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Title: The Annals of the Cakchiquels
Author: Brinton, Daniel Garrison, 1837-1899
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Note:

A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies have been maintained
in this version of this book. Typographical errors have been marked with
a [TN-#], which refers to a description in the complete list found at the
end of the text. A list of words that have been inconsistently spelled or
hyphenated is found at the end of the present text.

The following less-common characters are used. If they do not display
properly, please try changing your font.

  ă a with breve
  ā a with macron

The following codes are used for characters that are not present in the
character set used for this version of the book.

  [c]  quatrillo, resembles a 4 with a tail
  [c,] quatrillo with comma
  [t]  tresillo, resembles a reversed 3
  [tz] resembles a tz drawn together

                 ABORIGINAL AMERICAN

                       No. VI.

                      EDITED BY
                    D. G. BRINTON

                BRINTON’S LIBRARY OF
                     NUMBER VI.

                     THE ANNALS
                       OF THE



                  DANIEL G. BRINTON

                  1885, Philadelphia


Both for its historical and linguistic merits, the document which is
presented in this volume is one of the most important in aboriginal
American Literature. Written by a native who had grown to adult years
before the whites penetrated to his ancestral home, himself a member of
the ruling family of one of the most civilized nations of the continent
and intimately acquainted with its traditions, his work displays the
language in its pure original form, and also preserves the tribal
history and a part of the mythology, as they were current before they
were in the least affected by European influences.

The translation I offer is directly from the original text, and I am
responsible for its errors; but I wish to acknowledge my constant
obligations to the manuscript version of the late Abbé Brasseur (de
Bourbourg), the distinguished Americanist. Without the assistance
obtained from it, I should not have attempted the task; and though I
differ frequently from his renderings, this is no more than he himself
would have done, as in his later years he spoke of his version as in
many passages faulty.

For the grammar of the language, I have depended on the anonymous grammar
which I edited for the American Philosophical Society in 1884, copies of
which, reprinted separately, can be obtained by any one who wishes to
study the tongue thoroughly. For the significance of the words, my usual
authorities are the lexicon of Varea, an anonymous dictionary of the 17th
century, and the large and excellent Spanish-Cakchiquel work of Coto, all
of which are in the library of the American Philosophical Society. They
are all in MS., but the vocabulary I add may be supplemented with that of
Ximenes, printed by the Abbé Brasseur, at Paris, in 1862, and between
them most of the radicals will be found.

As my object in all the volumes of this series is to furnish materials
for study, rather than to offer finished studies themselves, I have
steadily resisted the strong temptation to expand the notes and
introductory matter. They have been limited to what seemed essentially
necessary to defining the nature of the work, discussing its date and
authorship, and introducing the people to whom it refers.


  PREFACE,                                                           v

  INTRODUCTION,                                                      9
    ETHNOLOGIC POSITION OF THE CAKCHIQUELS,                          9
    CULTURE OF THE CAKCHIQUELS,                                     13
    THE CAPITAL CITY OF THE CAKCHIQUELS,                            21
    COMPUTATION OF TIME,                                            28
    PERSONAL AND FAMILY NAMES,                                      32
    TRIBAL SUBDIVISIONS,                                            33
    TERMS OF AFFINITY AND SALUTATION,                               34
    TITLES AND SOCIAL CASTES,                                       35
    RELIGIOUS NOTIONS,                                              39
    THE CAKCHIQUEL LANGUAGE,                                        48
    THE ANNALS OF XAHILA,                                           53
    SYNOPSIS OF THE ANNALS,                                         60
    REMARKS ON THE PRINTED TEXT,                                    62

  THE ANNALS OF THE CAKCHIQUELS, by a Member of the Xahila
     Family,                                                    66-194

  NOTES,                                                       195-200
  VOCABULARY,                                                      209
  INDEX OF PROPER NAMES,                                           229



_Ethnologic Position of the Cakchiquels._

The Cakchiquels, whose traditions and early history are given in the
present work from the pen of one of their own authors, were a nation of
somewhat advanced culture, who occupied a portion of the area of the
present State of Guatemala. Their territory is a table land about six
thousand feet above the sea, seamed with numerous deep ravines, and
supporting lofty mountains and active volcanoes. Though but fifteen
degrees from the equator, its elevation assures it a temperate climate,
while its soil is usually fertile and well watered.

They were one of a group of four closely related nations, adjacent in
territory and speaking dialects so nearly alike as to be mutually
intelligible. The remaining three were the Quiches, the Tzutuhils and
the Akahals, who dwelt respectively to the west, the south and the east
of the Cakchiquels.

These dialects are well marked members of the Maya linguistic stock, and
differ from that language, as it is spoken in its purity in Yucatan,
more in phonetic modifications than in grammatical structure or lexical
roots. Such, however, is the fixedness of this linguistic family in its
peculiarities, that a most competent student of the Cakchiquel has named
the period of two thousand years as the shortest required to explain the
difference between this tongue and the Maya.[10-1]

About the same length of time was that assigned since the arrival of
this nation in Guatemala, by the local historian, Francisco Antonio de
Fuentes y Guzman, who wrote in the seventeenth century, from an
examination of their most ancient traditions, written and verbal.[10-2]
Indeed, none of these affined tribes claimed to be autochthonous. All
pointed to some distant land as the home of their ancestors, and
religiously preserved the legends, more or less mythical, of their early
wanderings until they had reached their present seats. How strong the
mythical element in them is, becomes evident when we find in them the
story of the first four brothers as their four primitive rulers and
leaders, a myth which I have elsewhere shown prevailed extensively over
the American continent, and is distinctly traceable to the adoration of
the four cardinal points, and the winds from them.[10-3]

These four brothers were noble youths, born of one mother, who sallied
forth from Tulan, the golden city of the sun, and divided between them
all the land from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to the confines of
Nicaragua, in other words, all the known world.[11-1]

The occurrence of the Aztec name of the City of Light, Tulan (properly,
Tonatlan), in these accounts, as they were rehearsed by the early
converted natives, naturally misled historians to adopt the notion that
these divine culture heroes were “Toltecs,” and even in the modern
writings of the Abbé Brasseur (de Bourbourg), of M. Désiré Charnay, and
others, this unreal people continue to be set forth as the civilizers of
Central America.

No supposition could have less support. The whole alleged story of the
Toltecs is merely an euhemerized myth, and they are as pure creations of
the fancy as the giants and fairies of mediæval romance. They have no
business in the pages of sober history.

The same blending of their most ancient legends with those borrowed from
the Aztecs, recurs in the records of the pure Mayas of Yucatan. I have
shown this, and explained it at considerable length in the first volume
of this series, to which I will refer the reader who would examine the
question in detail.[11-2]

There is a slight admixture of Aztec words in Cakchiquel. The names of
one or two of their months, of certain objects of barter, and of a few
social institutions, are evidently loan-words from that tongue. There
are also some proper names, both personal and geographical, which are
clearly of Nahuatl derivation. But, putting all these together, they
form but a very small fraction of the language, not more than we can
readily understand they would necessarily have borrowed from a nation
with whom, as was the case with the Aztecs, they were in constant
commercial communication for centuries.[12-1] The Pipils, their
immediate neighbors to the South, cultivating the hot and fertile slope
which descends from the central plateau to the Pacific Ocean, were an
Aztec race of pure blood, speaking a dialect of Nahuatl, very little
different from that heard in the schools of classic Tezcuco.[12-2] But
the grammatical structure and stem-words of the Cakchiquel remained
absolutely uninfluenced by this association.

Later, when the Spanish occupation had brought with it thousands of
Nahuatl speaking followers, who supplied the interpreters for the
conquerers, Nahuatl names became much more abundant, and were adopted by
the natives in addressing the Spaniards. Thus the four nations, whom I
have mentioned as the original possessors of the land, are, in the
documents of the time, generally spoken of by such foreign titles. The
Cakchiquels were referred to as _Tecpan Quauhtemallan_, the Quiches as
_Tecpan Utlatlan_, the Tzutuhils as _Tecpan Atitlan_, and the Akahals as
_Tecpan Tezolotlan_. In these names, all of them pure Nahuatl, the word
_Tecpan_ means the royal residence or capital; _Quauhtemallan_
(Guatemala), “the place of the wood-pile;” _Utlatlan_, “the place of the
giant cane;” _Atitlan_, “the place by the water;” _Tezolotlan_, “the
place of the narrow stone,” or “narrowed by stones.”[13-1]

These fanciful names, derived from some trivial local characteristic,
were not at all translations of the native tribal names. For in their
own dialects, Quiche, [c]iche, means “many trees;” Tuztuhil, [c,]utuhil,
“the flowery spot;” Akahal, “the honey-comb;” and Cakchiquel, a species
of tree.

_Culture of the Cakchiquels._

These four nations were on the same plane of culture, and this by no
means a low one. They were agriculturists, cultivating for food beans,
peppers, and especially maize. To the latter, indeed, they are charged
with being fanatically devoted. “If one looks closely at these
Indians,” complains an old author, “he will find that everything they do
and say has something to do with maize. A little more, and they would
make a god of it. There is so much conjuring and fussing about their
corn fields, that for them they will forget wives and children and any
other pleasure, as if the only end and aim of life was to secure a crop
of corn.”[14-1]

In their days of heathenism, all the labors of the field were directed
by the observance of superstitious rites. For instance, the men, who
always did a large share of the field work, refrained from approaching
their wives for some days before planting the seed. Before weeding the
patch, incense was burned at each of the four corners of the field, to
the four gods of the winds and rains; and the first fruits were
consecrated to holy uses.[14-2] Their fields were large and extremely
productive.[14-3] In this connection it is worth noting, in passing,
that precisely Guatemala is the habitat of the _Euchlæna luxurians_,
the wild grass from which, in the opinion of botanists, the Zea Mais is
a variety developed by cultivation.

Cotton was largely cultivated, and the early writers speak with
admiration of the skill with which the native women spun and wove it
into graceful garments.[15-1] As in Yucatan, bees were domesticated for
their wax and honey, and a large variety of dye-stuffs, resins for
incense, and wild fruits, were collected from the native forests.

Like the Mayas and Aztecs, they were a race of builders, skillful masons
and stone-cutters, erecting large edifices, pyramids, temples, and
defensive works, with solid walls of stone laid in a firm mortar.[15-2]
The sites of these cities were generally the summits of almost
inaccessible crags, or on some narrow plain, protected on all sides by
the steep and deep ravines--_barrancas_, as the Spaniards call
them--which intersect the plateau in all directions, often plunging down
to a depth of thousands of feet. So located and so constructed, it is no
wonder that Captain Alvarado speaks of them as “thoroughly built and
marvelously strong.”[15-3]

In the construction of their buildings and the measurements of their
land, these nations had developed quite an accurate series of lineal
measures, taking as their unit certain average lengths of the human
body, especially the upper extremity. In a study of this subject,
published during the present year, I have set forth their various terms
employed in this branch of knowledge, and compared their system with
that in use among the Mayas and the Aztecs.[16-1] It would appear that
the Cakchiquels did not borrow from their neighbors, but developed
independently the system of mensuration in vogue among them. This bears
out what is asserted in the _Annals_ of Xahila, that their
“day-breaking,” or culture, was of spontaneous growth.

The art of picture writing was familiar to all these peoples. It was
employed to preserve their national history, to arrange their calendar,
and, doubtless, in the ordinary affairs of life.[16-2] But I am not
aware that any example or description of it has been preserved, which
would enable us to decide the highly important question, whether their
system was derived from that of the Mexicans or that of the Mayas,
between which, as the antiquary need not be informed, there existed an
almost radical difference.

The word for “to write,” is _[c,]ibah_, which means, in its primary
sense, “to paint;” _ah[c,]ib_, is “the scribe,” and was employed to
designate the class of literati in the ancient dominion. Painted or
written records were called _[c,]ibanic_.

They had a literature beyond their history and calendars. It consisted
of chants or poems, called _bix_, set orations and dramas.[17-1] They
were said or sung in connection with their ceremonial dances. These
performances were of the utmost importance in their tribal life. They
were associated with the solemn mysteries of their religion, and were in
memory of some of the critical events in their real or mythical history.
This will be obvious from the references to them in the pages of their

These chants and dances were accompanied by the monotonous beating of
the native drum, _tun_, by the shrill sound of reed flutes, _xul_, by
the tinkling of small metal bells, _[c]alakan_, which they attached to
their feet, and by rattles of small gourds or jars containing pebbles,
known as _zoch_. Other musical instruments mentioned, are the _chanal_,
the whistle (_pito_, _Dicc. Anon._), and _tzuy_, the marimba, or
something like it.

These nations were warlike, and were well provided with offensive and
defensive weapons. The Spanish writers speak of them as skilled archers,
rude antagonists, but not poisoning their weapons.[17-2] Besides the bow
and arrow, _[c]ha_, they used a lance, _achcayupil_,[18-1] and
especially the blow-pipe, _pub_, a potent weapon in the hands of an
expert, the knowledge of which was widely extended over tropical
America. Their arrow points were of stone, especially obsidian, bone and
metal. Other weapons were the wooden war club, _[c]haibalche_; the
sling, _ica[t]_; the hand-axe, _i[t]ah_, etc.

For defense, they carried a species of buckler, _pocob_, and a round
shield called _çeteçic chee_, “the circular wood.” Over the body they
wore a heavy, quilted cotton doublet, the _xakpota_, which was an
efficient protection.

They may all be said to have been in the “stone age,” as the weapons and
utensils were mostly of stone. The obsidian, which was easily obtained
in that country, offered an admirable resource for the manufacture of
knives, arrow heads, awls, and the like. It was called _chay abah_, and,
as we shall see on a later page, was surrounded with sacred

The most esteemed precious stones were the _[c]ual_, translated
“diamond,” and the _xit_, which was the impure jade or green stone, so
much the favorite with the nations of Mexico and Central America. It is
frequently mentioned in the _Annals_ of Xahila, among the articles of
greatest value.

Engraving both on stone and wood, was a prized art. The word to express
it was _[c]otoh_, and engraved articles are referred to as _[c]otonic_.

Although stone and wood were the principal materials on which they
depended for their manufactures, they were well acquainted with several
metals. Gold and silver were classed under the general name _puvak_, and
distinguished as white and yellow; iron and copper were both known as
_[c]hi[c]h_, and distinguished also by their color. The metals formed an
important element of their riches, and are constantly referred to as
part of the tribute paid to the rulers. They were worked into ornaments,
and employed in a variety of decorative manners.

The form of government of the four nations of whom I am speaking
approached that of a limited monarchy. There was a head chief, who may
as well be called a king, deriving his position and power through his
birth, whose authority was checked by a council of the most influential
of his subjects. The details of this general scheme were not the same at
all periods, nor in all the states; but its outlines differed little.

Among the Cakchiquels, who interest us at present, the regal power was
equally divided between two families, the Zotzils and the Xahils; not
that there were two kings at the same time, as some have supposed, but
that the throne was occupied by a member of these families alternately,
the head of the other being meanwhile heir-apparent.[19-1] These chiefs
were called the Ahpo-Zotzil and the Ahpo-Xahil; and their eldest sons
were entitled Ahpop-[c]amahay and Galel Xahil, respectively, terms which
will shortly be explained.

The ceremonial distinction established between the ruler and those
nearest him in rank, was indicated by the number of canopies under which
they sat. The ruler himself was shaded by three, of graded sizes, the
uppermost being the largest. The heir-apparent was privileged to support
two, and the third from the king but one. These canopies were
elaborately worked in the beautiful feathers of the _quetzal_, and other
brilliant birds, and bore the name of _muh_, literally “shade” or
“shadow,” but which metaphorically came to mean royal dignity or state,
and also protection, guardianship.[20-1]

The seat or throne on which he sat was called _tem_, _[c]hacat_, and
_[t]alibal_, and these words are frequently employed to designate the
Supreme Power.

The ceremonies connected with the installation of a king or head chief,
are described in an interesting passage of the _Annals_, Sec. 41: “He
was bathed by the attendants in a large painted vessel; he was clad in
flowing robes; a sacred girdle or fillet was tied upon him; he was
painted with the holy colors, was anointed, and jewels were placed upon
his person.” Such considerable solemnities point to the fact that these
people were on a much higher plane of social life than one where the
possession of the leadership was merely an act of grasping by the
strongest arm.

Of the four nations, the Quiches were the most numerous and powerful. At
times they exercised a sovereignty over the others, and levied tribute
from them. But at the period of Alvarado’s conquest, all four were
independent States, engaged in constant hostilities against each other.

There is no means of forming an accurate estimate of their number. All
early accounts agree that their territory was thickly populated, with
numerous towns and cities.[21-1] The contingent sent to Alvarado by the
Cakchiquel king, to aid in the destruction of Quiche, was four thousand
warriors in one body, according to Alvarado’s own statement, though
Xahila puts it at four hundred. There are various reasons for believing
that the native population was denser at the Conquest than at present;
and now the total aboriginal population of the State of Guatemala, of
pure or nearly pure blood, is about half a million souls.

_The Capital City of the Cakchiquels._

The capital city of the Cakchiquels is referred to by Xahila as “Iximche
on the Ratzamut.” It was situated on the lofty plateau, almost on a
line connecting Gumarcaah, the capital of the Quiches, with the modern
city of Guatemala, about twelve leagues from the latter and eight from
the former. Its name, _Iximche_, is that of a kind of tree (_che_=tree)
called by the Spanish inhabitants _ramon_, apparently a species of
_Brosimium_. _Ratzamut_, literally “the beak of the wild pigeon,” was
the name given to the small and almost inaccessible plain, surrounded on
all sides by deep ravines, on which Iximche was situated. Doubtless, it
was derived from some fancied resemblance of the outline of the plain to
the beak of this bird.

The capital was also called simply _tinamit_, the city (not _Patinamit_,
as writers usually give it, as _pa_ is not an article but a preposition,
in or at); and by the Aztec allies of the conqueror Alvarado,
_Quauhtemallan_, “place of the wood-pile,” for some reason unknown to
us.[22-1] The latter designation was afterwards extended to the
province, and under the corrupt form _Guatemala_ is now the accepted
name of the State and its modern capital.

The famous captain, Pedro de Alvarado was the first European to visit
Iximche. He entered it on April 13th, 1524 (old style). In his letter
describing the occurrence, however, he says little or nothing about the
size or appearance of the buildings.[22-2]

Scarcely more satisfactory are the few words devoted to it by Captain
Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who spent a night there the same year. He
observes that “its buildings and residences were fine and rich, as might
be expected of chiefs who ruled all the neighboring provinces.”[23-1]

When the revolt of the Cakchiquels took place, soon afterwards, Iximche
was deserted, and was never again fully inhabited. The Spaniards ordered
the natives to settle in other localities, the fortifications of their
capital were demolished, and many of the stones carried away, to
construct churches and houses in other localities.

The next account we have of it dates from the year 1695, when the
historian and antiquary, Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzman, wrote a
detailed description of its ruins from personal inspection. The account
of this enthusiastic author is the only one which supplies any
approximate notion of what the city must have been in its flourishing
period, and I therefore translate it, almost entire, from the recently
published edition of his voluminous work, the _Recordacion
Florida_.[23-2] His chapter will throw light on several otherwise
obscure passages in Xahila’s narrative.

“_Tecpan goathemala_ was a city of the ancient inhabitants, populous,
wonderful and impregnable, from the character of its position, situated
in this valley (of Chimaltenango), on an elevated and cool site. It lies
eight leagues in a straight line from New Guatemala. Around this
ancient and dismantled town, now falling into utmost decay, extends a
deep ravine, like a moat, plunging straight down to a depth of more than
a hundred fathoms. This ravine, or moat, is three squares in width from
one battlement or bank to the other, and they say that a good part of it
was a work of hands, for the security and defense of the city. There is
no other entrance than a very narrow causeway, which cuts the ravine at
a point a little north of west. The whole area of the space where are
these ancient ruins measures three miles from north to south and two
from east to west, and its complete circumference is nine miles. In the
heart and centre of this area was prominently erected that great city of
_Tecpan goathemala_.

“The whole surface of the soil in this ancient city seems to have been
artificially prepared, by means of a cement or mortar, laid by hand, to
a depth of three-fourths of a yard. Close to the brink of the ravine
there are the sumptuous ruins of a magnificent and stately edifice, in
length a hundred measured paces, and in width the same, thus forming a
perfect square, all of stone and mortar, the stone accurately cut with
great skill, polished and nicely adjusted. In front of this building is
a great square plaza, of much dignity and beauty; and on its northern
side one can still recognize and admire the ruins of a palace which,
even in its broken vestiges, reveals a real magnificence. This royal
edifice also has in front of it some squares as large and spacious in
their splendor as that which has already been mentioned. Surrounding
this remarkable structure, are a vast number of foundations, which,
according to tradition, and by what is obvious by examination, were the
houses and dwellings of nobles and of the great number of _ahaguaes_,
besides those who gave their constant attention to the king. In this
quarter or ward of the nobility, there are several wide and capacious
streets, which, as the foundations indicate, ran from east to west.

“Through the middle of the site of the city, from north to south, runs a
trench a fathom and a half in depth, and its battlements of stones laid
in mortar rise more than half a fathom in height. This trench divided
the city into two parts, leaving the residences of the chiefs and nobles
on the eastern side; those of the common people to the west. The
principal street runs from the entrance of the city to the chief square
of the Temple, which is near the Palace; and from this main street
others run east and west, north and south, branching off from the main
street, having many dwellings upon them well arranged and located, and
displaying the high cultivation of the ancient rulers.

“Another broad street runs close to the main street, from the trench
mentioned, toward the east, for about a quarter of a league, ending at a
small hill which overlooks the town, on whose summit is a circular wall,
not unlike the curb of a well, about a full fathom in height. The floor
within is paved with cement, as the city streets. In the centre is
placed a socle or pedestal of a glittering substance, like glass, but of
what composition is not known.

“This circular structure was the tribunal or consistory of the
Cakchiquel Indians, where not only was public hearing given to causes,
but also the sentences were carried out. Seated around this wall, the
judges heard the pleas and pronounced sentences, in both civil and
criminal causes. After this public decision, however, there remained an
appeal for its revocation or confirmation. Three messengers were chosen
as deputies of the judges, and these went forth from the tribunal to a
deep ravine, north of the Palace, to a small but neatly fitted up chapel
or temple, where was located the oracle of the demon. This was a black
and semi-transparent stone, of a finer grade than that called _chay_
(obsidian). In its transparency, the demon revealed to them what should
be their final decision. If it was that the sentence should be
confirmed, the accused was immediately executed on the central pedestal
mentioned, which also served as a place of torture. If, on the other
hand, nothing could be seen in the transparency of the stone, the
accused was forthwith discharged. This oracle was also consulted in all
their military undertakings; and war was declared or not, as it seemed
to dictate, as is stated both by Spaniards and the oldest natives. But
in the early days of our occupation, when these facts came to the
knowledge of the Reverend Bishop Don Francisco Marroquin, of glorious
memory, he gave orders that this stone should be artistically squared,
and he consecrated it and used it as an altar stone, and at this day it
is so employed on the grand altar of the convent of _San Francisco de
Tecpan goathemala_, and it is considered a jewel of unusual beauty and
value. The size of the stone is a full half yard in each direction.

“The principal gate of this stronghold or citadel was upon the causeway
mentioned; and they say it was closed with two doors set in the solid
wall, the external one opening outward, the internal one inward, and
both were of the stone called _chay_. Thus, one of these doors backed up
against the other, as we sometimes see double doors in our prisons.
They were always guarded with double guards, one within, the other
without, and these guards were changed every seven days. In the open
country, on the other side of the ravine, there were a number of mounds,
about a quarter of a league apart, extending for a considerable
distance. On these, lookouts were constantly stationed, to give notice
of the invasions of the Quiches or of the Sotojil king.”

The site of Iximche was visited in 1840 by the eminent American
traveler, John L. Stephens. He states that its position, the steep and
profound barranca, and the plain, “warrant the description given of it
by Fuentes.” A century and a half had, however, almost erased the
vestiges of human life. “The ground was covered with mounds of ruins. In
one place we saw the foundations of two houses, one of them about one
hundred and fifty feet long by fifty feet broad.”

Mr. Stephens was also fortunate enough to see and examine the mysterious
divining stone, preserved in the church of Tecpan Guatemala. But a great
disappointment awaited him. “This oracular slab is a piece of common
slate, fourteen inches by ten, and about as thick as those used by boys
at school, without characters of any kind upon it.”[27-1]

A few years after Mr. Stephens’ visit, the government of Guatemala
appointed a commission to survey and examine these ruins. They completed
their labors successfully, but I have been unable to learn that the
results were published, although they were written out and placed in the
governmental archives.[28-1]

_Computation of Time._

I propose, in a future work, to discuss the methods of reckoning time in
use in Central America; but a brief explanation of that adopted by the
Cakchiquels is essential to a comprehension of their _Annals_.

The Cakchiquels were probably acquainted with the length of the year as
365 days; there is even some evidence that they allowed an intercalary
day every four years, by beginning the reckoning of the year one day

The beginning of their year is stated, by most authorities, to have been
on the day corresponding to our January 31st or February 1st, old style
(February 11th or 12th, new style).

The year was not divided into lunar months, as was the case with the
hunting tribes, but in a manner similar to the highly artificial and
complicated system that prevailed among the Mayas and Mexicans. This
allotted to the solar year twenty months of eighteen days each, leaving
a remainder of five days, which the Mexicans called _nemontemi_,
insufficient; the Mayas _n yail kin_, days of pain or of peril, and the
Cakchiquels _[tz]api [t]ih_, days of evil or days at fault; and which
were not included in the count of the months.[28-2]

Dates, however, were not assigned by a simple reference to days of the
month, but by days of the week; these weeks being of thirteen days each,
and including every day of the year. The week days were not named, but
numbered only.

As will be noted in the _Annals_, more importance was attached to the
day on which an occurrence took place than to the year. This is common
with untrained minds. Every citizen of the United States knows that
George Washington was born on the 22d of February; but it would puzzle a
large portion of them to be asked the year of his birth.

  _Names of the Cakchiquel Months._

     _Name._                _Signification._
   1. Tacaxepual,            Corn planting
   2. Nabey tumuzuz,         First of winged ants.
   3. Rucan tumuzuz,         Second of winged ants.
   4. Çibix,                 Smoky, or clouds.
   5. Uchum,                 Re-planting
   6. Nabey mam,             First grandson.
   7. Rucab mam,             Second grandson.
   8. Li[t]in[t]á,           Soft to the hand.
   9. Nabey to[t],           First cacao harvest.
  10. Rucab to[t],           Second cacao harvest[TN-1]
  11. Nabey pach,            First incubation.
  12. Rucab pach,            Second incubation.
  13. Tziquin [t]ih,         Bird days.
  14. Cakan,                 Red clouds.
  15. Ibota,                 Mat rolling.
  16. Katic,                 Drying up.
  17. Itzcal [t]ih,          Bad road days.
  18. Pariche,               In the woods.

To appreciate the bearing of these names, one must remember that this is
a rural calendar, in which the months were designated with reference to
farming and household incidents. Thus, the “winged ants” referred to,
are a species that appear in March and April, shortly before the first
of the rainy season; the fourth month is cloudy or misty, from the
frequent rains; the first and second grandsons refer probably to the
“suckers,” which must be plucked from the growing corn; in the eighth
month the earth is moist, and must be kept, by tillage, “soft to the
hand;” the others have obvious rural allusions, down to the last, when
the natives went “in the woods” to gather fuel. The names appear to be
all in the Cakchiquel dialect, except the first, _Tacaxepual_, the
resemblance of which to the name of the second Mexican month,
_Tlacaxipehualiztli_, is too striking to be a coincidence, and perhaps
the seventeenth, _Itzcal_, which is very like the eighteenth of the
Mexican calendar, _Izcalli_; but if borrowed from the latter, two
Cakchiquel words, of similar sound but different meaning, have been
substituted for the original by the familiar linguistic principle of
_otosis_ or paronomasia.

  _Names of the Cakchiquel Days._

     _Name._                   _Name._
   1. Imox,                 11. Batz,
   2. I[t],                 12. Ee,
   3. A[t]bal,              13. Ah,
   4. Kat,                  14. Yiz,
   5. Can,                  15. Tziquin,
   6. Camey,                16. Ahmac,
   7. Queh,                 17. Noh,
   8. Kanel,                18. Tihax,
   9. Toh,                  19. Caok,
  10. Tzii,                 20. Hunahpu,[TN-2]

The calendars in use were of two different kinds, the one called _[c]hol
[t]ih_, literally “the valuer or appraiser of days,” which was employed
exclusively for astrological and divining purposes, to decide on which
were lucky and unlucky days; and _may [t]ih_, “the revolution or
recurrence of days,” which was for chronological purposes.[31-1]

It will be noticed that in Xahila’s _Annals_, every year ends on a day
_Ah_, and that each such closing day is numerically three less than the
day _Ah_ terminating the preceding year. There are also obvious
inconsistencies in his identification of native dates with the Christian
calendar; but these, and the numerous difficult questions they suggest,
would take me too far afield to enter upon in the present introductory
paragraphs. The object of this volume is rather to furnish material for
study than to undertake the study itself.

The brief description of their reckoning of time, given by Sanchez y
Leon, may be quoted: “They divided the year into 18 months, and each
month into 20 days; but they counted only by nights, which they
mentioned as dawns (alboradas); the movements of the sun in the ecliptic
governed their calendar; they began their year forty days before ours;
they celebrated annually three great feasts, like Easters, at which
periods both sexes assembled together at night, and indulged in
drunkenness and wantonness.”[31-2]

I think in this extract the author should have said that they began
their year 40 days later than ours, as this would bring his statement
more into conformity with other writers.

_Personal and Family Names._

Among the Cakchiquels, each person bore two names; the first his
individual name, the second that of his family or _chinamitl_. This word
is pure Nahuatl, and means a place enclosed by a fence,[32-1] and
corresponds, therefore, to the Latin _herctum_, and the Saxon _ton_. As
adopted by the Cakchiquels, it meant a household or family of one
lineage and bearing one name, all of whom were really or theoretically
descended from one ancestral household. To all such was applied the term
_aca_, related or affined;[32-2] and marriage within the chinamitl was
not permitted. When a man of one chinamitl married into another, every
male in the latter became his brother-in-law, _baluc_, or son-in-law,

Each _chinamitl_ was presided over by a recognized leader, the “head of
the house,” whose title was _ah[c,]alam_, “the keeper of the
tablets,”[32-4] probably the painted records on which the genealogy of
the family and the duties of its members were inscribed.

The division of the early tribes into these numerous families was not
ancient, dating, according to tradition, from about a century and a half
before the Conquest.[32-5]

The family name was sometimes derived from a locality, sometimes from a
peculiarity, and at others from astrological motives.[33-1]

The personal name was always that of the day of birth, this being
adopted for astrological reasons. There was a fixed opinion that the
temperament and fortunes of the individual were controlled by the
supposed character of his birthday, and its name and number were
therefore prefixed to his family name. This explains the frequent
occurrence in the Cakchiquel _Annals_ of such strange appellatives as
_Belehe Queh_, nine deer; _Cay Batz_, two monkey, etc.; these being, in
fact, the days of the year on which the bearers were born. They should
be read, “the 9th Queh,” “the 2d Batz,” etc.

_Tribal Subdivisions._

The _chinamitl_ appears to have been the sub-gens. Besides it, there are
other words frequently recurring in the _Annals_ referring to divisions
of the community, _hay_, home or household; _[c]hob_, sept or division;
and _ama[t]_ tribe or city.

The first of these, _hay_, appears to be a general term applied to a
community, without necessarily implying relationship. An Indian, asked
where he is from, will answer _in ah-hay vae_, “I am of this place,”
referring to his village. Yet it is evident that in early times, all of
one village were considered to be related. The word _hay_,
moroever,[TN-3] does not signify a house as an edifice. In that sense
the proper term is _ochoch_.

The frequent references by Xahila to the seven tribes, or rather the
seven cities, _vuk ama[t]_, and the thirteen divisions or provinces,
_oxlahuh [c]hob_, are not explained in the course of the narrative.
These numbers retained sacred associations, as they were adopted later
to assign the days of worship of their divinity (see Sec. 44). Brasseur
is of opinion that the thirteen divisions refer to the Pokomams,[34-1]
but that such a subdivision obtained among the Cakchiquels as well, is
evident from many parts of their _Annals_. The same division also
prevailed, from remote times, among the Quiches,[34-2] and hence was
probably in use among all these tribes. It may have had some
superstitious connection with the thirteen days of their week. The
_[c]hob_ may be regarded as the original gens of the tribe, and the
similarity of this word to the radical syllable of the Nahuatl
_calp-ulli_, may not be accidental. I have elsewhere spoken of the
singular frequency with which we hear of seven ancestors, cities, caves,
etc., in the most ancient legends of the American race.[34-3]

_Terms of Affinity and Salutation._

In the Cakchiquel grammar which I edited, I have given a tolerably full
list of the terms of consanguinity and affinity in the tongue (pp. 28,
29). But it is essential to the correct understanding of the text in
this volume, to recognize the fact that many such terms in Cakchiquel
are, in the majority of cases, terms of salutation only, and do not
express actual relationship.

Examples of this are the words _tata_, father, used by women to all
adult males; and _tee_, mother, employed by both sexes in addressing
adult women. In Xahila’s writings, we constantly find the words _nimal_,
elder brother, and _cha[t]_, younger brother, inserted merely as
friendly epithets. The term _mama_, grandfather, almost always means
simply “ancestor,” or, indeed, any member of an anterior generation
beyond the first degree. This word must not be confounded with _mam_ (an
error occurring repeatedly in Brasseur’s writings), as the latter means
“grandchild;” and according to Father Coto, it may be applied by a
grandparent of either sex to a grandchild of either sex.

_Titles and Social Castes._

There are a number of terms of frequent recurrence in Xahila’s text,
expressing the different offices in the government, rank in social life
and castes of the population, which offer peculiar difficulty to the
translator, because we have no corresponding expressions in European
tongues; while to retain them in the version, renders it less
intelligible, and even somewhat repulsive to the reader. I have thought
it best, generally, to give these terms an approximate English rendering
in my translation, while in the present section I submit them to a
critical examination.

The ordinary term for chief or ruler, in both the Cakchiquel and Maya
dialects, is _ahau_. Probably this is a compound of _ah_, a common
prefix in these tongues, originally signifying _person_, and hence, when
attached to a verb, conveying the notion of one accustomed to exercise
the action indicated; to a noun of place, a resident there; and to a
common noun, a worker in or owner of the article; and _u_, a collar,
especially an ornamental collar, here intended as a badge of authority.
_Ahau_ is, therefore, “the wearer of the collar;” and by this
distinction equivalent to chief, ruler, captain, lord, king, or emperor,
by all which words it is rendered in the lexicons. It is not a special
title, but a general term.

Scarcely less frequent is the term _ahpop_. This is a compound of the
same prefix _ah_, with the word _pop_, which means a mat. To sit upon
such a mat was a privilege of nobility, and of such dignitaries as were
entitled to be present at the national council; _ahpop_, therefore, may
be considered as equivalent to the German title _Rath_, counsellor, and
appears to have been used much in the same conventional manner. In the
Cakchiquel lexicons, _popoh_ is “to hold a council;” _popol_, a council;
_popoltzih_, “to speak in council,” etc. All these are derived from the
word _pop_, mat; from the mats on which the councillors sat during their

Personages of the highest rank, of the “blood royal,” combined these
titles. They were _ahau ahpop_, “lords of the council.” Uniting the
latter title to the family names of the ruling house, the chief ruler
was known as _Ahpo’ Zotzil_, and the second in rank and heir-apparent,
as _Ahpo’ Xahil_. The oldest son of the former bore the title
_Ahpop-[c]amahay_, which is translated by the best authorities
“messenger of the council,” and ordinarily was applied to an official
who communicated the decisions of the councils of one village to that
of another.[37-1] Another title, mentioned by Xahila, is _ahpop-achi_,
the last word means man, _vir_.

A third article, which distinguished the higher classes, was the seat or
stool on which they sat during solemn ceremonies. This was called
_[t]aalibal_, an instrumental noun from the verb _[t]al_, to be visible
or prominent, persons so seated being elevated above, and thus
distinguished from others, from this the verbal form, _[t]alel_, was
derived, meaning “he who is prominent,” etc., or, more freely,
“illustrious,” “distinguished.”[37-2] The title _ahpop [t]alel_ meant,
therefore, originally “he who is entitled to a mat and a stool,” that
is, in the council chamber of his town.

Another official connected with the council was the orator appointed to
bring before it the business of the day. His title was _ah uchan_, from
_ucheex_, to speak, and it is translated by Spanish writers, the
“rhetorician, orator.”[37-3] A similar personage, the _ah tzih vinak_,
“the man of words,”[37-4] was in attendance on the king, and,
apparently, was the official mouth-piece of the royal will. Still a
third, known as the _lol-may_, which apparently means “silence-breaker,”
was, according to the dictionaries, “an envoy dispatched by the rulers
to transact business or to collect tributes.”[38-1]

Very nearly or quite the same organization prevailed in the courts of
Quiche and Atitlan. The chiefs of the latter province forwarded, in
1571, a petition to Philip II, in which they gave some interesting
particulars of their former government. They say: “The supreme ruler was
called _Atziquinihai_, and the chiefs who shared the authority with him,
_Amac Tzutuhil_. These latter were sovereigns, and acknowledged no
superiors.... The sovereign, or king, did not recognize any authority
above himself. The persons or officers who attended at his court were
called _Lolmay_, _Atzivinac_, _Galel_, _Ah-uchan_. They were factors,
auditors and treasurers. Our titles correspond to yours.”[38-2]

The name here applied to the ruler of the Tzutuhils, _Atziquinahay_,
recurs in Xahila’s _Annals_. It was his family name, and in its proper
form, _Ah [c,]iquin-i-hay_, means “he who is a member of the bird
family;”[38-3] the bird being the totemic symbol of the ruling house.

While the nobles were distinguished by titles such as these, the mass of
the people were divided into well defined classes or castes. The
warriors were called _ah-labal_, from _labal_, war; and they were
distinguished from the general male population, who were known as
_achi_, men, _viri_. These were independent freemen, engaged in peaceful
avocations, but, of course, ready to take up arms on occasion. They were
broadly distinguished from the tributaries, called _ah-patan_; the
latter word meaning tax or tribute; and still more sharply from the
slaves, known as _vinakitz_, “mean men,” or by the still more
significant word _mun_, hungry (Guzman, _Compendio_). The less
cultivated tribes speaking other tongues, adjoining the Cakchiquels,
were promiscuously stigmatized with the name _chicop_, brutes or beasts.

A well developed system of tribute seems to have prevailed, and it is
often referred to by Xahila. The articles delivered to the collectors
were gold, silver, plain and worked, feathers, cacao, engraved stones,
and what appear as singular, garlands (_[c]ubul_) and songs, painted
apparently on skins or paper.

_Religious Notions._

The deities worshiped by these nations, the meaning and origin of their
titles, and the myths connected with them, have been the subject of an
examination by me in an earlier work.[39-1] Here, therefore, it will be
needless to repeat what I have there said, further than to add a few
remarks explanatory of the Cakchiquel religion in particular.

According to the _Popol Vuh_, “the chief god of the Cakchiquels was
_Chamalcan_, and his image was a bat.”[40-1] Brasseur endeavored to
trace this to a Nahuatl etymology,[40-2] but there is little doubt it
refers, as do so many of the Cakchiquel proper names, to their calendar.
_Can_ is the fifth day of their week, and its sign was a serpent;[40-3]
_chamal_ is a slightly abbreviated form of _chaomal_, which the lexicons
translate “beauty” and “fruitfulness,” connected with _chaomar_, to
yield abundantly. He was the serpent god of fruitfulness, and by this
type suggests relations to the lightning and the showers. The bat,
_Zotz_, was the totem of the Zotzils, the ruling family of the
Cakchiquels; and from the extract quoted, they seem to have set it up as
the image of Chamalcan.

The generic term for their divinities, employed by Xahila, and also
frequently in the _Popol Vuh_, is _[c]abuyl_, which I have elsewhere
derived from the Maya _chab_, to create, to form. It is closely allied
to the epithets applied in both works to the Deity, _[c,]akol_, the
maker, especially he who makes something from earth or clay; _bitol_,
the former, or fashioner; _[c]aholom_, the begetter of sons; _alom_, the
bearer of children; these latter words intimating the bi-sexual nature
of the principal divinity, as we also find in the Aztec mythology and
elsewhere. The name _[c]axto[c]_, the liar, from the verb
_[c]axto[c]oh_, to lie, also frequently used by Xahila with reference to
the chief god of his nation in its heathendom, may possibly have arisen
after their conversion to Christianity; but from the coincidence that
the Algonkin tribes constantly applied such seemingly opprobrious terms
to their principal deity, it may have arisen from a similar cycle of
myths as did theirs.[41-1]

There are references in Xahila’s _Annals_ to the Quiche deities,
Exbalanquen, Cabrakan, Hunahpu, and Tohil, but they do not seem to have
occupied any prominent place in Cakchiquel mythology. Several minor gods
are named, as _Belehe Toh_, nine Toh, and _Hun Tihax_, one Tihax; these
appellations are taken from the calendar.

Father Pantaleon de Guzman furnishes the names of various inferior
deities, which serve to throw light on the Cakchiquel religion. Four of
these appear to be gods of diseases, _Ahal puh_, _Ahal te[t]ob_, _Ahal
xic_, and _Ahál [t]anya_; at least three of these second words are also
the designations of maladies, and _ahal_ is probably a mistake of the
copyist for _ahau_, lord. As the gods of the abode of the dead, he names
_Tatan bak_ and _Tatan holom_, Father Bones and Father Skull.

Another series of appellations which Guzman gives as of Cakchiquel gods,
show distinctly the influence of Nahuatl doctrines. There are _Mictan
ahauh_, lord of Mictlan, this being the name of the abode of darkness,
in Aztec mythology; _Caueztan ahauh_, probably _Coatlan_, lord of the
abode of serpents; _Tzitzimil_, the _tzitzimime_ of the Aztecs; and
_Colele_, probably _colotl_, the scorpion, or _tecolotl_, the owl,
which latter, under the name _tucur_, is also mentioned by Xahila.[42-1]

Father Coto refers to some of their deities of the woods and streams.
One of these, the Man of the Woods, is famous throughout Yucatan and
most of Central America. The Spaniards call him _Salonge_, the Mayas
_Che Vinic_, and the Cakchiquels _ru vinakil chee_; both these latter
meaning “the woods man.” What gives this phantom especial interest in
this connection is, that Father Coto identifies the woodsman with the
_Zaki[c]oxol_, the white fire maker, encountered by the Cakchiquels in
Xahila’s narrative (Sec. 21).[42-2] I have narrated the curious
folk-lore about the woodsman in another publication, and need not repeat
it here.[42-3] His second name, the White Fire Maker, perhaps refers to
the “light wood” or phosphorescence about damp and decaying trees.

To the water-sprites, the Undines of their native streams, they gave the
name _xulu_, water-flies, or _ru vinakil ya_, the water people.

As their household gods, they formed little idols of the ashes from the
funeral pyres of their great men, kneading them with clay. To these they
gave the name _vinak_, men or beings (Coto).

Representations of these divinities were carved in wood and stone, and
the words _chee abah_, “wood and stone,” usually mean, when they appear
together in Xahila’s narrative, “idols or images in wood and stone.”

The Stone God, indeed, is a prominent figure in their mythology, as it
was in their daily life. This was the sacred _Chay Abah_, the Obsidian
Stone, which was the oracle of their nation, and which revealed the will
of the gods on all important civil and military questions. To this day,
their relatives, the Mayas of Yucatan, attach implicit faith to the
revelations of the _zaztun_, the divining stone kept by their sorcerers,
and if it decrees the death of any one, they will despatch him with
their machetes, without the slightest hesitation.[43-1] The belief was
cherished by the rulers and priests, as they alone possessed the power
to gaze on the polished surface of the sacred block of obsidian, and
read thereupon the invisible decrees of divinity. (See above, p. 25).

As the stone came from the earth, it was said to have been derived from
the under world, from _Xibalbay_, literally the unseen or invisible
place, the populous realm in Quiche myth, visited and conquered by their
culture hero, Xbalanque. Hence in Cakchiquel tale, the Chay Abah
represented the principle of life, as well as the source of

The Cakchiquel _Annals_ do not pretend to deal with mythology, but from
various references and fragments inserted as history, it is plain that
they shared the same sacred legends as the Quiches, which were, in all
probability, under slightly different forms, the common property of the
Maya race. They all indicate loans from the Aztec mythology. In the
Cakchiquel _Annals_, as in the _Popol Vuh_ and the _Maya Chronicles_, we
hear of the city of the sun god, _Tulan_ or _Tonatlan_, as the place of
their origin, of the land _Zuiva_ and of the _Nonoalcos_, names
belonging to the oldest cycles of myths in the religion of the Aztecs.
In the first volume of this series I have discussed their appearance in
the legends of Central America,[44-1] and need not refer to them here
more than to say that those who have founded on these names theories of
the derivation of the Maya tribes or their ruling families from the
Toltecs, a purely imaginary people, have perpetrated the common error of
mistaking myth for history. It is this error that renders valueless much
that the Abbé Brasseur, M. Charnay and others of the French school, have
written on this subject.

Xahila gives an interesting description of some of their ancient rites
(Sec. 44). Their sacred days were the 7th and 13th of each week. White
resin was burned as incense, and green branches with the bark of
evergreen trees were brought to the temple, and burned before the idol,
together with a small animal, which he calls a cat, “as the image of
night;” but our domestic cat was unknown to them, and what animal was
originally meant by the word _mez_, I do not know.

He mentions that the priests and nobles drew blood with the spines of
the gourd tree and maguey, and elsewhere (Sec. 37) refers to the
sacrifice of infants at a certain festival. The word for the sacrificial
letting of blood was _[c,]ohb_, which, by some of the missionaries, was
claimed as the root of the word _[c]abuil_, deity.

Human sacrifice was undoubtedly frequent, although the reverse has been
asserted by various historians.[45-1] Father Varea gives some curious
particulars. The victim was immolated by fire, the proper word being
_[c]atoh_, to burn, and then cut in pieces and eaten. When it was, as
usual, a male captive, the genital organs were given to one of the old
women who were prophetesses, to be eaten by her, as a reward for her
supplications for their future success in battle.[45-2] The cutting in
pieces of Tol[c]om, in the narrative of Xahila, has reference to such a

Sanchez y Leon states that the most usual sacrifice was a child. The
heart was taken out, and the blood was sprinkled toward the four
cardinal points as an act of adoration to the four winds, copal being
burned at the same time, as an incense.[45-3]

A leading feature in their ceremonial worship was the sacred dance, or,
as the Spanish writers call it, _el baile_. The native name for it is
_xahoh_, and it is repeatedly referred to in the _Annals_. The legendary
origin of some of these dances, indeed, constitute a marked feature in
its narratives. They are mentioned by the missionaries as the favorite
pastime of the Indians; and as it was impossible to do away with them
altogether, they contented themselves with suppressing their most
objectionable features, drunkenness and debauchery, and changed them, at
least in name, from ceremonies in honor of some heathen god, to some
saint in the Roman calendar. In some of these, vast numbers of
assistants took part, as is mentioned by Xahila (Sec. 32).

Magic and divination held a very important place in Cakchiquel
superstition, as the numerous words bearing upon them testify. The form
of belief common to them and their neighbors, has received the name
_Nagualism_, from the Maya root _na_, meaning to use the senses. I have
traced its derivation and extension elsewhere,[46-1] and in this
connection will only observe that the narrative of Xahila, in repeated
passages, proves how deeply it was rooted in the Cakchiquel mind. The
expression _ru puz ru naval_, should generally be rendered “his magic
power, his sorcery,” though it has a number of allied significations.
_Naval_ as a noun means magician, _naval chee_, _naval abah_, the spirit
of the tree, of the stone, or the divinity embodied in the idols of
these substances.

Another root from which a series of such words were derived, was _hal_,
to change. The power of changing or metamorphosing themselves into
tigers, serpents, birds, globes of fire, etc., was claimed by the
sorcerers, and is several times mentioned in the following texts. Hence
the sorcerer was called _haleb_, the power he possessed to effect such
transformations _halibal_, the change effected _halibeh_, etc.

Their remarkable subjection to these superstitions is illustrated by the
word _lab_, which means both to divine the future and to make war,
because, says Ximenez, “they practiced divination in order to decide
whether they should make war or not.”[47-1]

These auguries were derived frequently from the flight and call of birds
(as in the _Annals_, Secs. 13, 14, etc.), but also from other sources.
The diviner who foretold by grains of maize, bore the title _malol
ixim_, the anointer or consecrator of maize (_Dicc. Anon_[TN-4]).

The priesthood was represented by two high priests, elected for life by
the ruler and council. The one who had especial custody of religious
affairs wore a flowing robe, a circlet or diadem on his head ornamented
with feathers, and carried in his hand a rod, or wand. On solemn
occasions he publicly sacrificed blood from his ears, tongue, and
genital organ.

His associate was the custodian and interpreter of the sacred books,
their calendars and myths, and decided on lucky and unlucky days, omens
and prognostics.

In addition to these, there were certain old men, of austere life, who
dwelt in the temples, and wore their hair in plaited strands around
their heads (_trenzado en circulo_), who were consulted on ordinary
occasions as diviners.[47-2]

The funeral rites of the Cakchiquels have been related at considerable
length by Fuentes, from original documents in the Pokoman[TN-5]
dialect.[48-1] The body was laid in state for two days, after which it
was placed in a large jar and interred, a mound being erected over the
remains. On the mound a statue of the deceased was placed, and the spot
was regarded as sacred. Father Coto gives somewhat the same account,
adding that these mounds were constructed either of stone or of the
adjacent soil, and were called _cakhay_ or _cubucak_.[48-2] He
positively asserts that human sacrifices accompanied the interments of
chiefs, which is denied by Fuentes, except among the Quiches. These
companions for the deceased chief on his journey to the land of souls,
were burned on his funeral pyre. A large store of charcoal was buried
with the corpse, as that was supposed to be an article of which he would
have special use on his way. Sanchez y Leon mentions that the high
priest was buried in his house, clothed and seated upon his chair. The
funeral ceremonies, in his case, lasted fifteen days.[48-3]

_The Cakchiquel Language._

The Cakchiquel tongue was reduced to writing by the Spanish
missionaries, and therefore, in this work, as in all the MSS, the
following letters are used with their Spanish values,--a, b, c, ch, ç,
e, i, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, t, y.

The following are not employed:--

d, f, g, j, s, ñ, z.

The following are introduced, but with sounds differing from the

_h._ This is always a decided rough breathing or forcible expiration,
like the Spanish j, or the strong English h; except when it follows c or
[c], when it is pronounced as in the Spanish, _cha_, _che_, etc.

_k._ This has never the sound of c, but is a rough palatal, the mouth
being opened, and the tongue placed midway, between the upper and lower
walls of the oral cavity, while the sound is forcibly expelled.

_v._ This letter, whether as a consonant (_v_) or a vowel (_u_), is
pronounced separately, except when it is doubled, as in _vuh_ (_uuh_),
book or paper, when the double vowel is very closely akin to the English

_x._ In Cakchiquel and its associated dialects, this letter represents
the sound of _sh_ in the English words _she_, _shove_, etc.

Besides the above, there are five sounds occurring in the Cakchiquel,
Quiche and Tzutuhil, for which five special characters were invented, or
rather adopted, by the early missionary Francisco de la Parra, who died
in Guatemala, in 1560. They are the following:--

  [c,]   [c,]h   [c]   [t]   [tz]

The origin and phonetic value of these, as given by the grammarian
Torresano, are as follows:[49-1]--

[t] This is called the _tresillo_, from its shape, it being an old form
of the figure three, reversed, thus, [Illustration: Reversed 3]. It is
the only true guttural in the language, being pronounced forcibly from
the throat, with a trilling sound (_castañeteando_).

[c] From its shape this is called the _cuatrillo_, Parra having adopted
for it an old form of the figure 4. It is a trilled palatal, between a
hard _c_ and _k_.

[c,] The name applied to this is, the _cuatrillo con coma_, or the 4
with a comma. It is pronounced somewhat like the _c_ with the cedilla,
ç, only more quickly and with greater force--_ds_ or _dz_.

[tz] This resembles the “4 with a comma,” but is described as softer,
the tongue being brought into contact with the teeth, exactly as _tz_ in

[c,]h A compound sound produced by combining the cuatrillo with a
forcible aspirate, is represented by this sign.

