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Title: The Kirk on Rutgers Farm
Author: Brückbauer, Frederick, 1864-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Kirk on Rutgers Farm" ***

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The Kirk on Rutgers Farm



[Illustration: Church of the Sea and Land]



THE

KIRK

on

Rutgers Farm

_By_

Frederick Brückbauer

_Illustrated by_

Pauline Stone

NEW YORK
Fleming H Revell Company
1919

[Blank Page]


_To the
Men and Women
who gave
that the old church
might remain at
Market and Henry Streets_


[Blank Page]



INTRODUCTION


It is evident that the preparation of this volume has been a labor
of love.

Of the sanctuary which, for one hundred years, has stood on the corner
of Market and Henry Streets, the author, like many others who have put
their lives into it, might well say:

  "Thy saints take pleasure in her stones,
   Her very dust to them is dear."

The story of "The Kirk on Rutgers Farm" is one of pathetic interest. In
its first half-century it sheltered a worshipping congregation of staid
Knickerbocker type, which, tho blest with a ministry of extraordinary
ability and spiritual power, succumbed to its unfriendly environment and
perished.

In its second half-century it became the home of a flock of God, poor in
this world's goods, but rich in faith, to whom the environment even when
changing from bad to worse, was a challenge to faith and valiant service.
Those of us who in our unwisdom said a generation ago that it ought to
die judged after the outward appearance. Those who protested that it
must not die, took counsel with the spirit that animated them, saw the
invisible and against hope believed in hope.

Not the least impressive pages of this book are the pages which record
the names of ministers and other toilers for Christ, who in this field
of heroic achievement have lived to serve or have died in service.

The author has very skilfully concealed his personal connection with the
history of which he might justly say: "Magna pars fui." But for his wise
and winsome leadership the chronicle would have closed a quarter of a
century ago.

By putting in form and preserving the memories which cluster about the
Church of the Sea and Land, he is performing a real service to the
Christian community and earning the gratitude of fellow-laborers to whom
it has been a shrine of their heart's devotion.

George Alexander.



ILLUSTRATIONS


  The Kirk on Rutgers Farm             Frontispiece

                                             _Page_
  Henry Rutgers                                  12
  The Rutgers Mansion                            15
  Rutgers Tablet                                 17
  Nathan Hale Statue                             19
  First Presidential Mansion                     20
  Tablet in Church Vestibule                     22
  Philip Milledoler                              23
  North Dutch Church                             24
  Isaac Ferris                                   28
  Organ                                          29
  Old Lecture Room Pulpit                        30
  Theodore L. Cuyler at Market Street            34
  Theodore L. Cuyler later                       35
  Pew                                            41
  Bell                                           46
  Sailors' Home                                  50
  52 Market Street                               51
  Hanson K. Corning                              52
  Edward Hopper                                  56
  Communion Service                              58
  Christian A. Borella                           61
  Andrew Beattie                                 68
  Old Sunday School Room                         69
  Alexander W. Sproull                           71
  Col. Robert G. Shaw                            72
  Kindergarten                                   73
  Old Church Flag                                78
  John Hopkins Denison                           81
  Tower Study                                    82
  52 Henry Street                                83
  Fresh Air Children                             84
  New Church Flag                                87
  John Denham                                    91
  Old 61 Henry Street                            94
  New 61 Henry Street                            95
  Staten Island House when bought                96
  Staten Island House renovated                  97
  Kitchen for Cooking Classes                    99
  Pulpit                                        104
  Back of Pulpit                                107



I


If there be one thing certain about New York it is that nothing remains
unchanged. Not only do public works like the bridges change the face of
things, but private activity effaces great structures to build up still
greater ones. This march of progress is as relentless as a modern army,
levelling all before it.

In other lands churches have been spared tho other buildings went down,
but even these in New York have disappeared, whole districts being
deliberately deserted because churches were no longer able to maintain
themselves there financially. This is especially true of the great
down-town section of Manhattan, the Old New York, in which only two
churches remain that have stood unchanged for a century. Trinity church
let old St. John's go, and sixty churches have disappeared in forty
years on the lower East Side alone. We lose much when old landmarks go,
when we can not make history more vivid for our children by pointing out
where the great men of another day worshipt, men of a day when other
public assemblies were rare, and the church was the center that radiated
influence. The old building is of value because of the living beings
associated with it that were the life of the community.

New York has hardly appreciated what its great families have meant for
it in the past. The members of the Rutgers family, for instance, always
had a noble share in the day and generation in which they lived. Their
ancestor came over in the early days from Holland, spent some time about
Albany, and then came to New York, branching out till Rutgers bouweries
and Rutgers breweries were found in more than one place.

A Rutgers was on the jury in the great Zenger trial that establisht
the freedom of the colonial press,--"the germ of American freedom."
The Rutgers were Sons of Liberty and the Rutgers farm near Golden Hill
was one of their meeting places. A Rutgers was a member of the New York
Provincial Congress and also of the Stamp Act Congress. Alexander
Hamilton was engaged in a famous case when a Rutgers defended herself
against a Tory who had taken possession of her property during the
Revolution.

It was a Rutgers who drained the marshes west of the old Collect Pond
and so laid the foundations for the Lispenard fortunes: a Lispenard
married a fair daughter of his neighbor Rutgers. That stream still runs
into the Broadway Subway at Canal Street apparently uncontrollable.

One Rutgers fell in the Battle of Long Island, and while the old father
died in Albany, the British revenged themselves on the younger brother
by making a hospital of his fine house in New York. The owner kept on
fighting for freedom during the whole Revolutionary War, distinguishing
himself at White Plains.

[Illustration: Henry Rutgers]

This was Henry Rutgers, in whom culminated many of the finest
characteristics of a noble ancestry. His breadth of view in an age not
quite so broad, is well shown in his attitude towards churches and
schools. When he decided to open up his farm in the Seventh Ward for
building purposes he gave land at Oliver and Henry Streets, at Market
and Henry Streets and at Rutgers and Henry Streets for churches, and
there was more for the asking, tho only the Baptists, the Dutch Reformed
and the Presbyterians took advantage of the offer. The Rutgers Street
site became the birthplace of the Rutgers Presbyterian church, beginning
May 13, 1798, in a frame building 36×64. In 1841 the present stone
church was built, and in 1862, as did others, this organization moved
uptown. A Mr. Briggs, who was holding the property for a Protestant
denomination, finally tired of waiting and sold the building to the
Roman Catholic church, in whose hands it remains.

In 1806 Rutgers gave the land for the second free school, and he
succeeded Governor Clinton in 1828 as president of the Free School
Society. Before that day education was not a state matter, but left to
private enterprise, and the free schools then establisht were for the
poor. Rutgers more than once paid salaries and other school bills out
of his own pocket. He was a Regent of the University of the State of
New York for twenty-four years, and a Trustee of Princeton.

Rutgers was not above mixing in with the political life of his time: he
was a member of the legislature four times and took a prominent part in
the election of Thomas Jefferson as President of the United States.

In 1811 he raised funds for the first Tammany Hall, then a benevolent
organization.

During the War of 1812, Rutgers presided at a large mass meeting calling
for the defense of New York when the port was blockaded and it seemed as
if the British would attack it. He was a large contributor to the fund
from which forts were hurriedly erected to keep the enemy out.

Rutgers was a member of a committee of correspondence formed in 1819 to
check slavery. He lived to see the day, in 1827, when slavery was
abolisht in New York State.

His services to the Dutch church and his munificence brought about a
change of name of the college at New Brunswick from Queens to Rutgers
College. It is true the sum given was only $5,000 and Rutgers was one of
the richest men in New York. In our day when only billions seem to count
we may well hark back to the days of simpler things.

For many years Henry Rutgers gave a cake and a book to every boy who
called on him on New Year's Day. The children gathered about his door
and he made an address "of a religious character."

[Illustration: Rutgers Mansion]

Colonel Rutgers lived in "a large, superbly furnished mansion," on
Rutgers Place, "for many years a capitol of fashion, where met all the
leaders of the day." Here was given "the most notable reception of the
time to General Washington and Colonel Willett," after the latter's
return from his mission to the Creek Indians, the most powerful
confederacy then on our borders. Here, also, in 1824, Lafayette was
entertained "like a prince," so the great Frenchman said.

The house was built in 1755 by the Colonel's father, with brick brought
from Holland. It stood on Monroe Street till 1865. But it was none too
fine for the owner to give his fences for firewood one hard winter when
fuel was scarce and trees in the streets were cut down to burn. Next
summer the Rutgers orchard was said to have been safer than if the fence
had been there.

"The well-beloved citizen" died February 17, 1830, in the mansion in
which he had lived nearly eighty years. On February 28, a great memorial
service was held in the Market Street church. Dr. McMurray, the pastor,
whose tablet is opposite that of Rutgers in the church, preached the
sermon, which was printed later, speaking of his "unimpeachable moral
character, his uniform consistency," and saying that there was "scarcely
a benevolent object or humane institution which he had not liberally
assisted." Colonel Rutgers spent one-fourth of his income in charity,
many of his benevolences being personal, gifts not only of money, but
advice and sympathy.

[Illustration: Rutgers Tablet]

Rutgers was a bachelor and on his death the bulk of his estate, over
$900,000, went to the grandson of his sister Catherine, William B.
Crosby. "Uncle Rutgers" had virtually adopted the boy when early left an
orphan. Among the provisions of the Rutgers will was one that bespoke
the testator: Hannah, a superannuated negress, was to be supported by
the estate for the rest of her life. This while slavery was still legal
in 1823.

William B. Crosby was a colonel in the War of 1812. He died March 18,
1865. A son of his was Howard Crosby, more than a generation ago one
of the best-known preachers of New York, a man great physically and
spiritually. He was moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly and
one of the revisers of the Bible. He died in 1891. Another Crosby was
in the State Legislature.

The direct line of the Rutgers family died out, but they were intermarried
with about every prominent family of the city. The daughters were more
numerous than the sons and appear to have had a reputation for good
looks and good works. They were the wives of rectors, bishops,
postmasters, mayors, secretaries of state, judges, and so on.

On November 25, 1816, Rutgers had deeded five lots for a Dutch Reformed
church.

The neighborhood in which the Market Street church was to be located was
redolent with historic associations. The British provost marshal hung
Nathan Hale on "an apple tree in the Rutgers orchard," the exact spot
adjoining the church property. Nearby on Cherry Hill, in the Franklin
House, the first President of the United States lived for a time, as did
John Hancock and members of Washington's cabinet on the inauguration of
the Federal Government.

In the immediate vicinity was the Walton House, referred to in
parliament as so richly furnished that the colonies needed no relief
from taxation.

[Illustration: Nathan Hale Statue]

Close by the church lands, on July 27, 1790, Rutgers on his own grounds
paraded the militia before President Washington, Governor Clinton and
visiting Indian chiefs, and thereafter he was Colonel Rutgers. Gilbert
Stuart painted Washington's portrait at that time and it was a prized
possession in the Rutgers mansion.

Just north on the Bowery was the old Bull's Head Tavern, "the last stop
before entering town." On the evacuation of New York, Washington and his
officers rested here before re-occupying the city. In connection with it
the Astor fortunes were laid, and Astor was not very popular with the
other butchers either, because of his business methods.

