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Title: Letters and Lettering - A Treatise With 200 Examples
Author: Brown, Frank Chouteau
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Letters and Lettering - A Treatise With 200 Examples" ***

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LETTERS &
LETTERING

A TREATISE WITH 200 EXAMPLES

FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN

[Illustration]

BOSTON

BATES & GUILD COMPANY

MCMXXI

       *       *       *       *       *

_Copyright, 1921, by_
BATES & GUILD COMPANY

Printed by
PERRY & ELLIOTT CO
LYNN BOSTON

Printed in the U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTE

This book is intended for those who have felt the need of a varied
collection of alphabets of standard forms, arranged for convenient use.

The alphabets illustrated, while primarily intended to exhibit the letter
shapes, have in most cases been so arranged as to show also how the letters
compose into words, except in those instances where they are intended to be
used only as initials. The application of classic and medieval letters to
modern usages has been, as far as possible, suggested by showing modern
designs in which similar forms are employed.

In view of the practical aim of this treatise it has been deemed advisable
to include a larger number of illustrative examples rather than to devote
space to the historical evolution of the letter forms.

To the artists, American and European, who have so kindly furnished him
with drawings of their characteristic letters--and without whose cordial
assistance this book would hardly have been possible--to the
master-printers who have allowed him to show types specially designed for
them, and to the publishers who have given him permission to borrow from
their books and magazines, the author wishes to express his sincere
obligations.

F. C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1 AND 2 ALPHABET AFTER SEBASTIAN SERLIO (1473-1554). Reconstructed by
Albert R. Ross.

3 WIDTH PROPORTIONS OF MODERN ROMAN CAPITALS. F. C. B.

4 DRAWING FOR INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. For cutting in granite. Letter forms
based upon those shown in figures 1 and 2. F. C. B.

5 PHOTOGRAPH OF INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. Cut in granite from drawing shown
in figure 4

6 INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. From the Arch of Constantine, Rome. 315 A.D. From
a photograph

7 MODEL FOR INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. Used for inscriptions cut in granite on
Boston Public Library. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. Photographed from a
cast

8 ROMAN INCISED CAPITALS. From fragments in marble. National Museum,
Naples. Rubbing

9 ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. Museo Civico, Bologna. From a photograph

10 ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. Museo Civico, Bologna. From a photograph

11 DETAIL FROM A ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. Showing composition. Redrawn
from a rubbing. F. C. B.

12 "RUSTIC" ROMAN CAPITALS. Of pen forms, but cut in stone. Redrawn from a
rubbing. From fragment in the National Museum, Naples. F. C. B.

13 ROMAN CAPITALS FROM FRAGMENTS OF INSCRIPTIONS. Showing various
characteristic letter forms. Redrawn from rubbings. F. C. B.

14 MODERN ROMAN INCISED CAPITALS. Executed in sandstone. From the Harvard
Architectural Building, Cambridge, Mass. McKim, Mead & White, Architects

15 LETTERS SHOWN IN ALPHABET 1 AND 2, IN COMPOSITION. By Albert R. Ross

16 and 17 CLASSIC ROMAN CAPITALS. Cut in marble. Redrawn from rubbings made
in the Forum, Rome. F. C. B.-21

18 and 19 CLASSIC ROMAN CAPITALS. Late period. Cut in marble. Redrawn from
rubbings. F. C. B.

20 PORTION OF ROMAN INSCRIPTION. With supplied letters. Redrawn from a
rubbing. F. C. B.

21 CLASSIC ROMAN INSCRIPTION. Incised in marble. Redrawn from a rubbing.
F. C. B.

22 CLASSIC ROMAN INSCRIPTION. In stone. Redrawn from a rubbing. F. C. B.

23 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INSCRIPTION. Square-sunk in marble. From a
photograph of a mortuary slab

24 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE MEDAL. By Vittore Pisano. 15th Century. From a
photograph

25 MODERN FRENCH MEDAL. By Oscar Roty. From a photograph of the original in
the Luxembourg, Paris

26 CAPITALS ADAPTED FROM RENAISSANCE MEDALS. F. C. B.

27 SPANISH RENAISSANCE ALPHABET. By Juan de Yciar. From "Arte por la qual
se ese[=n]a a escrevir perfectamente." (Saragossa, 1550)

28 RENAISSANCE INLAID MEDALLION. From a floor-slab in Santa Croce,
Florence. Redrawn from a rubbing. F. C. B.

29 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. From an inlaid floor-slab in Santa Croce,
Florence. (Compare figure 28.) Redrawn from a rubbing. F. C. B.

30 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PANEL. From Raphael's tomb, Pantheon, Rome. From a
photograph

31 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INCISED INSCRIPTION. From the Marsuppini Tomb, Santa
Croce, Florence, 1455. Rubbing

32 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INCISED INSCRIPTION. From a floor-slab in Santa
Croce, Florence. Early 15th Century. Rubbing

33 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. Redrawn from inscription on the Marsuppini
Tomb, Santa Croce, Florence, 1455. (Compare figure 31.) F. C. B.

34 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. Redrawn from rubbings of inscriptions in
Santa Croce, Florence. F. C. B.

35 and 36 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. By G. A. Tagliente. From 'La vera
arte dello eccellento scrivere.' (Venice, 1524)

37 and 38 GERMAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. By Albrecht Dürer. Adapted from
'Underweyssung der messung, mit dem zirckel, [u]n richtscheyt, in Linien,
etc.' (Nuremberg, 1525)

39 and 40 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. By Sebastian Serlio. (1473-1554.)
Compare figures 1 and 2

41 GERMAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. By Urbain Wÿss. From 'Libellus valde doctus
... scribendarum literarum genera complectens.' (Zurich, 1549)

42 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PANEL. Above the door of the Badia, Florence.
Redrawn by Claude Fayette Bragdon. From 'Minor Italian Palaces.' (Cutler
Manufacturing Company, Rochester, N.Y., 1898)

43 MODERN TITLE IN ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS. By Bertram G. Goodhue. (Compare
figure 46.) From 'The Quest of Merlin.' (Small, Maynard & Co., Boston,
1891)

44 MODERN TITLE WITH CHARACTERISTICS OF 16TH CENTURY ENGLISH CAPITALS. By
Walter Crane. (Compare figure 49.) From 'The Story of Don Quixote.' (John
Lane, New York, 1900)

45 TITLE IN EARLY ENGLISH CAPITALS. By W. Eden Nesfield. From 'Specimens of
Medieval Architecture.' (Day & Sons, London, 1862)

46 ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS. 6TH CENTURY. From 'The Rule of St. Benedict.'
Bodleian Library, Oxford

47 ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS. 7TH CENTURY. From 'The Gospels of St. Cuthbert'

48 ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS. EARLY 10TH CENTURY. From an Anglo-Saxon Bible

49 EARLY ENGLISH CAPITALS. 16th Century. From tomb of Henry VII,
Westminster Abbey, London

50 and 51 SCHEME FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROMAN SMALL LETTERS. F. C. B.

52 SPANISH ROMAN PEN DRAWN LETTERS. By Francisco Lucas. From 'Arte de
Escr[=e]virde.' (Madrid, 1577)

53 SPANISH ROMAN PEN DRAWN LETTERS. Showing use of above. By Francisco
Lucas. From 'Arte de Escr[=e]virde.' (Madrid, 1577)

54 SPANISH ITALIC PEN DRAWN LETTERS. By Francisco Lucas. From 'Arte de
Escr[=e]virde.' (Madrid, 1577)

55 SPANISH ITALIC PEN DRAWN LETTERS. Showing use of above. By Francisco
Lucas. From 'Arte de Escr[=e]virde.' (Madrid, 1577)

56 ITALIAN SMALL LETTERS. By J. F. Cresci. From 'Perfetto Scrittore.'
(Rome, 1560)

57 ENGLISH 17TH CENTURY LETTERS. Incised in slate. From tombstones

58 MODERN SMALL LETTERS. After C. Hrachowina's 'Initialen Alphabete und
Randleisten verschiedener Kunstepochen.' (Vienna, 1883)

59 MODERN SMALL LETTERS. By Claude Fayette Bragdon. Based on Venetian types
cut by Nicholas Jenson, 1471-81

60 INSCRIPTION FROM ENGLISH 17TH CENTURY TOMBSTONE. From slate tombstone at
Chippenham, England. 1691. F. C. B.

61 ROMAN AND ITALIC TYPE. Designed by William Caslon. From his Specimen
Book. (London, 1734)

62 MODERN ROMAN TYPE, "MONTAIGNE." Designed by Bruce Rogers for The
Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass.

63 MODERN ROMAN TYPE, "RENNER." Designed by Theo. L. De Vinne for The De
Vinne Press, New York

64 MODERN ROMAN TYPE, "MERRYMOUNT." Designed by Bertram G. Goodhue for The
Merrymount Press, Boston, Mass.

65 MODERN ROMAN TYPE, "CHELTENHAM OLD STYLE." Designed by Bertram G.
Goodhue for The Cheltenham Press, New York. (Owned by American Type
Founders Company and Linotype Company)

66 MODERN GREEK TYPE. Designed by Selwyn Image for The Macmillan Company,
London

67 MODERN ROMAN TYPE. Designed by C. R. Ashbee for a Prayerbook for the
King of England

68 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. After lettering by J. M. Olbrich

69 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. By Gustave Lemmen. From 'Beispiele Kunstlerische
Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

70 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Alois Ludwig

71 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Otto Eckmann

72 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. By Otto Hupp. From 'Beispiele Kunstlerische
Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

73 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. By Joseph Plécnik. From 'Beispiele Kunstlerische
Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

74 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Franz Stuck

75 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. Arranged from originals. F. C. B.

76 MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Bernhard Pankok

77 MODERN FRENCH POSTER. 'La Libre Esthétique.' By Theo. van Rysselberghe

78 MODERN FRENCH BOOK-COVER. By M. P. Verneuil. From 'L'Animal dans la
décoration.' (E. Lévy, Paris)

79 MODERN FRENCH LETTERS. After lettering by M. P. Verneuil

80 MODERN FRENCH POSTER. 'La Revue Blanche.' By P. Bonnard

81 MODERN FRENCH MAGAZINE COVER DESIGN. By George Auriol. From 'L'Image.'
(Floury, Paris, 1897)

82 MODERN FRENCH CAPITALS. By Alphons M. Mucha. From 'Beispiele
Kunstlerischer Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

83 MODERN FRENCH LETTERED PAGE IN "CURSIVE." By George Auriol. From 'Le
Premier Livre des Cachets, etc.' (Librairie Centrale des Beaux-Arts, Paris,
1901)

84 MODERN FRENCH LETTERS, "CURSIVE." By George Auriol

85 MODERN FRENCH COVER DESIGN. By Eugène Grasset. From 'Art et Décoration.'
(Paris)

86 MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. By Walter Crane. From 'Beispiele Kunstlerischer
Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

87 MODERN ENGLISH THEATRICAL POSTER. By Walter Crane

88 MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. By Walter Crane. From 'Alphabets Old and New.'
(B. T. Batsford, London, 1899)

89 MODERN ENGLISH LETTERS. By Walter Crane. From 'Beispiele Kunsterischer
Schrift.' (A. Schroll & Co., Vienna)

90 MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. By Joseph W. Simpson. From 'The Book of
Book-plates.' (Williams & Norgate, Edinburgh)

91 MODERN ENGLISH POSTER. By Joseph W. Simpson

92 MODERN ENGLISH BOOK-COVER. By William Nicholson. From 'London Types.'
(R. H. Russell, New York, 1898)

93 MODERN ENGLISH MAGAZINE COVER. By Lewis F. Day. From 'The Art Journal.'
(H. Virtue & Co., London)

94 MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. By Gordon Craig. From 'The Page' (The Sign of the
Rose, Hackbridge, Surrey)

95 MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. By Lewis F. Day. From 'Alphabets Old and New.'
(B. T. Batsford, London, 1899)

96 MODERN ENGLISH TITLE PAGE. By Robert Anning Bell. From 'Poems by John
Keats.' (George Bell & Sons, London, 1897)

97 MODERN ENGLISH BOOK-COVER. By Edmund H. New. From 'The Natural History
of Selborne.' (John Lane, London, 1900)

98 MODERN ENGLISH BOOK-COVER. By Selwyn Image. From 'Representative
Painters of the 19th Century.' (Sampson, Low, Marston & Co., London, 1899)

99 MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. Anonymous. From an advertisement

100 MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. By Charles Ricketts. From 'Nimphidia and the
Muses Elizium.' (The Vale Press, London)

101 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Edwin A. Abbey. From 'Selections from the
Poetry of Robert Herrick.' (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1899)

102 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. Anonymous. From 'Harper's Weekly.' (New York)

103 MODERN AMERICAN MAGAZINE COVER. By Edward Penfield. From 'Harper's
Weekly.' (New York)

104 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By Edward Penfield

105 MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. By Edward Penfield

106 MODERN AMERICAN COVER DESIGN. By H. Van Buren Magonigle

107 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By H. Van Buren Magonigle

108 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By Bertram G. Goodhue. From 'Masters in Art.'
(Boston, 1900)

109 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Will Bradley. From 'The Book List of Dodd,
Mead & Co.' (New York, 1899)

110 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS AND SMALL LETTERS. By Will Bradley. From
'Bradley, His Book.' (The Wayside Press, Springfield, Mass., 1896)

111 MODERN AMERICAN MAGAZINE COVER. By Will Bradley. From 'The
International Studio.' (New York)

112 MODERN AMERICAN TICKET. By A. J. Iorio

113 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Will Bradley

114 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By Maxfield Parrish

115 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Maxfield Parrish. From 'Knickerbocker's
History of New York.' (R. H. Russell, New York, 1900)

116 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Addison B. Le Boutillier

117 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By Addison B. Le Boutillier

118 MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. By Addison B. Le Boutillier

119 MODERN AMERICAN POSTER. By Addison B. Le Boutillier

120 MODERN AMERICAN BOOK-PLATE. By Claude Fayette Bragdon

121 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Claude Fayette Bragdon. From 'Literature.'
(New York)

122 MODERN AMERICAN LETTER-HEADING. By Claude Fayette Bragdon

123 MODERN AMERICAN ADVERTISEMENT. By H. L. Bridwell. (Strowbridge
Lithographic Co., Cincinnati)

124 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By H. L. Bridwell

125 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. By Frank Hazenplug

126 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS, "HEAVY FACE." By Frank Hazenplug

127 MODERN AMERICAN BOOK-COVER. By Frank Hazenplug. From ''Ickery Ann and
other Girls and Boys.' (Herbert S. Stone & Co., Chicago, 1899)

128 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Edward Edwards. From 'Harper's Pictorial
History of the War with Spain.' (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1899)

129 MODERN AMERICAN CATALOGUE COVER. By Frank Hazenplug. From the Catalogue
of the Chicago Arts and Crafts Society. (Chicago)

130 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Guernsey Moore. From 'The Saturday Evening
Post.' (Philadelphia)

131 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Harry Everett Townsend. From 'The Blue Sky.'
(Langworthy & Stevens, Chicago, 1901)

132 MODERN AMERICAN HEADING. By Howard Pyle. From 'Harper's Magazine.' (New
York)

133 MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS. Compiled from various sources. F. C. B.

134 MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. After lettering by Orson Lowell

135 MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. F. C. B.

136 MODERN AMERICAN TITLES. By Orson Lowell. From 'Truth.' (New York)

137 MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. By Orson Lowell. From 'Truth.' (New York)

138 MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS. For rapid use. F. C. B.

139 MODERN AMERICAN ITALIC. For use in lettering architects' plans, etc. By
Claude Fayette Bragdon

140 MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS, "CURSIVE." For rapid use. By Maxfield Parrish

141 ITALIAN ROUND GOTHIC SMALL LETTERS. After Lucantonii Giunta. Redrawn
from 'Graduale Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae.' (Venice, 1500)

