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Title: Practical Exercises in English
Author: Buehler, Huber Gray, 1864-1924
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Practical Exercises in English" ***

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Copyright, 1895, by Harper & Brothers
All rights reserved.
W.P. 17


The art of using one's native tongue correctly and forcibly is acquired
for the most part through imitation and practice, and is not so much a
matter of knowledge as of habit. As regards English, then, the first duty
of our schools is to set before pupils excellent models, and, in all
departments of school-work, to keep a watchful eye on the innumerable acts
of expression, oral and written, which go to form habit. Since, however,
pupils come to school with many of their habits of expression already
formed on bad models, our schools must give some attention to the special
work of pointing out common errors of speech, and of leading pupils to
convert knowledge of these errors into new and correct habits of
expression. This is the branch of English teaching in which this little
book hopes to be useful.

All the "Exercises in English" with which I am acquainted consist chiefly
of "sentences to be corrected." To such exercises there are grave
objections. If, on the one hand, the fault in the given sentence is not
seen at a glance, the pupil is likely, as experience has shown, to pass it
by and to change something that is not wrong. If, on the other hand, the
fault is obvious, the exercise has no value in the formation of habit.
Take, for example, two "sentences for correction" which I select at random
from one of the most widely used books of its class: "I knew it was him,"
and "Sit the plates on the table." A pupil of any wit will at once see
that the mistakes must be in "him" and "sit," and knowing that the
alternatives are "he" and "set," he will at once correct the sentences
without knowing, perhaps, why one form is wrong, the other right. He has
not gained anything valuable; he has simply "slid" through his exercise.
Moreover, such "sentences for correction" violate a fundamental principle
of teaching English by setting before the impressionable minds of pupils
bad models. Finally, such exercises are unnatural, because the habit which
we hope to form in our pupils is not the habit of correcting mistakes, but
the habit of avoiding them.

Correct English is largely a matter of correct choice between two or more
forms of expression, and in this book an attempt has been made, as a
glance at the pages will show, to throw the exercises, whenever possible,
into a form consistent with this truth. Though a pupil may _change_ "who"
to "whom" without knowing why, he cannot repeatedly _choose_ correctly
between these forms without strengthening his own habit of correct

This book has been prepared primarily as a companion to Professor A.S.
Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," in answer to the request of many
teachers for exercises to use with that admirable work.[1] Without the
friendly encouragement of Professor Hill the task would not have been
undertaken, and to him above all others I am indebted for assistance in
completing it. He has permitted me to draw freely on his published works;
he has provided me with advance sheets of the revised edition of
"Principles of Rhetoric;" he has put at my disposal much useful material
gleaned from his own experience; he has read the manuscript and proofs,
and, without assuming any responsibility for shortcomings, he has
suggested many improvements. I am also indebted to Mr. E.G. Coy,
Headmaster of the Hotchkiss School, for many valuable suggestions, and to
my colleague, Mr. J.E. Barss, for assistance in the proof-reading.

The quotations from "The Century Dictionary" are made under an arrangement
with the owners of the copyright of that work. I am also indebted to
Professor Barrett Wendell, Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and Messrs.
Macmillan & Co. for permission to use brief quotations from their works.


LAKEVILLE, CONN., _September_, 1895.

[1] See Appendix: Suggestions to Teachers.


CHAPTER                            PAGE
    I. GOOD USE                      3
   II. ARTICLES                     12
  III. NOUNS                        16
   IV. PRONOUNS                     43
    V. VERBS                        61
  VII. PREPOSITIONS                134
 VIII. CONJUNCTIONS                142
       APPENDIX                    151
       INDEX                       153


       *       *       *       *       *



Why is it that for the purposes of English composition one word is not so
good as another? To this question we shall get a general answer if we
examine the effect of certain classes of expressions.

PRESENT USE.--Let us examine first the effect produced by three
passages in the authorized version of the English Bible--a version made by
order of King James in 1611:--

"For these two years hath the famine been in the land, and yet there are
five years, in the which there shall neither be _earing_ nor harvest"
(Gen. xlv. 6).

"O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long
will ye love vanity, and seek after _leasing_?" (Psa. iv. 2).

"Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed
to come unto you, but was _let_ hitherto" (Rom. i. 18).

See also Gen. xxv. 29; Matt. iii 8; Acts viii. 3; 1 Thess. iv. 15.

An ordinary reader of our time cannot without assistance fully understand
these passages, because the words "earing," "leasing," and "let" convey to
his mind either no idea at all or a wrong idea. Two hundred and eighty
years ago, when this translation of the Bible was made, these words were
common words with plain meanings; but "earing" and "leasing" have since
dropped out of common use, and "let" has acquired a different meaning;
consequently an ordinary reader of the present time must consult a
dictionary before he can be sure what the passages mean. Words and
meanings which have gone out of use are called _obsolete_. There is not
much temptation to use obsolete words; but the temptation sometimes comes.
Therefore we note, as our first conclusion, that a person who wishes to be
understood must avoid expressions and meanings which are not in _present

NATIONAL USE.--A boy from southern Pennsylvania was visiting in New
York State. In the midst of some preparations for a fishing excursion he
said to his host, "Shall I take my _gums_ along?" His host burst out
laughing and said, "Of course; did you think of taking them out of your
mouth and leaving them at home?"[2] Unconsciously the boy had used a good
English word in a sense peculiar to the district in which he lived; his
host had understood the word in its proper sense.

On another occasion a gentleman who had just arrived at a hotel in
Kennebunkport, Me., agreed to a proposal to "go down to the beach in the
_barge_." Going to his room, he prepared for a little excursion on the
river which flowed by the hotel. When he returned, he was greatly
surprised to find his friends about to start for the beach in _a large
omnibus_. Another gentleman once asked a young lady to go "_riding_" with
him. At the appointed hour he drove to her house in a buggy, and she came
down to meet him in her riding habit.

These incidents show that if we use expressions that are only local, or
use words in local senses, we are liable either to be misunderstood or not
to be understood at all. Obscurity also arises from the use of words in
senses which are peculiar to a certain class or profession. For example,
to a person who is not familiar with commercial slang, this sentence from
the market columns of a newspaper is a puzzle:--

"Java coffees are _dull_ and _easy_, though they are _statistically

The following directions for anchoring in a gale of wind are taken from a
book called "How to Sail a Boat":--

    "When everything is ready, bring the yacht _to the wind_, and let
    the sails shake _in the wind's eye_; and, so soon as she gets
    _stern-way_, let go the _best bower_ anchor, taking care not to
    _snub her_ too quickly, but to let considerable of the cable run
    out before checking her; then take a turn or two around the
    _knight-heads_," etc.

If a landsman's safety depended on his understanding these directions,
there would not be much hope for him.

The following extract is from a newspaper report of a game of ball:--

    "In the eighth inning Anson jumped from one box into the other and
    whacked a wide one into extreme right. It was a three-base jolt
    and was made when Gastright intended to force the old man to
    first. The Brooklyns howled and claimed that Anson was out, but
    McQuaid thought differently. Both teams were crippled. Lange will
    be laid up for a week or so. One pitcher was batted out of the

This narrative may seem commonplace to school-boys, but to their mothers
and sisters it must seem alarming.

Our second conclusion, therefore, is that a person who wishes to be
understood must avoid words and phrases that are not understood, and
understood in the same sense, in every part of the country, and in every
class or profession.[3]

REPUTABLE USE.--Let us examine now the effect produced by a third
kind of expression, namely, words and phrases "not used by writers and
speakers of established reputation."[4] Let us take as our illustrations
the familiar expressions, "He _done_ it" and "Please _set_ in this seat."
Each of these expressions is common at the present time, and its meaning
is instantly clear to any one who speaks English. But these expressions,
not being used by well-informed and careful speakers, produce in the mind
of a well-informed bearer an impression of vulgarity like that which we
get from seeing a person eat with his knife. In language, as in manners
and fashions, the law is found in the custom of the best people; and
persons who wish to be classed as cultivated people must speak and write
like cultivated people. There is no moral wrong in a person's saying
"Please _set_ in this seat," and if he does say it he will probably be
understood; but persons who use this or any other expression which is not
in reputable use run the risk of being classed as ignorant, affected, or

GOOD USE.--It appears, therefore, that words and phrases, in order to
be proper expressions for use in English prose, (1) must be in common use
at the present time; (2) they must be used, and used in the same sense, in
every part of the country, and in every class and profession; (3) they
must be expressions used by writers and speakers of established
reputation. In other words, our expressions must be in _present,
national_, and _reputable_ use. Expressions which fulfil these three
conditions are said to be in _good use_.

The next question that presents itself to one who wishes to use English
correctly is, How am I to know what words and expressions are in good use?

CONVERSATION AND GOOD USE.--Good use cannot be determined solely by
observing the conversation of our associates; for the chances are that
they use many local expressions, some slang, and possibly some vulgarisms.
"You often hear it" is not proof that an expression is in good use.

NEWSPAPERS AND GOOD USE.--Nor can good use be learned from what we
see in newspapers. Newspapers of high rank contain from time to time,
especially in their editorial columns, some of the best modern prose, and
much literature that has become standard was first printed in periodicals;
but most of the prose in newspapers is written necessarily by contributors
who do not belong to the class of "speakers or writers whom the world
deems the best." As the newspaper in its news records the life of every
day, so in its style it too frequently records the slang of daily life and
the faults of ordinary conversation. A newspaper contains bits of English
prose from hundreds of different pens, some skilled, some unskilled; and
this jumble of styles does not determine good use.

NO ONE BOOK OR WRITER DECISIVE.--Nor is good use to be learned from
our favorite author, unsupported by other authority; not even, as we have
seen, from the English Bible, when it stands alone. No writer, even the
greatest, is free from occasional errors; but these accidental slips are
not to be considered in determining good use. Good use is decided by the
prevailing usage of the writers whose works make up permanent English
literature, not by their inadvertencies. "The fact that Shakspere uses a
word, or Sir Walter Scott, or Burke, or Washington Irving, or whoever
happens to be writing earnestly in Melbourne or Sidney, does not make it
reputable. The fact that all five of these authorities use the word in
the same sense would go very far to establish the usage. On the other
hand, the fact that any number of newspaper reporters agree in usage does
not make the usage reputable. The style of newspaper reporters is not
without merit; it is very rarely unreadable; but for all its virtue it is
rarely a well of English undefiled."[5]

"Reputable use is fixed, not by the practice of those whom A or B deems
the best speakers or writers, but by the practice of those whom the world
deems the best,--those who are in the best repute, not indeed as to
thought, but as to expression, the manner of communicating thought. The
practice of no one writer, however high he may stand in the public
estimation, is enough to settle a point; but the uniform or nearly uniform
practice of reputable speakers or writers is decisive."[6]

question how to become familiar with good use the first answer is, read
the best literature. Language, like manners, is learned for the most part
by imitation; and a person who is familiar with the language of reputable
writers and speakers will use good English without conscious effort, just
as a child brought up among refined people generally has good manners
without knowing it. Good reading is indispensable to good speaking or
writing. Without this, rules and dictionaries are of no avail. In reading
the biographies of eminent writers, it is interesting to note how many of
them were great readers when they were young; and teachers can testify
that the best writers among their pupils are those who have read good
literature or who have been accustomed to hear good English at home. The
student of expression should begin at once to make the acquaintance of
good literature.

THE USE OF DICTIONARIES.--To become acquainted with good literature,
however, takes a long time; and to decide, by direct reference to the
usage of the best writers, every question that arises in composition, is
not possible for beginners. In certain cases beginners must go to
dictionaries to learn what good use approves. Dictionaries do not make
good use, but by recording the facts learned by professional investigators
they answer many questions regarding it. To one who wishes to speak and
write well a good dictionary is indispensable.

"THE FOUNDATIONS OF RHETORIC."--Dictionaries, however, are not always
a sufficient guide; for, being records, they aim to give _all_ the senses
in which a word is used, and do not always tell which sense is approved by
the best usage. Large dictionaries contain many words which have gone out
of good use and other words which have not yet come into good use.
Moreover, they treat of words only, not of constructions and long
expressions. Additional help in determining good use is required by
beginners, and this help is to be found in such books as Professor A.S.
Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric." The investigations of a specialist are
there recorded in a convenient form, with particular reference to the
needs of beginners and of those who have been under the influence of bad
models. Common errors are explained and corrected, and the fundamental
merits of good expression are set forth and illustrated.

PURPOSE OF THESE EXERCISES.--In the following exercises, which are
intended for drill on some of these elements of good expression, care has
been taken to put the questions into the forms in which they arise in
actual composition. The notes which precede the exercises are only hints;
for full discussions of the principles involved the student must consult
larger works.


                              /Phrases that have gone out of use, said
                             | to be ARCHAIC or OBSOLETE.
                             | Brand-new words which have not become
                             | established in good use: as, "burglarize,"
                             | "enthuse," "electrocute."
BARBARISMS: Words and        | Phrases introduced from foreign countries
phrases not English; _i.e.,_ | (called FOREIGNISMS, ALIENISMS), or
not authorized by good       | peculiar to some district or province
English use. The name       <  (called PROVINCIALISMS). A phrase introduced
comes from a Greek           | from France is called a _Gallicism_;
word meaning "foreign,"      | from England, an _Anglicism_. A
"strange."                   | phrase peculiar to America is called an
                             | _Americanism_. Similarly we have the
                             | terms _Latinism, Hellenism, Teutonism_,
                             | etc. All these names may be applied
                             | also to certain kinds of Improprieties
                              \and Solecisms.

IMPROPRIETIES: Good           \
English words or phrases       |  Most errors in the use of English
used in wrong senses:          |  are Improprieties, which are far more
as, "I _guess_ I'll go to       > common than Barbarisms and Solecisms.
bed;" "He is _stopping_        |  No classification of them is here
for a week at the Berkshire    |  attempted.
Inn."                         /

SOLECISMS: Constructions not English, commonly called cases of "bad
grammar" or "false syntax": as, "She invited Mrs. Roe and _I_ to go
driving with her." "Solecism" is derived from _Soli_, the name of a Greek
tribe who lived in Cilicia and spoke bad Greek.

SLANG is a general name for current, vulgar, unauthorized language. It may
take the form of barbarism, impropriety, or solecism.

A COLLOQUIALISM is an expression peculiar to familiar conversation.

A VULGARISM is an expression peculiar to vulgar or ignorant people.

[2] This and the two following incidents are from the writer's own
[3] A.S. Hill: Foundations of Rhetoric, p. 28.
[4] Ibid., p. 20.
[5] Barrett Wendell: English Composition, p. 21.
[6] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 16.


1. Make a list of the provincial expressions you can think of, and give
   their equivalents in national English.
2. Make a list of the slang or vulgar expressions you can think of, and
   give their equivalents in reputable English.
3. Make a list of the words, forms, and phrases not in present use which
   you can find in the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, authorized
   version, and give their equivalents in modern English.


Which word in the following pairs should an American prefer? Consult
Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," pp. 28-29: Coal, coals; jug, pitcher;
street railway, tramway; post-card, postal-card; depôt, station.


1. Arrange the following words in two columns, putting in the first column
   words that are in good use, in the second, words that are not in good
   use. Consult Hill's "Foundations of Rhetoric," pp. 27-29: Omnibus,
   succotash, welkin, ere, née, depôt, veto, function (in the sense of
   social entertainment), to pan out, twain, on the docket, kine,
   gerrymander, carven, caucus, steed, to coast (on sled or bicycle),
   posted (informed), to watch out, right (very).
2. Give good English equivalents for the words which are not in good use.



A or AN.[7]--The choice between these forms is determined by
sound, not by spelling. Before a consonant sound "a" is used; before a
vowel sound "an" is used.

[7] "Foundations," pp. 32-36.


_Put the proper form, "a" or "an," before each of these
expressions_:--Elephant, apple, egg, union of states, uniform, uninformed
person, universal custom, umpire, Unitarian church, anthem, unfortunate
man, united people, American, European, Englishman, one, high hill, horse,
honorable career, hypocrite, humble spirit, honest boy, hypothesis,
history, historical sketch, heir, hundred, hereditary disease, household.

THE or A.[8]--"The" is a broken-down form of the old English
_thoet_, from which we also get "that," and is used to point out some
particular person, thing, or class: as, "_The_ headmaster of _the_ school
gave _the_ boys permission." When "the" is used before the name of a
particular class of persons or things it is called the "generic" article
(from _genus_, "a class"): as, "None but _the_ brave deserve _the_ fair";
"_The_ eagle is our national bird."

"An" ("a") is a broken-down form of the old English word _ane_, meaning
"one." It is properly used when the object is thought of as one of a
class: as, "There is _an_ eagle in the zoological garden." It cannot
properly be used before a word which is used as a class name, because a
class name includes in its meaning more than "one."

SUPERFLUOUS and OMITTED ARTICLES.[9]--The use of a superfluous
"a" or "an" before a class name, especially after the words "sort" and
"kind," is a common and obstinate error. We may say, "This is an eagle,"
meaning "one eagle." But we may not say, "_An_ eagle is our national
bird," "This is a rare kind of _an_ eagle," or, "It is not worthy of the
name of _an_ eagle"; because in these sentences "eagle" is used as the
name, not of a single bird, but of a class of birds, and includes in its
meaning all the birds which belong to the class called "eagle." The
sentences are equivalent to: "The kind of bird called 'eagle' is our
national bird;" "This is a rare species of the class of birds called
'eagle;'" "It is not worthy of the name given to the birds which belong to
the class called 'eagle.'"

[8] Ibid., pp. 33-34.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_:--

1. The (a) house is on fire.
2. Yes, I heard (the) shouts in the street.
3. About eight o'clock (the) guests began to come.
4. Yes, I heard (the) noises in the next room.
5. The (an) elephant stood on a cask, and the (a) clown sat on the
   elephant's back.
6. The President has appointed a commission to investigate the
   cause of (the) strikes.
7. Will he let us look at (the) stars through the (a) telescope?
8. (The) teacher and (the) pupil are interested in this question.
9. He told us about an (the) accident.
10. Fire is beautiful. The fire is beautiful.
11. He was a better scholar than (an) athlete.
12. A young and (a) delicate girl.
13. He liked the bread and (the) butter.
14. A pink and (a) lavender gown.
15. The wise and (the) good.
16. Wanted, a cook and (a) housemaid.
17. The black and (the) white cow.
18. The athlete, (the) soldier, (the) statesman, and (the) poet.
19. A secretary and (a) treasurer.
20. The corresponding and (the) recording secretary.
21. The honest, (the) wise, and (the) patriotic senators voted
    against the bill.
22. A cotton and (a) silk umbrella.
23. The tenth and (the) last chapter.

[9] "Foundations," pp. 34-39.


_Insert the proper article ("a," "an," or "the") in each blank place in
the following, if an article is needed; if no article is needed, leave the
place blank_:--

1. I began to suffer from ---- want of food.
2. There are two articles, the definite and ---- indefinite.
3. He did not say what kind of ---- horse he wanted to buy.
4. Did Macaulay die of ---- heart disease?
5. Nouns have two numbers, ---- singular and ---- plural.
6. ---- third and ---- fourth page are to be learned.
7. ---- third and ---- fourth pages are to be learned.
8. Many names of ---- states are derived from ---- Indian tongues.
9. This is a curious species of ---- rose.
10. Study carefully ---- first and ---- second chapters.
11. A black and ---- white boy were walking together.
12. ---- violet is my favorite flower; ---- robin, my favorite bird.
13. There is an impenetrable veil between ---- visible and ---- invisible
14. ---- lion is ---- king of beasts.
15. Thackeray was a greater writer than ---- artist. Thackeray was
    greater as ---- writer than as ---- artist.
16. The bank closed its doors from ---- lack of ready money.
17. I despise not ---- giver, but ---- gift.
18. ---- whole is greater than any of its parts.
19. He is entitled to the name of ---- scholar.
20. I do not use that sort of ---- pen.
21. In ---- warm weather you do not need so many wraps as in ---- cold
22. The Queen conferred on Tennyson the title of ---- baron.
23. It does not matter what kind of ---- man is appointed.
24. It is found in both ---- old and ---- new editions.
25. The fourth and ---- fifth verse.
26. The fourth and ---- fifth verses.
27. Abraham Lincoln was ---- great and ---- good man.
28. ---- families of ---- strikers are sadly in ---- need of food.
29. Here are two bottles, ---- one empty, ---- other full of ---- red
30. Ariel had ---- power to control ---- sea.
31. Evangeline travelled far in ---- search of Gabriel.
33. Illustrate by an original sentence ---- preterite and ---- past
    participle of the following verbs.
33. To ---- student of Latin or Greek a knowledge of ---- difference in
    meaning in English between ---- indicative and ---- subjunctive is
    especially important.
34. In the verb "to be" ---- present and ---- past subjunctives have
    different forms.
35. ---- life in Madras in ---- time of Clive was different from what it
    is now.
36. I like so many sports that it is hard to tell which I like ---- best.
    I like swimming, foot-ball, and riding more than ---- others, but I do
    not know which of these three I like ---- best.



HOW TO FORM THE POSSESSIVE CASE.[10]--As a rule, the possessive of
nouns in the SINGULAR number is formed by adding an apostrophe and "s"
('s): as, "The _boy's_ coat." Often the pronunciation of the added "s"
makes a new syllable; and if this additional syllable makes an unpleasant
sound, the possessive is indicated by the apostrophe alone ('): as, "For
_goodness'_ sake." The putting in or the leaving out of the "s" in such
cases is chiefly a matter of taste. If the "s" is sounded, it is always
written; and whenever there is doubt, it is well to follow the regular
rule: as, "_Horace's_ odes," "_Charles's_ ball," "_Dickens's_ David

In the PLURAL number, when the nominative plural ends in "s," the
possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe alone ('). If the
nominative plural does not end in "s," an apostrophe and an "s" ('s) are
both added, as in the singular: as, "_Men's_ and _boys'_ shoes."

The possessive case of COMPOUND nouns and expressions used as compound
nouns is formed by adding the proper sign of the possessive to the end of
the compound: as, "That is my _sister-in-law's_ pony," "This is the
_Prince of Wales's_ palace."

[10] "Foundations," pp. 41-43.


1. _Write the possessive case, singular and plural, of:_ Actor, king,
   fairy, calf, child, goose, lady, monkey, mouse, ox, woman, deer, eagle,
   princess, elephant, man, witness, prince, fox, farmer, countess, mouth,
   horse, day, year, lion, wolf, thief, Englishman.
2. _Write the possessive case of:_ James, Dickens, his sister Mary,
   Miss Austen, the Prince of Wales, Frederick the Great, Harper and
   Brothers, father-in-law, Charles, Jones, William the Conqueror,
   Henry the Eighth, man-of-war, Douglas, Eggleston and Company.

USE and MISUSE of the POSSESSIVE CASE.[12]--It is
sometimes a question whether to use the possessive form or the
preposition _of_. "As a general rule, the possessive case should
be confined to cases of possession."[13]

[11] TO THE TEACHER.--To have its full value this should be given as a
dictation exercise.
[12] "Foundations," pp. 43-44.
[13] Ibid., p. 44.


_Express relation between the words in the following pairs by putting one
of them in the possessive case or by using the preposition "of," as may
seem best:--_

Charles the Second, reign; witness, testimony; horse, hoof; the President,
public reception; Partridge, restaurant; aide-de-camp, horse; General
Armistead, death; Henry the Eighth, wives; Napoleon, Berlin decree;
teacher, advice; eagle, talons; enemy, repulse;[14] book, cover; princess,
evening gowns; France, army; Napoleon, defeat; Napoleon, camp-chest; Major
André, capture; Demosthenes, orations; gunpowder, invention; mountain,
top; summer, end; Washington, sword; Franklin, staff; torrent, force;
America, metropolis; city, streets; strike, beginning; church, spire; we
(our, us), midst; year, events; Guiteau, trial; sea, bottom; Essex, death;
Adams, administration; six months, wages; world, government.

[14] There is, properly, no "objective possessive" in English
corresponding to the "objective genitive" in other languages. It seems
best to say "The siege of Paris," rather than "Paris's siege."


_Distinguish between the following:--_
1. The President's reception. The reception of the President.
2. Mother's love. Love of mother.
3. A sister's care. Care of a sister.
4. A brother's picture. The picture of a brother.
5. Clive's reception in London. The reception of Clive in London.
6. Charles and Harry's toys. Charles's and Harry's toys.
7. Let me tell you a story of Doctor Brown (Brown's).