In Cherry Street a hundred years ago a sea captain and his wife made
the first American flag of the present type: thirteen stripes and an
ever-expanding starry field.

[Illustration: First Presidential Mansion]

At the foot of Pike Street,--the river then was nearer the church than
now,--Robert Fulton built his first steamboat in 1807, and in May, 1819,
just one hundred years ago, the Savannah docked in the same place, after
the first steamboat trip across the ocean, made in twenty-two days.

Not quite so pleasant a memory is the fact that Market Street was the
new name for George Street, of not very favorable repute, until the
quiet Quakers built fine little houses there, surrounded by gardens,
driving out denizens of a less sedate disposition.

A fine story is told of an old lady, who was advised not to go to the
Market Street church because of the neighborhood it was in. She replied
that Colonel Rutgers was going there "and where Colonel Rutgers goes any
lady can go."

In 1819 wolves were still killed on the "outskirts," that being the
present Gramercy Park.

After the establishment of the Franklin Street church in 1807, no
further attempt was made by the Dutch church to extend its work until in
1817 the offer made by Henry Rutgers was taken up. About the same time
the Houston Street and Broome Street churches were added.

[Illustration: Tablet in Church Vestibule]

  +-----------------------------------------------------+
  |                FOUNDED _A. D._ 1817,                |
  |                                                     |
  |        Completed & Dedicated to the Worship         |
  |       of Almighty God, the 27th _day of June        |
  |                    A. D._ 1819:                     |
  |                                                     |
  | _on ground generously presented for the Site of a_  |
  |                                                     |
  |             _REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH by               |
  |                Col. HENRY RUTGERS;_                 |
  |                                                     |
  | to the Rev. Philip Milledoler, D.D., the Rev. James |
  |    M. Matthews, Peter Wilson, LL.D., Isaac Heyer,   |
  |      Matthias Bruen, Peter Sharpe, and William      |
  |               B. Crosby, _Trustees_;                |
  |                                                     |
  |    _Under whose Superintendence it was erected._    |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+

To make the Market Street building possible Rutgers gave a large sum,
and he named the trustees "under whose superintendence" the building
was to be erected. They were a noble group:

Rev. Philip Milledoler, D.D.; Rev. James M. Matthews, Peter Wilson,
LL.D.; Isaac Heyer, Matthias Bruen, Peter Sharpe and William B. Crosby.

Dr. Milledoler was one of the great men of the time. He was born in
Rhinebeck, September 22, 1775, and educated in Edinburgh. He was one of
the founders of the American Bible Society, and Secretary of the Board
of Trustees of the Presbyterian Church. In November, 1803, he became
colleague pastor of the First Collegiate church, and in April, 1809, on
division by Presbytery, sole pastor of the Rutgers Presbyterian church.
He remained here until 1813, when he entered the Reformed Church. He was
president of Rutgers College from 1823 to 1841.

Rev. James Macfarlane Matthews was professor "in the first theological
seminary of which New York could boast." It was considered Scotch
Presbyterian.

[Illustration: Philip Milledoler]

Dr. Peter Wilson was professor of languages in the university, as was
also Isaac Heyer.

Matthias Bruen was "one of the merchant princes of New York."

Peter Sharpe was a "whip manufacturer" and William B. Crosby is listed
as "gentleman."

[Illustration: North Dutch Church]

Nothing is known of the architect or builder, tho they were probably the
same, as was the fashion of the time. The building was required by the
deed "to be of brick or stone materials, and the whole building of a
size not less than that of the Presbyterian church in Rutgers Street."
A hundred years have proven the substantial character of the Market
Street church. The men of that day did their work well. Whether it was a
simplified copy of the North Dutch church or not is not known. It looks
much like it, tho the tower is simpler and the two rows of windows in the
Fulton Street building become one row of great windows on Henry Street.
But it has all stood the test of time. The old hand-hewn oak timbers
still span the lofty ceiling, the glistening gray stone walls still
stand four-square against all the winds that blow. The hand-made hinges
and numbers are still on the pew doors, and the so-called slave
galleries are still there, tho neither colored servants nor Sunday
school children are consigned to them now. Hidden away, but still there
are the hand-made laths, the shingles under the tin roof and the
four-foot thick foundations.

The old tower is there, for many years untenanted, until the men came
who worked and lived there, a place of seclusion in a busy time and
neighborhood, and if the symbols on the rough walls have made their
thoughts roam to the early Christian days the telephone brings them back
again into 1919.

The years have brought some changes; better heating than the first
stoves,--the first coal bill was paid in February, 1832, and a new
furnace cost $150 in 1848; better lighting than in 1819,--they had no
gas till May, 1843,--but there have always been men who studied to
maintain the quiet simplicity and beauty of the house, never more
marked than in the days of its centennial.

The Reformed Protestant Dutch church in Market Street was "dedicated to
the worship of Almighty God" on June 27, 1819, the Rev. Dr. Milledoler
preaching the sermon. On September 8, 1819, twenty-four members united,
on the 29th more were added, but "on account of the prevailing sickness"
the consistory was not elected until November 10. Henry Rutgers, John
Redfield and Isaac Brinkerhoff were elected elders, and William B.
Crosby, Elbert A. Brinkerhoff and Thomas Morrow were chosen as deacons.
On November 28, 1819, they were ordained. On the day following they met
at the mansion of Colonel Rutgers, when he was chosen president of the
consistory. On January 2, 1821, the property was finally deeded to the
consistory.

The first minister of the church was William McMurray, D.D., "who with
fidelity and zeal" served from 1820 to May, 1835.

Dr. McMurray was born of Scotch-Irish parents in Washington in 1783, and
graduated from Union College in 1804, studying theology under the famous
J. M. Mason. He was a great worker, preached three times each Sunday,
conducted catechism classes, and is said to have known nearly everyone
in the Seventh Ward. He contracted typhoid fever, lingered for a while
and died September 24, 1835.

A Sunday school was started in 1821.

In 1834 the elders and deacons are recorded as being: Crosby, Hoxie,
Andrews, Doig, Moore, Herrick, Cisco, Montanye, Conover and McCullough,
all famous names. Hoxie and Cisco were wholesale clothing merchants in
Cherry Street then the center for that trade.

[Illustration: Isaac Ferris]

In August, 1836, Dr. McMurray was succeeded by Isaac Ferris. He was a
New Yorker, entered Columbia when only fourteen years old, graduated
with first honors and fought in the War of 1812 with his father. The
Sunday school reported 213 pupils at the time of his coming, which
soon increased, for Dr. Ferris paid special attention to the school.
He was president of the New York Sunday School Union and first
president of the Foreign Mission Board of the Dutch Church. The church
had 600 communicants, and was described as "a fashionable church in the
aristocratic Seventh Ward."

His son, Dr. John Ferris, spent much of his earlier life with his
father. Dr. Isaac Ferris died June 13, 1873. He was tall, broad
shouldered and of commanding presence.

In 1841 the organ was ordered and finally completed in 1844. It was
built by Henry Erben, of New York, whose son became admiral in the Navy.
Experts tell of the amount of lead used in the construction of its
pipes. It is still pumped by hand as in the olden days. John Pye was
the first man to do this. George Loder was the first organist, and
P. A. Andri the first chorister.

[Illustration: Organ]

In 1843, on the land back of the church the "Consistory Building" was
erected. It was a plain brick building with a high stoop and heavy
wooden shutters. The upper floor was for the Sunday school and provided
with circular seats for classes. In an alcove on one side and closed by
glass doors was the library railed off from the rest of the school. On
the main floor was the lecture room, the floor of which rose in the
back. Between the stairways leading to the next floor was a platform
with two heavy Greek columns and a reading desk between them. It was a
bold boy who would run back there thru the dark when the "infant class"
met in the room. The columns were removed in the seventies and later on
the rounded stiff seats went too. Then the floor had to be leveled so
that the room could be put to general use. Before that it was possible
to reach most of the seats only by passing between the "leader" and the
audience.

[Illustration: Platform in Old Consistory Building]

In the basement in dingy quarters in the rear lived the sexton. He had
the great improvement of having water brought into the house in June,
1847, by a sixty-foot hose. Six years later the hydrant was put up in
the front church yard, remaining there until quite recently.

To the right and under the stoop there was a hallway, which later was
changed to the "pastor's study," in which all smaller important meetings
were held. It was in this little room that the session received members
and for many it holds very sacred memories.

There were no pictures in the building, but later a few mottoes with
Bible texts were hung about.

In early days a part of the building was rented for use as a school. The
rental was only nominal. At the time of the erection of the consistory
building the sidewalks around the whole property were flagged and the
iron fence erected.

In 1848 the upper floor was arranged for the Sunday school at a cost of
$500. About 1871 doors were cut thru to the galleries of the church from
the upper floor. For more than twenty years this had been urged.

John Crosby is recorded as "paying off the church debt of $10,542" in
June, 1852.

Dr. Ferris left in 1853 to become chancellor of the University of
New York, succeeding his friend, Theodore Frelinghuysen. The first
chancellor had been Dr. Matthews, a trustee of the church, and the
successors of Dr. Ferris were Howard Crosby, John Hall and Henry M.
McCracken. So of six chancellors of the university, four were vitally
interested in the Market Street church.



II


With the coming of Theodore Cuyler a new era opened up for the old
Market Street church. Two years before Dr. Cuyler had spoken at a large
temperance meeting in Tripler Hall, together with General Houston, Henry
Ward Beecher, Horace Mann and other celebrities. It was his first public
address in a city that was to know much of him.

In 1853 Mr. Cuyler was called and installed by the South Classis of New
York, November 13, 1853. He says that while walking along Henry Street
Judge Hoxie said to Mr. Lyles: "If our young brother will come and work
in the Market Street church we might do something yet."

Cuyler lived at Pike and Madison Streets and later in Rutgers Street.
His salary was $1,500, advanced later to $2,500. The church building was
painted, and in 1855 a new roof was put on at the expense of the
pewholders.

Opposite the church on the northeast corner was a large and select
private school. At 11 Market Street later was a smaller one, headed by
a German patriot, whose son-in-law was one of the great generals during
the Rebellion.

In his address in the church at the Eightieth Anniversary, Dr. Cuyler
called it "fighting the adversary of souls and geography," for even in
Dr. Ferris's time there were indications of waning strength because of
"the continued emigration of the more substantial class of church
members from the down-town districts of the city uptown."

[Illustration: Cuyler at Market Street]

But the indefatigable Cuyler postponed the evil day, and for seven years
of intensest activity he remained in Market Street.

To quote Dr. Cuyler: "I looked around me and saw there were a good many
substantial families that could support a church and East Broadway
swarmed with young men."

"Here was the lord of the manor, the nephew of Colonel Rutgers, Wm. B.
Crosby. What a devoted Christian he was. His good old gray head moved up
to the pew every Sunday, rain or shine. There was a deacons' pew, and in
the center sat the best-known man in New York, Judge Joseph Hoxie. When
we said the creed and nobody joined he shouted it, and in song his voice
was heard above the choir. There sat Jacob Westervelt, the mayor of New
York, and he boasted that he was the only member of the Dutch Church who
could read a Dutch Bible."