142 ITALIAN ROUND GOTHIC SMALL LETTERS. 16th Century. Redrawn from Italian
originals

143 SPANISH ROUND GOTHIC LETTERS. By Francisco Lucas. From 'Arte de
Escr[=e]virde.' (Madrid, 1577)

144 GERMAN BLACKLETTER CONSTRUCTION. By Albrecht Dürer. From 'Underweyssung
der messung, mit dem zirckel, [=u]n richtscheyt, in Linien, etc.'
(Nuremberg, 1525)

145 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. Redrawn from manuscripts

146 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. With rounded angles. Redrawn from manuscripts

147 ITALIAN BLACKLETTER TITLE-PAGE. By Jacopus Philippus Foresti
(Bergomensis). From 'De Claris Mulieribus, etc.' (Ferrara, 1497)

148 GERMAN BLACKLETTER PAGE. By Albrecht Dürer. From the Prayerbook
designed by him for the Emperor Maximilian. (Nuremberg, 1515)

149 GERMAN MEMORIAL BRASS WITH BLACKLETTER INSCRIPTION. Ascribed to
Albrecht Dürer. Cathedral of Meissen, 1510. From 'Fac-similes of Monumental
Brasses on the Continent of Europe.' (W. F. Creeney, Norwich, 1884)

150 MODERN AMERICAN CALENDAR COVER IN BLACKLETTER. By Bertram G. Goodhue.
From 'Every Day's Date Calendar.' (Fleming, Schiller & Carnrick, New York,
1897)

151 MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. By Walter Puttner. From 'Jugend.' (Munich)

152 MODERN GERMAN TITLE IN BLACKLETTER. By Otto Hupp. From 'Münchener
Kalendar.' (Munich, 1900)

153 MODERN AMERICAN PAGE IN ENGLISH BLACKLETTER. By Edwin A. Abbey. From
'Scribner's Magazine.' (New York)

154 UNCIAL GOTHIC INITIALS. Redrawn from 12th Century examples. F. C. B.

155 UNCIAL GOTHIC INITIALS. Redrawn from 13th Century examples. F. C. B.

156 UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. Redrawn from 14th Century examples. F. C. B.

157 UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. 14th Century. After J. Weale. Redrawn from
'Portfolio of Ancient Capital Letters.' (London, 1838-9)

158 ITALIAN UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS, IN THE "PAPAL" HAND. From a Florentine
manuscript of 1315. British Museum, London. F. C. B.

159 SPANISH UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. By Juan de Yciar. Adapted from 'Arte
por la qual se ese[=n]a escrevir perfectamente.' (Saragossa, 1550)

160 VENETIAN WALL PANEL, of Marble, Inscribed with Uncial Gothic Letters.
15th Century. From the Church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. Rubbing

161 VENETIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 15th Century. Redrawn from the rubbing shown
in figure 160. F. C. B.

162 GERMAN UNCIAL CAPITALS. 1341. Redrawn from a memorial brass in the
Cathedral of Lübeck

163 FRENCH AND SPANISH GOTHIC CAPITALS. 14th Century. After W. S.
Weatherley

164 and 165 ITALIAN GOTHIC INITIALS. After G. A. Tagliente, in 'La vera
arte dello eccellento scrivere.' (Venice, 1524)

166 ITALIAN GOTHIC INITIALS. By Giovanni Battista Palatino. From 'Libro nel
qual s'insegna a scrivere.' (Rome, 1548)

167, 168 and 169 GERMAN GOTHIC INITIALS. By P. Frank. Nuremberg, 1601. From
Petzendorfer's 'Schriften-Atlas.' (Stuttgart, 1889)

170 ITALIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 16th Century. Redrawn from old examples

171 GOTHIC CAPITALS OF ENGLISH FORM. 16th Century. Redrawn from old
examples

172 ITALIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 17th Century. Redrawn from various examples

173 GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 17th Century. Redrawn from various manuscripts

174 GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. From manuscripts

175 GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. From manuscripts

176 GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS, HEAVY FACED

177 ENGLISH GOTHIC "TEXT," INITIALS AND BLACKLETTERS. 15th Century. From
manuscripts

178 ENGLISH GOTHIC UNCIALS AND BLACKLETTERS. 15th Century. From Queen
Eleanor's tomb. F. C. B.

179 ENGLISH GOTHIC CAPITALS AND BLACKLETTERS. 15th Century. From tomb of
Richard II, Westminster Abbey, London. F. C. B.

180 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. From a brass. Redrawn from a rubbing. F. C. B.

181 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. With Albrecht Dürer's initials. 16th Century.
F. C. B.

182 ITALIAN BLACKLETTERS. By G. A. Tagliente. From 'La vera arte dello
eccellento scrivere.' (Venice, 1524)

183 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. After lettering by Albrecht Dürer. 16th Century

184 GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. After lettering by Albrecht Dürer. 16th Century

185 GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. By Albrecht Dürer. 16th Century

186 ENGLISH GOTHIC BLACKLETTERS. Late 15th Century. Redrawn from a brass.
F. C. B.

187 ITALIAN INLAID BLACKLETTERS. From a marble slab in Santa Croce,
Florence. Redrawn from a rubbing. F. C. B.

188 and 189 MODERN AMERICAN BLACKLETTERS WITH GOTHIC CAPITALS. By Bertram
G. Goodhue

190 MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. After lettering by Julius Diez

191 MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTERS, FLOURISHED. F. C. B.

192 GERMAN ITALIC. By Gottlieb Münch. From 'Ordnung der Schrift.' (Munich,
1744)

193 SPANISH SCRIPT. By Torquato Torio. From 'Arte de Escribir.' (Madrid,
1802)

194 SPANISH SCRIPTS. By Torquato Torio. From 'Arte de Escribir.' (Madrid,
1802)

195 SPANISH SCRIPT. By Francisco Lucas. From 'Arte de Escr[=e]virde.'
(Madrid, 1577)

196 SPANISH CURSIVE. By Francisco Lucas. From 'Arte de Escr[=e]virde.'
(Madrid, 1577)

197 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT TITLE. By Claude Fayette Bragdon. From an
advertisement

198 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT TITLE. By George Wharton Edwards. From
'Collier's Weekly.' (New York)

199 FRENCH SCRIPT CAPITALS. 18th Century. F. C. B.

200 GERMAN SCRIPT. 18th Century forms. Adapted from C. Hrachowina's
'Initialen, Alphabete und Randleisten verschiedener Kunstepochen.' (Vienna,
1883)

201 SPANISH SCRIPT CAPITALS. Early 18th Century. Adapted from a Spanish
Writing-book. F. C. B.

202 SPANISH SCRIPT ALPHABETS. Late 17th Century. Adapted from Spanish
Writing-books. F. C. B.

203 ENGLISH INCISED SCRIPT. Redrawn from inscriptions in slate and stone in
Westminster Abbey, London. F. C. B.

204 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT BOOK TITLE. By Bruce Rogers. From cover design
of 'The House of the Seven Gables.' (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1899)

205 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT. By Bruce Rogers

206 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT CAPITALS. After lettering by Frank Hazenplug

207 MODERN AMERICAN ITALIC CAPITALS. F. C. B.

208 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT TITLE. Anonymous. From 'Harper's Weekly.' (New
York)

209 MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT TITLE. By Edward Penfield. From 'Harper's
Weekly.' (New York)

210 DIAGRAM TO SHOW METHOD OF ENLARGING A PANEL, from upper left corner

211 DIAGRAM TO SHOW METHOD OF ENLARGING A PANEL, from perpendicular center
line

END PAPERS. From an embroidered Altar-cloth. 17th Century. Church of St.
Mary, Soest, Westphalia, Germany.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS

  I. ROMAN CAPITALS                          1
  II. MODERN ROMAN LETTERS                   52
  III. GOTHIC LETTERS                        127
  IV. ITALIC AND SCRIPT                      182
  V. TO THE BEGINNER                         199

[1]

       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER I

ROMAN CAPITALS

In speaking of the "Roman" letter throughout this chapter its capital
form--the form in monumental use among the Romans--will always be implied.
The small or "minuscule" letters, which present nomenclature includes under
the general title of "Roman" letters, and which will be considered in the
following chapter, were of later formation than the capitals; and indeed
only attained their definitive and modern form after the invention of
printing from movable types.

The first point to be observed in regard to the general form of the Roman
capital is its characteristic squareness. Although the letter as used
to-day varies somewhat in proportions from its classic prototype, its
skeleton is still based on the square.

Next to this typical squareness of outline, the observer should note that
the Roman letter is composed of thick and thin lines. At first sight it may
seem that no systematic rules determine which of these lines should be
thick and which thin; but closer investigation will discover that the
alternate widths of line were evolved quite methodically, and that they
exactly fulfil the functions of making the letters both more legible and
more decorative. Arbitrary rearrangements of these thick and thin lines,
differing from the arrangement of them in the classic examples, have, [2]
indeed, been often attempted; but such rearrangements have never resulted
in improvement, and, except in eccentric lettering, have fallen into
complete disuse.

The original thickening and thinning of the lines of the classic Roman
capitals was partly due to the imitation in stone inscriptions of the
letter forms as they were written on parchment with the pen. The early
Latin scribes held their stiff-nibbed reed pens almost directly upright and
at right angles to the writing surface, so that a down stroke from left to
right and slanted at an angle of about forty-five degrees would bring the
nib across the surface broadwise, resulting in the widest line possible to
the pen. On the other hand, a stroke drawn at right angles to this, the pen
being still held upright, would be made with the thin edge of the nib, and
would result in the narrowest possible line. From this method of handling
the pen the variations of line width in the standard Roman forms arose; and
we may therefore deduce three logical rules, based upon pen use, which will
determine the proper distribution of the thick and thin lines:

I, Never accent horizontal lines. II, Always accent the sloping down
strokes which run from left to right, including the so-called "swash"
lines, or flying tails, of Q and R; but never weight those which,
contrariwise, slope up from left to right, with a single exception in the
case of the letter Z, in which, if rule I be followed, the sloping line (in
this case made with a down stroke) will be the only one possible to accent.
III, Always accent the directly perpendicular lines, except in the N, where
these lines seem originally to have been made with an up stroke of the pen;
and the first line of the M, where the perpendiculars originally sloped in
towards the top of the letter (see 2). On the round letters [3] the accents
should occur at the sides of the circle, as virtually provided in rule III,
or on the upper right and lower left quarters (see 1-2), where in pen-drawn
letters the accent of the down sloping stroke would naturally occur, as
virtually determined in rule II.

The "serif"--a cross-stroke or tick--finishes the free ends of all lines
used in making a Roman capital. The value of the serif in stone-cut letters
seems obvious. To define the end of a free line a sharp cut was made across
it with the chisel, and as the chisel was usually wider than the thin line
this cut extended beyond it. Serifs were added to the ends of the thick
lines either for the sake of uniformity, or may have been suggested by the
chisel-marked guide lines themselves. Indeed in late stone-cut Roman work
the scratched guide lines along the top and bottom of each line of the
inscription are distinctly marked and merge into the serifs, which extend
farther than in earlier examples. The serif was adopted in pen letters
probably from the same reasons that caused it to be added to the stone-cut
letters, namely, that it definitely finished the free lines and enhanced
the general squareness and finish of the letter's aspect.

[Illustration: 1. ALPHABET AFTER SERLIO. RECONSTRUCTED BY ALBERT R. ROSS]

[Illustration: 2. ALPHABET AFTER SERLIO. RECONSTRUCTED BY ALBERT R. ROSS]

[Illustration: 3. WIDTH PROPORTIONS OF MODERN ROMAN CAPITALS. F.C.B.]

An excellent model for constructing the Roman capitals in a standard form
will be found in the beautiful adaptation by Mr. A. R. Ross, 1 and 2, from
an alphabet of capitals drawn by Sebastian Serlio, an Italian architect,
engraver and painter of the sixteenth century, who devised some of the most
refined variants of the classic Roman letter. Serlio's original forms,
which are shown in 39 and 40, were intended for pen or printed use; but in
altering Serlio's scheme of proportions it will be observed that Mr. Ross
[6] has partially adapted the letter for use in stone, and has further
varied it in details, notably in serif treatment. In most modern stone-cut
letters, however, the thin strokes would be made even wider than in this
example, as in 14. Mr. Ross's adaptation shows excellently how far the
classic letters do or do not fill out the theoretical square.

Width proportions, which may be found useful in laying out lettering for
lines of a given length, are shown in 3 in a more modern style of the Roman
capital. In the classic Roman letter the cross-bar is usually in the exact
center of the letter height, but in 3 the center line has been used as the
bottom of the cross-bar in B, E, H, P, and R, and as the top of the
cross-bar in A; and in letters like K, Y and X the "waist lines," as the
meeting points of the sloping lines are sometimes called, have been
slightly raised to obtain a more pleasant effect.

The Roman alphabet, although the one most in use, is unfortunately the most
difficult to compose into words artistically, as the spacing between the
letters plays a great share in the result. The effect of even color over a
whole panel is obtained by keeping as nearly as possible the same area of
white between each letter and its neighbor; but the shape of this area will
be determined in every case by the letters which happen to be juxtaposed.
Individual letters may, however, be widened or condensed to help fill an
awkward "hole" in a line of lettering;--the lower lobe of the B may be
extended, the center bar of the E pulled out (in which case the F should be
made to correspond), the lower slant stroke of the K may be used as a swash
tail, and the R may have its tail extended or drawn closely back against
the upright line, and so on. Indeed, each and [8] every letter of the
alphabet is susceptible to such similar modifications in shape as may make
it best suit the space left for it by its neighbors. Observe, for example,
the spacing of the word MERITAE in 34, and notice how the tail of the R is
lengthened to hold off the I because the T on the other side is perforce
held away by its top. In the page of capitals, 124, by Mr. Bridwell, see
also how the different spacing of the word FRENCH in the first and second
lines is managed. In the advertisement, 123, also by Mr. Bridwell, note how
the letters are spaced close or wide in order to produce a definite effect.
The whole problem of spacing is, however, one of such subtle interrelation
and composition, that it can only be satisfactorily solved by the artistic
sense of the designer. Any rules which might be here formulated would prove
more often a drawback than a help.

Certain optical illusions of some of the Roman letter forms should be
briefly mentioned. These illusions are caused by the failure of certain
letters to impinge squarely with determining serifs against the demarking
top and bottom guide lines. The round letters C, G, O and Q often seem to
be shorter and smaller than the other characters in a word unless the
outsides of their curves run both above and below the guide lines. For the
same reason S should be sometimes slightly increased in height, though in
this case the narrowness of the letter makes less increase necessary; and
J, on account of its kern, is governed by the same conditions as S, save
when letters with distinct serifs come closely against it at the bottom.
Theoretically the right side of D would require similar treatment, but
actually this is seldom found necessary. The pointed ends of [9] the
letters V and W should, for similar optical reasons, be extended slightly
below the bottom guide lines, the amount of this extension being determined
by the letters on each side of them. In the A, the Roman letterer at first
got over the optical difficulty caused by its pointed top by running this
letter also higher than its neighbors; but he later solved the problem by
shaping its apex as shown in I, thus apparently getting the letter into
line with its companions while still obtaining a sufficient width of top to
satisfy the eye. Because of its narrowness, I should generally be allowed
more proportionate white space on either side of it than the wider letters.