_Correct the following, giving the reason for each correction:--_
1. A dog and a cat's head are differently shaped.
2. Whose Greek grammar do you prefer--Goodwin or Hadley?
3. It is neither the captain nor the manager's duty.
4. I consulted Webster, Stormonth, and Worcester's dictionary.
5. I like Hawthorne better than Irving's style.
6. John, Henry and William's nose resembled one another.
7. The novel is one of Scott.
8. I have no time to listen to either John or Joseph's talk.

SINGULAR and PLURAL.[15]--In modern English most nouns form the
plural by adding "s" to the singular. The following variations from this
rule are important:--

1. When the added sound of "s" makes an additional syllable, "es" is used:
   as, box, boxes; church, churches.

2. NOUNS ENDING IN "O." If the final "o" is preceded by a vowel, the
   plural is formed regularly, i.e., by adding "s": as, cameo, cameos. If
   the final "o" is preceded by a consonant, the tendency of modern usage
   is to form the plural by adding "es": as, hero, heroes; potato,
   potatoes. The following common words, however, seem still to form the
   plural by adding "s" alone:--

  canto            lasso             proviso            torso
  duodecimo        memento           quarto              tyro
  halo             octavo            solo
  junto            piano             stiletto

3. NOUNS ENDING IN "Y." If the "y" is preceded by a vowel, the plural
   is regular: as, valley, valleys.

If the "y" is preceded by a consonant, "y" is changed to "i" and "es" is
added to form the plural: as, lady, ladies; city, cities.

4. PROPER NOUNS are changed as little as possible: as, Henry, Henrys;
   Mary, Marys; Cicero, Ciceros; Nero, Neros.
5. Most COMPOUND NOUNS form the plural by adding the proper sign of the
   plural to the fundamental part of the word, i.e., to the part which
   is described by the rest of the phrase: as, ox-cart, ox-carts;
   court-martial, courts-martial; aide-de-camp, aides-de-camp.

Note the difference between the _plural_ and the _possessive_ of compound
nouns,--forms which are often confounded. See page 16.

6. Letters, figures, and other symbols are made plural by adding an
   apostrophe and "s" ('s): as, "There are more _e's_ than _a's_
   in this word"; "Dot your _i's_ and cross your _t's_."

7. Some nouns have two plurals, which differ in meaning:--

_Singular.     Plural_.

brother          brothers (by birth), brethren (of a society).
die              dies (for coining or stamping), dice (for play).
fish             fishes (separate fish), fish (collective).
index            indexes (in books), indices (in algebra).
penny            pennies (separate coins), pence (sum of money).
shot             shots (discharges), shot (balls).
staff            staves (poles), staffs (bodies of assistants).

[15] "Foundations," pp. 45-47.


_Write the plural of_: Lash, cage, race, buffalo, echo, canto, volcano,
portfolio, ally, money, solo, memento, mosquito, bamboo, ditch, chimney,
man, Norman,[17] Mussulman, city, negro, baby, calf, man-of-war, attorney,
goose-quill, canon, quail, mystery, turkey, wife, body, snipe,
knight-errant,[17] donkey, spoonful, aide-de-camp, Ottoman,
commander-in-chief, major-general, pony, reply, talisman, court-martial,
father-in-law, court-yard, man-trap, Brahman, journey, Henry, stepson,
deer, mouthful, Miss Clark,[18] Mr. Jones, Dr. Brown, Dutchman, German,
forget-me-not, poet-laureate, minister-plenipotentiary, hero, fish, trout,
Mary, George, bill-of-fare.

[16] To THE TEACHER.--To have its full value this should be given as a
dictation exercise.
[17] Consult a dictionary for this and similar nouns.
[18] Proper names preceded by a title are made plural by changing either
the name or the title, and using "the" before the expression. We may say
"the Miss Smiths" or "the Misses Smith," "the Doctors Young" or "the
Doctor Youngs."


_Distinguish between_:--

1. Two dice (dies) were found in the prisoner's pockets.
2. He was always kind to his brothers (brethren).
3. How many shot (shots) did you count?
4. He carried two pailfuls (pails full) of water up the hill.
5. I have two handfuls (hands full) of gold-dust.
6. He gave the beggar six pennies (pence).
7. There are serious errors in the indexes (indices) in this new Algebra.
8. Ten shot (shots) were fired from the gun in fifteen minutes.


_Which of the following forms should be used? Consult Hill's
"Foundations," pp. 45-47:_--

1. The members of the committee were greatly alarmed at this (these) news.
2. Tidings was (were) brought to them of the massacre on Snake River.
3. The endowment of the college was greatly increased by this (these)
4. The widow's means was (were) at first large, but it was (they were) soon
   exhausted by the prodigality of her son.
5. The assets of the company are (is) $167,000.
6. The dregs in the cup was (were) found to be very bitter.
7. The eaves of the new house are (is) thirty-two feet above the ground.
8. Athletics are (is) run into the ground in many schools.
9. Politics is (are) like a stone tied around the neck of literature.
10. The nuptials of Gratiano and Nerissa were (was) celebrated at the same
    time as those (that) of Bassanio and Portia.
11. Ethics are (is) becoming more and more prominent in the discussions of
    political economists.
12. Have you seen my pincers? I have mislaid it (them).
13. The proceeds was (were) given to the hospital.
14. His riches took to themselves (itself) wings.
15. This (these) scissors is (are) not sharp.
16. Please pour this (these) suds on the rose plants in the oval flowerbed.
17. His tactics was (were) much criticised by old generals.
18. The United States has (have) informed Spain that it (they) will not
    permit Spanish interference in the affairs of Central America.

NOUNS of FOREIGN ORIGIN.[19]--The following is a list of nouns
of foreign origin in common use which have peculiar number forms:--

_Singular.              Plural_.
alumnus (masculine)      alumni
alumna (feminine)        alumnæ
analysis                 analyses
bacterium                bacteria
beau                     beaux
cherub                   cherubim (or cherubs)
crisis                   crises
curriculum               curricula
datum                    data
genus (meaning "class")  genera
genius                  {geniuses (persons or great ability)
                        {genii (spirits)
hypothesis               hypotheses
oasis                    oases
parenthesis              parentheses
phenomenon               phenomena
seraph                   seraphim (or seraphs)
stratum                  strata
tableau                  tableaux
thesis                   theses

[19] "Foundations," pp. 47-48.


1. _Write the plural of_: Alumna, analysis, beau, cherub, crisis,
   curriculum, genus, genius, hypothesis, nebula, oasis, parenthesis,
   phenomenon, synopsis, seraph, stratum, tableau.
2. _Write the singular of_: Alumni, curricula, data, bacteria,
   cherubim, oases, phenomena, seraphim, strata, theses.

GENDER.--The following nouns of different genders are sometimes
confounded or otherwise misused:--

_Masculine_. _Feminine_.
abbot               abbess
actor               actress
bachelor            spinster, maid
buck                doe (fallow deer)
bullock             heifer
czar                czarina
drake               duck
duke                duchess
earl                countess
Francis             Frances
gander              goose
hero                heroine
lion                lioness
marquis, marquess   marchioness
monk                nun
ram                 ewe
stag, hart          hind (red deer)
sultan              sultana
tiger               tigress
wizard              witch

[20] TO THE TEACHER.--To have any value this must be given as a
dictation exercise.


1. _Write the feminine word corresponding to:_ Abbot, actor, bachelor,
   buck, bullock, czar, duke, drake, earl, Francis, hero, lion, marquis,
   monk, ram, stag, sultan, hart, tiger.
2. _Write the masculine word corresponding to:_ Spinster, duck, doe,
   Frances, goose, heifer, ewe, hind, witch.

[21] TO THE TEACHER.--This should be used as a dictation exercise.


_Correct the following sentences:_--

1. The marquess was the executor of her husband's estate.
2. He married a beautiful actor.
3. The tiger broke from its cage.
4. The duck was pluming his feathers after his swim, and the goose had
   wandered from his companions across the meadows.
5. The baby girl in "The Princess" may be called the real hero of the tale.

ABBREVIATIONS.--For the following exercise consult Hill's Foundations
of Rhetoric, pp. 49-50.


_Which of these words are in good use?_--

Pianist, harpist, poloist, violinist, phiz, ad, co-ed, curios, exam, cab,
chum, gent, hack, gym, pants, mob, phone, proxy, photo, prelim, van, prof,

MISUSED NOUNS.[22]--Many errors in English consist in using words in
senses which are not authorized. Sometimes the use of a word in a wrong
sense makes the speaker's meaning obscure. Sometimes it makes him seem
ridiculous, as when a person of the writer's acquaintance told a friend to
clean an oil-painting by washing it in "torpid" water. In every case the
misuse of a word leaves an unpleasant impression on the mind of a
cultivated person, and, like all bad English, should be avoided as we
avoid bad manners. In the following definitions and exercises a few
nouns[23] are selected for study. The distinctions given are not always
observed by reputable authors, but they indicate the _tendency_ of the
best modern usage.


HOUSE, HOME.--A _house_ is a building. _Home_ means one's habitual
abode, "the abiding place of the affections." It may or may not be in a
house, and it may include the surroundings of a house.

PERSON, PARTY.--A _person_ is an individual, a _party_ is a company
of persons, or, in legal usage, a person who is concerned in a contention
or agreement.

SERIES, SUCCESSION.--A _series_ is a succession of similar things
mutually related according to some law. _Succession_ is properly used of
several things following one after the other; it denotes order of
occurrence only, and does not imply any connection.

STATEMENT, ASSERTION.--A _statement_ is a formal setting forth of
fact or opinion; an _assertion_ is simply an affirmation of fact or

VERDICT, TESTIMONY.--A _verdict_ is a decision made by a number of
men acting as a single body. _Testimony_ is an expression of individual
knowledge or belief.

THE WHOLE, ALL.--_The whole_ is properly used of something which is
considered as one thing. When a number of persons or things are spoken of,
the proper word is _all._

[22] TO THE TEACHER.--It may not be desirable to drill pupils on all the
words whose meanings are discriminated here and in chapters V. and VI. In
that case it will be easy to select for study those words which the pupils
are most likely to misuse. The words discriminated in this book are for
the most part those which are mentioned in the "Foundations of Rhetoric,"
and they have been arranged in the same order. A few other words often
misused by my pupils have been added.
[23] For misused _verbs_ and _adjectives_ see pages 92 and 119.
[24] "Foundations," pp. 50-53.


_Tell the difference in meaning between the following:--_
1. Mr. Roscoe has no house (home).
2. The hotel clerk says he expects three more parties (persons) on the six
   o'clock train.
3. There are three persons (parties) concerned in this contract.
4. A succession (series) of delays.
5. This morning's papers publish an assertion (a statement) by Mr.
   Pullman, which throws new light on the strike.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Whenever a tramp comes to our ----, the dog is untied.
2. His new ---- will be finished in November.
3. Mr. S. owns a beautiful ---- and has a happy ----.
4. One can build a very good ---- for $6000.
5. ----s are built to live in, not to look on.

6. There is another ---- coming on the evening train, but he will leave
7. A cross-looking ---- alighted from the stage-coach and entered the inn.
8. The cause of both ----s shall come before the court.
9. Is the ---- that wants a carriage at dinner or in his room?
10. He is attached to the king's ----.
11. Who was that fat old ---- who kept us all laughing?

12. The ---- of Presidents is a long one.
13. This stamp belongs to the ---- of 1864.
14. A ---- of calamitous events followed this mistake in policy.
15. A ---- of accidents prevented the sailing of the yacht.

16. The last ---- of the bank has been examined.
17. ---- unsupported by fact is worthless.
18. The Declaration of Independence contained a clear ---- of grievances.
19. The orator's ---- was shown to be false.

20. The ---- of history is that Christianity has improved the condition of
21. Let us await the ---- of the public.
22. The early Christian martyrs sealed their ---- with their blood.
23. The ---- of those who saw the murder was contradictory.

24. ---- (of) the dishes came tumbling to the floor.
25. Tell ---- (the) truth.
26. Then you and I and ---- of us fell down.
27. Washington was respected by ---- (the) people.
28. We sold ---- (of) our apples at sixty cents a bushel.
29. He has already packed ---- of his books.
30. ---- (the) adornments took an appropriate and sylvan character.
31. He readily confided to her ---- (the) papers concerning the intrigue.
32. In the afternoon ---- of them got into a boat and rowed across the


ACCEPTANCE, ACCEPTATION.--_Acceptance_ is the "act of accepting";
also "favorable reception": as, "The acceptance of a gift," "She sang with
marked acceptance." _Acceptation_ now means "the sense in which an
expression is generally understood or accepted."

ACCESS, ACCESSION.--_Access_ has several meanings authorized by good
use: (1) outburst; (2) admission; (3) way of entrance. _Accession_ means
(1) the coming into possession of a right; or (2) an addition.

ACTS, ACTIONS.--"_Acts_, in the sense of 'things done,' is preferable
to _actions_, since _actions_ also means 'processes of doing.'"[26]

ADVANCE, ADVANCEMENT.--_Advance_ is used in speaking of something as
moving forward; _advancement_, as being moved forward.

ALLUSION, ILLUSION, DELUSION.--An _allusion_ is an indirect
reference to something not definitely mentioned. Roughly speaking, an
_illusion_ is an error of vision; _delusion_, of judgment. "In
literary and popular use an _illusion_ is an unreal appearance presented
in any way to the bodily or the mental vision; it is often pleasing,
harmless, or even useful.... A _delusion_ is a mental error or deception,
and may have regard to things actually existing, as well as to
_illusions_. _Delusions_ are ordinarily repulsive and discreditable,
and may even be mischievous."[27]

AVOCATION, VOCATION.--"_Vocation_ means 'calling' or 'profession';
_avocation_, 'something aside from one's regular calling, a by-work.'"[28]

COMPLETION, COMPLETENESS.--_Completion_ is "the act of completing";
_completeness_ is "the state of being complete."

OBSERVATION, OBSERVANCE.--_Observation_ contains the idea of "looking at";
_observance_, of "keeping," "celebrating." "We speak of the _observation_
of a fact, of a star; of the _observance_ of a festival, of a rule."[29]

PROPOSAL, PROPOSITION.--"A _proposal_ is something proposed to be
done, which may be accepted or rejected. A _proposition_ is something
proposed for discussion, with a view to determining the truth
or wisdom of it."[30]

RELATIONSHIP, RELATION.--_Relationship_ properly means "the state of
being related by kindred or alliance": as, "A relationship existed
between the two families." _Relation_ is a word of much broader
meaning. It does not necessarily imply kinship.

SOLICITUDE, SOLICITATION.--_Solicitude_ is "anxiety"; _solicitation_ is
"the act of soliciting or earnestly asking."

STIMULATION, STIMULUS, STIMULANT.--_Stimulation_ is "the act of stimulating
or inciting to action"; _stimulus_, originally "a goad," now denotes
that which stimulates, the means by which one is incited to
action; _stimulant_ has a medical sense, being used of that which
stimulates the body or any of its organs. We speak of ambition as
a _stimulus_, of alcohol as a _stimulant_.

[25] "Foundations," pp. 53-56.
[26] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 18.
[27] The Century Dictionary.
[28] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[29] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[30] The Century Dictionary.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The acceptance (acceptation) of this word is doubtful.
2. The acts (actions) of Napoleon were carefully observed.
3. The colonel's advance (advancement) was not long delayed.
4. Literature has been Dr. Holmes's avocation (vocation).
5. The list of African dialects is approaching completeness (completion).
6. The completion (completeness) of this new dictionary of the Latin
   language will make scholars glad.
7. The professor advised me, when I went to Rome, to be especially careful
   in my observation (observance) of the religious ceremonies of Passion
8. This proposal (proposition) made both Republican and Democratic
   senators indignant.
9. His mother's solicitude (solicitation) induced Washington when he was a
   boy to give up his intention of going to sea.
10. Shall I give your son a stimulus (stimulant)?


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. The word "livery" is used in its original ----.
2. This is a true saying and worthy of ----.
3. The ---- of a trust brings grave responsibility.
4. He sent to the President a formal ---- of the position.
5. The assertion finds ---- in every rank of society.
6. In its common ---- "philosophy" signifies "the search after wisdom."
7. The probability of this theory justifies its full ----.

8. We are denied ---- to the king.
9. An ---- of fever occurred at nightfall.
10. The emperor at his ---- takes an oath to maintain the constitution.
11. ---- to the outer court was through a massive door.
12. The only ---- which the Roman Empire received was the province of
13. A sudden ---- of violent, burning fever had laid Peter's mother-in-law
14. Victoria married after her ---- to the throne.
15. This allusion led to a fresh ---- of feeling.

16. I cannot do so cruel an ----.
17. Another mode of ---- was proposed by Henry Clay.
18. The fifth book of the New Testament records the ----s of the Apostles.
19. To attempt resistance would be the ---- of a madman.
20. The monkey imitates the ----s of its master.

21. The ---- of the expedition was impeded by bad roads.
22. ---- in the army is slow.
23. The Don and his companions, in their eager ----, had got entangled in
    deep glens.
24. My old position offered no hope of ----.
25. His hopes of ---- in England failing, Swift returned to Ireland.

26. There were two ----s in his sermon to the riots.
27. The cleverest, acutest men are often under an (a) ---- about women.
28. Longfellow's "Footsteps of Angels" contains ----s to the death
    of his wife.
29. Our judgment of people is liable to be warped by ----s of the
30. Those other words of ---- and folly, Liberty first and Union afterward.

31. Surgeons in the army are allowed by the enemy to pursue their ----
32. The young lawyer, surrounded by his law-books, took up his ---- with
33. Let your base-ball be a pastime, not a trade; let it be your ----, not
    your ----.
34. Heaven is a pious man's ----, and therefore he counts earthly
    employments ----s.
35. It seems that after his return, his disciples left him and returned to
    their ordinary ----s.

36. The ---- of the railroad was celebrated by a general illumination in
    the village.
37. The comfort of passengers is secured by the ---- of the equipment of
    the steamers of this line.
38. We hope for the ---- of our new building by September.
39. We were surprised at the ---- of the collection of minerals.

40. The ---- of a few simple rules of health would have prolonged his life.
41. The North American Indian has great powers of ----.
42. He insisted on the prompt ---- of the regulations.
43. The Pharisees were strict in their ---- of religious festivals.
44. He is arranging for a careful ---- of the eclipse.

45. I submit two ----s for consideration by the assembly.
46. The ---- that each of us relinquish something was accepted.
47. Sealed ----s for building the cottage were handed in by three
48. He made a ---- of marriage to her.
49. I dissent from that ----.
50. A nation dedicated to the ---- that all men are created equal.

51. He made frequent ---- for money and clothes.
52. My mother watched over my infancy with tender ----.
53. Coriolanus yielded at the ---- of his mother.

54. He worked hard under the ---- of a desire to get rich.
55. The providential ---- of conscience is always present.
56. The doctor came and administered a gentle ---- to the patient.


ABILITY, CAPACITY.--_Ability_ is the power of doing; _capacity_, the
power of containing, of understanding, of acquiring.

ADHERENCE, ADHESION.--_Adherence_ is used of moral relations,
_adhesion_, of physical connection. We speak of the _adhesion_ of glue to
wood, of a man's _adherence_ to the principles of his party.

AMOUNT, QUANTITY, NUMBER.--_Amount_ means "sum total," and is used of
numbers or quantities; _quantity_ is used of things which are measured;
_number_, of things which are counted.

ARGUMENT, PLEA.--"_Plea_ (in the legal sense) is properly used of the
pleadings or the arraignment before a trial, not of the _argument_ at a
trial. A _plea_ is always addressed to the court; an _argument_ may be
addressed either to the court or to the jury. A similar remark applies to
the verbs _plead_ and _argue_."[32]

BALANCE, REST, REMAINDER.--_Balance_, meaning "the difference between
two sides of an account," is a commercial term, and cannot properly be
used for _rest_ or _remainder. Rest_ is used of persons or things, and of
large as well as of small parts. _Remainder_ is used only of things, and
denotes a comparatively small part.

CENTRE, MIDDLE.--The _centre_ is a point, or a definite place; the
_middle_ is a line, or a space, and is less definite than _centre_.

CHARACTER, REPUTATION.--_Character_ is what a man is; _reputation_ is
the prevailing opinion of his character.

COMPLEMENT, COMPLIMENT.--A _complement_ is a "full quantity or
number" or "that which is needed to complete"; a _compliment_ is "an
expression of praise."

CONSCIENCE, CONSCIOUSNESS.--_Conscience_ is that within us which
distinguishes right from wrong. _Consciousness_ is the state of being
aware of one's existence, thoughts, and surroundings.

COUNCIL, COUNSEL.--A _council_ is "a body of persons convened for
consultation." _Counsel_ denotes "advice," or "a person, as a lawyer,
engaged to give advice."

CUSTOM, HABIT.--_Custom_ denotes the frequent repetition of the same
act, and may be used of a number of persons taken together. _Habit_ is the
effect of custom in a person. _Custom_ is voluntary; _habit_ is
involuntary, often uncontrollable, sometimes unconscious.

DECEPTION, DECEIT.--_Deception_ is "the act of deceiving"; _deceit_
is "deceitfulness," a trait of character; or a "trick," an "artifice."

EGOISTS, EGOISM, EGOTISM.--"The disciples of Descartes were
_egoists_, the _ego_ being the basis of their philosophy." _Egoism_ is the
name of their system. _Egoism_ is sometimes used also in the sense of
undue admiration of self, the outward expression of which is _egotism_.
But "_egotism_, in the sense of 'self-worship,' is preferable to _egoism_,
since _egoism_ also designates a system of philosophy."[33]

EMIGRATION, IMMIGRATION.--_Emigration_ is the moving out from a
country; _immigration_, the moving into it. Foreigners who come to live in
America are _emigrants_ from their fatherland, _immigrants_ to America.

ENORMITY, ENORMOUSNESS.--"_Enormity_ is used of deeds of unusual
horror; _enormousness_, of things of unusual size. We speak of the
_enormity_ of Cæsar Borgia's crimes, of the _enormousness_ of the
Rothschilds' wealth."[34]

ESTEEM, ESTIMATE, ESTIMATION.--_Esteem_ as a noun seems to be going
out of use; the word now commonly used in the sense of "opinion" or
"regard" is _estimation_. An _estimate_ is "an approximate judgment, based
on considerations of probability, of the number, amount, magnitude, or
position of anything."

FALSITY, FALSENESS.--"_Falsity_, in the sense of 'non-conformity to
truth,' without any suggestion of blame, is preferable to _falseness_,
since _falseness_ usually implies blame."[35]

IDENTITY, IDENTIFICATION.--_Identity_ is "the state of being the
same." _Identification_ denotes "the act of determining what a given
thing, or who a given person, is."

IMPORT, IMPORTANCE.--_Import_, in the sense of "meaning," must be
distinguished from _importance_, "the quality of being important."

INVENTION, DISCOVERY.--We _invent_ something new, contrived or
produced for the first time. We _discover_ what existed before, but
remained unknown.

LIMIT, LIMITATION.--_Limit_, in the sense of "bound," is preferable
to _limitation_, since _limitation_ also means "the act of limiting," or a

LOT, NUMBER.--_Lot_ denotes "a distinct part or parcel": as, "The
auctioneer sold the goods in ten _lots_." The word does not mean "a great
number"; therefore it is improperly used in the sentences: "He has _lots_
of money," and "I know a _lot_ of people in New York."

MAJORITY, PLURALITY.--A _majority_ is more than half the whole
number; a _plurality_ is the excess of votes given for one candidate over
those given for another, and is not necessarily a _majority_ when there
are more than two candidates.

NEGLIGENCE, NEGLECT.--"_Negligence_ is used of a habit or trait;
_neglect_, of an act or succession of acts."[36]

NOVICE, NOVITIATE.--_Novice_ properly means one who is new in any
business or calling; _novitiate_, the state or time of being a _novice_.

ORGANISM, ORGANIZATION.--An _organism_ is a "living body composed of
a number of essential parts." _Organization_ denotes "the act of
organizing," or "an organized body of persons," as a literary society.

PART, PORTION.--"_Part_ is the general word for that which is less
than the whole: as, the whole is equal to the sum of all its _parts_....
_Portion_ is often used in a stilted way where _part_ would be simpler and
better; _portion_ has always some suggestion of allotment or assignment:
as, this is my _portion_; a _portion_ of Scripture. 'Father, give me the
_portion_ of goods that falleth to me.'"[37]

PLENTY, ABUNDANCE.--_Plenty_ is enough; _abundance_, more than enough.