[Illustration: Theodore Ledyard Cuyler]

The galleries were packed with young men. One, a young Irish boy,
Robert McBurney, became the great secretary of the Young Men's Christian
Association. Charles Briggs was another young member, and around him
later raged the bitterest theological controversy of the century.

During the summer of 1854 the service was changed to 4 P. M., 7:30 being
resumed in September.

In 1855 the seats in the gallery were changed from four rows to three
rows, and the infant school was held in the "scholars' gallery" of the
church. The low seats are still in the second gallery.

A stove was put in, too, as the heating was not satisfactory.

In 1855, A. D. Stowell came as Bible class teacher at a salary of $12
per month.

Dr. Cuyler rightly referred to it as a busy old hive, for from Market
Street church emanated some of the greatest religious movements of the
century.

Howard Crosby, son of William B. Crosby, and brought up in the Market
Street church, was the first president of the Young Men's Christian
Association. Cuyler became interested in it the second year of its
existence in New York, and during his long lifetime he never ceased to
work for it. But if the church had done nought else than bring Robert
McBurney to the Association it would have been amply repaid. The master
spirit in the Association for thirty years McBurney's name is written
in golden letters in the city's history. Morris K. Jesup and William
E. Dodge, life-long friends of the church, were early Association
supporters.

A work typical of Market Street church was the Fulton Street
prayer-meeting, started by Jeremiah C. Lamphier, who sang in the church
choir. Dr. Cuyler credits this with being the first move in the tremendous
revival that from 1856 to 1858 swayed the city, and went on to other
cities, gathering momentum. Cuyler says: "In three or four weeks the
revival so absorbed the city that business men crowded into the churches
from 12 to 3 each day, and when Horace Greeley was asked to start a new
philanthropic enterprise he said: 'The city is so absorbed with this
revival that it has no time for anything else.'"

Market Street church gathered in 150 new members, and 1859 was one of
the glorious ones in the history of the church.

Mr. Lamphier died December 26, 1898.

In the Temperance cause, Dr. Cuyler was also a ceaseless worker. From
1851 to 1857 he was in close alliance with Neal Dow, then at the height
of his fame as a prohibition advocate.

Another organization that had an earnest supporter in Dr. Cuyler was
the Christian Endeavor Society, tho Cuyler gives all the credit for its
fatherhood to Rev. F. E. Clarke.

In a day when such things were not common Market Street church got
deeply into matters civic. "The most hideous sink of iniquity and
loathsome degradation was in the then famous Five Points," Baxter,
Worth, Mulberry, Park Streets, not far from the church. An old building,
honeycombed with vaults and secret passages, called the Old Brewery, was
the center of a locality that boldly flouted the police. Indeed, for
years the Old Brewery was a harbor of refuge for any criminal, for the
law never reached him there, nor were the Five Points ever a safe place
to walk thru. At night no one dared be seen there. For some years the
Five Points had played a physical part in the elections, and many a riot
had its inception there.

Then the city put thru Worth Street, formerly known as Anthony Street,
after a Rutgers, and the Old Brewery Mission was establisht there. Thru
Mrs. Pease, a member of the Market Street church, whose husband was the
brave projector of the Five Points House of Industry, the church became
interested in improving conditions. When Mr. Pease went south, his place
was taken by Benjamin R. Barlow, one of the Market Street elders.

In his autobiography, Dr. Cuyler tells how he "used to make nocturnal
explorations of some of those satanic quarters" to keep public interest
awake in the mission work at the Five Points. New Yorkers who remember
the House of Industry of thirty years ago and who now look at Mulberry
Bend Park may well thank the old Market Street church that the Cow Bay,
Bandit's Roost, the Old Brewery and Cut Throat Alley are things of the
past, and that the Five Points are known to this later day only as a
name. No second Charles Dickens will cross the ocean to tell us that
"all that is loathsome, drooping and decayed is here."

[Illustration]

Few men have been in touch with so many public movements as Dr. Cuyler.
He was the personal friend of statesmen, churchmen, professors,
lecturers, teachers, philanthropists, diplomats, poets and presidents.
And as was the minister so were the people of the Market Street church:
forward in every movement for the betterment of mankind, the coming of
the kingdom. Some of the best families of New York were connected there,
and as fathers bought pews for the sons when they married it was a
family church. These names are frequent: Duryee, Crosby, Mersereau,
Brinkerhoff, Poillon, Zophar Mills, Ludlam, Suydam, Westervelt, Waydell,
Chittenden, Bartlett, McKee, Purdy and a host of others.

Small wonder that from among men like these great institutions should
come, that the Park Bank and the Nassau Bank should be founded by Market
Street church men. The annual pew rents were $5,000, then a large sum.

Perhaps it was their very farsightedness that made the people of the
church think of moving uptown. The "brownstone front" was drawing people
northward, and Dr. Cuyler started a movement "to erect a new edifice
on Murray Hill, and to retain the old building in Market Street as an
auxiliary mission chapel." Subscriptions were secured, William E. Dodge
heading the list. But the new site at Park Avenue and Thirty-fifth
Street did not find favor, and many were opposed to the whole project,
so when in 1860 the consistory was to vote the first payment, the whole
enterprise failed by one vote.

Dr. Cuyler said he would thank the good old man who cast that
vote--Meade was his name--if he ever met him in the other world. He
resigned from Market Street church, his ministry ending April 7, 1860,
and accepted a call from the little Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church
in Brooklyn. His friend, Henry Ward Beecher, did not see how he could
get a congregation there, but after many years of ever-increasing
usefulness Mr. Beecher lived to say to Dr. Cuyler: "You are now in the
center, and I am out on the circumference."

It was strange that a man of the forceful type of Cuyler should leave
a church because it would not move away, and that thirty years later he
should preach in it, rejoicing in its continuing prosperity. Strange,
too, that Cuyler left the Dutch Church for the Presbyterian, and that
the old building "changed its faith" in like manner.

Rev. Chauncey D. Murray was the next pastor of the Market Street church,
the classis installing him March 10, 1861, and he was succeeded in 1863
by Rev. Jacob C. Dutcher. William B. Crosby, of beloved memory, came
forward with very liberal contributions to sustain the church, but the
depletion went on. In Mr. Murray's time another attempt to move uptown
had failed.

In December, 1859, the courts had already given permission for a sale,
but on condition that another church be built uptown with the proceeds.
This having failed, under a revised order of the court the building was
deeded to Hanson K. Corning in 1866, another congregation having
meanwhile inaugurated services there.

The old consistory lived on till June 2, 1869, when it held its last
meeting at the home of R. R. Crosby, in Twenty-second Street. A committee
had secured the necessary legal modifications so that the temporalities
could be disposed of. The distribution was as follows:

To St. Paul's Reformed church on Twenty-first Street, $15,000; $8,000
to the Prospect Hill Reformed church on Eighty-fifth Street, and about
$18,000 to the Northwest Reformed church on Twenty-third Street. A $500
United States bond was given by William B. Crosby to the Sunday school
of the Twenty-first Street church. The baptismal font was presented to
St. Paul's church, the splendid communion service to the Prospect Hill
church. All these churches have past out of existence. The organ was
presented to the Church of the Sea and Land; "the property right in the
Henry Rutgers tablet was given to R. R. Crosby; the McMurray tablet to
Henry Rutgers McMurray. A vault in Twenty-second Street was given to the
Prospect Hill church. The bell, now loaned to the Church of the Sea and
Land, was given in a revisionary right to the consistory of the
Collegiate church, in case it ever ceases to ring for a Protestant
church." It still rings undisturbed, tho it has not in the memory of man
swung on its wheel. Only recently has it been given back one of its
earliest powers: it is to ring the alarum if all modern means fail. It
was cast in Troy in 1847, and the committee (Crosby, Conover and Lyles)
spent $365.14 for it. The congregation thought too much of it in 1848 to
allow its use by Engine Company 42 for fire alarms. The books of the
Market Street church were left to the Collegiate church and are now at
New Brunswick.

[Illustration]

All this having been done, the president of the consistory, Mahlon T.
Hewitt, handed out the remaining letters of dismissal to D. W. Woodford,
Robert R. Crosby, William Lain, Dr. Veranus Morse, John Van Flick, Henry
Taylor and Albert I. Lyon, and made a formal closing address in which he
offered "a sincere prayer that its old walls may still stand, and that
it may continue to be the birthplace of souls into the kingdom of
Christ." The prayer has been answered.

Thus ended the Protestant Reformed Dutch church in Market Street after
just fifty years.



III


While the Market Street Reformed Church was fighting its last fight,
a little congregation had come to life in the parlor of a sailor's
boarding house. It was intended chiefly for "seamen and others," the
"others" referring mostly to those who no longer sailed the seas. The
first meeting was held June 7, 1864. Those were the days of sailing
vessels; the New York of the thirties had been the ship building center
of the world, especially from Pike Street up. At every pier sail boats
were moored, coming from all over the world, and as they dismist their
crews on arrival it left the men on shore unoccupied until their meager
wages were gone, when they were crimped for another voyage. Low dance
halls and worse were all along the river front and the sailor was their
prey. The American Seamen's Friend Society sprang into being to improve
the situation, and erected a fine building in Cherry Street, to give the
men surroundings that were clean physically and spiritually. With the
present federal laws for the protection of seamen the condition in the
sixties can hardly be appreciated.

[Illustration: Sailors' Home]

Where Fulton had built his first steamboat fifty years before huge
yellow dry-docks now rose. Additional land had been gained so that
Water, Front and South Streets grew out of the river. All along the
river front sailing vessels pushed their bowsprits and gilded
figureheads far over the streets almost into the windows of the
sail-lofts that were numerous along South Street.

For these men then the Presbytery of New York on December 29, 1864,
at 52 Market Street, organized the Presbyterian Church of the Sea and
Land, with thirty-two members. Dr. Phillips, Rev. Rice and Rev. A. E.
Campbell, and Elders A. B. Conger and A. B. Belknapp, were Presbytery's
Committee, and John Simmons and John H. Cassidy were the first elders.

Rev. Alexander McGlashan was installed as pastor, February 2, 1865,
serving for a little more than a year. Ill health was the reason for his
leaving. He died in 1867. The deacons were Henry H. Smith and Henry
Harrison; also Philip Halle, who served for only a short time.

[Illustration: 52 Market Street]

On December 26, 1865, the following trustees were chosen: John H.
Cassidy, John Simmons, Henry H. Smith, Henry Harrison, David Robb, John
Neal, and Jas. McGlashan. At this time there were 74 members and the
year's receipts were $2,372.67.

The Sunday school was organized January 1, 1865, 25 being present, soon
growing to 80. It had a library of 400 volumes, costing $122.25. John H.
Cassidy was superintendent and T. M. May secretary. Wm. McCracken was
president of the Temperance Meeting and Joseph W. Cassidy president of
the Band of Hope.

But the man that was most prominent at this time in the church's history
is never mentioned in the official records.

[Illustration: Hanson K. Corning]

Hanson K. Corning was a shipping merchant, who knew from his own
business connections the helpless condition of seamen when in port.

He was born in 1810 in Hartford. The Cornings conducted a large South
American import business, with offices at 74 South Street. Three
generations were active in it.

Hanson K. Corning lived in Brazil for a few years, paying special
attention to the rubber business and also acting as United States
Consul.