Some idea of the proportionate variations required to counteract the
optical illusions of the letters above named may be obtained from the
practice of type-founders. In making the designs for a fount of type, it
has been customary to first draw each letter at a very large size. Taking
an arbitrary height of twelve inches as a standard, the points of A and V
were made to extend about three-quarters of an inch above or below the
guides, the letter O was run over about half an inch at both top and
bottom, and the points of the w were made to project about the same
distance. In pen lettering, however, it is possible and preferable to adapt
each letter more perfectly to its individual surroundings by judgment of
the eye than to rely upon any hard and fast rules.

Certain variations between the stone-cut forms of the Roman letters and
their forms as drawn or printed should be understood before an intelligent
adaptation of stone forms to drawn forms, or the opposite, is possible.
When drawn or printed a character is seen in black against a [10] white
ground with no illusory alterations of its line widths caused by varying
shadows. In stone-cut letters, on the other hand, where the shadows rather
than the outlines themselves reveal the forms, different limitations govern
the problem. The thin lines of a letter to be V-sunk should generally be
made slightly thicker in proportion to the wide lines than is the case with
the pen-drawn letter, especially as the section is likely to be less deeply
and sharply cut nowadays than in the ancient examples, for the workmanship
of to-day seems to be less perfect and the materials used more friable. A
slight direct sinkage before beginning to cut the V-sunk section is a
useful method of [11] partially atoning for modern shallow cutting, as
shadows more directly defining the outlines are thus obtained. The student
should, however, be warned at the outset that all reproductions or tracings
from rubbings of ancient stone-cut letters are apt to be more or less
deceptive, as all the accidental variations of the outlines are
exaggerated, and where the stone of the original has been chipped or worn
away it appears in the reproduction as though the letter had been actually
so cut.

[Illustration: 4. DRAWING FOR INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS IN GRANITE. F.C.B]

[Illustration: 5. PHOTOGRAPH FROM INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS SHOWN IN 4]

[Illustration: 6. INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. ARCH OF CONSTANTINE, ROME]

The photograph of a panel of lettering from the upper part of the Arch of
Constantine, Rome, shown in 6, well indicates the effect of shadows in
defining the classic Roman letters; and the effect of shadows on an incised
letter may be clearly observed by comparing 4 and 5, the former showing a
drawing for an inscription in which the Serlio-Ross [14] alphabet was used
as a basis for the letter forms, and the latter being a photograph of the
same inscription, as cut in granite. It will be noted how much narrower the
thin lines appear when defined only by shadow than in the drawing. The
model used for the lettering on the frieze of the Boston Public Library, 7,
which shows some interesting modern forms intended for cutting in granite,
should be studied for the effect of the cast shadows; while 14, a redrawing
of inscriptions on the Harvard Architectural Building, Cambridge, Mass.,
exhibits an excellent type of letter with widened thin lines for v-cutting
in sandstone.

[Illustration: 7. MODEL FOR INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS. McKIM, MEAD & WHITE]

[Illustration: 8. ROMAN INCISED CAPITALS. FROM A RUBBING]

The special requirements of the stone-cut forms for either incised or
raised inscriptions are, however, quite apart from the subject of this
book, and are too various to be taken up in greater detail here. It is
important, nevertheless, that the designer should be reminded always to
make allowance for the material in which a letter was originally executed.
Otherwise, if exactly copied in other materials, he may find the result
annoyingly unsatisfactory.

[15]

[Illustration: 9. ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. BOLOGNA]

[Illustration: 10. ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. BOLOGNA]

The examples of letters taken from Roman and Renaissance Italian monuments,
shown in the pages of this chapter, will illustrate the variety of
individual letter forms used by the Classic and Renaissance designers. The
shape of the same letter will often be found to vary in the same
inscription and even in apparently analogous cases. The designers evidently
had in mind more than the directly adjacent words, and sometimes even
considered [16] the relation of their lettering to objects outside the
panel altogether. This is especially true in the work of the Italian
Renaissance, which is almost invariably admirable in both composition and
arrangement.

[Illustration: 11. DETAIL FROM A ROMAN INCISED INSCRIPTION. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 12. ROMAN CAPITALS OF PEN FORMS CUT IN STONE. F.C.B.]

Figures 8 to 22 show examples, drawn from various sources, which exhibit
different treatments of the classic Roman letter forms. The differentiation
will be found to lie largely in the widths of the letters themselves, and
in the treatment of the serifs, angles, and varying widths of line. Figures
11 to 13 and 16 to 22 are redrawn from rubbings [17] of Roman incised
inscriptions. Figures 16 and 17 show beautifully proportioned letters cut
in marble with unusual care and refinement, considering the large size of
the originals. A later Roman form of less refinement but of greater
strength and carrying power, and for that reason better adapted to many
modern uses, is shown in 18 and 19. In this case the original letters were
cut about seven and [27] one-half inches high. The letters in 20 are
curiously modern in character. Part of the panel of Roman lettering shown
in 21 exhibits the use of a form very like that shown in 18 and 19. Figure
11 shows a detail composed in a quite representative fashion; while on the
other hand figure 12 depicts a Roman letter of quite unusual character, and
of a form evidently adapted from pen work, in which the shapes are narrow
and crowded, while the lines are thickened as though they were of the
classical square outline. The bits of old Roman inscriptions shown in 8 to
10 and in 13 are included to exhibit various different forms and treatments
of classic capitals.

[Illustration: 13. ROMAN CAPITALS FROM INSCRIPTIONS. FROM RUBBINGS. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 14. MODERN INCISED ROMAN CAPITALS IN SANDSTONE.
ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.]

[Illustration: 15. LETTERS SHOWN IN ALPHABET 1-2, IN COMPOSITION. ALBERT R.
ROSS]

[Illustration: 16. CLASSIC CAPITALS CUT IN MARBLE. ROMAN FORUM. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 17. CLASSIC CAPITALS CUT IN MARBLE. ROMAN FORUM. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 18. CLASSIC CAPITALS CUT IN MARBLE. FROM RUBBINGS. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 19. CLASSIC CAPITALS CUT IN MARBLE. FROM RUBBINGS. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 20. PORTION OF ROMAN INSCRIPTION WITH SUPPLIED LETTERS.
F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 21. CLASSIC ROMAN INSCRIPTION IN MARBLE FROM A RUBBING.
F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 22. CLASSIC ROMAN INSCRIPTION IN STONE FROM A RUBBING.
F.C.B.]

After the fall of Rome and during the Dark Ages the practice of lettering,
at least in so far as the Roman form was concerned, was distinctly
retrograde. With the advent of the Renaissance, however, the purest classic
forms were revived; and indeed the Italian Renaissance seems to have been
the golden age of lettering. With the old Roman fragments of the best
period constantly before their eyes the Renaissance artists of Italy seem
to have grasped the true spirit of classicism; and their work somehow
acquired a refinement and delicacy lacking in even the best of the Roman
examples. As much of the Italian Renaissance lettering was intended for use
on tombs or monuments where it might be seen at close range, and was cut in
fine marble, the increased refinement may be due, at least in part, to
different conditions.

[Illustration: 23. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INSCRIPTION IN MARBLE.]

[Illustration: 24. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE MEDAL. PISANO.]

[Illustration: 25. MODERN FRENCH MEDAL. O ROTY.]

The panel from Raphael's tomb in the Pantheon, Rome, 30, shows a beautiful
and pure form of typical Renaissance letter; and the composition of the
panel is as well worthy [28] of careful study as are the letter forms.
Figure 34, devised from a tomb in Santa Croce, portrays a letter not only
beautiful in itself, but one which, with two minor changes (for the top bar
of the T might advantageously be shortened to allow its neighbors to set
closer, and the M might be finished at the top with a serif, after the
usual fashion), is exactly applicable to the purposes of the modern
draughtsman. This type of letter appears to best advantage when used in
such panel forms as those shown in the rubbing from the Marsuppini tomb,
31, and in the floor slab from the same church, 32. Two very refined
examples, 28 and 29, also from slabs in Santa Croce, Florence, date from
about the same period. The latter exhibits the alphabet itself, and the
former shows a similar letter form as actually used. The letters in 33,
redrawn from rubbings from the Marsuppini tomb, are shown for comparison
with the rubbing itself, which is reproduced in smaller size in 31. Taken
together, plates 30, 31 and 32 will fairly represent not only the usual
fashion of composing Renaissance panels, but capital forms which illustrate
some of the most excellent work of this period.

[30]

A very different and interesting type of letter was used on many of the
best medals of the Italian Renaissance (see 24), which has been recently
adapted and employed by modern medal designers in France, as exhibited in
figure 25. Although absolutely plain, it is, when properly composed, much
more effective in the service for which it was intended than a more
elaborate and fussy form; and although sometimes adapted with good results
to other uses, it is particularly appropriate for casting in metal. Similar
forms rendered in pen and ink are shown in 26.

[Illustration: 26. CAPITALS ADAPTED FROM RENAISSANCE MEDALS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 27. SPANISH RENAISSANCE ALPHABET. JUAN De YCIAR, 1550]

[Illustration: 28. RENAISSANCE INLAID MEDALLION. FROM A RUBBING. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 29. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. SANTA CROCE. F. C. B.]

Figures 27, and 35 to 41 show various pen or printed forms of capital
letters redrawn from the handiwork of Renaissance masters. The capital
letters shown in 27 are unusually beautiful, and their purity of form is
well [31] displayed in the outline treatment. Perhaps the best known
standard example of a Renaissance pen-drawn letter is that by Tagliente,
reproduced in 35 and 36. In spite of their familiarity it has seemed
impossible to omit the set of capitals, with variants, by Albrecht Dürer,
37 and 38; for Dürer's letters were taken as a basis by nearly all such
Renaissance designers of lettering as Geoffrey Tory, Leonardo da Vinci,
etc. It should be observed in the Dürer [32] alphabet that among the
variant forms of individual letters shown, one is usually intended for
monumental use, while another exhibits pen treatment in the characteristic
swelling of the round letters, etc.

[Illustration: 30. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PANEL FROM RAPHAEL'S TOMB. PANTHEON
ROME.]

[Illustration: 31. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INSCRIPTION. MARSUPPINI TOMB,
FLORENCE.]

[Illustration: 32. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INSCRIPTION FLOOR SLAB IN SANTA
CROCE, FLORENCE.]

Serlio's alphabet, 39 and 40, should be compared with Mr. Ross's
modification of it, reproduced in 1 and 2. The alphabet shown in 41 is a
somewhat expanded form of classic capital, contrasting markedly in various
respects with more typical forms.

[Illustration: 33. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. MARSUPPINI TOMB. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 34. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS FROM RUBBINGS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 35. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. G. A. TAGLIENTE, 1524]

[Illustration: 36. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. G. A. TAGLIENTE, 1524]

[Illustration: 37. GERMAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 1525]

[Illustration: 38. GERMAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 1525]

[Illustration: 39. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. SERLIO, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: 40. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. SERLIO, 16TH CENTURY.]

[Illustration: 41. GERMAN RENAISSANCE CAPITALS. URBAIN WŸSS, 16th CENTURY.]

[45]

A practically unlimited number of other examples might have been included
to show various capital forms of Renaissance letters; but the specimens
chosen will adequately illustrate all the more distinctive and refined
types of the individual letters.

[Illustration: 42. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PANEL, FLORENCE. C. F. BRAGDON]

Before, during and after the Renaissance movement many local and extraneous
influences temporarily modified the forms of the Roman letters. There are,
for instance, numerous examples of lettering in which Byzantine and
Romanesque traits are strongly apparent, such as the free manipulation of
the letter forms in order to make them fit into given lines and spaces. The
drawing of the panel over the doorway of the Badia, Florence, 42, notable
for the characteristic placing and composition of the letters, will serve
as a case in point. This example is further interesting because it shows
how the Uncial form of the letter was beginning to react and find a use in
stone--a state of affairs which at first glance might seem anomalous, for
the Uncial letter was distinctly a pen-drawn form; but it was discovered
that its rounder forms made it particularly useful for inscribing stones
which were likely to chip or sliver, in carving which it was consequently
desirable to avoid too acute angles. The Roman letter underwent various
salient modifications [46] at the hands of the scribes of extra-Italian
nations. We find very crude variants of the Roman letter, dating hundreds
of years after the Roman form had reached its highest development; and, on
the other hand, some very beautiful and individual national variants were
produced. The continual interchange of manuscripts among the nations on the
continent of Europe probably explains the more conventional character and
strong general resemblance of most of the early Continental work; but the
scribes of insular England, less influenced by contemporary progress and
examples, produced forms of greater individuality (see 46, 47, 48). In
Ireland, letter forms originally derived from early Roman models were
developed through many decades with no ulterior influences, and resulted in
some wonderfully distinctive and beautiful variations of the Roman letters,
[47] though the beauty of these Irish examples can only be faintly
suggested by reproductions limited to black and white, and without the
decorations of the originals.

[Illustration: 43. MODERN TITLE (compare 46). B. G. GOODHUE]

[Illustration: 44. MODERN TITLE (compare 49). WALTER CRANE]

[Illustration: 45. TITLE IN EARLY ENGLISH CAPITALS. W. E. NESFIELD]

Figures 43 and 44 illustrate, respectively, modern employments of such
strongly characteristic letters as those shown in 46 and 49. From these
ancient examples the designers have evolved letters suitable to the
character of their work. In 44 Mr. Crane has engrafted upon a form quite
personal to himself a characteristic detail of treatment borrowed from the
letter shown in 49. Figure 45 shows a similar and modernized employment of
a standard form of Uncial capital.

[Illustration: 46. ANGLO SAXON CAPITALS. 6th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 47. ANGLO SAXON CAPITALS. 7th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 48. ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS. EARLY 10th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 49. EARLY ENGLISH CAPITALS. 16th CENTURY]

[52]

       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER II

MODERN ROMAN LETTERS

The small or "minuscule" letter that we now use in all printed books
attained its modern and definitive form only after the invention of
printing. The first printed books were made to imitate, as closely as
possible, the handwritten work of the scribes of the early fifteenth
century, and as printing was first done in Germany, the earliest book types
were those modeled upon German scripts, somewhat similar to that shown in
141, and their condensed or blackletter variants. The Italian printers, of
a more classical taste, found the German types somewhat black and clumsy;
for though Gothic characters were also used in Italy, they had become
lighter and more refined there. The Italians, therefore, evolved a new form
of type letter, based upon the _Italian_ pen letters then in use, which
though fundamentally Gothic in form had been refined by amalgamation with
an earlier letter known as the "Caroline", from its origin under the
direction of Charlemagne. The "Caroline" was in its turn an imitation of
the Roman "Half-uncial." The close relationship of the first small type
letter forms in Italy with the current writing hand of the best Italian
scribes is well indicated by the legend that the "Italic," or sloped small
letter, was taken directly from the handwriting of Petrarch. The new
Italian types, in which classic capitals were combined with the newly
evolved minuscule [53] letters, were called "Roman" from the city of their
origin, and sprang into almost immediate popularity, spreading from Italy
into England, France and Spain. In Germany, on the other hand, the national
blackletter form persisted, and is still in use to-day.

The minuscule "Roman" letters thus evolved were developed to their most
perfect individual forms by the master-printers of Venice; and it is to the
models which they produced that we must revert to-day when we attempt to
devise or reproduce an elegant small letter of any conservative form. The
modern pen draughtsman should bear in mind, however, that, perfect as such
forms of letters may be for the uses of the printer, the limitations of
type have necessarily curtailed the freedom and variety of their serif and
swash lines, and that therefore, though accepting their basic forms, he
need not be cramped by their restrictions, nor imitate the unalterable and
sometimes awkwardly inartistic relations of letter to letter for which he
finds precedents in the printed page. Indeed, the same general rules for
spacing and the same freedom in the treatment of the serifs, kerns and
swash lines are quite as applicable to pen-drawn small letters as to the
capital forms. The only true path of progress lies in this freedom of
treatment; and if the same fertile artists of the Renaissance who have
bequeathed to us such beautiful examples of their unfettered use of the
capital had used the minuscule also, we should undoubtedly possess small
letters of far more graceful and adaptable forms than those which we now
have.