PRODUCE, PRODUCT, PRODUCTION.--_Produce_ is always collective, and is
used only of raw products: as, the _produce_ of the soil, of the flock.
_Product_ denotes the result of some operation, usually physical labor.
_Production_, meaning "the act of producing," is also applied to a
work of literature or art, as a book, a statue, or a painting. "_Product_,
in the sense of 'thing produced,' is preferable to _production_, since
_production_ is also used in an abstract sense."[38]

PROMINENCE, PREDOMINANCE.--_Prominence_ means "a standing out
from something, so as to be conspicuous." _Predominance_ denotes
"ascendency," "a superiority in strength or influence," "an over-ruling."
There may be many _prominent_ traits in a person's character;
there can be only one _predominant_ trait.

RECEIPT, RECIPE.--"_Receipt_, in the sense of 'formula for a pudding,
etc.,' is preferable to _recipe_, since _recipe_ is commonly restricted to
medical prescriptions."[38]

RELATIVE, RELATION.--"_Relative_, in the sense of 'member of a family,' is
preferable to _relation_, since _relation_ is also used in an abstract

REQUIREMENT, REQUISITE, REQUISITION.--A _requirement_ is something
required by a person or persons. A _requisite_ is something required
by the nature of the case. A _requisition_ is an authoritative demand
or official request for a supply of something.

RESORT, RECOURSE, RESOURCE.--_Resort_ denotes "the act of going to
some person or thing"; or "that which is resorted to or habitually
visited." _Recourse_ means "resort for help or protection." _Resource_
denotes "something which is a source of help or support."

SECRETING, SECRETION.--_Secreting_ is the act of hiding; _secretion_, a
physiological process or fluid.

SEWAGE, SEWERAGE.--_Sewage_ means the contents, _sewerage_, the
system, of sewers.

SITUATION, SITE.--"_Situation_ embraces all the local aspects and
relationships[39] in which a thing is placed. The _site_ is confined to the
ground on which it is erected or reposes."[40]

SPECIALITY, SPECIALTY.--"_Speciality_, in the sense of 'distinctive
quality,' is preferable to _specialty_, since _specialty_ is also used in
the sense of 'distinctive thing.'"[41]

UNION, UNITY.--_Union_ is "the joining of two or more things into
one." _Unity_ means "oneness," "harmony."

VISITANT, VISITOR.--_Visitant_ was formerly used to denote a supernatural
being; _visitor_, a human one. _Visitant_ seems now to be going
out of use, _visitor_ being used in both senses.

[31] "Foundations," p. 56. If it seem undesirable to drill pupils on all
the words which are here discriminated, the teacher may select those words
which they are most likely to misuse. See note 2, p. 22.
[32] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 40.
[33] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[34] Ibid., p. 38.
[35] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[36] Ibid., p. 39.
[37] The Century Dictionary.
[38] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[39] Is "relationships" the proper word here?
[40] Smith's Synonyms Discriminated.
[41] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--
1. He is a person of great ability (capacity).
2. A good character (reputation) is a precious possession.
3. The man seemed to be without conscience (consciousness).
4. The counsel (council) was not wise.
5. It is John's custom (habit) to speak slowly.
6. Her deceit (deception) amazed me.
7. This man is an egoist (egotist).
8. The government does not encourage immigration (emigration).
9. In Mr. E.'s estimate (estimation) the cost of lumber and paint is low.
10. It was only yesterday that I heard of the identification (identity)
    of the men who robbed Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith.
11. Mr. Gladstone's remark at the banquet was an utterance of great
    import (importance).
12. This is a remarkable discovery (invention).
13. Calhoun was nominated by a majority (plurality).
14. His death was caused by his own neglect (negligence).
15. The privileges of a novice (novitiate) are not many.
16. What a queer organism (organization)!
17. The expedition has plenty (an abundance) of provisions.
18. He proposes to lay a tax on all English produce (products,
19. He quickly attained prominence (predominance) in the committee.
20. Please copy this receipt (recipe).
21. My relatives (relations) here are charming.
22. Wanted, a boy to do light work in a first-class store. Ability to read
    and write is a requirement (requisite).
23. The sewage (sewerage) of inland cities presents problems of
    great difficulty.
24. The site (situation) of the temple is not known.
25. Unity (union) of religious denominations is hoped for by many.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. The ---- of the room is not great.
2. They gave, each according to his ----.
3. What is ---- but the power of doing a thing?
4. Let me drink of Thee according to my ----. (From a prayer.)
5. Some students do not have ---- to master Greek; but what most need is
   ---- to work persistently.
6. My father does not think Judge X. has much--as a lawyer.

7. The ---- of the parts which were cemented together is still perfect.
8. He showed an obstinate ---- to false rules of conduct.
9. Marks on the blackboard depend on the ---- of chalk to the slate.
10. Professor A.'s ---- to the doctrines of Adam Smith is seen in his last

11. Our monthly expenditures vary in ----.
12. You could see any ---- of cabs standing in front of the theatre.
13. A great ---- of books and papers covered the table.
14. Gulliver asked the king of Lilliput for a large ---- of iron bars
    and a considerable ---- of rope.
15. What ---- of paper is needed for one issue of _Harper's Weekly_?
16. Such a (an) ---- of sheep as we saw to-day!
17. There is a large ---- of silver bullion in the Treasury waiting to be

18. Every whisper in the court-room was hushed as Mr. N. rose before the
    jury and began his--in behalf of the prisoner.

19. The ---- of Smith, when arraigned before the court, was that he had
    acted in self-defence.

20. The only ---- available with an east wind is to put on your overcoat.

21. The ---- of the hour is spent in the study of some poem.
22. I have a ---- at my banker's.
23. The ---- of the boys went home.
24. For the ---- of the week we stayed at home.
25. The account shows a ---- of $12.46.
26. Give John and Horace four of the six apples; you may have the ----.
27. Give the ---- of our dinner to Tommy, our cat.

28. There is a crack running down the ---- of the wall.
29. A table stood in the ---- of the room.
30. A path runs through the ---- of the park.
31. In the ---- of the garden was a fountain.
32. He parts his hair in the ----.
33. The arrow struck the ---- of the target.

34. This man has an excellent ---- for honesty.
35. Every one admires the ---- of Washington.
36. Mr. Arnold won great ---- as a critic.
37. Oh, I have lost my ----.
38. The outlaws of Yorkshire were men of loose ----.
39. A distinguished general may lose his ---- through a single blunder.
40. ---- is an idle and most false imposition; oft got without merit,
and lost without deserving.

41. Present my ----s to your father.
42. The ship has its ---- of stores.
43. The ---- of an angle is the difference between the angle and a right
44. "True friendship loathes such oily ----."
45. In the sentence, "He is ill," "ill" is the ---- of the verb "is."
46. "This barren verbiage, current among men, Light coin, the tinsel clink
    of ----."

47. The ---- of the purity of his motives consoled him for his
48. My ---- hath a thousand several tongues.
49. I felt a shock, I saw the car topple over, and then I lost ----.

50. "No man will take ----, but every man will take money; therefore money
    is better than ----."--_Swift._
51. The members of the cabinet form a sort of secret ---- of the President.
52. Webster was one of the ---- in the trial of the Knapps for the murder
    of Captain White.

53. De Quincey acquired the ---- of using opium from first using it to
    relieve neuralgic pains.
54. Dancing round a May-pole is a ---- many hundreds of years old.
55. As his ---- was, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath.
56. Man is a bundle of ----s.
57. Those national ----s are best which lead to good ----s among the
58. A loose life brings a man into ----s of dissipation.
59. It was the ---- of Scotch Highlanders to go bareheaded.
60. It is a good ---- to rise early, because this will soon become a ----.

61. He was guilty of a long course of ----.
62. Her character would be charming if it were not for her ----.
63. He won my confidence by base ----.
64. Deceivers seldom profit by their ----.
65. ---- Is of the very nature and essence of sin.

66. He is an ----, for he is always talking about himself.
67. ----s are the pest of society; they are always obtruding their ailments
    on others.

68. The increase in Chinese ---- is a matter for serious consideration by
    the United States Senate.
69. The Chinese government encourages ---- to America.
70. ---- is one cause of the rapid growth of our population.
71. The ---- of the French nobility at the time of the French Revolution
    was a political blunder.

72. The ---- of the cost of the civil war startles the student of history.
73. Burke drew such a vivid picture of the ---- of the Nabob of Arcot's
    crimes that ladies in the audience fainted.
74. Visitors do not at first realize the ---- of St. Peter's, at Rome.

75. In what ---- is he held by his townsmen?
76. In my ---- she is the best of women.
77. We can form an ---- of the amount of water in the air.

78. We have already seen the ---- of that hypothesis.
79. Arnold was despised for his ----.
80. Piety is opposed to hypocrisy and ----.
81. The prince is in danger of betrayal through the ---- of his servant.
82. The ---- of this reasoning is evident.

83. The bodies were so disfigured that their ---- was difficult.
84. In no form of government is there absolute ---- of interest between
    the people and their rulers.

85. He heard the tolling of the bell and trembled at its ----.
86. The oath of the President contains three words, all of equal ----;
    namely, that he will "preserve, protect, and defend" the Constitution.
87. He was engaged in business of the highest ----.
88. You misunderstood the ---- of my remarks.

89. Newton's ---- of the law of gravitation.
90. The ---- of the telescope was made by Galileo.
91. The ---- of the properties of the magnetic needle is said to have been
    made by the Chinese; also, the ---- of gunpowder.
92. The ---- of the circulation of blood was made by Harvey.
93. The steam-engine is one of the greatest ----s of this age.
94. The ---- of the telephone is claimed by several persons.

95. All kinds of knowledge have their ----s.
96. Titus Quintius was appointed to the command of the army without any
97. Athens insisted upon ---- of the right to vote.
98. The prisoners were free to roam within certain ----s, but their
    employments were subject to ----.

99. If A has 21 votes, B 18, and C 10, A is elected by a ----, not a ----.
100. Smith had 37 of the 52 votes, a good ----.
101. Jones had 20 votes, Smith 14, and Brown 11; Jones therefore was
     elected by a safe ----.

102.          "Without blame
      Or our ---- we lost her as we came."--_Comus._
103. Through ---- to do what ought to be done we soon acquire habits of
104. Rescue my poor remains from vile ----.
105. The gate has fallen from its hinges, the wooden steps are rotted, and
     the house shows similar signs of ----.
106. ---- is a grave fault.

107. For most men a ---- of silence is profitable before they enter on the
     business of life.
108. I am young, a ---- in the trade.
109. It was in this abbey that I served my ----.
110. When I was a ---- in this place, there was here a pious monk.

111. Germs of microscopic ----s exist abundantly on the surface of all
112. Lieutenant Peary has completed the ---- of his arctic expedition.
113. The Jacobin club was a political ----.
114. What a complex ---- the human body is!

115. A ---- of my work is done.
116. The younger ---- of the community.
117. The priests had a ---- of land assigned them by Pharaoh.
118. The whole is equal to the sum of all its ----s.
119. Each received his ---- of the estate.
120. The lower ----s of his body were cold.
121. "This," said he, "is a ---- of the true cross."

122. If you do not waste your money, you will have ---- for your expenses.
123. They did cast in of their ----; but she of her want.
124. The expedition has ---- of provisions, but none to spare.
125. Last year there was ---- of corn; it was estimated that we had enough
     to feed the whole nation for two years.

126. The manufacturers brought their ----s to market.
127. The farmers bring their ---- to town or haul it to the nearest
     railway station.
128. The apple is especially an American ----.
129. Lowell's "Commemoration Ode" is a noble ----.
130. Great Britain exports chiefly manufactured ----.
131. The component elements of ---- are labor and capital.

132. The Indian race is marked by a ---- of the cheek-bones.
133. The English settlers were _prominent (predominant)_ in the New World.
134. "Childe Harold" brought Byron into ---- as a poet.
135. As a man Byron had many _prominent (predominant)_ faults; it is not
     easy to say which one was _prominent (predominant)._

136. Please send me your ---- for making chocolate ice-cream.
137. Paracelsus furnished a ---- for making a fairy, but had the delicacy
     to refrain from using it.
138. He gave me a ---- for a liniment, which he said was excellent for

139. He has no ---- in this part of the country.
140. I am the nearest ---- he has in the world.

141. One of the ----s in a great commander is coolness.
142. The ----s for admission to college vary.
143. One of the ----s in a United States minister to France is that he be
     wealthy, for the salary paid is insufficient to defray the expenses
     of the minister's social obligations.
144. That locomotive engineers be not color-blind is a just ----.
145. The wars of Napoleon were marked by the enormous ----s which were
     made on invaded countries.

146. The woods were her favorite--.
147. The United States has unlimited--s.
148. Asheville has long been a--of wealthy society people.
149. When women engage in any art or trade, it is usually as a last ----.
150. General Lee had--to stratagem.

151. Jailers are watchful to prevent the ---- of poison in letters sent to
     condemned prisoners.
153. Saliva is a ----.

153. The water of rivers that have received ---- is not good to drink.
154. The vast and intricate ---- of Paris is described by Victor Hugo
     in "Les Miserables."

155. The ---- of Samaria is far more beautiful than the ---- of Jerusalem,
     though not so grand and wild.
156. Dr. Schliemann made excavations to discover the ---- of Troy.
157. Our school buildings have a fine ----.
158. Has the ---- of Professor Richard's house been fixed?
159. One of Nebuchadnezzar's temples is thought to have stood on the ----
     of the Tower of Babel.

160. It is the ---- of vice that it is selfishly indifferent to the
     injurious consequences of actions.
161. Diseases of the throat are Dr. Hall's ----.
162. Fountain-pens  a ----.
163. "Toughness" is the ---- of Salisbury iron; therefore Salisbury iron is
     much in demand for car-wheels.

164. How good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together
     in ----.
165. The ---- of soul and body is ended by death.
166. In the temper of Lord Bacon there was a singular ---- of audacity and
167. This composition lacks ----; the writer treats of several distinct


_Tell why the italicized words in the following sentences are misused,
and substitute for them better expressions:_--

1. The West End Railway Company is the _factor_[42] which can remedy all
2. Addison's "Cato" was _a success._
3. Decoration Day is a fitting _observance_ of those who gave their
   lives for their country.
4. At the end of each day the _teams_[43] are so broken up that they have
   to go into the repair-shop, where the carpenter and blacksmith are able
   to fix any part of them.
5. The _majority_ of the news is unfavorable.
6. Search-lights would be an indispensable _factor_ in a night attack.
7. Bishop Hatto lived in a country where all the _productions_ were
   spoiled by the weather.
8. The _whole_ of the stupid boys in Germany struggle to pass this test.
9. The police are looking for the guilty _parties_.
10. A _lot_ of men from the country came to town to see the circus.
11. In the shed is a _mixture_[44] of oars, seats, sails, rudders, booms,
    and gaffs.
12. They had to take the _balance_ of his arm off.
13. Addison's essays were a great _factor_ in improving the morals
    of his age.
14. General Manager Payson Tucker at once sent detectives to the scene, and
    every effort will be made to secure the guilty _parties_.
15. For a few days Coxey's army was _a success_ as a show.
16. If it were not for him and a few others of his _ilk_ the matter
    would have been settled long ago.

[42] "Foundations," p. 51.
[43] Ibid., p. 52.
[44] Consult a good dictionary.


_Illustrate by original sentences the correct use of these words:_--

Home, party, series, statement, verdict, acceptation, actions, advance,
advancement, avocation, completion, allusion, illusion, observation,
observance, proposal, proposition, solicitude, solicitation, stimulus,
stimulant, capacity, adherence, adhesion, amount, quantity, number,
centre, middle, character, complement, compliment, conscience,
consciousness, council, counsel, custom, habit, deception, deceit, egoist,
emigration, immigration, enormity, enormousness, esteem, estimate,
falsity, falseness, import, invention, discovery, limitation, majority,
plurality, negligence, neglect, novitiate, organization, organism,
produce, product, production, prominence, predominance, recipe,
requirement, requisition, requisite, resort, resource, secretion, sewage,
sewerage, situation, site, speciality, specialty, union, unity.

[45] TO THE TEACHER.--It is easy to underestimate the difficulty which
this exercise presents to pupils. In assigning the lesson care must be
taken not to call for more of this kind of work than can be done well.
Constructing a sentence to illustrate the correct use of a word is a
valuable exercise, but it is a difficult one; and persons who know the
correct use of a word may be put to their wit's end to illustrate that
use. It will be well to assign this exercise little by little, while the
class works through the definitions and exercises on pages 23-41; or else
to select from the list the words on which the class needs most drill.
With some pupils it may be wise to omit the exercise entirely.



POSSESSIVE FORMS.[46]--No apostrophe is used in forming the possessive
case of personal pronouns. We write "ours," "yours," "hers," "its,"
"theirs." "It's" is a contraction for "it is."

[46] "Foundations," p. 60.


_Write from dictation_--
1. John's hat is old, yours is new.
2. The bear was lying on its side, dead.
3. The Browns' house is larger than ours, but ours is more convenient than
4. Yours very respectfully, John Smith.
5. See the yacht! it's coining into the harbor under full sail.
6. Show Mary your doll; it should not grieve you that yours is not so
   pretty as hers.
7. That fault was not yours.
8. Helen's eyes followed the direction of hers.

NOMINATIVE OR OBJECTIVE CASE.[47]--There are only seven words in the
English language that now have different forms for the nominative and
objective cases; therefore it is only in the use of these words that we
need to observe any rules about "nominative" or "objective." Since,
however, these seven words are more frequently used than any other words,
the possibilities of error in choosing between the nominative and the
objective are many. Mistakes of this kind are common, and produce a very
unpleasant effect on cultivated people. The seven words that have
different forms for the nominative and objective cases are the following

_Nominative. Objective._
     I           me
     we          us
     thou        thee
     he          him
     she         her
     they        them
     who         whom

It is taken for granted that the student has already learned the following
principles of syntax:--

1. _Words used absolutely_ and the _subjects of finite verbs_ should in
   English be put in the NOMINATIVE form.
2. The _subjects of infinitives_ and the _objects_ of verbs and
   prepositions should be in the OBJECTIVE form.
3. Words in _apposition_ should be in the same case.
4. The verb "_to be,"_ or any of its forms _(am, is, are, were,_ etc.),
   does not take an object, but, being equivalent in meaning to the symbol
   "=," takes the same case after it as before it: the nominative,
   if the form is "finite"; the objective, if the form is "infinitive" and
   has a subject of its own. "I know it is _he_," "I know it to be _him,"_
   and "The stranger is thought to be _he_" are grammatically correct.

Sentences like "She invited Mrs. R. and _I_ to go driving" are common,
even among people generally well-informed. Such mistakes will be avoided
if the speaker stops to think what the form would be if the pronoun were
not coupled with a noun. No one would think of saying, "She invited _I_ to
go driving."

Persons who are in doubt as to which form of the pronoun to use often try
to avoid the difficulty by using one of the pronouns ending in
"-self"--pronouns which have the same form for both the nominative and the
objective case. Thus many persons, uncertain whether to use "I" or "me" in
the sentence quoted above, would say instead, "She invited Mrs. R. and
_myself_ to go driving." This is no better than "Mrs. R. and _I_," or
"her and _I_." The pronouns in "-self" are properly used only for emphasis
or in a reflexive sense.[49] It is right to say: "I will go _myself_";
"Carrie _herself_ went to the door"; "God helps those who help
_themselves_." It would be wrong to say, "Harry and _myself_ have bought a
horse together."

When a pronoun in "-self" is used reflexively, it refers to the subject of
the clause in which it stands.

In sentences like "This advice is free to _whoever_ will take it," the
word ending in "-ever" is the subject of the verb "will take," not the
object of the preposition "to." The right form, therefore, is "whoever,"
not "whomever." The object or, better, the "base" of the preposition "to"
is the whole clause, "whoever will take it."

[47] Ibid., pp. 61-62.
[48] I omit _ye, you,_ because they are used interchangeably. I omit also
compounds of _who, whom._
[49] "Foundations," p. 64.


_Insert the proper form of pronoun in each blank, and give the reason for
your choice:--_


1. Taking a carriage, my brother and--drove to the east end of Cape
2. Mr. C. and--walked around the lake by moonlight.
3. The walk gave pleasure to both Mr. C. and--.
4. Between you and--, affairs look dark.
5. The _Star_ contains a paper on "Our Streets," which was written by--. >
6. He is taller than--.[50]
7. There is, you remember, an old agreement between you and--
8. May John and--go to the ball-game?
9. Please let John and--go to the ball-game.
10. They met Robert and--in the village.
11. Who is there? Only--.
12. To send--away, and for a whole year, too,--, who had never been away
    from home, was not easy for mother.
13. Will you let Brown and--have your boat?
14. Dr. Holmes shook hands with the girls,--among the rest.
15. Next month my brother and--are going to Bar Harbor.
16. It was--who called to you.
17. I was beside--.
18. Would you go, if you were--?
19. Father bought brother and--tickets for the concert.
20. He said he would bring some flowers to Frances and--.
21. You suffer from headache more than--.
22. We shall soon see which is the better boxer, you or--.
23. Who rang the bell?--.
24. The taller man was supposed to be--.
25. Every one has gone except you and--.
26. The world will rest content with such poor things as you and--.
27. He was a sublimer poet than--.
28. Was it--that you saw?
29. How can you thus address me,--, who am your friend?
30. Let you and--go for berries alone, if he will not go with us.
31. There is no one here but you and--.
32. Is it--you wish to see?
33. He said that you and--might ao.
34. Oh, no; it couldn't have been--.
35. Harry left word for you and--to come to his room.
36. Other girls have books as well as--.
37. Its being--should make no difference.
38. Young Macdonald and--went to New York last Thursday.
39. She knew it to be--by my gait.

[50] In sentences like this the correct form will become evident if the
speaker mentally completes the sentence thus: He is taller than--_am._ The
greater part of the clause after "than" or "as" is generally omitted.


We, us, ourselves.
1. Our friends and--are going out to-night.
2. He has come to take our friends and--driving.
3. They are wiser than--, since they are older.
4. They will lose more than--by the failure of the bank.
5. The Germans are better plodders than--.
6. It may have been--who (whom) you saw.
7.--boys are having a fine time.
8. Have you seen the picture of--three girls in a boat, taken by Mr. B.?
9. There are five hundred miles between father and--.
10. They know that as well as--.
11. They don't succeed any better than--.
12. They as well as--were disappointed.
13. --ought not to get angry when others criticise--for faults
    which--freely acknowledge.
14.  "It is not fit for such as --
     To sit with rulers of the land."


Thou, thee, thyself.
1. I will not learn my duty from such as ----.
2. If they rob only such as ----, I hold them right honest folk.
3. Love ---- last.
4.  "The nations not so blest as ----
    Must in their turn to tyrants fall."
5. "Wife, dost ---- know that all the world seems queer except ---- and
   me; and sometimes I think even ---- art a little queer?"
6.  "Hail to ----, blithe spirit;
    Bird ---- never wert."


He, him, himself.
1. There is a difference between an employer and--who (whom) he employs.
2. John ---- wrote that letter.
3. You are nearly as tall as ----.
4. All wore dress suits except Charles and--.
5. I know that it was ----.
6. I knew it to be ----.
7. ---- being young, they tried to deceive him.
8. It was either ---- or his brother that called.
9. What were you and ---- talking about?
10. I can run as fast as ----.
11. ---- who had always protected her, she now saw dead at her feet.
12. ---- and his father are in business together.
13. She is as good as ----.
14. I should never have imagined it to be ----.
15. Boys like you and ---- are expected to do what is right without being
16. Yes, I told them what you said, ---- among the rest.
17. I did as well as ----.
18. It was Joseph, ---- whom Pharaoh made prime-minister.
19. Let ---- who made thee answer that.
20. Whom can I trust, if not ----?


1. Before leaving Mary we saw ---- and her baggage safe on the train.
2. ---- and her two cousins have been visiting us.
3. I would not go to town alone, if I were ----.
4. It was not ---- but her sister that you met yesterday.
5. You are as old as ----.
6. ---- and I are not in the same class.
7. Was it ---- that did it?
8. I cannot let you and ---- sit together.
9. You play the violin better than ----.
10. Such girls as ---- are not good companions.
11. I am certain that it was ----.
12. Girls like ---- are not good company.
13. If any one is embarrassed, it will not be ----.
14. If any one is late it will be sure to be ----.


