyers or printers' bleach.
(3) Madder bleach.

As the madder bleach is by far the most perfect of the three, and
practically includes the others, this will be described in detail, and
differences between it and the others will be then pointed out. A piece
is subjected to the madder bleach which has afterwards to be printed
with madder or alizarine. Usually in this kind of work the cloths are
printed with mordant colours, and then dyed in a bath of the dye-stuff.
This stains the whole of the piece, and to rid the cloth of the stain
where it has to be left white, it is subjected to a soap bath. Now,
unless the bleach has been thorough, the whites will be more or less
stained permanently, and to avoid this cloths which are to be printed
with alizarine colours are most thoroughly bleached. The madder bleach
of the present day generally includes the following series of
operations:--

(1) Stitching.
(2) Singeing.
(3) Singeing wash.
(4) Lime boil.
(5) Lime sour.
(6) Lye boil.
(7) Resin boil.
(8) Wash.
(9) Chemicing.
(10) White sour.

(1) =Stitching.=--The pieces are fastened together by stitching into one
long rope, which is passed in a continuous manner through all operations
in which such a proceeding is possible. This stitching is done by
machines, the simplest of which is the donkey machine, whereby the ends
of the pieces, which are to be stitched together, are forced by a pair
of cogwheels working together on to the needle carrying a piece of
thread, this is then pulled through and forms a running stitch, a
considerable length of thread being left on each side so as to prevent
as far as possible the pulling asunder of the pieces by an accidental
drawing out of the thread.

Birch's sewing machine is very largely used in bleach works. It consists
essentially of a Wilcox & Gibb machine fitted on a stand so as to be
driven by power. The pieces are carried under the needle by a large
wheel, the periphery of which contains a number of projecting pins that,
engaging in the cloth, carry it along.

There is also a contrivance by which these pieces to be sewn can be kept
stretched, this takes the form of an arm with clips at the end, which
hold one end of the cloth while it is running through the machine. The
clip arrangement is automatic, and just before the end passes under the
needle it is released, and the arm flies back ready for the next piece;
it is, however, not necessary to use this arm always. This machine gives
a chain stitch sufficiently firm to resist a pull in the direction of
the length of the pieces, but giving readily to a pull at the end of the
thread.

The Rayer & Lincoln machine is an American invention, and is much more
complicated than Birch's. It consists of a sewing machine mounted on the
periphery of a large revolving wheel. This carries a number of pins,
which, engaging in the cloth to be stitched, carry it under the needle
of the machine. Besides sewing the pieces together this machine is
fitted with a pair of revolving cutters which trim the ends of the
pieces as they pass through in a neat clean manner. There is also an
arrangement to mark the pieces as they are being stitched. Like Birch's
it produces a chain stitch.

What is important in sewing the ends of pieces together is to get a firm
uniform stitch that lies level with the cloths without any knots
projecting, which would catch in the bleaching machinery during the
processes of bleaching, and this might lead to much damage being done.

Should it be necessary to mark the pieces so that they can be recognised
after bleaching, the best thing to use is printers' ink. Gas tar is also
much used, and is very good for the purpose. Coloured inks do not resist
the bleaching sufficiently well to be used satisfactory. Vermilion and
Indian red are used for reds, yellow ochre is the fastest of the
yellows, there is no blue which will stand the process, and Guignet's
green is the only green that will at all resist the process, umber will
serve for brown. All these colours are used in the form of printing ink.

The next operation is a very important one, which cannot be too
carefully carried out, that is:--

(2) =Singeing.=--For printing bleaches the cloths are singed. This has
for its object the removal from the surface of the cloth of the fine
fibres with which it is covered, and which would, if allowed to remain,
prevent the designs printed on from coming out with sufficient
clearness, giving them a blurred appearance.

Singeing is done in various ways, by passing the cloth over a red-hot
copper plate, or over a red-hot revolving copper cylinder, or through a
coke flame, or through gas flames, and more recently over a rod of
platinum made red hot by electricity.

Plate singeing is the oldest of these methods and is still largely used.
In this method a semi-cylindrical copper plate is heated in a suitable
furnace to a bright red heat, the cloths are rapidly passed over it, and
the loose fibres thereby burnt off. One great trouble is to keep the
plate at one uniform heat over the whole of its surface, some parts will
get hotter than others, and it is only by careful attention to the
firing of the furnace that this can be obtained. To get over these
difficulties Worral introduced a roller singeing machine in which the
plate was replaced by a revolving copper roller, heated by a suitable
furnace; the roller can be kept at a more uniform temperature than the
plate. The singe obtained by the plate and roller is good, the principal
fault being that if the cloths happen to get pressed down too much on
the hot plate the loose ends are not burnt off as they should be. With
both plate and roller the cloths are singed only on one side, and if
both sides require to be singed a second passage is necessary. Both
systems still retain their hold as the principal methods in use,
notwithstanding the introduction of more modern methods.

Singeing by passing the cloths over a row of Bunsen burners has come
largely into use. This has the great advantage of being very cleanly,
and of doing the work very effectually, much more thoroughly than any
other method, which is due to the fact that while in the methods
described above only the loose fibres on the surface are burnt off; with
gas all the loose fibres are burnt off. This is brought about by the gas
flame passing straight through the cloth. It is not necessary to
describe the gas singeing machine in detail. Singeing machines should be
kept scrupulously clean and free from fluff, which is liable to collect
round them, and very liable to fire. Some machines are fitted with a
flue having a powerful draught which carries off this fluff, away from
any source of danger.

(3) =Singeing Wash.=--After being singed the cloths are run through a
washing machine to remove by water as much of the loose charred fibres
as possible. The construction of a washing machine is well known. It
consists of a pair of large wooden rollers set above a trough containing
water and into which a constant stream of water flows. In the trough is
also fixed another wooden roller and the pieces are passed round this
bottom roller and between the top rollers. The cloth is passed through
and round the rollers several times in a spiral form so that it passes
through the water in the trough frequently, which is a great advantage,
as the wash is thus much more effectual. The pressure between the two
top rollers presses out any surplus water. The operation scarcely needs
any further description.

(4) =Lime Boil.=--After the cloth leaves the singeing or grey wash, as
it is often called, it passes through the liming machine, which is made
very similar to the washing machine. In this it passes through milk of
lime, which should be made from freshly slaked lime. The latter maybe
prepared in a pasty form in a stone cistern. The lime used should be of
good quality, free from stones, badly burnt pieces or any other
insoluble material, so that when slaked it should give a fine smooth
pasty mass.

Lime should not be slaked too long before using, as it absorbs carbonic
acid from the atmosphere, whereby carbonate of lime is formed, and this
is useless for liming cloth. The pasty slaked lime may be mixed with
water to form the milk of lime, and this can be run from the cistern in
which it is prepared into the liming machine as it is required; the
supply pipe should be run into the bottom of the trough of the liming
machine and not over the top, in which latter case it may splash on to
the cloths and lead to overliming, which is not to be desired on account
of its liability to rot the cloth. The amount of lime used varies in
different bleachworks, and there is no rule on the subject; about 5 lb.
to 7 lb. of dry lime to 100 lb. of cloth may be taken as a fair quantity
to use.

The lime boil has for its object the removal or rather the
saponification of the resinous and fatty matters present in the grey
cloth, either naturally or which have been added in the process of
weaving, or have got upon the cloth accidentally during the processes of
spinning and weaving. With these bodies the lime forms insoluble lime
soaps; these remain in the cloth, but in a form easily decomposable and
removable by treatment with acids and washing. Soda or potash is not
nearly so good for this first boiling as lime--for what reason is
somewhat uncertain, but probably because they form with the grease in
the cloths soluble soaps, which might float about the kier and
accumulate in places where they are not required and thus lead to
stains, whereas the insoluble lime soap remains where it was formed. The
lime also seems to attack the natural colouring matter of the cotton,
and although the colour of the limed cloth is darker than before
boiling, yet the nature of the colour is so altered that it is more
easily removed in the after processes. Besides these changes the
starchy matters put into the cloth in the sizing are dissolved away.
Great care should be taken to see that the goods are evenly laid in the
kiers, not too tight, or the liquor will not penetrate properly; and not
too slack, or they will float about and get entangled and more or less
damaged. Then again care should be taken, especially when using
low-pressure kiers, to see that the supply of liquor does not get too
low, in which case the goods in the upper part of the kier are liable to
get dry and are tendered thereby. So long as the goods in the kiers are
not allowed to get dry there is no risk of damage; this trouble rarely
arises with the Barlow and injector kiers. The inside of the kiers
should be kept well limed, so that the goods shall not come in contact
with the bare iron or metal of which the kier is constructed, as this
would be very likely to lead to stains being produced which are by no
means easy to remove. It is usual, and it is a good plan with almost all
kinds of kiers, except the Mather and Edmeston kiers, to put a number of
large pebbles or small stones at the bottom of the kier, which serves to
make a false bottom on which the goods rest and through which the liquor
penetrates and flows away. Before using, the stones should be well
washed to free them from dirt and grit.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Mather & Platt's Low-pressure Bleaching Kier.]

The lime boil is carried out in what are called "kiers". Many forms of
kiers have been devised, but the one in most general use is that known
as the "injector kier," of which a drawing is given in Fig. 4, of the
form made by Messrs. Mather & Platt of Salford. Injector kiers are made
to work either under a pressure of 40 lb. to 50 lb. of steam per square
inch, when they are called high-pressure kiers, or at a pressure of 15
lb. to 20 lb., when they are called low-pressure kiers. The one shown in
the drawing is intended for low-pressure kiers. The principle of
construction is the same in all, the details varying somewhat with
different makers. Injector kiers consist of a hollow, upright iron
cylinder made of plates riveted together; the top is made to lift off,
but can be fastened down tightly by means of bolts and nuts as shown in
the drawing. From the bottom, and placed centrally, rises a pipe, known
as the puffer pipe; this terminates at the top in a rose arrangement.
The lower end of the pipe is perforated. A jet of steam is sent in at
the bottom of this pipe, and by its force any liquor at the bottom of
the kier is forced up the puffer pipe and distributed in a spray over
any goods which may be in the kier. The liquor ultimately finds its way
to the bottom of the kier ready to be blown up again. This circulation
of the liquor can be maintained for any length of time and through its
agency every part of the goods gets thorough and effectual treatment.

The length of the boil depends upon the kiers; with the open kier about
ten hours are usually given, with the Barlow and injector kiers, working
at a pressure of 40 lb. to 50 lb., six to seven hours are given.

(5) =Lime or Grey Sour.=--After the lime boil, the next operation is
that of the lime sour or grey sour as it is often called to distinguish
it from a subsequent souring. The souring is done in a machine
constructed in the same way as a washing machine; the trough of the
machine is filled with hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw., which is kept ready
prepared in a stone cistern and run into the machine as required (it is
not advisable to use acid stronger than this). After passing through the
sour the goods are piled in a heap on the stillage for a few hours. The
acid attacks the lime soap which was formed during the lime boil,
decomposes it and dissolves out the lime with the formation of calcium
chloride, while the fat of the soap is liberated, the former is washed
away in the subsequent washing, while the latter remains to a large
extent on the goods, and is removed by the lye boil that follows.
Sulphuric acid is not so satisfactory to use for the lime sour as
hydrochloric acid, because it forms with the lime the insoluble sulphate
of calcium, which is difficult to entirely remove from the goods,
whereas the chloride is very soluble and is entirely eliminated from the
goods by the washing that follows.

It is advisable to keep the acid at a uniform strength in the machine.
The Twaddell is here of no use as an indicator of the actual strength,
because the lime which the acid dissolves, while it neutralises and
reduces the strength of the acid, actually raises the Twaddell, under
which circumstance the only safe method is a chemical test. This can be
carried out very simply and with a sufficient degree of accuracy by the
workmen, and if it be done at regular intervals during the souring, and
the supply of the fresh acid be regulated, the sour will be kept at a
more uniform strength and more uniform results will be obtained than if
the souring were done in a more empirical fashion. The test is best and
most easily done as follows:--

Prepare a solution of 1 oz. of the powdered high strength 98 per cent.
caustic soda in 1 pint of water, weighing and measuring these quantities
very carefully. Now take a tall, narrow, white bottle of about 5 oz.
capacity and make a mark on the neck. Fill this bottle with the test
solution.

Now take exactly 5 ozs. of freshly prepared sour of 2° Tw., pour into a
jar, and add carefully some of the soda-test solution until a piece of
cloth dyed with turmeric is turned brown, when the acid is neutralised.
Now make a mark on the bottle of soda to show how much has been used. In
all subsequent tests of the sour 5 ozs. should always take the same
quantity of soda solution; if it takes less it is too weak, if more it
is too strong; the remedy in each case is obvious. It is worth while to
graduate the test bottle for 1°, 3°, 4°, 5° Twaddell, as well as for 2°
Tw. acid.

After the souring it is often the custom to pile the goods on to a
wooden stillage, but the goods should not be left too long so piled up
for they may become dry, either entirely or in parts. In any case, as
the goods dry the acid becomes concentrated and attacks them and makes
them tender, which is not at all desirable. Therefore, if it is not
convenient to proceed with them for some time after souring, they
should be moistened with water from time to time, but it is best to wash
them off at once, whereby they are made ready for the next operation.

(6) =Lye Boil.=--This is, perhaps, the most important operation in the
whole process of bleaching, especially if the cloths are going to be
printed in the so-called madder style with alizarine colours, or
otherwise stains are liable to occur in the final stage, and it is then
sometimes difficult to put the blame for these upon the right shoulders.

In principle the lye boil is simple, consisting in boiling the goods
with a solution of soda ash, or caustic soda. The quantity of ash used
varies in different works, as might naturally be expected; from 170 lb.
to 200 lb. of ash to 10,000 lb. of cloth is a fair proportion to use.
The length of boil averages about four hours, certainly not less than
three should be given, and it is not necessary to give more than five
hours in either ordinary kiers, with central puffer pipe, or in injector
kiers.

Care should be taken to see that the goods are well packed into the
kiers, not too tightly or the lye will fail to penetrate equally all
through, and this is important if a uniform bleach is desired; neither
should they be too loose, or they will float about and get torn. It is
not necessary to be particular about the quantity of water used, except
that it must be sufficient to keep the goods well covered, and still
have enough to keep the circulation energetic. When the water is not
sufficient in amount the goods get somewhat dry; there is then a
liability to tendering, but with plenty of water there is no fear of any
damage being done during a boil with alkali. Some works use caustic soda
instead of soda ash in which case less is required, from 120 lb. to 150
lb. to 10,000 lb. of cloth, otherwise no alteration is made in the mode
of boiling.

This lye boil clears away the fatty and waxy matter left in the goods
after the lime sour, and thus prepares the way for the next boil. There
is no advantage in using caustic soda in this preliminary boil, soda ash
being just as effective and cheaper.

(7) =Resin Boil.=--Following the lye boil is the resin boil which
consists in boiling the goods in a resin soap liquor. This is made as
follows: a soda ash liquor of about 15° to 20° Tw. is prepared, and into
this is thrown resin, broken up into small pieces.

The whole is boiled up until the resin is dissolved, and then as much
more is added in small quantities as the alkali will take up. The soda
liquor should not be much weaker than 20° Tw., it will then be heavier
than the resin which will float on the top, it is found to dissolve
quicker and better than when the liquor is weak, in which case, the
resin would sink to the bottom of the boiler and would there melt into a
single mass difficult to dissolve. The resin soap liquor when made is
ready to be used. The proportions of resin and alkali used in the boil
vary in different works, but, as a rule, the quantities for 10,000 lb.
of goods are 430 lb. of 58 per cent. soda ash, 180 lb. of resin, and 80
lb. of 70 per cent. caustic soda. Too much resin should be avoided, as
it is found that with an excess the whites obtained are not nearly so
good as when the right quantity is used; on the other hand, too little
acts much in the same way. It may be taken that from 1-1/2 to 1-3/4 per
cent. of the weight of the goods is about the right proportion; 1 per
cent. being too little, and 2 per cent. too much. The quantity of soda
used should be rather more than twice that of the resin, from 3-1/2 to 4
per cent. The length of boil is usually about twelve hours in a
low-pressure kier; in a high-pressure kier about seven hours is
sufficient.

What the special function of the resin is in this boil is not
definitely known; but experience, both on a large and small scale,
proves that it is essential to obtaining a good white for alizarine
printing; without it, when the goods are dyed with alizarine after the
mordants have been printed on, they frequently take a brown stain--with
the resin this never or but rarely happens.

(8) =Wash.=--After the lye boils the goods must be washed, and it is
important that this be done in as thorough a manner as possible. With
the object of accomplishing this most thoroughly many washing machines
have been invented, the main idea in all being to bring every part of
the goods into contact with as much water as possible. Bridson's is an
old form, and a very good one, the principle of this machine is to cause
the cloth to pass to and fro, and to flap upon the surface of the water
in the trough of the machine.

Furnival's square beater works on much the same principle, and does its
work effectively. More modern washing machines are those of Birch,
Farmer, Mather & Platt, and Hawthorne, where by the peculiar
construction of the rollers and the use of beaters the cloth is very
effectually washed. These machines are much more economical in the use
of water than the older forms, and yet they do their work as well, if
not better.

(9) =Chemicing.=--This is the actual bleaching operation, familiarly
known as "chemicing," that is, the treatment of the goods with bleaching
powder. The previous operations have resulted in obtaining a cloth free
from grease, natural or acquired, and from other impurities, but it
still has a slight brownish colour. This has to be removed before the
goods can be considered a good white, which it is the aim of every
bleacher they should be.

To get rid of this colour they are subjected to some final operations,
the first of which is now to be considered. The chemicing consists in
running the goods through a weak solution of bleaching powder (chloride
of lime), piling the goods up into heaps, and allowing them to lie
overnight, the next day they are finished. As the cloth has received, or
ought to have received, a thorough bottoming, only a weak bath of chemic
is required, about 1/2 to 1° Tw. is quite sufficient. The solution is
prepared in a stone cistern. There is very little difficulty in making
it, the only precaution necessary is to have the solution quite clear
and free from undissolved particles, for if these get upon the cloth
they will either lead to the production of minute holes, or they may
overbleach the fibre, which in such case will have the power of
attracting excess of colour in any subsequent dyeing process and thus
lead to stains, the origin of which may not be readily grasped at the
first sight.

It is best, therefore, either to allow the solution to settle in the
cistern till quite clear, which is the simplest way, or to filter
through cloth.

The chemicing is best done cold and with weak solution, at 1/2° Tw.
rather than 1° Tw. Warming the liquor increases the rapidity of the
bleaching action, but there is a risk of over-chloring, which must be
avoided as far as possible, because there is then danger of tendering
the fibre, moreover, such over-chlored cloth has an affinity for
colouring matters that is not at all desirable, as it leads to the
production of stains and patches in the dyeing operations. It is much
better, when a single chemicing does not bleach the cloth sufficiently
and give a white, to run the cloth twice through a weak liquor rather
than once through a strong liquor.

Although the chemicing is followed by a sour, which, acting on the
bleaching powder, liberates chlorine that bleaches the fabric, yet the
greatest proportion of the bleaching effect is brought about while the
pieces are being piled up into heaps between the chemicing and the sour.
In this state they should be left for some hours, covered over with a
damp sheet, care being taken that they are not left piled so long as to
become dry, as in this event there is a great risk of tendering the
cloth or fabric; it is, therefore, a good plan to moisten them with a
little water from time to time. They should not be tightly piled up, but
be as loose as possible, so that the air can get to them, as it is the
carbonic acid and other acid vapours in the air, that by acting on the
chemic causes slow liberation of chlorine, which effects the bleaching
of the goods.

(10) =White Sour.=--After the chemicing the goods are treated to a sour,
for which purpose either hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid may be
used.

Hydrochloric acid possesses the advantage of forming a more soluble salt
of lime (calcium chloride) than does sulphuric acid (calcium sulphate),
and it has a more solvent action upon any traces of iron and other
metallic oxide stains which may be present in the goods. On the other
hand, on account of its fuming properties, it is unpleasant to work
with. The souring is done by passing the goods through an acid liquor at
2° Tw. strong and piling for two or three hours, after which it is
washed. This final washing must be thorough, so that all traces of acid
and chemic are washed out, otherwise there is a tendency for the goods
to acquire a yellowish colouration.

So far the routine has been described of the so-called madder bleach,
the most perfect kind of bleach applied to cotton cloths. Besides this
two other kinds of bleach are distinguished in the trade. Turkey red and
market bleach. The former is used when the cloth or yarn is to be dyed
plain or self-coloured with delicate shades with Alizarine; the latter
is used for cloth sold in the white. As the operations involved in
producing these are identical in their method of manipulation to those
already described, it will only be necessary to give an outline of the
process for each one.

=Turkey Red Bleach=--(1) Rinse through water into a kier and boil for
two hours. (2) Lime boil for three to four hours. The amount of lime
required is rather less than what is used with the madder bleach, from
2-1/2 lb. to 3 lb, lime to each 1 cwt. of goods being quite sufficient.
(3) Souring as in the madder bleach. (4) Lye boil, using about 100 lb.
caustic soda to a ton of goods, and giving ten hours' boil. (5) Second
lye boil using about 50 lb. soda ash to a ton of goods, after which the
goods are well washed. (6) Chemicing as with the madder bleach. (7)
Souring as with the madder bleach, then washing well.

This represents an average process, but almost every bleacher has his
own methods, differing from the above in some of the details and this
applies to all bleaching processes. It is obvious that the details may
be varied to a great extent without changing the principles on which the
process depends.

=Market Bleach=--Here all that requires to be done is to get the cloth
of a sufficient degree of whiteness to please the eye of the customer.
Market bleachers have, however, to deal with a wider range of goods than
is dealt with in the former kinds of bleaches, from very fine muslins to
very heavy sheetings. Now it is obvious from a merely mechanical point
of view, that the former could not stand as rough a process as the
latter, therefore there must be some differences in the details of
muslin bleaching and sheeting bleaching. Then again with goods sold in
the white, it is customary to weave coloured headings or markings, and
as these have to be preserved, to do so will cause some slight
alteration of the details of the bleach with this object. On all these
points it is difficult to lay down general rules because of the very
varying feature of the conditions which are met with by the market
bleacher.

The resin boil may be omitted, only two lye boils being required, and
these need not be so long or of such a searching character as the
corresponding boils of the madder bleach. Outlines of two or three such
processes, which are now in use in bleach works, will serve to show the
general routine of a market bleach. The proportions given are calculated
for 10,000 lb. of goods:--

(1) Lime boil, using 500 lb. of lime, and giving a twelve-hours' boil.
(2) Grey sour, hydrochloric acid of 2° Tw., then wash well.
(3) Lye boil, 100 lb. caustic soda, 70 per cent. solid, ten to twelve
hours' boil; wash.
(4) Second lye boil, 100 lb., 58 per cent. soda ash, twelve-hours' boil.
(5) Chemic, bleaching powder liquor at 1° Tw., boil for three hours;
wash.
(6) White sour, sulphuric acid at 2° Tw.; wash well.

The length of boil with the lime and lyes will depend upon the quality
of the goods, heavy goods will require from two to three hours longer
than will light goods, such as cambrics, the time given above being that
for heavy goods, sheetings, etc.

Another process is the following:--

(1) Lime boil, using 480 lb. lime, and boiling for ten hours.
(2) Grey sour, hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw.; wash.
(3) Lye boil, 300 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent.; 50 lb. caustic soda, 70
per cent., and 30 lb. soft soap, giving ten hours' boil; wash.
(4) Chemic as above.
(5) White sour as above; wash well.

A smaller quantity of lime is used here, but on the other hand the lye
boil is a stronger one. This process gives good results. Some bleachers
do not use lime in their market bleaches, but give two lye boils, in
which case the process becomes:--

(1) Lye boil, using 140 lb. caustic soda, of 70 per cent., giving ten
hours' boil and washing well.
(2) Second lye boil, using 120 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent., and giving
ten hours' boil; wash.
(3) Chemic as above.
(4) White sour as above; wash well.

Light fabrics, such as laces, lace curtains, muslins, etc., cannot stand
the strain of the continuous process, and they are therefore subjected
to a different bleaching process, which varies much at different bleach
works. One method is to lime by steeping for an hour in a weak lime
liquor, using about 2 lb. of lime to 100 lb. of goods; they are then
boiled in the kier for eight hours, after which they are washed. This
washing is done in what are called dash wheels, large hollow wheels, the
interior of each being divided into four compartments. Into these the
goods are put, and the wheel is caused to revolve, while at the same
time a current of water flows with some force into the interior of the
wheel and washes the goods.

The wheels do their work well, and the action being gentle the finest
fabrics can be washed without fear of any damage. It is necessary that
the speed at which they are driven should be such that as the wheel
revolves the goods are thrown from side to side of each compartment; if
the speed be too slow they will simply slide down, and then they do not
get properly washed; on the other hand, if the speed be too great then
centrifugal action comes into play and the goods remain in a stationary
position in the wheels with the same result. As to the amount of
washing, it should be as before. After this washing they are boiled
again in the kier with soda ash, using about 8 lb. ash for 100 lb. goods
and giving seven hours' boil, which, after washing, is followed by a
second boil with 5 lb. ash and 4 lb. soft soap for each 100 lb. of
goods, giving eight hours' boil. They are then washed and entered into
the chemic. The chemicing is done in stone cisterns, which are fitted
with false bottoms, on which the goods can rest, and which allow any
insoluble particles of bleaching powder to settle out and prevent them
from getting on the goods. The liquor is used at the strength of about
1/2° Tw., and the goods are allowed to steep about two hours; they are
then placed in a hydro-extractor and the surplus chemic is whizzed out,
after which they are steeped in sour of hydrochloric acid at 1° Tw.,
kept in a stone cistern, the goods being allowed to steep for two hours.
Next they are washed, well whizzed, passed through a blueing water,
whizzed again, and dried. The remarks made when describing similar
operations of the madder bleach as to the action, testing, etc., of the
chemicals, are equally applicable here.

Another plan of bleaching fine fabrics is shown in outline in the
following scheme:--

(1) Wash; boil in water for two hours.
(2) Boil in soda for five hours, using 80 lb. soda ash of 58 per cent.,
and 30 lb. soft soap for 1,000 lb. of goods.
(3) Second soda boil, using from 40 lb. to 50 lb. soda ash, and 15 lb.
to 20 lb. soft soap, giving four hours' boil; after each soda boil the
goods should be washed.
(4) Chemic, using bleaching powder liquor at 1/2° Tw., allowing them to
steep for two hours, then wash and whiz.
(5) White sour, using hydrochloric acid at 2° Tw., steeping two hours;
wash.

A further extension of the same process is sometimes given for the best
goods, which consists, after the above, in giving:--

(6) A third soda boil, using 25 lb. to 30 lb. soda ash and 15 lb. to 20
lb. soft soap, giving one hour's boil; washing.
(7) Chemic as before.
(8) Sour as before, after which the goods are well washed.

In the bleaching of Nottingham lace curtains for the soda boils there
is used what is called the "dolly," which consists of a large round
wooden tub about 5 feet to 6 feet in diameter and about 2 feet 6 inches
to 3 feet deep; this is made to revolve slowly at about one revolution
per minute. Above the tub on a strong frame are arranged four stampers
or beaters, which are caused to rise and fall by means of cams. The
goods are placed in the tub with the scouring liquors and the dolly is
set in motion, the beaters force the liquor into the goods, and the
revolution of the tub causes the beaters to work on a fresh portion of
the goods at every fall.

This is rather an old-fashioned form of machine, and is being replaced
by more modern forms of boiling kiers. In bleaching certain kinds of
muslins in which the warp threads are double, and in the case of lace
curtains, it is necessary to endeavour to keep the threads as open and
prominent as possible. This cannot be done with the continuous process,
which puts a strain on the threads and thus effaces their individuality.
To avoid this the fabrics have to be dealt with in bundles or lumps, and
on these no strain is put, therefore every thread retains its
individuality. The process above described is applicable.

=Yarn Bleaching.=--Yarn is supplied to the bleacher in two forms: (1)
warps in which the length of the threads may vary from as little as 50
to as much as 5,000 yards; these can be dealt with in much the same
manner as a piece of cloth, that is, a continuous system can be adopted;
(2) hanks, which are too well known to require description. Sometimes
yarn is bleached in the form of cops, but as the results of cop
bleaching are not very satisfactory it is done as little as possible.

=Warp Bleaching.=--The warp, if very long, is doubled two, three or four
times upon itself, so as to reduce its length. Care should be taken that
the ends of the warp are tied together to prevent any chance of
entangling, which would very likely happen if the ends were left loose
to float about. As a rule, warps are not limed, but the adoption of the
liming would assist the bleaching. In outline warp bleaching consists of
the following operations:--

(1) Lye boil, using 30 lb. caustic soda, 70 per cent., and 50 lb. soda
ash, 58 per cent., giving six hours' boil, and washing.
(2) Sweeting, boil with 80 lb. soda ash, 58 per cent., for two hours.
(3) Washing.
(4) Chemicing, bleaching powder liquor at 1° Tw., washing.
(5) Sour, sulphuric acid at 2° Tw,. washing well.
(6) Hydro extracting and drying.

About 2,000 to 3,000 lb. of warps are usually treated at one time.

The machinery used may be the same as that used in the cloth bleach, and
each operation may be conducted in the same manner. In some warp
bleachworks, while the kiers are made in the same way, the other
machines are made differently. The chemicing and souring is done in
strong cisterns provided with a false bottom; in these the warps are
allowed to remain for about two hours. A more complicated form of
chemicing cistern is also in use. This is made of stone, and is provided
with a false bottom. Above is a tank or sieve, as it is called, having a
perforated bottom through which the liquor flows on the warp in the
cistern below.

Under the chemicing cistern is a tank into which the liquor flows, and
from which it is pumped up into the sieve above. A circulation of liquor
is thus kept up during the whole of the operation. Owing to the action
of the chemic or acid on the metal work of the pump there is great wear
and tear of the latter, necessitating frequent repairs. This is a defect
in this form of chemicing machine. For drying the warps a
hydro-extractor is first used to get the surplus liquor from the goods.
This machine is now well known, and is in use in every bleachworks,
where it is familiarly known as the "whiz," and the operation is
generally called whizzing. Hydro-extractors are described under the head
of "Dyeing Machinery".

The actual drying of the warps is done over the "tins" as they are
called. These are a number of large cylinders measuring about 20 inches
in diameter and about--for warp drying--5 feet long. Usually they are
arranged vertically in two tiers, each tier consisting of about five
cylinders, not arranged directly one above another but in a zig-zag
manner, the centres of the first, third and fifth being in one line, and
the centres of the others in another line. The cylinders are made to
revolve by suitable driving mechanism, and into them is sent steam at
about 5 lb. to 10 lb. pressure, which heats up the cylinders, whereby
the warp passing over them is dried. This drying may be partial or
complete, being regulated by the speed at which the warps pass over the
cylinders and by the quantity of steam passed into the same. The quicker
the speed and the smaller the amount of steam, the less the warps are
dried; while, on the other hand, the slower the speed and the larger the
amount and greater the pressure of the steam, the quicker and more
thoroughly are the warps dried. As there is a great deal of water formed
in the cylinders by the condensation of the steam, means are always
provided for carrying off this water, as its retention in the cylinders
often leads to serious results and damage to the machine.

=Hank Bleaching.=--So far as the chemical part of hank bleaching is
concerned it does not differ from that of warp bleaching; the same
operations and proportions of chemicals may be used and in the same
order, but there is some difference in the machinery which is used. The
hanks may be manipulated in two ways: they may be either kept in
separate hanks, which is the method mostly in vogue in modern
bleach-houses, or they may be linked together in the form of a chain.
In the latter case the operations and the machinery may be the same as
used in the madder bleach, with a few unimportant minor differences. In
the final washing the dumping machine is used, which consists of two
wooden bowls set over a wooden trough containing the wash waters. The
top bowl is covered with a thick layer of rope and merely rests on the
bottom bowl by its own weight, and is driven by friction from the
latter. The chain of hanks passing through between the two bowls has the
surplus liquor squeezed out of it, and as there is considerable increase
in the thickness at the points of linkage between the hanks, when these
pass through the bowls they lift up the top bowl, which, when the thick
places have passed through, falls down with a sudden bump upon the thin
places, and this bumping drives out all the surplus liquor and drives
the liquor itself into the very centre of the hanks, which is sometimes
an advantage.

In modern bleach-houses the chain form is gradually giving place to the
method of bleaching separate hanks, partly because so many improvements
have been made in the hank-bleaching machinery of late years, which
enables bleachers to handle the yarn in the form of separate hanks
better than they could do formerly; and as bleaching in separate hanks
means that the cotton is kept in a more open form, and is thus more
easily penetrated by the various liquors which are used, it follows that
the bleach will be better and more thorough, which is what the bleacher
aims at. At the same time weaker liquors or, what is the same thing,
less material can be used, which means a saving in the cost of the
process. For bleaching yarn in the hank the following process may be
followed with good results:--

(1) Lye boil, using 1,000 lb. yarn, 40 lb. caustic soda of 70 per cent.,
and 50 lb. of soda ash of 58 per cent., giving five to six hours' boil
at low pressure.
(2) Wash through washing machine.
(3) Second lye boil, using 40 lb. soda ash of 58 per cent., and giving
two to three hours' boil, wash again through a washing machine.
(4) Chemic as in warp bleaching.
(5) Sour as in warp bleaching.
(6) Wash well.
(7) Hydro extract and dry.

Sometimes, if the yarn is to be sold in thread form, before the last
operation it passes through another, _viz._, treating with soap and blue
liquors, which will be dealt with presently.

The lye boils are done in the ordinary kiers, and do not call for
further notice, except that in filling the goods into the kiers care
should be taken that while sufficiently loose to permit of the alkaline
liquors penetrating through the hanks properly, yet they should be so
packed that they will not float about and thus become entangled and
damaged.

The washing is nowadays done in a special form of washing machine,
designed to wash the hanks quickly and well with as little expenditure
of labour and washing liquor as possible. There are now several makes of
these washing machines on the market, most of them do their work well,
and it is difficult to say which is the best. Some machines are made to
wash only one bundle at once, while others will do several bundles.
Generally the principle on which they are constructed is the same in
all, a trough containing the ash liquor, over which is suspended a
revolving reel or bobbin, usually made of wood or enamelled iron, the
bobbin being polygonal in form so that it will overcome readily any
resistance the yarn may offer and carry the hank round as it revolves.
The hank dips into the wash liquor in the trough, and as it is drawn
through by the revolution of the bobbin it is washed very effectually.
The moving of the hank opens out the threads, and thus the wash liquor
thoroughly penetrates to every part of the hank, so that a few minutes'
run through this machine thoroughly washes the yarn. A constant stream
of clean water is passed through the trough. This machine may also be
used for soaping and sizing the hanks if required. By extending the
trough in a horizontal direction, and increasing the number of reels or
bobbins, the quantity of material that can be washed at one time can be
extended, although not to an indefinite extent. The workman can start at
one end of the machine and fill all the bobbins with yarn, by the time
he has finished this the first bobbinful will have been washed
sufficiently and can be taken off and replaced with another quantity of
yarn, and thus one by one the bobbins may be emptied and refilled, which
means that a considerable amount of material can be got through in the
course of a day. To avoid the labour of walking to and fro to fill and
refill the bobbins, washing machines are constructed in which the trough
is made in a circular form. The bobbins are placed at the ends of radial
arms which are caused to revolve round over the trough, the workman is
stationed constantly at one part of the circle, and as the arms pass him
in their motion round the trough he takes off the washed hanks and puts
on the unwashed hanks. By this machine he is saved a very considerable
amount of labour, and is able to do his work in a more convenient
manner. The yarn is well washed in such a machine. The trough may be
entire or it may be divided into a number of compartments, each of which
may contain a different kind of wash liquor if necessary. Of course it
goes almost without saying that in all these machines the liquors in
them may be heated up by means of steam pipes if required.

The chemicing and souring of the hanks does not call for special
mention, beyond the fact that these operations are done in the same
manner as warp bleaching. In Fig. 5 is shown Mather & Platt's
yarn-bleaching kier, which is designed to bleach cotton yarn, either in
hanks or in the warp forms, without removing it from the vessel into
which it is first placed. The process is as follows: The hot alkali
solution is circulated by means of a distributing pipe through the
action of an injector or centrifugal pump to scour the yarn; then water
is circulated by means of a centrifugal pump for washing. The chemic and
sour liquors are circulated also by means of pumps, so that without the
slightest disturbance to the yarn it is quickly and economically
bleached.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Mather & Platt's Yarn-bleaching Kier.]


STAINS AND DAMAGES IN BLEACHED GOODS.

Some of the stains in bleached goods which are met are beyond the
control of the bleacher to avoid, while others are due to various
defects in the process. Now the subject of stains can only be dealt with
in a very general way, because of the varying manner in which they
arise. The recognition of the particular way in which the stains have
been formed is sometimes difficult to discover. First, there are iron
stains, which are the most common kind of stains that a bleacher is
troubled with. These generally make their appearance in the form of red
spots of greater or less extent. As a rule they are not visible before
the pieces are fully bleached. Their origin is varied. Sometimes they
arise from the machinery; if the kiers are not kept thoroughly
whitewashed out, there is a great liability to produce iron stains.
Every other machine which is used in the process is made of iron, and
should be kept free from rust, or the chances of stains are considerably
increased. The water used in the bleaching must be free from iron. A
small trace will not make much difference, but some waters contain a
great deal of iron, so much so that they are absolutely unusable for
bleaching purposes. Iron stains are often due to a very curious cause:
the dropping of the oil used in the spinning or weaving machinery on to
the cotton during the process of manufacture. This oil is often charged
with iron derived from the wear and tear of the machinery, and which
often gets fixed in the form of red spots of oxide on the fibre. Iron
stains cannot readily be extracted.

Oil stains are also common. These take the form of bright yellow stains
in various shapes, sometimes extending along the piece in streaks, at
other times in patches in various places about the piece. Generally
these oil stains do not make their appearance as soon as the piece is
bleached, and often the bleacher sends out his goods quite white and
apparently all right, and yet soon afterwards comes a complaint that the
goods are stained yellow. One cause of these yellow oil stains can be
traced to the use of paraffin wax in the sizing of the warps. In this
case the stains are more or less streaky in form, and extend along the
length of the piece. They are due to the fact that paraffin wax is not
saponifiable by the action of the alkalies used in the process, and is
therefore not extracted. When the goods are chemiced the chlorine acts
upon the paraffin and forms chlorine compounds, which are acted upon by
light, and turn yellow by exposure to that agent and to the atmosphere.
Paraffin, when used for the sizing of warps, may sometimes be completely
extracted from the fabric, but this depends upon the proportion of
tallow or other fat which is used in the composition of the sizing
grease. If the paraffin is only present in small quantities, and the
grease well mixed, then it may be possible to extract all the paraffin
out of the fabric during the bleaching process, but if the paraffin is
in large proportion, or the grease not well mixed, it is scarcely
possible to extract it all out, and stains must be the result. These
stains can hardly be considered the fault of the bleacher, but are due
to the manufacturer of the cloth using cheap sizing compositions on his
warps. There are no means which can be adopted before bleaching to
ascertain whether paraffin exists in the cloth. If found to be present,
the remedy which is the easiest practically is to saturate the cloth
with a little olive oil, or better, pale oleic acid. Allow the fatty
matter to soak well in, and then boil the goods in a little caustic
soda. Another cause of oil stains is the use of mineral oils in the
lubrication of cotton machinery. These mineral oils partake of the
nature of paraffin in their properties, and therefore they are
unsaponifiable by the action of alkalies. Like paraffin wax, they
resist the bleaching process, and much in the same manner produce
stains. Oil stains show themselves in various forms--sometimes as spots.
These may be due to the splashing of oil from the spindles during the
process of spinning, or they may be in patches of a comparatively large
size over the pieces.

These are perhaps due to the oil dropping on to the piece during the
process of weaving when in the loom. The oils used for the lubrication
of spinning and weaving machinery should contain a fair proportion of
some fatty oil, such as olive or rape or cocoanut oil. Not less than 10
per cent. should be used. More would be better, but the cost of course
would be greater and oil is an item with spinners and manufacturers.

Stains are occasionally due to other causes rather too numerous to be
dealt with in detail, and sometimes these stains only appear once in a
lifetime, and often do not make their appearance during the bleaching
process, but only in after dyeing or calico printing processes in
curious ways the causes of which are very baffling to find out.



CHAPTER III.

DYEING MACHINERY AND DYEING MANIPULATIONS.


Cotton is dyed in a variety of forms: raw, loose cotton, partly
manufactured fibre in the form of slubbing or sliver, spun fibres or
yarns wound in cop or bobbin forms, in hanks or skeins and in warps, and
lastly in the form of woven pieces. These different forms necessitate
the employment of different forms of machinery and different modes of
handling; it is evident to the least unobservant that it would be quite
impossible to subject slubbing or sliver to the same treatment as yarn
or cloth, otherwise the slubbing would be destroyed and rendered
valueless.

In the early days all dyeing was done by hand in the simplest possible
contrivances, but during the last quarter of a century there has been a
great development in the quantity of dyeing that has been done, and this
has really necessitated the application of machinery, for hand work
could not possibly cope with the amount of dyeing now done. Consequently
there has been devised during the past two decades a great variety of
machines for dyeing every description of textile fabrics, some have not
been found a practical success for a variety of reasons and have gone
out of use, others have been successful and are in use in dye-works.


HAND DYEING.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Rectangular Dye-tank.] [Illustration: FIG.
7.--Round Dye-tub.]

Dyeing by hand is carried on in the simplest possible appliances; much
depends upon whether the work can be done at the ordinary temperature
or at the boil. Figs. 6 and 7 show respectively a rectangular vat and a
round tub much in use in dye-houses. These are made of wood, but
copper dye-vats are also made. These may be used for all kinds of
material, loose fibre, yarns or cloth. In the case of loose fibre this
is stirred about either with poles or with rakes, care being taken to
turn every part over and over and open out the masses of fibre as much
as possible in order to avoid matting or clotting together. In the case
of yarns or skeins, these are hung on sticks resting on the edges of the
tub or vat. These sticks are best made of hickory, but ash or beech or
any hard wood that can be worked smooth and which does not swell much
when treated with water may be used. The usual method of working is to
hang the skein on the stick, spreading it out as much as possible, then
immerse the yarn in the liquor, lift it up and down two or three times
to fully wet out the yarn, then turn the yarn over on the stick and
repeat the dipping processes, then allow to steep in the dye-liquor.
This is done with the batch of yarn that is to be dyed at a time. When
all the yarn has been entered into the dye-bath, the first stickful is
lifted out, the yarn turned over and re-entered in the dye-liquor, this
operation is carried out with all the sticks of yarn until the cotton
has become dyed of the required depth. In the case of long rectangular
vats it is customary for two men, one on each side of the vat to turn
the yarns, each man taking charge of the yarn which is nearest to him.
The turning over one lot of yarn is technically called "one turn" and
the dyer often gives "three turns" or "four turns" as may be required.

Woven goods may be dyed in the tub or vat, the pieces being drawn in and
out by poles, but the results are not altogether satisfactory and it is
preferable to use machines for dyeing piece goods.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Section of Dye-vat.]

Plain tubs or vats, such as those shown in Figs. 6 and 7, are used for
dyeing, and otherwise treating goods in the cold, or at a lukewarm heat,
when the supply of hot water can be drawn from a separate boiler. When,
however, it is necessary to work at the boil, then the vat must be
fitted with a steam coil. This is best laid along the bottom in a
serpentine form. Above the pipe should be an open lattice-work bottom,
which, while it permits the free circulation of boiling water in the
vat, prevents the material being dyed from coming in contact with the
steam pipe. This is important if uniform shades are to be dyed, for any
excessive heating of any portion of the bath leads to stains being
produced on the material in that part of the bath. Fig. 8 shows a vat
fitted with a steam pipe. That portion of the steam pipe which passes
down at the end of the vat is in a small compartment boxed off from the
main body of the vat, so that no part of the material which is being
dyed can come in contact with it. A closed steam coil will, on the
whole, give the best results, as then no weakening of the dye-liquor can
take place through dilution by the condensation of the steam. Many
dye-vats are, however, fitted with perforated, or, as they are called,
open steam coils, in which case there is, perhaps, better circulation of
the liquor in the dye-vat, but as some of the steam must condense, there
is a little dilution of the dye-liquor in the vat.


DYEING MACHINES.

Dye tubs and vats, such as those described above, have been largely
superseded by machines in which the handling, or working of the
materials being dyed is effected by mechanical means. There have been a
large number of dyeing machines invented, some of these have not been
found to be very practical, and so they have gone out of use. Space will
not admit of a detailed account of every kind of machine, but only of
those which are in constant use in dye-works.

=Dyeing Loose, or Raw Cotton.=--Few machines have been designed for this
purpose, and about the only successful one is:

=Delahunty's Dyeing Machine.=--This is illustrated in Fig. 9. It
consists of a drum made of lattice work, which can revolve inside an
outer wooden casing. The interior of the revolving drum is fitted with
hooks or fingers, whose action is to keep the material open. One segment
of the drum is made to open, so that the loose cotton or wool to be dyed
can be inserted. By suitable gearing the drum can be revolved; and the
dye-liquor, which is in the lower half of the wooden casing, penetrates
through the lattice work of the drum, and dyes the material contained in
it. The construction of the machine is well shown in the drawing, while
the mode of working is obvious from it and the description just given.
The machine is very successful, and well adapted for dyeing loose, or
raw wool and cotton. The material may be scoured, bleached, dyed, or
otherwise treated in this machine.

The Obermaier machine, presently to be described, may also be used for
dyeing loose cotton or wool.

DYEING, SLUBBING, SLIVER OR CARDED COTTON AND WOOL.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Delahunty's Dyeing Machine.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Obermaier Dyeing Machine.]

It is found in practice that the dyeing of loose wool or cotton is not
altogether satisfactory--the impurities they naturally contain interfere
with the purity of the shade they will take. Then again the dyes and
mordants used in dyeing them are found to have some action on the wire
of the carding engine through which they are passed; at any rate a card
does not last as long when working dyed cotton or wool as when used on
undyed cotton or wool fibres. Yet for the production of certain fancy
yarns for weaving some special classes of fabrics, it is desirable to
dye the cotton or wool before it is spun into thread. The best plan is
undoubtedly to dye the fibre after it has been carded and partly spun
into what is known as slubbing or sliver. All the impurities have been
removed, the cotton fibres are laid, straight, and so it becomes much
easier to dye. On the other hand, as it is necessary to keep the sliver
or slubbing straight and level, no working about in the dye-liquors can
be allowed to take place, and so such must be dyed in specially
constructed machines, and one of the best of these is the Obermaier
dyeing machine which is illustrated in Fig. 10. The Obermaier apparatus
consists of a dye vat A. In this is placed a cage consisting of an inner
perforated metal cylinder C, and an outer perforated metal cylinder D,
between these two is placed the material to be dyed. C is in contact
with the suction end of a centrifugal pump P, the delivery end of which
discharges into the dye-vat A. The working of the machine is as follows:
The slubbing or sliver is placed in the space between C and D rather
tightly so that it will not move about. Then the inner cage is placed in
the dye-vat as shown. The vat is filled with the dye-liquor which can be
heated up by a steam pipe. The pump is set in motion, the dye liquor is
drawn from A to C, and, in so doing, passes through the material packed
in B and dyes it. The circulation of the liquor is carried on as long as
experience shows to be necessary. The dye-liquor is run off, hot water
is run in to wash the dyed material, and the pump is kept running for
some time to ensure thorough rinsing; then the water is run off, and by
keeping the pump running and air going through a certain amount of
drying can be effected. This machine works very well, and, with a little
experience, constant results can be obtained. The slubbing or sliver may
be scoured, bleached, rinsed, dyed, washed, soaped, or otherwise treated
without removing it from the machine, which is a most decided advantage.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine.]

=Holliday's Yarn-dyeing Machine.=--In Fig. 11 is given an illustration
of a machine for dyeing yarn in the hank form made by Messrs. Read
Holliday & Sons, of Huddersfield. The illustration gives a very good
idea of the machine. It consists of a wooden dye-vat which can be
heated by steam pipes in the usual way. Extending over the vat are a
number of reels or bobbins; these are best made of wood or enamelled
iron; these reels are in connection with suitable gearing so that they
can be revolved. There is also an arrangement by means of which the
reels can be lifted bodily in and out of the dye-vat for the purpose of
taking on and off, "doffing," the hanks of yarn for the reels. A reel
will hold about two pounds of yarn. The working of the machine is
simple. The vat is filled with the requisite dye-liquor. The reels,
which are lifted out of the vat, are then charged with the yarn, which
has been previously wetted out. They are then set in revolution and
dropped into the dye-vat and kept there until it is seen that the yarn
has acquired the desired shade. The reels are lifted out and the hanks
removed, when the machine is ready for another lot of yarn.

There are several makes of hank-dyeing machines of this type, and as a
rule they work very well. The only source of trouble is a slight
tendency for the yarn on one reel if hung loosely of becoming entangled
with the yarn on one of the other reels. This is to some extent obviated
by hanging in the bottom of the hank a roller which acts as a weight and
keeps the yarn stretched and so prevents it flying about.

To some makes of these machines a hank wringer is attached.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Klauder-Weldon Dyeing Machine.]

=Klauder-Weldon Hank-dyeing Machine.=--This is illustrated in Fig. 12,
which shows the latest form. This machine consists of a half-cylindrical
dye-vat built of wood. On a central axis is built two discs or rod
carriers which can revolve in the dye-vat, the revolution being given by
suitable gearing, which is shown at the side of the machine. On the
outer edge of the discs are clips for carrying rods, on which one end of
the hanks of yarn is hung, while the other end is placed on a similar
rod carried near the axle. The revolution of the discs carries the yarn
through the dye-liquor contained in the lower semi-cylindrical part of
the machine previously alluded to. At a certain point, every revolution
of the discs, the rods carrying the yarns are turned a little; this
causes the yarn to move on the rods, and this motion helps to bring
about greater evenness of dyeing. The most modern form of this machine
is provided with an arrangement by means of which the whole batch of
yarn can be lifted out of the dye-liquor. Arrangements are made by which
from time to time fresh quantities of dye can be added if required to
bring up the dyed yarn to any desired shade. This machine works well and
gives good results. Beyond the necessary labour in charging and
discharging, and a little attention from time to time, as the operation
proceeds, to see if the dyeing is coming up to shade, the machine
requires little attention.

Many other forms of hank-dyeing machines have been devised: there is
Corron's, in which an ordinary rectangular dye-vat is used. Round this
is a framework which carries a lifting and falling arrangement that
travels to and fro along the vat. The hanks of yarn are hung on rods of
a special construction designed to open them out in a manner as nearly
approaching handwork as is possible. The machine works in this way: the
lifting arrangement is at one end of the vat, the hanks are hung on the
rods and placed in the vat. Then the lifter is set in motion and moves
along the vat; as it does so it lifts up each rod full of yarn, turns it
over, opening out the yarn in so doing, then it drops it again in the
vat. When it has travelled to the end of the vat it returns, picking up
the rods of yarn in so doing, and this motion is kept up until the
dyeing is completed. This machine is very ingenious.

A type of machine which has been made by several makers consists of an
ordinary rectangular dye-vat surrounded with a framework carrying a
number of sets of endless chains, the links of which carry fingers. The
hanks of yarn are hung on rods at one end of which is a tooth wheel that
when in position fits into a rack on the side of the vat. The action of
the machine is this: the hanks are hung on the rods and placed at the
entrance end of the vat, by the moving of the chains it is carried along
the vat and at the same time revolves, thus turning over the yarn which
hangs in the dye-liquor; when it reaches the opposite end of the vat,
the rod full of yarn is lifted out, carried upwards and then towards the
other end of the vat when it is again dropped into the dye-vat to go
through the same cycle of movements which is continued until the yarn is
properly dyed.


COP DYEING.

In weaving fancy-coloured fabrics the ordinary mode is to dye the yarn
in the hank form, then those which have to be used for the weft are
wound into the cop form for placing in the shuttles. The cop form is
that in which the yarn leaves the spinning frame, and necessarily apart
from the dyeing there is labour involved in reeling it into hanks and
winding it back again into the cop form, not only so but there is
necessarily some waste made in these operations. Many attempts have been
made, with more or less success, to dye the yarn while in the cop form
and so save the cost of the hanking and copping above referred to as
well as the waste which occurs. Cops cannot be satisfactorily dyed by
simple immersion in a boiling dye-bath, the outside becomes dyed but the
central portions as often as not remain quite white, and there is a
distinct grading of colour or shade throughout the cop, the outer
portions being deeply dyed while the middle portion will only have a
medium shade and the central portions either not being dyed at all or
only faintly tinted, much depending on the firmness with which the cop
has been wound. A soft, loosely wound cop is much more thoroughly dyed
than a hard, tightly wound cop. This uneven dyeing of the cops is not
satisfactory, and must be avoided if cop dyeing is to be a success. Many
dyers have turned their attention to this question of dyeing yarn in the
cop form, and many machines have been devised for the purpose; some of
these have not been a success, but a few have been found to yield
satisfactory results and proved in practice very successful.

In all machines for dyeing cops one principle has been adopted--that of
drawing or forcing the dye-liquor through the cop.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine.]

=Graemiger's Cop-dyeing Machine.=--This is shown in section in Figs. 13
and 14. Although simple in its work it is somewhat complex in its
construction and difficult to describe. The machine consists of a
dye-vat to hold the requisite dye-liquors. In the upper portions of this
is an iron casting formed with four chambers, the two lower ones of
which are immersed in the dye-liquor while the upper chambers are above
it. The sides of this casting are formed of metal plates which fit
tightly against the casting and form as nearly air-and water-tight
joints with it as it is possible to make. These metal plates are on a
spindle and can be rotated. They are perforated and made to carry
spindles, on which are placed the cops to be dyed. The two lower
chambers are in connection with a pump which draws the air from them and
so creates a vacuum inside the chambers. To fill this, liquor from the
dye-vat passes through the cops and into the chambers, and is in turn
drawn through the pump and returned to the dye-vat. In this way there is
a continual circulation of dye-liquors from the vat through the cops,
chambers and pump back to the vat again.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Graemiger Cop-dyeing Machine.]

The left upper chamber is practically a blank chamber. Those portions of
the cop carriers in contact with it are filled with cops, which are
placed on perforated spindles; the discs are given a quarter revolution
which brings the cops into the dye-liquor and in connection with the
left lower chamber and are dyed. At the same time the section of the cop
carriers now in contact with the left top chamber is filled with a new
lot of cops, another quarter of a revolution is given to the cop
carriers, which immerse the new lot of cops in the dye-liquor. The third
quarter of the cop plates is filled with cops. A third movement of the
cop plates now takes place; this brings the first lot of cops out of the
dye-liquor and in contact with the right upper chamber, where the
surplus liquor is drawn out of them and returned to the dye-vat. Another
revolution brings the cops back to their first position, they are now
removed and a new lot substituted. These proceedings go on
continuously. Although not quite free from defects the machine gives
very good results, the cops being very uniformly dyed through.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--- Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine.]

=Beaumont's Cop-dyeing Machine.=--This is illustrated in Fig. 15. It
consists of a copper hemispherical dye-vessel, which is provided with a
tightly fitting lid, although this is not needed in all cases. The
bottom of the vessel is in communication with the suction end of a
centrifugal pump, while the delivery end of the pump is attached to the
upper end of the dye-vessel, the action of the pump being to secure a
constant circulation of dye-liquor from the bottom to the top of the
dye-vessel. Arrangements are provided by a peculiar and ingenious
contrivance fitted in one side of the dye-kettle for introducing steam
to heat the dye-liquor to any required degree. As in most forms of
cop-dyeing machines, the cops are placed on perforated metal spindles.
The cops and spindles are inserted in holes in a perforated metal plate,
and over them is placed a thin metal plate, technically called the
antifloater, whose object is to prevent the cops from becoming detached
from the plate. This plate, full of cops, is now placed in the
dye-vessel and rests upon a flange which is provided for that purpose.
When the cop plate is in position the dye-vessel is divided into two
chambers--a lower chamber and an upper one, in the latter being the
cops.

The pump draws liquor from the chamber under the cop plate and so
creates a vacuum, which during the working of the machines ranges from
10 to 20 inches in degree. To supply this vacuum, dye-liquor is drawn
from the upper chamber through the cops. The pump returns the liquor to
the dye-vessel. A very rapid circulation of dye-liquor takes place, from
25 to 50 gallons per minute passing through the cops and pump. From five
to ten minutes is sufficient to dye the cops. The machine is simple in
its construction and gives good results, the cops being completely dyed
through. One important consideration in cop dyeing is to be able to dye
successive batches of cops to exactly the same shade, and this is quite
possible with this machine.

=Young & Crippin's Cop-dyeing Machine.=--So far as simplicity of
construction is concerned this lies between the two preceding machines.
It consists of four parts with some accessory mechanism. There is first
a dye-liquor storage tank at the base of the apparatus in which the
liquor is kept stored and boiling (if necessary) ready for use, above
this and at the front end is the dye-chamber, this communicates at its
lower end by a pipe with the dye-liquor in the dye-vat. Then there is a
large vacuum chamber, in which by means of an injector a vacuum can be
formed, this directly communicates with a liquor-receiving chamber
which again in turn is in communication with the upper part of the
dye-chamber. The cops are placed on perforated spindles as usual, and
these on a perforated plate and are kept in place by a plate which is
screwed down on them. The charged cop plate is placed in the dye-chamber
on which a cover is placed and screwed down. By means of a lever the
injector is set at work, a vacuum created in the vacuum and receiving
chambers, the consequence being that dye-liquor is drawn from the vat
through the cops in the dye-chamber into the receiving chamber. When a
certain quantity of liquor has passed through, by a movement of a lever,
the vacuum is destroyed, and the dye-liquor runs back into the dye-vat;
these operations are repeated until from past experience of the working
of the machine it is thought sufficient has passed through to dye the
cops, when the dye-chamber is opened and the cops taken out. This
machine works very well.

=Mommer's Cop-dyeing Machine.=--This is in use in several continental
dye-works. The central portion of this machine is a rectangular
dye-chamber, which can be hermetically closed by hinged doors, the cops
are placed side by side on trays provided with perforated bottoms, the
trays being placed one on the top of the other in the dye-chamber. From
the top of the dye-chamber passes a pipe to a centrifugal pump, and a
similar pipe passes from the bottom of the chamber to the pump. A
separate vat contains the dye-liquor which is used. The pump forces the
dye-liquor through the cops which take up the dye. Arrangements are
provided by which the direction of the flow of the dye-liquor can be
changed. This machine gives fairly good results, not perhaps equal to
those with the machines previously described.

=Warp-dyeing Machines.=--Although many warps, especially for fancy
fabrics, are prepared from yarns dyed in the hank or cop form, yet it
is found advantageous when a warp is of one colour, a self-colour as it
is called, to form the warp from grey or white yarns and to dye it after
warping. If the warp were so wound as to be able to go into a Obermaier
dyeing machine, it would be possible to dye it in that machine, but
generally warps are dyed in the open form and are passed through a
dyeing vat, commonly called a warp-vat which is constructed as shown in
Fig. 16. These warp-dyeing machines generally consist of a long
rectangular wooden dye-vat, divided by two partitions into three
compartments, each provided with steam pipes to heat up its contents;
between the first and second and between the second and third
compartments is fitted a pair of squeezing rollers, while the third
compartment is fitted with a heavier pair of squeezing rollers. Motion
is given to these rollers by suitable gearing, and they serve to draw
the warp through the machine. Guide rollers are fitted in the
compartment, and the warp being taken round these, it passes several
times up and down and through the dye-liquors contained in the
compartments. These warp-dyeing machines may be made of sufficient width
to take one, two, three or more warps at one time as desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Warp-dyeing Machine.]

The three compartments of the machine may contain different liquids or
all the same liquid according as the nature of the shade to be dyed
demands. The passage is done slowly so as to give the warp time to
absorb the liquors and take up the dye. When all the length of warp has
been sent through, it is said to have been dyed "one end". Sometimes
this will be enough, but often it is not, and so the warp is sent
through again, given another end, and still again if the full shade has
not been attained.

After being dyed in this machine the warp is sent through another one
containing various wash liquors to finish the process.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Warp-dyeing Machine.]

Fig. 17 shows a warp-dyeing machine similar to, but a little more
elaborate in construction than, the vats just described.

=Piece-dyeing Machines.=--Wherever it is possible it is far more
preferable to dye textile fabrics in the form of woven pieces rather
than in the yarn from which they are woven. During the process of
weaving it is quite impossible to avoid the material getting dirty and
somewhat greasy, and the operations of scouring necessary to remove this
dirt and grease has an impairing action on the colour if dyed yarns
have been used in weaving it. This is avoided when the pieces are woven
first and dyed afterwards, and this can always be done when the cloths
are dyed in one colour only. Of course when the goods are fancy goods
containing several colours they have to be woven from dyed yarns.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Dye-jiggers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Dye-jigger.]

The most common form of machine in which pieces are dyed is The Jigger,
commonly called the jig. This is shown in Figs. 18 and 19. It consists
of a dye-vessel made sufficiently long to take the piece full
width--wide at the top and narrow at the bottom. At the top at each side
is placed a large winding roller on which the cloth is wound. At the
bottom of the jig is placed a guide roller round which passes the cloth.
In some makes of jigs (Fig. 19) there are two guide rollers at the
bottom and one at the top, as shown in the illustration, so that the
cloth passes several times through the dye-liquor. In working, the cloth
is first wound on one of the rollers, then threaded through the guide
rollers and attached to the other winding roller. When this is done
dye-liquor is run into the jig, the gearing set in motion, and the cloth
wound from the full on to the empty roller. With the object of keeping
the piece tight, a heavy press roller is arranged to bear on the cloth
on the full roller. When all the cloth has passed from one roller to the
other it is said to have been given "one end". The direction of motion
is now changed, and the cloth sent in the opposite direction through the
jig, and the piece has now received another "end". This alternation from
one roller to the other is continued as long as is deemed necessary,
much depending on the depth of colour which is being dyed--some pale
shades may only take two or three ends, deeper shades may take more.
When dyeing wool with acid colours which are all absorbed from the
dye-liquor, or the bath is exhausted, it is a good plan to run the
pieces several more ends so as to ensure thorough fixation of the dye on
the cloth.

It is not advisable in working these jigs to add the whole of the dye to
the liquor at the commencement, but only a part of it; then when one end
is given, another portion of the dye may be added; such portions being
always in the form of solution. Adding dyes in powder form inevitably
leads to the production of colour specks on the finished goods. The
reason for thus adding the dye-stuff in portions is that with some dyes
the affinity for the fibre is so great that if all were added at once it
would all be absorbed before the cloth had been given one end; and,
further, the cloth would be very deep at the front end, while it would
shade off to no colour at the other end. By adding the dye in portions
this difficulty is overcome and more level shades are obtained; it is
met with in all cases of jigger dyeing, but it is most common in dyeing
cotton or wool with basic dyes like magenta, auramine, methyl violet or
brilliant green, and in dyeing wool with acid dyes like acid green,
formyl violets, azo scarlet, or acid yellow.

Some attempts have been made to make jiggers automatic in their
reversing action, but they have not been successful; owing to the
greatly varying conditions of length of pieces, their thickness, etc.,
which have to be dyed, and it is next to impossible to make all
allowances for such varying conditions.

[Illustration: FIG. 20--Jig Wince.]

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Cloth-dyeing Machine.]

=The Jig Wince or Wince Dye Beck.=--This dyeing machine is very largely
used, particularly in the dyeing of woollen cloths. It is made by many
makers, and varies somewhat in form accordingly. Figs. 20, 21 and 22,
show three forms by different makers. In any make the jig wince, or
wince dye beck, consists of a large rectangular, or, in some cases,
hemicylindrical dye-vat. Probably the best shape would be to have a vat
with one straight side at the front, and one curved side at the back. In
some a small guide roller is fitted at the bottom, under which the
pieces to be dyed pass. Steam pipes are provided for heating the
dye-liquors. The becks should be fitted with a false bottom made of
wood, perforated with holes, or of wooden lattice work, and below which
the steam pipes are placed; the object being to prevent the pieces from
coming in contact with the steam pipe, and so preventing the production
of stains. Above the dye-vat, and towards the back, is the wince, a
revolving skeleton wheel, which draws the pieces out of the dye-vat at
the front, and delivers them into it again at the back. The construction
of this wince is well shown in the drawings. The wince will take the
pieces full breadth, but often they are somewhat folded, and so several
pieces, four, five or six strings as they are called, can be dealt with
at one time. In this case a guide rail is provided in the front part of
the machine. In this rail are pegs which serve to keep the pieces of
cloth separate, and so prevent entanglements. The pieces are stitched
end to end so as to form an endless band. When running through the vat
they fall down in folds at the back part of the beck, and are drawn out
of the bottom and up in the front. Each part thus remains for some time
in the dye-liquor, during which it necessarily takes up the dye.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Dye Beck.]

In the jig and wince dyeing machines the pieces necessarily are for a
part of the time, longer in the case of the jigger than in that of the
wince, out of the dye-liquor and exposed to the air. In the case of
some dyes, indigo especially, this is not desirable, and yet it is
advisable to run the cloth open for some time in the liquor, so as to
get it thoroughly impregnated with the dye-liquor, or to become dyed.
This may be done on such a machine, as is shown in Fig. 24, page 79, but
having all the guide rollers below the liquor, so that at no time is the
piece out of the liquor, except, of course, when entering and leaving.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Holliday's Machine for Hawking Cloth.]

The so-called hawking machines have also this object in view, and Fig.
23 is an illustration of Holliday's hawking machine, made by Messrs.
Read Holliday & Sons, of Huddersfield. There is the dye-vat as usual; in
this is suspended the drawing mechanism, whose construction is well
shown in the drawing. This is a pair of rollers driven by suitable
gearing, between which the cloth passes, and by which it is drawn
through the machine. A small roller ensures the cloth properly leaving
the large rollers; then there is a lattice-work arrangement over which
the pieces are drawn. In actual work the whole of this arrangement is
below the surface of the dye-liquor in the vat. The piece to be dyed is
threaded through the machine, the ends stitched together. Then the
arrangement is lowered into the dye-vat and set into motion, whereby the
cloth is drawn continuously in the open form through the dye-liquor,
this being done as long as experience shows to be necessary. This
hawking machine will be found useful in dyeing indigo on cotton or wool,
or in dyeing cotton cloths with such dyes as Immedial blacks, Cross-dye
blacks, Amidazol blacks, Vidal blacks, where it is necessary to keep the
goods below the surface of the dye-liquor during the operation.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Continuous Dyeing Machine.]

Fig. 24 shows a form of cloth-dyeing machine much used in the cotton
trade. It consists of a number of compartments fitted with guide rollers
at top and bottom, and round which the cloth is threaded, so that it
passes up and down in the dye-liquor several times. Between each two
compartments is a pair of squeezing rollers to press out all surplus
liquors. All the compartments may be filled with the same dye-liquor, or
with different dye-liquors and developing liquors, as may be most
convenient and required for the work in hand. Such a machine is used in
dyeing logwood black, aniline black, and many of the direct colours,
etc.

From the direct colours a large number of light shades are dyed on to
cotton cloth by the process known as padding; this consists in passing
the cloth through a liquor containing the dye-stuff, usually a little
phosphate of soda is added, then between squeezing rollers, and finally
drying the cloth. For this process there is used what is called a
padding machine. This is shown in Figs. 25 and 26.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Padding Machine.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Padding Machine.]

It consists essentially of a trough, which contains two or more guide
rollers, and in this is placed the padding liquor. Above the trough is
fitted squeezing rollers, sometimes two as in Fig. 25, or three as in
Fig. 26. Besides these, there are winding and beaming and other guide
rollers. Fig. 25 shows the simplest padding machine, where the cloth
passes once through the liquor and through the squeezing rollers. In
Fig. 26 the cloth passes several times through the liquor and twice
through the squeezing rollers, thus ensuring a more perfect impregnation
of the cloth with the dye-liquor, and therefore a more uniform dyeing of
the cloth.



CHAPTER IV.

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COTTON DYEING.


Students of cotton dyeing should have a good knowledge of the principles
that underlie the processes of dyeing cotton fabrics. It is only by
recognising these principles and then endeavouring to apply them to each
individual case of dyeing, that the dyer or student will obtain a
thorough grasp of his subject. It is the aim of the author to lay down
these principles in a clear and intelligible form. Cotton is dyed in its
loose raw condition, as yarn in the form of hanks, yarn in the form of
cops, and in the woven pieces of every kind. Formerly the idea was
prevalent among cotton dyers that the process which succeeds with piece
goods would not answer with yarns. It is now recognised however that
this is not so, that a process which will dye cotton yarn will also dye
cotton piece goods or loose cotton. The differences which do exist in
the practical working of the processes entirely arise from the
difference in the form in which the cotton is presented to the dyer, for
it must be obvious to any one that the mode of handling a piece of
cotton cloth during the time it is in the dye-bath must be different
from that of a hank of yarn, a parcel of loose cotton or a number of
cops. The various machines used for dyeing all these forms and the
manner of working them have been already described.

The dyes, whether natural--derived from the various dye-woods, etc.--or
artificial--prepared from coal tar--may according to their varied
chemical composition and constitution be divided into seventeen or
eighteen distinct groups, but it is not intended here to give any
account of them; the reader is referred to other books such as _The
Dictionary of Coal Tar Colours_, by George H. Hurst; _The Chemistry of
Coal Tar Colours_, by Benedikt and Knecht; or _The Chemistry of Organic
Colouring Matters_, by Nietzki, where the composition and properties of
the dyes are fully described.

From the manner in which the various dyes are applied to cotton, linen,
wool and other fibres we can divide them into five groups, thus:--

     Group 1. Direct dyes.
       "   2. Basic dyes.
       "   3. Acid dyes.
       "   4. Mordant dyes.
       "   5. Miscellaneous dyes.

First group, direct dyes, are now very numerous; they dye cotton, linen
and other vegetable fibres from a plain bath, and do not require those
fibres to be prepared in any way. Hence the reason of their being named
direct, or by some the substantive colours. They will also dye wool and
silk.

The second group, basic dyes, comprise some of the oldest of the
coal-tar dyes; they dye wool and silk direct from plain baths, but
require cotton, linen and other vegetable fibres to be previously
prepared in baths of tannic acid, sumach or other tanning material.

The third group, acid dyes, are very numerous, and from both their
chemical composition and mode of dyeing can be divided into several
sub-groups. Their principal feature is that they dye wool and silk from
baths containing Glauber's salt and some acid, hence their name of "acid
dyes". They do not dye cotton or linen well, some not at all, others are
absorbed to a slight extent by the cotton, but only pale tints are
produced, while others may be used along with metallic mordants to dye
bright but pale and fugitive shades. The acid dyes comprise such as Acid
green, Formyl violet, Acid magenta, Azo scarlet, Orange. Thiocarmine R.,
Patent blues, Wool greens, indigo extract, Eosines, etc.

The fourth group, mordant dyes, includes the alizarine series of
coal-tar colours, logwood, Brazil wood and most natural colours, and
some others. The principal feature of these dyes is that they require
the cotton to be prepared with some metallic oxide, like those of
chrome, alumina and iron, before dyeing, and the colour which is got
depends partly upon the particular dye-stuff used and partly upon the
oxide with which the cotton has been prepared.

The fifth group includes a few dyes like indigo, which are dyed on to
cotton by various and special processes.