[Illustration: 50. SCHEME FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROMAN SMALL LETTERS.
F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 51. SCHEME FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROMAN SMALL LETTERS.
F. C. B.]

In 50 and 51 may be found an attempt to formulate a scheme to assist in the
reconstruction of an alphabet of Roman small letters, after somewhat the
same fashion as [56] that devised for the Roman capitals by Mr. Ross, in 1
and 2. A small-letter diagram must, for obvious reasons, be less exact and
detailed than one for the more defined capital form; but the diagram given
will serve to determine sufficiently the main outlines and proportions. In
their shapes the letters shown in 50 and 51 adhere fairly closely to the
best type forms of the small letter; and the drawing will serve, further,
to show the space generally allowed by modern founders between one
lower-case letter and another when set into type words. This spacing is
based on the m of the fount employed. The open space between all but k, w
and y (in which the outlines of the letters themselves hold them further
away from their neighbors) and the round letters being the space between
the upright strokes of the m; an interval represented in the diagram by a
square and a half. The round letters, as has already been said in speaking
of the capital forms, should be spaced nearer together; and it will be
observed that they are only separated by one square in the diagram.
Although suggestive, the rules which govern the spacing of types are not to
be blindly followed by the pen letterer. In type, for instance, it would be
impossible, for mechanical reasons, to allow the kerns of the f, j and y to
project far over the body of the next letter, and in these letters the
kerns consequently have either to be restrained or the letters spaced
farther apart. In pen lettering, however, the designer is not restrained by
such limitations, and his spacing of letters should be governed solely by
the effect.

The disposition of the accented lines in the small letters follow the same
general rules that govern those of the capitals (see page 2); the only
deviation being in the case of [57] the g, in which the shading of the
bottom seems to have been determined largely by the effect upon the eye.

It will be noticed in the diagram that the "ascenders" of the smaller
letters rise about three squares to their extreme top points above the body
of the letter; that the body of each letter is inclosed in a square that is
three units high, and that the "descenders" fall but two squares below the
letter body. These proportions are not by any means invariable, however,
and indeed there is no fixed rule by which the proportions of ascenders and
descenders to the body of the Roman minuscule may be determined. In some
forms of the letter both are of the same length, and sometimes that length
is the same as the body height of the letter. In general a better result is
obtained by making both ascenders and descenders of less than the length of
the body, and keeping the descenders shorter than the ascenders in about
the proportion of two-fifths to three-fifths.

Parallel lines of small letters cannot be spaced closer to each other than
the ascenders and descenders will allow; the projections above and below
the line are awkward, and interrupt the definite lines of demarkation at
the top and bottom of the letter-bodies; the capitals necessarily used in
connection with the small letters add to the irregularity of the line--all
of which reasons combine to limit the employment of minuscule for formal or
monumental uses. On the other hand, the small letter form is excellently
adapted for the printed page, where the occasional capitals but tend to
break the monotony, while the ascenders and descenders strongly
characterize and increase the legibility of the letter forms.

[Illustration: 52. SPANISH ROMAN LETTERS. PEN DRAWN. FRANCISCO LUCAS, 1577]

[Illustration: 53. SPANISH ROMAN LETTERS. PEN DRAWN. FRANCISCO LUCAS, 1577]

[Illustration: 54. SPANISH ITALIC LETTERS. PEN DRAWN. FRANCISCO LUCAS,
1577]

[Illustration: 55. SPANISH ITALIC LETTERS. PEN DRAWN. FRANCISCO LUCAS,
1577]

[Illustration: 56. ITALIAN SMALL LETTERS. J. F. CRESCI, 1560]

[Illustration: 57. ENGLISH 17TH CENTURY INCISED LETTERS. FROM TOMBSTONES]

[Illustration: 58. MODERN SMALL LETTERS. AFTER HRACHOWINA]

[Illustration: 59. MODERN SMALL LETTERS. CLAUDE FAYETTE BRAGDON]

[64]

Figures 52 to 59 show several forms of small letter alphabets; those shown
in 52 to 56 being taken from "Writing books" by Spanish and Italian writing
masters. These writing masters often chose to show their skill by imitating
type forms of letters with the pen, but though similar in the individual
forms of the letters the written examples exhibit a freedom and harmony in
composition impossible for type to equal, and therefore are immeasurably
more interesting to the modern penman. Figure 61 illustrates a type form of
minuscule which may be commended for study. Other examples of small letters
by modern designers will be found in 105, 110, 118 and 131, where they are
used in connection with their capital forms.

[Illustration: 60. INSCRIPTION FROM ENGLISH SLATE TOMBSTONES, 1691.
F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 61. ROMAN AND ITALIC TYPE. FROM THE SPECIMEN BOOK OF WILLIAM
CASLON, 1734]

The minuscule alphabet by Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon, 59, is a carefully
worked-out form which in its lines closely follows a type face devised by
Jenson, the celebrated Venetian printer who flourished toward the end of
the sixteenth century. This example together with those shown in 50, 51 and
56 exhibits some conservative variations of the standard models for
minuscule letters; and the same may be said of the modern type faces shown
in 62, 63 and 64. The various other examples of the small-letter forms
illustrated evidence how original and interesting modifications of
conservative shapes may be evolved without appreciable loss of legibility.

[Illustration: 62. MODERN ROMAN TYPE "MONTAIGNE". BRUCE ROGERS]

[Illustration: 63. MODERN ROMAN TYPE "RENNER". THEO. L. DE VINNE]

[Illustration: 64. MODERN ROMAN TYPE "MERRYMOUNT" BY B. G. GOODHUE]

[Illustration: 65. MODERN ROMAN TYPE "CHELTENHAM" BY B. G. GOODHUE]

Figure 61 shows the capital, small letter and italic forms of a type based
on old Venetian models, cut by William Caslon in the early part of the
eighteenth century, and ever [69] since known by his name. This face has
comparatively recently been revived by modern type-founders; and though
this revival has provided us with a text letter far superior to the forms
previously in use, the modern imitation falls short of the beauty of
Caslon's original, as may be seen by comparing the letters shown in 61,
which are reproduced from Caslon's specimen-book, issued by him about the
middle of the eighteenth century, with the type used in printing this
volume, which is a good modern "Caslon."

Figures 62 to 67 show some newly devised type faces, all designed by
artists of reputation. Figure 62 illustrates a fount called the "Montaigne"
which has been recently completed by Mr. Bruce Rogers for the Riverside
Press, Cambridge, Mass., and cut under his immediate direction, with
especial insistance upon an unmechanical treatment of serifs, etc. As a
result the "Montaigne" is, for type, remarkable in its artistic freedom,
and its forms are well worthy the study of the designer. Both its capitals
and small letters suggest the purity of the Italian Renaissance shapes. The
letters space rather farther apart than in most types, and the result makes
for legibility. Although several other modern faces of type have been
designed on much the same lines, notably one for The Dove's Press in
England, the "Montaigne" seems the best of them all, because of its
freedom, and its absolute divorce from the overdone, exaggerated,
heavy-faced effects of the Morris styles of type.

Mr. De Vinne of the De Vinne Press, New York City, has introduced a new
type called the "Renner", 63, which was originally cut for some of the
Grolier Club's publications. The letters were first photographed from a
selected page of Renner's "Quadrigesimale," then [71] carefully studied and
redrawn before the punches were cut. Mr. De Vinne has added small capitals
and italics to the fount, as well as dotted letters to serve as substitutes
for the italic for those who prefer them. The "Renner" type would have been
more effective on a larger body; but for commercial usefulness it is
generally deemed expedient to employ as small a body as the face of a type
will allow. Mr. De Vinne notes, in this connection, that all the important
types of the early printers were large, and that a fount designed to-day
with regard only to its artistic effectiveness would be cast upon a large
body and be of good size.

Mr. Bertram G. Goodhue has designed two founts of Roman type, and is now at
work on a Blackletter face. His first fount, cut for Mr. D. B. Updike, of
the Merrymount Press, Boston, and known as the "Merrymount," is shown in
64. Intended for large pages and rough paper it necessarily shows to
disadvantage in the example given, where the blackness and weight of the
letters makes them seem clumsy, despite the refinement of their forms.

[Illustration: 66. MODERN GREEK TYPE. SELWYN IMAGE]

[Illustration: 67. MODERN ROMAN TYPE. C. R. ASHBEE]

The "Cheltenham Old Style," 65, is the other Roman face recently designed
by the same artist. It was cut for the Cheltenham Press of New York City;
and embodies in its present form many ideas suggested by Mr. Ingalls
Kimball of that press. Observe especially the excess in length of the
ascenders over the descenders, and that the serifs have been reduced to the
minimum. Contrary to the usual custom in type cutting, the round letters do
not run above or below the guide lines. The capitals compose excellently;
but the small letters are too closely spaced and seem too square for the
best effect, and weight has been obtained by so thickening the lines that
much delicacy and variety has been lost. [72] The "Cheltenham Old Style"
is, however, very legible when composed into words, and is effective on the
page.

Any attempt to get the effect of Blackletter with the Roman form is likely
to result clumsily. The celebrated Roman faces designed by William Morris
(too familiar to require reproduction here) are, despite their real beauty,
over-black on the page, and awkward when examined in detail. While the
stimulus Morris's work gave to typography was much needed at that time, the
present reaction toward more refined faces is most gratifying. By precept
and example Mr. Morris produced a salutary revolt against the too thin and
light and mechanical type faces before in use, but he went too far in the
opposite direction, and we are now certainly falling back upon a more
desirable mean.

Mr. Herbert P. Horne is at present designing a new fount of type for the
Merrymount Press, Boston, to be [73] known as the "Mont' Allegro," which
seems, from the designs so far as at present completed, likely to prove in
some respects the most scholarly and severe of modern faces.

The Greek type designed for the Macmillan Company of England, by Mr. Selwyn
Image, 66, is of sufficient interest to be shown here, despite the fact
that it is not strictly germane to our subject. In this face Mr. Image has
[74] returned to the more classic Greek form, although the result may at
first glance seem illegible to the reader familiar with the more common
cursive letters.

The type shown in 67 is a new English face designed by Mr. C. R. Ashbee for
a prayerbook for the King. Interesting as it is, it seems in many ways too
extreme and eccentric to be wholly satisfactory: the very metal of type
would seem to postulate a less "tricky" treatment.

It is interesting to attempt a discrimination between the various national
styles of pen letters which the recently revived interest in the art of
lettering is producing; and it is especially worth while to note that the
activity seems, even in Germany, to be devoted almost exclusively to the
development and variation of the Roman forms. It is noteworthy, too, after
so long a period of the dull copying of bad forms, and particularly of bad
type forms, that the modern trend is distinctly in the direction of
freedom; though this freedom is more marked in French and German [75] than
in English or American work. Hand in hand with this increased freedom of
treatment has naturally come a clearer disclosure of the mediums employed;
and indeed in much of the best modern work the designer has so far lent
himself to his tools that the tools themselves have, in great measure,
become responsible for the resulting letter forms. [76] Moreover modern
designers are showing a welcome attention to minuscule letters, and it even
seems possible that before long some small letter forms that shall be
distinctively of the pen may be developed, and that the use of type models
for minuscule pen letters will no longer be found necessary or commendable.

[Illustration: 68. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. AFTER J. M. OLBRICH]

[Illustration: 69. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. GUSTAVE LEMMEN]

[Illustration: 70. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. AFTER ALOIS LUDWIG]

[Illustration: 71. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. AFTER OTTO ECKMANN]

Another noticeable tendency in modern lettering seems to be the gradual
promotion of small letter forms to the dignity of capitals, (see 79 and 98
for examples) in much the same way as the Uncial letter and its immediate
derivatives produced the present small letter. It is surely to be hoped
that this movement may not lose vitality before it has had time to enrich
us with some new and excellent forms.

[Illustration: 72. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. OTTO HUPP]

[Illustration: 73. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. JOSEPH PLÉCNIK]

[Illustration: 74. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. AFTER FRANZ STUCK]

[82]

[Illustration: 75. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 76. MODERN GERMAN CAPITALS. AFTER BERNHARD PANKOK]

[Illustration: 77. MODERN FRENCH POSTER. THEO. VAN RYSSELBERGHE]

[Illustration: 78. MODERN FRENCH COVER. M. P. VERNEUIL]

The influence of nationality is strongly shown in the modern lettering of
all countries; and it is generally as easy to recognize a specimen as the
work of a German, French, English, or American artist, respectively, no
matter how individual he may be, as it is to tell the difference between
the work of two different designers.

The modern German seems to have an undeniable freshness of outlook on the
Roman alphabet. He treats it with a freedom and variety and a certain
disregard of precedent--induced, perhaps, by his schooling in
Blackletter--that often produces delightful, though sometimes, be it added,
direful results. But if the extreme and bizarre forms be thrown aside the
designer may obtain suggestions of great benefit and value from the more
restrained examples of German work. Many eminent German draughtsmen, whose
work is all too little known in this country, are [84] using letters with
the same distinction that has of late years marked their purely decorative
work, as the specimens shown in 68 to 76 will evidence. Figures 68 and 75
show forms which are perhaps especially representative of the general
modern tendency in German work and many German artists are using letters of
very similar general forms to these although, of course, with individual
variations. Figures 70 and 73 show two very original and pleasing styles,
also markedly German. In spite of the national drift toward the Roman, much
modern German lettering still takes the Gothic and Blackletter forms; and
the specimen reproduced in 71 shows a curious combination of the Gothic,
Uncial and Roman forms pervaded by the German spirit. The beautiful
lettering in 72 seems to have been inspired from a stone-cut Uncial. Figure
74 shows an almost strictly Roman letter, and yet is as unmistakably German
in handling as any of the other examples shown.

[Illustration: 79. MODERN FRENCH LETTERS. AFTER M. P. VERNEUIL]

[Illustration: 80. MODERN FRENCH POSTER. P. BONNARD]

[Illustration: 81. MODERN FRENCH COVER. GEORGE AURIOL]

[Illustration: 82. MODERN FRENCH CAPITALS. ALPHONS M. MUCHA]

[86]

Among the examples of modern French lettering, those shown in 78 and 79 are
perhaps the most typical of the modern school. This style of letter was
given its most consistent form by the joint efforts of M. P. Verneuil and
some of the pupils of Eugène Grasset, after whose letter it was originally
modeled. Grasset freely varies his use of this form in his different
designs, as in 85, but founds many of his best specimens upon the earlier
French models.

[Illustration: 83. MODERN FRENCH LETTERED PAGE. GEORGE AURIOL]

[Illustration: 84. MODERN FRENCH LETTERS "CURSIVE". GEORGE AURIOL]

[Illustration: 85. MODERN FRENCH COVER DESIGN. EUGÈNE GRASSET]

[Illustration: 86. MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. WALTER CRANE]

[88]

M. George Auriol has extended the modern use of drawn letters by publishing
a number of small books which he has handwritten throughout, although the
form of letter he generally uses for this purpose is purely modern and not
at all like the texts of the medieval scribes. M. Auriol's letter is
beautifully clear, readable and original; "brushy" in its technique, yet
suitable for rapid writing. He calls [91] it a "Cursive" letter, and has
recently made designs for its use in type. The page shown in 83 is from the
preface to a book of his well-known designs for monograms, and the entire
text is written in this cursive form. The individual letters of this
"Cursive" may be more easily studied in 84. The cover for "L'Image", 81,
shows the same designer's use of a more conventional Roman form.