1. ---- and their children have left town.
2. We shall soon be as poor as ----.
3. Yes, it was ----.
4. I do not know whether the Macdonalds are Scotch or Irish but I thought
   the Scotch family alluded to might be ----.
5. The mischievous boys you speak of could not have been ---- for ---- were
   at home.


1. ---- are you going to give that to?
2. ---- do men say that I am?
3. ---- do men think me to be?
4. ---- am I supposed to be?
5. ---- do you think will be elected?
6. ---- do you think they will select?
7. I do not know ---- to compare him to.
8. Tell me in sadness ---- is she you love?
9. ---- are you going to call on next?
10. How can we tell ---- to trust?
11. ---- is that for?
12. Elect ---- you like.
13. ---- did you see at the village?
14. ---- did you say went with you?
15. Do you know ---- you can get to take my trunk?
16. ---- were you talking to just now?
17. I do not know ---- you mean.
18. Do you remember ---- he married?
19. We will refer the question to ---- you may select as arbitrator.
20. ---- can this letter be from?
21. He is a man ---- I know is honest.[51]
22. He is a man ---- I know to be honest.[51]
23. ---- do you take me to be?
24. ---- did you expect to see?
25. Can't you remember ---- you gave it to?
26. I saw a man ---- I have no hesitation in saying was Julian H.
27. We like to be with those ---- we love and ---- we know love us, let
    them be ---- they may.
28. ---- do you think it was that called?
29. He confided his plan to those ---- he thought were his friends.
30. He confided his plan to those ---- he thought he could trust.
31. We recommend only those ---- we think can pass the examinations, and
    ---- we know will do their best.
32. ---- do you think she looks like?
33. One letter was from an applicant ---- I afterwards learned had been
    out of a position for two years.
34.  ---- did you suppose it was?
35. Opposite him was a handsome man--John knew must be Kathleen's uncle.
36. A witness ---- the counsel for the defence expected would be present
    was kept away by illness.
37. A witness ---- the counsel expected to be present was kept away.
38. Give it to ---- seems to need it most.
39. ---- does he think it could have been?
40. They have found the child ---- they thought was stolen.
41. Mr. Morton, ----, it is announced, the President has appointed minister
    to France, has a house at Saratoga.
42. Miss C. married an old gentleman ---- they say is very wealthy.
43. The king offered to give his daughter in marriage to ---- would kill
    the terrible monster.
44. ---- do you think I saw in Paris?
45. ---- are you going to vote for?
46. They left me ignorant as to ---- it was.
47. We were betrayed by those ---- we thought would die for us.
48. I don't know ---- to ask for.
49. I know ---- it is I serve.
50. The President has appointed Mr. L., ---- he thinks will show himself
    well fitted for the position.
51. One member of the committee was absent ----, it was asserted by the
    minority, would have voted in the negative.
52. The officer addressed the woman, ---- he plainly saw to be very much
    out of place there.
53. ---- did he refer to, he (him) or I (me)?
54. Ariel was a spirit ---- a certain witch had shut up in a tree.
55. If she did not take after Anne, ---- did she take after?

PRONOUNS BEFORE VERBAL NOUNS.[52]--Grammarians distinguish three kinds
of words formed from verbs by the adding of "-ing."

1. "We found Katharine _singing_ a merry song." In this sentence
   "singing"--equivalent to "who was singing"--describes Katharine, and is
   therefore used as an adjective; but it also partakes of the nature of a
   verb, for it has a direct object, "song." Such words, partaking of the
   nature of both adjective and verb, are called PARTICIPLES.
2. "Blithely _singing_ pretty songs keeps one's spirits up."

Here "singing" is a noun, the subject of the sentence; yet it has a direct
object, "songs," and is modified by the adverb "blithely." Such words,
partaking of the nature of both noun and verb, are called GERUNDS.

A noun or a pronoun used before a gerund to denote the subject of the
action should be put in the possessive case. The reason for this becomes
evident if, in the sentence "Do you remember _Katharine (Katharine's)
singing?"_ we substitute for the noun "singing" another noun, "song;"
thus, "Do you remember _Katharine (Katharine's) song?"_ The direct object
of "remember" is "singing," which is described by the possessive

3. "Katharine's blithe _singing_ of merry songs helps to make home happy."
Here, too, "singing" is a noun; but now its verbal character has
disappeared, for it is modified by an adjective "blithe," and instead of a
direct object we have the prepositional phrase "of merry songs." Such
words derived from verbs are ABSTRACT VERBAL NOUNS.

When a word in "-ing" is modified by "the" or some other adjective, it is
an abstract verbal noun, and cannot have an object. Conversely, if it, is
followed by "of" and a noun instead of by a direct object, it should be
modified by "the" or some other adjective.

[51] In the first of these sentences the pronoun to be supplied is the
subject of "is honest," and "I know" is parenthetical. In the second
sentence, the pronoun to be supplied is the subject of "to be honest,"
which is the complement of "I know."
[52] "Foundations," pp. 62-64.


_Which of the following forms is preferable? Give the reason:_--

1. I heard of him (his) coming home.
2. What do you think of Marguerite (Marguerite's) studying Latin?
3. Have you any doubt of Kathleen (Kathleen's) being happy?
4. We saw the lady (lady's) crossing the street.
5. Do you remember my (me) speaking to you about your penmanship?
6. We saw the old miser (miser's) sitting alone in front of his hut.
7. What is the good of your (you) going now?
8. There was no doubt of him (his) being promoted.
9. Trust to me (my) being on time.
10. Are you surprised at it (its) being him (he)?
11. No doubt his example will be followed by others, with the consequence
    of the country (country's) being overrun by tramps.
12. Look at him (his) reading a book.
13. The delay was caused by us (our) missing the train.
14. I found him (his) reading Idyls of the King.
15. This may lead to Harry (Harry's) getting a position.
16. We did not see the house (house's) burning.
17. You (your) writing the letter so neatly secured for you the position.
18. The man's (man) breaking jail is evidence of his guilt.
19. What do you think about this cloth (cloth's) wearing well?
20. We must insist upon every man (man's) doing his duty.
21. Mr. R.'s (Mr. R.) having come to town will soon be known.
22. There is prospect of the Senate (Senate's) passing the tariff bill.
23. What use is there in a man (man's) swearing?
24. His parents are opposed to him (his) playing football.
25. No one ever saw fat men (men's) heading a riot.
26. A fierce struggle ensued, ending in the intruder (intruder's) being
27. Professor C. relies on us (our) passing our examinations.
28. I felt my heart (heart's) beating faster.
29. There is no use in me (my) trying to learn Hebrew.
30. I enjoy nothing more than the sight of a yacht (yacht's) sailing in a
    stiff breeze.
31. Brown (Brown's) being a manufacturer prevented his election.


_Distinguish in meaning between the following sentences:_--

1. The man (man's) asking to be allowed to vote started a quarrel.
2. Did you see him (his) riding?
3. I had to laugh at John (John's) riding a bicycle.
4. Think of me (my) eating frogs' legs.
5. Much depends on the teacher (teacher's) correcting the papers.
6. Did you watch him (his) entering the room?
7. Did you hear Ruth (Ruth's) singing?
8. No one ever heard of that man (man's) running for office.


_Explain the faults in the following sentences and correct them in several

1. He read the parable about the sowing the seed.
2. Good writing depends on reading of good books.
3. Youth is the time for the forming the character.
4.  "In building of chaises, I tell you what,
    There is always somewhere a weakest spot."
5. He would not aid me so much as by the lifting a hand.
6. Groaning of prisoners and clanking of chains were heard.
7. By the obtaining wisdom you will command esteem.
8. By reading of good books his style was improved.
9. The taking things by force is apt to make trouble.
10. A more careful guarding the prisoners would have prevented
    this accident.

CHOICE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.[53]--_Who_ is now used only of persons;
_which_, of things; _that_, of either persons or things. As a rule,
euphony decides between _who_ or _which_ and _that_.

"_Who_ is used chiefly of persons (though also often of the higher
animals), _which_ almost only of animals and things (in old English also
of persons), and _that_ indifferently of either, except after a
preposition, where only _who_ [_whom_] or _which_ can stand. Some recent
authorities teach that only _that_ should be used when the relative clause
is limiting or defining: as, the man _that_ runs fastest wins the race;
but _who_ or _which_ when it is descriptive or co-ordinating: as, this
man, _who_ ran fastest, won the race; but, though present usage is perhaps
tending in the direction of such a distinction, it neither has been nor is
a rule of English speech, nor is it likely to become one, especially on
account of the impossibility of setting _that_ after a preposition; for to
turn all relative clauses into the form 'the house _that_ Jack lived _in_'
(instead of 'the house _in which_ Jack lived') would be intolerable. In
good punctuation the defining relative is distinguished (as in the
examples above) by never taking a comma before it, whether it be _who_ or
_which_ or _that_. Wherever _that_ could be properly used, but only there,
the relative may be, and very often is, omitted altogether; thus, the
house Jack built or lived in; the man he built it for."[54]

When the antecedent includes both persons and things,
_that_ is preferable to _who_ or _which_.

"When the antecedent is a neuter noun not personified, a writer should
prefer _of which_ to _whose_, unless euphony requires the latter."[55]

_What_, as a relative pronoun, is equivalent to "that which." It is never
used with an antecedent, since the antecedent is included in the meaning
of the word.

The word _as_ is a relative pronoun only after "such" or "same." After
"such" the proper relative is "as"; after "same" it is "as" or "that."
"_Same as_ usually expresses identity of kind, _same that_ absolute
identity, except in contracted sentences where _same as_ is alone found:
cf. 'he uses the same books _as_ you do,' 'he uses the same books _that_
you do,' he uses the same books as you.'"[56]

[53] "Foundations," pp. 60, 65, 67-69.
[54] The Century Dictionary.
[55] "Foundations," p. 68.
[56] Murray's Dictionary.


_Insert the proper relative pronoun in the blanks in the following
sentences, giving the reason for your choice:--_

1. Man is the only animal ---- can talk.
2. There are many persons ----, though they be starving, will not beg.
3. This is the malt ---- lay in the house ---- Jack built.
4. I will have no such son-in-law ---- thinks himself better than
   I (me).[57]
5. Tennyson, ---- was the foremost poet of England, died in 1892.
6. Time ---- is lost is never found again.
7. There are many ---- saw him fall.
8. The soldiers and cannon ---- you saw belong to the French army.
9. Who ---- hears Professor C. read the court scene from "Pick wick" does
   not go away delighted?
10. She is the same girl since her marriage ---- she was before it.
11. The dog dropped the bone, ---- then fell into the water.
12. He ---- does all ---- he can does all ---- can be expected.
13. Her hair, ---- was dark brown, was gathered in a Grecian knot.
14. Tears, such ---- angels weep, burst forth.
15. I have a water spaniel, ---- follows me everywhere.
16. The horse ---- ran away with Harry belonged to Mr. H.
17. Such ---- I have I give you.
18. This is the same man ---- I spoke of.
19. The diamond, ---- is so highly prized, is pure carbon, ---- in the
    form of charcoal is familiar to all.
20. All the men and horses ---- were on the transports were drowned when
    the vessels sank.
21. The murdered innocents at Bethlehem were martyrs ---- died for a king
    ---- they had never seen.
22. What pleased me most, and ---- has been most frequently mentioned
    by visitors to the fair, was the beauty of the buildings.
23. I trusted to my dog, ---- knew the way better than I did.
24. Dr. A.'s report shows the same record of efficiency ---- has always
    characterized his conduct.
25. Shakespeare was the greatest poet ---- the English race has produced.
26. He spends all ---- he earns.
27. The review of the National Guard of Pennsylvania by Sheridan was the
    largest military display ---- I have seen.
28. Was it you or the wind ---- made those noises?
29. We have invited the same girls ---- were here yesterday.
30. It was the cat, not I or the wind, ---- frightened you.
31. The dog ---- my brother gave me ran away.
32. Do you know that man ---- is just entering the car?
33. Such eloquence ---- was heard in the Senate in those days!
34. He held the same political opinions ---- his illustrious friend.
35.     "Nature ever faithful is
         To such ---- trust her faithfulness."
36. Is this a dagger ---- I see before me?
37. We saw the men and arms ---- were captured.

EITHER or ANY ONE, NEITHER or NO ONE.[58]--_Either_ means
"one of the two"; _neither_, "no one of the two." When more than two
persons or things are spoken of, "any one" is preferable to "either," and
"no one" to "neither."

[57] See note, p. 45.
[58] "Foundations," pp. 69-70.


_Insert the proper word or words ("either," "neither," "any one," "no
one") in each blank in the following sentences:--_

1. Only three persons saw the fight, and ---- of them would testify.
2. Has ---- of you two gentlemen a fountain-pen?
3. I defy any candid and clear thinker to deny in the name of
inductive science ---- of these six propositions.
4. When two persons disagree, it is not likely that ---- is altogether
5. Has ---- of you who have just come from the ball-field seen Julian?
6. I have several histories of France, ---- of which will give you the
7. Here come Harry and Arthur; ---- will go to get it for you.
8. Give it to the six successful students or to ---- of them.

EACH or ALL.[59]--_Each_ denotes every one of any number taken
one by one; _all_ denotes the entire number taken together.

[59] "Foundations," p. 70.


_Insert the proper word ("each," "all") in each blank:--_

1. ---- gave me his (their) hand(s).
2. ---- of the workmen received two dollars a day.
3. ---- of the children has (have) his (their) peculiar traits.
4. ---- of the members is (are) entitled to a vote.
5. He gave an apple to ---- of us.
6. Did your father bring the boat to Harry? No, he brought it to ---- of
7. ---- of them did his (their) duty.

CHANGE OF PRONOUN.[60]--In referring to the same person or thing a
writer should not change from one pronoun to another.

The possessive of "one" is "one's" (not "his"), except in such
expressions as "every one," "no one," "many a one." The reflexive is
"one's self."

It is a common but serious fault to begin to write in the third person,
and then to change to the first or second.

[60] Ibid., pp. 72-74.


_Fill the blanks with the proper pronouns:--_

1. The Second Regiment of the National Guard, ---- was sent to Pittsburg
   during the strike, and ---- is now in camp at Gettysburg, has six
   hundred members.
2. John started to school last Monday; we wish ---- success.
3. Proud damsel, ---- shalt be proudly met. I withdraw my pretensions
   to ---- hand until I return from the war.
4. As ---- hast said, ---- lands are not endangered. But hear me before I
   leave ----.
5. The cat was crouching on the piazza and we were watching ----.
   Suddenly ---- tail twitched nervously and ---- prepared to spring.
6.   "Ere you remark another's sin,
     Bid ---- conscience look within."
7. At first one is likely to wonder where the boats are, since on entering
   the grove ---- is (are) able to see only a small cabin.
8. Dost ---- talk of revenge? ---- conscience, it seems, has grown dull.
9. As a Christian ---- art obliged to forgive ---- enemy.
10. Did you never bear false witness against ---- neighbor?
11. The shepherd ran after a sheep and caught ---- just as ---- was
    jumping over a hedge.
12. The hen gathered ---- brood under ---- wing.
13. This is a book which I have never read, but one ---- is recommended by
    Mrs. M.


1. Write the following note in clear and correct form, using the
third person:--

"Mr. Smith presents his compliments to Mr. Jones, and finds he has a cap
which isn't mine. So, if you have a cap which isn't his, no doubt they are
the ones."[61]

2. Write a formal note in the third person, asking an acquaintance to dine
with you at a certain hour in order that you may consult with him about
some matter of importance.

3. Write a note in the third person accepting or declining this

4. Write a formal note in the third person to some gentleman to
whom you have a letter of introduction, asking when it will be
convenient to have you call.

5. Write a notice in the third person offering a reward for the recovery
of a lost article.

SINGULAR or PLURAL PRONOUNS.[62]--The rule that a pronoun should
be in the same number as its antecedent is violated most commonly in
connection with such expressions as "any one," "each," "either," "every,"
"man after man," "neither," "nobody." Grammatically such expressions are

"He" ("his," "him") may stand for mankind in general and include women as
well as men.

[61] Quoted in "Foundations," p. 74.
[62] "Foundations," pp. 75-76.


_Fill the blanks with the proper pronouns:_--

1. Many a brave man met ---- death in the war.
2. Has everybody finished ---- exercise?
3. If any one has not finished let ---- hold up ---- hand.
4. It is true that this is a free country; but that does not mean that
   every one may do as ---- please (pleases).
5. Either John or Harry will let you look on ---- book.
6. Let each take ---- turn.
7. If anybody but John had come, we would not have admitted ----.
8. Any one who wishes may have a ribbon to wear in ---- button-hole.
9. Neither Bois-Guilbert nor Front de Boeuf found himself (them selves) a
   match for the unknown knight who challenged ----.
10. Every kind of animal has ---- own proper food.
11. Not an officer, not a private escaped getting ---- clothes wet.
12. The Senate has (have) instructed ---- conferees to yield to the demand
    of the conferees of the House of Representatives.
13. Everybody has possessions of some kind which ---- prize (prizes)
14. It is a shame that each of the men, when ---- draw (draws) ---- pay,
    take (takes) it to the tavern.
15. Will either of you gentlemen lend me ---- (third person) pencil?
16. Two men saw the deed; but neither would tell what ---- saw.
17. Every one should be careful of the feelings of those around ----.
18. Each of the pupils has (have) ---- own dictionary.
19. Nobody went out of ---- way to make her feel at home.
20. Neither Charles nor his brother ate ---- breakfast this morning.
21. Everybody goes to bed when ---- please (pleases).
22. The committee has handed in ---- report.
23. The senior class has elected ---- class-day speakers.
24. If any one wishes to see me let ---- call at my office.
25. Either Florence or Grace will lend you ---- fan.
26. Every one must judge of ---- own feelings.
27. Whoever loves ---- school should do ---- best to elevate the school
28. A person who is rude in ---- table manners will be disliked.
29. Nobody in ---- senses ever thinks of doing that.
30. Each one as before will chase ---- favorite phantom.
31. She laughs like one out of ---- mind.
32. Everybody was on deck amusing ----self (selves) as best ---- could.
33. No one should marry unless ---- has (have) the means of supporting ----
    self (selves) and ---- family.
34. Probably everybody is eloquent at least once in ---- life.
35. Everybody rises early and goes on deck, where ---- inhale (inhales) the
    fresh salt air.
36. Bach of the gentlemen offered ---- assistance.
37. Nobody but a fool would have left ---- money in such a place.
38. Anybody wishing to sell ---- bicycle will please call at No. 267.
39. Franklin and Collins started off together, each with very little money
    in ---- pockets.
40. In the time of Franklin's great-great-grandfather, if a person was
    caught using an English Bible ---- was (were) treated as a heretic.
41. Nobody should praise ----self (selves).
42. Neither the merchant nor the lawyer made ----self (selves) rich.
43. Every man and every boy received ---- wages.
44. When the carnival comes off everybody who owns a boat, or who can
    borrow one, decorates it as best ---- can with lanterns and trimmings.
45. Every cowboy carries a pistol and knows how to use it very quickly;
    ---- also has (have) a knife stuck in ---- belt, in the use of which
    ---- is (are) very expert.
46. Everybody's heart is open, you know, when ---- has (have) recently
    escaped from severe pain.

OMITTED PRONOUNS.[63]--The omission of necessary pronouns--an
omission especially common in business letters--cannot be justified on
the ground of brevity.

[63] "Foundations," pp. 77, 78.


_Insert the omitted pronouns in_--

1. After twenty-two years' experience announce the opening of my new
   store. Hope to serve the public better by presenting new ideas. Would
   invite inspection.
2. Have received manuscript, but not had time to examine. Will take up in
  a few days. If good, will publish.
3. Dr. Jones and wife occupy the front room.
4. My inability to get employment, and destitute condition, depressed me.
5. She didn't trouble to make any excuse to her husband.
6. Accept thanks for lovely present. Hope we may have the pleasure of
using together in the near future.

REDUNDANT PRONOUNS.--A vulgarism not often seen in writing, but
common in conversation, consists in the use of an unnecessary pronoun
after the subject of a sentence. Thus,

  _Teacher_: Who was Benjamin Franklin?
  _Pupil_: Benjamin Franklin, _he_ was a great American philosopher and



CORRECT and INCORRECT FORMS.[64]--It is not enough to learn by
heart the "principal parts" of a verb; the habit of using them correctly
should be acquired. The following verb-forms are often misused:--

_Present.                  Past Indicative.  Past Participle._

awake (intransitive)         awoke             awaked
begin                        began             begun
beseech                      besought          besought
blow                         blew              blown
bid ("to order," "to greet") băde              bidden or bid
bid (at auction)             bid               bidden or bid
break                        broke             broken[65]
burst                        burst             burst
choose                       chose             chosen
come                         came              come
dive                         dived             dived
do                           did               done
drive                        drove             driven
eat                          ate               eaten
flee                         fled              fled
fly                          flew              flown
freeze                       froze             frozen
forget                       forgot            forgotten
get                          got               got[66]
go                           went              gone
hang                         hung, hanged[67]   hung, hanged[67]
lay ("to cause to lie")      laid              laid
lie ("to recline")           lay               lain
plead                        pleaded           pleaded
prove                        proved            proved[68]
ride                         rode              ridden
rise (intransitive)          rose              risen
raise (transitive)           raised            raised
run                          ran               run
see                          saw               seen
set  ("to put"; of the sun,  set               set
     moon, etc., "to sink")
sit                          sat               sat
shake                        shook             shaken
shoe                         shod              shod
show                         showed            shown
speak                        spoke             spoken
slay                         slew              slain
steal                        stole             stolen
take                         took              taken
throw                        threw             thrown
wake (transitive)            woke              waked
write                        wrote             written

In using the verbs _drink, ring, shrink, sing, sink, spring, swim,_ it
seems better to confine the forms in "a" to the preterite tense, and the
forms in "u" to the past participle: as, "The bell _rang_ five minutes
ago"; "Yes, the bell has _rung_."[69]

The following forms also should be distinguished:--

_Present.                    Past.           Participle._
alight  ("to get down from,"   alighted        alighted
        "to dismount")
light   ("to ignite,"          lighted[7]      lighted[70]
        "to shed light on")
light   ("to settle down as   lighted or lit  lighted or lit
        a bird from flight," or
        "to come upon by chance")

[64] "Foundations," pp.78-81, 91-93.
[65] "Broke," as a form of the past participle, is still found in verse.
[66] "Gotten" is an old form not sanctioned by the best modern usage.
[67] "Clothes are 'hung' on the line; men are 'hanged' on the
gallows."--"Foundations," p. 79.
[68] "'Proven' is borrowed from the Scotch legal dialect."--"Foundations,"
[69] Ibid., p. 91.
[70] "'Lighted' seems preferable to 'lit'; but 'lit' is used by some
writers of reputation."--Ibid., p. 92.


_Change the italicized verbs in these sentences to the past tense_

1. The guests _begin_ to go home.
2. I _beseech_ you to hear me.
3. The wind _blows_ furiously.
4. The steward _bids_ me say that supper is ready.
5. Mr. O. _bids_ forty-two dollars for the picture.
6. George _dives_ better than any other boy in the crowd.
7. I _do_ it myself.
8. They _eat_ their supper as if they were half starved..
9. The enemy _flee_ before us.
10. The door _flies_ open.
11. The wild goose _flies_ southward in the autumn.
12. He _flees_ at the smell of powder.
13. The Susquehanna river _overflows_ its banks.
14. The workmen _lay_ the rails for the track with great care.
15. Obedient to the doctor's directions, she _lies_ down an hour
    every day.
16. Our cat _lies_ on the rug by the hour watching for mice.
17. The cows _lie_ under the trees in the meadow.
18. Helen _comes_ in and _lays_ her coat on a chair.
19. The envoys _plead_ with Caesar earnestly.
20. Both short-stop and pitcher _run_ for the ball.
21. He _runs_ up to Mr. C. as if to strike him.
22. I _see_ two cannon and a company of infantry.
23. Harry _sees_ me coming.
24. The negro women _set_ their baskets on their heads.
25. They _sit_ in the third pew from the front.
26. Mr. N. always _shoes_ my pony.
27. The savages who _live_ on this island _slay_ their captives.
28. The catcher often _throws_ the ball to the second base.
29. The sun _wakes_ me early.
30. The bell _rings_ at seven o'clock.
31. The stag _drinks_ his fill.
32. She _sings_ sweetly.
33. Armed men _spring_ up on all sides.
34. Tom _swims_ very well indeed.
35. The vessel _sinks_ with all on board.
36. The colonel and his staff _alight_ in front of the general's tent.
37. He _lights_ the lamp with a splint.
38. On the trees a crested peacock _lights_.