The processes of cotton dyeing employed to-day may be comprised under
eight heads, namely:--

(1) Direct dyeing.
(2) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with metallic salts.
(3) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with developers.
(4) Direct dyeing followed by fixation with couplers.
(5) Dyeing on tannic mordant.
(6) Dyeing on metallic mordant.
(7) Developing the colour direct on fibre.
(8) Dyeing by impregnating the cotton with the dye-stuff,
followed by oxidation or steaming.

It is of course not easy to elaborate a simple scheme of grouping the
processes that shall definitely include all processes, but the above
grouping will be found as successful as any, and each will be considered
as fully as is deemed necessary.


(1) DIRECT DYEING.

Nothing in the history of cotton dyeing caused such a revolution in the
methods of working as did the introduction some fifteen years ago of the
forerunners (Congo red, Benzo purpurine, Chrysamine, Azo blue) of the
now numerous group of direct dyes, followed as they were by the Benzo,
Congo, Diamine, Titan, Chicago and Zambesi members of the group. Prior
to their introduction cotton dyeing was always more or less complicated
and mordanting methods had to be employed.

With the introduction of the direct dyes cotton dyeing has become even
more simple than wool or silk dyeing, and now all that is necessary is
to prepare a dye liquor containing the necessary amount of dye-stuff and
Glauber's salt, or common salt or soda, or some similar body, or a
combination thereof. The method of working is to place the cotton in a
lukewarm or even in a hot bath, raise to the boil, allow the goods to
remain in the boiling bath for half an hour to an hour, then take them
out, wring, wash and dry. This method is simple and will answer for all
the dyes of this group. There are some that do not require the working
to be done boiling; it is simply needful to enter the cotton into a
boiling bath and work without steam until the bath has cooled down.
Furious boiling is not needed--a gentle simmer gives the best results.
Uneven dyeing seems to be an impossibility in this group of dyes, unless
the cotton is dirty; no matter how the operations are carried on, level
dyeing is the rule not the exception. An enormous variety of shades and
tints can be obtained from these dyes, and they can be combined together
in every conceivable manner and proportions.

No satisfactory explanation has yet been given as to what feature in the
chemical composition of these dye-stuffs give them such an affinity for
the cotton fibre as to enable them to dye in so simple a manner such
fast shades as they do; it is a fact there is such an affinity and there
the matter must rest.

It has been found in practice that the efficiency of the dyeing
operation depends, primarily of course, on the particular dye-stuff
used, but also upon other factors, that a certain assistant be used.
Some dyes work on the cotton better from a bath containing Glauber's
salt, while with others common salt works best, while a little soda
along with the salt facilitates the dyeing in some cases. It is
practically impossible to specify here the best assistant for all the
direct colours, on account of the great number of such dyes which are
known, but in the practical recipes given below much useful advice will
be found. Then the quantity of such assistants used is of much
importance; there is one proportion at which the best results are
obtained for each dye. The dyer should find out for himself by
experiment and the use of the dyes he employs in his work what assistant
and how much is best, and make his baths up to that strength. With some
dyes 10 per cent. of the assistant will be found sufficient, while with
others, 25 to 30 per cent. will not be too much. The percentage refers
to the weight of the cotton that is taken.

One function of the assistants must be pointed out here: it is that in
some cases they--especially the alkaline ones, soda, potash, borax,
phosphate of soda--help the dyeing by promoting the solubility of the
dye-stuff in the bath, thereby retarding the exhaustion of the bath and
ensuring the production of level shades.

The following formulas show the application of the foregoing principles
to the dyeing of numerous shades on to cotton and also the dyes which
are applicable, some of the combinations which are possible with these
direct dyes, and give some idea of the tints and shades of the colours
that can be got by their means. The best assistants to use are also
indicated in the formulæ.

All the formulæ here given and all that will be given in future chapters
are intended for 100 lb. weight of cotton fabrics in any condition,
whether of loose cotton, yarn in cops, hanks or wraps and woven fabrics
of every kind.

_Bright Red._--Dye with 3 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb.
Glauber's salt. This dye may also be used with 3 lb. soap and 10 lb.
soda in the bath with equally good results.

_Pale Salmon._--Prepare a dye-bath with 3 lb. salt, 5 lb. phosphate of
soda, 1 lb. soap, 1/2 oz. Benzo orange R. For a pale shade like this it
is not necessary to heat to the boil, a temperature of 170° to 180° F.
is sufficient.

_Dark Plum._--Prepare a dye-bath with 20 lb. of Glauber's salt, 2-1/2
lb. soap, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine black R O. and 2 lb. Diamine red N. Enter at
180° F., work for a few minutes, then raise to boil and dye to shade;
lift, wash and dry.

_Turkey Red._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 1
lb. Brilliant purpurine, 2 lb. soap, 10 lb. borax. Enter the cotton at
the boil and work for one hour; lift, wash and dry.

_Lilac Red._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. soap, 5 lb. soda, 3 lb.
Rose azurine G. Work at the boil for one hour.

_Pink._--Prepare a bath containing 10 lb. soda, 1 oz. Rose azurine B.
Enter at a boil and work for one hour, boiling to shade; lift, wash and
dry.

_Bordeaux._--Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. Glauber's salt, 5 lb. soda
crystals, 3 lb. Diamine fast red F, 1 lb. Diamine violet N, 1 lb. Rose
azurine G. Enter cold, then raise to the boil, and work for one and a
half hours; lift, wash and dry.

_Rose Pink._--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Erika B, 20 lb. Glauber's
salt and 3 lb. soap, working at near the boil to shade.

_Brilliant Red._--Make the dye-bath with 24 lb. Brilliant purpurine R
and 25 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Deep Pink._--Make the dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine rose B D, 1/2 lb.
soda, 1 lb. soap and 5 lb. Glauber's salt, working at 150° F. for half
an hour.

_Dark Red._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine red 5 B, 2 lb. soda and
20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Pink._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 oz. Diamine rose B D, 1 lb.
Turkey-red oil, 40 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Scarlet._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diamine scarlet 3 B, 1 lb.
Turkey-red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Scarlet._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Titan scarlet C, 1/2 lb.
Titan orange, 50 lb. salt. Work at the boil for thirty minutes, then
lift, wash and dry. The dye-bath is not exhausted and may be used for
further lots.

_Crimson Red._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Titan scarlet D and 50
lb. salt. Work at the boil for fifty minutes, then lift, wash and dry.
The bath is not exhausted, the cotton taking up only about 3 lb. of the
dye-stuff; it may therefore be kept for further use, when for each
succeeding lot 3 to 3-1/2 lb. of colour and 25 lb. of salt only need be
added.

_Scarlet._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Rosophenine 5 B, dissolved
in 50 gallons hot water, 2 gallons caustic soda lye (60° Tw.). When
thoroughly dissolved add 150 lb. salt. Make up the bath to 100 gallons.
Enter the yarn and work for a quarter to half an hour at about 180° F;
squeeze off and wash thoroughly in cold water until the water runs off
clean.

_Rose Red._--Use 1 lb. Diamine red 10 B, 3 lb. soda, and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Deep Crimson._--Use 3 lb. Diamine red 10 B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Claret._--Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt.

_Pink._--The dye-bath is made with 5 oz. Dianil red 4 B, 5 lb. salt and
3 lb. soda.

_Scarlet._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 15 lb. salt and 5
lb. soda. Work at the boil for one hour.

_Claret._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Dianil claret G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
salt. Work at the boil for one hour.

_Maroon._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil claret B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.
Work at the boil for one hour.

_Bright Scarlet._--Use in the dye-bath 2-1/2 lb. Dianil red 4 B 5 oz.
Dianil orange G, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. salt.

_Dark Maroon._--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 2 lb.
Dianil claret G, 13 oz. Dianil claret B, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Crimson._--Dye with 3 lb. Congo rubine, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt.

_Dark Maroon._--Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 3 lb.
Congo Corinth G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the
boil to shade.

_Pale Fawn Red._--Use in the dye-bath 1-1/2 oz. Diamine red 5 B, 1-1/2
oz. Diamine catechine G, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Rose Red._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3/4 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 3 oz.
Diamine orange B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Crimson._--Use in the dye-bath 3/4 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 3 oz.
Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Salmon._--Dye with 1-1/2 oz. Diamine fast red F, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine fast
yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Terra-Gotta Red._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine brown M, 3/4 lb. Diamine
fast red F, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Lilac Red._--Dye with 4 lb. Heliotrope B B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Bright Pink._--Use in the dye-bath 2 oz. Rose azurine G, 1 lb. soda and
10 lb. Glauber's salt. Nearly all the direct reds give good pink tints
when used in proportion, varying from 0.1 to 0.25 per cent. of
dye-stuff.

_Bright Straw._--Dye in a bath made of 1/4 lb. Titan yellow G G, 10 lb.
salt, for three-quarters of an hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Yellow._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan yellow Y, 10 lb. salt.
Heat to 180° F., enter the goods, raise to boil, and dye for one hour;
lift, wash and dry.

_Yellow._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 1
lb. Turkey red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Sun Yellow._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Sun yellow, 30 lb. common
salt. Dye at the boil. The bath is kept for further lots.

_Yellow._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Direct yellow R, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Yellow._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Curcuphenine, 20 lb. common
salt. Work at the boil for one hour; lift, rinse and dry.

_Old Gold._--Make the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine yellow N powder, 20
lb. phosphate of soda, 10 lb. soap. Work at the boil for one hour;
finish in the usual way. The bath may be kept for other lots of goods.

_Dark Yellow._--The bath is made from 2 lb. Toluylene orange G, 10 lb.
phosphate of soda, and 2-1/2 lb. soap, working at the boil to shade.

_Bright Yellow._--Use 1 lb. Chrysophenine, 2 lb. phosphate of soda and
10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Lemon Yellow._--Use 1 oz. Chrysamine G, 2 lb. phosphate of soda and 10
lb. Glauber's salt.

_Yellow._--Dye with 2 lb. Oxyphenine and 20 lb. salt.

_Yellow Olive._--Use in the dye-bath 2 oz. Cotton brown N, 4-1/2 oz.
Diamine bronze G, 4-1/2 oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
salt.

_Green Yellow._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B. 2 oz. Diamine
bronze G, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Gold Yellow._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Columbia yellow, 3 lb. soda
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Cream._--Dye with 1/2 oz. Toluylene orange G, 24 grains Brilliant
orange G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Primrose._--Dye with 3 oz. Dianil yellow 3 G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb.
salt.

_Gold Yellow._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Dianil yellow G, 1/2 lb. soda and 15
lb. salt.

_Buff Yellow._--Dye with 3-1/2 oz. Dianil yellow 2 R, 1/2 lb. soda and
10 lb. salt.

_Orange._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Chlorophenine orange R, 20
lb. common salt. Work at the boil for one hour; lift, rinse and dry.

_Red Orange._--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Mikado orange 4 R and 25 lb.
salt. Work at the boil for one hour.

_Orange._--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Mikado orange G and 25 lb. salt.
Work at the boil for one hour.

_Pale Orange._--The dye-bath contains 6 oz. Diamine Orange G, 1-1/2 oz.
Diamine fast yellow B, 1/4 oz. Diamine scarlet B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Olive Yellow._--Dye with 3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 oz.
Oxydiamine black N, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine bronze G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Dark Orange._--Dye with 3 lb. Columbia orange R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Bright Orange._--Use 3 lb. Congo orange R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Pale Orange._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil orange 2 R, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb.
salt at the boil for one hour.

_Brilliant Orange._--Dye with 4 lb. Dianil orange G and 20 lb. salt for
one hour.

_Deep Orange._--Dye with 2 lb. Oxydiamine orange R, 3/4 lb. soda and 20
lb. salt for an hour.

_Pale Orange._--Dye with 3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. Diamine
orange B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Bright Orange._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Benzo orange R, 1-1/2 lb.
Chrysamine R, 10 lb. phosphate of soda and 2 lb. soap.

_Green._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo green G, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt. Enter lukewarm, bring slowly to the boil, dye for one
hour at the boil.

_Russian Green._--Make the dye-bath with 16 oz. Diamine black H W, 4 oz.
Diamine fast yellow A, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the
boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Dark Olive._--Prepare a dye-bath with 3-1/2 lb. Benzo olive, 2-1/2 lb.
Diamine black B O, 2 lb. Diamine yellow, 20 lb. common salt, 2 lb. soap.
The goods are entered into the bath at 160° F., then heat is raised to
the boil, and the dyeing continued for one hour, then lift, wash and
dry.

_Dark Olive._--Dye in a bath of 2 lb. Titan yellow Y, 1 lb. Diamine
brown Y, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine blue 3 B, 2 lb. soda. Work for one hour, then
lift, wash and dry.

_Olive._--Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. phosphate of soda, 3 lb. soap,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine yellow N, 4 oz. Diamine blue 3 B, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine
brown V. Dye at the boil to shade; lift, wash and dry.

_Green Olive._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine black R O, 1 lb.
Chrysamine, 1/4 lb. Benzo brown, 5 lb. soda, 5 lb. salt, 2 lb. soap. The
goods are entered at about 180° F. and worked for a short time, then
the temperature is raised to the boil, and the goods are worked for one
hour, lifted, washed and dried.

_Reseda._--Prepare a bath with 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soap, 1/2
lb. Diamine black R O, 2 lb. Diamine yellow N. Enter at 120° F., heat to
boil and dye for one hour at that temperature; lift, wash and dry.

_Sage Green._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 1/2 lb.
Diamine black R O, 2 lb. Diamine yellow N. Enter at about 150° F. and
then raise to boil and dye boiling for one hour, wash and dry.

_Drab._--Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Cross dye drab, 5 lb. soda
crystals. Enter at the boil and work at this temperature for half an
hour. Whilst dyeing add gradually 75 lb. salt. Rinse well and dry.

_Olive._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Dianil olive, 5 lb. phosphate
of soda, 5 lb. common salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Olive._--The dyeing is done in a bath containing 4 oz. Diamine black H
W, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine bronze G, 5 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Work
at the boil for one hour.

_Grass Green._--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Chrysamine G, 1-1/2 oz.
Benzo azurine G, 3 lb. soap and 10 lb. borax, working at the boil for
one hour.

_Green._--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Titan yellow Y, 1 lb. Titan blue
3 B and 20 lb. salt.

_Bright Grass Green._--Dye for an hour at the boil with 1 lb. Sulphon
azurine D, 2 lb. Thiazole yellow and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Green._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine green B, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil to shade.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine dark green N, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt.

_Green._--Use in the bath 3 lb. Benzo green B B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Sea Green._--Dye with 5 oz. Diamine black H W, 3 oz. Diamine
catechine G, 3 oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Pale Green._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 oz.
Diamine black H W, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Bright Pea Green._--Use in the dye-bath 1 oz. Thioflavine S, 1/4 oz.
Diamine sky blue F F and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Dark Green._--Use 1-3/4 lb. Diamine green G, 3/4 lb. Oxydiamine yellow
G G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one
hour.

_Deep Green._--Use 1-3/4 lb. Diamine green G, 3/4 lb. Diamine black B H,
1/2 lb. Oxydiamine yellow G G, 3 lb. soda, and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Sea Green._--Use 2 oz. Dianil yellow R, 2-1/2 oz. Dianil blue B, 1-3/4
oz. Dianil dark blue R, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt, working at the
boil.

_Leaf Green._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 1 lb. Dianil blue
B, 11 oz. Dianil blue 2 R, 3 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt at the boil for
one hour.

_Deep Green._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 2-1/2 lb. Dianil
blue 2 R, 6 oz. Dianil dark blue R, 3 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt at the
boil for one hour.

Greens are largely produced by mixing yellows and blues together as will
be seen from the recipes given above; the particular shade of green
which is got from a combination of blue and green depends upon the
quality of the dye-stuffs used: thus, to produce bright greens of a pure
tone, it is essential that the yellow used shall have a greenish tone
like Thioflavine S, Thiazole yellow, or Dianil yellow 3 G, while the
blue must also have a greenish tone like Diamine sky blue, Benzo blue 3
B, etc. By using yellows like Diamine fast yellow R, and dark blues like
Benzo azurine 3 R, Diamine blue R W, Dianil dark blue R, the green which
is got is darker and duller in tone. The addition of such a dye as
Diamine black B H throws the shade more on to an olive, while a brown
dye-stuff, like Diamine brown M, or an orange dye, like Titan orange N,
throws the green on to a sage tone. Examples of these effects will be
found among the recipes given above.

It may be added here that by using smaller quantities, but in the same
proportions as given in the above recipes, a great range of tints and
shades of green can be dyed from very pale to very deep.

_Bright Blue._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Congo blue 2 B, 5 lb.
salt, 5 lb. phosphate of soda, 2 lb. soap. Work at the boil for one
hour, then rinse and dry.

_Dark Navy._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine black R O, 2 lb.
Diamine blue 3 R, 8 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soap. Enter the cotton at
180° F., and boil for one hour.

_Pale Blue._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 3 lb. soda, 3 oz.
diamine blue 3 R. Work for one hour at the boil, then lift, wash and
dry.

_Sky Blue._--Prepare a dye-bath with 2 lb. Titan como G, 20 lb. common
salt, 2 oz. acetic acid. Work at the boil for half an hour, then lift,
wash and dry.

_Bright Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 20
lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soap. Work at the boil for one hour, then
lift, wash and dry.

_Pale Sky Blue._--Make the dye-bath with 1 oz. Chicago blue 6 B, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soap. Work at the boil for one hour, then lift,
wash and dry.

_Sky Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 1 lb.
Turkey-red oil, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2-1/2 lb. Diamineral blue R,
2-1/2 lb. Diamine deep black Cr, 1 lb. Turkey-red oil, 40 lb. Glauber's
salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Triamine black B, 15 lb.
Glauber's salt, in 50 gallons of water. Enter at 150° F., and boil for
one hour. Allow the goods to remain until the water is cold, when the
dye-bath will be completely exhausted.

_Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Diamine steel blue L, 2 lb.
soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diamine blue B G, 2 lb. soda,
20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour. In shade this is
very similar to that got with Diamine brilliant blue G, which however
should be used for light shades on account of its brightness. For deep
shades Diamine blue B G, is preferable, because of its greater
tinctorial power.

_Light Indigo Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Paramine indigo
blue, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150° F., and dye
at the boil for one hour.

_Navy Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine navy blue R, 2
lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150° F., and dye at the
boil for one hour.

_Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Paramine navy blue R, 2 lb.
soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150° F., and dye at the boil
for one hour.

_Navy Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome black blue B,
15 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soda. Work at the boil for one hour; lift,
rinse and dry.

_Grey Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Paramine blue black S, 2
lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at 150° F., and dye for one hour
at boil.

_Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Paramine blue B, 2 lb. soda, 20
lb. Glauber's salt. Enter at about 150° F., and dye at the boil for one
hour.

_Slate Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/4 lb. Diamine black B H, 3/4
oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at
the boil to shade.

_Deep Blue._--Use 3-1/4 lb. Diamine blue B X, 1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black
N, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Blue._--Dye at the boil for one hour with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine sky blue, 2
oz. Diamine green B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Navy._--Dye with 1 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 8 oz. Dianil black C R, 5
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Navy._--Use 2 lb. Dianil blue B, 2 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 3/4 lb.
Dianil black C R, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt, working at the boil for
one hour.

_Deep Blue._--Dye with 3-1/2 lb. Diamine blue black E, 5 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Deep Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Zambesi black B R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Navy._--Use 3 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 3 lb. caustic soda 70° Tw.,
and 25 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Violet Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil dark blue 3 R and 25 lb. salt at
the boil for one hour.

_Bright Blue._--Use 1 lb. Dianil blue B, and 20 lb. salt, working at the
boil for one hour.

_Full Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant azurine 5 G, 5 lb. common salt, 5
lb. phosphate of soda and 2 lb. soap at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Erie blue B X, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Pale Blue._--Dye with 1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
salt at the boil for one hour.

_Deep Blue._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black A, 2 lb. Diamine deep
blue R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Blue._--Dye with 6 oz. Diamine blue 3 B, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine sky blue F
F, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Navy._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine new blue R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Navy._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Diamineral blue R, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Sky Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 6 oz. Diamine sky blue F F, 3 lb.
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Blue._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine blue R W, 2 lb. soda and
20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Triamine black B T, and 15
lb. Glauber's salt; work at the boil to shade.

_Blue._--Use 2 lb. Direct indigo blue and 15 lb. Glauber's salt; work at
the boil.

_Bright Blue._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Titan como S N, 2 lb. acetic
acid and 20 lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Turquoise Blue._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, 1 oz. Diamine fast
yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil to
shade.

_Dark Navy._--Use 4 lb. Titan navy R, and 20 lb. salt at the boil for
one hour.

_Green Blue._--Dye with 1 lb. Dianil blue G, 2-1/2 oz. Dianil yellow G,
1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour.

Many more formulæ could have been given, but the above will perhaps
suffice; they include all the best of the direct blues. Paler tints of
blue may be got by using from 1 to 2 per cent. of any of these blues and
also of the many direct blacks now on the market. The direct blues as a
rule have a good degree of fastness to light.

_Lilac._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1/4 lb. Hessian brown 2 M, 1 oz. Azo
mauve A M, 1 lb. soap, 2 lb. soda, 10 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one
hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Plum._--Dye with 3 lb. Oxydiamine violet G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Dark Plum._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Oxydiamine violet B, 3 lb. soda
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil.

_Violet._--Make the dye-bath with 3/4 lb. Oxydiamine violet B, 1 lb.
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and dye at the boil to shade.

_Violet._--Dye with 12 oz. Dianil blue 4 R, 2 oz. Dianil blue B and 10
lb. salt at the boil.

_Lilac._--Dye with 1-1/2 oz. Diamine rose G D, 3/4 oz. Diamine sky blue
F F, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil to shade.

_Red Violet._--Make the dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine violet N, 1/2 oz.
Diamine brilliant blue G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working
at the boil.

_Red Violet._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine violet N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Bright Red Lilac._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Erika B N, 4 oz. Chicago blue 4
R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil.

_Grey Lilac._--Dye with 12 oz. Neutral grey G, 3 oz. erika B N, 1 lb.
soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Pale Lilac._--Dye with 2-1/2 oz. Dianil claret B, 2-1/2 oz. Dianil blue
4 R, and 10 lb. salt.

_Light Plum._--Dye with 10 oz. Dianil claret B, 10 oz. Dianil blue and
20 lb. salt.

_Dull Lilac._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine brown V, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Heliotrope._--Dye with 4 oz. Heliotrope 2 B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Plum._--Dye with 3 lb. Congo Corinth B, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt.

_Dull Violet._--Use in the dye-bath 1-1/2 lb. Chicago blue 4 R, 14 oz.
Erika B N, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for
one hour.

_Red Lilac._--Dye with 6 oz. Oxydiamine violet G, 2 oz. Oxydiamine
violet B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Violet._--Dye with 3 oz. Diamine violet N, 2 oz. diamine blue 3 R, 1
lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Fawn Drab._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1 lb. Cachou de laval, 1/4 oz.
Benzo purpurine B. Enter the cotton into this bath in the cold and heat
to the boil, taking about one hour for the operation, then add 4 lb.
common salt and boil for three-quarters of an hour longer; lift, wash
and dry.

_Pale Olive Brown._--The dye-bath is made with 1 lb. Diamine bronze G, 1
oz. Cotton brown N, 3 oz. Diamine gold, 5 lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's
salt. Work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Red Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1-3/4 lb. Cotton yellow, 4 lb.
Hessian brown 2 B N, 2 lb. Diamine black R O, 1 lb. soda, 2 lb. salt.
Enter the goods at 180° F., then raise to the boil and work to the
shade; lift, wash and dry.

_Brown Drab._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1/4 lb. Cotton brown N, 3/4 oz.
Diamine yellow N, 3/4 oz. Diamine black B O, 15 lb. phosphate of soda, 3
lb. soap. Work at the boil for one hour.

_Gold Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 16-1/4 oz. Toluylene orange G,
9-1/2 oz. Toluylene orange R, 4-3/4 oz. azo mauve, 2-1/2 lb. soap, 5 lb.
soda. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Chestnut Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. common salt, 2 lb.
Benzo brown G, 1/2 lb. Benzo azurine G, 1/2 lb. Chrysophenine. Enter the
goods at 150° F., raise to the boil and dye boiling for one hour.

_Purple Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. common salt, 2 lb. Benzo
brown N B, 1 lb. Azo violet. Enter the cotton at 150° F., raise to the
boil and dye boiling for an hour; lift, wash and dry.

_Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 5 lb. soda, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 12
oz. Chrysamine, 1 oz. Benzo purpurine, 6-1/4 oz. Benzo azurine. Dye at
the boil for one hour, rinse and dry. The brown thus got is fast to
washing.

_Dark Chestnut Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 3 lb. Benzo
brown N B X, raise to 150° F., enter goods, heat to boil, and work for
one hour; lift, rinse and dry.

_Dark Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 20 oz. Glauber's salt per gallon
of water used, 2-1/2 lb. soap, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine black R O, 2 lb. Cotton
brown N. Enter the yarn at 180° F., give three turns, raise temperature
to boil, and work to shade; lift, rinse and wash.

_Gold Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Titan gold, 50 lb. salt.
Work at the boil for thirty minutes, then lift, wash and dry. The
dye-bath is not exhausted, only about 3 lb. of the colour being taken up
by the cotton. It may, therefore, be kept for further lots, adding 3 lb.
more colour and about 20 lb. more salt for each batch of cotton, or if
it is not desired to keep the bath, add less colour to start with, and
towards the end of the operation add more salt.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine brown G, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Light Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Diamine catechine G, 3
lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine catechine B, 3
lb. soda, 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Drab._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan brown Y, 3 oz.
Columbia green, 32-3/4 oz. Diamine bronze, 17 lb. Glauber's salt. Work
at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Pale Brown._--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Mikado orange 4 R, 3 oz.
Benzo fast grey, 30 lb. Glauber's salt. Work at the boil for one hour,
then lift, ash and dry.

_Gold Brown._--Make a dye-bath with 1 lb. Titan gold, 50 lb. common
salt. Enter at the boil, work for an hour, then lift, wash and dry. Keep
the bath for another lot of goods; it will only require the addition of
about 14 oz. of colour and 10 lb. salt.

_Buff Brown._--Make the dye-bath with 3/4 lb. Titan gold, 1/4 lb. Titan
brown R, 5 oz. Titan blue 3 B, 40 lb. common salt. Work at the boil to
shade, then lift, wash and dry.

_Deep Chestnut Brown._--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Titan brown R,
1-1/2 lb. Titan blue R, 25 lb. common salt. Work at the boil for an
hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Light Seal Brown._--Make the dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 2 lb. soda, 14
oz. Oxyphenine, 3/4 lb. Atlas red R, 6 oz. Diamine blue B X. Work at the
boil to shade, then lift, wash and dry.

_Orange Brown._--Make a dye-bath with 10 lb. salt, 2 lb soda, 14 oz.
Oxyphenine, 1 lb. Atlas red R, 1 oz. Diamine blue B X. Work at the boil
to shade, then lift, wash and dry.

_Pale Nut Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 4-1/2 oz. Diamine catechine G, 1
oz. Diamine brown M, 1 oz. Diamine catechine B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Walnut Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown M, 3 oz. Diamine orange G,
2 oz. Diamine black H W, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the
boil for one hour.

_Black Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine brown M, 3/4 lb.
Diamine blue black R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at
the boil.

_Reddish Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown R, 5 lb. salt and 5 lb.
phosphate of soda at the boil for one hour.

_Chocolate Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown T, 5 lb. phosphate of
soda and 5 lb. salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil dark brown, 5 lb. salt and 5 lb.
phosphate of soda at the boil for one hour.

_Light Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine catechine G, 3
lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Brown._--Dye with 2-1/4 lb. Cotton brown N, 4 oz. Diamine black H W, 2
lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour.

_Dark Walnut Brown._--Make the dye-bath with 3-1/4 lb. Diamine brown M,
6 oz. Diamine catechine B, 6 oz. Diamine red 5 B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; work at the boil.

_Dark Chestnut Brown._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Dianil brown R, 1 lb. soda
and 20 lb. salt at the boil.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 2 lb. Dianil brown B
D, 1 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 3 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt at the boil for one
hour.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Mikado brown M and 25 lb.
salt; work the cotton in this at the boil for one hour.

_Nut Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 2-1/2 lb. Benzo brown G and 15 lb.
salt, working at the boil.

_Dark Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Benzo brown N B and 15 lb.
Glauber's salt, working at the boil.

_Dark Brown._--Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Diphenyl brown B N, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt and 4 lb. soap, working at the boil to shade.

_Black Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 2-1/2 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 1-1/2
lb. Dianil brown G, 3/4 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 3 lb. soda and 25 lb.
salt.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Zambesi black D, 1-1/4 lb. Brilliant
orange G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil to shade.

_Gold Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Curcumine S, 1 lb. Columbia orange R, 5
oz. Columbia black F B, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt at the
boil.

_Dark Chestnut._--Dye at the boil with 2 lb. Columbia Orange R, 8 oz.
Columbia black F B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Sage Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Zambesi black D, 1 lb. Curcumine S, 3/4
lb. Diamine orange G D, 3 lb. soda and 30 lb. Glauber's salt at the
boil.

_Deep Brown._--Dye 3-1/2 lb. Diamine brown M, 3/4 lb. Oxydiamine orange
G, 3/4 lb. Diamine black H W, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt at
the boil.

_Chestnut._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine brown G, 3/4 lb. Oxydiamine
orange R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Pale Walnut Brown._--Dye with 3-1/2 lb. Diamine brown M, 3/4 lb.
Oxydiamine orange G, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

Various other browns may be obtained by combining the various direct
browns together or with other direct dyes. The use of a yellow or orange
will brighten them; that of a red will redden the shade; the addition of
a dark blue or a black will darken the shade considerably. It may be
useful to remember that a combination of red, orange and blue or black
produces a brown, and by using various proportions a great range of
shades can be dyed.

_Black._--Prepare a dye-bath with 6 lb. Diamine black R O, 2 oz.
Thioflavine S, 2 lb. soap, 10 lb. salt. Enter the cotton at the boil and
dye for one hour; lift, wash and dry.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Direct deep black E extra, and
1/2 to 1-1/2 oz. common salt per gallon of water. Dye at the boil for
one hour.

_Deep Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5-1/2 lb. Diamine deep black R
B, 2 lb. soda, 20 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour;
lift, wash and dry.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Direct triamine black G X, 15
lb. Glauber's salt. Dye for one hour at the boil; lift, rinse and dry.
In working for from two to three hours the dye-bath will exhaust
completely.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Oxydiamine black A, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 6 lb. Pluto black B. Dye at the boil
for one hour with the addition of 3/4 to 1-1/4 oz. Glauber's salt, 1/2
to 3/4 oz. soda ash per gallon of liquor. To develop the shade it is
necessary to dye in a boiling liquor.

_Black._--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine jet
black R B, 2 lb. soda, and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil
for one hour.

_Black._--Use 6 lb. Oxydiamine black N R, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour.

_Black._--Use 6 lb. Columbia Black F B B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, working at the boil to shade.

Besides the blacks given in the above recipes, there are other brands
which are used in the same way, and vary slightly in the shade of black
they give.

All the direct blacks require working in strong baths to give anything
like black shades; they all have, more or less, a bluish tone, which can
be changed to a jetter shade by the addition of a yellow or green dye in
small proportions, which has been done in one of the recipes given
above.

By coupling, chroming or developing, the direct blacks can be made to
give full, deep and fast blacks, and examples of their use in this
manner will be found in following sections.

By using all the direct blacks in proportions varying from 1/4 to 1 per
cent. of dye-stuff to the weight of the cotton they give greys of
various tints and depths; a few examples of such greys will now be
given.

_Blue Grey._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black A, 1
lb. soda, 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Bright Grey._--Prepare a dye-bath with 4-1/2 oz. Azo mauve A M, 1-1/2
oz. Direct yellow G, 3 lb. soda, 15 lb. common salt.

_Silver Grey._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/2 oz. Neutral grey G, 10 lb.
sulphate of soda. Work at the boil to shade, then lift, wash and dry.

_Slate._--Dye in a bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine black B H, 3 oz. Diamine
bronze G, 15 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for three-quarters of an
hour.

_Bronze Grey._--Prepare a dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine bronze G, 15 lb.
Glauber's salt, 3 lb. soap. Enter at about 160° F., raise to boil and
work for one hour; lift, wash and dry.

_Dark Slate._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 1-1/2 lb.
soap, 1 lb. Diamine black R O, 2 lb. Cotton brown N. Heat to about 150°
F. Enter the goods, work for a short time, then raise to the boil and
work for one hour; lift, wash and dry.

_Green Grey._--Prepare a dye-bath with 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 1 lb.
Diamine black R O, 3/4 oz. Thioflavine S. Enter at from 150° Tw. to 180°
F., raise to boil and dye for one hour; wash and dry.

_Light Slate._--Prepare a dye-bath containing 2-1/4 lb. soap, 15 lb.
Glauber's salt, 6 oz. Diamine black R O, 1/2 oz. thioflavine S. Enter
cotton at 140° F., work a little, then heat to boil and dye to shade;
lift, wash and dry.

_Grey._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine grey G, 1/2 oz.
Diamine scarlet B, 1 lb. soda, 1 lb. soap, 5 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye for
one hour at the boil.

_Light Grey._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. Diamine grey G, 1 lb.
soda, 1 lb. soap, 5 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye for one hour at the boil;
lift, rinse and dry.

It may be convenient here to deal with the question of the fastness of
the direct dyes to such influences as light, air, acids, alkalies,
washing and soaping, that have a very material influence on the use of
these dyes in dyeing various fabrics. This matter can only be dealt with
here in very general terms, for space is limited and the dyes are too
numerous for detailed mention. They vary very greatly in degrees of
fastness, some are absolutely fast to all influences; the blacks are
among the fastest, generally these resist washing and soaping, stand
acids well and are fast to alkalies, light however affects them more or
less, though they cannot be reckoned fugitive colours. The few direct
greens known are good colours; they stand washing, soaping and light
well, but they are affected by acids and alkalies. The blues vary very
much, generally they stand soaping and have a fair degree of fastness to
light, acids have but little action, alkalies tend to redden the shade,
while heat also affects them. The direct browns are very variable; they
are in general not fast to light; they stand washing and soaping and
resist alkalies, but are altered by acids slightly. The yellows rank
among the fastest of colours to light and washing and soaping; acids
have but little effect; they are reddened by alkalies. Among the reds
there is great variation in properties, generally they are not fast to
light, standing washing and soaping well and resisting weak alkalies;
some of them, such as the Benzo purpurines and Congo reds are very
sensitive to acids, being turned blue with very weak acids, but on
washing or soaping the original colour comes back; others, like the
Titan reds, Diamine reds and Delta purpurines are not so sensitive, but
these are affected by moderately strong acids; there are one or two reds
like Benzo fast scarlet 4 B S and Purpuramine D H, which are fast to
acids. The depth of shade which is dyed has some considerable influence
on the degree of fastness, the deeper shades of a colour are always
faster than the paler shades, particularly as regards light, a
difference of 1/2 per cent, of dye-stuff has been known to make a very
appreciable degree of difference as regards the fastness of a colour to
light.

In dyeing cotton with all the direct dyes, it is found that the whole of
the dye-stuff is not removed from the dye-bath, how much is taken up by
the cotton, and the depth of the shade which is dyed upon the cotton
chiefly depends upon three factors:--

(1) Volume of water used.
(2) Quantity of saline salts used.
(3) Degree of affinity of the dye-stuff for the fibre.

There may also be some minor factors such as temperature at which the
dyeing is carried on, the character and condition of the fabrics being
dyed, etc.

The volume of water used in making the dye-bath has a very great
influence upon the amount of dye taken up by the cotton, the greater the
volume of water the less dye is absorbed and the paler the colour which
is produced upon the fibre. It is therefore important to use as little
water as possible in making up the dye-bath, indeed, for anything like
good results to be obtained with some dyes, especially those of the
sulphur series like Vidal black, Immedial blacks, Katigen browns,
Cross-dye blacks, Amidazol blacks, etc., it is necessary to employ what
is called a short bath, that is making it as strong as possible. The
proportion of water with such dyes should not exceed fifteen times the
weight of the cotton being dyed, that is, for every pound of cotton,
1-1/2 gallons of water can be allowed. This will suit the dyeing of
yarns and loose fabrics like knitted stockings and hosiery goods very
well. In the case of dyeing piece goods on a jigger or continuous dyeing
machines even stronger liquors can be used with advantage. With some of
the older, direct dyes like Congo red, Benzo azurine, Diamine scarlets,
the proportion of water may be increased to twenty times the weight of
the cotton. In any case the quantity of water used should not exceed
twenty-five times the weight of the cotton.

The second factor, the quantity of saline salts, like Glauber's salt,
soda, borax, etc., added in the dyeing, is not without influence,
generally the more that is added the more dye there is left in the bath,
but here again much depends upon the salt and the colouring matters
used. Some salts, more particularly Glauber's salt and common salt, tend
to throw some dye-stuffs out of the bath, and so the more there is used
of them the deeper the shade produced on the fabric. It is quite
impossible, having regard to the scope of this book, to deal with this
question in detail. The dyer should ascertain for himself the best salts
and the best proportions of these to use with the particular dyes he is
using. The recipes given above will give him some ideas on this point.

The third factor, the degree of affinity of the dye for the cotton
fibre, has some influence on the depth of shade which can be dyed from
any given strength of the dye-bath. There is a very considerable
difference among the direct dyes in this respect. There are some which
have a fair degree of affinity, while there are others which have but
little affinity, and while in the former case there is little dye left
in the bath, in the latter case there is a good deal. When dyeing plain
shades with single dye-stuffs this is not of much moment, because if the
bath be kept for further use, as will be spoken of presently, the bath
may be brought up to its original strength by adding a proportionate
amount of dye-stuff, but when compound shades are being dyed, using two
or more dyes, then this feature has some influence, for they will not be
absorbed by the fibre in the same proportion as they were put in the
bath, and so when making up the dye-bath for the second lot, and adding
the same proportion of dyes, the shade which is produced will not be
quite the same, for the first lot of cotton in taking up the dyes in
varying quantities has altered their relative proportions, and so the
bath for the second lot of cotton will actually contain more of one dye
than did the first bath, and the influence of this excess of the one
constituent will show itself in the shade ultimately dyed. The more lots
of cotton there are dyed in the bath the greater will this influence be.
The dyer must by practical experience find out for himself in what
direction this feature of the direct dyes exerts its influence on the
particular dyes he is working with and make due allowance.

It is found in practice that from one-fourth to one-half of the original
weight of dye-stuff is left in the bath, and in order to be as
economical as possible a custom has arisen of keeping the bath and using
it again for dyeing further lots of cotton. In thus making a continuous
use of dye-baths it is important in preparing the baths for the next lot
of cotton to add first the requisite quantities of dye-stuffs, how much
will depend upon the factors and conditions already detailed, but from
one-half to three-fourths of the original quantities are added.
Practical experience alone is the guide to be followed.

Having added the dye-stuff, then sufficient water must be added to bring
up the volume of the bath to the proper amount, for it will have lost
some. The loss of water arises from two sources: first there is the
evaporation, which always occurs when dye-baths are heated up, and,
second, there is the mechanical loss due to its absorption by the
material which is being dyed. When a piece of cotton or other textile
fabric is immersed in a dye liquor it absorbs mechanically some of it,
and this amount may be roughly put down as about its own weight; thus
100 lb. weight of cotton will take up 10 gallons of liquor and carry
that quantity out of the bath. To some extent this may be minimised by a
previous wetting out of the cotton, which will then have in it as much
liquor as it will take up, and so practically no more will be taken up
from the dye-bath. Any loss of volume which may thus occur can be
remedied by the addition of water.

The dye-baths containing in solution, in addition to the dye-stuff,
salt, or Glauber's salt, or any other added substance, the cotton in
taking up the dye liquor will of course take up some of these in
proportion to the volume of liquor absorbed. The amount may range from 4
oz. to 1 lb. per gallon of liquor, and if 100 lb. cotton is being dyed
and takes up from 10 to 15 gallons of liquor, it is obvious that it must
absorb from 3 to 10 lb. of saline matter, and as the salinity of the dye
liquor is of some importance in dyeing direct colours, in making up the
bath for the next lot of cotton this must be allowed for and suitable
additions made. In order to do this properly it is a good plan to rely
upon the Twaddell.

The dyer should take the Twaddell of his bath before use and always make
up his baths to that strength. This will be found to range from 3° to
12° Tw.

Thus, for instance, a dye-bath made from 120 gallons of water with 20
lb. to 25 lb. common salt or Glauber's salt with the dye-stuffs will
stand at 4° Tw., one made with 50 lb. common salt or Glauber's salt at
8° Tw., while one which is made with 80 lb. to 100 lb. salt will stand
at 12° to 13° Tw. If the dyer always maintains his liquors at one
uniform degree Twaddell he can invariably depend upon getting uniform
shades from his dye-baths. This uniform strength is attained by adding
more salt or more water as the case may require.

Of course the continuous working of dye-baths cannot go on for ever;
sooner or later the baths become thick and dirty, and then they must be
thrown away and a new bath started.


(2) DIRECT DYEING FOLLOWED BY FIXATION WITH METALLIC SALTS.

It is an acknowledged principle in dyeing that to produce colours fast
to washing, soaping and rubbing, there must be produced on the fibre an
insoluble coloured substance. Now as the direct dyes do not essentially
produce such insoluble bodies when dyed on the cotton, the colours they
form are not always fast to washing and soaping. It has been
ascertained, however, that some of the direct dyes, _e.g._, Benzo
azurine, Chicago blue, Catechu browns, Diamine blues, Diamine browns,
etc., are capable of uniting with metallic bodies to form insoluble
colour lakes, and this combination can take place on the fibre. Fast
shades may be dyed with the dye-stuffs named above, and with others of
this group, by first dyeing them in the usual way, then passing through
a boiling bath containing bichromate of potash or copper sulphate,
either together or separately. The two fixing agents here named have
been found to be the best, although others, as, for instance, zinc
sulphate, chromium fluoride and iron sulphate have been tried. With some
dyes there is little or no alteration in shade, but in others there is
some change, thus the blues as a rule tend to become greener in tone,
and browns also tend to acquire a greener tone and deeper shade. The
treated shades thus obtained are notable for considerable fastness to
washing, soaping and light. It is to be noted that bichromate of potash
exercises both a fixing and an oxidising action on dye-stuffs, hence it
is needful to use it with some degree of caution and not in too great an
amount, otherwise with some dyes there is a risk of over-oxidation, and
in consequence poor shades will be developed. The following recipes will
serve to show what dyes may thus be used, and the colours that can be
obtained with them.

_Dark Red._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine fast red F, 3 lb. soda
and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, work at the boil for one hour, then lift,
rinse and pass into a boiling bath containing 3 lb. fluoride of chromium
for ten to fifteen minutes, then lift, rinse and dry. By using 1 lb. of
the dye-stuff in the same way a light red shade is got.

_Orange._--Dye at the boil for one hour with 1 lb. Chrysamine G, 3 lb.
soap and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then rinse and fix in a fresh boiling
bath with 1 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb.
acetic acid.

_Yellow._--Dye with 3-1/2 lb. Diamine yellow N, 3 lb. soap and 15 lb.
phosphate of soda, then fix with 4 lb. fluoride of chromium.

_Gold Yellow._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Benzo chrome brown 5 G,
1 lb. soda ash, 12 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one hour and
rinse. This gives an orange brown. To get the yellow shade, afterwards
chrome with 3 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper, 1 lb.
acetic acid, in a fresh bath. Enter at about 130° F., bring to the boil,
and boil for half an hour.

_Pale Leaf Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 1 lb. Dianil
yellow R, 1 lb. Dianil blue G, and 20 lb. salt, then fix with 3 lb.
copper sulphate and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Leaf Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil yellow 3 G, 3 lb. Dianil blue G,
and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 4 lb. copper sulphate and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil yellow R, 1-1/2 lb. Dianil dark
blue R, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. copper sulphate.

_Pale Olive Green._--Dye with 2-3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1-1/4 lb.
Diamine blue R W, 3/4 lb. Diamine blue R W, 3/4 lb. Diamine catechine G;
fix with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Russia Green._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine blue R W, 10 oz. Diamine
dark blue B, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; fix with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Blue Green._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 6 oz. Diamine
fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 2 lb.
sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Bronze Green._--Use in the bath at the boil 4 lb. Diamine bronze G, 2
lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with 4 lb. fluoride of
chromium.

_Pea Green._--Dye in a boiling bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine sky blue F F,
2-1/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt,
then fix in a fresh bath with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic
acid.

_Leaf Green._--Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath containing 2-3/4
lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine blue R W, 7 oz. Diamine
catechine B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix in a new
bath with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Light Green._--Prepare the dye-bath with 7-1/4 oz. Diamine blue R W,
5-1/2 oz. Diamine orange B, 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and
10 lb. Glauber's salt, work at the boil for one hour, then treat in a
fresh bath with 3 lb. sulphate of copper.

_Olive Green._--Dye with 2-1/4 lb. Chicago blue R W, 15 oz. Chrysamine
G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of
potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Pea Green._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Chrysophenine G, 1 lb. Chicago
blue 6 B, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for
one hour, then fix in a fresh boiling bath with 3 lb. sulphate of copper
and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Green._--Dye with 2-3/4 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 5 oz. Chrysamine G, 2 lb.
soap and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of potash, 3
lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine green B, 1-1/2 oz. Diamine
bronze G, 1 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt, working at the boil for one hour, then lift, rinse and fix in a
fresh boiling bath with 3 lb. fluoride of chromium for one to fifteen
minutes.

_Dark Bronze._--Use in the dye-bath 2-1/2 lb. Diamine bronze G, 3 lb.
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, working at the boil for one hour, then
lift, rinse and fix with 3 lb. fluoride of chromium as above.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Benzo blue R W, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt; dye for one hour at the boil, then treat in fresh bath
with 1 lb. sulphate of copper at the boil for half an hour.

_Blue._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 1-1/4 lb. Diamine
sky blue F F, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix in a bath with 4
lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Light Navy._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 2-1/4 lb. Diamine blue R
W, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 4 lb. sulphate of
copper and 20 lb. acetic acid.

_Bright Navy._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 2 lb. soda and
20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb.
acetic acid.

_Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue R W, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Blue._--- Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue R W, 1-1/2 lb. Zambesi black
F, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 3 lb. sulphate of
copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Deep Slate Blue._--Dye with 1-1/4 lb. Zambesi black F, 1-1/4 lb.
Chicago blue B, 6 oz. Columbia yellow, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt; fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Light Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 oz. Diamine sky blue F F,
3/4 oz. Diamine fast yellow A, 1/2 lb. soda, 2 lb. soap and 5 lb.
Glauber's salt; dye for one hour at the boil, then treat in a fresh bath
with 1-1/2 lb. sulphate of copper for half an hour.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome black blue B,
15 lb. Glauber's salt and 3 lb. soda. Work at the boil for one hour,
then chrome in a fresh bath with 1 lb. bichromate of potash, 1 lb.
sulphate of copper and 1/2 lb. sulphuric acid.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Diamineral blue R, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate
of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Turquoise Blue._--Dye with 1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 2 lb. soda and 10
lb. Glauber's salt, and fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb.
acetic acid.

_Dark Turquoise Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Chicago blue 4 B, 2 lb. soda and
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and fix with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lbs.
acetic acid.

_Black Blue._--Dye with 4-1/4 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 1 lb. Diamine new
blue R, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 5 lb. sulphate
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

By mixing together the various Diamine blues a very great range of
shades can be produced, from pale sky-blue tints to the deepest of
blues.

_Bright Blue._--Dye with 2-1/4 lb. Dianil blue B and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt; fix with 3 lb. of fluoride of chromium.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil blue B, 1 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 1
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. fluoride of chromium.

_Red Violet._--Dye with 1 lb. Dianil blue 4 R and 10 lb, salt, fixing
with 4 lb. fluoride of chromium.

_Dark Plum._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil blue 4 R and 15 lb. salt, fixing
with 4 lb. fluoride of chromium.

_Red Violet._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 1-1/2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb.
acetic acid.

_Red Plum._--Use 3-3/4 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Dark Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Diamine catechine B, 3
lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt and dye at the boil for one hour,
then treat with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. bichromate of potash.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Paramine brown C, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda and dye at the boil for one hour; treat with
3 lb. copper sulphate.

_Light Brown._--Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath containing 5 lb.
Diamine catechine G, 3 lb. soda and 15 lb. Glauber's salt, then treat in
a fresh bath with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. bichromate of
potash.

_Dark Chestnut Brown._--Dye for an hour in a boiling bath with 2-1/4 lb.
Diamine catechine G, 1-1/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt; then fix in a fresh boiling bath with 2 lb. sulphate
of copper, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid, working for
fifteen to twenty minutes, then rinsing and drying.

_Brown._--Use 3 lb. Catechu brown G K, 15 lb. Glauber's salt and 1/2 lb.
soap; after dyeing for one hour at the boil treat in a fresh boiling
bath with 3 lb. copper sulphate.

_Dark Brown._--Dye at the boil for one hour with 3 lb. Catechu brown F
K, 15 lb. Glauber's salt and 1 lb. soap, then treat in a fresh boiling
bath with 3 lb. copper sulphate.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 9 oz. Diamine blue R W, 12-1/2 oz.
Diamine orange B, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; after working for one hour at the boil treat in a fresh
boiling bath with 4 lb. sulphate of copper.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome brown 2 R, 20
lb. Glauber's salt (crystals) and dye at the boil for one hour;
afterwards treat with bichromate of potash and sulphate of copper.

_Nut Brown._--Dye in a bath with 4 lb. Benzo chrome brown G and 20 lb.
salt, then treat in a fresh bath with 4 lb. bichromate of potash, 4 lb.
copper sulphate and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Chestnut Brown._--Dye at the boil for one hour in a bath containing 4
lb. Benzo chrome brown R, and boiling bath with 4 lb. bichromate of
potash, 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Olive Brown._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine bronze G, 1 lb. Diamine
orange B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 5 lb. sulphate
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Deep Brown._--Use in the Dye-bath 1-3/4 lb. Diamine brown B, 1-3/4 lb.
Diamine fast yellow B, 1/2 oz. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt. The fixing bath contains 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb.
bichromate of potash, and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Diamine fast red F,
1/2 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt. The
fixing bath contains 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate of
potash and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Black Brown._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 3/4 lb. Diamine
orange B, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 5 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Light Sage Brown._--Dye with 3/4 lb. Diamine brown B, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine
fast yellow B, 3 oz. Diamine dark blue B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic
acid.

_Pale Brown._--Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 4 oz.
Dianil brown E, 4 oz. Dianil black N, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt,
fixing with 1-1/2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Walnut Brown._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 1 lb. Diamine
brown M, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with 5 lb.
sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Pale Fawn Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine blue 3 R, 1 lb. Diamine brown
M, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with 5 lb. sulphate of
copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Pale Fawn Brown._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine orange B, 1/4 lb. Diamine
fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with 2 lb.
sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Sage Brown._--Dye with 9 oz. Diamine blue R W, 3/4 lb. Diamine orange
B, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's
salt. The fixing is done with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Red Chocolate._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine orange B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt; fix with 2 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Chestnut._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 13 oz. Dianil
brown R, 13 oz. Dianil brown B D, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, fixing
with 3 lb. copper sulphate and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Brown._--Dye with 2-1/4 lb. Chrysophenine G, 1-1/4 lb. Diamine brown G,
1-1/4 lb. Chicago blue R W, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt; fix
with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Nut Brown._--Dye with 3 lb. Chromanil brown 2 G, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of
copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Grey._--Dye at the boil for one hour with 1 lb. Zambesi black F, 3
lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; fix in a fresh boiling bath with 3
lb. sulphate of copper, 1 lb. bichromate of potash and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt.

_Dark Grey._--Dye with 3 lb. Chromanil black 4 R F, 3 lb. soda and 10
lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 1 lb. bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate
of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Dark Grey._--Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Diamine blue R W, 1/2 lb.
Diamine orange B, 1/4 lb. Diamine new blue R, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 4 lb. sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Pale Greenish Grey._--Dye with 1/4 oz. Diamine orange B, 3 oz. Diamine
blue R W, 1/2 lb. soda, 2 lb. soap and 5 lb. Glauber's salt, fixing with
1 lb. sulphate of copper and 1/2 lb. acetic acid.

_Slate Blue._--Dye with 1/4 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 2 oz. Diamine new
blue R, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; fix with 2 lb. sulphate of
copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Grey._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Cross-dye black 2 B, 5 lb. soda
ash, 15 lb. common salt; after rinsing leave the cotton in the air to
age overnight, rinse again and work for half to three-quarters of an
hour at from 150° to 160° F. in a bath containing 5 lb. bichromate of
potash and 5 lb. sulphuric acid, then thoroughly rinse and dry.

_Dark Grey._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 1 lb. bichromate of potash and 1/2 lb.
acetic acid.

_Green Grey._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 2 oz. Diamine orange
B, 4 oz. Diamine fast yellow B, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt,
fixing with 3 lb. sulphate of copper and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Grey._--Dye with 4 oz. Dianil black N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. salt,
fixing with 1 lb. copper sulphate and 1/2 lb. acetic acid.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5-1/2 lb. Diamine jet black R B, 1
lb. Diamine dark blue B, 20 lb. Glauber's salt; dye at the boil for one
hour, rinse and then treat the goods simmering for twenty minutes with 4
lb. bichromate of potash.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 8 lb. Chromanil black R F and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt; dye at the boil for one hour, then treat boiling hot for
about thirty minutes in a fresh bath with 1 lb. bichromate of potash
and 3 lb. sulphate of copper. Add 6 lb. only of the dye-stuff to the
bath for a second batch.

_Black._--Use 5 lb. Dianil black N, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt; then fix
with 3 lb. copper sulphate, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

_Black._--Use in the dye-bath 5 lb. Dianil black C R. 3 lb. caustic
soda, 36° Tw. and 20 lb. salt, fixing with 3 lb. copper sulphate, 3 lb.
bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Jet Black._--Dye with 5 lb. Diamine jet black Cr, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, fixing with 4 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. acetic
acid.

It will be convenient here to deal with a small but growing and
important class of dye-stuffs which contain sulphur in their
composition, and which, therefore, are named:--

=Sulphur or Sulphyl Colours.=

The original type of this group is Cachou de laval, sent out a good many
years ago, but of late years Vidal black, St. Dennis black, Cross-dye
blacks and drab, Immedial blacks, blues and browns, Amidazol blacks,
browns and olives, Sulfaniline black and brown, Katigen blacks, greens
and browns, etc., have been added, and the group is likely to become a
very numerous one in the future.

All these colours are dyed on to the cotton or linen from baths
containing soda and salt, while some require the addition of sodium
sulphide or caustic soda in order to have the dye-stuff properly
dissolved. They are very weak dyes compared with the direct colours, and
require from 20 to 60 per cent. to produce full shades, although of this
fully one-third remains in the bath unabsorbed by the cotton. It is,
therefore, important in order to work as economically as possible to
retain the bath, bringing it up to strength by the addition of fresh
dye-stuffs, etc.

Most of the dyes require the dyed goods to pass through a second bath of
some reagent, bichromate of potash, sulphate of copper, etc., in order
to fully develop and fix the dye on the fabric.

The best method of using the various dyes of this group will be given in
the form of formulæ. Two points of importance are to use as strong a dye
liquor as possible, and to expose the cotton as little as possible to
the air during the dyeing operation. The dye-stuffs when exposed to the
air readily become oxidised, and are thereby converted into insoluble
products which become fixed on the fibre in a loose form, and in that
case the dyed fibre rubs rather badly.

_Pale Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 15 lb. Cachou de laval, 10 lb. of
soda, and 10 lb. salt. The bath is not exhausted of colouring matter,
and by adding one-half of the above quantities of dye-stuff and salt may
be used again for another lot of cotton. After the dyeing the cotton is
passed into a fixing bath of 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 1 lb. acetic
acid, working at 180° F. ten to fifteen minutes.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 200 gallons of water, 10 lb. soda,
10 lb. sulphide of sodium, 60 lb. salt and 16 lb. Immedial black V
extra. Work at the boil for one hour, keeping the cotton well under the
surface during the operation, in the case of yarns this is effected by
using bent iron rods on which to hang the hanks in the vat, in the case
of pieces by working with vats the guide rollers of which are below the
surface of the dye liquor. After the dyeing the yarn or pieces are
squeezed, well rinsed in water, then passed into the fixing bath, which
contains 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 3 lb.
of acetic acid, for half an hour at 170° to 180° F. Bichromate of potash
used alone gives a reddish shade of black, sulphate of copper a greenish
shade, a mixture of the two gives a greenish shade.

There are three brands of Immedial black, _viz._, V extra, G extra and
F F, which vary a little in the tone of black they produce. The method
of using is identical for all three. The dye-bath is not exhausted of
colour and so should be kept standing, for each subsequent lot of cotton
add 8 lb. Immedial black and 3 lb. sulphide of soda, and to every 10
gallons of water added to bring the bath up to volume 1/2 lb. soda and 3
lb. salt.

These blacks are very fast to washing, light, etc. By using smaller
quantities of dye-stuff good greys can be dyed.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. soda, 10 lb. sulphide of
sodium, 60 lb. salt and 25 lb. Vidal black, work at the boil for one
hour, then rinse and fix with 3 lb bichromate of potash and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 30 lb. Cross-dye black B, 10 lb.
soda, 150 lb. salt. Dissolve the dye-stuff in boiling water, then add
the soda crystals and finally the salt. Enter the previously well-boiled
cotton at about 175° F. After a few turns raise the temperature to the
boil as quickly as possible, and work for one hour (just at the boil).
Lift and thoroughly rinse without delay. (The better the cotton is
washed the clearer the ultimate shade.) After washing, wring up and let
air age for about one hour; the intensity of the black is thereby
increased.

Meanwhile prepare a bath with 5 lb. bichromate of potash, 4 lb.
sulphuric acid (168° Tw.). Enter at 150° to 160° F., and work at this
for about ten minutes. After chroming, wash thoroughly to remove all
traces of acid. At this stage, the usual softening may take place if
desirable, and finally dry at a low temperature.

The bath is kept up for further lots, and three-fourths the quantity of
colouring matter, and about half soda and one fourth salt are used.
Wood, or iron cisterns are most suitable, and copper pans or pipes must
be avoided.

The dye-bath should be kept as short as possible, about twelve to
fifteen times the amount of water on the weight of cotton is advisable.
The cotton when in the dye-bath should be exposed as little as possible
to the air.

There are several brands of these Cross-dye blacks varying in the tone
of black they give.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. soda ash, 200 lb. salt and 20
lb. Amidazol black G, this is heated to 150° F., the cotton is entered,
the heat raised to the boil, and the dyeing done for an hour at that
heat. Lift, rinse well, then pass into a chroming bath, made from 5 lb.
bichromate of potash and 3 lb. sulphuric acid, used at 160° F. for
twenty minutes, then lift, wash well and dry. The bath may be kept
standing and used for other lots of cotton by replenishing with about
two-thirds of the original weight of dye-stuff and a little soda. There
are four brands of these Amidazol blacks which dye from a jet black with
the G to a deep blue black with the 6 G brand. The G, 2 G, and 4 G, used
in small quantities, 2-1/2 to 3 lb., dye good greys of a bluish tone,
the 6 G gives a dull blue, the 4 G and 6 G, used in the proportions of
7-1/2 to 10 per cent., give dark blues.

All these blacks may be combined with aniline black with good results as
shown in the following recipe:--

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Amidazol black 2 G, 5 lb.
soda and 100 lb. salt. Work at the boil for an hour, then rinse, pass
into a cold bath made from 2-1/2 lb. aniline oil, 2-1/2 lb. hydrochloric
acid, 6-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid, 7-1/2 lb. bichromate of potash, and
5-1/2 lb. perchloride of iron, 66° Tw. This is used cold for an hour,
then the heat is slowly raised to 160° F., when the operation is
finished, and the cotton is taken out well rinsed and finished as usual.
Any of this class of black may be so topped with aniline black if
thought necessary A very fast black is thus got.

_Black._--Make the dye-bath with 15 lb. Sulfaniline black G, 60 lb.
salt, 10 lb. soda, and 5 lb. sulphide of sodium. Work at a little under
the boil, then lift, rinse well and pass into a hot bath of 3 lb.
bichromate of potash, 3 lb. sulphate of copper, and 4 lb. acetic acid
for half an hour, then lift, rinse well and dry.

It has been observed in the practical application on a large scale of
these sulphur blacks that the cotton is liable to become tendered on
being stored, although there are few signs of such after the dyeing is
finished. The exact cause of this is somewhat uncertain, the most
probable reason is that during the process of dyeing a deposit of
sulphur in a fine state of division has been thrown down on the cotton
by decomposition of the dye-stuff, and that this sulphur has in time
become oxidised to sulphuric acid which then exerts its well-known
tendering action on the cotton.

The remedy for this evil lies partly with the dye manufacturer and
chiefly with the dyer. The dye manufacturer should see that his product
is made as free from sulphur as possible, while the dyer by careful
attention to thorough washing, thorough fixation in the chrome, etc.
baths, tends to eliminate all sulphur from the goods, and so prevent all
possibility of the cotton becoming affected.

_Blue._--Make the dye-bath with 22 lb. Immedial blue C, 13 lb. sulphide
of sodium, 50 lb. salt and 15 lb. caustic soda lye at 70° Tw. Work at
just under the boil for one hour, keeping the goods well under the
surface of the liquor. After the dyeing the goods are well rinsed in the
water and then passed into a vat which contains 1 lb. peroxide of sodium
and 1 lb. sulphuric acid. This is started cold, after about fifteen
minutes heat slowly to about 150°, work for twenty minutes, then lift,
wash and dry. For subsequent lots of cotton there only need be used 7
lb. Immedial blue C. 2 lb. sulphide of sodium, 3 lb. salt and 1-1/2 lb.
caustic soda lye at 70° Tw. The blue may also be developed by steaming
with air in a suitable chest or steaming chamber. By topping with 1/4
lb. New methylene blue N, very bright blue shades can be dyed.

_Dark Navy._--Prepare the dye-bath with 25 lb. Immedial blue C, 24 lb.
sulphide of sodium, 35 lb. common salt and 12 lb. caustic soda lye,
working at the boil for one hour, then rinse and develop in a bath made
from 2-1/2 lb. peroxide of sodium and 2-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid, started
cold, then after twenty minutes heated to 160° F., twenty minutes longer
at that heat will be sufficient. For second and subsequent lots of
cotton there is added to the old bath 15 lb. Immedial blue C, 4 lb.
sulphide of sodium, 5 lb. salt and 2 lb. caustic soda lye of 70° Tw.

_Blue._--A pale but not very bright shade of blue is dyed in a bath of 3
lb. Amidazol black 6 G, 5 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt. After working for
one hour at the boil, lift, rinse and pass into a bath which contains
2-1/2 lb. peroxide of sodium and 2-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid; this is
started cold, then heated to 150° F., and kept at that heat for twenty
minutes, when the cotton is taken out, well washed and dried.

_Deep Blue._--Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol black 6 G, 5 lb. soda and 200 lb.
salt; develop with 2 lb. peroxide of sodium and 2-1/2 lb. sulphuric
acid, working as noted above.

_Dark Drab._--Prepare the dye-bath with 20 lb. Cross-dye drab, 5 lb.
soda crystals and 80 lb. salt, work at the boil for an hour, then lift,
wash well and dry; this can be chromed if desired.

_Brown._--Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol cutch, 5 lb. soda ash and 150 lb.
salt, working at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash thoroughly and
dry. By after treatment in a bath of 3 lb. potassium bichromate and 3
lb. sulphuric acid the colour is made fast to washing. The shade is not
altered.

_Buff._--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Amidazol cutch, 5 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt,
working at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry.

_Pale Sea Green._--Dye with 4 lb. Amidazol green Y, 5 lb. soda and 25
lb. salt, working at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash well and
dry.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol green B, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb.
salt; work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash thoroughly and dry.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol cachou, 5 lb. soda and 200 lb.
salt, working for an hour at the boil, then lift, rinse well and pass
into a chrome bath of 4 lb. potassium bichromate and 3 lb. sulphuric
acid at 50° F. for half an hour, then wash well and dry.

_Dark Sage._--Dye with 20 lb. Amidazol drab, 5 lb. soda ash and 150 lb.
salt for an hour at the boil, then lift and chrome with 4 lb. potassium
bichromate and 8 lb. sulphuric acid for thirty minutes at 150° F.,
washing well afterwards.

All the Amidazol dyes are very fast to washing, acids, etc. They can be
treated with sulphate of copper or peroxide of sodium when they produce
good shades. They may even be diazotised and developed with
beta-naphthol and phenylene diamine. The pale tints got by using from 2
to 4 per cent. of dye-stuff are useful ones, as also are the medium
shades with 10 per cent. of dye-stuff.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 10 lb. Sulfaniline brown 4 B, 50 lb.
salt, 10 lb. soda and 5 lb sulphide of sodium; work at the boil for one
hour, then lift, wash and treat in a fresh bath with 3 lb. potassium
bichromate and 2 lb. acetic acid at 160° F. for half an hour, then wash
well and dry.

_Olive._--Dye with 10 lb. Katigen olive G, 50 lb. salt, 10 lb. soda and
6 lb. sulphide of sodium; work for one hour at the boil, then lift, wash
and treat in a fresh bath with 2 lb. bichromate of potash, 2 lb.
sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid for half an hour at the boil,
then wash.

_Dark Olive._--Dye with 20 lb. Katigen olive G, 50 lb. salt, 10 lb.
soda, and 6 lb. sulphide of sodium, working at the boil for one hour,
then lift, wash and dry. By chroming a darker and faster olive is got.

_Brown._--Dye with 20 lb. Katigen dark brown, 50 lb. salt, 10 lb. soda
and 6 lb. sulphide of sodium at the boil for one hour, then treat in a
fresh bath with 2 lb. bichromate of potash, 2 lb. sulphate of copper and
2 lb. acetic acid for half an hour at the boil, then wash well.

_Pale Brown._--Dye with 8 lb. Immedial bronze A, 2 lb. soda, 2 lb.
sulphide of sodium and 10 lb. Glauber's salt at the boil for one hour,
then lift, rinse and pass into a fresh bath containing 1 lb. bichromate
of potash and 2 lb. acetic-acid at 150° F. for half an hour, then lift,
wash and dry.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 12 lb. Immedial brown B, 5 lb. sulphide of
sodium, 5 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt at the boil for one hour, then lift
and treat in a fresh bath with 2 lb. bichromate of potash, 2 lb.
sulphate of copper and 2 lb. acetic acid.

The Immedial blacks, blue, bronze and brown dye very fast shades,
standing soaping, acids and light. They may be combined together to
produce a great range of shades of blue, brown, green, grey, etc.

These examples will perhaps suffice to show how this new but important
class of sulphyl colours are applied to the dyeing of cotton. They may
be topped with aniline black, indigo, basic dyes, or combined with such
direct dyes as produce shades fast to chroming to form a very great
range of shades which have the merit of fastness.


(3) DIRECT DYEING FOLLOWED BY FIXATION WITH DEVELOPERS.

A large number of the dyes prepared from coal tar are called azo
colours, such for instance are the Biebrich and Croceine scarlets and
oranges, Naphthol black, Congo red, etc., just to name a few. The
preparation of these is about the simplest operation of colour
chemistry, and consists in taking as the base an amido compound as the
chemist calls such. These amido compounds, of which aniline, toluidine,
benzidine, naphthylamine are familiar examples, are characterised by
containing the molecular group NH{2}, which radicle is built up of the
two elements nitrogen and hydrogen. All compounds which contain this
group are basic in character and combine with acids to form well-defined
salts. When these amido bodies are treated with sodium nitrite and
hydrochloric acid they undergo a chemical change, the feature of which
is that the nitrogen atoms present in the amido compound and in the
nitrite unite together and a new compound is produced which is called a
diazo compound, and the operation is called "diazotisation".

For example when paranitroaniline is subjected to this reaction it
undergoes a change indicated in the chemical equation:--

C{6}H{4}NO{2}NH{2}, + NaNO{2}, + 2HCl = Paranitroaniline, Sodium
nitrite, Hydrochloric acid.

C{6}H{4}NO{2}N: NCl + NaCl + 2H{2}0 = Paranitro benzene Sodium
chloride, Water, diazo chloride.

The above, put into words, means that when paranitroaniline is dissolved
with hydrochloric acid and treated with nitrite of soda it forms
diazonitro benzene chloride, sodium chloride and water. Now the diazo
compounds are rather unstable bodies, but they have a great affinity for
other compounds, such as naphthol, phenylene diamine, phenol, and
combine easily with them when brought into contact with them. The new
compounds thus made form the dye-stuffs of commerce.

The azo dyes contain the characteristic group of two nitrogen atoms
shown in the formula N: N. In dealing with the production of colours
direct on the fibre this subject will be elaborated more fully.

Now many of the direct dyes, Diamine blacks, Diamine cutch, Primuline,
Diazo brown, Zambesi blues, browns, etc., contain amido groups, by
reason of having been made from such bodies as phenylene diamine, amido
naphthol, toluidine, etc., and it has been found that when dyed on the
fibre they are capable of being diazotised by passing the dyed fibre
into a bath of sodium nitrite acidified with hydrochloric acid, and if
then they are placed into a bath containing such a body as
beta-naphthol, phenylene diamine, etc., new compounds or dyes are
produced, which are characterised by being insoluble in water, and
therefore as formed on the fibre in the manner indicated are very fast
to washing, soaping and similar agencies.

Often the new or developed dye formed on the fibre differs markedly in
colour from the original dye. Perhaps in no case is this more strongly
shown than with Primuline. The original colour is a greenish yellow, but
by using various developers, as they are called, a great variety of
shade can be got, as shown in this table.


_Developer._                        _Colour produced._

Beta-naphthol                            Bright scarlet.
Alpha-naphthol                           Crimson.
Phenylene diamine                        Brown.
Phenol                                   Gold yellow.
Resorcine                                Orange.
Naphthylamine ether                      Blue.
Blue developer A N                       Green.

As regards the dyeing operation, it no way differs from that described
for simple direct colours. It should, however, be noted that if good
results are required full shades must be dyed. The cotton must be
rinsed in cold water, and be quite cold before it is subjected to the
diazotising operation. _Diazotising_ is a simple operation, yet it must
be carried out with care if good results are desired. It consists
essentially in the use of an acidulated bath of sodium nitrite.

To make the bath for diazotising there is taken (for each 100 lb. of
goods) sufficient water to handle them in comfortably, 8 lb. of sodium
nitrite and 6 lb. hydrochloric acid. This bath must be quite cold
otherwise it does not work well. The goods are handled in this for from
fifteen to twenty minutes, when they are ready for the next operation.
The bath is not exhausted of nitrite, etc., hence it can be kept
standing, and for each succeeding lot of cotton it is strengthened up by
adding one-third of the quantities of nitrite and acid originally used.
Of course the bath cannot be kept for ever, sooner or later it will get
dirty, and then it must be thrown away and a new bath be made up.

The diazo compounds formed on the fibre are not very stable bodies. They
decompose on being exposed for any great length of time to the air,
while light has a strong action on most, if not all of them; hence it
follows that the diazotising process should not be carried out in a room
where direct, strong sunlight can enter or fall upon the goods. Then
again, after diazotising, the treated goods should not be allowed to lie
about exposed to air and light, but the operation of developing should
be proceeded with at once, otherwise the diazo body will decompose, and
weak and defective colours are liable to be obtained on subsequent
development.