On his return to the United States he became a member of the firm, and
the business prospered greatly. Altho Mr. Corning in later life became
an invalid, he went to his South Street office until 1860. Thereafter
he gave his time completely to religious and philanthropic work.

When, in the early sixties, the decline of the Market Street church
became evident, Mr. Corning conceived the idea of making it a sailors'
church.

He entered into negotiations with the consistory and on May 1, 1866, he
became owner of the property, paying $36,500 for it. The Church of the
Sea and Land moved into the building about this time. The congregation
occupied the premises rent free, and in October, 1868, the property was
transferred to the Presbytery of New York, to insure greater permanence.
Mr. Corning sold it for $25,000, which meant a gift of some $10,000 from
him, the church itself giving about $1,500. James Lenox contributed
$1,000.

The deed was a peculiar one, making the Church of the Sea and Land a
third party, and giving it the right of occupancy as long as it was in
ecclesiastical connection with the Presbytery, "or until in the judgment
and by vote of three-fourths of the members present at any regular
meeting of the Presbytery it shall be decided to be no longer expedient
to continue or sustain religious services or missionary work in that
church or locality."

It was also stated in the deed that all seats should be free, whereas in
the Dutch church the pews were private property except that one-tenth
of the pews were to "be free forever for the use of the poor and of
strangers," and such pews were marked on the doors as free.

This is why the new church boldly painted "seats free" over the doorway.

Mr. Corning was a member of the Brick Presbyterian church, to which he
gave considerable sums. He contributed liberally to many objects, but
not indiscriminately, and the mission fields in Brazil, the American
Bible Society and many other organizations were stronger for his
munificence and wise counsel. Mr. Corning died April 22, 1878. A gift
of Mr. Corning that the church still cherishes is its pulpit Bible.

Mr. Corning's interest in the church that practically was founded by
him has never ceased, for after his death his daughter and son again
became interested, and the third generation is still represented in the
officers of the church and among its givers.

Rev. S. F. Farmer supplied the pulpit for a little while till John Lyle
was installed June 25, 1867. Next January the session met almost
continuously for the reception of members. The records show that in 1867
and 1868 133 members were received after examination and 80 by letter.

In November, 1868, Mr. Lyle was deposed by Presbytery. He died in 1881.

Edward Hopper came in 1868 and on June 29, 1869, he was installed as
pastor.

[Illustration: Edward Hopper]

Mr. Hopper was born on February 17, 1816, graduating from Union Seminary
in 1842. He was pastor at Greenville, N. Y., eight years, at Sag Harbor,
L. I., eleven years. After a short time at Plainfield, N. J., he
accepted the call to New York. In 1871 Lafayette College conferred the
degree of Doctor of Divinity on him.

Dr. Hopper wrote a number of poems that were publisht in three volumes.
During his Sea and Land ministry he was brought in contact with seamen
and this finds expression in his later works taking character from life
on the sea. Many of his verses have found place in Christian hymnology,
notably such a lyric as "Jesus, Savior, pilot me over life's tempestuous
sea," with that sweet verse "as a mother stills her child Thou canst
hush the ocean wild." Another hymn was "Wrecked and struggling in mid
ocean, clinging to a broken spar."

During the Civil War Dr. Hopper had written some stirring verses, one on
The Old Flag being especially noted.

He was of fine literary taste and culture, proud of his Knickerbocker
ancestry. Physically as well as intellectually he was every inch a man,
with his bright eye, fine face and, in later years, a snow-white beard.
Even in his three score years and ten a decline was hardly perceptible
until in the fall of 1887 the companion of his lifetime and partner of
his literary pursuits was taken from him.

On April 22, 1888, his text was: "Watch, therefore, for ye know neither
the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh." Next day at noon
his niece found him in his study chair, his pencil dropt from his
lifeless hand. Before him was a poem: "Heaven."

He left to his nieces a rather large estate, consisting principally
of railroad stocks, with legacies for home and foreign missions. His
investments had been made on the advice of his friend, John Taylor
Johnson, the railroad president, who presented to the church the
communion service that was in use for over fifty years.

[Illustration]



IV


In Dr. Hopper's time the work of the church for seamen reached its
highest development, and that was due to Christian A. Borella. He was a
missionary of the American Seamen's Friend Society for twenty-one years,
stationed at the Sailors' Home in Cherry Street, and surely a man of
God. Borella never came to church or prayer-meeting alone: he always had
men in tow.

There was an upper room at the Sailors' Home that meant much to many
men, and there Borella did a work that resulted in great acquisitions to
the church. It is true that many "going down to the sea in ships" were
never heard of again, and years afterwards nearly 400 names of seamen
were at one time removed from the roll by the session. But again and
again word came from all parts of the earth and in many languages from
men that called the church blessed. It was only an exemplification of
the wide scope of Sea and Land when a generation later one of its
ministers chanced across one of these men in Western Australia.

A feature of the prayer-meeting in those days was the reading of these
seamen's letters, giving account of themselves to Borella. They always
stirred the man, who would add words of Christian admonition that lacked
nothing in definiteness.

He was the right hand of Dr. Hopper, re-wrote records and generally made
himself useful.

But in his olden days he became restless and as no mission board would
take a man of sixty-four years he went, after Dr. Hopper's death, to
Africa at his own expense. He soon attached himself to Bishop William
Taylor and with his master's certificate ran the missionary boat
_Anne Taylor_ on the Congo.

Bishop Taylor says of his end: "One Sunday morning we walked together to
a preaching service at Vivi top. Captain Borella was suddenly taken ill
and on my return there Monday morning was very low with fever. On August
12, 1891, he fell asleep in Jesus, and we buried him under a huge baobab
tree at Vivi top."

[Illustration: Christian A. Borella]

Physically he was stockily built, well knit and evidently a strong man,
always neat, but exceedingly plain in dress. He was born in Southern
Denmark, of Spanish ancestry. His modest fortune he had made in
California in '49, and his conversion was under Father Taylor when
Borella came under his influence in Boston. It was Father Taylor of whom
Walt Whitman said that he was "the one essentially perfect orator" he
had ever heard.

After several voyages Borella became "cold and a backslider," and an eye
disease nearly blinded him. "The Lord cured my blindness, physical and
spiritual, and I promist him then that I would serve him the rest of my
life," and he did it with the virility and sternness of an Old Testament
prophet.

Borella was succeeded by Captain William Dollar, a dear old saint, who
was stationed at the Sailors' Home for twelve years.

The church's work in these earlier days was simple enough,
prayer-meeting Thursdays, then Wednesdays, and temperance meeting under
McClellan and Campbell on Friday. But on Sunday, besides the two long
church services there was Sunday school, morning and afternoon, and
young people's meeting preceding the evening service.

When the sailing vessels were still along South Street, meetings were
held on ships as opportunity offered.

In 1882 the interior of the church was papered and painted by Elder B.
A. Carlan at a cost of less than $1,000. New cushions, carpets, etc.,
brought the total up to $1,564.

The one annual event was the Sunday school excursion, when all went on
board a barge, which was towed by a tug to a grove on the sound or on
the Hudson. Dancing was tabooed, but a "melodeon" was carted to the dock
and hymns were sung. The tickets were fifty cents for adults, but Sunday
school children were free. Robert S. Taylor, veteran secretary, was
chief ticket seller, not only on the dock that morning, but in Wall
Street for weeks before. The president of the Temperance Society once or
twice put in an excursion just ahead of that of the Sunday school, and
there was dancing. But this was generally disapproved.

Miss Fanny Crosby often came to the Primary in those days and many of
her hymns were first sung there. Mr. Blackwood, her attendant, married
Miss Devlin, the teacher of the class.

In those days Market and Henry Streets had many two-story and attic
houses and in almost every one of those about the church people lived
who went there.

Teachers whose names stand out about this time were: Hans Norsk, James
Brown, Thomas Miller, William Stevenson, Evan Price, James Smith,
William Gibson, Robert Pierce, Dr. Theodore A. Vanduzee, Jesse Povey,
Mrs. B. C. Lefler, Mrs. S. M. Nelson.

The excursions gave rise to a committee of young people who started to
provide amusements other than dancing: swings, songs, and so on. There
came also an "executive committee" that asked many questions, and Dr.
Hopper, in a courteous and kindly way answered them in full: that was
the first report made to the congregation. Till then the annual meeting
had consisted of reading the names of the subscribers who had
contributed by means of the monthly envelopes, and the amounts they
gave.

But Charles J. Lemaire could not understand why this excursion amusement
committee should not become a permanent organization with literary
purposes. Thus began the Lylian Association that for twenty years was
a mainstay of the church and in its days of dire necessity was a vital
factor. From it came the young men that in later years were trustees,
and it was the opening wedge that was to transform the whole church
work.

When two of the young men came to the trustees for permission for a
literary society to meet weekly, it was questioned whether anything but
religious meetings might be held in the building. But after serious
reflection the two were made personally responsible for good order,
provided always meetings were opened and closed with prayer.

In a day when the young people had no outlet whatever for their active
spirits the Lylian Association became a training school for the church.
The debates of that day will never be forgotten, notably when the
Lylians wrested the laurel wreath from the Goldeys at Clarendon Hall,
and that other one, when Dr. Hopper suddenly appeared at a meeting and
after an impromptu debate "showing every evidence of being well
prepared," as he said, some consciences were ill at ease.

Then there was the Gossip's Journal, provoking endless parliamentary
wrangles, and perhaps helping to develop later on an editor. Memorable
were the Young People's Conventions of 1886 and 1887, and Lylians will
never forget the patriot Kromm, Spoopendyke Shreve, the poet laureate
and a dozen others. The Fourth of July picnics at Pamrapo and Nyack are
happy memories for many.

Like the old Market Street stoop with its fancy iron posts and rails
the Lylian Association has seen its day, but it amply justified its
existence.

When one Monday evening Mr. Pinkham, the church treasurer, announced to
the Lylians the sudden death of Dr. Hopper, there was consternation and
adjournment.

Andrew Beattie, a theological student, had been called before this
as co-pastor. He was installed as pastor May 29, 1888, having been
persuaded to give up his intention of going to the foreign field. Mr.
Beattie lived down town, and his bachelor apartments on East Broadway
were a gathering place for the young men, many of whom were in his Sunday
school class. He with others worked out the system of quarterly written
examination and grading that since 1888 have been uninterruptedly in force
in the Sunday school, long before other schools thought of such things.

[Illustration: Andrew Beattie]

The school was flourishing with many young people as officers and
teachers, all the activities of the church being centered on its
nursery. The records were systematized, and articles in the church
papers printed on the system, electric bells were installed, fire
drills were inaugurated, discipline was rigid, visiting by teachers
and districts was carefully regulated, the library given attention.
Mr. Beattie returned to his first love, resigning after eight months
to go to the foreign mission field. After years of greatest usefulness
in Canton, China, his health necessitated his return. Dr. Beattie is
with his family in California, where he is in charge of a Presbyterian
orphanage.

[Illustration: Sunday School Room of Old 61]



V


[Illustration: Alex. W. Sproull]

Reverend Alexander W. Sproull followed Mr. Beattie on January 5, 1890,
serving for three years. He had been Synodical Missionary in Florida.
After leaving Sea and Land he was incapacitated for further active
service. He died December 13, 1912.