_Change these sentences so that the italicized, verbs will be either in
the perfect tense or in the passive voice:--_

1. The sleeper _awakes_.
2. The Gauls _beseech_ Caesar to be merciful.
3. The wind _blows_ my papers off the table.
4. Ethel _broke_ her arm.
5. His wrongdoing _breaks_ my heart.
6. The pressure of the water _breaks_ the pipes.
7. They _choose_ Mr. W. to be their chairman.
8. The enemy _come_ in force.
9. The boys _dive_ three times.
10. John _is driving_ the cows out of the corn.
11. The boys _are eating_ their supper.
12. An absconding cashier _flees_ to Canada.
13. A robin _flies_ to the vines by my window.
14. The Ohio river _overflows_ its banks.
15. The water in my pitcher _froze_.
16. I _forget_ his name
17. He _gets_ along fairly well.
18. They _go_ by steamer.
19. The sheriff _hangs_ the condemned man.
20. The maid _hangs_ up my cloak.
21. I _lie_ on the couch twenty minutes to rest.
22. Tramps _lie_ by the road below the gate.
23. Boys _lay_ traps for hares.
24. They _lay_ burdens on me greater than I can bear.
25. They _plead_ their cause well.
26. This _proves_ the truth of my assertion.
27. He _rides_ alone from Litchfield to Waterbury
28. A mist _rises_ before my eye.
29. I _see_ the President often.
30. I _set_ the lamp on the table.
31. He _sits_ by the hour talking politics.
32. Rab _shakes_ the little dog by the neck.
33. He _is shoeing_ my horse.
34. This fact clearly _shows_ the prisoner's guilt.
35. He _speaks_ his declamation well.
36. They _slay_ their prisoners.
37. He _stole_ my watch.
38. Some one _takes_ my hat.
39. He _throws_ cold water on my plan.
40. He _writes_ home.
41. He _wakes_ me every night by his restlessness.

NOTE.--If the teacher thinks that the class needs more drill of this kind,
Exercises XXXVIII. and XXXIX. may be reversed, that is, the verbs in
XXXVIII. may be changed to perfect or passive forms; the verbs in XXXIX.
to the past tense. If this is done, some of the sentences will have to be
slightly recast. In the next exercise drill on the same forms is continued
in a different way.


_Insert the proper form in each of the blanks in the following

1. I--at six o'clock this morning; I have--at about the same time ever
   since I came to school.
2. Lord Byron one morning--to find himself famous. A certain Mr. Peck--one
   day last week to find that the _Nation_ had made him notorious.
3. A few nights ago Mr. Michael Dixon was--by a burglar in his bedroom.
4. He--me an hour before time.
5. Have you--your brother?
6. He--as I opened the door.

7. He had--his speech before we arrived.
8. The Senators--to ask him questions. Then he--to be confused.

9. When the Major passed us he--us good-morning very politely.
10. Father has for--us to go there.

11. Before the sunset gun was fired the bugler--a strain on his bugle.
12. The top-mast of the sloop was--away.

13. Did you hear that Waldo has--his leg?
14. The window was--by Jack.

15. When the South Sea bubble--, thousands of families were made poor.
16. The cannon was--by an overcharge of powder.

17. If they had--him, they would have--more wisely.
18. A better day for a drive could not have been--.

19. Harry--running up to me and asked me to lend him my cap.

20. The loon saw the flash of my gun and--.
21. It had--several times before.

22. I know he--it; for it could not have been--by any one else.
23. Ask him why he--it.

24. He was--out of town by his indignant neighbors.
25. This stake has been--in deep.

26. The scraps were--up by the dog.
27. The men have--their dinner.

28. During the night the river had over--its banks.
29. Benedict Arnold was forced to--the country. He--to England.
30. The birds have--away.
31. The guilty man has--. He--with his family to Mexico.
32. Our meadow was over--during the freshet.
33. The yacht--like a bird before the wind.
34. The lotus-eaters watched the gleaming river as it--seaward.
35. It had--through the same channel hundreds of years.
36. The terrified savages--to the mountains.
37. They shall--from the wrath to come.
38. The plantations along the Mississippi are over--.

39. Once Sydney Smith, being asked his name by a servant, found to his
    dismay that he had--his own name.
40. Maude is late; she must have--the time.

41. I thought my ears were--.
42. He would have--to death if he had not been found by the
St. Bernard dogs.

43. They have--home.
44. Whenever any milk was wanted it could be--from the magic pitcher.
45. Grace has--three seats for to-night.
46. Franklin asked the boy where he had--the bread.

47. The price of coal has--up since last year.
48. He would have--with us if he had been invited.

49. Judas, overwhelmed with remorse, went and,--himself.
50. In olden times in England a man was--for stealing a sheep.

51. Two men--under the hay-stack all yesterday morning. They must
    have--there all night.
52.--down and rest.
53. He came in and--his books on his desk.
54. After he--down he remembered that he had left his pocket-book--ing
    by the open window.
55. He played until he was so tired that he had to--down.
56. He has--himself at full length on the grass.
57. You had better--down for a while after dinner.
58. I have--down, and I feel rested.
59. I--down an hour ago to take a nap.
60. The scene of "The Lady of the Lake" is--in the lake region
    of Scotland.
61. The tired lambs--down to rest.
62. Darkness settled down while the soldiers--behind the breast-works.
63. Had you not better--down a while?
64. After they had been--ing silent for an hour, the command was given to
    prepare for a march; afterward the men ---- down again and waited for
    the next order.
65. When Romeo saw Juliet ---- ing in the casket, he ---- down by her side
    and drank the poison. When Juliet awoke, seeing Romeo ---- ing beside
    her dead, she took a sword which ---- near and killed herself.

66. He ---- tearfully to be set free, but his captors were firm.
67. Yesterday he ---- "not guilty."

68. It cannot be ---- that Mars is inhabited.
69. He thinks that the prisoner's innocence has been ----.

70. We had ---- only a short distance when rain began to fall.
71. Have you ever ---- on a bicycle?

72. She could not get her bread to ----.
73. The price of corn has ----.
74. I ---- so that I might look around.
75. The students ---- him upon their shoulders.

76. You look as if you had ---- all the way home.
77. He ---- up to me and asked what time it was.
78. He said some thief had taken his coat and had ---- away with it.

79. Charlie, who has just come in, says he ---- two suspicious looking men
    near the barn.
80. Yes, I ---- him an hour ago.
81. That is the best dog I ever ----.

82. Please ---- still while I try to find her.
83. The old man was ----ting in his easy-chair.
84. He ---- out for Boston day before yesterday.
85. ---- down and talk awhile.
86. The sun ----s at six o'clock twice a year.
87. I ---- the basket on a rock while I went to the spring.
88. We ---- with our friends at the table for over an hour.
89. In which seat did you ----?
90. I am--ting in my study by the window.
91. The children are dreadfully sunburnt; yesterday they--in the sun on
    the beach all the morning.
92. Just--down, till I call her.
93. Annie, I have--the pitcher on the table.
94. He has--there all the evening.
95. We were all--ting round the fire.
96. I had to--up all night.
97. The farmer after felling the tree found that it had fell (fallen) on
    a--ting hen that had laid (lain) her eggs under its branches.

98. All the restraints of home had been--off long before.
99. John--the tree; Lida picked up the nuts.
100. After they had--off the dust, they entered the house.

101. Go, ask Mr. N. whether he has--the horses yet.
102. He says he--them an hour ago.

103. They have--their good intention.
104. Has Edward--you his yacht? Yes, he--it to me this morning.

105. English is--in many parts of the world.
106. After he had--a half-hour we had to leave.

107. David--Goliath with a pebble.
108. A brave man never boasts of having--his thousands.

109. He thinks the horse was--.
110. Some one has--my purse.

111. I found upon inquiry that I had mis--the house
112. Yesterday she--me home with her.
113. You look as if you had--root there.

114. He--the ball to me and I--it back.
115. The Governor's son was--from his pony this morning.

116. I think he should have--and told us.
117. He--for the book two days ago.
118. She has--for samples.

       *       *       *       *       *

119. The toast was--with great enthusiasm.
120. Then they--to the health of the President.
121. He had once--sour wine and slept in the secret chamber at
     Wolf's Crag.

122. The fire bell--twice last night. It had not--for two months before.
123. Has the last bell--?

124. The choir boys--the "Hallelujah Chorus" from "The Messiah." It seemed
     to me that they had never--so well.

125. The steamer struck an iceberg and--with all on board.
126. They have--two wells, but have got (gotten) no water.

127. The grass--up like magic last night.
128. Homer describes a race of men who--from the gods.

129. I once--three-quarters of a mile without stopping.
130. Having--the river, the fugitives plunged into the forest.


_Illustrate by original sentences the proper use of the past indicative
and the past participle of each of the following verbs, thus: A swallow
FLEW into my room, but before I recovered from my surprise it had FLOWN
out again. Give to the sentences variety:_--

Awake, beat, begin, beseech, blow, bid (to order), bid (to offer), break,
burst, choose, come, dive, do, drive, eat, flee, fly, flow, forget,
freeze, get, go, hang, lay, lie (to recline), plead, prove, ride, rise,
run, see, set, sit, shake, shoe, show, speak, slay, steal, take, throw,
wake, write.

CONTRACTIONS.[71]--Some writers hold that in careful writing
contracted forms should be avoided; but all are agreed that in
conversation some contractions, if correctly used, are natural and proper.
The conversation of a person who never said "can't" for "can not," "don't"
for "do not," or "doesn't" for "does not," would seem stiff. Care should,
however, be taken not to use plural contractions for singular, or singular
for plural. _Don't_ is a contraction of "do not," _doesn't_ of "does not."
The proper contraction of "is not" is _isn't;_ of "are not," _aren't.
Daresn't_, if used at all, should be used only when "dares not" might be
substituted. _Ain't_ is a gross vulgarism.

[71] "Foundations," pp. 81-82.


_Insert the proper contraction (doesn't, don't) in each of the blank

1. It--- seem possible.
2. The captain--- know what it is to be afraid.
3. John says he--- understand the problem on page 266.
4. Why--- she come?
5.--- it seem strange that they--- come?
6. Waldo--- improve in penmanship as fast as he should.
7. It--- look like pure water.
8. Why--- he answer?
9. The boy will fail, but he--- seem to care much.

MAY (MIGHT) or CAN (COULD).[72]--_Can_ and _could_, which denote
"ability" or "possibility," are often wrongly used in the place of _may_
and _might_, which are the proper words to denote "permission."

[72] Ibid., pp. 82-83.


_Fill the blanks with the right words:_--

1. ---- I leave the room?
2. You ---- go to the concert, but I doubt whether you ---- get a seat.
3. ---- we by searching find out God?
4. ---- I have some more lemonade?
5. ---- I have another piece of cake?
6. ---- you tell me which is Mr. Ames's house?
7. Mother says I--invite the girls to tea.
8. A man who knows himself to be right ---- afford to await the judgment of
9. ---- I write at your desk?
10. You ---- come to see me whenever you ---- find time.
11. They asked whether they ---- have a holiday.
12. They were wondering whether they ---- be recognized in their disguises.
13. ---- I have the use of your sled?
14. ---- I trouble you to get me a glass of water?

WILL OR SHALL.[73]--Some grammarians teach that the future tense of
"go" is: "I _shall_ or _will_ go," "You _shall_ or _will_ go," "He _shall_
or _will_ go," etc. The fact seems to be that there is only one form for
the future; the other form, often given as an alternative, expresses
something more than futurity, and is somewhat like a distinct mode.

A help to the proper use of _shall_ and _will_ is found in the original
meaning of the words. At first _shall_ and _will_ were notional verbs,[74]
_shall_ meaning "to owe," "to be obliged," and _will_ meaning "to wish:"
as, "That faith I _shall_ (owe) to God."[75] At present _shall_ and _will_
often retain some trace of their original meaning, _will_ implying a
reference to the will of the subject, and _shall_ implying obligation or
compulsion: as, "I _will_ follow him to the end;" "He _shall_ be brought
to justice;" sometimes they are mere auxiliaries, with no trace of their
original meaning: as, "It _will_ rain to-day;" "I _shall_ be glad."

[73] "Foundations," pp. 83-88.
[74] By "notional verb" is meant a verb that has some distinct idea or
notion of its own: as, "I _have_ a ball." Here "have" expresses the idea
of possession. In the sentence "I _have_ lost my ball," the word "have"
does not express a distinct idea; it only helps to form a tense of the
verb "lose": that is, it is not notional, but auxiliary.
[75] Chaucer.

For practical purposes the distinction between _shall_ and _will_ may be
exhibited as follows:--


_Simple Futurity.           Volition,_
                              implying that the matter is within
                               the control of the speaker.
I (we) _shall_  \           I (we) _will_       \
you _will_[76]    } go.      you _shall_          } go.
he (they) _will_/           he (they) _shall_[77]/

[76] Sometimes used in a courteous command to a subordinate officer.
[77] Also used in speaking of what is destined to take place, or of what
is willed by some ruling power.


In noun clauses introduced by "that," expressed or understood, if the noun
clause and the principal clause have _different subjects,_ the distinction
between _shall_ and _will_ is the same as in independent sentences: as,

My sister says (that) Dorothy _will_ be glad to go with us. (Futurity; the
same as, "Dorothy _will_ be glad to go with us.")

My sister says (that) Dorothy _shall_ not be left behind. (Volition; the
same as, "Dorothy _shall_ not be left behind.")

In all other dependent clauses, _shall_ is in all persons the proper
auxiliary to express simple futurity; _will_ in all persons implies an
exercise of will on the part of the subject of the clause: as,

Dorothy says (that) she _shall_ (futurity) be able to go with us.
She says (that) she _will_ (volition) meet us at the corner.
If Bessie _will_ come (volition), we will try to make her visit pleasant.
When He _shall_ appear (futurity) we shall be like Him.

REMARK.--It is worthy of notice that in noun clauses introduced by
"that"--clauses which are really indirect quotations--the same auxiliary
is generally used that would be used were the quotation in the direct
form: as, "My sister says, 'Dorothy _will_ be glad to go with you,'" "My
sister says that Dorothy _will_ be glad to go with us;" "Dorothy says, 'I
_shall_ be glad to go with you,'" "Dorothy says that she _shall_ be glad
to go with us." This remark, however, is not an adequate statement of the
best usage, for it is not true of such sentences as 21, p. 76, and 8, 22,
p. 77.


In _the first person_ "will" is never proper, except when it repeats a
question asked by another person. "Will I go?" would mean, "Is it my
intention to go?"--a useless question, since the speaker must know his own
will without asking.

In the _second and third persons_ the auxiliary which is expected in the
answer should be used.

Will you dine with me to-morrow? I will. (Volition.) Shall you be glad to
come? I shall. (Futurity.) Will your brother be there, too? He will.

WOULD OR SHOULD.[78]--"_Should_ and _would_ follow the same rules as
_shall_ and _will_, but they have in addition certain meanings peculiarly
their own.

"_Should_ is sometimes used in its original sense of 'ought,' as in 'You
should not do that.'

"_Would_ is sometimes used to signify habitual action, as in 'The 'Squire
would sometimes fall asleep in the most pathetic part of my sermon;' and
to express a wish, as, 'Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son,
my son!'"[79]

[78] "Foundations," pp. 88-90.
[79] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p 63.


_Distinguish in meaning between the following sentences:_--

1. I will (shall) meet you in the village.
2. I will (shall) be obeyed.
3. Will he come? Shall he come?
4. You will (shall) repent of this.
5. He will (shall) not see me.
6. You will (shall) have a new suit to-morrow.
7. Shall (will) you stay at home to-night?
8. We will (shall) not be left alone.
9. She will (shall) have a reward if she continues faithful.
10. He would (should) start in spite of the danger.
11. Shall (will) you be a candidate?
12. He said he would (should) not go.
13. I shall (will) never see him again.
14. You will (shall) know to-morrow the result of the examination.
15. Will (shall) he who fails be allowed to try again?
16. Will (shall) the admission fee be twenty-five or fifty cents?
17. He thought there would (should) be a charge.
18. I will (shall) be the last to go.
19. He thought I would (should) wait.
20. He says that she will (shall) not eat watermelon.
21. If she disobeyed she would (should) be punished.
22. Do you think I should (would) go under the circumstances?
23. If they would (should) come, the danger would be averted.
24. If I would (should) say so, he would dislike me.
25. He says he will (shall) not come, since she forgot him at first.
26. We will (shall) come as soon as we can.
27. I will (shall) not endure his rudeness.
28. John says he will (shall) stay to see the game.


_Insert the proper auxiliary (will, shall) in each blank in the following

1. I ---- be drowned; nobody ---- help me.
2. You ---- have a wet day for your journey.
3. He says he ---- not be able to come.
4. We ---- not soon forget this picnic.
5. He ---- repent of his folly when it is too late.
6. We ---- be pleased to have you call.
7. The gathering ---- be informal; therefore I ---- not need my dress suit
8. We ---- have occasion to test the wires to-night.
9. I ---- be obliged to you for your autograph.
10. He ---- be obliged to you.
11. The managers have agreed that the race ---- be rowed again.
12. Do you think we ---- have rain?
13. If the fire is not put out soon, we ---- have the whole town to
14. Do not fear; we ---- be all right.
15. A prize is offered to whoever ---- guess this conundrum.
16. We ---- find ourselves much mistaken.
17. The time is coming when we ---- have to go elsewhere for lumber.
18. Are you not afraid that you ---- miss the train?
19. Yes, I fear that I ---- miss the train.
20. He is afraid that he ---- miss the train.
21. They say I ---- find picture-galleries in every city.
22. Think what a happy life we ---- live.
23. If you will call for me, I ---- be glad to go with you.
24. I ---- be sixteen in May.
25. John thinks he ---- be sick to-morrow.
26. He says James ---- be sick to-morrow.
27. Howard thinks he ---- probably live to old age.
28. Howard thinks his brother ---- probably live to old age.
29. He tells me that he--be ten next month.
30. We ---- be all right if Congress will (shall) adjourn without
    tampering with the tariff.
31. If we examine the falling snow, we ---- find that each flake consists
    of particles of ice.
32. He has resolved that he ---- not answer the letter.
33. She has resolved that her daughter ---- not answer his letter.
34. I ---- feel greatly obliged if you ---- tell me.
35. When He--appear, we ---- be like Him.
36. I hope we ---- be in time to get good seats.
37. When ---- I come to get my paper?
38. ---- I put more coal on the fire?
39. ---- you be sorry to leave Boston?
40. ---- you be elected?
41. When ---- we three meet again?
42. ---- I fetch a chair for you?
43. ---- you be surprised to hear it?
44. ---- you do me the favor to reply by return mail?
45. ---- we have time to get our tickets?
46. ---- you have time to get your ticket?
47. ---- he have time to get his ticket?
48. ---- there be time to get our tickets?
49. ---- you be at leisure after dinner?
50. ---- I find you at home?
51. When ---- we have peace?
52. ---- he find gold there? ---- we find any?
53. ---- we hear a good lecture if we go?
54. If I fail on this examination,---- I be allowed to take it over again?


_Insert the proper auxiliary (would, should) in each blank in the
following sentences_:--

1. I ---- like to know who he is.
2. We ---- prefer to go by boat from Rhinebeck.
3. He ---- prefer to go by boat from Poughkeepsie.
4. He ---- be sorry to miss his train.
5. I ---- be sorry to lose this umbrella.
6. I ---- feel hurt if he ---- abuse my hospitality in that way.
7. Were I to go, I ---- get tired.
8. He ought to have known that we ---- be ruined.
9. I ---- think he ---- know they are fooling him.
10. The head-master decided that you ---- be promoted.
11. Ralph said he ---- (volition) not stay at the hotel if it were not
    better kept.
12. Though I ---- die for it, yet ---- I do it.
13. I was afraid she ---- not come.
14. If I knew where she is, I ---- write to her.
15. We ---- have been paid, if the treasurer had been at home.
16. They ---- have been paid, if the treasurer had been at home.
17. I said nothing lest she ---- feel hurt.
18. I asked her whether she ---- come again.
19. He promised that it ---- not occur again.
20. If it ---- rain, we would not start.
21. Queen Isabella offered a reward to the first man who ---- discover
22. Cornelia was afraid that we ---- miss the train.
23. I expected that they ---- accept the proposal.
24. He said Miss Anderson ---- not return to the stage.
25. Franklin resolved that Collins ---- row. Collins said that he ---- not
    row, but that Franklin ---- row in his place.
26. At first I did not think I ---- enjoy seeing the World's Fair.
27. What ---- we do without our friends?
28. If he ---- come to-day, would (should) you be ready?

QUESTIONS OF TENSE.[80]--The tense of a verb should correctly express
the time referred to. Most errors in the use of tenses are violations of
some one of the following principles, which are established by good

1. Principal verbs referring to the same time should be in the same tense.
2. The _perfect indicative_ represents something as now completed--as
   begun in the past but continuing till the present, at least in its
   consequences: as, "I _have lost_ my book" (so that now I do not have
   it); "This house _has stood_ for ninety years" (it is still standing);
   "Bishop Brooks _has died,_ but he _has left_ us his example" (he is not
   now among us, but we have his example).
3. The tense of the verb in a dependent clause varies with the tense of
   the principal verb:[81] as,
      I _know_ he _will_ come.
      I _knew_ he _would_ come.
      I _have taken_ the first train, that I _may_ arrive early.
      I _had taken_ the first train, that I _might_ arrive early.
      Blanche _will be_ frightened if she _sees_ the bat.
      Blanche _would be_ frightened if she _saw_ the bat.
      Blanche _would have been_ frightened if she _had seen_ the bat.
  Present facts and unchangeable truths, however, should be expressed in
  the present tense, regardless of the tense of the principal verb: as,
  "What did you say his name _is_?"
4. The _perfect infinitive_ is properly used to denote action which is
   completed at the time denoted by the principal verb: as, "I am glad _to
   have seen_ Niagara Falls;" "He felt sorry _to have hurt_ your feelings."

EXCEPTION.--_Ought, must, need,_ and _should_ (in the sense of "ought")
have no distinctive form to denote past time; with these verbs present
time is denoted by putting the complementary infinitive in the present
tense, past time is denoted by putting the complementary infinitive in the
perfect tense: as, "You ought _to go_," "You ought _to have gone_;" "He
should _be_ careful," "He should _have been_ careful." A similar change
from the present to the perfect infinitive is found after _could_ and
_might_ in some of their uses: as, "I could _go_," "I could _have gone_;"
"You might _have answered_."

[80] "Foundations," pp. 93-98.
[81] This is sometimes called the "Law of the Sequence of Tenses."


_Distinguish in meaning between the following_:--

1. The house stood (has stood) twenty years.
2. The messenger came (has come).
3. He should stay (have stayed).
4. It rained (has rained) for two weeks.
5. He was believed to live (to have lived) a happy life.
6. He ought to go (to have gone).
7. He deposited (has deposited) the money in bank.
8. I am sure I could go (have gone) alone.
9. Yesterday at three o'clock I completed (had completed) my work.
10. He must be (have been) weary.
11. He appeared to be (have been) crying.
12. He need not go. He need not have gone.
13. The horse jumped (had jumped) into the field, and began (had begun) to
    eat the corn.
14. Achilles is said to be (have been) buried at the foot of this hill.