For _developing_, quite a large number of substances are used. Some of
these are regular articles of commerce, others are the special
productions of certain firms, who advise their use with the dyes that
they also manufacture. These latter are sent out under such designations
as Developer B, Developer A N, or Fast-blue developer. Those most in use
are beta-naphthol for red from Primuline, and for bluish blacks from
Diamine blacks, Diazo blacks, Zambesi blacks, etc.; for dark blues from
Diamine blues, Diazo blues, etc.; for greys from Diamine blues, Neutral
grey, etc. Alpha-naphthol for dark reds from Primuline, greys from
Diamine blues, Neutral grey, etc. Phenylene diamine for blacks from
Diamine blacks, Diazo blacks, Zambesi blacks, Triamine blacks, etc.; for
dark browns from Diamine browns, Diazo browns, etc.; for light browns
from Cotton browns, Diamine cutch, Primuline, etc. Naphthylamine ether
for blues from Diamine blacks, etc. Phenol for claret from Diamine
cutch, and for gold yellow from Primuline, etc. Resorcine for orange
from Primuline, etc. Soda for browns from Diamine cutch, Diazo browns,
Zambesi browns, for orange from Diamine orange, and yellow from
Primuline.

=Beta-naphthol.=--This is by far the most important of the developers.
It is a white body, insoluble in water, but readily soluble in soda lye,
and a solution is easily made by taking 10 lb. beta-naphthol and heating
it with 10 lb. caustic soda lye of 70° Tw. and 60 gallons of water. This
bath may be used as the developing bath, or it may be diluted with more
water. It is not desirable to use any more caustic soda than is
necessary to dissolve the beta-naphthol, so that the bath is not too
alkaline. To produce full shades it usually takes 1 per cent. of the
weight of the cotton of the beta-naphthol, but it is best to use the
bath as a continuous one and for the first lot of cotton use 2 per cent.
of naphthol, while for each succeeding lot only 1 per cent. more
naphthol need be added to the same bath.

This bath is alkaline, while the diazotising bath is acid, unless,
therefore, the cotton be well washed when it is taken from the latter
bath there is a risk of the alkali of the one being neutralised by the
acidity of the other, and the naphthol being thrown out in an insoluble
form. This, of course, is easily remedied should it occur.

Developer A (Bayer) is a mixture of beta-naphthol and caustic soda in
the powder form, so that a solution is obtained by simply adding water.
Rather more (about 1-1/2 per cent.) of this is required than of
beta-naphthol.

=Alpha-naphthol= has similar properties to, and is used in the same way
as, beta-naphthol; it develops much darker and rather duller colours,
which are less fast to washing.

=Resorcine=, like naphthol, is insoluble in water, but it can be
dissolved by using either soda ash or caustic soda. The latter is
preferable, as the former is liable to give a developing bath that
froths in working, especially if much acid has been left in the cotton
from the diazotising bath. The proportions are: 10 lb. resorcine, 25 lb.
caustic soda lye of 70° Tw., and 60 gallons of water; or 10 lb.
resorcine, 20 lb. soda ash, and 60 gallons of water, heated until a
solution is obtained. In the developing bath 1 per cent. of resorcine is
usually sufficient to use. It develops an orange with Primuline.

Developer F (Bayer) is a mixture of resorcine and soda ash. It requires
1-1/2 per cent, to make a developing bath.

=Phenol=, better known as carbolic acid, finds a use as a developer. It
is dissolved in caustic soda, 10 lb. phenol, 15 lb. caustic soda lye of
70° Tw., and 60 gallons of water. Generally 1 per cent. is sufficient to
use as a developer. It is often called yellow developer.

=Naphthylamine ether= is used as a developer for blues in conjunction
with the Diamine blacks. It is prepared for use by dissolving in
hydrochloric acid, 10 lb. naphthylamine ether powder heated with 5 lb.
hydrochloric acid and 50 gallons water. About 1-1/4 per cent. is
required to form a developing bath. Naphthylamine ether is also sent out
in the form of a paste mixed with acid, and containing about 25 per
cent. of the actual developer.

=Fast blue developer A D= (Cassella), is amidodiphenylamine. It is
insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute acid, 10 lb. fast blue
developer A D, 5 lb. hydrochloric acid and 35 gallons of water making
the bath. To develop full shades 1 to 1-1/2 per cent, is required.

=Blue developer A N= (Cassella). The base of this is insoluble in water,
but dissolves in soda, and is probably a naphthol-sulpho acid. The
product, as met with in the market, is soluble in water, and 27 lb.
dissolved in 20 gallons of water form the bath. To produce full shades
1-1/2 per cent, is usually required.

=Phenylene diamine= is a most important developer. It comes into the
market in two forms, as a powder, very nearly pure, made into a solution
by dissolving 10 lb. with 20 gallons of water and 5 lb. hydrochloric
acid, and as a solution prepared ready for use. Developer C (Bayer) and
developer E (Bayer) are preparations of diamine, the former in a powder,
the latter in a solution. Phenylene diamine can be used with the
addition to the developing bath of acetic acid or soda.

=Schaeffer's acid= is a sulpho acid of beta-naphthol, and is dissolved
by taking 10 lb. of the acid and 7-1/2 lb. soda, boiling with 50 gallons
of water. About 1-1/4 per cent. is required for developing full shades.

Developer B (Bayer) is ethyl beta-naphthylamine, in the form of its
hydrochloric acid compound. The bath is made from 10 lb. of the
developer and 50 gallons of water, 1-1/4 per cent. being used to obtain
full shades.

Developer D (Bayer) is dioxy-naphthalene-sulpho acid, and simply
requires dissolving in water to make the bath.

=Toluylene diamine= is a homologue of phenylene diamine and is used in
precisely the same way.

Generally the special developers issued by the various colour firms
simply require dissolving in water to form the developing bath.

The cotton, previously being passed through the diazotising bath, is
then run into the developing bath, in which it is kept for from twenty
to thirty minutes or until the required shade is fully developed, after
which it is taken out, rinsed and dried. The method of working is the
same for all the developers, and may be carried out in any kind of
vessels. As is indicated above, the developing baths may be kept
standing and be freshened up as required; they are used cold. Sometimes
two developers are mixed together, in which case care should be taken
that an alkaline developer naphthol or phenol be not mixed with an acid
developer (phenylene diamine, naphthylamine, etc.), unless the acidity
of the latter has been neutralised with soda; otherwise the developer
might be thrown out of the bath in an insoluble and hence useless form.

The advantages of the diazotising and developing process just described
may be summed as--easy and quick working, superior fastness to washing,
soaping and milling, increased fastness to light and softness of the
dyed fibre.

_Scarlet._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, at the boil for
one hour, diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Crimson._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and
develop with alpha-naphthol.

_Red Brown._--Dye with 4 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise
and develop with phenylene diamine.

_Deep Orange._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise
and develop with resorcine.

_Pale Orange._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise
and develop with phenol.

_Sage Brown._--Dye with 6 lb. Primuline, 3 lb. Titan ingrain blue and 20
lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with resorcine.

_Dark Maroon._--Dye with 6 lb. Primuline, 3 lb. Titan ingrain blue and
20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Dark Crimson._--Dye with 5-3/4 lb. Primuline, 1/4 lb. Titan ingrain
blue and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 3 lb. Zambesi blue B X, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with amidonaphthol ether.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 8 lb. Zambesi brown 2 G, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with toluylene diamine.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 4 lb. Zambesi blue B X, 2 lb. Zambesi black D, 2
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with 3/4 lb.
toluylene diamine and 1/2 lb. beta-naphthol.

_Red._--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Primuline, 1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A and
20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 4 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Diamine azo blue R R, and
20 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-napthol.

_Deep Chestnut Brown._--Dye with 5 lb. Diamine cutch, 1 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop by passing for twenty
minutes in a boiling bath of soda.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine cutch, 1 lb. Diamine black B H, 2
lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with
phenol.

_Black Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown M, 1-1/2 lb. Primuline, 1
oz. Diamine black B H, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then
diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine.

_Blue._--Dye with 2 lb. Diaminogene blue B B, 1/2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol. A dark
blue is got by using 8 lb. of Diaminogene blue B B in the same way.

_Dark Blue._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Diaminogene blue B B,
1-1/10 lb. Diamine azo blue R R, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.
Dye at the boil for one hour, rinse slightly in cold water, then enter
into a fresh cold bath prepared with 4 lb nitrite of soda previously
dissolved in water, and 12-1/2 lb. hydrochloric acid. For subsequent
lots in the same bath one-third of these additions is sufficient. After
diazotising rinse the goods in a bath weakly acidulated with
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and then immediately develop with
beta-naphthol.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Triamine black B, 15 lb.
Glauber's salt, in fifty gallons of water. Dye exactly as in the
preceding recipe. Wash and rinse very thoroughly after lifting, then
diazotise in a bath of about 250 gallons of cold water, to which add
separately 2-1/2 lb. sodium nitrite dissolved in five times its bulk of
water and 8 lb. hydrochloric acid diluted. Enter the damp cotton and
treat it for about half an hour. Lift, pass through a weak acid bath,
rinse, and develop immediately in a bath of about 250 gallons of cold
water, containing 1 lb. developer T, 1 lb. soda, previously dissolved
together in hot water. Enter the damp goods, work well for half an hour,
then lift, wash and dry.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black B H, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with naphthylamine ether.

_Dark Navy._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine azo blue R R, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Light Chestnut Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Cotton brown N, 1 lb. diamine
fast yellow A, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. salt, then diazotise and develop
with phenylene diamine.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 5 lb. Diamine cutch, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with fast blue developer A D.

_Black._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black B H, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, diazotise and develop with 2 lb. resorcine and 1 lb.
phenylene diamine.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 4 lb. Diaminogene B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Black._--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Diaminogene B, 1/2 oz. Diamine fast yellow
B, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with
3 lb. resorcine and 1 lb. phenylene diamine.

_Light Blue._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diaminogene blue B B, 1 lb. soda and
10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotised and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Maroon._--Dye with 6 lb. Primuline and 20 lb. salt, diazotise and
develop with blue developer A N.

_Olive Brown._--Dye with 5-1/2 lb. Diamine cutch, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with fast blue developer A D.

_Gold Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Cotton brown N, 3/4 lb. Diamine bronze G,
2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with
phenylene diamine.

_Walnut Brown._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine brown M, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Brown._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Diamine fast yellow
B, 1 lb. cotton brown N, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then
diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine.

_Dark Plum._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine brown V, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Black Brown._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine cutch, 3 lb. Diamine black B H, 8
lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotised and develop with
phenylene diamine.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Diamine black R O, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Diamine black R O, 3 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with naphthylamine ether.

_Blue Black._--Dye with 5 lb. Diamine black B O, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with beta-naphthol.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 4 lb. Diamine black R O, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with blue developer A N.

_Black._--Dye with 5 lb. Diamine black R O, 1 oz. Diamine bronze G, 3
lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, then diazotise and develop with
phenylene diamine.

The Diamine blacks are a range of very useful dye-stuffs, and by their
means alone and in conjunction with the various developers as seen in
the examples given above a range of useful shades of blue, navy blue,
and blacks of every tone can be obtained. It may also be added that many
of the direct dyes, although not diazotisable, are not altered by the
process and so may be used along with diazotisable dyes for the purpose
of shading them, and in that way a great range of shades can be
produced, particularly by combining Primuline with other dyes.


(4) DIRECT DYEING FOLLOWED BY FIXATION WITH COUPLERS.

A further development in the application of the direct dyes has of late
years been made. This is a two-bath method. The cotton is dyed with
certain of the direct dyes: Primuline, Diamine jet blacks, Diazo blacks,
Toluylene orange and brown, Diazo brown, Diamine nitrazol dyes, Benzo
nitrol dyes, etc., in the usual way. Then a bath is prepared by
diazotising paranitroaniline, benzidine, metanitraniline, dianisidine,
etc., or by using the ready diazotised preparations which are now on the
market, Nitrazol C, Azophor red P N, Azophor blue P N, etc., and
immersing the dyed cotton in this bath. Combination takes place between
the dye on the fibre and the diazo compound in this bath, and a new
product is produced direct on the fibre, which being insoluble is very
resistant to washing and soaping. These "coupled" shades, as they will
probably come to be called, differ from those produced on the fibre by
the original dye-stuff, thus the Diamine jet blacks and some of the
Diazo blacks give, with paranitroaniline, browns of various shades.

In this section also may be considered the method of dyeing cotton by
using the direct colours in the ordinary way, and then "topping," as it
is called, with a basic dye in a fresh bath.

Practically in the "coupling process" of dyeing only diazotised
paranitroaniline is used as the coupler, although other amido bases of a
similar nature are available.

When paranitroaniline is used as the source for the coupling bath it is
well to prepare a stock bath of diazotised paranitroaniline, which may
be done in the following manner:--

=Preparation of diazotised paranitroaniline.=--Take 1 lb.
paranitroaniline, mix with 1 gallon boiling water and 1 quart
hydrochloric acid, stir well, when the paranitroaniline will dissolve
the solution may if necessary be assisted by a little heat. Now add
1-1/2 gallons of cold water, and set aside to cool, when the
hydrochloride of paranitroaniline will separate out in the form of fine
crystals; when the mixture is quite cold (it cannot be too cold) there
is added 1/2 lb. sodium nitrite dissolved in 1/2 gallon cold water, stir
well for fifteen to twenty minutes, by the end of which time the
paranitroaniline will have become fully diazotised, cold water is added
to bring up the volume of the mixture to 10 gallons. This stock bath
well prepared and kept in a cool, dark place will keep good for three to
four weeks. This bath contains 1 lb. of paranitroaniline in 10 gallons,
and it is a good rule to allow 1/2 lb., or 5 gallons of this stock bath
to each pound of dye-stuff used in dyeing the ground colour to be
developed up.

To prepare the coupling bath there is taken 5 gallons of the stock bath,
1 lb. sodium acetate with sufficient water for each 1 lb. of dye that
has been used.

This bath is used cold, and the cotton is worked in it for half an hour,
then it is taken out, washed well and dried.

Nitrazol C is a ready prepared diazotised paranitroaniline in a powder
form which keeps well if stored in a dry place. The method of using is
to take 8 lb. Nitrazol C, stir into a paste with water and then add this
paste to the coupling bath, together with 2 lb. soda and 3/4 lb. acetate
of soda. This bath is used cold and the dyed cotton is immersed in it
for half an hour, then taken out, well washed and dried.

The quantity of Nitrazol C given will suffice for all shades dyed with
from 2 to 4 per cent, of dye-stuff, but when paler shades are dyed,
using less than say 1/2 per cent. of dye-stuff, about 4 lb. Nitrazol C,
with the soda and acetate of soda in proportionate quantities, may be
used.

Azophor red P N is also a preparation of diazotised paranitroaniline in
the form of a dry powder which keeps well.

To prepare the coupling bath there is taken 2 lb. of Azophor red P N,
which is dissolved in water and added to the bath along with 1 lb.
acetate of soda. The dyed goods are worked in the cold bath for half an
hour, then taken out, well washed and dried.

The quantities given are sufficient for shades dyed with 2 to 4 per
cent. of dye-stuff; for weaker shades half the quantities may be taken.

Benzo-nitrol developer is sold in the form of a yellow paste. To use it
take 5 lb., stir into a smooth paste with water, then add to the
coupling bath. There is then added 3 pints of hydrochloric acid, with
some stirring. Allow to stand for half an hour, add 1-1/2 lb. acetate of
soda and 6-1/2 oz. soda, when the bath is ready for use. The cotton is
entered and worked for half an hour, then lifted out, washed and dried.

It may be mentioned that solutions of the three couplers just named may
be kept for some time without decomposition, but as soon as soda and
acetate of soda are added they begin to decompose and then cannot be
kept more than a few hours in a good condition. It is a good plan
therefore not to add the acetate of soda until the bath is to be used.

An excess of coupler in the bath does no harm, but a deficiency may lead
to poor and weak shades being developed.

The following recipes show the dyes which may be applied by this method
and give some idea of the colours that can be got. Only the dye-stuffs
are given. Any of the above couplers can be used with them as may be
most convenient.

_Black._--Dye with 5 lb. Benzo-nitrol black B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Olive Green._--Dye with 6 lb. Primuline, 3 lb. Titan ingrain blue and
20 lb. salt.

_Black._--Dye with 4 lb. Dianil black C R, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 2 lb. Dianil dark blue R, 1 lb. Dianil dark blue
3 R, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt.

_Gold Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil brown R and 20 lb.
salt.

_Chestnut._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline, 3/4 lb. Dianil brown G O, 1 lb.
Dianil brown E, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Dark Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 3 lb. Dianil brown D,
1 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 4 lb. Primuline, 1-1/2 lb. Dianil black C R, 1
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Walnut Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Dianil brown 3 G O, 8 oz. Dianil brown
R, 3 lb. Dianil brown B D, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt.

_Light Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil blue B, 5 oz.
Dianil dark blue R, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. salt.

_Orange Yellow._--Dye with 3-1/4 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Oxydianil yellow,
and 25 lb. salt.

_Olive._--Dye with 3-1/2 lb. Primuline, 8 oz. Dianil brown 3 G O, 8 oz.
Dianil blue B, 4 oz. Dianil dark blue R, 1 lb. soda, and 25 lb. salt.

_Bright Yellow._--Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, and 20 lb. salt.

_Gold Yellow._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 1 lb. soda, and 20
lb. salt.

_Bright Walnut._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown B, 1 lb.
Oxydiamine orange R, 1 lb. soda, and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Gold Brown._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown G, 1 lb.
Primuline, and 20 lb. salt.

_Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. Diamine nitrazol black B, 1
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Pale Chestnut._--Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 1/2 lb. Oxydiamine orange R
and 20 lb. salt.

_Moss Brown,_--Dye with 2 lb. Primuline, 1 lb. diamine jet black O O and
20 lb. salt.

_Chocolate._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol
brown R D, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Olive Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown G, 1 lb. Diamine
nitrazol black B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Russian Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Diaminogene extra, 2 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt.

_Bronze Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine grey G, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Terra-cotta Bed._--Dye with 2 lb. Oxydiamine orange R, 1 lb. soda and
20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Terra-cotta Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol brown R D, 1 lb.
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Olive Green._--Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine bronze G, 1 lb.
soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol black B,
2 lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Sage Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Primuline, 2 lb. Diamine jet black O O, 1
lb. soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Black Brown._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Diamine nitrazol
black B, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Dark Walnut._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Oxydiamine orange
R, 2 lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Pale Sage._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine brown V, 2 lb. Primuline, 1 lb.
soda and 20 lb. salt.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3 lb. Diamine jet black O O, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 3/4 lb. Benzo nitrol brown G, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the boil.

_Dark Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo nitrol dark brown
N, 20 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the boil.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 4 lb. Direct fast brown B, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the boil.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 1 lb. 11 oz. Diamine jet black O O,
2 lb. Cotton brown N, 1 lb. 5 oz. Diamine brown V, 20 lb. Glauber's
salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye at the boil for one hour.

_Brown._--Prepare the dye-bath with 2 lb. Diamine bronze G, 6-1/2 oz.
Cotton brown N, 9-3/4 oz. Diamine fast yellow A, 20 lb. Glauber's salt,
2 lb. soda.

_Black._--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Pluto black B, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. soda. Dye for one hour at the boil.

Solidogen A is a new coupler that has latterly been applied. It is a
syrupy liquid, and the coupling bath is made by taking from 4 lb. to 6
lb. of the Solidogen A, and 1 lb. to 2 lb. of hydrochloric acid, in
place of which 3 lb. to 5 lb. alum may be used. This bath is used at the
boil, the goods being treated for half an hour, then well rinsed and
dried. It increases the fastness of the colours to washing and soaping.

The following recipes show its application:--

_Bright Bed._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil red 4 B, 2 lb. soap, 3 lb. soda and
15 lb. Glauber's salt, then fix with Solidogen A.

_Scarlet._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil scarlet G, 2 lb. soda and 25 lb. salt;
fix with Solidogen A.

_Plum._--Dye with 3 lb. Dianil claret B, 5 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, then fix with Solidogen A.

=Topping with Basic Dyes.=--The shades dyed with the direct dyes may be
materially brightened and new shades produced by topping with any of the
basic dyes, which are applied in a fresh warm bath. A great variety of
effects may be thus got of which the following recipes give a few
examples:--

_Green._--Dye with 1 lb. Titan yellow G and 20 lb. salt; top with 1/2
lb. Brilliant green.

_Blue._--Dye with 1-3/4 lb. Diamine azo blue R, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then top with 2 oz. New Methylene blue N.

_Bright Blue._--Dye with 3/4 lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 1 lb. soda
and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; top with 2 oz. New Methylene blue 3 R.

_Blue._--Dye with 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and top with 4 oz. Brilliant green.

_Bose Lilac._--Dye with 1-1/2 oz. Diamine violet N, 1 lb. soda and 10
lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 2 oz. Tannin heliotrope.

_Green._--Dye at the boil for one hour with 2 lb. Benzo green G and 10
lb. Glauber's salt, then top in a fresh bath with 1/2 lb. Turquoise blue
B B.

_Violet._--Dye with 5 oz. Diamine violet N, 2 oz. Diamine brilliant blue
G, 1 lb. soda and 10 lb. salt, and top with 1 oz. Methyl violet 2 B.

_Plum._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine violet B, 5 oz. Diamine red 10 B,
2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then top with 1-1/2 oz. Methyl
violet R.

_Bright Green._--Dye with 1-1/4 lb. Diamine green G, 1-1/4 lb.
Oxydiamine yellow G G, 2 lb. soda and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then top
with 2 oz. Brilliant green.

_Blue._--Dye with 2 lb. Benzo azurine G, 3 oz. Brilliant azurine B, 1
lb. soda and 20 lb. Glauber's salt, topping with 6 oz. Turquoise blue G
and 3 oz. New Victoria blue B.

_Dark Lilac._--Dye with 3-3/4 lb. Heliotrope B B, 1 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then top with 1 lb. Methyl violet R, and 1/2 lb. Methyl
violet 3 R.

_Scarlet._--Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant Congo R, 3 lb. soda and 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, then top with 8 oz. Safranine.

_Bright Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Chrysamine G, 2 lb. soap and 10 lb.
phosphate of soda, topping with 3/4 lb. Malachite green.

_Bright Violet._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 1 lb. soda and 20
lb. Glauber's salt, topping with 10 oz. Methyl violet B.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Columbia green, 3 lb. soda and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, topping with 10 oz. Malachite green.

_Claret._--Prepare a dye-bath with 3/4 oz. Diamine black R O, 2-1/2 lb.
Benzo purpurine 6 B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt. Dye at the boil for one
hour, then enter in a fresh cold bath of 1/2 lb. Safranine G. Work for
twenty minutes, lift, wash and dry.

_Seal Brown._--Make up a dye-bath with 2 lb. Benzo azurine G, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt. Enter yarn at 180° F., dye at the boil for one hour,
lift, wring, and enter into a fresh bath of 1-1/2 lb. Bismarck brown.
Work for one hour at about 180° F., lift, rinse well and dry.


(6) DYEING ON TANNIC MORDANT.

The oldest group of coal-tar dyes are the basic dyes, of which Magenta,
Brilliant green, Chrysoidine, Bismarck brown, Auramine are typical
representatives. For a long time these dyes were only used for dyeing
wool and silk; for cotton, linen, and some other vegetable fibres they
have little or no affinity, and hence cannot dye them direct. However,
it was found out that if the cotton be prepared or mordanted (as it is
called) with tannic acid or with any substance containing that compound
they could be used for dyeing cotton.

The mordant used, tannic acid, has the property of combining with the
dyes of this group to form insoluble coloured tannates. Now tannic acid
has a certain amount of affinity for cotton, if the latter be immersed
in solution of tannic acid or any material containing it some of the
latter is taken up and more or less fixed by the cotton fibre. Tannic
acid is a vegetable product found in a large number of plants, and plant
products, such as sumac, myrabolams, divi-divi, galls, oak bark,
gambier, cutch, algarobilla, valonia, etc., which are commonly known as
tannins, or tannin matters, on account of their use in the conversion of
animal skins or hides into leather, which is done in the tanning
industry.

By itself the tannin-colour lake, which may be formed on the cotton
fibre by immersion first in a bath of tannin and then in a dye-bath, is
not fast to washing and soaping, but by taking advantage of the fact
with such metals as tin, iron, antimony, etc., it combines to form
insoluble tannates; the tannic acid can be fixed on the cotton by
immersion in a bath containing such fixing salts as tartar emetic, tin
crystals, copperas, antimony fluoride, and antimony oxalate. The dyeing
of cotton with the basic colours therefore resolves itself into three
operations:--

(1) Tanning with tannic acid or some tanning matters.
(2) Fixation with tartar emetic or other fixing agent.
(3) Dyeing with the required colour or mixture of colours.

(1) =The Tanning Operation.=--The practice of tanning or mordanting
cotton with tannin is variously carried on by dyers. Some steep the
cotton in the tannin bath over night, others immerse it from two to
three hours in a lukewarm bath, while some enter it in a boiling bath,
which is then allowed to cool down and the cotton is lifted out. The
last is perhaps the quickest method, and experiments have shown that it
is as good as any other method, if the quantity of tannic acid taken up
be regarded as the criterion of success.

In the natural products which have just been enumerated, the tannic acid
is accompanied by some colouring matter, which is also absorbed by the
cotton; in some (sumac and galls) this colour is present in but small
quantities; in others (divi-divi, myrabolams, algarobilla), there is a
large quantity; therefore cotton treated with these comes out more or
less coloured. Now it is obvious that such forms of tannin cannot be
used when light tints are to be dyed, for such the acid itself must be
used, for medium shades sumac or galls may be used; while when dark
shades--browns, maroons, dark greens, navy blues, etc., are to be dyed,
then such tannin matters as divi-divi or myrabolams may be conveniently
and economically adopted. The quantity used varies according to
circumstances; the character of the shades that are to be dyed, the
dye-stuff used, the quality and character of the tannin matter used. For
pale shades about 1 per cent. of tannic acid may be used, deep shades
require from 3 to 4 per cent. Of tannin matters from 5 per cent. may be
used for pale shades, from 20 to 25 per cent. for deep shades. The
tannin baths are not exhausted, and may be kept standing, adding for
each succeeding lot of cotton from 1/2 to 3/4 of the above quantities of
tannin matters. Of course sooner or later the baths become unusable from
various causes, and then they may be thrown away; but old tannin baths
often work better than the new ones.

(2) =The Fixing Bath.=--Following on the tannin bath comes the fixing
bath to fix the tannin on the cotton in the form of insoluble metallic
tannates. A variety of metallic salts may be used for this purpose,
those of antimony, tin, iron, lead, etc., the substances most commonly
used being tartar emetic, antimony fluoride, oxalate of antimony, tin
crystals and copperas.

Beyond forming the insoluble tannate of antimony or tin, as the case may
be, the salts of antimony and tin have no further effect on the tanned
cotton, and they may be used to fix the tannin for all tints or shades,
from very pale to very deep. Of all these salts tartar emetic has been
found to be the best, probably because it is the least acid in its
reactions, and therefore there is no tendency to remove any tannin from
the fibre, as is the case with the other salts. Tin salt is little used
for this purpose, because of its acidity, which prevents it from fixing
the tannin as completely as is the case with tartar emetic.

With copperas or iron liquor the question comes up not only of the mere
fixation of the tannin, but also the fact that iron forms with tannin
grey to black compounds, hence cotton which has been tanned and then
immersed in a bath of copperas becomes coloured grey to black, according
to the quantity of the tannin matter used. The property is useful when
dark shades of maroons, clarets, greens, browns, blues, etc., are to be
dyed, and is frequently employed.

(3) =Dyeing.=--After the tannin and fixing operations comes the dyeing.
This is not by any means a difficult operation. It is best carried out
by preparing a cold bath, entering the prepared or mordanted cotton in
this and heating slowly up. It is not necessary to raise to the boil nor
to maintain the dye-bath at that heat, a temperature of 180° F. being
quite sufficient in dyeing with the basic colours, and the operation
should last only until the colouring matter is extracted from the
dye-bath. Working in this way, level uniform shades can be got.

One source of trouble in the dyeing of basic dyes, more especially with
magentas, violets and greens, lies in their slight solubility and great
strength. In preparing solutions of such dyes it is best to dissolve the
dye-stuff by pouring boiling water over it, and stirring well until all
appears to be dissolved.

This solution should be strained through a fine cloth, as any
undissolved specks will be sure to fix themselves on the cloth and lead
to dark spots and stains, as, owing to the weak solubility of the dye,
and this being also fixed as insoluble tannate by the tannic acid on the
fibre, there is no tendency for the dye to diffuse itself over the
cloth, as occasionally happens in other methods of dyeing. No advantage
is gained by adding to the dye-bath such substances as common salt or
Glauber's salt.

Some few of the dyes, _e.g._, Soluble blue, Victoria blue, which will
dye on a tannic mordant, are sulphonated compounds of the colour base.
These can be dyed in medium or light shades on to unmordanted cotton
from a bath containing alum, and in the ordinary method of dyeing the
addition of alum is beneficial, as tending to result in the production
of deep shades. These are somewhat faster to washing and soaping, which
is owing to the dye-stuff combining with the alumina in the alum to form
an insoluble colour lake of the sulphuric acid groups it contains.

Many recipes can be given for the dyeing of basic dyes on cotton; for
the range of tints and shades of all colours that can be produced by
their means is truly great. Typical recipes will be given showing what
basic dyes are available and how they can be combined together. The
dyer, however, who knows how to produce shades by combining one
dye-stuff with another is able to get many more shades than space will
permit to be given here.

_Sky Blue._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1/2 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 2-1/2 oz. Victoria blue B, and 1/2 oz. Turquoise blue G.

_Bright Blue._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 1-1/2 lb. New Victoria blue B, and 3/4 lb.
Turquoise blue G.

_Pale Green._--Mordant with 1-1/2 lb. tannic acid and 1/4 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 1/4 oz. Brilliant green and 1/2 oz. Auramine I I.

_Bright Green._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 6 oz. Brilliant green and 8 oz. Auramine I I.

_Turquoise Blue._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic; dye with 1 lb. Turquoise blue G.

_Crimson._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, then
dye with 1-1/4 lb. Brilliant rhoduline red B and 5 oz. Auramine I I.

_Bright Violet._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar
emetic; dye with 1-1/4 lb. Rhoduline violet and 3 oz. Methyl violet B.

_Rose Lilac._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic;
dye with 3/4 lb. Rhoduline violet.

_Yellow._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/2 lb. tartar emetic;
dye with 2 lb. Auramine I I.

_Orange._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/4 lb. tartar emetic;
dye with 2 lb. Chrysoidine.

_Green._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/2 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 2 lb. Brilliant green.

_Red Violet._--Mordant with 1-1/2 lb. tannic acid and 1-1/4 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 8 oz. Methyl violet 4 R.

The same method may be followed with all the brands of Methyl, Paris and
Hoffmann violets, and so a range of shades from a purple to a pure
violet can be dyed. The 4 R to R brands of these violets dye reddish
shades, the redness decreasing according to the mark, the B to 6 B
brands dye bluish shades, the blueness increasing till the 6 B brand
dyes a very blue shade of violet.

_Bright Sea-Green._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 2 oz. Turquoise blue G and 1/4 oz. New Victoria
blue B. With these two blues a very great variety of tints and shades of
blue can be dyed.

_Sea Green._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 3/4 lb. tartar emetic,
and dye with 2 oz. Malachite green.

_Dark Green._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 1-1/4 lb. Malachite green and 3/4 oz. Auramine I I.

By combination of Brilliant green or Malachite green (which are the
principal basic greens) with Auramine in various proportions a great
range of greens of all tints and shades, from pale to deep and from very
yellow to very green tints, can be dyed.

_Scarlet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, then
dye with 1-1/2 lb. Rhodamine 6 G and 1/4 lb. Auramine I I.

_Pink._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 3/4 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 1/4 lb. Rhodamine G.

_Pink._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 3/4 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 1/2 lb. Irisamine G.

_Slate Blue._--Mordant with 1-1/2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 3/4 lb. Victoria blue B and 2 oz. Malachite green.

_Indigo Blue._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 1 lb. Methylene blue 2 B and 1/2 lb. Malachite
green.

_Dark Scarlet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, then dye with 1 lb. Safranine prima and 1/2 lb. Auramine I I.

_Grey._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1/2 lb. tartar emetic, then
dye with 1/2 lb. New Methylene grey B.

_Bluish Rose._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 1 lb. Rhodamine B.

_Maroon._--Mordant with 4 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 2 lb. Magenta and 1/2 lb. Auramine.

_Dark Green._--Mordant with 5 lb. tannic acid and 2-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, and dye with 1/2 lb. Methylene blue B B, 1/2 lb. Methyl violet 2
B and 2-1/2 lb. Auramine I I.

_Orange._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 1 lb. New Phosphine G.

_Lilac Grey._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, and dye with 1/4 lb. Methylene grey B F.

_Gold Brown._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 1-1/2 lb. tartar
emetic, and dye with 3/4 lb. Thioflavine T and 3/4 lb. Bismarck brown.

_Orange._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 1 lb. Auramine and 1/4 lb. Safranine.

_Dark Blue._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic,
and dye with 2-1/4 lb. New Methylene blue R and 3/4 lb. Naphtindone B B.

_Olive Green._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. copperas, and
dye with 1 lb. Auramine.

_Russian Green._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. copperas,
and dye with 2 lb. Malachite green.

_Scarlet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 1-1/2 lb. Thioflavine T and 1/2 lb. Irisamine G. With these two
dye-stuffs it is possible to produce a variety of useful shades from a
pure greenish yellow, with Thioflavine T alone, to a bright bluish
pink, with the Irisamine alone, through orange, scarlet, etc., with
combinations of the two dye-stuffs.

_Dark Grey._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. copperas, then
dye with 1 lb. New Methylene grey G.

_Blue Black._--Mordant with 8 lb. sumac extract and 4 lb. copperas, or
better with iron liquor, then dye with 2 lb. Indamine blue N.

_Olive Brown._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. copperas, and
dye with 1-1/2 lb. New Phosphine G.

_Indigo Blue._--Mordant with 1-1/2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar
emetic; dye with 1/2 lb. New Methylene blue N.

_Sky Blue._--Mordant with 1/2 lb. tannic acid and 3/4 lb. tartar emetic;
dye with 1-1/2 oz. New Methylene blue G G.

_Dark Violet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic,
then dye with 4 lb. Fast neutral violet B.

_Bright Yellow._--Mordant with 2 lb. tannic acid and 1 lb. tartar
emetic, and dye with 2 lb. Thioflavine T.

_Primrose Yellow._--Mordant with 1 lb. tannic acid and 1/4 lb. tartar
emetic, and dye with 2 oz. Thioflavine T.

_Navy Blue._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb. copperas, then
dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue R.

_Violet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue 3 R.

_Dark Blue._--Mordant with 5 lb. sumac extract and 3 lb copperas, and
dye with 2 lb. New Methylene blue N X.

_Blue Black._--Mordant with 8 lb. sumac extract and iron liquor, then
dye with 3 lb. Metaphenylene blue B.

_Emerald Tint._--Mordant the cotton in the usual way with 1 lb. tannic
acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic; dye to shade at 180° F. in a bath
containing 14 oz. Auramine G, 2 oz. Brilliant green, then lift, wash and
dry.

_Orange._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, then
dye with 4 lb. Tannin orange R.

_Scarlet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic, and
dye with 2 lb. Tannin orange R and 1 lb. Safranine S.

_Dark Scarlet._--Mordant with 3 lb. tannic acid and 2 lb. tartar emetic,
and dye with 1/2 lb. Tannin orange R and 2 lb. Safranine S.

The Janus colours are a series of dyes of a basic nature which can be
applied somewhat differently to the ordinary basic dyes, although the
ordinary method can be followed. With these Janus dyes a two-bath
process is followed. A dye-bath is prepared containing the dye-stuff,
sulphuric acid and common salt, and this is used at the boil from half
to three-quarters of an hour, and the goods are allowed to remain in
another three-quarters of an hour while the bath cools down. Next the
dyed goods are run in a fixing bath of sulphuric acid, tannic acid and
tartar emetic, this is used at the boil from half to one hour, after
which the dyed goods are taken out and washed. If necessary the goods
may be now topped with basic colours in order to produce any desired
shade. The following recipes will show how the Janus dyes may be used:--

_Blue._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 8 oz. Janus blue G, and 5 lb.
common salt; fix with 3/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 8 oz. tannic acid and 4
oz. tartar emetic.

_Turquoise Blue._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus green B
and 10 lb. salt, fixing with 3/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. tannin and
1/2 lb. tartar emetic.

_Dark Blue._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. Janus blue R and
15 lb. common salt; fix with 3/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. tannic
acid and 1-1/4 lb. tartar emetic.

_Buff._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2 oz. Janus yellow R and 3 lb.
salt; fix with 3/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 3 oz. tannic acid and 3 lb.
tartar emetic.

_Crimson._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. Janus red B and 15
lb. salt, fixing with 3/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. tannic acid and
1-1/4 lb. tartar emetic.

_Red Violet._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus claret red B
and 10 lb. salt; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. tannic acid and
1/2 lb. tartar emetic.

_Orange._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. Janus yellow R and 10
lb. salt; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 1 lb. tannic acid and 1/2 lb.
tartar emetic.

_Dark Violet._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 2 lb. Janus grey B and 15
lb. salt; fix with 12 oz. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. tannic acid and
1-1/4 lb. tartar emetic.

_Chocolate Brown._--Dye with 9 oz. sulphuric acid, 3-1/2 lb. Janus brown
B and 15 lb. salt, fixing with 2 oz. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. tannic
acid and 1 lb. tartar emetic.


(6) DYEING ON METALLIC MORDANTS.

There are a number of dye-stuffs or colouring matters like alizarine,
logwood, fustic, barwood, cutch, resorcine green, etc., which have no
affinity for the cotton fibre, and of themselves will not dye it. They
have the property of combining with metallic oxides such as those of
iron, chromium, aluminium, tin, lead, calcium, etc., to form coloured
bodies which are more or less insoluble in water. These coloured bodies
are called "colour lakes," and the metallic compounds used in connection
with their production "mordants," hence often the dye-stuffs applied by
this method are termed "mordant dyes". In the case of the natural
dye-stuffs--logwood, fustic, Persian berries, Brazil wood, camwood,
cochineal, quercitron, cutch, etc.--which belong to this group of
"mordant dyes," the whole of the material does not enter into the
operation, but only a certain constituent contained therein, which is
commonly soluble in boiling water, and extracted out by boiling. This
constituent is called the "colouring principle" of the dye-stuff or
wood, and naturally varies with each. It is not intended here to deal
in detail with these colouring principles. The methods of applying and
the colours which can be got from these dyes varies very much. Roughly,
the modes of application fall under three heads: (1) the particular
metallic mordant is first fixed on the fibre by any suitable method, and
then the fibre is dyed; (2) the dye-stuff is first applied to the fibre,
and then the colour is fixed and developed by treatment with the
mordant; and (3) the dye-stuff and the mordant are applied at the same
time. This last method is not much used. In the following sections many
examples of these methods will be given.

The dyes fixed with metallic mordant vary in their composition and
properties. There is first the group of eosine dyes, which are acid
derivatives of a colour-base, and, in virtue of being so, will combine
with the metallic oxides. The colour of these colour lakes is quite
independent of what oxide is used, depending only on that of the
particular eosine dye employed. Then there are some members of the azo
dyes, particularly the croceine scarlets, which can also be dyed on the
cotton by the aid of tin, lead or alum mordants. Here, again, the
mordant has no influence on the colour, but only fixes it on the cotton.

The most important class of dye-stuffs which are dyed on to cotton with
a metallic mordant is that to which the term "mordant dyes" is now
given. This includes such dyes as logwood, fustic, madder, alizarine,
and all the dyes derived from anthracene. Many of these are not really
dyes, that is, they will not of themselves produce or develop a colour
on to any fibre when used alone; it is only when they combine with the
mordant oxide which is used, and then the colour varies with the
mordant. Thus, for instance, logwood with iron produces a bluish black;
with chrome, a blue; with alumina, a reddish blue. Alizarine with iron
produces a dark violet; with alumina, a scarlet; with chrome, a red;
with tin, a bright scarlet. Fustic gives with tin and alumina, bright
yellows; with chrome, a dark yellow; with iron, an olive, and so on with
other members of this group, of which more will be said later on.


_Dyeing with Eosines._

At one time a fairly large quantity of cotton was dyed with the eosines,
owing to the brightness of the shades given by them; but the
introduction of such direct dyes as the Erikas, Ceranines, etc., has
thrown the eosines out of use.

The method adopted for the production of eosine pinks and scarlets on
cotton involves three operations: (1) impregnating the cloth with sodium
stannate; (2) fixing oxide of tin by a bath of weak sulphuric acid; and
(3) dyeing with the eosine.

=(1) Preparing with Sodium Stannate.=--A bath of 8° Tw. is prepared, and
the cotton is allowed to steep in this bath until it becomes thoroughly
impregnated, after which it is taken out and wrung.

=(2) Fixing the Tin Oxide.=--A bath of sulphuric acid of 2° to 4° Tw. is
prepared, and the cotton is sent through it, after which it is washed
well with water, when it is ready for dyeing.

Stannate of soda is easily decomposed by acids; even the carbonic acid
present in the air will bring about this change. The tin contained in
the stannate is deposited on the cotton in the form of stannic oxide,
or, more strictly, stannic acid. As this is somewhat soluble in acids,
it is important that the sulphuric acid bath be not too strong, or there
will be a tendency for the tin oxide to be dissolved off the cotton, and
then but weak shades will be obtained in the final operation of dyeing.
Further, owing to the decomposition of the stannate by exposure to the
air, it is important that the substance should be used while fresh, and
that only fresh baths should be used.

=(3) Dyeing with Eosine Colours.=--After the treatment with stannate of
soda and sulphuric acid the prepared cotton is ready for dyeing. This
process is carried out by preparing a cold bath with the required
dye-stuff, entering the cotton therein, and then slowly raising to about
180° F., and maintaining at that heat until the desired shade is
obtained. It is not needful to raise to the boil and work at that heat.
No better results are obtained, while there is even a tendency for
colours to be produced that rub badly, which is due to the too rapid
formation of the colour lake; and it is worthy of note that when a
colour lake is rapidly formed on the fibre in dyeing it is apt to be but
loosely fixed, and the colour is then loose to both washing and rubbing.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Dyeing with Acid and Azo Dyes._

In dyeing with this class of colours stannate of soda, acetate of lead
or alum may be used as mordants. The stannate of soda is employed in the
same manner as when the eosines are used, and, therefore, does not
require to be further dealt with.

Acetate of lead is used in a similar way. The cotton is first steeped in
a bath of acetate of lead of about 10° Tw. strong, used cold, and from
half an hour to an hour is allowed for the cotton to be thoroughly
impregnated with the lead solution, it is then wrung and passed a second
time into a bath of soda, when lead oxide or lead carbonate is deposited
on the cotton. After this treatment the cotton is ready for dyeing with
any kind of acid, azo and even eosine dyes, and this is done in the same
manner as is used in dyeing the eosines on a stannate mordant. The
shades obtained on a lead mordant cannot be considered as fast; they
bleed on washing and rub off badly.

When alum is used as the mordant it may be employed in the same way as
acetate of lead, but as a rule it is added to the dye-bath direct, and
the dyeing is done at the boil. This latter method gives equally good
results, and is more simple.

The eosines and erythrosines, water blues, soluble blues, croceine
scarlets, cloth scarlets, and a few other dyes of the azo and acid
series are used according to this method. The results are by no means
first class, deep shades cannot be obtained, and they are not fast to
washing, soaping and rubbing.

The methods of employing the much more important group of colouring
matters known as the mordant dyes, which comprise such well-known
products as logwood, fustic and alizarine, require more attention. With
these, alumina, iron, and chromium mordants are used as chief mordants,
either alone or in combination with one another, and with other bodies.
The principal point is to obtain a good deposit of the mordant on the
cotton fibre, and this is by no means easy.

There are several methods by the use of which a deposit is formed of the
mordant, either in the form of metallic oxide (or, perhaps, hydroxide)
or of a basic salt. In some cases the cotton is passed through alternate
baths containing, on one hand, the mordanting salt, _e.g._, alum,
copperas, etc., and, on the other, a fixing agent, such as soda or
phosphate of soda. Or a mordanting salt may be used, containing some
volatile acid that on being subjected to a subsequent steaming is
decomposed. Both these methods will be briefly discussed.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Methods of Mordanting._

The cotton is first steeped in a bath containing Turkey-red oil, and is
then dried. By this means there is formed on the fibre a deposit of
fatty acid, which is of great value in the subsequent dyeing operations
to produce bright and fast shades. After the oiling comes a bath of alum
or alumina sulphate, either used as bought, or made basic by the
addition of soda. The result is to bring about on the fibre a
combination of the fatty acid with the alumina. Following on the alum
bath comes a bath containing soda or phosphate of soda, which brings
about a better fixation of the alumina.

These operations may be repeated several times, especially when a full
shade having a good degree of fastness is desired, as, for instance,
Turkey-reds from Alizarine. This method of mordanting is subject to
considerable variations as regards the order in which the various
operations are carried out, the strength of the baths, and their
composition. A great deal depends upon the ultimate result desired to be
obtained, and the price to be paid for the work.

Iron is much easier to fix on cotton than is either alumina or chrome.
It is usually sufficient to pass the cotton through a bath of either
copperas or iron liquor, hang up to dry or age, and then pass into a
bath of lime, soda or even phosphate of soda. The other mordants require
two passages to ensure proper deposition of the mordant on the fibre.

Following on the mordanting operations comes the dyeing, which is
carried out in the following manner. The bath is made cold with the
required amount of dye-stuff and not too small a quantity of water, the
cotton is immersed and worked for a short time to ensure impregnation,
then the temperature is slowly raised to the boil. This operation should
be carefully carried out, inasmuch as time is an important element in
the dyeing with mordant colours; the colouring principle contained in
the dye-stuff must enter into a chemical combination with the mordant
that has been fixed on the fibre. Heat greatly assists this being
brought about, but if the operation is carried on too quickly, then
there is a tendency for uneven shades to be formed. This can only be
remedied by keeping the temperature low until the dye-stuff has been
fairly well united with the mordant, and then maintaining the heat at
the boil to ensure complete formation of the colouring lake on the
fibre, and therefore the production of fast colours.

It has been noticed in the dyeing of alizarines on both cotton and wool
that when, owing to a variety of circumstances, local overheating of the
bath happens to take place dark strains or streaks are sure to be
formed. To avoid these care should be taken that no such local heating
can occur.

It only remains to add that it is possible to dye a great range of
shades by this method, reds with alizarine and alumina; blacks with
logwood and iron; greens from logwood, fustic, or Persian berries, with
chrome and iron; blues from alizarine blues; greens from Coeruleine or
Dinitrosoresorcine, etc.

Another method of mordanting cotton for the mordant group of dye-stuffs
is that in which the cotton is impregnated with a salt of the mordant
oxide derived from a volatile acid such as acetic acid, and then
subjected to heat or steaming. This method is largely taken advantage of
by calico printers for grounds, and dyers might make use of it to a much
larger extent than they do.

There are used in this process the acetates of iron, chromium and
aluminium, and bisulphites of the same metals and a few other compounds.
Baths of these are prepared, and the cotton is impregnated by steeping
in the usual way; then it is gently wrung out and aged, that is, hung up
in a warm room overnight. During this time the mordant penetrates more
thoroughly into the substance of the fabric, while the acid, being more
or less volatile, passes off--probably not entirely, but at any rate
some of the metal is left in the condition of oxide and the bulk of it
as a basic salt. Instead of ageing the cotton may be subjected to a
process of steaming with the same results. After this the cotton is
ready for dyeing, which is done by the method described in the last
section.

There is still another method to be noticed here, that is, one in which
a bath is prepared containing both the mordant and the dye-stuff. In
this case the character of the mordant must be such that, under the
conditions that prevail, it will not form a colour lake with the
dye-stuff. Such substances are the bisulphites, if used with the
bisulphite compounds of the dye-stuffs; the acetates, if mixed with some
acetic acid, may also be used. The process consists in preparing the
dye-bath containing both the mordant and the dye-stuff, entering the
cotton, steeping for some time, then wringing and steaming. During the
latter operation the acid combined with the mordant, being volatile,
passes away, and the colouring matter and mordant enter into combination
to form the colour lake, which is firmly fixed upon the fibre. Very good
results may be obtained by this method.

Lastly, in connection with the mordant colours, attention may be
directed to the process of using some of them, which consists in making
a solution of the dye-stuff in ammonia, impregnating the cotton with
this alkaline solution, and subjecting it to a steaming operation,
during which the alkali, being volatile, passes away, leaving the
colouring matter behind in an insoluble form. The cotton is next passed
into a weak bath of the mordant (preferably the acetates of iron,
etc.)., this being used first cold and then gradually heated up. The dye
on the fibre and the mordant combine to form the desired colour, which
is fixed on the fibre.

The chrome mordants are those which are most commonly applied by the
methods here sketched out, and with the large and increasing number of
mordant dyes available, the processes should be worth attention from the
cotton dyer.

The following recipes give fuller details than the outline sketches of
the methods given above for the use of the various dyes produced with
the mordant dyes and metallic mordants. In some cases as will be seen
other dyes may be added to produce special shades:--

_Dark Olive._--Prepare a bath from 8 lb. cutch, 4 lb. logwood extract, 7
lb. fustic extract, 2 lb. copper sulphate. Work in this for one to one
and a half hours at the boil. This bath may be kept standing, adding new
ingredients from time to time, and works best when it gets old. Then
pass into a cold bath of 3 lb. copperas for one hour, then wash and
enter into a new bath of 10 lb. salt, 6 oz. Titan blue 3 B, 6 oz. Titan
brown R, 6 oz. Titan yellow Y, work for one hour at the boil, then lift,
wash and dry.

_Brown._--Prepare a bath with 20 lb. cutch, 2 lb. copper sulphate, 4 lb.
quercitron extract. Work for one and a quarter hours at the boil, then
allow to lie for a day, when the goods are passed into a bath containing
3 lb. bichromate of potash and 1 lb. alum. Work at 150° to 160° F. in
this for a few minutes, then allow to lie for four to five hours, wash
well and dry.

_Olive._--Work for twenty minutes at 80° F. in a bath of 10 lb. fustic
extract, 5 lb. quercitron extract, 2 lb. logwood extract; heat to boil,
work for half an hour, then enter in a cold bath of 2 lb. sodium
bichromate and 5 lb. copper sulphate; work for twenty minutes, then heat
to boil; work for twenty minutes more, wash and dry.

_Pale Brown._--Treat in a hot bath of 25 lb. cutch, 1-3/4 lb. bluestone;
work for half an hour in this bath, then lift, wring, and work in a bath
of 1-3/4 lb. bichromate of potash for twenty to thirty minutes. Dye in a
bath of 2-1/4 lb. alum, 7 oz. Chrysoidin, 14 oz. Ponceau B.

_Fast Brown._--The cotton is heated in a boiling bath containing 20 lb.
cutch, 4 oz. copper sulphate for one hour, it is then treated in a bath
containing 8 oz. bichromate of potash for half an hour, then dyed in a
bath containing 2 oz. Benzo black blue, 6 oz. Benzo brown N B, 2 lb.
soap, 8 lb. salt, for one hour at the boil, washed and dried.

_Drab._--Dissolve 1/2 lb. cutch, 7 lb. bluestone, 8 lb. extract of
fustic; enter goods at 120° F., give six turns, lift and drain. Prepare
a fresh bath containing 2 lb. copperas; enter goods, give three turns,
lift, and enter fresh bath at 120°, containing 2 lb. bichromate of
potash, give four turns, drain, wash and dry.

_Coffee Brown._--For one piece, wet out in hot water, run for half an
hour upon a jigger in a bath of 6 lb. good cutch, take up and drain in a
bath of 8 lb. black iron liquor; drain, run again through each bath and
rinse well. Prepare a fresh bath with Bismarck brown, enter at 100° F.,
heat slowly to 200° F., drain, rinse and dry.

_Dark Brown Olive._--Prepare the dye-bath with 12 lb. cutch, 2 lb.
bluestone, 2-1/2 lb. alum, 10 lb. quercitron extract, 2 lb. indigo
carmine 4 lb. turmeric, 1/4 lb. Bismarck brown; boil for one and a half
hours, then lift and add 1 lb. copperas; re-enter the goods, give
another half-hour, boil, then add 1-1/2 lb. bichromate of potash, work
two hours more, then wash and dry.

_Red Drab._--Boil up 10 lb. cutch and 5 lb. sumac; enter the cotton at
140° F., work fifteen minutes and lift. Prepare a fresh bath of 4 lb.
black iron liquor; enter the cotton cold, work ten minutes and lift.
Prepare another bath with 3 lb. bichromate of potash; enter cotton at
160° F., work fifteen minutes, lift and wash. Finish in a fresh bath
containing 3 lb. logwood, 6 lb. red liquor; enter cotton at 100° F.,
work ten minutes, lift, wash and dry.

_Fawn._--Boil up 5 lb. cutch and 5 oz. bluestone, cool to 100° F.;
enter, give six turns, lift, and add 2 lb. copperas; re-enter cotton,
give four turns, lift and wring. Prepare a fresh bath with 1 lb.
bichromate of potash; enter cotton at 110° F., give five turns, lift,
wash and dry.

_Grey Slate._--Boil up 10 lb. sumac, 3 lb. fustic extract; cool down to
120° F., give eight turns, lift and wring. Prepare a fresh bath with 5
lb. copperas; enter cotton cold, give five turns, lift and wash.

_Dark Plum._--Lay down overnight in 30 lb. sumac. Next morning wring and
enter in a fresh bath of oxy-muriate of tin 20° Tw., give four turns,
lift and wash well in two waters. Boil out 40 lb. ground logwood, 10 lb.
ground fustic, cool bath down to 140° F.; enter cotton, give eight
turns, lift and add 1-1/2 gallons red liquor; re-enter yarn, give four
turns, lift, wash and dry.

_Pale Chamois._--Work the cotton seven turns in a cold bath of 3 lb.
copperas, then wring and pass into a cold bath of 3 lb. soda ash; work
well, wash and dry.

_Dark Brown Olive._--Prepare a bath of 28 lb. fustic, 3/4 lb. logwood,
18 lb. cutch, 4 lb. turmeric, 2 lb. copper sulphate, 3/4 lb. alum; work
for an hour at the boil, then sadden in a new bath of 1 lb. bichromate
of potash for half an hour, then sadden in a new bath of 1/4 lb. nitrate
of iron, working in the cold for half an hour, lift, wash and dry.

_Havana Brown._--Prepare a bath with 4 lb. cutch and 1 lb. bluestone;
work at the boil for one hour, then pass through a warm bath of 1/2 lb.
bichromate of potash, 1 lb. sulphuric acid. Wash and dye in a bath of
3/4 lb. Bismarck brown and 4 lb. alum; work for one hour at about 180°
F., wash and dry.

_Black._--Prepare a dye-bath with 20 lb. extract of logwood, 4 lb.
cutch, 5 lb. soda ash, 5 lb. copper sulphate. Heat to the boil, enter
the cotton, and work well for three hours, then lift, and allow to lie
overnight in a wet condition, wash and pass into a bath of 1 lb.
bichromate of potash for half an hour; lift, wash and dry. The dye-bath
is not exhausted, and only about one-third of the various drugs need be
added for further batches of cotton.

_Reseda Green._--Prepare a bath with 15 lb. cutch, 8 lb. turmeric; work
in this for fifteen minutes at about 150° F., then pass through a hot
bath of 2 lb. bichromate of potash for one hour, then re-enter into a
cutch bath to which has been added, 1 lb. sulphate of iron; work for one
hour, then add 2 lb. alum and work half an hour longer, rinse, wash and
dry.

_Fawn Brown._--Prepare a dye-bath with 4 lb. cutch, 2 lb. fustic
extract; work for one hour at hand heat, then lift, and pass through a
bath of 1-1/4 lb. bichromate of potash; work for a quarter of an hour,
rinse and pass into a fresh bath of 1 oz. Bismarck brown for ten
minutes, then lift, wash and dry.

_Beige._--Prepare a bath with 20 lb. sumac; enter cotton at 120° F.,
give six turns, lift and add 1/2 lb. copperas; re-enter cotton, give
four turns and wring. Prepare a fresh bath containing 2 lb. extract of
fustic, 3 oz. extract of indigo; enter cotton at 120° F., give three
turns, raise temperature to 140° F., and turn to shade, lift, wash and
dry.

_Turkey Red._--One of the most important colours dyed on cotton is that
known as Turkey red, a bright red of a bluish tone, characterised by its
great fastness to light, washing, etc. Strong alkalies turn it more
yellowish, but weak acids and alkalies have little action.

Into the history of the dyeing of Turkey red it is not intended to
enter, those who are interested in the subject should refer to old works
on dyeing; nor is it intended to speak of old methods of producing it
with the aid of madder, but rather to give some of the most modern
methods for dyeing it with alizarine.

Many processes differing somewhat in detail have been devised for dyeing
Turkey red on cotton, and it is probable that no two Turkey-red dyers
work exactly alike. It is difficult to produce the most perfect red, and
a very great deal of care in carrying out the various operations is
necessary to obtain it. This care and the number of operations makes
Turkey red an expensive colour to dye, and so shorter methods are in use
which dye a red on cotton that is cheaper, but not so brilliant or fast
as a true Turkey red.

_Process_ 1.--This process is perhaps the most elaborate of all
processes, but it yields a fine red. The process is applicable to cloth
or yarn, although naturally the machinery used will vary to suit the
different conditions of the material. Bleached yarn or cloth may be
treated, although a full bleach is not necessary, but the cloth or yarn
must be clean or well scoured, so that it is free from grease and other
impurities.

Operation 1. Boil the cotton for six to eight hours with a carbonate of
soda lye at 1° Tw. in a kier at ordinary pressure, then wash well,
wring, or, better, hydro-extract.

Operation 2. First "greening": What is called the "first green liquor"
is prepared by taking 15 lb. of gallipoli oil, 3 lb. phosphate of soda
and 15 lb. carbonate of soda, the liquor to stand at 2° Tw. Originally
this "liquor" was made with sheep dung, but this is now omitted. The
cotton is worked in this liquor, which is kept at 100° F., until it is
thoroughly impregnated, then it is taken out, squeezed and dried, or in
some cases piled overnight and then stoved.

Operation 3. Second green liquor. As before.

Operation 4. Third green liquor. As before.

Operation 5. A carbonate of soda liquor of 2° Tw. strength is prepared,
and the cotton steeped in this until it is thoroughly impregnated, then
it is wrung out and stoved. This is called "white liquor treatment".

Operation 6. Second white liquor. As before.

Operation 7. Steeping: Prepare a bath of water at 150° F., and steep for
twelve hours, then wring and dry.

Operation 8. Sumacing: A liquor is made from 12 lb. sumac with water,
and after straining from undissolved sumac leaves the liquor is made to
stand at 2° Tw., this is kept at about a 100° F., and the cotton is well
worked in it and allowed to steep for four hours, after which it is
taken out and wrung.

Operation 9. Mordanting or aluming: 20 lb. of alum are dissolved in hot
water, and 5 lb. of soda crystals are slowly added in order to prepare a
basic alum solution; this is now made by the addition of water to stand
at 8° Tw.

The sumaced cotton is worked in this bath and allowed to steep for
twenty-four hours, when it is taken out and wrung. Some dyers add a
little tin crystals to this bath; others add a small quantity of red
liquor.

Operation 10. The dyeing: A cold bath is prepared with 10 lb. to 12 lb.
alizarine, 3 lb. sumac extract, and 2 oz. lime. The cotton is entered
into the cold bath, worked from fifteen to twenty minutes so as to get
it thoroughly impregnated; then the heat is slowly raised to the boil
and the dyeing carried on at that heat until the full shade is obtained,
which usually takes about an hour. According to the brand of alizarine
used so will the shade that is obtained vary, as will be mentioned later
on.

Operation 11. First clearing: The dyed cotton is placed in a boiler and
boiled for four hours with 3 lb. soda crystals and 3 lb. palm oil soap,
afterwards washing well.

Operation 12. Second clearing: The dyed cotton is again boiled for two
hours with 2-1/2 lb. soap and 1/2 lb. tin crystals, then give a good
washing and dry.

This process is a long one--indeed, some dyers by repeating some of the
operations lengthen it--and it takes at least two weeks, in some cases
three weeks, to carry out.

The first idea is to get the cotton thoroughly impregnated with the oil,
and this oxidised to some extent on the fibre, and to this end the oil
treatments are carried out. In this process experience has shown that
olive oil is the best to use, although other oils have been tried from
time to time. The sumacing enables the alumina to be more firmly fixed
on to the cotton. The alumina combines with both the oil and the sumac,
and the resulting mordant produces a better and more brilliant red with
the alizarine. The clearing operations serve to remove impurities, to
brighten the colour, and to more fully fix it on the cotton.

_Process_ 2.--Operation 1. The cotton is well bleached or scoured with
soda in the usual way.

Operation 2. Oiling or preparing: A liquor is made from 10 lb. alizarine
oil or Turkey-red oil in 10 gallons water. This oil is prepared from
castor oil by a process of treatment with sulphuric acid, washing with
water and neutralising with caustic soda. The cotton is thoroughly
impregnated with this oil by steeping, then it is wrung out and dried.

Operation 3. Steaming: The cotton is put into a steaming cottage or
continuous steaming chamber and steamed for from one to one and a half
hours at about 5 lb. pressure.

Operation 4. A bath of red liquor (acetate of alumina) at 8° Tw. is
prepared. Some dyers use basic alum at the same strength. In this bath
the cotton is steeped at 100° F. for two hours; then it is wrung out and
dried. This aluming bath can be repeated. Next it is run through a bath
of chalk and water containing 2 lb. chalk in 10 gallons water. This
helps to fix the alumina on the cotton. Phosphate of soda also makes a
good fixing agent.

Operation 5. Dyeing: This is carried out in precisely the same way as in
the other process.

Operation 6. Oiling: A second oiling is now given in a bath of 5 lb.
alizarine oil, or Turkey-red oil, in 10 gallons water, after which the
cotton is dried, when it is ready for further treatment. In place of
giving a second oiling after the dyeing, it is, perhaps, better to give
it after the mordanting and before dyeing.

Operation 7. Clearing: The dyed cotton is cleared with soap in the same
manner as the clearing operations of the first process, which see.

Any of the treatments preparatory to, and following the actual dyeing
of, any of these processes may be repeated if deemed necessary. The
text-books on dyeing and the technical journals devoted to the subject
frequently contain accounts of methods of dyeing Turkey red, but when
these come to be dissected the methods are but little more than variants
of those which have just been given.

Seeing that the theory or theories involved in this rather complex
process of dyeing Turkey red, and that colourists are not agreed as to
the real part played by the oil, the sumac and the clearing operations
in the formation of a Turkey red on cotton, nothing will be said here as
to the theory of Turkey-red dyeing.

_Alizarine Red._--It is possible to dye a red with alizarine on cotton
which, while being a good colour, is not quite so fast to washing, etc.,
as a Turkey red. This is done by using fewer treatments, as shown in the
following process:--

_Process_ 1.--Boil the cotton in soda.
_Process_ 2.--Oil with Turkey-red oil, as in the Turkey-red process
   No. 2 above.
_Process_ 3.--Mordant with alum or acetate of alumina.
_Process_ 4.--Dye with alizarine as before.
_Process_ 5.--Soap.

There are three distinct colouring matters which are sold commercially
under the name of "alizarine". These are: alizarine itself, which
produces a bluish shade of red; anthra-purpurine, which gives a similar
but less blue red than alizarine; and flavo-purpurine, which produces
the yellowest reds. The makers send out all these various products under
various marks.

For dyeing Turkey reds the flavo-and anthra-purpurine brands or yellow
alizarines are to be preferred; for pinks and rose shades the alizarine
or blue shade brands are best.

_Alizarine Pink._--This can be dyed in the same way as Turkey red, only
using for full pinks 4 per cent, of alizarine in the dye-bath, or for
pale pinks 1 to 2 per cent. It is advisable to reduce the strength of
the oiling and mordanting baths down to one-half.

_Alizarine Violet._--Alizarine has the property of combining with iron
to form a dark violet colour, and advantage is taken of this fact to dye
what are called in the dyeing and calico printing trades alizarine
purples and lilacs, although these do not resemble in hue or brilliance
the purples and lilacs which can be got from the direct dyes. They have
not the importance which they formerly possessed, and but a mere outline
of two processes for their production will be given.

_Alizarine Purple._--_Process_ 1. (1) Boil with soda, (2) prepare with
Turkey red oil, (3) mordant by steeping in copperas liquor at 4° Tw. for
twenty minutes, take out, allow to lie on stillages overnight, then wash
and dry. For deep purples it may be advisable to repeat these
treatments; for pale lilacs using them at half strength is advisable.
(4) Dye with 8 to 10 per cent. of alizarine blue shade, working as
described under Turkey red. The best results are obtained when 1 per
cent, of chalk is added to the dye-bath. (5) Soap as in red dyeing.

_Process_ 2. (1) Boil with soda, (2) oil with Turkey-red oil, (3) steep
in pyrolignite of iron (iron liquor) for one hour, then age by hanging
in the air. (4) Dye as before. (5) Soap.

Fine blacks are got if after oiling the cotton is treated with sumac or
tannic acid, then mordanted with iron and dyed with alizarine as usual.

_Chocolate Browns._--Fine fast chocolate browns can be got from
alizarine by using a mixed mordant of iron and alumina, either the
acetate or the sulphate. By varying the relative proportions various
shades can be obtained.

_Alizarine Orange_--Prepare the cotton as if for dyeing a Turkey red,
but use in the dye-bath 8 to 10 per cent. of Alizarine orange.

_Alizarine Blue_--The cotton is boiled three hours with 3 per cent.
ammonia soda at 30 lb. pressure, and then washed thoroughly. The boiled,
washed and hydro-extracted yarn is oiled with a solution containing from
1/4 lb. to 1-1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil, 50 per cent. for every gallon of
water. It is then wrung out evenly and dried for twelve hours at 150° F.

_Tannin Grounding._

The oiled and dried cotton is worked three-quarters of an hour in a vat
containing a tannin solution (1 oz. per gallon). The cotton remains in
this liquid, which is allowed to cool off for twelve hours, then it is
hydro-extracted. Sumac turns the shade somewhat greener, which is
noticed especially after bleaching, therefore tannin is given the
preference.

_Chromium Mordant._

The cotton treated with tannin and then hydro-extracted is worked cold
for one hour in a vat containing a solution of chromium chloride at 32°
Tw., and remains in this solution twelve hours. The cotton is then
hydro-extracted and washed directly; it is best to employ running water.
A special fixation does not take place. The cotton is now ready for
dyeing. The solution of chromium chloride and the tannin solution can be
used continuously, adding fresh liquor to keep the baths up to strength.

_Dyeing_--For dyeing, water free from lime must be used. Water having
not more than 2.5° hardness can be employed if it is corrected with
acetic acid, thereby converting the carbonate of lime into acetate of
lime. Very calcareous water must be freed from lime before use. The
dye-bath contains for 100 lb. cotton 15 lb. Alizarine blue paste (A R or
F, according to the shade desired), 35 lb. acetic acid (12° Tw.), 15-1/2
lb. ammonia (25 per cent.), 2-1/4 oz. tannin. The cotton is worked a
quarter of an hour in the cold; the temperature is raised slowly to a
boil, taking about one hour, and the cotton is worked three-quarters of
an hour at that heat. Finally the cotton is washed and hydro-extracted.
The dyed and washed cotton is steamed two hours at 15 lb. to 22 lb.
pressure. Steaming turns the shade greener and darker, and increases the
fastness. After steaming the cotton it is soaped one or two hours at the
boil, with or without pressure. According to the quality of water
employed, 2 to 5 parts soap per 1,000 parts water are taken.

_Brown._--A fine brown is got by a similar process to this, if instead
of Alizarine blue, Alizarine orange is used in the dye-bath. A deeper
brown still if Anthracene brown, or a mixture of Anthracene brown and
Alizarine blue, be used.

_Claret Red._--Clarets to maroon shade of red are got by preparing the
cotton as for blue given above, then dyeing with alizarine.

_Logwood Black._--One of the most important colours that come under this
section is logwood black, the formation of which on the fibre depends
upon the fact that the colouring principle of logwood forms a black
colour lake with iron and also one with chromium.

There are many ways of dyeing logwood blacks on cotton, whether that be
in form of hanks of yarns, warps or pieces. While these blacks may be,
and in the case of hanks are, dyed by what may be termed an intermittent
process, yet for warps and piece goods a continuous process is preferred
by dyers. Examples of both methods will be given. As in the dyeing of
Turkey reds it is probable that no two dyers of logwood blacks quite
agree in the details of their process, there may be variations in the
order of the various baths and in their relative strengths. Typical
methods will be noted here.

=Dyeing Logwood Black on Yarn in Hanks.=--Operation 1. Sumacing: Prepare
a bath with 10 lb. sumac extract in hot water. Work the yarn in this for
half an hour, then allow to steep for six hours or overnight, lift and
wring. The liquor which is left may be used again for another lot of
yarn by adding 5 lb. sumac extract for each successive lot of yarn. In
place of using sumac the cheaper myrabolam extract may be used.

Operation 2. Ironing or Saddening: Prepare a bath with 3-1/2 gallons
nitrate of iron, 80° Tw. Work the yarn in this for fifteen minutes, then
wring out. The bath may be used again when 1 gallon of nitrate of iron
is added for each lot of yarn worked in it. In place of the nitrate of
iron, the pyrolignite of iron or iron liquor may be used.

Operation 3. Liming: Work for ten minutes in a weak bath of milk of
lime.

Operation 4. Dyeing: This is done in a bath made from 10 lb. logwood
extract and 1 lb. fustic extract. The yarn is entered into the cold or
tepid bath, the heat slowly raised to about 150° F, then kept at this
heat until a good black is got, when the yarn is taken out, rinsed and
wrung. The addition of the fustic extract enables a much deeper and
jetter shade of black to be dyed.

Operation 5. Saddening: To obtain a fuller black the dyed cotton is sent
through a bath of 1-1/2 lb. of copperas, then washed well.

Operation 6. Soaping: Work for twenty minutes in a bath of 2 lb. soap at
140° to 150° F. Then wash well.

Much the same process may be followed for dyeing logwood black on warps
and piece goods, jiggers being used for each operation.

Another method is to first work the cotton in pyrolignite (iron liquor)
at 10° Tw., until it is thoroughly impregnated, then to dry and hang in
the air for some hours, next to pass through lime water to fix the iron,
and then to dye as before.

_Continuous Process._--In this case a continuous dyeing machine is
provided, fitted with five to six compartments. The cotton is first of
all prepared by steeping in a bath of 12 lb. myrabolam extract for
several hours, then it is taken to the continuous machine and run in
succession through nitrate of iron liquor, lime water, logwood and
fustic, iron liquor and water. The nitrate of iron bath contains 2
gallons of the nitrate to 10 gallons of water, and as the pieces go
through fresh additions of this liquor are made from time to time to
keep up the volume and strength of the liquor to the original points.

The logwood bath is made from 10 lb. logwood extract and 1 lb. fustic
extract, and it is used at about 160° F. The quantities here given will
serve for 100 lb. of cotton, and it is well to add them dissolved up in
hot water in small quantities from time to time as the cotton goes
through the bath.

The iron liquor given after the dyeing contains 2 lb. of copperas in 10
gallons of water.

Between the various compartments of the machine is fitted squeezing
rollers to press out any surplus liquor, which is run back into the
compartment. The rate of running the warp or pieces through should not
be too rapid, and the dyer must adapt the rate to the speed with which
the cloth dyes up in the dye-bath.