The poster by M. Theo. van Rysselberghe shown in 77 exhibits two
interesting forms of French small letters that are worthy of study and
suggestive for development.

M. Alphons Mucha employs a distinctive letter, especially fitted to his
technique, which he uses almost invariably, 82.

Much recent French lettering inclines toward a certain formlessness, that,
although sometimes admirable when regarded merely from the point of view of
harmony with the design, has little value otherwise. A typical specimen of
such formless lettering is that shown in the very charming [92] "Revue
Blanche" poster, 80. Excellent when considered with the design, the
lettering alone makes but an indifferent showing.

The Italian designers of letters have not yet evolved any very distinctive
national forms. In many ways Italian work resembles the German. It has less
originality, but greater subtlety and refinement.

[Illustration: 87. MODERN ENGLISH POSTER. WALTER CRANE]

[Illustration: 88. MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. WALTER CRANE]

[Illustration: 89. MODERN ENGLISH LETTERS. WALTER CRANE]

[Illustration: 90. MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. JOSEPH W. SIMPSON]

The strongest personality among modern British letterers is Mr. Walter
Crane. Characteristic examples of his work are shown in 86, 87, 88 and 89.
Although sometimes apparently careless and too often rough, his lettering
has the merit and charm of invariably disclosing the instrument and the
material employed. Mr. Crane is especially fond of an Uncial pen form,
which he varies with masterful freedom. It may be mentioned in passing that
he is perhaps the only designer who has been able to make the wrongly
accented Q seem consistent (compare 86), or who has conquered its swash
tail when the letter is accented in this unusual way.

[93]

Mr. Lewis F. Day has become a recognized authority on lettering, both
through his writings and his handiwork. His great versatility makes it
difficult to select a specimen which may be taken as characteristic of his
work; but perhaps the lettering shown in 95 is as representative as any
that could be chosen. Among his designs the magazine cover, 93, is an
unusually free and effective composition, and its letter forms possess the
variety required to satisfy the eye when so much of the whole effect of the
design depends upon them.

[Illustration: 91. MODERN ENGLISH POSTER. JOSEPH W. SIMPSON]

[Illustration: 92. MODERN ENGLISH COVER. WILLIAM NICHOLSON]

[Illustration: 93. MODERN ENGLISH COVER. LEWIS F. DAY]

[Illustration: 94. MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. GORDON CRAIG]

The style of lettering ordinarily employed by Mr. Selwyn Image--a style of
marked originality and distinction--is well exhibited in the design for a
book cover, 98.

The name of Mr. Charles Ricketts is intimately associated with the Vale
Press. The detail of the title-page reproduced in 100 shows a
characteristic bit of his work.

Mr. J. W. Simpson, one of the younger British draughtsmen, uses a graceful
and interestingly linked Roman form shown in the panel from a title-page,
90. The bizarre [95] letter by the same artist, 91, is fairly
representative of a style recently come into vogue among the younger
British draughtsmen, which is related to a form of letter brought into
fashion by the new English school of designers on wood, among whom may be
mentioned Mr. William Nicholson and Mr. Gordon Craig, both of whom have
done lettering distinguished by its indication of the medium employed.
Figure 92 shows Mr. Nicholson's favorite type of letter [96] fairly, and
the style of Mr. Craig's work is suggested by the title for a book cover in
94.

The book cover, 97, by Mr. Edmund H. New, shows variants of the Roman
capital and minuscule forms, which closely adhere to classic models.

Mr. Robert Anning Bell has done much distinctive lettering in intimate
association with design. Figure 96 is fairly representative of his style of
work.

[Illustration: 95. MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. LEWIS F. DAY]

[Illustration: 96. MODERN ENGLISH TITLE. ROBERT ANNING BELL]

[Illustration: 97. MODERN ENGLISH COVER. EDMUND H. NEW]

[Illustration: 98. MODERN ENGLISH COVER. SELWYN IMAGE]

Such other British artists as Messrs. Alfred Parsons, James F. Sullivan,
Hugh Thompson, Herbert Railton, Byam Shaw, H. Granville Fell and A. Garth
Jones, although much better known for their designs than for their letters,
[97] occasionally give us bits of lettering which are both unusual and
excellent; but these bits are commonly so subordinated to the designs in
which they are used and so involved with them as to be beyond the scope of
the present book.

[Illustration: 99. MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. ANONYMOUS]

[Illustration: 100. MODERN ENGLISH CAPITALS. CHARLES RICKETTS]

In illustrating the lettering of American artists it has been unfortunately
found necessary to omit the work of many well-known designers, either
because their usual style of lettering is too similar in fundamental forms
to the work of some other draughtsman, or because the letters they commonly
employ are not distinctive or individual.

[Illustration: 101. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. EDWIN A. ABBEY]

[Illustration: 102. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. ANONYMOUS]

[Illustration: 103. MODERN AMERICAN COVER. EDWARD PENFIELD]

Mr. Edwin A. Abbey is a notable example of an artist who has not disdained
to expend both time and practice on such a minor art as lettering [100]
that he might be able to letter his own designs, as the beautiful page,
shown in 153 in the succeeding chapter, will sufficiently prove. The
lettering of the title-page for Herrick's poems, 101, by the same
draughtsman, is likewise excellent, being both original and appropriate.
The letters in both these examples are modeled after old work, and both
display an unusually keen grasp of the limitations and possibilities of the
forms employed, especially in the former, 153, where the use of capitals to
form words is particularly noteworthy, while in general composition and
spacing the spirit of the letter used (compare 179) has been perfectly
preserved.

[Illustration: 104. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. EDWARD PENFIELD]

[Illustration: 105. MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. EDWARD PENFIELD]

[Illustration: 106. MODERN AMERICAN COVER DESIGN. H. VAN B. MAGONIGLE]

[Illustration: 107. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. H. VAN B. MAGONIGLE]

Mr. Edward Penfield's work first attracted attention through the series of
posters which he designed for 'Harper's Magazine' with unfailing fertility
of invention for several years. During this time he evolved a style of
letter which exactly fitted the character of his work. The cover design
shown in 103 displays his characteristic letter in actual use; while the
two interesting pages of large and small letter alphabets by him, 104 and
105, show the latest and best development of these letter forms. The
heading [102] shown in 102 exhibits a slightly different letter, evidently
based upon that used by Mr. Penfield.

The capitals by Mr. H. Van B. Magonigle, shown in 107, are derived from
classic Roman forms but treated with a modern freedom that makes them
unusually attractive. They appear, however, to better advantage in actual
use in conjunction with a design, 106, than when shown in the necessarily
restricted form of an alphabetical page panel.

[Illustration: 108. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. B. G. GOODHUE]

Mr. Bertram G. Goodhue, whose designs for type have already been mentioned,
is a [104] most facile and careful letterer. Although his name is more
intimately associated with Blackletter (examples of his work in that style
are shown in the following chapter), he has devised some very interesting
variations of the Roman forms, such as that used in 108, as an example.

[Illustration: 109. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. WILL BRADLEY]

Mr. Will Bradley uses a very individual style of the Roman capital, often
marked by a peculiar exaggeration in the width of the round letters,
contrasted with narrow tall forms in such letters as E, F and L. Mr.
Bradley has become more free and unconventional in his later work, but his
specimens have always been noteworthy for beauty of line and spacing; see
111. Figure 109 shows his employment of a brush-made variant of the Roman
form; [107] and 110 shows both capitals and small letters drawn in his
earlier and less distinctive style.

[Illustration: 110. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS AND SMALL LETTERS. WILL
BRADLEY (1896)]

[Illustration: 111. MODERN AMERICAN COVER. WILL BRADLEY]

[Illustration: 112. MODERN AMERICAN TICKET. A. J. IORIO]

The ticket, 112, designed by Mr. A. J. Iorio, suggests what our theatre
tickets might be made. In spacing and general arrangement of the letters
and the freedom of treatment, Mr. Iorio's work may be compared with much of
the [110] work of Mr. Bradley. Figure 113 shows a modern Roman capital form
modeled upon the work of Mr. Bradley.

[Illustration: 113. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. AFTER WILL BRADLEY]

[Illustration: 114. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. MAXFIELD PARRISH]

[Illustration: 115. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. MAXFIELD PARRISH]

[Illustration: 116. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. A. B. Le BOUTILLIER]

Mr. Maxfield Parrish commonly employs a widely spaced letter, fashioned
closely after the old German models, beautiful in its forms, and displaying
the individuality of the artist in its composition. The form and use of Mr.
Parrish's usual letter is well shown in 114; and the title from a book
cover design, 115, shows yet another example of the letter in service.

The lettering of Mr. A. B. Le Boutillier is always notable for spacing and
composition. Figures 117 and 118 exhibit excellent capital and small-letter
forms (which, by the way, were drawn at the same size as the
reproductions); and [111] the two other specimens of Mr. Le Boutillier's
work, 116 and 119, which are reproduced to show his letters in use, will be
found exemplars for spacing, composition, balance of weight and color, and,
in the latter drawing, for harmony between the lettering and the treatment
of the design.

[Illustration: 117. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. A. B. Le BOUTILLIER]

[Illustration: 118. MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. A. B. Le BOUTILLIER]

[Illustration: 119. MODERN AMERICAN POSTER. A. B. LE BOUTTILLIER]

[Illustration: 120. AMERICAN BOOK-PLATE. CLAUDE FAYETTE BRAGDON]

The form of letter preferred by Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon is represented
by the page of small letters, 59, which, as we have already said, are
closely modeled on the type alphabet designed by Jenson. In Mr. Bragdon's
version they represent an excellently useful and conservative style of
small letter. They are shown in use, with harmonious capitals and italics,
in the 'Literature' cover design, 121. In the small book-plate, reproduced
in 120, Mr. [112] Bragdon has used a very graceful variant, especially
noteworthy for its freedom of serif treatment; and in the letter-heading,
122, he has employed an attractive capital of still different character.

[Illustration: 121. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. C. F. BRAGDON]

[Illustration: 122. MODERN AMERICAN LETTER-HEAD. C. F. BRAGDON]

Mr. H. L. Bridwell has originated the singularly excellent letter shown in
124, which is founded upon some of the modern French architectural forms.
He uses it with great freedom and variety in spacing according to the
effect that he desires to produce. In one instance he will jam the letters
together in an oddly crowded line, while in another we find them spread far
apart, but always with excellent results as regards the design as a whole.
Something of this variation of spacing is shown in 123. In the numerous
theatrical posters which Mr. Bridwell has designed--and which too seldom
bear his signature--he employs a great variety of lettering. Sometimes, of
course, the freedom of his work is restricted by the conservatism of
clients; but often the letter forms here illustrated add to the style and
distinction of his designs.

[Illustration: 123. MODERN AMERICAN COVER. H. L. BRIDWELL]

[Illustration: 124. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. H. L. BRIDWELL]

[Illustration: 125. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. FRANK HAZENPLUG]

[Illustration: 126. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. FRANK HAZENPLUG]

[116]

[Illustration: 127. MODERN AMERICAN COVER. FRANK HAZENPLUG]

Mr. Frank Hazenplug, the author of much clever decorative lettering, has
evolved a very black and striking style of capital that still retains
grace. Figures 125 and 126 show two sets of Mr. Hazenplug's capitals. A
book cover on which he has used small letters in an original way is
reproduced in 127. Figure 129 shows the employment of a heavy-faced letter
similar to that exhibited in alphabet 126, but suggestive in its serif
treatment of Mr. Penfield's letter.

[Illustration: 128. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. EDWARD EDWARDS]

Mr. Edward Edwards employs a letter, 128, which, though rather conventional
in its lines, is noteworthy for its treatment of serifs and its spacing.

Mr. Guernsey Moore's letters shown in 130 are naturally better both in
intrinsic form, spacing and composition than the widely used "Post Old
Style" types which were based upon them. The large and small letters
displayed in 133 show a form that, at the present writing, seems to be in
considerable favor. It is, however, too extreme, and its peculiarities are
too exaggerated to allow it to become a permanent style. But like the
extravagant German forms [117] already referred to, it has also apparent
advantages; and a few of its characteristics are not unlikely to survive in
some more conservative adaptation.

[Illustration: 129. MODERN AMERICAN COVER. FRANK HAZENPLUG]

[Illustration: 130. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. GUERNSEY MOORE]

[Illustration: 131. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. HARRY E. TOWNSEND]

The letter by Mr. Harry Everett Townsend shown in 131 is most distinctive
in effect--a more refined form of the rapidly drawn character shown in 138.

Mr. Howard Pyle often gives us charming bits of lettering in connection
with his illustrations. The heading, 132, shows a characteristic line. Most
of Mr. Pyle's lettering is "Colonial" or Georgian in style, though the
initials he uses with it are generally rendered in the fashions of the
early German woodcuts, somewhat similar to Holbein's initials for the
"Dance of Death."

[Illustration: 132. MODERN AMERICAN HEADING. HOWARD PYLE]

One of the most original of American letterers is Mr. Orson Lowell. Usually
closely conjoined with design, his lettering does not show to its full
value when reproduced apart from its surroundings, for much of its charm
depends [118] upon its harmony in line and color with the accompanying
drawing Mr. Lowell has taken the same basic forms as those used by Mr.
Penfield, and has played with them until he has developed a series of most
ingenious and fanciful letters. The examples reproduced in 136 and 137 but
inadequately show a few of the many forms that Mr. Lowell employs with
remarkable fertility of invention and delightfully decorative effect of
line. The small letters, 135, shown opposite his capitals, 134, are not by
Mr. Lowell, nor are they in any way equal to his own small letters, of
which regrettably few appear in his published work; but they may serve to
exhibit a similar method of treating a much more conventional form of
minuscule than Mr. [122] Lowell would himself use for the same purpose.
Despite its unconventionally, however, an examination of Mr. Lowell's work
will show that each letter has been developed to fit the space between its
neighbors and to balance and relieve their forms; and that, fanciful as
some of the shapes may appear, they have invariably been knowingly worked
out, and always appear harmonious and fit.

[Illustration: 133. MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 134. MODERN AMERICAN CAPITALS. AFTER ORSON LOWELL]

[Illustration: 135. MODERN AMERICAN SMALL LETTERS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 136. MODERN AMERICAN TITLES. ORSON LOWELL]

The pages of letters shown in 138, 139 and 140 are intended to suggest
forms which, while suitable for rapid use, yet possess some individuality
and character. The so-called "Cursive" letter by Mr. Maxfield Parrish, 140,
is particularly effective for such informal use--in fact, its very charm
lies in its informality--and is quite as distinctively "pen-ny" as any of
Mr. Crane's work of the same kind.

A glance over the field of modern examples will disclose, first, a general
tendency to break away from the older type models in pen-drawn forms;
second, a growing partiality for the small letter, and third, a sporadic
disposition to use capital and minuscule forms interchangeably. The first
[123] trend may be noticed by comparing the letter shown in 132, which is
closely modeled after type, with that shown in 136, in which an opposite
method is followed, and the letters are so treated in handling form and
color as to best harmonize with the design itself. The possibilities latent
in the small letter are indicated by such interesting uses as those shown
in figures 77, 89, 98, 101, 111, 112, 121, 127, 130 and 131. American
designers seem to be especially interested in the development of the small
letter. Of the intermingling of the capital and small letter shapes
examples may be found in figures 71, 75, 77, 78, 79, 82, 83, 84, 98, 127
and 134. In these examples it will be noted that the minuscules seem to be
more easily transformed into capitals than do the capitals into minuscules;
only a few of the latter appearing to lend themselves harmoniously to the
small letter guise.