_Which of the italicized forms is right_?--

1. Where did you say Pike's Peak _is_ (_was_)?
2. I intended _to do_ (_to have done_) it yesterday.
3. Atlas _is_ (_was_) a mythical giant who was supposed _to hold_ (_to
   have held_) the sky on his shoulders.
4. I do not think that any one would say that winter _is_ (_was_)
   preferable to spring.
5. Cadmus was supposed _to build_ (_to have built_) Thebes.
6. Your father grieves _to hear_ (_to have heard_) of your bad conduct.
7. Would he have been willing _to go_ (_to have gone_) with you?
8. I meant _to write_ (_to have written_) yesterday.
9. He tried to learn how far it _is_ (_was_) from New York to Syracuse.
10. He hardly knew that two and two _make_ (_made_) four.
11. His experience proved that there _is_ (_was_) many a slip 'twixt the
    cup and the lip.
12. Carrie knew that water _is_ (_was_) composed of two gases.
13. It was their duty to _prevent_ (_to have prevented_) this outrage.
14. He was reported _to rescue_ (_to have rescued_) the drowning man.
15. It would have been unkind _to refuse_ (_to have refused_) _to help_
    (_to have helped_) him.
16. It would not have been difficult _to prevent_ (_to have prevented_)
    the disaster.
17. Where did you say Gettysburg _is_ (_was_)?
18. It was as true as that he _is_ (_was_) listening to me when I said it.
19. It was harder than I expected it would _be_ (_have been_).
20. Homer is supposed _to be_ (_to have been_) born about 850 B.C.
21. When I came I intended _to buy_ (_to have bought_) all Paris.
22. Washington is known _to have_ (_to have had_) many narrow escapes.
23 If you would only wait, your success _will_ (_would_) be certain.
24. Is he very sick? I should say he _is_ (_was_).
25. Who first asserted that virtue _is_ (_was_) its own reward?
26. We have done no more than it was our duty _to do_ (_to have done_).
27. What building _is_ (_was_) that which we just passed?
28. He impressed on us the truth that honesty _is_ (_was_) the best policy.
29. He expected _to see_ (_to have seen_) you to-morrow.
30. He expected _to win_ (_to have won_) the suit, and was astonished at
    the decision of the court.
31. The result of such constant reading by poor light would have been _to
    destroy_ (_to have destroyed_) his sight.
32. It would have given me great satisfaction _to relieve_ (_to have
    relieved_) him from his distress.
33. Who would have thought it possible _to receive_ (_to have received_) a
    reply from India so soon?
34. It would have been better _to wait_ (_to have waited_).
35. I should like _to hear_ (_to have heard_) the speeches of Hayne and
36. The furniture was _to be_ (_to have been_) sold at auction.
37. It was a pity I was the only child, for my mother had fondness of
    heart enough _to spoil_ (_to have spoiled_) a dozen children.
38. I am writing to him so that he _may_ (_might_) be ready for us.
39. I have written to him so that he _may_ (_might_) be ready for us.
40. I wrote to him so that he _may_ (_might_) be ready for us.


_Examine the tenses in the following sentences, explain any errors which
you find, and correct them_:--

1. I knew him since boyhood.
2. It was a superstition among the Mexicans that a bullet will not kill a
   man unless it has his name stamped on it.
3. Being absent from the last recitation, I am unable to write on the
   subject assigned this morning.
4. Soon after Oliver reached home a servant announces the presence of
5. "'Got any luck?' says I. 'No,' says he. 'Well,' says I, 'I've got the
   finest string of trout ever was seen.'"
6. Be virtuous and you would be happy.
7. Stackhouse believed that he solved the problem he had so long studied
   over, and yesterday afternoon he started from his house, No. 2446 North
   Tenth Street, to make a test.
8. This beautiful little bird that appears to the king and tries to warn
   him, was not an ordinary bird.
9. Next September I shall be at school three years.
10. I know very little about the "Arabian Nights," for I have never read
    any of the stories before I came to this school.
11. If he received your instructions he would have obeyed them.
12. Before he was going to have the sign printed he submitted it to his
    friends for corrections.
13. The Balloon Society recently invited Mr. Gould to read before them a
    paper on yachting. Mr. Gould, in reply, has expressed regret that the
    shortness of his visit will prevent him from accepting the invitation.
14. I should be obliged to him if he will gratify me in that respect.
15. While he was in England the British had given him very honorable
    positions in America in order to have his help if they had any trouble
    with the colonies.
16. Up and down the engines pounded. It is a good twenty-one knots now,
    and the upper deck abaft the chart-house began rapidly to fill.
17. Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln regret that a previous engagement, will prevent
    them from accepting Mrs. Black's kind invitation for Thursday.
18. Mr. Rockwell will accept with pleasure the invitation of Mr. and Mrs.
    Pembroke for Tuesday evening, December 3d.
19. I am sure that he has been there and did what was required of him.
20. He might probably have been desirous, in the first place, to have
    dried his clothes and refreshed himself.
21. He could not have failed to have aroused suspicion.
22. When, on the return of Dr. Primrose's son Moses from the Fair, the
    family had discovered how he had been cheated, we are shown an
    admirable picture of home life.
23. Apart from his love, Orlando was also a noble youth. When old Adam, at
    last overcome by fatigue, sank in the footsteps of Orlando, Orlando
    tries to encourage and assist him.
24. The increase in tonnage was not so rapid as it would have been were it
    not for the Act of 1790.

INDICATIVE OR SUBJUNCTIVE.[82]--The modern tendency to drop the
subjunctive is unfortunate, for the distinction between the subjunctive
and the indicative is too useful to be abandoned.[83] A knowledge of the
difference between these modes in English is especially important in view
of the difficulty which pupils complain of in mastering the uses of the
Latin subjunctive or the Greek subjunctive and optative.[84] For these
reasons more space is given to the subjunctive in this book than would be
called for by a mere discussion of modern English usage.

FORMS of the SUBJUNCTIVE--In form the English
subjunctive differs from the indicative in several ways:--

1. In the single case of the verb _to be_ there are distinct
forms for the present and past tenses, namely:--

_Present_.                            _Past_
I,    we  \                 I _were_,    we  \
thou, you  } _be_.     thou _wert_, you  } _were_.
he,   they/                 he _were_,   they/

EXAMPLES.--"See that my room _be_[85] got ready at once." "I will work you
a banner if you _be_[85] victorious." "The headsman feels if the axe
_be_[85] sharp." "Take care lest you _be_ deceived." "Judge not that ye
_be_ not judged." "I will beard them, though they _be_[85] more fanged than
wolves and bears." "If I _were_ you, I would not say that." "If you
_were_ more studious, you would rank high." "Would that my parents _were_

2. In _other verbs_ the subjunctive form is distinguishable
from the indicative in the second and third persons singular
by the absence of the personal endings _-th,-s_, or _-st_: as,

_Present Indicative_: I have, thou hast, he has (hath).
       _Subjunctive_: I have, thou have, he have.
   _Past Indicative_: I had, thou hadst, he had.
       _Subjunctive_: I had, thou had, he had.

_Present Indicative_: I come, thou comest, he comes (cometh).
       _Subjunctive_: I come, thou come, he come.
   _Past Indicative_: I came, thou earnest, he came.
       _Subjunctive_: I came, thou came, he came.

[82] "Foundations," pp. 98-101.
[83] "Some people seem to think that the subjunctive mood is as good as
lost, that it is doomed, and that its retention is hopeless. If its
function were generally appreciated, it might even now be saved.... If we
lose the Subjunctive Verb, it will certainly be a grievous impoverishment
to our literary language, were it only for its value in giving variation
to diction--and I make bold to assert that the writer who helps to keep it
up deserves public gratitude."--John Earle: English Prose, its Elements,
History, and Usage, p. 172.
[84] "The lecturer also put in a plea for more vitality in the teaching of
English, which ought to be made the gate to other languages. Many of the
difficult questions of Latin syntax might be examined in the field of
English, if only we were careful to treat our English critically. Whereas
most grammars cut the ground from under them by denying the existence of a
Subjunctive Mood. Until teachers recognize generally that, in such a
sentence as 'If he had done it, it had been better,' we have a Subjunctive
in both clauses, and a sentence essentially different from 'If he had
loved her before, he now adored her,' English must forfeit half its value,
both as a mental discipline and as a means of approach to Latin, Greek,
and German."--From a report of a Lecture by Prof. Sonnenschein, of the
Mason College, quoted in Earle's "English Prose," p. 55.
[85] In such sentences the indicative would be, according to modern usage,
correct, and it is more common.

EXAMPLES.--"Long _live_ the king!" "If thou _go_, see that thou _offend_
not." "It is better he _die_." "Though he _slay_ me, yet will I trust
him." "Unless he _behave_[86] better, he will be punished." "If I will that
he _tarry_ till I come, what is that to thee?" "Govern well thy appetite,
lest sin _surprise_ thee." "If my sister _saw_ this snake, she would be
frightened." "I wish I _knew_ where Charles is."

The perfect and pluperfect subjunctives are of course formed by means of
the subjunctive present and past tenses of "have."

3. Very often, instead of the simple subjunctive forms, we use auxiliary
verbs--_may_ (past, _might_) and _would_ or _should_--to express the
subjunctive idea. "May" ("might") is common as an equivalent for the
subjunctive mode in clauses denoting a purpose, a wish, a hope, or a fear:
as, "Bring him the book, that he _may read_ to us;" "_May_ he _rest_ in
peace;" "I hope you _may succeed_;" "They were afraid we _might lose_ the
way." "Would" and "should" are common substitutes for all tenses of the
subjunctive: as, "Walk carefully lest you (stumble) _should stumble_;" "If
he (come) _should come_, he will find me at home;" "It (were) _would be_
better if he (went) _should go_ alone;" "If my sister had seen this mouse,
she (had been) _would have been_ frightened." In these sentences either
the form in parenthesis or the italicized form is correct, though the
latter is more common.

NOTE.--It does not follow that the verbs "may," "would," and "should"
always express the subjunctive idea. In the following sentences, for
instance, they express the indicative idea: "You _may_ (_i.e_., are
permitted to) stay an hour;" "You _should_ (_i.e_., ought to) be
punctual;" "Edith _would_ not (_i.e_., was unwilling to) come." In such
sentences "may," "should," and "would" make simple statements of fact.

USES of the SUBJUNCTIVE.--The indicative form is used in
expressing a fact or what is assumed to be a fact: as "He _thinks_ he _is_
ill;" the subjunctive form indicates some uncertainty or doubt in the
speaker's mind: as, "Whether it _rain_ or not, I will go."

The subjunctive idea occurs most frequently, perhaps, in _conditional
sentences_. A conditional sentence is one that contains a condition or
supposition. A supposition may refer to present, past, or future time. If
it refers to present or past time, it may be viewed by the speaker as
true, untrue, or as a mere supposition with nothing implied as to its
truth; if it refers to the future, it may be viewed as either likely or
unlikely. A supposition which is assumed to be true, or which is made
without any hint as to its correctness, is expressed by the indicative. A
supposition which is viewed by the speaker as untrue or unlikely is
expressed by the subjunctive or a periphrase[87] for the subjunctive. When
the character of the supposition makes the conclusion untrue or unlikely,
the conclusion also is expressed by the subjunctive or a periphrase[87] for
the subjunctive. The use of tenses is peculiar, as will be seen from the
following table of a few common forms of conditional sentences. The tenses
should be carefully noted:--

    If it _rains_ (_is raining_) now, I am sorry.
    _Present indicative_: A simple supposition without any hint as to its

    If it _rained_ (_were raining_), I _should be_ sorry.
    _Past subjunctive, both clauses_: The speaker implies that it is
    not raining.

    If it _rained_ (_was raining_), I was sorry.
    _Past indicative_: No suggestion of doubt.

    If it _had rained_, I _should have been_ sorry.
    _Past perfect subjunctive, both clauses_: The speaker implies that it
    did not rain.

    If it _rains_, I shall be sorry.
    _Present indicative_: The common, though inexact, form of a simple
    future supposition.

    If it _rain_, I shall be sorry.
   _Present subjunctive_: Less common, but more exact. The future is

   If it _should_ (_were to_) _rain_, I _should be_
   sorry. _Subjunctive, both clauses_: The uncertainty is emphasized
   by the auxiliary form; the chances of rain seem more remote.

NOTE 1.--When _if_ is equivalent to "whenever", the condition is called
"general", to distinguish it from "particular" conditions, which refer to
some particular act at some particular time. General conditions always
take the indicative: as, "If (whenever) it _rains_, I stay at home."

NOTE 2.--Sometimes there is no "if", and then the verb or a part of the
verb precedes the subject: as, "Were it raining, I should be sorry;" "Had
it been raining, I should have been sorry."

NOTE 3.--In such sentences as "If thou hadst been here, my brother had not
died," it may perhaps be questioned whether "had not died" is indicative,
as in the Greek, or subjunctive, as in the Latin, idiom.

NOTE 4.--Clauses introduced by _though_ and _unless_ take the same forms
as clauses introduced by _if_.

_Wishes_ are naturally expressed in the subjunctive. The _present_
subjunctive denotes a wish for the future: as, "Thy kingdom _come_." The
_past_ subjunctive denotes a wish for the present which is unfulfilled:
as, "I wish I _were_ a bird." The _past perfect_ subjunctive denotes a
wish contrary to a past fact: as, "I wish you _had been_ there."

[86] In such sentences the indicative would be, according to modern usage,
correct, and it is more common.
[87] See paragraph 3, page 84. The forms in "would" and "should" in
conditional sentences, though they express the subjunctive idea, can
hardly be called the "subjunctive mood". Sometimes they are called the
"conditional mood."


_Tell the time referred to in each of the following sentences, and whether
the speaker regards the condition as true, untrue, or uncertain_:--

1. If all men did their duty, there would be less misery in the world.
2. Had I heard of the affair sooner, this misfortune would not have
3. Were it true, I would say so.
4. I would go with you if I could spare the time.
5. She could sing if she would.
6. If love be rough with you, be rough with love.
7. If all the year were playing holidays, to play would be as tedious as
   to work.
8. If thou warn the wicked, and he turn not from his wickedness, he shall
   die in his iniquity.
9. He brags as if he were of note.
10. If the natural course of this stream be obstructed, the water will
    make a new channel.
11. If the natural course of a stream is obstructed, the water will make a
    new channel.
12. If the book was in my library, some one must have borrowed it.
13. If he knows the way, he does not need a guide.
14. If he still wishes to go, he may take my horse.
15. Had he followed my advice, he would be rich.
16.   Had she lived a twelvemonth more
      She had not died to-day.
17. Though gods they were, as men they died.
18. Though the law is severe, we must obey it.
19. If the law be severe, we must change it.
20. Though the vase were made of steel, the servant would break it.
21. Though the vase was made of steel, the servant broke it.


_Tell the difference in meaning between the italicized forms_:--

1. If he _is_ (_were_) studious, he _will_ (_would_) excel.
2. If he _was_ (_had been_) studious, he _excelled_ (_would have
3. Oh, that you _may be_ (_were, had been_) blameless.
4. Though he _deceive_ (_deceives_) me, yet will I trust him.
5. Though he deceived me, yet _will_ (_would_) I trust him.
6. Though he _deceived_ (_had deceived_) me, yet would I trust him
7. Though the boy's coat _was_ (_were_) made of silk, he _soiled_ (_would
   soil_) it.


_Which, of the italicized forms is preferable? Give the reason_:--

1. They act as if it _was_ (_were_) possible to deceive us.
2. If I _was_ (_were_) in his place, I would go.
3. I wish my mother _was_ (_were_) here.
4. See that no one _is_ (_be_) forgotten.
5. If this _is_ (_be_) treason, make the most of it.
6. If it _rain_ (_rains_), the work is delayed.
7. If it _rain_ (_rains_), the work will be delayed.
8. Take care lest you _are_ (_be_) carried away by your feelings.
9. If he _acquire_ (_acquires_) riches, they may make him worldly.
10. I could jump across the stream if it _was_ (_were_) necessary.
11. If to-morrow _is_ (_be_) breezy, we will go sailing.
12. If my father _was_ (_were_) here, he would enjoy this.
13. If she _was_ (_were_) at the reception, I did not see her.
14. If he _speak_ (_speaks_) only to display his talents, he is unworthy
    of attention.
15. I wish I _was_ (_were_) at home.
16. Though this _seem_ (_seems_) improbable, it is true.
17. I should be surprised if this marriage _take_ (_took, will take,
    should take_) place.
18. If the book _was_ (_were_) in my library, I would send it.
19. I will see that he _obey_ (_obeys_) you.
20. If a man _smite_ (_smites_) his servant and the servant _die_
    (_dies_), the man shall surely be put to death.
21. Though he _is_ (_be_) poor and helpless now, you may rest assured that
    he will not remain so.
22. I wish I _was_ (_were_) a musician.
23. Make haste lest your ardor _cool_ (_cools_).
24. He will continue his course, though it _cost_ (_costs_) him his life.
25. Though a liar _speak_ (_speaks_) the truth, he will hardly be
26. Govern well thy appetite, lest sin _surprise_ (_surprises_) thee.
27. Though gold _is_ (_be_) more precious than iron, iron is more useful
    than gold.
28. Whether he _go_ (_goes_) or not, it is your duty to go.
29. If he _was_ (_were, should be_) elected, it would be his ruin.
30. If a picture _is_ (_be_) admired by none but painters, the picture is
31. If one _went_ (_should go_) unto them from the dead, they would repent.
32. If an animal of any kind _was_ (_were_) kept shut up in a box, it
    would surely die.
33. They will not believe, though one _rose_ (_rise_) from the dead.
34. Clerk wanted. It is indispensable that he _write_ (_writes_) a good
    hand and _have_ (_has_) some knowledge of book-keeping.
35. If the debtor _pay_ (_pays_) the debt, he shall be discharged.
36. If my sister _go_ (_goes_), which I think is doubtful, she will surely
    call for you.
37. The most glorious hero that ever desolated nations might have mouldered
    into oblivion _did_ (_had_) not some historian _take_ (_taken_)
    him into favor.
38. He will see his error if he _substitute_ (_substitutes_) "that which"
    for "what."
39. Though Dorothy _is_ (_be_) young, she is tall.
40. Unless he _take_ (_takes_) better care of his health, his constitution
    will break down.
41. If I lend you my horse, I _shall_ (_should_) have to borrow one myself.
42. I hope that if any of my readers _comes_ (_come, should come_) to New
    Haven, he may find the city just as I have described it.

SINGULAR or PLURAL.[88]--The following principles, established by
good usage, writers or speakers are liable to forget:--

1. The expressions _each, every, many a, either_, and _neither_ are
2. When the subject consists of singular nouns or pronouns connected by
   _or, either_--_or_, or _neither_--_nor_, the verb must be singular.
3. Words joined to the subject by _with, together with, in addition to_,
   or _as well as_, are not a part of the grammatical subject, but are
   parenthetical, and therefore do not affect the number of the verb.
4. Since a relative pronoun has the number and person of its antecedent,
   a verb whose subject is a relative pronoun agrees in person and number
   with the antecedent of the relative.
5. "When the subject though plural in form is singular in sense, the verb
   should be singular; when the subject though singular in form is plural
   in sense, the verb should be plural:"[89] as, "'Gulliver's Travels'
   _was_ written by Swift;" "Five hundred dollars _is_ a large sum;" "Half
   of them _are_ gone."
6. "A collective noun, when it refers to the collection as a whole, is
   singular in sense, and therefore requires a singular verb; when it
   refers to the individual persons or things of the collection, it is
   plural and requires a plural verb."[90]

[88] "Foundations," pp, 101-108.
[89] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 56.
[90] Ibid., p. 57.


_Insert the proper form of the verb "to be" in each of the blank places_:--

1. "Horses" ---- a common noun.
2. Such phenomena ---- very strange.
3. The ship with all her crew ---- lost.
4. No less than fifty dollars ---- paid for what was not worth twenty.
5. Homer, as well as Virgil, ---- once students (a student) on the banks of
   the Rhine.
6. The committee ---- divided in its (their) judgment.
7. The genii who ---- expected to be present ---- deaf to every call.
8. France was once divided into a number of kingdoms, each of which ----
   ruled by a duke.
9. Sir Richard Steele lived in the reign of Queen Anne, when the tone of
   gentlemen's characters ---- very low.
10. Each man employed in this department ---- paid for his (their) work.
11. Mathematics ---- my hardest study.
12. There ---- once two boys who were so exactly alike in appearance that
    they could not be distinguished.
13. Each of the heads of the Chimera ---- able to spit fire.
14. The jury ---- eating dinner.
15. "Plutarch's Lives" ---- an interesting book.
16. One of the most beautiful features of Kennebunkport ---- the tremendous
    rocks all along the coast.
17. The richness of her arms and apparel ---- conspicuous in the foremost
18.   My robe and my integrity to heaven
      ---- all I dare now call my own.
19. Refreshing as springs in the desert to their long-languishing eyes ----
    the sight of his white cravat and his boots of Parisian polish.
20. The "Arabian Nights" in complete form comprise (comprises) twenty
    volumes and ---- written by different men.
21. Fifty dollars a month ---- paid by the government to the widow of the
22. Ten minutes ---- spent in a writing exercise.
23. ---- either of you going to the village?
24. Our happiness or our sorrow ---- largely due to our own actions.
25. The guidance as well as the love of a mother ---- wanting.
26. Every one of these books ---- mine.
27. General Custer with his whole force ---- massacred by Indians.
28. Three times three ---- nine.
29. Nearly three hundred yards of the track ---- under water.
30. To admit the existence of God and then to refuse to worship him ----
31. The ebb and flow of the tides ---- caused by the attraction of the
32. Six dollars a week ---- all he earns.
33. Nine-tenths of his time ---- wasted.
34. Three quarts of oats ---- enough for a horse's meal.
35. "Tales of a Wayside Inn" ---- written by Longfellow.
36. The rest of the Republican ticket ---- elected.


_Which of the italicized forms is preferable_?--
1. A variety of pleasing objects _charm_ (_charms_) the eye.
2. Already a train or two _has_ (_have_) come in.
3. Each day and each hour _bring_ (_brings_) contrary blessings.
4. The Senate _has_ (_have_) adjourned.
5. No monstrous height, or length, or breadth _appear_ (_appears_).
6. I am the general who _command_ (_commands_) you.
7. Many a captain with all his crew _has_ (_have_) been lost at sea.
8. The jury _who_ (_which_) _was_ (_were_) out all night _has_ (_have_)
   just returned a verdict.
9. He _dare_ (_dares_) not touch a hair of Catiline.
10. The ambition and activity of this railroad _has_ (_have_) done much
    towards the civilization of the world.
11. Thackeray's "English Humorists" _treat_ (_treats_) not of the writings
    of the humorists so much as of their characters and lives.
12. Addison was one of the best writers that _has_ (_have_) ever lived.
13. This is one of the books that _give_ (_gives_) me pleasure.
14. Give me one of the books that _is_ (_are_) lying on the table.
15. This is one of the most important questions that _has_ (_have_)
    come up.
16. Nothing but vain and foolish pursuits _delight_ (_delights_) some
17. Six months' interest _is_ (_are_) due.
18. You are not the first one that _has_ (_have_) been deceived in
    that way.
19. My room is one of those that _overlook_ (_overlooks_) the garden.
20. A committee _was_ (_were_) appointed to investigate the matter.
21. The greater part of the audience _was_ (_were_) pleased.
22. The public _is_ (_are_) respectfully invited.
23. The jury _was_ (_were_) not unanimous.
24. Generation after generation _pass_ (_passes_) away.
25. A glimpse of gable roof and red chimneys _add_ (_adds_) far more to
    the beauty of such a scene than could the grandest palace.
26. The society _hold_ (_holds_) _their_ (_its_) meetings weekly.
27. What _is_ (_are_) the gender, the number, and the person of the
    following words?
28. He made one of the best speeches that _has_ (_have_) been delivered
    before the school.
29. He is one of those persons who _is_ (_are_) quick to take offence.
30. _This_ (_these_) scanty data _is_ (_are_) all we have.
31. If the meaning of these passages is not carefully explained, some of
    the congregation may think that Matthew or Paul _is_ (_are_) guilty of
    some unorthodox opinions.

MISUSED VERBS.--See the remarks under "Misused Nouns."


ACCREDIT, CREDIT.--'To _accredit_ means 'to invest with credit or
authority,'[91] or 'to send with letters credential;' _to credit_ means 'to
believe,'[92] or "to put to the credit of."

ARISE, RISE.--"The choice between these words was primarily, and
still often is, a matter of rhythm [euphony]. The literal meanings,
however, or those which seem literal, have become more associated with
_rise_, and the consciously figurative with _arise_: as, he _rose_ from
the chair; the sun _rose_; the provinces _rose_ in revolt: trouble
_arose;_ 'music _arose_ with its voluptuous swell.'"[93]

CAPTIVATE, CAPTURE.--_To captivate_ means "to fascinate"; _to
capture_, "to take prisoner."

DEPRECIATE, DEPRECATE.--_To depreciate_ means "to bring down in
value," "to disparage;" _to deprecate_ means "to argue earnestly against"
or "to express regret for."