The addition of a little red liquor (alumina acetate) to the iron bath
is sometimes made, this is advantageous, as it results in the production
of a finer black. Iron by itself tends to give a rusty-looking, or
brownish black, but the violet, or lilac shade that alumina gives with
logwood, tones the black and makes it look more pleasant.

Some dyers add a small quantity, 1 per cent., of the weight of the
cotton of sulphate of copper to the iron bath, others add even more than
this. Some use nitrate of copper; the copper giving a greenish shade of
black with logwood, and this tones down the iron black and makes it more
bloomy in appearance.

Single bath methods of dyeing logwood blacks are in use, such methods
are not economical as a large quantity, both of dye-wood and mordants,
remain in the bath unused. Although full intense blacks can be dyed with
them, the black is rather loosely fixed and tends to rub off. This is
because as both the dye-stuff and the mordant are in the same bath
together they tend to enter into combination and form a colour lake that
precipitates out in the dye-bath, causing the loss of material alluded
to above, while some of it gets mechanically fixed on the cotton, in a
more or less loose form, and this looseness causes the colour to rub
off.

For a _chrome-logwood black_, a dye-bath is made with 3 lb. bichromate
of potash, 100 gallons logwood decoction at 3° Tw., and 6-1/2 lb.
hydrochloric acid. Enter the cotton into the cold bath, raise slowly to
the boil and work until the cotton has acquired a full black blue
colour, then take it out and rinse in a hot lime water when a blue black
will be got.

A _copper-logwood black_ is got by taking 100 gallons logwood decoction
at 3° Tw., and 6 lb. copper acetate (verdigris); the cotton is entered
cold and brought up to the boil. Copper nitrate may be used in the place
of the copper acetate, when it is a good plan to add a little soda to
the bath. Some dyers in working a copper-logwood black make the dye-bath
from 100 gallons logwood liquor at 2° Tw., 4 lb. copper sulphate
(bluestone) and 4 lb. soda. This bath is used at about 180° to 190° F.,
for three-quarters of an hour, then the cotton is lifted out, wrung and
aged or as it is sometimes called "smothered" for five hours. The
operations are repeated two or three times to develop a full black.

Logwood black dyeing has lost much of its importance of late years owing
to the introduction of the many direct blacks, which are much easier of
application and leave the cotton with a fuller and softer feel.

_Logwood Greys._--These are much dyed on cotton and are nothing more
than weak logwood blacks, and may be dyed by the same processes only
using baths of about one-tenth the strength.

By a one-bath process 5 lb. of logwood are made into a decoction and to
this 1 lb. of copperas (ferrous sulphate) is added and the cotton is
dyed at about 150° F. in this bath. By adding to the dye-bath small
quantities of other dye-woods, fustic, peach wood, sumach, etc., greys
of various shades are obtained. Some recipes bearing on this point are
given in this section.

Logwood is not only used for dyeing blacks and greys as the principal
colouring matter, but is also used as a shading colour along with cutch,
fustic, quercitron, etc., in dyeing olives, browns, etc., and among the
recipes given in this section examples of its use in this direction will
be found.

The dye-woods--fustic, Brazil wood, bar wood, Lima wood, cam wood,
cutch, peach wood, quercitron bark, Persian berries--have since the
introduction of the direct dyes lost much of their importance and are
now little used. Cutch is used in the dyeing of browns and several
recipes have already been given. Their production consists essentially
in treating the cotton in a bath of cutch, either alone or for the
purpose of shading with other dye-woods when the cotton takes up the
tannin and colouring matter of the cutch, etc. The colour is then
developed by treatment with bichromate of potash, either with or without
the addition of an iron salt to darken the shade of brown.

The usual methods of applying all the other dye-woods, to obtain
scarlets to reds with Brazil wood, Lima wood, peach wood; or yellows
with fustic, quercitron or Persian berries, is to first prepare the
cotton with sumac, then mordant with alumina acetate or tin crystals
(the latter gives the brightest shades), then dye in a decoction of the
dye-woods. Sometimes the cotton is boiled in a bath of the wood when it
takes up some of the dye-wood, next there is added alumina acetate or
tin crystals and the dyeing is continued when the colour becomes
developed and fixed upon the cotton.

Iron may be used as a mordant for any of these dye-woods but it gives
dull sad shades.

Chrome mordants can also be used and these produce darker shades than
tin or alumina mordants.

As practically all these dye-woods are now not used by themselves it has
not been deemed necessary to give specific recipes for their
application, on previous pages several are given showing their use in
combination with other dyes.

The dye-stuff Dinitroso-resorcine or Solid green O is used along with
iron mordants for producing fast greens and with chrome mordants for
producing browns to a limited extent in cotton dyeing. The following
recipes give the details of the process.

_Green._--Steep the cotton yarn or cloth in the following liquor until
well impregnated, then dry: 3 gallons iron liquor (pyrolignite of iron),
22° Tw. gallons of water, 3/4 gallon acetic acid, 12° Tw., 2 lb.
ammonium chloride. Then pass the cotton through a warm bath of 3 oz.
phosphate of soda and 4 oz. chalk per gallon, then enter into a dye-bath
containing 6 lb. Solid green O. Work as described for dyeing alizarine
red. For darker greens of a Russian green shade use 10 lb. of solid
green O, in the dye-bath.

_Brown._--A fine brown is got by steeping the cotton in a bath of 8 lb.
Solid green O, 6-3/4 gallons water, 1-1/2 gallons ammonia and 2 lb.
acetate of chrome; dry, then pass through a soap-bath, wash and dry.

_Deep Olive Brown._--Mix 8 lb. Solid green O and 4-1/2 lb. borax with 6
gallons water, add 1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil, 5 lb. ammonia, then 2 gallons
water and 1-1/2 lb. copper-soda solution and another 2 gallons water.
Steep the cotton in this, dry, soap well and wash. The copper-soda
solution is made from 10 lb. chloride of copper (75° Tw.), 5 lb.
tartaric acid, 12 lb. caustic soda (75° Tw.) and 4 lb. glycerine.

_Khaki._--Make the dye liquor from 14 lb. Solid green O, 1/2 lb.
Alizarine yellow N, 1 lb. caustic soda (36° Tw.), 1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil
and 8 gallons water. To this add 2-1/2 lb. acetate of chrome (32° Tw.),
2-1/4 lb. copper-soda solution and 4 gallons water.

_Sage Green._--Use 1-1/4 lb. Solid green O, 3 lb. caustic soda (36°
Tw.), 1/2 lb. Ceruleine, 1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil, 1 gallon water to which
is added 2-1/2 lb. acetate of chrome (32° Tw.) and 2-1/4 lb. copper-soda
solution dissolved in 4 gallons water.

_Pale Brown._--Use 4 lb. Solid green O, 2-1/2 lb. borax, 3 lb. ammonia,
1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil, 6 gallons of water and 1-1/2 lb. copper-soda
solution dissolved in 2 gallons water.

_Pale Fawn Brown._--The dye-bath is made from 1/2 lb. Alizarine, 1-1/4
lb. Solid green O, 1-1/2 lb. borax, 1/2 lb. Turkey-red oil and 5 gallons
of water to which is added 1-1/2 lb. acetate of chrome (32° Tw.), 1-1/2
lb. copper-soda solution and 4 gallons water. In all cases the cotton is
steeped in the dye liquors until thoroughly impregnated, then the excess
liquor is wrung out, the cotton dried, then passed through a soap bath,
washed well and dried.

_Dark Brown._--Place the cotton in a lukewarm bath of 25 lb. cutch and
1-1/2 lb. copper sulphate; work for half an hour, then steep for six
hours, then lift, wring and enter into a bath of 3-1/4 lb. bichromate of
potash at 160° F. for twenty minutes. Then wash and dry.

_Yellow Brown._--Make a bath with 14 lb. cutch and 1/2 lb. copper
sulphate; work in this bath for four hours at 120° F., then pass into a
bath of 2 lb. copperas and 1/2 lb. chalk, work for half an hour in the
cold, then pass into a hot bath of 2-1/2 lb. bichromate of potash at
150° F. for half an hour.

_Dark Brown._--Make a dye-bath with 15 lb. cutch, 2 lb. logwood extract
and 2 lb. fustic extract; work the cotton in this at 160° F. for three
hours, then pass into a cold bath of 1 lb. copperas and 1/4 lb. chalk
for half an hour, then into a bath of 3 lb. bichromate of potash for
half an hour at 150° F., then wash and dry.


(7) PRODUCTION OF COLOUR DIRECT UPON COTTON FIBRES.

By the action of nitrous acid upon the salts of the primary organic
amines the so-called diazo compounds are formed. An example of this
important process is that of nitrous acid on aniline hydrochloride shown
in the following equation:--

C{6}H{5}NH{2} + HCl + HNO{2}   2H{2}O + C{6}H{5}N:NCl
Hydrochloric acid        Nitrous   Water,    Diazo-benzene
aniline,                 acid,               chloride.

These diazo compounds are distinguished by their active properties,
especially in combining with amines in acid solutions, or with phenols
in alkaline solution to form the azo dyes, thus diazobenzene chloride
will combine with naphthol to form naphthol-azo-benzene, thus:--

C{6}H{5}N:NCl + C{10}H{7}OH + NaOH =
Diazo-benzene chloride, Naphthol, Caustic soda.

C{10}H{6}OHN:NC{6}H{5} + NaCl + H{2}O
Naphthol-azo-benzene,        Salt,  Water.

These azo compounds are coloured, but are perfectly insoluble in water,
alkalies, or acids; on the other hand the sulphonates of these bodies
are easily soluble and form the numerous azo dyes now so largely made
and used in wool and silk dyeing, but which on account of their being
sulphonates cannot be used for cotton dyeing.

Methods have been devised for producing the insoluble azo colours direct
upon the fibres. They are also called naphthol colours from the use of
beta-and alpha-naphthol in their production. Although these azo dyes,
when produced on the fibre, do not possess the fastness of the alizarine
dyes, yet, on account of their cheapness and relative great fastness to
soap and the action of sunlight, they are better than many of the newer
cotton dyes.

By this method (first introduced in England by Holliday) colours of
exceptional brightness and fastness can be obtained which were not
obtainable with the dyes then known. Those which are obtained from
phenols are of the first importance.

_The Diazotisation of the Amido Bases._

With most bases this must be accomplished as cold as possible below 65°
F. At a higher temperature, and when allowed to stand, most diazo
compounds decompose quickly with evolution of nitrogen, which
decomposition results in the mixture losing its power of producing
colour, or at the most gives unsatisfactory results. For this reason it
is therefore always necessary to work as cold and as quickly as
possible.

The amido-azo bodies, whose compounds with the phenols are also
distinguished by their great fastness, are in this respect an exception.
They can be diazotised at the ordinary temperature, and their diazo
compounds are much stabler than those, for example, of alpha-and
beta-naphthylamine or of aniline, which must always be used as quickly
as possible.

From anisidine, phenetidine and amido-diphenylamine, still more stable
diazo compounds can be obtained, but the prices of these bases are
rather high, and the colours produced with them are not fast to light.

The cheapest and most convenient method of obtaining nitrous acid for
diazotising is by the action of a mineral acid, preferably hydrochloric
acid, upon nitrite of soda.

For diazotising one molecule of base requires one molecule of
hydrochloric acid to form a salt of the base, a molecule of nitrite of
soda, and another molecule of hydrochloric acid to decompose the
nitrite. The diazotisation is better carried out and the diazo solution
rendered more stable if another molecule of hydrochloric acid and an
excess of nitrite of soda are used. The presence of an excess of nitrite
can be determined by testing the diazo solution with potassium iodide
starch paper, which in the presence of excess of nitrite gives the blue
iodine starch reaction.

In carrying out the diazotisation, the base is first dissolved in the
whole amount of hydrochloric acid which has to be used, and the solution
is filtered. The diazotisation takes place in the manner shown in the
equation:--

  C{6}H{5}NH{2} + HCl   +         HCl             +        NaNO{2} =
Aniline hydrochloride,         Hydrochloric acid,         Sodium nitrite,

   NaCl     +       C{6}H{5}N:NCl        +      H{2}0
   Salt,         Diazo-benzene chloride,          Water.

The bases which form salts soluble with difficulty, such as nitroaniline
and the amido-azo bodies, offer special difficulties in diazotising.

It has been found that the operation with these is best carried out if
the chemically pure bases in paste form are mixed with the requisite
amount of nitrite, and the diluted paste then poured into the
hydrochloric acid.

It has been found by experience that the colour is developed much
brighter upon the fibre when the diazo solution contains acetic acid and
no free mineral acid. However, the diazotisation is better carried out
with hydrochloric acid, and the presence of the latter is necessary to
give stability to the solution. If before the diazo solution is used a
quantity of acetate of soda be added to it, the free hydrochloric acid
liberates acetic acid from the acetate, and the chloride of the diazo
body changes into its acetate. It is better to add an excess above the
two molecules of acetate of soda which are required.

The combination when aniline and beta-naphthol are used, as the amine
and phenol respectively, is shown in the following equations:--

   C{6}H{5}N:NCl        +    C{10}H{7}OH      +
Diazo-benzene chloride,         B. naphthol,

NaOH = 2NaCl    +   C{6}H{5}N:NC{10}H{6}OH    +    H{2}O
Caustic soda,         Benzene- azo-naphthol,         Water.

Or, with naphthylamine and naphthol, thus:--

C{10}H{7}N:NCl     +     C{10}H{7}OH     +     NaOH =

  NaCl     +     C{10}H{7}N:NC{10}H{6}OH     +   H{2}O
                   Naphthalene azo-naphthol.

By the action of nitrous acid upon amido-azo bodies a group of bodies
called diazo-azo compounds are obtained which contain the group N:N
twice over, thus:--

  C{6}H{5}N:NC{6}H{4}NH{2}HCl + NaNO{2} + 2HCl =
        Benzene-azo-aniline-hydrochloride,

NaCl + C{6}H{5}N:NC{6}H{4}N:NCl + 2H{2}O.
           Diazo-azo-benzene-chloride.

When this compound is combined with naphthol diazo-azo dyes are
produced.

C{6}H{5}N:NC{6}H{4}N:NC{10}H{6}OH.
Benzene-azo-benzene-azo-naphthol.

The molecular weights of the bases, phenols and chemicals employed are
the following:--

1. Hydrochloric acid, HCl--36.5. 2. Caustic soda, NaOH--40. 3. Nitrite
of soda, NaNO{2}--69. 4. Acetate of soda, NaC{2}H{3}O{2}3H{2}O--136.

1. Commercial hydrochloric acid at 32° Tw. contains about 365 grams of
HCl in a litre, or 3-1/2 lb. in a gallon.

2. The commercial 77 per cent. soda must always be used, and for
practical purposes it may be taken as pure. It is best to make a
solution which contains 160 grams NaOH in a litre of water.

3. The nitrite supplied is almost chemically pure, and is easily soluble
in water. In order to make a solution 140 or 290 grams are dissolved per
litre.

4. Crystallised acetate of soda contains 3 molecules of water of
crystallisation, and is usually somewhat moist. Instead of 136 grams 140
are taken to allow for moisture. The amount is dissolved in about 500
cubic centimetres of water.


_Bases._

1. Aniline, C{6}H{5}NH{2}--93.
2. Toluidine, C{7}H{7}NH{2}--107.
3. Alpha-and beta-naphthylamine, C{10}H{7}NH{2}--143.
4. Para-or meta-nitroaniline, C{6}H{4}NO{2}NH{2}--138.
5. Nitro-para-toluidine, C{7}H{6}NO{2}NH{2}--152.
6. Amidoazobenzene (base), C{6}H{5}N:NC{6}H{4}NH{2}--197.
7. Orthoamidoazotoluol (base), C{7}H{7}N:NC{7}H{6}NH{2}--225.
8. Alpha-or beta-naphthol C{10}H{7}OH--144.


_Example of Quantities Taken._

                                  Molecular Weight.
1. Molecule nitrite                   69 grams.
2. Molecule aniline                   93   "
3. Molecule hydrochloric acid        365   "
4. Molecule acetate of soda          136   "
5. Molecule of naphthol              144   "
6. Molecule caustic soda              40   "

Applying the principles which have just been described to the dyeing of
cotton, it is found that the cotton may be dyed by taking the base and
preparing the diazo body, impregnating the cotton with this, and
developing the colour by passing into a bath of the phenol. On the other
hand, the cotton can be prepared with the phenol and the colour
developed by passing into a bath of the diazotised base, and practice
has shown that this latter proceeding is the best. Practically the only
phenol that is used is the beta-naphthol; alpha-naphthol is occasionally
used, but not often.

The purer the beta-naphthol the better, especially for producing the
paranitroaniline red. Various preparations of beta-naphthol have been
brought out by colour makers.

The process of dyeing cotton with a naphthol colour takes place in two
stages, the first being the grounding or preparing with the naphthol,
the second the developing with the diazotised base. Some of the effects
which can be obtained from the two naphthols and various bases are given
in the following table:--

     Base.           With beta-naphthol, gives   With alpha-naphthol, gives
1. Aniline,                Orange yellow;              Cutch brown.
2. Paratoluidine,          Full yellow orange;         Cutch brown.
3. Metanitroaniline,       Fiery yellowish red;        Brownish orange.
4. Paranitroaniline,       Bright scarlet;                "       "
5. Nitroparatoluidine,        Orange;                  Very bright catechu.
6. Alpha-naphthylamine,       Bluish claret red;       Reddish puce.
7. Beta-naphthylamine,        Turkey red;                     "
8. Amidoazobenzene,           Red;                            "
9. Orthoamidoazotoluene,      Yellowish claret red;           "

By mixing alpha-and beta-naphthols together a variety of grenat and
claret reds and browns can be obtained.

With regard to the fastness of the shades produced the following may be
considered:--

             _Fast to Soaping._

Combination of A-Naphthol with Toluidine.
     "              "          A-Naphthylamine.
     "              "          B-Naphthylamine.
     "              "          Amidoazobenzene.
     "         B-Naphthol with Toluidine.
     "              "          Paranitroaniline.
     "              "          Nitroparatoluidine.
     "              "          B-Naphthylamine.
     "              "          A-Naphthylamine.

                _Moderately Fast._

Combination of A-Naphthol with Aniline.
     "              "          Paranitroaniline.
     "              "          Orthoamidoazotoluene.
     "            B-Naphthol with Metanitroaniline.
     "              "             Amidoazobenzene.

                _Very Loose._

Combination of A-Naphthol with Paratoluidine.
     "              "          Metanitroaniline.
     "              "          Nitroparatoluidine.
     "         B-Naphthol with Aniline.
     "              "          Paratoluidine.
     "              "          Orthoamidoazotoluene.

The samples were tested for fastness to light by exposing them for nine
days with the following results:--


                _Fast._

Combination of A-Naphthol with Aniline.
    "               "          Toluidine.
    "               "          Metanitroaniline.
    "               "          Paranitroaniline.
    "               "          Nitroparatoluidine.
    "               "          B-Naphthylamine.
    "               "          Amidoazobenzol.
    "               "          Orthoamidoazotoluol.
    "          B-Naphthol with Aniline.
    "               "          Paratoluidine.
    "               "          Metanitroaniline.
    "               "          Paranitroaniline.
    "               "          B-Naphthylamine.
    "               "          A-Naphthylamine.

                _Moderately Fast._

Combination of B- Naphthol with Nitroparatoluidine.

                _Very Loose._


Combination of A-Naphthol with Toluidine.
    "               "          A-Naphthylamine
    "          B-Naphthol with Toluidine.
    "               "          Amidoazobenzene.
    "               "          Orthoamidoazotoluene.

The most important of the naphthol colours is undoubtedly
paranitroaniline red, produced by the combination of paranitroaniline
and beta-naphthol. In order to produce the best and brightest shades
these two bodies must be quite pure. The following directions may be
followed:--


=Dyeing Paranitroaniline Red on Yarn.=

It unfortunately happens that this red does not admit of being worked in
large quantities at a time, particularly in the diazo bath where the
colour is developed, as the previous operations seem to render the yarn
slightly waterproof, and hence if large quantities of yarn were dealt
with at one time some would be found to be dyed all right, others would
be defective. It has, therefore, been found best to work only about 2
lb. of yarn at a time, carefully carrying out each operation with this
quantity. As, however, the process can be quickly worked it follows that
in the course of a day a fairly large quantity of yarn can be treated.

1. _Grounding._ The grounding or preparing bath for 100 lb. of yarn is
best made in the following manner: 4 lb. of beta-naphthol are stirred in
2-1/2 lb. of caustic soda liquor 70° Tw., then 1-1/2 quarts of boiling
water is added, when dissolved 1-1/2 quarts of cold water. In a separate
vessel dissolve 5 lb. Turkey-red oil in 11 quarts of water, then mix the
two liquors together and add sufficient water to make up the whole to 12
gallons.

In working sufficient of this liquor is taken and put into a deep tub in
which 2 lb. of yarn can be conveniently worked. It is best to work at a
tepid heat, say 100° to 110° F.; 2 lb. of the yarn are worked in this
liquor, so that it becomes thoroughly impregnated, then it is gently
wrung out and hung up. This operation is repeated with each 2 lb. until
the whole 100 lb. has been treated, adding from time to time some of the
naphthol liquor to make up for that taken up by the cotton. When all the
yarn has been through the liquor, give it another dip through the same
liquor. Place the yarn in a hydro-extractor for five to seven minutes.
Next open out the yarn well, and hang on sticks and dry in a stove at
140° to 150° F. The stove should be heated with iron pipes, through
which steam at 30 lb. to 40 lb. pressure passes. This stove should be
reserved entirely for this work, for if other goods be dried in it along
with the naphthol-prepared cotton, any steam or acid vapours which might
be given off from the former might damage the latter.

When thoroughly dry the yarn is ready for the next operation.

2. _Developing._ The developing bath is made in the following manner:
1-1/2 lb. paranitroaniline is mixed with 1-1/2 gallons of boiling water,
and 1-3/4 quarts of hydrochloric acid at 30° to 32° Tw. Stir well until
the paranitroaniline is completely dissolved, add 3-1/2 gallons of cold
water, which will cause a precipitation of the hydrochlorate of
paranitroaniline as a yellow powder. Let the mixture thoroughly cool
off, best by allowing to stand all night; 1-1/4 lb. of nitrite of soda
is dissolved in 4 quarts of cold water, and this solution is added to
the paranitroaniline solution slowly and with constant stirring; in
about fifteen to twenty minutes the diazotisation will be complete. At
this and following stages the temperature of working should be kept as
low as possible. Some dyers use ice in preparing their diazo solutions,
and certainly the best results are attained thereby, but with
paranitroaniline the ice can be dispensed with. After the end of the
time sufficient cold water is added to bring the volume of the liquor up
to 10 gallons. This diazo liquor will keep for some days, but it
decomposes in time, so that it should not be kept too long.

Another liquor is made by dissolving 4 lb. acetate of soda in 11 quarts
of water.

The developing bath is made by taking 4 gallons of the diazo liquor and
1 gallon of the acetate liquor and mixing together, and in this bath the
prepared yarn, 2 lb. at a time, is worked. The colour develops
immediately. The yarn when dyed is lifted out, wrung, and then it is
well washed with water, soaped in a bath at 120° F., with a liquor
containing 1/2 oz. soap per gallon, then dried. As the cotton yarn is
being passed through the developing bath, the latter is freshened up
from time to time by suitable additions of the diazo and acetate liquors
in the proportions given above.

Some dyers use a special form of dye vat for dyeing paranitroaniline red
on yarn, whose construction can be seen from Fig. 27.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Dye-tub for Paranitroaniline Red.]

The beta-naphthol bath does not keep well and in time tends to grow
brown, and when this occurs stains are invariably produced on the
cotton. When the yarn or cloth has been prepared with the beta-naphthol,
and dried, the developing should be immediately proceeded with, for it
is found that by allowing the prepared cotton to lie about it becomes
covered with brown stains, and when such stained cotton is passed
through the developing bath stains and defective dyeing result.

It has been found that by adding a little tartar emetic to the
beta-naphthol bath this is largely if not entirely prevented, and the
prepared cloth may be kept for a reasonable length of time before
proceeding with the development without fear of stains being formed.

Various additions have been made from time to time to the naphthol bath.
Some of these take the form of special preparations of the colour
manufacturers, and are sold as naphthol D, naphthol X, red developer C,
etc., sometimes gum tragacanth has been added, at others in place of
Turkey-red oil there is used a soap made from castor oil with soda and
ammonia, but such complicated baths do not yield any better results than
the simple preparing liquor given above.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Padding Machine for Paranitroaniline Red.]


=Dyeing Paranitroaniline Red on Piece Goods.=

The dyeing of this red on to piece goods only differs from that on yarn
by reason of the difference in the form of material that is dealt with.

1. _Preparing or Grounding._--The same liquor may be used. This
operation is best done on a padding machine, a sketch of which is given
in Fig. 26, showing the course of the cloth through the liquor. This is
contained in the box of the machine, and this is kept full by a constant
stream flowing in from a store vat placed beside the machine. After
going through the liquor, the cloth passes between a pair of squeezing
rollers which squeeze out the surplus liquor. Fig. 28 shows a view of a
padding machine adapted for grounding paranitroaniline reds. After the
padding, the cloth is dried by being sent over a set of drying
cylinders, or through what is known as the hot flue.

2. _The Developing._--After being dried, the pieces are sent through a
padding machine charged with the developing liquor made as described
above, after which the cloth is rinsed, then soaped, and then washed.
Some dyers use a continuous machine for these operations, such as shown
in Fig. 29.

While the developing bath used for piece goods may be the same as that
used for yarns, some dyers prefer to use one made somewhat differently,
thus 6-1/4 lb. paranitroaniline are mixed with 7 gallons boiling-water
and 1-1/2 gallons hydrochloric acid; when dissolved 16 gallons of cold
water are added, then, after completely cooling, 3-1/2 lb. sodium
nitrite dissolved in 3 gallons cold water. After twenty minutes, when
the diazotisation is complete, water is added to make the whole up to 40
gallons. The acetate liquor is made from 13-1/4 lb. acetate of soda in
13-1/2 gallons of water.

Equal quantities of these two liquors are used in making the developing
bath.

[Illustration: FIG. 29--Developing Machine for Paranitroaniline Red.]

Of late years, under the names of Azophor red P N, Nitrazol C,
Nitrosamine, etc., there has been offered to dyers preparations of
diazotised paranitroaniline in the form of a powder or paste, readily
soluble in water, that will keep in a cool and dry place for any
reasonable length of time. These are prepared in various ways, and to
any dyer who does not want the trouble of diazotising the
paranitroaniline they offer some advantages. They produce a red equal in
every respect to that obtained from paranitroaniline. The following
details show the method to be followed with some of these products,
others are very similar to make the developing baths.

_Paranitroaniline Red with Nitrazol C._--Dissolve 25 lb. Nitrazol C in
12 gallons of cold water with constant stirring, then add sufficient
cold water to make 37 gallons. In another vessel dissolve 11 lb. of
acetate of soda in 5-1/2 gallons water, then add 1-1/2 gallons caustic
soda, 36° Tw., mixed with 5-1/2 gallons water. The developing bath is
made by mixing both these solutions. It will suffice for both yarn and
piece goods.

_Paranitroaniline Red with Azophor Red P N._--Dissolve 5-1/2 lb. of
Azophor red P N in 4 gallons of water--it dissolves almost completely
but usually a few particles of a flocculent character remain
undissolved, these can be removed; 2-1/4 gallons of caustic soda lye of
36° Tw. are diluted with water to 10 gallons, and this is added with
constant stirring to the azophor red P N solution. When all is mixed and
a clear solution obtained, the developing bath is ready for use, and is
used in the same way as the paranitroaniline bath.

_Metanitroaniline Orange._--This orange is produced in the same way as
the paranitroaniline red, using metanitroaniline or Azophor orange M N
in place of the paranitroaniline or the Azophor red P N given for the
red. The quantities of all the materials used are identical.

_Nitrosamine Red._--Dissolve 5 lb. Nitrosamine red in 5 gallons of water
and 2-1/4 lb. hydrochloric acid, when well mixed there is added 2-1/2
lb. acetate of soda, when all is dissolved add sufficient water to make
6-1/2 gallons. This bath is used exactly in the same way as the
paranitroaniline developing bath, and it produces identical results in
every way.

_Paranitroaniline Brown._--By boiling the paranitroaniline red dyed
cotton in a weak bath of copper sulphate a very fine fast brown
resembling a cutch brown is produced. A better plan, however, is to
prepare the cotton with a ground containing an alkaline solution of
copper, 3 lb. beta-naphthol are dissolved in 5 pints of caustic soda lye
of 36° Tw., to which is added 5 lb. Turkey-red oil and 10 pints alkaline
copper solution, water being added to make 13 gallons of liquor. The
cotton is treated in this way as with the ordinary beta-naphthol
preparation. The alkaline copper solution is made by taking 5 pints of
copper chloride solution at 76° Tw., adding 3-1/4 lb. tartaric acid, 6
pints caustic soda lye, 70° Tw., and 2 pints of glycerine. The
developing bath for the brown is the same as for the paranitroaniline
red, or the Azophor red P N bath may be used.

_Toluidine Orange._--For this colour the cotton is prepared with the
beta-naphthol in the ordinary way. The developing bath is made from 2
lb. orthonitrotoluidine mixed with 12 pints boiling water and 2-1/4
pints hydrochloric acid; when dissolved allow to cool and then add
12-1/2 lb. ice. When thoroughly cold stir in 2-1/2 pints of sodium
nitrite solution containing 3 lb. per gallon. Stir well for twenty
minutes, then filter; add 4 lb. sodium acetate and sufficient ice-cold
water to make 13 gallons. Use this bath in the same way as the
paranitroaniline bath.

_Beta-naphthylamine Red._--This red is a good one, but is not so bright
or so fast as the paranitroaniline red, hence although somewhat older in
point of time it is not dyed to the same extent. The developing bath is
made from 1-3/4 lb. beta-naphthylamine dissolved with the aid of 10
pints boiling water and 1 pint hydrochloric acid. When dissolved allow
to cool; add 27 lb. ice and 2 pints hydrochloric acid. When cooled to
32° to 36° Tw., add 3 pints sodium nitrite solution (3 lb. per gallon)
and 4 lb. sodium acetate, making up to 13 gallons with water. This also
is used in precisely the same way as the paranitroaniline red developing
liquor.

_Alpha-Naphthylamine Claret._--This is a very fine and fairly fast red,
and next to the paranitroaniline red may be considered the most
important of the naphthol colours. The developing bath is a little more
difficult to make, owing to the fact that it is more difficult to get
the alpha-naphthylamine into solution. The best way of proceeding is the
following: Heat 1-3/4 lb. of alpha-naphthylamine in 10 pints of boiling
water, agitating well until the base is very finely divided in the
water, then 1-1/4 pints of hydrochloric acid is added, and the heat and
stirring continued until the base is dissolved, then the mass is allowed
to cool, 27 lb. of ice is added and 1-1/2 pints of hydrochloric acid.
When cooled down to 32° to 36° F., there is added 3 pints sodium nitrite
solution (3 lb. per gallon), and after allowing the diazotisation to be
completed, 4 lb. sodium acetate and sufficient water to make 13 gallons
of liquor.

The bath is used in the same manner as the previous developing baths.

_Dianisidine Blue._--Dianisidine develops with beta-naphthol, a violet
blue, which is not very fast, but by the addition of some copper to the
developing bath a very fine blue is got which has a fair degree of
fastness. The developing bath is made as follows: Mix 10-1/2 oz.
dianisidine with 7 oz. hydrochloric acid and 7-1/2 pints of boiling
water, when complete solution is obtained it is allowed to cool, then 20
lb. of ice is added. Next 1-3/4 pints of nitrite of soda solution,
containing 1-1/2 lb. per gal. and 2-1/2 pints of cold water. Stir for
thirty minutes, then add 1-1/4 pints copper chloride solution at 72°
Tw., and sufficient water to make up 6-1/2 gallons.

The cotton is prepared with beta-naphthol in the usual way, and then
passed through this developing bath.

_Amidoazotoluol Garnet._--Amidoazotoluol produces with beta-naphthol a
fine garnet red in the usual way.

The developing bath is made from 14 oz. amidoazotoluol, mixed with 1-1/2
pints of sodium nitrite solution containing 1-1/2 lb. per gallon, when
well mixed add 1 pint of hydrochloric acid diluted with 2 pints water,
when this is well mixed add sufficient water to make up a gallon, then
add 1 lb. acetate of soda.

The cotton is passed through this dye-bath, then washed well, passed
through a weak acid bath, then soaped well, washed and dried.


(8) DYEING COTTON BY IMPREGNATION WITH DYE-STUFF SOLUTION.

Indigo is a dye-stuff which requires special processes for its
application to the cotton or wool fibre.

Its peculiarity is that in the form in which it comes to the dyer it is
insoluble in water, and to enable it to be dissolved and therefore to be
used as a dye, the indigo has to go under a special treatment. The
colouring principle of indigo is a body named indigotin, to which the
formula C{16}H{16}N{2}O{2} has been given. When indigo is mixed with
substances like lime and copperas, lime and zinc, zinc and bisulphite of
soda, which cause the evolution of nascent hydrogen, it takes up this
body and passes into another substance which is called indigo white that
has the formula C{16}H{12}N{2}O{2}, leuco, or white indigo; this
substance is soluble in water, and so when it is formed the indigo
passes into solution and can then be used for dyeing. But indigo white
is an unstable substance on exposure to air, the oxygen of the latter
attacks the hydrogen which it has taken up, and indigotin is reformed,
the indigo white changing again into indigo blue.

Indigo dyeing consists of three operations:--

     (1) Preparation of the indigo solution, or, as it is called,
     setting the dye vat. (2) Steeping the cotton in this vat. (3)
     Exposing to the air.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Indigo Dye-vat for Cloth.]

There are several methods of preparing, or setting the dye vat, and of
each of these modifications are in use in every indigo dye-house:--

     (1) With lime and copperas. (2) Zinc and lime vat. (3) Zinc and
     bisulphite of soda.

In all cases it is necessary for the indigo to be ground to the form of
a fine paste with water; this is usually done in what is known as the
ball-grinding mill. The finer it is ground the more easy is it to make
the dye-vats.

The dye-vats may be either round tubs or square wooden tanks; when
cloths or warps are being dyed these may be fitted with winces and guide
rollers, so as to draw the materials through the liquor. In the case of
yarns in hanks these appliances are not necessary.

Fig. 30 is a sketch of an indigo dye-vat for cloth or warps.

(1) =Lime and Copperas Vat.=--To prepare this vat take 75 gallons of
water, 4 lb. of indigo, 8 lb. copperas, and 10 lb. of good quicklime.
Put these into the vat in the order shown. The amount of indigo is added
in proportion to the shade which is required to be dyed: for pale
shades, 2 lb. to 3 lb. will be sufficient; while for deep shades, 6 lb.
to 7 lb. may be used. The amount of copperas should be from one and a
half to twice that of the indigo. The vat should be stirred very well
and then left to stand. The changes which occur are probably the
following: The lime acts upon the copperas and produces ferrous
hydrate--this is unstable and tends to take up oxygen and hydrogen from
the water, particularly when there is some indigo present, and forms
ferric hydrate; hydrogen is at the same time liberated, and combines
with the indigo to form the soluble indigo white. It takes about
twenty-four hours to make an indigo vat. When properly made and in good
condition, the liquor will be clear and of a brownish-yellow colour, a
bluish scum may collect on the surface. If the liquor appears at all
greenish it is an indication that the indigo has not been completely
reduced, and the vat needs a further addition of lime and copperas,
which should be of good quality. Too much of each should not be used,
because with them there is formed at the bottom of the vat a sediment of
calcium sulphate and ferric hydrate, and it is not wise to increase this
to too great an extent, which would be the case if too much lime and
copperas were added.

_To Use this Vat._--Any scum on the surface is raked on one side, the
cotton yarn immersed for a few minutes, then it is taken out, wrung,
allowing the excess liquor to flow back into the vat, and the yarn hung
up in the air for the blue to develop. The depth of shade which is dyed
depends chiefly upon the amount of indigo in the vat, and also upon the
time during which the hanks are dipped in the liquor. Light and medium
shades can be readily and conveniently got by a single dip, but deep
shades are best got by repeating the dipping once or twice as occasion
demands. Deep shades got by using a strong bath at a single dip are
found to rub badly, while by repeated dips the dye gets more into the
substance of the fibre, and therefore the colour is more firmly fixed
and it rubs less.

Some indigo dyers have quite a range of vats, using those fresh made for
dyeing deep shades, while the old vats being nearly exhausted are used
only for light shades and finally when completely exhausted are thrown
away. After the day's work the vat should be stirred up and then allowed
to stand. If necessary it may be strengthened by the addition of fresh
quantities of indigo, lime and copperas, the next morning it will be
ready for use. Generally a lime-copperas vat will remain in good working
order for about a month, when it will be necessary to throw it away.

=(2) Zinc and Lime Vat.=--Zinc dust is a bye-product in the process of
zinc extraction. It is a grey, very heavy powder, consisting mostly of
finely divided metallic zinc, with traces of oxide and sulphide of zinc.
Of these only the metallic zinc is active in reducing the indigo, the
rest of the ingredients are not of any consequence. The valuation of
zinc dust is a very difficult operation, but it is desirable that this
be done, as the product is liable to be very variable in the proportion
of actual zinc it contains, and it will pay large buyers always to have
it tested. Zinc dust must always be kept in a dry place.

For the reduction of zinc powder lime is chiefly used. The following are
two good mixtures.

Vat with zinc and lime:--

10 lb. indigo, dry and ground fine;
5-1/2 lb. zinc dust;
22 lb. slaked lime, dry.

The vat is set as follows, a part of the lime is mixed with the indigo,
and the two bodies are well mixed together and allowed to stand for ten
minutes, then the zinc powder is added. It is best to make this into a
smooth paste with water before adding it to the other ingredients, then
the rest of the lime is added and the whole is thoroughly stirred
together with the necessary quantity of water.

Vat with zinc powder, lime and soda:--

10 lb. indigo, dry and ground fine;
10 lb. zinc powder;
10 lb. slaked lime, dry;
35 lb. caustic soda at 11° Tw.

Add the lime to the ground indigo, then add the zinc and finally the
soda lye.

Soon after the various ingredients of the vats are added together the
whole mass becomes hot, when it must be well stirred. It soon begins to
evolve gas and the mixture froths. In from two to four hours the
evolution of gas ceases. The dark blue solution now becomes yellow and
the liquor shows all the characteristics of the indigo vat. It is
necessary to keep the vat well stirred up during the time of setting,
which takes from five to six hours. If there is much evolution of gas
after this time it indicates that too much zinc powder has been added;
this is a common fault with dyers, and such excess causes the vat to be
too much disturbed and to work dirty. A lime-zinc vat, with occasional
additions of new materials, keeps good for three months, and even then
is in a better condition than the copperas vat.

This vat is used in precisely the same way as the copperas vat; as it
contains no sediment, or but little, it works cleaner than the copperas
vat and as a rule the indigo blues dyed in it are faster to rubbing.

After a day's work it can be well stirred up and fresh additions of
lime, zinc and indigo made to bring it up to its original dyeing
strength.

=(3) Zinc-Bisulphite Indigo Vat.=--When zinc dust and bisulphite of soda
are mixed together a reaction sets in, the zinc dissolves, and there is
formed sodium hydrosulphite and zinc and sodium sulphites. If now indigo
is mixed with this solution the sodium hydrosulphite exerts a reducing
action on it, forming white indigo and sodium sulphite, a perfectly
clear solution being obtained, which may be used in dyeing cotton or
wool.

With this vat it is customary to prepare a strong stock solution of
reduced indigo, and to add this to the dyeing vats as may be required.

_To Make the Stock Liquor._--Take 20 lb. of indigo, grind into a paste
with 20 gallons of boiled water, then add 25 lb. lime slaked into a
milk. In a separate tub there is mixed 80 lb. bisulphite of soda, 70°
Tw., with 9 lb. zinc dust; this mixture is well stirred and every care
taken to prevent it getting hot. When the zinc has dissolved and the
mixture is free from any sulphurous smell it is run into the indigo
mixture given above. The whole is well stirred together for some time,
and then at intervals, until the indigo has become dissolved, sufficient
water is added to make up 50 gallons, when the stock liquor will be
ready. It should have a deep yellow colour. The surface may have a scum
of a bronzy colour collect on it. This stock liquor should be kept in
casks free from exposure to the air.

To make the working vat from this stock liquor the following is the
method of proceeding:--

Water is run into the vat, and this is heated from 70° to 80° C. in
order to expel air from it, after which it may be allowed to cool, then
for each 1,000 gallons contained in the vat there is added 30 lb.
bisulphite of soda, 3 lb. zinc dust and 3 lb. lime, made into a cream.
When all these ingredients are dissolved a quantity of the stock liquor
is added in proportion to the shade that it is desired to dye. The whole
is well stirred, then the vat is allowed to rest for half an hour to
enable any sediment to settle, and then the dyeing is proceeded with.

Should the vat show signs of becoming green in colour it is a good plan
to add a mixture of 1 lb. zinc dust and 10 lb. bisulphite of soda. The
vat should be kept alkaline, and so a little lime may be added from time
to time.

After a day's work it is well to add a little of the zinc and bisulphite
mixture, to stir well and allow to stand overnight; the next morning
strengthen up the vat by adding fresh stock liquor.

In place of using lime in making up the vat it is possible to use a
mixture of caustic soda and ammonia. The lime will tend to cause some
sediment to form in the vat, whereas the soda and ammonia will not. When
they are used the following mode of working may be followed:--

_Stock Liquor._--Soda zinc vat: Put in a tub 26 gallons cold water, 15
lb. zinc powder ground into a paste with 6 gallons water, then stir in 8
gallons bisulphite of soda at 60° Tw., stir well, keeping the heat down
as much as possible, after which add 8 pints caustic soda lye at 70° Tw.
and 14 pints 20 per cent. liquor ammonia. When all is thoroughly mixed
add 30 lb. indigo, ground into a paste with 7 gallons water, allow to
stand for half an hour, then add water to make 100 gallons, stir at
intervals for twelve hours or so, when the stock liquor will be ready
for use.

This is used to make the vat in the same way as the first above
described. It is needful before adding the stock liquor in making a vat
to destroy any oxygen or air which is present in the vat. This may most
conveniently be done by adding thereto a solution of hydrosulphite of
soda, which may be made by mixing 4-1/2 lb. zinc dust with 5 gallons of
water and 3 gallons bisulphite of soda at 70° Tw., stirring well, so
that the temperature does not rise too high, there is then added 2 pints
caustic soda and 3 pints liquor ammonia, 20 per cent.; when all is
dissolved, water is added to make up 13 gallons.

Should the vat show signs of becoming charged with indigo, indicated by
its becoming of a green colour, a little of this hydrosulphite added
from time to time will correct it.

The hydrosulphite-indigo vat made by either of the two methods indicated
above works well, and with due care may be kept in work for months. It
gives good shades of indigo, although some dyers consider that these
have not the rich bronze hue got from the lime and copperas vat. The
shades are rather faster to rubbing.

It has been proposed to employ the dye-stuff indophenol in conjunction
with indigo, in which case the method of making the vat is with zinc,
bisulphite of soda, caustic soda and ammonia as last described, only in
place of using all indigo a mixture of 22 lb. indigo and 7-1/2 lb.
indophenol is used. Good blue shades of considerable fastness can thus
be got.

_Aniline Black._--This black is produced direct upon the cotton fibre by
various processes which entail the oxidation of aniline. The chemical
composition and constitution of aniline black has not yet been worked
out. It is not by any means an easy colour to dye, but still with
careful attention to carrying out the various operations in detail
excellent results can be attained.

Aniline black is the fastest black which is known, it resists when well
dyed exposure to air and light, is quite fast to washing and soaping.
Its disadvantages are that there is, with some methods of working, a
tendency to tender the cotton fibre, making it tear easily; secondly, on
exposure to air it tends to turn green, this however only happens when
the black has not been dyed properly.

At the present day it is perhaps without doubt the most used of all
blacks. The methods for producing it are many and varied, the following
recipes show how some of the finest aniline blacks can be dyed:--

Ungreenable black is formed when the aniline is by the action of the
oxidising agents converted into a substance named nigraniline. This
compound when formed will not turn green on the fibre under the
influence of acids.

1. The most usual oxidising agent employed for dyeing aniline black is
bichromate of soda, which salt will be found much better for all
purposes than bichromate of potash. Two separate solutions are prepared:
(1) 61 lb. aniline, 9 lb. hydrochloric acid and 10 gallons of water; and
(2) 12 lb. bichromate of soda and 20 gallons of water. After cooling,
equal quantities of these solutions are mixed and the cotton worked
rapidly through the mixture, in a few minutes it assumes a bronze black.
The material is then wrung out and steamed for twenty minutes at 3-1/2
lb. pressure, which process renders it jet black and also ungreenable.

2. Another aniline black: For 100 lb. cotton use 11 lb. aniline oil, 15
lb. bichromate of soda, 40 lb. hydrochloric acid and 160 gallons water
or 12 lb. sulphuric acid. The dye-bath is filled with the water and the
cold solution of aniline oil and a part of the hydrochloric acid in
water is first added, afterwards the bichromate is dissolved in a small
quantity of water, working cold at first and gradually rising to the
boil.

3. Another method is the following and gives a black that is fast and
ungreenable and will not rub: 10 lb. chlorate of soda, 10 lb. ammonium
chloride, 10 lb. copper sulphate, 35 lb. aniline salt, 101 lb. aniline
oil and 20 gallons water. The sodium chlorate and ammonium chloride are
dissolved in 6-1/2 gallons and the copper sulphate separately in 5-1/2
gallons water. The aniline salt is dissolved in as little hot water as
possible and neutralised with a small amount of aniline oil (10 lb.).
The solution of aniline salt is first added to the bath, then the sodium
chlorate and ammonium chloride, and lastly the copper sulphate, dilute
the whole to 14° Tw. and then enter the goods. Next steam, then run
through a solution containing 10 lb. bichromate and 5 lb. soda per 100
gallons water at 160° F., after which the goods are washed and dry
steamed at 15 lb. pressure.

4. A very good black is the prussiate or steam aniline black whose
cheapness should recommend it. Prepare concentrated solutions of 1-3/4
lb. aniline salt in 1 gallon water, 1-1/2 lb. ferrocyanide of potash in
3/4 gallons water and 1-1/2 lb. potassium chlorate in 1-1/2 gallons
water. Mix the solutions and work in a jigger, then steam in a Mather &
Platt apparatus for two minutes, then work hot in a jigger in a solution
of 2 lb. bichromate per 50 gallons water, dry and finish.

Either of these methods yields a good full black; with a little
experience and care perfectly uniform shades will be got.



CHAPTER V.

DYEING UNION (MIXED COTTON AND WOOL) FABRICS.


There is now produced a great variety of textile fabrics of every
conceivable texture by combining the two fibres, cotton and wool, in a
number of ways; the variety of these fabrics has of late years
considerably increased, which increase may be largely ascribed to the
introduction of the direct dyeing colouring matters--the Diamine dyes,
the Benzo dyes, the Congo and the Zambesi dyes, for in the dyeing of
wool-cotton fabrics they have made a revolution. The dyer of union
fabrics, that is, fabrics composed of wool and cotton, was formerly put
to great straits to obtain uniform shades on the fabrics supplied to
him, owing to the difference in the affinity of the two fibres for the
dye-stuffs then known. Now the direct dyes afford him a means of easily
dyeing a piece of cotton-wool cloth in any colour of a uniform shade,
while the production of two coloured effects is much more under his
control, and has led to the increased production of figured-dress
fabrics, with the ground in one fibre (wool) and colour, and the design
in another fibre (cotton) and colour. The number of direct dyes issued
by the various colour manufacturers is so great that it would take a
fairly considerable space to discuss them all.

To obtain good results it is needful that the dyer of union fabrics
should have a thorough knowledge of the dyes he is using, for each dye
makes a rule to itself as regards its power of dyeing wool and
cotton--some go better on to the cotton than on to the wool, and _vice
versa_. Some dye wool best at the boil, others equally well below that
heat; some go on the cotton at a moderate temperature, others require
the dye-bath to be boiling; some will go on to the cotton only, and
appear to ignore the wool.

The presence or absence in the dye-bath of such bodies as carbonate of
soda, Glauber's salt, etc., has a material influence on the degree of
the affinity of the dye-stuff for the two fibres, as will perhaps be
noted hereafter. Again, while some of the dyes produce equal colours on
both fibres, there are others where the tone is different. With all
these peculiarities of the Diamine and other direct dyes the union dyer
must make himself familiar. These dyes are used in neutral baths, that
is, along with the dye-stuff. It is often convenient to use, along with
the direct dyes, some azo or acid dyes, which have the property of
dyeing the wool from neutral baths, many examples of such will be found
in the practical recipes given below. The dyes now under consideration
may be conveniently classed into five groups.

1. Those dyes which dye the cotton and wool from the same bath to the
same shade, or nearly so. Among such are Thioflavine S, Diamine fast
yellow B, Diamine orange B, Diamine rose B D, Diamine reds 4 B, 5 B, 6 B
and 10 B, Diamine fast red F, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine brown N,
Diamine browns 3 G, B and G, Diamine blues R W, B X, Diamine blue G,
Diamine greens G and B, Diamine black H W, Diamine dark blue B, Union
blacks B and S, Oxydiamine blacks B, M, D and A, Diamine catechine G,
Union blue B B, Oxyphenine, Chloramine yellow, Alkali yellow R, Chromine
G, Titan scarlet S, Mimosa, Curcumine, Primuline, Auroline, Congo
Corinth B, Thiazole yellow, Columbia yellow, Oxydiamine yellow G G,
Oxydiamine oranges G and R, Diamine orange F, Oxydiamine red S.

2. Dyes which dye the cotton a deeper shade than the wool. The
following belong to this group: Diamine fast yellow A, Diamine oranges G
and D, Diamine catechine G, Diamine catechine B, Diamine sky blue,
Diamine blue 2 B, Diamine blue 8 B, Diamine blue B G, Diamine brilliant
blue G, Diamine new blue R, Diamine steel blue L, Diamine black R O,
Diamine black B 0, Diamine black B H, and Oxydiamine black S O O O,
Diamine nitrazol brown G, Diamine sky blue F F, Diamine dark blue B,
Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine violet N, Oxydiamine violet B, Columbia
blacks B and F B, Zambesi black B, Congo brown G, Direct yellow G,
Direct orange B, Clayton yellow, Cotton yellow, orange T A, Benzo
purpurine B, Brilliant Congo R, Chicago blues B and 4 B and 6 B.

3. Dyes which dye wool a deeper shade than the cotton. The dyes in this
group are not numerous. They are Diamine gold, Diamine scarlet B,
Diamine scarlet 3 B, Diamine Bordeaux S, Diamine blue R W, and Diamine
green G, Diamine reds N 0 and B, Chicago blues G and R, Brilliant
purpurine R, Diamine scarlet B, Delta purpurine 5 B, Chrysamine, Titan
blue, Titan pink, Congo oranges G and R, Erie blue 2 G, Congo R,
Brilliant Congo R, Erika B N, Benzo purpurines 4 B and 10 B,
Chrysophenine, Titan yellow, Titan browns Y, R and O, Congo brown G,
Sulphon azurine B, Zambesi black B.

4. Dyes which produce different shades on the two fibres. Diamine brown
G, and Diamine blue 3 R, Diamine brown V, Diamine brown S, Diamine
nitrazol brown B, Diamine blues B X and 3 R, Diamine blue black E, Benzo
blue black G, Benzo purpurine 10 B, Benzo azurines R, G and 3 G,
Columbia red S, Brilliant azurine 5 G, Titan marine blue, Congo Corinths
G and B, Azo blue, Hessian violet, Titan blue, Azo mauve, Congo brown,
Diamine bronze G, Zambesi browns G and 2 G, Zambesi black F.

5. Azo-acid dyes, which dye wool from neutral baths, and are therefore
suitable for shading up the wool to the cotton in union fabric dyeing.
Among the dyes thus available may be enumerated: Naphthol blues G and R,
Naphthol blue black, Formyl violet 10 B, Lanacyl blue B B, Lanacyl blue
R, Alkaline blue, Formyl violets S 4 B and 6 B, Rocceleine, Azo red A,
Croceine A Z, Brilliant scarlet, Orange extra, Orange E N Z, Indian
yellow G, Indian yellow R, Tropæoline O O, Naphthylamine black 4 B and
Naphthol blue black, Brilliant scarlet G, Lanacyl violet B, Brilliant
milling green B, Thiocarmine R, Formyl blue B, Naphthylamine blacks D, 4
B and 6 B; Azo-acid yellow, Curcumine extra, Mandarine G, Ponceau 3 R B,
Acid violet 6 B, Guinea violet 4 B, Guinea green B, Wool black 6 B.

Regarding the best methods of dyeing, that in neutral baths yields the
most satisfactory results in practical working. It is done in a boiling
hot or in a slightly boiling bath, with the addition of 6-1/4 oz.
crystallised Glauber's salt per gallon water for the first bath, and
when the baths are kept standing 20 per cent. crystallised Glauber's
salt, reckoned upon the weight of the goods, for each succeeding lot.

In dyeing unions, the dye-baths must be as concentrated as possible, and
must not contain more than from 25 to 30 times as much water as the
goods weigh. In this respect it may serve as a guide that concentrated
baths are best used when dyeing dark shades, while light shades can be
dyed in more diluted baths. The most important factor for producing
uniform dyeings is the appropriate regulation of the temperature of the
dye-bath. Concerning this, the dyer must bear in mind that the direct
colours possess a greater affinity for the cotton if dyed below the
boiling point, and only go on the wool when the bath is boiling,
especially so the longer and more intensely the goods are boiled.

The following method of dyeing is perhaps the best one: Charge the
dye-bath with the requisite dye-stuff and Glauber's salt, boil up, shut
off the steam, enter the goods and let run for half an hour without
steam, then sample. If the shade of both cotton and wool is too light
add some more of the dye-stuffs used for both fibres, boil up once more
and boil for a quarter to half an hour. If the wool only is too light,
or its shade different from that of the cotton, add some more of the
dye-stuff used for shading the wool and bring them again to the boil.
If, however, the cotton turns out too light, or does not correspond in
shade to the wool, add some more of the dye-stuffs used for dyeing the
cotton, without, however, raising the temperature. Prolonged boiling is
only necessary very rarely, and generally only if the goods to be dyed
are difficult to penetrate, or contain qualities of wool which only with
difficulty take up the dye-stuff. In such cases, in making up the bath
dye-stuffs are to be selected some of which go only on the wool and
others which go only on the cotton (those belonging to the second
group).

The goods can then be boiled for some time, and perfect penetration and
level shades will result. If the wool takes up the dye-stuff easily (as
is frequently the case with goods manufactured from shoddy), and are
therefore dyed too dark a shade, then dye-stuffs have to be used which
principally dye the cotton, and a too high temperature should be
avoided. In such cases it is advisable to diminish the affinity of the
wool by the addition of one-fifth of the original quantity of Glauber's
salt (about 3/8 oz. per gallon water), and from three-quarters to
four-fifths of the dye-stuff used for the first lot. Care has to be
taken that not much of the dye liquor is lost when taking out the dyed
goods, otherwise the quantities of Glauber's salt and dye-stuff will
have to be increased proportionately. Wooden vats, such as are generally
used for piece dyeing, have proved the most suitable. They are heated
with direct, or, still better, with indirect steam. The method which has
proved most advantageous is to let the steam run into a space separated
from the vat by a perforated wall, into which space the required
dye-stuffs and salt are placed.

The mode of working is rather influenced by the character of the goods,
and the following notes will be found useful by the union dyer:--

Very little difficulty will be met with in dyeing such light fabrics as
Italians, cashmere, serges and similar thin textiles lightly woven from
cotton warp and woollen weft. When deep shades (blacks, dark blues,
browns and greens), are being dyed it is not advisable to make up the
dye-bath with the whole of the dyes at once. It is much better to add
these in quantities of about one-fourth at a time at intervals during
the dyeing of the piece. It is found that the affinity of the wool for
the dyes at the boil is so much greater than is that of the cotton that
it would, if the whole of the dye were used, take up too much of the
colour, and then would come up too deep in shade. Never give a strong
boil with such fabrics, but keep the bath just under the boil, which
results in the wool dyeing much more nearly like to cotton.

_Bright Yellow._--Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S in a bath which contains 4 lb.
Glauber's salt per 10 gallons of dye liquor.

_Good Yellow._--A very fine deep shade is dyed with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine
gold and 2-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, in the same way as the last.
Here advantage is taken of the fact that while the Diamine gold dyes the
wool better than the cotton, the yellow dyes the cotton the deeper
shade, and between the two a uniform shade of yellow is got.

_Pale Gold Yellow._--Use a dye liquor containing 4 lb. Glauber's salt in
every 10 gallons, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A, 2 oz. Indian yellow G
and 3-1/2 oz. Indian yellow R. In this recipe there is used in the two
last dyes purely wool yellows, which dye the wool the same tint as the
fast yellow A dyes the cotton.

_Bright Yellow._--Use in the same way as the last, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine
fast yellow B and 3 oz. Indian yellow G.

_Gold Orange._--Use as above 2 lb. Diamine orange G, 5-1/2 oz. Indian
yellow K and 1-1/2 oz. Orange E N Z.

_Deep Orange._--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine orange D C, 6-1/2 oz. Orange E N
Z, and 3-1/4 oz. Indian yellow R.

_Black._--Use 4-1/2 lb. Union black S, 2 oz. Diamine fast yellow A, 5
oz. Naphthol blue black and 3-1/4 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B, with 4 lb.
Glauber's salt in each 10 gallons dye liquor.

_Navy Blue._--Use 1-1/4 lb. Union black S, 3 lb. Diamine black B H, 1/2
oz. Naphthol blue black, 1/2 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B and 2-1/2 oz.
alkaline blue B.

_Red Plum._--Use a dye-bath containing 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine violet B and
3-1/4 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Dark Green._--A fine shade can be dyed in a bath containing 3 lb.
Diamine green B and 1-1/2 lb. Diamine black H W.

_Dark Slate._--Use 4 lb. Diamine black H W, 2 oz. Naphthol blue black
and 3 oz. Azo red A.

_Sage._--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Diamine bronze G and 1-1/4 oz.
Naphthol blue black.

_Dark Brown._--A fine dark shade is got from 2-1/2 lb. Diamine brown V
and 2 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Peacock Green._--Use 3-3/4 lb. Diamine steel blue L, 13 oz. Diamine
fast yellow B, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine K and 2-1/4 oz. Indian yellow G in
a bath of 4 lb. Glauber's salt per gallon dye liquor.

_Dark Sea Green._--Use 9 oz. Diamine steel blue L, 3-3/4 oz. Diamine
fast yellow B, 1/2 oz. Diamine orange G, 1-1/4 oz. Naphthol blue black
and 3/4 oz. Indian yellow G.

_Dark Brown._--Use 1 lb. Diamine orange B, 1 lb. Diamine Fast yellow S,
13-3/4 oz. Union black S, 1 lb. Diamine brown M and 1/2 lb. Indian
yellow G. Fix in an alum bath after dyeing.

_Dark Stone._--Use 1/2 lb. Diamine orange B, 3-3/4 oz. Union black, 1/4
oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, 1-1/2 oz. Azo red A and 3/4 oz. Naphthol blue
black.

_Black._--A very fine black can be got from 3-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black B
M, 2 lb. Union black S, 9-1/2 oz. Naphthol blue black and 4 oz. Formyl
violet S 4 B.

_Dark Grey._--A fine bluish shade of grey is got from 7 oz. Diamine
black B H, 2-1/4 oz. Diamine orange G, 2-1/2 oz. Diamine orange G, 2-1/2
oz. Naphthol blue black and 1 oz. Orange E N Z.

_Dark Blue._--A fine shade is got by using 2 lb. Diamine black B H, 1/2
lb. Diamine black H W, and 3-1/2 oz. Alkaline blue 6 B.

_Drab._--Use 3-1/2 oz. Diamine orange B, 3/4 oz. Union black, 1/8 oz.
Diamine Bordeaux B, 3/4 oz. Azo red A and 1/4 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Plum._--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine violet N, 9-1/2 oz. Union black and 1 lb.
Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Bright Yellow._--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Thioflavine S, 2 lb.
Naphthol yellow S, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 2 lb. acetic acid.

_Pink._--Use 1/6 oz. Diamine Rose B D, 1/4 oz. Diamine scarlet B, 1/2
oz. Rhodamine B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Scarlet._--A fine shade is got from 1-1/2 lb. Diamine scarlet B, 1/2
oz. Diamine red 5 B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Orange._--Use a dye-bath containing 3-1/2 lb. Diamine orange G, 14-1/2
oz. Tropæoline O O, and 2-3/4 oz. Orange extra.

_Sky Blue._--Use 1-1/2 oz. Diamine sky blue and 1-1/4 oz. Alkaline blue
B.

_Bright Blue._--A fine shade similar to that formerly known as royal
blue is got by using 1-1/2 lb. Diamine brilliant blue G and 9-1/4 oz.
Alkaline blue 6 B.

_Maroon._--Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 2 lb. Diamine violet N and
3-1/4 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Green._--A fine green similar in shade to that used for billiard-table
cloth is got from 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 2 lb. Diamine steel blue
L, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine R and 7-1/4 oz. Indian yellow G.

_Gold Brown_--A fine brown is got from 3 lb. Diamine orange B, 1/2 lb.
Union black, 2-1/2 oz. Diamine brown, 3/4 oz. Naphthol blue black and
1/2 lb. Indian yellow G.

_Navy Blue._--Use 3-1/4 lb. Diamine black B H, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine
brilliant blue G and 1/2 lb. Alkaline blue.

_Fawn Drab._--A fine shade is got by dyeing in a bath containing 6-3/4
oz. Diamine orange B, 1-3/4 lb. Union black, 1/4 oz. Naphthol blue
black, 1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B and 1 oz. Azo red A.

In all these colours the dye-baths contain Glauber's salt at the rate of
4 lb. per 10 gallons.

_Dark Brown._--2-1/2 lb. Diamine orange B, 13 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow B, 1-3/4 lb. Union black and 3-1/2 oz.
Naphthol black.

_Drab._--1-3/4 lb. Diamine fast yellow R, 3-1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B,
2-1/2 oz. Union black, 1/2 oz. Naphthol blue black and 1-1/4 oz. Indian
yellow G.

_Dark Blue._--Use in the dye-bath 4-1/4 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 1-1/2
lb. Diamine brilliant blue G, 3/4 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B and 5 oz.
Naphthol blue black.

_Blue Black-_--Use 3-1/2 lb. Union black S, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black B
M, 6-1/2 oz. Naphthol blue black and 1/4 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Dark Walnut._--2-3/4 lb. Diamine brown M, 1-1/2 lb. Union black S, and
11-1/4 oz. Indian yellow G.

_Peacock Green._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine black H W, 5-1/6 oz.
Diamine fast yellow B, 1-1/4 lb. Thiocarmine R and 1-1/6 oz. Indian
yellow G.

_Slate Blue._--Use in the dye-bath 6-1/2 oz. Diamine carechine B, 4-3/4
oz. Diamine orange B, 2-1/2 oz. Union black, 2-3/4 oz. Orange E N Z, and
1-3/4 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Dark Sage._--A good shade is dyed with 1 lb. Diamine orange B, 6-1/2
oz. Union black, 1-3/4 oz. Diamine brown M, 3-1/4 oz. azo red A and
2-1/4 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Navy Blue._--Use 2 lb. Diamine dark blue B, 1-1/4 lb. Lanacyl violet B,
and 7 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Bronze Green._--A good shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine orange B, 5 oz.
Diamine brown N, 3/4 lb. Union black S, 1 lb. Indian yellow G and 2-1/2
oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Black._--Use 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black B M and 1-1/2 lb.
Naphthylamine black 6 B. Another recipe, 2-1/4 lb. Oxydiamine black B M,
1 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Orange E N Z and 2 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Dark Brown._--Use 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black B M, 15-1/2 oz. Diamine
brown M, 1-3/4 lb. Indian yellow G and 2-3/4 oz. Naphthol blue black.
Another combination, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black B M, 1-1/2 lb. Orange E
N Z, 1 lb. Indian yellow G and 5 oz. Naphthol blue black.

_Scarlet._--3 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 3/4 oz. Ponceau 3 R B and 1/2 lb.
Curcumine S.

_Crimson._--1/2 lb. Congo Corinth G, 2 lb. Benzo purpurine 10 B and 1/2
lb. Curcumine S.

_Bright Blue._--2 lb. Chicago blue 6 B, 3 oz. Alkali blue 6 B, 1-1/2 oz.
Zambesi blue R X. After dyeing rinse and develop in a bath of 8 oz.
sulphuric acid in 10 gallons of water, then rinse well.

_Dark Blue._--2-1/2 lb. Columbia fast blue 2 G, 3 oz. Sulphon azurine D,
8 oz. Alkali blue 6 B. After dyeing rinse and develop in a bath of 8 oz.
sulphuric acid in 20 gallons of water.

_Orange._--9 oz. Congo brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Mikado orange 4 R O and 1-1/2
oz. Mandarine G.

_Dark Green._--2 lb. Columbia green, 1/2 lb. Sulphon azurine D, 1 lb.
Zambesi blue B X, 1-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.

_Black._--4 lb. Columbia black F B and 2 lb. Wool black 6 B.

_Pale Sage Green._--5 oz. Zambesi black D, 3/4 lb. Chrysophenine G and
1-1/2 lb. Curcumine S.

_Slate._--1/2 lb. Zambesi black D, 3/4 oz. Zambesi blue R X, 1/2 oz.
Mikado orange 4 R 0 and 1-1/2 oz. Acid violet 6 B.

_Dark Grey._--1 lb. Columbia black F B, 3 oz. Zambesi black B and 3/4
oz. Sulphon azurine D.

_Drab._--1-1/2 oz. Zambesi black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1/4 oz.
Curcumine extra and 3 oz. Mikado orange 4 R O.

_Brown._--5 oz. Zambesi black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange T A and 2 oz. Mikado orange 4 R 0.

_Nut Brown._--3/4 lb. Congo brown G, 1/4 lb. Chicago blue R W and 3/4
lb. Mikado orange 4 R 0.

_Dark Brown._--1 lb. Congo brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Benzo purpurine 4 B, 1-1/2
lb. Zambesi black F and 1/2 lb. Wool black 6 B.

_Stone._--1 oz. Zambesi black D, 1/4 oz. Mandarine G, 1/4 oz. Curcumine
extra and 1-1/4 oz. Mikado orange 4 R 0.

_Slate Green._--3 oz. Zambesi black D, 1-1/2 oz. Guinea green B.

_Sage Brown._--1/2 lb. Zambesi black D, 1-1/2 oz. Mandarine G extra, 3
oz. Curcumine extra, 3 oz. Acid violet 6 B, 6 oz. Mikado orange 4 R 0
and 4-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.

_Cornflower Blue._--3 oz. Chicago blue 4 R, 1/4 lb. Zambesi blue R X,
1/4 lb. Acid violet 6 B and 3/4 oz. Zambesi brown G.

_Dark Brown._--1-1/2 lb. Brilliant orange G, 1/2 lb. Orange T A, 1 lb.
Columbia black F B and 1/4 lb. Wool black 6 B.

_Dark Blue._--2 lb. Chicago blue W, 1 lb. Zambesi blue R X, 1/2 lb.
Columbia black F B, 10 oz. Guinea green B and 1/2 lb. Guinea violet 4 B.

The Janus dyes may be used for the dyeing of half wool (union) fabrics.
The best plan of working is to prepare a bath with 5 lb. of sulphate of
zinc; in this the goods are worked at the boil for five minutes, then
there is added the dyes previously dissolved in water, and the working
continued for a quarter of an hour; there is then added 20 lb. Glauber's
salt, and the working at the boil continued for one hour, at the end of
which time the dye-bath will be fairly well exhausted of colour. The
goods are now taken out and put into a fixing-bath of sumac or tannin,
in which they are treated for fifteen minutes; to this same bath there
is next added tartar emetic and 1 lb. sulphuric acid, and the working
continued for a quarter of an hour, then the bath is heated to 160° F.,
when the goods are lifted, rinsed and dried. In the recipes the
quantities of the dyes, sumac or tannin and tartar emetic are given
only, the other ingredients and processes are the same in all.

_Dark Blue._--2-1/4 lb. Janus dark blue B and 1/4 lb. Janus green B in
the dye-bath, and 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing-bath.

_Blue Black._--3-1/2 lb. Janus black I and 1/2 lb. Janus black II in the
dye-bath, and 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing-bath.

_Dark Brown._--2-1/2 lb. Janus brown B, 1 lb. Janus black I, 3-1/2 oz.
Janus yellow G and 5 oz. Janus red B in the dye-bath, with 16 lb. sumac
extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Drab._--1-1/2 oz. Janus yellow R, 3/4 oz. Janus red B, 1 oz. Janus blue
R and 1/4 oz. Janus grey B B in the dye-bath, and 4 lb. sumac extract
and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Grey._--5 oz. Janus blue R, 3-1/4 oz. Janus grey B, 1-1/2 oz. Janus
yellow R and 1/4 oz. Janus red B in the dye-bath, with 4 lb. sumach
extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Nut Brown._--1 lb. Janus brown R, 8 oz. Janus yellow R and 1-1/2 oz.
Janus blue B in the dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar
emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Walnut Brown._--3 lb. Janus brown B, 1 lb. Janus red B, 1 lb. Janus
yellow R, 1-1/4 oz. Janus green B in the dye-bath, with 8 lb. sumac
extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Crimson._--2-1/2 lb. Janus red B and 8 oz. Janus claret red B in the
dye-bath, with 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing-bath.

_Dark Green._--1-1/2 lb. Janus green B, 1-1/2 lb. Janus yellow R and 8
oz. Janus grey B B in the dye-bath, with 12 lb. sumac extract and 1-1/4
lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

_Chestnut Brown._--1 lb. Janus brown R and 1 lb. Janus yellow R in the
dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing-bath.

Before the introduction of the direct dyes the method usually followed,
and, indeed still used to a great extent, is that known as cross dyeing.
The goods were woven with dyed cotton threads of the required shade, and
undyed woollen threads. After weaving and cleansing the woollen part of
the fabric was dyed with acid dyes, such as Acid magenta, Scarlet R,
Acid yellow, etc. In such methods care has to be taken that the dyes
used for dyeing the cotton are such as stand acids, a by no means easy
condition to fulfil at one time. Many of the direct dyes are fast to
acids and, therefore, lend themselves more or less readily to cross
dyeing. For details of the dyes for cotton reference may be made to the
sections on dyeing with the direct colours, page 85, etc., while
information as to methods of dyeing the wool will be found in the
companion volume to this on _Dyeing of Woollen Fabrics_.

=Shot Effects.=--A pleasing kind of textile fabric which is now made,
and is a great favourite for ladies' dress goods, is where the cotton of
a mixed fabric is thrown up to form a figured design. It is possible to
dye the two fibres in different colours, and so produce a variety of
shot effects. These latter are so endless that it is impossible here to
enumerate all that may be produced. It will have to suffice to lay down
the lines which may be followed to the best advantage, and then give
some recipes to illustrate the remarks that have been made. The best
plan for the production of shot effects upon union fabrics is to take
advantage of the property of certain acid dyes which dye only the wool
in an acid bath, and of many of the direct colours which will only dye
the cotton in an alkaline bath. The process, working on these lines,
becomes as follows: The wool is first dyed in an acid bath with the
addition of Glauber's salt and bisulphate of soda, or sulphuric acid,
the goods are then washed with water containing a little ammonia to free
them from the acid, and afterwards dyed with the direct colour in an
alkaline bath.