[Illustration: 137. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. ORSON LOWELL]

[Illustration: 138. MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS, FOR RAPID USE. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 139. MODERN AMERICAN ITALIC, FOR PLANS, ETC. C. F. BRAGDON]

[Illustration: 140. MODERN AMERICAN LETTERS. MAXFIELD PARRISH]

Such tendencies as these, if allowed to develop slowly and naturally, are
certain to evolve new forms--a process of modification which it should be
fully as instructive and entertaining to observe as any of the historical
changes that have already become incorporated into our present letter
shapes.

[127]

       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER III

GOTHIC LETTERS

The name "Gothic" applies rather to the spirit than to the exact letter
forms of the style. The same spirit of freedom and restlessness
characterises the architecture of the period wherein this style of letter
was developed; and Gothic letters are in many ways akin to the fundamental
forms of Gothic architecture. Their effect is often tiring and confusing to
the eye because of the constant recurrence of very similar forms with
different letter meanings; yet this very similarity is the main cause of
the pleasing aspect of a page of Gothic lettering.

Unlike the Roman letters, which attained a complete and final development,
Gothic letters never reached authoritative and definitive forms, any more
than did Gothic architecture. Every individual Gothic letter has several
quasi-authoritative shapes, and all of these variants may be accepted, as
long as they display an intelligent conception of the spirit of the style
as a whole. Because of this lack of finality, however, it is impossible to
analyze each of the letter forms as we were able to do with the Roman
alphabet in Chapter I; yet this very variability and variety constitute at
once the peculiar beauty of Gothic and the great difficulty of so drawing
it as to preserve its distinctive character.

Any letter of Gothic form is usually called either "Gothic" or
"Blackletter" indiscriminately, but this use is inexact [128] and
confusing. The term "Blackletter" should, strictly, be applied only to
letters in which the amount of black in the line overbalances the white;
and the proper application of the title should be determined rather by this
balance or weight of the letter than by its form.

[Illustration: 141. ITALIAN ROUND GOTHIC SMALL LETTERS. 1500]

The original Gothic letter was a gradual outgrowth from the round Roman
Uncial. Its early forms retained all the roundness of its Uncial parent;
but as the advantages of a condensed form of letter for the saving of space
became manifest, (parchment was expensive and bulky) and the [131] beauty
of the resulting blacker page was noticed, the round Gothic forms were
written closer and narrower, the ascenders and descenders were shortened,
with marked loss of legibilty, that the lines of lettering might be brought
closer together, until a form was evolved in which the black overbalanced
the white--the Blackletter which still survives in the common German text
of to-day. Thus, though a Gothic letter may not be a Blackletter, a
Blackletter is _always_ Gothic, because it is constructed upon Gothic
lines. On the other hand, a Roman Blackletter would be an obvious
impossibility. The very essential and fundamental quality of a Roman letter
lies in the squareness or circularity of its skeleton form.

For clearness and convenience, then, the following discrimination between
the terms Gothic and Blackletter will be adopted in this treatise: When a
letter is Gothic but not a Blackletter it will be called "Round Gothic";
when it is primarily a Blackletter it will be termed "Blackletter," the
latter name being restricted to such compressed, narrow or angular forms as
the small letters shown in 144, 147 and 148. The name "Round Gothic" will
be applied only to the earlier forms, such as those shown in 141 and 142.
Such a distinction has not, I believe, hitherto been attempted; but the
confusion which otherwise results makes the discrimination seem advisable.

The three pages of examples, figures 141, 142 and 143, exhibit the
characteristic forms and standard variations of the Round Gothic. In lieu
of any detailed analysis of these letter shapes, it may perhaps be
sufficient to say that they were wholly and exactly determined by the
position of the quill, which was held rigidly upright, after the fashion
[132] already described in speaking of Roman lettering; and that the
letters were always formed with a round swinging motion of hand and arm, as
their forms and accented lines clearly evidence; for the medieval scribes
used the Round Gothic as an easy and legible handwritten form, and linked
many of the letters.

[Illustration: 142. ITALIAN ROUND GOTHIC SMALL LETTERS. 16th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 143. SPANISH ROUND GOTHIC LETTERS. FRANCISCO LUCAS, 1577]

[Illustration: 144. GERMAN BLACKLETTER CONSTRUCTION. ALBRECHT DÜRER]

Figures 158, 170, 172 and 173 show some capitals adapted for use with these
Round Gothic letters; but the beginner should be extremely wary of
attempting to use any Gothic capitals alone to form words, as their
outlines are not suited for inter-juxtaposition. Occasionally they may thus
be used, and used effectively, as is shown, for instance, in the beautiful
page of lettering by Mr. Edwin A. Abbey, 153; but so successful a solution
is rare, and implies an intimate knowledge of the historic examples and use
of Gothic lettering.

The late Gothic or Blackletter is condensed and narrowed in the extreme. No
circles are employed in the construction of the small letters, which have
angular and generally acute corners. As in all pen-drawn letters, the broad
lines are made on the down right-sloping strokes, and the narrow lines are
at right angles to these. Blackletter shapes, like those of the Round
Gothic, cannot, as has been said, be defined by any set of general rules;
the intrinsic quality of all Gothic letters almost demands a certain
freedom of treatment that would transgress any laws that could be
formulated. Indeed the individual forms should always be subservient to the
effect of the line or page. Observe in almost every example shown how the
form of the same letter constantly varies in some minor detail. The drawing
by Albrecht Dürer, reproduced in 144, will, [134] however, serve to show
the construction of an excellent Blackletter, which may fairly be
considered as typical.

[Illustration: 145. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. FROM MANUSCRIPTS]

[Illustration: 146. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS WITH ROUNDED ANGLES]

The first essential of a good Blackletter line or page is that it shall be
of a uniform color. Unlike the Roman, the Blackletter form does not permit
that one word be wider spaced than others in the same panel. The amount of
white left between the several letters should be as nearly as possible the
same throughout, approximately the same as the space between the
perpendicular strokes of the minuscule letters themselves. Usually, the
less the white space the better will be the general effect of the page, for
its beauty depends much upon a general blackness of aspect;--and let it be
noted in passing that, for this reason, it is doubly difficult to judge of
the final effect of a Blackletter page from any outlined pencil sketch.
Even in the cases of those capital letters that extend both above and below
the guide lines it will be found possible to so adjust the spaces [135] and
blacks as not to interrupt the general uniformity of color, and it is
sometimes advisable to fill awkward blanks by flourishes; although
flourishing, even in Blackletter, is an amusement that should be indulged
in cautiously. As a general rule the more solidly black a panel of
Blackletter is the better (a principle too often disregarded in the modern
use of the form); though on the other hand, the less legible the individual
letters will become. The designer should therefore endeavor to steer a
middle course, making his panel as black as he can without rendering the
individual letters illegible.

No style permits more of liberty in the treatment of its separate letter
forms than the Blackletter. The same letter may require a different outline
at the beginning of a word than in the middle or at the end. The ascenders
and descenders may be drawn so short as hardly to transcend the guide lines
of the minuscules, or may grow into [136] flourishes up and down, to the
right or to the left, to fill awkward blanks. Indeed so variable are these
forms that in ancient examples it is often difficult to recognize an
individual letter apart from its context.

The two pages drawn by Mr. Goodhue, 188 and 189, deserve careful study as
examples of modern use of the Blackletter. It will be observed that almost
as many variants of each letter are employed as the number used would
permit, thus giving the panel variety and preventing any appearance of
monotony or rigidity. Notice the freedom and variety of the swash lines in
the capitals, and yet that each version is quite as graceful, logical and
original as any of its variants.

The examples of old lettering reproduced in figures 147, 148 and 149,
together with the drawings by Mr. Goodhue, will indicate the proper spacing
of Blackletter; but in most of the pages here devoted to illustrating the
individual forms the letters have been spaced too wide for their proper
effect that each separate shape might be shown distinctly. The style
appears at its best in compositions which fill a panel of more or less
geometrical form, as, for example, the beautiful title-page reproduced in
147. Could anything be more delightful to the eye than its rich blackness,
energetic lines, and refreshing virility? In this design surely we have a
specimen that, from the proportion and balance of its blacks, is more
effective than anything which could have been accomplished by the use of
the more rigid Roman letter; but despite its many beauties it suffers from
the inherent weakness of the individual letter forms,--it is more effective
than readable!

[Illustration: 147. ITALIAN BLACKLETTER TITLE-PAGE. JACOPUS FORESTI, 1497]

[Illustration: 148. GERMAN BLACKLETTER PAGE. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 1515]

[Illustration: 149. GERMAN MEMORIAL BRASS. MEISSEN, 1510]

[Illustration: 150. MODERN AMERICAN COVER IN BLACKLETTER. B. G. GOODHUE]

Another excellent example of the old use of Blackletter is the page from
the prayerbook of the Emperor Maximilian, [138] shown in 148, in which
observe again the variety of the individual letter forms. Figure 149 shows
the use of a Blackletter on an admirable monumental brass, which is reputed
to have been designed by Albrecht Dürer. A similar Blackletter form, also
from a brass, is shown at larger scale in 186.

[139]

Any of the minuscule forms of Blackletter which have been illustrated may
be used with the Gothic capitals of figures 164-5, 166, 177, 179, 185,
188-9; or with such Uncial capitals as are illustrated in 155 to 162; care
being taken, of course, that these capitals are made to agree in style and
weight with the small letters chosen. Although Uncial capitals are
historically more closely allied with the Round Gothic, we have abundant
precedent for their use with the minuscule Blackletter in many of the best
medieval specimens.

When the Gothic Uncial capitals were cut in stone and marble there was
naturally a corresponding change in character, as is shown in the Italian
examples illustrated in 160 [140] and 161. These examples, which are
reproduced from rubbings, exhibit the characteristic stone cut forms very
clearly. A Gothic Uncial alphabet redrawn from a German brass is
illustrated in 162. The group of specimens from 154 to 159 exhibit the
chronological growth of the Uncial capitals, which were used, as has been
said, with the various small Blackletter forms, though they were also used
alone to form words, as is shown in 160. The historical progression in
these Uncial examples is most interesting; and, allowing for the variations
of national temperament, traces itself connectedly enough. Figures 154 to
159 are pen forms, while 160 to 163 are from stone or metal-cut letters.

Figures 164 to 166 show alphabets of Gothic pen-drawn capitals that will
serve as a basis for such adaptations as are shown in the modern examples
152 and 153. Figures 167 to 169 show a more elaborate but an excellent and
typical variety of this form of capital, which is one of the most beautiful
and distinctive of Gothic letters. Shorn of its fussy small lines the main
skeleton is eminently virile; and, though extremely difficult to draw, it
cannot be surpassed for certain limited uses. Figures 170 to 173 exhibit a
group of Gothic capitals more or less allied in character and all pen
letters. Figures 174 to 176 show forms similar to those of the previous
group, but adapted for use in various materials.

[Illustration: 151. MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTER. WALTER PUTTNER]

[Illustration: 152. MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTER. OTTO HUPP]

[Illustration: 153. MODERN BLACKLETTER. EDWIN A. ABBEY]

Figures 177 to 179 show some English Gothic letters, the last being that
employed so effectively in the pen-drawn page by Mr. Abbey, 153. Figures
180 to 184 illustrate various forms of Blackletter: 180 is from a German
brass, 182 illustrates an Italian pen form, and 183 and 184 show [141]
Blackletters drawn by Albrecht Dürer, the latter being the simplest and
strongest variant in this style. It is the same letter that is employed to
show Blackletter construction in diagram 144. Figure 185 shows the
well-known and unusually beautiful initials designed by Dürer. Figure 186
is a Blackletter from an English brass, although the letter forms in this
example, as well as those of many other English brasses, may perhaps have
been derived from Flanders, as many of the finest early Continental brasses
were imported from the Netherlands.

The Italian forms of Gothic Blackletters are generally too fussy and
finikin to be of practical value for modern use, though they often possess
suggestive value. The letters shown in 182 are fairly typical of the
characteristic Blackletter minuscules of Italy. Figure 187 exhibits an
example of beautiful lettering in the Italian style, redrawn from a rubbing
of an inlaid floor-slab in Santa Croce, Florence. The omission of capitals
in long, confined lines is typical of many Blackletter inscriptions, as may
be seen in 149, as well as in the plate just mentioned.

In view of the number of fine specimens of Blackletter which have been
handed down to us, it has been deemed [142] unnecessary to reproduce many
examples of its employment by modern draughtsmen. The pages by Mr. Goodhue,
188-9, have already been referred to; and figure 150 shows a very
consistent and representative use of similar letter forms by the same
designer. Figures 190 and 191 illustrate two modern varieties of
Blackletter, one very simple and the other very ornate. The small cuts, 151
and 152, show excellent modern Blackletters; the first, of unusually narrow
form, being by Herr Walter Puttner, and the second, with its flourished
initials, by Herr Otto Hupp.

[Illustration: 154. UNCIAL GOTHIC INITIALS. 12TH CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 155. UNCIAL GOTHIC INITIALS. 13TH CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 156. UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. 14TH CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 157. UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. 14TH CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 158. ITALIAN UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. 14TH CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 159. SPANISH UNCIAL GOTHIC CAPITALS. JUAN DE YCIAR, 1550]

[Illustration: 160. VENETIAN WALL PANEL, 15TH CENTURY. FROM RUBBING]

[Illustration: 161. VENETIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 15TH CENTURY. F.C.B.]

[Illustration: 162. GERMAN UNCIAL CAPITALS, FROM A BRASS. 14TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 163. FRENCH AND SPANISH UNCIAL CAPITALS. 14TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 164. ITALIAN GOTHIC INITIALS. G. A. TAGLIENTE, 16TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 165. ITALIAN GOTHIC INITIALS. G. A. TAGLIENTE, 16TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 166. ITALIAN GOTHIC INITIALS. GIOV. PALATINO, 16TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 167. GERMAN GOTHIC INITIALS. P. FRANK, 1601]

[Illustration: 168. GERMAN GOTHIC INITIALS. P. FRANK, 1601]

[Illustration: 169. GERMAN GOTHIC INITIALS. P. FRANK, 1601]

[Illustration: 170. ITALIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 16TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 171. ENGLISH GOTHIC CAPITALS. 16TH CENTURY]

[Illustration: 172. ITALIAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 17th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 173. GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. 17th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 174. GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. FROM MANUSCRIPTS]

[Illustration: 175. GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. FROM MANUSCRIPTS]

[Illustration: 176. GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. FROM MANUSCRIPTS]

[Illustration: 177. ENGLISH GOTHIC TEXT LETTERS. FROM MANUSCRIPTS]

[Illustration: 178. ENGLISH GOTHIC LETTERS. 15th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 179. ENGLISH GOTHIC LETTERS. 15th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 180. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS FROM A BRASS. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 181. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. 16th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 182. ITALIAN BLACKLETTERS. G. A. TAGLIENTE, 16th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 183. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 16th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 184. GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 16th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 185. GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS. ALBRECHT DÜRER, 16th CENTURY]

[Illustration: 186. ENGLISH GOTHIC BLACKLETTERS. 15th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 187. ITALIAN INLAID BLACKLETTERS. FROM A RUBBING. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 188. MODERN AMERICAN BLACKLETTERS. B. G. GOODHUE]

[Illustration: 189. MODERN AMERICAN BLACKLETTERS. B. G. GOODHUE]

[Illustration: 190. MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTERS. AFTER JULIUS DIEZ]

[Illustration: 191. MODERN GERMAN BLACKLETTERS, FLOURISHED. F. C. B.]

[182]

       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER IV

ITALIC AND SCRIPT

The regrettable modern neglect of those free and very interesting forms of
the Roman letter, Italic and Script, seem to authorize consideration of
them in a separate chapter, even at the risk of appearing to give them
undue importance.