IMPUGN, IMPUTE.--_To impugn_ means "to call in question;" _to impute_
means "to ascribe to."

Loan, lend.--The use of _loan_ as a verb is not sanctioned by good use.
Properly the word is a noun. A _loan_ is money which a person _lends_.

[91] "Foundations," p. 109.
[92] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 38.
[93] The Century Dictionary.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The Amazon _captivated (captured)_ our hero.
2. The king _depreciated (deprecated)_ Napoleon's effort to raise a new
3. The readiness with which men _impute (impugn)_ motives is much to be


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Mr. Lowell was ----ed as Minister Plenipotentiary to England.
2. These reasons will ---- his opinion.
3. He did not ---- the strange report.
4. The contribution of five dollars previously ----ed to Mr. Williams came
   from Mr. Brown.
5. Mr. Sherman is well ----ed as a writer on finance.
6. The bank has not ----ed me with the interest on the deposit.

7. The court ---- at four o'clock.
8. At the discharge of a gun whole flocks of quail would ----.
9. The idea of a reward did not ---- in his mind.
10. Most of these appalling accidents ---- from negligence.
11. The men ---- against their officers.
12. Other cases of mutiny may ----.

13. Her husband was ----d in the battle of Gettysburg.
14. Mr. S. was ----d by the young widow's beauty.
15. Let us attack them now and try to ---- the whole squad.
16. It is not merely what Chaucer has to say, but even more the agreeable
    way he has of saying it, that ----s our attention and gives him an
    assured place in literature.

17. Financial panics are likely to follow a--d currency.
18. His purpose was--d by all who knew it.
19. Both parties--war.
20. It is natural for those who have not succeeded to--the work of those
    who have.
21. He--s his daughter's desire to earn her own living.
22. An injurious consequence of asceticism was a tendency to--the
    character and the position of woman.

23. We cannot deny the conclusion of a proposition of Euclid without--ing
    the axioms which are the basis of its demonstration.
24. The gentleman--s my honesty.
25. The power of fortune is confessed only by the miserable, for the
    happy--all their success to prudence and merit.
26. Mr.X. is uncharitable; he always--s bad motives.


ANTAGONIZE, OPPOSE.--To _antagonize_ means properly "to struggle
against," "to oppose actively," or "to counteract." "In England,
antagonizing forces must be of the same kind, but in the political
phraseology of the United States a person may antagonize (i.e., oppose) a

CALCULATE, INTEND.--To _calculate_ means properly "to compute
mathematically," or "to adjust or adapt" for something. In the sense of
_intend_ it is not in good use.

CARRY, BRING, FETCH.--To _carry_ means "to take along in going;" to
_bring_ means "to take along in coming;" to _fetch_ means "to go, get, and

CHAMPION, SUPPORT.--The word _champion_ is very much overworked,
being often used in the general sense of "support." It should be
restricted to cases in which there is the idea of entering the lists as
champion of a cause.

means properly "to demand as one's own or one's due." It is often loosely
used, especially in the United States, for "assert," "allege," "maintain,"
"declare," or "affirm." To _assert_ is "to say or declare in the face of
implied denial or doubt." To _allege_ is "to assert without proof." To
_maintain_ is "to uphold by argument." To _declare_ is "to say publicly,
clearly, or emphatically." To _affirm_ is "to assert on one's reputation
for knowledge or truthfulness." To _state_, which is also often misused in
the sense of "say," "assert," "allege," "declare," or "affirm," means
properly "to express formally and in detail;" it always implies detail.
(See "Foundations," pp. 113, 114, and "Practical Exercises," p. 99.)

CONFESS, ADMIT.--"_Admit_, in cases into which the idea of confession
does not enter, is preferable to _confess_. On grounds of idiom, however,
'I must confess' and the parenthetical 'I confess' are exempt from the
operation of this rule."[96]

DEMAND, ASK.--_To demand_ means "_to ask_ for with authority or with
insistence." The use of "demand" in the sense of "ask" is borrowed,
possibly, from the French use of _demander_.

HIRE, LET, LEASE.--_To hire_ means "to obtain the use of;" _to let_,
"to give the use of." _To lease_ means "to give the use of by lease." The
owner of a house _leases_ it; the person who occupies it _takes a lease_
of it.

LEARN, TEACH.--_Learn_ means to "acquire" knowledge, not to "impart"
it. In the latter sense the proper word is _teach_.

"I have more information to-day than I had before," said Mr. Sheehan.

"This has learned you something," said Mr. Goff.

"Oh no," replied Mr. Sheehan, "it has taught me something."[97]

LIKE, LOVE.--_Like_ and _love_ differ greatly in strength or warmth,
and may differ in kind. _Like_ may be feeble and cool, and it never has
the intensity of _love_. We may _like_ or even _love_ a person; we only
_like_ the most palatable kind of food. With an infinitive, _like_ is the
common word, _love_ being appropriate only in the hyperbole of poetical or
rhetorical feeling.[98]

MATERIALIZE, APPEAR.--_To materialize_ properly means "to make or to
become physically perceptible;" as, "by means of letters we materialize
our ideas and make them as lasting as ink and paper;" "the ideas of the
sculptor materialize in marble."

PLEAD, ARGUE.--See _plea, argument,_ p. 29.

STAY, STOP.--"_Stay,_ as in 'At what hotel are you staying?' is
preferable to _stop_, since _stop_ also means 'to stop without

TRANSPIRE, HAPPEN.--_To transpire_ means properly "to escape from
secrecy to notice," "to leak out;" it should not be used in the sense of
_to happen._

[94] "Foundations," pp. 110-114.
[95] Murray's Dictionary.
[96] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 18.
[97] Newspaper report.
[98] See the Century Dictionary.
[99] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


_Tell the difference in meaning between--_

1. Please _bring (fetch)_ a chair from the next room.
2. You had better _carry (bring)_ an umbrella with you.
3. He _asserts (alleges, maintains, declares, affirms, says)_ that he has
   been robbed.
4. Mr. A. _stated (declared)_ his opinion.
5. He _admits (confesses)_ the fault.
6. The grocer _asks for (demands)_ his money.
7. He has _let (hired)_ the boat for the afternoon.
8. We have _leased (taken a lease of)_ the cottage.
9. He is _learning (teaching)_ the alphabet.
10. Dorothy _likes (loves)_ Helen.
11. Washington _stayed (stopped)_ at this house on his way to Philadelphia.
12. It _transpired (happened)_ that we disagreed.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Ex-Secretary Windom ----d ex-Secretary Sherman's bill.
2. The body is balanced by an incessant shifting of the muscles, one
   group ----ing the other.
3. I am too weak to ---- your cunning.

4. To-morrow he ----s to hunt the boar.
5. Bradley was able to ---- the velocity of light.
6. He ----s to go.

7. Farmers ---- their potatoes to market.
8. What shall I ---- you from Paris?
9. Harry, please ---- a chair from the hall.
10. Go to the flock and ---- me two young lambs.
11. The Spartan was to ---- his shield home, or to be borne home on it.
12. When he dieth, he shall ---- nothing away.

13. The Republican party ----ed this measure.
14. He ----ed the policy of the administration.
15. Gareth ----ed the cause of Lynette in the combats with the craven

16. The heavens ---- the glory of God.
17. Rhoda constantly ----d that it was even so.
18. I have endeavored to ---- nothing but what I have good authority for.
19. Nay, if my Lord ----d that black was white,
         My word was this, your honour's in the right.
20. She ----s her innocence in the strongest terms.
21. I will ---- what He hath done for my soul.
22. What if Nemesis ---- repayment?
23. It is not directly ----d, but it seems to be implied.
24. That such a report existed in Claudian's time cannot now be ----d.
25. Geologists ---- that before there were men on earth this immense gulf
    was a forest.
26. He fared on in haste to ---- his kingdom.
27. Will Mr. L. ---- his reasons for disagreeing with the rest of the
28. He ----s that he will not come.
29. Both sides ---- the victory.
30. There is another point which ----s our attention.
31. He ----d that he had been robbed by A., but he showed no proofs.
32. He ----s that the thief attacked him on Third Street.
33. Please ---- all the particulars of the disaster.
34. The woman ----s that she left Bangor Thursday night, and was put off
    the train at Hermon for not paying her fare.

35. He ----s that his opponent is a good man.
36. I ---- that I spoke too hastily.
37. I ---- that John was a thief.
38. Every man must ---- that he has occasional fits of bad temper.
39. The problem, I ----, is difficult.

40. He ----s why I will not go with him.
41. The highwayman ----ed their purses.
42. The pound of flesh which I---- of him
    I dearly bought; 'tis mine, and I will have it.
43. He ----ed the way to Chester.

44. Boats to ----; twenty-five cents an hour.
45. We will ---- our country-house during the winter.
46. ---- us some fair chamber for the night.
47. Bathing suits to ----.

48. I ---- to go rowing.
49. He ----s to talk of the days before the war.
50. All children ---- their mothers.
51. She ----s her blue gown.
52. Don't you ----strawberry short-cake?
53. A maid whom there were none to praise
    And very few to ----.

54. The representatives of the other colleges did not ----.
55. His hopes have not ----ed.

56. The King of Denmark ----s there during the summer.
57. ---- a few moments longer.
58. She is very kind to ask me to ---- overnight.
59. I am very tired; let us ---- here and rest.
60. I've been ----ing with my mother for a week.

61. After a considerable time had ----d, he returned to the office. 62.
    Silas takes an interest in everything that ----s.
63. Presently it ----d that Henry Roscoe was the obstinate juryman.
64. Many things have ----d since the war was ended.


ACCEPT, EXCEPT.--_To accept_ means "to take something offered;" _to
except_ means "to make an exception of."

ADVERTISE, ADVISE.--_To advertise_ is "to announce to the public" _to
advise_ is "to give counsel or information to a person."

AFFECT, EFFECT.--_To affect_ is "to act upon," "to influence;" _to
effect_ is "to bring about."

ALLEVIATE, RELIEVE.--_To alleviate_ pain is "to lighten" it; _to
relieve_ it is to go further, and "to remove it in a large measure or

ALLOW, ADMIT, THINK.--_Allow_ properly means to "grant" or "permit,"
not to "admit," "think" or "intend."

ALLUDE TO, REFER TO, MENTION.--We _mention_ a thing when we name it
directly. We _refer_ to it when we speak of it less directly. We
_allude_ to it when we refer to it in a delicate or slight way.

ARGUE, AUGUR.--_To argue_ is "to bring forward reasons;" _to augur_
is "to foretell," "to forebode."

COMPARE WITH, COMPARE TO, CONTRAST.--"Two things are _compared_ in
order to note the points of resemblance and difference between them; they
are _contrasted_ in order to note the points of difference only. When one
thing is _compared to_ another, it is to show that the first is like the
second; when one thing is _compared with_ another, it is to show either
difference or similarity, especially difference."[102]

CONSTRUE, CONSTRUCT.--"_To construe_ means 'to interpret,' 'to show
the meaning;' _to construct_ means 'to build;' we may _construe_ a
sentence as in translation, or _construct_ it as in composition."[103]

CONVINCE, CONVICT.--"_To convince_ is 'to satisfy the understanding;'
_to convict_, 'to pronounce guilty.' 'The jury having been _convinced_ of
the prisoner's guilt, he was _convicted_.'"

DETECT, DISCRIMINATE.--_To detect_ is "to find out;" _to
discriminate_ is "to distinguish between."

DISCLOSE, DISCOVER.--To _disclose_ is "to uncover," "to reveal;" _to
discover_ is, in modern usage, "to find."

DOMINATE, DOMINEER.--_To dominate_ is "to rule;" _to domineer_ is "to
rule in an overbearing manner."

DRIVE, RIDE.--We go _driving_ in carriages, _riding_ in saddles. We
_drive_ behind horses, we _ride_ on them.

ELIMINATE, ELICIT.--_To eliminate_ is "to remove," "to get rid of;"
_to elicit_ is "to draw out."

ESTIMATE, ESTEEM.--_To estimate_ is "to judge the value of;" _to
esteem_ is "to set a high value on," especially of persons.

EXPOSE, EXPOUND.--_To expose_ is "to lay bare to view;" _to expound_
is "to explain the meaning of."

FRIGHTEN.--_Frighten_ is a transitive verb, and is used correctly in
"The locomotive _frightened_ the horse;" "The horse _was frightened_ by
the locomotive;" "The horse became _frightened_." It should not be used
intransitively, as in the sentence "The _horse frightened_ at the

INQUIRE, INVESTIGATE.--To _inquire_ is "to ask for information;" _to
investigate_ is "to make a thorough examination."

INSURE, SECURE.--_Secure_, in the sense of "to guard from danger,"
"to make safe," is preferable to _insure_, since _insure_ also means "to
guarantee indemnity for future loss or damage."

LET, LEAVE.--_Let_ means "to permit;" _leave_, "to let remain," or
"to go away from."

LOCATE, FIND.--_Locate_ properly means "to place in a particular
position," or "to designate the site of," as of a new building or
purchased lands; it does not mean _to find_.

PERSUADE, ADVISE.--_To persuade_ is "to induce," "to convince;" _to
advise_ is "to give counsel or information."

PREDICATE, PREDICT.--_To predicate_ is "to affirm as an attribute or
quality;" _to predict_ is "to foretell."

PRESCRIBE, PROSCRIBE.--_To prescribe_ is "to lay down as a rule or a
remedy;" _to proscribe_ is "to condemn to death or to loss of rights."

PURPOSE, PROPOSE.--"The verb _purpose_, in the sense of 'intend,' is
preferable to _propose_, since _to propose_ also means 'to offer for
consideration:' the noun answering to the former is _purpose_; to the
latter, _proposal_ or _proposition_."[104]

REPULSE, REPEL.--_Repulse_ usually implies hostility; _repel_ is a
milder term. We _repulse_ an enemy or an assailant; we _repel_ an
officious person or the unwelcome advances of a lover.

START, BEGIN, COMMENCE.--To _start_ is "to set out" or "to set
going," and is not followed by an infinitive. Before an infinitive,
"begin" or "commence" is used. "_Begin_ is preferred in ordinary use;
_commence_ has more formal associations with law and procedure, combat,
divine service, and ceremonial."[105]

SUSPECT, EXPECT, ANTICIPATE.--_To suspect_ is "to mistrust," "to
surmise." _Expect_, in the sense of "look forward to," is preferable to
_anticipate_, since _anticipate_ also means "take up, perform, or realize
beforehand;" as, "Some real lives do actually _anticipate_ the happiness
of heaven."

[100] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according
to the meaning intended.
[101] "Foundations," p. 115.
[102] The Century Dictionary.
[103] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 38.
[104] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[105] Murray's Dictionary.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. I _accept_ (_except_) him.
2. Telegraphic communication was _affected_ (_effected_).
3. The medicine _alleviated_ (_relieved_) her suffering.
4. He _alluded to_ (_referred to, mentioned_) the battle of Gettysburg.
5. The first sentence was not well _construed_ (_constructed_).
6. Mr. Fox was _convinced_ (_convicted_).
7. Blanche of Devon _disclosed_ (_discovered_) the treachery of Murdock.
8. We are going _riding_ (_driving_) this afternoon.
9. He _rides_ (_drives_) well.
10. I will _inquire about_ (_investigate_) the business methods of the
    building association.
11. The furniture has been _secured_ (_insured_).
12. _Let_ (_leave_) me alone.
13. He _advised_ (_persuaded_) me to have my life insured.
14. He _purposed_ (_proposed_) to divide the class.
15. Did you _suspect_ (_expect_) us?


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Let us ---- the terms which they propose.
2. In saying that the Alexandrians have a bad character, I ---- a few
3. Why did you not ---- the gift?
4. He was ----ed from the general condemnation.
5. It gives me pleasure to ---- your invitation.

6. The procession was ----d to start at half-past two o'clock.
7. Under these circumstances we ---- total abstinence.
8. The merchants were ----d of the risk.
9. When I return, I shall ---- you.

10. She was greatly ----ed by the news.
11. When a man is hardened in crime, no fear can ---- him.
12. They sailed away without ----ing their purpose.
13. What he planned, he ----ed.
14. Bodily exercise indirectly ----s all the organs of the body.
15. The loud crash ----ed my hearing for a while.
16. Severe cold will ---- peach-trees.
17. The invention of the telephone was not ----ed without great labor.

18. Some fruits are excellent to ---- thirst.
19. He gave me an opiate to ---- my pain.
20. His charity went far to ---- the wants of the poor.
21. My cares were ----ed by his friendship.

22. He ----(ed) it would rain to-day.
23. He would not ---- her to come.
24. I ---- she will come.
25. He at last ----s that I was right.

26. A Latin inscription ----ing (to) the name of the road is cut on
    the rock.
27. The people of the country, ----ing (to) the whiteness of its foam,
    call the cascade "Sour-milk Falls."
28. I proceed to another affection of our nature which bears strong
    testimony to our being born for religion. I ---- (to) the emotion which
    leads us to revere what is higher than we.
29. He ----s (to) enterprises which he cannot reveal but with the hazard
    of his life.

30. It ----s ill for an army when there are dissensions at headquarters.
31. Not to know me ----s yourself unknown.
32. E'en though vanquished he could ---- still.

33. The generosity of one person is most strongly felt when ----d to
    (with) the meanness of another.
34. In Luke xv. the sinner is ----d to (with) a sheep.
35. Solon ----d the people to (with) the sea, and orators to (with) the
    winds; because the sea would be quiet if the winds did not trouble it.
36. It appears no unjust simile to ---- the affairs of this great continent
    to (with) the mechanism of a clock.
37. Goethe ----s translators to (with) carriers who convey good wine to
    market, though it gets unaccountably watered by the way.
38. To ---- the goodness of God to (with) our rebellion will tend to make
    us humble and thankful.
39. He who ----s his own condition to (with) that of others will see that
    he has many reasons to consider himself fortunate.
40. The treatment of the Indians by Penn may be ----d to (with)
the treatment of them by other colonists.
41. Burke ----s the parks of a city to (with) the lungs of the body.

42. We might ---- his words in a bad sense.
43. How is this passage in Virgil to be ----d?
44. That sentence is obscure; it is not well ----ed.

45. The jury, having been ----d of the prisoner's guilt, ----d him.
46. I hope you may succeed in ----ing him of his error.

47. I cannot ---- the error in the account.
48. The chemist ----d the presence of arsenic in the coffee.

49. Events have ----d the designs of the government.
50. We often ---- our mistakes when it is too late.

51. Three powers there are that ---- the world: Fraud, Force, and Right.
52. No true gentleman ----s his servants.

53. While Mrs. A. and her children were ----ing in the park the horses ran
    away and overturned the carriage.
54. Will you go ----ing with me in my new pony-cart.
55. While ----ing in the park Mr. C. was thrown from his horse.

56. Discussion is a good way to ---- truth.
57. His bearing under the trying circumstances ----d the approval of all
    high-minded men.
58. It is the duty of a statesman to try to ---- the worst elements of
    society and to retain the best.
59. Let us try to ---- the true facts from this mass of evidence.

60. I ---- him for his own sake.
61. Men do not ---- highly the virtues of their enemies.
62. The shell of the hawksbill turtle is much ----d for making combs.
63. At what amount do you ---- the cost of the journey.

64. Daniel Webster ----d the Constitution of the United States.
65. Daniel Webster ----d the villany of the Knapps.
66. The text was well ----d in the sermon.
67. It is the business of the police to ---- vice.

68. Will you ---- my factory against fire?
69. For woods before and hills behind
       --it both from rain and wind.
70. The cargoes of ocean steamers are generally fully ----d.
71. The city is ----d by strong fortifications.
72. How are we to ---- to labor its due honor?
73. To enjoy the benefits which the liberty of the press ----s, we must
    submit to the evils which it creates.

74. A committee was appointed to ---- the needs of the laboring classes.
75. I will ---- his name and rank.
76. Edison has been busy ---- ing the nature of electricity.
77. A commission was appointed to ---- the causes of the strike.

78. Please ---- me take you to town.
79. We ---- that to the judgment of the umpire.
80. Pharaoh said, "I will ---- you go."
81. Why do you--- your house go to ruin?
82. Peace I ---- with you.
83. I will ---- you know my decision to-morrow.
84. Please ---- me out at the corner of Twenty-third Street.
85. ---- us free to act.
86. ---- go!
87. ---- the beggar in.
88. ---- us ---- him to himself.
89. He ---- the cat out of the bag.

90. The missing man has at last been ----d by the police in Kansas City.
91. The part of the city in which the mint is ----d.

92. Almost thou ----st me to be a Christian.
93. I ----d him to take a walk every day, but I could not ---- him to
    do it.
94. Columbus was ----d to give up the thought of sailing westward in
    search of the Indies.
95. When in mid-ocean, Columbus was ----d to alter his course.

96. This very result was ----d two years ago.
97. Ambition may be ----d us the predominant trait in Napoleon's character.
98. He ----s that the month of July will be rainy.
99. Disaster to the voyage was ----d by the enemies of Columbus.

100. Sylla and Marius ----d each other's adherents.
101. The doctor ----d quinine in doses of four grains each.
102. It is easier to ---- principles of conduct than to follow them.
103. The Puritans ----d theatres.
104. The number of electors is ----d by law.

105. I don't ---- to let you escape so easily.
106. I ---- that we go boating.
107. We ---- d to go to-morrow, but I fear the rain will prevent us.
108. I ---- to work hard this year.
109. Bassanio ----d to pay the bond thrice over, but Shylock declined the
     offer, for he ----d, if possible, to lake Antonio's life.

110. He gently ---- their entreaties.
111. The charge of Pickett's troops at Gettysburg was ----d.

112. Rosalind tells Orlando to ---- his courtship, and he wishes to ----
     with a kiss.
113. The _Spectator_ was ----(d) by Steele.
114. We have ----(d) Homer's "Iliad."
115. We have ----(d) to find out our ignorance.
116. We ----d to feel that perhaps Darcy is not very bad, after all.
117. We ----(d) in an omnibus at seven o'clock.
118. She has ----(d) to study French.
119. Franklin's voyage was ----(d) under unpleasant circumstances.
120. It ----(d) to rain in torrents.
121. The play has ----(d).
122. Hostilities have ----(d).
123. The people of Philadelphia were so much pleased with Franklin's
     pavement that they ----(d) paving all the streets.

124. I ---- that my grandfather was a wild lad.
125. I ---- great pleasure from our association in this work.
126. The burglars ---- that detectives are on their tracks, but they ----
     to elude the officers by hiding in the country.
127. I was determined to ---- their fury by first falling into a passion
128. I ---- that my father will come on a late train to-night.
129. I ---- that the rogue thinks himself safe from detection.
130. The death of the general is hourly ----ed.

[106] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according
to the meaning intended.


_Tell why the italicized words in the following sentences are misused, and
substitute for them better expressions_:--

1. The death of his son greatly _effected_ him.
2. The Prince of Wales does not _propose_ to send a challenge to the owner
   of the yacht Puritan.
3. He is _learning_ me to ride a bicycle.
4. I cannot _predicate_ what may hereafter happen.
5. Will you _loan_ me your sled for this afternoon?
6. It is even _stated_ on the best of authority that the Minneapolis is
   capable of attaining a speed of twenty-four knots an hour, and of
   keeping it up.
7. Miss Duhe _claims_ that the clairvoyant divulged many things that were
   known to her only.
8. It is evident that whatever _transpired_ during the interview was
   informal and private.
9. There is little in the "Elegy" to _locate_ the church-yard which is
   referred to.
10. He says he cannot _except_ the invitation.
11. Is the Governor's wife _stopping_ at the Springs Hotel?
12. Dr. H.'s well-known views have led him to _champion_ the cause
    of Dr. B.
13. I do not propose to _disrespect_[1] the Sabbath.
14. Macaulay says Voltaire _gestured_[1] like a monkey.
15. I _love_ to see kittens play.
16. I _expect_ he must have arrived last night.
17. I _calculate_ it will rain soon.
18. This dry weather _argues_ ill for the corn crop.
19. Mrs. Dennett broke open the door, and found a startling state of
    affairs. In the hallway her daughter Grace was lying prostrate, and
    seemed to be in an unconscious state. She _awoke_ her daughter, who,
    after she had regained her senses, related what had _transpired_.
20. Elizabeth _allowed_ that he had given a very rational account of it.
21. He _calculates_ to go to-morrow morning.
22. The Abbe was beheaded, not _hung_.
23. I am looking for a fault which I cannot exactly _locate_.
24. James W. Reed, who mysteriously disappeared several weeks ago, has
    been _located_ in England.
25. I _expect_ you feel tired after your long walk.
26. The strike of the tailors, which it was _claimed_ would _transpire_
    yesterday, failed to _materialize_.
27. Do you _allow_ to go to town to-day?
28. She tried to _locate_ the places whence the sounds came.
29. Floods in all directions. Middle and New England States _enjoy_ their
    annual freshets.[107]
30. I had hard work to _restrain_[108] from taking some.