Fancy or the mode shades are obtained by combining suitable dye-stuffs.

If the cotton is to be dyed in light shades it is advantageous to dye on
the liquor at 65° to 80° F., with the addition of 3-1/4 oz. Glauber's
salt, and from 20 to 40 grains borax per gallon water. The addition of
an alkali is advisable in order to neutralise any slight quantities of
acid which may have remained in the wool, and to prevent the dye-stuff
from dyeing the cotton too deep a shade.

Very light shades can also be done on the padding machine. The
dye-stuffs of Group II., which have been previously enumerated, do not
stain the wool at all, or only very slightly, and are, therefore, the
most suitable. Less bright effects can be produced by simply dyeing the
goods in one bath. The wool is first dyed at the boil with the
respective wool dye-stuff in a neutral bath, the steam is then shut off
and the cotton dyed by adding the cotton dye-stuff to the bath, and
dyeing without again heating. By passing the goods through cold water to
which some sulphuric or acetic acid is added, the brightness of most
effects is greatly increased.

_Gold and Green._--First bath, 1 lb. Cyanole extra, 7-1/4 oz. Acid
green, 1-1/2 oz. Orange G G, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda; work at the
boil for one hour, then lift and rinse well. Second bath, 4 lb. Diamine
orange G and 15 lb. Glauber's salt; work in the cold or at a lukewarm
heat. Third bath, at 120° F., 4 oz. Chrysoidine and 1/4 oz. Safranine.

_Black and Blue._--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol black 3 B and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine sky blue and 13 lb.
Glauber's salt. Third bath, 6-1/2 oz. New Methylene blue N. Work as in
the last recipe.

_Green and Claret._--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol red C and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 1-1/4 lb.
Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Gold Brown and Blue._--First bath, 2-1/2 oz. orange E N Z, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange G G, 1/4 oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second
bath, 14 oz. Diamine sky blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Dark Brown and Blue._--First bath, 1/2 lb. Orange G G, 1-1/2 oz. Orange
E N Z, 1-1/2 oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second
bath, 12 oz. Diamine sky blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Black and Green Blue._--First bath, 3 lb. Orange G G, 1 lb. Brilliant
cochineal 4 R, 1 lb. Fast acid green B N and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.
Second bath, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 3-1/4 lb. Thioflavine S and
15 lb. Glauber's salt.

We may here note that in all the above recipes the second bath (for
dying the cotton) should be used cold or at lukewarm heat and as strong
as possible. It is not completely exhausted of colour, only about
one-half going on the fibre. If kept as a standing bath this feature
should be borne in mind, and less dye-stuff used in the dyeing of the
second and following lots of goods.

_Blue and Gold Yellow._--3 lb. Diamine orange G, 13 oz. Naphthol blue G,
14-1/2 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Work at just
under the boil.

_Brown and Blue._--1 lb. Diamine steel blue L, 9-1/2 oz. Diamine sky
blue, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, 1 lb. Indian yellow G, 1-3/4 oz. Naphthol blue
black and 15 lb. Glauber s salt. Work at 170° to 180° F.

In these two last recipes only one bath is used, all the dyes being
added at once. This is possible if care be taken that dye-stuffs of two
kinds are used, one or more which will dye wool and not cotton from
neutral baths, and those direct dyes which dye cotton better than wool.
The temperature should also be kept below the boil and carefully
regulated as the operation proceeds and the results begin to show
themselves.

_Grey and Orange._--First bath, 3 oz. Orange extra, 1-1/4 lb. Cyanole
extra, 1 lb. Azo red A and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 5 oz.
Diamine orange D C and 3 oz. Diamine fast yellow B.

_Green and Red._--First bath, 2 lb. Croceine A Z, and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt. Second bath, 1 lb. Diamine sky blue F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S,
and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Brown and Violet._--First bath, 3/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 lb. Cyanole
extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 5 oz. Diamine
brilliant blue G, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Black and Yellow._--First bath, 7 lb. Naphthol black B, 1/2 lb. Fast
yellow S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath 3 lb. Diamine fast
yellow A, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Black and Pink._--Black as above. Pink with Diamine rose B D (see
above).

_Green and Buff._--First bath, 1/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 oz. Fast yellow
S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine sky blue
F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

_Orange and Violet._--First bath, 9 oz. Orange extra, and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine violet N, and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

_Black and Blue._--First bath, Naphthol black as given above. Second
bath, Diamine sky blue as given above.

_Black and Yellow._--Add first 1 lb. Wool black 6 B, and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then, when the wool has been dyed, add 2 lb. Curcumine S
to dye the cotton in the same bath.

_Green and Red._--Dye the wool by using 3 lb. Guinea green B, 1/4 lb.
Curcumeine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then add to the bath 3/4
lb. Erika B N, and 3/4 lb. Congo Corinth G.

_Orange and Blue._--Dye the wool first with 1-1/4 lb. Mandarine G, 2 oz.
Wool black 6 B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then the cotton with 2 lb.
Columbia blue G.

_Blue and Orange._--Dye the wool first with 3/4 lb. Guinea violet B, 3/4
lb. Guinea green B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then dye the cotton with
2 lb. Mikado orange 4 R O.

_Green and Orange._--Dye the wool with 3 lb. Guinea green B, 1/4 lb.
Curcumeine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then dye the cotton in the
same bath with 1-1/2 lb. Mikado orange 4 R O.



CHAPTER VI.

DYEING HALF SILK (COTTON-SILK, SATIN) FABRICS.


The direct dyes of the Diamine, Benzo and Congo types have been of late
years increasingly used for dyeing satin (silk and cotton), and they
have quite displaced the old methods of dyeing this class of fabrics,
which consisted in first dyeing the silk with an acid dye and then
dyeing the cotton with a basic dye. For details of the method of
applying acid dyes to silk reference may be made to Mr. G.H. Hurst's
book on _Silk Dyeing_.

Most of the direct colours are exceedingly well adapted for this
purpose, some under certain conditions possess the property of dyeing
the cotton a deeper shade than the silk, which is an advantage rather
than otherwise.

The dyeing of goods composed of silk and cotton is generally done in
winch dye-vats, in some cases also on the jigger.


METHOD OF DYEING.

The direct colours are as a rule dyed in a soap-bath with addition of
phosphate of soda, Glauber's salt or common salt and a little soda.

The addition of these salts effects a better exhaustion of the baths;
they are therefore principally used for dark and full shades, whilst
pale shades are dyed with the addition of soap only or in combination
with phosphate of soda. Dark or pale shades may thus be produced at will
by selecting the proper additions, but the fact should not be
overlooked that the greater exhaustion of the baths not only increases
the depth of shade of the cotton but also causes the silk to absorb more
dye-stuff. Too large a proportion of salt would cause the dye-stuffs to
go on the fibre too quickly and thus make the dyeing liable to turn out
uneven.

A large proportion of soap counteracts the effects of the salts, causing
the dye-stuff to go on less quickly and tending to leave the silk
lighter than the cotton, in some cases even almost white, a property
which is valuable in many cases, especially as enabling the silk and
cotton to be dyed in different colours to obtain shot effects.

It is thus obvious that a general method applicable in all cases cannot
be given; it will vary according to the effect desired, and partly also
depend on the material to be dyed.

The following particulars may serve as a guide for the first bath:--

For pale shades each 10 gallons dye-liquor should contain 3-1/4 to 6-1/2
oz. soap and 4 to 7 drs. soda or 3-1/4 to 6-1/2 oz. soap, 4 to 5-1/2
drs. soda and 3-1/4 to 6-1/2 oz. phosphate of soda.

For medium and dark shades each 10 gallons dye-liquor may contain 3-1/4
to 6-1/2 oz. soap, 4 to 7 drs. soda, 3-1/4 to 6-1/2 oz. phosphate of
soda and 6-1/2 to 13 oz. cryst. Glauber's salt.

For two coloured effects or dyeings, in which the silk is intended to
remain as pale as possible or even white, each 10 gallons dye-liquor may
contain 4-3/4 to 8 oz. soap, 4 to 6 drs. soda, 3-1/4 to 8 oz. phosphate
of soda and 4-3/4 to 9-1/2 oz. cryst. Glauber's salt.

The temperature of the dye-baths is generally 175° to 195° F.; in
practical dyeing it is usual to boil up the fully charged dye-bath, shut
off the steam, enter the goods and dye for about three-quarters of an
hour.

For obtaining level dyeings in pale shades it is advisable not to enter
the goods too hot, but to raise the temperature gradually. Raising the
temperature, or dyeing for some time at the boil will deepen the shade
of the cotton, but at the same time will have the same effect on the
silk which may sometimes be an advantage when dyeing dark shades.

As a complete exhaustion of the baths does not take place, especially
when dyeing dark shades, it is advantageous, nay, even imperative, to
preserve the baths for further use, they are then replenished with only
about three-fourths of the quantities of dye-stuffs used for the first
bath, of the soap only about one fourth, of Glauber's salt, soda and
phosphate of soda only about one-fifth, of the first quantities are
necessary.

The first bath should be prepared with condensed water. If none is at
hand ordinary water should be boiled up with soda and soap and the scum
removed. Clear soap baths are absolutely necessary for the production of
pure shades and clean pieces.

After dyeing, the pieces must be very well rinsed, and the colour raised
or brightened with 1 pint of acetic acid in 10 gallons of water.

Many of the Diamine and Titan colours being very fast to acids, but few
of them will be affected by this treatment.

In the following tables are given those Diamine, etc., colours
especially adapted for the dyeing of goods composed of silk and cotton,
divided into three groups according to their relation to silk and
cotton:--

1. Dye-stuffs possessing a great affinity to cotton and tinting the silk
not at all or only very little. To this class belong Chicago blues,
Benzo blues, Diamine fast yellow A, Diamine orange G G, Diamine orange D
C, Diamine blue B B, Diamine blue 3 B, Diamine sky blue F F, Diamine
brilliant blue G, Diamineral blue E, Diamine black B, Mikado browns,
Mikado oranges, Mikado yellows.

2. Dye-stuffs producing on cotton and silk the same or nearly the same
shade but covering the cotton better than the silk. These are
Thioflavine S, Diamine yellow N, Diamine gold, Diamine fast yellow B,
Diamine orange B, Diamine grey G, Diamine rose B D, Diamine scarlet S,
Diamine scarlet B, Diamine scarlet 3 B, Diamine red 5 B, Diamine fast
red F, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine Bordeaux S, Diamine violet N,
Oxydiamine violet B, Diamine blue R W, Diamine black H W, Diamine steel
blue L, Diamine dark blue B, Union black S, Oxydiamine black D,
Diaminogene extra, Diaminogene B, Diamine brown M, Diamine brown 3 G,
Diamine green B, Diamine green G.

3. Dye-stuffs producing on cotton more or less different shades than on
silk. This group comprises Diamine blue C B, Diamine blue B G, Diamine
blue B X, Diamine azo blue 2 R, Diamine blue 3 R, Diamine blue black E,
Diamine black R O, Oxydiamine black S O O O, Diamine brown V, Diamine
brown B, Diamine bronze G. Cotton brown N produces on silk darker shades
than on cotton.

Of course this classification cannot be taken as absolutely correct, as
by raising or lowering the temperature during the dyeing process or by a
larger or smaller addition of soap or Glauber's salt (common salt,
phosphate of soda), the dye-stuffs are more or less influenced in one or
the other direction. Diamine violet N, for instance, when dyed with an
increased addition of soap would dye the cotton somewhat lighter, but at
the same time leave the silk perfectly white.

=Topping with Basic and Acid Dye-stuffs.=--As in very few cases only the
desired shade can be obtained in the first instance by bottoming with
direct colours, topping generally has to be resorted to. This is best
done with basic dyes, in some cases also with acid dye-stuffs in cold or
tepid bath with addition of sulphuric acid, hydrochloric or acetic acid.
The use of acid dye-stuffs is restricted to cases where the silk alone
is to be shaded. In most cases basic dye-stuffs are made use of, which
dye silk and cotton the same shade and deepen the shade of the cotton if
the latter has a sufficiently good bottom, thus giving the goods a
better and fuller appearance.

It is not advisable to employ basic and acid dye-stuffs in the same bath
except when the quantities of either class are very small. Should it be
necessary to dye with large quantities of both classes, the acid
dye-stuffs are first dyed in a tepid acid bath and then the goods are
topped with the basic dye-stuffs in a fresh cold bath with the addition
of a little hydrochloric or acetic acid.

Of the basic dye-stuffs which are available, the following are the most
suitable for topping: New methylene blue N, and other brands; New blue D
and other brands; Cresyl blue, Methylindone B and R, Metaphenylene blue,
Indazine; the various brands of Brilliant green, Solid green and
Malachite green, Capri green, Cresyl violet, Thioflavine T, New
phosphine G, Tannin orange R, and the various brands of Bismarck brown;
Safranine, Magenta all brands, Tannin heliotrope, all brands of Neutral
violet, Methyl violet.

Of the acid dye-stuffs, the following are good for topping or shading
the silk: Cyanole extra, Indigo blue N, Indigo blue S G N, and the
various brands of Water blue, Soluble blue, Solid blue, and Induline;
the various brands of Acid green and Fast acid green; Indian yellow G
and R, Naphthol yellow S, Tropæoline O and O O, and the various brands
of Milling yellow and Orange; Azo red A, Azo rubine A, Archil substitute
N, Azo orseille B B, Brilliant orseille C, and the various brands of
Eosine, Erythrosine, Rose bengale, Rhodamine, Brilliant croceine and
Brilliant scarlet; the various brands of Formyl violet and Acid violet;
Aniline grey B and Nigrosine, soluble in water.

_Bright Yellow._--Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S.

_Deep Orange Yellow._--This can be dyed by using 2 lb. Diamine yellow N.

_Gold Yellow._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine gold. Some care must be taken
with this, especially not to dye too hot or the silk will be dyed deeper
than the cotton.

_Deep Orange._--Use 2 lb. Diamine orange B.

_Bright Rose._--Use 2 lb. Diamine Rose B D. Do not work too high,
especially when dyeing light rose shades, as then the silk is apt to
take up too much colour.

_Scarlet._--Use in the dye-bath 2 lb. Diamine scarlet H S. The heat of
the dye-bath should not be allowed to exceed 160° to 170° F., or there
is a risk of the shades becoming somewhat duller.

_Crimson._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine fast red F.

_Violet._--Use 2 lb. Oxydiamine violet B.

_Bright Blue._--A fine shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine blue R W.

_Dark Green._--Use 2 lb. Diamine black H W. This gives a fine shade of
bluish green.

_Gold Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine brown 3 G at a low heat, from 150°
to 160° F., otherwise the silk takes up too much colour.

_Dark Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine green B.

_Deep Rose._--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine red 10 B.

_Brilliant Yellow._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Mikado golden yellow 8 G; then
enter into a cold bath which contains 1-1/2 per cent. Auramine II. This
gives a very bright shade of yellow.

_Dark Brown._--Dye a bottom with 2 lb. Mikado brown 3 G O, and then top
with 3 lb. Bismarck brown and 1/2 lb. Capri blue G O N.

_Crimson._--Dye with 2 lb. Mikado orange 5 R O and 2 lb. Hessian purple
N.

_Sage Green._--Dye a bottom with 2 lb. Mikado yellow G, 14 oz. Eboli
green T and 3 oz. Mikado brown M, then top in a fresh cold bath with
1/2 lb. Auramine II and 1/2 oz. Acridine Orange N 0.

_Leaf Green._--Dye a bottom with 3 lb. Mikado golden yellow 8 G and 1
lb. Eboli blue B; then top with 1-1/2 lb. Capri green 2 G in a cold
bath.

_Deep Brown._--Dye with 2 lb. Mikado orange 3 R O, 3 lb. Hessian grey S
and 1 lb. Hessian brown 2 B N; then top with 7 oz. Azine green T 0 and
2-1/4 lb. Acridine orange N 0.

_Dark Cream._--Bottom with 1 oz. Diamine orange G; then top in a fresh
warm bath with 1 oz. Orange G G, 1/2 oz. Indian yellow R, 5 lb.
Glauber's salt and 1 lb. acetic acid.

_Brilliant Violet._--Give a bottom with 1 lb. Diamine violet N; then top
in a fresh warm bath with 4 oz. Methyl violet B and 2 oz. Rhodamine.

_Slate._--Bottom in a hot bath with 6 oz. Diamine dark blue B and 1-1/2
oz. Diamine brown M; then top in a fresh bath at 170° F. with 4 oz.
Aniline grey B, 1 oz. Cyanole extra, 5 lb. Glauber's salt and 1 lb.
acetic acid.

_Black Brown._--Give a bottom with 2 lb. Cotton brown A, 1 lb. Diamine
gold and 3-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black S O O O; then top in a fresh bath at
120° F. with 4 oz. New methylene blue N, 1 oz. Safranine and 1/2 oz.
Indian yellow G.

_Bright Violet._--Use 1/2 lb. Oxydiamine violet B and 3/4 oz. Diamine
dark blue B; top after dyeing with 1/2 oz. Safranine, 1/4 oz.
Methylindone B and 1/4 oz. Cyanole extra.

_Drab._--Dye with 6 oz. Diamine orange G, 1 lb. Diamine bronze G and 3/4
lb. Diamine brown M, topping afterwards in a bath of 1/4 oz. Aniline
grey B and 1/4 oz. Bismarck brown F F.

_Leaf Green._--Dye with 1/2 lb. Diamine black H W, and 1 lb. Diamine
fast yellow B; top with 1/4 oz. Brilliant green, 1/4 oz. Indian yellow
R, 1/2 oz. Thioflavine T and 1/2 oz. Cyanole extra.

_Dark Crimson._--Use in the dye-bath 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux S, 3/4 lb.
Diamine orange D C and 1-1/2 lb. Diamine brown V, topping with 1 oz.
Magenta and 1/2 oz. Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Turquoise Blue._--Use to dye the ground, 6 oz. Diamine sky blue F F and
1/2 oz. Diamine fast yellow A; top with 1-1/2 oz. Cyanole extra and 1/4
oz. Brilliant green.

_Dark Grey._--Dye with 1/2 oz. Diamine grey G, and 1-1/2 oz. Diamine
brown M; top with 1/4 oz. Orange extra and 1 oz. Cyanole extra.

_Brilliant Orange._--Dye with 1 lb. Mikado orange R O, and top with 6
oz. Acridine orange N O and 12 oz. Auramine I I.

_Brown._--Dye a bottom colour with 3 lb. Mikado brown M, and top with 2
lb. Bismarck brown and 6 oz. Cresyl fast violet 2 R N.

_Deep Crimson._--Dye with 1 lb. Columbia black R and top with 6 oz.
Magenta.

_Pale Sea Green._--Use in the dye-bath 1/2 oz. Chrysophenine G, 1-1/2
oz. Chicago blue 6 B and 1-1/2 oz. Alkali blue 6 B.

_Bright Crimson._--Dye with 3 lb. Congo Corinth and top with 1 lb.
Magenta.

_Dark Russian Green._--Dye with 3 lb. Columbia black B; then top with 1
lb. Malachite green.

_Gold Drab._--Dye with 5 oz. Columbia black, and top with 5 oz.
Chrysoidine R.

_Bright Olive Yellow._--Dye with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine gold, 1-1/2 lb.
Diamine fast yellow A and 3/4 lb. Diamine bronze G; top with 1/2 lb.
Thioflavine T and 1/4 lb. Chrysoidine.

_Moss Brown._--Dye with 1 oz. Diamine brown M, 6 oz. Diamine fast yellow
A, 6 oz. Diamine bronze G, topping with 1 oz. new Methylene blue N and 4
oz. Orange G G.

_Dark Sea Green_--Dye a bottom with 9 oz. Diamine black B and 4-1/2 oz.
Diamine fast yellow B, then top with 2 oz. New methylene blue M and 2
oz. New phosphine G.

_Old Gold._--Dye a ground with 1/2 lb. Diamine gold, 1-1/4 lb. Diamine
fast yellow A, and 6 oz. Diamine bronze G, topping with 8 oz.
Thioflavine T, 1 oz. Indian yellow R and 1 oz. Brilliant green.

_Cornflower Blue._--Dye the ground with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine azo blue 2 B,
1-1/2 oz. Alkali blue 3 B, 1/2 lb. Oxydiamine black S O O O, and top
with 1 oz. Metaphenylene blue B, 2 oz. New methylene blue R and 1 oz.
Indigo blue N.

_Slate._--Dye with 7 oz. Diamine dark blue B and 1 oz. Diamine brown M;
top with 1 oz. Aniline grey B and 1 oz. Cyanole extra.

_Pale Drab._--Dye the ground with 1 oz. Diamine orange G C, 3/4 oz.
Diamine bronze G and 1/2 oz. Diamine brown M; top with 3/4 oz. New
methylene blue N, 1 oz. Bismarck brown and 1 oz. Cyanole extra.

_Deep Leaf Green._--Dye a ground colour with 1-1/4 lb. Diamine bronze G,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A and 1-1/2 lb. Diamine black H W; the
topping bath is made with 1/2 lb. Brilliant green, 1/2 lb. Chrysoidine
and 1/4 lb. New methylene blue N.

_Maroon._--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux S, 1/2 lb. Diamine orange D C
and 1/2 lb. Diamine brown V; top with 1/2 lb. Magenta and 1/4 lb. Formyl
violet S 4 B.

_Heliotrope._--Dye with 1 lb. Heliotrope 2 B.

_Lilac Rose._--Dye with 8 lb. Columbia black R and 1 lb. Alkali blue B;
after dyeing pass through a weak acetic acid bath, then wash well.

_Pea Green._--Dye with 2 lb. Chrysophenine, 1 lb. Chicago blue 6 B and 1
lb. Alkali blue 6 B; pass, after dyeing, through a weak acetic acid
bath, then wash well.

_Dark Drab._--Dye with 1/4 lb. Diamine brown M, 1 lb. Diamine fast
yellow A and 3/4 lb. Diamine bronze G; top with 1/2 lb. Orange G G and
1/2 lb. Cyanole extra.

_Deep Rose._--Dye the bottom colour with 1/2 lb. Diamine rose B D and
top with 1/4 lb. Rhodamine B and 1 oz. Safranine.

_Walnut Brown._--Dye the bottom colour with 1 lb. Oxydiamine black D, 1
lb. Diamine brown M and 1 lb. Oxydiamine violet B; the topping is done
with 4 oz. Safranine, 2 oz. New methylene blue N and 2 oz. Chrysoidine.

=Dyeing of Plain Black.=--Diamine blacks find a very extensive
application for dyeing blacks on satin, either dyed direct in one bath,
or dyed, diazotised and developed.

Union black S and Oxydiamine black D are particularly suitable for
direct blacks, and are used either alone or in a combination with
Diamine jet black S S, which produces a better covering of the silk, or
with Oxydiamine black S O O O, which deepens the shade of the cotton.
According to the shade required Diamine fast yellow A and B, Diamine
green B or G, or Alkaline blue may be used for shading.

Dye for about one hour at about 175° to 195° F. in as concentrated a
bath as possible, with about 7 to 8 lb. dye per 100 lb. of satin, 8 to
16 oz. Glauber's salt and 5 to 8 oz. soap per 10 gallons dye liquor;
keep cool in the bath for some time and rinse.

The raising is either done in a tepid soap bath with the addition of
some new methylene blue, or in an acid bath to which Naphthol, blue
black, Acid green, etc., is added for shading the silk.

Direct dyed blacks are especially suitable for cheap goods (ribbons,
light linings, etc.), for which special fastness to water is not
required; also for tram and tussar silk plushes, which are afterwards
topped with logwood.

If greater fastness is required, and more especially if it is a case of
replacing aniline black, Diaminogene diazotised and developed is a good
dye-stuff. It is extensively used for dyeing umbrella cloths and
linings. Against aniline black it has the great advantage of not
tendering the fibre in the least, and not turning green during storage.
Diaminogene B and Diaminogene extra are mostly used for this purpose,
the former for jet blacks, the latter for blue-black shades.

Proceed as follows: Enter the boiled off and acidulated goods in a
boiling bath as concentrated as possible, charged with 16 oz. Glauber's
salt per 10 gallons liquor, and 1 lb. acetic acid per 100 lb. dry goods.
For jet black add for 100 lb. satin, 6 to 8 lb. Diaminogene, 1 to 2 lb.
Naphthylamine black D, 1/2 to 1 lb. Diamine fast yellow A or Diamine
green B; for very deep shades about 1/5 of the quantity of Diaminogene B
may be replaced with Diamine jet black S S. For blue black, 6 to 8 lb.
Diaminogene B, or 3 to 4 lb. Diaminogene B, and 3 to 4 lb. Diaminogene
extra. Dye for three-quarters to one hour at the boil, allow to cool in
the bath for about thirty minutes, then rinse, diazotise and develop.

Phenylene diamine (93 per cent.) serves for developing jet blacks mixed
with resorcine for greenish shades. Beta-naphthol is used for blue
blacks (1 lb. 5 oz. per 100 lb. of dry material, dissolved in its own
weight of soda lye, 75° Tw.). The three developers may also be mixed
with each other in any proportions.

After developing soap hot with addition of new methylene blue, by
choosing a reddish or a bluish brand of new methylene, blue and black
may be shaded at will in the soap bath; finally rinse and raise with
acetic acid.

If properly carried out this process will give a black almost equal to
aniline black; but having, as already mentioned, the advantage of not
impairing the strength of the fibre, and not turning green during
storage.

As the dye-baths for blacks are charged with a proportionately high
percentage of dye-stuff for the first bath, and will not exhaust
completely, it is advisable to preserve them for further use.

For subsequent lots only two-thirds to three-fourths of the quantities
of dye-stuffs used for the first baths are required, which fact has to
be taken into consideration when calculating the cost of dyeing.

=Dyeing Shot Effects on Satin.=--Not all direct colours are equally well
adapted for the production of shot effects; those enumerated in Group
I. are most suitable for the purpose, and should be dyed with a larger
quantity of soap than is usual for solid shades, in order to leave the
silk as little tinted as possible. Dye-stuffs of the other groups may be
used if the dyeing is conducted with proper care, _i.e._, keeping the
baths more alkaline and lowering the temperature. The goods are dyed
with the addition for the two coloured effects previously mentioned,
then they are well rinsed, and afterwards the silk is dyed with the
suitable acid dye-stuffs, with addition of sulphuric acid at a
temperature of about 150° F. Care should be taken not to use too much
acid, and to keep the temperature of the bath sufficiently low, as
otherwise the acid may cause some of the dye-stuff to go off the cotton
and tint the silk. It is best to work at a temperature of about 150° F.,
with addition of about 3 oz. concentrated sulphuric acid per 10 gallons
dye-liquor.

For shading the silk all acid dye-stuffs can be used which have been
mentioned in the foregoing tables.

If in shot effects the cotton is to be dyed bright and full shades, this
is best achieved by dyeing with direct colours first, and then topping
with basic colours as follows:--

Bottom the cotton first with the suitable direct colours, then dye the
silk and then treat the pieces for about two hours in a cold tannin bath
(about 8 oz. tannin per 10 gallons of water), then rinse once and pass
through a tartar emetic bath (about 3 oz. per 10 gallons), rinse
thoroughly and dye the cotton to shade with basic colours in a cold bath
to which some acetic acid has been added.

Should the silk become a little dull after this process, this may be
remedied by a slight soaping. After dyeing rinse well and raise with
acetic acid.

=Shot Effects with Black Cotton Warp.=--Effects much in favour are
designs composed of black cotton and light or coloured silk. The most
suitable black dye for this purpose is Diamine black B H, diazotised and
developed.

Dye in as concentrated a bath as possible at about 160° F. with about 6
lb. Diamine black B H, 1 lb. Diamine sky blue, pat., per 100 lb. of dry
goods, 1/2 lb. Diamine orange D C, pat., with an addition of 6-1/2 oz.
soap, 4 to 5 dr. soda per 10 gallons liquor, 16 oz. Glauber's salt.
After dyeing rinse well in a bath containing 6 dr. soda and 3 oz. soap
per 10 gallons water, diazotised in a fresh bath with 4 lb. nitrite of
soda and 12 lb. hydrochloric acid (per 100 lb. of dry goods), rinse
thoroughly and develop with 3 to 16 oz. phenylene diamine (93 per
cent.), with addition of 1 to 2 lb. soda. These two operations should
follow each other as quickly as possible, also care has to be taken that
the diazotised goods are not exposed to direct sunlight or heat, which
causes unlevel dyeings. The silk is then cleaned as far as possible by
hot soaping, and dyed at about 120° to 140° F., with acid dye-stuffs and
the addition of sulphuric acid. After dyeing rinse as usual and
brighten.

_Yellow and Violet,_--Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A,
the silk with 1 lb. Cyanole extra, and 1 lb. Forinyl violet S 4 B.

_Black and Blue._--Dye the cotton with 5 lb. Diamine black B H, 1 lb.
Diamine sky blue, and 1/4 lb. Diamine orange D C. After dyeing,
diazotise and develop with phenylene diamine as described above. Then
dye the silk with 1/2 lb. Pure soluble blue and 1 lb. Cyanole extra.

_Black and Crimson._--Dye the black as in the previous recipe, then dye
the silk with 2 lb. Brilliant croceine 3 B and 1/2 lb. Rhodamine S.

_Blue and Gold._--Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine sky blue and the
silk with 1 lb. Fast yellow S.

_Dark Blue and Green._--Dye the cotton with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine black B H,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine sky blue and 1/2 lb. Diamine azo blue 2 R; the silk
with 2 lb. Naphthol yellow S and 1 lb. New methylene blue G G.

_Violet and Yellow._--Dye the cotton with 2 oz. Diamine violet N and the
silk with 1 lb. Fast yellow S.

_Orange and Violet._--Dye the cotton with 2 lb. Diamine orange D C and
the silk with 1 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B.

_Dark Blue and Olive._--Dye the cotton with 1-1/2 lb. Diamineral blue R
and 1/2 lb. Diamine azo blue 2 R, and the silk with 1 lb. Naphthol
yellow B and 1 lb. Orange G G.

_Green and Pink._--Dye the cotton with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine fast yellow A
and 1/4 lb. Diamine sky blue, and the silk with 1 lb. Erythrosine B.

_Brown and Blue._--Dye the cotton with 3 lb. Mikado brown 2 B, and the
silk with 1/2 lb. Pure blue.

It is quite possible to produce two coloured effects containing blue in
one bath by using Alkali blue as a constituent with a direct dye which
works only on to the cotton, the alkali blue going on to the silk, as,
for example, in the following recipes:--

_Orange and Blue._--The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Mikado orange 5 R O
and 1-1/4 lb. Alkali blue 6 B. After the dyeing the goods are rinsed,
then passed through a bath of 1-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid in 10 gallons
water, washed well and dried.

_Olive and Blue._--The dye-bath is made with 1-1/2 lb. Diamine fast
yellow A, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine orange DC, 1/4 lb. Diamine sky blue, and 1
lb. Alkali blue 6 B, After dyeing rinse, then acidulate as above and
wash well.



CHAPTER VII.

OPERATIONS FOLLOWING DYEING.

WASHING, SOAPING, DRYING.


After loose cotton or wool, or cotton and woollen yarns, or piece goods
of every description have been dyed, before they can be sent out for
sale they have to pass through various operations of a purifying
character. There are some operations through which cloths pass that have
as their object the imparting of a certain appearance and texture to
them, generally known as finishing processes; of these it is not
intended here to speak, but only of those which precede these, but
follow on the dyeing operations.

These processes are usually of a very simple character, and common to
most colours which are dyed, and here will be noticed the appliances and
manipulation necessary in the carrying out of these operations.

=Squeezing or Wringing.=--It is advisable when the goods are taken out
of the dye-bath to squeeze or wring them according to circumstances, in
order to press out all surplus dye-liquor, which can be returned to the
dye-bath if needful to be used again. This is an economical proceeding
in many cases, especially in working with many of the old tannin
materials like sumac, divi-divi, myrobolams, and the modern direct dyes
which in the dyeing operations are not completely extracted out of the
bath, or in other words, the dye-bath is not exhausted of colouring
matter, and, therefore, it can be used again for another lot of goods,
simply by adding fresh material to make up for that absorbed by the
first lot of goods.

Loose wool and loose cotton are somewhat difficult to deal with by
squeezing or wringing, but the material may be passed through a pair of
squeezing rollers, such as are shown in Fig. 31, which will be more
fully dealt with later on. The machine shown is made by Messrs Read
Holliday & Sons.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Squeezing Rollers.]

_Yarns in Hanks._--In the hank-dyeing process the hanks are wrung by
placing one end of the hank on a wringing horse placed over the
dye-tub, a dye stick on the other end of the hank giving two or three
sharp pulls to straighten out the yarn, and then twisting the stick
round, the twisting of the yarns puts some pressure on the fibres,
thoroughly and uniformly squeezing out the surplus liquor from the yarn.

_Hank-wringing Machines._--Several forms of hank-wringing machines have
been devised. One machine consists of a pair of discs fitted on an axle;
these discs carry strong hooks on which the hanks are placed. The
operator places a hank on a pair of the hooks. The discs revolve and
carry round the hank, during the revolution the hank is twisted and the
surplus liquor wrung out, when the revolution of the discs carries the
hank to the spot where it entered the machine the hooks fly back to
their original position, the hank unwinds, it is then removed and a new
hank put in its place, and so the machine works on, hanks being put on
and off as required. The capacity of such a machine is great, and the
efficiency of its working good.

Mr. S. Spencer of Whitefield makes a hank-wringing machine which
consists of a pair of hooks placed over a vat. One of the hooks is
fixed, the other is made to rotate. A hank hung between the hooks is
naturally twisted, and all the surplus liquor wrung out. The liquor
falling into the vat.

_Roller Squeezing Machines for Yarn._--Hanks may be passed through a
pair of indiarubber squeezing rollers, which may be so arranged that
they can be fixed as required on the dye-bath. Such a pair of rollers is
a familiar article, and quite common and in general use in dye houses.

_Piece Goods._--These are generally passed open through a pair of
squeezing rollers which are often attached to the dye-vat in which the
pieces are dyed.

_Read Holliday's Squeezing Machine._--In Fig. 31 is shown a squeezing
machine very largely employed for squeezing all kinds of piece goods
and cotton warps after dyeing or washing. It consists of a pair of heavy
rollers on which, by means of the screws shown at the top, a very
considerable pressure can be brought to bear. The piece is run through
the eye shown on the left, by which it is made into a rope form, then
over the guiding rollers and between the squeezing rollers, and into
waggons for conveyance to other machines. This machine is effective.

Another plan on which roller, or rather in this case disc, squeezing
machines is made, is to make the bottom roller with a square groove in
the centre, into this fits a disc, the cloth passing between them. The
top disc can by suitable screws be made to press upon the cloth in the
groove, and thus squeeze the water out of it.

=Washing.=--One of the most important operations following that of
dyeing is the washing with water to free the goods, whether cotton or
woollen, from all traces of loose dye, acids, mordanting materials,
etc., which it is not desirable should be left in, as they might
interfere with the subsequent finishing operations. For this purpose a
plentiful supply of good clean water is required; this should be as soft
as possible, free from any suspended matter which might settle upon the
dyed goods, and stain or speck them.

Washing may be done by hand, as it frequently was in olden days, by
simply immersing the dyed fabrics in a tub of water, shaking, then
wringing out, again placing in fresh water to finish off. Or if the
dye-works were on the banks of a running stream of clean water the dyed
goods were simply hung in the stream to be washed in a very effectual
manner.

In these days it is best to resort to washing machines adapted to deal
with the various kinds of fibrous materials and fabrics in which they
can be subjected to a current of water.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Yarn-washing Machine.]

_Loose Wool and Cotton._--If this has been dyed by hand then the washing
may also be done in the same way by hand in a plain vat. If the dyeing
has been done on a machine, then the washing can be done on the same
machine.

_Yarns._--Yarn in the cop form is best washed in the machine in which it
is dyed.

_Yarns in Hanks._--A very common form of washing machine is shown in
Fig. 32. As will be seen it consists of a wooden vat, over which are
arranged a series of revolving reels on which the hanks are hung. The
hanks are kept in motion through the water, and so every part of the
yarn is thoroughly washed. Guides keep the hanks of yarn separate and
prevent any entanglement one with another. A pipe delivers constantly a
current of clean water, while another pipe carries away the used water.
Motion is given to the reels in this case by a donkey engine attached to
the machine, but it may also be driven by a belt from the main driving
shaft of the works. This machine is very effective.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--Dye-house Washing Machine.]

_Piece Goods._--Piece goods are mostly washed in machines, of which two
broad types may be recognised; first, those where the pieces are dealt
with in the form of ropes in a twisted form, and, second, those where
the pieces are washed open. There are some machines in which the cloths
may be treated either in the open or rope form as may be thought most
desirable.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Cloth-washing Machine.]

Fig. 33 represents a fairly well-known machine, made by Messrs. Mather &
Platt, in which the pieces are treated in a rope-like form. It consists
of a trough in which a constant current of water is maintained. At one
end of this trough is a square beating roller, at the other a wooden
lattice roller. Above the square beater, and out of the trough, are a
pair of rollers whose purpose is to draw the cloth through the machine
and also partly to act as squeezing rollers. As will be seen the cloth
is threaded in rope form spirally round the rollers, passing in at one
end and out at the other, pegs in a guide rail serving to keep the
various portions separate. The square beater in its revolutions has a
beating action on the cloth tending to more effectual washing. The
lattice roller is simply a guide roller.

Fig. 34 shows a washing machine very largely used in the wool-dyeing
trade. The principal portion of this machine is of wood.

The internal parts consist of a large wooden bowl, or oftener, as in the
machine under notice, of a pair of wooden bowls which are pressed
together by springs with some small degree of force. Between these bowls
the cloth is placed, more or less loosely twisted up in a rope form, and
the machines are made to take four, six or eight pieces, or lengths of
pieces, at one time, the ends of the pieces being stitched together. A
pipe running along the front of the machine conveys a constant current
of clean water which is caused to impinge in the form of jets on the
pieces of cloth as they run through the machine, while an overflow
carries away the used water. The goods are run in this machine until
they are considered to be sufficiently washed, which may take half to
one and a half hours.

In Fig. 35 is shown a machine designed to wash pieces in the broad or
open state. The machine contains a large number of guide rollers, built
more or less open, round which the pieces are guided--the ends of the
pieces being stitched together. Pipes carrying water are so arranged
that jets of clean water impinge on and thoroughly wash the cloth as it
passes through--the construction of the guide rollers facilitating the
efficient washing of the goods.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Cloth-washing Machine.]

=Soaping.=--- Sometimes yarns or cloths have to be passed through a soap
bath after being dyed in order to brighten up the colours or develop
them in some way. In the case of yarns this can be done on the reel
washing machine such as is shown in Fig. 32. In the case of piece goods,
a continuous machine, in which the washing, soaping, etc., can be
carried on simultaneously, is often employed. Such a machine is shown in
Fig. 36. It consists of a number of compartments fitted with guide
rollers so that the cloth passes up and down several times through the
liquors in the compartments. Between one compartment and another is
placed a pair of squeezing rollers. The cloth is threaded in a
continuous manner, well shown in the drawing, through the machine. In
one compartment it is treated with water, in another soap liquor, in
another water, and so on; and these machines may be made with two, three
or more compartments as may be necessary for the particular work in
hand. As seen in the drawing, the cloth passes in at one end and out at
the other finished. It is usually arranged that a continuous current of
the various liquors used flows through the various compartments, thus
ensuring the most perfect treatment of the cloths.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Washing and Soaping Vats.]

=Steaming.=--Sometimes it becomes necessary to subject dyed goods to a
process of steaming, as, for instance, with steam aniline blacks, khaki
shades, alizarine reds, etc., for the purpose of more fully developing
and fixing the dye upon the fibre. In the case of yarns, this operation
is carried out in the steaming cottage, one form of which is shown in
Fig. 37. It consists of a horizontal cylindrical iron vessel like a
steam boiler, one end is entirely closed, while the other is made to
open and be closed tightly and hermetically. The cottage is fitted with
the necessary steam inlet and outlet pipes, drain pipes for condensed
water, pressure gauges. The yarn to be steamed is hung on rods placed on
a skeleton frame waggon on wheels which can be run in and out of the
steaming cottage as is required. The drawing shows well the various
important parts of the machine. In the case of piece goods these also
can be hung from rods in folds on such a waggon, but it is much more
customary to employ a continuous steaming chamber, very similar to the
ageing and oxidising machine shown in Fig. 38, and also used in the
dyeing of aniline black.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--Steaming Cottage.]

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--Steaming and Ageing Chamber.]

=Drying.=--Following on the washing comes the final operation of the
dyeing process, that of drying the dyed and washed goods. Textile
fabrics of all kinds after they have passed through dye-baths, washing
machines, etc., contain a large amount of water, often exceeding in
weight that of the fibre itself, and to take the goods direct from the
preceding operations to the drying plant means that a considerable
amount of fuel must be expended to drive off this large amount of water.
It is therefore very desirable that the goods be freed from as much of
this water as possible before they are sent into any drying chambers,
and this may be done in three ways, by wringing, squeezing and
hydro-extracting. The first two methods have already been described (p.
239, etc.) and need not again be alluded to; the last needs some
account.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Hydro-extractor.]

Hydro-extractors are a most efficient means for extracting water out of
textile fabrics. They are made in a variety of forms by several makers.
Essentially they consist of a cylindrical vessel, or basket, as it is
called, with perforated sides so constructed that it can be revolved at
a high speed. This vessel is enclosed in an outer cage. The goods are
placed in the basket, as it is termed, and then this is caused to
revolve at high speed, when centrifugal action comes into play, and the
water contained in the goods finds its way to the outside of the basket
through the perforations, and so away from the goods. Hydro-extractors
are made in a variety of sizes and forms--in some the driving gear is
above, in others below the basket; in some the driving is done by
belt-gearing, in others a steam engine is directly connected with the
basket. Figs. 39 and 40 show two forms which are much in use in the
textile industry. They are very efficient, and extract water from
textile goods more completely than any other means, as will be obvious
from a study of the table below.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Hydro-extractor.]

The relative efficiency of the three systems of extracting the moisture
out of textile fabrics has been investigated by Grothe, who gives in his
_Appretur der Gewebe_, published in 1882, the following table showing
the percentage amount of water removed in fifteen minutes:--

Yarns.          Wool.         Silk.        Cotton.      Linen.

Wringing           44.5          45.4          45.3         50.3
Squeezing          60.0          71.4          60.0         73.6
Hydro-extracting   83.5          77.0          81.2         82.8

Pieces.

Wringing           33.4          44.5          44.5         54.6
Squeezing          64.0          69.7          72.2         83.0
Hydro-extracting   77.8          75.5          82.3         86.0

In the practical working of hydro-extractors it is of the utmost
importance that the goods be carefully and regularly laid in the
basket--not too much in one part and too little in another. Any
unevenness in this respect at the speed at which they are driven lays
such a strain on the bearings as to seriously endanger the safety of the
machine.

After being wrung, squeezed or hydro-extracted the goods are ready to be
dried. In the case of yarns, this may be done in rooms heated by steam
pipes placed on the floor, the hanks being hung on rods suspended from
racks arranged for the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Automatic Yarn-dryer.]

Where large quantities of yarn have to be dried, it is most economical
to employ a yarn-drying machine, and one form of such is shown in Fig.
41. The appearance of the machine is that of one long room from the
outside; internally it is divided into compartments, each of which is
heated up by suitably arranged steam pipes, but the degree of heating in
each compartment varies--at the entrance end it is high, at the exit end
lower. The yarn is fed in at one end, being hung on rods, and by
suitable gearing it is carried directly through the various chambers or
sections, and in its passage the heat to which it is subjected drives
off the water it contains. The yarn requires no attention from the time
it passes in wet at the one end of the machine and comes out dry at the
other end. The amount of labour required is slight, only that
represented by filling the sticks with wet yarn and emptying them of the
dried yarn. The machine works regularly and well.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--Truck Yarn-dryer.]

The drying is accomplished by circulating heated air through the yarns,
this heating being effected by steam coils, fresh air continually enters
the chambers, while water-saturated air is as continually being taken
out at the top of the chamber. One of the great secrets in all drying
operations is to have a constant current of fresh hot air playing on the
goods to be dried; this absorbs the moisture they contain, and the
water-charged air thus produced must be taken away as quickly as
possible.

[Illustration: FIG 43.--Drying Cylinders.]

Fig. 42 shows what is called a truck yarn-dryer, which consists of a
chamber heated with steam pipes and fitted with an exhausting fan to
draw out the air and water vapour which is produced. The yarns are hung
on trucks which can be run in and out of the chamber for filling and
emptying.

_Piece Goods._--The most convenient manner of drying piece goods is to
employ the steam cylinder drying machine, such as is shown in Fig. 43.
This consists of a number of hollow tin or copper cylinders which can be
heated by steam passing in through the axles of the cylinders, which are
made hollow on purpose. The cloth to be dried passes round these
cylinders, which revolve while the cloth passes. They work very
effectually. The cylinders are arranged sometimes, as in the drawing,
vertically; at other times horizontally.



CHAPTER VIII

TESTING OF THE COLOUR OF DYED FABRICS.


It is frequently desirable that dyers should be able to ascertain with
some degree of accuracy what dyes have been used to dye any particular
samples of dyed cloth that has been offered to them to match. In these
days of the thousand and one different dyes that are known it is by no
means an easy thing to do; and when, as is most often the case, two or
three dye-stuffs have been used in the production of a shade, the
difficulty is materially increased.

The only available method is to try the effect of various acid and
alkaline reagents on the sample, noting whether any change of colour
occurs, and judging accordingly. It would be a good thing for dyers to
accustom themselves to test the dyeings they do, and so accumulate a
fund of practical experience which will stand them in good stead
whenever they have occasion to examine a dyed pattern of unknown origin.

The limits of this book does not permit of there being given a series of
elaborate tables showing the action of various chemical reagents on
fabrics dyed with various colours; and such, indeed, serve very little
purpose, for it is most difficult to describe the minor differences
which often serve to distinguish one colour from another. Instead of
doing so, we will point out in some detail the methods of carrying out
the various tests, and advise all dyers to carry these out for
themselves on samples dyed with known colours, and when they have an
unknown colour to test to make tests comparatively with known colours
that they think are likely to have been used in the production of the
dyed fabric they are testing.

One very common method is to spot the fabric, that is, to put a drop of
the reagent on it, usually with the end of the stopper of the reagent
bottle, and to observe the colour changes, if any, which ensue. This is
a very useful test and should not be omitted, and it is often employed
in the testing of indigo dyed goods with nitric acid, those of logwood
with hydrochloric acid, alizarine with caustic soda, and many others. It
is simple and easy to carry out, and only takes a few minutes.

To make a complete series of tests of dyed fabrics there should be
provided the following reagents:--

1. Strong sulphuric acid, as bought.
2. Dilute sulphuric acid, being the strong acid diluted with twenty
   times its volume of water.
3. Concentrated hydrochloric acid.
4. Dilute hydrochloric acid, 1 acid to 20 water.
5. Concentrated nitric acid.
6. Dilute nitric acid, 1 acid to 20 water.
7. Acetic acid.
8. Caustic soda solution, 5 grams in 100 c.c. water.
9. Ammonia (strong).
10. Dilute ammonia, 1 strong ammonia to 10 water.
11. Carbonate of soda solution, 6 grams in 100 c.c. water.
12. Bleaching powder solution, 2° Tw.
13. Bisulphite of soda, 72° Tw.
14. Stannous chloride, 10 grams crystals in 100 c.c. water, with a
    little hydrochloric acid.
15. Methylated spirit.

Small swatches of the dyed goods are put in clean porcelain basins, and
some of these solutions poured over them. Any change of colour of the
cloth is noted, as well as whether any colour is imparted to the
solutions. After making observations of the effects in the cold the
liquids may be warmed and the results again noted. After being treated
with the acids the swatches should be well washed with water, when the
original colour may be wholly or partially restored.

To give tables showing the effects of these reagents on the numerous
dyes now known would take up too much room and not serve a very useful
purpose, as such tables, if too much relied on, leave the operator
somewhat uncertain as to what he has before him. The reader will find in
Hurst's _Dictionary of Coal-tar Colours_ some useful notes as to the
action of acids and alkalies on the various colours that may be of
service to him.

Alizarine and the series of dye-stuffs to which it has given its name,
fustic, cochineal, logwood and other dyes of a similar class require the
fabric to be mordanted, and the presence of such mordant is occasionally
an indirect proof of the presence of these dyes.

To detect these mordants, a piece of the swatch should be burnt in a
porcelain or platinum crucible over a Bunsen burner, care being taken
that all carbonaceous matter be burnt off. A white ash will indicate the
presence of alumina mordants, red ash that of iron mordants, and a
greenish ash chrome mordants.

To confirm these the following chemical tests may be applied: Boil the
ash left in the crucible with a little strong hydrochloric acid and
dilute with water. Pass a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas through
the solution; if there be any tin present a brown precipitate of tin
sulphide will be obtained. This can be filtered off. The filtrate is
boiled for a short time with nitric acid, and ammonia is added to the
solution when alumina is thrown down as a white gelatinous precipitate;
iron is thrown down as a brown red bulky precipitate; while chrome is
thrown down as a greyish-looking gelatinous precipitate. The precipitate
obtained with the ammonia is filtered off, and a drop of ammonium
sulphide added, when any zinc present will be thrown down as white
precipitate of zinc sulphide: to the filtrate from this ammonium oxalate
may be added, when if lime is present a white precipitate of calcium
oxalate is obtained.

A test for iron is to dissolve some of the ash in a little hydrochloric
acid, and add a few drops of potassium ferrocyanide solution, when if
any iron be present a blue precipitate will be obtained.

To make more certain of the presence of chrome, heat a little of the ash
of the cloth with caustic soda and chlorate of soda in a porcelain
crucible until well fused, then dissolve in water, acidify with acetic
acid and add lead acetate; a yellow precipitate indicates the presence
of chrome.

A book on qualitative chemical analysis should be referred to for
further details and tests for metallic mordants.

The fastness of colours to light, air, rubbing, washing, soaping, acids
and alkalies is a feature of some considerable importance. There are
indeed few colours that will resist all these influences, and such are
fully entitled to be called fast. The decree of fastness varies very
considerably. Some colours will resist acids and alkalies well, but are
not fast to light and air; some will resist washing and soaping, but are
not fast to acids; Some may be fast to light, but are not so to washing.
The following notes will show how to test these features:--

=Fastness to Light and Air.=--This is simply tested by hanging a piece
of the dyed cloth in the air, keeping a piece in a drawer to refer to,
so that the influence on the original colour can be noted from time to
time. If the piece is left out in the open one gets not only the effect
of light but also that of climate on the colour, and there is no doubt
wind, rain, hail and snow have some influence on the fading of the
colour.

If the piece is exposed under glass, the climatic influences do not come
into play, and one gets the effect of light alone.

In making tests of fastness, the dyer will and does pay due regard to
the character of the influences that the material will be subjected to
in actual use, and these vary very considerably; thus the colour of
underclothing need not be fast to light, for it is rarely subjected to
that agent of destruction. On the other hand it must be fast to washing,
for that is an operation to which underclothing is subjected week by
week.

Window curtains are much exposed to light and air, and, therefore,
colours in which they are dyed should be fast to light and air. On the
other hand these curtains are rarely washed, and so the colour need not
be quite fast to washing. And so with other kinds of fabrics, there are
scarcely two kinds which are subjected to the same influences, and
require the colours to have the same degree of fastness.

The fastness to rubbing is generally tested by rubbing the dyed cloth on
a piece of white paper.

=Fastness to Washing.=--This is generally tested by boiling a swatch of
the cloth in a solution of soap containing 4 grams of a good neutral
curd soap per litre for ten minutes and noting the effect--whether the
soap solution becomes coloured and to what degree, or whether it remains
colourless, and also whether the colour of the swatch has changed at
all.

One very important point in connection with the soaping test is whether
a colour will run into a white fabric that may be soaped along with it.
This is tested by twisting strands of the dyed yarn or cloth with white
yarn or cloth and boiling them in the soap liquor for ten minutes and
then noting the effect, particularly observing whether the white pieces
have taken up any colour.

Fastness to acids and fastness to alkalies is observed while carrying
out the various acid and alkali tests given above.



CHAPTER IX.

EXPERIMENTAL DYEING AND COMPARATIVE DYE TESTING.


Every dyer ought to be able to make experiments in the mordanting and
dyeing of textile fibres for the purpose of ascertaining the best
methods of applying mordants or dye-stuffs, the best methods of
obtaining any desired shade, and for the purpose of making comparative
tests of dyes or mordanting materials with the object of determining
their strength and value. This is not by any means difficult, nor does
it involve the use of any expensive apparatus, so that a dyer need not
hesitate to set up a small dyeing laboratory for fear of the expense
which it might entail.

In order to carry out the work indicated above there will be required
several pieces of apparatus. First, a small chemical balance, one that
will carry 100 grams in each pan is quite large enough; and such a one,
quite accurate enough for this work, can be bought for 25s. to 30s.,
while if the dyer be too poor even for this, a cheap pair of
apothecaries' scales might be used. It is advisable to procure a set of
gram weights, and to get accustomed to them, which is not a very
difficult task.

In using the balance always put the substance to be weighed on the
left-hand pan, and the weights on the right-hand pan. Never put
chemicals of any kind direct on the pan, but weigh them in a watch
glass, small porcelain basin, or glass beaker, which has first been
weighed, according to the nature of the material which is being
weighed. The sets of weights are always fitted into a block or box, and
every time they are used they should be put back into their proper
place.

The experimenter will find it convenient to provide himself with a few
small porcelain basins, glass beakers, cubic centimetre measures, two or
three 200 c.c. flasks with a mark on the neck, a few pipettes of various
sizes, 10 c.c., 20 c.c., 25 c.c.

The most important feature is the dyeing apparatus. Where only a single
dye test is to be made, a small copper or enamelled iron saucepan, such
as can be bought at any ironmonger's, may be used; this may conveniently
be heated by a gas boiling burner, such as can also be bought at an
ironmonger's or plumber's for 2s.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--Experimental Dye-bath.]

It is, however, advisable to have means whereby several dyeing
experiments can be made at one time and under precisely the same
conditions, and this cannot be done by using the simple means noted
above.

To be able to make perfectly comparative dyeing experiments it is best
to use porcelain dye-pots--these may be bought from most dealers in
chemical apparatus--and to heat them in a water-bath arrangement.

The simplest arrangement is sketched in Fig. 44; it consists of a copper
bath measuring 15 inches long by 10-1/2 inches broad and 6-1/2 inches
deep--this is covered by a lid in which are six apertures to take the
porcelain dye-baths. The bath is heated by two round gas boiling burners
of the type already referred to.

The copper bath is filled with water, which, on being heated to the boil
by the gas burners, heats up the dye liquids in the dye-pots. The
temperature in the dye-pots under such conditions can never reach the
boiling point; where it is desirable, as in some cases of wool
mordanting and dyeing, that it should boil, there should be added to the
water in the copper bath a quantity of calcium chloride, which forms a
solution that has a much higher boiling point than that of water, and so
the dye liquors in the dye-pots may be heated up to the boil.

An objection might be raised that with such an apparatus the temperature
in every part of the bath may not be uniform, and so the temperature of
the dye-liquors in the pots may vary also, and differences of
temperature often have a considerable influence on the shade of the
colour which is being dyed. This is a minor objection, which is more
academic in its origin than of practical importance. To obviate this Mr.
William Marshall of the Rochdale Technical School has devised a circular
form of dye-bath, in which the temperature in every part can be kept
quite uniform.

The dyeing laboratories of technical schools and colleges are generally
provided with a more elaborate set of dyeing appliances. These, in the
latest constructed, consist of a copper bath supported on a hollow pair
of trunnions, that the bath can be turned over if needed. Into the bath
are firmly fixed three earthenware or porcelain dye-pots; steam for
heating can be sent through the trunnions. After the dyeing tests have
been made the apparatus can be turned over, and the contents of the
dye-pots emptied into a sink which is provided for the purpose.

Many other pieces of apparatus have been devised and made for the
purpose of carrying on dyeing experiments on the small scale, but it
will not be needful to describe these in detail. After all no more
efficient apparatus can be desired than that described above.

Dyeing experiments can be made with either yarns or pieces of
cloth--swatches, as they are commonly called--a very convenient size is
a small skein of yarn or a piece of cloth having a weight of 5 grams.
These test skeins or pieces ought to be well washed in hot water before
use, so that they are clean and free from any size or grease. A little
soda or soap will facilitate the cleansing process.

In carrying out a dyeing test the dye-pot should be filled with the
water required, using as little as can be consistent with the dye swatch
being handled comfortably therein, then there is added the required
mordants, chemicals, dyes, etc., according to the character of the work
which is being done.

Of such chemicals as soda, caustic soda, sodium sulphate (Glauber's
salt), tartar, bichromate of potash, it will be found convenient to
prepare stock solutions of known strength, say 50 grams per litre, and
then by means of a pipette any required quantity can be conveniently
added. The same plan might be followed in the case of dyes which are
constantly in use, in this case, 5 grams per litre will be found strong
enough.

Supposing it is desired to make a test of a sample of direct red, using
the following proportions: 2 per cent. dye-stuff, 3 per cent. soda, 15
per cent. Glauber's salt, and the weight of the swatch which is being
used is 5 grams. The following calculations are to be made to give the
quantities of the ingredients required.

For the dye-stuff:--

5 (weight of swatch) multiplied by 2 (per cent. of dye) and divided by
100 equals--

                        5 x 2
                       ------- = 0.1 gram dye
                         100

For the soda we have similarly:--

                   5 x 3
                  ------- = 0.15 gram soda.
                    100

For the Glauber's salt:--

                 5 x 15
                -------- = 0.75 gram Glauber's salt.
                  100

These quantities may be weighed out and added to the dye-bath, or if
solutions are kept, a calculation can be made as to the number of cubic
centimetres which contain the above quantities, and these measured out
and added to the dye-bath.

When all is ready, the bath is heated up, the swatch entered, and the
work of the test entered upon.

Students are recommended to make experiments on such points as:--

The shades obtained by using various proportions of dye-stuffs.

The influence of various assistants--common salt, soda, Glauber's salt,
borax, phosphate of soda--in the bath.

The influence of varying proportions of mordants on the shade of dyeing.

The value of various assistants, tartar, oxalic acid, lactic acid,
sulphuric acid, on the fixation of mordants.

The relative value of different tannin matters, etc.

Each dyer should make himself a pattern-book into which he should enter
his tests, with full particulars as to how they have been produced at
the side.

It is important that a dyer should be able to make comparative dye
tests to ascertain the relative strength of any two, or more samples of
dyes which may be sent to him. This is not difficult, but requires
considerable care in carrying out the various operations involved.

Of each of the samples of dyes 0.5 gram should be weighed out and
dissolved in 100 c.c. of water, care being taken that every portion of
the dye is dissolved before any of the solution is used in making up the
dye-vats. Care should also be taken that the skeins of yarn or swatches
of cloth are exactly equal in weight; that the same volume of water is
placed in each of the dye-pots; that the same amount of sulphate of soda
or other dye assistants are added; that the quantities of dye-stuff and
solutions used are equal; in fact, that in all respects the conditions
of dyeing are exactly the same, such, in fact, being the vital
conditions in making comparative dye tests of the actual dyeing strength
of several samples of dyes.

After the swatches have been dyed they are rinsed and then dried, when
the depth of shade dyed on them may be compared one with another. To
prevent any mistakes, it is well to mark the swatches with one, two,
three or more cuts as may be required.

It is easier to ascertain if two dyes are different in strength of
colour than to ascertain the relative difference between them. There are
two plans available for this purpose--one is a dyeing test, the other is
a colorimetric test made with the solutions of the dyes.

=Dyeing Test.=--This method of ascertaining the relative value of two
dyes as regards strength of colour is carried out as follows: A
preliminary test will show which is stronger than the other. Then there
is prepared a series of dye-vats--one contains a swatch with the deepest
of the two dyes, which is taken as the standard; the others, swatches
with the other dye, but containing 2, 5 and 10 per cent. more dye-stuff,
and all these swatches are dyed together, and after drying a comparison
can be made between them and the standard swatch and a judgment formed
as to the relative strength of the two dyes. A little experience will
soon enable the dyer to form a correct judgment of the difference in
strength between two samples of dye-stuff.

=Colorimetric Test.=--This is based on the principle that the colour of
a solution of dye-stuff will be proportionate to its strength. Two white
glass tubes equal in diameter are taken. Solutions of the dye-stuff, 0.5
gram in 100 c.c. of water, are prepared, care being taken that the
solution is complete. Of one of these solutions 5 c.c. is taken and
placed in one of the glass tubes, and 5 c.c. of the other solution is
placed in the other glass tube. Of water 25 c.c. is now added to each
tube, and then the colour of the diluted liquids is compared by looking
through them in a good light. That sample which gives the deeper
solution is the stronger in colouring power. By diluting the stronger
solution with water until it is of the same depth of colour as the
weaker, it may be assumed that the depth of the columns of liquid in the
two tubes is in proportion to the relative strength of the two samples.
Thus, if in one tube there are 30 c. of liquid and in the other 25 c.,
then the relative strength is as 30 to 25; and if the first is taken as
the standard at 100, a proportion sum gives

30    :    25    : :    100    :    83.3,

that is, the weaker sample has only 83.3 per cent, of the strength of
the stronger sample.



INDEX.

COMPILED BY MISS GRACE GREENWOOD, B.A. (LOND.)


A.

Acetate liquor, 190, 193.
-- of alumina, 170.
-- of chrome, 180.
-- of lead, 159.

Acetic acid, 174, 180, 184, 227, 231.

Acid dyes;, 83, 159.
-- dye-stuffs, topping with, 228.
-- green, 84, 221, 229, 234.
-- magenta, 84. 220.
-- violet, 229.
-- --6 B, 211, 218.
-- yellow, 220.

Acids, action of, on cellulose, 9.
Acridine orange NO, 231, 232.

Affinity of dye-stuff for fibre, 109.

Albumens, 4.

Algarobilla, 147, 148.

Alizarine, 18, 150, 157, 169, 180, 259.
-- blue, 173, 174.
-- --paste, 174.
-- dyed goods, test of, 258.
-- dyes, 84.
-- oil, 170.
-- orange, 173. 174.
-- pink, 172.
-- purple, 172.
-- red, 171, 248.
-- violet, 172.
-- yellow N, 180.

Alkali blue B, 233.
-- --3 B, 233.
-- --6 B, 217, 232, 233, 238.
-- yellow R, 209.

Alkalies, action of, on cotton, 6.

Alkaline blue, 211, 214, 215, 216.
-- copper solution, 196.

Alpha-naphthol, 130, 132, 133, 186, 187, 188.

Alpha-naphthylamine, 182, 185, 187, 188.
-- claret, 197.

Alum, 159, 164, 165. 166, 167.

Alumina, 157.
-- acetate, 179.
-- mordants, 259.

Amidazol blacks, 79, 121, 179.
-- black G, 124, 126.
-- brown, 121.
-- cachou, 127.
-- cutch, 126.
-- drab, 127.
-- green B, 127.
-- -- Y, 127.
-- olive, 121.

Amidoazobenzene, 185, 187, 188.

Amido-azo bodies, 183.
-- compounds, 182.

Amidoazotoluol, 198.
-- garnet, 198.

Amido bases, diazotisation of, 182.
-- groups, 130.

Amido-diphenylamine, 183.

Amido-phenylamine, 133.

Amines, 181.

Ammonia, 174, 180.
-- soda, 173.

Ammoniacal copper, 21.

Ammonium chloride, 180, 207.

Amyloid, 12.

Aniline, 13, 182, 184, 185, 186, 188.
-- black, 79, 205, 234.
-- grey B, 229, 231, 333.
-- hydrochloride, 181.
-- oil, 206, 207.
-- salt, 207.

Anisidine, 183.

Anthracene brown, 174.

Anthrapurpurine, 171.

Antimony fluoride, 147.

---- oxalate, 147.

_Appretur der Gewebe_, 252.

Archil substitute N, 229.

Artificial silk, 15.

Atlas red R, 102.

Auramine, 18, 147, 153.

---- G. 154.

---- I I, 151, 152, 153, 230, 231, 232.

Auroline, 209.

Automatic yarn-dryer, 253.

Azine green, T O, 231.

Azo-acid dyes, 210.

---- yellow, 211.

Azo blue, 85, 211.

---- ---- 2 R, 228.

---- compounds, 182.

---- dyes, 18, 129, 159, 181.

---- mauve. 100, 210.

---- ---- A M, 99, 106.

---- orseille B B, 229.

---- red A, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 223, 229.

---- rubine A, 229.

---- scarlet, 84.

---- violet, 100.

Azophor orange M N, 195.

---- red P N, 139, 141, 193,195.


B.

Barlow kiers, 30, 32.

Barwood, 18, 156, 178.

Basic dyes, 83.

---- ---- topping with, 145.

---- dye-stuffs, topping with, 228.

Bast fibre, 2.

Bayer developer, 133.

Beaumont's cop-dyeing machine, 67.

Beige, 167.

Benzo azurine, 101, 107, 112.

---- ---- G, 93, 101, 146, 201.

---- ---- 3 G, 211.

---- ---- R, 210.

---- black blue, 164.

---- blue, 227.

---- ---- 3 B, 94.

---- ---- black G, 210.

---- ---- R W, 115.

---- brown, 92.

---- ---- G, 100, 103.

---- ---- N B, 100, 103.

---- ---- N B X, 101.

---- chrome black blue B, 96, 118.

---- ---- brown G, 118.

---- ---- ---- 5 G, 113.

---- ---- ---- R, 118.

---- ---- ---- 2 R, 117.

---- dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225.

---- fast grey, 102.

---- ---- scarlet 4 B S, 107.

---- green, B B, 93.

---- ---- G, 92, 145.

Benzo-nitrol black B, 142.

---- brown G, 144.

---- dark brown N, 144.

---- developer, 141.

---- dyes, 139.

Benzo olive, 92.

---- orange R, 87, 92.

---- purpurine, 85, 101, 107.

---- ---- B, 100, 210.

---- ---- 4 B, 87, 89, 210, 217.

---- ---- 6 B, 146.

---- ---- 10 B, 210, 217.

Beta-naphthol, 130, 131, 132, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 196, 235.

Beta-naphthylamine, 182, 185, 187, 188.

---- red, 196.

Bichromate of potash, 164, 165, 166, 167, 177, 179, 181.

---- of soda, 206.

Biebrich orange, 128.

---- scarlet, 128.

Birch's sewing machine, 25.

---- washing machine, 36.

Bismarck brown, 146, 147, 153, 165, 166, 167, 229, 230, 232.

---- ---- F F, 231.

Bisulphate of soda, 221, 222, 223.

Black, 104, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 137, 138, 139, 142, 144,
       166, 214, 215, 217.

---- and blue shot, 222, 223.

---- and crimson shot dyes, 237.

---- and green blue shot, 222.

---- and pink shot, 223.

---- and yellow shot, 223.

---- blue, 116.

---- brown, 102, 103, 118, 136, 138.

---- dyeing of, 234.

---- iron liquor, 165.

Bleaching of cotton, 24.
-- of fine fabrics, 42.
-- of yarn, 43.

Blue, 96, 97, 98, 115, 125, 126, 130, 136, 145, 146, 155.
-- and gold shot dyes, 237.
-- and gold yellow shot, 222.
-- and orange shot, 224.
-- black, 136, 137, 138, 139, 154, 216, 219.
-- developer A, 130.
-- -- AN, 134.
-- green, 114.
-- grey, 105.

Bluestone, 164, 165, 166, 178.

Bluish claret red, 187.
-- rose, 153.

Borax, 86, 180, 221.

Brazil wood, 84, 156, 178, 179.

Bridson's washing machine, 36.

Bright blue, 95, 97, 98, 145, 151, 215, 217, 230.
-- crimson, 232.
-- grass green, 93.
-- green, 146, 151.
-- grey, 106.
-- navy, 115, 116.
-- olive yellow, 232.
-- orange, 92.
-- pea green, 94.
-- pink, 90.
-- red, 87, 145.
-- --lilac, 99.
-- rose, 230.
-- scarlet, 89, 130, 186.
-- sea green, 151.
-- straw, 90.
-- violet, 231.
-- walnut, 143.
-- yellow, 90, 143, 154, 213, 214, 215, 229.

Brilliant azurine B, 146.
-- --5 G, 97, 211.
-- cochineal 4 R, 222.
-- Congo R, 210.
-- croceine, 229.
-- -- 3 B, 237.
-- green, 145, 146, 147, 151, 154, 229, 231, 232, 233.
-- milling green B, 211.
-- orange, 92.
-- -- G, 103, 218, 232.
-- orseille C, 229.
-- purpurine, 87.
-- -- R, 210.
-- red, 88.
-- rhoduline red B, 151.
-- scarlet, 211, 229.
-- -- G, 211
-- violet, 231.
-- yellow, 230.

Bronze green, 114, 217.
-- grey, 106.

Brown, 101, 103, 117, 120, 127, 128, 130, 144, 164, 174, 180, 218, 232.
-- and blue shot dyes, 222, 238.
-- and violet shot, 223.
-- drab, 100.

Brownish orange, 186.

Buff brown, 102, 118, 126, 135.
-- yellow, 91.


C.

Cachou de laval, 100, 121.

Camwood, 156, 178.

Capri blue, 230.
-- green, 229.
-- -- 2 G, 231.

Carbonate of soda, 168, 209,
-- of soda lye, 168.

Carbonising of woollen goods, 12.

Catechu, 187.
-- brown, 112.
-- -- F K, 117.
-- -- G K, 117.

Caustic soda, 180.
-- -- liquor, 189.
-- -- lye, 196.

Cellulose, 5, 6.
-- di-nitrate, 14, 15.
-- hexa-nitrate, 14.
-- penta-nitrate, 14.
-- tetra-nitrate, 14.

Ceruleine, 180.

Chalk, 180, 181.

Chardonnet's process for making silk, 15.

Chemical reagents, action of, 257.

Chemicing of cotton, 36.

Chemistry of cotton fibre, 1.

Chestnut, 100, 104, 118, 142, 219.

Chicago blue, 112, 227.
-- -- B, 115, 210.
-- -- 4 B, 116, 210.
-- -- 6 B, 95, 97, 114, 116, 146, 210, 217, 232, 233.
-- -- R, 210.

Chicago blue G, 210.

---- ---- 4 R, 99, 100.

---- ---- R W, 114, 115, 119.

---- dyes, 85.

Chloramine yellow, 209.

Chloride of copper, 180.

---- of lime, 37.

---- of soda, 207.

Chlorophenine orange R, 91.

Chocolate brown, 102, 143, 155, 172.

Chromanil black R F, 120.

---- ---- 4 R F, 119.

---- brown 2 G, 119.

Chrome, 157.

Chrome-logwood black, 177.

Chrome mordants, 259.

Chromic acid, 17.

Chromine G, 209.

Chromium chloride, 173.

---- fluoride, 112.

---- mordant, 173.

Chrysamine, 85, 92, 101, 210.

---- G, 91, 93, 113, 114, 146.

---- R, 92.

Chrysoidine, 147, 151, 164, 221, 232, 233.

---- R, 232.

Chrysophenine, 90, 100, 210, 217, 233.

---- G, 114, 119, 232.

Ciliary fibres, 1.

Claret, 89, 146.