Naturally, no description in words can convey a correct notion of these
sounds. To learn them, one must hear them spoken by those to the

Dr. Otto Stoll, who recently made a careful study of the Cakchiquel when
in Guatemala, says of Parra’s characters:--

“The four new signs added to the European alphabet, by some of the old
writers on Cakchiquel (Parra, Flores), viz: [t], [c], [c,], [c]h, are
but phonetic modifications of four corresponding signs of the common
alphabet. So we get four pairs of sounds, namely:--

   c and [c];
   k and [t]
  ch and [c]h
  tz and [c,]

forming two series of consonants, the former of which represents the
common letters, and the latter their respective “cut letters,” which may
be described as being pronounced with a shorter and more explosive sound
than the corresponding common letter, and separated by a short pause
from the preceding or following vowel.”[51-1]

The late Dr. Berendt illustrated the phonetic value of such “cut”
letters, by the example of two English words where the same letter
terminates one word and begins the next, and each is clearly but rapidly
pronounced, thus, the [t] is pronounced like two gutteral[TN-6] _ks_ in
“brea_k_ _k_ettle;” the [c] like the two _cs_ in “magic candle,”[TN-7]

There would appear to have been other “cut” letters in the old dialects
of Cakchiquel, as in Guzman we find the _pp_ and _thth_, as in the Maya,
but later writers dropped them.

I may dispense with a discussion of the literature of the Cakchiquel
language, having treated that subject so lately as last year, in the
introduction to the _Grammar of the Cakchiquel_, which I then translated
and edited for the American Philosophical Society. As will be seen by
reference to that work, it is quite extensive, and much of it has been
preserved. I have examined seven dictionaries of the tongue, all quite
comprehensive; manuscript copies of all are in the United States. None
of these, however, has been published; and we must look forward to the
dictionary now preparing by Dr. Stoll, of Zurich, as probably the first
to see the light.

The Maya race, in nearly all its branches, showed its intellectual
superiority by the eagerness with which it turned to literary pursuits,
as soon as some of its members had learned the alphabet. I have brought
forward some striking testimony to this in Yucatan,[52-1] and there is
even more in Central America. The old historians frequently refer to the
histories of their own nations, written out by members of the Quiche,
Cakchiquel, Pokomam and Tzendal tribes. Vasquez, Fuentes and Juarros
quote them frequently, and with respect. They were composed in the
aboriginal tongues, for the benefit of their fellow townsmen, and as
they were never printed, most of them became lost, much to the regret of

Of those preserved, the _Popol Vuh_ or National Book of the Quiches, and
the _Annals_ of the Cakchiquels, the latter published for the first time
in this volume, are the most important known.

The former, the “Sacred Book” of the Quiches, a document of the highest
merits, and which will certainly increase in importance as it is
studied, was printed at Paris in 1861, with a translation into French by
the Abbé Brasseur (de Bourbourg). He made use only of the types of the
Latin alphabet; and both in this respect and in the fidelity of his
translation, he has left much to be desired in the presentation of the

The recent publication of the _Grammar_ also relieves me from the
necessity of saying much about the structure of the Cakchiquel language.
Those who wish to acquaint themselves with it, and follow the
translation given in this volume by comparing the original text, will
need to procure all the information contained in the _Grammar_. It will
be sufficient to say here that the tongue is one built up with admirable
regularity on radicals of one or two syllables. The perfection and
logical sequence of its verbal forms have excited the wonder and
applause of some of the most eminent linguists, and are considered by
them to testify to remarkable native powers of mind.[53-1]

_The Annals of Xahila._

The MS. from which I print the _Annals of the Cakchiquels_, is a folio
of 48 leaves, closely written on both sides in a very clear and regular
hand, with indigo ink. It is incomplete, the last page closing in the
middle of a sentence.

What is known of the history of this manuscript, is told us by Don Juan
Gavarrete, who, for many years, was almost the only native of Guatemala
interested in the early history of his country. He tells us in his
introduction to his translation of it, soon to be mentioned, that in
1844 he was commissioned to arrange the archives of the Convent of San
Francisco of Guatemala, by order of the Archbishop Don Francisco Garcia
Pelaez. Among the MSS. of the archives he found these sheets, written
entirely in Cakchiquel, except a few marginal glosses in Spanish, in a
later hand, and in ordinary ink. The document was submitted to several
persons acquainted with the Cakchiquel language, who gave a general
statement of its contents, but not a literal and complete

When, in 1855, the Abbé Brasseur (de Bourbourg) visited Guatemala, Señor
Gavarrete showed him this MS., and the Abbé borrowed it for the purpose
of making a full version, doubtless availing himself of the partial
translations previously furnished. His version completed, he left a copy
of it with Señor Gavarrete, and brought the original with him to
Europe.[54-2] It remained in his possession until his death at Nice,
when, along with the rest of the Abbé’s library, it passed into the
hands of M. Alphonse Pinart. This eminent ethnologist learning my desire
to include it in the present series of publications, was obliging enough
to offer me the opportunity of studying it.

Previous to its discovery in Guatemala, in 1844, we have no record of it
whatsoever, and must turn to the document itself for information.

The title given it by Brasseur, and adopted by Gavarrete, _Memorial de
Tecpan Atitlan_, was purely factitious, and, moreover, is misleading. It
was, indeed, written at the town of Tzolola or Atitlan, on the lake of
that name, the chief city of the Tzutuhils; but its authors were
Cakchiquels; its chief theme is the history of their tribe, and it is
only by the accident of their removal to Atitlan, years after the
Conquest, that its composition occurred there. I have, therefore,
adopted for it, or at least that portion of it which I print, the much
more appropriate name, _The Annals of the Cakchiquels_.

I say “for that portion of it,” because I print but 48 out of the 96
pages of the original. These contain, however, all that is of general
interest; all that pertains to the ancient history of the nation. The
remainder is made up of an uninteresting record of village and family
incidents, and of a catalogue of births, baptisms and marriages. The
beginning of the text as printed in this volume, starts abruptly in the
MS. after seventeen pages of such trivialities, and has no separate
title or heading.

The caption of the first page of the MS. explains the purpose of this
miscellaneous collection of family documents. That caption is

  [Illustration: Cross]



The word _memoria_ is the Spanish for a record, memoir or brief, and the
Cakchiquel _[c]haoh_, originally contention, revolt, was, after the
Conquest, the technical term for a legal process or lawsuit. These
papers, therefore, form part of the record in one of those interminable
legal cases in which the Spanish law delighted. The plaintiffs in the
case seem to have been the Xahila family, who brought the action to
recover some of their ancient possessions or privileges, as one of the
two ruling families of the Cakchiquel nation; and in order to establish
this point, they filed in their plea the full history of their tribe and
genealogy of their family, so far as was known to them by tradition or
written record. It belongs to the class of legal instruments, called in
Spanish law _Titulos_, family titles. A number of such, setting forth
the descent and rights of the native princes in Central America, are in
existence, as the _Titulo de Totonicapan_, etc.

The date of the present rescript is not accurately fixed. As it includes
the years 1619-20, it must have been later than those dates. From the
character of the paper and writing, I should place it somewhere between
1620 and 1650.

In his _Advertencia_ to his translation of it, Señor Gavarrete asserts
that the document is in the handwriting of one of the native authors.
This is not my opinion. It is in the small, regular, perfectly legible
hand of a professional scribe, a notarial clerk, no doubt, thoroughly at
home in the Cakchiquel language, and trained in the phonetic characters,
introduced with such success by Father Parra, as I have already
mentioned. The centre lines and catch-words are in large, clear letters,
so as to attract the eye of the barrister, as






The document is made up of the depositions and statements of a number of
members of the Xahila family, but that around which the chief interest
centres, and that which alone is printed in this volume, is the history
of his nation as written out by one of them who had already reached
adult years, at the epoch of the first arrival of the Spaniards, in
1524. Unfortunately, his simple-hearted modesty led him to make few
personal allusions, and we can glean little information about his own
history. The writer first names himself, in the year 1582, where he
speaks of “me, Francisco Ernantez Arana.”[57-1] The greater part of the
manuscript, however, was composed many years before this. Its author
says that his grandfather, the king Hun Yg, and his father, Balam, both
died in 1521, and his own marriage took place in 1522. As it was the
custom of his nation to marry young, he was probably, at the time, not
over 15 years of age.[57-2]

That Francisco Ernantez was not the author of the first part of the
document seems evident. Under the year 1560 occurs the following

“Twenty days before the Feast of the Nativity my mother died; soon
after, my late father was carried off (xchaptah) while they were burying
my mother; my father took medicine but once before we buried him. The
pest continued to rage for seven days after Easter; my mother, my
father, my brother and my sister died this year.”

It could not, of course, be the son of Balam, who died in 1521, who
wrote this.

Under 1563 the writer mentions:--

“At this time my second son Raphael was born, at the close of the fourth
year of the fourth cycle after the revolt.”

The last entry which contains the characteristic words _ixnu[c]ahol_,
“you my children,” occurs in the year 1559, and is the last given in my
translation. My belief is that the document I give was written by the
father of Francisco Ernantez Xahila. The latter continued it from 1560
to 1583, when it was taken up by Francisco Diaz, and later by other
members of the Xahila family.

The Abbé Brasseur was of the opinion that these _Annals_ carry the
record of the nation back to the beginning of the eleventh century, at
least. A close examination of the account shows that this is not the
case. Gagavitz, the earliest ruler of the nation, can easily be traced
as the ancestor in the eighth remove, of the author. The genealogy is as

1. Gagavitz, “he who came from Tulan.”

2. His son, Cay Noh, who succeeded him.

3. Citan Qatu, son of Cay Noh, who also ruled.

4. His son, Citan Tihax Cablah, who does not seem to have enjoyed the
leadership. It was regained by

5. His son, Vukubatz, by the aid of the Quiche king, Quikab.[TN-8]

6. Oxlahuh Tzii, eldest son of Vukubatz, died A. D., 1509.

7. Succeeded by his eldest son, Hun Yg, who died, together with his
eldest son Balam, the father of the author, in the year 1521.

Allowing to these seven who outlived their parents an average survival
of twenty years, we are carried back to about the year 1380, as that on
which the migration, headed by Gagavitz, began its wanderings, little
more, therefore, than the length of two lives as protracted as that of
the author himself. This result is that generally obtained by a careful
scrutiny of American traditions. They very rarely are so far-reaching as
has usually been supposed. Anything spoken of as more than three or four
generations distant, may safely be assumed as belonging to myth, and not
to history.

It was the expressed intention of the Abbé Brasseur to edit the original
text with his translation, but this he did not live to accomplish. He
incorporated numerous extracts from it in his _Histoire des Nations
Civilisées du Mexique et de l’Amerique Centrale_, and added a few
paragraphs in the original at the end of the first volume of that work;
but these did not give much idea of the document as a whole.

When, with the aid of the previous partial translations and the
assistance of some intelligent natives, he had completed a version into
French, of that portion composed by the first two writers he gave a copy
of it to Don Juan Gavarrete. This antiquary translated it into Spanish,
and published it serially, in the _Boletin de la Sociedad Economica de
Guatemala_, beginning with No. 29, September, 1873, and continuing to
No. 43. Copies of this publication are, however, so scarce that I have
been unable to learn of a complete file, even in Guatemala. The
dissolution of the Sociedad Economica by order of the late President
Barrios, scattered the copies in its own archives.

_Synopsis of the Annals of Xahila._

The work opens with a statement that the writer intends to record the
ancient traditions of his tribe, as handed down from their early heroes,
Gagavitz and Zactecauh. He begins with a brief genealogical table of the
four sub-tribes of the Cakchiquels (Secs. 1-3), and then relates their
notions of the creation of man at one of the mythical cities of Tulan,
in the distant west (4, 5). Having been subjected to onerous burdens in
Tulan, they determine to leave it, and are advised to go by their
oracles (6-14).

They cross the sea, proceeding toward the east, and arrive at a land
inhabited by the Nonoualcats, an Aztec people (15-17). Their first
action is formally to choose Gagavitz and Zactecauh as their joint
rulers (18-19), and under their leadership they proceed to attack the
Nonoualcats. After a severe conflict the Cakchiquels are defeated, and
are obliged to seek safety in further wanderings. At length they reach
localities in Guatemala (20). At this point an episode is introduced of
their encounter with the spirit of the forests, Zakiqoxol (21, 22).

They meet with various nations, some speaking a totally different
language; others, as the Mams and Pokomams, dialects of their own. With
the last mentioned they have serious conflicts (23-29). During one of
their journeys, Zactecauh is killed by falling down a ravine (30). An
episode here relates the traditional origin of one of their festivals,
that in honor of Gagxanul, “the uncoverer of the fire” (31, 32).

Their first arrival at Lake Atitlan is noted (33), and the war that they
waged with the Ikomags (34). Here an episode describes the traditional
origin of the festival of Tolgom (35-37). A peaceful division of the
lake with the Tzutuhils is effected, and marriages take place between
the tribes (38).

The Cakchiquels, Quiches and Akahals now settle permanently in their
towns, and develop their civilization (39, 40). They meet with numerous
hardships, as well as internal dissensions, the chief Baqahol at one
time obtaining the leadership. They succeed in establishing, however,
family life and a fixed religious worship, though in almost constant war
with their neighbors (41-46).

Gagavitz, “he who came from Tulan,” dies, and is followed by Cay Noh and
Cay Batz (47). These acknowledge the supremacy of Tepeuh, the king of
the Quiches, and are sent out by him to collect tribute from the various
tribes. They are seduced and robbed by the Tzutuhils, and conceal
themselves in a cave, out of fear of Tepeuh. He forgives them, however,
and they continue in power until their death (49-59).

After this, a period of strife follows, and the names of four successive
rulers are mentioned, but none of the occurrences of their reigns

The narrative is resumed when Qikab, king of the Quiches, orders the
Cakchiquels to settle at the town of Chiavar. He appoints, as their
rulers, the warriors Huntoh and Vukubatz. A revolt agains[TN-9] Qikab,
headed by his two sons, results in his defeat and death (67-81). During
this revolt, a contest between the Cakchiquels takes place, the close of
which finds the latter established in their final stronghold, the famous
fortress of “Iximche on the Ratzamut” (82-85).

At the death of Huntoh and Vukubatz, they are succeeded by Lahuh Ah and
Oxlahuh Tzii, who carry on various wars, and especially defeat the
Quiches in a general engagement, which is vividly described (86-93).
They also conquer the Akahals, killing their king Ichal, and the
Tzutuhils, with their king Caoke (94-98).

During their reign, a sanguinary insurrection occurred in Iximche, of
such importance that the author adopts its date as the era from which to
reckon all subsequent events (99-104). This date corresponded to the
year 1496, A. D.(?)

The following years are marked by a series of unimportant wars, the
outbreak of a destructive pestilence, and finally, in 1524, twenty-eight
years after the Insurrection, by the arrival of the Spanish forces under
Alvarado (105-144).

The later pages are taken up with an account of the struggles between
the natives and the whites, until the latter had finally established
their supremacy.

_Remarks on the Printed Text._

In printing the MS. of Xahila, I have encountered certain difficulties
which have been only partially surmounted. As the Cakchiquel, though a
written, is not a printed tongue, there has no rule been established as
to the separation of verbs and their pronominal subjects, of nouns and
their possessive pronouns, of the elements of compound particles, of
tense and mode signs, etc. In the MSS. the utmost laxity prevails in
these respects, and they seem not to have been settled points in the
orthography of the tongue. The frequent elisions and euphonic
alterations observable in these compounds, prove that to the native mind
they bore the value of a single word, as we are aware they did from a
study of the structure of this class of languages. I have, therefore,
felt myself free to exercise in the printed page nearly the same freedom
which I find in the MS. At first, this will prove somewhat puzzling to
the student of the original, but in a little while he will come to
recognize the radical from its augment without difficulty.

Another trouble has been the punctuation. In the original this consists
principally of dashes and commas, often quite capriciously distributed.
Here also, I have been lax in reducing the text to the requirements of
modern standards, and have left much latitude to the reader to arrange
it for himself.

Capital letters are not often used in the original to distinguish proper
names, and as the text has been set up from a close copy of the first
text, some irregularities in this respect also must be anticipated.

The paragraphs numbered in the text are distinctly marked in the
original, but are not numbered there. The numerals have been added for
convenience of reference.


[10-1] Dr. Otto Stoll, _Zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala_, p. 157
(Zurich, 1884), on the phonetic laws which have controlled the
divergence of the two tongues, Cakchiquel and Maya. See the same writer
in his “Supplementary Remarks on a Grammar of the Cakchiquel Language,”
translated by Dr. D. G. Brinton, in _Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society_, for 1885.

[10-2] _Recordacion Florida, Discurso Historial, Natural, Material,
Militar y Politico del Reino de Goathemala._ Lib. II, Chap. I.

[10-3] _Myths of the New World_, p. 181; _American Hero-Myths_, pp. 44,
73, 80, 162, etc.

[11-1] “Cuatro generosos mancebos, nobles hermanos,” says Fuentes y
Guzman, _Recordacion Florida_, Lib. I, Cap. II. The story of the four
brothers who settled Guatemala is repeated by Torquemada, _Monarchia
Indiana_, Lib. XI, Cap. XVII, and other writers.

[11-2] _The Maya Chronicles_, 109-122 (Library of Aboriginal American
Literature, Vol. I). For the evidence of the wholly mythical character
of the Toltecs, and of their “King,” Quetzalcoatl, see my _American
Hero-Myths_, Chapter III. (Philadelphia, 1882).

Sanchez y Leon, quoting apparently some ancient Cakchiquel refrain,
gives as the former name of their royal race, _ru tzutuh Tulan_, the
Flower of Tulan, which wondrous city he would place in Western Asia.
_Apuntamientos de la Historia de Guatemala_, p. 2.

[12-1] Herrera observes of the natives of Guatemala, that the Nahuatl
tongue was understood among them, though not in use between themselves.
“Corre entre ellos la lengua Mexicana, aunque la tienen particular.”
_Historia de las Indias Occidentales_, Dec. IV, Lib. VIII, Cap. VIII.

[12-2] I have in my possession the only grammar of this dialect probably
ever written: _Arte de la Lengua Vulgar Mexicana de Guatemala_, MS., in
a handwriting of the eighteenth century, without name of author.

[13-1] The four names are given in this form in the _Requête de
Plusieurs Chefs Indiens d’ Atitlan à Philippe II_, 1571, in
Ternaux-Compans, _Recueil des Pièces relatives a la Conquête du
Mexique_, p. 419. The spelling of the last is there _Tecocitlan_. For
their analysis, see Prof. Baschmann,[TN-10] _Ueber die Aztekischen
Ortsnamen_, p. 719.

[14-1] “Si bien se advierte, todo cuanto hacian y decian, era en orden
al maiz, que poco faltó para tenerlo por Dios, y era, y es, tanto el
encanto y embelezo que tienen con las milpas que por ellas olvidan hijos
y muger y otro cualquiera deleite, como si fuera la milpa su ultimo fin
y bienaventuranza.” _Chronica de la S. Provincia del Santissimo Nombre
de Jesus de Guattemala_, Cap. VII. MS. of the seventeenth century,
generally known as the _Cronica Franciscana_.

[14-2] See Francisco Ximenez, _Las Historias del Origen de los Indios de
esta Provincia de Guatemala_, p. 191. (Ed. Scherzer, London and Vienna,

[14-3] Their first conqueror, the truculent Captain Pedro de Alvarado,
speaks of the _muy grandes tierras de panes_, the immense corn fields he
saw on all sides. _Relacion hecha per Pedro de Alvarado á Hernando
Cortéz_, in the _Biblioteca de Autores Españoles_, Tom. XXII, p. 459.

[15-1] “Hay mucho algodon, é son las mugeres buenas hilanderas é haçen
gentiles telas dello.” Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdés, _Historia
General y Natural de las Indias_, Par. III, Lib. III, Cap. IV. “De la
fertilidad de la tierra é gobernacion de Guatimala.”

[15-2] “Son muy dados á edificar, y en lo que hoy vemos erigido de los
antiguos, reconocemos ser máquinas soberbias.” Fuentes y Guzman,
_Recordacion Florida_, Lib. II, Cap. I.

[15-3] “Esta ciudad es bien obrada y fuerte á maravilla.” _Relacion de
Pedro de Alvarado_, in _Bib. de Autores Españoles_, Tom. XXII, p. 459.
So Herrera wrote from his authorities: “En Utlatan (_i. e._, the city of
Gumarcaah, capital of the Quiches), havia muchos, i mui grandes templos
de sus dioses, de maravillosos edificios.” _Historia de las Indias
Occidentales_, Dec. III, Lib. IV, Cap. XIX.

[16-1] _The Lineal Measures of the Semi-Civilized Nations of Mexico and
Central America_, by D. G. Brinton, in _Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society_, and separately.

[16-2] “En la Provincia de Utlatan, junto á Guatemala, se averiguò _por
las Pinturas, que los Naturales tenian de sus antiguedades, demas de
ochocientos años_, etc.” Herrera, _Historia de las Indias Occidentales_,
Dec. III, Lib. IV, Cap. XVIII.

[17-1] “Son amigos de hacer colloquios y decir coplas en sus bailes.”
Thomas Coto, _Vocabulario de la Lengua Cakchiquel_. MS. sub voce,

[17-2] “Son flecheros y no tienen hierba.” Oviedo, _Historia General de
Indias_, Par. III, Lib. III, Cap. IV.

[18-1] This word is doubtful, as I do not find it in the dictionaries,
and judge of its meaning from its derivation and context. See the
Vocabulary. Sanchez y Leon speaks of the “very long lances pointed with
flint,” used by these people. _Apuntamientos de la Historia de
Guatemala_, p. 27.

[19-1] The statement of Gavarrete, in his notes to Sanchez y Leon,
_Historia de Guatemala_, p. 3, that the Xahils and Zotzils were two
branches of the ruling family, the one residing at Iximche, the other at
Solola, rests on a misapprehension, as will be seen from the _Annals_
published in this volume.

[20-1] It is interesting in this connection to observe how widespread
was the symbolic significance of the canopy, or sun shade, as a mark of
dignity. The student of Shakspeare will recall the lines in his 125th

    “Were it aught to me I bore the canopy,
     With my extern the outward honouring;”

while the ethnologist may consult Richard Andree’s suggestive essay,
_Der Schirm als Würdezeichen_, in his _Ethnographische Parallelen und
Vergleiche_, p. 250 (Stuttgart, 1878).

[21-1] Alvarado writes “La tierra es muy poblada de pueblos muy recios.”
_Relacion_, etc., ubi suprá, p. 459. The following extract is quoted
from Las Casas, _Historia Apologetica_, MS., by Mr. Squier, in his notes
to Palacio:--

“En el Reyno de Guatemala, en la parte que va por la Sierra, estaban
ciudades de caba muy grandes, con maravillosos edificios de cal y canto,
de los cuales yo vi muchos; y otros pueblos sin numero de aquellas

Sanchez y Leon states that there were, in all, thirty independent native
states in the former confines of Guatemala. _Historia de Guatemala_, p.

[22-1] On the derivation of Guatemala, see Buschmann, _Ueber die
Aztekischen Ortsnamen_, p. 719. That this is probably a translation of
the Cakchiquel _Molomic chee_, which has the same meaning, and is a
place-name mentioned in the _Annals_, I shall show on a later page.

[22-2] See the _Otra Relacion hecha por Pedro de Albarado à Hernando
Cortes_, printed in the _Bibliotheca de Autores Españoles_, Tom. XXII,
p. 460.

[23-1] Bernal Diaz, _Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva
España_, Cap. CXCIII.

[23-2] _Historia de Guatemala, ô Recordacion Florida_, Lib. XV, Cap. V.
The _Recordacion_ was first printed at Madrid, 1882-83, edited by Don
Justo Zaragoza, as one of the numbers of the _Biblioteca de los

[27-1] _Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan_,
Vol. II, Chap. IX. I am inclined to believe that the original stone,
evidently supposed to be of great value, had been stolen, and this piece
of slate substituted. It was sewed up in a bag, which makes the
supposition probable, as it offered facility to conceal the theft.

[28-1] They are referred to by the Archbishop Garcia Pelaez, in these
words: “Los planos y vistas tomadas por el comisionado y el informe que
las acompaña, muestran vestijios de adoratorios, fortificaciones y
trazas de edificios, calles y plazas ajustadas à dimensiones y con
elecion de materias en su estructura.”--_Memorias para la Historia del
Antiguo Reyno de Guatemala_. Por Don Francisco de Paula Garcia Pelaez,
Tom. I, p. 15, (Guatemala, 1851).

[28-2] The names applied to these intercalary days are analyzed
differently by various authorities. For the etymology given of
_nemontemi_, I have followed M. Remi Simeon, in his notes to Dr.
Jourdanet’s translation of Sahagun’s _Historia de Nueva España_; the
Cakchiquel _[tz]api_ is undoubtedly from _[tz]ap_, fault, evil, crime.

[31-1] _May_ is allied to the verb _meho_, to go somewhere and return
again. Hence _may_ came to mean a cycle of years, months or days.

[31-2] _Apuntamientos de la Historia de Guatemala_, p. 28.

[32-1] “_Chinamitl_, seto o cerca de cañas,” from _chinantia_, to build
a fence, to enclose.--Molina, _Vocabulario de la Lengua Mexicana_.

[32-2] Torresano, in his _Arte de la Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS., gives this
word as _ca_, which indicates its probable derivation from the verb
_cae_, to join together, to unite, “those united by a common tie.”

[32-3] Coto, _Vocabulario de la Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS., sub voce,

[32-4] Coto, u. s., s. v. _Alguaçil_. The word _[c,]alam_ is now applied
to the canvas or tablets on which are painted the saints in the
churches. It also means a box or chest.--_Dicc. Cakchiquel Anon._

[32-5] See Brasseur, _Hist. du Mexique et l’ Am. Cent._, Tom. II, pp.

[33-1] “Tienen tambien renombres de sus chinamitales ò parcialidades que
tambien son de signos vel nombres señalados, como Xahila, etc.”--Coto,
_Vocabulario_, MS., s. v. _Renombre_.

[34-1] _Hist. du Mexique_, Tom. II, p. 84.

[34-2] Their names are given in the _Titulos de la Casa de Ixcuin
Nehaib_, p. 3. They are called “pueblos principales, cabezas de
calpules.” The Nahuatl word, _calpulli_, here used, meant the kinsfolk
actual and adopted, settled together. They were the gentes of the tribe.
See Ad. F. Bandelièr, _On the Social Organization and Mode of Government
of the Ancient Mexicans_, for a full explanation of their nature and

[34-3] _The Lenâpé and their Legends_, p. 139.

[37-1] Father Coto, in his MS., _Vocabulario Cakchiquel_, gives the
rendering “mandadero,” and states that one was elected each year by the
principals of each _chinamitl_, to convey messages. He adds: “Usan mucho
de este nombre en el Pueblo Atitlan.”

[37-2] Compare my edition of the _Cakchiquel Grammar_, p. 58. Brasseur
translates this title erroneously, “decorated with a bracelet.”--_Hist.
des Nations Civilisées_, etc., Tome. II, p. 515.

[37-3] “El retorico, platico.” Pantaleon de Guzman gives the fuller
form, _naol ah uchan_, which means “he who knows, the master of
speech.”--_Compendio de Nombres en Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS.

[37-4] Usually written by ellipsis, _atzih vinak_. Brasseur translates
it “distributor of presents,” but it appears to be from _tzih_, word,
speech. The vocabularies are, as usual, very unsatisfactory. “_Atzijh
vinak_, Principal deste nombre.”--_Dicc. Cakchiquel Anon._

[38-1] _Dicc. Cakchiquel Anon_,[TN-11] MS., sub voce.

[38-2] _Requète de Plusieurs Chefs Indiens d’Atitlan à Philippe II_, in
Ternaux-Compans, _Recueil de Pièces relatives à la Conquête du Mexique_,
p. 418.

[38-3] Not “of the bird’s nest,” “ceux du nid de l’oiseau,” as Brasseur
translates it (_Hist. du Mexique_, Tome. II, p. 89), nor “casa de la
águila,” house of the eagle, as it is rendered by Fuentes y Guzman,
_Recordacion Florida_, Tom. I, p. 21. _[c,]iquin_ is the generic term
for bird.

[39-1] _The Names of the Gods in the Kiche Myths of Central America_, in
the _Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society_, 1881.

[40-1] “Chamalcan u bi qui gabauil Cakchequeleb, xa Zotz u
vachibal.”--_Popol Vuh_, p. 224.

[40-2] _Hist. des Nations Civ. du Mexique_, Tom. II, p. 173.

[40-3] “El quinto _Cam_, esto es; amarillo, pero su significado es
culebra.”--Ximenez, _Las Historias del Origen de los Indios de
Guatemala_, p. 215. There are two errors in this extract. The name is
not _Cam_, but _Can_, and it does not mean yellow, which is _[t]an_.

[41-1] I have suggested an explanation of this strange term to apply to
the highest and most beneficent of their divinities, in a short article
in the _American Antiquarian_, 1885, “The Chief God of the Algonkins in
his Character as a Cheat and a Liar.”

[42-1] Pantaleon de Guzman, _Compendio de Nombres en Lengua Cakchiquel_,
MS. On the rôle of the Tzitzimime in Aztec mythology see my _American
Hero-Myths_, p. 78.

[42-2] “Al duende que anda en los montes llaman _ru vinakil chee_ vel
_çaki[c]oxol_.”--Coto, _Vocabulario_, MS., s. v. Monte. _Zak_, white;
_[c]ox_, to make fire. Brasseur’s translation, “Le blanc abime de feu,”
is indefensible.

[42-3] See a paper entitled “The Folk Lore of Yucatan,” contributed by
me to the _Folk-Lore Journal_, Vol. I, 1883.

[43-1] For an interesting note on the _zaztun_, see Apolinar Garcia y
Garcia, _Historia de la Guerra de Castas en Yucatan_, p. XXIV (folio,
Merida, 1865).

[43-2] For the derivation of Xibalbay, and for the myths referred to in
the text, see my article, before referred to, _The Names of the Gods in
the Kiche Myths_, pp. 27, 28.

[44-1] _The Maya Chronicles_, pp. 110, 111. Vol. I of the _Library of
Aboriginal American Literature_.

[45-1] Brasseur, Juarros, Fuentes y Guzman, etc.

[45-2] Thomas Coto, _Vocabulario de la Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS., 1651.
Sub voce, _Sacrificar hombres_, quoting Varea.

[45-3] “Sacandole el corazon y asperjando, con la sangre de la victima á
los cuatro vientos cardinales.”--_Apuntamientos de la Historia de
Guatemala_, p. 26.

[46-1] _The Names of the Gods in the Kiche Myths_, pp. 21, 22.

[47-1] “_Labah_, agorar y guerrear, porque agoraban si la hacian ô
no.”--Ximenez, _Vocabulario de las Tres Lenguas_, sub voce.

[47-2] These particulars are from the work of Jose Sanchez y Leon,
_Apuntamientos de la Historia de Guatemala_, pp. 26, 27.

[48-1] _Recordacion Florida_, Lib. IX, Cap. VII.

[48-2] _Vocabulario de la Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS. (1651).

[48-3] _Apuntamientos de la Historia de Guatemala_, p. 27.

[49-1] Fr. Estevan Torresano, _Arte de la Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS., in my

[51-1] _Supplementary Remarks to the Grammar of the Cakchiquel Language,
edited by D. G. Brinton.--Proceedings of the American Philosophical
Society_, 1885.

[52-1] See _The Maya Chronicles_, p. 67, and note.

[53-1] “Die bewundernswürdige Feinheit und consequente Logik in der
Ausbildung des Maya Zeitwortes setzt eine Kultur voraus, die sicherlich
weit ueber die Zeiträume hinaus zurückreicht, welche man bis jetzt
geneight war, der Amerikanischen Civilization zuzuschreiben.”--Otto
Stoll, _Zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala_, s. 148 (Zurich, 1884).
Compare the remarks of Wilhelm von Humboldt on the Maya conjugation, in
his essay on the American verb, as published in my _Philosophic Grammar
of the American Languages, as set forth by Wilhelm von Humboldt_, pp.
35-39 (Philada., 1885).

[54-1] Gavarrete’s words are, “Pasó por manos de muchos personas
versadas en los idiomas indigenos sin que pudiese obtenerse una
traduccion integra y exacta de su testo, habiendo sido bastante, sin
embargo, lo que de su sentido pudo percibirse, para venir en
conocimiento de su grande importancia historica.”--_Boletin de la
Sociedad Economica_.

[54-2] The Abbé says that Gavarrete gave him the original (_Bibliothêque
Mexico-Guatemalienne_, p. 14). But that gentleman does not take to
himself credit for such liberality. He writes “El testo original quedó
sin embargo en su poder,” etc. Ubi suprá.

[57-1] As the slight aspirate, the Spanish _h_, does not exist in the
Cakchiquel alphabet, nor yet the letter _d_,the[TN-12] baptismal name
“Hernandez,” takes the form “Ernantez.”

[57-2] “Se casan muy niños,” says Sanchez y Leon, speaking of the
natives.--_Apuntamientos de la Historia de Guatemala_, p. 24.








Ka tata ka mama, heri xeboço vinak oher mahaniok ti la[t]abex vae huyu
ta[t]ah; [c]a ruyon ok umul [c,]iquin [c]oh, que cha, ha ok ki
xquila[t]abeh huyu ta[t]ah he [c]a ka tata ka mama, yx nu[c]ahol, pa


     1. Here I am going to write a few of the sayings of our earliest
     fathers and ancestors, those who begot men of old, before the hills
     and plains here were inhabited; then only rabbits and birds were
     here, they say, when they took possession of the hills and plains,
     they, our fathers and ancestors from Tulan, oh my children.

2. Xtinu[c,]ibah [c]a quitzih ri ki he nabey ka tata ka mama
[t]a[t]avitz rubi, Çactecauh ru bi hunchic, he [c]oh quitzih que cha
[c]a [c]haka palouh xoh pevi, pa Tulan ru bi huyu, xoh alax xoh
[c]aholax vi pe ruma ka tee, ka tata, yxka[c]ahol, quecha ri oher tata
mama, [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh qui bi, ri ki xepe pa Tulan he cay chi
achij heri xoh boço, oh Xahila.

     2. And I shall write the sayings of our earliest fathers and
     ancestors, Gagavitz the name of one, Zactecauh the name of the
     other; and these are the sayings they spake as we came from the
     other side of the sea, from the land of Tulan, where we were
     brought forth and begotten by our mothers and our fathers, oh my
     children, as said of old the fathers, the ancestors, Gagavitz and
     Zactecauh by name, the two heroes who came from Tulan and begot us,
     the Xahila.

3. Va[c]a quibi ru hay ru chinamitee [t]eka[c]uch, Ba[c]ahola,
Cibakihay. 1. [c]atun [c]hutiah qui bi xeboço Ba[c]ahola. 1. Tzanat
[t]u[t]uchom quibi xeboço [t]eka[c]uchij; Daqui ahauh [c]hahom ahauh
xeboço Cibakihayi, xaoh cahi chi chinamit ok xohpe pa Tulan, ri oh
Cakchiquel vinak, yxka[c]ahol, quecha.--[c]a x[c]amar [c]a vave ri
Caveki Totomay Xurcah qui bi xeboço.--Xavi [c]a x[c]amar vave ri
Ahquehayi, Loch, Xet, quibi, xeboço;--xavi [c]a x[c]am ri ahPak, Telom,
[c]oxahil, [c]obakil quibi xeboço; quere navipe ri Ikoma[t]i, xavi [c]a
x[c]amar; he[c]a cah [c]hob ri [c]a xe[c]amar vave he ama[t].

     3. These are the names of the houses and clans of Gekaquch,
     Bagahola and Cibakihay. 1. Qatun and Qhutiah by name, begat
     Bagahola. 2. Tzanat and Guguchom by name, begat those of Gekaquch.
     3. The chief Daqui and the chief Ghahom begat those of Cibakihay.
     Thus we were four clans when we came from Tulan, we, the Cakchiquel
     people, as we are told, oh my children. Those of Cavek, Totomay and
     Xurcah by name, also married and begat; also those of Quehay, Loch
     and Xet by name, married and begat; those of Pak, Telom, Qoxahil
     and Qobakil by name, also married and begat; and also those of
     Ykomag married; and these four divisions which thus married are the
     tribes so-called.

4. He [c]a [c]oh quitzih ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh xe re [c]aki ru xe
quitzih vae quecha [c]ari [t]a[t]avitz Çactecauh: Cahi xpe vi vinak pa
Tulan; chi relebal [t]ih, hun Tullan: hun chi [c]a chi Xibalbay, hun
[c]a chu kahibal [t]ih chi ri [c]a xoh pevi chukahibal [t]ih, hun chi vi
[c]a chi [c]abovil. Quere[c]a cahi vi Tullan ri yxka[c]ahol, quecha; chu
kahibal [c]a [t]ih xoh pa vi Tullan, [c]ha[c]a palouh; [c]a[c]o viri
Tullan chiri[c]a xohalax vi ul xoh [c]aholax vipe ruma ruma ka tee ka
tata quecha.

     4. These are the sayings of Gagavitz and Zactecauh, and these are
     the very words which Gagavitz and Zactecauh spoke: “Four men came
     from Tulan; at the sunrise is one Tullan, and one is at Xibalbay,
     and one is at the sunset; and we came from this one at the sunset;
     and one is where is God. Therefore there are four Tulans, they say,
     oh our sons; from the sunsetting we came, from Tullan, from beyond
     the sea; and it was at Tullan that arriving we were brought forth,
     coming we were produced, by our mothers and our fathers, as they

5. Tan [c]a talax ri chay abah, ruma raxa Xibalbay [t]ana Xibalbay,
tan[c]ati [c,]ak vinak ruma [c,]akol bitol; tzukul richin ri chay abah
ok x[c,]ak ri vinak pan pokon [c]a xutzin vinak, xtiho chee, xtiho [c]a
xaki ruyon uleuh xrah oc; mani [c]a x[c]hao, mani xbiyin, mani [c]a ru
quiquel ru tiohil xux, quecha e nabey ka tata ka mama, yxnu[c]ahol; mani
[c]a xcanay rixoc, [c]arunah [c]a xcanay rixoc: xae chay chi chicop
etamayon [c]o vi ri echa pam Paxil ru bi huyu [c]ovi hari chicop Utiuh,
Koch qui bi. Xa[c]a pa rachak xcanay vi, tok xcamiçax [c]a ri chicop
utiuh xpo[c]hel chupam ri yxim tan [c]a tibe canox yo[t]bal richin ruma
chicop tiuh tiuh rubi, [c]a chupam palouh xpe vi ruma tiuh tiuh ru
quiquel tixli cumatz xoc xyo[t]bex richin ri yxim: x[c,]akbex richin ru
tiohil vinak ruma [c,]akol bitol [c]a ha ki etamayom ri [c,]akol bitol
alom [c]aholom he xe [c,]ako vinak [c,]ak que cha xutzin [c]a vinak
[c,]ak, oxlahuh achij, cahlahuh [c]a ixok xux; x[c]ohe ruvi, [c]ate [c]a
ok xe[c]hao xebiyin, x[c]ohe qui quiquel qui tiohil. Xe[c]ulu[c]u xin
[c]a he [c]a cay ri xhayil hun xux. Quere[c]a xla[t]o vi vinak ri quecha
oher vinak, yxka[c]ahol; xemealan xe[c]aholan [c]a ri he nabey vinak.
Quere[c]a ru banic vinak rij, quere navipe rubanic chay abah ri [c,]apal
[c]a ruchi ri Tullan, xoh pe vi xahun chi ço[c,] [c,]apibal ru chij ri
Tullan xoh alax vi ul xoh [c]aholax vipe, xya vipe ri kikan chi [t]ekum
chi a[t]a, yx ka[c]ahol; xecha can ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh,
yxnu[c]ahol, xa[c]a mani xquimeztah ru tzihoxic. He [c]iyaley chi e ka
mama; [c]oh quitzih oher takchibal [c]a quichin vae.

     5. “And now is brought forth the Obsidian Stone by the precious
     Xibalbay, the glorious Xibalbay, and man is made by the Maker, the
     Creator; the Obsidian Stone was his sustainer, when man was made in
     misery, and when man was formed; he was fed with wood, he was fed
     with leaves; he wished only the earth; he could not speak, he could
     not walk; he had no blood, he had no flesh; so say our fathers, our
     ancestors, oh you my sons. Nothing was found to feed him; at length
     something was found to feed him. Two brutes knew that there was
     food in the place called Paxil, where these brutes were, the Coyote
     and the Crow by name. Even in the refuse of maize it was found,
     when the brute Coyote was killed as he was separating his maize,
     and was searching for bread to knead, (killed) by the brute Tiuh
     Tiuh by name; and the blood of the serpent and the tapir was
     brought from within the sea by means of Tiuh Tiuh, with which the
     maize was to be kneaded; the flesh of man was formed of it by the
     Maker, the Creator; and well did they, the Maker and the Creator,
     know him who was born, him who was begotten; they made man as he
     was made, they formed man as they made him, so they tell. There
     were thirteen men, fourteen women; they talked, they walked, they
     had blood, they had flesh. They married, and one had two wives.
     Therefore the race copulated, this race of old, as they tell, oh
     our sons. They brought forth daughters, they brought forth sons,
     those first men. Thus men were made, and thus the Obsidian Stone
     was made, for the enclosure of Tullan; thus we came to where the
     Zotzils were at the gates of Tullan; arriving we were born, coming
     we were produced, coming we gave the tribute, in the darkness, in
     the night, oh our sons.” Thus spoke Gagavitz and Zactecauh, oh my
     sons, and what they said has not been forgotten. They are our great
     ancestors; these are the words with which they encouraged us of

6. Tok xoh pixabax [c]a pe ruma ka tee ka tata oxlahu [c]hob [c]a
vukama[t] oxlahu [c]hob [c]a ahlabal ok xohpe pa Tullan chi [t]ekum chi
a[t]a ok xya pe ri kikan, tok xu[c]am rikan vuk ama[t] ahlabal, xoh
chole na chu xocou [c]a Tullan x[c]ohe viri vuk ama[t]: chiriki[t]a [c]a
Tullan x[c]ohe viri xcholevi ahlabal. Nabey na xu[c]am rikan vuk ama[t],
[c]ate [c]a xu[c]am chic rikan ahlabal. Xa[c]a ruyon xit puak
[t]u[t]uraxon [c]ubul chactit ru[c]in [c]a [c,]ibanic [c]otonic, qui
yanic xul, bix, [c]hol [t]ih, may [t]ih, pek cacouh, xa ruyon [t]inomal
xrikah pe pa Tullan a[c]a ri ahlabal xa ruyon [c]ha pocob xa çeteçic
chee xa [t]iom ah rikan ok xpe pa Tulla.

     6. Then we were ordered to come by our mothers and fathers, we the
     thirteen divisions and the seven tribes, the thirteen divisions of
     warriors; and we came to Tulan in the darkness and the night, and
     coming gave our tribute; they took tribute from the warriors of the
     seven tribes; they were drawn up in order on the left of Tulan
     where were the people of the seven tribes; on the right-hand of
     Tulan were arranged the warriors. First the tribute was taken from
     the seven tribes, next the tribute was taken from the warriors. But
     it was only jade and silver, and green feathers worked and sewed
     together, together with articles painted and articles sculptured,
     and for gifts, flutes, songs, astrological calendars and reckoning
     calendars, fine and common cacao; only such riches were paid in
     Tulan, and the only riches the warriors bore from Tulan were their
     bows, their bucklers and their rounded shields.

7. Tok xpixa [c]a ka tee ka tata xcha: [c]a ohix [c]a, yxnu[c]ahol,
yxnumeal, ree yvikan ree [c]a y tzukuh y[t]ohee; xucheex [c]ari chay
abah: ohix [c]a ti vi la y huyubal y ta[t]ahal [c]a chila [c]a [c]haka
palouh [c]oh vi y huyubal y ta[t]ahal, yxnu[c]ahol, [c]a chila [c]a tiça
vi ruvach. Ree yvikan mixuyael, y [t]inomal y vahauarem, xeucheex [c]a
ri oxlahu [c]hob vukama[t], oxlahu [c]hob ahlabal, ok xyape ri mi[c]hbal
quichin ri chee abah, xqui kahpe pa Tullan Xibalbay [c]a xyaope ri chee
abah, chikichin que cha ri he nabey ka tata ka mama, ri [t]a[t]avitz
Çactecauh: he ki xe ykan pe, he navipe ki [c]o quitzih.

     7. Then to our mothers and fathers it was commanded and said: “You,
     my sons, you, my daughters, these are your burdens which you shall
     sustain and maintain.” So spoke the Obsidian Stone. “There are your
     hills and plains; there, beyond the ocean, are your hills and
     plains, oh you my sons, there it is that you shall lift up your
     faces. These are the burdens which I shall give you, your riches,
     your majesty;” thus it was said to the thirteen divisions, the
     seven tribes, to the thirteen divisions of warriors, and then was
     given them the wood and stone which deceive; as they descended from
     Tulan and Xibalbay, were given to them the wood and stone (idols),
     as related those our first fathers and ancestors Gagavitz and
     Zactecauh. These, in truth, were their burdens, and these were
     their very words.

8. Vuk ama[t] [c]a nabey xpeul pa Tullan, que cha, [c]a xambey xohpe oh
ahlabal ru [c]amom chi [c]a rikan ronohel vuk ama[t] ahlabal tok xhak
[c]a ru chi Tullan.

     8. They say that the seven tribes arrived first at Tulan, and we
     the warriors followed, having taken up the tributes of all the
     seven tribes when the gate of Tulan was opened.

9. Ha [c]a [c,]utuhile ri nabey vuk ama[t] ok xpe pa Tulan xe[c]iz nape
ri vuk ama[t] [c]ate[c]a ok xoh pe oh ahlabal, que cha.--Xcha [c]a pe ri
ka tee ka tata, ok xoh pixabax pe: ohix [c]a, yx numeal, yx nu[c]ahol,
xtinyael y [t]inomal yvahauarem, xtinyael y [t]a[t]al, y tepeval, yxmuh,
yx[c]a[t]alibal; harumari xti vikah ree, çeteçic chee, [t]iomah [c]haa,
pocob, [c]u[c]um, çahcab. Vueta [c]a mixivikah xit, puak, [t]u[t] raxom,
vueta [c]a xtivikah [c,]ibanic, [c]otonic, [c]hol [t]ih, may [t]ih, xul,
bix, bix ye[t]etah rumal, xavi[c]a yvichin ree mixrikah vuk ama[t] chila
ti [c]am vi; yx quixi chi nan, yx quix çao ruvach; mani cahauarem mix
nuyael, ha[c]ari xtivikah; kitzih nim ru[t]ih; mani quix ye[t]etah vi;
ha[c]a quix nimar vi, ree çeteçic chee [t]iomah, mani quix var, quix
[c]hacatah vi, yx numeal, yx nu[c]ahol, xtinyael yvahauarem, yx oxlahuh
chi ahpopo tihunamah; [c]a y[c]ha, ypocob, yvahauarem, y [t]a[t]al,
ytepeval, y muh, y [t]alibal, ree [c]a y nabey ale; xucheex ri Qeche
vinak ok xpeul oxlahu [c]hob chi ahlabal pa Tullan. Ha [c]a nabey xpe
Qeche vinak; xa[c]a [c]holloh tacaxepeval rikan [c]eche vinak: ok xpeul
rachbilam hetak [c]a ru hay ru chinamit ru [t]arama[t] ri hutak [c]hob
chi ahlabal tok xpeul pa Tullan ok x[c]iz [c]a pe ronohel.

     9. The Tzutuhils were the first of the seven tribes who finished
     coming to Tulan, and then we the warriors came, as they say. Then
     it was said to our fathers and mothers, then we were commanded:
     “Oh, you, you my daughters, you my sons, I shall give you your
     riches, your majesty, I shall give you your distinction, your
     sovereignty, your canopy, your royal throne; because you have
     carried the rounded shield as your riches, the bow, the buckler,
     the feathers, the war paint. If you have paid as tribute jade,
     silver, feather stuffs, if you have paid articles painted, articles
     sculptured, astrological calendars, reckoning calendars, flute
     songs, songs hated of you because the seven tribes paid this
     tribute, yet you shall in turn take it, you shall receive more than
     others, you shall lift up your face. I shall not give you their
     sovereignty, of which you have borne the burden; truly their
     fortune is great; do not hate them; also do you be great, with
     wealth of rounded shields. Sleep not, sit not, my daughters, my
     sons, I will give you the power, to you the seven rulers, in equal
     shares, and your bows, your bucklers, your majesty, your power,
     your sovereignty, your canopy, your royal seat; these are your
     first treasures.” Thus it was spoken to the Quiche men, when the
     thirteen divisions of warriors arrived at Tulan. And first came the
     Quiche men; they acquitted themselves of their tribute in the first
     month; then arrived their companions one after another, by their
     families, their clans, their tribes, their divisions, in sequence,
     and the warriors, until the whole of them had finished arriving in

10. Xpe Rabinale, xpe Ço[c,]il vinak--xpe Tukuchee--xpe
Tuhalahay--Vuchabahay--Ah[c]humilahay--xpe chic Lama[t]i--Cumatz--xpe
chic Akahal vinak.--Ah Tucuru xquiz, yape ronohel ri. Tok xpe chi [c]ari
oxlahuh chi ahlabal ri oh Bacah Pokoh, Bacah Xahil: hun xnabeyah,
hun[c]a x xambeyah chikichin ri oh ru nabey Bacah, Bacah Pok [c]a nabey
xpe, oh [c]a xambey xoh pe ri oh Bacah Xahil, que cha ri e ka tata, ka
mama, yxka[c]ahol. Xmier ok [c]a ti pe vuk ama[t] xmier ok [c]a ti
tiquer rupetic ahlabal.--Tok xohpe [c]a oh Cakchequel vinak, kitzih vi
chi xambey chic xoh peul pa Tullan, mani hunchic [c]o can ok xoh pe, que
cha ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh, xoh pixabax chi pe: He ree ahay a
chinamit he, que ucheex [c]ari [t]eka[c]uch, Ba[c]ahol, Cibakihay. Ree
[c]a yvahpop he, hun ahpop, hun [c]a ahpo[c]amahay, chiquichin ree
xeucheex [c]a ri [t]eka[c]uch, Ba[c]ahol, Cibakihay. Yx [c]a quixalan,
quix[c]aholan, quichin yxquix[c]ulu, yvahpop, xeucheex. Quere[c]a he
tee, he nam vi ri. Ha[c]a nabey, ha[c]a nabey xpe ri Cibakihay ok xpe
[c]ari Ba[c]ahol, xpe chi [c]a [t]eka[c]uch nabey xepe chinamit.

     10. Those of Rabinal came, the Zotzil men came, the Tukuchee came,
     the Tuhalahay, the Vuchabahay, the Ahqhumilahay, the Lamagi came,
     the Cumatz, the men of Akahal came, the Tucuru ended it; and thus
     all are given. After that came thirteen warriors, we the Bacah
     Pokoh, and the Bacah Xahil; one of us went first, and one followed
     after; the first Bacah was Bacah Pok, who went first, and we
     followed after, we the Bacah Xahil, as was said by our first
     fathers, our ancestors, oh you our sons. Already the seven
     villages had come, and some time after began the coming of the
     warriors.--Then we came, we the Cakchiquel men. Truly, we were the
     last, as we arrived at Tulan, and there was not another remaining
     when we came, as said Gagavitz and Zactecauh; we were ordered to
     come thus: “These are your houses, these your clans;” they said to
     Gekaquch, Baqahol, and Cibakihay: “These are your head chiefs,
     even one head chief, and one official messenger;” thus they said
     to Gekaquch, Baqahol, and Cibakihay. “Bring forth daughters, bring
     forth sons, marry one another, ye rulers,” said they. Therefore
     those were mothers and ancestors. But the first, the first came
     the Cibakihay, then came the Baqahol, and then came the Gekaquch,
     the first clans.

11. [c]ate[c]a ok xoh pe oh ahpop tok xoh pixabax chi[c]a pe ruma katee
ka tata: ohix [c]a, yxnumeal, yxnu[c]ahol, mixebe a hay a chinamit.
Maqui xaquere xcat xambeyah, at[c]hipil al; kitzih nim a [t]ih tux re
[c]a a tzuku hee xucheex pe ri chee abah Belehe Toh ru bi; ri abah
Huntihax chi [c]a ru bi hunchic, huhunti vikah xoh ucheex pe, quecha.

     11. Thus, therefore, came we, the rulers, and then we were ordered
     by our mothers and fathers: “Go, my daughters, go, my sons, your
     houses, your clans, have departed. Not thus shalt thou always
     follow, thou, the youngest son; truly, great shall be thy fortune,
     and thou shalt be maintained, as is said by the idols called, the
     one, Belehe Toh, the other Hun Tihax, to whom we say each pays
     tribute,” as is related.