[Illustration: 192. GERMAN ITALIC. GOTTLIEB MUNCH, 1744]

The first Italic type letter was derived, it is said, from the handwriting
of Petrarch, and several admirable examples of the style, variously
treated, have come down to us. As far as construction goes Italic is,
theoretically, only the exact Roman form sloped, and with such changes as
are necessitated by the sloping of the letters. Practically, however, it
will be found that certain alterations in the outlines of the Roman letters
must be made after giving them a slope in order to adapt them to their new
requirements of inter-juxtaposition; and, by a reflex action, when words in
Italic capitals are used in the same panel with upright Roman letters,
certain variations must be made in the latter, such as accenting the Roman
O in the same fashion as the Italic _O_ is accented, an altered treatment
of serifs, and other changes in detail.

The Script form of letter was developed out of the running or writing hand,
and still retains a cursive tendency in the linking together of its
letters; although in some forms it so closely approximates to Italic as to
be almost [183] indistinguishable from it. Script lettering came into its
greatest vogue during the Georgian period in England and at the same time
in France; and was extensively employed, usually in conjunction with the
upright Roman, in carved panels of stone or wood, and in engraving. The
Script forms are well worthy of the attention of modern designers since
they offer unusual opportunities for freedom and individuality of
treatment; and because of this vitality and adaptility to modern uses the
present chapter will be devoted largely to the illustration of Script
examples.

The old Spanish and Italian writing-books (referred to in a previous
chapter), which in a measure took the place filled so much less
artistically to-day by our modern school copybooks, contain many specimens
of beautiful Script, both capitals and small letters. Figures 193 to 196
show pages from such books published in Spain.

[Illustration: 193. SPANISH SCRIPT. TORQUATO TORIO, 1802]

[Illustration: 194. SPANISH SCRIPTS. TORQUATO TORIO, 1802]

[Illustration: 195. SPANISH SCRIPT. FRANCISCO LUCAS, 1577]

[Illustration: 196. SPANISH CURSIVE. FRANCISCO LUCAS, 1577]

[188]

A simple type of Spanish capital Script letter is shown in 201, while a
corresponding small letter, redrawn from a Spanish source, is illustrated
in 202. It should be noted in the latter figure that the three lower lines
are further removed from the ordinary writing hand and are more interesting
than the letters in the three upper lines.

[Illustration: 197. MODERN AMERICAN TITLES. CLAUDE FAYETTE BRAGDON]

[Illustration: 198. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. GEORGE WHARTON EDWARDS]

The French artists and engravers were, as has been said, among the first to
appreciate the qualities of Script, and used it in many of their engraved
title-pages, especially during the reigns of Louis xv. and xvi. Figure 199
shows a set of French Script capitals of the time of Louis XV., highly
flourished but more formal than those shown in 201.

A form of Script very nearly allied to the Italic was frequently used for
the lettering on headstones and wall tombs in the churches and churchyards
of England. Figure 203, in which the lettering is taken from a tomb in
Westminster Abbey, illustrates this style of Script.

A set of Script small letters with some unusual characteristics, adapted by
Hrachowina from the German Renaissance form shown in outline in 192, is
exhibited as a solid letter in figure 200.

[Illustration: 199. FRENCH SCRIPT CAPITALS. 18th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 200. GERMAN SCRIPT AFTER HRACHOWINA. 18th CENTURY.]

[Illustration: 201. SPANISH SCRIPT CAPITALS. EARLY 18th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 202. SPANISH SCRIPT ALPHABETS. LATE 17th CENTURY. F. C. B.]

[Illustration: 203. ENGLISH INCISED SCRIPT. FROM INSCRIPTIONS. F. C. B.]

[194]

[Illustration: 204. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. BRUCE ROGERS]

[Illustration: 205. MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT. BRUCE ROGERS]

[Illustration: 206. MODERN AMERICAN SCRIPT. AFTER FRANK HAZENPLUG]

[Illustration: 207. MODERN AMERICAN ITALIC CAPITALS. F. C. B.]

Among modern American designers, Mr. Bruce Rogers has admirably succeeded
in catching the French and Georgian spirit in his treatment of the Script
characters; yet, nevertheless, his lettering in this style is still modern
in feeling. In the title from a book cover, 204, Mr. Rogers has allowed
himself just the proper amount of interlacement and flourishing--both of
which require the restraint of a subtle taste or the result may prove to be
over-elaborate. The page of lettering by the same designer, shown in 205,
is a successful solution of a difficult problem, and, together with the
book cover, will serve to exhibit the possibilities of this style of
Script.

Mr. George Wharton Edwards is another modern designer who has a penchant
for the Script form. He uses one distinctive and personal style of it in
which the larger letters are formed by two black lines separated by a
narrow white space, as exhibited in 198.

The lines from an advertisement, 197, by Mr. Claude Fayette Bragdon, in
which Script, Italic and Roman letters are combined, are of especial
interest from the easy manner in which the three different styles have been
adapted to each other and made to harmonize in one small panel, [198] while
still preserving an appropriate Georgian aspect. The interlacement and
flourishing, too, are handled with commendable restraint.

Few modern artists have so successfully treated Italic capitals with Script
freedom as Mr. Will Bradley. Sometimes employing forms of Italic capitals
and small letters little removed from type, he will again give us an
example of his handiwork in which Italic is used with examplary freedom, as
is shown in the specimen from a book catalogue, 109. The modern trick of
wide spacing often lends itself aptly to the swing and freedom of the
swashed and flourished lines of Script, as may be seen in figure 207.

An excellent modern Script letter, adapted from a design by Mr. Frank
Hazenplug, is shown in 206. Its heavy face and originality of form make it
a useful and pleasing variant.

[Illustration: 208. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. ANONYMOUS]

[Illustration: 209. MODERN AMERICAN TITLE. EDWARD PENFIELD]

The magazine heading, by an anonymous designer, 208, and the line from the
pen of Mr. Edward Penfield, 209, suggest still other useful varieties of
the Script form.

[199]

       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER V

TO THE BEGINNER

The beginner in any art or craft is likely to have an undue respect for the
mere instruments of his trade. He will eventually learn that tools play a
much less important part in his work than he at first thinks; but, as it is
unlikely that any sudden change in human nature will occur, it seems as
well to devote here some consideration to the tools which the student will
always believe to be an important part of his equipment. He will ultimately
ascertain for himself what is best adapted to his own individual needs.

Though every draughtsman will recommend a pen that he has discovered to be
especially suitable for his own use, few will be found to agree. Perhaps it
is safe to say, however, that the best all-round pen for lettering is the
Gillot No. 303. It is not too sharp, and when broken in is flexible and
easy. The crowquill pen will be found of little use. It is an advantage to
have at hand a large coarse pen of little flexibility and smooth point for
drawing heavy lines of even width. In using water-color in place of ink
such a pen will be found more satisfactory than the Gillot 303, as the
thinness of the fluid causes the line to spread whenever pressure is
applied to a limber and finely pointed pen, with the result that the line
is not only broadened, but when dry shows darker than was intended, as more
color is deposited than in a narrow line. When a [200] narrow line of even
width and sharpness is desired it is best to use a new pen; an older pen
will, on the other hand, allow of more ease in swelling and broadening the
line under pressure. A thin dry line may be obtained by turning the pen
over and drawing with the back of the nib, although if the pen so used be
worn it is apt to have a "burr" over the point that may prevent its working
satisfactorily in this way. A new hard pen is likely to be the cause of a
"niggling" line; a too limber one of a careless or undesirably broad line.
On rare occasions, and for obtaining certain effects, a stub pen may be
found of value, but it cannot be recommended to the beginner, as it is very
difficult to find one that has sufficient flexibility of nib. Quill pens
are undoubtedly useful in drawing a few types of letters (see some of the
designs by Mr. Walter Crane shown in previous pages, for examples) but, not
to allude to the difficulty of properly pointing a quill, which seems to be
a well-nigh lost art nowadays, the instrument possesses so many annoying
peculiarities that it is as well to avoid its use until a satisfactory
command over the more dependable steel pens has been obtained.

A pencil is, of course, a necessity in laying out the first scheme for
lettering. The softer the pencil the more felicitous will the composition
seem; but the beginner should guard against being too easily pleased with
the effect thus obtained, as it is often due to the deceptive
indefiniteness of line and pleasant gray tone. When inked-in, in
uncompromising black against the white paper, the draughtsman is apt to
find that his sketch has developed many an imperfection, both in
composition and in individual letter shapes, that the vague pencil lines
did not reveal. [201]

As to paper, Bristol-board has the best smooth surface for lettering. The
English board is in some ways better than the American, but has the
disadvantage of being made in smaller sheets. The difficulty with any
smooth board is that erasures, even of pencil lines, are likely to spoil
its surface. The rough "Strathmore" American board has a very grateful
surface upon which the pen may be used with almost as much freedom as the
pencil. All rough surfaces, however, while tending to promote interesting
lines, are not suited for careful lettering, and the classic and Italian
forms especially require to be drawn upon the smoothest possible surface.
The American "Strathmore" board may also be obtained in smooth finish; and,
indeed, is less injured by erasures than most Bristol-boards.

The prepared India or carbon inks such as "Higgin's" or "Carter's" are best
for the beginner; although all prepared inks have a tendency to get muddy
if allowed to stand open, and the so-called "waterproof" inks are easily
smudged.

In devising a panel of lettering, such as a title-page for example, the
draughtsman's first step would naturally be to sketch out the whole design
at a very small size, say an inch and a half high, in pencil. This small
sketch should determine, first, the general balance of the page; second,
the inter-relations and spacings of the various lines and words and their
relative importance and sizes. From this thumb-nail sketch the design
should be drawn out at full size in pencil, and much more carefully. In
this redrawing the separate letter shapes and their harmonious relations to
each other should be determined, and such deviations made from the smaller
sketch as seem to benefit the effect. [202] Some draughtsmen sketch out
each line of lettering separately on thin paper, and then, after blackening
the back of this sheet, lay each line over the place where it is needed in
the design, tracing the outlines of the letters with a hard point, and thus
transferring them to the design beneath. In this way a page of lettering
may be studied out line by line, and accurately placed or centered; but the
process is tedious, and there is always danger of losing sight of the
effect as a whole.

In outlining letters which are ultimately intended to be solidly
blacked-in, the beginner should guard against making his outlines too wide,
especially as regards the thin lines, for the eye in judging an outline
sketch follows the insides of the bounding lines rather than the outsides
which will really be the _out_lines of the blacked-in letter, so that when
finished the letter is likely to look heavier and more clumsy than in the
sketch.

When the entire pencil scheme seems satisfactory in every detail, and each
line has been exactly determined, the whole should be carefully inked-in.
In inking-in letters the swing of the arm should be as free and
unobstructed as possible. For the best result it is absolutely necessary to
work at a wide board on a solid table of convenient height and angle. It is
impossible to letter well in a cramped or unsteady position. One thing
cannot be too strongly urged upon the beginner. Never use a T-square,
triangle or ruling pen in inking-in lettering. It will be found ultimately
much easier to train hand and eye to make a straight and true line
free-hand than to attempt to satisfactorily combine a ruled and free-hand
line. The free-hand method is, be it acknowledged, both more lengthy and
[203] difficult at first, but when the draughtsman does finally gain a
mastery over his line he has achieved something which he will find of the
greatest value.

In a drawing to be reproduced by mechanical processes, the proportions of
the design are, of course, unalterably determined by the required panel or
page; but the _size_ of the _drawing_ may be such as best suits the
inclination and convenience of the draughtsman. If the drawing is to be
reduced in size (and that is the usual method, because, in general, it is
easier to draw large rather than small), the draughtsman must first decide
on the amount of reduction to which his style of rendering and the subject
itself are best adapted, remembering, however, that a drawing is sure to
suffer from excessive reduction, not only in general effect but in
interest, for the quality of the line is sure in a measure to disappear. A
reduction of height or width by one-third is the usual amount; but many of
our modern designers obtain their best effects by making their drawings but
a trifle larger than the required reproduction. Some even make their
drawings of the same size; others only from a twelfth to a sixth larger. As
a rule, the less the reduction the less the departure from the effect of
the original, and the more certainly satisfactory the result, although more
careful drawing and greater exactness of line are necessary.

[Illustration: 210. DIAGRAM TO SHOW METHOD OF ENLARGING A PANEL]

To keep the outlines of a panel in the same proportion while enlarging its
area for the purpose of making a drawing for reproduction, lay out the
required _finished_ size of the panel near the upper left hand corner of
the paper, and draw a diagonal line through the upper left hand and lower
right hand corner of this panel, extending it beyond the panel [204]
boundaries. From any given point along this diagonal, lines drawn parallel
to the side and top lines of the original panel, and extended till they
intersect the extended left side line and top line of the original panel,
will give an outline of the same proportions as the required panel. By
taking various points on the diagonal, panels of any height or width but
still of the proper proportions may be obtained (see diagram 210). Diagram
211 illustrates a variation of the previous method of enlarging the
proportions of a panel, in which, by the use of two diagonals, both
perpendicular and horizontal center lines are retained.

When it is necessary to lay out a border of a predetermined width within
the required panel, the foregoing method can only be used to determine the
_outside_ lines of such a border, and it becomes necessary to make the
drawing some numerical proportion, say, one-half as large again, or twice
as large as the finished panel. The width of the border will then be of the
same proportionate width.

The beginner will find it always wise to base his lettering on penciled top
and bottom guide lines, and occasionally to add "waist" guide lines, as in
193. Indeed, it is rare that even accomplished letterers dispense with
these simple aids. These guide lines should invariably be laid-in with the
[205] T-square and triangle. After drawing the horizontal guides, it is
often advisable to run a few perpendicular lines up and down the paper,
which will serve to guard against the very common likelihood of the letters
acquiring a tilt. In drawing Italic, Script, and all sloping letters
numerous sloping guide lines are especially necessary; see 193.
Perpendicular guide lines will be found of marked assistance, also in
drawing Gothic small letters, which, as they do not come against the top
and bottom guide lines squarely, but at an angle, are often deceptive.

[Illustration: 211. DIAGRAM TO SHOW METHOD OF ENLARGING A PANEL]

If it is desirable to make two lines of lettering of the same length,
although they contain an unequal number of letters, this may be
effected--provided, of course, that the number of letters does not vary too
greatly--by broadening or narrowing the letters that occur in one line but
not in the other, and by varying the spacings about the I's and the open
letters. Note, for example, the spacing of the upper lines in the poster by
Mr. Crane, 87. It is by no means essential to draw the same letter always
exactly alike even in the same line; in fact, variation is generally
demanded by the different surroundings and neighboring letters. So long as
the general character of the letter remains unchanged in its distinctive
features, such as weight, [206] treatment of serifs, angles, height of
waist and cross lines, etc., its width and outlines may be varied and
arranged to help out the spacing without interfering, to any noticeable
extent, with the uniform appearance of the line.

In Roman lettering emphasis may be obtained for any special word by spacing
its letters farther apart. This has something of the same emphasizing
effect as the use of Italic, without so greatly breaking the harmony of the
line. Much of the lettering of the Italian Renaissance shows a very subtle
appreciation of this use, and in some of the most beautiful inscriptions
the important words are often so differentiated, while others are
emphasized by slightly larger characters.

As a general rule, and within certain limits, the wider a letter the more
legible it is likely to be. Blackness and boldness of stem alone will not
make a letter readable. Width, boldness of hair lines and serifs, and a
proper amount of surrounding white space are more essential. The Roman
letter is more legible than the Blackletter mainly because it is black
against a roomy white ground; while Blackletter, on the contrary, is really
defined by small interrupted areas of whites upon a black ground.