---- red, 174.

Clayton yellow, 210.

Cloth-dyeing machine, 76.

Cloth scarlet, 160.

-----washing machine, illustration of, 245, 246, 247.

Cochineal, 156, 259.

Coffee brown, 165.

Collodion, 15.

Colorimetric test for relative value of dyes, 268.

Colouring matter, 3.

---- principle of dye-stuff, 156.

Colour lake, 18.

---- lakes, 156.

Columbia black B, 210, 232.

---- ---- F B, 103, 104, 210, 218.

---- ---- F B B, 105.

---- ---- R, 232, 233.

---- blue G, 224.

---- green, 101, 146.

Columbia orange R, 91, 103, 104.

---- red S, 211.

---- yellow, 91, 115, 209.

Comparative dye testing, 262.

Condensed water, 227.

Congo blue 2 B, 95.

---- brown, 210.

---- ---- G, 210, 217, 218.

---- Corinth, 232.

---- ---- B, 99, 209, 211.

---- ---- G. 89, 211, 217, 224.

---- dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225.

---- orange G, 210.

---- ---- R, 92, 210.

---- R, 210.

---- red, 85, 107, 128.

---- rubine, 89.

Continuous dyeing machine, 79.

Cop dyeing, 64.

Cop-dyeing machine, Beaumont's, 67.

---- ---- Graemiger, 65, 66.

---- ---- Mommer's, 69.

---- ---- Young & Crippin, 68.

Copper acetate, 177.

---- logwood black, 177.

---- nitrate, 177.

---- soda solution, 180.

---- sulphate, 112, 164, 166, 177, 181.

Copperas, 147, 164, 165, 166, 167, 172, 175, 178, 181, 200.

Cornflower blue, 218, 233.

Corron's hank-dyeing machine, 63.

Cotton bleaching, 23.

---- brown A, 231.

---- ---- 91, 100, 101, 103, 106, 132, 137, 138, 144, 228.

---- dyeing, 18.

---- fibre, 2.

---- ---- illustration of, 5.

---- ---- impurities of, 3.

---- ---- structure of, 4.

---- ---- structure and chemistry of, 1.

---- fibres, composition of, 5.

---- ---- production of colour direct on, 181.

---- scouring, 23.

Cotton-silk fabrics, dyeing of, 225.

Cotton wax, 3.

---- yellow, 100, 210.

Coupling process, 139.

Cream, 91.

Cresyl blue, 229.
-- fast violet 2 RN, 232.
-- violet, 229.

Crimson, 130, 135, 151, 155, 217, 219, 230.
-- red, 88, 130.

Croceine AZ, 223.
-- orange, 128, 211.
-- scarlet, 128, 160.

Cross-dye black, 79, 107, 121.
-- -- B, 123.
-- -- 2B, 120.
-- drab, 93, 121, 126.

Cross dyeing, 220.

Curcumeine, extra, 211, 218, 224.

Curcumine, 209, 217.
-- S, 103, 104, 223.

Curcuphenine, 90.

Cutch, 147, 156, 164, 165, 166, 167, 178, 181, 186.

Cuticle fibres, 1.

Cyanole extra, 221, 222, 223, 229, 231, 232, 233, 237.


D.

Damages in bleached goods, 50.

Dark blue, 95, 96, 97, 98, 115, 116, 136, 139, 142, 153, 154, 155,
           215, 216, 217, 218, 219.
-- -- and green shot dyes, 237.
-- -- and olive shot dyes, 238.
-- bronze, 115.
-- brown, 180, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219, 230, 231.
-- -- and blue shot, 222.
-- -- olive, 165, 166.
-- chestnut, 104.
-- -- brown, 101, 103, 117, 119.
-- cream, 231.
-- crimson, 136, 231.
-- drab, 102, 126, 233.
-- green, 93, 94, 113, 115, 127, 142, 144, 146, 151, 153,
          214, 217, 219, 230.
-- grey, 119, 120, 154, 215, 218, 232.
-- lilac, 146.
-- maroon, 89, 135.
-- navy, 95, 97, 98, 115, 126, 137.
-- olive, 92, 127, 164.
-- -- brown, 118.
-- orange, 91.
-- plum, 87, 99, 116, 138, 166.
-- red, 88, 113.
-- Russian green, 232.
-- sage, 127, 216.
-- scarlet, 153, 155.
-- sea green, 94, 214, 232.
-- slate, 106, 214.
-- stone, 214.
-- turquoise blue, 116.
-- violet, 156.
-- walnut, 216.
-- -- brown, 103.
-- yellow, 90.

"Dead" cotton fibres, 4.

Deep black, 104.
-- blue, 97, 126.
-- brown, 104, 118, 231.
-- chestnut brown, 102, 136.
-- crimson, 89, 232.
-- green, 94.
-- leaf green, 233.
-- olive brown, 180.
-- orange, 92, 135, 214, 230.
-- -- yellow, 230.
-- pink, 88.
-- rose, 230, 233.

Delahunty's dyeing machine, 57, 58.

Delta purpurine, 107.
-- -- 5 B, 210.

Developing, 131.
--machine for paranitroaniline red, 194.

Diamine azo blue, 2 B, 233.
-- -- -- R, 145.
-- -- -- 2 R, 237, 238.
-- -- -- RR, 136, 137.
-- black B, 227, 232.
-- -- B H. 104, 106, 118, 136, 137, 138, 210, 215, 216, 237.
-- -- B O, 92, 100, 139, 210.
-- -- H W, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 102, 103, 104, 130, 132, 209, 214, 215,
           228, 230, 231, 233.
-- -- R O, 87, 92, 93, 95, 100, 101, 104, 106, 138, 139, 146, 210, 228.
-- blue, 112. 132.
-- -- 2 B, 210.
-- -- 3 B, 92, 98, 210, 227.
-- -- B B, 227.
-- -- B G, 96, 210, 228.
-- -- B X, 102, 209, 210, 228.
-- -- C B, 228.
-- -- G, 209.

Diamine blue 3 R, 95, 100, 115, 116, 117, 119, 210, 228.
-- -- R W, 95, 98, 113, 114, 117, 120, 209, 210, 228, 230.
-- -- black E, 97, 210, 228.
-- -- -- R, 102.
-- Bordeaux, 87.
-- -- B, 89, 210, 215, 216, 228.
-- -- S, 210, 228, 231, 233.
-- brilliant blue G, 96, 99, 115, 145, 210, 215, 216, 223, 227.
-- bronze G, 91, 93, 100, 106, 114, 115, 118, 139, 144, 210, 214,
             228, 231, 232, 233.
-- brown, 112, 132.
-- -- B, 209, 228.
-- -- G, 104, 119, 209, 210.
-- -- 3 G, 209, 228, 230.
-- -- M, 90, 95, 102, 104, 118, 119, 138, 216, 217, 228, 231, 232.
-- -- N, 209, 217, 231, 233.
-- -- S, 210.
-- -- V, 92, 98, 138, 143, 144, 210, 228, 233.
-- -- Y, 92.
-- catechine B, 101, 102, 103, 114, 117, 210, 216.
-- -- G, 89, 94, 101, 102, 103, 113, 117, 209, 210.
-- colours, 227.
-- cutch, 130, 132, 136, 137, 138.
-- dark blue B, 114, 116, 118, 120, 209, 210, 216, 217, 228, 231, 233.
-- -- green N, 93.
-- deep black Cr, 96.
-- -- -- RB, 104.
-- dyes, 18, 85, 208, 225.
-- fast red, F, 87, 89, 90, 113, 118, 209, 228, 230.
-- -- yellow A, 90, 92, 114, 115, 116, 136, 137, 143, 144, 210, 213, 223,
                227, 232, 233, 235, 237, 238.
-- -- -- B, 89, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 113, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120, 138, 209,
            214, 215, 216, 223, 228, 231, 232.
-- gold, 100, 210, 213, 228, 230, 231, 232.
-- green B, 93, 97, 115, 146, 209, 214, 228, 230, 235.
-- -- G, 94, 209, 210, 228.
-- grey G, 106, 143, 228, 232.
-- jet black, 139.
-- -- -- Cr, 105, 118, 120, 121.
-- -- -- O O, 144.
-- -- -- R B, 105, 120.
-- new blue R, 98, 116, 120, 210.
-- nitrazol black B, 143, 144.
-- -- brown B, 143, 210.
-- -- -- G, 143, 210.
-- -- dye, 139.
-- orange, 132.
-- -- B, 89, 92, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120, 209, 215, 216, 217, 228, 230.
-- -- D, 210.
-- -- D C, 223, 227, 231, 233, 237, 238.
-- -- F, 209.
-- -- G, 91, 102, 210, 214, 215, 221, 222, 231.
-- -- G D, 104.
-- -- G G, 227, 233.
-- red, 107.
-- -- B, 210.
-- -- 4 B, 209.
-- -- 5 B, 88, 89, 103, 209, 215, 228.
-- -- 6 B, 209.
-- -- 10 B, 88, 89, 146, 209, 230.
-- -- N, 87.
-- -- N O, 210.
-- rose, 223.
-- -- B D, 88, 209, 215, 228, 230, 233.
-- -- G D, 99.
-- scarlet, 107.
-- -- B, 91, 106, 210, 215, 228.
-- -- 3 B, 88, 210, 228.
-- -- H S, 230.
-- -- S, 228.
-- sky blue, 94, 97, 98, 145, 210, 215, 222, 237, 238.
-- -- -- F F, 94, 96, 98, 114, 115, 210, 222, 223, 227, 232.
-- steel blue L, 96, 210, 214, 222, 228.
-- violet N, 87, 99, 100, 145, 146, 210, 223, 228, 231, 238.
-- yellow, 92.
-- yellow N, 90, 92, 93, 100, 113, 228, 230.

Diamineral blue R, 95, 116, 227, 238.

Diaminogene, 234, 235.
-- B, 138, 228, 234, 235.
-- blue B B, 136, 138.
-- extra, 143, 228, 234, 235.

Dianil black C R, 97, 119, 142.
-- -- N, 118, 120, 121.
-- blue B, 94, 97, 98, 116, 142.
-- -- G, 98, 113.
-- -- 2 K, 94.
-- -- 4 R, 99, 116.
-- brown B D, 119, 142.
-- -- G 0, 142.
-- -- 3 G O, 103, 118, 119, 142, 143.
-- -- R, 102, 103, 118, 119, 142.
-- -- T, 102.
-- claret B, 89, 99, 145.
-- -- G, 89.
-- dark blue R, 94, 95, 97, 116, 142, 143.
-- -- -- 3 R, 97, 142.
-- -- brown, 103.
-- olive, 93.
-- orange G, 89, 92.
-- -- 2 R, 92.
-- red 4 B, 89, 145.
-- scarlet G, 145.
-- yellow, 94.
-- -- G, 91, 98.
-- -- 3 G, 91, 94, 113.
-- -- R, 94, 113.
-- -- 2 R, 91.

Dianisidine blue, 197.

Diazo-benzene chloride, 181.

Diazo black. 132, 139.
-- blue, 132.
-- brown, 130, 139.
-- compounds, 181.
-- liquor, 190.

Diazotisation, 129.
-- of amido bases, 182.

Diazotised paranitroaniline, 140.

_Dictionary of Coal-tar Colours_, 259.

Dinitroso-resorcine, 179.

Diphenyl brown B N, 103.

Direct deep black E extra, 104.

Direct dyeing, 85.
-- dyes, 83.
-- -- fastness of, 106.
-- fast brown B, 144.
-- indigo blue, 98.
-- orange R, 210.
-- red, test of, 265.
-- triamine black G X, 104.
-- yellow G, 90, 106, 210.

Divi-divi, 147, 148, 239.

Drab, 93, 165, 216, 218, 219, 231.

Drying cylinders, 255.
-- of dyed goods, 249.

Dull lilac, 99.
-- violet, 100.

Dye-beck, 77.

Dye-house washing machine, 244, 246.

Dyeing apparatus, 263.
-- of basic dyes, 149.
-- machinery, 53, 57.
-- on metallic mordants, 156.
-- test for relative value of dyes, 267.

Dye-jigger, 72, 73.

Dyers' bleach, 24.

Dye-tank, illustration of, 54.

Dye-tub, illustration of, 54.

Dye-vat, section of, 56.


E.

Eboli blue B, 231.
-- green T, 230.

Emerald tint, 154.

Eosine, 84, 229.

Eosines, dyeing with, 158, 159.

Erie blue B X, 97.
-- -- 2 G, 210.

Erika B, 87.
-- B N, 99, 100, 210, 224.

Erythrosine, 229.
-- B, 238.

Erythrosines, 160.

Experimental dye-bath, 263.
-- dyeing, 262.


F.

Farmer's washing machine, 36.

Fast acid green, 229.
-- -- -- B N, 222.
-- blue developer A D, 133.
-- brown, 164.
-- neutral violet B, 154,
-- yellow S, 223, 237, 238.

Fastness of colours, 260.
-- of colours to light and air, 260
-- of colours to rubbing, 261.
-- of colours to washing, 261.
-- of direct dyes, 106.

Fatty acids, 3.

Fawn, 165.
-- brown, 167.
-- drab, 100, 216.

Fiery yellowish red, 186.

First green liquor, 168.

Fixation, 149.
-- with couplers, 139.
-- -- developers, 128.
-- -- metallic salts, 112.

Flavo-purpurine, 171.

Formyl blue B, 211.
-- violet, 84, 229, 233.
-- -- 6 B, 211.
-- -- 10 B, 211.
-- -- S 4 B, 211, 214, 215, 216, 222, 231, 237, 238.

Full blue, 43, 97.
-- yellow orange, 186.

Furnival's Square beater, 30.

Fustic, 156, 157, 166, 178, 259.
-- extract, 164, 165, 166, 167, 175, 176, 181.


G.

Gallipoli oil, 168.

Galls, 147, 148.

Gambier, 147.

Glauber's salt, 83, 108, 111, 209, 214, 215, 221, 222, 223,
                225, 231, 234, 237.

Glycerine, 180.

Gold and green shot dyes, 221.
-- brown, 100, 101, 102, 103, 138, 142, 143, 153, 216, 230.
-- -- and blue shot, 222.
-- drab, 232.
-- orange, 214.
-- yellow, 91, 113, 130, 142, 230.

Good yellow, 213.

Graemiger cop-dyeing machine, 65, 66.

Grass green, 93.

Green, 92, 93, 94, 114, 130, 143, 145, 151, 180, 215.
-- and buff shot, 223.
-- and claret shot, 222.
-- and pink shot dyes, 238.
-- and orange shot, 224.
-- and red shot, 223, 224.
-- blue, 98.
-- grey, 106, 120.
-- olive, 92.
-- yellow, 91.

Greening operation, 168.

Grey, 106, 120, 153, 219.
-- and orange shot, 223.
-- blue, 96.
-- lilac, 99, 153.
-- slate, 166.
-- sour operation, 32.

Grothe, 252.

Ground fustic, 166.

Guinea green B, 211, 218, 224.
-- violet B, 224.
-- -- 4 B, 211, 218.

Gum tragacanth, 192.

Gun cotton, 13.


H.

Half-silk fabrics, dyeing of, 225.

Hand dyeing, 53.

Hank bleaching, 45.

Hank-dyeing machine. Corron's, 63.
-- -- Klauder-Weldon's, 61, 62.

Hank-wringing machines, 241.

Havanna brown, 166.

Hawking machine, Holliday's, 78.

Hawthorne's washing machine, 36.

Heliotrope, 99, 233.
-- B B, 90, 146.
-- 2 B, 99, 233.

Hessian brown 2 M, 98.
-- -- 2 B N, 100, 231.
-- grey S, 231.
-- purple N, 230.
-- violet, 211.

Hoffman violet, 152.

Holliday, 182.

Holliday's hawking machine, 78.
-- yarn-dyeing machine, 60.

Hurst's _Silk Dyeing_, 225.

Hydrocellulose, 12.

Hydrochloric acid, 177, 183, 184, 190.
-- -- action of, 11.

Hydro-extractors, 251, 252.

Hydrosulphite indigo vat, 204.


I.

Immedial black, 107, 121.
-- blacks, 79.
-- blue, 121.
-- -- C, 125.

Immedial bronze A, 128.
-- -- B, 128.
-- brown, 121.

Impregnation with dye-stuff solution, 198.

Indamine blue N, 154.

Indazine, 229.

Indian yellow G, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 222, 229, 231.
-- -- R, 211, 213, 214, 229, 231, 232.

Indigo, 18, 20, 198.
-- blue, 152, 154.
-- -- N, 229, 233.
-- -- S G N, 229.
-- carmine, 165.
-- dyed goods, test of, 258.
-- dyeing, 199.
-- dye-vat for cloth, 199.
-- extract, 84, 167.
-- white, 200.

Indigotin, 198.

Indophenol, 205.

Induline, 229.

Irisamine G, 152, 153.

Iron, 157.
-- liquor, 172, 175, 176, 180.
-- mordants, 259.
-- stains, 50.
-- sulphate, 112.


J.

Janus black I, 219.
-- -- II, 219.
-- blue G, 155.
-- -- R, 155, 219.
-- brown B, 156, 219.
-- -- R, 219, 220.
-- claret red B, 156, 219.
-- dark blue B, 219.
-- dyes, 155, 218.
-- green B, 155, 219, 220.
-- grey B, 156.
-- -- BB, 219, 220.
-- red B, 155, 219.
-- yellow G, 219.
-- -- R, 155, 156, 219, 220.

Jet black, 121.

Jigger, 72.

Jig-wince, 74, 75.


K.

Katigen black, 121.
-- brown, 107, 121.
-- dark brown, 128.
-- green, 121.
-- olive G, 127.

Khaki, 180.
-- shades, 248.

Kiers, 30.

Klauder-Weldon hank-dyeing machine, 61, 62.


L.

Lanacyl blue B B, 211.
-- violet B, 211, 217.

Leaf green, 94, 113, 114, 231.

Lehner's process for making silk, 15.

Lemon yellow, 91.

Leuco, 198.

Light blue, 115, 138.
-- brown, 101, 103, 117.
-- chestnut brown, 137.
-- green, 114, 143.
-- grey, 106.
-- indigo blue, 96.
-- plum, 99.
-- sage brown, 118.
-- seal brown, 102.
-- slate, 106.

Lilac, 98, 99.
-- red, 87.
-- rose, 233.

Lima wood, 178, 179.

Lime, 169, 202.
-- and copperas vat for indigo dyeing, 200.
-- boil for cotton, 28.
-- sour operation, 32.

Logwood, 18, 84, 156, 157, 165, 167, 234, 259.
-- black, 79, 174.
-- -- dyeing on yarn in hanks, 175.
-- decoction, 177.
-- dyed goods, test of, 258.
-- extract, 164, 175, 176, 181.
-- greys, 178.

Loose wool and cotton, washing of, 244.

Lye boil operation. 34.


M.

Machinery for dyeing, 53, 57.

Madder, 157.
-- bleach, 24.

Magenta, 18, 147, 153, 229, 231, 232, 233.

Malachite green, 146, 152, 153, 229, 232.

Mandarine G, 211, 217, 218, 224.

Market bleach, 24, 38, 39.

Maroon, 89, 138, 153, 215, 233.

Mather & Platt's apparatus, 207.
-- -- bleaching kier, 30, 31.
-- -- machine, 246.
-- -- washing machine, 36.
-- -- yarn-bleaching kier, 49.

Mercerisation of cotton, 8.

Mercerised cotton fibres, illustrations of, 7, 9.

Mercer, John, 8, 21.

Metallic mordants, 156.

Metanitroaniline, 185, 186, 187, 188.
-- orange, 195.

Metaphenylene blue, 229.
-- -- B, 154, 233.

Methylene blue, 17.
-- -- B B, 153.
-- -- 2 B, 153.
-- -- N, 232.
-- grey B F, 153.

Methylindone B, 229, 231.
-- R, 229.

Methyl violet, 18, 229.
-- -- B, 146, 151, 231.
-- -- 2 B, 146.
-- -- R, 146.
-- -- 3R, 146.
-- -- 4R, 152.

Mikado brown, 227.
-- -- 2 B, 238.
-- -- 3 G O, 230.
-- -- M, 103, 230, 232.
-- dyes, 18.
-- golden yellow 8 G, 230, 231.
-- orange, 227.
-- -- G, 91.
-- -- 4 R, 91, 102.
-- -- R O, 232.
-- -- 3 R O, 231.
-- -- 4 R O, 218, 224.
-- -- 5 R O, 230, 238.
-- yellow, 227.
-- -- G, 230.

Milk of lime, 28, 175.

Milling orange, 229.
-- yellow, 229.

Mimosa, 209.

Mixed cotton and wool fabrics, dyeing of, 208.

Mommer's cop-dyeing machine, 69.

Mordant dyes, 84.

Mordants, 156.
-- detection of, 259.

Moss brown, 143, 232.

Muslin bleaching, 41.

Myrabolam, 147, 148, 239.
-- extract, 175, 176.


N.

Naphthol, 184.

-- -azo-benzene, 181.
-- black, 128.
-- -- B, 223.
-- -- 3 B, 222.
-- blue black, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 222, 234.
-- -- G, 211, 222.
-- -- R, 211.
-- colours, 182.
-- D, 192.
-- X, 192.
-- yellow S, 229, 238, 278.

Naphthylamine, 13, 132, 133, 184.
-- black, 235.
-- -- 4 B, 211.
-- -- 6 B, 211, 217.
-- -- D, 211.
-- ether, 130.

Naphtindone B B, 153.

Navy, 97, 98, 154.
-- blue, 96, 214, 216, 217.

Neutral grey, 132.
-- -- G, 99, 106.
-- violet, 229.

New blue D, 229.
-- methylene blue, 234, 235.
-- -- -- G G, 238.
-- -- -- M, 232.
-- -- -- N, 126, 145, 154, 229, 231, 233.
-- -- -- N X, 154.
-- -- -- R, 153, 154, 233.
-- -- -- 3 R, 145, 153.
-- -- grey B, 153.
-- -- -- G, 154.
-- phosphine G. 153, 154, 229, 232.
-- Victoria blue B, 146, 151, 152.

Nigraniline, 206.

Nigrosine, 229.

Nitrate of copper, 177.
-- of iron, 166, 175.

Nitrazol C, 139, 141, 193.

Nitric acid, action of, on cotton, 12.

Nitrite of soda, 183.

Nitro-aniline, 183.

Nitro-benzene, 13.

Nitro-naphthalene, 13.

Nitro-para-toluidine, 185, 187, 188.

Nitrosamine, 193.
-- red, 195.

Nitroso-resorcine, 18.

Nitrous acid, 184.

Nut brown, 103, 118, 119, 218, 219.


O.

Oak bark, 147.

Obermaier machine, 57, 59.

Oil stains, 50.

Old gold, 90, 232.

Olive, 92, 93, 127, 143, 164.
-- and blue shot dyes, 238.
-- brown, 143, 154.
-- green, 114, 142, 144, 153.
-- oil, 170.
-- yellow, 91.

Orange, 84, 91, 113, 130, 137, 151, 153, 154, 155, 215, 217.
-- and blue shot, 224, 238.
-- and violet shot, 223, 238.
-- brown, 102.
-- E N Z, 211, 214, 217, 222.
-- extra, 211, 223, 232.
-- G G, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 238.
-- T A, 218.
-- yellow, 143, 186.

Orthoamidoazotoluol, 186, 187, 188.

Orthonitrotoluidine, 196.

Oxidising agents, action of, on cotton, 16.

Oxycellulose, 16.

Oxydiamine black A, 97, 105, 209.
-- -- B M, 209, 215, 216, 217.
-- -- D, 209, 228, 233, 234.
-- -- M, 209.
-- -- N, 91, 97.
-- -- N R, 105.
-- -- S O O O, 210, 228, 231, 233.
-- orange G, 104, 209.
-- -- R, 92, 104, 143, 144, 209.
-- red S, 209.
-- violet B, 99, 100, 210, 214, 228, 230, 231, 233.
-- -- G, 99, 100.
-- yellow G G, 94, 146, 209.

Oxydianil yellow, 143.

Oxymuriate of tin, 166.

Oxyphenine, 91, 102, 209.


P.

Padding machine, 80, 81, 193, 221.

Pale blue, 95, 97.
-- brown, 102, 119, 122, 128, 164, 180.
-- chamois, 166.
-- chestnut, 143.
-- drab, 233.
-- fawn brown, 119, 130.
-- -- red, 89.
-- gold yellow, 213.
-- green, 94, 151.
-- greenish grey, 120.
-- leaf green, 113.
-- lilac, 99.
-- nut brown, 102.
-- olive brown, 100.
-- -- green, 113.
-- orange, 91, 92, 135.
-- sage, 144.
-- -- green, 217.
-- salmon, 87.
-- sea green, 127, 232.
-- sky blue, 95.
-- walnut brown, 104.

Palm oil soap, 169.

Paramine blue B, 96.
-- -- black S, 96.
-- brown C, 117.
-- -- G, 101.
-- indigo blue, 96.
-- navy blue R, 96.

Paranitroaniline, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190.
-- brown, 196.
-- red, 186, 188, 189.
-- -- dyed cotton, 196.
-- -- dye-tub, 191.
-- -- on piece goods, 192.
-- -- on yarn, 189.
-- -- with azophor red P N, 195.
-- -- with nitrazol C, 195.

Paratoluidine, 186, 187, 188.

Parchment paper, 11.

Paris violet, 152.

Patent blue, 84.

Peach wood, 178.

Peacock green, 214, 216.

Pea green, 114, 233.

Pectic acid, 3.

Permanganate of potash, 17.

Persian berries, 156, 178, 179.

Phenetidine, 183.

Phenol, 130, 132, 133, 181.

Phenylene diamine, 130, 132, 134, 235, 237.

Phosphate of soda, 86, 90, 91, 168, 170, 180, 225.

Piece-dyeing machines, 71.

Piece goods, drying of, 256.
-- -- washing of, 244.
-- -- wringing of, 241.

Pink, 87, 88, 89, 152, 215.

Plate singeing, 27.

Plum, 99, 145, 146, 215.

Pluto black B, 108, 144.

Ponceau B, 164.
-- 3 R B, 211, 217.

Potash, 86.

Primrose, 91, 154.

Primuline, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136, 138, 142, 143, 144, 209.

Production of colour direct on cotton fibres, 181.

Prussiate black, 207.

Pure blue, 238.
-- soluble blue, 237.

Purple brown, 100.

Purpuramine, D H, 107.

Pyrolignite of iron, 172.

Pyroxyline, 13.


Q.

Quercitron, 156, 178, 179.
-- bark, 178.
-- extract, 164, 165.

Quicklime, 200.


R.

Rayer & Lincoln machine, 26.

Read Holliday's squeezing machine, 241.

Red, 136, 187.
-- brown, 100, 135.
-- chocolate, 119.
-- developer C, 192.
-- drab, 165.
-- lilac, 100.
-- liquor, 165, 166, 169, 170, 176,
-- orange, 91.
-- plum, 117, 214.
-- violet, 99, 116, 152, 155, 156.

Reddish brown, 102.
-- puce, 187.

Reseda, 93.
-- green, 167.

Resin boil, 35.
-- soap liquor, 35.

Resorcine, 130, 132, 133, 235.
-- green, 156.

Rhodamine, 229, 231.
-- B, 153, 233.
-- G, 152.
-- 6 G, 152.
-- S, 237.

Rhoduline violet, 151.

Rocceleine, 211.

Roller squeezing machines for yarn, 241.

Rose azurine B, 87.
-- G, 87, 90.
-- bengale, 229.
-- lilac, 145, 151.
-- pink, 87.
-- red, 88, 89.

Rosophenine, 5 B, 88.

Russia green, 92, 113, 143, 153.


S.

Safranine, 18, 146, 153, 221, 229, 231, 233.
-- G, 146.
-- prima, 153.
-- S, 155.

Sage, 214.
-- brown, 104, 119, 135, 144, 218.
-- green, 93, 180, 230.

St. Dennis black, 121.

Saline salts, quantity used, 108.

Salmon, 89.

Salt, 165.

Satin fabrics, dyeing of, 225.

Scarlet, 88, 89, 135, 145, 146, 152, 153, 155, 215, 217, 230.
-- R, 220.

Schaeffer's acid, 134.

Scouring cotton, 23.

Sea green, 94, 151.

Seal brown, 146.

Seed hairs, 1.

Shot effects, 220.
-- on satin, dyeing of, 235.
-- with black cotton warp, 236.

Silver grey, 106.

Singeing of cotton, 27.
-- wash of cotton, 28.

Sky blue, 95, 98, 151, 215.

Slate, 106, 218, 231, 233.
-- blue, 97, 120, 152, 216.
-- green, 218.

Sliver dyeing, 58.

Slubbing dyeing, 58.

Soap, 165.
-- effect on dye-stuffs, 226.

Soaping of dyed goods, 247.

Soda, 86, 132, 178.
-- ash, 34, 166.
-- crystals, 169.
-- lye, 202, 235.
-- zinc vat for indigo dyeing, 204.

Sodium acetate, 196.
-- bichromate, 164.
-- nitrite solution, 196, 198.
-- stannate, preparing with, 158.

Solid blue, 229.
-- green, 229.
-- O, 179, 180.

Solidogen A, 145.

Soluble blue, 150, 160, 229.

Spencer's hank-wringing machine, 241.

Squeezing rollers, 240.

Stains in bleached goods, 50.

Steam aniline black, 207.
-- -- blacks, 248.

Steaming and ageing chamber, 250.
-- cottage, illustration of, 249.
-- of dyed goods, 248.

Stearic acid, 3.

Stitching of cotton, 25.

Stone, 218.

Structure of cotton fibre, 1.

Sulfaniline black, 121.
-- -- G, 124.
-- brown, 121.
-- -- 4 B, 127.

Sulphate of copper, 177.
-- of iron, 167.

Sulphonates, 182.

Sulphon azurine B, 210, 217, 218.
-- D, 93.

Sulphur colours, 121.

Sulphuric acid, 166.
-- action of, on cotton, 10.

Sulphyl colours, 121.

Sumac, 83, 147, 148, 165, 166, 167, 172, 173, 178, 239.
-- extract, 169, 175, 219, 220.

Sun yellow, 90.


T.

Tannic acid, 18, 20, 83, 147, 172.
-- mordant, dyeing on, 147.

Tannin, 173, 174, 236.
-- grounding, 173.
-- heliotrope, 145, 153, 229.
-- orange R, 154, 155, 229.

Tanning, 148.

Tartar emetic, 147, 192, 219, 220.

Tartaric acid, 180.

Temperature of dye-baths, 226.

Terra-cotta brown, 143.
-- red, 90, 143.

Testing of the colour of dyed fabrics, 257.

Thiazole yellow, 93, 94, 209.

Thiocarmine R, 84, 211, 214.

Thioflavine S, 94, 104, 106, 209, 213, 215, 222, 223, 228, 229.
-- T, 153, 154, 229, 231, 232.

Tin crystals, 147, 169, 179.
-- oxide, fixing, 158.

Titan blue, 210, 211.
-- -- 3 B, 93, 102, 164.
-- -- R, 102.
-- brown O, 210.
-- -- P, 164.
-- -- R, 102, 210.
-- -- Y, 161, 210.
-- colours, 227.
-- como G, 95.
-- -- S N, 98.
-- dyes, 18, 85.
-- gold, 101, 102.
-- ingrain blue, 135, 136, 142.
-- marine blue, 211.
-- navy R, 98.
-- orange, 88.
-- -- N, 95.
-- pink, 210.
-- red, 107.
-- scarlet C, 88.
-- -- D, 88.
-- -- S, 209.
-- yellow, 210.
-- -- G, 145.
-- -- G G, 90.

Titan yellow Y, 90, 92, 93, 164.

Toluidine, 185, 187, 188.
-- orange, 196.

Toluylene brown, 139.
-- diamine, 134.
-- orange, 139.
-- --G, 90, 91, 100.
-- --K, 100.

Topping, 140.
-- with acid and basic dye-stuffs, 228.
-- with basic dyes, 145.

Triamine black, 132.
-- -- B, 96, 137.
-- -- B T, 98.

Tropæoline O, 229.
-- O O, 211, 229.

Truck yarn-dyer, 254, 255.

Turkey red, 87, 167, 181.
-- -- bleach, 38, 39.
-- -- oil, 88, 90, 95, 96, 160, 170, 171, 172, 173, 180, 189, 192, 196.

Turmeric, 165, 166, 167.

Turquoise blue, 98, 116, 151, 155, 232.
-- -- G, 146, 151, 152.


U.

Union black B, 209, 214.
-- -- S, 209, 214, 215, 216, 217, 228, 234.
-- blue B B, 209.


V.

Valonia, 147.

Verdigris, 177.

Victoria blue, 150.
-- -- B, 151, 152.

Vidal black, 107, 121, 123.
-- blacks, 79.

Violet, 99, 100, 146, 154, 230.
-- and yellow shot dyes, 238.
-- blue, 97.


W.

Walnut brown, 102, 119, 138, 142, 219, 233.

Warp bleaching, 43.

Warp-dyeing machines, 69, 70, 71.

Washing after dyeing, 239.

Washing and soaping vats, illustration of, 248.
-- of cotton in bleaching, 36.
-- operations after dyeing, 242.

Water blue, 229.
-- of condition, 6.
-- volume used in dyeing, 107.

White indigo, 198.
-- liquor treatment, 168.
-- sour operation, 38.

Whizzing, 45.

Willesden waterproof cloths, 22.

Wince dye beck, 74.

Witz, George, 17.

Wool black 6 B, 211, 217, 218, 223, 224.
-- green, 84.

Worral's singeing machine, 27.

Wringing of dyed goods, 239.


Y.

Yarn bleaching, 43.
-- -washing machine, illustration of, 243.

Yarns in cop form, washing of, 244.
-- in hanks, washing of, 244.
-- in hanks, wringing of, 240.

Yellow, 90, 91, 113, 151.
-- and violet shot dyes, 237.
-- olive, 91.

Yellowish claret red, 187.

Young & Crippin's cop-dyeing machine, 68.


Z.

Zambesi black, 132.
-- -- B, 210, 218.
-- -- B R, 97.
-- -- D, 103, 104, 218.
-- -- F, 115, 119, 210.
-- blue, 130,
-- -- B X, 136.
-- -- R X, 217, 218.
-- brown, 130.
-- -- G, 210.
-- -- 2 G, 136, 210.
-- dyes, 85, 208.

Zinc and lime vat for indigo dyeing, 201.
-- bisulphite indigo vat, 203.
-- chloride, 20.
-- sulphate, 112.


       *       *       *       *       *


THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED.

SEPTEMBER, 1901.

_This Catalogue cancels all former editions._

The Publishers seek to issue thoroughly helpful works. These books in
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A Catalogue

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BY EXPERT WRITERS

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       *       *       *       *       *

Books on Oils, Soaps, Colours, Chemicals, Glue, Varnishes, etc.

THE PRACTICAL COMPOUNDING OF OILS, TALLOW AND GREASE FOR LUBRICATION,
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By AN EXPERT OIL REFINER. 100 pp. 1898. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d.; India
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=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introductory Remarks on the General Nomenclature of Oils,
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Oils.--VI., Lamp Oils.--VII., Engine Tallow, Solidified Oils and
Petroleum Jelly.--VIII., Machinery Greases: Loco and
Anti-friction.--IX., Clarifying and Utilisation of Waste Fats, Oils,
Tank Bottoms, Drainings of Barrels and Drums, Pickings Up, Dregs,
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=Press Opinions.=

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     almost before everything else.... The chapters on grease and
     solidified oils, etc., are excellent."--_The Ironmonger._

       *       *       *       *       *

SOAPS. A Practical Manual of the Manufacture of Domestic, Toilet and
other Soaps. By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Illustrated with Sixty-six
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=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introductory.--II., Soap-maker's Alkalies.--III., Soap Fats
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       *       *       *       *       *

ANIMAL FATS AND OILS: Their Practical Production, Purification and Uses
for a great Variety of Purposes. Their Properties, Falsification and
Examination. A Handbook for Manufacturers of Oil and Fat Products, Soap
and Candle Makers, Agriculturists, Tanners, Margarine Manufacturers,
etc., etc. By LOUIS EDGAR ANDÉS. Sixty-two Illustrations. 240 pp. 1898.
Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries,
12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Introduction. Occurrence, Origin, Properties and Chemical Constitution
of Animal Fats Preparation of Animal Fats and Oils. Machinery.
Tallow-melting Plant. Extraction Plant. Presses. Filtering Apparatus.
Butter: Raw Material and Preparation, Properties, Adulterations. Beef
Lard or Remelted Butter, Testing. Candle-fish Oil. Mutton-Tallow. Hare
Fat. Goose Fat. Neatsfoot Oil. Bone Fat: Bone Boiling, Steaming Bones,.
Extraction, Refining. Bone Oil. Artificial Butter: Oleomargarine,
Margarine Manufacture in France, Grasso's Process, "Kaiser's Butter,"
Jahr & Münzberg's Method, Filbert's Process, Winter's Method. Human Fat.
Horse Fat. Beef Marrow. Turtle Oil. Hog's Lard: Raw Material,
Preparation, Properties, Adulterations, Examination. Lard Oil. Fish
Oils. Liver Oils. Artificial Train Oil. Wool Fat: Properties, Purified
Wool Fat. Spermaceti: Examination of Fats and Oils in General.

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     indicated, and the many advances which have been made during the
     past years in the methods of producing the more common animal
     fats--lard, tallow and butter--receive due attention."--_Glasgow
     Herald._

       *       *       *       *       *

=VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS:= Their Practical Preparation, Purification and
Employment for Various Purposes, their Properties, Adulteration and
Examination. A Handbook for Oil Manufacturers and Refiners, Candle, Soap
and Lubricating Oil Makers, and the Oil and Fat Industry in General.
Translated from the German of LOUIS EDGAR ANDÉS. 94 Illustrations. 320
pp. 1897. Demy 8vo. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other
Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Statistical Data. General Properties of the Vegetable Fats and Oils.
Estimation of the Amount of Oil in Seeds. Table of Vegetable Fats and
Oils, with French and German Nomenclature, Source and Origin and
Percentage of Fat in the Plants from which they are Derived. The
Preparation of Vegetable Fats and Oils: Storing Oil Seeds: Cleaning the
Seed. Apparatus for Grinding Oil Seeds and Fruits. Installation of Oil
and Fat Works. Extraction Method of Obtaining Oils and Fats. Oil
Extraction Installations, Press Moulds, Non-drying Vegetable Oils.
Vegetable drying Oils. Solid Vegetable Fats. Fruits Yielding Oils and
Fats. Wool-softening Oils. Soluble Oils. Treatment of the Oil after
Leaving the Press. Improved Methods of Refining with Sulphuric Acid and
Zinc Oxide or Lead Oxide. Refining with Caustic Alkalies, Ammonia,
Carbonates of the Alkalies, Lime. Bleaching Fats and Oils. Practical
Experiments on the Treatment of Oils with regard to Refining and
Bleaching. Testing Oils and Fats.

=Press Opinions.=

     "Concerning that and all else within the wide and comprehensive
     connection involved, this book must be invaluable to every one
     directly or indirectly interested in the matters it treats
     of."--_Commerce._

     "The proprietors of the _Oil and Colourman's Journal_ have not only
     placed a valuable and highly interesting book of reference in the
     hands of the fats and oils industry in general, but have rendered
     no slight service to experimental and manufacturing
     chemists."--_Manufacturing Chemist._

       *       *       *       *       *

=IRON-CORROSION, ANTI-FOULING AND ANTI-CORROSIVE PAINTS.= By LOUIS EDGAR
ANDÉS. 62 Illustrations. 275 pp. Translated from the German. Demy 8vo.
1900. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Ironrust and its Formation--Protection from Rusting by Paint--Grounding
the Iron with Linseed Oil, etc.--Testing Paints--Use of Tar for Painting
on Iron--Anti-corrosive Paints--Linseed Varnish--Chinese Wood Oil--Lead
Pigments--Iron Pigments--Artificial Iron Oxides--Carbon--Preparation of
Anti-corrosive Paints--Results of Examination of Several Anti-corrosive
Paints--Paints for Ship's Bottoms--Anti-fouling Compositions--Various
Anti-corrosive and Ship's Paints--Official Standard Specifications for
Ironwork Paints--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "This is a very valuable book, translated from the German,
     discussing in detail anti-fouling and anti-corrosive
     paints."--_British Mercury._

     "Will be of great service to paint manufacturers, engineering
     contractors, ironfounders, shipbuilders and others."--_Engineer and
     Iron Trades Advertiser._

     "The book before us deals with the subject in a manner at once
     practical and scientific, and is well worthy of the attention of
     all builders, architects and engineers."--_The Builder._

     "The book is very readable and full of valuable information, and
     bearing in mind the importance of the subject treated, it is one
     which engineers will be well advised to procure at an early
     date."--_Railway Engineer._

     "The author goes fully into his subject, and the translator has
     been successful in reproducing in another language what he has to
     say. There are given in the text numerous illustrations of the
     rusting of iron, prepared in the course of a series of personal
     experiments on the formation of rust."--_Journal of Gas Lighting._

     "This work is a very elaborate and useful record of the various
     phenomena in connection with the corrosion of iron and its
     protection against corrosion.... The book is an exceedingly useful
     record of what has been done in connection with iron preservation,
     and will undoubtedly prove to be of much value to railway
     engineers, shipowners, etc."--_Fairplay._

     "Herr Andés' book, written purely from a scientific standpoint,
     will be particularly useful to iron manufacturers, shipbuilders and
     shipowners.... The book is beautifully printed on good paper, and
     its appearance does credit to the publishers; the work of
     translation has been remarkably well done, the language bearing
     none of those irritating traces of Teutonism which disfigure so
     many English versions of German technical works."--_The
     Ironmonger._

     "This knowledge is conveyed with characteristic German thoroughness
     in this useful work of Herr Andés, which loses nothing of clearness
     in Mr. Salter's excellent translation. The causes of rust formation
     are examined, the proper methods of cleansing the ironwork
     detailed, and the constitution and application of suitable
     preventative coverings explained.... The book is a welcome
     contribution to technological literature, and will be found worthy
     of the careful study of all who are professionally engaged in the
     arrangement or superintendence of the class of work dealt
     with."--_Western Daily Mercury._

     "The author explains the nature of rust and its formation, and the
     text is illustrated from about fifty photographs. An immense amount
     of carefully arranged information follows as to the best methods of
     applying anti-corrosive substances and the various pigments most
     efficacious for use under all circumstances. The author has
     evidently thoroughly investigated and mastered the subject of iron
     corrosion, its cause and its prevention; and we regard his book as
     of the greatest importance to bridge-builders and makers and users
     of structural iron and steel. The book is illustrated throughout
     and is admirably indexed and arranged."--_Iron and Steel Trades
     Journal._

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE MANUFACTURE OF ALUM AND THE SULPHATES AND OTHER SALTS OF ALUMINA
AND IRON.= Their Uses and Applications as Mordants in Dyeing and Calico
Printing, and their other Applications in the Arts, Manufactures,
Sanitary Engineering, Agriculture and Horticulture. Translated from the
French of LUCIEN GESCHWIND. 195 Illustrations. Nearly 400 pp. Royal 8vo.
1901. Price 12s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d.; Other Countries,
15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., =Theoretical Study of Aluminium, Iron, and Compounds of these
Metals.=--Chapters I., Aluminium and its Compounds.--II., Iron and Iron
Compounds.

Part II., =Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphates and Sulphates of
Iron.=--Chapters III., Manufacture of Aluminium Sulphate and the
Alums.--IV., Manufacture of Sulphates of Iron.

Part III., =Uses of the Sulphates of Aluminium and Iron.=--Chapters V.,
Uses of Aluminium Sulphate and Alums--Application to Wool and
Silk--Preparing and using Aluminium Acetates--Employment of Aluminium
Sulphate in Carbonising Wool--The Manufacture of Lake
Pigments--Manufacture of Prussian Blue--Hide and Leather Industry--Paper
Making--Hardening Plaster--Lime Washes--Preparation of Non-inflammable
Wood, etc.--Purification of Waste Waters.--VI., =Uses and Applications
of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferric Sulphates.=--Dyeing--Manufacture of
Pigments--Writing Inks--Purification of Lighting
Gas--Agriculture--Cotton Dyeing--Disinfectant--Purifying Waste
Liquors--Manufacture of Nordhausen Sulphuric Acid--Fertilising.

Part IV., =Chemical Characteristics of Iron and Aluminium.=--=Analysis
of Various Aluminous or Ferruginous Products.=--Chapter VII.,
Aluminium.--=Analysing Aluminium Products.=--Alunite Alumina--Sodium
Aluminate--Aluminium Sulphate. Chapter VIII., =Iron.=--Analytical
Characteristics of Iron Salts--Analysis of Pyritic Lignite--Ferrous and
Ferric Sulphates--Rouil Mordant--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=MANUAL OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.= By HERBERT INGLE, F.I.C., Lecturer
on Agricultural Chemistry, the Yorkshire College; Lecturer in the
Victoria University. [_In the press._

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introduction.--II., The Atmosphere.--III., The Soil.--IV.,
The Reactions occurring in Soils.--V., The Analysis of Soils.--VI.,
Manures, Natural.--VII., Manures (continued).--VIII., The Analysis of
Manures.--IX., The Constituents of Plants.--X., The Plant.--XI,
Crops.--XII., The Animal.

       *       *       *       *       *

=LUBRICATING OILS, FATS AND GREASES:= Their Origin, Preparation,
Properties, Uses and Analyses. A Handbook for Oil Manufacturers,
Refiners and Merchants, and the Oil and Fat Industry in General. By
GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S. Second Edition. Sixty-five Illustrations. 313
pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other
Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., =Introductory.= Oils and Fats, Fatty Oils and Fats,
Hydrocarbon Oils, Uses of Oils.--II., =Hydrocarbon Oils.= Distillation,
Simple Distillation, Destructive Distillation, Products of Distillation,
Hydrocarbons, Paraffins, Olefins, Napthenes.--III., =Scotch Shale Oils.=
Scotch Shales, Distillation of Scotch Oils, Shale Retorts, Products of
Distilling Shales.

Separating Products, Treating Crude Shale Oil, Refining Shale Oil, Shale
Oil Stills, Shale Naphtha Burning Oils, Lubricating Oils, Wax.--IV.,
=Petroleum.= Occurrence, Geology, Origin, Composition, Extraction,
Refining, Petroleum Stills, Petroleum Products, Cylinder Oils, Russian
Petroleum, Deblooming Mineral Oils.--V., =Vegetable and Animal Oils.=
Introduction, Chemical Composition of Oils and Fats, Fatty Acids,
Glycerine, Extraction of Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils, Animal
Oils, Vegetable Oils, Rendering, Pressing, Refining, Bleaching, Tallow,
Tallow Oil, Lard Oil, Neatsfoot Oil, Palm Oil, Palm Nut Oil, Cocoa-nut
Oil, Castor Oil, Olive Oil, Rape and Colza Oils, Arachis Oil, Niger Seed
Oil, Sperm Oils, Whale Oil, Seal Oil, Brown Oils, Lardine, Thickened
Rape Oil.--VI., =Testing and Adulteration of Oils.= Specific Gravity,
Alkali Tests, Sulphuric Acid Tests, Free Acids in Oils, Viscosity Tests,
Flash and Fire Tests, Evaporation Tests, Iodine and Bromide Tests,
Elaidin Test, Melting Point of Fat, Testing Machines.--VII.,
=Lubricating Greases.= Rosin Oil, Anthracene Oil, Making Greases,
Testing and Analysis of Greases.--VIII., =Lubrication.= Friction and
Lubrication, Lubricant, Lubrication of Ordinary Machinery, Spontaneous
Combustion of Oils, Stainless Oils, Lubrication of Engine Cylinders,
Cylinder Oils.--=Appendices.= A. Table of Baume's Hydrometer--B. Table
of Thermometric Degrees--C. Table of Specific Gravities of
Oils--=Index.=

=Press Opinions.=

     "The book is well printed, and is a credit alike to author, printer
     and publisher."--_Textile Mercury._

     "It will be a valuable addition to the technical library of every
     steam user's establishment." --_Machinery Market._

     "Mr. Hurst has in this work supplied a practical treatise which
     should prove of especial value to oil dealers, and also, though in
     a less degree, to oil users."--_Textile Manufacturer._

     "This is a clear and concise treatment of the method of
     manufacturing and refining lubricating oils.... The book is one
     which is well worthy the attention of readers who are users of
     oil."--_Textile Recorder._

     "We have no hesitation in saying that in our opinion this book
     ought to be very useful to all those who are interested in oils,
     whether as manufacturers or users of lubricants, or to those
     chemists or engineers whose duty it may be to report upon the
     suitability of the same for any particular class of
     work."--_Engineer._

     "The author is widely known and highly respected as an authority on
     the chemistry of oils and the technics of lubrication, and it is
     safe to say that no work of similar interest or equal value to the
     general oil-selling and consuming public has heretofore appeared in
     the English language."--_Drugs, Oils and Paints,_ U.S.A.

     "This valuable and useful work, which is both scientific and
     practical, has been written with a view of supplying those who deal
     in and use oils, etc., for the purpose of lubrication, with some
     information respecting the special properties of the various
     products which cause these various oils to be of value as
     lubricants."--_Industries and Iron._

     "A mere glance at the table of contents is sufficient to show how
     various are the conditions to which these materials have to be
     applied, how much knowledge is required for the selection of the
     right kind for each particular purpose, and how by processes of
     mixture or manufacture the requisite qualities are obtained in each
     case."--_Manchester Guardian._

       *       *       *       *       *

=AMMONIA AND ITS COMPOUNDS:= Their Manufacture and Uses. By CAMILLE
VINCENT, Professor at the Central School of Arts and Manufactures,
Paris. Translated from the French by M. J. SALTER. Royal 8vo. 113 pp.
1901. Thirty-two Illustrations. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d.;
Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., =General Considerations=: Sections 1. Various Sources of
Ammoniacal Products; 2. Human Urine as a Source of Ammonia. II.,
=Extraction of Ammoniacal Products from Sewage=: Sections 1.
Preliminary Treatment of Excreta in the Settling Tanks--The Lencauchez
Process, The Bilange Process, The Kuentz Process; 2. Treatment of the
Clarified Liquors for the Manufacture of Ammonium Sulphate--The Figuera
Process and Apparatus, Apparatus of Margueritte and Sourdeval, The Lair
Apparatus, Apparatus of Sintier and Muhe, Apparatus of Bilange, The
Kuentz Process, Process and Apparatus of Hennebutte and De Vauréal; 3.
Treatment of Entire Sewage--Chevalet's Apparatus, Paul Mallet's
Apparatus, Lencauchez's Apparatus. III., =Extraction of Ammonia from Gas
Liquor=: Sections 1. Clarification of Gas Liquor; 2. Manufacture of
Ammonium Sulphate--A. Mallet's Apparatus, A. Mallet's Modified
Apparatus, Paul Mallet's Apparatus, Chevalet's Apparatus, Grüneberg's
Apparatus; 3. Concentration of Gas Liquor--Solvay's Apparatus, Kuentz's
Apparatus, Grüneberg's Apparatus. IV., Manufacture of Ammoniacal
Compounds from Bones, Nitrogenous Waste, Beetroot Wash and Peat=:
Sections 1. Ammonia from Bones: 2. Ammonia from Nitrogenous Waste
Materials; 3. Ammonia from Beetroot Wash (Vinasse): 4. Ammonia from
Peat--Treatment of the Ammoniacal Liquors. V., =Manufacture of Caustic
Ammonia, and Ammonium Chloride, Phosphate and Carbonate=: Sections 1.
Manufacture of Caustic Ammonia; 2. Manufacture of Ammonium
Chloride--From Fermented Urine, Process of the Lesage Company, Kuentz's
Process; From Gas Liquor, English Process, Kuentz's Process; From the
Dry Distillation of Animal Matter; From Ammonium Sulphate, Sublimation;
3. Ammonium Phosphates; 4. Carbonates of Ammonium--Sesquicarbonate from
Animal Matter, English Process. Uses. VI., =Recovery of Ammonia from the
Ammonia-Soda Mother Liquors=: Sections 1. General Considerations; 2.
Apparatus of Schloesing and Rolland; 3. Apparatus of the Société Anonyme
de l'Est.--=Index.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISHES, OIL REFINING AND BOILING, AND KINDRED
INDUSTRIES.= Describing the Manufacture of Spirit Varnishes and Oil
Varnishes; Raw Materials: Resins, Solvents and Colouring Principles;
Drying Oils: their Properties, Applications and Preparation by both Hot
and Cold Processes; Manufacture, Employment and Testing of Different
Varnishes. Translated from the French of ACH. LIVACHE, Ingénieur Civil
des Mines. Greatly Extended and Adapted to English Practice, with
numerous Original Recipes. By JOHN GEDDES MCINTOSH, Lecturer on Oils,
Colours and Varnishes, Regent Street Polytechnic. Twenty-seven
Illustrations. 400 pp. Demy 8vo. 1899. Price 12s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 13s. 6d.; Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

I. Resins: Gum Resins, Oleo Resins and Balsams, Commercial Varieties,
Source, Collection, Characteristics, Chemical Properties, Physical
Properties, Hardness, Adulterations. Appropriate Solvents, Special
Treatment, Special Use.--II. Solvents: Natural, Artificial, Manufacture,
Storage, Special Use.--III. Colouring: Principles, (1) Vegetable, (2)
Coal Tar, (3) Coloured Resinates, (4) Coloured Oleates and
Linoleates.--Gum Running: Furnaces, Bridges, Flues, Chimney Shafts,
Melting Pots, Condensers, Boiling or Mixing Pans, Copper Vessels, Iron
Vessels (Cast), Iron Vessels (Wrought), Iron Vessels (Silvered), Iron
Vessels (Enamelled), Steam Superheated Plant, Hot-air Plant.--Spirit
Varnish Manufacture: Cold Solution Plant, Mechanical Agitators, Hot
Solution Plant, Jacketted Pans, Mechanical Agitators, Clarification and
Filtration, Bleaching Plant, Storage Plant.--Manufacture,
Characteristics and Uses of the Spirit Varnishes yielded by: Amber,
Copal, Dammar, Shellac, Mastic, Sandarac, Rosin, Asphalt, India Rubber,
Gutta Percha, Collodion, Celluloid, Resinates, Oleates.--Manufacture of
Varnish Stains.--Manufacture of Lacquers.--Manufacture of Spirit
Enamels.--Analysis of Spirit Varnishes.--Physical and Chemical Constants
of Resins. --Table of Solubility of Resins in different
Menstrua.--Systematic qualitative Analysis of Resins, Hirschop's
tables.--Drying Oils: Oil Crushing Plant, Oil Extraction Plant,
Individual Oils, Special Treatment of Linseed Oil, Poppyseed Oil, Walnut
Oil, Hempseed Oil, Llamantia Oil, Japanese Wood Oil, Gurjun Balsam,
Climatic Influence on Seed and Oil.--Oil Refining: Processes, Thenard's,
Liebig's, Filtration, Storage, Old Tanked Oil.--Oil Boiling: Fire
Boiling Plant, Steam Boiling Plant, Hot-Air Plant, Air Pumps, Mechanical
Agitators, Vincent's Process, Hadfield's Patent, Storer's Patent,
Walton's Processes, Continental Processes, Pale Boiled Oil, Double
Boiled Oil, Hartley and Blenkinsop's Process.--Driers: Manufacture,
Special Individual Use of (1) Litharge, (2) Sugar of Lead, (3) Red Lead,
(4) Lead Borate, (5) Lead Linoleate, (6) Lead Resinate, (7) Black Oxide
of Manganese, (8) Manganese Acetate, (9) Manganese Borate, (10)
Manganese Resinate, (II) Manganese Linoleate, Mixed Resinates and
Linoleates, Manganese and Lead, Zinc Sulphate, Terebine, Liquid
Driers.--Solidified Boiled Oil.--Manufacture of Linoleum.--Manufacture
of India Rubber Substitutes.--Printing Ink Manufacture--Lithographic Ink
Manufacture.--Manufacture of Oil Varnishes.--Running and Special
Treatment of Amber, Copal, Kauri, Manilla.--Addition of Oil to
Resin.--Addition of Resin to Oil.--Mixed Processes.--Solution in Cold of
previously Fused Resin.--Dissolving Resins in Oil, etc., under
pressure.--Filtration.--Clarification.--Storage.--Ageing.--Coach-makers'
Varnishes and Japans.--Oak Varnishes.--Japanners' Stoving
Varnishes.--Japanners' Gold Size.--Brunswick Black.--Various Oil
Varnishes.--Oil-Varnish Stains.--Varnishes for "Enamels".-India Rubber
Varnishes.--Varnishes Analysis: Processes, Matching.--Faults in
Varnishes: Cause, Prevention.--Experiments and Exercises.

=Press Opinions.=

     "There is no question that this is a useful book."--_Chemist and
     Druggist._

     "The different formulæ which are quoted appear to be far more
     'practical' than such as are usually to be found in text-books: and
     assuming that the original was published two or three years ago,
     and was only slightly behindhand in its information, the present
     volume gives a fair insight into the position of the varnish
     industry."--_The Ironmonger._

     =Letter from the Teacher of a Technical Class.=

     "As a teacher I have often been consulted as to the best work on
     Varnish Manufacture and kindred industries, and have been at a loss
     in recommending a really practical one. It is therefore with
     pleasure that I can now testify as to the merits of the book on
     these subjects by A. Livache and J.G. McIntosh recently published
     by Messrs. Scott, Greenwood & Co. In my opinion _no_ varnish maker
     ought to be without it; moreover, it is the best text-book that
     could be put into the hands of trade students or beginners. It has
     also the merits of being thoroughly up-to-date and of possessing a
     remarkably comprehensive index. I can conscientiously recommend it
     to my students and trade friends."--CHARLES HARRISON, Lecturer on
     the Manufacture of Painters' Oils, Colours and Varnishes, Borough
     Polytechnic, Borough Road, S.E.
                                                  "23rd May, 1899"

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE MANUFACTURE OF LAKE PIGMENTS FROM ARTIFICIAL COLOURS.= By FRANCIS
H. JENNISON, F.I.C., F.C.S. =Sixteen Coloured Plates, showing Specimens
of Eighty-nine Colours, specially prepared from the Recipes given in the
Book.= 136 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.;
Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introduction.--II., The Groups of the Artificial Colouring
Matters.--III., The Nature and Manipulation of Artificial Colours.--IV.,
Lake-forming Bodies for Acid Colours. --V., Lake-forming Bodies' Basic
Colours.--VI., Lake Bases.--VII., The Principles of Lake
Formation.--VIII., Red Lakes.--IX., Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet
and Black Lakes. --X., The Production of Insoluble Azo Colours in the
Form of Pigments.--XI., The General Properties of Lakes Produced from
Artificial Colours.--XII., Washing, Filtering and Finishing. --XIII.,
Matching and Testing Lake Pigments.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "It is evidently the result of prolonged research, and cannot but
    prove a valuable consulting work to those engaged in the
    industry."--_Derby Mercury._

    "The practical portion of the volume is the one which will
    especially commend itself, as that is the part of the subject which
    most readers would buy the book for."--_Chemist and_ _Druggist._

    "This work just issued is a very valuable treatise on the
    manufacture of lake pigments of the coal-tar series principally. The
    plan adopted by the author in writing up the subject enables the
    manufacture to be very readily understood.... The general properties
    of lakes produced from artificial colours, washing, filtering and
    finishing, and matching and testing lake pigments are well and
    exhaustively described, so that no manufacturer or user of lake
    pigments can well afford to be without this work."--_Chemical Trade
    Journal._

    "This is undoubtedly a book which will occupy a very high place
    amongst technical works, and will prove of exceptional value to all
    whom it immediately concerns. We have no hesitation in recommending
    it as one of the best works of its class we have ever read. Mr.
    Jennison has set about his task with a lucid style, and with a
    complete mastery of his subject. .. We do not think students of the
    technical side of the paint and colour industry can possibly spend
    7s. 6d. in a more profitable way than by buying this
    publication."--_Eastern_ _Morning News._

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE TESTING AND VALUATION OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN PAINT AND COLOUR
MANUFACTURE.= By M.W. JONES, F.C.S. A Book for the Laboratories of
Colour Works. 88 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s.
6d.; Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Aluminium Compounds. China Clay. Iron Compounds. Potassium Compounds.
Sodium Compounds. Ammonium Hydrate. Acids. Chromium Compounds. Tin
Compounds. Copper Compounds. Lead Compounds. Zinc Compounds. Manganese
Compounds. Arsenic Compounds. Antimony Compounds. Calcium Compounds.
Barium Compounds. Cadmium Compounds. Mercury Compounds. Ultramarine.
Cobalt and Carbon Compounds. Oils Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "Though this excellent little work can appeal only to a limited
    class, the chemists in colour works, yet it will appeal to them very
    strongly indeed, for it will put them on the track of short, rapid,
    and yet approximately, accurate methods of testing the comparative
    value of competing samples of raw material used in paint and colour
    manufacture."--_North British_ _Daily Mail._

    "This little text-book is intended to supplement the larger and more
    comprehensive works on the subject, and it embodies the result of
    Mr. Jones' experiments and experiences, extending over a long
    period. It gives, under separate headings, the principal ingredients
    and impurities found in the raw materials, and is a handy work of
    reference for ascertaining what is valuable or detrimental in the
    sample under examination."--_Blackburn Times._

    "There is no attempt at literary adornment nor straining after
    literary effect, but the lessons are imparted in simple and concise
    language. This is just what a text-book should be.... The treatise
    is certainly most useful, and bears internal evidence of being the
    results of actual work in a busy manufactory and not of ephemeral
    cramming in a technical school. The chapter arrangement is good, the
    index satisfactory, and the book is altogether one which the
    practical chemist should keep as accessible to his crucibles and
    filter paper."--_Manchester_ _Courier._

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND ARTIFICIAL PERFUMES.= By ERNEST J.
PARRY, B.SC. (Lond.), F.I.C., F.C.S. Illustrated with Twenty Engravings.
400 pp. 1899. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d.;
Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., =The General Properties of Essential Oils.=--II.,
=Compounds occurring in Essential Oils.=--III., =The Preparation of
Essential Oils.=--IV., =The Analysis of Essential Oils.=--V.,
=Systematic Study of the Essential Oils.=--VI., =Terpeneless
Oils.=--VII., =The Chemistry of Artificial Perfumes.=--=Appendix:= Table
of Constants.

=Press Opinions.=

     "There can be no doubt that the publication will take a high place
     in the list of scientific text-books."--_London Argus_

     "We can heartily recommend this volume to all interested in the
     subject of essential oils from the scientific or the commercial
     standpoint."--_British and Colonial Druggist._

     "Mr. Parry has done good service in carefully collecting and
     marshalling the results of the numerous researches published in
     various parts of the world."--_Pharmaceutical Journal._

     "At various times monographs have been printed by individual
     workers, but it may safely be said that Mr. Parry is the first in
     these latter days to deal with the subject in an adequate manner.
     His book is well conceived and well written.... He is known to have
     sound practical experience in analytical methods, and he has
     apparently taken pains to make himself _au fait_ with the
     commercial aspects of the subject."--_Chemist and Druggist._

     "Mr. Parry's reputation as a scientist is fully established, and we
     can therefore accept any work emanating from his pen as being of
     the greatest practical value. We have perused the work before us
     with much care, and are convinced that the contents will be found
     most serviceable and its publication most opportune.... He avoids
     unnecessary details, but includes everything that is essential to
     systematic treatment, while he attempts no more 'than to give an
     outline of the principles involved'.... We congratulate Mr. Parry
     on the scientific value of his work, and hope that if the progress
     of the colonies in the manufacture of essential oils and perfumes
     equals what we are justified in expecting, it will become an
     Australian handbook, everywhere appreciated."--_The Australian
     Brewers' Journal._

       *       *       *       *       *

=DRYING OILS, BOILED OIL AND SOLID AND LIQUID DRIERS.= By L.E. ANDÉS. A
Practical Work for Manufacturers of Oils, Varnishes, Printing Inks,
Oilcloth and Linoleum, Oilcakes, Paints, etc. Expressly Written for this
Series of Special Technical Books, and the Publishers hold the Copyright
for English and Foreign Editions. Forty-two Illustrations. 360 pp. 1901.
Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d.; Other Countries,
15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., General Chemical and Physical Properties of the Drying
Oils; Cause of the Drying Property; Absorption of Oxygen: Behaviour
towards Metallic Oxides, etc.--II., The Properties of and Methods for
obtaining the Drying Oils.--III., Production of the Drying Oils by
Expression and Extraction: Refining and Bleaching; Oil Cakes and Meal:
The Refining and Bleaching of the Drying Oils; The Bleaching of Linseed
Oil.--IV., The Manufacture or Boiled Oil; The Preparation of Drying Oils
for Use in the Grinding of Paints and Artists' Colours and in the
Manufacture of Varnishes by Heating over a Fire or by Steam, by the Cold
Process, by the Action of Air, and by Means of the Electric Current; The
Driers used in Boiling Linseed Oil; The Manufacture of Boiled Oil and
the Apparatus therefor; Livache's Process for Preparing a Good Drying
Oil and its Practical Application.--V., The Preparation of Varnishes for
Letterpress, Lithographic and Copperplate Printing, for Oilcloth and
Waterproof Fabrics: The Manufacture of Thickened Linseed Oil, Burnt Oil,
Stand Oil by Fire Heat, Superheated Steam, and by a Current of
Air.--VI., Behaviour of the Drying Oils and Boiled Oils towards
Atmospheric Influences, Water, Acids and Alkalies.--VII., Boiled Oil
Substitutes.--VIII., The Manufacture of Solid and Liquid Driers from
Linseed Oil and Rosin; Linolic Acid Compounds of the Driers.--IX., The
Adulteration and Examination of the Drying Oils and Boiled Oil.

       *       *       *       *       *

REISSUE OF =CHEMICAL ESSAYS OF C.W. SCHEELE.= First Published in English
in 1786. Translated from the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, with
Additions. 300 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s.
6d.; Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Memoir; C.W. Scheele and his work (written for this edition).--Chapters
I., On Fluor Mineral and its Acid.--II., On Fluor Mineral.--III.,
Chemical Investigation of Fluor Acid, with a View to the Earth which it
Yields, by Mr. Wiegler.--IV., Additional Information Concerning Fluor
Minerals.--V., On Manganese, Magnesium, or Magnesia Vitrariorum.--VI.,
On Arsenic and its Acid.--VII., Remarks upon Salts of Benzoin--VIII., On
Silex, Clay and Alum.--IX., Analysis of the Calculus Vesical.--X.,
Method of Preparing Mercurius.

Dulcis Via Humida.--XI., Cheaper and more Convenient Method of Preparing
Pulvis Algarothi.--XII., Experiments upon Molybdaena.--XIII.,
Experiments on Plumbago.--XIV., Method of Preparing a New Green
Colour.--XV., Of the Decomposition of Neutral Salts by Unslaked Lime and
Iron.--XVI., On the. Quantity of Pure Air which is Daily Present in our
Atmosphere.--XVII., On Milk and its Acid.--XVIII., On the Acid of
Saccharum Lactis. --XIX., On the Constituent Parts of Lapis Ponderosus
or Tungsten.--XX., Experiments and Observations on Ether.

       *       *       *       *       *

=GLUE AND GLUE TESTING.= By SAMUEL RIDEAL, D.SC. Lond., F.I.C. Fourteen
Engravings. 144 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies,
11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., =Constitution and Properties: Definitions and Sources,
Gelatine, Chondrin and Allied Bodies, Physical and Chemical Properties,
Classification, Grades and Commercial Varieties.--II., =Raw Materials
and Manufacture: Glue Stock, Lining, Extraction, Washing and Clarifying,
Filter Presses, Water Supply, Use of Alkalies, Action of Bacteria and of
Antiseptics, Various Processes, Cleansing, Forming, Drying, Crushing,
etc., Secondary Products. --III., =Uses of Glue=: Selection and
Preparation for Use, Carpentry, Veneering, Paper-Making, Bookbinding,
Printing Rollers, Hectographs, Match Manufacture, Sandpaper, etc.,
Substitutes for other Materials, Artificial Leather and
Caoutchouc.--IV., =Gelatine=: General Characters, Liquid Gelatine,
Photographic Uses, Size, Tanno-, Chrome and Formo-Gelatine, Artificial
Silk, Cements, Pneumatic Tyres, Culinary, Meat Extracts, Isinglass,
Medicinal and other Uses, Bacteriology.--V., =Glue Testing=: Review of
Processes, Chemical Examination, Adulteration, Physical Tests, Valuation
of Raw Materials.--VI., =Commercial= =Aspects.=

=Press Opinions.=

     "This work is of the highest technical character, and gives not
     only a full and practical account of the raw materials and
     manufacture of glues, gelatines and similar substances, but gives
     many hints and information on the use of such substances in
     veneering, carpentry and many other purposes. Many tests are given
     for glue in different stages of the progress of its manufacture,
     and the commercial value of a commodity so much in general use is
     exemplified by statistics and figures. It is certainly a valuable
     treatise upon an article for which very little literature in any
     form has previously been obtainable."--_Carpenter and Builder._

     "Books on the art of glue making are more than usually scarce, and
     users of that article, as well as those who may be tempted to
     embark in the industry, should therefore welcome this book by Dr.
     Samuel Rideal, a Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry, and a
     leading authority. In this book he has collected the more important
     facts connected with the manufacture of glue and allied products,
     and stated the experience he has gained in examining various
     commercial samples during the past ten years.... Dr. Rideal's book
     must be regarded as a valuable contribution to other technical
     literature, which manufacturers, merchants and users may study with
     profit."--_British Trade Journal._

     "This volume is the latest addition to the excellent series of
     special technical works for manufacturers and professional and
     commercial men issued by the well-known publishers of _The Oil and
     Colourman's Journal_. The volume in every way fully maintains the
     high standard of excellence of the whole series, and deals with the
     subject of glue making and glue testing in a thoroughly exhaustive
     manner. Chapters are given on the constitution and properties, and
     raw material and manufacture, and of the uses of glue, and in this
     latter respect it will doubtless be information to many readers to
     learn to what extent glue enters into the manufacture of many
     commercial products not apparently associated with glue. Exhaustive
     chapters on the processes and methods of glue testing, and on its
     commercial aspects, complete this useful and most carefully
     prepared volume."--_Carriage Builders' Journal._

       *       *       *       *       *

=TECHNOLOGY OF PETROLEUM=: Oil Fields of the World--Their History,
Geography and Geology--Annual Production and Development--Oil-well
Drilling--Transport. By HENRY NEUBERGER and HENRY NOALHAT. Translated
from the French by J. G. MCINTOSH. 550 pp. 153 Illustrations. 26 Plates.
Royal 8vo. 1901. Price 21s.; India and Colonies, 22s.; Other Countries,
23s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., =Study of the Petroliferous Strata=--Chapters I.,
Petroleum--Definition.--II., The Genesis or Origin of Petroleum.--III.,
The Oil Fields of Galicia, their History.--IV.. Physical Geography and
Geology of the Galician Oil Fields.--V.. Practical Notes on Galician
Land Law--Economic Hints on Working, etc.--VI., Roumania--History,
Geography, Geology. --VII., Petroleum in Russia--History.--VIII.,
Russian Petroleum (_continued_)--Geography and Geology of the Caucasian
Oil Fields.--IX.. Russian Petroleum (_continued_).--X., The Secondary
Oil Fields of Europe. Northern Germany, Alsace, Italy, etc.--XI.,
Petroleum in France.--XII., Petroleum in Asia--Transcaspian and
Turkestan Territory--Turkestan--Persia--British India and
Burmah--British Burmah or Lower Burmah--China--Chinese Thibet--Japan,
Formosa and Saghalien.--XIII., Petroleum in Oceania--Sumatra. Java,
Borneo--Isle of Timor--Philippine Isles--New Zealand.--XIV., The United
States of America--History. --XV., Physical Geology and Geography of the
United States Oil Fields.--XVI., Canadian and other North American Oil
Fields.--XVII., Economic Data of Work in North America. --XVIII.,
Petroleum in the West Indies and South America.--XIX., Petroleum in the
French Colonies.