12. Re [c]a ti voqueçah e [c]ha, pocob, achcayupil, [c]u[c]um, çahcab
rach yaic [c]aperi [t]avonon, [t]açital, xo[t]ol, [t]ekal, hab, çu[c],
moyeuh, ok xoh pixabax pe ree: kitzih nim xtivikah; mani quix var vi,
quix [c]hacatah vi, mani quix ye[t]etah vi, yxnu[c]ahol, ha quix
[t]a[t]ar quix tepevar vi, hati [c]ohe vi y vux la ree çeteçic chee
[t]iomah, [c]ha, pocob. Vuetah mixi vikah ree xit, puak, [t]u[t]uraxom,
bix ye[t]etah, ruma xavi [c]a y vichin tux, yxquix i chi nan, quix çao
ru vach: ri xit, puak, [t]u[t]uraxom, [c,]ibanic, [c]otonic, ronohel ri
mix rikah vuk ama[t], [c]a chila [c]a xtiçavi ru vach chi huyubal, ti
vulaah ronohel, ti ça [c]a ru vach ri y [c]ha, y pocob, hun nabeyal
hun[c]a [c]hipilal chivichin, yx oxlahuh chi ahlabal, yx[c]a oxlahuh chi
ahaua, chi yx ahpop ti hunamah y [c]ha y pocob mixnuyael. Cani ca tibe y
ça ru vach ree y vikan y [c]ha y pocob; [c]ohun labal chila chi relebal
[t]ih, Çuyva rubi; chi ri [c]a tibe y tihavi y [c]ha y pocob ree
mixnuyael, vhix [c]a, yxnu[c]ahol; xohucheex [c]ape okxoh pe pa Tullan,
xmier ok [c]a tipe vuk ama[t] ahlabal; ok xohpe ul pa Tullan, kitzih
[c]a ti xibin ok xoh pe kachpetic [c]a ri [t]avonon [t]açital, çu[c],
moyeuh, xo[t]ol, [t]ekal, hab; ok xohpe ul pa Tullan.

     12. Then they put on their bows, their shields, their lances, their
     feathers, and their paint, given (as a defence) against the bugs,
     the dirt, the boding owls, the blackness, the rain, the fogs, the
     clouds; then we were commanded: “Great shall be your burden; sleep
     not, sit not, be not cast down, you, my sons; you shall be rich,
     you shall be powerful; let your rounded shields be your riches,
     your bows, your bucklers. If you have given as tribute jade,
     silver, feather work, hated songs, on that account they shall be
     given you; you shall receive more than others; you shall lift up
     your face; for jade, silver, painted articles, engraved articles,
     all the seven nations have paid as tribute; but there, in those
     hills you shall lift up your faces, there is a refuge for all of
     you, there you shall lift up your faces, your bows, your bucklers.
     One shall be your first chief, and one his junior, of you the
     thirteen warriors, you the thirteen princes, you the thirteen equal
     chiefs, to whom I shall give the bows and bucklers. Soon you shall
     lift up your face and have your burden, your bows and bucklers;
     there is war there toward the east, at the place called Zuyva;
     there you shall go, there is the place for your bucklers which I
     shall give you, you indeed, you my sons.” So it was spoken to us
     when we came to Tullan, before the warriors of the seven villages;
     and when we arrived at Tullan, truly our coming was terrifying,
     with our accompaniments against the bugs, the dirt, the clouds, the
     fogs, the mud, the darkness, the rain, when we entered Tulan.

13. Cani[c]a chiri xtiquer vipe ri labalinic; xo[t] pe hun chicop
chahalcivan ru bi chu chi Tullan, ok xohelpe pa Tullan; quix cam, quix
çach, yn ylab, xcha ri chicop chi kichin; mani [c]a xkoqueçah? Xax
avo[t]ebal vi ri tux, xoh cha can chire ri chicop, quecha.

     13. And soon the divination began with them. A bird called “the
     guard of the ravine,” began to complain within the gate of Tulan,
     as we were going forth from Tulan. “You shall die, you shall be
     lost, I am your portent,” said this brute to us. “Do you not
     believe me? Truly your state shall be a sad one.” Thus spake to us
     this brute, as is related.

14. Ok xo[t] chi [c]a hun chicop Tucur ru bi chacal pe chuvi caka chee,
x[c]hao pe chi ri: Yn ylab; xcha: Mani at kalab, xa[c]oh tavaho, xucheex
can tucur. Xavi [c]a e [c]oh qui çamahel ri xeyaope ri chee abah
chikichin, quecha ka tata, ka mama oher. Ok xo[t] chi [c]a pe hun chicop
chicah [c]anixt ru bi, xavi cha chic: Yn ylab, quixcam; xoh cha chire ri
chicop, mani tabijh xaat retal ça[t]ih tux. Nabey cat o[t] oktel
ça[t]ih, haok titan a hab, cato[t]; xoh cha can chire.

     14. Then another bird called “the owl,” seated on a red tree,
     complained and said thus: “I am your portent,” he said. “You are
     not our portent, although you would like to be,” we answered this
     owl. Such were the messengers who gave them their idols, said our
     fathers, our ancestors of old. Then another bird called the
     parroquet complained in the sky, and said: “I am your portent; ye
     shall die.” But we said to the brute, “Do not speak thus; you are
     but the sign of spring. You wail first when it is spring; when the
     rain ceases, you wail.” Thus we spoke to him.

15. Ok xoh ul [c]a chu chi palouh. Xa[c]a e[c]oh chi ri xa[c]a e mulan
conohel ama[t] ahlabal chi palouh; ok xekil xatak [c]içinak qui[c]ux.
Mani tan ti qui [c]ovibeh pe, mani tucheex y[c]ovem pe chuvi palouh,
xecha [c]a ri conohel ahlabal vuk ama[t] chikichin; chinak koh u cheen,
chinak tiki[c]ovibeh, at kacha[t], xa at chic at koyobem, xecha conohel.
Xoh cha [c]a chique: Yx quixbe, chijl, yx kanabeyal; chinak tik
i[c]ovibeh, oh an vae, konohel xoh cha, [c]ate[c]a xe cha chic conohel:
ta hoyevah kavach, atkacha[t], xa vipe kote[t]e vave chu chiya palouh,
mahatikil ka huyubal ka ta[t]ahal. Xape cani xkovar, xko [c]hacatah oh
cay chial, oh ru vi oh ru holom oh runabey ahlabal vuk ama[t], at nu
cha[t], vueta xko y[c]o cani tika[c,]et ru vach kikan mix yape rumal ka
tee ka tata, at nucha[t]. Xcha [c]ari. Xeboço [c]echevinak, chikichin
quecha ri [c,]a mama [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh; xoh cha [c]a chique:
katiha na, yx ka nimal; maxa vi pe xko[c]ohe xkote[t]e vave chuchij
palouh, maqui pe mahatikil ka huyubal [c]oh [c]a tucheex xti[c,]et,
yxahlabal, yx vuk ama[t], xkahi[c]o vacami, xoh cha. Cani [c]a xe quicot

     15. Then we arrived at the sea coast. There were gathered together
     the warriors of all the seven villages at the sea. A great number
     perished, devoured by sorrow. “There is no means of passing, nor is
     it told of any one who has passed the sea,” said all the warriors
     of the seven villages. “Who can, who will find means to pass the
     sea? In thee alone, my brother, in thee alone have we hope,” said
     they all. We said to them, “You may go on; you may be first. Who
     will find the means of crossing, while we are here?” All of us
     spoke thus, and then all of them said: “Have pity on us, our
     brother, since we are all stretched on the shore of the ocean
     without seeing our hills and plains. As soon as we were asleep, we
     were conquered, we the two oldest sons, we the chiefs and guides of
     the warriors of the seven villages, oh my brother. Would that we
     had passed, and could see the burdens given us by our mothers and
     fathers, oh my brother!” So they spoke. At that time the Quiche
     nation had increased. Our ancestors, Gagavitz and Zactecauh, said:
     “We said to them, ‘we suffer also, our brother, we do not live
     stretched out on the shore of the ocean, where we cannot see our
     mountains where they are, as you say, oh you warriors, you people
     of the seven villages. We shall pass over at once. Thus we spoke;
     and soon all of them rejoiced.’”

16. Xa[c]a hun chi caka chee ka [c]hamey ok xoh pe xi[c]o ka[c]amape chu
chi Tullan, quere[c]a ka binaam vi Cakchiquel vinak ri, yxka[c]ahol,
quecha can ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh. Xa[c]a ru xe ka [c]hamey
xuto[t]beh oc çanayi chupam palouh; cani[c]a x[c]ok pi tah palouh ruma
çanayi, haxi [c]atzin viri cakachee xka[c]ampe chu chii Tullan. Xa chuvi
cholo chic çanayi xoh i[c]o vipe; haok x[t]ahar can ru xe palouh ru vi
palouh. Cani [c]a xequicot conohel, ok x[c]i[c,]et çanayi chupam palouh,
cani [c]a xepixaban quij, [c]a chi la ko oyobem vi ki, chuvi nabey huyu,
chiri komolo viki, xe cha, xavi[c]a xere ka cholanem ok xohpe pa Tullan.

     16. Now there was a red tree, our staff, which we had taken in
     passing from the gate of Tulan, and therefore we are called the
     Cakchiquel people, oh our sons, said Gagavitz and Zactecauh. The
     root of this, our staff, was pushed into the sand of the sea, and
     soon the sea was separated from the sand, and for this the red tree
     served which we brought from Tulan. Soon the sand was as a line,
     and we passed out; it became wide above the sea and below the sea.
     Then all rejoiced, when they saw sand in the sea, and many
     counseled together. “There indeed is our hope, we must gather
     together on these first lands,” they said; “here only can we
     arrange ourselves since leaving Tulan.”

17. Xebokotah [c]a pe xey [c]ope chuvi çanayi xavi[c]a que re xambey
xohpe chic chi palouh, xohel [c]ape chuchij ya. Xe [c]a cani xu xibih ri
vuk ama[t] ronohel; quere xubijh ahlabal ronohel, ok xe cha [c]a ri vuk
ama[t]: Xere an kikan ree mixi[c,]et; mi[c]a xka çaruvach yvukin,
yxahaua, yx ahlabal, maqui xkobe yvu[c]in relebal [t]ih, xati ka canoh
can ka huyubal ka ta[t]ahal, xere kikan ree mixi[c,]et [t]u[t], raxom,
[c]ubul, xe cha ri vuk ama[t] xe pixa: Utzan, xeucheex, [c]a vuk ama[t]
xutzin [c]a qui poponic. Ok xepe [c]a chuvi huyu Deoçacvancu; xpe [c]a
ronohel xeul chi[c]a chuvi hunchic huyu, Meahauh rubi. Chiri xemolo
chivri quij, xeel chi [c]a chiri chuvi Meahauh, xeapon chic chuvi huyu
Valval Xucxuc ru bi xeuxlan chivi; xemolo chi na quij xeel chi ri xe
apon chica chuvi huyu Tapcu Oloman ru bi.

     17. They rushed forth and passed across the sand, and following one
     another we came to the shore of the sea, and we arrived at the edge
     of the water. Then all the seven villages began to fear, and all
     the warriors spoke, and then the seven tribes spoke: “Do you not
     see our burdens? Yet it is not long since we lifted up our faces
     with you, ye rulers, ye warriors; did we not come from the sun
     rising with you, that we might seek our hills and valleys? Have you
     not seen the burden, the green feathers, the garlands?” So spake
     the seven tribes, and commanded and said, “It is well,” and the
     seven tribes took counsel what to do. Afterwards they went on to
     the place Deoçacvancu; and then they all went on to another place
     called Meahauh. There many gathered together; having thus arrived
     at Meahauh, they thence departed for the place called Valval
     Xucxuc, and there they rested. There many gathered together, and
     departing they arrived at the place called Tapcu Oloman.

18. Xemolo chi[c]a qui conohel chi ri xoh popon chi vi [c]a chi ri, que
cha [c]a ri ka tata ka mama [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh, [c]a chiri [c]a xoh
vi ko viel ki, chi ri navipe xkaquir vi kikan. Xcha [c]a ri ahlabal
ronohel: Chinak ti kaban xere kavach vae oh ah chay, oh ah [c]am, oh
çaol ru vach kikan, at kacha[t] kanimal, xecha [c]a chikichin. Xoh
cha[c]a chique: Mian xnakahar kalabal xaka vika kij, xaka cauh kij, ko
[c]u[c]umah, kaquira kikan. [c]oh na vipe kikan, xpage ruma ka tee, ka
tata, ko [c]u[c]umah, yn yn etamayom. Xoh cha chique, ok xkaquir [c]a
kikan, ohoh [c]o kikan, ri [c]u[c]um, çahcab, [c]ha, pocob, achcayupil.

     18. Then all gathered together there, and we took counsel there,
     said our fathers and ancestors, Gagavitz and Zactecauh; and it was
     after we had arrived there that we first unloosed our burdens. All
     the warriors said: “Whom shall we make to be our head, we the
     masters of arms, the masters of booty, the assignors of tribute, oh
     thou, our younger brother, and thou, our older brother?” So said
     they to us. Then we said to them: “It is but a little while that we
     looked to make war, and already we are prepared, our standards are
     ready, our burdens are loosed; they are the burdens which were
     given us by our mothers and fathers; here are our standards; I, I
     am the Sage.” Thus we spoke when we unloosed our burden, our loads
     of maize, our standards, our paints, bows, shields, and
     double-headed lances.

19. Xka[c]ut [c]a vi koh ri chiquivach conohel, oh nabey xoh vikokij,
chi [c]ha, chi pocob, chi achcayupil, chi [c]u[c]um, chi çahcab, xvikan
[c]a ronohel, xoh cha [c]a chiquichin: Coan chivichin, yx kacha[t],
yxkanimal, kitzih vi chitan [t]al ahlabal xtikoquibeh, xtikatih vi ka
[c]haa, ka pocob. Xahala chic xatakobe, ti [c]ama kabey, xoh cha chique.
Maqui xcaho [c]amoh bey, xecha, ta [c]ama ka bey, at kacha[t], at
etamayom, xecha chike. Oh [c]a xoh [c]amo bey xoh cha chi[c]a chique.
Xavi vave komolo chivikij, xoh be [c]a ok xka[c]ul vachih [c]a hu [c]hob
labal, Ah Nonovalcat, Ah Xulpiti qui bi. He [c]oh chuchi palouh, pa hucu
e [c]oh vi.

     19. Thus we showed ourselves before the face of all; first we
     adorned ourselves with our bows, our shields, our two-headed
     lances, our feathers, our paints; we put them all on, and we said
     to them, “On with you, you our younger brothers, you our elder
     brothers, truly this war is certain, we must enter upon it, we
     must test our bows, our shields. It makes little difference which
     way we go; choose ye the road,” said we to them. “It is not for us
     to choose the road,” said they. “Choose thou the road, thou our
     younger brother, thou our teacher,” said they to us. Then we chose
     the road, and we told it to them. All of us then gathered together,
     and soon we met face to face a party of warriors, called those of
     Nonovalcat and those of Xulpit. They were on the border of the
     ocean; they were there in their boats.

20. Kitzih ti xibin que [c]habin, quetzalo, hucumah [c]a xepax kumari,
xetzalo chipe [c]hakap pahucu; ok xe paxin Ah Nonovalcat, Ah Xulpiti,
xecha chi[c]a conohel ahlabal: Chinak ti ki[c]ovibeh chuvi palouh, at
kacha[t], xecha. Xoh cha chi[c]a: chique hucu tiki[c]ovibeh mahatikil
kalabal. Xavi[c]a pa qui hucu Ah Nonovalcat xohoc vi, ok xohbe relebal
[t]ih, ha[c]aok xohoc apon. Kitzih tixibin chi tinamit, chi hay [c]ovi
Ah Çuyva, chila relebal [c]ih, xoh ocnaek [c]a apon tzamhay, quere bila
xbe kato[t]o, ok xohoc apon, kitzih ti xibin ok xpeul chucohol hay,
kitzih tibirbot, xpalah poklah ok xpeul, xtzalo cochoch, xtzalo [c]a
qui[c,]ij, ca[c], xtzalo conohel cavah, xahuye[t], xacayek xkaban ohxoh
paxin ki [c]oh xbe chicah, [c]oh xkapan uleuh, [c]oh x xule xhote,
chikichin konohel, haok xu[c]ut ru naval ru halebal. Ronohel ahlabal,
huhunal, chi[c]a xeul chuvi huyu Tapcu Oloman, pam pokon chic xoh
molokij, chiri xoh [c]u[c]umah viel, xoh vikon viel, yx ka[c]ahol, que
cha ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh. Tok xka [c]utubeh [c]a ki, ba xa colovi
avi, xoh cha chi re Qeche vinak: Xaqui tohoh quihilil xibe chicah, xa
chicah xbe nucolo vivi, xcha, quere[c]a xubinaah vi Tohohil ri: xcha
chi[c]a Ço[c,]il vinak, xaxi [c]ohe can chiri, xaxi colovi pa ru chij
cakix, xcha; quere[c]a xubijnaah vi Cakix can ri. Xoh cha chi[c]a oh
Cakchiquel vinak: xa ni[c]ah ta[t]ah xnucol vivi, xaxi kapon uleuh;
quere[c]a xubinaah vi Chita[t]ah ri, [t]ucumatz tucheex hunchic, xa paya
xucol viri. Xcha chi[c]a Tukuchee vinak, xaxi colovi ahcic chupam hun
ama[t], xcha: quere[c]a xubinaah vi Ahcic ama[t]ri. Xcha chic Akahal
vinak: xaxincol vi chumpam akah, xcha; quere[c]a xubinaah vi Akalahayri.
Quere[c]a xebinaah vi conohel vi [c]iy chi; maqui xtivoqueçah xecolo vi
quij; maqui naek xaka meztam, chirelebal [t]ih xbe oc vipe quibi
conohel, [c]axto[c] [c]a xoh paxin vi ul ki, que cha ri [t]a[t]avitz,
Çactecauh. Xoh cha[c]a oh ankatucu rupam ka huyubal, ka ta[t]abal: Mixbe
ka tiha ka [c]ha ka pocob, vue bala [c]o chivi kalabal, oh [c]a kacanoh
ka huyubal ka ta[t]ahal, xoh cha [c]a. Ok xoh paxin kij chuvi huyu, ok
xoh pe [c]a konohel hutak [c]hob, chu bey xux, xa chi vi ha qui bey. Ok
xetzolih chipe chuvi huyu Valval Xucxuc, xe y[c]o[c]ape chuvi huyu
Memehuyu, Tacna huyu ru bi, xeul chic chuvi Çakiteuh, Çaki[c]uva, ru bi.
Xeel chipe chuvi Meahauh Cutam chah, [c]a chila[c]a xebe tzolih chivipe
chuvi huyu Çakihuyu Tepacuman ru bi; Tok xi[c]o qui [c,]eta qui huyubal,
qui ta[t]ahal; okxe y[c]ope chuvi huyu To[t]ohil xçaker vi Qeche vinak.
Xe i[c]o chipe Pantzic, Paraxon xoh çaker vi, yxka[c]ahol, que cha[c]a
ri henabey katata kamama [t]a[t]avitz Çactecauh. Ha[c]ari huyu ta[t]ah
xey[c]o vi xemeho vi, maqui xti[c]iz ka[t]ahartiçah xananoh xkabijh,
maquina xakameztam, kitzih vichi [c]iya huyu xoh i[c]o vi, quecha ri
oher katata kamama.

     20. Truly it was fearful, the arrow-shooting and the fighting; but
     soon they were routed by us, and half the fighting was in the
     boats. When those of Nonovalcat and Xulpit had been routed, all the
     warriors spoke: “How shall we cross over the sea, our younger
     brother?” they asked. And we said to them: “We shall cross in the
     boats, while our battle is not yet known.” Then we entered into the
     boats of those of Nonovalcat; when we came from the east then we
     entered them. Truly, it was fearful in the town and houses of those
     of Zuyva, there in the east; for when we entered at the furthest
     house, they could not understand how we had entered. Truly, it was
     fearful there among the houses; truly, the noise was great, the
     dust was oppressive; fighting was going on in the houses, fighting
     with the dogs, the wasps, fighting with all. One attack, two
     attacks we made, and we ourselves were routed, as truly they were
     in the air, they were in the earth, they ascended and they
     descended, everywhere against us, and thus they showed their magic
     and their sorcery. All the warriors, each one by himself, returned
     to the place, Tapcu Oloman; we gathered together in sadness, there
     where we had put on our feathers, where we had adorned ourselves,
     oh you our children, as was related by Gagavitz and Zactecauh. When
     we asked each other where our salvation was, it was said to us by
     the Quiche men: “As it thundered and resounded in the sky, truly in
     the sky must our salvation be;” so they said, and therefore the
     name Tohohil was given to them. The Zotzil nation said that really
     there was salvation in the mouth of an ara, and so the name Cakix
     was given to them. We, the Cakchiquels, we said: “Truly, in the
     middle of the valley lies our salvation, entering there into the
     earth.” Therefore the name was given, Chitagah. Another, who said
     salvation was in the water, was called Gucumatz. The Tukuche said
     salvation was in a town on high, so they were called Ahcicamag. The
     Akahals said, “We may be saved in a honeycomb,” therefore they were
     called Akalahay. Thus all received their names. Do not believe,
     however, that many were saved. Do not forget that all these names
     came from the east. But the Evil One scattered us abroad, said
     Gagavitz and Zactecauh. Thus we spoke when we turned about in our
     hills and valleys: “We lately took up our bows and shields, if
     anywhere there was war; let us now seek our hills and valleys.”
     Thus we spoke. Then we were scattered about in many places; then we
     all went forth, each division its own way, each family its own way.
     Then a return was made to the place Valval Xucxuc, and they passed
     on to the places called Meme and Tacna, and they arrived at the
     places called Zakiteuh and Zakiquva. They went on to Meahauh and
     Cutamchah, and there they turned about and came to the places
     called Zakihuyu and Tepacuman. Then it was they could see their own
     hills and vales; and they came to the place called Togohil, where
     the Quiche men made a beginning. As they returned to Pantzic and
     Paraxon, we made a beginning, oh you our children, as said our
     first fathers and ancestors, Gagavitz and Zactecauh. Such were the
     hills and vales through which we passed and turned about. “Let not
     the praise due us for these our words cease, nor let it be
     forgotten that truly to you we gave the places we passed over.”
     Thus spoke of old our fathers and our ancestors.

21. Ree chi[c]a huyue xey [c]ovi chuvi Popo abah, xeka chuvi Qhopiytzel,
pa nima [c]oxom, xe nima chah, xeka chila mukulic ya molomic chee. Ok
xilitah [c]a ri [c]oxahil, [c]obakil, rubij, Chiyol Chiabak ru bi huyu
xilitah vi, xavi Bacah, xahun chi lol, ru halebal. Ok xilitah x[c]utux
[c]a: chinak catux, xucheex. Xcha [c]a ri [c]oxahil, [c]obakil: At
ahauh, maqui quina camiçah, xa yn acha[t] animal, xa yn cachinak can
ruma Bacah Pok, Bacah Xahil, xaquin ikan a tem a [c]hacat, at ahauh,
xecha. Xecha chi[c]a ri [t]a[t]avitz Çactecauh: Maquian at nu hay nu
chinamit catux. Kitzih vi chi at nucha[t], nunimal, xucheex [c]a; xa[c]a
cha ri e chinamital, xeucheex, he[c]ari Telom Cahibak quibi. Ok xel
chi[c]a chiri Chiyol Chiabak, xeçolochic rucamul cakan xei[c]o chucohol
huyu boleh chi[t]a[t] chi Hunahpu, chiri[c]a xqui[c]ul vachih vi ru[c]ux
huyu, chi[t]a[t] Çaki[c]oxol rubi; kitzih [c]iy ru camiçam vi
Caki[c]oxol, kitzih tixibin tivachin, xa ele[t]on, quecha.

     21. These are the places over which they passed to Popoabah, whence
     they descended to Qhopiytzel, among the broken rocks, among the
     great trees; then they descended to Mukulicya (the hidden waters)
     and Molomic Chee (the stacked-up wood). There they met the Qoxahil
     and the Qobakil, as they were named, at the places called Chiyol
     and Chiabak, there they met them, the only survivors of the Bacah,
     by their magic power. When they met them, they asked and said, “Who
     art thou?” Qoxahil and Qobakil answered: “O thou our lord, do not
     kill us; I am thy brother, thy elder brother. We two alone remain
     from the Bacah Pok and the Bacah Xahil. I am the servant of your
     throne, your sovereignty, O thou our lord.” So spoke they. Then
     spoke Gagavitz and Zactecauh: “Thou art not of our house; thou art
     not of our tribe.” But later it was said by the tribes: “Truly thou
     art our brother, our elder.” They are those called Telom and
     Cakibak. When they went forth from Chiyol and Chiabak, twice they
     turned their steps and passed between the mountain ranges to the
     fire, to Hunahpu; and they met face to face in the spirit of the
     forest, the fire called Zakiqoxol. Truly, this Zakiqoxol kills many
     men. Truly, he is fearful, a robber, they say.

22. Chiri [c]a chucohol huyu, chi [t]a[t] ruchahim vi quibey, ok xeel
apon, tok xuban [c]a ri Caki[c]oxol: Chinak ri mak alabon oh [c,]et,
xecha [c]a. Ok xtak [c]ari [c]oxahil [c]obakil, xbe ru [c,]etalol ru
halebal, xcha [c]a ok xul kitzih ti xibin ti vachin, xa naek hun maqui e
[c]iy xcha, ka[c,]eta na, chinak tux bay xibih yviho, xecha [t]a[t]avitz
Çactecauh. Xucheex [c]a ok x[c,]et: chinak catux xcat ka camiçah, nak
rumal tachahih bey, xucheex, xucheex [c]a. Xcha [c]a: Maqui quina
camiçah, xavi vave yn[c]ovi, xa yn ru [c]ux huyu. Xcha ok x[c]utux
[c]ari roqueçam; xataya chuvichin ri avoqueçam. Ok xuyape ri roqueçam,
halizm xahpota qui[c], xahabi qui[c], ru camiçabal Çaki[c]oxol. Xere
xucolbeh pe ri, xel [c]a chiri xekah apon xehuyu. Tok xemi[c]h chi[c]a
ruma chee ruma [c,]iquin, quere ti[c]hao chee xca[c]axah, xxuban chi[c]a
pe [c,]iquin. Xecha [c]a, ok xca[c]axah: Chinak ri ti ka[c]axah na,
chinak tux, xecha. Xa[c]a hari chee rutunum ri, hari ti ki [c,]i[c,], pa
[c]echelah, ha[c]a ri balam [c,]iquin xxuban, quere[c]a xo vi can ru bi
huyu ri [c]hitabal.

     22. Going on, they arrived in the middle of the woods at a fire
     built by one guarding the road, and it was made by Zakiqoxol. “Who
     are these boys whom we see?” said he. Then were sent forward the
     Qoxahil and the Qobakil, with their mysterious vision and magical
     power; they spoke when they arrived. One of them spoke, not many
     [at once], as it was truly terrible to look upon, and he said: “Let
     us see what kind of a hideous mole are you?” So said Gagavitz and
     Zactecauh. Thus they spoke when they saw him, and they said: “Who
     art thou? We shall kill thee. Why is it that thou guardest the road
     here?” So they said and spoke thus. Then he said: “Do not kill me;
     I, who am here, I am the heart of the forest.” Thus he spoke, and
     then asked that he might clothe himself. “They shall give to thee
     wherewith to clothe thyself” [said they]. Then they gave him
     wherewith to clothe himself, a change of garment, his blood-red
     cuirass, his blood-red shoes, the dying raiment of Zakiqoxol. By
     this means he saved himself, descending into the forest. Then there
     was a disturbance among the trees, among the birds; one might hear
     the trees speak and the birds call. They said, when one listened:
     “What is this that we hear? Who is this?” said they. And the
     branches of the trees in the forest murmured, and the tigers and
     birds called one to another. Therefore that spot is called
     _[c]hitibal_, “The Place of Disquiet.”

23. Xeel chi[c]a chiri, xahun xtika yukuba vi ru bixic huyu vae, Beleh
chi [t]a[t], Beleh chi Hunahpu, Xeçuh, Xetocoy Xeuh, Xeamatal chij,
[c,]unun choy Xecucu huyu [c,]unun huyu, Xiliviztan, Çumpancu, Tecpalan,
Tepuztan, xekah [c]a apon [c]hol ama[t], Çuquitan, kitzih [c]a yeuh que
[c]hao, xa chicop etamayom qui [c]habal; xachire chicop heri Loxpin,
Qhupichin, qui bi, xkayot vi, xoh cha [c]a chique xoh apon: _vaya vaya
ela opa_. Cani xe macamo ok xka [c]habeh ri qui[c]h bal chique
ah[c]holama[t], xacani xqui xibih quij, xa utz quitzil xoh apon.

     23. They departed thence. Once for all we shall mention the names
     of these various places: Belehchigag, Belehchi Hunahpu, Xecuh,
     Xetocoy, Xeuh, Xeamatal Chii, Tzunun Choy, Mount Xecucu, Mount
     Tzunun, Xiliviztan, Zunpancu, Tecpalan, Tepuztan. They then
     descended to Cholamag and Zuchitan. Truly, the language there was
     difficult, and the barbarians alone knew to speak their language.
     We inquired only of the barbarians, Loxpin and Chupichin, and we
     said to them when we arrived: “_Vaya, vaya, ela, opa._” They were
     surprised when we spoke their language to those of Cholamag, and
     many of them were frightened, but we received only good words.

24. Xeapon chi[c]a chuvi huyu Memehuyu Tacnahuyu, rucamul cakan; maqui
[t]alah que[c]hao, quere xae mem. Kitzih naek e utzilah vinak. Xaka
[c]hal xoh mi[c]ho, xoh yaloh chiri xketamah qui[c]habal. Quecha [c]a
chikichin: At auh, mixatul, ku[c]in, xaoh acha[t] animal, xata vave cat
[c]ohe vi ku[c]in, quecha, xrah hameztah ri ka[c]habal, xax kabah chic
ka[c]ux, ok xpeul cu[c]in.

     24. They went to the places, Meme and Tacna, for the second time.
     They could not speak well, hence the name _Mem_. Truly, they were
     good people. They spoke to mock us, and we remained to learn their
     language. They said to us: “Thou our lord, remain with us; we are
     thy elder and younger brother; abide with us,” said they. They
     wished us to forget our speech, but our heart was as a stone when
     we arrived with them.

25. Ree chi[c]a [c]hakap rubi huyue, xel chivi Çakiteuh Çakiqua, ni[c]ah
Çubinal, ni[c]ah Chacachil, [c,]ulahauh, xba cah, ni[c]ah Nimxor,
ni[c]ah Moinal, ni[c]ah Carchah; xe i[c]o [c]a pe ru[c]in valil [c]ahol
[c,]unun [c]ahol: xeel chic ru[c]in Mevac, Nacxit, kitzih chinima ahauh,
ha ki [c]a rikan ri que chapbex ahaua ahpop, ahpop[c]amahay.[TN-13] ha
roqueçam ri Orbal tzam ri tiquiyo ru bi ha [c]a ti Cinpual Taxuch.
Kitzih lo[t] chique [c]iz y[c]ovinak pe ronohel ahlabal chiri xe ucheex
conohel ruma ahauh Nacxit: Xati hotoba can ree vapal abah toc chuvi
vochoch, tin ya [c]a chivichin ree vahauarem, tiquiyo Çinpuval Taxuch,
xe ucheex conohel ahlabal, xax mani vi [c]a xquiho abah chique, xavi
[c]a xe ucheex chic, [c]ate[c]a xehotobaan can ri vapal abah, quere[c]a
x[c]iz ruya vipe rahauarem vach Nacxit vi xepoo chi[c]a chiri.

     25. These were also a part of the names of the places: they went to
     Zakiteuh and Zakiqua, the midst of Tubinal, the midst of Chacachil,
     Tzulahauh which reaches to the sky, the midst of Nuüxor, the midst
     of Moinal, the midst of Carchah. They passed over with the sons of
     Valil and the sons of Tzunun. They went forth from Merac and
     Nacxit. Truly this one (Nacxit) was a great lord, and the vassals
     who aided him to seize the sovereignty were themselves rulers and
     chieftains. He invested Orbaltzam, and said that his name should be
     Cinpual Taxuch. Truly he finished by making himself the most dear
     of all men to all the warriors by the words spoken to all by this
     lord Nacxit: “You have come to be the stone framework, the support
     of my house; I will give to you sovereignty, and give you Cinpuval
     Taxuch.” So said he to all the warriors. “I have not placed the
     stones of the others,” so said he to them. And thus they came to
     erect the stone framework. Therefore, Nacxit completed the
     appointment of a companion in the sovereignty, and they cried out
     aloud with joy.

26. Ok xilitah chi[c]ari Ah Mimpokom Ah Rax[c]hi[c]h pa Çaktzuy rubi
huyu, tantu çavi ruvach rikan ronohel Pokoma; tantiban xahoh, xman queh,
xman [c,]iquin, raal [c]akol queh, xu[c]: tzara xaxere rikan Ah
Rax[c]hi[c]h, Ah Minpokom ri, xa vuk ama[t] chinaht x[c,]et vi. Ok xtak
[c]a el ri chicop Çakbim, xbe [c,]eto quichin, xetak chi navipe ri
[c]oxahil [c]obakil lol, ru halebal. Ok xpe ru [c,]eta, xe ucheex [c]a
xebe: Oh y[c,]eto naktux ri quixapon nakah, vue kalabal, xeucheex el. Xe
ul [c]a he Ah Mukchee, mani xqui [c]ut quij, maqui xquina xebe [c,]et.
Xpe [c]a retal ruma Çakbin ru [c]aan Huntzuy tzara xul. Yn cheel xbe
y[c,]eta, xeucheex, kitzih nima [t]a[t]al, nima xahoh tantiban, [c]iy
[c]a chu [c]ohlem, que cha xeul. Xe cha [c]ari [t]a[t]avitz Çactecauh,
chiquichin rachbiyil; quix vikon, vue kalabal, quecha. Xevi ko [c]a
quij, chi [c]ha, chi pocob, he cautal xe be xe[c,]et [c]a ruma Pokoma.
Xa cani ru xibih ri Pokoma, xeel cani[c]a x[c]am cokotaxic.

     26. Then they met those of Mimpokom and Raxchich, at the place
     called Tzaktzuy. They met all the subjects of the Pokomams. They
     dance their ballet, but it is without deers, without birds, without
     pheasants, without the trappers and their nets. The subjects of
     Raxchich and Mimpokon gather together; but the seven nations look
     on at a distance. They sent out the brute Zakbim as a spy; and on
     our side were summoned the Qoxahil and the Qobakil, magicians,
     enchanters. On their departure, they were told: “Let us see who are
     approaching, and if we are to fight.” So it was said. Those of
     Mukchee arrived, but they were in no great number, nor had they
     come to spy out. The signal was given by Zakbin, while Huntzuy came
     into line. “Now I see them,” they said. “This is really a wonderful
     thing, a wonderful dance they are making; there are many under the
     trees.” So spoke they on arriving. Thus said Gagavitz and Zactecauh
     to their companions: “Let us take up our arms if we are to fight.”
     Immediately all took up their bows and shields, and thus arrayed
     showed themselves to the Pokomams. At once terror struck the
     Pokomams, and ours rushed forth to seize them in their disorder.

27. Ok xeilitah [c]a ri e cay Loch rubi hun, Xet rubi rucam, [c]a chila
xeilitah vi xe Cucuhuyu [c,]ununhuyu, que cha [c]a ok xeilitah: Maqui
koh acamiçah, at ahauh, xa kohikan a tem a [c]hacat; xecha, halal oc
quikan, xahuhun chi [c]habitun cu[c]aam; xe tzolih chipe, xquitzak chi
can hun ru tzuyil, qui tzara chiri xepax vi, quere[c]a xubinah vi huyu
Tzaktzuy, ri retal x[c]amvi Ahquehay, heri nabey qui tata qui mama
xeboço Ahquehayi. Yncheel ru[c]amic vue, quixcha, [c]ohe rubi huyu.
Xe[c]am vi ri [c]hakap chinamit, yxka[c]ahol, quere can kitzih he nabey
ka tata ka mama xoh boz vi xoh vinakir vi, oh Cakchiquel vinak.

     27. Then they encountered the two, Loch and Xet by name; they
     encountered them there at the foot of the mountains Cucu and
     Tzunun. These said when they were encountered, “Do not kill us, O
     thou our lord; we will be the servants of your throne, of your
     power.” So they said, and entered at once as vassals, each one
     carrying the bows and drums. Going on, a return was made, and they
     were hindered by some calabash vines, and were ensnared and
     scattered. Therefore, that place was called Tzaktzuy, and the
     Ahquehay took it as their sign, that is, those first fathers and
     ancestors who brought forth the Ahquehay. This is why they took it,
     it is said, and such is the name of the place. They chose a portion
     of the tribe, oh you my children, and truly thus it was that our
     first fathers and ancestors brought us forth and gave us
     existence--us, the Cakchiquel people.

28. Ok xe[c]ulu chi [c]a qui chuvi huyu Oronic Cakhay, xul chic ronohel
vuk ama[t] ahlabal. Xcha [c]ari [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh chirichin Qeche
vinak: koh i[c]o pa huyu konohel, ka [c]haca ru [t]ih ronohel vuk ama[t]
Tecpan, ka [c,]umah chiqui [c]ux; at catahilan can quivach, cat pa e can
chuvi Cakay, yn [c]a quinoc chupam huyu Cakay, yn qui[c]haco quichin, ti
[c,]umah chi qui [c]ux, chupam huyu ba [c]o vi ti [c]hacatah, ba[c]ovi
maqui ti [c]hacatah; xe cha [c]a, ok xcam quitzih, x[c]oh pa Cakhay, ok
xtiquer ri[c]ovic ronohel, chiri [c]a chupam huyu x[c,]umax vi chi qui
[c]ux. Ok xuna [c]a ri [c]ul ya, [c]ul chahom, maqui xi[c]o chupam huyu.
Xcha: At ahau, xa tin ya queh cab chi vichin, yn ahqueh, yn ahcab
quinux, maqui quin i[c]o, xcha ri yuquite chahom. Quere[c]a xrelahih vi
queh cab, yuquite chahom ri. Xeel chi [c]a chiri xey[c]o chipe chuvi,
Tunaco[c,]ih [t]ahinak abah. Chiri[c]a xquitih vi qui [c]habi tun Loch
Xet, xaco[c,]iham qui tun, quere[c]a xubinaah vican huyu Tunaco[c,]ih

     28. Then they went forth to meet those at the place Oronic Cakhay,
     and all the warriors of the seven villages arrived. Then spoke
     Gagavitz and Zactecauh to the Quiche men: “Let us all go to the
     place. Let us conquer the glory of all the seven villages of
     Tecpan, let us weaken their hearts; do thou count their faces, do
     thou stand here at the place Cakhay; I shall enter the place
     Cakhay; I shall conquer them; their heart shall be weakened; there,
     in the place, they shall be conquered, where they never before were
     conquered.” Thus they spake when they ordered the slaughter, when
     they were in Cakhay; then it began with all of them in the place,
     and their hearts were weakened. But on account of the defence with
     water, and the defence with cinders, they could not enter the
     place, and their hearts were weakened. Then it was said: “O thou
     lord, I will give thee the venison and the honey. I am the lord of
     the venison, the lord of the honey; but I have not passed because
     of the cinders,” it was said. Thus the venison and the honey were
     protected by means of the cinders. They went from there to
     Tunacotzih, “the sounding stone.” There Loch and Xet made trial of
     the bows and drums, and they beat their drums; therefore the name
     of that spot is Tunacotzih, “the Drum-beating.”

29. Ok xilitah chi [c]a ri Cavek chiri xenima chah, Ximbal xu[c] rubi
huyu. Ok xa[c]axax [c]a ro[t]ebal çak corovach xe nima chah, ru halebal
ri cavek. Que cha [c]a ri [t]a[t]avitz Çactecauh: chinak tux ri, chinak
chi kucheeh, quecha. Ok xcha [c]a ri Loch, Xet: [c]o vikan, at ahval, ha
ti koqueçah, xecha. Ox xquiz [c]a quikan; xa [c]a xu[c], çakquiy,
xabanbal xahab quikan, mani quikan xae ru ka xbachican quehay,
[c,]umhay; quere quibinaam vi Ahquehayi ri. Ok xrip [c]ari xu[c] chuvi
chee, x[c]ambex richin çakcorovach xe nima chah, ok xuya [c]arij chupam
xu[c] ri çak corovach, xcha [c]a ok xuya ri: At ahauh, maqui quin a
camiçah. Chinak na [c]a catux, xucheex. Xcha[c]a: Xa xoh çachcan ruma
ahauh Qechee, xa oh acha[t] animal, oh Cavek, xakoti[c]en atitil,
a[t]ana abah, xecha [c]a ri ok xquiya quij, qui tata qui mama Caveki. He
cay chi achi Totunay ru bi hun, Xurcah ru bi hun chic, [c]oh quikan
Cavek Paoh ru bi, xeucheex [c]a ruma [t]a[t]avitz, at rucah nu chinamit
catux, [t]eka[c]uch, Ba[c]ahol, Cavek Cibakihay, qui xucheex, kitzih vi
chi at nu cha[t] nu nimal. Xavi [c]a xu cheex chic Ahquehay, chirih nu
chinamit cat ahilax vi, at rikan ka[c,]ak kibah catux, huruma ri mani
rikan, xere vi ri xu[c], x[c]ambex Cavek, que [c]a x[c,]akat vi chinamit
ri, que cha oher ka tata ka mama, yxka[c]ahol, xa maqui hemezta ytzih ha
e ahaua vi.

     29. At this time they met the Cavek under the great pines, at the
     place called Ximbalxug. They heard the plaint of the doves beneath
     the great pines; the enchantment of the Cavek. Gagavitz and
     Zactecauh said: “Who art thou? What is that we hear?” Then said
     Loch and Xet: “They are our vassals, oh our lord, they obey us.”
     They began to show their burdens; bird nets, maguey, tools for
     making shoes, were their burdens--no other burdens, for their
     houses were of deer skins and hides; hence they were called
     Ahquehay. Then they carried the nets to the woods; they caught
     doves in them beneath the great pines, and they brought many of
     these doves caught in the nets, and said: “Oh our lord, do not slay
     us.” “Who art thou?” was asked. They answered: “We have been ruined
     by the Quiche men, we your brother, your kinsman, we the Cavek;
     they have diminished their regal dignity.” So spoke they, and gave
     many gifts, they the fathers and ancestors of the Cavek. There were
     two heroes, Totunay the name of one, Xurcah of the other, the
     vassals of Cavek Paoh; they were addressed by Gagavitz: “Thou art
     the fourth of our tribes, Gekaquch, Baqahol, Cavek, and Cibakihay.”
     Thus he addressed them: “Truly thou art my brother, my kinsman.”
     Thus he spoke to those of Ahquehay: “Thou art counted in my tribe,
     thy vassalage shows that thou art of our ancient home, no longer
     art thou a vassal nor carriest the net. The Caveks are received,
     and form part of our tribe.” So spoke of yore our fathers and
     ancestors, oh my children, and we must not forget the words of
     these rulers.

_Qui [c]hacbal [c]a ka mama, ok xcam._

     _The Victory of Our Forefathers, After One Had Died._

30. Xeapon chi[c]a chuvi huyu [c]hopi ytzel, xcha [t]a[t]avitz chire
Çactecauh: ko[t]ax chuvi çivan.--Utzan, xcha. Ha [c]a nabey x[t]ax ri
[t]a[t]avitz, ok xrah [c]a x[t]ax chic ri Çactecauh; maqui [c]a x[t]ax,
xtzak ka pa civan: equre[c]a xcam vi can hun ka mama rij, xhachatah qui
vach, xahun chic xohboço, oh Xahila, ri [t]a[t]avitz.

     30. Having arrived at the place, Qhopiytzel, Gagavitz said to
     Zactecauh: “Let us cross this ravine.” “Good,” said he. Gagavitz
     first crossed, and then Zactecauh wished to cross. But he did not
     cross, but fell into the ravine. Thus died one of our ancestors,
     and their possessions were divided; but the other, that is,
     Gagavitz, brought us forth--us, the Xahila.

31. Xeapon chi[c]a chuvi huyu, Çakihuyu, Teyocuman, ru camul cakan;
chiri [c]a x[c]i [c,]et vi el ru [t]a[t]al huyu, [t]a[t] xanul ru bi,
kitzih ti xibin ru [t]a[t]al tipe chupam huyu; to[t]ol ru[t]a[t]al
chinaht. Xmani vi tucheex roquebexic, xa[c]a huna huyu [t]a[t]xanul
[c]oh ru [t]a[t]al; xmani vi tipe vi [t]a[t], xaporinak chi[c]a ronohel
ahlabal vuk ama[t] xe huyu, mani tanti cucheex, kitzih tan [c]ok qui
[c]ux, mani tan tucheex ru [c]amic ru [t]a[t]al, xa xeho chic ho oyobem,
quecha ri ka mama ri [t]a[t]avitz, xeapon [c]a xe huyu, xecha [c]a
conohel ahlabal: At kacha[t], mixatul xa at chic at koyoben, chinak tu
cheex ru [c]amic ka[t]a[t], mix katih tatiha ka [t]ihil at kacha[t],
xecha conohel, xoh cha[c]a chique: Nak tahoon tin canah nutihana, hari
achih ru [c]ux, maqui tu xibih rij, yn quinabeyah, xcha [t]a[t]avitz
chiquichin, mani xahoon xa canih xquixibih qui. Kitzih ti xibin ru
[t]a[t]al huyu; ok xraho [c]a ri hun Çaki[c,]unun rubi. Yn quibe
avu[c]in, xcha ri Çaki[c,]unun, xcha chire [t]a[t]avitz.--Tok xvikon
[c]a xquicauh, xqui cha [c]a qui quicabichal: Maquina chi [c]ha, chi
pocob. Xa xet tule xa [c,]imah vi, xa bolol, raxah ru bi, hari ça[t]ul
tel chi ya; xquivikbeh quij, xoc pa qui vi, xoc chi qui kul, chi qui
[c]huc, chi qui [t]a, chi cakan camiçabal richin [t]a[t], quecha. Ha
[c]a xka chupam [t]a[t] ri [t]a[t]avitz, ha [c]a Çaki[c,]unun, xyaan can
ru vi [t]a[t], xa rax yxim xpu[t] ka pa ya xyabex ruvi [t]a[t]: kitzih
[c]a tixibin ok xkah chupam huyu, ok xpax ru [t]a[t]al huyu, xto[t]e
rucibel chinaht, xoc [t]ekum a[t]a. Xepax conohel ri e [c]oh xe huyu,
xqui xibih qui. Xbe yaloh pa huyu ri [t]a[t]avitz, xqui tzakah ru [t]ih,
xcam chi qui [c]ux. [c]oh x[c]amo [t]a[t], [c]oh mani x[c]amo
chiquichin; halatak oc ru bix [t]a[t] xkaul xe huyu; [c]oh xilon, [c]oh
maqui xilon chique, ok xel [c]a pe chupam huyu. Kitzih ti xibin chic ru
vach, ok xel pe pa huyu [t]a[t]xanul, xecha [c]a ronohel ahlabal vuk
ama[t]: Kitzih tixibin ru puz ru naval, ru [t]a[t]al ru tepeval, xcam
xkana, quecha.

     31. They then arrived at the white hills called Teyocuman, coming
     there for the second time. There they saw the fire of the mountain
     called Gagxanul. Truly it was frightful to see the fire coming from
     the mountain, the fire shooting forth afar off. No one could say
     how it could be passed by, as the mountain Gagxanul was on fire for
     a whole year, after which fire did not come forth. When all the
     warriors of the seven villages had arrived at the foot of the
     mountain, no one spoke; truly, they grieved at heart, nor could one
     say how the fire could be captured. They could but go on hoping.
     When he arrived at the mountain they spoke to our ancestor,
     Gagavitz, and all the warriors said to him: “Thou our brother, thou
     hast arrived, thou in whom is our hope. Who will go down to the
     capture of this fire? Who will descend for us, who are seeking our
     fortune, oh thou our brother?” So said all; and we replied: “Who of
     you wishes that I shall try my fortune? He has a heart of a hero,
     that fears not. I will go first.” Thus spoke Gagavitz to them: “You
     must not fear so soon.” Truly, the fire of the mountain was
     terrible. Then there was one named Zakitzunun, who wished to go
     with him. “I will go with you,” said Zakitzunun, speaking to
     Gagavitz. Then they were armed and their ornaments put upon them.
     But the two said together: “There is no use of bows or shields.”
     They laid them aside; they took pointed instruments and dug a
     trench, and they placed by the water those banana trees called
     _raxah_. When these things were in order, they entered first with
     their heads, then with their necks, then with their arms, with
     their hands, with their feet, so as to destroy the fire, as they
     said. Then Gagavitz descended into the fire, while Zakitzunun
     conducted the water to the fire, and the green grass and maize
     mixed with the water flowed upon the fire. Truly, it was fearful
     when it descended into the mountain, when it scattered the fire of
     the mountain, when the smoke burst forth afar and darkness and
     night entered on the scene. All who were at the foot of the
     mountain fled, as they were greatly frightened. Gagavitz remained
     in the mountain. The day drew to a close, and their courage died in
     their hearts. The fire was captured, but it was not captured for
     them. A few sparks of the fire descended from the mountain. It
     reached some, but it did not reach them. Then he came from within
     the mountain. Truly, his face was terrible when he came from within
     the mountain Gagxanul. All the warriors of the seven villages said:
     “Truly his power, his knowledge, his glory and his majesty are
     terrible. He died, and yet he has come down.” So said they.

32. [c]ate[c]aok x[c]hocobax chuvi [c]hacat, ok xkaul, kitzih xquininah,
xe cha [c]a conohel: At kacha[t], mix akaçah ru [t]a[t]al huyu, mi xaya
ka [t]a[t]; yx cay chi al, hun nabey al, hun xambey al chivichin, yx ka
vi, yxka holom, xecha conohel ahlabal vuk ama[t], chirichin ri
[t]a[t]avitz. Ok xcha [c]a chiquichin: Xpeul ru [c]ux huyu nu teleche nu
cana, yx nucha[t], nunimal. Ok xquir [c]a ri ru [c]ux huyu,
xa[c]olo[c]ic [t]a[t] chi abah, hari abah çakcho[t] rubi, maqui raxa
abah, oxlahuh [c]a [c]oh [c]o ru [c]in ri abah, ha[c]a rix[c,]ul ru
[c]ux huyu [t]a[t]xanul; xa [c]a cha ri couh ru xahic rix[c,]ul, [c]i ya
[c]hob, tuban maqui ahilam re[c,]anibal.

     32. Therefore, when he had arrived they seated him on the throne,
     and truly made much of him, and all said: “Oh our brother, you have
     conquered the fire of the mountain; you have reduced for us the
     fire. Ye are two heroes; one is the first hero, and one follows
     him. Ye are our heads, our chiefs.” So said all the warriors of the
     seven villages to Gagavitz. Then he said to them: “The heart of the
     mountain has come as my slave, my captive, oh you my brethren, my
     kinsmen.” When the heart of the mountain is opened, the fire
     separates from the stone, even the stone called Gak Chog. It is not
     a green stone, and there are thirteen others with it, and hence
     comes the dance called “the heart of the mountain Gagxanul.” They
     say this dance is executed violently, with many troops (of
     dancers), nor can one count those who join the noise.

33. Xepe chi[c]a chiri xei[c]o chipe Çeçic Ynup rubi, xaceel chuvi choy;
ri ynup maqui na tiquil, mani ruxe ri ynup, xatibilan chuvi ya.
Quere[c]a ru binaam vi Çeçic Ynup ri xey [c]o chipe chuvi huyu,
[c]alalapacay ru bi; xax [c]al he ru xak pacay xqui[c]hacatih. Quere[c]a
xubinaah vi [c]alalapacay ri, quecha ka mama.

     33. They went from there and passed over to Cecic Ynup, as it is
     called, and they rowed on the lake. There was no ceiba tree rooted
     in the soil, nor did they go under a ceiba tree, but they went upon
     the water. Therefore, they called that place Cecic Ynup, “the
     buried Ceiba.” And they passed on to the place called Qalalapacay.
     There they twined the leaves of the anonas for the royal seat.
     Therefore, they called that place Qalalapacay, “anona garlands.” So
     say our ancestors.