A common limitation of many draughtsmen is that they become accomplished in
the rendering of but one style of letter, and find themselves obliged to
use it on all occasions, whether it be suited to the work in hand or not,
because they can command no other. In the case of certain designers, of
course, the individuality of their work is strong enough to bind both
lettering and design so closely together that they can never seem at
dissonance; but, speaking generally, the adherance to the use of but [207]
one type of letter can be but narrowing. The beginner is urged, therefore,
to practice the use of many styles, even at the expense of gaining an
immediate mastery over no one form. He will find himself amply repaid in
the end by the increase in freedom and variety.

While the student should possess enough knowledge of the historic styles
and examples of lettering to prevent him from using incongruous or
anachronous forms in the same design, historic accuracy need not prevent
him from engrafting the characteristics of dissimilar styles upon one
another, provided that the results prove harmonious and appropriate.

Finally, the draughtsman's first aim should be to make his lettering
readable: after this has been accomplished he should strive to give it
beauty. Art in lettering is only to be attained by solving the problem of
legibility in the way most pleasing to the eye. Good lettering should
appeal both to the eye and to the mind. Only when it combines legibility
with beauty can it be excellent.

       *       *       *       *       *


INDEX

  A., 6, 9.
  Abbey, Edwin A., 97, 132, 140.
  Accenting, of Blackletters, 132;
    of Roman Capitals, 2;
    of Minuscules, 56;
    of Round Gothic, 132;
    of Italic and Script, 182.
  American Lettering, Modern Roman, 53, 64, 75, 82, 97;
    Classic Roman, 3, 14;
    Gothic, 132, 136, 140, 142;
    Italic, 194, 198;
    Script, 194, 198.
  Anglo-Saxon Letters, 46, 47;
    modern use of, 46.
  Ascenders, height above body, 57;
    in "Cheltenham Old Style" type, 71;
    in Gothic, 131;
    in Blackletters, 135.
  Ashbee, C. R., 74.
  Auriol, George, 88.

  B., 6.
  Badia, Florence, lettering from, 45.
  Bell, Robert Anning, 96.
  Blacked-in letters, 202.
  Blackletters, 127, 131, 132, 140, 141, 142;
    accents of, 132;
    ascenders and descenders of, 135;
    capitals for use with, 134, 136, 139;
    a condensed form of Gothic, 128;
    construction of, 132, 141;
    definition of, 128, 131;
    effect of page of, 132;
    with Roman letters, 72;
    even color of, 134;
    flourishes, 135;
    individual letter forms, 132, 136;
    illegibility of, 135, 136, 206;
    a part-Roman form, 84;
    a narrow form, 132;
    old examples of, 136;
    in panel forms, 136;
    used solidly, 134, 135;
    spacing of, 134, 136;
    variety of, 82, 132, 135, 136.
  Bonnard, Pierre, 91, 92.
  Border, to lay out a, 204.
  Boston Public Library, 14.
  Bragdon, Claude Fayette, 64, 111, 194.
  Brasses, Blackletters from, 138, 140.
  Bridwell, H. L., 8, 112.
  Bristol-board, 201.
  Byzantine influence on Italian lettering, 45.

  C., 8.
  Capitals, used with Roman minuscules, 57;
    with Round Gothic, 132;
    with Blackletters, 136, 139;
    (see also under Blackletter, Roman, Gothic, Italic, Modern Roman
        Capitals, Script, Round Gothic, Uncial).
  "Caroline" Text, 52.
  Caslon, William, 64;
    his type, 69.
  Centering lines of lettering, 202.
  Charlemagne, 52.
  "Cheltenham Old Style" type, 71.
  Cheltenham Press, The, 71.
  Chisel-cut guide lines, 3.
  Classic Capitals, see Roman Capitals.
  Classic forms of letters, to draw, 3, 6, 201;
    composition of, 6;
    Italian Renaissance, 15, 27, 30.
  "Colonial" lettering, 117.
  Constantine, Arch of, lettering from, 11.
  Construction, of Blackletters, 132;
    of Roman Capitals, 3, 6;
    of Roman Minuscules, 53, 56.
  Craig, Gordon, 95, 96.
  Crane, Walter, 47, 92, 200, 205.
  Cross-bar in Roman Capitals, 6.
  "Cursive" Letters, 91, 122.
  Cursive tendency in Script lettering, 182.

  D., 8.
  'Dance of Death,' Holbein's, 117.
  Day, Lewis F., 93.
  Descenders, (see Ascenders).
  De Vinne, Theo. L., 69.
  Dove's Press, The, 69.
  Drawing of letters, 201, 202, 205;
    for reproduction, 203, 204.
  Dürer, Albrecht, 31, 132, 138, 141.

  E., 6, 104.
  Early Gothic, (see Round Gothic).
  Early Printing, 52, 64, 71.
  Edwards, Edward B., 116.
  Edwards, George Wharton, 194.
  Emphasis in lettering, placing of, 206
    (see also Accenting).
  English Brasses derived from Flanders, 141.
  English Gothic, 140, 141.
  English lettering, modern, 75, 82, 92.
  English, Letters, 47;
    Script, 188,
    (see also Anglo-Saxon).
  Engraved Title-pages, French, 188.
  Enlarging Drawings, 203, 204.

  F., 6, 104.
  f., 56.
  Fell, H. Granville, 96.
  Flanders, Brasses from, 141.
  Flourishing, of Blackletters, 135;
    of Script, 194, 198.
  Free-hand lines, 202.
  French, modern lettering, 74, 82, 86;
    Script, 188, 194.
  Freedom, in lettering, 53, 74, 82, 92, 102, 118, 122, 201;
    in Blackletters, 136;
    in Gothic, 127;
    in Italic, 198;
    in kerns, serifs and swash-lines, etc., 53;
    in Roman letters, 82;
    in Script, 183.

  G., 8.
  g., 57.
  Georgian English lettering, 117, 183, 194, 198.
  German lettering, modern, 74, 82, 84, 92;
    early, 110, 117;
    Script, 52, 188;
    types, 52.
  Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor, 71, 102, 136, 142.
  Gothic Capitals, for use with Blackletters, 139;
    pen drawn, 140;
    not to be used to form words, 132.
  Gothic, English, (see English Gothic).
  Gothic lettering, 127, 131, 134, 205;
    cut in stone, 140;
    (see also Blackletters and Uncial).
  Granite, letters cut in, 11, 14,
    (see also Stone-cut, V-sunk and Incised).
  Grasset, Eugène, 86.
  Greek type, 73.
  Grolier Club, 69.
  Guide-lines, 3, 204.

  H., 6.
  "Half-Uncial," 52.
  Harvard Architectural Building, lettering on, 14.
  Hazenplug, Frank, 116, 198.
  Historic styles of lettering, knowledge of, 207.
  Holbein's 'Dance of Death' initials, 117.
  Horne, Herbert P., 72.
  Hrachowina, C., 188.
  Hupp, Otto, 142.

  I., 8, 9;
    space around, 205.
  Illegibility of Blackletters, 135, 136.
  Image, Selwyn, 73, 93.
  Incised letters in stone, Gothic, 139, 140;
    Classic Roman, 9, 14, 45;
    (see also Granite, Inlaid, Marble, Sandstone, V-sunk and Stone-cut).
  Ink, 201.
  Inking-in lettering, 200, 202.
  Inlaid lettering, Gothic, 141.
  Interlacement of Script letters, 194.
  Inter-relation of letters, 6, 135, 201.
  Iorio, Adrian J., 107.
  Irish letters, (see Anglo-Saxon).
  Italian, Blackletters, 139, 141;
    modern lettering, 92;
    Renaissance (see Renaissance);
    Roman small letters, 64;
    types, 52;
    writing-books, 64, 183;
    letters, drawing of, 201.
  Italic, 52, 182, 188, 194, 198;
    capitals, 182, 198;
    drawing of, 205;
    emphasis of, 206.

  J., 8.
  j., 56.
  Jenson, Nicholas, 64.
  Jones, A. Garth, 96.

  K., 6.
  k., 56.
  Kerns, 53, 56.
  Kimball, H. Ingalls, 71.

  L., 104.
  Late Gothic, (see Blackletter).
  Laying out, lettering, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205;
    a border, 204.
  Le Boutillier, Addison B., 110.
  Legibility of lettering, 206, 207;
    of Round Gothic, 132.
  Letters, outlines of, 202, 206;
    widths of, 206;
    to lay out, 205;
    execution of in various materials, 14;
    (see also Brasses, Inlaid, Marble, Granite, Pen and Printed forms,
        Sandstone, Type).
  Lines, heavy, 199;
    narrow, 199;
    thin, 200;
    in water-color, 200;
    freehand, 202, 203;
    ruled, 202.
  Linking, of Blackletters, 136;
    of Round Gothic, 132;
    of Roman Capitals, 45;
    of Script, 182.
  Lowell, Orson, 117.

  M., 2, 28.
  m., 56.
  Marble, letters cut in, 17, 27,
    (see also Incised, Inlaid).
  Marsuppini tomb, Florence, 28.
  Magonigle, H. Van Buren, 102.
  McKim, Mead & White, architects, 14.
  Medals, lettering on, 30.
  Merrymount Press, The, 71, 72.
  "Merrymount" type, 71.
  Minuscule, 1;
    modern Roman, 52, 53, 56, 57, 64;
    monumental uses, 57;
    composition of, 64;
    growing use of, 76, 122;
    spacing of, 57;
    (see also, Roman, Gothic, Italic, Script).
  Modern lettering, (see under countries, American, English, French,
      German, Italian).
  Modern Roman Capitals, 6;
    (see Chapter II).
  Modern type, (see Type).
  "Montaigne" type, 69.
  "Mont' Allegro" type, 73.
  Moore, Guernsey, 116.
  Morris, William, 72;
    types of, 69.
  Mucha, Alphons M., 91.

  N., 2.
  Netherlands, brasses from, 141.
  New, Edmund H., 96.
  Nicholson, William, 95.

  O., 8, 182.
  o., 182
  Optical Illusions in Roman Capitals, 8.
  Outline letters, 202.

  P., 6.
  Pantheon, Rome, Raphael's tomb, 27.
  Papers, drawing, 201.
  Parchment, 128.
  Parrish, Maxfield, 110, 122.
  Parsons, Alfred, 96.
  Pens, 199, 201;
    crowquill, 199;
    reed, 2;
    ruling, 202;
    stub, 200;
    quill, 200.
  Pen drawn forms of letters, 9, 27, 30, 31, 45, 56, 64, 74, 76, 122, 140,
      182, 199, 202.
  Pencils, 200, 201.
  Penfield, Edward, 100, 116, 118, 198.
  Petrarch, 52;
    handwriting of, 182.
  Pisano, Vittore, 30.
  "Post Old Style" type, 116.
  Presses, (see Merrymount, Vale, Riverside, Cheltenham, Dove's, and De
      Vinne).
  Printed forms of Roman letters, 9, 30, 52, 53, 56, 64, 69, 122.
  Printers, German, 52;
    Italian, 52, 64;
    American, 69;
    English, 64, 69, 72, 73;
    Venetian, 53, 64.
  Proportions of a design, 203.
  Puttner, Walter, 142.
  Pyle, Howard, 117.

  Q., 2, 8, 92.
  "Quadrigesimale," 69.
  Quill pens, 200;
    method of holding, 2, 131.

  R., 2, 6, 8.
  Railton, Herbert, 96.
  Raphael's tomb, lettering from, 27.
  Reduction of drawings, 203, 204.
  Renaissance, letters, 15, 27, 30;
    artists of the, 53;
    lettering of the Italian, 206;
    medals, 30;
    purity of letter shapes, 69.
  Renner, 69.
  Renner type, 69.
  Reproduction of drawings, 203.
  Ricketts, Charles, 93.
  Riverside Press, The, 69.
  Rogers, Bruce, 69, 194.
  Roman Capitals, 1, 27;
    (see also Modern Roman);
    thick and thin lines of, 1, 6;
    model for, 3;
    rules for, 2;
    squareness of, 1, 6, 131;
    peculiarities of, 6, 8.
  Roman letters, 127, 136;
    with Italic, 182;
    combined with Script and Italic, 194;
    cross bars of, 6;
    definition of, 1;
    legibility of, 206;
    waist lines of, 6;
    width proportions of, 6.
  Roman minuscules, (see Minuscule).
  Roman forms, Gothic Spirit in, 84;
    Uncial, 128.
  Romanesque influence on Italian lettering, 45.
  Ross, Albert R., 3, 11, 32, 56.
  Roty, O., 30.
  Round Gothic, analysis of, 131;
    definition of, 131;
    capitals to use with, 132, 139.
  Round letters, capitals, 2, 3;
    Minuscules, 56, 71;
    stone-cut, 3, 9.
  Rubbings, from inscriptions, 11, 16.
  Ruling pen, 202.

  S., 8.
  Sandstone, letters cut in, 14.
  Santa Croce, Florence, lettering from, 28, 141.
  Script, 182, 183, 188, 194, 198;
    capitals, 188;
    cursive tendency in, 182;
    developed from writing hands, 182;
    drawing of, 205;
    French, 188;
    German, 188;
    on English headstones and wall tombs, 188;
    Spanish, 188;
    used in engravings, 188;
    used with upright Roman, 182, 183.
  Serifs, 8, 16;
    definition of, 3;
    in Minuscule letters, 53, 69, 71;
    in Italic letters, 182;
    treatment of, 206.
  Serlio, Sebastian, 3, 11, 32.
  Shadows in V-sunk letters, 10, 11, 14.
  Shaw, Byam, 96.
  Simpson, Joseph W., 93.
  Small letters, (see Minuscule, also Modern Roman, Gothic, Script and
      Italic).
  Spacing, of Classic Roman letters, 6, 8;
    of Blackletters, 128, 134, 136;
    of Minuscules, 53, 56, 57;
    of type, 56;
    of "Montaigne" type, 69;
    of "Cheltenham" type, 71;
    of letters and words, 201, 205;
    emphasis obtained by, 206.
  Spanish, Script, 188;
    Roman letters, 64;
    writing-books, 64, 183.
  Stone-cut letters, Roman, 3, 9, 14;
    (see also Incised, V-sunk, Granite, Marble, Sandstone).
  Sullivan, James F., 96.
  Swash lines, 2, 53, 136.

  T., 8, 28.
  Tagliente, G. A., 31.
  Thompson, Hugh, 96.
  Tory, Geoffrey, 31.
  Townsend, Harry Everett, 117.
  Transferring of lettering, 202.
  Type, 9, 52, 64, 74.
  Type-founders, 9, 56, 64.
  Type models for pen lettering, use of, 74, 76, 122.

  Uncial letters, 45, 76, 84, 92, 128;
    Gothic, 139;
    meta forms of, 140;
    pen forms of, 140;
    stone-cut, 140;
    stone and marble, 139.
  Updike, D. Berkeley, 71.

  V., 9.
  Vale Press, The, 93.
  Van Rysselberghe, Theo., 91.
  Venetian printers, 53, 64.
  Verneuil, M. P., 86.
  Vinci, Leonardo da, 31.
  V-sunk Roman lettering, 9, 10, 14;
    (see also Incised).

  W., 9.
  w., 56.
  Waist lines, 6, 204;
    of Roman letters, 6, 204, 206.
  Westminster Abbey, England, 188.
  Width proportions, of Roman Capital letters, 6.
  Writing-books, 64, 183.
  Writing hand, 188;
    of Petrarch, 182;
    Script developed from, 182.

  X., 6.

  Y., 6.
  y., 56.

  Z., 2.

       *       *       *       *       *


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operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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