Part II., =Excavations.=--Chapter XX., Hand Excavation or Hand Digging
of Oil Wells. Part III., =Methods of Boring.=--Chapters XXI., Methods of
Oil-well Drilling or Boring.--XXII., Boring Oil Wells with the
Rope.--XXIII., Drilling with Rigid Rods and a Free-fall--Fabian
System.--XXIV., Free-fall Drilling by Steam Power.--XXV., Oil-well
Drilling by the Canadian System.--XXVI., Drilling Oil Wells on the
Combined System.--XXVII., Comparison between the Combined Fauck System
and the Canadian.--XXVIII., The American System of Drilling with the
Rope.--XXIX., Hydraulic Boring with the Drill by Hand and Steam
Power.--XXX., Rotary Drilling of Oil Wells, Bits, Steel-crowned Tools,
Diamond Tools--Hand Power and Steam Power--Hydraulic
Sand-pumping.--XXXI., Improvements in and different Systems of Drilling
Oil Wells.

Part IV., =Accidents.=--Chapters XXXII., Boring Accidents--Methods of
preventing them--Methods of remedying them.--XXXIII., Explosives and the
use of the "Torpedo" Levigation.--XXXIV., Storing and Transport of
Petroleum.--XXXV., General Advice--Prospecting, Management and carrying
on of Petroleum Boring Operations.

Part V., =General Data.=--=Customary Formulæ.=--Memento. Practical
Part. General Data bearing on Petroleum.--Glossary or Technical Terms
used in the Petroleum Industry.--Copious Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=A DICTIONARY OF CHEMICALS AND RAW PRODUCTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF
PAINTS, COLOURS, VARNISHES AND ALLIED PREPARATIONS.= By GEORGE H. HURST,
F.C.S. Demy 8vo. 380 pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.;
Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

The names of the Chemicals and Raw Products are arranged in alphabetical
order, and the description of each varies in length from half to eight
pages. The following are some of the articles described and explained:
Acetates--Acetic Acid--Acidimetry--Alcohol--Alum--Ammonia--Amber--Animi--
Arsenic--Beeswax--Benzol--Bichromates of Potash and Soda--Bleaching
Powder--Bone Black--Boric Acid--Brunswick Green--Cadmium
Yellow--Carbonates--Carmine--Carnauba Wax--Caustic Potash and
Soda--Chrome Colours--Clay--Coal Tar Colours--Copal--Dammar--Drying
Oils--Emerald Green--Gamboge--Glue--Glycerine--Gums--Gypsum--Indian
Red--Japanese Lacquer--Lac--Lakes--Lamp Black--Lead Compounds--Linseed
Oil--Magnesia--Manganese Compounds--Mica--Nitric Acid--Ochres--Orange
Lead--Orr's White--Paraffin--Prussian Blue--Rosin
Oil--Sepia--Sienna--Smalts--Sodium Carbonate--Sublimed White
Lead--Sulphuric Acid--Terra Verte--Testing
Pigments--Turpentine--Ultramarine--Umbers--Vermilionettes--White
Lead--Whiting--Zinc Compounds.--Appendix: Comparison of Baume Hydrometer
and Specific Gravity for Liquids Lighter than Water--Hydrometer Table
for Liquids Heavier than Water--Comparison of Temperature
Degrees--Tables for Converting French Metric Weights and Measures into
English--Table of the Elements--etc., etc.--Copious Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "This treatise will be welcomed by those interested in this
     industry who have not secured the full advantage of a course of
     scientific training."--_Chemical Trade Journal._

     "In concise and lucid terms almost every ingredient used in paint
     and colour manufacture is described, together with the methods of
     testing their intrinsic and chemical value."--_Pontefract Express._

     "Such a book of reference for paint, colour and varnish
     manufacturers has long been needed, and in Mr. Hurst the publishers
     have secured a compiler who is not only a well-known authority and
     expert, but who has the gift of communicating his knowledge in a
     concise and lucid form."--_Manchester Courier._

       *       *       *       *       *

=PURE AIR, OZONE AND WATER.= A Practical Treatise of their Utilisation
and Value in Oil, Grease, Soap, Paint, Glue and other Industries. By W.
B. COWELL. Twelve Illustrations. 1900. Price 5s.; India and Colonies,
5s. 6d.: Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Atmospheric Air; Lifting of Liquids: Suction Process;
Preparing Blown Oils; Preparing Siccative Drying Oils.--II., Compressed
Air; Whitewash.--III., Liquid Air; Retrocession.--IV., Purification of
Water; Water Hardness.--V., Fleshings and Bones.--VI., Ozonised Air in
the Bleaching and Deodorising of Fats, Glues, etc.: Bleaching Textile
Fibres.--Appendix: Air and Gases: Pressure of Air at Various
Temperatures; Fuel; Table of Combustibles; Saving of Fuel by Heating
Feed Water; Table of Solubilities of Scale Making Minerals: British
Thermal Units Tables; Volume of the Flow of Steam into the Atmosphere;
Temperature of Steam.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "This is a valuable work in little space.... In arrangement it is a
     commendable work, and its value is increased by the index which
     brings the little volume to a close."--_Newcastle Daily Journal._

     "The book is written solely for manufacturers, who, without doubt,
     will find it exceedingly practical and useful. The volume contains
     an appendix wherein is given a great many tables, etc., which
     manufacturers in the trades referred to will find of inestimable
     value "_Blackburn Times._

=THE MANUFACTURE OF MINERAL AND LAKE PIGMENTS.= Containing Directions
for the Manufacture of all Artificial, Artists and Painters' Colours,
Enamel, Soot and Metallic Pigments. A Text-book for Manufacturers,
Merchants, Artists and Painters. By Dr. JOSEF BERSCH. Translated from
the Second Revised Edition by ARTHUR C. WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc.
(Lond.), formerly Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Chemistry at
the Yorkshire College, Leeds. Forty-three Illustrations. 476 pp., demy
8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d.; India and Colonies. 13s. 6d.; Other
Countries, 15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introduction.--II., Physico-chemical Behaviour of
Pigments.--III., Raw Materials Employed in the Manufacture of
Pigments.--IV., Assistant Materials.--V., Metallic Compounds.--VI., The
Manufacture of Mineral Pigments.--VII., The Manufacture of White
Lead.--VIII., Enamel White.--IX., Washing Apparatus.--X., Zinc
White.--XI.. Yellow Mineral Pigments.--XII., Chrome Yellow.--XIII., Lead
Oxide Pigments.--XIV., Other Yellow Pigments.--XV., Mosaic; Gold.--XVI.,
Red Mineral Pigments.--XVII., The Manufacture of Vermilion.--XVIII.,
Antimony Vermilion.--XIX., Ferric Oxide Pigments.--XX., Other Red
Mineral Pigments.--XXI., Purple of Cassius.--XXII., Blue Mineral
Pigments. --XXIII., Ultramarine.--XXIV., Manufacture of
Ultramarine.--XXV., Blue Copper Pigments. --XXVI., Blue Cobalt
Pigments.--XXVII., Smalts.--XXVIII., Green Mineral Pigments.--XXIX.,
Emerald Green.--XXX., Verdigris.--XXXI., Chromium Oxide.--XXXII., Other
Green Chromium Pigments.--XXXIII., Green Cobalt Pigments.--XXXIV., Green
Manganese Pigments.--XXXV., Compounded Green Pigments.--XXXVI., Violet
Mineral Pigments.--XXXVII.. Brown Mineral Pigments.--XXXVIII., Brown
Decomposition Products.--XXXIX., Black Pigments.--XL., Manufacture of
Soot Pigments.--XLI., Manufacture of Lamp Black.--XLII., The Manufacture
of Soot Black without Chambers.--XLIII., Indian Ink.--XLIV., Enamel
Colours.--XLV., Metallic Pigments.--XLVI., Bronze Pigments--XLVII.,
Vegetable Bronze Pigments.

PIGMENTS OF ORGANIC ORIGIN.--Chapters XLVIII., Lakes.--XLIX., Yellow
Lakes.--L., Red Lakes.--LI., Manufacture of Carmine.--LII., The
Colouring Matter of Lac.--LIII., Safflower or Carthamine Red.--LIV.,
Madder and its Colouring Matters.--LV., Madder Lakes.--LVI., Manjit
(Indian Madder).--LVII., Lichen Colouring Matters.--LVIII., Red Wood
Lakes. --LIX., The Colouring Matters of Sandal Wood and Other Dye
Woods.--LX., Blue Lakes.--LXI., Indigo Carmine.--LXII., The Colouring
Matter of Log Wood.--LXIII., Green Lakes.--LXIV., Brown Organic
Pigments.--LXV., Sap Colours.--LXVI., Water Colours.--LXVII.,
Crayons.--LXVIII., Confectionery Colours.--LXIX., The Preparation of
Pigments for Painting.--LXX., The Examination of Pigments.--LXXI.,
Examination of Lakes.--LXXII., The Testing of Dye-Woods.--LXXIII., The
Design of a Colour Works.--LXXIV.--Commercial Names of
Pigments.--Appendix: Conversion of Metric to English Weights and
Measures.--Centigrade and Fahrenheit Thermometer Scales.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=BONE PRODUCTS AND MANURES=: An Account of the most recent Improvements
in the Manufacture of Fat, Glue, Animal Charcoal, Size, Gelatine and
Manures. By THOMAS LAMBERT, Technical and Consulting Chemist.
Illustrated by Twenty-one Plans and Diagrams. 162 pp., demy 8vo. 1901.
Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Chemical Composition of Bones--Arrangement of
Factory--Crushing of Bones --Treatment with Benzene--Benzene in Crude
Fat--Analyses of Clarified Fats--Mechanical Cleansing of Bones--Animal
Charcoal--Tar and Ammoniacal Liquor, Char and Gases, from good quality
Bones--Method of Retorting the Bones--Analyses of Chars--"Spent"
Chars--Cooling of Tar and Ammoniacal Vapours--Value of Nitrogen for
Cyanide of Potash--Bone Oil--Marrow Bones--Composition of Marrow
Fat--Premier Juice--Buttons.--II., Properties of Glue--Glutin and
Chondrin--Skin Glue--Liming of Skins--Washing--Boiling of
Skins--Clarification of Glue Liquors--Acid Steeping of Bones--Water
System of Boiling Bones--Steam Method of Treating Bones--Nitrogen in the
Treated Bones--Glue-Boiling and Clarifying-House--Plan showing
Arrangement of Clarifying Vats--Plan showing Position of
Evaporators--Description of Evaporators--Sulphurous Acid
Generator--Clarification of Liquors--Section of
Drying-House--Specification of a Glue--Size--Uses and Preparation and
Composition of Size--Concentrated Size.--III., Properties of
Gelatine--Preparation of Skin Gelatine
--Washing--Bleaching--Boiling--Clarification--Evaporation--Drying--Bone
Gelatine--Selecting
Bones--Crushing--Dissolving--Bleaching--Boiling--Properties of Glutin
and Chondrin --Testing of Glues and Gelatines.--IV., The Uses of Glue,
Gelatine and Size in Various Trades--Soluble and Liquid Glues--Steam and
Waterproof Glues.--V., Manures--Importation of Food
Stuffs--Soils--Germination--Plant Life.--VI., Natural Manures--Water and
Nitrogen in Farmyard Manure--Full Analysis of Farmyard Manure--Action on
Crops--Water-Closet.

System--Sewage Manure--Green Manures.--VII., Artificial
Manures--Bones--Boiled and Steamed Bones--Mineral Phosphates--English
Coprolites--French and Spanish Phosphorites--German and Belgian
Phosphates--Basic Slag--Guanos Proper--Guano Phosphates.--VIII., Mineral
Manures--Common Salt--Potash Salts--Calcareous Manures--Prepared
Nitrogenous Manures--Ammoniacal Compounds--Sodium Nitrate--Potassium
Nitrate--Organic Nitrogenous Matters--Shoddy--Hoofs and Horns--Leather
Waste--Dried Meat--Dried
Blood--Superphosphates--Composition--Manufacture--Section of
Manure-Shed--First and Ground Floor Plans of Manure-Shed--Quality of
Acid Used--Mixings--Special Manures--Potato Manure--Dissolved
Bones--Dissolved Bone Compound--Enriched Peruvian Guano--Special Manure
for Garden Stuffs, etc.--Special Manure for Grass Lands--Special Tobacco
Manures--Sugar-Cane Manure--Compounding of Manures--Valuation of
Manures.--IX., Analyses of Raw and Finished Products--Common Raw
Bones--Degreased Bones--Crude Fat--Refined Fat--Degelatinised
Bones--Animal Charcoal--Bone Superphosphates--Guanos--Dried Animal
Products--Potash Compounds--Sulphate of Ammonia--Extraction in
Vacuo--Description of a Vacuum Pan--French and British Gelatines
compared.--Index.

=Press Opinion.=

     "We can with confidence recommend the perusal of the book to all
     persons interested in the manufacture of artificial manures, and
     also to the large number of farmers and others who are desirous of
     working their holdings on the most up-to-date methods, and
     obtaining the best possible results, which scientific research has
     placed within their reach."--_Wigan Observer._

       *       *       *       *       *

=ANALYSIS OF RESINS AND BALSAMS.= Demy 8vo. 340 pp. 1901. Price 7s. 6d.;
India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., Definition of Resins in General--Definition of Balsams, and
especially the Gum Resins--External and Superficial Characteristics of
Resinous Bodies--Distinction between Resinous Bodies and Fats and
Oils--Origin, Occurrence and Collection of Resinous
Substances--Classification--Chemical Constituents of Resinous
Substances--Resinols--Resinot Annols--Behaviour of Resin Constituents
towards the Cholesterine Reactions--Uses and Identification of
Resins--Melting-point--Solvents--Acid Value--Saponification Value--Resin
Value--Ester and Ether Values--Acetyl and Corbonyl Value--Methyl
Value--Resin Acid--Systematic Résumé of the Performance of the Acid and
Saponification Value Tests.

Part II., Balsams--Introduction--Definitions--Canada Balsam--Copaiba
Balsam--Angostura Copaiba Balsam--Bahia Copaiba Balsam--Carthagena
Copaiba Balsam--Maracaibo Copaiba Balsam--Maturin Copaiba Balsam--Gurjum
Copaiba Balsam--Para Copaiba Balsam--Surinam Copaiba Balsam--West
African Copaiba Balsam--Mecca Balsam--Peruvian Balsam--Tolu
Balsam--Acaroid Resin--Amine--Amber--African and West Indian
Kino--Bengal Kino--Labdanum--Mastic--Pine
Resin--Sandarach--Scammonium--Shellac--Storax--Adulteration of Styrax
Liquidus Crudus--Purified Storax--Styrax Crudus
Colatus--Tacamahac--Thapsia Resin--Turpentine--Chios
Turpentine--Strassburg Turpentine--Turpeth Turpentine. =Gum
Resins=--Ammoniacum--Bdellium--Euphorbium--Galbanum--Gamboge--Lactucarium--
Myrrh--Opopanax--Sagapenum--Olibanum or Incense--Acaroid Resin--Amber--
Thapsia Resin.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=MANUFACTURE OF PAINT.= A Practical Handbook for Paint Manufacturers,
Merchants and Painters. By J. CRUICKSHANK SMITH, B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 1901.
200 pp. 60 Illustrations and 1 Large Diagram. Price 7s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., Chapters I., Preparation of Raw Material.--II., Storing of Raw
Material.--III., Testing and Valuation of Raw Material--Paint Plant and
Machinery.

Part II., Chapter V., The Grinding of White Lead.--VI., Grinding of
White Zinc.--VII., Grinding of other White Pigments.--VIII., Grinding of
Oxide Paints.--IX., Grinding of Staining Colours.--X., Grinding of Black
Paints.--XI., Grinding of Chemical Colours--Yellows.--XII., Grinding of
Chemical Colours--Blues.--XIII., Grinding Greens.--XIV., Grinding
Reds.--XV., Grinding Lakes.--XVI., Grinding Colours in Water.--XVII.,
Grinding Colours in Turpentine.

Part III., Chapters XVIII., The Uses of Paint.--XIX., Testing and
Matching Paints.--XX., Economic Considerations.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE CHEMISTRY OF PIGMENTS.= By ERNEST J. PARRY, B.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S.,
and J.H. COSTE, F.I.C., F.C.S. [_In the press._

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Introductory--Composition of White Light--Theory of Colour,
etc.--II., The Application of Pigments--Artistic, Decorative, Protective
Methods of Applying Pigments.--III., White Pigments.--IV., Inorganic
Coloured Pigments.--V., Organic Pigments.

=NOTES ON LEAD ORES=: Their Distribution and Properties. By JAS. FAIRIE,
F.G.S. Crown 8vo. 1901. 64 pages. Price 2s. 6d.; Abroad, 3s.; strictly
net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Definitions--Properties--Occurrence.--II.,
Galena--Johnstonite--Cerussite--Céruse (White Lead)--Minium--Red Lead.--
III., Pyromorphite--Mimetene--Hediphane--Crocoise--Wulfenite.--Vanadinite--
IV., Bleiglatte--Anglesite--Caledonite--Linarite--Lanarkite--Leadhillite
--Susannite--Clausthalite--Cotunnite.--V., Mendipite--Matlockite--
Cromfordite--Nagyagite--Altaite--Melanochroite--Vauguelinite--
Scheeletine.--VI., Plattnerite--Tilkerodite--Raphanosmite--
Deckenite--Descloezite--Dufrenaysite--Bleinierite--Moffrasite
--Geocronite--Kilbrechenite--Schulzite--Boulangerite--Heteromorphite--
Meneghinite--Jamesonite--Plagionite--Zinkenite.--VII., Kobellite--
Bournonite--Selenkupferblei--Nussierite--Percylite--Wolchite--
Polysphracrite--Miesite.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE RISKS AND DANGERS OF VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS AND THEIR PREVENTION.= By
LEONARD A. PARRY, M.D., B.S. (Lond.). 196 pp., demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s.
6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Occupations which are Accompanied by the Generation and
Scattering of Abnormal Quantities of Dust.--II., Trades in which there
is Danger of Metallic Poisoning.--III., Certain Chemical Trades.--IV.,
Some Miscellaneous Occupations.--V., Trades in which Various Poisonous
Vapours are Inhaled.--VI., General Hygienic Considerations.--Index.

This book contains valuable information for the following
trades--Aerated Water Manufacture, Alkali Manufacture, Aniline
Manufacture, Barometer Making, Brass Founders, Bromine Manufacture,
Bronze Moulders, Brush Making, Builders, Cabinet Makers, Calico
Printing, Chloride of Lime Manufacture, Coal Miners, Cocoa-nut Fibre
Making, Colour Grinders, Copper Miners, Cotton Goods Manufacture, Cotton
Yarn Dyeing, Cutlery Trades, Dry Cleaning, Electricity Generating,
Electroplaters, Explosives Manufacture, File Making, Flint Milling,
Floor Cloth Makers, Furriers, Fustian Clothing Making, Galvanised Iron
Manufacture, Gassing Process, Gilders, Glass Making, Glass Paper Making,
Glass Polishing and Cutting, Grinding Processes, Gunpowder
Manufacturing, Gutta-percha Manufacture, Hat Makers, Hemp Manufacture,
Horn Goods Making, Horse-hair Making, Hydrochloric Acid Manufacture,
India-rubber Manufacture, Iodine Manufacture, Ivory Goods Making,
Jewellers, Jute Manufacture, Knife Grinders, Knife Handle Makers, Lace
Makers, Lacquering, Lead Melters, Lead Miners, Leather Making, Linen
Manufacture Linoleum Making, Lithographic Printing and Bronzing,
Lithographing, Masons, Match Manufacture, Melanite Making, Mirror
Making, Needle Grinders, Needle Making, Nitro-benzole Making,
Nitro-glycerine Making, Paint Makers, Paper Making, Philosophical
Instrument Makers, Photographers, Pieric Acid Making, Portland Cement
Making, Pottery Manufacture, Printers, Quicksilver Mining, Rag Pickers,
Razor Grinders, Red Lead Making, Rope Making, Sand Paper Making, Saw
Grinders, Scissors Grinders, Shoddy Manufacture, Shot Making, Silk
Making, Silver Mining, Skinners, Slag, Wood Manufacture, Steel Makers,
Steel Pen Making, Stereotypers, Stone Masons, Straw Hat Makers,
Sulphuric Acid Manufacture, Sweeps, Table-knife Grinders, Tanners,
Telegraphists, Textile Industries, Tin Miners, Turners, Type Founders,
Umbrella Makers, Wall Paper Making, White Lead Making, Wood Working,
Woollen Manufacture, Wool Sorters, Zinc Oxide Manufacture. Zinc Working,
etc., etc.

=Press Opinions.=

     "The language used is quite simple, and can be understood by any
     intelligent person engaged in the trades dealt with."--_The
     Clarion._

     "This is an appalling book. It shows that there is scarcely a trade
     or occupation that has not a risk or a danger attached to
     it."--_Local Government Journal._

     "Dr. Parry has not only pointed out the 'risks and dangers of
     various occupations': he has suggested means for their prevention.
     The work is primarily a practical one."--_Colliery Manager._

     "This is a most useful book which should be in the hands of all
     employers of labour, foremen, and intelligent workmen, and is one
     of great utility to sanitary inspectors, and even on occasion to
     medical men."--_Health._

     "The writer has succeeded in collecting a large amount of
     information, and though one could wish he had presented it in a
     rather more attractive style, he has certainly condensed it into a
     very small space."--_Physician and Surgeon._

     "The little book before us is one which will be found exceedingly
     useful to manufacturers and even factory inspectors.... No attempt
     is made to show how diseases when originated are to be cured, but,
     acting on the sound principle that prevention is better than cure,
     means are stated how to avoid the harm."--_Bristol Mercury._

     "The author has endeavoured to treat the question in simple rather
     than in technical language, and he has lucidly catalogued the most
     dangerous trades and their symptoms, and in each case specified the
     best methods of dealing with them.... To those for whom the volume
     is specially designed, Dr. Parry's treatise should be a useful
     handbook."--_Sheffield Independent._

     "A very useful manual for employers of labour, foremen, intelligent
     workmen, and, in spite of the author's modesty, for medical men. We
     have the peculiar risks and dangers of all the dangerous trades
     carefully described; the mode of action of various chemicals, etc.,
     used in different industries given, with full directions how to
     minimise unavoidable risks."--_Leeds Mercury._

     "Most of the trades in the country are alluded to, and upon those
     that are dangerous the necessary attention is bestowed, and means
     are recommended whereby danger may be prevented or lessened. The
     author has evidently studied his subject with care, and has made
     full use of the experience of others who have had a larger insight
     into the industries of the country."--_British Medical Journal._

     "The work is well written and printed, and its verbiage such as to
     be comprehensible to the workman no less than to the master. The
     careful and general perusal of a work of this nature cannot but be
     attended by beneficial results of a far-reaching nature, and we
     therefore heartily recommend the book to our readers. Medical
     Officers of Health and Sanitary Inspectors especially should find
     the work of great interest."--_Sanitary Record._

     "It is written in simple language, and its instructions can be
     easily followed.... There are some employers, at any rate, who are
     more ignorant of, than indifferent to, the slow murder of their
     workpeople, and if the facts so succinctly set forth in this book
     were brought to their notice, and if the Trade Unions made it their
     business to insist on the observance of the better conditions Dr.
     Parry described, much might be done to lessen the workman's
     peril."--_Weekly Times and Echo._

       *       *       *       *       *

=PRACTICAL X RAY WORK.= By FRANK T. ADDYMAN,

B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., Member of the Roentgen Society of London;
Radiographer to St. George's Hospital; Demonstrator of Physics and
Chemistry, and Teacher of Radiography in St. George's Hospital Medical
School. Demy 8vo. 12 Plates from Photographs of X Ray Work. 52
Illustrations. 200 pp. 1901. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.;
Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., =Historical=--Chapters I., Introduction.--II., Work leading up
to the Discovery of the X Rays.--III., The Discovery.

Part II., =Apparatus and its Management=--Chapters I., Electrical
Terms.--II., Sources of Electricity.--III., Induction Coils.--IV.,
Electrostatic Machines.--V., Tubes.--VI., Air Pumps.--VII., Tube Holders
and Stereoscopic Apparatus.--VIII., Fluorescent Screens.

Part III., =Practical X Ray Work=--Chapters I., Installations.--II.,
Radioscopy.--III., Radiography.--IV., X Rays in Dentistry.--V., X Rays
in Chemistry.--VI., X Rays in War.--Index.

=List of Plates.=

_Frontispiece_--Congenital Dislocation of Hip-Joint.--I., Needle in
Finger.--II., Needle in Foot.--III., Revolver Bullet in Calf and
Leg.--IV., A Method of Localisation.--V., Stellate Fracture of Patella
showing shadow of "Strapping".--VI., Sarcoma.--VII., Six-weeks'-old
Injury to Elbow showing new Growth of Bone.--VIII., Old Fracture of
Tibia and Fibula badly set.--IX., Heart Shadow.--X., Fractured Femur
showing Grain of Splint.--XI., Barrell's Method of Localisation.

       *       *       *       *       *

=DRYING BY MEANS OF AIR AND STEAM.= Explanations, Formulæ, and Tables
for Use in Practice. Translated from the German of E. HAUSBRAND. Two
Diagrams and Thirteen Tables. Demy 8vo. 1901. 72 pp. Price 5s.; India
and Colonies, 5s. 6d.; Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Preface.--British and Metric Systems Compared--Centigrade and Fahr.
Thermometers.--Chapters I, Introduction.--II., Estimation of the Maximum
Weight of Saturated Aqueous Vapour which can be contained in 1 kilo. of
Air at Different Pressure and Temperatures.--III., Calculation of the
Necessary Weight and Volume of Air, and of the Least Expenditure of
Heat, per Drying Apparatus with Heated Air, at the Atmospheric Pressure:
_A_, With the Assumption that the Air is _Completely Saturated_ with
Vapour both before Entry and after Exit from the Apparatus.--_B_, When
the Atmospheric Air is Completely Saturated _before entry_, but at its
_exit_ is _only_ 3/4, 1/2 or 1/4 Saturated.--_C_, When the Atmospheric
Air is _not_ Saturated with Moisture before Entering the Drying
Apparatus.--IV., Drying Apparatus, in which, in the Drying Chamber, a
Pressure is Artificially Created, Higher or Lower than that of the
Atmosphere.--V., Drying by Means of Superheated Steam, without
Air.--VI., Heating Surface, Velocity of the Air Current, Dimensions of
the Drying Room, Surface of the Drying Material, Losses of Heat.--Index.


       *       *       *       *       *


=Leather Trades.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE LEATHER WORKER'S MANUAL.= Being a Compendium of Practical Recipes
and Working Formulæ for Curriers, Bootmakers, Leather Dressers, Blacking
Manufacturers, Saddlers, Fancy Leather Workers, and all Persons engaged
in the Manipulation of Leather. By H.C. STANDAGE. 165 pp. 1900. Price
7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly
net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Blackings, Polishes, Glosses, Dressings, Renovators, etc.,
for Boot and Shoe Leather.--II., Harness Blackings, Dressings, Greases,
Compositions, Soaps, and Boot-top Powders and Liquids, etc., etc.--III.,
Leather Grinders' Sundries.--IV., Currier's Seasonings, Blacking
Compounds, Dressings, Finishes, Glosses, etc.--V., Dyes and Stains for
Leather.--VI., Miscellaneous Information.--VII., Chrome Tannage.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "The book being absolutely unique, is likely to be of exceptional
     value to all whom it concerns, as it meets a long-felt
     want."--_Birmingham Gazette._

     "This is a valuable collection of practical receipts and working
     formulæ for the use of those engaged in the manipulation of
     leather. We have no hesitation in recommending it as one of the
     best books of its kind, an opinion which will be endorsed by those
     to whom it appeals."--_Liverpool Mercury._

     "We think we may venture to state, so far as the opinion of the
     leather trade under the Southern Cross is concerned, that it will
     be one of approval. As practical men, having a long and wide
     experience of the leather trade in Australia, we are certain that
     there are many tanners and curriers carrying on business in remote
     townships of the colonies to whom such a manual of practical
     recipes will be invaluable.... This manual is not a mere collection
     of recipes for the various purposes to which they may be applied,
     but it is also replete with instructions concerning the nature of
     the materials recommended to be used in making up the recipes....
     We think every intelligent leather man should avail himself of the
     manual. It is undoubtedly a valuable contribution to the technology
     of the leather trade."--_Australian Leather Journal and Boot and
     Shoe Recorder._

       *       *       *       *       *

=PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE LEATHER INDUSTRY.= By A.M. VILLON. A
Translation of Villon's "Traité Pratique de la Fabrication des cuirs et
du Travail des Peaux". By FRANK T. ADDYMAN, B.SC. (Lond.), F.I.C.,
F.C.S.; and Corrected by an Eminent Member of the Trade. 500 pp., royal
8vo. 1901. 123 Illustrations. Price 21s.; India and Colonies, 22s.;
Other Countries, 23s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Preface--Translator's Preface--List of Illustrations.

Part I., =Materials used in Tanning=--Chapter I., Skins: I., Skin and
its Structure; II., Skins used in Tanning; III., Various Skins and their
Uses--Chapter II., Tannin and Tanning Substances: I., Tannin; II., Barks
(Oak); III., Barks other than Oak; IV., Tanning Woods; V.,
Tannin-bearing Leaves; VI., Excrescences; VII., Tan-bearing Fruits;
VIII., Tan-bearing Roots and Bulbs; IX., Tanning Juices: X., Tanning
Substances used in Various Countries; XI., Tannin Extracts; XII.,
Estimation of Tannin and Tannin Principles.

Part II., =Tanning=--Chapter I., The Installation of a Tannary: I., Tan
Furnaces; II., Chimneys, Boilers, etc.; III., Steam Engines--Chapter
II., Grinding and Trituration of Tanning Substances: I., Cutting up
Bark: II., Grinding Bark; III., The Grinding of Tan Woods; IV.,
Powdering Fruit, Galls and Grains; V., Notes on the Grinding of
Bark--Chapter III., Manufacture of Sole Leather: I., Soaking; II.,
Sweating and Unhairing; III., Plumping and Colouring; IV., Handling; V.,
Tanning; VI., Tanning Elephants' Hides; VII., Drying; VIII., Striking or
Pinning--Chapter IV., Manufacture of Dressing Leather: I., Soaking; II.,
Depilation; III., New Processes for the Depilation of Skins; IV.,
Tanning; V., Cow Hides; VI., Horse Hides; VII., Goat Skins; Manufacture
of Split Hides--Chapter V., On Various Methods of Tanning: I.,
Mechanical Methods; II., Physical Methods; III., Chemical Methods; IV.,
Tanning with Extracts--Chapter VI., Quantity and Quality: I., Quantity;
II., Net Cost; III., Quality of Leather--Chapter VII., Various
Manipulations of Tanned Leather: I., Second Tanning; II., Grease Stains:
III., Bleaching Leather; IV., Waterproofing Leather; V., Weighting
Tanned Leather; VI., Preservation of Leather--Chapter VIII., Tanning
Various Skins.

Part III., =Currying=--Chapter I., Waxed Calf: I., Preparation; II.,
Shaving; III., Stretching or Slicking; IV., Oiling the Grain: V., Oiling
the Flesh Side; VI., Whitening and Graining; VII., Waxing; VIII.,
Finishing; IX., Dry Finishing; X., Finishing in Colour; XI.,
Cost--Chapter II., White Calf: I., Finishing in White--Chapter III., Cow
Hide for Upper Leathers: I., Black Cow Hide; II., White Cow Hide; III.,
Coloured Cow Hide.--Chapter IV., Smooth Cow Hide--Chapter V., Black
Leather--Chapter VI., Miscellaneous Hides: I., Horse; II., Goat; III.,
Waxed Goat Skin: IV., Matt Goat Skin--Chapter VII., Russia Leather: I.,
Russia Leather; II., Artificial Russia Leather.

Part IV., =Enamelled, Hungary and Chamoy Leather, Morocco, Parchment,
Furs and Artificial Leather=--Chapter I., Enamelled Leather: I., Varnish
Manufacture; II., Application of the Enamel; III., Enamelling in
Colour--Chapter II., Hungary Leather: I., Preliminary; II., Wet Work or
Preparation; III., Aluming; IV., Dressing or Loft Work; V., Tallowing;
VI., Hungary Leather from Various Hides--Chapter III., Tawing: I.,
Preparatory Operations; II., Dressing; III., Dyeing Tawed Skins; IV.,
Rugs--Chapter IV., Chamoy Leather--Chapter V., Morocco: I., Preliminary
Operations; II., Morocco Tanning; III., Mordants used in Morocco
Manufacture; IV., Natural Colours used in Morocco Dyeing; V., Artificial
Colours; VI. Different Methods of Dyeing; VII., Dyeing with Natural
Colours; VIII., Dyeing with Aniline Colours; IX., Dyeing with Metallic
Salts; X., Leather Printing; XI., Finishing Morocco; XII., Shagreen;
XIII., Bronzed Leather--Chapter VI., Gilding and Silvering: I., Gilding;
II., Silvering; III., Nickel and Cobalt--Chapter VII.,
Parchment--Chapter VIII., Furs and Furriery: I., Preliminary Remarks;
II., Indigenous Furs; III., Foreign Furs from Hot Countries; IV.,
Foreign Furs from Cold Countries; V., Furs from Birds' Skins; VI.,
Preparation of Furs; VII., Dressing; VIII., Colouring; IX., Preparation
of Birds' Skins; X., Preservation of Furs--Chapter IX., Artificial
Leather: I., Leather made from Scraps; II., Compressed Leather; III.,
American Cloth; IV., Papier Mâché; V., Linoleum: VI., Artificial
Leather.

Part V., =Leather Testing and the Theory of Tanning=--Chapter I.,
Testing and Analysis of Leather: I., Physical Testing of Tanned Leather:
II., Chemical Analysis--Chapter II., The Theory of Tanning and the other
Operations of the Leather and Skin Industry: I., Theory of Soaking; II.,
Theory of Unhairing; III., Theory of Swelling; IV., Theory of Handling;
V., Theory of Tanning; VI., Theory of the Action of Tannin on the Skin;
VII., Theory of Hungary Leather Making; VIII., Theory of Tawing; IX.,
Theory of Chamoy Leather Making; X., Theory of Mineral Tanning.

Part VI., =Uses of Leather=--Chapter I., Machine Belts: I., Manufacture
of Belting; II., Leather Chain Belts; III., Various Belts, IV., Use of
Belts--Chapter II., Boot and Shoe-making: I., Boots and Shoes; II.,
Laces--Chapter III., Saddlery: I., Composition of a Saddle; II.,
Construction of a Saddle--Chapter IV., Harness: I., The Pack Saddle;
II., Harness--Chapter V., Military Equipment--Chapter VI., Glove
Making--Chapter VII., Carriage Building--Chapter VIII., Mechanical Uses.

Appendix, =The World's Commerce in Leather=--I., Europe; II., America;
III., Asia; IV., Africa; Australasia--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "The book is well and lucidly written. The writer is evidently a
    practical man, who also has taken the trouble to make himself
    acquainted with the scientific and technical side of his trade ...
    French methods differ largely from our own: sometimes we think our
    ways the best, but not always. The practical man may pick up many
    useful hints which may help him to improve his methods." --_Shoe
    Manufacturers' Monthly Journal._

    "This book cannot fail to be of great value to all engaged in the
    leather trades ... The British may believe that the French can teach
    them nothing in the work of leather tanning generally, but a
    comparison of the methods of the two countries will certainly yield
    a few wrinkles which may lead to advantageous results. Only a man
    understanding the science and technique of the trade could have
    written the book, and it is well done." --_Midland Free Press._

    "Gives much useful and interesting information concerning the
    various processes by which the skins of animals are converted into
    leather. Written by a French Chemist after five years of constant
    study and application: it shows all that detail of analysis which we
    are accustomed to find in scientists, and which the practical tanner
    is too much in the habit of ignoring, sometimes to his own loss."
    --_Leeds Mercury._

    "Nor can there be much doubt that this expectation will be fully
    justified by the result. Thanks to the conspicuous painstaking with
    which Mr. Addyman has discharged his duty, and the 123 illustrations
    by which the text is elucidated, the volume can hardly fail to prove
    a very valuable standard work of its class. It can thus be
    confidently recommended to all who are more or less practically
    interested in the technology of a very important subject."--_Leicester
    Post._

    "This is, in every respect, an altogether admirable, practical,
    clear and lucid treatise on the various and numerous branches of the
    great leather industry, of which it deals in an exhaustive, highly
    intelligent, workmanlike and scientific manner ... It is a handsome
    addition to every man's knowledge of his trade, whether he be a
    leading director of a large public company, or an industrious
    employee in the works, wishing to improve his services by the
    addition of his brains to his work." --_Shoe and Leather Trader._

    "M. Villon writes as one having a very full knowledge of all
    branches of the subject, and in days when foreign competition has
    enforced on English manufacturers the importance of no longer being
    content with rule-of-thumb methods which have come down to them from
    their forefathers it certainly should be worth the while of English
    tanners to see what lessons they can learn from French practice, and
    French practice, we should imagine, could hardly have a better
    exponent than the author of this large volume." --_Western Daily
    Press and Bristol Times._

    "At a time when all or nearly all our British industries are to a
    greater or less extent hampered by the pressure of continental and
    American competition, any hints that can be obtained as to the
    methods pursued by competitors must necessarily be of value ... That
    it will be of interest and value, not merely to English tanners, but
    to those associated with many kindred industrial branches, goes
    without saying ... As a work of reference the volume will be
    extremely useful in the trade, and where leisure affords sufficient
    opportunity a careful perusal and study of it would afford ample
    reward." --_Kettering Guardian._

    "This is a very handsomely got up and elaborate work just issued by
    this well-known technical book-publishing firm ... When we say that
    the work consists of over 500 large pages with about 120
    illustrations, and almost innumerable tables, it will be seen at
    once that we cannot attempt anything like an exhaustive _resume_ of
    its contents, and even if we did the details would be of little
    interest to our general readers, while those who are engaged in the
    leather industry will probably obtain the book for themselves--at
    least they would do well to do so.... Altogether the 'Treatise' has
    evidently been very carefully prepared, and by a man who thoroughly
    knows the subject, and hence it will be a very valuable technical
    book for English firms and workers.'--_Walsall Observer._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Books on Pottery, Bricks, Tiles, Glass, etc.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE MANUAL OF PRACTICAL POTTING.= Revised and Enlarged. Third Edition.
200 pp. 1901. Price 17s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 18s. 6d.; Other
Countries, 20s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

=Introduction.= The Rise and Progress of the Potter's Art.--Chapters I.,
=Bodies.= China and Porcelain Bodies, Parian Bodies, Semi-porcelain and
Vitreous Bodies, Mortar Bodies, Earthenwares Granite and C.C. Bodies,
Miscellaneous Bodies, Sagger and Crucible Clays, Coloured Bodies, Jasper
Bodies, Coloured Bodies for Mosaic Painting, Encaustic Tile Bodies, Body
Stains, Coloured Dips.--II., =Glazes.= China Glazes, Ironstone Glazes,
Earthenware Glazes, Glazes without Lead, Miscellaneous Glazes, Coloured
Glazes, Majolica Colours.--III., =Gold and Cold Colours.= Gold, Purple
of Cassius, Marone and Ruby, Enamel Coloured Bases, Enamel Colour
Fluxes, Enamel Colours, Mixed Enamel Colours, Antique and Vellum Enamel
Colours, Underglaze Colours, Underglaze Colour Fluxes, Mixed Underglaze
Colours, Flow Powders, Oils and Varnishes.--IV., =Means and Methods.=
Reclamation of Waste Gold, The Use of Cobalt, Notes on Enamel Colours,
Liquid or Bright Gold.--V., =Classification and Analysis.=
Classification of Clay Ware, Lord Playfair's Analysis of Clays, The
Markets of the World, Time and Scale of Firing, Weights of Potter's
Material, Decorated Goods Count.--VI., Comparative Loss of Weight of
Clays.--VII., Ground Felspar Calculations.--VIII., The Conversion of
Slop Body Recipes into Dry Weight.--IX., The Cost of Prepared
Earthenware Clay.--X., =Forms and Tables.= Articles of Apprenticeship,
Manufacturer's Guide to Stocktaking, Table of Relative Values of
Potter's Materials, Hourly Wages Table, Workman's Settling Table,
Comparative Guide for Earthenware and China Manufacturers in the use of
Slop Flint and Slop Stone, Foreign Terms applied to Earthenware and
China Goods, Table for the Conversion of Metrical Weights and Measures
on the Continent of South America. =Index.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY=: Being some Aspects of Technical Science as Applied
to Pottery Manufacture. Edited by CHARLES F. BINNS. 100 pp. 1897. Price
12s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 13s. 6d.; Other Countries, 15s.; strictly
net.

=Contents.=

Preface.--Introduction.--Chapters I., The Chemistry of Pottery.--II.,
Analysis and Synthesis.--III., Clays and their Components.--IV., The
Biscuit Oven.--V., Pyrometry.--VI., Glazes and their Composition.--VII.,
Colours and Colour-making.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=RECIPES FOR FLINT GLASS MAKING.= By a British Glass Master and Mixer.
Sixty Recipes. Being Leaves from the Mixing Book of several experts in
the Flint Glass Trade, containing up-to-date recipes and valuable
information as to Crystal, Demi-crystal and Coloured Glass in its many
varieties. It contains the recipes for cheap metal suited to pressing,
blowing, etc., as well as the most costly crystal and ruby. British
manufacturers have kept up the quality of this glass from the arrivals
of the Venetians to Hungry Hill, Stourbridge, up to the present time.
The book also contains remarks as to the result of the metal as it left
the pots by the respective metal mixers, taken from their own memoranda
upon the originals. 1900. Price for United Kingdom, 10s. 6d.; Abroad.
15s.; United States, 84; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Ruby--Ruby from Copper--Flint for using with the Ruby for Coating--A
German Metal --Cornelian, or Alabaster--Sapphire
Blue--Crysophis--Opal--Turquoise Blue--Gold Colour --Dark Green--Green
(common)--Green for Malachite--Blue for Malachite--Black for Melachite
--Black--Common Canary Batch--Canary--White Opaque Glass--Sealing-wax
Red --Flint--Flint Glass (Crystal and Demi)--Achromatic Glass--Paste
Glass--White Enamel --Firestone--Dead White (for moons)--White
Agate--Canary--Canary Enamel--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=COLOURING AND DECORATION OF CERAMIC WARE.= By ALEX. BRONGNIART. With
Notes and Additions by ALPHONSE SALVETAT. Translated from the French.
200 pp. 1898. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries,
8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

The Pastes, Bodies or Ceramic Articles Capable of being Decorated by
Vitrifiable Colours--The Chemical Preparation of Vitrifiable
Colours--Composition and Preparation of Vitrifiable Colours--The
Oxides--Preparation of Oxides--Preparation of Chromates--Preparation of
other Colours--Composition and Preparation of Fluxes--Muffle
Colours--Recipes for Colours--Use of Metals--Lustres--Preparation and
Application of Colours--Composition of Coloured Pastes--Underglaze
Colours--Colours in the Glaze--Overglaze Colours--Painting in
Vitrifiable Colours--Gilding--Burnishing--Printing--Enlarging and
Reducing Gelatine Prints--Muffle Kilns for Vitrifiable
Colours--Influence of the Material on the Colour--Changes Resulting from
the Actions of the Fire--Alterations Resulting from the
Colours--Alterations in Firing.

       *       *       *       *       *

=HOW TO ANALYSE CLAY.= Practical Methods for Practical Men. By HOLDEN M.
ASHBY, Professor of Organic Chemistry, Harvey Medical College, U.S.A.
Twenty Illustrations. 1898. Price 2s. 6d.; Abroad, 3s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

List of Apparatus--List of Atomic Weights--Use of Balance, and Burette,
Sand Bath, and Water Bath--Dessicator--Drying
Oven--Filtering--Fusion--Determination of Water, Organic Matter, Iron,
Calcium, Alkalies, Limestone, Silica, Alumina, Magnesium,
etc.--Mechanical Analysis--Rational Analysis--Standard
Solutions--Volumetric Analysis--Standards for Clay Analysis--Sampling.

       *       *       *       *       *

=ARCHITECTURAL POTTERY.= Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Enamelled Terra-cottas,
Ordinary and Incrusted Quarries, Stoneware Mosaics, Faiences and
Architectural Stoneware. By LEON LOUVRE. With Five Plates. 950
Illustrations in the Text, and numerous estimates. 500 pp., royal 8vo.
1900. Translated from the French by K. H. BIRD, M.A., and W. MOORE
BINNS. Price 15s.; India and Colonies, 16s.; Other Countries, 17s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I. =Plain Undecorated Pottery.=--Chapter I., Clays: § 1,
Classification, General Geological Remarks.--Classification, Origin,
Locality; § 2, General Properties and Composition: Physical Properties,
Contraction, Analysis, Influence of Various Substances on the Properties
of Clays; § 3, Working of Clay-Pits--I. Open Pits: Extraction,
Transport, Cost--II. Underground Pits--Mining Laws. Chapter II.,
Preparation of the Clay: Weathering, Mixing, Cleaning, Crushing and
Pulverising--Crushing Cylinders and Mills, Pounding Machines--Damping:
Damping Machines--Soaking, Shortening, Pugging: Horse and Steam
Pug-Mills, Rolling Cylinders--Particulars of the Above Machines. Chapter
III., Bricks: § 1, Manufacture--(1) Hand and Machine Moulding,--I.
Machines Working by Compression: on Soft Clay, on Semi-Firm Clay, on
Firm Clay, on Dry Clay.--II. Expression Machines: with Cylindrical
Propellers, with Screw Propellers--Dies--Cutting-tables--Particulars of
the Above Machines--General Remarks on the Choice of Machines--Types of
Installations--Estimates--Plenishing, Hand and Steam Presses,
Particulars--(2) Drying, by Exposure to Air, Without Shelter, and Under
Sheds--Drying-rooms in Tiers, Closed Drying-rooms, in Tunnels, in
Galleries--Detailed Estimates of the Various Drying-rooms, Comparison of
Prices--Transport from the Machines to the Drying-rooms, Barrows,
Trucks, Plain or with Shelves, Lifts--(3) Firing--I. In Clamps--II. In
Intermittent Kilns. _A_, Open: _a_, using Wood; _b_ Coal; _b´_, in
Clamps; _b´´_, Flame--_B_, Closed: _c_, Direct Flame; _c´_, Rectangular;
_c´´_, Round; _d_, Reverberatory--III. Continuous Kilns: _C_, with Solid
Fuel: Round Kiln, Rectangular Kiln, Chimneys (Plans and Estimates)--_D_,
With Gas Fuel, Fillard Kiln (Plans and Estimates), Schneider Kiln (Plans
and Estimates), Water-gas Kiln--Heat Production of the Kilns; § 2,
Dimensions, Shapes, Colours, Decoration, and Quality of Bricks--Hollow
Bricks, Dimensions and Prices of Bricks, Various Shapes,
Qualities--Various Hollow Bricks, Dimensions, Resistance, Qualities; §
3, Applications --History--Asia, Africa, America, Europe: Greek, Roman,
Byzantine, Turkish, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance,
Architecture--Architecture of the Nineteenth Century: in Germany,
England, Belgium, Spain, Holland, France, America--Use of Bricks--Walls,
Arches, Pavements, Flues, Cornices--Facing with Coloured
Bricks--Balustrades. Chapter IV., Tiles: § 1, History; § 2,
Manufacture--(1) Moulding, by Hand, by Machinery: Preparation of the
Clay, Soft Paste, Firm Paste, Hard Paste--Preparation of the Slabs,
Transformation into Flat Tiles, into Jointed Tiles--Screw, Cam and
Revolver Presses--Particulars of Tile-presses--(2) Drying--Planchettes,
Shelves, Drying-barrows and Trucks--(3) Firing--Divided
Kilns--Installation of Mechanical Tileworks--Estimates; § 3, Shapes,
Dimensions and Uses of the Principal Types of Tile--Ancient Tiles: Flat,
Round, Roman, Flemish--Modern Tiles--With Vertical Interrupted Join:
Gilardoni's, Martin's; Hooked, Boulet's Villa; with Vertical Continuous
Join: Muller's, Alsace, Pantile--Foreign Tiles--Special Tiles--Ridge
Tiles, Coping Tiles, Border Tiles, Frontons, Gutters, Antefixes,
Membron, Angular--Roofing Accessories: Chimney-pots, Mitrons, Lanterns,
Chimneys--Qualities of Tiles--Black Tiles--Stoneware Tiles--Particulars
of Tiles. Chapter V., Pipes: I. Conduit Pipes--Manufacture--Moulding:
Horizontal Machines, Vertical Machines, Worked by Hand and
Steam--Particulars of these Machines--Drying--Firing--II. Chimney
Flues--Ventiducts and "Boisseaux," "Waggons"--Particulars of these
Products. Chapter VI., Quarries: 1, Plain Quarries of Ordinary Clay; 2,
of Cleaned Clay--Machines, Cutting, Mixing, Polishing--Drying and
Firing--Applications--Particulars of Quarries. Chapter VII.,
Terra-cotta: History--Manufacture--Application: Balustrades, Columns,
Pilasters, Capitals, Friezes, Frontons, Medallions, Panels,
Rose-windows, Ceilings--Appendix: Official Methods of Testing
Terra-cottas.

Part II. =Made-up or Decorated Pottery.=--Chapter I., General Remarks on
the Decoration of Pottery: Dips--Glazes: Composition, Colouring,
Preparation, Harmony with Pastes--Special Processes of
Decoration--Enamels, Opaque, Transparent, Colours, Underglaze,
Overglaze--Other Processes: Crackling, Mottled, Flashing, Metallic
Iridescence, Lustres. Chapter II., Glazed and Enamelled Bricks--History:
Glazing--Enamelling--Applications: Ordinary Enamelled Bricks, Glazed
Stoneware, Enamelled Stoneware--Enamelled Tiles. Chapter III., Decorated
Quarries: I. Paving Quarries--1, Decorated with Dips--2, Stoneware: _A_,
Fired to Stoneware: _a_, of Slag Base--Applications; _b_, of Melting
Clay--Applications--_B_, Plain or Incrusted Stoneware; _a_, of Special
Clay (Stoke-on-Trent)--Manufacture--Application--_b_, of Felspar
Base--Colouring, Manufacture, Moulding, Drying,
Firing--Applications.--II. Facing Quarries--1, in Faience--_A_, of
Limestone Paste--_B_, of Silicious Paste--_C_, of Felspar
Paste--Manufacture, Firing--2, of Glazed Stoneware--3, of
Porcelain--Applications of Facing Quarries.--III. Stove
Quarries--Preparation of the Pastes, Moulding, Firing, Enamelling,
Decoration--Applications--Faiences for Fireplaces. Chapter IV.,
Architectural Decorated Pottery: § 1, Faiences; § 2, Stoneware; § 3,
Porcelain. Chapter V., Sanitary Pottery: Stoneware Pipes: Manufacture,
Firing--Applications--Sinks--Applications--Urinals, Seats and
Pans--Applications--Drinking-fountains, Washstands. Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=A TREATISE ON THE CERAMIC INDUSTRIES.=

A Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works. By EMILE BOURRY,
Ingénieur des Arts et Manufactures. Translated from the French by WILTON
P. RIX, Examiner in Pottery and Porcelain to the City and Guilds of
London Technical Institute, Pottery Instructor to the Hanley School
Board. Royal 8vo. 1901. Over 700 pp. Price 21s.; India and Colonies,
22s.; Other Countries, 23s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., =General Pottery Methods.= Chapters I., Definition and History.
Definitions and Classification of Ceramic Products--Historic Summary of
the Ceramic Art.--II., Raw Materials of Bodies. Clays: Pure Clay and
Natural Clays--Various Raw Materials: Analogous to Clay--Agglomerative
and Agglutinative--Opening--Fusible--Refractory--Trials of Raw
Materials.--III., Plastic Bodies. Properties and
Composition--Preparation of Raw Materials:
Disaggregation--Purification--Preparation of Bodies: By Plastic
Method--By Dry Method--By Liquid Method.--IV., Formation. Processes of
Formation: Throwing--Expression--Moulding by Hand, on the Jolley, by
Compression, by Slip Casting--Slapping--Slipping.--V., Drying. Drying of
Bodies--Processes of Drying: By Evaporation--By Aeration--By Heating--By
Ventilation--By Absorption.--VI., Glazes. Composition and
Properties--Raw Materials--Manufacture and Application.--VII., Firing.
Properties of the Bodies and Glazes during Firing--Description of the
Kilns--Working of the Kilns.--VIII., Decoration. Colouring
Materials--Processes of Decoration.

Part II., =Special Pottery Methods.= Chapters IX., Terra Cottas.
Classification: Plain Ordinary, Hollow, Ornamental, Vitrified, and Light
Bricks--Ordinary and Black Tiles--Paving Tiles--Pipes--Architectural
Terra Cottas--Vases, Statues and Decorative Objects--Common
Pottery--Pottery for Water and Filters--Tobacco Pipes--Lustre
Ware--Properties and Tests for Terra Cottas.--X., Fireclay Goods.
Classification: Argillaceous, Aluminous, Carboniferous, Silicious and
Basic Fireclay Goods--Fireclay Mortar (Pug)--Tests for Fireclay
Goods.--XI. Faiences. Varnished Faiences--Enamelled Faiences--Silicious
Faiences--Pipeclay Faiences--Pebble Work--Feldspathic
Faiences--Composition, Processes of Manufacture and General Arrangements
of Faience Potteries.--XII., Stoneware. Stoneware Properly So-called:
Paving Tiles--Pipes--Sanitary Ware--Stoneware for Food Purposes and
Chemical Productions--Architectural Stoneware--Vases, Statues and other
Decorative Objects--Fine Stoneware.--XIII., Porcelain. Hard Porcelain
for Table Ware and Decoration, for the Fire, for Electrical Conduits,
for Mechanical Purposes; Architectural Porcelain, and Dull or Biscuit
Porcelain--Soft Phosphated or English Porcelain--Soft Vitreous
Porcelain, French and New Sevres--Argillaceous Soft or Seger's
Porcelain--Dull Soft or Parian Porcelain--Dull Feldspathic Soft
Porcelain.--=Index.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE ART OF RIVETING GLASS, CHINA AND EARTHENWARE.= By J. HOWARTH.
Second Edition. 1900. Price 1s. net; by post, home or abroad, 1s. 1d.

=Contents.=

Tools and Materials Required--Wire Used for Rivets--Soldering
Solution--Preparation for Drilling--Commencement of
Drilling--Cementing--Preliminaries to Riveting--Rivets to Make--To Fix
the Rivets--Through-and-through Rivets--Soldering--Tinning a
Soldering-iron--Perforated Plates, Handles, etc.--Handles of Ewers,
etc.--Vases and Comports--Marble and Alabaster Ware--Decorating--How to
Loosen Fast Decanter Stoppers--China Cements.

=NOTES OF POTTERY CLAYS.= Their Distribution, Properties, Uses and
Analyses of Ball Clays, China Clays and China Stone. By JAS. FAIRIE,
F.G.S. 1901. 132 pp. Crown 8vo. Price 3s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 4s.;
Other Countries, 4s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Definitions--Occurrence--Brick Clays--Fire Clays--Analyses of Fire
Clays.--=Ball Clays=--Properties--Analyses--Occurrence--Pipe Clay--Black
Clay--Brown Clay--Blue Clay--Dorsetshire and Devonshire Clays.--=China
Clay= or Kaolin--Occurrence--Chinese Kaolin--Cornish Clays--Hensbarrow
Granite--Properties, Analyses and Composition of China Clays--Method of
Obtaining China Clay--Experiments with Chinese Kaolin--Analyses of
Chinese and Japanese Clays and Bodies--Irish Clays.--=Chinese
Stone=--Composition--Occurrence--Analyses.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=PAINTING ON GLASS AND PORCELAIN AND ENAMEL PAINTING.= A Complete
Introduction to the Preparation of all the Colours and Fluxes used for
Painting on Porcelain, Enamel, Faience and Stoneware, the Coloured
Pastes and Coloured Glasses, together with a Minute Description of the
Firing of Colours and Enamels. On the Basis of Personal Practical
Experience of the Condition of the Art up to Date. By FELIX HERMANN,
Technical Chemist. With Eighteen Illustrations. 300 pp. Translated from
the German second and enlarged Edition. 1897. Price 10s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

History of Glass Painting.--Chapters I., The Articles to be Painted:
Glass, Porcelain, Enamel, Stoneware, Faience.--II., Pigments: 1,
Metallic Pigments: Antimony Oxide, Naples Yellow, Barium Chromate, Lead
Chromate, Silver Chloride, Chromic Oxide.--III., Fluxes: Fluxes,
Felspar, Quartz, Purifying Quartz, Sedimentation, Quenching, Borax,
Boracic Acid, Potassium and Sodium Carbonates, Rocaille Flux.--IV.,
Preparation of the Colours for Glass Painting.--V., The Colour
Pastes.--VI., The Coloured Glasses.--VII., Composition of the Porcelain
Colours.--VIII., The Enamel Colours: Enamels for Artistic Work.--IX.,
Metallic Ornamentation: Porcelain Gilding, Glass Gilding.--X., Firing
the Colours: 1, Remarks on Firing: Firing Colours on Glass. Firing
Colours on Porcelain; 2, The Muffle.--XI., Accidents occasionally
Supervening during the Process of Firing.--XII., Remarks on the
Different Methods of Painting on Glass, Porcelain, etc.--Appendix:
Cleaning Old Glass Paintings.

=Press Opinions.=

     "Mr. Hermann, by a careful division of his subject, avoids much
     repetition, yet makes sufficiently clear what is necessary to be
     known in each art. He gives very many formulæ; and his hints on the
     various applications of metals and metallic lustres to glass and
     porcelains will be found of much interest to the amateur."--_Art
     Amateur_, New York.

     "For the unskilled and amateurs the name of the publishers will be
     sufficient guarantee for the utility and excellence of Mr.
     Hermann's work, even if they are already unacquainted with the
     author.... The whole cannot fail to be both of service and interest
     to glass workers and to potters generally, especially those
     employed upon high-class work."--_Staffordshire Sentinel._

     "In _Painting on Glass and Porcelain_ the author has dealt very
     exhaustively with the technical as distinguished from the artistic
     side of his subject, the work being entirely devoted to the
     preparation of the colours, their application and firing. For
     manufacturers and students it will be a valuable work, and the
     recipes which appear on almost every page form a very valuable
     feature. The author has gained much of his experience in the
     celebrated Sevres manufactory, a fact which adds a good deal of
     authority to the work."--_Builders Journal._

     "The compiler displays that painstaking research characteristic of
     his nation, and goes at length into the question of the chemical
     constitution of the pigments and fluxes to be used in
     glass-painting, proceeding afterwards to a description of the
     methods of producing coloured glass of all tints and shades....
     Very careful instructions are given for the chemical and mechanical
     preparation of the colours used in glass-staining and
     porcelain-painting; indeed, to the china painter such a book as
     this should be of permanent value, as the author claims to have
     tested and verified every recipe he includes, and the volume also
     comprises a section devoted to enamels both opaque and translucent,
     and another treating of the firing of porcelain, and the accidents
     that occasionally supervene in the furnace."--_Daily Chronicle._

       *       *       *       *       *

=A Reissue of

THE HISTORY OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERIES; AND THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF
THE MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.=

With References to Genuine Specimens, and Notices of Eminent Potters. By
SIMEON SHAW. (Originally Published in 1829.) 265 pp. 1900. Demy 8vo.
Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

=Introductory Chapter= showing the position of the Pottery Trade at the
present time (1899).--Chapters I., =Preliminary Remarks.=--II., =The
Potteries=, comprising Tunstall, Brownhills, Greenfield and New Field,
Golden Hill, Latebrook, Green Lane, Burslem, Longport and Dale Hall, Hot
Lane and Cobridge, Hanley and Shelton, Etruria, Stoke, Penkhull, Fenton,
Lane Delph, Foley, Lane End.--III., =On the Origin of the Art=, and its
Practice among the early Nations.--IV., =Manufacture of Pottery=, prior
to 1700.--V., =The Introduction of Red Porcelain= by Messrs. Elers, of
Bradwell, 1690.--VI., =Progress of the Manufacture= from 1700 to Mr.
Wedgwood's commencement in 1760.--VII. =Introduction of Fluid
Glaze.=--Extension of the Manufacture of Cream Colour.--Mr. Wedgwood's
Queen's Ware.--Jasper, and Appointment of Potter to Her Majesty.--Black
Printing.--VIII., =Introduction of Porcelain.= Mr. W. Littler's
Porcelain.--Mr. Cookworthy's Discovery of Kaolin and Petuntse, and
Patent.--Sold to Mr. Champion--resold to the New Hall Com.--Extension of
Term.--IX., =Blue Printed Pottery.= Mr. Turner, Mr. Spode (1), Mr.
Baddeley, Mr. Spode (2), Messrs. Turner, Mr. Wood, Mr. Wilson, Mr.
Minton.--Great Change in Patterns of Blue Printed.--X., =Introduction of
Lustre Pottery.= Improvements in Pottery and Porcelain subsequent to
1800.

=Press Opinions.=

    "There is much curious and useful information in the work, and the
    publishers have rendered the public a service in reissuing
    it."--_Burton Mail._

    "Copies of the original work are now of considerable value, and the
    facsimile reprint now issued cannot but prove of considerable
    interest to all interested in the great industry."--_Derby Mercury._

    "The book will be especially welcomed at a time when interest in the
    art of pottery manufacture commands a more widespread and general
    interest than at any previous time."--_Wolverhampton Chronicle._

    "This work is all the more valuable because it gives one an idea of
    the condition of affairs existing in the north of Staffordshire
    before the great increase in work and population due to modern
    developments."--_Western Morning News._

    "The History gives a graphic picture of North Staffordshire at the
    end of the last and the beginning of the present century, and states
    that in 1829 there was 'a busy and enterprising community' in the
    Potteries of fifty thousand persons.... We commend it to our readers
    as a most entertaining and instructive publication,"--_Staffordshire
    Sentinel._

       *       *       *       *       *

=A Reissue of=

=THE CHEMISTRY OF THE SEVERAL NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL HETEROGENEOUS
COMPOUNDS USED IN MANUFACTURING PORCELAIN, GLASS AND POTTERY.=

By SIMEON SHAW.

(Originally published in 1837.) 750 pp. 1900. Royal 8vo. Price 14s.;
India and Colonies, 15s.; Other Countries, 16s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

PART I., ANALYSIS AND MATERIALS.--Chapters I., =Introduction:=
Laboratory and Apparatus; =Elements:= Combinative Potencies,
Manipulative Processes for Analysis and Reagents, Pulverisation,
Blow-pipe Analysis, Humid Analysis, Preparatory Manipulations, General
Analytic Processes, Compounds Soluble in Water, Compounds Soluble only
in Acids, Compounds (Mixed) Soluble in Water, Compounds (Mixed) Soluble
in Acids, Compounds (Mixed) Insoluble, Particular Analytic
Processes.--II., =Temperature:= Coal, Steam Heat for Printers'
Stoves.--III., =Acids and Alkalies:= Boracic Acid, Muriatic Acid, Nitric
Acid, Sulphuric Acid, Potash, Soda, Lithia, Calculation of Chemical
Separations.--IV., =The Earths:= Alumine, Clays, Silica, Flint, Lime,
Plaster of Paris, Magnesia, Barytes, Felspar, Grauen (or China Stone),
China Clay, Chert.--V., =Metals:= Reciprocal Combinative Potencies of
the Metals, Antimony, Arsenic, Chromium, Green Oxide, Cobalt, Chromic
Acid, Humid Separation of Nickel from Cobalt, Arsenite of Cobalt,
Copper, Gold, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Platinum, Silver, Tin, Zinc.

PART II., SYNTHESIS AND COMPOUNDS.--Chapters I., Sketch of the Origin
and Progress of the Art.--II., =Science of Mixing:= Scientific
Principles of the Manufacture, Combinative Potencies of the
Earths.--III., =Bodies:= Porcelain--Hard, Porcelain--Fritted Bodies,
Porcelain--Raw Bodies, Porcelain--Soft, Fritted Bodies, Raw Bodies,
Stone Bodies, Ironstone, Dry Bodies, Chemical Utensils, Fritted Jasper,
Fritted Pearl, Fritted Drab, Raw Chemical Utensils, Raw Stone, Raw
Jasper, Raw Pearl, Raw Mortar, Raw Drab, Raw Brown, Raw Fawn, Raw Cane,
Raw Red Porous, Raw Egyptian, Earthenware, Queen's Ware, Cream Colour,
Blue and Fancy Printed, Dipped and Mocha, Chalky, Rings, Stilts,
etc.--IV., =Glazes:= Porcelain--Hard Fritted, Porcelain--Soft Fritted,
Porcelain--Soft Raw, Cream Colour Porcelain, Blue Printed Porcelain,
Fritted Glazes, Analysis of Fritt, Analysis of Glaze, Coloured Glazes,
Dips, Smears and Washes: =Glasses:= Flint Glass, Coloured Glasses,
Artificial Garnet, Artificial Emerald, Artificial Amethyst, Artificial
Sapphire, Artificial Opal, Plate Glass, Crown Glass, Broad Glass, Bottle
Glass, Phosphoric Glass, British Steel Glass, Glass-Staining and
Painting, Engraving on Glass, Dr. Faraday's Experiments.--V., =Colours:=
Colour Making, Fluxes or Solvents, Components of the Colours: Reds,
etc., from Gold, Carmine or Rose Colour, Purple, Reds, etc., from Iron,
Blues, Yellows, Greens, Blacks, White, Silver for Burnishing, Gold for
Burnishing, Printer's Oil, Lustres.

PART III., TABLES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL
SUBSTANCES.--Preliminary Remarks, Oxygen (Tables), Sulphur and its
Compounds, Nitrogen ditto, Chlorine ditto, Bromine ditto, Iodine ditto,
Fluorine ditto, Phosphorous ditto, Boron ditto, Carbon ditto, Hydrogen
ditto, Observations, Ammonium and its Compounds (Tables), Thorium ditto,
Zirconium ditto, Aluminium ditto, Yttrium ditto, Glucinum ditto,
Magnesium ditto, Calcium ditto, Strontium ditto, Barium ditto, Lithium
ditto, Sodium and its Compounds Potassium ditto, Observations, Selenium
and its Compounds (Tables), Arsenic ditto, Chromium ditto, Vanadium
ditto, Molybdenum ditto, Tungsten ditto, Antimony ditto, Tellurium
ditto, Tantalum ditto, Titanium ditto, Silicium ditto, Osmium ditto,
Gold ditto, Iridium ditto, Rhodium ditto, Platinum ditto, Palladium
ditto, Mercury ditto, Silver ditto, Copper ditto, Uranium ditto, Bismuth
and its Compounds, Tin ditto, Lead ditto, Cerium ditto, Cobalt ditto,
Nickel ditto, Iron ditto, Cadmium ditto, Zinc ditto, Manganese ditto,
Observations, Isomorphous Groups, Isomeric ditto, Metameric ditto,
Polymeric ditto, Index.

=Press Opinions.=

"This interesting volume has been kept from the pencil of the modern
editor and reprinted in its entirety by the enterprising publishers of
_The Pottery Gazette_ and other trade journals.... There is an excellent
historical sketch of the origin and progress of the art of pottery which
shows the intimate knowledge of classical as well as (the then) modern
scientific literature possessed by the late Dr. Shaw; even the etymology
of many of the Staffordshire place-names is given."--_Glasgow Herald._

"The historical sketch of the origin and progress of pottery is very
interesting and instructive. The science of mixing is a problem of great
importance, and the query how the natural products, alumina and silica
can be compounded to form the best wares may be solved by the aid of
chemistry instead of by guesses, as was formerly the case. This portion
of the book may be most suggestive to the manufacturer, as also the
chapters devoted to the subject of glazes, glasses and
colours."--_Birmingham Post._

"Messrs. Scott, Greenwood & Co. are doing their best to place before the
pottery trades some really good books, likely to aid the Staffordshire
manufacturers, and their spirited enterprise is worthy of encouragement,
for the utility of technical literature bearing upon the practical side
of potting goes without saying.... They are to be congratulated on their
enterprise in republishing it, and we can only hope that they will meet
with the support they deserve. It seems to be a volume that is worth
looking through by both manufacturers and operatives alike, and all
local institutions, at any rate, should secure copies."--_Staffordshire
Sentinel._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Paper Making.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE DYEING OF PAPER PULP.= A Practical Treatise for the use of
Papermakers, Paperstainers. Students and others. By JULIUS ERFURT,
Manager of a Paper Mill. Translated into English and Edited with
Additions by JULIUS HÜBNER, F.C.S., Lecturer on Papermaking at the
Manchester Municipal Technical School. With Illustrations and =157
patterns of paper dyed in the pulp.= Royal 8vo, 180 pp. 1901. Price
15s.; India and Colonies, 16s.; Other Countries, 20s.; strictly net.
Limited edition.

=Contents.=

I., =Behaviour of the Paper Fibres during the Process of Dyeing, Theory
of the Mordant=--Cotton: Flax and Hemp; Esparto; Jute; Straw Cellulose:
Chemical and Mechanical Wood Pulp; Mixed Fibres: Theory of Dyeing.--II.,
=Colour Fixing Mediums (Mordants)=--Alum: Aluminium Sulphate; Aluminium
Acetate; Tin Crystals (Stannous Chloride); Copperas (Ferrous Sulphate);
Nitrate of Iron (Ferric Sulphate); Pyrolignite of Iron (Acetate of
Iron); Action of Tannic Acid; Importance of Materials containing Tannin;
Treatment with Tannic Acid of Paper Pulp intended for dyeing; Blue Stone
(Copper Sulphate): Potassium Bichromate: Sodium Bichromate; Chalk
(Calcium Carbonate); Soda Crystals (Sodium Carbonate): Antimony
Potassium Tartrate (Tartar Emetic).--III., =Influence of the Quality of
the Water Used.=--IV., =Inorganic Colours=--1. Artificial Mineral
Colours: Iron Buff; Manganese Bronze: Chrome Yellow (Chromate of Lead):
Chrome Orange (Basic Chromate of Lead): Red Lead; Chrome Green: Blue
with Yellow Prussiate: Prussian Blue: Method for Producing Prussian Blue
free from Acid: Ultramarine--2. Natural Mineral Colours (Earth Colours):
Yellow Earth Colours: Red Earth Colours; Brown Earth Colours; Green,
Grey and Black Earth Colours: White Earth Colours: White Clay (China
Clay): White Gypsum; Baryta: Magnesium Carbonate: Talc, Soapstone.--V.,
=Organic Colours=--1. Colours of Vegetable and Animal Origin: _(a)
Substantive (Direct Dyeing) Colouring Matters:_ Annatto; Turmeric:
Safflower; _(b) Adjective (Indirect Dyeing) Colouring Matters:_ Redwood;
Cochineal; Weld: Persian Berries; Fustic Extract; Quercitron: Catechu
(Cutch); Logwood Extract--2. Artificial Organic (Coal Tar) Colours: Acid
Colours; Basic Colours: Substantive (Direct Dyeing) Colours; Dissolving
of the Coal Tar Colours: Auramine O O; Naphthol Yellow S O; Quinoline
Yellow O: Metanil Yellow O: Paper Yellow O: Azoflavine RS O, S O; Cotton
Yellow G X X and R X X: Orange 11 O: Chrysoidine A O O, RL O O: Vesuvine
Extra O O; Vesuvine BC O O; Fast.