[Illustration: Col. Robert G. Shaw]

Another breach was made in the conservatism of the old church when
one of the young trustees proposed to let the New York Kindergarten
Association use the room rent free for a kindergarten, then new in the
neighborhood. The older, wiser heads were gravely shaken at this
remarkable innovation, but it came on March 31, 1892, and with it the
beloved Anna E. Crawford as teacher. The fairy godmother who maintained
it was Mrs. Francis G. Shaw, giving the kindergarten the name of her
son, Robert Gould Shaw. It was a happy combination this, and the little
boys became strong men in the memory of the young Colonel who gave his
life at Fort Wagner at the head of the First Colored Regiment. They
buried him disdainfully "with his niggers," but Robert Gould Shaw lived
again in the lives of little boys trained to sacrifice at Sea and Land.
Nor will the Colonel's sister be forgotten: Mrs. Charles Russell Lowell,
who gave her young husband in the same cause and thereafter lived a life
that merited William Rhinelander Stewart calling her "one of the most
useful and remarkable women of the Nineteenth Century." Her spirit of
service was renewed in the little girls of the Shaw Kindergarten. The
beautiful bas relief by St. Gaudens on Boston Common is less of a
memorial than the kindergarten in Henry Street.

Mrs. Shaw died December 29, 1902, having supported the kindergarten for
eleven years.

[Illustration: Shaw Memorial Kindergarten]

Another departure was an open air meeting establisht by Mr. Sproull,
gathering at the church door Sunday afternoons. First things are hard
things.

But a storm was brewing. Uptown churches needed money, their pastors
were influential in the denomination and it seemed to many good business
to dispose of the Market Street church.

So, on March 13, 1893, Presbytery ordered the church sold, declaring, to
comply with the Corning deed, that "missionary work in the church or in
that locality was no longer expedient." The church pointed out that 29
of the 57 churches in New York Presbytery had received less members
during the preceding year, 16 churches had fewer members, 14 churches
raised less money, and that 6 churches made a worse showing than Sea and
Land in every single item reported on. There were then only 4 Protestant
churches for 60,000 people. The battle was on, and the bitterness of the
Briggs trial had not yet subsided,--the same Briggs who as a young man
belonged to Market Street church.

Mr. Sproull's small salary allowance was discontinued and he was forced
to resign, July 1, 1893. Then came hard times, no friends, no minister,
no funds. But when the tale of bricks was doubled Moses came.

It was in the shape of a legacy from Borella. That saint on his death in
Africa had left his estate in America to the Church of the Sea and Land
and the American Seamen's Friend Society jointly. If Borella had lived
he could not have arranged it for a better time.

Meanwhile by an accident the press of the city gained the whole story
from the church's viewpoint, and thereafter all the news reports were
tinged favorably to the down-town church that insisted on living. There
were illustrated articles on the church's history, caustic editorial
comments, letters from correspondents, and everybody talked about the
church. The ash barrels and the church doors had bills posted on them
announcing that the Church of the Sea and Land would be sold at auction
on April 19, 1893. The property, however, was withdrawn when the best
offer was $15,000 short of what was expected. There was a lull.

In the spring of 1894 it became necessary to devise some means of
helping the New York Presbyterian Church on 127th Street, which was
buried by mortgages amounting to $118,000, about to be foreclosed.
Sea and Land was to furnish part of this and a mortgage was suggested.
The church trustees opposed this successfully, altho at first it was
supposed their consent was not required. Without the knowledge of the
church a sale was then again ordered January 18, 1895.

Preceding this, beginning October 1, 1894, the church had "affiliated"
with the Madison Square Presbyterian church. As Presbytery had formally
approved this the Madison Square church remonstrated vigorously thru Dr.
Parkhurst, but feeling that Presbytery's action could not be relied on
the Madison Square church withdrew at the expiration of its one year of
affiliation.

Committees of prominent clergymen visited the church and were "warmly"
welcomed. It was suggested that Sea and Land unite with other churches,
but it is a singular fact that, as when the Reformed church disbanded,
so now, not a single church is in existence that was then mentioned for
a refuge. A case in point is the Allen Street Presbyterian church. They
had sold their building near Grand Street and for a time worshipt in the
Market Street church. But in spite of earnest solicitation they erected
an unfortunate structure in an unfortunate location in Forsyth Street.
After a short existence there they united with the Fourteenth Street
church, and that church is no more!

Even the strong Madison Square church no longer preserves its identity.

Meanwhile work went on, at first in desultory fashion, two or three
times the young men had to conduct services. But thru it all Dr. A. F.
Schauffler, of the New York City Mission Society, was the church's
consistent friend. His order to the city missionaries at the church to
stay until the doors were shut was the one heartening feature of a time
when the officers ordered the blue church flag raised and "no one from
Sea and Land will ever take it down."

The Women's Branch always ably seconded these efforts under Mrs. Lucy S.
Bainbridge and later Miss Edith N. White.

[Illustration: Old Church Flag]

Instead of slowly dying out the work of the church gained momentum
from day to day: Lodging house meetings, Sunday afternoon teas, free
concerts, addresses by Gompers, McGlynn, Henry George, Parkhurst and
others, sermons "against thugs in politics," and so on.

A permanent accomplishment of the nine months' intense régime of
Alexander F. Irvine was the starting of _The Sea and Land Monthly_, the
first number of which appeared in October, 1893. With characteristic
impetuosity Mr. Irvine launched it, and it has been afloat for more than
a quarter century.

The _Monthly_ has been a great storehouse: not only did it give from
month to month the happenings at the church, but it brought to later
generations an appreciation of the goodly heritage of years that had
gone before.

The vital events in the congregation's history were recorded, but so was
the personal history of its people. The coming of little messengers to
the homes, their baptism, their reception into the church, their
marriage, their death. Then began another cycle like unto the first.

And the _Monthly_ kept alive the interest of many a Sea and Lander who
was adrift. It gave account of its stewardship to the friends of the
church who supported its work. Few churches ever publish with such detail
the annual reports as does Sea and Land.

Many are the kind words from near and far that have been said about the
_Sea and Land Monthly_.



VI


[Illustration: John Hopkins Denison]

But if the Madison Square church withdrew officially it left behind more
than the old church ever expected. It was a young man who, in October,
1894, reported to the Sunday school superintendent as coming from
Madison Square. He was John Hopkins Denison, a grandson of Mark Hopkins,
of fine New England stock. He had come to New York to become Dr.
Parkhurst's assistant when he was making war on Tammany. Those were the
days of the City Vigilance League, when unsavory revelations were
necessary to effect a change in city government. There was a meeting
which crowded the old church to the second galleries when Dr. Parkhurst
spoke. It was a noble battle and not without its dangers.

So when the Madison Square church went, Mr. Denison staid, and he was
a prodigious worker. The quarters in the tower were enlarged for there
were many visitors who bunked there.

[Illustration: The Tower Study]

Mr. Denison set out to prove the right of the church to existence and he
did it. He did more: he brought no end of friends that remained to the
church. The thought of Cuyler to establish a mission, of Parkhurst to
affiliate the church with a stronger one, was developed under Denison
into an organization amply supported by the whole church, working out
by itself its own local problems. It was no longer a self-evident
proposition that a church not able to support itself must go.

[Illustration: 52 Henry Street]

One of the early steps was the establishment of a church house at 52
Henry Street. Mr. Denison said: "It was not an institution--it was not
even a settlement; it was simply a house where people lived. The time
is gone by for men and women to come down as outsiders and pry into the
homes of poverty and sin, and then return to their own life far away.
One must live in a community, one must be a neighbor."

Mr. John Crosby Brown was the munificent friend who made the house
possible, Miss Mae M. Brown being a deeply interested resident there.
Mrs. Rockwell was in charge, then Miss Eleanor J. Crawford. It was the
center for all social activities, tastefully fitted up, the ladies
working at the church living on the upper floors. In the same house Sea
and Land people had lived for many years: the Stevensons, the Boyces,
Miss McGarry.

In 1906 the building was torn down and other arrangements had to be
made. For a time apartments were occupied at 138 Henry Street and 51
Market Street.

[Illustration]

The Fresh Air Work, too, was put on a permanent basis. Besides making
the church the local station for the Tribune Fresh Air Fund, houses
were rented at Rockaway for five years, later at Huntington, until in
a more recent time Staten Island property was bought. Later years saw
an extension of this work to Schenectady, where Dr. Bigelow of blessed
memory headed it.

Under the auspices of William W. Seymour,--of course he was not mayor of
Tacoma then,--the first boys' camp was establisht at North Hero, Vt., and
is still a glorious memory. The girls were welcomed at Litchfield and
Saybrook.

Not only did money flow in readily, but it was quite the thing for young
ministers and theological students to spend a year, a summer or a winter
at Sea and Land, and they did not study books: they worked on men and
women at all hours. If some wretch got into trouble some one to whom he
was assigned had not been vigilant enough. Before Hoover made a world
reputation for himself, Denison studied food economics, and he proved it
by having the group live on a minimum allowance. Then he preached on
what was economical living.

The most prominent men spoke in the church: Dr. Paton from the New
Hebrides; Dr. Grenfell from Labrador, Dr. Van Dyke and a hundred others.

University extension ideas were anticipated in courses of study, the
men of the church were put to work writing independent Sunday school
lessons, the teachers had pedagogical talks and studied Biblical
masterpieces. The girls were taken to sing in Rutgers Square and it
was not always safe to do it either. The Upper Room was establisht in
Rutgers Street, then the Lighthouse in Water Street, a fine stereopticon
was in frequent use. The Men's Club, under George M. Bailey, prospered
like the green bay tree, drawing men of all classes. A design for a
church flag was adopted. Sports were encouraged. Numerous clubs were
organized, among them the Good Time Club, also the Penny Provident and
the Helping Hand. Nursing was taken up; sewing and cooking classes,
model flats and cottage meetings started. Magazine and newspaper
articles commented on unusual sermons, such as the one on the balloons.
Addresses at Northfield, Silver Bay and other places called attention
to the church's work in ever-widening circles, Hamilton House came into
being, but without organic connection with the church.

[Illustration: New Church Flag]

In short, Mr. Denison's compelling personality and enormous capacity for
work put others to work, so that in the summer of 1895 9,546 persons
were brought together in the old church in five weeks.

So men and women came and went, some of them wrote books and magazine
articles about the work with more or less accuracy. Mr. Denison's own
poems were more appreciated by those who knew.

The force of it all was irresistible, and so the last trace of
opposition in Presbytery and elsewhere disappeared. On November 11,
1895, the sale of the property was called off, and $2,000 a year paid
for three years. Ever since Presbyterians and others have been proud
of the outpost the united church is maintaining at Market and Henry
Streets. It is a happy memory that all of the men who in Presbytery
supported sale resolutions became staunch friends of the church.

Mr. Denison was not ordained when first he came to Market Street, but
this was done later at Williamstown in the College Chapel. On entering
New York Presbytery his installation as regular pastor of the Church
of the Sea and Land was effected March 23, 1899.

In 1894 Mrs. Shaw spent considerable money fixing up the lecture room
and in 1896 a new roof was put on the church at an expense of $600.

Mr. Denison made a tour of the world, being absent from November, 1900,
to October, 1901.

Among the men working under Mr. Denison was Horace Day, a young
theological student who gave his life after a brief but intense period
of work.