_[c]ambal richin Ykoma[t] vae._

     _The Conquest of the Ikomagi._

34. Ok xet chi[c]a chinaht ri Cakixahay [c]ubulahay ru bi, rikam
Ykoma[t]i, cani x[c]amar rokotaxic cuma, runah [c]a xilitah Chi[t]alibal
rubi huyu; xuya vi ri hoye vi quivach, ok xilitah, xaxu [t]aba chic rij.
Quere[c]a xubinaah vi huyu, Chi[t]alibal ri. Xcha [c]a ok xu ya ri: Xa
yn acha[t] animal, xa mixi[c]hacatah, xaquin ikan a tem, a [c]hacat, yn
huvi chi vinak [c]o vikan. Xcha ri Ykoma[t]i, he [c]a rikan ri
Cakixahay, [c]ubulahay; quere[c]a ru[c]amic Ykoma[t] ri, xere [c]a
xcolotah. Chic ri xeboço chic Ço[c,]il vinak, qui tata qui mama ri
Ahpoço[c,]il Qulavi çochoh, [c]ula vi [c]anti quibi; xaqui vinakil xeel
chic mani chic quikan.

     34. Then they saw at a distance those called the Cakixahay and the
     Qubulahay, subjects of the Ikomagi. They were captured after they
     had been routed by a surprise, when they were not far from a place
     called Chigalibal. They were pardoned when they arrived, and our
     warriors extended their hands to them. Hence that place was called
     Chigalibal. They said, in yielding: “I am your brother, your elder.
     You are the conquerors. We are the subjects of your throne and your
     power. I swear it before these who are my subjects.” Thus spoke the
     Ikomagi, and thus their subjects, the Cakixahay and the Qubulahay.
     Thus did Ikomag submit and save his life. With them the Zotzils
     brought forth those fathers and elders, the Ahpozotzils named
     Qulavi Zochoh and Qulavi Qanti. But only their families, not their
     vassals, proceeded therefrom.

35. Ok xeapon chi[c]a chuvi huyu [c]akba[c,]ulu, ok xilitah chi[c]a ri
Tol[c]om rubi. Kitzih tixibin [c]o vi, tinicnot huyu [c]o vi ri
[c]akba[c,]ulu. Nabey [c]a xe [c]iz apon ronohel ahlabal, tanti qui
xibih quij, maqui tan quetiquer chu camiçaxic. Tok xeapon, xecha [c]a ri
ahlabal conohel: Mian xatul at kacha[t], bila tux ree, kitzih ti xibin
[c]o vi, quecha. Xecha [c]a vi he ka mama [t]a[t]avitz; chinak na pe
tux, yx ahlabal? xti[c]a [c,]et an ru vach. Maquian ka labal, maqui
[c]ha, pocob, tikoqueçah, yx [c]oh yx ka nimal, xecha, xetak conohel chu
chapic Tol[c]om. Ok xe cha [c]a: Nak na[c]a tucheex, at kacha[t],
mixkatih kitzih tixibin [c]o vi, at cabe chiil, xecha conohel. Tok xpe
[c]a ru[c,]eta ri Tol[c]om, xapon kitzih ti xibin [c]o vi tinicnot huyu
[c]o vi. Xcha [c]a chire Tol[c]om: Chinak catux? maat nucha[t] nu nimal.
Chinak catux? vacami xcat nucamiçah. Cani [c]a xa xibih rij, xcha [c]a:
Yn ral [c]habak nicnic, xa vi vochoch vae yn [c]o vi, at ahauh, xcha.
Catoho, bat tiquic, xucheex [c]a ri Tol[c]om. Ok xu ya rii, xchapatah,
xpe [c]a ru chapon chic xul cu[c]in, xeucheex [c]a ri ahlabal vuk
ama[t], ok xuya ri Tol[c]om: xtika[t]ahartiçah can vae huyu, yx quixçao
ru vach nu telechee nu cana; xtikaquiyah, xtika [c]atohih ru vi nu
telechee, xtike[c,]abeh xtika[c]ak, xtika[t]ahartiçah can rubi vae huyu
[c]akba[c,]ulu tucheex ruma vinak [c,]ak, yx ahaua, xeucheex [c]a
conohel ahlabal.

     35. After this they arrived at the place Qakbatzulu, where they met
     the one named Tolgom. Truly, terror was there, and the place
     Qakbatzulu trembled. At first all the warriors began to arrive; but
     fear was upon them lest they should there meet death. When he
     (Gagavitz) reached there, all the warriors said: “Thou arrivest,
     our brother. What is this? Truly it is fearful.” So said they; and
     to them said our ancestor, Gagavitz: “Who are ye, oh warriors? Let
     us look at his face. Can we not fight? Have we not bows and shields
     to effect an entrance, oh you who are my brethren?” So he spoke,
     and he sent all the warriors to seize Tolgom. Then they said: “What
     speech is this, oh brother? Is it not said that a great terror is
     there? Go thou and see.” So said they all. Then he went forth to
     see Tolgom, and truly he arrived at the place of the terror and
     where the hill trembled. At once he cried to Tolgom: “Who art thou?
     Thou art neither my brother nor my elder. Who art thou? This very
     day I shall slay thee.” Instantly was Tolgom filled with fear, and
     he replied: “I am the son of the Mud that Quivers. This is my
     house where I dwell, oh my lord.” So he said. “Go forth from here
     and live elsewhere,” was it answered to Tolgom. Then he submitted
     and was made prisoner, and his body was taken with him. Gagavitz
     said to the warriors and the seven towns when Tolgom gave himself
     up: “We have made this spot glorious. Show forth the face of my
     prisoner, my captive. We will adorn and sacrifice my captive. We
     will be friends with him and stand in front of him, and thus
     celebrate the name of this spot, Qakbatzulu, as it is called by a
     joking people, oh chieftains.” Such were the words addressed to all
     the warriors.

36. Quere[c]a xquibijh vae: At kaçha[t], hun nabey al, hun [c]a [c]hipil
al chikichin, xtiketah [t]ih çak chi popol vach oh oxlahuh chi ahlabal,
xti ka ya a muh a [t]alibal, a tem, a [c]hacat, avahavarem. He ree cay
chi al Ço[c,]il Tukuche que ucheex, xcat kachi quicohol Ahpoço[c,]il
Ahpoxahil, qui xucheex xa chiri taban vi, at naek huvi chi ahlabal, la
naek acha[t] animale, Bacah Pok, Bacah Xahil; qui xucheex naek xa hunam
[t]a[t]al tepeval, at kacha[t], xucheex [c]a; tok xelahibex ru vach, ok
ru yaic ri Ahpoço[c,]il Ahpoxahil, maqui naek oh Ço[c,]il Tukuche la
naek, kacha[t] ka nimal lae Bacah Pok, oh [c]a Bacah Xahil, yxka[c]ahol.
Quecha ri e oher katata kamama: Oh huvi chi ahlabal xa ruma ri nim qui
puz qui naval, he navipe hei kayom, ri [c]ha pocob. Quere[c]a xelahibex
vi quivach, a nabey ka mama ri, ruma ri [c]iy xukaçah ru [t]ih ralaxic.

     36. Therefore, they spoke thus: “Our brother, one child is the
     first and another the second among us. Hereafter we shall make this
     appear before the council, we the thirteen warriors. We will give
     to thee thy canopy, thy royal seat, thy carpet, thy throne, with
     power. These shall be called the two children of the Zotzil
     Tukuches, but thou shalt be the first man among the Ahpozotzils and
     the Ahpoxahils. They shall call thee forth to act; thou shalt be
     first among the warriors, thy brothers and thy elders, the Bacah
     Pok and the Bacah Xahils. They shall name thee equal to any in
     power and majesty, oh my brother.” Thus they said, and his head was
     lifted above the others, and he was given the power by the
     Ahpozotzils and the Ahpoxahils, but not by us, the Zotzil Tukuches,
     nor by our brother and elder, the Bacah Pok and the Bacah Xahil, my
     children. Our fathers and ancestors said of old: “We have been
     chosen by the warriors in their great skill and wisdom; their bows
     and shields have created us.” It was thus that our ancestors were
     first exalted by overcoming the greatness and the birth of many.

37. Ok xtiquer [c]a ru camiçaxic ri Tol[c]om, xvikitah na, xoc na ru
cauh, [c]ate [c]aok xrip ru[t]a chuvach chee lama x[c]ak vi. Ok xtiquer
[c]a xahoh ruma ronohel ahlabal, xavi Tol[c]om rubi bix. Xquixah ok
xtiquer [c]a ru[c]akic; maqui [c]a hari [c]haa tel pa [c]am, xahari
nahtik çimah chee x[c]akbex chuvi huyu [c]akba[c,]ulu x[c]akvi xbe na
qui [c]haa conohel. [c]ate ok xbe ru [c]ha ri kamama [t]a[t]avitz, cani
xi[c]o chupam huyu hari Chee [c,]ulu rubi, xu[c]akbeh Tol[c]om: [c]aha
xcamiçan he [c]ari conohel ahlabal, halatak oc qui [c]ha, xoc chinaht
xqui [c]ak vi. Quere ri vinak ok xcam [c]iy ru qui[c]el xel chirih che
lama: ok xpeh [c]a x[c]iz çipax chuvach ronohel vuk ama[t] ahlabal,
xquiyax, x[c]atohix rucamic haok x[t]ahar ri uchum, ti[c]o huhun huna,
xati ban vaim u[c]aam, xa que [c]habin a[c]uala xa tunay chic ru
[c]exevach tiqui [c]ak, bila [c]a tux ri Tol[c]om, quecha ka mama oher,
yxka[c]ahol. Quere[c]a xka[c]am viki ri ru[c]in Ço[c,]il Tukuche ruma
[c]a ru puz ru naval, ru [t]a[t]al, ru tepeval; xelahibex vi ru vach ka
tata ka mama oh Cakchiquel vinak, mani [c]hacat ahinak vi ru [t]ih
ralaxic e oher ka mama.

     37. Then began the execution of Tolgom. He arrayed himself and
     entered suddenly. His arms were extended in front of a tree, to be
     shot with arrows. A dance was begun by all the warriors, while
     Tolgom began his song. They still danced, when they commenced to
     shoot their arrows. But not one of the arrows reached the cord;
     for it was far to the tree where he was shot at, on the hill
     Qakbatzulu, where they shot at him and where all the arrows fell.
     At length the arrow of our ancestor Gagavitz was discharged. It
     passed rapidly over the place named Cheetzulu, and pierced Tolgom.
     All the warriors then slew him, some arrows piercing, him from near
     and others from afar. The man being thus killed, a great stream of
     blood came forth behind the tree. His body was cut in pieces and
     divided among all the seven towns. This gift and this sacrifice of
     his death were what founded the festival of (the month) Uchum. At
     that festival all were equal; there was eating and drinking; little
     children were killed by being shot with arrows, their heads being
     adorned with elder flowers, as his substitute, as if they were
     Tolgom, as say our fathers of yore, oh my children. In this manner
     we obtained power with the Zotzil Tukuches, by knowledge and occult
     science, by power and majesty; thus did our fathers and ancestors,
     we the Cakchiquels, lift our heads above others, nor our ancestors
     lower their glory and their birth.

38. Ok xepe chi[c]a chiri chu vi huyu [c]akba[c,]ulu, xutzak ka [c]hakap
Tol[c]om chupam choy: ok x[t]ahar can ri tzam tzakbal Tol[c]om. Ok xe
cha [c]a koy[c]o chupam ree choy, xa[c]a ahilam xi[c]o xquixibih qui
conohel ok xquituc rupam ree choy. Chiri xetzako vi quij pan pati payan
chocol ru bi, quetabal quinaual; chila xe el vi beleh tulul, ha ri pa
Chitulul. Ok xtiquer [c]a ri [c]ovic pa choy ronohel ahlabal, xavi
xambey chic xbe ri [t]a[t]avitz, hun [c]a rana Chetehauh ru bi. X[c]ohe
can chiri xetzako vi qui ha ri tzam [c]abouil Abah ru bi. Vacami tok xbe
[c]ari [t]a[t]avitz, kitzih tixibin ok xebe pa ya Çu[c,]u cumatz
xuhalibeh: cani[c]a x[t]ekumar ru vi ya, canix pa e ca[t]ik, cakçut cum
chuvi ya, x[c]iz [c]a ru tuc ru pam choy. [c]oh xraho, xukaçah tah ru
[t]ih [c,]utuhile xraho: xu [c,]et [c]a ronohel vuk ama[t] tok xel [c]a
apon chi ya, e[c]o vi xcha [c]a chire xeboço Ah[c,]iquinahayi: Mian
xkatuc rupam ka choy ka palouh, at ka nimal, hu[c]am a choy, hu[c]aam
[c]a a [t]uz[t]um, avokok, a tap, a car, tux, xucheex; xu[c]uluba [c]a:
Utzan, at nucha[t], [c]hakap a choy, [c]hakap [c]a a [t]uz[t]um, a
vokok, a tap, a car, [c]hakap [c]a a [c]hupup, a raxah tux, xa xere
mixa[t]aba vinak [c]oh ti camiçan chupam chachux, xcha Ah[c,]iquinahay
chire. Xepe chic, xepaxin chic qui, xavi tzolih chipe, xrah y[c]o ru
[c]ama rana; mani chi[c]a x[c]amom ruma ni[c]ah coon, mani chic rana
xelpe, mani chic tuna. Xcha: ba xcha vi vana, nak mix [c]amo? Kitzih ti
be nu canoh ti vil na xchax be labal chic ru[c]ux. Xe vikon, kitzih
tixibin ok xebe canoy rana: cani[c]a xuxibih ri ama[t] [c,]utuhile, xcha
[c]a xapon: Nak mix[c]amo pe vana xachi [c]ulu labal chic nu [c]ux? Xcha
chire ama[t] [c,]utuhile cooni [c,]ununaa. Cani[c]a ha x[c]hao ri
Ah[c,]iquinahay chirichin: At ahauh, at nucha[t], nu nimal, xa vave
tuban vi a vana, mixkahach ka choy, hu[c]aam a choy, hu[c]aam [c]a nu
choy tux, xcha, he pokon xe runa ri ahlabal, xa cha xelah ri
Ah[c,]iquinahay. Xcha chi [c]a ri ka mama [t]a[t]avitz: Nak ruma tiqui
[c]am pe vana utz [c]a xti[c]ohe can ru[c]in ni[c]ah coon; xax ti
va[c]axah atzih, at nucha[t], qui ru [c]hac pe ri ni[c]ah coon, [c]oh ta
xtinuban chire. Xcha chi xa e Ah[c,]iquinahayi. Quere[c]a ruhachic choy
ri queçha ka mama, quere navipe kacha[t] kanimal vi ki ri ru[c]in
[c,]utuhile; [c]oh chi[c]a maqui xtikoqueçah. Xey[c]o vi, xemeho vi e
nabey ka tata ka mama ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh [c]a chi [t]ekum [c]a
chi a[t]a ok: ok xquiban ree, mehaok tiçaker, quecha, xa[c]a halachic
matiçaker chiri. Xeapon chi[c]a chuvi huyu Pul[c]hi[c]h, chiri [c]a
xetak viel.

     38. When they were on the hill Qakbatzulu, they threw a part of the
     body of Tolgom into the lake. Thus began the festival of “throwing
     the nose of Tolgom.” Then, it is said, there was heard a noise in
     the waters, and at its passage all were terrified when there were
     these movements in the waters of the lake. Many on these occasions
     assembled at the spot called “the common baths” (Payanchocol). They
     practiced many magic arts. Nine zapotes were found at the spot
     called Chitulul. At that time the warriors began their passage over
     the lake. Gagavitz followed them with his sister, named Chetehauh.
     They established themselves, and settled on the point called after
     the god Abah. A little while after the arrival of Gagavitz, truly a
     fearful thing took place when he entered the water, having changed
     himself into Zutzucumatz. It suddenly darkened on the water, a wind
     rose, and a white cloud rested on the surface, making a circuit of
     the water in the lake. They desired to remain there; but it was
     first necessary to reduce the power of the Tzutuhils. All the
     seven nations looked about and then descended to the water. Those
     who were there then said to the children of the Ahtziquinahay: “We
     have scarcely made the circuit of this lake of ours, this sea, oh
     my brother. But let one-half of the lake be yours, and one-half of
     the fruits, of the wild geese, of the crabs, of the fish.” Thus he
     spoke, and the others took counsel: “It is well my brother, that
     the half of the lake be ours, and a half of thy fruits, of thy wild
     geese, of thy crabs, of thy fish, a half of thy acorns, and a half
     of thy bananas be ours, and of all living things you kill in or
     below the waters.” Thus did the Ahtziquinahay reply to them. Then
     they separated and went away, but soon returned, desiring to obtain
     wives, for none of them were married, owing to the absence of
     women; neither their mothers nor sisters having accompanied them.
     They said: “Where speaks my girl? Whom shall I take as wife? Truly,
     let us go forth and seek where there is said to be a war for
     hearts.” They put on their armor, and were really terrible when
     they went forth in search of women. The Tzutuhils were frightened,
     and to them the Cakchiquels said: “Whom shall I take for my woman?
     Who has declared war against my heart?” So they spoke to the
     Tzutuhil people, to the women of Tzununa. Thereupon the
     Ahtziquinahay spoke to them: “My lord, my brother, my elder, here
     indeed is thy maiden. You have divided with us the waters; half of
     the lake is thine, half is ours.” Thus he spoke, and his warriors
     were afflicted at his words, when the Ahtziquinahay spoke thus in
     conclusion. Then Gagavitz, our ancestor, said: “Who of you comes to
     take wives? It were well that you remain with the organs of women.
     But I hear thy words, oh my brother; their victory is by the organs
     of their women. Remaining, I shall do this.” Thus he spoke to the
     Ahtziquinahays. In this manner, say our elders, the lake was
     divided, and in this manner our brother and elder remained with the
     Tzutuhils. None other of ours remained. Our first fathers and
     ancestors, Gagavitz and Zactecauh, passed on, and went back to the
     darkness and the night. At that time their dawn had not yet come;
     but not long after they did this it began to shine. They went upon
     the mountain Pulchich, and thence they set out.

_Qui çakeribal vae._

     _This Is Their Day-Breaking._

39. Nabey, [c]a xepe [t]ekaquch, Ba[c]akol, Cibakihay, Cavek xetak pe.
Quixnabeyah, yxnuhay nu chinamit, tibana apon, ka[c,]ak kibah, xa hala
chic ma tiçaker, vhix, xeucheex, xepe [c]a xeul chiri pa çakeribal,
Pantzic, Paraxone, Çinahihay, Paçibakul, Pacavek Quehil rubi huyu;
xeçaker vi, xtiquer [c]a rubanic [c,]ak cuma, [c]ulbal richin cahpop
Nimahay rubi. Nabey qui[c,]ak he [c]a nabey xeul ri [t]ekaqueh,
Cibakihay, Cavek, xambey chic xul ri Ba[c]ahol, xtiquerinak [c,]ak xul:
xcha [c]a ok xul ri Ba[c]ahol chire [t]ekaquch: Yn yn ahpop, quin a
[c]ulu, xcha chi re [t]ekaquch. Ok xul xrah ru hi[t]uh, ah popol,
xucheex [c]a cuma: Maqui atat kah pop, ma hatul kah pop, xecha chire.
Tok xrelahih [c]a abah [c]uval, xcha: Tin ya chivichin ree [c]uval cah
[t]a rakan, tuvic rakan, yn yvahpop, xcha. Maqui xahox chire. Tok
xtiquer [c]a chubanic ru [c,]ak, xutzin yantah ru[c,]ak xraho ahpopol
tantu hi[t]uh chire. Ok xtak [c]ape chuluc balam yohol ru[c,]ak ruma
[t]a[t]avitz, ytzel chic ru[c]ux [t]a[t]avitz Ba[c]ahol tan tiraho
ahpopol. Quere[c]a xul yoh vi ru [c,]ak ri ruma chicop chuluc balam, tok
xpe [c]a [t]a[t]avitz chuvi huyu Puhuhil, Paraxone xahun chi raxon ru
halebal; tok xpeul, ok xul Pantzic Paraxone, çakerinak chic.

     39. The first who went forth were Gekaquch, Baqahol, Cibakihay and
     Cavek, who came together. You were the first, oh my house, oh my
     tribe, to bring about our day-breaking, our ancient nation, some
     time before the dawn. “Go forth,” was said to them. Then they came
     to the place where their dawn was to be, to the mountains named
     Pantzic, Paraxone, Cinahihay, Pacibakul, and Pa Cavek and Quehil.
     There their dawn appeared, there they built houses, there took
     place the marriage of their chief named Nimahay. The first who
     built houses were those who came first, the Gekaquch, the Cibakihay
     and the Cavek. The last who arrived was Baqahol, and they had
     already commenced to build when he arrived. After he had come,
     Baqahol said to Gekaquch: “I, I am king, I received you.” So said
     he to Gekaquch. At his arrival he had ardently desired the
     leadership. The others answered him: “Thou! no, thou art not our
     king; we do not wish you to be our king.” So said they to him. Then
     he showed them a precious stone and said: “I will give you this
     precious stone carved with four feet, and hands and toes, if I am
     your chief.” So he said. But that suited them not. Then he began to
     build himself a stronghold, and in a little while the labor was
     completed, for he ardently desired power and coveted it. For this
     reason his constructions were destroyed by the Chuluc Balam sent by
     Gagavitz, because Gagavitz liked it not that Baqahol desired the
     leadership. Therefore the constructions were destroyed by the
     animals Chuluc Balam when Gagavitz came to the places called
     Puhuhil and Paraxone, each of which was clothed with changing
     green. After that he arrived on Pantzic and Paraxone, and on his
     arrival the day-breaking took place.

40. Elenak chi pe [t]ih, quecha e oher tata mama, xul [c]a chiri pa
çakeribal, he [c]a banoninak chic rutee runam ri [t]ekaquch, Cibakihay,
Cavek, Ahquehay; maqui utz tuna chiri Ba[c]ahol, xu[c]hih chi oc ri chi
tee, chi nam ok xqui[c]ul cahpop; x[t]il [c]a el xucheex: maqui quina
[c]ul, at Ba[c]ahol, hari mixacha, yn ahpop cacha, mixavelahih a[c]uval
chiqui vach he tee e nam, ahpop Ba[c]ahol[TN-14] ma xa tucheex tava,
maqui at nutee at nunam, xucheex, [c]a xax cha chic xu[c]uluba: Mani
chic xubijh, Yn atee yn anam. At vah pop, xa xcha chic, xa xu [c]hih
chic rij.

     40. The sun had already risen, said our fathers and ancestors of
     old; the dawn had appeared, when were formed the families of
     Gekaquch, Cibakihay, Cavek and Ahquehay. Baqahol had not been well
     received, as he had forced the families to accept him as their
     ruler. When he forced them to this, they said: “I shall not go
     forth to meet you, Baqahol. Do you not come to say: ‘I am the
     chief, I say it?’ And do you not come to show your precious stone
     to the eyes of the families? Have you not called youself[TN-15] the
     Counselor Baqahol? And have you not called yourself the head of our
     house?” Thus they spoke; but those who were with him answered: “No
     one has said, ‘I am the head of your house.’” “Be thou our ruler,”
     they cried, and thus he succeeded.

41. Cani [c]ax quetah cahpop chi ahauarem, xcukubax chuvi ru tem ru
[c]hacat, cani xatiniçax chupam atinibal çel, cucu; cani xya pa [c]ul
pan paz, pa cuçul, pa ta[c]h vi, xoc [c]a ru titil, ru [t]aha abah, ru
xak, ru caka uleuh, x[c]iz oc rahauarem vach, cuma ruhay ru chinamit,
quecha y mama yxnu[c]ahol. Quere[c]a tee nam vi chinamit ri huma ohoh
ahpop; Xavi [c]a quere tantuban ronohel ahlabal chupam he ru çakeribal,
xavi tantetax rahauarem ruma ru hay ru chinamit. Xamulumuxinak chic
chupam ruçakeribal; ox[c]hob [c]a chi ama[t] xçaker chiri, Ço[c,]il
vinak, Cakchiquel vinak, Tukuchee vinak; Ahkahal xahalatak ru cohol
huyu, xe çaker viri ox[c]hob chi ama[t]. Chuvi [c]a huyu Tohohil xçaker
vi [c]eche vinak, chuvi [c]a huyu Çamaneb xçaker vi Rabinale; ahiri [c]a
xrah çaker vi [c,]utuhile pa [c,]ala; xa maha tutzin ru [c]ak tok xçaker
cuma ruchinamit. Maqui [c]a xmecho chic chiri pa [c,]ala, xaxi[c]o chic
chicah, chiri chuvi huyu chi [c]eletat, çaktihaxic, xtzakovi el ri, cani
xapon chila Xepoyom. Cani xe rucanah rahlabal ruchinamit, maqui xbanatah
xuban, cani tah [c]ula xula[t]abeh ru chi choy xraho; cani xemacamo
ruchinamit ok xi[c]o chi cah [t]u[t]ucot, ru halebal, xati vi nin chic
ro[t]ebal xi[c]o chi cah xe a[c]axah ru chinamit. Quere[c]a x[c]ohe
vican cooni [c,]ununaa, Tzololaa, Ahacheli, Vayça; rixcote can chi ya ru
chinamit [c]hakap [c]a xbe ru[c]in.

     41. Immediately they gave him, as their chief, the signs of
     royalty. They seated him on the seat and royal throne. They washed
     him in the bath, the painted vessel. They clothed him with the
     robe, the girdle and green ornaments. He received the colors, the
     yellow stone, the paint, the red earth, and thus he obtained the
     signs of royalty from the other families and tribes, as said our
     ancestors, oh my children. Thus was constituted the family by us
     the ahpop; all the warriors did likewise in the place of their
     dawn; thus was established the royalty by the families and tribes.
     They became more numerous in the place where their dawn had
     appeared. Three tribes of our nation had seen the dawn appear, the
     Zotzils, the Cakchiquels and the Tukuches. As to the Akahals they
     were but a little distance from the place when the dawn appeared to
     the three nations. At the spot called Tohohil the Quiches saw their
     dawn, and those of Rabinal saw it shine at the spot Zamaneb, and
     the Tzutuhils sought to see their dawn at Tzala. But their labors
     had not been completed by this tribe when the sun arose. They had
     not as yet finished drawing their lines in Tzala when it rose in
     the sky, precisely above the place Geletat. It continued to spread
     its light along its course, and at last set at the place called
     Xepoyom. Immediately the warriors quit those places without
     finishing their labors, and they all agreed to go and dwell on the
     borders of the lake. At that time the tribes were filled with
     terror when the eagle with green plumage passed through the sky,
     Gucucot, the enchanter, and sadness covered the tribes like a
     shadow when they heard him pass in the sky. Thus he appeared to the
     women of Tzununa, of Tzolola, of Ahachel and of Vayza. He soared
     above the shore and half the people went with him.

_Va [c]a ru pokonal quitzihe ok xe[c]ohe chiri._

     _The Sufferings That They Endured During Their Sojourn Here._

42. Kitzih vi chi pokon ok ix ka la[t]abeh xohul chi ka huyubal, quecha
e oher ka mama, yx nu[c]ahol; xmani vi tipe vi techaax ti [c]ux ti vayx
tu[c]aax, mani navipe tipe vi ti [t]uux ti chinax. Ronohel mani, xa ru
hometal chee xoh [c]açevi, xa [c]a ti ka çek ru xe ka [c]hamey ti cuker
vi ka [c]ux ruma. Ha [c]a ri ok xtiquer avanuhic, xahari [t]ukutahinak
vi chee [c]atinak xya vika yhatz, x[c]ohe vi halatak echa, ha navipe ri
ka [t]u, xa rihlay, xa çakquiy xka [c]hay xka[t]uuh. Ha[c]a ri ok
x[c]ohe halal echa, ti[c]o na ri chicop queh chicah titzak nape
[c]hicuy, [c]ate tikatih halal vay, quecha oher vinak, mani navipe
quixhayil ok xeul chiri.

     42. Truly it was a time of suffering when we came to establish
     ourselves in our places, said our ancestors of old, oh my children.
     There was nothing to eat and there was no relish for what had been
     brought along, nor was there material for clothing. All was
     lacking; we lived on the bark of trees and we rested our hearts
     under the shadow of our lances. At that time the people began to
     prepare the soil for the planting of corn; the woods were cleared
     and the brush burned, to prepare for the planting. Thus we came to
     have a little to eat, and we worked in the bark of trees and the
     maguey. When there was still some food the vultures passed in the
     air. At first they took a bird; then they ate some of our food, say
     the people; but none of them remained when they came.

_Qui [c]ambal yxok vae._

     _They Took Wives._

43. Tukuchee xpe vi ri xhayil ri ka mama [t]a[t]avitz, [c]omakaa rubi
nabey ka tit ri xoh boço, oh Xahila; [c]i xe[c]ule [c]a kitzih: [c]a chi
nim qui xahan chire [c]ulubic; chi xatini [c]ahar qui ni [c]ahal toc, ba
[c]at ru xe ki hatz; xahan ri ti[c]iz oc [c]i quecha, xahan navipe camul
tiban, tixhaylax ha [c]hac virih ruvach talqualax, quecha oher vinak.

     43. The Tukuches having arrived and settled, our ancestor Gagavitz
     married Gomakaa, our first ancestress, who brought us forth--us,
     the Xahila. Many others also married; for there had been a
     stringent prohibition with regard to marriage; so that when they
     went in to bathe, their organs gave way and they spilled their
     seed. Many were thus prohibited, it is said, and the prohibition
     was made a second time, because they had carnal relations both
     naturally and unnaturally, as the old traditions say.

44. Ha[c]a ri tok xtiquer rutzukic [c]axto[c], xahu vuk chi [t]ih,
xa[c]a oxlahuh chi [t]ih ti tzukbex ri, xa navipe rax [t]ol rax ru
vachah, rax hox, rax homet, xa [c]a ral chicop mez retal a[t]a ti[c]at
chuvach, xa [c]a hari chee holom ocox tiqui [c,]izbeh qui xiquin; maqui
na nim ru vach ti tzukbex richin ri chay abah oher, quecha xa[c]a xnimar
ruvach tzukbal re [c]axto[c], xa xnimar na ruvach çak ama[t]. [c]ate ok
xoc ri nimak ru vach, quecha oher tata mama, ri [t]a[t]avitz, [c]a nakah
ok [c]a que ul chiri Pantzic, Paraxone, Çimahihay, Paçiba[t]ul, Pacavek

     44. Then also they began to adore the Demon. On each seventh and
     thirteenth day an offering was made to him of fresh resin, and
     freshly gathered green branches and new bark; and also of a cat,
     the image of night, which were burned before him. To these were
     added thorns of the gourd tree with which they drew blood from
     their ears. They had not yet began the worship of the great idol of
     the ancient Chay Abah. It is said that the worship of the Demon
     increased with the face of our prosperity. Afterwards the principal
     idols were set up, as said of yore our father and ancestor
     Gagavitz, at the time they approached Pantzic, Paraxone, Cinahihay,
     Pacibaqul, Pacavek and Quehil.

45. Tok x[c]utun [c]ahun quilabal Ahcupilcat, Ah Canalakam quibi, bala
xpevi, ok xquiyal [c]a ruvach huyu, xoc vi balbaxin chee, x[c]haybex
quichin Ah Cupilcat, xeoc na apon chiri labal quitakom [c]iy chubinem,
tox xpe [c]a ri balbaxin chee chuvach huyu, xeyaar [c]a chi camic ri Ah
Cupilcat, Ah Canalakam, ruma ka mama. Chiri [c]a xquiban vi pa ru
çakeribal Ba[c]ahol; tok x[t]ahar can ru bi huyu, Yalabey, Çimahihay,
Motzoray tucheex; xa [c]a e cay xe[c]açe, quecha; hun [c]a xbe [c]eche
ri Ahcupilcat, ha ki xtihbex [c]holoh chiri.

     45. At that time some of the natives of the places called Cupilcat
     and Canalakam, offered combat when they (the Cak.) had arrived
     before their city. Withdrawing from before the city (our men)
     entered a very dense woods where those of Cupilcat were destroyed.
     Others arrived at the spot to continue the battle, and some calling
     to others, they entered the dense woods, before their city, and
     then these men of Cupilcat and Canalakam were destroyed by our
     ancestor. There the family of Baqahol began its fame, and the name
     of the place became celebrated. Cimahihay and Motzoray, the only
     two said to have survived, abandoned the place; and another from
     Cupilcat came to Quiche and there met his death.

46. Xepe [c]a chiri Pantzic, Paraxone, xqui toloba can ri, xeul chic Pan
che Chi[t]ohom ru bi, [c]a chiri [c]a xquitih vi halal qui pokob, ka
chunah rupam ree chee [c]i quecha chirichin chee, xa orocom rupam chee
xqui chunah, xa[c]a rachak chicop cot balam, xqui chunabeh rupam chee.
Ok xla[t]abex [c]a, xya chupam ri [c]axto[c], Chay Abah, xa[c]a chicop
[c]el, cuyu[c]h xulabalibeh rochoch ri [c]axto[c] cuma: quere[c]a
xubinaah vi pan che Chi[t]ohom ri xe yaloh [c]a chiri, xa[c]a e cay
xeru[c]aholah ri [t]a[t]avitz, Caynoh rubi hun, Cayba[c,] rubi hunchic,
e cay chi achi.

     46. Having abandoned Pantzic and Paraxone they arrived at the
     forest called Chiqohom, and there suffered some deprivations. But
     they made dwellings in the trees, each choosing a tree and
     whitewashing its interior with lime obtained from the excrements of
     eagles and tigers. When they were settled there, they set up the
     idols of the Demon and Chay Abah; and in the house of the Demon
     were placed parroquets and parrots. Therefore they called that
     place Chiqohom. After having lived there awhile, Gagavitz begat two
     infants, the first named Caynoh, the second Caybatz, both boys.

47. Xcam [c]a ri ahauh [t]a[t]avitz, ri ki xpe pa Tulan, ki [c]a e
[c]hutik [c]ahola ri ka mama Caynoh, Cayba[c,], ok xcam qui tata, xavi
chiri xemuke vi can, chupam qui çakeribal Paraxone.

     47. At that time the king Gagavitz died, the same who came from
     Tulan; his children, our ancestors, Caynoh and Caybatz, were still
     very young when their father died. They buried him in the same
     place where their dawn appeared, in Paraxone.

48. Bala [c]a xeye vi e cay chiachi, xeul chiri quecha [c]a ok xeul
chiqui chin [t]ekaquch, Ba[c]ahol, Cibakihay: Mixoh ul, yxkatee,
yxkanam, oh vae oh [t]alel Xahil, ahuchan Xahil kohucheex, oh y [t]alel,
oh yvahpop. [c]i quecha ok xeul, mani [c]a natal xepe vi vue pe he ret
ri Çactecauh, ri xcam can chupam çivan [c]hopiytzel; [c]i xe cha chic e
ka tata e ka mama, yxnu[c]ahol.

     48. Thus were the two boys left. Then Gekaquch, Baqahol and
     Cibakihay arriving, said to them: “We have come; we are your
     mothers and sisters; we are here, we the Galel Xahil and the
     Ahuchan Xahil, as we are called; we are your Galel; we are your
     Ahpop.” Thus many of them came and spoke, not remembering the sign
     of Zactecauh, who had died in the ravine of Qhopiytzel. Thus spoke
     many of our fathers and ancestors, oh my children.

49. [c]i nabey [c]a x[t]a[t]ar Tepeuh, rahaual Cauke. Cuztum [c]hixnal
ru bi huyu; xban vi ti xibin ru naual ri Tepeuh, tibirbot huyu [c]o vi,
xpatanih [c]a ronohel ama[t] chuvach Tepeuh.

     49. The first who ruled with glory was Tepeuh, the king of Cauke.
     Cuztum and Chixnal were the names of his strongholds. The magic
     power of Tepeuh inspired terror, he caused the mountain to tremble
     where he lived, and all the tribes paid tribute to Tepeuh.

50. He [c]a ri [t]alel Xahil ahucham Xahil xtakex quitzih ruma
[t]ekaquch Ba[c]ahol: [c]i xecha ri [t]alel Xahil ahuchan Xahil; Que be
tah ru nabey ka patan ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,], oh [c]oh oh yvahpop, [c]i
xecha chique chinamit, [c]i xtakex [c]a quitzih ruma chinamit.

     50. Now these Galel Xahil and Ahuchan Xahil caused these words to
     be carried by Gekaquch and Baquhol: “The Galel Xahil and Ahuchan
     Xahil say thus, ‘Let Caynoh and Caybatz go forth first as our
     tribute, for as for us, we are the rulers.’” So said they to the
     clans. And the boys were sent with the message for the clans.

_Qui benebal vae ru[c]in Tepeuh._

     _Their Interview With Tepeuh._

51. Xebe [c]a ri ka mama Caynoh, Cayba[c,] ru[c]in Tepeuh, he hu[c]içic
xebe, xax quiyonih chicam ri [t]alel Xahil, Ahuchan Xahil; xeapon [c]a
ru[c]in Tepeuh. Chinak qui xux, xeucheex ruma Tepeuh oh ru [c]ahol
[t]a[t]avitz, [c]i xecha [c]ari Caynoh, Cayba[c,]; [c]i xmacamo [c]a
Tepeuh, ok xra[c]axah quitzih, quere[c]a xe[c]açe vi ri ruma Tepeuh he
ta camel ok xebe ru[c]in.

     51. Our ancestors Caynoh and Caybatz came to Tepeuh. They entered
     alone while the Galel Xahil and Ahucham Xahil remained alone
     without,[TN-16] When they reached the presence of Tepeuh: “Who are
     you?” was said to them by Tepeuh. “We are the sons of Gagavitz,”
     replied Caynoh and Caybatz.”[TN-17] Tepeuh marveled greatly when he
     heard their words: therefore they were strengthened by Tepeuh as
     theywere humble before him.

52. Tok xetak [c]a chi [c]amoh patan rumal Tepeuh, xe be [c]amo ru patan
ama[t]. Mani [c]a xe cam vi chuvi tak ama[t] chi [c]amoh patan; kitzih
chi ronohel tixibin qui puz qui naval ri Caynoh Cayba[c,]; tihulhut que
[c]ohe vi cha[t]a quere ri [t]a[t], tibirbot [c]a quere ri Cabrakan; qui
quere[c]a tu xibih vi ri ama[t] ri, ok que apon chuvi tak ama[t],
ronohel [c]a xya chique rumal ama[t], qui [c]ambal patan. Chila [c]a
relebal [t]ih, xpuvakix vi pe qui xet, puvak, ba[c,]bal qui xet xux,
rumal ama[t] qui [c]ambal patan; xnimax quitzih, quere xae ru [c]ahol
Tepeuh xux ruma ri xbanatah xqiban, kitzih elo[t] xeux ruma.

     52. They were then sent by Tepeuh to collect the tribute, and they
     went forth to take the tribute from the tribes. No one of the many
     people died while they were taking the tribute. Truly all feared
     the magic power and wisdom of Caynoh and Caybatz. Where they were
     at night it shone like fire, and there was trembling as of an
     earthquake. Therefore all the people were in fear when they came
     among them, and they were given all things by the people when they
     came to take tribute. Quite to the far East they were paid what
     they demanded, precious metals and spun stuff as they demanded, by
     the tribes from whom they took tribute. Mighty were their words.
     Therefore by these actions they became the sons of Tepeuh, and by
     them truly they became illustrious.

_Ri yabal quixhayl vae._

     _They Are Given Women._

53. Xebe chi[c]a e [c]amol patan chi Ah[c,]iquinahay, [c]i xerihix [c]a
chi [c]aholal kamama. Chila [c]a chi Ah[c,]iquinahay xbeya vipe
quixhail, xa[c]a quixet xrayix, puak ba[c,]bem quixet. Ok xe apon [c]i
xcha[c]a Ah[c,]iquinahay: quekahiah ree ru çamahal Tepeuh, kitzih
tixibin qui naval; kaya quixhayil, ka [c]ama can qui xet; xecha, maqui
[c]a xel qui chi ahaua chique Caynoh, Cayba[c,]; xquixibih qui [c]oh
cuxla xquina xa[c]a xbe ele[t]axel quixet cha[t]a, cuma quimeal ahaua;
xa ele[t]al xbe çelel quixet tan quevar; ha [c]a quimeal ahaua hun
Çun[c]un[t]anel Mayahauh, Puci ahauh xequi[c]am ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,] qui
bi quixhail vae Buba[c,]o ru bi hun, Ycxiuh rubi hunchic. Mani chi [c]a
quixet xquina ri ka mama xe macamo, [c]i xe cha [c]a: Mixoh y [t]alaba,
at Ah[c,]iquinahay, xtoyevar Tepeuh ckikih; Xecha:--Ba y xibih yvij,
xtika ya yvix hayil, xquixkahiah, maquina ytzel xtikaban, quixbe bijx
chire Tepeuh, xmaqui chivi xeucheex. Tok xya [c]a chiquichin ri
quixhail, xebe [c]a bijx chire Tepeuh. Xax maqui chi vi xebe, xquixibih
qui chuvach Tepeuh, cani xquevah qui chupam pec, xeyaloh chupam pec, chi
e van ri xubinaah Pecparu pec, Caynoh tucheex.

     53. At length they arrived to collect the tribute from the
     Ahtziquinahay, who are also descended from our ancestor. They came
     to where the Ahtziquinahay were with their women, and designating
     what they desired, they designated metals and spun stuff. When they
     came, the Ahtziquinahay said (among themselves): “Let us make these
     messengers of Tepeuh our sons-in-law. Truly their magic power is
     terrible. But we will give them women, and we will take back what
     they have designated.” So they said, and none of the chiefs went
     forth to Caybatz and Caynoh. These were frightened, lest some
     should come during the night and the treasures they had collected
     be stolen by the daughters of the chiefs. And indeed, these did
     come secretly and stole the jar of treasures while (the brothers)
     slept. They were the daughters of the chiefs Zunçunqun, Ganel,
     Mayahauh and Puciahauh. Caynoh and Caybatz took them as wives;
     Bubatzo was the name of one, Icxiuh of the other. Our ancestors not
     seeing their treasure were filled with fear. They cried out: “You
     have indeed, ruined us, oh ye Ahtziquinahay! Tepeuh will be angered
     against us.” They answered: “Be not frightened. We shall give you
     wives; you shall be our sons-in-law; we will do you no evil; you
     will go speak to Tepeuh and nothing will be said to you.” Then
     wives were given to them, and they went to speak with Tepeuh. But
     they did not reach there, they feared to come before Tepeuh; so
     they hid themselves in a cavern, and they retired into the cavern.
     The place where they hid was called by Caynoh Pecparupec (a cave
     within a cave).

_Canobal quichin vae._

     _The Search For Them._

54. Tok xe canox [c]a ruma chinamit: Oh e ka canoh kah pop, ba tan e
[c]o vi, xka[t]alabaki, xka[c]axah quitzih ree xa maqui paal qui tee qui
tata, [c]i xechari [t]ekaquch, Ba[c]ahol, Cavek, Cibakihay chique
Caynoh, Cayba[c,]. Tok xe canay [c]a pa pec, que cha ri canoy quichin xe
apon: Oh canoy yvichin, yxkahpop, kitzih vi tan hoye ka vach, xecha.
Cani[c]a xecha ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,]; Mani ko be maqui pe [c]oh yvahaual
[t]alel ahuchan, chinak la [c]a tiraho chike? maqui pe oh camel xoh be
ru[c]in Tepeuh, mani [c]a kobe quecam; na ri xitakeh quitzih, kobe na
[c]a hiquibax chi ree Tepeuh; [c]ate kobe; xecha, xa[c]a cani xutakeh
chinamit; cani xbe çamahel hiquibaay quichin chire Tepeuh; cani xquicot
Tepeuh tok xra[c]axah qui tzihol, xquicot navipe Cakchequele, Ço[c,]il
Tukuchee, xquicot [c]a Ah[c,]iquinahay; tok xe canay ka mama.

     54. Then they were sought for by the tribe. “We seek our rulers.
     Where are they? We are truly afflicted; for we have heard their
     voices. Neither their mothers nor their fathers wish to leave
     them!” so spoke Gekaquch, Baqahol, Cavek and Cibakihay concerning
     Caynoh and Caybatz. At length they searched in the cavern, and
     those who had spoken met them coming: “We seek you, oh our rulers,
     and truly we are unhappy,” said they. Caynoh and Caybatz answered:
     “We shall not come if your rulers, the Galel and Ahucham, are not
     there. Who would be with us? Are we not humbled if we return before
     Tepeuh? We shall not come that they may kill us. Let them take
     these words, that we may go forth and be reconciled with Tepeuh.
     Then we will come.” So said they, and immediately it was carried to
     the people. A messenger was sent to report to Tepeuh. When Tepeuh
     heard the report he rejoiced, and the Cakchiquels rejoiced, and the
     Zotzil Tukuches and the Ahtziquinahay rejoiced. Then they went
     forth to seek our ancestors.

_Caponibal chic vae panche Chi[t]ohom._

     _The Arrival Again at the Woods Chigohom._

55. Xe apon [c]a chiri cachbilam chic quixhayil, quere bila x[c,]et qui
vach xquicot ronohel ama[t], tok xeapon chic. Cani [c]a xehi[c,]ax xecam
ri [t]alel Xahil Ah ucham Xahil, ronohel tzih tok xecam.

     55. Returning, they arrived together, where were their wives.
     Therefore all the tribes rejoiced on seeing their faces, when they
     returned. Immediately they caused to be hanged and executed the
     Galel Xahil and Ahucham Xahil, and all their fame perished with

56. Xeoc [c]a chi ahauarem, Ahpop Xahil xux ri Caynoh, Ahpop [c]amahay
xux ri Cayba[c,], e cay chi ahaua xeux humah tzih ok xeoc chi ahauarem.

     56. Then they entered in possession of the royal power. Caynoh was
     made Ahpop Xahil, and Caybatz was made Ahpop Qamahay. Both were
     kings, and their words were as one, when they assumed the royal

57. Xe [c]aholan xe mealan [c]a, ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,], e cahi xe ru
[c]aholah hun, e voo xe ru[c]aholah hunchic, e belehe chi achi xe qui
[c]aholah ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,], xe re [c]a quitzih tixibin qui puz qui
naval ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh, Caynoh, Cayba[c,].

     57. Caynoh and Caybatz begat sons and daughters. The first had four
     sons and the second five sons, making nine sons begotten by Caynoh
     and Caybatz. Terrifying was the fame of the magic power and wisdom
     of Gagavitz, Zactecauh, Caynoh and Caybatz.

58. Ok xecha [c]a ri Caynoh, Cayba[c,]: ti [c,]akattah ri kahauarem oh
ru pixabam vi ka tata; que oc tah cay ka [c]ahol chi ahauarem, xecha.
Tok xoc [c]a hun ru [c]ahol ahauh Caynoh ahuchan Xahil rahauarem xux,
xoc chic hun ru[c]ahol ahauh Cayba[c,], [t]alel Xahil, rahauarem xux,
quere[c]a cahi vi kahaual ri oh Xahila, x[c,]akat cahauarem ka mama
chiqui vach.

     58. Then Caynoh and Caybatz spoke thus: “Strong is now our royal
     power; we hold the rulership from our fathers; let our two sons
     partake of our power.” So said they. Then a son of Caynoh was
     placed in possession of power and was made Ahuchan Xahil, and a son
     of Caybatz was placed on the throne and was made Galel Xahil. Thus
     we had four rulers, we the Xahila, and our royal power was
     established in the presence of our ancestors.

_Xecam [c]a ri Caynoh Cayba[c,]._

     _Death of Caynoh and Caybatz._

59. Xe [c]a oquenak can [t]alel Xahil, ahuchan Xahil, tok xecam ahaua.
Cani [c]a xoc chic qui[c]exel; he caca qui [c]ahol xeoc chi ahauarem,
ahpop Xahil, ahuchan Xahil xquikaleh ri e cay ru [c]ahol ru[c]ahol ahauh
Cayba[c,], Caynoh: xeoc chi[c]a cay ru [c]ahol ahauh Ahpop [c]amahay,
Xahil [t]alel Xahil xquikaleh: x[c,]akat [c]a cahauarem chiqui vach he
ru [c]ahol Caynoh, Cayba[c,], he nabey ka mama xebano can ri ahauarem,
yx nu[c]ahol, xahun ka tee tata xahun xohboço oh Xahila.

     59. After the Galel Xahil and the Ahuchan Xahil had taken
     possession, the kings died. Immediately their posterity succeeded.
     Two by two they entered into power, and the two sons of the sons of
     Caynoh received homage as Ahpop Xahil and Ahuchan Xahil; the two
     sons of the chief Caybatz took possession and received the homage
     of their subjects as Ahpop Qamahay and Galel Xahil. Thus was the
     monarchy established during the time of the children of Caynoh and
     Caybatz. They were our first ancestors who established the royalty,
     O my children; but one mother only and one father only brought us
     forth, us, the Xahila.

60. He [c]a ki xeçutulakin, xeyamalakin ree; kitzih chi[c]iy qui tinamit
qui huyubal xux, tok xe[c]iyar [c]a qui meal qui [c]ahol, ri e belehe
chi achi, ri xe qui [c]aholah ahauh Caynoh, Cayba[c,]: xa [c]a ki xcam
ahauh Citan [c]atu, tok xbiyin ahauarem chiqui vach he ka tata he ka
mama; kitzih chie [c]iy ahaua xux, xax çolo cahauarem.

     60. They received homage, they received presents; for the towns and
     places were beyond number which were theirs. Then multiplied the
     daughters and sons of the nine sons begotten by the kings Caynoh
     and Caybatz. When, however, the king Citan Qatu died, the royal
     power was split up among our fathers and ancestors; there were then
     many chiefs and the power was divided.

61. He [c]a ri qui [c]ahol [c]oxahil [c]obakil, quere navipe ri qui
[c]ahol ri [t]alel Xahil, Ahuchan Xahil, quere[c]a ri ru [c]ahol Ah
Cupilcat, rihun x[c]ace. Xe qui hach ka mama chiqui vach ke chinamital,
xeux chirih ru [c]ahol ahauh ahauh Caynoh, xeoc vi rie qui [c]ahol
[c]oxahil [c]obakil, xavi[c]a chiri xeoc vi ru [c]ahol ri Ahuchan Xahil
ri xehi[c,]ax chirih ahpop, Ahuchan xeoc vi.

     61. There were the sons of Qoxahil and Qobakil, and the children of
     the Galel Xahil and the Ahuchan Xahil, and the sons of Ahcupilcat,
     of whom our ancestors had spared life and granted a dwelling place.
     These made an opposition to the sons of the king Caynoh. The
     children of Qoxahil and Qobakil having begun to rule, the sons of
     the Ahuchan Xahil, who had been hanged, opposed the king, and began
     to rule as Ahuchan.

62. Xeoc chi [c]a chirih Ahpop [c]amahay Xahil, [t]alel Xahil, ri ru
[c]ahol Ah Cupilcat, xavi [c]a chiri xeoc vi e ru [c]ahol ri [t]alel
Xahil ri bala xepe vi, ri xeyaoel Caynoh Cayba[c,], xe be ru[c]in
Tepeuh, xa[c]a xe[c]ohe chi popol ri ykoma[t]i e huvi chi vinak re [c]a
ru bi qui tinamite, ri nabey qui tinamit.

     62. Against the Ahpop Qamahay Xahil was the Galel Xahil, son of
     Ahcupilcat; also the sons of the Galel Xahil who was with Caynoh
     and Caybatz and accompanied them to Tepeuh. They had lived in the
     sovereignty of the Ikomagi, a nation whose name is from their city,
     their principal city.

63. Xqui toloba [c]a ri ki xeçaker vi conohel xepe chiri Pantzic,
Paraxone; yalabey Çimahihay, Panchee, Chi[t]ohom, Chiavar, [c,]upi
ta[t]ahi, ni[c]a ya [c]otox ul; re chi[c]a ru bi ki xeçutulakin chivie,
Çahcab tinamit, Pe[c,]e, Utzupa [t]inona, [t]alaah, Puzbal, Çali[c]ahol,
Nimçakahpec, Yut [t]um Calla, chuvi Xilom, Molinxot, Pa chalic bak,
[c]huti tinamit, [c]itan [c]a ti[c]il Akahal vinak chuvi tinamit
O[c]hal, [c]abouil çivan, tan ti [t]a[t]ar ahauh Y[c]halcan Chicumcuvat,
rahaual Akahal vinak.

     63. At that time they abandoned the place where their dawn had
     appeared and they all returned to Pantzic and Paraxone; they left
     Cimahihay, Panche, Chiqohom, Chiavar, and Tzupitagahi, following
     the valleys of the river. The names of the places that they
     received homage from in this journey are the towns Zahcah, Petze,
     Utzupa, Ginona, Galaah, Puzbal, Zaliqahol, Nimzakahpec, Yutcum,
     Calla, Chuvi Xilom, Molinxot, Pachalicbak, Chuti tinamit, where the
     Akahal nation had greatly increased, and where, in the towns of
     Ochal or Qabouil Civan, the king Ychalcan Chicumcuvat, chief of the
     Akahals, reigned with majesty.