Brown O, Naphthylamine Brown O; Water Blue IN O; Water Blue TB O;
Victoria Blue B O O; Methylene Blue MD O O; Nile Blue R O O; New Blue
S O O; Indoine Blue BB O O; Eosine 442 Nx; Phloxine B B N; Rhodamine B
O O; Rhodamine 6G O O: Naphthylamine Red G O; Fast Red A O; Cotton
Scarlet O; Erythrine RR O; Erythrine X O; Erythrine P O; Ponceau 2 R
O; Fast Ponceau G O and B O; Paper Scarlet P O O; Saffranine PP O O;
Magenta Powder A O O; Acetate of Magenta O O; Cerise D 10 O O; Methyl
Violet BB O O; Crystal Violet O O; Acid Violet 3 BN O, 4 R O; Diamond
Green B O O; Nigrosine WL O; Coal Black O O; Brilliant Black B
O.--VI., =Practical Application of the Coal Tar Colours according to
their Properties and their Behaviour towards the Different Paper
Fibres=--Coal Tar Colours, which rank foremost, as far as their
fastness to light is concerned; Colour Combinations with which
colourless or nearly colourless Backwater is obtained; Colours which
do not bleed into White Fibres, for Blotting and Copying Paper Pulp;
Colours which produce the best results on Mechanical Wood and on
Unbleached Sulphite Wood; Dyeing of Cotton, Jute and Wool Half-stuff
for Mottling White or Light Coloured Papers; Colours suitable for
Cotton; Colours specially suitable for Jute Dyeing; Colours suitable
for Wool Fibres.--VII., =Dyed Patterns on Various Pulp
Mixtures=--Placard and Wrapping Papers; Black Wrapping and Cartridge
Papers; Blotting Papers; Mottled and Marbled Papers made with Coloured
Linen, Cotton and Union Rags, or with Cotton, Jute, Wool and Sulphite
Wood Fibres, dyed specially for this purpose; Mottling with Dark Blue
Linen; Mottling with Dark Blue Linen and Dark Blue Cotton; Mottling
with Dark Blue Cotton; Mottling with Dark Blue and Red Cotton;
Mottling with Dark Red Cotton; Mottling of Bleached Stuff, with 3 to 4
per cent. of Dyed Cotton Fibres; Mottling with Dark Blue Union (Linen
and Wool or Cotton Warp with Wool Weft); Mottling with Blue Striped
Red Union; Mottling of Bleached Stuff with 3 to 4 per cent. of Dyed
Wool Fibres; Mottling of Bleached Stuff with 3 to 4 per cent. of Dyed
Jute Fibres; Mottling of Bleached Stuff with 3 to 4 per cent. of Dyed
Sulphite Wood Fibres: Wall Papers; Packing Papers.--VIII., =Dyeing to
Shade=--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "The book is one that is of value to every one connected with the
     colouring of paper."--_Paper Trade Journal._

     "The great feature of the volume is undoubtedly the series of
     actual patterns of dyed papers, 157 in all--twelve of which, made
     in England, have been added to the original German series. Detailed
     formulæ are given for the preparation of the pulp for each, and the
     tints of the samples practically form a key, by means of which the
     accuracy of the student's or practitioner's experiments can be
     tested.... On the whole the publication is one of distinct
     importance to the trade, and will no doubt speedily become a
     standard work of reference amongst papermakers, both in the 'lab.'
     and the office, as well as being an excellent text-book for the use
     of students in the increasing number of technical institutes in
     which papermaking is taught."--_World's Paper Trade Review._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Enamelling on Metal.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=ENAMELS AND ENAMELLING.= An Introduction to the Preparation and
Application of all Kinds of Enamels for Technical and Artistic Purposes.
For Enamel Makers, Workers in Gold and Silver, and Manufacturers of
Objects of Art. By PAUL RANDAU. Translated from the German. With Sixteen
Illustrations. 180 pp. 1900. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.;
Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

I., Introduction.--II., Composition and Properties of Glass.--III., Raw
Materials for the Manufacture of Enamel.--IV., Substances Added to
Produce Opacity.--V., Fluxes.--VI., Pigments.--VII., Decolorising
Agents.--VIII., Testing the Raw Materials with the Blow-pipe
Flame.--IX., Subsidiary Materials.--X., Preparing the Materials for
Enamel Making.--XI., Mixing the Materials.--XII., The Preparation of
Technical Enamels, The Enamel Mass.--XIII., Appliances for Smelting the
Enamel Mass.--XIV., Smelting the Charge.--XV., Composition of Enamel
Masses.--XVI., Composition of Masses for Ground Enamels.--XVII.,
Composition of Cover Enamels.--XVIII., Preparing the Articles for
Enamelling.--XIX., Applying the Enamel.--XX., Firing the Ground
Enamel.--XXI., Applying and Firing the Cover Enamel or Glaze.--XXII.,
Repairing Defects in Enamelled Ware.--XXIII., Enamelling Articles of
Sheet Metal.--XXIV., Decorating Enamelled Ware.--XXV., Specialities in
Enamelling.--XXVI., Dial-plate Enamelling.--XXVII., Enamels for Artistic
Purposes, Recipes for Enamels of Various Colours.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "Should prove of great service to all who are either engaged in or
     interested in the art of enamelling."--_Jewellers and Watchmakers'
     Trade Advertiser._

     "I must inform you that this is the best book ever I have come
     across on enamels, and it is worth double its cost."--J. MINCHIN,
     Jr., Porto, Portugal, _22nd July, 1900_.

     "This is a very useful and thoroughly practical treatise, and deals
     with every branch of the enameller's art. The manufacture of
     enamels of various colours and the methods of their application are
     described in detail. Besides the commoner enamelling processes,
     some of the more important special branches of the business, such
     as cloisonne work are dealt with. The work is well got up, and the
     illustrations of apparatus are well executed. The translator is
     evidently a man well acquainted both with the German language and
     the subject-matter of the book."--_Invention._

    "This is a most welcome volume, and one for which we have long
    waited in this country. For years we have been teaching design
    applied to enamelling as well as to several other crafts, but we
    have not risen to the scientific side of the question. Here is a
    handbook dealing with the composition and making of enamels for
    application to metals for the most part, but also for other allied
    purposes. It is written in a thoroughly practical way [Transcribers
    Note: Text source unreadable], and its author--Paul Randau--has made
    its subject a very particular study. The [Transcribers Note: Text
    source unreadable] almost all things which come from the German
    chemical expert, is a model of good workmanship [Transcribers Note:
    Text source unreadable] and arrangement, and no one who is in search
    of a handbook to enamelling, [Transcribers Note: Text source
    unreadable] whether he is a craftsman producing his beautiful
    translucent colours on gold, silver and copper, or the hollow-ware
    manufacturer making enamelled saucepans and kettles, can wish for a
    more useful practical manual."--_Birmingham Gazette._

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE ART OF ENAMELLING ON METAL.= By W. NORMAN BROWN. Twenty-eight
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 60 pp. 1900. Price 2s. 6d.; Abroad, 3s.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., History--Cloisonné--Champs Levé--Translucent
Enamel--Surface Painted Enamels.--II., Cloisonné--Champs
Levés--Translucent--Painted.--III., Painted Enamel--Apparatus--Furnaces
and Muffles for Firing.--IV., The Copper Base or
Plate--Planishing--Cloisons--Champ Levé Plates.--V.,
Enamels--Trituration--Washing--Coating a Plate with Enamel--Firing
Ordinary Plaques for Painting--Designing--Squaring off.--VI., Designs
for Cloisonné--Designs for Painted Enamels--Technical
Processes--Brushes, etc.,--Colours--Grisaille--Full-coloured Designs.

=Press Opinion.=

     "The information conveyed in _The Art of Enamelling on Metal_ is as
     complete as can be expected in a manual of ordinary length, and is
     quite ample in all respects to start students in a most interesting
     branch of decorative art. All necessary requisites are fully
     described and illustrated, and the work is one, indeed, which any
     one may pursue with interest, for those who are interested
     artistically in enamels are a numerous body."--_Hardware Metals and
     Machinery._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Books on Textile and Dyeing Subjects.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE TECHNICAL TESTING OF YARNS AND TEXTILE FABRICS.= With Reference to
Official Specifications. Translated from the German of Dr. J. HERZFELD.
Second Edition. Sixty-nine Illustrations. 200 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price
10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Yarn Testing:. III., Determining the Yarn Number.--IV., Testing the
Length of Yarns.--V., Examination of the External Appearance of
Yarn.--VI., Determining the Twist of Yarn and Twist.--VII.,
Determination of Tensile Strength and Elasticity.--VIII., Estimating the
Percentage of Fat in Yarn.--IX., Determination of Moisture
(Conditioning).--Appendix.

=Press Opinions.=

     "It would be well if our English manufacturers would avail
     themselves of this important addition to the extensive list of
     German publications which, by the spread of technical information,
     contribute in no small degree to the success, and sometimes to the
     supremacy, of Germany in almost every branch of textile
     manufacture."--_Manchester Courier._

     "This is probably the most exhaustive book published in English on
     the subject dealt with.... We have great confidence in recommending
     the purchase of this book by all manufacturers of textile goods of
     whatever kind, and are convinced that the concise and direct way in
     which it is written, which has been admirably conserved by the
     translator, renders it peculiarly adapted for the use of English
     readers."--_Textile Recorder._

     "A careful study of this book enables one to say with certainty
     that it is a standard work on the subject. Its importance is
     enhanced greatly by the probability that we have here, for the
     first time in our own language, in one volume, a full, accurate,
     and detailed account, by a practical expert, of the best technical
     methods for the testing of textile materials, whether in the raw
     state or in the more or less finished product."--_Glasgow Herald._

     "The author has endeavoured to collect and arrange in systematic
     form for the first time all the data relating to both physical and
     chemical tests as used throughout the whole of the textile
     industry, so that not only the commercial and textile chemist, who
     has frequently to reply to questions on these matters, but also the
     practical manufacturer of textiles and his subordinates, whether in
     spinning, weaving, dyeing, and finishing, are catered for.... The
     book is profusely illustrated, and the subjects of these
     illustrations are clearly described."--_Textile Manufacturer._

       *       *       *       *       *

=DECORATIVE AND FANCY TEXTILE FABRICS.=

With Designs and Illustrations. By R.T. LORD. A Valuable Book for
Manufacturers and Designers of Carpets, Damask, Dress and all Textile
Fabrics. 200 pp. 1898. Demy 8vo. 132 Designs and Illustrations. Price
7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly
net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics.--II.,
A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued).--III.,
A Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued).--IV., A
Few Hints on Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics (continued).--V.,
Hints for Ruled-paper Draughtsmen.--VI., The Jacquard Machine.--VII.,
Brussels and Wilton Carpets.--VIII., Tapestry Carpets.--IX., Ingrain
Carpets.--X., Axminster Carpets.--XI., Damask and Tapestry
Fabrics.--XII., Scarf Silks and Ribbons.--XIII., Silk
Handkerchiefs.--XIV., Dress Fabrics.--XV., Mantle Cloths.--XVI., Figured
Plush.--XVII., Bed Quilts.--XVIII., Calico Printing.

=Press Opinions.=

     "The book can be strongly recommended to students and practical
     men."--_Textile Colourist._

     "Those engaged in the designing of dress, mantle tapestry, carpet
     and other ornamental textiles will find this volume a useful work
     of reference."--_Leeds Mercury._

     "The book is to be commended as a model manual, appearing at an
     opportune time, since every day is making known a growing desire
     for development in British industrial art."--_Dundee Advertiser._

     "Designers especially, who desire to make progress in their
     calling, will do well to take the hints thrown out in the first
     four chapters on 'Designing Ornamental Textile Fabrics'."--_Nottingham
     Daily Guardian._

       *       *       *       *       *

=POWER-LOOM WEAVING AND YARN NUMBERING.= According to Various Systems,
with Conversion Tables. An Auxiliary and Text-book for Pupils of Weaving
Schools, as well as for Self-Instruction and for General Use by those
engaged in the Weaving Industry. Translated from the German of ANTHON
GRUNER. =With Twenty-six Diagrams in Colours.= 150 pp. 1900. Crown 8vo.
Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

I., =Power-Loom Weaving in General.= Various Systems of Looms.--II.,
=Mounting and Starting the Power-Loom.= English Looms.--Tappet or
Treadle Looms.--Dobbies.--III., =General Remarks on the Numbering,
Reeling and Packing-of Yarn.=--=Appendix.=--=Useful Hints.= Calculating
Warps.--Weft Calculations.--Calculations of Cost Price in Hanks.

=Press Opinions.=

     "A long-felt want in the weaving industry has been supplied by the
     issue of a cheap volume dealing with the subject."--_Belfast Evening
     Telegraph._

     "The work has been clearly translated from the German and published
     with suitable illustrations.... The author has dealt very
     practically with the subject."--_Bradford Daily Telegraph._

     "The book, which contains a number of useful coloured diagrams,
     should prove invaluable to the student, and its handy form will
     enable it to become a companion more than some cumbrous work."
     --_Cotton Factory Times._

     "The book has been prepared with great care, and is most usefully
     illustrated. It is a capital text-book for use in the weaving
     schools or for self-instruction, while all engaged in the weaving
     industry will find its suggestions helpful."--_Northern Daily
     Telegraph._

     "The various systems are treated in a careful manner; also the
     different looms and their manufacture, as well as the whole
     processes of the work. Yarn numbering according to various systems,
     with conversion tables and numerous coloured diagrams, materially
     assist to a clear comprehension of the subject."--_Northern Whig._

     "The 'inside' managers of our textile mills in which the work is
     complex or greatly varied, and where yarns of different materials
     are in use, will find this work convenient for reference in case of
     novelty or difficulty. We may also say the same in relation to the
     textile student. Its description of the parts of the loom and their
     functions will be of use to the latter, being of the most
     elementary kind."--_Textile Mercury._

     "The author attempts to fill a gap in weaving literature caused by
     the neglect of many obscure points connected with the industry. A
     short review is given of the power-loom as a whole, followed by a
     description of the different parts of the machinery with their
     advantages and defects.... The book is severely technical, but must
     on that account be very valuable to the pupil who is determined to
     master this industrial art."--_Cheshire County News._

     "It is clear and concise, and gives just that knowledge in quality
     and amount which any student of the weaving industry ought to
     consider as a minimum necessary for his thorough comprehension of
     his future profession. The handiness and variety of the information
     comprised in Section III., dealing with the numbering and reeling
     of yarns employed in the various systems in different countries,
     struck us as particularly useful."--_North British Daily Mail._

     "This work brings before weavers who are actually engaged in the
     various branches of fabrics, as well as the technical student, the
     different parts of the general run of power-looms in such a manner
     that the parts of the loom and their bearing to each other can be
     readily understood.... The work should prove of much value, as it
     is in every sense practical, and is put before the reader in such a
     clear manner that it can be easily understood."--_Textile Industries._

     "The book under notice is intended as an instructor to those
     engaged in power-loom weaving, and, judging by its compilation, the
     author is a thorough master of the craft. It is not overloaded with
     details, and he manages to compress in a book of some 150 pages all
     that one can possibly wish to know about the different parts of the
     machinery, whether of English or foreign make, and for whatever
     kind of cloth required. A comprehensive summary is also included of
     the various yarns and methods of numbering them, as well as a few
     useful hints and a number of coloured diagrams for mandarin
     weavings. The book is printed in bold, legible type, on good paper,
     has a copious index, and is well and strongly
     bound."--_Ashton-under-Lyne Herald._

     "In dealing with the complicated parts of various classes of
     power-looms, the writer, who is one of the professors at the Royal
     Weaving School of Asch, brings to the work a thorough knowledge of
     the subject, and, what is of great value, he has the gift of
     communicating his knowledge in a way which is easily understood.
     The smallest details of loom-setting are entered into, and a full
     explanation of problems, which are a source of anxiety to many
     engaged in overlooking, is given. Students will find the work an
     admirable text-book, and all who are interested in weaving will see
     in it a valuable addition to the literature on this subject.... The
     book is in small compass, and is crowded with valuable
     information."--_Bradford Observer._

       *       *       *       *       *

=COLOUR: A HANDBOOK OF THE THEORY OF COLOUR.= By GEORGE H. HURST, F.C.S.
=With Ten Coloured Plates= and Seventy-two Illustrations. 160 pp. Demy
8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s.
6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., =Colour and Its Production.= Light, Colour, Dispersion of
White Light Methods of Producing the Spectrum, Glass Prism and
Diffraction Grating Spectroscopes, The Spectrum, Wave Motion of Light,
Recomposition of White Light, Hue, Luminosity, Purity of Colours, The
Polariscope, Phosphorescence, Fluorescence, Interference.--II., =Cause
of Colour in Coloured Bodies.= Transmitted Colours, Absorption Spectra
of Colouring Matters.--III., =Colour Phenomena and Theories.= Mixing
Colours, White Light from Coloured Lights, Effect of Coloured Light on
Colours, Complementary Colours, Young-Helmholtz Theory, Brewster Theory,
Supplementary Colours, Maxwell's Theory, Colour Photography.--IV., =The
Physiology of Light.= Structure of the Eye, Persistence of Vision,
Subjective Colour Phenomena, Colour Blindness.--V., =Contrast.=
Contrast, Simultaneous Contrast, Successive Contrast, Contrast of Tone.
Contrast of Colours, Modification of Colours by Contrast, Colour
Contrast in Decorative Design.--VI., =Colour in Decoration and Design.=
Colour Harmonies, Colour Equivalents, Illumination and Colour, Colour
and Textile Fabrics, Surface Structure and Colour.--VII., =Measurement
of Colour.= Colour Patch Method, The Tintometer, Chromometer.

=Press Opinions.=

     "This useful little book possesses considerable merit, and will be
     of great utility to those for whom it is primarily
     intended."--_Birmingham Post._

     "It will be found to be of direct service to the majority of dyers,
     calico printers and colour mixers, to whom we confidently recommend
     it."--_Chemical Trade Journal._

     "It is thoroughly practical, and gives in simple language the why
     and wherefore of the many colour phenomena which perplex the dyer
     and the colourist."--_Dyer and Calico Printer._

     "We have found the book very interesting, and can recommend it to
     all who wish to master the different aspects of colour theory, with
     a view to a practical application of the knowledge so
     gained."--_Chemist and Druggist._

     "Mr. Hurst's _Handbook on the Theory of Colour_ will be found
     extremely useful, not only to the art student, but also to the
     craftsman, whose business it is to manipulate pigments and
     dyes."--_Nottingham Daily Guardian._

       *       *       *       *       *

=TEXTILE RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR CONVERSION INTO YARNS.= (The Study of
the Raw Materials and the Technology of the Spinning Process.) Text-book
for Textile, Trade and Higher Technical Schools. By JULIUS ZIPSER.
Translated from German by CHARLES SALTER. 302 Illustrations. 480 pp.
Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other
Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

=Raw Materials=: Cotton--Wool--Flax--Hemp--Jute--Hair--Shearing
Sheep--Goat Wool--Silk--Detection and Estimation of Textile Raw
Materials in Yarns and Fabrics--Tests.--=The Technology of Spinning.
Cotton Spinning:= Bale Breakers--Carding--Combing--Roving--Mule
Frames--Yarn Testing--Humidifiers. =Flax Spinning:= Tow Spinning--String
Spinning--Carded Woollen Yarn--Belt Condenser--Fine Spinning--Yarn
Numbering.--=Manufacture of True Worsted Yarn:= Semi-Worsted
Yarns.--=Artificial Wool or Shoddy Spinning:= Spinning
Shoddy.--=Index.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE COLOUR PRINTING OF CARPET YARNS.= A Useful Manual for Colour
Chemists and Textile Printers. By DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Seventeen
Illustrations. 132 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 8s. Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Structure and Constitution of Wool Fibre.--II., Yarn
Scouring.--III., Scouring Materials.--IV., Water for Scouring.--V.,
Bleaching Carpet Yarns.--VI., Colour Making for Yarn Printing.--VII.,
Colour Printing Pastes.--VIII., Colour Recipes for Yarn Printing.--IX.,
Science of Colour Mixing.--X., Matching of Colours.--XI., "Hank"
Printing.--XII., Printing Tapestry Carpet Yarns.--XIII., Yarn
Printing.--XIV., Steaming Printed Yarns.--XV., Washing of Steamed
Yarns.--XVI., Aniline Colours Suitable for Yarn Printing.--XVII.,
Glossary of Dyes and Dye-wares used in Wood Yarn Printing.--Appendix.

=Press Opinions.=

    "The book is worthy the attention of the trade."--_Worcester
    Herald._

    "The treatise is arranged with great care, and follows the processes
    described in a manner at once clear and convincing."--_Glasgow
    Record._

    "A most useful manual dealing in an intelligible and interesting
    manner with the colour printing of carpet yarns."--_Kidderminster
    Times._

    "An eminent expert himself, the author has evidently strained every
    effort in order to make his work the standard guide of its
    class."--_Leicester Post._

    "The book, which is admirably printed and illustrated, should fulfil
    the need of a practical guide in the colour printing of carpet
    yarns.--_Nottingham Express._

    "The subject is very exhaustively treated in all its branches....
    The work, which is very well illustrated with designs, machines, and
    wool fibres, will be a useful addition to our textile
    literature."--_Northern Whig._

    "It gives an account of its subject which is both valuable and
    instructive in itself, and likely to be all the more welcome because
    books dealing with textile fabrics usually have little or nothing to
    say about this way of decorating them."--_Scotsman._

    "The work shows a thorough grasp of the leading characteristics as
    well as the minutiae of the industry, and gives a lucid description
    of its chief departments.... As a text-book in technical schools
    where this branch of industrial education is taught, the book is
    valuable, or it may be perused with pleasure as well as profit by
    any one having an interest in textile industries."--_Dundee
    Courier._

    "The book bears every mark of an extensive practical knowledge of
    the subject in all its bearings, and supplies a real want in
    technical literature. Chapters IX. and X., on the science of colour
    mixing and colour matching respectively, are especially good, and
    we do not remember to have seen the bearing of various kinds of
    light, and of the changes from one kind of light to another on the
    work of the colourist, so well treated elsewhere."--_Dyer and Calico
    Printer._

    "It is thoroughly practical, and contains much information which has
    not hitherto appeared in book form. It is pleasing to note that the
    practical part is not crowded out with purely 'practical recipes'. A
    few typical examples are given, and the rest is left to the common
    sense and judgment of the printer or works' chemist. Another
    pleasing feature is the accounts given here and there of the
    author's own researches on the subject. The work will be of interest
    to printers of wool generally, and to those engaged in the dyeing of
    this fibre."--_Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists._

       *       *       *       *       *

=A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE BLEACHING OF LINEN AND COTTON YARN AND
FABRICS.= By L. TAILFER, Chemical and Mechanical Engineer. Translated
from the French by JOHN GEDDES MCINTOSH, Lecturer on Chemical
Technology, London. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 12s. 6d.; India and Colonies,
13s. 6d; Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapter I. General Considerations on Bleaching. Chapter II. Steeping.
Chapter III. Washing: Its End and Importance--Roller Washing
Machines--Wash Wheel (Dash Wheel)--Stocks or Wash Mill--Squeezing.
Chapter IV. Lye Boiling--Lye Boiling with Milk of Lime--Lye Boiling with
Soda Lyes--Description of Lye Boiling Keirs--Operations of Lye
Boiling--Concentration of Lyes. Chapter V. Mather and Platt's
Keir--Description of the Keir--Saturation of the Fabrics--Alkali used in
Lye Boiling--Examples of Processes. Chapter VI. Soap--Action of Soap in
Bleaching--Quality and Quantity of Soaps to use in the Lye--Soap Lyes or
Scalds--Soap Scouring Stocks. Chapter VII. Bleaching on Grass or on the
Bleaching Green or Lawn. Chapter VIII. Chemicking--Remarks on Chlorides
and their Decolourising Action--Chemicking
Cisterns--Chemicking--Strengths, etc. Chapter IX. Sours--Properties of
the Acids--Effects Produced by Acids--Souring Cisterns. Chapter X.
Drying--Drying by Steam--Drying by Hot Air--Drying by Air. Chapter XI.
Damages to Fabrics in Bleaching--Yarn Mildew--Fermentation--Iron Rust
Spots--Spots from Contact with Wood--Spots incurred on the Bleaching
Green--Damages arising from the Machines. Chapter XII. Examples of
Methods used in Bleaching--Linen--Cotton. Chapter XIII. The Valuation of
Caustic and Carbonated Alkali (Soda) and General Information Regarding
these Bodies--Object of Alkalimetry--Titration of Carbonate of
Soda--Comparative Table of Different Degrees of Alkalimetrical
Strength--Five Problems relative to Carbonate of Soda --Caustic Soda,
its Properties and Uses--Mixtures of Carbonated and Caustic Alkali--Note
on a Process of Manufacturing Caustic Soda and Mixtures of Caustic and
Carbonated Alkali (soda). Chapter XIV. Chlorometry--Titration--Wagner's
Chlorometric Method--Preparation of Standard Solutions--Apparatus for
Chlorine Valuation--Alkali in Excess in Decolourising Chlorides. Chapter
XV. Chlorine and Decolourising Chlorides--Synopsis--Chlorine--Chloride
of Lime--Hypochlorite of Soda--Brochoki's Chlorozone--Various
Decolourising Hypochlorites--Comparison of Chloride of Lime and
Hypochlorite of Soda. Chapter XVI. Water--Qualities of
Water--Hardness--Dervaux's Purifier--Testing the Purified
Water--Different Plant for Purification--Filters. Chapter XVII.
Bleaching of Yarn--Weight of Yarn--Lye
Boiling--Chemicking--Washing--Bleaching of Cotton Yarn. Chapter XVIII.
The Installation of a Bleach Works--Water Supply--Steam Boilers--Steam
Distribution Pipes--Engines--Keirs--Washing Machines--Stocks--Wash
Wheels--Chemicking and Souring Cisterns--Various--Buildings. Chapter
XIX. Addenda--Energy of Decolourising Chlorides and Bleaching by
Electricity and Ozone--Energy of Decolourising
Chlorides--Chlorides--Production of Chlorine and Hypochlorites by
Electrolysis--Lunge's Process for increasing the intensity of the
Bleaching Power of Chloride of Lime--Trilfer's Process for Removing the
Excess of Lime or Soda from Decolourising Chlorides--Bleaching by Ozone.

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE SCIENCE OF COLOUR MIXING.= A Manual intended for the use of Dyers,
Calico Printers and Colour Chemists. By DAVID PATERSON, F.C.S. Forty-one
Illustrations, =Five Coloured Plates, and Four Plates showing Eleven
Dyed Specimens of Fabrics.= 132 pp. Demy 8vo. 1900. Price 7s. 6d.; India
and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Colour a Sensation; Colours of Illuminated Bodies; Colours
of Opaque and Transparent Bodies; Surface Colour.--II., Analysis of
Light; Spectrum; Homogeneous Colours; Ready Method of Obtaining a
Spectrum.--III., Examination of Solar Spectrum; The Spectroscope and Its
Construction; Colourists' Use of the Spectroscope.--IV., Colour by
Absorption; Solutions and Dyed Fabrics; Dichroic Coloured Fabrics in
Gaslight.--V., Colour Primaries of the Scientist _versus_ the Dyer and
Artist; Colour Mixing by Rotation and Lye Dyeing: Hue, Purity,
Brightness; Tints: Shades, Scales, Tones, Sad and Sombre Colours.--VI.,
Colour Mixing: Pure and Impure Greens, Orange and Violets; Large Variety
of Shades from few Colours; Consideration of the Practical Primaries:
Red, Yellow and Blue.--VII., Secondary Colours; Nomenclature of Violet
and Purple Group; Tints and Shades of Violet; Changes in Artificial
Light.--VIII., Tertiary Shades; Broken Hues; Absorption Spectra of
Tertiary Shades.--Appendix: Four Plates with Dyed Specimens Illustrating
Text.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

     "The work has evidently been prepared with great care, and, as far
     as we can judge, should be very useful to the dyer and
     colourist."--_Halifax Courier._

     "The volume, which is clearly and popularly written, should prove
     of the utmost service to all who are concerned with the practical
     use of colours, whether as dyers or painters."--_Scotsman._

     "To the practical colourist, and also to technical students, Mr.
     Paterson's new work will be very welcome. We are often asked to
     recommend books on different subjects, and have no hesitation in
     advising the purchase of the present volume by dyers and calico
     printers, as containing a mass of most useful information at a
     nominal price."--_Irish Textile Journal._

     "Mr. Paterson's work not only clearly deals with the theory of
     colour, but supplies lucid directions for the practical application
     of the theory. His work will be found exceedingly helpful, not only
     to the practical colourist, but also to students in our textile
     colleges, by forming a useful complement to their class lectures.
     There are several exquisitely coloured plates and a large number of
     other illustrations of theory and practice in colour blending, and
     also a series of plates with specimens of dyed fabrics attached, in
     explication of the author's views."--_Wakefield Express._

     "Mr. Paterson has little to say upon the experimental aspect or on
     its æsthetics, but much upon the theory of colour, especially as it
     bears upon the question--an all-important one to dyers, calico
     printers and artists, who have to produce such a variety of shades
     and tints--of the admixture of one colour upon another.... The
     author is a dyer, and in his concluding chapters keeps well before
     him the special wants and requirements of dyers. He writes
     pleasantly and lucidly, and there is no difficulty in following
     him, although here and there a lapse into ambiguousness occurs. The
     book is well printed, generously supplied with coloured plates,
     very nicely if not brightly got up; and the dyed patterns at the
     end enhance the value of the book to the dyer."--_Textile Mercury._

     "For some time the proprietors of _The Oil and Colourman's Journal_
     have been engaged in the publication of a series of practical
     handbooks intended for the use of those interested in certain
     branches of technology, and the present volume is the latest
     addition to their list. The feature which the works have in
     common--and it is an all-important one in treatises of this
     sort--is their eminently practical character. The primary aim of
     the publishers is to provide scientific text-books which will be
     helpful to those who are either actively engaged in the practice of
     the arts in question, or who are studying with that immediate end
     in view.... Mr. Paterson speaks with that assured knowledge of an
     expert, and in the present volume, as in that which he has already
     contributed to the same series, he sets forth the true foundation
     of the art of colouring in a manner at once comprehensive and
     judicious.... For dyers, calico printers and colourists in general,
     whose desire it is to work with accuracy in their respective
     branches, the treatise will prove an invaluable guide-book,
     provided the principles and methods it describes are studied with
     intelligence and care. To this end, every encouragement has been
     given that well-chosen examples, carefully executed plates and
     diagrams, and an exhaustive index can supply."--_Glasgow Herald._

       *       *       *       *       *

=COLOUR MATCHING ON TEXTILES.= A Manual intended for the use of Students
of Colour Chemistry, Dyeing and Textile Printing. By DAVID PATERSON,
F.C.S. Coloured Frontispiece. Twenty-nine Illustrations and Fourteen
Specimens of Dyed Fabrics Illustrating Text. Demy 8vo. 132 pp. 1901.
Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Colour Vision and Structure of the Eye--Perception of
Colour--Primary and Complementary Colour Sensations.--II., Daylight for
Colour Matching--Selection of a Good Pure Light--Diffused Daylight,
Direct Sunlight, Blue Skylight, Variability of Daylight, etc.,
etc.--III., Matching of Hues--Purity and Luminosity of Colours--Matching
Bright Hues --Aid of Tinted Films--Matching Difficulties Arising from
Contrast.--IV., Examination of Colours by Reflected and Transmitted
Lights--Effect of Lustre and Transparency of Fibres in Colour
Matching.--V., Matching of Colours on Velvet Pile--Optical Properties of
Dye-stuffs, Dichroism. Fluorescence.--VI., Use of Tinted Mediums--Orange
Film--Defects of the Eye--Yellowing of the Lens--Colour Blindness,
etc.--VII., Matching of Dyed Silk Trimmings and Linings and
Bindings--Its Difficulties--Behaviour of Shades in Artificial
Light--Colour Matching of Old Fabrics, etc.--VIII., Examination of Dyed
Colours under the Artificial Lights --Electric Arc, Magnesium and
Dufton, Gardner Lights, Welsbach, Acetylene, etc.--Testing Qualities of
an Illuminant.--IX., Influence of the Absorption Spectrum in Changes of
Hue under the Artificial Lights--Study of the Causes of Abnormal
Modifications of Hue, etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Reissue of THE ART OF DYEING WOOL, SILK AND COTTON.=

Translated from the French of M. HELLOT, M. MACQUER and M. LE PILEUR
D'APLIGNY. First Published in English in 1789. Six Plates. Demy 8vo. 446
pp. 1901. Price 5s.; India and Colonies, 5s. 6d.; Other Countries, 6s.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Part I., =The Art of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Cloth, Stuffs, Yarn,
Worsted, etc.:= Introduction.--Chapters I., Of the Vessels and
Utensils used in Dyeing.--II., Of the Fixed and Fugitive, commonly
called Great and Little Dye.--III., Of Colours in Grain. =Dyeing Wool:=
IV., Of Blue.--V., Of the Pastel Vat--Directions for the Proper
Management of the Vat--Indications when the Vat has Suffered by too much
or too little Lime, the two extremes which ought carefully to be
avoided--The Preparations of Indigo for the Pastel Vat.--VI., Of the
Woad Vat.--VII., Of the Indigo Vat.--VIII., Of the Cold Indigo Vat with
Urine--A Hot Indigo Vat with Urine--To Reheat a Urine Vat.--IX., A Cold
Indigo Vat without Urine. --X., Of the Method of Dyeing Blue.--XI., Of
Red.--XII., Of Scarlet in Grain, or Venetian Scarlet.--XIII., Of Fire
Scarlet.--XIV., Of Crimson.--XV., Of Gum Lac Scarlet.--XVI., Of the
_Coccus polonicus,_ a Colouring Insect.--XVII., Of Madder Red.--XVIII.,
Of Yellow.--XIX., Of Brown or Fawn Colour.--XX., Of Black.--XXI., Of the
Colours obtained from a Mixture of Blue and Red.--XXII., Of the Mixture
of Blue and Yellow.--XXIII., Of the Mixture of Blue and Fawn
Colour.--XXIV., Of the Mixture of Blue and Black.--XXV., Of the Mixture
of Red and Yellow.--XXVI., Of the Mixture of Red and Fawn.--XXVII., Of
the Mixture of Red and Black.--XXVIII., Of the Mixture of Yellow and
Fawn Colours.--XXIX., Of the Mixture of Yellow and Black.--XXX., Of the
Mixture of Fawn Colour and Black.--XXXI., Of the Principal Mixtures of
the Primitive Colours by Three and Three.--XXXII., The Method of
Blending Wool of Different Colours for mixed Cloth or Stuffs.--XXXIII.,
The Method of Preparing Felts for Trial.--XXXIV., The Method of Dyeing
Woollens False Colours.--XXXV., Of Flock or Goats' Hair.--XXXVI., Of
Archil, and the Method of Using It.--XXXVII., Of Logwood.--XXXVIII., Of
Brazil Wood.--XXXIX., Of Fustic--XL., Roucou.--XLI., Of French Berries.
--XLII., Of Turmeric.--XLIII., Instructions for the Proof Liquor for
Wool and Woollen Stuffs.

Part II., =The Art of Dyeing Silk:= Ungumming and Boiling for
White.--For Boiling of Silks Intended to be Dyed.--Observations on
Ungumming and Boiling.--Of White.--Of Whitening.--Sulphuring.
--Observations on Whitening and Sulphuring.--Of Aluming.--Remarks on
Aluming.--Of Blue.--Remarks on the Blue of Indigo.--Of Yellow.--Remarks
on Yellow.--Aurora, Orange, Mordore, Gold Colour and Chamois.--Red and
Crimson.--Remarks on Crimson.--Of False Crimson or the Red of
Brazil.--Remarks on the Red, or Crimson of Brazil Wood.--Of Scarlet,
Orange, Red and Cherry Colour.--Preparation of the Carthamus or Bastard
Saffron.--Remarks on the Dye of Carthamus or Bastard Saffron.--Of the
False Poppy or Fire Colour Produced with Brazil Wood.--False Rose
Colour.--Of Green. --Remarks.--Of Olives.--Remarks.--Of Violet.--Of Fine
Violet, or Violet in Grain.--Of False or Common Violets or Lilac.--Of
the Violet of Logwood.--Remarks.--Violet of Logwood and
Verdigris.--Violets of Brazil and Logwood.--Remarks.--Violets from
Brazil Wood and Archil. --Of Purple, Gillyflower, and of Fine Cochineal
or Purple.--Of False Purple.--Of Maroons, Cinnamons and White
Lees.--Remarks.--Of Nut Greys. Thorn Greys, Black and Iron Greys and
others of the same Species.--Of Black.--Softening of Black.--Black in
the Raw.--Remarks on Black.--Particular Process Communicated by M.
Hellot.--Genoa Crimson, a Process Proved in May, 1743.--Violet Crimson
of Italy.--Half Violet.--Genoa Black for Velvets.

Part III., =The Art of Dyeing Cotton and Linen Thread, together with the
Method of Stamping Silks, Cottons, etc.:= Of Dyeing in General.--Inquiry
concerning Wool, Silk, Cotton and Flax.--Of Wool.--Of Silk.--Of
Cotton.--Of Flax.--Conclusion from the Examination of Substances
Commonly Dyed.--Of Bleaching.--Preparation for Stuffs to be
Dyed.--Astringents.--Theory of Dyeing Stuffs Prepared with Alum.--Of
Colouring Substances.--Of Cochineal and Colouring Insects.--Of
Madder.--Of Vegetables Furnishing a Yellow Dye.--Of the Colouring Drugs
Used in Dyeing without Astringents.--Of Indigo.--Of Substances Used in
Dyeing Fawn and Root Colour.--Of Carthamus, Roucou, etc.--Of Black. =Of
Dyeing of Cotton Thread=: Of Cleansing.--Of the Colours Employed for the
Dyeing of Cotton Thread.--Of Blue.--Of Red.--Adrianople
Red.--Observations on this Dye.--Of Yellow.--Of Green.--Of Violet.--Of
Red Cinnamon.--Of Black.--Black for Linen and Cotton Thread by a
Combination of Colours.--Of Grey.--Of More Durable Greys.--Of Musk
Colour.--Olive and Duck Greens.--Of Browns, Maroons, Coffee Colours,
etc.--Of Silk Stuffs Dyed of Several Colours.--The Manner of Stamping
Silk, etc., in Europe.--Of a Linen with a Blue Ground and White
Pattern.--Of Saxon Blue.--Observations on this Dye.--=Indexes.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRICS=: A Practical Handbook for the Dyer and
Student. By FRANKLIN BEECH, Practical Colourist and Chemist. 272 pp.
Forty-four Illustrations of Bleaching and Dyeing Machinery. Demy 8vo.
1901. Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.: Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Structure and Chemistry of the Cotton Fibre.--II., Scouring
and Bleaching of Cotton.--III., Dyeing Machinery and Dyeing
Manipulations.--IV., Principals and Practice of Cotton Dyeing--1, Direct
Dyeing; 2, Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Metallic Salts; 3,
Direct Dyeing followed by Fixation with Developers; 4, Direct Dyeing
followed by Fixation with Couplers; 5, Dyeing on Tannic Mordant; 6,
Dyeing on Metallic Mordant; 7, Production of Colour Direct upon Cotton
Fibres; 8, Dyeing Cotton by Impregnation with Dye-stuff Solution.--V.,
Dyeing Union (Mixed Cotton and Wool) Fabrics.--VI., Dyeing Half Silk
(Cotton-Silk, Satin) Fabrics.--VII., Operations following
Dyeing--Washing, Soaping, Drying.--VIII., Testing of the Colour of Dyed
Fabrics.--IX., Experimental Dyeing and Comparative Dye Testing.--Index.

The book contains numerous recipes for the production on Cotton Fabrics
of all kinds of a great range of colours, thus making it of great
service in the Dye-house, while to the Student it is of value in that the
scientific principles which underlie the operations of dyeing are
clearly laid down.

       *       *       *       *       *

=COTTON SPINNING= (First Year). By THOMAS THORNLEY, Spinning Master,
Bolton Technical School. 160 pp. 84 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901.
Price 3s.; Abroad, 3s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Syllabus and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London
Institute.--Chapters I., Cultivation, Classification, Ginning, Baling
and Mixing of the Raw Cotton.--II., Bale-Breakers, Mixing Lattices and
Hopper Feeders--III., Opening and Scutching.--IV., Carding.--Index to
Illustrations.--General Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=COTTON SPINNING= (Intermediate, or Second Year). By THOMAS THORNLEY.
180 pp. 70 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901. Price 5s.; India and British
Colonies, 5s. 6d.; Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London
Institute.--Chapters I., The Combing Process.--II., The Drawing
Frame.--III., Bobbin and Fly Frames.--IV., Mule Spinning.--V., Ring
Spinning.--Index to Illustrations.--General Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=COTTON SPINNING= (Honours, or Third Year). By THOMAS THORNLEY. 216 pp.
74 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 1901. Price 5s.; India and British
Colonies, 5s. 6d.; Other Countries, 6s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Syllabuses and Examination Papers of the City and Guilds of London
Institute.--Chapters I., Cotton.--II., The Practical Manipulation of
Cotton Spinning Machinery.--III., Doubling and Winding.--IV.,
Reeling.--V., Warping.--VI., Production and Costs.--VII., Main
Driving.--VIII., Arrangement of Machinery and Mill Planning.--IX., Waste
and Waste Spinning.--Index to Illustrations.--General Index.


       *       *       *       *       *


=Books for Mining Engineers and Steam Users.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=RECOVERY WORK AFTER PIT FIRES.= A Description of the Principal Methods
Pursued, especially in Fiery Mines, and of the Various Appliances
Employed, such as Respiratory and Rescue Apparatus, Dams, etc. By ROBERT
LAMPRECHT, Mining Engineer and Manager. Translated from the German.
Illustrated by Six large Plates, containing Seventy-six Illustrations.
175 pp., demy 8vo. 1901. Price 10s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 11s.; Other
Countries, 12s.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Preface.--=I., Causes of Pit Fires:= 1, Fires Resulting from the
Spontaneous Ignition of Coal; 2, Fires Caused by Burning Timber; 3,
Fires Caused by Fire-damp Explosions.--=II., Preventive Regulations:= 1,
The Outbreak and Rapid Extension of a Shaft Fire can be most reliably
prevented by Employing little or no Combustible Material in the
Construction of the Shaft; 2, Precautions for Rapidly Localising an
Outbreak of Fire in the Shaft; 3, Precautions to be Adopted in case
those under 1 and 2 Fail or Prove Inefficient Precautions against
Spontaneous Ignition of Coal. Precautions for Preventing Explosions of
Fire-damp and Coal Dust. Employment of Electricity in Mining,
particularly in Fiery Pits. Experiments on the Ignition of Fire-damp
Mixtures and Clouds of Coal Dust by Electricity.--=III., Indications of
an Existing-or Incipient Fire.--IV., Appliances for Working in
Irrespirable Gases:= 1, Respiratory Apparatus; 2, Apparatus with Air
Supply Pipes, (_a_) The Bremen Smoke Helmet, (_b_) The Müller Smoke
Helmet, (_c_) The Stolz Rescue Mask; 3, Reservoir Apparatus: 4, Oxygen
Apparatus. The Schwann Respiratory Apparatus. The Fleuss Respiratory
Apparatus. The Improved Walcher-Gärtner Pneumatophor, (_a_) The Single
Bottle Apparatus, Instructions for using the Pneumatophor, Taking to
Pieces and Resetting the Apparatus ready for Use; (_b_) Two Bottle
Apparatus (Shamrock Type). The Neupert Rescue Apparatus (The Mayer-Pilar
System).--=V. Extinguishing-Pit Fires:= (_a_)Chemical Means: (_b_)
Extinction with Water. Dragging down the Burning Masses and Packing with
Clay: (_c_) Insulating the Seat of the Fire by Dams. Dam Building. Dam
Work in the Fiery Pits of Southern Hungary: (_a_) Cross-dams of Clay;
(_b_) Masonry Dams, Gallery Linings. Wagner's Portable Safety Dam.
Analyses of Fire Gases. Isolating the Seat of a Fire with Dams: Working
in Irrespirable Gases ("Gas-diving"): 1, Air-Lock Work (Horizontal
Advance) on the Mayer System as Pursued at Karwin in 1894; 2, Air-Lock
Work (Horizontal Advance) by the Mauerhofer Modified System. Vertical
Advance. Mayer System. Complete Isolation of the Pit. Flooding a Burning
Section isolated by means of Dams. Wooden Dams: (_a_) Upright Balk Dams;
(_b_) Horizontal Balk Dams; (c) Wedge Dams, Masonry Dams. Examples of
Cylindrical and Dome-shaped Dams. Dam Doors: Flooding the Whole
Pit.--=VI., Rescue Stations:= (_a_) Stations above Ground; (_b_)
Underground Rescue Stations.--=VII., Spontaneous Ignition of Coal in
Bulk.=--Index.

=Illustrations.=

Sheet I., =Respiratory and Rescue Appliances--Precautions against Fire.=
Figs. 1, Smoke Helmet; 2, Muller's Smoke Helmet; 3, Low-pressure
Respiration Apparatus; 4, High-pressure Respiration Apparatus; 5, The
Stolz Mask for Rescue Work: 6, Precautions against Fire.--Sheet II.,
=Respiratory and Rescue Apparatus.= Figs. 1, Recovery Work with Muller's
Smoke Helmet after a Fire: 2-8, The Fleuss Respiration Apparatus: 9, The
Walcher-Gärtner Pneumatophor: 10-12, Pneumatophor (Shamrock
Type).--Sheet III., =Respiratory and Rescue Apparatus--Stretchers.=
Figs. 1-8, Rescue Apparatus manufactured by O. Neupert's Successor
(Mayer-Pilar System); 1, Front View; 2, Section through Bag and Mask; 3,
Rear View: 4, Apparatus and Mask laid out Flat (view from above); 5,
Apparatus and Mask laid out Flat (view from below): 6, Locking Device
for Closing Bag; 7, Apparatus Complete, Mounted for Rescue Work; 8,
Improved Valve in the Respiration Tubes; 9-12, =Stretchers.= Fig. 9,
Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas: 10, Stretcher Covered with Brown
Canvas, fitted with Adjustable Head-rest: 11, Folding Stretcher Covered
with Brown Canvas; 12, Rupprecht's Stretcher Covered with Brown Canvas;
13, Dr. Rühlmann's Stretcher.--Sheet IV., =Dams.= Figs. 1-7, R. Wagners
Portable Safety Dam.--Sheet V., =Signalling Appliances --Dam
Construction--Cable Laying.= Figs. 1-3, Signalling Appliances: 1, Small
Induction Apparatus for Pit Work; 2, Bell Signal for Pit Work; 3, Pit
Telephone; 4-18, =Dam Construction;= 4, 5, Upright Timber Dam; 6, 7,
Timber Dam with Wooden Door; 8, 9, Dome-shaped Dams; 10,11, Dome-shaped
Dam with Iron Door; 12,13, The Wenker and Berninghaus Locking Device for
Dam Doors; 14-17, Dam Construction: 18, Damming a Gallery Lined with
Iron: 19, Support for Cable.--Sheet VI., =Working with Diving Gear in
Irrespirable Gases--Gallery Work.= Figs. 1-4, Air-Lock Work (Mayer
System); 5-7. Air-Lock (Mauerhofer's Modification of the Mayer System);
8-11, Construction of Dams at the Pluto Shaft.--Sheet VII., =Working
with Diving Gear in Irrespirable Gases (Mayer System)--Appliances in the
Shaft.= Figs. 1, 2, Sections of Shaft and Air Apparatus; 3, Salzmann
Reducing Valve for Reserve Air Supply; 4,5, L. v. Bremen's Respiration
Apparatus with Karwin Reserve Appliance: 6, Cross Section of the
Franziska Shaft; 7, Method of Supplying Air to Main Pipe and Winding
same on Drum; 8, Clamp.

=Press Opinions.=

    "A work of this extremely valuable character deserves to be made
    widely known amongst colliery managers and mining engineers at home
    and abroad."--_Coal and Iron._

    "This book is, in a manner, unique. The literature of mining
    accidents is fairly extensive, but it consists largely of
    departmental Blue Books."--_Sheffield Daily Telegraph._

    "A concise and lucid description of the principal methods pursued,
    especially in fiery mines, and of the various appliances employed,
    such as respiratory and rescue apparatus, dams, etc."--_Staffs
    Advertiser._

    "The prevention of spontaneous combustion in collieries and the
    extinction of underground fires are duties that fall heavily on many
    colliery managers. They should, therefore, welcome this translation
    of Mr. Lamprecht's German treatise."--_Ironmonger._

    "The book under notice supplies the needed full description,
    drawings, and mode of using these new appliances in actual fires,
    and should be studied by every colliery manager, seeing that even
    our best managed collieries have not been free from fires, more or
    less disastrous to life and property.--_Colliery Manager._

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE PREVENTION OF SMOKE.= Combined with the Economical Combustion of
Fuel. By W.C. POPPLEWELL, M.Sc, A.M.Inst., C.E., Consulting Engineer. 46
Illustrations. 190 pp. 1901. Demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Introductory.--Chapters I., Fuel and Combustion.--II., Hand Firing in
Boiler Furnaces.--III., Stoking by Mechanical Means.--IV., Powdered
Fuel.--V., Gaseous Fuel.--VI., Efficiency and Smoke Tests of
Boilers.--VII., Some Standard Smoke Trials.--VIII., The Legal Aspect of
the Smoke Question.--IX., The Best Means to be adopted for the
Prevention of Smoke.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=GAS AND COAL DUST FIRING.= A Critical Review of the Various Appliances
Patented in Germany for this purpose since 1885. By ALBERT PÜTSCH. 130
pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Translated from the German. With 103 Illustrations.
Price 7s. 6d.; India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.;
strictly net.

=Contents.=

Generators--Generators Employing Steam--Stirring and Feed Regulating
Appliances--Direct Generators--Burners--Regenerators and
Recuperators--Glass Smelting Furnaces--Metallurgical Furnaces--Pottery
Furnace--Coal Dust Firing.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "The work is worthy of perusal by all consumers of fuel. It is
    exceedingly well printed and illustrated."--_Chemical Trade
    Journal._

    "The book will appeal with force to the manufacturer as well as to
    the technical student, whilst it is also of far more than average
    interest to the general reader."--_Halifax Guardian._

    "The importance that gas and coal dust firing have attained of
    recent years, and especially the great interest attaching of late to
    the question of coal dust firing, makes the appearance of the
    present volume most opportune."--_Iron and Coal Trades Review._

    "The German author has long followed the development of various
    systems of gas firing, and in the present treatise he discusses the
    merits of appliances patented since 1885. His text and the numerous
    illustrations indispensable to it will be found useful by all who
    are engaged in practical work in the same field."--_North British
    Daily Mail._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Books on Plumbing, Decorating, Metal Work, etc., etc.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=EXTERNAL PLUMBING WORK.= A Treatise on Lead Work for Roofs. By JOHN W.
HART, R.P.C. 180 Illustrations. 270 pp. Demy 8vo. 1896. Price 7s. 6d.;
India and Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.=

Chapters I., Cast Sheet Lead.--II., Milled Sheet Lead.--III., Roof
Cesspools.--IV., Socket Pipes.--V., Drips.--VI., Gutters.--VII., Gutters
(continued).--VIII., Breaks.--IX., Circular Breaks.--X., Flats--XL,
Flats (continued).--XII., Rolls on Flats.--XIII., Roll Ends.--XIV., Roll
Intersections.--XV., Seam Rolls.--XVI., Seam Rolls (continued).--XVII.,
Tack Fixings.--XVIII., Step Flashings.--XIX., Step Flashings
(continued).--XX., Secret Gutters.--XXI., Soakers.--XXII., Hip and
Valley Soakers.--XXIII., Dormer Windows.--XXIV., Dormer Windows
(continued).--XXV., Dormer Tops.--XXVI., Internal Dormers.--XXVII.,
Skylights.--XXVIII., Hips and Ridging.--XXIX., Hips and Ridging
(continued).--XXX., Fixings for Hips and Ridging.--XXXI., Ornamental
Ridging.--XXXII., Ornamental Curb Rolls.--XXXIII., Curb Rolls.--XXXIV.,
Cornices.--XXXV., Towers and Finials.--XXXVI., Towers and Finials
(continued).--XXXVII.,Towers and Finials (continued).--XXXVIII.,
Domes.--XXXIX., Domes (continued).--XL., Ornamental Lead Work.--XLI.,
Rain Water Heads.--XLII., Rain Water Heads (continued).--XLIII., Rain
Water Heads (continued).

=Press Opinions.=

    "This is an eminently practical and well-illustrated volume on the
    management of external lead work."--_Birmingham Daily Post._

    "It is thoroughly practical, containing many valuable hints, and
    cannot fail to be of great benefit to those who have not had large
    experience."--_Sanitary Journal._

    "Works on sanitary plumbing are by no means rare, but treatises
    dealing with external plumbing work are sufficiently scarce to
    ensure for Mr. Hart's new publication a hearty reception."--_The
    Ironmonger._

    "With Mr. Harts treatise in his hands the young plumber need not be
    afraid of tackling outside work. He would do well to study its pages
    at leisure, so that he may be ready for it when called
    upon."--_Ironmongery._

       *       *       *       *       *

=HINTS TO PLUMBERS ON JOINT WIPING, PIPE BENDING AND LEAD BURNING.=
Third Edition, Revised and Corrected. By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. 184
Illustrations. 313 pp. Demy 8vo. 1901. Price 7s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.= Introduction.--Chapters I., Pipe Bending.--II., Pipe Bending
(continued).--III., Pipe Bending (continued).--IV., Square Pipe
Bendings.--V., Half-circular Elbows.--VI., Curved Bends on Square
Pipe.--VII., Bossed Bends.--VIII., Curved Plinth Bends.--IX., Rain-water
Shoes on Square Pipe.--X., Curved and Angle Bends.--XL, Square Pipe
Fixings.--XII., Joint-wiping.--XIII., Substitutes for Wiped
Joints.--XIV., Preparing Wiped Joints.--XV., Joint Fixings.--XVI.,
Plumbing Irons.--XVII., Joint Fixings.--XVIII., Use of "Touch" in
Soldering.--XIX., Underhand Joints.--XX., Blown and Copper Bit
Joints.--XXL, Branch Joints.--XXII., Branch Joints (continued).--XXIII.,
Block Joints.--XXIV., Block Joints (continued).--XXV., Block
Fixings.--XXVI., Astragal Joints--Pipe Fixings.--XXVII., Large Branch
Joints.--XXVIII., Large Underhand Joints.--XXIX., Solders.--XXX.,
Autogenous Soldering or Lead Burning.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "Rich in useful diagrams as well as in hints."--_Liverpool Mercury._

    "The papers are eminently practical, and go much farther into the
    mysteries they describe than the title 'Hints' properly
    suggests."--_Scotsman._

    "The articles are apparently written by a thoroughly practical man.
    As a practical guide the book will doubtless be of much
    service."--_Glasgow Herald._

    "So far as the practical hints in this work are concerned, it will
    be useful to apprentices and students in technical schools, as it
    deals mainly with the most important or difficult branches of the
    plumber's craft, _viz._, joint wiping, pipe bending and lead
    burning.... 'Hints' are the most useful things to an apprentice, and
    there are many in this work which are not to be found in some of the
    text-books."--_English Mechanic._

    22 PRYME STREET, HULL, _24th November_, 1894. "Gentlemen,--Your
    books to hand for which accept my best thanks, also for circulars. I
    myself got one of J.W. Hart's books on Plumbing from your traveller,
    and having looked through the same I can safely recommend it as
    being the best book I have seen. Mr. J.W. Hart treats exhaustively
    upon soldering and pipe bending, which are two of the most essential
    branches in the plumbing trade."

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF DIPPING, BURNISHING, LACQUERING AND
BRONZING BRASS WARE.= By W. NORMAN BROWN. 35 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price
2s.; Abroad, 2s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.= Chapters I., Cleansing and Dipping; Boiling up and
Cleansing: Dipping.--II., Scratch-brushing and Burnishing; Polishing;
Burnishing.--III., Lacquering; Tools; Lacquers.--IV., Bronzing; Black
Bronzing; Florentine Red Bronzing; Green Bronzing.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "Mr. Brown is clearly a master of his craft, and has also the
    immense advantage of being able to convey his instructions in a
    manner at once clear and concise."--_Leicester Post._

    "A thoroughly practical little treatise on the subject in all its
    branches, and one which should be in the hands of every tradesman or
    amateur who has lacquering to do."--_Irish Builder._

       *       *       *       *       *

=WORKSHOP WRINKLES= for Decorators, Painters, Paperhangers and Others.
By W.N. BROWN. Crown 8vo. 128 pp. 1901. Price 2s. 6d.; Abroad, 3s.;
strictly net.

=Contents.= Parts I., Decorating.--II., Painting.--III.,
Paper-hanging.--IV., Miscellaneous. Arranged in alphabetical order.

       *       *       *       *       *

=HOUSE DECORATING AND PAINTING.= By W. NORMAN BROWN. Eighty-eight
Illustrations. 150 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 3s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 4s.; Other Countries, 4s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.= Chapters I., Tools and Appliances.--II., Colours and Their
Harmony.--III., Pigments and Media.--IV., Pigments and Media.--V.,
Pigments and Media.--VI., Pigments and Media.--VII., Preparation of
Work, etc.--VIII., Application of Ordinary Colour.--IX., Graining.--X.,
Graining.--XI., Graining.--XII., Gilding.--XIII., Writing and
Lettering.--XIV., Sign Painting.--XV., Internal Decoration.--Index.

=Press Opinion.= "The author is evidently very thoroughly at home in
regard to the technical subjects he has set himself to elucidate, from
the mechanical rather than the artistic point of view, although the
matter of correctness of taste is by no means ignored. Mr. Brown's style
is directness itself, and there is no tyro in the painting trade,
however mentally ungifted, who could fail to carry away a clearer grasp
of the details of the subject after going over the
performance."--_Building Industries._

       *       *       *       *       *

=A HISTORY OF DECORATIVE ART.= By W. NORMAN BROWN. Thirty-nine
Illustrations. 96 pp. Crown 8vo. 1900. Price 2s. 6d.; Abroad, 3s.;
strictly net.

=Contents.= Chapters I., Primitive and Prehistoric Art.--II., Egyptian
Art.--III., Assyrian Art.--IV., The Art of Asia Minor.--V., Etruscan
Art.--VI., Greek Art.--VII., Roman Art.--VIII., Byzantine Art.--IX.,
Lombard or Romanesque Art.--X., Gothic Art.--XI., Renaissance
Art.--XII., The Victorian Period.--Index.

=Press Opinion.=

    "In the course of a hundred pages with some forty illustrations Mr.
    Brown gives a very interesting and comprehensive survey of the
    progress and development of decorative art. It cannot, of course, be
    pretended that in the limited space named the subject is treated
    exhaustively and in full detail, but it is sufficiently complete to
    satisfy any ordinary reader; indeed, for general purposes, it is,
    perhaps, more acceptable than a more elaborate treatise."--_Midland
    Counties Herald._

       *       *       *       *       *

=A HANDBOOK ON JAPANNING AND ENAMELLING FOR CYCLES, BEDSTEADS, TINWARE,
ETC.= By WILLIAM NORMAN BROWN. Price 2s. net. [_Ready._

=Contents.= A Few Words on Enamelling--Appliances and Apparatus--Japans
or Enamels--To Test Enamel for Lead--Japanning or Enamelling
Metals--Japanning Tin, such as Tea Trays, and similar Goods--Enamelling
Old Work--Enamel for Cast Iron--Enamel for Copper Cooking Utensils--The
Enamelling Stove--Enamelling Bedsteads, Frames and similar large
pieces--Paints and Varnishes for Metallic Surfaces--Varnishes for
Ironwork--Blacking for Iron--Processes for Tin
Plating--Galvanising--Metal Polishes--Colours for Polished Brass--A
Golden Varnish for Metal--Painting on Zinc--Carriage Varnish--Japanese
Varnish and its Application.--Index.

       *       *       *       *       *

=THE PRINCIPLES OF HOT WATER SUPPLY.= By JOHN W. HART, R.P.C. With 129
Illustrations. 1900. 177 pp., demy 8vo. Price 7s. 6d.; India and
Colonies, 8s.; Other Countries, 8s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.= Chapters I., Water Circulation.--II., The Tank
System.--III., Pipes and Joints.--IV., The Cylinder System.--V., Boilers
for the Cylinder System.--VI., The Cylinder System.--VII., The Combined
Tank and Cylinder System.--VIII., Combined Independent and Kitchen
Boiler.--IX., Combined Cylinder and Tank System with Duplicate
Boilers.--X., Indirect Heating and Boiler Explosions.--XI., Pipe
Boilers.--XII., Safety Valves.--XIII., Safety Valves.--XIV., The
American System.--XV., Heating Water by Steam.--XVI., Steam Kettles and
Jets.--XVII., Heating Power of Steam.--XVIII., Covering for Hot Water
Pipes.--Index.

=Press Opinion.=

    "If all plumbers were to read this book, and if they followed the
    instructions given, there would, we are sure, be fewer accidents
    from household boiler explosions, and many lives might be saved. No
    doubt the majority of householders know or care little about the
    subject, but any one who wishes to adopt the most up-to-date system
    of supplying hot water throughout his house will be able to do so if
    he reads Mr. Hart's book and follows the instruction given. It is a
    work that all who have charge of domestic water supply should study.
    It is a practical and profitable book."--_Wigar Observer._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Brewing and Botanical.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=HOPS IN THEIR BOTANICAL, AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL ASPECT, AND AS AN
ARTICLE OF COMMERCE.= By EMMANUEL GROSS, Professor at the Higher
Agricultural College, Tetschen-Liebwerd. Translated from the German.
Seventy-eight Illustrations. 1900. 340 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 12s. 6d.;
India and Colonies, 13s. 6d.; Other Countries, 15s.; strictly net.

=Contents.= PART I., HISTORY OF THE HOP. PART II., THE HOP PLANT.
Introductory.--The Roots.--The Stem and Leaves.--Inflorescence and
Flower: Inflorescence and Flower of the Male Hop: Inflorescence and
Flower of the Female Hop.--The Fruit and its Glandular Structure: The
Fruit and Seed.--Propagation and Selection of the Hop.--Varieties of the
Hop: (_a_) Red Hops; (_b_) Green Hops; (_c_) Pale Green
Hops.--Classification according to the Period of Ripening: 1. Early
August Hops; 2. Medium Early Hops; 3. Late Hops.--Injuries to Growth:
Malformations; Diseases Produced by Conditions of Soil and Climate: 1.
Leaves Turning Yellow, 2. Summer or Sun-brand, 3. Cones Dropping Off, 4.
Honey Dew, 5. Damage from Wind, Hail and Rain; Vegetable Enemies of the
Hop: Animal Enemies of the Hop.--Beneficial Insects on Hops.

=PART III., CULTIVATION.= The Requirements of the Hop in Respect of
Climate, Soil and Situation: Climate; Soil; Situation,--Selection of
Variety and Cuttings.--Planting a Hop Garden: Drainage; Preparing the
Ground; Marking-out for Planting; Planting; Cultivation and Cropping of
the Hop Garden in the First Year.--Work to be Performed Annually in the
Hop Garden: Working the Ground; Cutting; The Non-cutting System; The
Proper Performance of the Operation of Cutting: I. Method of Cutting:
Close Cutting, Ordinary Cutting, The Long Cut, The Topping Cut; II.
Proper Season for Cutting: Autumn Cutting, Spring Cutting: Manuring;
Training the Hop Plant: Poled Gardens, Frame Training; Principal Types
of Frames: Pruning, Cropping, Topping, and Leaf Stripping the Hop Plant;
Picking, Drying and Bagging.--Principal and Subsidiary Utilisation of
Hops and Hop Gardens.--Life of a Hop Garden; Subsequent Cropping.--Cost
of Production, Yield and Selling Prices. PART IV.--Preservation and
Storage.--Physical and Chemical Structure of the Hop Cone.--Judging the
Value of Hops. PART V.--Statistics of Production.--The Hop
Trade.--Index.

=Press Opinions.=

    "The subject is dealt with fully in every little detail;
    consequently, even the veriest tyro can take away some useful
    information from its pages."--_Irish Farming World._

    "Farmers are but little given to reading; but nowadays brewers have
    to study their trade and keep abreast of its every aspect, and as
    far as regards our trade, to them this book especially appeals, and
    will be especially useful."--_Licensed Victuallers' Gazette._

    "Like an oasis in the desert comes a volume upon the above subject,
    by the Professor at the Higher Agricultural College,
    Tetschen-Liebwerd, Germany, who has been fortunate enough to obtain
    an excellent translator from the German in the person of Mr. Charles
    Salter. The paucity of works upon the history and cultivation of
    hops is surprising considering the scope it gives for an interesting
    and useful work."--_Hereford Times._

    "We can safely say that this book deals more comprehensively and
    thoroughly with the subject of hops than any work previously
    published in this country.... No one interested in the hop industry
    can fail to extract a large amount of information from Professor
    Gross's pages, which, although primarily intended for Continental
    readers, yet bear very closely on what may be termed the
    cosmopolitan aspects of the science of hop production."--_South
    Eastern Gazette._

    "This is, in our opinion, the most scholarly and exhaustive treatise
    on the subject of hops, their culture and preservation, etc., that
    has been published, and to the hop grower especially will its
    information and recommendations prove valuable. Brewers, too, will
    find the chapter devoted to 'Judging the Value of Hops' full of
    useful hints, while the whole scope and tenor of the book bear
    testimony to the studious and careful manner in which its contents
    have been elaborated."--_Brewers' Journal._

    "Considering the extent to which this country draws its hop supplies
    from abroad, this translation of Professor Gross's volume will prove
    an interesting and instructive addition to the library of any brewer
    or brewers' chemist, the more so as the work of translation has been
    admirably carried out in simple and vigorous English.... The volume
    is one of a valuable series of special technical works for trades
    and professions the publishers are issuing, and is the first so far
    dealing with the brewing industry."--_Burton Mail._

    "A work upon the above subject must be welcomed if for no other
    reason than the dearth of books dealing with so interesting a theme,
    but fortunately apart from this the book will afford excellent
    reading to all interested in hops and their culture. Professor Gross
    takes one over the whole field, by commencing with the earliest
    history of the plant--so far back as the days of ancient Greece--and
    from both practical, theoretical and scientific standpoints, deals
    with the cultivation, classification and formation of the hop.... In
    speaking of the production of new varieties sound information is
    given, and should be of value to those who are always in search of
    improvements."--_Hereford Journal._

    "This work is, without doubt, the most thorough and extensive
    compilation on hops ever yet offered to the public, and for this
    reason should be warmly welcomed and appreciated by men interested
    in the subject. Although primarily written for those engaged in the
    industry abroad, and mainly Continental in theory and practice, it
    nevertheless appeals to those connected with the hop growing and
    brewing business in England, not only by way of a comparison, but
    also as an instruction. The volume is at once practical and
    scientific, is well got up, and teems with illustrations and
    statistics. In a word, it is a book that should find its way into
    the hands of all who are occupied in hop production and distribution
    at home; and it also contains valuable information and suggestions
    for the brewers themselves."--_Brewers' Guardian._


       *       *       *       *       *


=Public Libraries.=

       *       *       *       *       *

=BRITISH LIBRARY YEAR BOOK, 1900-1901.= A Record of Library Progress and
Work. 54 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 345 pp. 1900. Edited by THOMAS
GREENWOOD. Price 3s.; abroad, 3s. 6d.; strictly net.

=Contents.= Notes for Library Committees. Contributed Articles: The
Library Rate. Some Points in Library Planning--Mr. Burgoyne. Library
Classification--Mr. Jast. Developments in Library Cataloguing--Mr.
Quinn. Children and Public Libraries--Mr. Ballinger. Fire Prevention and
Insurance--Mr. Davis. The Educational Work of the Library
Association--Mr. Roberts. The Library Assistants' Association--Mr.
Chambers. British Municipal Libraries established under the various
Public Libraries or Special Acts, and those supported out of Municipal
Funds giving particulars of Establishment, Organisation, Staff, Methods
and Librarians. Table showing the Rate, Income, Work and Hours of the
Rate-supported Libraries. Statistical Abstracts. British non-Municipal
Libraries, Endowed, Collegiate, Proprietary and others, showing date of
Establishment, number of Volumes, Particulars of Administration, and
Librarians. Library Associations and Kindred Societies.

=Press Opinions.=

    "This is a handbook which tells the reader everything about public
    libraries, great and small, in the United Kingdom.... The book is
    decidedly one of the best arranged volumes ever published, and there
    is no doubt that the editor has been at great pains to obtain the
    latest and most accurate information from all places. County,
    district and parish councils, ministers of religion, and
    schoolmasters everywhere should make themselves acquainted with its
    contents. Its perusal cannot fail to serve the ends of the library
    movement. The illustrations, of which there is a large number, are
    very good."--_Western (Cardiff) Mail._


       *       *       *       *       *


_WORKS IN PREPARATION._

       *       *       *       *       *

=PRINCIPLES OF SIDEROLOGY= (The Science of Iron). Translated from the
German of HANKS FREIHERR v. ZÜPTNER.

=STAINED GLASS= (Ancient and Modern) and =FRET LEAD GLAZING.= By E.R.
SUFFLING.

=TREATISE ON CLOTH FINISHING.= By ROBERT BEAUMONT, of Yorkshire College,
Leeds.

=INDIA-RUBBER; GUTTA PERCHA.=

=EVAPORATION, CONDENSATION AND COOLING.= Calculations of Dimensions of
Apparatus. By E. HAUSBRAND. Tables. For Chemists, Chemical and
Mechanical Engineers.

=THE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF TEXTILE FIBRES.= Spinning, Washing,
Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing. By Dr. G. von GEORGIEVICS.
                                                    [_In the Press._

=WEAVING MACHINERY.= Three Vols. By HARRY NISBET.

=COLOUR TERMS: THEIR PROPER USE AND MEANING.= By DAVID PATERSON.

=LEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS.= By THOS. LAMBERT.

=COTTON COMBERS AND THE COMBING PROCESS.= By THOS. THORNLEY.
                                                  [_In the Press._

=TIMBER.= Its Physical and Chemical Properties, Description,
Distribution throughout the World, Forests, Preservation of Timber, and
Applications. From the French of Paul Charpentier. 179 Illustrations.
About 500 pp.

=USE OF WATER IN THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS.= Composition--Influences--Residual
Water--Purification--Analysis. From the French of H. de la Coux. 135
Illustrations. About 500 pp.

=DYERS' MATERIALS:= An Introduction to the Examination, Evaluation and
Application of the Most Important Substances Used in Dyeing, Printing,
Bleaching and Finishing. By PAUL HEERMANN, Ph.D. Translated by ARTHUR C.
WRIGHT, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.). [_In the Press._


       *       *       *       *       *


=HANDY GUIDES TO THE CHOICE OF BOOKS.=

       *       *       *       *       *

Vol. I. =PROSE FICTION.=

Vol. II. =TECHNICAL, TRADE AND COMMERCIAL BOOKS.=

_Others to follow._            [_In Preparation._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Publishers will advise when any of the above books are ready to
firms sending their addresses._





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