In Mr. Denison's time, too, falls the best work of Mrs. Eliza E.
Rockwell. She was indefatigable, beloved of many, none too far gone to
merit her attention, nothing too hard to do. She, too, laid down her
life as a sacrifice. Even Mr. Denison's book, "Beside the Bowery,"
insufficiently tells the full measure of her devotion for the thirteen
years she was at Sea and Land. Her last message to the trustees was:
"I died in harness." It was on March 14, 1908.

One of the men of that day was Edward Dowling. As a tinker he wandered
about distributing tracts, speaking the word in truth, and returning
during the winter to be factotum in the tower. In that kindly old soul
few guessed the old fighter in India. Did he really know the place where
priceless treasures were hid beside an old idol?

One of the men in whom united the Sea and Land of the staid old ways
and the boundless energy of later days was John Denham. He lived to
see the day when the boy in the primary of the school of which he was
superintendent for years sat beside him in the session. He was the
living embodiment of that perennial spirit in the Church of Christ which
ever adjusts itself to new conditions and never loses sight of its main
object.

Mr. Denham's strong point was with the older people. It was
characteristic to have him read his Bible, quietly take up his hat
nearby and pay a visit.

When on February 4, 1910, John Denham went home to the Master whom he
had served thru a long life the younger men first felt the burden of
things: the senior elder was no more. He had held open the door of the
church for many a one and they had entered in.

[Illustration: John Denham]

Mr. Denison left the church December 31, 1902, to take up work in
Boston. It was a great loss, but as one of the officers said: "What
shall we do when Mr. Denison leaves? Why, what we always do at Sea
and Land: the best we know how."

Dr. William Adams Brown said: "None know better than the people of Sea
and Land how costly the contribution which they have been called to make
to the spiritual welfare of a sister city."

It was H. Roswell Bates, who, in the Spring Street Presbyterian church,
worked out Mr. Denison's plans, as he had helped to formulate them at
the old Market Street church while he was resident there.



VII


Mr. Denison was succeeded by his assistant, William Raymond Jelliffe.
They had been close friends, Mr. Jelliffe leaving business and entering
the ministry while at Sea and Land. He was ordained June 7, 1900, having
been at the church since May, 1893. He left December 31, 1905, to join
Mr. Denison in Boston, and later came to the Madison Avenue Presbyterian
church as assistant. Mr. Jelliffe did fundamental work with the Young
People's Society, that has been a staunch support of the church ever
since.

Rev. Orrin Giddings Cocks next headed the church's work. In his time the
financial affairs of the church were further strengthened and Mr. Cocks
is still an officer of the church which he has served many years.

Following the custom, Mr. Cocks' assistant, Rev. Russell Stanley
Gregory, next directed the work, being ordained June 25, 1908, and
taking charge at the close of the year. He was at the church ten years.

[Illustration: Old 61 Henry Street]

In 1909 the old Consistory Building was torn down. It held precious
memories for many, for in spite of its limitations it had in its 66
years given a service that had included about everything one could
imagine connected with church work. It had sheltered Sunday school,
Lylians, innumerable clubs, a kindergarten, not to speak of the earlier
days when prayer-meetings, school, temperance and Young Men's Christian
Association meetings exerted an influence that went out far beyond its
narrow walls. Even the stoop that had been worn by many feet, some very
little, had caused a poet to sing. It all went.

The new building that took its place was splendidly planned by Cady &
Gregory. It houses every activity of a modern church. Club rooms for
girls, boys and men, gymnasium, showers, kitchens, kindergarten rooms,
first-aid rooms, and quarters for the ladies in residence. There is a
roof garden where on hot summer evenings services and other gatherings
may be held.

[Illustration: New 61 Henry Street]

The friends of the church came to its assistance in such munificent
manner that not a single contract was made until subscriptions covering
it were in the hands of the trustees, and in every instance the actual
cash was in the treasury before payments came due. When, on May 3, 1910,
the building was opened with appropriate exercises there was a balance
on hand more than sufficient for all claims. It cost $43,000.

[Illustration: Oakwood House Before Renovation]

Another important achievement comes in this time. For years the church
had been moving about in rented quarters for fresh air work, finally
landing on Staten Island for several years. An option had been secured
on a house with over eight acres of ground at Oakwood Heights, and after
a year's occupancy that proved its availability, it was bought December
30, 1912, and next year some additional land was acquired, including
ocean front. The funds collected were sufficient to pay for house and
land, as well as a new bungalow and thoro overhauling of the old but
substantial house. As in the case of the new Sixty One all moneys needed
were in hand before they were required. On every occasion the people of
the church themselves have contributed amounts that were sacrifices
considering their limited means.

[Illustration: Oakwood House]

The Fresh Air Fund is entirely separate from the General Fund of the
church, and each year the expenses are covered by special subscriptions,
in the collection of which Mr. George C. Fraser and Mrs. Stephen Baker
have greatly interested themselves for many years. In its early days
Miss Helen Gould was one of the good friends of the Fresh Air Fund.

Mr. Gregory left December 1, 1913, to go to East Aurora, N. Y., and was
succeeded by Rev. John Ewing Steen, who had been ordained at the church
on October 13, 1910.

In 1917 Mr. Steen left suddenly for France in company with Mr. Gregory
for Young Men's Christian Association work with the army, Mr. Denison
being there also.

On Mr. Steen's leaving a hurry call brought Mr. Alfred D. Moore back
once more, under whom the preparations for the church's centennial were
taken up in spite of stress of war and inadequate assistance.

[Illustration: Cooking School Kitchen]



VIII


Work among the cosmopolitan population surrounding the church has had
various phases during these years.

In Dr. Hopper's time the Scandinavian element among Borella's men
predominated, and there was also a small Syrian group at the church,
but no services in any language but English were maintained.

Later, home classes in German for the parents of many of the children
were kept up for a number of years.

Work among the Jews was carried on for several years and with success,
if numbers count. But the methods of the leader were not approved and
so the trustees after investigation discontinued the meetings. Dr.
John Hall, of the Fifth Avenue church, then most prominent, earnestly
supported the man, but in afteryears the correctness of the position
taken by Market Street was abundantly proven.

Greek services were supported for quite a while, and since 1914 Russian
has been maintained under Mr. Nicholas Motin.

Italian services have been of all these most successful. Rev. Joseph A.
Villelli, who was ordained June 23, 1910, has managed these with tact
and ability "and the Lord added to the church daily such as should be
saved." A separate Sunday school is maintained, but with the idea of
gradual amalgamation, a process that is also proving its wisdom along
other lines of the church's work.

The advice and active support of men great in business have for many
years been at the disposal of the church. From the days of Matthias
Bruen, the merchant princes of this great city have been loyal friends,
to mention only Hanson K. Corning, father, daughter, grandson, William
E. Dodge--for three generations,--and John Crosby Brown and his family.

Along with the sainted Denham should be mentioned Benjamin F. Pinkham,
who for twenty years acted as treasurer of the church. He was a quiet
man, faithful in every duty, averse to discussion. When the Lord called
him home his accounts were in perfect order: a few minutes proved his
balance, a space was left for next Sunday's collection in his book.

There were sweet singers in Israel, too, who as precentors and choir
leaders have brought out the best there was of tuneful harmony, men like
Henry Carpenter, George T. Matthews, Henry Edwards, Allan Robinson,
William P. Dunn.

Thru the years some who have cared for the buildings stood out. Charles
Greer in the early days, Evan Price, a sturdy Welshman, who died in
service, Christian C. Pedersen, who returned to the same post years
afterwards. In Mr. Denison's time David J. Ranney served, attaining
later to the dignity of city missionary and an autobiography. John A.
Ross will be remembered for his omniscience as to people and things
about the old church.

[Illustration]

So the old Kirk on Rutgers Farm has stood a hundred years. From its
vaulted dome have echoed with no uncertain sound the voices of men like
the scholarly Milledoler or the indefatigable Denison, a hundred leaders
of men whose words and works have swayed the hearts of men.

Down the broad aisles walked the stately Dutchman, the proud
Knickerbocker, the great merchant, the stolid seaman, the busy New
Yorker,--to go out and by deeds of victory in times of peace and
unflinching loyalty when war's heavy heels trod the land they helped
make a great city greater and a mighty nation mightier still.

Never has this been a selfish, self-contained organism, but a living,
throbbing influence that went out beyond the shadow of its gray walls,
prodigal in giving to others the good things of the gospel that were
fostered there. Many a church at home and abroad has cause to bless
Market Street for the men and women that she brought up in the nurture
and admonition of the Lord.

"We are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, a great
multitude, which no man could number." All who have come have felt the
spell of the place, for in its dim seclusion still speak the men of old.
It is peopled with a long procession of saints and sages, mariners and
merchants, scholars and poets, now of the church triumphant: memories
that consecrate the souls of men and banish ignoble thoughts. Here is an
altar sacred to hosts of men and women, the holy of holies of their
noblest aspirations.

"Mark well her bulwarks, that ye may tell it to the generation
following." As the years roll on children and children's children will
arise and call those blessed whose fidelity thru a century has preserved
for them a holy place where "men still renew their youth."

[Illustration]



JESUS, SAVIOR, PILOT ME


  Jesus, Savior, pilot me,
  Over life's tempestuous sea;
  Unknown waves before me roll,
  Hiding rock and treacherous shoal;
  Chart and compass come from Thee,
  Jesus, Savior, pilot me.

  When the apostle's fragile bark
  Struggled with the billows dark
  On the stormy Galilee,
  Thou didst walk upon the sea;
  And when they beheld Thy form
  Safe they glided thru the storm.

  Tho the sea be smooth and bright,
  Sparkling with the stars of night,
  And my ship's path be ablaze
  With the light of halcyon days,
  Still I know my need of Thee;
  Jesus, Savior, pilot me.

  When the darkling heavens frown.
  And the wrathful winds come down,
  And the fierce waves, tost on high,
  Lash themselves against the sky,
  Jesus, Savior, pilot me.
  Over life's tempestuous sea.

  As a mother stills her child
  Thou canst hush the ocean wild;
  Boisterous waves obey Thy will
  When Thou sayest to them "Be still."
  Wondrous Sovereign of the sea,
  Jesus, Savior, pilot me.

  When at last I near the shore,
  And the fearful breakers roar,
  'Twixt me and the peaceful rest,
  Then, while leaning on Thy breast,
  May I hear Thee say to me,
  "Fear not, I will pilot thee."


Edward Hopper.



THE OLD CHURCH


  The old church long has stood,--
    For ages may it stand,
  Storehouse of heavenly food
    And lighthouse of the land.

  Within its sacred walls
    What thousands, now asleep,
  Where its blest shadow falls
    Have bowed to pray and weep!

  Old church, with doctrines old
    As God's eternal truth,
  Within its sacred fold
    Men still renew their youth.

  Still in its water springs,
    Whose streams are never dry,
  Hope bathes her drooping wings,
    And gathers strength to fly.

  Still from its tower of light
    The radiant truth is given
  To cheer men thru the night
    And guide them on to heaven.


Edward Hopper.



THE OLD FLAG


  Flag of the brave and free!
  Flag of our Liberty!
      Of thee we sing;
  Flag of our father's pride,
  With their pure heart's-blood dyed,
  When fighting side by side,
      Our pledge we bring.