64. Tok xe apon chi[c]a e ka mama chiri chuvi tinamit O[c]hal, xelo[t]ox
[c]a chiri ruma Akahal vinak, [c]a chiri xu[c]am viri cahi chi ama[t];
mahaok ti pax Akahal vinak: [c]a ruqaam ok ri ronohel, xa [c]a ki
rupaxic Akahal vinak. Ok xtole can ri tinamit O[c]hal, xa me[t]enalah
huyu, xrokah ta[t]ah, ok xapon ral ru[c]ahol ahauh Y[c]halcan Xepakay;
chuvi vi te xe ynup, xa maloh yc, xa chom, xa car xu raih. Xa naak [c]a
ruyon vinak xapon chiri ta[t]ah, xa[c]axrah qui hi[c,]ah qui [c]ahol
ahauh, xa ruma cachihilal, xax rah y[c]o qui [t]a[t]al chiqui vi qui
tata, quere [c]a xerah cam vi cuma ahaua ri. Xa [c]a hun a[t]a xeel qui
[c]ahol, xcokotah vinak chila Panah Chiholom, Xepakay xe ynup: cani [c]a
xquicot Akahal vinak, tok xeka apon ri qui [c]ahol ahaua ta[t]ah.
Quere[c]a tok xhacho ri Akahal vinak ri, tok xtole [c]a can ri tinamit
O[c]hal, rachpetic [c]a Akahal vinak ri ka mama, ok xla[t]abex chic ri
Çaki[c]ahol, Nim cakah pec.

     64. Our ancestors then arrived at the town Ochal. They made
     themselves liked by the Akahals, and founded there four towns. The
     Akahal nation had not previously been divided; but at that time
     they all made a choice and chose to effect a division of the
     nation. It was at this time that they abandoned the town of Ochal,
     which was in the warm district, and sought the highland plain, when
     the sons of Ychalcan came to Xepakay Seated on the roots, under the
     shade of a ceiba tree, they ate chile, and had shellfish and fish,
     as they liked. Then the people of the place, coming above the
     plain, sought to hang the sons of the king for their temerity; for
     they aimed to surpass the greatness of their father, and for that
     reason the chiefs wished their death. But these princes, making a
     night attack, routed the people at Panah, at Chiholom and at
     Xepakay, under the ceiba tree. The Akahals rejoiced at the arrival
     of the princes on the plain. In consequence of this event, the
     Akahals separated, and they left the town of Ochal, and accompanied
     our ancestors, and established themselves at Zakiqahol and

_Vae xtinu[c,]ibah_

     _Here I shall write_

65. Quibi ri e ka mama xe ahauar oher, ri ki xe çutulakin xe yamalakin,
ri [c]iy qui tinamit xux, xaki ru camic ahauh Citan [c]atu, tok xbiyin
cahauarem ka mama chi qui vach.

     65. The names of our ancestors who received the homage and presents
     of a great number of towns after the death of the king Citan Qatu
     when our ancestors publicly took the government.

66. Xahauar ahauh Citan [c]atu, ru [c]ahol ahauh Caynoh, xa vi [c]oh ru
puz ru naval ri. Ok xahauar chi[c]a ahauh [c]otbalcan. Xahauar [c]a
ahauh Alinam xahauar chi[c]a ahauh, Xttamer Çaquentol. Ok xoc chi[c]a
ahauh [c]hiyoc Queh ah[t]u[t]. Haok xmolobax el ahauh [t]alel Xahil Xulu
[c]atu chire [c]echevinak, xax rah ru yac labal ahauh chiree xban vi pa
[t]inona; xban tzaloh chuvach tinamit [t]inona; quere[c]a xya vi el
ahauh Xulu [c]atu ri cuma ahaua [c]hiyoc Queh, Ttah ttah Akbal, he tan
que ahauar, xax mani chi vi qui covil ahaua kitzih hoye qui vack xux
hoye navipe ru vach vinak xux cuma.

     66. The chief Citan Qatu ruled, the son of the chief Caynoh, to
     whom were mystic power and wisdom. Then ruled the chief Qotbalcan.
     The chief Alinam ruled. Next ruled the chief Xttamer Zaquentol.
     Then followed in power Qhiyoc Queh Ahgug. In his reign the chief
     and Galel Xahil Xulu Qatu gathered together the Quiche nation,
     desiring that war should be declared against those who were
     attacking Ginona, and were engaged against the town Ginona. For
     this reason the chief Xuluqatu was sent by the chiefs Chiyocqueh
     and Ttah ttah Akbal, who then reigned, to say that no mercy should
     be shown to the chiefs who commanded the forces of the enemy, but
     that the people should be spared.

67. Ok xcha [c]a ahauh [c]ikab chique ahaua: Tila[t]abeh chic y huyubal
Chiavar, xeucheex ruma ahauh [c]ikab.

     67. Then the king Qikab said to the chiefs: “Go back again to your
     town at Chiavar.” Thus spoke the king Qikab.

_Caponibal chic Chiavar vae._

     _Their return to Chiavar._

68. Ru tzih ahauh [c]ikab, tok xepon chic ka mama chuvi tinamit Chiavar
[c,]upita[t]ah, xavi [c]a xla[t]abex can ronohel huyu ruma vinak, quere
navipe xbe cu[c]in ahaua ok xquila[t]abeh tinamit Chiavar, ru chi

     68. It was by command of the king Qikab that our ancestors returned
     to the city of Chiavar and Tzupitagah. All the towns were occupied
     by the nation, therefore they came with the chiefs when these
     removed to Chiavar by order of Qikab.

69. Xahauar chi[c]a ahauh Xitayul Hax. Xla[t]aben ok tinamit Chiavar ok
xahauar Xitayul Hax.

     69. The chief Xitayul Hax was then reigning. The town of Chiavar
     was peopled during the reign of Xitayul Hax.

70. Ok xoc chi[c]a ahauh Xiquitzal chi ahauarem, tan e [c]oh chiri chuvi
tinamit Chiavar [c]upita[t]ah; tan [c]a ti [t]a[t]ar ahauh [c]ikab chi
ahauarem, chila chuvi tinamit [t]umarcaah chi Yzmachij, tan ti patanih
ronohel ama[t] chu vach.

     70. At that time also the chief Xiquitzal had power. They dwelt in
     the towns of Chiavar and Tzupitagah. The king Qikab ruled with
     majesty over all the kingdom at the towns Gumarcaah and Izmachi,
     and all the people paid him tribute.

71. Ruma ri tan tu cuch ri oxlahu [c]hob chi ahlabal chiri [t]umarcaah,
[c]a tahin ok tiqui hunamah ruvach qui [c]ha, qui pocob, xqui kaçax
[c]huti ama[t] nima ama[t], ronohel çivan tinamit, maquina xaruyon
[c]echevinak; xuban oxlahu [c]hob chi ahlabal xkaçan ama[t], quere
x[t]a[t]ar vi ahauh [c]ikab ri.

     71. For him the thirteen divisions of warriors assembled at
     Gumarcaah, and they prepared their bows and shields. The tribes,
     great and small, and all the dwellers in the ravines were
     conquered, nor did it cost the Quiches anything. The thirteen
     divisions of warriors conquered the towns, and thus was increased
     the glory of the king Qikab.

72. Maqui [c]a xe covin ree [c]hakab ahaua he ka mama, ri mix kabijh
can, xax qui meztah tzih, quere ri hoye vi ruvach Ço[c,]il Tukuchee, ri
xux, mani qui covil xhoyevatah ruvach vinak cuma, xqui chup [t]a[t]al

     72. But half of the chiefs would not listen to the words of our
     ancestors which had been spoken to them; they forgot the order
     which had been given to spare the Zotzil Tukuches, and not to show
     mercy to the chiefs, and thus they dimmed the royal power.

73. He [c]a tan que ahauar ri Rahamun, Xiquitzal; he [c]a tan que
achihir ri ki e ka mama ri Huntoh, Vukuba[c,], quibi, tan he [t]a[t]alah
achiha, he kitan que bano labal ru[c]in ahauh [c]ikab: [c]a [c]oh ok
[c]a ka mama Vukuba[c,] chiri Bo[t]oiya; chiri [c]a Xequiz chee tan
[c]oh vi Huntoh, qui mama nima abahi chiri tan que chahin vi el labal,
tan ti tahin [t]a[t]alah labal chiri pan Ah Chiholom, tan ti [t]a[t]ar
ahauh Y[c]hal Amullac, rahaual Akahal vinak.

     73. Those who were then ruling were Rahamun and Xiquitzal, and
     among the warriors were our ancestors Huntoh and Vukubatz. They
     were famous warriors and made war under the orders of the king
     Qikab. At that time our ancestor Vukubatz was at Bogoiya and Huntoh
     was at Xequizche. These men of old, mighty rocks, had gone forth to
     war, to wage glorious war with those of Chiholom, where reigned the
     chief Ychal Amullac, ruler of the Akahals.

_Haoc xeoc chi ahauarem vae._

     _These Obtain The Royalty._

74. [c]ate[c]a ok xeahauar ri ka mama ri Huntoh Vukuba[c,], [c]a e [c]a
ki xe [c]amo [t]a[t]al tepeual; xeoc na chi ahauarem [c]a tan ok ti
[t]a[t]ar ahauh [c]ikab, [c]a hoye ok ruvach Ço[c,]il Tukuchee.

     74. After these things our ancestors Huntoh and Vukubatz reigned,
     seizing the power and majesty. When they obtained the royalty, the
     king Qikab was still reigning, and he had mercy on the Zotzil

75. Ha[c]a ri ahauh Vukuba[c,] ka mama, Citan Tihax Cablah rubi ru tata;
rix[c]aholam e ru mam ahauh Citan [c]atu, ri Tihax Cablah. Xa xbiyin
cahauarem ka mama chiquivach, xa vi e ru mam ahauh Caynoh, ahauh Citan
[c]atu, quere[c]a xoc vi chi ahauarem; ka mama ri cumal ahauh [c]ikab,
ru[c]in ronohel ahaua nimak vinak humah chi ok xoc chi ahauarem ri ka
mama Vukua[c,], Huntoh quibi xae cay chi ahaua.

     75. This chief, our ancestor, Vukubatz, had as father Citan Tihax
     Cablah, who was the son of the king Citan Qatu and Tihax Cablah.
     The latter let the power pass to our ancestor, and the king Caynoh
     and the king Citan Qatu thus obtained the power. Our ancestor,
     summoned by the king Qikab and by all the chiefs and leading men,
     from all parts, was placed in the royal power, and thus our
     ancestors Vukubatz and Huntoh were then the two kings.

76. Xeoc na chi ahauarem ka mama [c]ate[c]a ok xqui la[t]abeh tinamit
Chiavar [c,]upita[t]ah. Kitzih [c]a tan ti [t]a[t]ar ahauh [c]ikab, ok
xe ahauar ri ka mama Huntoh Vukuba[c,], kitzih vi tixibin que achihir,
maqui qui meztam tzih xavi xere qui [c]uxlaam, quitzih he nabey ka tata
ka mama ri [t]a[t]avitz, Çactecauh, Caynoh, Caba[c,], Citan [c]atu.
Kitzih vi [c]a [c]oh chic qui puz qui naval ri ahauh Huntoh Vukuba[c,],
ri ki x[c]amo [t]a[t]al tepeual; kitzih chi [c]i ya ama[t] tinamit, xqui
haçah can ru[c]in ahauh [c]ikab, ru[c]in ronohel ahlabal; tanti xibin ru
[t]a[t]al ahauh chuvach ronohel vuk ama[t], tanti hunamax labal rumal
ronohel ahlabal; quere [c]a x[t]a[t]ar vi ahauh [c]ikab ri. Ronohel [c]a
tinamit ree xqui haçah can, mahaok ti tiquer [c]haoh chirih ahauh
[c]ikab, ruma [c]eche vinak ok xban can:--

     76. When our ancestors had taken possession of the royalty, they
     settled the towns of Chiavar and Tzupitagah. Truly the king Qikab
     ruled with great glory when our ancestors Huntoh and Vukubatz
     reigned. Those warriors inspired terror, nor were their histories
     forgotten, and the fame was recalled of our first fathers and
     ancestors, Gagavitz, Zactecauh, Caynoh, Caybatz, and Citan Qatu.
     Truly there were magic power and wisdom in our ancestors Huntoh and
     Vukubatz; they assumed glory and majesty. Truly many were the
     cities and peoples who submitted to them, and over whom they had
     triumphed with the king Qikab and all the warriors. For this great
     monarch inspired terror throughout the seven nations, and his
     warriors carried war in all directions; and therefore great was the
     glory of the king Qikab. These are all the towns which they had
     conquered before the insurrection broke out which the Quiches made
     against their king  Qikab:--

_Rubi tinamit vae ronohel._

     _The Names Of All The Towns._

  77. Halic
  Beleh Cuihay
  Molomic Abah

     77. Halic
     Beleh Cuihay
     Molomic Abah

78. Ronohel [c]a tinamit ri xquikaçah can Huntoh, Vukuba[c]; ru[c]in
ahauh [c]ikab, [c]a la[t]abem ok tinamit Chiavar ok xquiban can ka mama.

     78. All these towns were conquered by Huntoh and Vukubatz, and by
     the king Qikab, when our ancestors settled at Chiavar and made that

_Ru tiqueric [c]a [c]haoh chirih [c]ikab vae._

     _Beginning Of The Revolt Against Qikab._

79. Tok xtiquer [c]a [c]haoh chirih ahauh [c]ikab, ruma [c]eche vinak;
xavi ru chinamital ahauh xyaco [c]haoh, xa xqiz ru chinamital ahauh
chucohol nimak achij: tzukul richin maqui chi tah xhito ri al[c]ahol
xraho [c]eche vinak; xa xrah rambey akan ruma [c]eche vinak, xax maqui
vi [c]a xraho ahauh. He pokon re runa ahauh ri nimak achij, maqui xe
ruya ri hitol quij. Quere[c]a xbe vi chiuh ahauh ri ruma [c]eche vinak,
xax qui chup qui [t]a[t]al.

     79. Then began a revolt against the king Qikab by the Quiche men;
     the family of the king was the cause of the contest. The family of
     the king perished with many of the people. The Quiches would not
     promise the homage as vassals which he asked of them. They wished
     that the roads should be free to the Quiche people, which the king
     would not grant. Therefore many of the people disliked the king and
     they would not pay him their dues. For this reason the Quiches
     turned against the king and his glory diminished.

80. He [c]a cay ru [c]ahol ahauh tan que [t]a[t]ar. Tatayac rubi hun, Ah
Ytza rubi hunchic; Chituy, Quehnay qui bi cay chic, xavi e qui [c]ahol
ahaua: he [c]a xe rach qui chiih [c]eche vinak ri, xtiho naek [c]a
chirichin ahauh cuma ru [c]ahol xax maqui chi vi [c]a xeruya ri hitol
qui; e pokon xeruna ri tzukul richin; quere[c]a xbe vi chirih ahauh ri
cuma ru [c]ahol. Xax ru[c]in vi [c]a ticako vi quivach chire qui tata,
ri Tatayac Ah ytza, quibi, xax quihi[t]uh rahauarem ahauh, xquirayih
[c]a ru xit, ru puvak, ralabil ru vinak qui tata; tok xu popoh [c]a ru
tzih [c]eche vinak chiquih nimak achij tzukul richin ahauh; xe[c]iz cam
conohel ru nabey tzukul richin ahauh.

     80. The two sons of the king were already distinguished. Tatayac
     was the name of the one, Ah Itza the name of the other. Chituy and
     Quehnay were the two sons of these princes. These took the part of
     the Quiches, and the king was thus opposed to his own sons, who
     incited the people not to pay their dues, already irritated on
     account of their subjection; and thus it came that the king was
     against his own sons. Thus Tatayac and Ahitza were opposed to their
     father, for they coveted the royal power, and desired the precious
     stones, the metals, the slaves and people of their father. At this
     time there was a council of the Quiches against the warriors
     maintained by the king, and they began to put to death all those of
     the first rank in the royal service.

81. Va[c]a quibi cahaual nimak achije: Herech, Ta[t]unun, Xhu[c,]uy,
Eventec, Açacot, Camachal qui bi. Kitzih [c]i yatak cal qui [c]ahol, ri
hutok [c]hob, chi ahpopo. Mani chi[c]a x[c]uluben ahauh cuma ok xecam,
tok xoquebex [c]a cochoch ahpopo ruma achiha, xe[c]iz cam ahpopo cuma
achiha.[TN-19] maqui ruchi ahauh; tan [c]a [c]oh ahauh chuvi tinamit
Panpetak; cani [c]a rachcamic ahauh xrah ux cuma achiha: ru[c]in navipe
qui chij ru[c]ahol ahauh xcoquebeh rochoch ahauh Panpetak; cani [c]a
xelahpe ahauh [c]ikab chique achiha. Quere[c]a xtzolih vi achiha ri
Xahil ah popo, xeyaar chi camic; [c]ate[c]a ok xelah ahauh chique
achiha, xutzihobeh ru xit ru puvak; xu ya[c]a cahauarem cah popol
achiha, xuyacan [t]a[t]al tepeval chique achiha: ruyo[t] ru [c]ux ahauh
[c]ikab chique ru[c]ahol ytzel xquiban ri Tatayac, Ah ytza quibi.
Quere[c]a x[c]am vi ahauarem [t]a[t]al, cuma achiha ri humah chi ama[t],
tok xya ri oxlahuh chi ahpop chi varabal, chu chij ama[t], xa nimak
achij ki ru xe [c]haoh, ok xchup [t]a[t]al [c]iche ki vi ru chi can
ahauh [c]ikab. Tok x[c]am [t]a[t]al chi ama[t] oher, yx ka [c]ahol; cani
[c]a x[t]il vinak al[c]ahol, chu nimaxic ahauh ruma achiha, kitzih hoye
ru vach ahauh xux, [c]a hunam chivi naek [c]a ru vach oxlahu [c]hob chi
ahlabal chiri, ok xvar [c]haoh chirih ahauh ruma [c]eche vinak, [c]a
nakah ok [c]a tutzin [c]haoh, ok xtiquer chic chiquih ka mama.

     81. These are the names of those of the royal service: Herech,
     Tagunun, Xhutzuy, Eventec, Azacot, Camachal. Then all the populace
     and the heads of the tribes assembled together. His people did not
     assemble around the king that they might not be killed, and the
     houses of the rulers were entered by the people and the rulers
     were slain by the people; not by order of the king; for the king
     was then in the village of Panpetak. The populace there wished also
     to kill the king. But the orders of his sons prevailed in the royal
     house at Panpetak. The king Qikab humbled himself before the
     people. Therefore the people began again to kill those of the house
     of Xahil. Again the king humbled himself before the people, trying
     to appease them with his precious stones and metals. He gave up the
     power of the rulers to the people and divided with them his royal
     rights. The heart of the king Qikab was bruised by his sons Tatayac
     and Ah Itza, by that which they had done. Therefore the royal glory
     perished at the hands of the people of all the classes, and the
     thirteen divisions and the powers they held were given up, and the
     glory of the Quiches was extinguished in the revolt against the
     orders of the king Qikab. Then perished the ancient glory of the
     nation, O you my children; for since then the people acted, and the
     king is made such by the people. Truly they had then pity for the
     king, for the thirteen tribes having obtained the power, the
     contest of the Quiches was ended; but when it was near its end, it
     suddenly broke out anew among our fathers.

_Ru xe chi[c]a [c]haoh vae._

     _Another Revolt Follows._

82. Ok xtiquer chic [c]haoh chiquih ahaua Huntoh, Vukuba[c,], Chuluc,
Xitamal Queh, cahi chi ahaua vae. Xa[c]a yxok xyaco chic [c]haoh chivih
Ço[c,]il Tukuche, Nimapam Xcacauh rubi yxok, ki ru xe chic [c]haoh. Xa
ah [c]ay vay yxok xbe pa tinamit [t]umarcaah, xa[c]a xrah kup ru vay
yxok ruma hun achij qui [c]a[c]al ahaua [c]iche: xa maqui xuya vay yxok
chire [c]a[c]al, xax he[c] ka achij chi chee rumal yxok. Canih xrah
hi[c,]atah achi xrah cam rumal yxok Nimapan Xcacauh. Quere[c]a xyacatah
vi [c]haoh ri rumal [c]eche vinak; xata[c]a xcam ri yxok xraho [c]eche
vinak; xa[c]a maqui xya ri yxok chire [c]eche vinak, chire [c]a achiha
cuma ka mama Huntoh Vukuba[c,]. Xe elahtah ahaua xraho [c]eche vinak.
Quere ta ri xuban ahauh [c]ikab xcaho achih: he [t]a[t] chic cani [c]a
xupopoh rutzih [c]eche vinak xcha: Xape xtan tu [c]am [t]a[t]al tepeval
chi Ahpoço[c,]il, chi Ahpoxahil, xa kamiçah, xax tanti [t]a[t]ar chi
Huntoh chi Vukuba[c,]; xeucheex [c]a ri ka mama ruma achiha: [c]i xrah
[c]a rutih chic ahauh [c]ikab ru [t]ilic ru camic Ço[c,]il Tukuche. Mani
xa[c]axan chic rutzih ahauh ruma [c]eche vinak: Kitzih chi[c]oh ru [c]ux
ahauh chire Huntoh Vukuba[c,]. Haruma ri kitzih chi nim ru naobal
[c]ikab [c]i naval ahauh. Maquina xaquere x[t]a[t]ar ahauh, kitzih
tixibin retamabal, ha ru [c]uxlaam ri xepe vi pa Tullan. He [c]a ri
achiha, xa mani quetamabal, xae chu [t]abom. Quere bila xquil [t]a[t]al
maqui xtakex chic rutzih ahauh cuma, quere[c]a qui yon tanti quiban
labal tiquina.

     82. Then another revolt began against the four leaders--Huntoh,
     Vukubatz, Chuluc and Xitamal Queh. It was a woman who was the
     occasion of this revolt with the Zotzils Tukuches, a woman named
     Nimapam Xcacauh, and she caused the revolt. This woman had come to
     sell bread in the town of Gumarcah, and one of the guards of the
     Quiche prince had tried to take the bread from her by force; the
     woman had refused to give up the bread to the guard, and the man
     was driven away with a stick by the woman. Then they wished to take
     and kill the man on account of this woman, Nimapan Xcacauh.
     Therefore the contest was started by the Quiches; the Quiches
     wished that the woman should be killed. But the woman was not
     surrendered to the Quiches by our ancestors Huntoh and
     Vucubatz.[TN-20] The Quiches, therefore, wished to humble these
     princes, and they wished to make the king Qikab do this. In anger
     the Quiches called a council and said: “Only the Ahpozotzils and
     the Ahpoxahils have obtained the glory and the power; let us kill
     them, for only Huntoh and Vukubatz have glory.” Thus did the people
     speak to our ancestors. They wished to tempt the king Qikab to
     harass and slay the Zotzil Tukuches. But the king would not listen
     to the words of the Quiches. Truly the heart of the ruler was with
     Huntoh and Vukubatz. For truly great was the knowledge of Qikab and
     marvelous the power of this ruler. Not only was he a king in
     majesty, but also he overawed by his learning and the depth of his
     spirit, derived from Tullan. Therefore when the people saw his
     wisdom, they sought not to instruct him; they troubled not his
     majesty nor accepted the words of the king, but pursued alone the
     war which they had wished.

_Qui pixababal [c]a qui ahaua vae._

     _The Orders which were Given to the Rulers._

83. Cani [c]a xel pe ru çamahel ahauh takol ahaua, tok xhique rucamic
Ço[c,]il Tukuche, ruma [c]eche vinak. Tok xepixabam quij ahaua cha[t]a,
xcha [c]a ri ahauh [c]ikab chique ahauh Huntoh Vukuba[c,]: Mani ru xe
mani ru vi kalabal yvuquin, yxnu[c]ahol; mi[c]a xi[c,]et mixban
chuvichin: mixrayx valabil nu vinak nu xit nu pavak, quere chi [c]a
xtiban chivichin. Co [c]a chivichin, yxnu[c]ahol, yxnucha[t] nu nimal.
Xere vi pixaban ri vae: Mixutzin malo. Machuvak chipe tiban [t]a[t]al
tepeval vave, xere viri mixkaban yvuquin, chi toloba can tinamit
chiquivach he [c]haol cunum cachak; maqui e a[c]axa ytzih, yxnu[c]ahol.
[c]o huyu tila[t]abeh pan Yximchee chuvi Ra[c,]amut. Hay, tinamit tux,
xa chiri ti ban vi bay vi [c]oviçah chi pe ronohel ama[t]. Ti toloba can
ri Chiavar. Yx naek, achih, vuetah xti [c]ulubacan, maqui utz nu tzih ti
takeh, xcha ahauh [c]ikab chique ka mama. Tok xe pixaban quij ahaua,
quere[c]a xtakeh vi rutzih ahauh ri cuma ka mama. Mani x[c]ulelaan can
[c]eche vinak.

     83. Then the king sent his messenger to announce to the rulers that
     the Quiches had resolved on the death of the Zotzil Tukuches. At
     the same time he sent to the rulers that they should come during
     the night, and the king Qikab spoke in these terms to the rulers
     Huntoh and Vukubatz: “It is neither the beginning nor the end of
     this war made against us, O my children. It has been seen what they
     have done to me. They have robbed me of my slaves, my family, my
     treasures, my precious metals. They wish to do the same with you.
     Go forth, therefore, my children, my younger brothers, my elder
     brothers.” Then he gave his orders: “The lot is cast. Cease at once
     from the exercise of a power which you should share with me.
     Abandon this city to the revolted populace. Let your words no more
     be heard, my children. Go to where you can establish yourselves, to
     Iximche, on the Ratzamut. Build there houses and a city, and
     construct a road on which all the people may pass and rest. Abandon
     Chiavar. As for you, people, if you succeed, may my words come to
     you as a curse.” Thus spoke the king Qikab to our ancestors. Then
     the commands were given to the rulers, and the words of the king
     were sent to our ancestors. Nor did the Quiches oppose them.

_Ha [c]a ok xe pe Chiavar vae._

     _This is When they Went Forth from Chiavar._

84. Ha chi oxlahuh y[t], xtole can tinamit Chiavar, ok xebokotah pe
kamama Chiavar, [c]upita[t]ah. Ha[c]a chi oxlahuh y[t], xul xe[c]at baya
quij, hun Akbal [c]a xuxlan, vinak xe[c]at baya quij, ha [c]a chi cay
[c]at; xla[t]abex tinamit chi Yximchee, chuvi Ra[c,]amut. [c]a pa
[c]elah ok [c]a ri pa tinamit chi Yximchee, ok xquila[t]abeh ka mama
Huntoh, Vukuba[c,], Chuluc, Xitamal Queh, he cahi chi ahaua, re rahaual
Cakchiquel vinak. Cani[c]a x[c,]apitah xchapo ri labal ru[c]in [c]eche
vinak, cani navipe xban [c,]alam [c]oxtun cuma kamaa; cani [c]a xquicot
ama[t] ronohel, tok xla[t]abex tinamit, ha rumal ri kitzih e [t]a[t]alah
achih, ahauh Huntoh Vukuba[c,]. Xae ki xebano labal ru[c]in ahauh
[c]ikab; quere xquicot vi ahlabal vuk ama[t] rij. Mani chi[c]a xrucheeh
[c]eche vinak, cani xu[c]am rucovel ronohel ama[t], cani [c]a xul ru
camahel vuk ama[t] ru[c]in Ahpoço[c,]il Ahpoxahil, xcha ronohel ahlabal:
Vtz mixpe, nucha[t], nunimal Chiavar, co chirichin Ahpoço[c,]il,
Ahpoxahil, kitzih utz mixul chiri chi Yximchee; xa ruyon achih chu [c]ux
chi Cavek chi [c]eche vinak, xa ruyon [t]a[t]al chu [c]ux, ma xtuban chi
navi[c]a labal ruyon chi [c]echevinak, xcha ru tzih ronohel vuk ama[t],
ok xul cu[c]in ahaua. Canix ximo ri ru tzih ronohel ahlabal vuk ama[t],
tok la[t]abex tinamit chi Yximchee, xa xuyonih chi can [c]eche vinak,
mani chic xrach[c]ulchijh. Quere[c]a tok xquila[t]abeh tinamit chi
Yximchee ka mama ri, yxnu[c]ahol, mani chi [c]a xutih labal [c]eche
vinak chirih Cakchiquel vinak, xa xuya chi pe ru vach; he ka mama nabey
xoc qui[t]a. Ok xtiho labal chirih [c]eche vinak cuma ka mama Huntoh
Vukuba[c,], [c]a la[t]abem ok ronohel ree [c]iz[c]ab tinamit pa Chakihya
pa Xivanul ka vinakil [c]a xpe chiri Xechibohoy Xechituh, xavi [c]a cani
xula[t]abeh can [c]echevinak ri, cani [c]a ca[c]hob xoquebex vi
[c]echevinak cuma ka mama; ok xcam ri [c]iz[c]ab Xechituh cuma ahaua, ok
xutoloba can [c]echevinak ri pa Chakihya pa Xivanul: cani xuxibih
[c]echevinak ok xtiquer labal ok ixcam ri [c]iz[c]ab Xechituh cuma ahaua
cani xeapon [c]eche vinak chi la yail Ah Xivanul ah Chakihya ri, ah San
Gregorio ah Santo Thomas rubi vacami.

     84. It was on the 13th day of the month Yg that they abandoned the
     town of Chiavar, when our ancestors were forced to leave Chiavar
     and Tzupitagah. On the 13th Yg they descended, burning many roads.
     On the 1st Akbal they halted, still burning the roads, which made
     twice that they burned them, after which they established the town
     of Iximche, on the Ratzamut; they founded the town of Iximche; then
     settled there our ancestors Huntoh, Vukubatz, Chuluc and Xitamal
     Queh, these four rulers, the sovereigns of the Cakchiquel people.
     As soon as they were settled, they placed themselves in readiness
     for war with the Quiches, and our ancestors built a stronghold. All
     the people rejoiced at the establishment of the city by these
     illustrious heroes, the rulers Huntoh and Vukubatz; for they had
     fought on the side of the king Qikab. Therefore all the warriors of
     the seven nations rejoiced. The Quiches could do nothing more, and
     soon all the cities recovered their power. Messengers of the seven
     nations came to the Ahpozotzils and the Ahpoxahils, and all the
     warriors said: “You have done well to leave Chiavar, my brother, my
     elder; well done, Ahpozotzil and Ahpoxahil; you have done well to
     come here to Iximche. There was but one brave man with Cavek and
     the Quiches, there was but one royal heart with them; but hereafter
     he will not go to war with the Quiches.” Such was the speech of all
     the seven nations when they came to visit the rulers. All the
     warriors of the seven nations gave their words, when the city of
     Iximche was founded, that they would separate from the Quiches and
     would not form an alliance with them. Therefore, my children, when
     our ancestors founded the city of Iximche, the war of the Quiches
     against the Cakchiquels had not begun. They had but gazed at each
     other. Our ancestors first took the sword in hand. When war was
     declared against the Quiches by our ancestors Huntoh and Vukubatz,
     the people of Qizqab had inhabited for a long time the towns of
     Chakihya and Xivanul, and our people were settled at Xechibohoy and
     at Xechituh. Soon after the Quiches were established, two of their
     strongholds were seized by our ancestors; Qizqab having been killed
     by our ancestors at Xechituh, the Quiches abandoned Chakihya and
     Xivanul. The Quiches were frightened at seeing the war begin with
     the death of Qizqab at Xechituh by the orders of the rulers. The
     Quiches then went down to the streams of those of Xivanul and of
     Chakihya, which are called at present San Gregorio and Santo

85. Tok xqui hach [c]a ahaua Huntoh Vukuba[c,] ri vuk ama[t] nimak achi
xtzuku quichin heri Ah Popoya, Ah Panca[t], Ah Holom, Mixcu, Tamyac,
ronohel Pokoma: Quere[c]a ta[t]ah, Ah Y[c,]iyule, Ah Xeabah, Ah
Çak[c]uchabah, xa e cay chi ahaua xe[c]amo ronohel xa Huntoh,
Vukuba[c,]: xepatanih vi vuk ama[t] nimak achij. He naek cahi ahaua mani
qui covil ri e cay ahaua Chuluc Xitamal Queh quibi. Cani navipe xtakex
qui [t]a[t]al ka mama ruma ronohel vuk ama[t], ok xla[t]abex tinamit chi
Yximchee; quere[c]a ru chupic [t]a[t]al [c]eche ri, quecha can ka tata
ka mama, yxnu[c]ahol.

     85. Then the rulers Huntoh and Vukubatz assigned to the chiefs of
     the seven nations all their tributaries, that is to say, the people
     of Popoya, Pancag, Holom, Mixco and Tamyac, all of whom were
     Pokomams; as for those on the plains, the subjects of Itziyule,
     Xeabah and Zakquchabah, the two rulers, Huntoh and Vukubatz,
     reserved these for themselves. The seven nations and the chiefs
     were subjected to a tribute. There were four rulers, but the two
     named Chuluc and Xitamal Queh were not important. Soon afterwards
     our ancestors were called _majesties_ by all those of the seven
     nations, at the time that the city of Iximche was founded. Thus
     disappeared the glory of the Quiches, said our fathers and
     ancestors, O my children.

_Qui camibal ahaua vae._

     _How the Rulers Died._

86. Ha [c]a nabey ahauh Huntoh xcam, ok xcam chic ahauh Vukuba[c,]. Ka
mama ti[c]il chican tinamit ok xecam ahaua.

     86. The first who died was the ruler Huntoh; then the ruler
     Vukubatz died. Our ancestors had enlarged the city when they died.

87. Tok xahauar chi[c]a ahauh Lahuh Ah rubi, nabey ru[c]ahol ahauh

     87. Then began to reign the ruler Lahuh Ah, first of the sons of
     the ruler Huntoh.

88. Tok xahauar chi[c]a ri ahauh Oxlahuh [c,]ij rubi, nabey ru [c]ahol
ahauh Vukuba[c,], he [c]a belehe chi achij xe ru [c]aholah ri ahauh ka
mama Cibakihay; Ximox ru bi rixhayil ahauh Vukuba[c,]. Oxlahuh [c]ij
[c]a rubi ri nabey ru [c]ahol, ahauh Cablahuh Ba[c,] ru bi rucam;
Chopena Tohin ru bi, rox Chopena [c,]iquin u[c]a ru bi rucah, xetzak
[c]a pa labal ri e cay ka mama; Chopena Tohin xbe tzak Tucuru Cakixala
rubi huyu xtzakvi; Panatacat, [c]a xtzak vi Chopena [c,]iquin u[c]a;
Chopena Queh rubi roo; Nima Ahin ru vakuk; Xavi Ahin rubi chic ruvak,
Caok, [c]atu quibi he cay chic, e [c]a [t]a[t]alah achiha ree ronohel ka

     88. At the same time reigned the ruler Oxlahuh Tzii, oldest son of
     the king Vukubatz. These are the nine rulers begotten by our
     ancestor, the chief Cibakihay:--Ximox was the name of the wife of
     Vukubatz; Oxlahuh Tzii was her eldest son; the chief Cablahuh Batz
     was the second; Chopena Tohin was the third; Chopena Tziquin Uqa
     was the fourth. These last two ancestors perished in battle.
     Chopena Tohin was slain at the place called Tukuru Cakixala, and
     Panatacat was the spot where fell Chopena Tziquin Uqa. Chopena Queh
     was the fifth; Nima Ahin was the sixth; Xavi Ahin was the name of
     the seventh, and Caok and Qatu were the two others. All these
     ancestors of ours were equally illustrious.

89. Ha [c]a ri ahauh ka mama Oxlahuh [c,]ij, quere navipe ri Lahuhah,
kitzih tixibin que achihir, tixibin [c]a quetamabal xa maqui meztah
rutzih qui tata qui mama. Xavi xcuker chican ru[c]ux al[c]ahol ok xeoc
chi ahauarem; xaui xere chican [t]a[t]al tepeval xquiban chic ahaua;
[c]iy chi navipe nimak labal xquiban xcam chi[c]a ahauh Lahuhah. Ok xoc
chic ahauh Cablahuh Tihax rubi, nabey ru [c]ahol ahauh Lahuhah, xavi ha
ahauh Oxlahuh [c,]ij tan tahauar ok xahauar chic Cablahuh Tihax: xavi
xere qui [t]a[t]al ahaua xux chican, xa[c]a ki ru camic [c]ikab, ri
naual ahauh chila [c]echee, ok xutih chic labal [c]eche vinak chirih
Cakchequel vinak. Ha [c]atan que ahauar [c]iche ri Tepepul, Yztayul
quibi, tok xtzain chic ru [c]ux [c]eche vinak chiri tinamit chi
Yximchee. Ki [c]a tan nima vayhal tok xban xax ka nima teuh xcamiçan
avan pan Uchum, xyaar avan ruma teuh, quere[c]a xçach vi echa ri, que
cha ri y mama, yxnu[c]ahol. Ok xu [c]am ka [c]eche vinak, xa[c]a hun
achi, anom xel Cakxiquel xapon [c]eche ha, xaponiçan ru tzihol vayhal
[c]ichee, [c]i xcha achij: kitzih tan nima vayh, mani tu[c]hih chic
vinak ruma vaihal, [c]i xcha tok xapon [c]ichee. [c]i quere[c]a xhique
vi ru camiçaxic Cakchiquel ri ruma [c]eche vinak camel chu [c]ux.

     89. These kings, our ancestors, Oxlahuh tzii, and Lahuh ah, truly
     they frightened by their bravery, they frightened by their
     knowledge, for they had not forgotten the words of their fathers
     and ancestors. The hearts of their subjects were calm when these
     princes assumed the power, and they exerted authority and control.
     They had made many and great wars when the king Lahuh ah died. Then
     came the king named Cablahuh Tihax, oldest son of the king Lahuh
     ah; but Oxlahuh tzii continued to reign, Cablahuh Tihax ruling
     jointly with him. In truth, the glory of these rulers was not fully
     established until after the death of Qikab, when the magician-ruler
     of Quiche and the Quiches recommenced the war with the Cakchiquels.
     At that time there ruled at Quiche Tepepul and Iztayul, and the
     Quiches regarded with jealousy the city of Iximche. At that time
     there occurred a great famine, brought about by great cold, which
     had destroyed the harvests in the month Uchum, and the harvests
     were lost through this cold. For this reason, say our ancestors,
     the food was all consumed. A fugitive Cakchiquel informed the
     Quiches of this, bringing to the Quiches the news of this famine:
     and this man said: “Truly, it is a great famine, and the people
     cannot suffer the pains of this hunger.” So he said on arriving
     among the Quiches. Therefore the death of the Cakchiquels was
     decided on by the Quiches, and destruction was in their hearts.

_Ru petebal vae._

     _What Took Place._

90. Tok xpe [c]a xubok pe ri pa tinamit [t]umarcaah, x[c]iz pe ronohel
ahaua; xpe [c]a qui [c]abouil ri Tohohil; humah [c]a ronohel achiha
xpeul; maqui ahilam chi vinak, maqui xa hu chuvy, ca chuvy xpe, xul [c]a
chi ama[t], chiri [c]u[c]um ah vi ul xpopon vi ul chiri, ok xvikon [c]a
chi [c]ha, chi pocob, chi tooh, chi tunatiuh, [t]u[t], chi tunatiuh
[c]ubul, chi [c]alvach puak abah, ca utal ok xpeul chiri.

     90. Then took place the defeat at the town of Gumarcaah and the
     humiliation of all the princes. They brought out their god Tohohil
     and the people came in crowds; the multitude was innumerable; it
     was not merely in battalions of eight thousand and sixteen thousand
     men, but they came by villages and districts. They came in battle
     array, with their bows, their armor and their weapons, their
     brilliant plumes, their shining circlets, their head decorated with
     crowns of gold and precious stones; this was the manner of their

91. Ha [c]a chi lahuh [c,]ij, rucam ka [c]eche vinak chi Yximchee, [c]i
mani [c]a ru tzihol cu[c]in ka mama Oxlahuh [c,]ij, ha Cablahuh Tihax,
ok xpeul [c]echevinak, camicay richin Ço[c,]il Tukuchee. Xa[c]a anom
achij xkaçan pe, rutzihol camic ru[c]in ahaua; cabih tibin camic,
mix[c]izpe ronohel [c]eche vinak, camiçay richin vinak tinamit,
xtoquebex, kitzih tixibin mixpeul, maqui xa hu chuvy ca chuvy achiha,
xcha ri achi anom ok xul Cakchiquel. Cani [c]a xepopon ahaua xecha: xaha
rutaon, utz mixpe xti katih ki ru[c]in [c]iche vinak, xecha ahaua. Cani
[c]a xel camol bey, xel [c]a hu [c]hob achiha ramonel chirih [c]eche
vinak, xramatah vi xa[c]a ruyon ah tinamit x[c]ulelaan, ri xkape pa nima
bey chuvi huyu [c]at beya qui, xu[c]ulelaah [c]a ru [c]ulel Ah
Tiba[c]oy, Ah Raxakan, xavi [c]a xu [c,]apihel ru bey Ah [t]aleah, Ah
Paçaki uleuh, Ah [t]inoma.

     91. It was on the day 10th Tzy that occurred the destruction of the
     Quiches at Iximche; but the news of it had not yet reached our
     ancestors, Oxlahu[TN-21] tzii and Cablahuh Tihax, when the Quiches
     came to destroy the Zotzil Tukuches. A fugitive came bearing to the
     chiefs the news that they were to be slain: “Day after to-morrow
     they will slay you. All the Quiche nation will come to slay and
     destroy the people of the city, which they will enter by force;
     truly their entry will be terrible, for they are many more than
     eight thousand or sixteen thousand men.” Thus spoke this fugitive
     when he arrived among the Cakchiquels. The chiefs immediately
     assembled in council and said: “Listen! It is a good thing that we
     are to measure ourselves against the Quiches.” Thus spoke the
     chiefs. Immediately they sent forth messengers. One division of the
     people formed and went forth to meet the Quiches, and the
     inhabitants alone went forth to battle. They went by the main road
     to the summit of the mountain, burning everything on the way. They
     met in conflict the battalions from Tibaqoy and Raxakan, and closed
     the road to those of Galeah, of Pazaki uleuh and Ginoma.

92. Tok xucavuh [c]a ri achiha chi [c]haa, chi pocob, chi tooh
xa[c,]elavachim chic ok xkaul.

     92. Then all the men took up their bows, their shields and various
     weapons, awaiting the arrival of the enemies.

_Ru camibal [c]a [c]iche vinak._

     _The Destruction of the Quiches._

93. Ki [c]a pacac ru xe cah xkah pe chuvi huyu, cani [c]a xboz ci[c]
yuyub, cani navipe xpae ru lakam, x[t]ahan [c]a çubak, [c]habi tun,
xivac. Kitzih ti xibin ok xka pe [c]eche vinak.[TN-22] hucumah xka pe chi
[c]otoh, xmukutah yan ri [c]otoh, xka chipe xe huyu, ki na [c]a xul chu
chi ya, celahay ya, xavi [c]a tzekel pe ahauh Tepepul Yztayul, xavi
rachbilam pe ru [c]abouil. Tok xpe [c]a ul ri ramonel chirih, kitzih
tixibin ok xpe ul, cani x[t]ahan ci[c] yuyuh, çubak, [c]habitun, xivac,
xu[c]ut ru puz, ru naval achiha: cani [c]a xu cahmah [c]echevinak, mani
chic x[c]ulelaan, cani xpaxin rij xyaar chi camic [c]echevinak, maqui
ahilam xcam. Quere[c]a x[c]ace xtelecheex xquiya quij, ahaua Tepepul
Yztayul xuya ri qui [c]abouil. Quere[c]a ru [t]alel achij, rahpop achi
ru mam ru [c]ahol ahauh ahxit ahpuvak, ah[c,]ib, ah[c]ot, ronohel
achiha, kitzih xyaar chicamic, mahilam maqui xahu chuvy, ca chuvy chi
[c]eche vinak xu cam ka Cakchiquel, oher, quecha ka tata ka mama,
yxnu[c]ahol; ha[c]a ahauh Oxlahuh [c,]ij, Cablahuh Tihax he navipe
Vooymox, Rokelba[c,]in xebano maquina xaquere x[t]a[t]ar huyu chi

     93. When the dawn appeared, they (the Quiches) descended from the
     hills, the cries and shouts of war broke forth, the banners were
     displayed; then were heard the drums, the trumpets and the conches
     of the combatants. Truly this descent of the Quiches was terrible.
     They advanced rapidly in rank, and one might see afar off their
     bands following one another, descending the mountain. They soon
     reached the banks of the river, the houses by the water. They were
     followed by the chiefs Tepepul and Iztayul, accompanying the god.
     Then it was that the battalions met. Truly the encounter was
     terrible. The cries and the shouts, the noise of the drums, the
     trumpets and the conches resounded, mingled with the enchantments
     of the heroes. The Quiches were routed in all directions, not one
     fought, they were put to flight and delivered over to death, and no
     one could count their slain. A great number of them were taken
     prisoners, together with the kings Tepepul and Iztayul, who
     delivered up their god. Thus the Galel-achi, the Ahpop-achi, the
     grandson and son of the chief jeweler, the treasurer, the secretary
     and the chief engraver and all the people were put to the sword.
     The Quiches who were then killed by the Cakchiquels were not
     counted by eight thousand or sixteen thousand; so said our fathers
     and ancestors, O my children. Such were the deeds of the kings
     Oxlahuh Tzy and Cablahuh Tihax, as also of Vooymox and Rokelbatzin.
     Thus, and not otherwise, did they make glorious the city of

_Ru camibal chic ahauh Y[c]hal vae_ (_Amolac, Lahuh Noh, Chicumcuat_).

     _The Death of the Chief Ychal_ (_Amolac, Lahuh Noh, and

94. [c]atan ru la[t]abem ok Akahal vinak ri chuvi tinamit chi Holom
[t]u[t]u huyu [c]ax[c]an ha[c]a tan tahauar ri Y[c]hal Amolac, xa[c]axbe
boy chij xka ruma qui çamahel ahaua Oxlahuh [c,]ij, Cablahuh Tihax,
xucheex: Ti pe tah rachihilal ahauh vican nu mama, ka hunamah chic ka
[c]ha, ka pocob ru[c]in, ha ri [c]eche vinak mixrah nu tih chic labal
chirih nu civan nu tinamit, mi [c]a xnuban richin chi [c]eche vinak; ka
tiha chi [c]a labal ru[c]in, ti [c]iz pe ul rachihilal ahauh, xucheex
tok xboy chiix Y[c]hal. Cani [c]a xhique ru [c]ux ahauh: Utzan chirichin
Ahpoço[c,]il, Ahpoxahil, ti[c]il vachihilal ti[c]iz be ronohel
vachihilal, yn [c]a nun quibe, tibe vetamahel huyu Cakchiquel, tibe
kabanael labal cu[c]in vica[t] nu mam, cani xcha ahauh Y[c]hal chique

     94. Meanwhile the Akahals occupied the towns Holom, Guguhuyu and
     Qaxqan, having for king Ychal Amollac. Messengers were sent to him
     by the kings Oxlahuh tzii and Cablahuh Tikax, with the order that
     he should come down, and they said: “Let the bravery of the king be
     made manifest to our ancients, let us measure with him our bows and
     our shields. The Quiches wished to try their arms against our
     ravine and our city, and we have dealt with the Quiches. Let us now
     try this one in war; let the king come and show his valor.” Thus
     did they say and sent this word to Ychal. The heart of the king was
     soon resolved. “Let it be according to the desire of the
     Ahpozotzils and Ahpoxahils. I will increase my strength and I will
     go and show them all my valor. I will go alone; I will see what is
     the place of the Cakchiquels; I will go down to make war with the
     descendants of my grandfather.” Thus spoke the king Ychal to the

95. Cani [c]a xequicot ahaua tok xel pe ru tzihol ahauh Y[c]hal, cani
xquipopoh quitzih ahaua chirih Y[c]hal: Utz mixpe cani ti ka chup ru
vach maqui ti keleçah chic kivi [c]axto[c] chi Y[c]hal, xecha ahaua cani
xhique ru camic cuma ka mama--Hunahpu [c,]ian, Nimaçahay, Ahci[c]ahuh,
[c]hooc Tacatic, [c,]imahi Piaculcan, Xumak Cham, xcak vachitah ruma
ulamach puvaka, raponic xehuna cauh.

     95. The chiefs rejoiced when the words of Ychal reached them, and
     the chiefs took counsel in words against Ychal: “It is well that he
     be hidden from the light, that we disobey not the Demon on account
     of Ychal.” Thus spoke the princes. Then his death was resolved upon
     by our ancestors--Hunahpu Tzian, Nimazahay, Ahciqahuh, Qhooc
     Tacatic, Tzimahi Piaculcan and Xumak Cham, who were envious of his
     person on account of the riches that he had, and the height to
     which he had raised his courage.

96. Tok xpe [c]a ul ahauh Y[c]hal, tzatz rachihilal xpe naual ahauh [c]a
ri Y[c]hal, xcha can ru pixa chi rochoch: Vue quinul vue maqui chic
quinul, vue yn camel; vae xquibe xcha can ahauh. Ok xpe ul cani xuna
ahauh, ki [c]a tel pe çakli[c]ahol ri ahauh; tok xuna, xcha: Ti[c,]eta
na [c,]ak, chun çakcab quixbanon quix vikon baka ki xbiçah ki chuvach
Ço[c,]il Tukuchee, xcha chique rachihilal. Quere[c]a ok xtzolih [c]hakap
ru hay ru chinamit, tok relic chic ahauh lahuh Noh.

     96. Then the king Ychal went forth, and a great number of
     distinguished warriors went with the king. He was profound in
     knowledge, and he left these words to his house: “Whether I return,
     or whether I do not return, my death is at hand.” The king
     departed, saying these words. When it was known that the king was
     on the road, the people came to carry him on their shoulders. When
     he heard them he said: “Look to your walls; look to your lime and
     your war paint; be prepared and your arms at hand, that you appear
     not cast down before the Zotzil Tukuches.” Thus he spoke to his
     warriors, and they returned in midway to their houses and villages.
     The chief came on the day 10th Noh.

97. Xa [c]a [c]elavachiym chic ok xul pa tinamit chi Yximchee,
hiquilibem chic ru camic, banoninak chic achiha tok xul; pan pop [c]a
xtakevi ok xul; xaki xrulibeh tok xcam ahauh ru[c]in ronohel rachihilal:
xchapol richin ri yacol cu[c]i ya, tok xoc apon, xe yaar chicamic Akahal
vinak. Quere[c]a rucamic Y[c]hal Amolac ri chi Yximchee. Va[c]a quibi
rachihilale, ri xecam ru[c]in, he nimak achiha: Çoroch, Hukahic,
Tameltoh, Huvarahbix, Vail[c]ahol, queucheex, he [t]a[t]alah tak achiha,
[c]iy [c]a chubinem achiha xcam. Quere[c]a rukahic tinamit chi Holom, ri
[c]iy [c]a [c]ovi Akahal vinak chuvi tinamit, [c]ax[c]an, Ralabal Y[c],
[t]u[t]uhuyu, Vukuçivan. Xavi [c]ax [c]iz cam chic ri ronohel tinamit
cuma ahaua Oxlahuh [c,]iy, Cablahuh Tihax, xrah [c]a ru la[t]abeh chic,
Xerahapit, ru kaxba chi chic Akahal vinak, [c]a chiri [c]a xto[t]e vi ru

     97. His face was sorrowful as he entered the city of Iximche, where
     they were consulting of his death. It had been decided upon by the
     chiefs when he came. At his arrival he was called to the council,
     but no sooner was he entered than he was slain, and his brave
     companions with him. His cup bearer was seized as soon as he
     entered, and was slain, as of the Akahal nation. Thus perished
     Ychal Amolac at Iximche. These are the names of the warriors who
     perished with him, all distinguished men: Zoroch, Hukahic,
     Tameltoh, Huvurahbix, Vailgahol; thus they were called, these noble
     men, who went forth to die with him. Thus it came that the city of
     Holom was conquered, as also the towns of Qaxqan, Ralabalyq,
     Guguhuyu and Vukucivan, where dwelt many people of the Akahal
     nation. All the towns finished by yielding to the arms of the kings
     Oxlahuh tzy and Cablahuh Tihax. Desiring to repeople Xerahapit, the
     Akahal nation were transferred there, and there they bewailed their

_Ru camibal chic Caoke vae._

     _The Death of Caoke._

98. Paraxtunya, Belehe[t]ih rubi ahauh. Xax rach[c]ul chijh ahauh Voo
Caok, Ah[c,]iquinahay; xa xuçolrih labal Caoke, labal ru [c]ux. Cani
xuban ru [c]oxtun ru [c]otoh, [t]a[t]al chic xraho ahauh Belehe [t]ih:
tok xecha [c]a ahaua Oxlahuh [c,]ij, Cablahuh Tihax, ok xa[c]a xax ru
tzihol qui çolbol labal: ki vi pe chi ytzel ru [c]ux chi Ah[c,]iquinahay
chi Belehe [t]ih, tan qui ru çol chuvih chi nu vach, mi xu[c]am
[t]a[t]al chu [c]ux chi Caoke utz ka bana labal ru[c]in, xecha ahaua.
Cani [c]a xhique ru camic Caoke, xbe achiha camiçay richin, kitzih [c]a
achih Caoke, ru nah xcam, [c]a roxlah xka ru tinamit, xutih ru [t]ih
Caoke oxlahuh chi[t]ih, xban tzaloh, ok xka tinamit Paraxtunya cuma ka
mama Oxlahuh [c,]ij, Cablahuh Tihax, xcaminak ok [c]a ronohel ri
mixkabijh can.

     98. At Paraxtunya, Belehe gih by name was chief. He had made an
     alliance with the chief Voocaok, the Ahtziquinahay. Caoke was
     inclined to war, and war was in his heart. Having built a
     stronghold with ditches, Belehe gih desired the supreme power. The
     kings Oxlahuh tzy and Cablahuh Tihax learning these preparations
     for war, said: “Truly there is an evil mind in the chiefs
     Ahtziquinahay and Belehe gih. They have turned war toward us, and
     the chief Caoke has already in his heart assumed the supreme
     power. Let us give them war.” So said the chieftains, and from that
     time the death of Caoke was resolved upon. Warriors set out to slay
     him. But Caoke was brave, and, far from yielding, thirteen times he
     descended from his town and for thirteen days endeavored to save
     his life. Finally the town of Paraxtunya having been assaulted, it
     was captured by our ancestors Oxlahuh tzy and Cablahuh Tihax, who
     put to death all whom we have named.

_Tok xban [c]a yuhuh chi Yximche._

     _Then the Revolt Took Place at Iximche._

99. Vae xa vuleuh ri ru xe [c]haoh xtiquer Akahal vinak qui [c]ulel
Tukuchee; xax [c]ot cavex Akahal vinak cuma Tukuchee; cani [c]a xchapo
ri x[t]açin ri vinak tok x[c]ot avex, tzam Chi[c]ib xban vi oher ruma

     99. A question of land was the real cause of the struggle, when the
     Akahals strove with the Tukuches, because the harvests of the
     Akahals had been destroyed by the Tukuches. Those who beat the
     persons injuring the harvests were seized at the point of Chiqib,
     the place where this took place among those men of old.

100. Xa[c]a [t]ana vinakil quichin ahaua Cablahuh Tihax, Oxlahuh [c]ij
ruma Tukuchee, ruma Akahal vinak, ha[c]a tan cahaual Tukuchee ri Cay
Hunahpu ru bi, atzih vinak Cavek, he navipe ri ahaua [c]iria Yyu,
Tox[c]om Noh qui bi; xa[c]a xret vachih ru [t]a[t]al ri ahauh Cay
Hunahpu, xa [c]iy ral ru[c]ahol, xa[c]a maqui xya Akahal vinak chi camic
chirichin ruma Ahpopço[c,]il Ahpopxahil, camel tah Akahal vinak chu
[c]ux Cay Hunahpu; quere[c]a xebe vi chirih ahauh Cablahuh Tihax,
Oxlahuh [c,]ij ruma Cay Hunahpu, xax ru[c]in vi [c]a xcako ruvach chire
Ahpopço[c,]il Ahpopxahil, xata ruyon xahauar xraho ahauh. Tok xnimatah
[c]a [c]haoh cuma ahaua, ha ahauh Cay Hunahpu ki xahoon ru banic yuhuh,
ha [c]ari ahauh Cay Hunahpu kitzih labal ru[c]ux, xax maqui chivi xraho
ahauh xelahibex ruvach cuma ahaua, Oxlahuh [c,]ij, Cablahuh Tihax, xa
nima tahinak chic ahauh, tok xelahibex ruvach, he maqui yuhuh cahoom
ahaua al[c]ahol, pokon xquina; quere[c]a kitzih xibin ri quichin ahaua
xuna Cay Hunahpu xax maqui chivi xraho x[t]il.

     100. The judges in this affair were the kings Cablahuh Tihax and
     Oxlahuh tzy, for the Tukuches; and for the Akahals, the Tukuche
     chief called Cay Hunahpu, the head chief Cavek, and the chiefs
     Qiriayu and Toxqomnoh. One could see in Cay Hunahpu the demeanor of
     supreme power, and he had many vassals; but the Ahpopzotzils and
     the Ahpopxahils refused to deliver up to him the Akahals to be
     slain. For already in his heart Cay Hunahpu had resolved to destroy
     the Akahals. For this reason there was a revolt against Cablahuh
     Tihax and Oxlahuh tzy, by the instigation of Cay Hunahpu; for this
     chief disliked the Ahpopzotzil and the Ahpopxahil, and would have
     liked to rule alone. Thus the revolt spread among the chiefs. The
     chief Cay Hunahpu desired the revolt; for this chief Cay Hunahpu
     had resolved in his heart the revolt, and he could not be satisfied
     until he had forced the kings Oxlahuh tzy and Cablahuh Tihax to
     humble themselves that he might become great. Then these princes
     did humble themselves, that there should not be a conflict between
     their people, and they grieved deeply. Thus did Cay Hunahpu
     frighten these two kings; but he could not be satisfied without
     using violence.

101. Tok x[c]hique [c]a [t]ih xbanvi yuhuh ruma ahauh Cay Hunahpu, ha
chi hulahuh Ah xban yuhuh: tok xuhuruh [c]a el rij Tukuchee pa tinamit
[c]haka ya xbe ti [c]e vi el ronohel [c]a rachihilal Tukuchee, xoquiben
tinamit; maqui [c]a xcaho rachihilal ahauh Cablahuh Tihax Oxlahuh
[c,]ij; xa hu [c]hob achiha xcha[t]obem quitzih ahaua ah Xechipeken,
rahpop achi Cinahitoh ru bi achi tan tachihir chiri Xechipeken.

     101. The day of the revolt was appointed by this chief, Cay
     Hunahpu, and on this day, 11th Ah, the revolt broke out. Then the
     Tukuches were drawn out of the city, to the other side of the
     river, and all the Tukuche warriors went there also, that they
     might enter the city; but the warriors of the kings Cablahuh Tihax
     and Oxlahuh tzy opposed them. One division of warriors was enough
     to drive them off, encouraged by the words of the kings, a division
     from Xechipeken; and these of Xechipeken, with their ruler the
     counselor Cinahitoh, distinguished themselves by their bravery.

_Ru camibal Tukuchee va kitzih xyaar chi camic._

     _The Destruction of the Tukuches, who were, in fact, Massacred._

102. Ki [c]a ti pacatah ru xecah chi hulahuh Ah xboz pe Tukuchee [c]haka
tinamit, cani x[t]ahan ru çubak, ru [c]habi tun ahauh Cay Hunahpu,
vikital chi tooh, chi tunatiuh [t]u[t], chi tunatiuh [c]ubul, chi
[c]alvach puak abah. Ok xboz pe [c]haka ya, kitzih tixibin maqui ahilam
chi Tukuchee, mani xahu chuvy, ca chuvy. Tok xtiquer [c]a tzaloh chuvach
tinamit tzam [t]am, x[c]ulu vi ri labal ha[c]a Chucuyba[c,]in [c]amol
yuhuh cuma Tukuchee; xa[c]a e cahi chi yxoki xevik chi achcayupil qui
[c]ha xqui[c]exevachibeh labal, hunelic rucahichal ral; qui [c]ha xoc
chuva ru pop Chucuyba[c,]in ruma achiha: tixibin chi nima yuhuh xquiban
ahaua oher; ha [c]amol tzaloh [c]ate xqui[c]ut chic qui tiohil yxoki
chuvach pa Ço[c,]il pa Xahil [c,]ak xeel vi yxoki; kina xeel pe chiri
tok xboz chi[c]a hu [c]hob pa nima bey chi nima [c]otoh, ruyon [c]a
achiha ri ah Tiba[c]oy, ah Raxakan hucumah [c]a xpaxel ri pa nima bey;
xa cay xutzak can ri ok xpaxel, ha[c]a ri xka ul [c]haka tinamit xyaloh
tzaloh, ha[c]a xramon ri rahpop achi Cinahitoh ah Xechipeken.

     102. When the dawn appeared on the day 11th Ah, the Tukuches began
     on the opposite side from the city, and the drums and trumpets of
     the chief Cay Hunahpu were heard. Then the warriors armed, and
     displayed their brilliant feathers and shining banners, and gold
     and precious stones. Then it began on the other side of the river,
     and truly it was terrible for the number of the Tukuches, who could
     not be counted by eight thousands nor by sixteen thousands. The
     battle began before the city, at the end of the bridge where
     Chucuybatzin, placed at the head of the struggle by the Tukuches,
     had brought the fighting. There were four women who had armed
     themselves with lances and bows, and taken part in the battle,
     fully equal to four young men. The arrows launched by these
     heroines struck the very mat of Chucuybatzin. Truly it was a
     terrible revolt which the chiefs made of old. The chiefs of the
     battle afterwards set up the images of these women before the
     buildings of the Zotzils and the Xahils, whence these women had
     gone forth. As they departed, there suddenly appeared a division
     in the high road near the deep trenches. It rapidly scattered the
     warriors of Tibaqoy and Raxakan on the high road. Only two of the
     men fell in this encounter, and he who led them beyond the city to
     prolong the combat was the same who had gained the previous
     victory, the counselor Cinahitoh of Xechipeken.

103. Tok xpe [c]a ramonel chirih Tukuchee, cani [c]a xucahmah mani chic
x[c]ulelaan canih xpaxin rij, xyaar achiha, xyaar yxok aqual chi camic,
xuyari ahauh Cay Hunahpu, xuya [c]a ri ahauh [c,]iriniyu, Tox[c]om Noh,
ronohel [c]a ru mam ahauh ru [c]ahol ahauh. Cani[c]a xbe [c]eche ri Ah
Tiba[c]oy, Ah Raxakan, xbe [c]a [c,]utuhil [c]hakap, xhito [c]a ri
ronohel chucochol al[c]ahol, xpaxin ri ronohel. Quera[c]a tok xyaar
Tukuchee ri oher, yxnu[c]ahol, he[c]a ka maa Oxlahuh[c,]ij, Cablahuh
Tihax xebano, chi hulahuh Ah, [c]a xban xpax Tukuchee.

     103. Then began a general attack on the Tukuches; they were cut to
     pieces at once; no one resisted; the rout was complete; men, women
     and children were given up to slaughter. The chief Cay Hunahpu was
     slain; the chiefs Tziriniyu and Toxqom Noh all perished, as well as
     their fathers and children. Immediately those of Tibaqoy and
     Raxakan retired, partly to Quiche, partly among the Tzutuhils. They
     mingled with their subjects and were thus dispersed. Such was the
     destruction of the Tukuches, in old times, O my children. It was
     our ancestors Oxlahuh tzy and Cablahuh Tihax who, on the day 11th
     Ah, undertook and accomplished the dispersion of the Tukuches.

104. Ru hulahu vinak ok [c]a tiban yuhuh, ok xrah cam chic Ah Tiba[c]oy,
ruma [c]echevinak, haok xbe tiqeel Tukuchee Chiavar, xyaar [c]eche vinak
chi camic chiri, xtzak can Yaxon [c,]ui ru bi, chi belehe Caok.

     104. Thirty-one days after the revolt, as the Quiches desired to
     destroy those of Tibaqoy, these Tukuches removed to Chiavar and put
     to death the Quiches, who yielded in a battle at a place named
     Yaxontzui, on the day 9th Caok.

105. Ru vaklahu vinak, ok tiban yuhuh, xcam chic Cinahitoh, xax rah
rumah ahauh atzih vinak Ahmoxnay, xa ruyon chi Chinahitoh xax rah y[c]o
ru [t]a[t]al chi qui vi ahaua, quere[c]a xyaar vi Cinahitoh ri [c]iy
chubinem achiha xcam pa tinamit chi hulahuh Can xban.

     105. On the 36th day after the revolt Cinahitoh perished, because
     he coveted the position of the orator Ahmoxnay. Cinahitoh wished to
     exercise the power alone, above the chieftains, therefore Cinahitoh
     was condemned by all the chiefs, and his death was carried into
     effect in the city on the day 11th Can.

106. Xlauheh oktel huna yuhuh xhi[c,]ax chic ahauh atzih vinak Ahmoxnay,
chi hulahuh Akbal, xa xuhaeh coboyel ahaua, ha xcam ri ahauh.

     106. One year less ten days after the revolt was hanged the chief
     orator Ahmoxnay on the day 11th Akbal. This chief perished because
     he had stopped the messengers of the ruler.

Chi vahxaki Ah xel huna yuhuh.

     The day 8 Ah was one year after the Revolt.

107. Xa[c]a halachic matel ru caba ru camic Tukuchee, ok xcam chic
[c,]utuhile pa Çakcab, ha chi hun Ahmak; xyaar chic [c,]utuhile chi
camic, xqui ya qui ahaua Nahtihay, Ah[c]ibihay; xa [c]a ha chic maqui xu
ya ri ahauh Vookaok Ah[c,]iquinahay, ha chic xtzain ru [c]ux chirih

     107. It was not much less than two years after the defeat of the
     Tukuches, when the Tzutuhils were defeated at Zakcab on the day 1st
     Ahmak. The Tzutuhils were cut to pieces and their rulers Nahtihay
     and Ahqibihay were slain. Only Vookaok, the Ahtziquinahay, could
     not be conquered, and he tried his fortune against the Cakchiquels.

Chi voo Ah xel ru caba ru banic yuhuh.

     The day 5 Ah was two years after the Revolt.

Chi cay Ah xel oxi huna ru banic yuhuh.

     The day 2 Ah was three years after the Revolt.

108. Ha chi oxi Queh xban chic yuhuh [c]eche, xbe ru [c]ul vachih chi el
Tukuchee yuhuh chiri [c]iche.

     108. On the day 3 Queh there was a revolt in Quiche. The Tukuches
     went to take part, and joined in the revolt in Quiche.

Cablahuh Ah xel ru cah huna yuhuh.

     The day 12 Ah completed the fourth year after the Revolt.

109. Chupam voo huna xcam chic Ah Mixcu tzukul richin ahauh Cablahuh
Tihax xax rah ru [t]a[t]ariçah ri; chi Vuku Camey, xka ru tinamit Ah
Mixcu, xyaar chi camic ruma achiha.

     109. During the fifth year those of Mixco were put to death; being
     tributaries of the king Cablahuh Tihax, they wished to make
     themselves independent. On the day 7 Camay, the town of Mixco was
     taken and its inhabitants slain by the chiefs.

110. Ok xcam chi[c]a Yaqui Ah Xivicu, xax rach [c]ul chijh ahauh voo
kaok rahaual Akahal vinak, haok xti[c]e chic chuvach huyu, Akahal vinak,
xrah [t]a[t]ar chic chiri.

     110. At the same time were put to death the Yaquis of Xivico,
     because they had taken part with the king Vookaok, Chief of the
     Akahals, this nation of the Akahals having begun to lift itself
     before the town, desiring to obtain power.

111. Va[t]ih ok [c]atel Voo rubanic yuhuh ok xcam chic Akahal vinak
chuvach huyu, xaxrah [t]a[t]ar chic ahauh chu vach huyu.

     111. Six days were wanting to complete five years from the revolt
     when the Akahals were cut in pieces before the town, with their
     king, because they wished to be independent of the town.

Chi belehe Ah, xel voo huna rubanic yuhuh.

     The 9 Ah completed the fifth year after the Revolt.

Vakaki Ah, xel ruvakah yuhuh.

     The 6 Ah completed the sixth year after the Revolt.

Chi oxi Ah, xel ruvuk huna yuhuh.

     On the 3 Ah there were seven years from the Revolt.

112. Chupam ruvahxak huna yuhuh xcam chic [c,]utuhile, ruma ah Xeynup,
Xepalica, xe yaar vi chicamic, xtzak can Çakbin Ahmak chi oxlahuh Ahmak.

     112. In the eighth year after the revolt, the Tzutuhils were
     defeated by those of Xeynup and Xepalica; they were slaughtered,
     Zakbin and Ahmak having perished in the action on the day 13 Ahmak.

Chi oxlahuh Ah, xel vahxaka yuhuh.

     On the day 13 Ah there were eight years from the revolt.

Chi lahuh Ah, xel ru beleh huna.

     On 10 Ah there were nine years from the revolt.

113. Cablauheh oktel lauha yuhuh ok xi[c]o pokob Cakchiquel ruma ahauh
kamama Oxlahuh [c,]ij, kitzih chi nima [t]a[t]al xban xul ronohel vuk
ama[t] chi Yximchee, chi vahxaki Ymox xban.

     113. Twelve days were lacking to complete the tenth year after the
     revolt when the Cakchiquels put on their shields on account of the
     king our ancestor, Oxlahuh tzy; for truly he showed great power in
     making all the seven nations come to Iximche, which he did on the
     day 8 Imox.

Chi vuku Ah, ru lauha rubanic yuhuh.

     The day 7 Ah completed the tenth year after the Revolt.

Chi cahi Ah, xel ru hulauha.

     On 4 Ah there were eleven years from the Revolt.

Chi Hun ah, ru cablauha.

     On 1 Ah there were twelve years.

Chi hulahuh Ah [c]axel roxlauha yuhuh (Ahpoço[c,]il).

     On 11 Ah there were thirteen years from the revolt (of the

114. Oxlahuh [c,]iquin xcam xo[t]ohauh Vooqueh ri xhaylah Lahuh Tihax ru
[c]ahol [c]ikab. Xa[c]a hala chic matel cahlauha yuhuh ok xcam ahauh
Oxlahuh [c,]ij, ka mama; chi oxi Ahmak xcam ahauh, kitzih chi tixibin ru
[t]a[t]al chia ahauh, manix [c]hacatah vi ru [t]ih ralaxic, [c]i ya
labal xuban, [c]iya tinamit xukaçah tok xcam. He chi [c]a xeru [c]aholah
ahauh ree:--

     114. On the day 13 Tziquin died the princess Vooqueh who had
     married Lahuh Tihax, son of Qikab. Little was lacking to complete
     the fourteenth year after the Revolt when the king our ancestor
     Oxlahuh tzy also died. He died on the day 13 Ahmak. Truly this king
     had made himself feared by his power; never was his power or his
     grandeur diminished; he undertook many wars and conquered many
     cities. These are the children he  begat:--

115. Huny[t], rubi nabey ru[c]ahol, ha[c]a xoc chi ahauarem ok xcam
ahauh Oxlahuh [c,]ij ru tata, ronohel tzih cahi chi ama[t] ok xahauar
ahauh Huny[t]. Vakaki Ahmak ru bi ru cam al; Noh [c]a voxal; Belehe[c]at
ru cahal; Ymox voo al; Noh ruvakakal. Maku X[t]uhay rubi xo[t]ohauh
xixhayl ahauh Oxlahuh [c,]ij; xae oxi xeralah, ha nabey ri ahauh
Huny[t]; he [c]a cay yxoc huhun [c]a qui te ri [c]hakap ru [c]ahol
ahauh, xa ri xnam ahauh xalan ri Belehe[c]at.

     115. Hunyg was the name of his first son, and he obtained the power
     when the king Oxlahuh tzy his father died, and all four of the
     tribes gave their consent that Hunyg should be chief. Vakaki Ahmak
     was the name of the second son; Noh was the third; Beleheqat the
     fourth; Imox the fifth, Maku Xguhay was the name of the queen, wife
     of the king Oxlahuh tzy. She had three children, oldest of whom was
     the king Hunyg. He had also two other wives, each of whom was
     mother of part of the children of the king; and the mother of the
     king (Hunyg) had also Beleheqat.

Chi vahxaki Ah [c]axel ru cahlauha yuhuh.

     The day 8 Ah completed the 14th year after the Revolt.

116. Ok xcam chi[c]a ahauh Cablahuh Tihax; chi cahi Ey xcam ahauh.

     116. Then died the king Cablahuh Tihax; this king died on the day 4

Voo Ah, [c]a xel rolauha rubanic yuhuh.

     The day 5 Ah completed the 15th year after the revolt.

117. Tok xahauar chi[c]a ahauh Lahuh Noh rubi, nabey ru [c]ahol ahauh
Cablahuh Tihax. He [c]a xeulaan Yaqui Ah Culuvacan, ri ahauh Huny[t],
Lahuh Noh; chi hun Toh xeul Yaqui ru çamahel ahauh Modecçumatzin rahaual
Ah Mexicu.

     117. Then began also to reign the king Lahuh Noh, eldest son of the
     king Cablahuh Tihax. At this time the Yaquis of Culuacan were
     received by the kings Hunyg and Lahuh Noh. The Yaquis arrived on
     the day 1 Toh, sent by the king Modeczumatzin, king of the

118. [c]a ha [c]a ki xka[c,]et ri oki xeul ri Yaqui Ah Culuvacan, he
[c]iya Yaqui xeul oher, yxnu[c]ahol, tantahauar ka mama Huny[t] Lahuh

     118. And we ourselves saw these Yaquis of Culuacan when they
     arrived; and they came in old times in great number, these Yaquis,
     O my children, during the reign of our ancestor Hunyg and Lahuh

Chi cay Ah, xel ru vaklauha ru banic yuhuh.

     The day 2 Ah completed the 16th year after the Revolt.

119. Chupam huna xoc chic labal chuvach [c]ichevinak, chi vahxaki
[t]anel xoc [c]am [c]eche, tantahauar Huny[t] ka mama tan [c]a nima
rahpop achi ymama chiri ok xoc labal [c]echee, yxnu[c]ahol, he[c]a ki
xebano chic labal [c]iche ri y mama rahpop Achi Balam, rahpop achi
Y[t]ich, ru [t]alel achi [c]atu, [c]iya camic [c]eche vinak cuma;
maquina xaquere xe[t]a[t]ar ka tata ka mama.

     119. During the year the war broke out afresh with the Quiches. On
     the day 8 Ganel Quiche was entered and taken when Hunyg our
     ancestor was ruling, a great counselor and ancient man, when the
     war entered Quiche. O my children. Those who began this war at
     Quiche were the old men, the counselor Balam, the counselor Ygich,
     and the noble Qatu; and many Quiches perished through them. But not
     thus did our fathers and ancestors acquire their power.

Chi cablahuh Ah, xel ru vuklauha ru banic yuhuh.

     The day 12 Ah completed the 17th year after the Revolt.

Chi belehe Ah, xel chic vahxaklauha yuhuh.

     The day 9 Ah completed the 18th year after the Revolt.

120. Chupam chi[c]a huna ok xey[c]o chicop, xche chel ut, quere ri e ute
chi oxi Caok xey[c]o oher pa tinamit chi Yximchee, kitzih tixibin chi

     120. During this year the beasts and doves came out of the forests,
     and on the day 3 Caok the doves passed over the city of Iximche,
     and truly it was terrifying to see the beasts.

121. [c]a vo vinak ok [c]a que y[c]o xche chel ut, ok xei[c]o chi[c]a
ça[c]: chi cay Y[t] xey[c]o pa tinamit kitzih, que xibin chi ça[c]
xey[c]o oher.

     121. One hundred days after the doves had been seen to come from
     the woods, the locusts came. It was on the day 2 Yg that they
     passed over the city, and really it was terrifying to see them

122. Xa ru beleh vinak chic ok x[c]at chi Yximchee, chi cahi Camey xyaar
tinamit chi [t]a[t]. Tan mani ahauh Huny[t] ka mama, tan [c]o ka [c]haka
ya, tane mani ka tata ka mama ok x[c]at tinamit xka [c,]et ronohel ri,

     122. About that time nine persons perished in a fire at Iximche; on
     the day 4 Camey the city was injured by fire. The king Hunyg was at
     the time absent on the other side of the river; our fathers and
     ancestors were also absent. But when the city burned, we saw it
     all, we, my children.

Chi vahxaki Ah xel beleh lauha yuhuh.

     The day 8 Ah completed the 19th year after the Revolt.

123. Chupam [c]a huna ok xcam [c]eche vinak pa Ço[c,]il ya cuma y mama;
[c]iy nimak achiha xuyari, ok xquiban labal chiri.

     123. During the year the Quiche men were destroyed near the river
     of the Tzotzils, by our ancestors; a great number of other
     principal men were conquered when this war occurred.

124. Humul chi[c]a xe yaar [c]eche vinak xiquin chi pokoh, pa Mukche
xeoc vi [c]eche vinak cuma, [c]iy nimak rahpop achij, ru [t]alel achi
xuyari chiri, [c]iy [c]a ri [c]hutik camic xquiban tzatz teleche xoc pe
cuma y mama.

     124. The Quiches were again beaten and suffered loss at Mukche,
     because they entered there. A great number of their principal
     counselors and nobles were lost; many were put to death slowly, and
     many were taken prisoners by our ancestors.

Chi oxi Ah [c]a xel humay ru camic Tukuchee ru banic yuhuh.

     The day 3 Ah completed one cycle after the death of the revolted

Ha[c]a chi oxlahuh Ah xel chic huna.

     With the day 13 Ah, another year was completed.

125. Chupam huna xi[c]o chic pokob chuvi Cakhay ruma ahauh Lahuh Noh,
chi vahxaki [t]anel xla[t]abex [c,]ak, kitzih chi nima [t]a[t]al xquiban
chic ahaua chiri, xul ronohel vuk ama[t], Huny[t], Lahuh Noh xebano he
[c]atan quebano labal ri y mama, rahpop achi Balam rahpop achi Y[t]ich,
ru [t]alel achi [c]atu.

     125. During this year they took up their shields on the Cakhay on
     account of the king Lahuh Noh. On the day 8 Ganel the fortress was
     occupied and truly the chiefs made their great power felt. All
     those of the seven nations came with Hunyg and Lahuh Noh, to make
     war, and it was also made by the ancients, the Counselor Balam and
     the Galel-achi Qatu.

Xel [c]a ru caba chi lahuh Ah yuhuh.

     A second year was completed on the day 10 Ah, after the Revolt.

126. Chupam chi [c]a huna xecam chic [c]eche vinak cuma ka tata ka mama,
chiree xquiban vi chi [c]otoh, chi [t]oçibal Cokolahay, xu[c]ul vachih
ca[c]hob chi chay ru[c]in [c]eche vinak, haok xuyari ya Yaxontik ru
[c]ahol ahauh Ahpoptuh, [c]iy [c]a nimak achiha xuyari, quere[c]a
xe[t]a[t]ar vi y mama ri yxnu[c]ahol, [c]iy navipe teleche xoc pe
chucohol ri nimak labal mixkabijh can.

     126. During this year the Quiches were again defeated by our
     fathers and ancestors. The battle was gained by the arms and the
     bravery of those of Cokolahay, whose divisions met face to face the
     leader of the Quiches and his warriors. There was slain Yaxonkik
     son of the Prince Ahpoptuh. Many warriors were slain; therefore
     great was the majesty of our ancestors, O my children; and they
     also made many prisoners in this great war of which we speak.

Chi vuku Ah xel roxa ru camay yuhuh.

     On the day 7 Ah, was completed the third year of the second cycle
     after the Revolt.

Chi cahi Ah xel chic ru caha yuhuh.

     On the day 4 Ah was completed the fourth year after the Revolt.

127. Chupam [c]a voo huna, vae ok ixtiquer yauabil, yxnu[c]ahol, nabey
xyabix ohb, ratzam xyavabix chi[c]a qui[c], [t]ana chuluh, kitzih
tixibin chi camic xi[c]o oher. Haok xcam ahauh Vakaki Ahmak, xe [c]a
hala chic ma tipe nima [t]ekum, nima a[t]a pa qui vi ka tata ka mama pa
ka vi [c]a, yxnu[c]ahol, ok xyabix [c]hac.

     127. In the course of the fifth year the pestilence began, O my
     children. First there was a cough, then the blood was corrupted,
     and the urine became yellow. The number of deaths at this time was
     truly terrible. The Chief Vakaki Ahmak died, and we ourselves were
     plunged in great darkness and great grief, our fathers and
     ancestors having contracted the plague, O my children.

Chi hun Ah xel humay voo yuhuh, ok xyabix [c]hac.

     On the day 1 Ah there were one cycle and 5 years from the Revolt,
     and the pestilence spread.

128. Vae chupam huna xyauabix vi [c]hac, ha ok xe[c]iz chi camic ka tata
ka mama Diego Juan; chi voo Ah [c]axoc chi vi labal Panatacat, cuma ka
mama, ha[c]a ok xtiquer yavabil [c]hac. Kitzih tixibin chi camic xpe pa
ru vi vinak, mani yabim viri quere ri x[c]hol vinak.

     128. In this year the pestilence spread, and then died our ancestor
     Diego Juan. On the day 5 Ah war was carried to Panatacat by our
     ancestor, and then began the spread of the pestilence. Truly the
     number of deaths among the people was terrible, nor did the people
     escape from the pestilence.

129. Xcavinak ok xtiquer yauabil, tok xecam ka tata ka mama, chi
cablahuh Camey xcam ahauh Huny[t] yxiquin mama.

     129. Forty were seized with the sickness; then died our father and
     ancestor; on the day 14 Camey died the king Hunyg, your

130. Xa[c]a ru cabih xcam chic ka tata rahpop Achi Balam ri y mama,
yxnu[c]ahol; xa [c]a hunam xecam y mama ru[c]in ru tata ki tan ti
chuvin, ti [c]ayin vinak chi camic. Tok xecam ka tata ka mama, xax be
tzak chi el [c]hakap vinak chi civan, xa [c,]ij, xa [c]uch, xtiochic
vinak; tixibin chi camic xecamiçan ymama, herach camic ru [c]ahol ahauh
ru[c]in ru cha[t] ru nimal: quere[c]a xoh canah vi can chi mebail ri
yxnu[c]ahol, [c]aoh ok [c]hutik [c]ahola, ok xoh canah can konohel.
Rupoyibal alaxic.

     130. But two days afterward died our father, the Counselor Balam,
     one of the ancients, O my children. The ancients and the fathers
     died alike, and the stench was such that men died of it alone. Then
     perished our fathers and ancestors. Half the people threw
     themselves into the ravines, and the dogs and foxes lived on the
     bodies of the men. The fear of death destroyed the old people, and
     the oldest son of the king died at the same time as his young
     brother. Thus did we become poor, O my children, and thus did we
     survive, being but a little child--and we were all that remained.
     Hence the putting aside of our claims.

_Quibi y mama vae xeru[c]aholah ahauh._

     _Names of (our) Ancestors, Sons of the King._

131. Rahpop achi Balam, rubi, nabey ru[c]ahol ahauh Huny[t], ha ki tanti
[t]a[t]ar chi quivach ahaua, ok xpe nima camic [c]hac.

     131. The counselor Balam, the oldest son of the king Hunyg, was
     already distinguished before the face of the chieftains when he
     died by the great plague.

132. Ahmak rubi rucam al, ha ru[c]ahol can ri Don Pedro Solis. Tohin
[c]a rox al, mani retal ri he [c]a xecam ru[c]in ahauh ri e oxi ka tata.

     132. Ahmak was the name of the second son. His son is Don Pedro
     Solis. Tohin was the third. There is no record of him, as he died
     with the king and our three fathers.

133. Ha [c]a ka tata Francisco rahpop achi [c,]ian rucah al.

     133. Our father Francisco, the counselor Tzian, was the fourth son.

134. Balam voo al, mani [c]a retal ri.

     134. Balam was the fifth son; there is no record of him.

135. Ah[c,]alam Hunahpu ru vakak al, he [c]a xecolotah chic ri he oxi ka
tata ruma [c]hac; [c]aoh ok, ok [c]a [c]hutik konohel cu[c]in ok xoh
canah, xka [c,]et [c]a ronohel ri yavabil, ix nu[c]ahol; ha [c]a ri rubi
ka tit; nabey rixhayil ahauh Huny[t], Chuvy[c,]ut ru bi xo[t]ohauh, he
oxi xerelah, ha ri ka tata, he[c]a ri ru tata Don Pedro Solis, mani [c]a
ru [c]ahol rij Tohin: xcam [c]ari xo[t]ohauh Chuvy [c,]ut, xoc chipe
xo[t]ohauh X[t]eka[c]uch A[c,]iquinahay, ha quite rahpop achi [c,]ian
Balam, xa e cay ral.

     135. Ahtzalam Hunahpu was the sixth son. He was saved from the
     plague with our three other ancestors. As for us, we were then
     little children, and we all escaped, and we saw all the pestilence,
     O my children. These are the names of our female ancestors: the
     first wife of king Hunyg was the queen Chuvytzut; she had three
     sons, our father, the father of Don Pedro Solis, and Tohin, who
     left no children. The queen Chuvytzut being dead, the queen
     Xgekaqueh, the female Ahtziquinahay, took her place. She was the
     mother of the Counselor Tzian Balam, and these were her two

136. [c]a vo vinak ok [c]a quecam ahaua Huny[t] Lahuhnoh, ok xechap chic
ahaua Cahi Ymox Belehe[c]at, chi hun Can; xa[c]a hun chioc ri
Belehe[c]at xcolotah, xa[c]a kayon chicoc a[c]uala mani hunchic ka tata
xcolotah, [c]a e ok [c]hutik ri [c,]ian Balam, ri ki ok retal ahauh
Huny[t]. Quere[c]a xahauar vi Belehe[c]at rij, xa huna [t]alel
[c]amahay; chioc x[c]hao rahauarem maqui [c]a xrah raho ahauh atzih
vinak Ba[c]ahol: vo quic chi ahauarem ri Belehe[c]at; hatah xoc chi
ahauarem ri ka tata rahpop achi [c,]ian xraho ahauh atzih vinak
Ba[c]ahol, quere[c]a roquic chi ahauarem ri.

     136. A hundred days after the death of the kings Hunyg and Lahuh
     Noh, there were elected as kings Cahi Ymox and Belehe Qat, on the
     day 1 Can. For Belehe Qat alone remained. As for us we were little
     boys and our elders did not choose any of us. Tzian and Balam, the
     only other descendants of Hunyg, were also young. Belehe Qat was
     therefore chosen to rule but only as heir apparent, the orator
     Baqahol declaring that it was not proper that he should take the
     supreme rule. The honor of the royalty was decreed to Belehe Qat;
     but the orator Baqahol desired that the real chief should be our
     ancestor Tzian; therefore he entered into power.

_Xavi [c]a chupam ru vaka vae._

     _What Took Place in the Sixth Year._

137. [c]a huvinak ok [c]a que chap ahaua, ok xban yuhuh chi
Ah[c,]iquinahay; chi lahuh Queh xban xeul coloel qui ahaua
Ah[c,]iquinahay [c]içihay chi Yximchee ruma yuhuh, xul qui yaca el

     137. Twenty days after the chiefs began to rule there was an
     insurrection against the Ahtziquinahay. It occurred on the day 10
     Queh, and the chiefs Ahtziquinahay and Qicihay went to Iximche on
     account of the revolt, coming to raise soldiers.

138. Xa[c]a ru cablah xcam chic ama[t] [c,]utuhile, ruma Ço[c,]il
Tukuchee chi hulahuh Ymox, xyaar [c,]utuhile chi camic, xeyaar
Ah[c,]iquinahay, conohel tzatz chi teleche chicana, quere[c]a xit puak
tixibin chi camic xuban [c,]utuhile, xka tinamit xepoyom. Cani [c]a
xetzolih ka ahaua Tepepul Ah[c,]iquinahay [c,]içihay chi cochoch.

     138. Twelve of the Tzutuhil villages were destroyed by the Tzotzil
     Tukuches on the day 11 Ymox and the Tzutuhils were slain. Very many
     were taken prisoners. Therefore the Tzutuhils in fear of death were
     made to give up their treasures and the town of Xepoyom was taken.
     Then returned the chiefs Tepepul Ahtziquinahay and Tzizihay to
     their homes.

139. Tok xebokotah chi [c]ape Ah Xecaka abah ronohel, xul colo chi el
rij Cakchiquel, tzatz chi[c,]utuhile xel pe oher pa tinamit, he chi
[c]arah xquiban labal chirih Ah [c,]iquinahay, Ah Pavacal, xrah
cach[c]ul chijh chic cuma, xa[c]a xboy chijx achiha ruma Ah Pavacal.

     139. At that time the people of Xecaka abah, all of whom had been
     driven forth, were aided by the Cakchiquels. Many Tzutuhils also
     came to the villages to make war against the Ahtziquinahay, and
     those of Pacaval, and wished to join forces, their warriors having
     been provoked by the people of Pacaval.

140. Chi belehe Ba[c,], [c]a xban camic chuvi Lakanabah, pa Chitulul,
mani [c]a nimak achiha xcanah. Xaki ruyon vinak Belehe[c]at, Cahi Ymox

     140. On the day 9 Batz there was slaughter at the rock of Lakam at
     Chitulul. Not many warriors took part. Only the men of Belehe qat
     and Cahi Ymox were engaged.

Chi hulahuh Ah, xel humay vaka yuhuh.

     On the day 11 Ah there were 26 years from the Revolt.

141. Mixka [c]iz can vae huna xeyaar vi katata ka mama ruma camic

     141. Then was completed one year since our fathers and ancestors
     died of the plague.

142. Chupam huna ok xoh [c]ule ru[c]in xtee, yxnu[c]ahol, xhunabir ok
quecam y mama; chi cablahuh Toh xoh [c]amo yxok.

     142. In this year we married your mother, O my children, one year
     after the death of your grandfather. We took her to wife on the day
     12 Toh.

Chi vahxaki Ah xel ru vuka vuhuh.

     On the day 8 Ah was completed the 7th year from the Revolt.

143. Chupam huna xorotah vi labal [c]echee, [c]a ru hulauha xorotah
labal [c]echee.

     143. During this year the Quiche war ceased; the Quiche war ceased
     on the 11th.

Chi voo Ah xel humay vahxaka.

     On the day 5 Ah was the eighth year of the first cycle.

_Culibal Castilan vinak Xetulul vae._

     _The Arrival of the Castilians at Xetulul._

144. Va[c]a te chupam huna ok ki xeul Castilan vinak; xcavinak ok
rubeleha, ok xeul Castilan vinak Xepit Xetulul; chi hun [t]anel xcam
[c]echevinak chiri ruma Castilan vinak, Tunatiuh Avilantaro rubi,
cahaual ri ki xkaçan ronohel ama[t]; mahaok tetamax vi quivach [c]a
tahinok ti [t]ihalox chee, abah.

     144. It was during this year that the Castilians arrived.
     Forty-nine years have passed since the Castilians came to Xepit and
     Xetulul. On the day 1 Ganel the Quiches were destroyed by the
     Castilians. Tunatiuh Avilantaro, as he was called, conquered all
     the towns. Their countenances were previously unknown and the
     people rendered homage to sticks and stones.

145. Xul chi[c]a Xelahub, xeyaar chic [c]eche vinak chi camic chiri, tok
xbokotah chi[c]a el [c]eche vinak, ronohel [c]ulelaay richin Castilan
vinak, okix yaar chic [c]eche vinak chuvach pe Xelahub.

     145. On their arrival at Xelahub, the Quiche nation was routed and
     destroyed. All of them had hastened there to oppose the Castilians;
     and there the Quiche nation was destroyed, in front of Xelahub.

146. Tok xul [c]a ha tinamit [t]umarcaah, cani [c]a x[c]ul cuma ahaua
ahpop ahpop [c]amahay, cani xya patan ruma [c]eche vinak; xa[c]a cani
xeoc ahaua pa [c]hi[c]h ruma Tunatiuh.

     146. He then went to the city Gumarcaah, and there came before him
     the chiefs, the king and the next in rank, and tribute was paid by
     the Quiches; and the chiefs suffered many torments from Tunatiuh.

147. Chi cahi [c]at [c]a xepe rox ahaua ahpop, ahpop [c]amahay ruma
Tunatiuh, maqui y[c]o vinak ru [c]ux Tunatiuh chi labal. Cani [c]a xpe
ru çamahel Tunatiuh cu[c]in ahaua, takol richin achiha: tipe ul
rachihilal Ahpoço[c,]il Ahpoxahil, tu camiçan [c]eche vinak, xcha ru
çamahel Tunatiuh chique ahaua. Cani [c]a xtakex ru tzih Tunatiuh, ok xbe
[c]a vomu[c]h achiha camiçay richin [c]echevinak, xa[c]a ruyon ahtinamit
xbe maqui xcaho achiha conohel chique ahaua, xa[c]a oxmul xbe achiha,
xoc patan ruma [c]eche vinak, oh [c]a xoh be [c]amo richin Tunatiuh,

     147. On the day 4 Qat three chiefs, the king and the next in rank
     were burned alive by Tunatiuh, nor was the heart of Tunatiuh
     satisfied with war. Soon a messenger from Tunatiuh came to the
     chiefs that they should send him warriors: “Let the warriors of the
     Ahpozotzils and Ahpoxahils come to the slaughter of the Quiches!”
     So spoke the messenger of Tunatiuh to the chiefs. Immediately the
     words of Tunatiuh were published, and 400 men went forth to the
     slaughter of the Quiches; but they were only those of the city, the
     other warriors refusing to obey the chiefs. Only three times did
     the warriors go forth to enforce the tribute on the Quiches; then
     we also were taken by Tunatiuh, O my children.

_Haok ki xul chi Yximche vae._

     _How They Now Came to Iximche._

148. Ha [c]a chi hun Hunahpu, toki xul Castilan vinak pa tinamit chi
Yximchee, Tunatiuh ru bi cahaval; cani [c]a xbe [c]ulel Tunatiuh cuma
ahaua Belehe[c]at, cahi Ymox. Utz [c]a ru [c]ux Tunatiuh chique ahaua
toki xul pa tinamit, mani labal, xati quicot Tunatiuh ok ki xul chi
Yximchee. Quere[c]a tok xul Castilan vinak ri oher, yxnu[c]ahol, kitzih
tixibin ok xeul, mani etaam vi quivach, he [c]abouil xe quina ahaua. Xka
na [c]a oh ytata, oh kixoh [c,]eto culic chi Yximchee chupam Tzupam hay
xvar vi Tunatiuh; chuca [t]ih [c]a xvachi[c] ahauh, tixibin chi achiha,
xul ru[c]in pa ru varam xe ru tak [c]a ahaua: Nak ruma xtiban labal
vu[c]in [c]o pe tan tin ban chive, xcha. Maquian, quere xa rumal [c]iya
achiha caminak, vave he[c]a mixe a [c,]et vae pa hul [c]o vi qui
ni[c]ahal, xecha ahaua, quere [c]atok xoc pa rochoch ahauh [c]hicbal ri.

     148. It was on the day 1 Hunahpu when the Castilians arrived at
     Iximche with their chief, Tunatiuh. The people went forth to meet
     Tunatiuh with the chiefs Belehe Qat and Cahi Ymox. Good was the
     heart of Tunatiuh when he entered the city with the chiefs. There
     was no fighting and Tunatiuh rejoiced when he entered Iximche. Thus
     did the Castilians enter of yore, O my children; but it was a
     fearful thing when they entered; their faces were strange, and the
     chiefs took them for gods. We, even we, your father, saw them when
     they first set foot in Iximche, at the palace of Tzupam, where
     Tunatiuh slept. The chief came forth, and truly he frightened the
     warriors; he came from his chamber and called the rulers: “Why do
     you make war with me, when I also can make it?” said he. “Not at
     all. Why should so many warriors find their death? Do you see any
     pitfalls among them?” So replied the chiefs, and he went to the
     house of the chief Chicbal.

149. Cani[c]a labal xu[c]utuh Tunatiuh chique ahaua, xecha [c]a ahaua:
cay [c]ovi nu labal [c,]utuhil, Panatacat, at [c]abouil, xucheex [c]a
cuma ahaua. Xa[c]a hunobix xi[c]o rubana Tunatiuh pa tinamit; tok xcam
[c,]utuhile ruma Castilan vinak, ha chi vuku Camey xcamiçax [c,]utuhile
ruma Tunatiuh.

     149. Then Tunatiuh agreed to join the chiefs in their wars, and the
     chiefs said to him:--“O thou God, we have two wars, one with the
     Tzutuhils, one at Panatacat.” Thus spake the chiefs. Only five days
     after, Tunatiuh went forth from the capital. Then the Tzutuhils
     were conquered by the Castilians. It was the day 7 Camey that the
     Tzutuhils were destroyed by the Castilians.

150. Xe[c]a huvinak voo chi [t]ih xi[c]o rubana pa tinamit, ok xbe
Tunatiuh Cuzcatan xi[c]o cam apon Atacat; ha chi cay Queh xcam Atacat
ruma Castilan vinak ronohel [c]a achiha; xebe ru[c]in Tunatiuh camiçay
richin Yaqui.

     150. Twenty-five days afterwards Tunatiuh went forth from the
     capital to Cuzcatan going there to destroy Atacat. On the day 2
     Queh, Atacat was slain by the Castilians, with all his warriors.
     There went with Tunatiuh all his Mexicans to this battle.

151. Ha [c]a chi lahuh Hunahpu, xul chic ok xpe Cuzcatan, xa ru cavinak
xbe ru bana Cuzcatan, ok xul chic pa tinamit. Tok xu[c]utuh [c]a
Tunatiuh hun quimeal ahaua, xya [c]a chirichin Tunatiuh ri cumal ahaua.

     151. On the day 10 Hunahpu he returned from Cuzcatan. He had been
     absent only 40 days to make the conquest at Cuzcatan when he
     returned to the capital. Then Tunatiuh asked for a daughter of one
     of the chiefs, and she was given to Tunatiuh by the chiefs.

_Qutubal [c]a puak vae._

     _A Demand for Money is made._

152. Tok x[c]utux [c]a qui puvak ahaua ruma Tunatiuh; xrah naek [c]a
yari xaki molom puvak xa tzimay, xa [c]al vach: maqui [c]a xu[c]am
xacani xcakar Tunatiuh chique ahaua, xcha: Nak rumal maqui ti ya puvak
chuvichin, maquipe vave ulinak vi ru puak ronohel ama[t] avu[c]in,
tauaho pe cat nu poroh, cat nu hi[c,]ah, xeucheex ahaua.

     152. Then Tunatiuh began to ask the chiefs for money. He wished
     that they should give him jars full of precious metals, and even
     their drinking cups and crowns. Not receiving anything, Tunatiuh
     became angry and said to the chiefs: “Why have you not given me the
     metal? If you do not bring me the precious metal in all your towns,
     choose then, for I shall burn you alive and hang you.” Thus did he
     speak to the chiefs.

153. Tok xu[t]at [c]a Tunatiuh oxo[t]opeto chi [t]ana puvak, xquitih
chi[c]a ahaua ru [t]ipuxic, xeo[t] ahaua chuvach; xax maqui vi xraho
chic Tunatiuh, xa xcha: Ti vechaah pe ri puak obix tiya. Vue [c]a maqui
ti ya chiri, ti vetamah [c]a nu [c]ux, xeucheex ahaua. Cani x[c,]ak can
xca retal, tok xquimol [c]a ahaua qui puak ronohel [c]a ru mam ahauh ru
[c]ahel ahauh, xu ya ru puak, xutih ru [t]ih vinak ruma ahaua.

     153. Then Tunatiuh cut from three of them the gold ornaments they
     wore in their ears. The chiefs suffered keenly from this violence,
     and wept before him. But Tunatiuh was not troubled, and said: “I
     tell you that I want the gold here within five days. Wo to you if
     you do not give it. I know my heart.” So said he to the chiefs. The
     word was then given. The chiefs gathered together all their metals,
     those of the parents and children of the king, and all that the
     chiefs could get from the people.

154. Ki [c]a tini[c]ahar ru yaic puak chire Tunatiuh, tok x[c]utun hun
achi [c]axto[c]: Yn cakolahay, tincamiçah Castilan vinak, xcha chique
ahaua; xa pa [t]a[t] queyaar vi, tin [t]oçih tinamit que el [c]a el ahau
[c]haka ya, ha [c]a chi vuku ahmak tinban, xcha achi ri [c]axto[c]
chique ahaua. Kitzih [c]a xqui na ahaua, xoqueçax ru tzih achij cuma, ki
[c]a ti ni[c]ahar can ru yaic puvak ok xoh pax.

     154. While they were gathering the gold for Tunatiuh, a priest of
     the Demon showed himself: “I am the lightning; I will destroy the
     Castilians.” So said he to the chiefs. “I will destroy them by
     fire. When I beat the drum let the chiefs come forth and go to the
     other bank of the river. This I shall do on the day 7 Ahmak.” Thus
     did this priest of the Demon speak to the chiefs. Truly the chiefs
     thought that they should trust in the words of this man. It was
     when they were gathering the gold that we went forth.

_Haok ki xoh pax pa tinamit vae._

     _How We went forth from the City._

155. Chi vuku Ahmak [c]a xban paxic. Haoki xtole can tinamit chi
Yximchee, xa[c]a ruma ri achi [c]axto[c], ok xeel ahaua; vue kitzih
xticam Tunatiuh, quecha; tan mani labal chu [c]ux Tunatiuh, tan ti qui
cot ruma puvak tan ti ya. Xa rumal achi ri [c]axto[c], tok xtole can ka
tinamit, chi vuku ahmak, yx nu[c]ahol.

     155. The day 7 Ahmak was that of the going forth. They deserted the
     city of Iximche on account of the priest of the Demon, and the
     chiefs left it. “Yes, truly, Tunatiuh shall die,” said they. “There
     is no more war in the heart of Tunatiuh, as he now rejoices in the
     gold given him.” Thus it was that our city was abandoned on the day
     7 Ahmak on account of a priest of the Demon, O my children.

156. Xe na chi vi naek [c]a ahaua ruma Tunatiuh; xlauheher ok kopax pa
tinamit, oki xtiquer labal ruma Tunatiuh; chi cahi Camey xtiquer ka
camic ruma Castilah vinak, haok xtiquer pokonal chikih; xoh pax xe chee,
xe[c]am, yxnu[c]ahol, ronohel [c]a ama[t], xoh camiçan ru[c]in Tunatiuh;
haok xti[c]e xeapon ri Castilan vinak, xel [c]a pa tinamit xu tolobacan.
Tok xe[c]ulelax [c]a Castilan vinak cuma Cakchiquel vinak, xban he
[c]otoh, xban [c]a hulqueh, çimah xecamiçabex, xa ki labal chic xban
ruma vinak. He [c]a [c]iy Castilan vinak xecam, quere[c]a queh xcam pa
hul queh, xyaar [c]a ri [c]echevinak, [c,]utuhile, quere[c]a ronohel
ama[t] xyaar ruma Cakchiquel vinak. Quere[c]a x[c]ohe vi ruxla ri ruma
Castilan vinak, x[c]ohe navipe ruxla ruma ama[t] ronohel; xbeleh vinak
ok [c]a ko pax pa tinamit chi Iximchee, ok xel ru beleha.

     156. But what the chiefs did was soon known to Tunatiuh. Ten days
     after we had left the city, war was begun by Tunatiuh. On the day 4
     Camey began our destruction. Then began our misery. We scattered in
     the forests; all our towns were taken, O my children; we were
     slaughtered by Tunatiuh. The Castilians entered the city and they
     arrived as to a deserted spot. From that time the Castilians were
     hated by the Cakchiquels. They made trenches, they dug pitfalls,
     that the horses might be killed, and war was waged by their men.
     Many men of the Castilians were slain, and many horses killed in
     the pitfalls. The Quiches and Tzutuhils were destroyed and all
     their villages ruined by the Cakchiquels. Only thus did the
     Castilians let them live, and only thus were they let live by all
     the villagers. One hundred and eighty days after the desertion of
     the city of Iximche was completed the ninth year (of the second

Chi cay Ah, xel humay beleha ru banic yuhuh.

     On the day 2 Ah was completed the 29th year after the Revolt.

157. Chupam ru lauha vae ki tan tiban labal ru[c]in Castilan vinak,
tanti [c]ilibem Xepau ruma Castilan vinak chiri chupam ru lauha, kitan
ti yao ri labal xu[c]am ru covil vinak.

     157. During the tenth year the war continued with the Castilians.
     But the Castilians having received aid in this tenth year at Xepau,
     carried on the war with such vigor that they destroyed the forces
     of the nation.

158. Ok xbokotah [c]a el Tunatiuh Xepau, xax coço ok xel mani xelah
vinak chuvach; xvakvinak ok ru caba kopax pe pa tinamit ok xtolecan
xbenam [c]a richin ok xi[c]o ru [c]ata can tinamit Tunatiuh, chi cahi
Camey xuporoh can tinamit, vak vinak ru caba chi labal xbanok xtzolih.