  By their pure martyr-blood
  Poured on Columbia's sod
      For Liberty;
  By all their deeds of old,
  Their hunger, thirst and cold,
  Their battles fierce and bold,
      We'll stand by thee!

  Thy 'venging stripes shall wave
  To guard the homes they gave;
      Thy stars shall shine
  Upon oppression's night,
  To give the patriot light
  And make the dark world bright
      With hope divine.

  We pledge our heart and hand
  To bear thee o'er the land
      That God made free,--
  Till all its vales and hills,
  Its rivers and its rills,--
  Till the whole nation thrills
      With victory!

  Fear not, O Ship of State!
  Tho pirates with fierce hate
      May cross thy sea:--
  Fear not; at thy mast head
  We've nailed the blue, white, red
  Old Flag! Our fathers bled,
      And so can we!

  We love each tattered rag
  Of that old war-rent flag
      Of Liberty!
  Flag of great Washington!
  Flag of brave Anderson!
  Flag of each mother's son
      Who dares be free!

  O God, our banner save!
  Make it for ages waves!
      God save our flag!
  Preserve its honor pure,
  Unstained may it endure,
  And keep our freedom sure;
      God save our flag!


Edward Hopper.

_April, 1861._



RALLY SONG


THE BANNER.

  Soldier, hast thou halted,--
    Shrinking from the foe,--
  Friendless, beaten, taunted,
    Helpless in thy woe?
  Rally to the standard!
    God shall surely win!
  With Him thou shall triumph
    Over Death and Sin!

THE WHITE.

  Hast thou stumbled, fallen?
    Have they passed thee by?
  In the filth, despairing,
    Have they let thee lie?
  Up! rise up, and follow
    Yonder folds of white!
  Thou shalt share their brightness,
    Triumph in their light!

THE BLUE.

  Dost thou feel the darkness
    Near the gates of death?
  Dost thou shrink in terror
    At its icy breath?
  Lo! the flag is o'er thee
    With its field of blue!
  It shall guide thee homewards!
    Man, thy God is true!

THE RED CROSS.

  Is the conflict bitter?
    Art thou faint; at last,
  Struggling, panting, straining,
    Foul fiends hold thee fast?
  Rouse thyself and smite them!
    Raise thy standard high!
  See, its cross is o'er thee!
    Christ, the Lord, is nigh!

THE SPADE AND ANCHOR.

  Christian, hast thou left us--
    Left the battle line?
  Idling, straggling, wand'ring,
    Heedless of the sign?
  Hark! the trumpet calls thee!
    With us heart and hand
  Raise the Spade and Anchor!
    Strike for Sea and Land!


John Hopkins Denison.



THE SHADOW OF THE WALL


  Let us stay a while and listen to the voices of the past,
  Softly echoing, vaguely lingering, e'er they fade away at last,
  Dreaming in a dusky corner of the quaint, blue-panelled pew
  While the massive walls of granite shut the hurrying crowds from view,
  And the street's loud clang and clatter, screams of rage and cries of pain,
  And the endless plodding, thudding, of tired feet in quest of gain
  Muffled by a shroud of silence sounds a thousand miles away,
  And the past is hovering round us with its ghostly, dim array,
  Flitting by in vague procession, up the aisleway, down the hall,
  While we lurk here, snugly sheltered, shadowed by the massive wall.

  Stately dominies, wig-powdered, all in gowns of silk arrayed;
  Fairest dames, slim and high-waisted, clad in flowered, quaint brocade;
  Smart young captains, bold as pirates, with their slaves all gaunt and black;
  Stout old Dutchmen and their ladies, gowned as in a miller's sack--
  How they flit past in the gloaming, thru the huge, high-vaulted hall,
  While we lurk here, snugly sheltered, shadowed by the massive wall.

  Others come, some wan and haggard, heavy-lined and weary-eyed;
  Some with faces flushed and fevered, hearts aflame and hands fast tied.
  Others stand with frozen heart-strings, bitter, haughty, desolate;
  Some creep past in shame, fresh quivering from some thrust of scorn or hate.
  In they throng, all seeking respite from the cruel world's maddening call,
  Seeking peace in the dim silence, shadowed by the massive wall.

  Other voices, sweet and child-like, linger in the dusky vault,
  Cries of babes and tiny maidens, sweet since free from conscious fault,
  Here they gather, brown and rosy, golden-haired and crowned with jet,
  Glowing cheeks and eyes that dance, where innocence and joy are met.
  While without are screams and curses, loathsome vice and drunken brawls,
  Here within, God's flowers are sheltered in the shadow of these walls.

  Still they stand, a hold unshaken, while the turbid stream of life
  Swirls around their bulwarks, brawling, black with sin, with sorrows rife,
  While still from the dizzy whirlpool drowning souls creep to the door;
  For the House of God, unchanging, stands now and forevermore.
  Struggling in life's lonely battle, wounded, faint with many falls
  We have found a mighty fortress in the shadow of these walls.


John Hopkins Denison.



MINISTERS


_Market Street Dutch Reformed Church_

  1820-1835 William McMurray, D.D. [+] 1835.
  1836-1853 Isaac Ferris, D.D., [+] 1873.
  1853-1860 Theodore  Ledyard  Cuyler,  D.D., [+] 1909.
  1861-1862 Chauncey D. Murray.
  1863-1865 Jacob C. Dutcher.

_Presbyterian Church of the Sea and Land_

  1865-1866 Alexander McGlashan, D.D., [+] 1867.
  1867-1868 John Lyle, [+] 1881.
  1869-1888 Edward Hopper, D.D., [+] 1888.
  1888-1889 Andrew Beattie, Ph.D.; San Anselmo, Cal.
  1890-1893 Alexander W. Sproull, D.D., [+] 1912.
  1895-1902 John Hopkins Denison; France.
  1903-1905 William Raymond Jelliffe; New York.
  1906-1908 Orrin Giddings Cocks; New York.
  1909-1913 Russell Stanley Gregory; East Aurora, N. Y.
  1914-1917 John Ewing Steen; France.
  1910      Joseph Anthony Villelli.
  1917      Alfred D. Moore.
  1919      Russell J. Clinchy.



STUDENTS AT MARKET STREET CHURCH, ORDAINED LATER

    "It has been the high purpose of this church to train a
    type of minister for whom the hard places of life are places
    of honor, and who have been going out from there spreading
    the contagion of that idea in the ministry of to-day, making
    this church a great training school for a new order of
    ministers."--_George Alexander, D.D._


  Thomas B. Anderson.
  W. K. Anderson.
  David Baines-Griffiths [+].
  H. Roswell Bates [+].
  C. G. Bausmann [+].
  Andrew Beattie, California.
  Samuel Boult [+].
  Russell Bowie.
  Herbert H. Brown.
  Edward S. Cobb, Japan.
  Orrin G. Cocks, New York.
  Henry J. Condit.
  Fred W. Cutler.
  Avac Cutujian, Syria.
  Gustave J. d'Anchise.
  William O. Davis.
  J. Hopkins Denison, France.
  Tyler W. Dennett.
  Bayard Dodge, Syria.
  Ray C. Donnan.
  Charles E. Dunn.
  William P. Dunn.
  Dwight W. Edwards.
  Carl Elmore, France.
  Robert Elmore.
  Chester B. Emerson.
  Robert Falconer.
  Frank Fitt, Illinois.
  Luther Fowle, Turkey.
  John H. Freeman, Laos.
  Herbert Gallaudet.
  Robert G. Gottschall.
  Walter Grafton.
  Russell S. Gregory, East Aurora, N. Y.
  W. R. Grigg.
  Rowland B. Haynes, New York.
  Lewis B. Hillis.
  George Hughes.
  Alexander F. Irvine.
  W. Raymond Jelliffe, New York.
  Olin C. Jones.
  Francis W. Lawson.
  E. Trumbull Lee.
  Edwin C. Lobenstine, China.
  Herman Lohmann.
  Joseph A. Lucey.
  Martin F. Luther.
  Donald B. Macfarlane.
  A. Maclaren.
  Farquhar D. MacRae, Canada.
  R. George McLeod.
  Alfred D. Moore, New York.
  DuBois S. Morris, China.
  J. Grant Newman, Ohio.
  E. R. Perry.
  John Pigott.
  Jesse Povey.
  William G. Ramsay.
  Maxwell Rice.
  John Romola.
  Boudinot Seeley.
  J. Andrew Siceloff.
  John E. Steen, France.
  Charles F. Taylor.
  I. Paul Taylor.
  Henry H. Tweedy.
  Archibald S. VanOrden, New Jersey.
  Joseph A. Villelli, New York.
  Ernest L. Walz, Jr.
  Clarence E. Wells.
  Irving E. White.
  D. K. Young.



MEN WORKERS AT MARKET STREET CHURCH


  Donald A. Adams.
  Harry L. Adams.
  Robert C. Armstrong.
  George M. Bailey.
  Charles D. Baker [+].
  H. Blackwood.
  Christian A. Borella [+].
  Thatcher M. Brown.
  Anthony T. Bruno.
  Lester L. Callan.
  Henry Carpenter [+].
  Percy Cocks.
  Arthur P. Dawson.
  Horace Day [+].
  Moreau Delano.
  John Denham [+].
  Earl M. Dinger.
  William Dollar [+].
  Edward Dowling [+].
  Theodore Dwight.
  Winthrop E. Dwight.
  William B. Easton.
  Henry Edwards.
  Fred Elmore.
  J. Langdon Erving.
  J. Howard Fowler.
  Arthur W. Francis.
  Joseph A. Goodhue.
  George Graff.
  Thomas Gregory.
  Charles H. Grosvenor.
  Coleridge W. Hart.
  J. W. Herring.
  Howard I. Hill.
  H. E. Hopkins.
  Nicolas Joannides.
  Fritz A. Judson.
  Clarence D. Kingsley.
  Sterling P. Lamprecht.
  George Larson.
  W. S. Maguire.
  George T. Matthews.
  John R. Miller.
  Nicolas Motin.
  Arthur Moulton.
  A. Wheeler Palmer.
  Christian C. Pedersen.
  Edward Pepper [+].
  Lewis Perry.
  W. Smith Pettit.
  J. Raymond Ramsay.
  Allan Robinson.
  Willard C. Roper.
  George G. Scott.
  William W. Seymour.
  Frank L. Shoemaker.
  A. Karl Skinner.
  Floyd Smith.
  John M. Styles.
  W. S. Sullivan.
  Fred A. Suter.
  Walter Swanton.
  Harry E. Terrell.
  Henry A. Underwood [+].
  Paul Van Dewenter.
  William White.