     158. Tunatiuh then went forth from Xepau, and so harassed us that
     the people would not come before him. There were lacking one
     hundred and twenty days to complete two years since we had
     abandoned the capital, now deserted, when Tunatiuh came there on
     his march in order to set fire to the city. On the day 4 Camey, two
     years less six months after the beginning of the war, he set fire
     to the capital and returned.

Chi cablahuh Ah xel humay lauha yuhuh.

     On the day 12 Ah was completed the 30th year after the Revolt.

159. Chupam huna vae xuxlan vican halal ka [c]ux xavi e [c]oh ahaua
conohel Cahi Ymox Belehe[c]at, mani xtzak chuvach Castilan vinak, tan
[c]a oh [c]oh chila Holom Balam, yxnu[c]ahol.

     159. In the course of this year we breathed for a little, as did
     also the kings Cahi Ymox and Belehe Qat. They had not lost all hope
     before the Castilians, and they maintained themselves at
     Holombalam, O my children.

160. Xhunabir ok [c]a ru[c]in huvinak, titole can ruma Tunatiuh ok xul
chic Castilan vinak Chij xot; chi hun Caok, xtiquer chic ka camic ruma
Castilan vinak, x[c]ulelaax chic ruma vinak, xyaloh chic labal xban.
Xavi x[c]hub chic chi camic, mani xyao patan ronohel huyu, xa hala chic
matel humay hulauha yuhuh ok xul chic Chij xot.

     160. One year and twenty days had passed since the places had been
     made desolate by Tunatiuh, when the Castilians arrived at Chiixot.
     On the day 1 Caok our slaughter by the Castilians began. They
     fought with the nation and persisted in war. Death ravaged us
     again, but the whole country continued to refuse tribute. There was
     not much lacking of the 31st year after the revolt when they came
     to Chiixot.

Chi belehe Ah, [c]a xel humay hulauha yuhuh.

     On the day 9 Ah was completed the 31st year after the Revolt.

161. Chupam huna chic vae, xavi tanti tahin labal ruma Castilan vinak
xutuloba chi can Chij xot, haok ki xla[t]abex Bulbuxya ruma Castilan
vinak, vave chupam huna ki xyaloh vi labal xmani vi xyao patan ruma
ronohel huyu.

     161. In the course of the following year, while the Castilians were
     engaged in war, Chiixot was abandoned. Then Bulbuxya was occupied
     by the Castilians. During this year the war was continued, but the
     whole country refused the tribute.

_Roquebal [c]a patan vae._

     _The Beginning of the Tribute._

162. Xvolahuvinak ok ti [c]utun Chij xot, ok xoc patan chuvach capitan
cuma [c]hinta Queh, vove chuvi Tzolola chi vakaki [c,]i [c]a xoc patan,
haok xalax nu [c]ahol Diego Pabo Cotanoh [c]ovi, ok xatalax chi vakaki
[c,]ij, at nu[c]ahol, haok xtiquer chic patanihic; huley chivi chi pokon
xka[c]am chic, xkacolah can ri labal. Camul ki chi nimak chi camic

     162. Three hundred days after Chiixot was taken, began the payment
     of tribute to the Captain by Chinta Queh. It was here at Tzolola,
     on the day 6 Tzi, that the tribute began. At that time was born my
     son. Diego Pabo Cotanoh. Thou wert born, O my son, on that day, 6
     Tzi, on which the tribute began. Deep, indeed, were the sufferings
     we underwent to escape from the wars, and twice we were on the
     point of losing our life.

Chi vakaki Ah, xel humay cablauha yuhuh.

     On the day 6 Ah was completed the 32d year after the Revolt.

163. Xvahxak vinak ok ru caba, toc patan ok xcam ahauh Ahtun Cuc Tihax,
chi vakaki Akbal xcam. Xavi [c]a maha que [c]utun ahaua Ahpopço[c,]il,
Ahpopxahil chiri.

     163. It was two years less one hundred and twenty days after the
     beginning of the tribute when died the chief Ahtun cuc Tihax. He
     died on the day 6 Akbal. The chiefs Ahpopzotzil and Ahpopxahil had
     not yet submitted.

Chi oxi Ah, xel humay oxlauha.

     On the day 3 Ah was completed the 33d year.

164. Chupam huna ok xe[c]utun chic ahaua, ahpop Ço[c,]il ahpop Xahil,
chuvach Tunatiuh, cahvinak ruvaka xquiban ahaua xe chee xe[c]am, maqui
[c]a xax cutzih ahaua xeba, [c]hi[c]h tal qui[c]amic ruma Tunatiuh, xax
[c]atun qui tzihol ahaua chuvach Tunatiuh. Ha [c]a chi vuku Ahmak
xebokotah el ahaua, xeapon Paruyaal Chay, tzatz chi ahaua xcuchu ri
ronohel [c]a ru mam ahauh, ru [c]ahol ahauh, xbe tzatz chi vinak
cachbiyil ahaua. Chi vahxaki Noh [c]a xeapon Panchoy, xa[c]a tiquicot
Tunatiuh chique ahaua, tok x[c,]et chic quivach ruma Tunatiuh.

     164. In the course of this year the chiefs Ahpopzotzil and
     Ahpopxahil came before Tunatiuh. For eighty-six days these chiefs
     had hid in the woods. Not only did they wish to come forth, but
     their labors and sufferings were known to Tunatiuh, and the memory
     of these chiefs came to Tunatiuh. On the day 7 Ahmak the chiefs
     decided to come forth. When they arrived at Paruyaal chay, many
     chiefs, all the fathers of the chiefs and their sons, and a
     multitude of people accompanied the chiefs. On the day 8 Noh they
     reached Panchoy. Then Tunatiuh rejoiced with the chiefs, when their
     faces were seen again before Tunatiuh.

Chi oxlahuh Ah xel humay cahlauha yuhuh.

     On the day 13 Ah was completed the 36th year after the revolt.

[_I append the translation of the remainder of what I believe to be the
original work (see Introduction, page 58); but as its contents are of
little general interest, I omit the text._]

165. During this year frightful imposts were levied; they paid gold and
silver before the face of Tunatiuh, and there were demanded as tribute
five hundred men and five hundred women to go to the gold washings; all
the people were busy seeking gold. Five hundred men and five hundred
women were also demanded by Tunatiuh to aid in building Pangan for his
princely residence. All that, yes, all that, we ourselves witnessed, O
my children.

On the 10th Ah was completed the 35th year after the Revolt.

166. Forty days were lacking to complete three years from the date of
the submission of the kings when Belehe Qat died. He died on the 7th
Queh, when employed in washing for gold and silver. As soon as he was
dead Tunatiuh set to work to appoint his successor. The prince Don Jorge
was appointed by the sole command of Tunatiuh. There was no council held
nor assembly to confirm him. Tunatiuh gave his orders to the princes and
they obeyed him; for, truly, he made himself feared.

On the 7th Ah was completed the 36th year after the revolt.

167. Three hundred and forty days after the death of Belehe Qat the
princes were forced to place Don Jorge in possession of the throne. His
father was Don Juan Xuares.

Oh[TN-23] the 4th Ah was completed the 37th year after the revolt.

168. In the course of this year the king Cahi Ymox Ahpozotzil withdrew
and went to inhabit the capital. He intended to separate from the
others, because the tribute had been imposed on all the chiefs, even on
the king himself.

On the 1st Ah was completed the 38th year after the revolt.

169. During this year Tunatiuh departed for Castile, making new
conquests on his road. Thus he destroyed those of Tzutzumpan and of
Choloma; and many other towns were destroyed by Tunatiuh. There occurred
an unheard of event at Tzutzumpan. I saw Hunahpu tremble a litle[TN-24]
while before the prince Mantunalo arrived here. Tunatiuh went to
Castile, leaving Tzutzumpan.

On the 11th Ah was completed the 39th year after the revolt.

170. In the course of the year, on the 11th Noh, Prince Mantunalo
arrived. The prince Mantunalo arrived to relieve the nation from its
sufferings; the washing for gold and silver promptly ceased, and the
tribute of young men and women ceased; the burnings alive and the
hangings ceased, and, indeed, all the various acts of violence of the
Castilians and the imposts which they had forcibly laid upon us. The
roads were once more frequented by travelers when the Prince Mantunalo
arrived, as they had been eight years before, when the imposts were
first laid upon us, O my children.

On the 8th Ah was completed the 40th year after the revolt.

On the 5th Ah was completed the first year of the third cycle.

171. Before the close of the second year of the third cycle, the prince
Tunatiuh arrived, landing at Porto Cavayo. When Tunatiuh came back from
Castile with the position of commander, each of us went before him to
receive him, O my children. It was then that he killed with his sword
the Ah-tzib Caok on account of his lineage; it was on the day 11 Ahmak
that he killed the Ah-tzib.

On the day 2 Ah was completed the second year of the third cycle.

172. One hundred and twenty days after the death of Ahtzib and of the
return of Tunatiuh to Panchoy, the prince Mantunalo departed, leaving
Tunatiuh in command. Two hundred and sixty days after his return,
Tunatiuh hanged the king Ahpozotzil Cahi Ymox, on the day 13 Ganel.
They hanged with him Quixavit Caok, by order of Tunatiuh.

On the day 12 Ah was completed the third year of the third cycle.

173. Two hundred and eighty days after the execution of the king
Ahpozotzil he hanged Chuvy Tziquinu, prince of the city, who had angered
him. They hanged him on the day 4 Can at Paxaya. They seized him on the
road and executed him secretly. Seventeen other chiefs were hanged at
the same time. On the day 4 Ig[TN-25] the chief Chicbal, who had caused
the death of Chuvy Tziquinu, was hanged in his turn, and with him
Nimabah and Quehchun. Meanwhile, Tunatiuh had left for Xuchipillan,
appointing as his lieutenant and to see to the hangings, Don Francisco,
who attended to them. One hundred days after the prince Chicbal had been
hanged, came the news that Tunatiuh had met his death at Xuchipillan.

On the day 9 Ah was completed the fourth year of the third cycle after
the revolt.

174. In the course of this year there was a great disaster which
destroyed the Castilians at Panchoy. On the day 2 Tihax the waters burst
from the mountain Hunahpu, rushing out from the interior of the
mountain, and enveloped the Castilians in destruction. The wife of
Tunatiuh was then drowned.

_When Our Instruction Began._

One hundred and sixty days after this disaster there arrived at our
house our fathers of St. Dominic, Brother Pedro Anculo and Brother Juan
de Torres. They arrived from Mexico on the day 12 Batz, and we began to
receive instruction from our fathers of St. Dominic. Then also appeared
the Doctrina in our language. Our fathers, Brother Pedro and Brother
Juan were the first who taught us the word of God. Until that time the
word and the commandments of God were unknown to us; we had lived in
darkness, for no one had spoken to us of the doctrine of God. There
were also the fathers of St. Francis, Father Alamicer and Father
Clerico, with those of St. Dominic, who spoke to us. They translated the
Doctrina into our language, and we were soon instructed by them.

On the day 6 Ah was completed the fifth year of the third cycle.

On the day 3 Ah was completed the sixth year of the third cycle after
the revolt.

On the day 13 Ah was completed the seventh year.

175. In the course of the year our fathers of St. Dominic separated from
those of St. Francis, on account of ashes; the latter went away. Ashes
were not given by our Fathers of St. Dominic; therefore, those of St.
Francis went away.

On the day 10 Ah was completed the 8th year of the third cycle.

On the day 7 Ah was completed the 9th year of the third cycle after the

176. In the course of the year the licentiate Don Juan Roxer arrived.

_They Begin to Group the Houses._

One hundred and six days after they had really begun to teach us the
word of God, then they commenced to gather together the houses in
groups, by order of the ruler, Juan Roser, and the people came forth
from their caves and ravines. On the day 7 Caok the capital was
repeopled, and we were there with all the tribes.

On the day 4 Ah was completed the 10th year of the third cycle after the

On the day 1 Ah was completed the 11th year of the third cycle after the

177. In the course of the year the President Cerrado arrived, while the
licentiate Pedro Ramirez was still here. When he arrived he condemned
the Castilians; he set free the slaves and prisoners of the Castilians,
diminished by one-half the imposts, put an end to forced labor, and
obliged the Castilians to pay all for their work, little or great. This
Prince Cerrado truly solaced the afflictions of our nation; for I,
myself, O my children, was a witness of the many miseries which we

On the day 11 Ah was completed the 12th year of the third cycle.

On the day 8 Ah was completed the 13th year of the third cycle.

178. In the course of the year died the Ahtzib Juan Perez; he died on
the day 12 Tihax. Eighty days after the death of the Ahtzib, there was
an eruption of the mountain Chigag; it was on the day 9 Ah that the fire
appeared in the mountain.

On the day 5 Ah was completed the 14th year of the third cycle.

179. During this year arrived the iron bell; it came from the emperor of
Castile; it reached us on the day 3 Hunahpu, which was on a Friday.
Twenty days after the arrival of the iron bell, the licentiate Ramirez
tried to kill the prince bishop at Pangan, the governor Cerrado being
present. The door of the church was forced by Ramirez. This took place
on a day 2 Can, on a Thursday. One hundred and sixty days after these
leaders had come to blows at Pangan, all our fathers of St. Francis and
St. Dominic came to blows in their turn at Xelahub, the former having
tried to wrest Xelahub from the Dominicans.

On the day 2 Ah was completed the 15th year of the third cycle.

180. In the course of this year the locusts (grasshoppers) reappeared.
It was on the day 12 Tziquin, the day after the Visitation, that the
grasshoppers came. They passed over all parts of the country, and we saw
them with you, my children.

On the day 12 Ah was completed the 16th year of the third cycle.

181. During the course of this year arrived the President Doctor
Quexata; it was on a day 2 Hunahpu that that ruler arrived here, coming
from Mexico. They were celebrating the feast of the circumcision. The
governor Cerrado was here when he arrived. When the Doctor Quexata had
almost arrived, the President Cerrado died. There was but little between
them. Then the Doctor Quexata died. He did not condemn any one, because
he had no time. But the ruler Cerrado condemned (the Castilians), for he
did what was right. About the same time died the chief Don Francisco
Ahpozotzil; it was on the day 1 Can, a Monday, the 14th day of the month
October, that he died. It was in this year that he died that the
nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ came on the day 1 Batz.

On the day 9 Ah was completed the 17th year of the third cycle.

182. Forty days after the death of the chief Don Francisco, died our
Father Fray Domingo de Vico in Acalan. Truly, with great tortures was he
put to death by the tribe. Twenty days after the death of our father in
Acalan, Father Fray Francisco de la Para was exiled by the bishop and
the ruler Ramirez. This took place on Easter day.

On the day 6 Ah was completed the 18th year of the third cycle.

183. At this time died Alonzo de Pazon, the day 12 Ganel.

In the 13th month of the year, the day of Sanctiago at Pangan occurred
on the day 1 Tziquin. On that day the Castilians at Pangan had great
rejoicings, because on that day was inaugurated as supreme monarch over
in Castile the Emperor Don Peliphe. There were then three rulers, the
Prince Ramirez, the Doctor Mercia and Louaisa. They held court at
Panchoy. In the 14th month of the year, after this day of Sanctiago,
there came an order from Ramirez. He imposed a tribute on members of the
nobility among the people. He also made provision for the surplusage of
the tribute. There had never been a surplus under the chiefs; it was
known to be stolen, but no one knew by whom. The maize tax was reduced
and that of roast fowls, and none of the chiefs could steal anything
from the surplus. This order of Ramirez was promulgated on the day of
St. Francis, a Monday, the day 7 Camey. Twenty days after the
promulgation of the order of Ramirez, the Book of the Doctrina was
published, on the day of Saints, a Monday; but many would not accept the
Doctrina, but refused it.

On the day 3 Ah was completed the 19th year of the third cycle after the

184. The Alcaldes in the year 1557 were Don Juan Juarez and Don
Francisco Fez.

In the course of the year an incursion was made to destroy the
Lacantuns. It was on the day 5 Ey that the ruler Ramirez sallied forth
as general, and Don Martin went also as general, twenty days before the
close of the third cycle.

Don Juan Juarez and Francisco Pez Martin were chosen as Alcaldes, to
issue orders. (_Note by a later writer:_ These were the first Alcaldes,
and with them began the elections.)

On the day 13 Ah was completed the third cycle since the Revolt was
made. The third cycle was completed in the year 1558.

185. When we were in the eleventh month of the year, a President Royal
arrived, on the day 3 Qat. When he arrived at Pangan on 1 Akbal, Don
Diego Pez was inaugurated as chief by the ruler Ramirez.

Six months after the arrival of the President at Pangan, began here
again the pestilence which had formerly raged among the people. It came
from a distance. It was truly terrible when this death was sent among us
by the great God. Many families bowed their heads before it. The people
were seized with a chill and then a fever; blood issued from the nose;
there was a cough, and the throat and nose were swollen, both in the
lesser and the greater pestilence. All here were soon attacked. These
maladies began, O my children, on the day of the Circumcision, a Monday,
and as I was writing, we also were attacked with the disease.

Diego Ernandez Xahil and Francisco Ernandez Galel Bagahol were Alcaldes
in the year 1559.

The first year of the fourth cycle since the revolt was completed on the
day 10 Ah.


1. The author begins by stating his purpose in a few lines.

_xtinu[c,]ibah_, future of _[c,]ibah_, to write, originally to paint.

_xeboço_, past tense, third person, plural, of the absolute form of
_boç_, here, as often, used actively. Compare _Gram._, p. 49.

_la[t]abex_, passive of _la[t]abeh_, to inhabit, to settle.

_huyu ta[t]ah_, hills and plains, or, the interior and the coast; an
expression meaning the whole country.

_que cha_, they say, used as the French _on dit_, indicating that the
writer is reporting the words of another.

_ki_, an intensive or affirmative particle, thrown in to add strength to
the expression.

_ka tata_, our fathers, _ka mama_, our grandfathers and ancestors more
remote than fathers. These terms are to be understood in a general

_yx nu qahol_, you my sons, or _yx ka qahol_, you our sons, intimates
that this account was prepared for the family of the writer.

_pa Tulan._ The prep. _pa_ (before a vowel _pan_) means in, at, to, and
from. Torresano (_MS. Gram._) renders it by the Latin _ad_, _pro_,
_absque_, _ab_, _de_, _e_, _ex_. Brasseur translates these words “being
still in Tulan,” which does not make sense.

2. _[t]a[t]avitz_, _Zactecauh_. Both these names of the ancestral heroes
of the Cakchiquels appear to be partly Nahuatl. _[t]a[t]_ is “fire,” and
_Zak_ is “white,” both Cakchiquel words, but _vitzli_, thorn, and
_techatl_, the stone of sacrifice, are Nahuatl.

_[c]haka palouh_, the other side of the sea. The word _palouh_ appears
to be derived from the verb _paloh_, to lift onesself up, to rise,
referring to the waves.

_pe vi_, and _vi pe_; on the use of the particle _vi_, see _Grammar_, p.

_pa Tulan ru bi huyu_, from the country or place called Tulan. The word
_huyu_ usually means hill or mountain; but it is frequently used in the
vague sense of “place,” “locality.”

_achij_, men, _viri_, not _homines_, which latter is _vinak_.

_Xahila_, a plural form. The name maybe derived from _xahoh_, to dance
in the sacred or ceremonial dances; or from _ahila_, to reckon or

3. _chinamit_, the sub-gens. On this see the Introduction. The our[TN-26]
referred to include the Xahila, mentioned in the previous paragraph.
These four, the Xahila, the Gekaquch, the Baqahol, and the Cibaki,
formed the tribe; the remaining four, the Caveki, the Ah Queh, the Ah
Pak, and the Ykomagi, were of the same lineage, but not in the

_Daqui_; the letter _d_ does not occur either in Cakchiquel or Nahuatl.
The foreign aspect of some of these names seems to point to an ancient
influence of some allophyllic tongue.

4. _He [c]a [c]oh_, etc. The writer here states that he gives the exact
words of the ancient tradition. He probably wrote the text from some
antique chant, which had been handed down from his ancestors. The
quotation begins at the words _Cahi xpe_, and continues to near the
close of the next paragraph, where the words _xecha can ri
[t]a[t]avitz_, the above spoke Gagavitz, etc., mark its termination.
This is one of the most obscure passages in the book. The original text
is given by Brasseur among his _pièces justificatives_, in the appendix
to the first volume of his _Hist. du Mexique_. A comparison with his
translation will show that in several important constructions I differ
from him.

The mythological references to Tulan, [c]abouil, the Chay Abah,
Xibilbay, etc., have been discussed in the Introduction. The passage
corresponds to the first chapter of the third book of the Popol Vuh.

_Tulan_, _Tullan_; these variations are in the original.

5. The particle _tan_, with which the paragraph opens, throws the
narrative into the “historical present,” for the sake of greater
vividness. The verb _[c,]ak_, as at present used, means to make bricks,
etc., out of earth.

_xtiho_; translated by Brasseur, “the trial was made;” but it is the
imperfect passive of _tih_, which means “to give to another something to
eat or drink.”

_xaki_, plural of _xak_, generic word for leaf.

_utiuh_, _koch_; besides these, two other animals are named in the Popol

_achak_ is the general word for excrement, either of men or brutes;
also, refuse, waste products in general.

_tiuh tiuh_ is the name of a small variety of hawk. “_El gavilan
pequeño_.” Guzman, _Compendio de Nombres en Lengua Cakchiquel_. MS.

_mani [c]a x[c]hao_, “and he talked not.” The connective _[c]a_, like
_navipe_, and _pe_, all three of which may usually be translated by
“and,” is not placed at the beginning of the clause. _[c]ha_ is to speak
in the general sense; hence, _[c]habal_, a language. Synonyms of this
are _tin cha_, I say; _tin tzihoh_, I speak words, I harangue; _tin
biih_, I name, I express myself; and _quin ucheex_, I tell or say,
especially used in repeating what others have said (Coto,
_Vocabulario_). These words are of frequent use in the text.

_Rubanic chay abah ri [c,]apal_, etc.; this obscure passage was, I
think, entirely misunderstood by Brasseur. The word _[c,]apal_ is
derived from the neuter form _[c,]ape_ of the active _tin [c,]apih_, I
shut up or enclose, and means “that which is shut up,” _lo cerrado_, and
_[c,]apibal_, the active form in the next line, means “that which shuts
up,” _i. e._, gates or doors. It will be remembered (see ante, p. 26)
that the gates of Iximche were constructed partly of, or ornamented
with, obsidian, and the same is supposed here of the gates of the
mythical city or place of Tulan.

_ki-kan_; our burden, our tribute. The passage seems to indicate that
they left their former country to escape subjection.

_[c]oh qui tzih_; the passage may be translated “theirs were the words
which incited us,” _i. e._, to revolt and to depart.

6. The articles mentioned as paid in the tribute, have been described in
the Introduction (see p. 39).

7. “So spoke the Obsidian Stone,” _i. e._, the sacred oracle, referred
to as the final arbiter. See anté, p. 26.

“The wood and stone which deceive,” that is, the idols of wood and stone
which they worshiped.

8. This paragraph is obscure, and the numerous erasures in Brasseur’s
translation indicate the difficulty he found in discovering its meaning.

9. _[c]holloh tacaxepeval rikan [c]eche_; Brasseur translates this:
“_Malheureux etaient[TN-27] les fils et les vassaux des Quiches._” I take
the word _tacaxepeval_ to be the name of the first month in the
Cakchiquel calendar (see anté, p. 29); and _[c]olloh_ means “to divest
ourselves of, to get rid of.”

13. This and the following section describes the efforts of certain
inimical powers, under the guise of birds, to obstruct and deceive the
Cakchiquels. The _chahalçivan_ is a small bird which builds in the rocky
sides of the ravines, and is called by the Spaniards by a literal
translation, “_El guarda barranca_,” the gully-guard. The _tucur_ is the
owl; this name being apparently an abbreviation of the Nahuatl
_tecolotl_. The bird called _[c]anixt_ is the Spanish _cotorra_, a
small species of parrot. (Guzman, _Compendio de Nombres_, MS.)

On the word _labalinic_, see Introduction, p. 47.

14. The owl sat on the red tree, the _caka chee_, whence, as we learn
later, the tribe derived its name, Cakchiquel--a doubtful derivation.

_Chee abah_, wood and stone; understood to refer to the idols of these

_Ça[t]ih_, for _Cak[t]ih_, the spring. Father Coto has the following
under the words: “_Estio vel verano, Çak[t]ih; pa çak [t]ih_, en el
estio vel verano. Y nota que los que nosotros decimos en saliendo el
verano, o que quando para, estos lo entrinden al contrario; porque
decin, _mixel çak [t]ih, mani chic ru [t]ih hab_, ya salió el verano, no
ay mas aguero.”

16. The _cak chee_, red tree, is translated by Father Guzman, “arbol de
carreta.” The legendary derivation of the name Cakchiquel from this is
doubtful. _[c]hamey_ may mean something more than staff; it is applied
to the staff of office, the _bâton de commandement_ carried by the
alguacils, etc.

The whole paragraph is obscure, but seems to describe their leaving the
sandy shore of the sea, passing out of sight of land, then coming in
sight of it again, and going ashore.

17. The word _ikan_, burden, here as elsewhere, is usually translated by
Brasseur, “tribute.”

18. _Ah chay_, literally, “master of obsidian.” As this stone was
largely used for arrow heads and other weapons, the expression in this
connection seems to mean “master of arms.” _Ah [c]am_, from _[c]am_, to
take, seize. Brasseur construes these words as in apposition to _vach_:
“Whom shall we make our master of arms,” etc.

_Etamayom_, from the root _et_, mark, sign; _etamah_, to know, to be
skilled in an art; _etamayom_, he who knows (see _Grammar_, pp. 27, 56).
Brasseur’s rendering, “_le Voyant_,” is less accurate. See his
translation of this passage in the _Hist. du Mexique_, Tome II, p. 92.

_[c]okikan_; Brasseur gives to this the extraordinary rendering,
“parfumés d’ambre.” But Coto states that it was the term applied to the
loads of roasted maize, which were the principal sustenance of the
natives on their journeys.

19. The narration continues in the words of the ancestral heroes, who
speak in the first person, plural.

_Nonovalcat_, _Xulpit_; the first of these names is decidedly Nahuatl,
and recurs in the _Maya Chronicles_. See Introduction, p. 44. The second
is clearly of Maya origin. These localities are located by Brasseur on
the Laguna de Terminos, near the mouth of the Usumacinta.

20. Having defeated their enemies in the field, the Cakchiquels seized
their boats and ventured an attack on the town, in which they were

_Zuyva_; this famous name in Aztec mythology, was also familiar to the
Maya tribes. (See _The Maya Chronicles_, p. 110.) The term _ah zuyva_
seems here employed as a general term for the Nahuatl-speaking nations.
(See above, p. 44.)

_Ca[c]_; I do not find this word in any dictionary; perhaps it is for
_ca[c,]_, a variety of wasp.

“When we asked each other,” etc. Here follow some fragments of legends,
explaining the origin of the names of the tribes. They are quite

_Tohohil_, from _tohoh_, to resound in the water and the sky (sonar el
rio y el ayre, _Dicc. Cak. Anon._); not _clangor armorum_, as Brasseur
translates it, but sounds of nature. _Tohil_ was the name of the
principal Quiche divinity, and was supposed by Brasseur and Ximenez to
be an abbreviated form of Tohohil. But I have given reasons for
supposing it to mean “justice,” “equity,” and this legend was devised to
explain it, when its true etymology had become lost. (See my _Names of
the Gods in the Kiche Myths_, p. 23.)

_Cakix_; the bird so called, the _Ara macao_, of ornithologists, was one
of the totemic signs of the Zotzil families of the Cakchiquels. The
author here intimates that the name Cakchiquel is from _cakix_ and
_chi_, month, forgetting that he has already derived it from _cak chee_
(Sec. 16).

_Chita[t]ah_; “in the valley.”

_[t]u[t]cumatz_; see notes on Sec. 38.

_Ahcic ama[t]_; “the town on high,” built on some lofty eminence.

_Akahal_; the derivation suggested is from _akah_, a honey-comb or
wasp’s nest.

_Çaker_. This is an important word in Xahila’s narrative. It is derived
from _çak_, white; hence, _çaker_, to become white; also, to dawn, to
become light; metaphorically, of persons to become enlightened or
civilized. The active form, _çakericah_, means to inform, to acquaint
with, to instruct.

21. _Nima [c]oxom, nima chah_, Brasseur translates, “great ravines,
enormous oaks;” _chăh_ is oak, _chāh_, ashes; _[c]ox_, to strike
fire, to clash stones together. _[c]hopiytzel_, “the bad place where the
flesh is torn from the body,” referring probably to sharp stones and
thorns. _Popo abah_, the Council Stone.

_Molomu chee_, “wood gathered together or piled up.” It is noteworthy
that this, which seems to be the name of a place, means in Cakchiquel
the same as _Quauhtemallan_, Guatemala, in Nahuatl. Perhaps the Aztec
allies of Alvarado merely translated the Cakchiquel name of the country.
(See Introduction, p. 22, note.)

_Xahun chi lol_; a difficult phrase, translated by Brasseur, “le dernier
rejeton;” _lol_ is applied to a condition of desertion and silence, as
that of an abandoned mill or village. On _halebal_, see Introduction, p.

On Zaki[c]oxol, and the conflict with him, see the Introduction, p. 42.

22. _Ru chahim_; Brasseur translates this phrase, “between the fire and
the ashes,” taking _chahim_ from _chāh_, ashes. But I take it to be
from the verb _chahih_, to guard, as later in the paragraph the question
is asked: “_Nak rumal tachahih bey?_” “Why guardest thou the road?”

_xcha [c]a ok xul_; “aprés qu’il eut parlé, il joua sur la flute.”
Brasseur. The Abbé here mistook the preterit of _ul_ to arrive, for the
noun _xul_, a flute.

_ru [c]ux huyu_. The ambiguity of the word _huyu_, here, as often,
offers difficulty in ascertaining the precise sense of the original. It
means mountain or hill, woods or forest, or simply place or locality.
While _[c]ux_, means literally “heart,” it also has the sense, “soul,
spirit.” (Coto, _Vocabulario_, MS. s. v. _Corazon_.) Hence, the phrase
may be translated “the Spirit of the Forest,” or “of the Mountain.”
Brasseur prefers the latter, while I lean to the former.

_roqueçam_, from the root _oc_, to enter; applied to garments “that
which is entered,” or put on. Compare our slang expression, “to get into
one’s clothes.”

_xahpota_, see Introduction, p. 18.

23. _Yukuba_, to string out; hence, to name _seriatim_. The last four
names given are clearly Nahuatl, as is also Zuchitan. This indicates
that the Cakchiquels, in their wanderings, had now entered the territory
of the Pipils, of the Pacific slope.

_Cholama[t]_; “the tribe of the Chols,” or “of the corn fields.” The
Chols were a Maya tribe, who lived around Palenque (see Stoll,
_Ethnographie der Rep. Guatemala_, pp. 89-93), but the reference in the
text is not to them, nor yet to the Mams, as Brasseur thought, but to a
nation speaking a non-Maya tongue.

_Vaya vaya ela opa_. I have given several reasons for the opinion that
these words are in the Xinca language. See my essay _On the Xinca
Indians of Guatemala_, in the _Proceedings of the American Philosophical
Society_, 1885.

24. _Mem_, dumb, silent, incapable of speech. _Tin memuh vi_, I am dumb,
I keep silence; given in the text as the origin of the _nomen gentile_,
Mam. The Mams speak a dialect of the Maya, probably scarcely
intelligible to the Cakchiquels. They at present dwell in the
northwestern districts of the Republic of Guatemala. See Stoll,
_Ethnographie der Rep. Guatemala_, pp. 164-5.

25. _Nacxit_. On this passage Brasseur builds his theory of the
formation of a great Toltec empire in Central America, about the close
of the eleventh century (_Hist. des Nations Civilisèes[TN-28] du
Mexique_, Tom. II, pp. 101-5). He explains _Nacxit_ as the last two
syllables of _Topiltzin Acxitl_, a title of Quetzalcoatl. _Cinpual
Taxuch_ is undoubtedly from the same tongue. _Orbal tzam_, Bored Nose,
the pendent from the nose being apparently a sign of dignity, as the
pierced ears of the Incas.

_vapal abah_, “the lintel stone,” here used in the metaphorical sense of
“the corner stone.”

26. The description of the dance of the Pokomams, leads us to suppose
that the author means it was a war dance. The Pokomams dwell at present
in the southeastern part of the Republic of Guatemala.

_chicop Çakbim_; the savage or barbarian Zakbim. See Introduction, p.

27. _Tzaktzuy_. Brasseur translates “Château des Citrouilles,” mistaking
_tzak_ for _[c,]ak_, as he does throughout the passage; _tzuy_ means
also cup or gourd, and the name may be rendered either “the ensnaring
cup,” or “vine.” Possibly it refers to a scene of drunkenness.

_ri retal_; the sign or mark. Brasseur translates it “limit” or
“landmark” of the Ahquehays. These were one of the noble families of the
Quiche stock.

28. _Oronic Cakhay_, “the Red House of the Nobles,” said by Brasseur to
be a hill, one league west of the modern village of Rabinal.

_Tecpan_, “the royal house.” See Introduction, p. 13.

_[c,]umah chi qui [c]ux_; Brasseur translates these words, “cuirassés
sur la poitrine,” and says this was the name of the Pokomams (_Hist.
Mex._, II, p. 126). _[c,]uum_ is leather or skin, and _[c]ux_ is heart;
but _[c,]umah_, and later, _x[c,]umax_, is a verb, signifying to lower,
to depress.

“The venison and honey.” This sentence is apparently a gibe or jeer,
addressed by the defenders of Cakhay to Gagavitz after his attack on
their city had been repulsed.

29. _Ah queh hay_, “those of the deer (skin) houses.”

_xakoti[c]en a titil a [t]ana abah._ Brasseur translates, “il ne nous
est resté que les vieilles femmes et les pierres dejà hautes.” This
illustrates how far he is from the correct meaning at times. For these
words, see notes to Sec. 41.

30. _Xhachatah qui vach._ Brasseur gives this literally, “leurs faces
ensuite se divisèrent;” but _vach_ means also “fruit, results,
possessions,” and so I render it.

31. _[t]a[t] xanul_, “the uncoverer of fire.” This is supposed by
Brasseur to be the name of a volcano, and the whole episode to refer to
a pretended miracle. See his _Hist. Mexique_, Vol. II, pp. 166-7. He
calls the passage “fort difficile,” which it certainly is.

32. _Çakcho[t]._ “Brulé à blanc,” is Brasseur’s translation, but I
cannot verify it. No such stone is mentioned in Guzman’s list of
Cakchiquel names of stones. It would seem that there were fourteen chief
performers in the dance of [t]a[t] xanul,[TN-29] and that they took the
name of certain stones.

34. _Chi [t]alibal_, “at the seat;” but the author chooses to derive it
from _[t]a_, hand, which is a doubtful etymology.

35. The episode of Tolgom, his capture and death, is explained by
Brasseur, _suo more_, as the destruction of the ruler of an independent
tribe on the shores of Lake Atitlan.

_[c]habak Nicnic_, the quivering mud, perhaps the quicksand. This
strange name adds to the obscurity of the legend.

_[c]akbatzulu._ The punning explanation of this name refers to its
similarity to _[c]ak_, to place in front of another; also to shoot with
arrows, or to stone. Its real derivation seems to be _[c]akba_, from
_[c]akaba_, to reveal, disclose, and _tzulu_, to embrace, sleep
together. (Compare _chee tzulu_, later on.)

37. His song, _i. e._, his death song.

_Chee tzulu_, “the interlaced trees.”

_Uchum_, the fifth month of the Cakchiquel calendar. See Introduction,
p. 29.

38. _Ri tzam tzakbal Tol[c]om_, “throwing the extremities of Tolgom.”
The reference to this festival is too slight to enable us to understand

_Chi tulul_, “at the zapote trees.”

_Qabouil Abah_, “the Stone God,” possibly the Chay Abah before referred

_Çu[c,]u cumatz_; the latter is the generic term for snake, but the
meaning of the prefix is uncertain. Perhaps it should read _çuxçu_, to
move in spiral lines, as is described in the text. This miraculous form
was one of Gagavitz’s metamorphoses.

_Nak ruma tiqui [c]am_, etc. These words of the hero Gagavitz are not
easy to translate. They seem to chide the Cakchiquels for their weakness
in seeking women, and to announce his intention to remain among the

_ru [c]hac pe ri ne[c]āh coon_; perhaps this should be translated,
“the organs of the women have conquered.”

39. _Çakeribal_, civilization, their becoming civilized. On the meaning
of this word see note to Sec. 20.

_abah [c]uval_; the precious stone offered by Ba[c]ahol as the price of
royalty, indicates that such carved gems were in high esteem. _[c]uval_
is translated by Guzman and others, “diamond;” but it was probably
native jade.

_Chuluc balam_, literally “tiger piss,” the name of a common medicinal
plant, used in Guatemala as a diuretic (Guzman). In this connection it
either means the totem of a gens, or refers to a magic rite. The former
seems to be indicated by the term _chicop_ (see Introd. p. 39).

_xahun chi raxon ru halebal_, a punning allusion to the name of the hill
Paraxone. Brasseur translates it “qui possédent l’un et l’autre ces
oiseaux bleus enchanteurs.”

40. _The sun had risen_, etc. All these expressions are to be understood
metaphorically, with reference to the growing civilization of the

41. The description of the installation of Ba[c]ahol as head chief, is
an interesting passage. Unfortunately, several of the terms used are not
found in the dictionaries, at least with any appropriate meaning. Thus,
_paz_ is now applied to the swathing bands of infants; _cuçul_ is the
cradle or bundle in which infants are fastened; while _ta[c]h_ I have
not found at all. Guzman gives the expression, _titil [t]ana abah, caka
uleuh xak_, with the explanation, “Colores con que ungian los señores,”
and _Ah titil_, etc., “Señores ungidos de estos colores quando eran
puestos en señorios.” (_Compendio de Nombres en Lengua Cakchiquel_, MS.,

_[t]u[t]u cot_; _cot_, eagle; _[t]u[t]_, the general term for various
species of quetzals, birds with brilliant green plumage. The reference
seems to be to one of the magical metamorphoses of [t]a[t]avitz.[TN-30]

42. The difficulties experienced in their first endeavors to adopt a
sedentary and agricultural life are described.

_chicop [c]uch_, the “zopilote,” or carrion vulture. Possibly this
refers to a gens so designated.

43. In this paragraph the writer expresses himself with great

_[c]a chimin_, etc. As my translation differs considerably from
Brasseur’s, I add his: “En se mariant ils firent l’euvre de la chair
vraiment trop grande. Etant entrés pour se baigner, ils y rompirent leur
nature et gaspillèrent leur semence. Beaucoup y entrèrent dit-on, pour
compléter l’euvre charnelle, on la commit une seconde fois, le jeu s’y
établit absolument, et l’on forniqua par devant et par derrière.”

44. This section offers an important description of the ancient methods
of worship.

_[c]axto[c]._ See the Introduction, p. 40.

_mez_, the house cat, but as this animal was not known to the natives
before the Conquest, some other animal must be intended.

_holom ocox_, “head fungus.” I follow Brasseur in translating this the
maguey thorns, without being able to justify it.

_Chay Abah._ See Introduction, p. 43.

46. Whitewashing the interior of hollow trees with lime from the
excrements of birds and tigers, sounds so extraordinary that we may
suspect a mythical sense in the paragraph.

_chi [c]ohom_, from _[c]oh_, to dance the sacred dances in their
religious rites, “the place of the sacred ceremonies.”

Cay Noh, Two Noh, Cay Batz, Two Batz, named after the days of their
birth. See Introduction, p. 33.

47. _The same who came from Tulan._ Therefore, from the beginning of the
narrative to the present passage, merely the adult life of one man has

48. On the positions of the _[t]alel_ and _ahuchan_, see Introduction,
p. 37.

_ret ri Çactecauh_, “the sign of Zactecauh.” The precise meaning of this
expression escapes me.

_[c]hopiytzel._ See Sec. 30 for the occurrence alluded to.

49. _Tepeuh_ is identified by Brasseur with the king _Itztayul_, of the
Quiches (_Hist. Mexique_, II, p. 485). He considers it a Nahuatl word,
but I have elsewhere maintained that it is from the Maya-Cakchiquel root
_tep_, filled up, abundantly supplied. See _The Names of the Gods in the
Kiche Myths_, pp. 11, 12. It is a term often applied to their Supreme

52. _Cakbrakan_, the god of the earthquake. The myths concerning him are
given in the _Popol Vuh_.

_Quite to the far East_, literally, “and even to the sunrise.”

_ba[c,]bal_, anything drawn out in threads, gold thread, cotton thread,
etc. If the word is to be construed adjectively, _puak ba[c,]pal_ would
mean “worked metal.”

56. _Ahpop Xahil_, etc.; on the meaning of these titles, see the
Introduction, p. 36-7.

63. _Ya [c]otox ul_; _[c]ot_, to chisel, engrave, originally to cut
into; hence, applied to the deep valleys or cañons which the rivers cut
into the soil.

_Ochal_ or _Qabouil Çivan_; the latter name means “the god of the
ravine.” The location of this city is unknown, except that it was near
the Pacific. The general position of the Akahals was to the east of the
Cakchiquels. See Brasseur, _Hist. Mexique_, Tom. II, pp. 502, 530.

64. _Me[t]enalah huyu_, a town in the warm district, the _tierra
caliente_, near the southern or Pacific coast.

_chuvi vi te_, etc. The translation is doubtful. I follow Brasseur.

66. The names of the four rulers here inserted seem to be of those who
held the power after Citan Qatu. Why the author does not relate any
incidents of their lives is uncertain. Perhaps they did not belong to
his family, and as he was writing rather a family than a national
history, he omitted them for this reason. Compare Sec. 75.

67. The Quiche king, Qikab, is frequently mentioned in the _Popol Vuh_.
His full name was _[t]a[t]-[c]i-[t]ab_, The Many Hands of Fire.

79. _They wished that the roads should be free_; _rambey akan_, “la
franchise des chemins.” I do not find the expression in the

83. _Mixutzin malo_, “the augury is finished.” The _malol ixim_ was the
augur who divined the future by throwing up grains of corn, and
forecasting from the relative positions they assumed on falling. See
Introd., p. 47.

_cunum cachak_, a term of contempt; literally “their genitals, their

The _Ratzamut_. See Introd., p. 21.

84. _Burning many roads_; destroying the houses and crops behind them.

90. _hu chuvy, ca chuvy_; in the numeral system of the Cakchiquels a
_chuvy_ is 8000, but the expression is frequently, as here, to be taken
figuratively, like our “myriads.”

93. _ah-xit_, etc. On these titles see the Introduction, pp. 18, 19.

94. _Vica[t] nu mam_, “the leaves or branches of my ancestor,” referring
to the fact that the Cakchiquels were of the same blood as the Akahals.

96. _Çakli[c]ahol_, etc. This rendering, which is Brasseur’s, I am
unable to verify.

_tok relic chic ahauh lahuh noh_; perhaps this should read, “then came
the chief Lahuh Noh.” So Brasseur translates it.

102. _There were four women_, etc. This curious passage is so
differently translated by Brasseur, that I add his rendering:--

“Quatre femmes alors s’étant révetues de cottes de mailles,
ensanglantèrent leurs arcs et prirent part à la bataille; elles
s’étaient accompagnés de quatres jeunes gens et leurs flêches allèrent
frapper au milieu du tapis de Chucuybatzin, lancés qu’ elles étaient par
ces héros.... Le capitaine de bataille exposa ensuite les nudités de ces
femmes devant les murailles des Zotziles et des Xahiles d’ou ces femmes
étaient sorties.”

The future student will decide between these very diverse explanations
of the text.

106. _Stopped the messengers of the ruler._ The translation is doubtful.

109. The people of Mixco or Mixcu were Pokomams. (See Sec. 85.)

110. _The Yaquis of Xivico_; the _Yaquis_ were Aztecs. It is the Nahuatl
_yaqui_, merchants, as it was in this capacity that they first became
known to the tribes of Guatemala.

117. This year, 1511 of our era, appears to have been the first of
official relations between the Aztecs and the tribes of Guatemala.

118. The author speaks of himself for the first time. It may be presumed
that it was one of his earliest recollections.

120. _The doves_; possibly flights of wild pigeons.

124. _Hu may_; on the reckoning of time see the Introduction, p. 31.

127. _[c]hac_, the pestilence. Brasseur translates this “la maladie
syphilitique.” The vowel is long, _[c]haac_. It is a word applied to any
eruptive disease, to the whole class of exanthemata. From the symptoms,
I am inclined to believe that it was an epidemic of malignant measles, a
disease very fatal to the natives of Central America.

128. _Diego Juan._ Why this Spanish name is given, I cannot explain.
Brasseur gets over the difficulty by translating “le pére de Diego
Juan,” but this is not the sense of the original. Of course, _tata_ and
_mama_ are here used in their vague sense, as expressions of courtesy.
See Introduction, p. 35.

144. Pedro de Alvarado, called the _Adelantado_, a Spanish title
formerly given to a governor of a province, and by his Mexican allies,
_Tonatiuh_, the Sun or Sun-God, reached the city of Gumarcaah, or
Utlatlan in the early spring of 1524.

147. _Were burned alive._ “As I knew their evil intentions, and to keep
the people quiet, I burned them, and ordered their city razed to its
foundation,” writes Alvarado to Cortes. _Relacion, etc._

_400 men._ Alvarado writes _cuatro mil hombres_, “four thousand men.”

148. _The palace of Tzupam._ Perhaps the palace described by Fuentes.
See Introduction, p. 24. Alvarado speaks of the friendly reception he
met with: “I could not have been more warmly welcomed to the house of my
father.” _Otra Relacion_, etc. His first visit was for eight days, April
11-19, 1524.

_Pa hul_, etc. This obscure passage is translated by Brasseur in his MS.
as follows: “Vous avez vu la-bas leur tombeau qui est au milieu des
autres;” whereas, in his _Hist. du Mexique_, Tom. IV, p. 651, he
translates the whole of this reply of the Cakchiquel king by these
words: “Eh quoi! aurais-je envoyé mes guerriers et mes braves mourir
pour vous et chercher un tombeau à Gumarcaah, si j’avais eu des
intentions si perfides!”

This comparison will illustrate how differently he construed the
passage, and also what excessive license he took with his authorities.

171. The order assigning the Oidor Alonso de Maldonado to take charge of
Guatemala, is dated Oct. 27, 1535, and he arrived there in the following

On his return from Spain, Alvarado landed at Puerto de Caballos, April
4, 1539, and reached the city of Guatemala Sept. 16th of the same year.

“On account of his lineage,” _Ruma ru chinamital_; the expression is not

173.[TN-31] “Prince of the city,” _Ahauh pa tinamit_; see Sec. 168. Cahi
Imox and others had returned to settle in Iximche, and their actions had
become suspicious.

173. Francisco de Alvarado was either the uncle or cousin of Don Pedro.

The Adelantado died July 5, 1541, from an injury received while
attacking the stronghold of Nochistlan.

174. This disaster occurred on the night of Sept. 10-11th, 1541.

The mission referred to is mentioned by Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_,
Lib. XIX, Cap. XIV. Pedro de Angulo and his companion reached Guatemala
in 1539.

175. “On account of ashes,” _Ruma chah_; Brasseur translates this
expression, “á cause de billevesées.”

176. Juan Rogel was one of the “oidores.”

177. Alonso Lopez Cerrato entered upon his duties in Guatemala May 26,

179. Pedro Ramirez de Quiñones. The actor in this attempt was one of the
oidores. Bancroft, who refers to the quarrel between the Governor and
Bishop Marroquin, does not satisfactorily explain it. See his _Hist. of
Central America_, Vol. II, pp. 326-7. On Ramirez, see Juarros, _Hist.
Guatemala_, Tom. I, pp. 235-6.

181. Antonio Rodriguez de Quezada took possession of the Presidency of
Guatemala Jan. 14, 1554, and retained it till his death in November,
1558; he was succeeded by Pedro Ramirez. (Comp. Juarros, I, p. 255, with
Bancroft, _Hist. Cent. Am._, II, p. 358, who says 1555.)

181.[TN-32] “There was but little between them,” _Xa [c]a halal qui cohol
ahauh_; this expression is not clear. There appears to be considerable
vagueness in the writer’s chronology in this passage.

“He did not condemn any one, because he had no time,” _Mani xuban ru
[t]atbaltzih, mani xyaloh_; an ignorant statement, since he held the
Presidency about four years.

The reading of the last sentence is doubtful.

182. Vico was killed in the summer of 1555.

184. The expedition against the Lacandons took place early in 1559.


=A=, _n._ A year; the thigh; _pron._ thy.

=Abah=, _n._ A stone; a jar; the private parts.

=Aca=, _part._ Related, affined. See p. 32.

=Ach.= A prefix indicating companionship.

=Achak=, _n._ Excrement, offal, refuse, waste.

=Achcayupil=, _n._ Quilted cotton defensive armor; or perhaps a
two-pointed lance; from _ach_, united; _cay_, two; _uopih_, to wound
with a lance. See p. 18.

=Achii=, _n._ Man (vir).

=Achpe=, _v._ To accompany one.

=Achpetic=, _n._ That which accompanies one.

=Achya=, _v._ To receive (Brasseur); to give with.

=Achyaic=, _n._ That which is given along with something else; _yaic_,
passive verbal from _ya_, to give.

=Aco[c,]ih=, _v._ (For the more usual _[t]oçih_). To strike or beat,
especially a drum.

=Ah=, _n._ Name of a day. A prefix. _Gram._ p. 55.

=Ahauh=, _n._ Ruler, chief, lord. See p. 36.

=Ahauarem=, _n._ Majesty, power.

=Ahcic=, _adv._ Up, above, on top.

=Ahilah=, _v._ To count or reckon with grains of corn or cacao, after the
Indian fashion.

=Ahilan=, _v._ To count, to number.

=Ahlabal=, _n._ Warrior, fighting man. See _Labal_.

=Aho=, _v._ To wish, to like.

=Ahpop=, _n._ The head chief. “_El cacique mayor._[TN-33] See p. 36.

=Ahpop[c]amahay=, _n._ An official messenger, especially an official sent
to collect tribute. See p. 36.

=Ah-tzih=, _n._ Speaker, orator. See p. 37.

=Ah-[c,]ib=,[TN-34] _n._ A scribe.

=Akah=, _n._ A hornet.

=Akan=, _n._ Leg, foot.

=Al=, _n._ Son, child.

=Alabil=, _n._ Slave, servant.

=Alah=, _v._ To bear, to carry; hence, to bring forth, to give birth to,
as a woman a child.

=Alan=, _v._ To ridicule, depreciate.

=Ama[t]=, _n._ Village, tribe, region or district. See p. 33.

=An=, _part._ An emphatic particle, truly, really.

=Aneh=, _v._ To flee, escape.

=Anom=, _n._ A fugitive.

=At=, _pron._ Thou.

=Atiniçah=, _v._ To bathe.

=Avan=, _n._ Crops, plantings.

=A[t]a=, _n._ Night, darkness.

=A[c,]axah=, _v._ To hear, to listen to.

=Bak=, _v._ To bore. _n._ A bone.

=Bala=, _adv._ Where.

=Balam=, _n._ A tiger.

=Balbaxin=, _adj._ Twisted, interlaced, dense.

=Ban=, _v._ 1. To make, to do, or cause to do. 2. To ask. 3. To dress, or
arrange one’s apparel.

=Bay=, _n._ A mole, a ground animal.

=Ba[c,]=, _n._ What is spun, as cotton, or drawn into fine threads as
gold. _n._ A monkey.

=Be=, _v._ To go.

=Belehe=, _adv._ Nine.

=Bey=, _n._ Path, road, route.

=Bi=, _n._ A name; _ru bi_, his or its name.

=Bijh=, _v._ To speak, to talk.

=Bijn=, _v._ To walk, to go on foot.

=Birbot=, _v._ To make a loud, rumbling noise. _Ti birbot, ti nicnot_, it
roars and it rumbles, of the volcano (Varea).

=Bitol=, _n._ The creator. See p. 40.

=Bix=, _n._ 1. Songs, chants, poems. 2. Sparks from a fire (p. 17).

=Bok=, _v._ To tear up; to pull down; to sell for another; to translate:
to defeat.

=Bol=, _v._ To make deep trenches in the soil (“as the Indians of the
Sierra.” Varea).

=Boleh=, _v._ To go in a row, in a series, or in a procession. Applied to
mountains, when one rises upon another (Varea).

=Boz=, _vn._ To issue forth; hence, of flowers, to open, to blow; of a
butterfly, to come forth from the cocoon; of chicks, to come from the
egg; of grains of maize, to burst; of men, to proceed from, to be born;
_xeboço_, the absolute form.

=Cabih=, _n._ Day after to-morrow.

=Cacouh=, _n._ Cacao.

=Cah=, _n._ The sky, heaven, the atmospheric region.

=Cah=, _or_ =Cahi=, _adv._ Four.

=Cahlahuh=, _adv._ Fourteen.

=Cahmah=, _v._ To meet a repulse, defeat.

=Cak=, _adj._ Red.

=Cakix=, _n._ A bird. See p. 199.

=Cal=, _n._ That which is united or joined.

=Camel=, _n._ A mortal. _Adj._ Humble.

=Camiçah=, _v._ To kill, to slay, to destroy.

=Can=, _adv._ Remaining, aforesaid, already. See _Gram._, p. 65.

=Cana=, _n._ A captive taken in war.

=Canah=, _v._ To remain, to leave; _ti canay_, neuter, it appears, it is

=Cani=, _adv._ Soon, shortly.

=Canoh=, _v._ To seek, to search for.

=Car=, _n._ Fish, generic name.

=Cauh=, _n._ Ornaments, adornments.

=Cavach=, _n._ Likeness, resemblance.

=Cavuh=, =Cauh=, _v._ To place anew, to notify, to prepare; to change, to
put on again.

=Cay=, _adv._ Two.

=Ca[c]=, _n._ Cock (Br).

=Cib=, _n._ Smoke, vapor.

=Civan=, _n._ A ravine, barranca.

=Ci[c]=, _v._ To lift up the voice, _n._ Shoutings.

=Co.= A concessive particle. Good! Bravo! Courage! On!

=Col=, _v._ To free, to liberate; to redeem, to save; _xoh ru col J. C.
chuvach cruz._ Christ redeemed us on the cross.

=Coon=, _n._ For _cun_, pudenda of a woman (Xim); hence, woman.

=Cot=, _n._ The eagle.

=Cou=, _n._ Something rough and violent.

=Couiricah=, _v._ To strengthen, to invigorate.

=Covil=, _adj._ Bold, courageous.

=Coz=, _v._ To rest.

=Cucu=, _n._ Large vase for water.

=Cuçul=, _n._ Cradle.

=Cuke=, _v._ To seat onesself.

=Cuker=, _v._ To be seated; to be content.

=Cumatz=, _n._ A serpent (gen). An eel.

=Cunum Cachak.= See p. 206.

=Cuyu[c]h=, _n._ A species of parrot.

=Ça=, _v._ To expose or show to the sun; to dry. _Met._; _çao ru vach_, to
show one’s face, to recover power.

=Çach=, _v._ To lose, to become lost.

=Çak=, _adj._ White; bright; light. _n._ A white or clear thing. A
clearing in the forest, cleared land (Varea).

=Çahcab=, _n._ p. 12, for

=Çakcab=, _n._ Literally, white honey; white varnish (Brasseur). Probably
“war paint.”

=Çaker=, _v._ To make white, light or clear. To clear a space in the
forest (Varea). See p. 199.

=Çakcorovach=, _n._ The dove or quail.

=Çakquiy=, _n._ The maguey, used in making rope, etc.

=Ça[t]ih= for =Çak[t]ih=, _n._ Literally, white days, applied to the spring
of the year. See p. 198.

=Çamahel=, _n._ Messengers.

=Çanay=, _n._ Sand.

=Ça[t]ul=, _n._ A plantain; in gen. any kind of vegetable.

=Ça[c]=, _n._ Locusts.

=Çe=, _v._ To row.

=Çel=, _n._ A large painted vase for bathing (jicara pintado, Anon).[TN-35]

=Çeteçic=, _adj._ Circular, rounded. See p. 18.

=Çipah=, _v._ To present, to offer.

=Çol=, _v._ for Tzolih, q. v.

=Çol=, _v._ To upheave, to make a revolution.

=Çolo=, _v._ To turn about; to return; to go back.

=Ço[c]=, _n._ A bat.

=Çubak=, _n._ A kind of flute.

=Çutulakin=, _v._ To render homage.

=Çuq=, _n._ A cloud, the clouds.

=Cha=, _v._ To say, to tell, to speak.

=Chacan=, _v._ To cover, enclose; to be within or on.

=Chactit= ?, from Cha[t], something tied or sewed.

=Chăh=, _n._ The pine tree, the ocote pine.

=Chah=, _n._ Ashes, cinders.

=Chapalcivan=, _n._ See p. 197.

=Chahih=, _v._ To guard, to watch; to protect; to keep. _Chahal çivan_,
the guard of the ravine. See _Gram._, p. 42.

=Chahir=, _v._ To burn, to reduce to cinders. From _chah_.

=Chaomal=, _n._ Beauty, fruitfulness.

=Chaomar=, _v._ To yield abundantly.

=Chap=, _v._ To seize, to take, to take possession of.

=Chay=, _n._ A stone. See p. 18.

=Cha[t]abeh=, _v._ To receive with pleasure, to take gladly.

=Chee=, _n._ Wood, stick, tree.

=Chi=, _n._ Mouth; aperture, opening; gate; mouth of a river; coast of the
sea; edge or border.

=Chi.= 1. With, by, to, for, against. 2. In order to, that, and 3. While,
during, being.

=Chic.= 1. A verbal particle, denoting past time. 2. Already, more. Before
_vi_, the _c_ is dropped, as _hun chi vi_, once more.

=Chicah.= Above, upon, upwards.

=Chicohol.= Between yourselves.

=Chicop.= A brute, an animal as distinguished from man; _met._; a brutish
man. See p. 39.

=Chiih (chi ih).= Upon, on.

=Chila.= There, that way.

=Chin.= For, by, by means of, thus.

=Chinak=, _interrog._ Who, which, what?

=Chinamit=, _n._ Town, village. See p. 32.

=Chique.= To, for those.

=Chiquichin.= To, for those.

=Chiquih.= Against those.

=Chire.= To, for him, that one.

=Chirih.= Behind, against that one; from, out of.

=Chivach.= Before yourselves.

=Chive.= To, for, against yourselves.

=Cho.= To, for, in, until, towards.

=Chocola=, _adj._ In common, communal.

=Cholol=, _v._ To place in order, to arrange.

=Chom=, _n._ A lobster.

=Choy=, _n._ A lake.

=Chucohol=, _prep._ Among, between.

=Chuluc=, _n._ Urine.

=Chun=, _n._ Lime.

=Chunah=, _v._ To whitewash.

=Chupam=, _prep._ Within, in.

=Chuvi=, _prep._ Upon, over, on; _chuvi huyu_, on or upon the mountain.

=Echa=, _n._ Edible fruits and vegetables. A generic word.

=Elah=, _v._ To humble, to submit to.

=Elebal=, _n._ The place whence something comes forth; as _relebal çib_,
the exit of the smoke, _i. e._, the chimney (Varea); hence, _relebal
[t]ih_, the sunrise.

=Ele[t]ah=, _v._ To steal, to rob.

=Ele[t]om=, _n._ A thief, a robber.

=Et=, _n._ A mark, sign. _v._ To mark, designate.

=Etamah=, _v._ To know, to understand; from _et_, a mark or sign.

=Ha=, _pron._ He, it, that one; it is so; _ha ri_, it is thus; _ha ok_, at
that time, then, when.

=Hab=, _n._ Rain.

=Hach=, _v._ To divide, to separate.

=Hak=, _v._ To open (a door, the mouth, etc).

=Hal=, _v._ To change, to alter. See p. 46.

=Halal=, _adv._ A little, briefly.

=Halebal=, _n._ That by which one changes or transforms himself, a magic
power; an instrumental form from _hal_, to change one’s garments, etc.
See p. 46.

=Halizin=, _n._ A change, an alteration; a change of raiment; the hair of
the head (Br).

=Hay=, _n._ House, home. See p. 33.

=He=, _pron._ Those, their.

=Hetah=, _adv._ See _Tak_.

=He[c]=, _v._ To drive or force away.

=Hilil=, _v._ To thunder, to rumble.

=Hique=, _v._ For [c]hique, _q. v._

=Hit=, _v._ To promise, make vows; to offer.

=Hi[t]uh=, _v._ To ardently desire, to covet.

=Hi[c,]=, _v._ To hang.

=Hol=,   } _v._ To concede, grant.
=Holih=, }

=Holom=, _n._ The head, a chief.

=Homet=, _n._ Bark of trees.

=Hote=, _v._ To rise, to go up, to mount.

=Hox=, _n._ Branch of a tree.

=Hox=, _v._ To copulate, of men or beasts.

=Hoye=, _part._ Expressing compassion.

=Hoyevah=,      } _v._ To have compassion, to extend mercy, to
=Hoye ru vach=, } spare.

=Hucu=, _n._ A boat, canoe; a large dish.

=Hucumah=, _adv._ Soon, promptly.

=Hul=, _n._ A hole, a pit, a grave, etc.

=Huley=, _adj._ Deep, profound.

=Huluhut or Hulhut=, _n._ Something burning, on fire.

=Hun=, _adv._ One; a or an.

=Hunamah=, _v._ To make equal, to make ready, prepare.

=Hunchic=, _adv._ The other.

=Hutak=, _adv._ See _Tak_.

=Hu[c]içic=, _adv._ Only, alone, solely.

=Huyu=, _n._ Mountain, hill, mound; a land or country, or place of
residence (_nu huyubal_, mi pueblo, Varea). The interior as opposed to
the coast. See _Ta[t]ah_.

=Ikan=, _n._ A load, a burden, tribute, tax.

=Iki[t]a=, _n._ The right hand. _[t]a_ hand.

=Il=, _v. a._ To reach, to get, to see, to obtain; _n._ to get to, to
arrive at.

=Il=, _n._ Fault, blame.

=In=, _pron._ I.

=Ixim=, _n._ Maize.

=Ixok=, _n._ A woman.

=I[c]o=, _v._ To pass on or beyond; to exceed, surpass.

=I[c]ovibeh=, _v._ To go on, or beyond.

=Ka=, _pron._ Our.

=Kaçah=, _v._ To put down, to conquer, to destroy.

=Kah=, _v._ To descend, descending. See _Gram._, p,[TN-36] 64.

=Kahibal=, _n._ The place of descent; hence, _kahibal [t]ih_, the sunset.

=Kel=, _v._ To disobey.

=Ki=, _part._ An interrogative; also, denoting affirmation; often used
merely to give strength to an assertion. _Gram._, p. 71.

=Koch=, _n._ The crow.

=Kul=, _n._ The neck.

=Kup=, _v._ To seize, take by force.

=Kuruh=, _v._ To draw or drag out or on.

=Lab=, _n._ A portent, an augury. See pp. 39, 47.

=Labal=, _n._ An enemy, opponent.

=Labalih=, _v._ To make war, to fight. See p. 47.

=Lehah=, _v._ To fall sick; to grow weak; to be overcome or conquered.

=Lakam=, _n._ The war banner, “bandera de la guerra.”

=Lakeh=, _v._ To bring, to carry, to give.

=Lam=, _n._ The hard part; trunk of a tree, etc.

=Lamaba.= To detain one, to prevent him from going.

=La[t]abeh=, _v._ To enter into a place, to dwell there; to occupy as a
residence (_entrar á morar en casa._ Varea).

=La[t]eh=, _v._ To join or unite two things; especially to unite in the
sexual act.

=Lob=, _n._ Magical power.

=Lol=, _n._ The silence or state of desertion left by a pestilence, etc.
See p. 38.

=Lo[t]=, _v._ To prize, to hold dear, to esteem.

=Macamo=, _v._ To take alarm, to be frightened, to wonder at.

=Maha=, _adv._ Even not, not yet.

=Mahanick, _adv._ Before that, previous to.

=Malohic, _n._ A preparation of maize (?).

=Mam, _n._ Grandchild.

=Mama, _n._ An old man; _pl._ _mamaa_, the old men; _nu mama_, my
ancestors; also the rulers of a village; applied to animals it means the
male of the species.

=Mani, _adv._ No, not.

=May, _v._ A cycle, especially of 20 years. _May [t]ih_, a calendar for
calculating cycles. See p. 31.

=Meal=, _n._ A daughter.

=Meba=, _adj._ Poor.

=Meh=, _n._ A gable in a roof; an angle; a fold in clothing, etc.

=Meho=, _v._ To make an angle or fold; hence, to go to a place and return
from it.

=Mem=, _n._ A dumb man; to be dumb.

=Mez=, _n._ A cat. See p. 44.

=Meztah=, _v._ To forget.

=Me[t]en=, _adj._ Warm, hot.

=Mi=, _adv._ Particle, denoting recent past time, prefixed to form the
proximate preterit tense.

=Mier=, _adv._ Already, previously.

=Mi[c]h=, _v._ To tear up, to tear out or down.

=Mi[c]hoh=, _v._ To lie to, to deceive; to ridicule, to laugh at, to mock.

=Mol=, _v._ To gather together scattered things, to fill up, to collect.

=Moyeuh=, _n._ A fog, the mist.

=Muh=, _n._ Shade, shadow; hence, fig. protection, guardianship. See p.

=Muk=, _v._ To hide, to conceal; to bury.

=Mun=, _adj._ Hungry, _n._ A slave. See p. 39.

=Na=, _adv._ A particle denoting priority, from _nabey_, first; hence,
_navipe_, and, also, next, until, presently. See _Gram._, p. 65.

=Na=, _v._ To know, to learn.

=Nabey=, _adv._ First.

=Nabeyah=, _v._ To be first.

=Naek=, _adv._ Although, but.

=Nano=, _v._ To receive more than another.

=Nanoh=, _adj._ Known, said; hence, _xa nanoh_, already known, aforesaid,
etc. From _na_, to know.

=Naval=, _n._ Knowledge, wisdom; especially occult knowledge, magic,
sorcery. See p. 46.

=Nicnic=, _v._ To quiver, to tremble.

=Nima=, _adj._ Great, _n._ A great thing.

=Nimah=, _v._ To make great, to adore.

=Nimal=, _n._ The elder brother; the head of a home.

=Ni[c]ah=, _n._ The middle, the center.

=Ni[c]ahal=, _n._ The middle parts of anything; the sexual parts,

=Nu=, _pron._ My, mine.

=Oc=, _v._ To enter.

=Ochoch=, _n._ House. See p. 33.

=Ocox=, _n._ Fungus, of the edible variety.

=Oh=, _pron._ We.

=Oh=, _adv._ Sign of the imperative. _Oh a [c]ama pe lae queh_, Bring that
horse (Varea).

=Ohb=, _n._ A cough.

=Oher=, _adv._ Formerly, in ancient times.

=Ok=, _adv._ When; also the imperative particle.

=Okok=, _n._ Wild goose.

=Oqueçah=, _v._ To put something in something; hence, to put on one’s
clothes, to dress onesself. From _oc_, to enter. _Met._ to obey.

=Oro=, _v._ To bore, to pierce, to hollow out.

=Oxlahuh=, _adv._ Thirteen.

=Oyevar=, _v._ To become angry.

=Oyobeh=, _v._ To hope.

=O[t]=, _v._ To weep, to cry.

=O[t]eh=, _n._ A wail, a weeping. _v._ To bewail.

=Pa=, _prep._ In, to; _tan qui be pa huyu_, I am going to the
mountain[TN-38] _pa hay_, in the house. Before a vowel, _pan_ is used.

=Pac or Pacay=. The anona, the custard apple.

=Pacac=, _v._ To dawn.

=Pae=, _v._ To be on foot, to stand, to be at.

=Palah=, _v._ To annoy, to bother.

=Palouh=, _n._ The ocean, the sea; called also _nima ya_, the great water.
See p. 195.

=Patan=, _v._ Tribute, tax. See p. 39.

=Pax=, _v._ To break; to put to flight, to scatter.

=Paz=, _n._ Swathing bands; folding robes.

=Pe=, _v._ To come. Often used in a peculiar gerundive sense, as a verbal
particle. See _Gram._, p. 64.

=Pek=, _n._ The fruit tree called Pataxte (Guzman).

=Pixa=, _n._ Order, command, direction.

=Pixabah=, _v._ To order, to command.

=Po=, _v._ 1. To cry out loudly. 2. To be angry with some one.

=Pocob=, _n._ A shield. See p. 18.

=Poklah=, _n._ Dust.

=Pokon=, _n._ Trouble, pain.

=Pop=, _n._ A mat; _popoh_, a council. See p. 36.

=Poroh=, _v._ To burn, to set on fire.

=Poye=, _v._ To put[TN-39] one side, to neglect.

=Po[c]h=, _v._ To divide, to split.

=Puak or Puvak=, _n._ Silver; money, coin. See p. 19.

=Pub=, _n._ The blow-gun, p. 18.

=Puz=, _n._ Power, magic. See p. 46.

=Pu[t]=, _v._ To break up ground; to soak in water; to dissolve or to make
into dust. Hence, _n._ fire, dust.

=Que=, _pron._ They, used with absolute, passive and neuter verbs.
_Gram._, p. 47.

=Queh=, _n._ A deer.

=Quere=, _adv._ Thus, as, even so; _quere[c]a_, therefore; _querera_, as
this; _querelae_, as that.

=Qui=, _pron._ Those, their.

=Quichin=, _pron._ Of them.

=Quicot=, _v._ To rejoice, to delight in.

=Quir=, _v._ To unloose, untie.

=Qui[c]=, _n._ Blood.

=Rah=, _v._ To wish, _tivaho_, I wish; (absolute) _xraho_, he wished.

=Ramon=, _n._ A piece, a bit.

=Ramoneh=, _v._ To reduce to pieces, to overcome.

=Rax=, _adj._ Green, blue; precious, noble; renowned, famous.

=Raxah=, _n._ A tree, a species of plantain.

=Ri=, _pron._ He, she[TN-40] it; this, that; often used in the sense of
definite article, _ri huyu_, the hill.

=Richin=, _pron._ Of that one, of him, his, its.

=Ruma=, _prep._ By, for, with.

=Tacaxepeval=, _n._ Name of the first month of the native calendar.

=Tak=, _v._ To send, to call one, to despatch to one. _Gram._, p.

=Tahin=, _part._ Of present time.

=Tak=, _adv._ A particle conveying the idea of recurrence or repetition,
as _hetak_, _hutak_, p. 12. See _Gram._, p. 72.

=Takchibal=, _n._ That which incites, or persuades. An instrumental form
from _takchiih_.

=Takchiih=, _v._ To incite, move, induce.

=Takeh=, _v._ To obey.

=Tan=, _adv._ Now, at present; particle of present time.

=Tap=, _n._ Crab.

=Tata=, _n._ Father. Originally the reduplication of the particle of
courtesy, _ta_, which is now used by and to married people. It also
means lord, ruler. Cf. _Gram._, p. 72.

=Ta[t]ah=, _n._ A plain; the sea coast as opposed to the interior. See

=Ta[c]h=, _n._

=Tecpan=, _n._ See p. 13.

=Tee=, _n._ Mother. See p. 35.

=Telep=, _v._ To carry on the shoulders.

=Telechuh=, _v._ To wrestle; to take captive; to tie with cords.

=Tem=, _n._ A bench or seat. See p. 20.

=Tepeval=, _n._ Sovereignty, power.

=Teuh=, _adj._ Cold.

=Ti=, _v._ To eat, to bite.

=Ti=, _pron._ He, it, she; you.

=Tih=, _v._ To give to eat, to feed; to invite; to try, to test; to teach,
to instruct.

=Tih=, _n._ The doctrine, the teaching.

=Tihoh=, _v._ To teach another.

=Tinamit=, _n._ Town, city.

=Tiohil=, _n._ The body, the bulk of an animal.

=Tiquer=, _v._ To begin, to commence.

=Titil=, _n._ A color. See p. 204.

=Tiuh tiuh=, _n._ See p. 196.

=Tixli=, _n._ The tapir.

=Ti[c]uil=, _v._ To be rooted in the ground. See [c]uil.

=To=, _v._ To aid, to succor.

=Tohoh=, _v._ To make a loud noise, to thunder. See p. 199.

=Tol=, _v._ To abandon.

=Toloba=, _v._ To desert, abandon, forsake.

=Tooh=, _n._ Weapons, of all kinds.

=To[t]=, _v._ To shoot up, to burst forth.

=To[t]=, _v._ To push in, to insert.

=To[t]e=, _v._ To arrive at a place.

=Tuc=, _v._ To turn, revolve, move about.

=Tucur=, _n._ The owl.

=Tulul=, _n._ The zapote tree.

=Tun=, _n._ A native drum; a branch, a sprout, a twig.

=Tunay=, _n._ The elder tree. Span. _sauco_.

=Tux=, _n._ A kind of acorn.

=Ucheex=, _v._ To relate, to tell, to say, especially in reporting what
others have said. As a rule it follows the words quoted (_Coto_).

=Ue=, _conj._ If.

=Ul=, _v._ To arrive, to come to.

=Ulaah=, _v._ To arrive at, as a home; to seek as a refuge (Bras.).

=Ulaam=, _v._ To have at one’s house, as a guest, etc.

=Uleuh=, _n._ Earth, soil, land, ground.

=Umul=, _n._ The rabbit.

=Unum=, _n._ The male organ; a worm, a snake.

=Ut=, _n._ Dove.

=Utiuh=, _n._ The coyote.

=Utzin=, _v._ To finish, to complete.

=Ux=, _v._ To be, to become. See _Gram._, p. 33.

=Uxla=, _n._ The breath; an odor; steam.

=Uxlan=, _v._ To rest, to repose, to take breath (from _uxla_).

=Va=, _part._ Here, now.

=Va=, _v._ To eat.

=Vach=, _n._ Face, visage, front; surface, superficies; brightness,
splendor; fruit, products, profits; power, dignity.

=Vachih=, _v._ To see with one’s own eyes; to have before one’s face.

=Vae=, _part._ This, this is, here is.

=Vapal=, _n._ The lintel of a door, the frame of a window, etc.

=Var=, _v._ To sleep.

=Vave=, _adv._ Here.

=Vay=, _n._ Bread, of any kind.

=Vayhal=, _n._ Hunger.

=Vi=, _n._ The head.

=Vi=, _part._ A correlative and instrumental particle. See _Gram._, p. 63.

=Vik=, _v._ To increase or add something; to ornament, to adorn; to
arrange, to set in order by adding to.

=Vinak=, _n._ Man, the human species; a people.

=Vinak chij=, _n._ Injury or misfortune; a legal term applied to certain

=Vuk=, _adj._ Seven.

=Xa=, _part._ But, only, etc. An antithetical particle, used in many
connections, as _xae_, _xa [c]a_, _xa ri [c]a_, _va xe re_, _xa [c]a_,
_xe re_, _xa ha_, all signify but, next, etc.

=Xah=, _v._ To move actively and cheerfully; hence, to dance; of a dog, to
wag his tail.

=Xahab=, _n._ Sandals, shoes, moccasins.

=Xahan=, _n._ Prohibition, abstention.

=Xahaneh=, _v._ To abstain from, to refrain.

=Xahpota [c]hi[c]h=, _n._ Body armor. (“Malla ô peto.” Varea).

=Xak=, _n._ 1. Leaf. 2. Dye, color, tint. See p. 204.

=Xambey=, _n._ One who follows another.

=Xambeyah=, _v._ To do something later than another, to follow, to come

=Xane=, _v._ To strip, to uncover.

=Xaquere=, _adv._ But thus; see _Xa_.

=Xavi[c]a.= See Xa.[TN-42]

=Xax.= Particle of affirmation, an intensive.

=Xhayil=, _n._ A married woman, a wife. From _hay_, with the fem.
prefix--“the woman of the house.”

=Xim=, _v._ To tie, to bind onesself; to assume.

=Xiquin=, _n._ Ears.

=Xit=, _n._ The jade, the green stone (_piedra verde como torquesa._

=Xivae=, _n._ A conch shell used as a horn.

=Xmier=, _adv._ Already, formerly; _xmierok_, before, previously.

=Xocon=, _n._ The left hand; _chu xocon_, on the left.

=Xoh=, _pron._ We.

=Xo[t]=, =Xo[c]oh=, _v._ To complain against one.

=Xo[c]h=, _n._ The owl; a malicious person.

=Xul=, _n._ A flute.

=Xule=, _v._ To descend, to go down.

=Xu[c]=, _n._ A net used by the Indians of the Sierra to catch birds.

=X[c]ul=, _n._ A kind of dance. See p. 45.

=Ya=, _v._ To give, to present.

=Yaar=, _v._ To spoil, waste, go to ruin.

=Yac=, _n._ To build a house; to contract for, ask for.

=Yala=, _v._ To surpass, become distinguished.

=Yaloh=, _v._ To delay, to remain.

=Yamalakin=, _v._ To give presents.

=Yamanic=, _n._ Precious stone.

=Yanabil=, _n._ Sickness, disease.

=Ybah=, _n._ The ancient site of a town; the hereditary home; the cement
of a house. From _ybil_, to ripen, to mature.

=Ye[t]=, _v._ To tread under foot, to detest, to hate.

=Ylon=, _v._ To overtake one (alcanzar á otro que va adelante. _Varea_).

=Yncheel=, _adv._ How, in what manner.

=Ynup=, _n._ The ceiba tree.

=Yoh=, _v._ To destroy, tear down.

=Yon=, _adv._ Only, alone; _ruyon_, he or it alone or only. See _Gram._,
p. 32.

=Yo[t]=, _v._ To knead dough. _Met._ to bruise.

=Yuh=, _v._ To mix, to mingle.

=Yuhuh=, _n._ A quarrel, a revolt.

=Yuk=, _v._ To string out, to stretch out, like a rope. Hence

=Yuku=, _n._ A rope or cord. _Varea._

=Yuyub=, _n._ Shouts.

=Yx=, _pron._ You.

=Yxim=, _n._ Maize (the grains).

=Y[c]o=, _v._ To pass over; to go from one place to another.

=[t]a=, _n._ The hand, the arm.

=[t]aba=, _v._ To place supports; to strengthen; to extend the hands.

=[t]ahan=, _v._ To sound, to resound; to snore, etc.

=[t]ahar=, _v._ To expend, to expand.

=[t]ahartizah=, _v._ To praise, to commend.

=[t]alaba=, _v._ To cause misfortune, to make miserable.

=[t]alah=, _adj._ _n._ Something clear, apparent, manifest.

=[t]alel.= See p. 37.

=[t]alibal=, _n._ Seat, see, throne. “Asieñto[TN-43] del señor principal.”
Coto. See p. 20.

=[t]am=, _n._ Bridge, stairs.

=[t]ana abah=, _n._ A color. See p. 204.[TN-44]

=[t]an=, _adj._ Yellow; ripe; rich.

=[t]arama[t]=, _n._ Nation, confederation.

=[t]at=, _v._ To cut, in general; hence, to decide a question; to ford a
river; to die early, etc.

=[t]avonon=, _n._ A yellow bug; from _[t]an_, yellow, and _Vonon_, bug.

=[t]ax=, _v._ 1. To pass, to pass over. 2. To bring forth, to give birth

=[t]a[t]=, _n._ Fire.

=[t]a[t]al=, _n._ Distinction, greatness.

=[t]ek=, _adj._ Black; dark.

=[t]ekal=, _n._ Blackness, darkness.

=[t]ekum=, _n._ The darkness of the night.

=[t]ih=, _n._ The sun; a day; a time or epoch; an occasion or opportunity;
the sign or constellation under which one is born; hence, fate or
fortune. _Ah[t]ih_, the diviner; _cholol [t]ih_, to cast the horoscope.

=[t]ihib=, _v._ To divine, to predict, to tell fortunes.

=[t]il=, _v._ To prevent, impede, harass.

=[t]inom=, _adj._ Rich. _n._ riches.

=[t]iomah=, _n._ This appears to be a form of _[t]inomah_, riches.

=[t]ip=, _v._ To take up in the fingers; to pinch.

=[t]o=, _v._ To sustain, to maintain, to give to eat.

=[t]ol=, _n._ Resin from the pine.

=[t]op=, _n._ Ear rings.

=[t]uz[t]um=, _n._ Delicacy, something delicious to eat.

=[t]u[t]=, _n._ A species of bird. See p. 204.

=[t]u[t]uraxon=, _n._ Green feathers; the plumage of certain birds.

=[c]a=, _conj._ And, also.

=[c]abovil=, _n._ The deity, God, divinity.

=[c]açe=, _v._ To survive, to grow strong.

=[c]ahol=, _n._ A son, sons; also, generally, descendants of a common

=[c]aholah=, _v._ To beget, engender.

=[c]ak=, _v._ To shoot with arrows; to stone. 2. To place onesself in
front of another.

=[c]akaba=, _v._ To show onesself.

=[c]al=, _v._ To tie together, to arrange in order as by tying.

=[c]alakan=, _n._ Small bells tied together. See p. 17.

=[c]am=, _v._ To take, to bear away; especially to take a woman in
marriage, to marry.

=[c]anixt=, _n._ A bird. See p. 197.

=[c]arunah=, _adv._ The same, again.

=[c]axto[c]=, _n._ The Evil Spirit.

=[c]ay=, _adj._ Pungent, bitter, strong of smell or taste.

=[c]ayh=, _v._ To sell.

=[c]a[c]alih=, _v._ To guard.

=[c]eche=, _n._ A forest, a woods.

=[c]el=, _n._ A small species of parrot.

=[c]exevach=, _n._ Substitute, one who stands for another (Anon).

=[c]iyaley=, _adv._ That which exceeds; used in comparison. See _Gram._,
p. 67.[TN-45]

=[c]iy=, _adv._ Much, many.

=[c]iyar=, _v._ To multiply, to increase.

=[c]iz=, _v._ To finish, to conclude, to end.

=[c]oh=, _v._ To be in a place, etc. Spanish, _estar_. See _Gram._, p. 33.

=[c]ok=, =[c]okoh=, _v._ To complain (quejarse á Dios. Varea, p. 414).

=[c]ol=, _v._ To cut down, to send out from, to diminish, to lessen.

=[c]ot=, _v._ To dig a hole. _Met._ to examine verbally, to interrogate,
to cross-question.

=[c]otoh=, _v._ 1. To engrave, to sculpture. _[c]otonic_, that which is
sculptured. 2. To set in order, to arrange battalions, etc.

=[c]okikan=, _n._ Loads of roasted maize, used as food on long journeys;
from _[c,]o_, “mais cocido,” and _kikan_.

=[c]ox=, _v._ To clash; to strike hard things together, _ta [c]oxel
[t]a[t]_[TN-46] to strike fire with the flint (Varea).

=[c]oxol=, _n._ He who dashes together hard things, as stones. See

=[c]oxom=, _n._ That which is dashed together, as stones. See [c]ox.

=[c]oxtun=, _n._ Fortress, stronghold.

=[c]u=, _v._ To put well in order, to arrange.

=[c]ual=, _n._ Diamond, or other precious stone.

=[c]ubul=, _n._ Garlands (Br.). From _[c]u_, to arrange in order, to put
in place.

=[c]uil=, _v._ To throw down to the ground, to lie or roll upon the
ground; to annoy, harass.

=[c]ul=, _n._ All kinds of clothing; vesture, etc.

=[c]ul=, _v._ To receive; to meet, to go out to meet one; to visit one; to
converse, to reply to, to be beaten.

=[c]ule=, _v._ To marry.

=[c]ulvachih=, _v._ To meet face to face. From _[c]ul_, to receive, to
meet, and _vach_, face.

=[c]ut=, _v._ To show, to make manifest.

=[c]utuh=, _v._ To ask, to inquire.

=[c]ux=, _n._ The heart; the mind.

=[c]ha=, _n._ The bow; the arrow.

=[c]ha=,    } _v._ To speak to talk, to say.
=[c]habeh=, }

=[c]habak=, _n._ Mud.

=[c]hac=, _n._ A pestilence.

=[c]hac=, _v._ To conquer, to overpower.

=[c]hac=, _n._ Flesh, meat.

=[c]hacatah=, _v._ To sit down, to rest seated; to reduce in value, to

=[c]hacbal=, _n._ A victory, a conquest.[TN-47]

=[c]hacat=, _n._ A seat, a throne. See p. 20.

=[c]haka=, _prep._ From the other side; _[c]haka palouh_, from beyond the
sea; _he ah [c]haka ya_, those from the other side of the water, a term
applied to the Spaniards (Varea).

=[c]hakap=, _n._ and _adv._ The half, partly.

=[c]hamey=, _n._ Cane, staff; a badge of office; _ah[c]hamey_, the
alguacil or constable.

=[c]haoh=, _n._ See p. 55.

=[c]hay=, _v._ To injure, destroy. 2. To fasten, solder.

=[c]hi=, _v._ To disquiet, to be noisy.

=[c]hih=, _v._ To suffer, to bear.

=[c]hipil=, _n._ The youngest son.

=[c]hique=, _v._ To appoint, to resolve upon.

=[c]hi[c]h=, _n._ Iron, copper. See p. 19.

=[c]hob=, _n._ Division, class, order, battalion.

=[c]hocoba=, _v._ To seat a person.

=[c]hol=, _v._ To skin, to bark, to clean; to acquit, to rid of.

=[c]holih=, _v._ To value, to put a value upon; hence, _[c]holih [t]ih_,
to value days, to decide which are lucky and which unlucky; _[c]hol
[t]ih_, an astrological calendar. See p. 31.

=[c]hub=, _v._ To ravage, as a pestilence.

=[c]huc=, _n._ The arm, or arms.

=[c]hutin=, _adj._ Small, little, young.

=[c,]ak=, _v._ To work in clay; to make bricks or tiles; to make, to
create. 2. To joke; to make fun. 3. To lie, to deceive.

=[c,]akol=, _n._ The maker, the creator.

=[c,]alam.= See p. 32.

=[c,]anin=, _v._ To sound loudly, to make a great noise, of people,
trumpets, dancing, etc.

=[c,]apal=, _n._ An enclosure; that which is shut up or enclosed; from
_[c,]ape_, neuter of _tin [c,]apih_, shut up or enclose.

=[c,]apibal=, _n._ The place where something is enclosed or shut up. See
_[c,]apal_, and p. 197.

=[c,]i=, _n._ A dog.

=[c,]ibah=, _v._ To paint; to write. See p. 16.

=[c,]ima=, _n._ A sharp-pointed tool; _v._ to dig with one (Ximenes).

=[c,]iquin=, _n._ A bird, the generic word.

=[c,]iz=, _v._ To sew, to puncture.

=[c,]i[c,]ot=, _v._ To hiss (of a snake), to squeak (of a rat), to whistle
(of a bird), etc.

=[c,]um.= 1. The breasts, the mammae. 2. A skin, a hide.

=[c,]umah=, _v._ To suck, to take the breast; to reduce a swelling; to
lessen, to diminish.

=[c,]utuh=, _n._ A flower, especially of the maize.

=Tzak=, _v._ To throw, to fall; to tangle, to trip; to hinder; to go from
the road; to drop a subject, a lawsuit, etc.; to pardon; to excuse
onesself; to cease, to die.

=Tzal=, _v._ To make war, to give battle.

=Tzam=, _n._ 1. Nose, beak, snout, of man, bird or brute. 2. The point or
end of anything.

=Tzap=, _n._ Fault, evil, misdemeanor. See p. 28.

=Tzara=, _n._ A snare to take birds, etc.

=Tzayh=, _v._ To do an injury without cause.

=Tzatz=, _adv._ Much, many, thickly, densely.

=Tzih=, _n._ A word, a speech.

=Tzihoxic=, _n._ That which has been said; a passive verbal from _tzih_.

=Tzimay=, _n._ A cup, or drinking vessel.

=Tzolih=, _v._ To turn; to return; to turn one’s thoughts upon, etc.

=Tzuy=, _n._ A large calabash or gourd.

=Tzuk=, _v._ To sustain, to maintain.

=Tzul=, _v._ To intertwine, to embrace, to sleep together.


(_The numbers refer to the sections._)

  Acalan, 182.

  Açacot, 81.

  Ahachel, 41.

  Akahal, 10, 20, 41, 63, 64, 73, 94, 97, 99, 100, 110, 111.

  Ahalquil, 77.

  Ah cic ama[t], 20.

  Ahci[c]ahuh, 95.

  Ah Itza, 80.

  Ah mak, 112. _d._ 132.

  Ah max nay, 105, 106,[TN-48]

  Ah pak, 3.

  Ahquehay, 3, 27, 29, 40.

  Ah tuncic Tihax, 163.

  Ah tucuru, 10.

  Ah[c]ibihay, 107.

  Ah[c]humilahay, 10, 77.

  Ah[c,]iquinahay, 38, 53, 54, 137.

  Ah [c,]alam Hunahpu, 135.

  Ah[c,]uruya, 77.

  Alinam, 66.

  Atacat, see Panatacat

  Bacah Pokoh, 10, 21, 36.

  Bacah Xahil, 10, 21, 36.

  1. Balam, 119, 125. _d._ 130, 131.

  2. Balam, 134, 135, 136.

  Ba[c]ahola, 3, 10, 29, 39, 40, 45, 48, 50, 136.

  Beleh chi Hunahpu, 23.

  Beleh chi [t]a[t], 23.

  Beleh cuihay, 77.

  Belehe Toh, 11.

  Belehe [t]ih, 98.

  Belehe [c]at, 115, 136, 140, 159, 166.

  Bo[t]oiya, 73.

  Bubatzo, 53.

  Bulbux ya, 77, 161.

  Cablahuh Ba[c,], 88.

  Cablahuh Tihax, 88, 91, 116.

  Cahi bak, 21.

  Cahi Imox, 136, 140, 159, 172.

  Cakay, see Cakhay.

  Cakchiquel, 3, 10, 16, 20, 27, 41, 54, 84, 89, etc.

  Cakhay, 28, 125.

  Cakix, 20.

  Cakixahay, 34.

  Cakolahay, 126.

  Camachal, 81.

  Canalakam, 45.

  Caok, 88, 98, etc.

  Carchah, 25.

  Cata Noh, 162.

  Cauke, 49. See _Cavek_.

  Cavek, 3, 29, 39, 40, 84, 100.

  Cavek Paoh, 29.

  Cay batz, 40, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54.

  Cay Hunahpu, 100, 103.

  Cay Noh, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 66.

  Cibakihay, 3, 10, 29, 39, 40, 48, 88.

  Cinahi toh, 101, 102, 105.

  Cinpual Taxuch, 25.

  Citan Tihax Cablah, 75.

  Citan [c]atu, 60, 65, 66, 75.

  Coha, 77.

  Cotanoh, 162.

  Cucu huyu, 27.

  Culhuacan, 117.

  Cumatz, 5, 10, 77.

  Cupilcat, 45, 61, 62.

  Cutam chah, 20.

  Cuzcatan, 150, 151.

  Cuztum chixnal, 49.

  Çactecauh, 2, etc. _d._ 30, 48.

  Çak bim, 26, 112.

  Çakcab, 63, 107.

  Çaki huyu, 20.

  Çaki teuh, 20, 25.

  Çaki [c]oxol, 21, 22. See p. 42.

  Çaki [c,]unun, 31.

  Çaki [c]uva, 20, 25.

  Çaktzuy, 26.

  Çak[c]uch abah, 85.

  Çali[c]ahol, 63.

  Çamaneh, 41.

  Çeçic Inup, 33.

  Çimahi hay, 44, 63.

  Çinanihay, 39.

  Çoroch, 97.

  Ço[c,]il, 10, 20, 34, 41.

  Ço[c,]il Tukuche, 36, 54, 72, 74, 82, 91.

  Çubinal, 25.

  Çunpancu, 23.

  Çuquitan, 23.

  Çutum, 77.

  Çuyva, 12, 20. See note, p. 199.

  Chacachil, 25.

  Chakiya,   } 84.
  Chaquihya, }

  Chay Abah, 5, 44, 46.

  Chee tzulu, 37.

  Chetecauh, 38.

  Chiabak, 21.

  Chiavar, 63, 67, 68, 71, 75, 83, 84, 104.

  Chicakyu[t], 77.

  Chicbal, 173.

  Chichah, 77.

  Chiholom, 64, 73, 77.

  Chinta Queh, 162.

  Chita[t]ah, 20.

  Chiixot, 160-1.

  Chitulul, 38, 140.

  Chituy, 80.

  Chiyol, 21.

  Chi[t]a[t], 178.

  Chi[t]alibal, 34.

  Chi[t]ohom, 46, 63.

  Chi[c]ib, 99.

  Chi[c]otuk, 77.

  Choloma, 169.

  Chopena Queh, 88.

  Chopena Tohin, 88.

  Chopena [c,]iquin u[c]a, 88.

  Chucuyba[c]in, 102.

  Chuluc, 82, 84, 85.

  Chuvy [c,]iquinu, 173.

  Chuvy [c,]ut, 135.

  Daqui, 3.

  Deoçacvancu, 17.

  Eventec, 81.

  Halic, 77.

  Herech, 81.

  Holom, 85, 94, 97, 159.

  Hukahic, 97.

  Hultucur, 77.

  Hun ah pu, 21, 174.

  Hunahpu [c,]ian, 95.

  Hun çun[c]un [t]anel, 53.

  Hun Tihax, 11.

  Hun toh, 73-76, 82-86.

  Huny[c], 115. _d._ 129.

  Hun tzuy, 26.

  Huvarah bix, 97.

  Yaqui, 110, 117, 118.

  Yaxon tuh, 126.

  Yaxon [c]ul, 104.

  Icxiuh, 53.

  Ikoma[t], 3, 34, 62.

  Imox, 115.

  Yut [t]um Calla, 63.

  Iximche, 84, 85, 89, 93, 122, 137, 148.

  Izmachi, 70.

  Iztayul, 89, 93.

  I[t]ich, 119.

  Y[c]hal Amullac, 73, 94.

  Y[c]hal can chi cum cuvat, 63, 64.

  Y[c,]iyul, 85.

  Lacantun, 194.[TN-49]

  Lahub, 77.

  Lahuh Ah, 87.

  Lahuh Noh, 117.

  Lahuh Tihax, 115.

  Lama[t]i, 10, 77.

  Loch, 3, 27, 28.

  Loxpin, 23.

  Lakan Abah, 140.

  Maku X[c]uhay, 115.

  Mayahauh, 53.

  Meahauh, 17, 20.

  Meme, 20, 24.

  Mevac, 25.

  Mexico, 117.

  Mixcu, 85, 109.

  Modec çumatzin, 117.

  Moinal, 25.

  Molinxot, 63.

  Molobak, 77.

  Molomic abah, 77.

  Motzoray, 45.

  Mukchee, 26, 124.

  Nacuxcux, 77.

  Nacxit, 25.

  Nahtihay, 107.

  Nimahay, 39.

  Nima Ahin, 88.

  Nimabah, 173.

  Nima çahay, 95.

  Nimapan Xeacauh, 82.

  Nimçakah pec, 63, 64.

  Nimpokon, 26, 77.

  Nimxor, 25.

  Noh, 115.

  Nonovalcat, 19, 20.

  Orbal tzam, 25.

  Oronic, 28.

  Oxlahuh [c,]u, 88, 91.

  O[c]hal, 63, 64.

  Paanuyaal che, 164.

  Pa çaki uleuh, 91.

  Pacaval, 139.

  Pacavek, 39, 44.

  Pa chalic bak, 63.

  Paçibakul, 39, 44.

  Pampetak, 81.

  Paneh, 64, 77.

  Panatacat, 88, 128, 149, 150.

  Pan ca[t], 85.

  Pan chee, 63.

  Pan choy, 164, 174.

  Pangan, 165, 183, 185.

  Pantzic, 20, 39, 44, 46, 63.

  Paraxon, 20, 39, 44, 46, 47, 63.

  Paraxtun ya, 98.

  Paruyaal chay, 164.

  Paxaya, 173.

  Paxil, 5.

  Payanchocol, 38.

  Pec pa ru pec, 53.

  Pe[c,]e, 63.

  Pokom, 26, 85.

  Popo abah, 21.

  Popoya, 85.

  Puçiahauh, 53.

  Pu hu hil, 39.

  Pul[c]hi[c]h, 38.

  Puzbal, 63.

  Queh chun, 173.

  Quehil, 39, 44.

  Quehnay, 80.

  Quixavit Caoh, 172.

  Rabinal, 10, 41.

  Rahamun, 73.

  Ralabal Yg, 97.

  Rapak, 77.

  Ratzamut, 83, 84, etc.

  Raxakan, 91, 102, 103.

  Rax[c]hi[c]h, 26.

  Rokel ba[c,]in, 93.

  Tacna, 20, 24.

  Tameltoh, 97.

  Tamyac, 85.

  Ttah ttah Akbal, 66.

  Tata yac, 80.

  Tapcu Oloman, 17, 20.

  Ta [t]unun, 81.

  Tecpalan, 23.

  Tecpan, 28.

  Telom, 3, 21.

  Te pac uman, 20.

  Te pe pul, 89, 93, 138.

  Tepeuh, 49, 51, 52, 53, 62.

  Tepuztan, 23.

  Teyocuman, 31.

  Tiba[c]oy, 91, 102, 103.

  Tihax cablah, 75.

  Tohin, 135.

  Tohohil, 20, 41, 90.

  Tol[c]om, 35, 37.

  Totomay, 3.

  Totunay, 29.

  Tox[c]omine, 77.

  Tox[c]om Noh, 100, 103.

  To[t]ohil, 20.

  Tucuru cakixala, 88.

  Tuh, 126.

  Tuhalahay, 10, 77.

  Tukuchee, 10, 20, 41, 43, 99, 100, 103.

  Tulan, 2, 4, 10, 16, 47, 82.

  Tunacotzih, 28.

  Utzupa, 63.

  Uxa, 77.

  Vail [c]ahol, 97.

  Vakaki Ahmak, 115, 127.

  Valval Xucxuc, 17, 20.

  Vayça, 41.

  Vitaum, 77.

  Voo caok, 98, 107, 110.

  Voo queh, 114.

  Vooymax, 93.

  Vuchabahay, 10, 77.

  Vukubatz, 73-76, 82.

  Vukuçivan, 77, 97.

  Xahila, 2, 43, 61, 81.

  Xavi Ahin, 88.

  Xeabah, 85.

  Xeamatal chii, 23.

  Xe Caka Abah, 139.

  Xeçuh, 23.

  Xechibohoy, 84.

  Xechipeken, 101, 102.

  Xechituh, 84.

  Xe la hub, 145, 179.

  Xepakay, 64.

  Xepahca, 112.

  Xepau, 157, 158.

  Xe pit, 144.

  Xepoyom, 41, 138.

  Xerahapit, 77, 97.

  Xet, 3, 27, 28.

  Xetocoy, 23.

  Xe tulul, 144.

  Xeuh, 23.

  Xey noh, 112.

  Xhu[c,]uy, 81.

  Xibalbay, 4, 5.

  Xiliviztan, 23.

  Ximbal xu[c], 29.

  Ximox, 88.

  Xiquitzal, 70, 73.

  Xit amal Queh, 82, 84, 85.

  Xitayul Hax, 69.

  Xivanul, 84.

  Xivico, 110.

  Xttamer Çaquentol, 66.

  Xubabal, 77.

  Xuchipillan, 173.

  Xulpit, 19, 20.

  Xulu [c]atu, 66.

  Xumak cham, 95.

  Xurcah, 3, 29.

  X[t]eka[c]uch, 135.

  [t]alaah, 63, 91.

  [t]a[t]alyx, 77.

  [t]a[t]avitz, 2, etc.

  [t]a[t]xanul, 31, 32.

  [t]ekacivan, 77.

  [t]eka[c]uch, 3, 10, 29, 39, 40, 48, 50.

  [t]inona, 63, 66, 91.

  [t]ucumatz, 20, 38.

  [t]umarcaah, 70, 71, 82, 90, 146.

  [t]u[t]ucot, 41.

  [t]u[t]uchom, 3.

  [t]u[t]u huyu, 77, 94, 97.

  [c]abouil çivan, 63

  [c]alalapacay, 33.

  [c]akbatzulu, 35, 37.

  [c]ama[t]ekum, 77.

  [c]atu, 88, 119, 125.

  [c]atun, 3.

  [c]ax[c]an, 77, 94, 97.

  [c]eche, 9, 15, 20, 28, 29, 41, 45, 66, 76.

  [c]eletel, 41.

  [c]ian, 133, 135.

  [c]icihay, 137.

  [c]ikab, 67-72, 74-114.

  [c]iria Yyu, 100, 103.

  [c]iz[c]ab, 84, 85.

  [c]obakil, 3, 11, 26, 61.

  [c]omakaa, 43.

  [c]ot balcan, 66.

  [c]oxahil, 3, 21, 26, 61.

  [c]ubulahay, 34.

  [c]ulavi cochoh, 34.

  [c]ulavi [c]anti, 34.

  [c]hicbal, 112.

  [c]hitibal, 22.

  [c]hixnal, 49, 77.

  [c]hiyoc Queh Ah[t]u[t], 66.

  [c]holama[t], 23.

  [c]hooc Tacatic, 95.

  [c]hopiytzel, 21, 30, 48.

  [c]hupichin, 23.

  [c]huti, 63.

  [c]hutiah, 3.

  [c,]ala, 41.

  [c,]imaki Piaculcan, 95.

  [c,]ulahauh, 25.

  [c,]ununaa, 41.

  [c,]unun choy, 23.

  [c,]unun huyu, 23, 27.

  [c,]upi ta[t]ah, 63, 68, 70, 75, 84.

  [c,]utuhil, 9, 38, 103, 107, 112, 138, 149.

  Tzak tzuy, 27. For _Çak tzuy_, q. v.

  Tzanat, 3.

  Tzololaa, 41, 162.

  Tzupam, 148.

  Tzutzumpan, 169.

Transcriber’s Note

The following typographical errors and inconsistencies have been
maintained in this version of the book.

Typographical errors:

  TN-1   29  Second cacao harvest should read Second cacao harvest.
  TN-2   30  20. Hunahpu, should read 20. Hunahpu.
  TN-3   33  moroever should read moreover
  TN-4   47  Dicc. Anon should read Dicc. Anon.
  TN-5   48  Pokoman should read Pokomam
  TN-6   51  gutteral should read guttural
  TN-7   51  magic candle should read magi_c_ _c_andle
  TN-8   58  Quikab should read Qikab
  TN-9   61  agains should read against
  TN-10  13, fn. 1  Baschmann should read Buschmann
  TN-11  38, fn. 1  Cakchiquel Anon should read Cakchiquel Anon.
  TN-12  57, fn. 1  _d_,the should read _d_, the
  TN-13  88  ahpop[c]amahay. ha should read either ahpop[c]amahay, ha
             or ahpop[c]amahay. Ha
  TN-14 110  Ba[c]ahol the h was printed upside down in the original.
  TN-15 111  youself should read yourself
  TN-16 119  without, should read without.
  TN-17 119  Caybatz.” should read  Caybatz.
  TN-18 133  Vxa. should read Vxa
  TN-19 136  achiha. maqui should read either achiha; maqui or
             achiha. Maqui
  TN-20 139  Vucubatz should read Vukubatz
  TN-21 147  Oxlahu tzii should read Oxlahuh tzii
  TN-22 148  vinak. hucumah should read either vinak. Hucumah or
             vinak, hucumah
  TN-23 188  Oh should read On
  TN-24 189  litle should read little
  TN-25 190  Ig should read Yg
  TN-26 196  our should read four
  TN-27 197  etaient should read étaient
  TN-28 201  Civilisèes should read Civilisées
  TN-29 202  [t]a[t] xanul should read _[t]a[t] xanul_
  TN-30 204  [t]a[t]avitz should read _[t]a[t]avitz_
  TN-31 208  173. should read 172.
  TN-32 208  181. The second 181 should not appear, it refers to the
             same section as the preceding pargraph
  TN-33 209  mayor. should read mayor.”
  TN-34 209  Ah-[c,]ib, should read Ah-[c,]ib.
  TN-35 212  Anon). should read Anon.).
  TN-36 215  p, 64 should read p. 64
  TN-37 217  etc should read etc.
  TN-38 218  mountain should read mountain.
  TN-39 218  To put one should read To put to one
  TN-40 219  she it should read she, it
  TN-41 219  Tak (first listing) is out of alphabetical order
  TN-42 222  See Xa should read See _Xa_
  TN-43 223  Asieñto should read Asiento
  TN-44 223  [t]ana abah is out of alphabetical order
  TN-45 224  [c]iyaley is out of alphabetical order
  TN-46 225  [t]a[t] should read [t]a[t],
  TN-47 225  [c]hacbal is out of alphabetical order
  TN-48 229  106, should read 106.
  TN-49 231  194 should read 184

Inconsistent spelling:

  anté / ante
  halebal / halibal

Inconsistent hyphenation:

  Ahtzib / Ah-tzib
  Ahuchan / Ah-uchan
  calpulli / calp-ulli
  honeycomb / honey-comb
  kikan / ki-kan

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