WOMEN WORKERS AT MARKET STREET CHURCH


  Miss Acker.
  Miss E. Adams.
  Mrs. Alley.
  Miss Alice Antisdale.
  Miss Mary M. Axtell.
  Miss Mary Baker (Mrs. Fitch).
  Miss Georgine Bjersgard.
  Miss Elizabeth Bliss.
  Miss L. G. Birch.
  Miss Edith M. Bostwick.
  Miss Rose Brandt.
  Miss Florence Brooks (Mrs. Edw. S. Cobb).
  Miss Elsa Brown (Mrs. Barnes).
  Miss Mae M. Brown.
  Miss Sidney M. Brown (Mrs. J. J. Rigby).
  Miss Brownell.
  Miss Katherine E. Bruckbauer.
  Miss Edith Burnett.
  Miss Mary Cable.
  Mrs. H. Carpenter [+].
  Miss Edith R. Catlin (Mrs. Stowe Phelps).
  Miss E. B. Close (Mrs. J. Broomell).
  Mrs. Collins.
  Miss Margaret C. Condit.
  Miss Caroline E. Cooper.
  Miss Emma J. Couse.
  Miss Frances Cox.
  Miss Anna E. Crawford [+].
  Miss Eleanor J. Crawford.
  Miss Sophie Crawford.
  Miss Fanny Crosby.
  Mrs. Cumly.
  Miss Marion Darlington.
  Miss E. Day.
  Miss Virginia Deems.
  Miss Mary S. Dodd.
  Miss Maria Dowd (Mrs. F. W. Patterson).
  Miss Henrietta A. Downes [+].
  Miss Florence  Durstine (Mrs. Hamilton).
  Miss J. Florence Eldredge.
  Miss Josephine England.
  Miss Edith N. Fairfield.
  Miss Margaret B. Fairfield (Mrs. Stone).
  Miss Margaret B. Fergusson.
  Miss Forrest [+].
  Miss Freeman (Mrs. B. F. Ross).
  Miss Ella M. Ganow.
  Miss E. Garbold (Mrs. Benedict).
  Miss Hazel Gardiner (Mrs. O'Niel).
  Miss Helen Gildersleeve.
  Miss Margaret D. Golde.
  Miss Anna A. Golding.
  Miss Goodale.
  Miss Gould (Mrs. Hallock).
  Miss Irene L. Gregory.
  Miss Virginia P. Grimes.
  Miss Eleanor Hague.
  Miss Z. Haines.
  Miss Anna L. Hall (Mrs. M. L. Luther).
  Miss Esther Hall.
  Miss M. O. Harris (Mrs. McCullough).
  Miss Lydia A. Hays.
  Miss Helen Hickok.
  Miss Ida M. Hickok.
  Miss Irene Hickok.
  Miss Alice Hinman.
  Miss Jane E. Hitchcock.
  Miss Leonora Hogarth.
  Miss Caroline E. Horton.
  Miss Hotmer.
  Miss Mary Hubbard.
  Miss Hudson.
  Miss Daphne Hutton (Mrs. Stretch).
  Miss Roscbelle Jacobus.
  Miss Helen T. Kenneally.
  Miss E. E. Kirke.
  Miss Catherine M. Kitchell (Mrs. W. R. Jelliffe).
  Miss Gertrude H. Kitchell.
  Miss Kittridge.
  Miss Sarah K. Kliem (Mrs. Willis).
  Miss J. E. Knipe.
  Miss Josephine Knox (Mrs. Livingston).
  Miss Elizabeth H. Kunz.
  Miss Dorothy Kyberg.
  Mrs. Belinda C. Lefler.
  Miss Dorothy Leider.
  Miss Jessica Lewis.
  Miss Marjorie Lewis.
  Miss R. Lobenstine.
  Miss D. J. Luder.
  Miss Katherine Ludington.
  Miss McCormick  (Mrs. Slade).
  Miss Susanne McFarland.
  Miss Mary McKelvey (Mrs. W. R. Barbour).
  Miss Ruth McKelvey.
  Mrs. Mary Mackenzie.
  Miss Lillie Malken [+].
  Miss Caroline B. Mills.
  Miss Christine A. Mitchell.
  Miss Gertrude Morrow (Mrs. Henry J. Condit).
  Miss Neilson.
  Miss Mary E. Newell.
  Miss Adele Norton (Mrs. Fairbank).
  Miss Martha  M.  Norton (Mrs. A. K. Skinner).
  Miss Marjorie Nott.
  Miss Louise F. Oswald.
  Miss Otterbein.
  Miss Rhoda Packard.
  Miss Maud L. Parks.
  Miss Charlotte  Paulsen (Mrs. G. H. Roth).
  Miss Lydia Paulsen (Mrs. H. D. Schlichting).
  Mrs. Pendleton.
  Miss Phebe Persons (Mrs. Geo. G. Scott).
  Miss M. E. Perdue.
  Miss Lois Pett.
  Miss M. G. Revell.
  Miss Edith M. Rockwell.
  Mrs. Eliza E. Rockwell [+].
  Miss Bessie Rogers.
  Miss Florence E. Roper.
  Miss Anna C. Ruddy.
  Miss Helen Rumsey.
  Miss Runyon.
  Miss Alice Sanford.
  Mrs. Savidge.
  Miss Shotwell.
  Miss Shumard.
  Mrs. Mary Sibertson.
  Miss Angelina Simonson.
  Miss Eleanor C. Smith.
  Miss Rose Spenser.
  Miss Georgina Spooner.
  Miss Margaret H. Steen.
  Miss Mary Steen.
  Miss Mary Stevenson (Mrs. J. J. Hines).
  Miss Marie M. Stevenson.
  Miss Marion Sturgis.
  Miss Elsie Street.
  Miss Sarah Swift.
  Miss A. J. Taft.
  Miss H. N. Taft.
  Miss Georgina Taylor.
  Miss M. Thompson.
  Miss Alice Townsend.
  Miss Edith W. Townsend.
  Miss Jean A. Travis.
  Miss Pearl C. Underwood (Mrs. J. H. Denison).
  Miss Henrietta Van Cleft.
  Miss Elizabeth Van Rensellaer (Mrs. Benjamin W. Arnold).
  Miss Katrina Van Wagenen (Mrs. Briggs).
  Miss Mollie B. Walsh (Mrs. S. K. Higgins).
  Miss Carrie B. Wasson.
  Miss Fannie Wells.
  Miss Christine T. Wilson.
  Miss Frances Wheet.
  Miss Irma Wiss.
  Miss C. Ziegenfuss.



DIED IN SERVICE


  Henry Rutgers [+] February 17, 1830.
  William McMurray [+] September 24, 1835.
  Henry Smith [+] March 19, 1873.
  Evan Price [+] August 7, 1887.
  Edward Hopper [+] April 23, 1888.
  James Murphy [+] August 15, 1893.
  Benjamin F. Pinkham [+] March 22, 1897.
  Horace Day [+] July 19, 1899.
  William Boyce [+] February 18, 1901.
  Anna E. Crawford [+] December 18, 1905.
  Edward Dowling [+] June 6, 1906.
  Eliza E. Rockwell [+] March 14, 1908.
  John Denham [+] February 4, 1910.



CHURCH OFFICERS

1919

SESSION

  Rev. Joseph A. Villelli, Moderator.
  Rev. Alfred D. Moore, Minister.
  Rev. Russell J. Clinchy, Minister.
  Frederick Brückbauer, Clerk.
  Artemus R. Richtmyer, Elder.
  Willard A. Hildreth, Elder.

TRUSTEES

  James F. Coupar, President.
  Herman D. Schlichting, Secretary.
  Frederick Brückbauer, Treasurer.
  Louis J. Audley.
  Orrin G. Cocks.
  George A. Ferris.
  George C. Fraser.
  Willard A. Hildreth.
  Artemus R. Richtmyer.



OLD CHURCH BUILDINGS

  1766  St. Paul's chapel, Episcopal, Broadway and Fulton Sts.

  1819  Church of the Sea and Land, Dutch Reformed. 1866 Presbyterian,
        Market and Henry Sts.

  1820  Church of the Transfiguration, Episcopal. 1853 Roman Catholic,
        Mott and Park Sts.

  1825  First Moravian church, Baptist, then Episcopalian, 30th St.
        and Lexington Ave.

  1828  All Saints' church, Episcopal, Henry and Scammel Sts.

  1829  St. Mark's church, Episcopal, Stuyvesant Place. Rebuilt 1858.

  1833  St. Mary's church, Roman Catholic, Grand and Ridge Sts. Brick
        front recent.

  1836  Spring Street Presbyterian church, 246 Spring St.

  1836  Allen Memorial church, Methodist. 1888 Jewish Synagog.

  1838  St. Peter's church, Roman Catholic, Barclay and Church Sts.

  1841  John Street church, Methodist, 44 John St.

  1841  St. Teresa's church, Presbyterian. 1863 Roman Catholic,
        Rutgers and Henry Sts.

  1842  St. Andrew's church, Roman Catholic, Duane St. and City Hall
        Place.

  1843  Mariners' Temple, Baptist, Oliver and Henry Sts.

  1846  Trinity church, Episcopal, Broadway at Wall St.



EAST SIDE STREETS


Chatham Square, after William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, our friend in 1776.

Bayard Street, after a mayor, nephew of Peter Stuyvesant.

Canal Street, had a forty-foot canal in center, fine shaded houses at
sides.

Division Street, the dividing line between the Rutgers and the DeLancey
farms.

East Broadway, formerly Harmon Street, after a Rutgers.

Henry Street, after Henry Rutgers.

Madison Street, after the President, formerly Bancker Street, after a
Rutgers son-in-law.

Monroe Street, after the President, formerly Lombardy Street.

Rutgers Place, site of the Rutgers Mansion.

Hamilton Street, after Alexander Hamilton, formerly Cheapside.

Cherry Street, formerly a cherry orchard.

Oliver Street, formerly Fayette Street.

Catherine Street, after Catherine Rutgers.

Market Street, formerly George Street, after King George of England.

Pike Street, War of 1812, formerly Charlotte Street, after a queen of
England.

Rutgers Street, after the Rutgers family.

Jefferson Street, after the President.

Clinton Street, after Governor Clinton.

Montgomery Street, after the general who fell at Quebec in 1775.

Gouverneur Street, after a New York family.

Jackson Street, after the President; formerly Walnut Street.

Corlears Street, after Jacobus Van Corlear.

Chrystie Street, after an officer of War of 1812.

Forsyth Street, War of 1812.

Eldridge Street, after Lieut. Joseph C. Eldridge, War of 1812.

Allen Street, after Capt. William Henry Allen, War of 1812.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


Recollections of a Long Life: Theodore L. Cuyler.

Beside the Bowery: John Hopkins Denison.

From the Bottom Up: Alexander F. Irvine.

Dave Ranney: David J. Ranney.

Nooks and Corners of Old New York: Charles Hemstreet.

New York Old and New: Rufus Rockwell Wilson.

A Tour Around New York: John Flavel Mines.

When Old New York Was Young: Charles Hemstreet.

Historic New York: Half-Moon Papers.

The Leaven in a Great City: Lillian W. Betts.

The Better New York: Tolman and Hemstreet.

The New York Public School: A. Emerson Palmer.

Helping the Helpless in Lower New York: Lucy S. Bainbridge.

The Fire on the Hearth: Edward Hopper.

One Wife Too Many: Edward Hopper.

Old Horse Gray: Edward Hopper.

Echoes from the Song of Songs: Margaretta Hopper.

An Oriental Land of the Free: John H. Freeman.

One Hundred Poems: Jane A. Van Allen.

American Notes: Charles Dickens.

Valentine's Manual of the Common Council.

New York Genealogical and Biographical Record.

Records of the Market Street Dutch Reformed Church.

Records of the Presbyterian Church of the Sea and Land.

The Sea and Land Monthly.

Handbooks of the Presbytery of New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Printed in the United States of America._





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