[107] Heading in a newspaper.
[108] Consult a dictionary.


_Illustrate by original sentences the proper use of each of these verbs_:--

Allow, learn, leave, let, loan, locate, accede, accredit, credit, arise,
rise, captivate, depreciate, deprecate, impugn, impute, like, love,
antagonize, champion, calculate, bring, carry, fetch, claim, assert,
allege, maintain, admit, confess, demand, hire, let, lease, materialize,
plead, argue, state, stop, transpire, accept, except, advertise, advise,
affect, effect, alleviate, relieve, augur, compare to, compare with,
contrast, construe, construct, convince, convict, detect, discriminate,
disclose, discover, dominate, domineer, drive, ride, eliminate, elicit,
insure, secure, esteem, estimate, expose, expound, investigate, persuade,
convince, predicate, predict, prescribe, proscribe, purpose, propose,
repulse, start, suspect, expect, anticipate.

[109] See Note to Teacher, p. 41.



AN ADJECTIVE is a word joined by way of description or
limitation to a noun or a pronoun.

An ADVERB is a word joined by way of limitation or emphasis
to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

VULGARISMS.[110]--Every educated person is expected to
know the correct use of the following words:--

GOOD, WELL.--_Good_ is an adjective: the adverb corresponding to it
is _well_. We say, "He had a _good_ sleep;" "He slept _well_." _Well_ is
sometimes an adjective, as in "You look _well_."

LIKELY, PROBABLY, LIKE.--_Likely_ is now used as an adjective only,
except in the phrase "As _likely_ as not;" ad the corresponding adverb is
_probably_. We say, "He is _likely_ to come;" "He will _probably_ come."
_Like_ as an adjective means "similar," as, "Men of _like_ excellence;"
"He looks _like_ his grandfather;" "He was a man of _like_ passions as we
are." In the sense of "in the same manner as" _like_ is followed by a noun
or a pronoun in the objective case, and is called by some an adverb, by
others a preposition: as, "He talks _like_ her."

LESS, FEWER, SMALLER.--_Less_ refers to quantity, _fewer_ to number,
_smaller_ to size.

MOST, ALMOST.--_Most_ denotes "the greatest number, quantity, or
degree." It is always superlative and never means "nearly," which is the
proper meaning of _almost_. We say, "_Most_ of the boys are here; the time
has _almost_ come."

NEAR, NEARLY.--_Near_ is an adjective; the corresponding adverb is

PLENTY is now in good use as a noun only, as "_Plenty_ of corn and
wine."[111] Shakespeare used the word as an adjective in "Reasons as
_plenty_ as blackberries," but this use is obsolete. The use of _plenty_
as an adverb, as "The food is _plenty_ good enough," is a vulgarism.

SOME, SOMEWHAT, SOMETHING.--_Some_ is an adjective, as, "_Some_
water;" "_Some_ brighter clime." _Somewhat_ is an adverb, as, "He is
_somewhat_ better." "Somewhat" is occasionally used as a noun, as,
"_Somewhat_ of doubt remains," but in this sense _something_ is more

THIS, THESE; THAT, THOSE.--_This_ (plural _these_) and _that_ (plural
_those_) are the only adjectives in English that have distinct forms for
the plural. A common mistake is to use the plural forms with singular
collective nouns, as "kind," "class," "sort."

FIRST, SECOND, SECONDLY, etc.--_First_ is both adjective and adverb.
_Second, third_ etc., are adjectives only; the corresponding adverbs are
_secondly, thirdly_, etc. _Firstly_ is a vulgarism.

_Everywheres, illy, lesser, light-complected, muchly, nowhere near,
unbeknown_ are not in reputable use.

[110] "Foundations," pp. 118-120.
[111] See page 32.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. George played ---- in the football game this afternoon; he is a
   ---- runner.
2. She embroiders very ----.
3. The draperies do not hang as ---- as I thought they would.
4. Your coat fits you very ----.
5. He always behaves ----.
6. This pen will not write ----.
7. He did the work as ---- as I could expect.
8. This is a ---- picture; the artist paints ----.
9. Mr. A. is a ---- workman. See how ---- he has laid this hearth.
10. George writes ----.
11. Charles does not look ---- to-day.
12. He says he does not feel ----.

Likely, probably, like.
13. It became evident that the duke was not ---- to have his own way in the
14. There is a difference between what may possibly and what may ---- be
15. Just as ---- as not you will meet him on the road.
16. He is ---- to die of hunger.
17. He will ---- die of hunger.
18. It seems ---- that he will be elected.
19. ---- he will be elected.
20. Japan will ---- defeat China..
21. If a man does not care for himself, it is not ---- that he will care
    much for others.
22. They are as ---- as two peas.
23. Tell me who is married, and who is ---- to be.
24. This is a ---- story.
25. As ---- as not you love her yourself.

26. A proper fraction is ---- than a unit, because it expresses ---- parts
    than a unit contains.
27. I caught seven fish; Carl caught a ---- number.
28. Look for no ---- punishment than death.
29. I saw not ---- than twenty beggars to-day.
30. Rebellion is sometimes a ---- evil than endurance.
31. Not ---- than twelve banks in New York failed to-day.
32. We have ---- than a half a ton of coal left.
33. People who live in the country have ---- things to talk about than city
34. He received ---- good than he conferred.
35. I have ---- books than you.
36. There were ---- people there than I expected.

37. I have ---- finished my lesson.
38. You will find me in my office ---- any day.
39. ---- men dread death.
40. We come here ---- every summer.
41. We have ---- done.
42. This wheat is ---- too thick.
43. Though I saw ---- everything else, I failed to see Hagenbeck's trained
44. ---- everybody has imperfect eyes.
45. The old man's strength is ---- gone.
46. ---- boys like play.
47. It rains in some places ---- every day.
48. ---- all flowers are beautiful.

49. It isn't ---- finished yet.
50. We are ---- the end of the lesson.
51. I am ---- suffocated.
52. We are not ---- through our work.
53. He is not ---- so young as I.
54. I will answer you as ---- as I can remember.
55. We are ---- the end of the term; our school-days are ---- over.
56. Mr. Patterson came very ---- breaking the greatest record ever made in

57. Thank you, I feel ---- better this morning.
58. ---- attempted, ---- done, has earned a night's repose.
59. He resembles his father ----.
60. She felt ---- encouraged by this (these) news.
61. ---- evil beast hath devoured him.
62. He knows ---- of Arabic.
63. We came back ---- sooner than we intended.
64. If a man thinketh himself to be ---- when he is nothing, he deceiveth
65. Dorothy looks ---- like her mother.
66. Yes, I'm ---- frightened, I admit.
67. It provoked me ----.
68. A widow, ---- old, and very poor.

69. You will always see ---- kind of man lounging in front of taverns.
70. Take up ---- ashes.
71. ---- pile of clothes is (are) to be carried to the laundry.
72. ---- kind of tree is (are) common in Pennsylvania.
73. ---- brass tongs cost three dollars.
74. ---- class will be graduated in June.
75. In New England there is not one country-house in fifty which has not
    its walls ornamented with half a score of poems of ---- sort.
76. How do you like ---- style of shoe?
77. Do you like ---- sort of pen?
78. ---- sort of person is always entertaining.
79. Look at ---- assortment of knives.
80. Beware of ---- kind of dog.
81. Problems of ---- sort are very easy to solve.
82. Young ladies should let ---- sort of thing alone.

83. I shall ---- show why we should worship God, and ---- explain how we
    should worship him.
84. Adam was formed ----, then Eve.
85. Let us consider ---- what the young ruler desired; ---- what he had;
    ---- what he lacked.
86. My ---- proposition is that the measure is unnecessary; my ---- that it
    is unjust; my ---- that it is unconstitutional.
87. I will not lie; I will die ----.
88. I like the old English ballads because, ----, they are very quaint;
    ----, they show the derivations of many of our words; and, ----, they
    show different steps which our language has taken in becoming what
    it is.

ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.[112]--Illiterate persons often forget that
adjectives go with nouns and pronouns, but adverbs with verbs, adjectives,
and adverbs. Even cultivated persons are sometimes in doubt whether to use
an adjective or an adverb after certain verbs, as "grow," "look," "sound,"
"smell," "taste." If the added word applies to the subject of the verb, it
should be an adjective; if to the verb, it should be an adverb. We say "We
feel _warm_" when we mean that we are warm; we say "We feel _warmly_ on
this subject," when we mean that our feeling is warm. "As a rule, it is
proper to use an adjective whenever some form of the verb 'to be' or 'to
seem' may be substituted for the verb, an adverb when no such substitution
can be made."[113] Thus, "He looked _angry_; he spoke _angrily_." Sometimes
we may use either adjective or adverb with no difference in meaning: as,
"We were sitting _quiet_ (_quietly_) round the fire."

Regarding the _form_ of adverbs, ill-taught pupils often suppose that all
words ending in "-ly" are adverbs, and that all adverbs end in "-ly." A
glance at the italicized words in the following expressions will remove
this delusion: "Come _here_;" "_very_ pretty;" "he _then_ rose;" "lay it
_lengthwise_;" "he fell _backward_;" "run _fast_;" "_now_ it is done;" "a
_friendly_ Indian;" "a buzzing _fly_." Though no comprehensive rule can be
given for the form of adverbs, which must be learned for the most part by
observation, it may be helpful to know that most "adjectives of quality,"
like _gentle, true,_ take the suffix "-ly" to make a corresponding adverb;
and that the comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs ending in
"-ly" usually prefix _more_ and _most_.

[112] "Foundations," pp. 120-128.
[113] Ibid., p. 121.


1. Write _careful (carefully)_.
2. His teacher spoke _cold (coldly)_ to him after she found he had acted
   _dishonorable (dishonorably)_.
3. Speak _slow (slowly)_ and _distinct (distinctly)_.
4. He behaved _bad (badly)_.
5. He is a _remarkable (remarkably)_ good shot.
6. They were in a _terrible (terribly)_ dangerous position.
7. I am only _tolerable (tolerably)_ well, sir.
8. He acted very _different (differently)_ from his brother.
9. It is discouraging to see how _bad (badly)_ the affairs of our nation
   are sometimes managed.
10. He writes _plainer (more plainly)_ than he once did.
11. You are _exceeding (exceedingly)_ kind.
12. He struggled _manful (manfully)_ against the waves.
13. You have been _wrong (wrongly)_ informed.
14. _Sure (surely)_ he is a fine gentleman.
15. She dresses _suitable (suitably)_ to her station.
16. That part of the work was managed _easy (easily)_ enough.
17. You behaved very _proper (properly)_.
18. I can read _easier (more easily)_ than I can write.
19. She knew her lesson _perfect (perfectly)_ to-day.
20. I live _free (freely)_ from care.
21. Lessons are _easiest (most easily)_ learned in the morning.
22. Walk as _quiet (quietly)_ as you can.
23. He acted _independent (independently)_.
24. He spoke quite _decided (decidedly)_.
25. We ought to value our privileges _higher (more highly)_.
26. He was _ill (illy)_ equipped for the journey.[114]
27. _Relative (relatively)_ to its size, an ant is ten times stronger than
    a man.
28. That will _ill (illy)_ accord with my notions.[114]
29. He is an _exceeding (exceedingly)_ good boy.
30. One can _scarce (scarcely)_ help smiling at the blindness of this
31. I had studied grammar _previous (previously)_ to his instructing me,
    but to no purpose.

[114] See page 110.


_Distinguish between--_
1. We found the way easy (easily).
2. The prunes are boiling soft (softly).
3. He appeared prompt (promptly).
4. It looks good (well).
5. We arrived safe (safely).


_Which of the italicized words is preferable? Give the reason:--_
1. Velvet feels _smooth (smoothly)_.
2. Clouds sail _slow (slowly)_ through the air.
3. This carriage rides _easy (easily)_.
4. How _sweet (sweetly)_ these roses smell!
5. They felt very _bad (badly)_ at being beaten.[115]
6. Your piano sounds _different (differently)_ from ours.
7. The storm is raging _furious (furiously)_.
8. This milk tastes _sour (sourly)_.
9. The soldiers fought _gallant (gallantly)_.
10. She looked _cold (coldly)_ on his offer of marriage.
11. Ethel looks _sweet (sweetly)_ in a white gown.
12. How _beautiful (beautifully)_ the stars appear to-night!
13. This coat goes on _easy (easily)_.
14. How _beautiful (beautifully)_ Katharine looks this morning.
15. Luther stood _firm (firmly)_ in spite of abuse.
16. It looks _strange (strangely)_ to see you here.
17. Deal _gentle (gently)_ with them.
18. The cry sounded _shrill (shrilly)_.
19. Larks sing _sweet (sweetly)_.
20. He felt _awkward (awkwardly)_ in the presence of ladies.
21. He has acted _strange (strangely)_.
22. The water feels _warm (warmly)_.
23. We feel _warm (warmly)_ on that subject.
24. The dead warrior looked _fierce (fiercely)_.
25. The wind blows very _cold (coldly)_ to-day.
26. War clouds rolling _dim (dimly)_.
27. The shutters are painted _green (greenly)_.
28. She works _good (well)_ and _neat (neatly)_.
29. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not _real
    (really)_ changed, but remains _real (really)_ bread.
30. Homer says the blood of the gods is not _real (really)_ blood, but
    only something like it.
31. _Real (really)_ kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and
    affect a plain and poor exterior.

ALONE, ONLY.--"In the Bible and earlier English _alone_ is often used
for the adverb _only_, but it is now becoming restricted to its own sense
of 'solitary,' 'unaccompanied by other persons or things';"[116] as, "He
rode all unarmed, and he rode all _alone." Only_ is both adjective and

[115] See "Foundations," p. 121.
[116] The Century Dictionary.


_Fill each blank with the proper word ("only," "alone"):--_

1. She ---- of all the family had courage to go ---- into that darkened
2. These books are sold in sets ----.
3. Man cannot live on bread ----.
4. This fault ---- is enough to make her disagreeable.
5. By chance ---- did he escape the gallows.
6. Not ---- at Ephesus, but throughout all Asia, Paul persuaded many
7. To be successful a school paper must be supported, not ---- with
   subscriptions, but also with contributions.

OMITTED ADVERBS.[117]--Adverbs necessary to the sense should not be
omitted. This fault is especially common after _so, too,_ and
_very_--words which, as they express degree, properly qualify adjectives
or adverbs, and not verbs or participles; also after _behave_, which, like
the noun "behavior," requires a qualifying word to determine the meaning.

[117] "Foundations," p. 123.


_Supply the omitted adverbs:--_

1. He was very struck by what she said.
2. I wish you would behave.
3. The king was very dissatisfied with his wife.
4. I have too trusted to my own wild wants.
5. If you cannot behave yourself, you had better stay at home.
6. We are very pleased to see you.

REDUNDANT ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.[118]--A word that is not needed is
said to be "redundant." Redundant expressions should be carefully avoided.

[118] Ibid., pp. 123-125.


_Strike out the useless adjectives and adverbs:--_

1. From thence they marched twenty miles.
2. Which do you prefer most, apples or oranges?
3. Whenever I meet him he always stops me.
4. Celia wished to accompany Rosalind; therefore they both set out
5. The view from the top is simply beautiful.
6. Finally Rosalind disclosed her true identity.
7. The exercises are appointed for 2 P.M. to-morrow afternoon.
8. There are numerous mountain streams all throughout this region which
   abound in brook trout.
9. The central pith of the report is as follows.
10. Secluded and alone, he now partook of his solitary repast, which he
    entirely consumed.
11. Out of the second term I took out the factor _x_.
12. Right in behind East Rock we have a beautiful lake.
13. When everything was all ready they started off.
14. He was a boy of eighteen years old.
15. If the ground is uneven they just level it off with a shovel.
16. Once the two twins were shipwrecked while on a sailing voyage.
17. The purple bird was once a royal king named Picus.
18. A large search-light will show a sail at a distance of three or four
    miles away.
19. Each of the provinces was ruled over by a duke.
20. When he returned he entered into the printing business.
21. He had a good chance to shift off the sky to the shoulders of
22. The mud falls off from the wheels and makes the street dirty.
23. An old merchant of Syracuse, named Ægeon, had two twin sons.
24. He was almost universally admired and respected by all who knew him.
25. Pretty soon the man's hands began to get all blistered.
26. Before you go you must first finish your work.
27. He did it equally as well as his friends.
28. It must be ten years ago since he left town.
29. Collect together all the fragments.
30. The play opens up with a scene in a forest.
31. He has the universal good-will of everybody.
32. Please raise up the window.
33. The story ends up happily.
34. They always entered school together every morning.
35. Out of the entire pack only two dogs remained.
36. He went away, but soon reappeared again.
37. A monstrous large snake crawled out from under the identical stone on
    which you are this very minute sitting.
38. I was deceived by false misrepresentations.
39. This question opened up the whole subject.
40. Let us, however, endeavor to trace up some of this hearsay evidence
as far towards its source as we are able.
41. I will see you later on.

MISUSED ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS.[119]--See the remarks under
"Misused Nouns." An amusing illustration of misused adjectives was
furnished by an illiterate man who introduced his second wife to a friend
as "My _late_ wife."


AGGRAVATING, IRRITATING.--In good use _aggravating_ means "making
heavier, more grave, worse in some way." It is often misused for
_irritating, exasperating,_ or _provoking_.

ALL, THE WHOLE.--See page 120.

APT, LIKELY, LIABLE.--_Apt_ implies a natural predisposition, an
habitual tendency. "_Likely_ implies a probability of whatever character;
_liable_, an unpleasant probability."[120] One is _apt_ to speak quickly,
_likely_ to hear good news, _liable_ to be hurt.

BOTH, EACH, EVERY.--_Both_, meaning "the two, and not merely one of
them," groups objects, as, "_Both_ were men of hot temper." _Each_ means
"all of any number, considered one by one," as, "_Each_ boy recited in his
turn." _Every_ means "all of any number, considered as composing a group
or class," as, "_Every_ pupil should have a dictionary and use it freely."
"_Every_ directs attention chiefly to the totality, _each_ chiefly to the
individuals composing it. It may also be observed that _each_ usually
refers to a numerically definite group.... Thus, 'Each theory is open to
objection' relates to an understood enumeration of theories, but 'Every
theory is open to objection' refers to all theories that may exist."[121]

MANY, MUCH.--_Many_ refers to number, _much_ to quantity.

MUTUAL, COMMON.--_Mutual_ properly means "reciprocal,"
"interchanged." It is often misused for _common_ in the sense of
"belonging equally to both or all," especially in the phrase, "A _mutual_

PARTLY, PARTIALLY.--"_Partly_, in the sense of 'in part,' is preferable
to _partially_, since _partially_ also means 'with partiality.'"[122]

QUITE, VERY.--_Quite_ properly means "entirely"; in the sense of
"very" or "to a considerable degree" it is not in good use.

SO-AS, AS-AS.--Both _so_ and _as_ are used as adverbs of degree
correlative with the conjunction "as": unless there is a negative in the
clause _as_ is generally used; with a negative _so_ is preferable to
_as_. We say "It is _as_ cold as ice," "It is not _so_ good as it looks."

[119] "Foundations," p. 125.
[120] Ibid., p. 128.
[121] Murray's Dictionary.
[122] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The circumstances of the offense are aggravating (exasperating).
2. She gave an orange to both (each) of them.
3. Each (every) man has his faults.
4. I had a call from both (each) of the boys.
5. He is apt (likely) to win the race.
6. A mutual (common) friendship.
7. The weekly reports are partially (partly) made out.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:_--

1. Some of his remarks were ----.
2. The prisoner said his wife's conduct had been very ----.
3. He has an ---- manner.
4. He was too ---- by half.
5. The murder was committed under ---- circumstances.

6. ---- (of) the boys were sent off at a day's notice to their homes.

[For additional exercises, see page 125].

7. An industrious man is ---- to succeed.
8. The ship was ---- to founder at any moment.
9. Bad books are ---- to corrupt the reader,
10. If a man does not care for himself, he is not ---- to care much for
    other people.
11. Youth is ---- to err.
12. Any kind of taxation is ---- to be looked on as a grievance.
13. We are constantly ---- to accidents.
14. Men are ---- to think well of themselves, their nation, their courage,
    and their strength.

15. ---- of them has (have) taken a different course.
16. ---- went his way.
17. He told me to invite ---- brother and sister.
18. He gave his hand to ---- of them.
19. In ---- cheek (cheeks) appears a pretty dimple.
20. I am feeling better in ---- way.
21. The oak and the elm have ---- a distinct character.
22. He'll be hanged yet, though ---- drop of water swear against it.
23. ---- soldier has a musket, and ---- one fires as fast as he can.
24.  ---- inhabitant, male or female, young or old, was there.
25. In ---- ten women that the gods make, the devils mar five.
26. There is a row of beautiful elm-trees on ---- side(s) of the road.

27. We saw as ---- as twenty tramps.
28. He blames his uncle for ---- of his misfortune.
29. I found that ---- of the accidents on this railroad are caused by
30. How ---- of your peaches have you sold?

31. Charles and his wife were happy in their ---- love.
32. They parted with ---- good feeling.
33. We have a ---- friend in Mr. Phelps.
34. I find, Miss Vernon, that we have some ---- friends.

35. Beware of acting ----.
36. All men are ---- buried in the grave of custom.
37. This is ---- true.
38. The city of York is ---- surrounded by a wall.

39. The country is ---- open.
40. The snow has ---- covered the ground.
41. Books ---- worthless are ---- harmless.
42. The island is ---- close to the mainland.
43. He was ---- dead when they found him.
44. You are ---- mistaken.
45. He is ---- ill.

46. She is ---- amiable as she is beautiful.
47. He is ---- tall as his brother, but not ---- tall as I.
48. You have never ---- much as answered my letter.
49. Come ---- quickly as you can.
50. No other country suffered ---- much as England.


APPARENTLY, EVIDENTLY, MANIFESTLY.--"_Apparently_ is properly used of
that which seems, but may not be, real; _evidently_, of that which both
seems and is real."[123] _Manifestly_ is stronger than _evidently_.

AVERAGE, ORDINARY.--_Average_ implies an arithmetical computation; if
four persons lose respectively $10, $20, $30, and $40, the _average_ loss
is $25. The word is used figuratively by Dr. O.W. Holmes in "The _average_
intellect of five hundred persons, taken as they come, is not very high."
In the sense of "usual," "common in occurrence," "of the usual standard,"
_ordinary_ is preferable to _average_.

BOUND, DETERMINED.--_Bound_ properly means "obliged," "fated," or
"under necessity": as, "A man is _bound_ by his word;" "We hold ourselves
in gratitude _bound_ to receive ... all such persons." In the sense of
"determined" _hound_ is not in good use. In the sense of "sure" it is in
colloquial, but not in literary, use.

CONTINUAL, CONTINUOUS.--"_Continual_ is used of frequently repeated
acts, as, 'Continual dropping wears away a stone;' _continuous_, of
uninterrupted action, as, 'the continuous flowing of a river.'"[125]

DEADLY, DEATHLY.--"_Deathly_, in the sense of 'resembling death,' as,
'She was deathly pale,' is preferable to _deadly_, since _deadly_ also
means 'inflicting death.'"[124]

DECIDED, DECISIVE.--"A _decided_ opinion is a strong opinion, which
perhaps decides nothing; a _decisive_ opinion settles the question at
issue. A lawyer may have _decided_ views on a case; the judgment of a
court is _decisive_."[125]

DUMB, STUPID.--_Dumb_ properly means "mute," "silent." Its misuse for
_stupid_ is partly due, especially in Pennsylvania, to its resemblance to
the German _dumm_.

EXISTING, EXTANT.--That is _extant_ which has escaped the ravages of
time (used chiefly of books, manuscripts, etc.); that is _existing_ which
has existence.

FUNNY, ODD.--_Funny_ means "comical;" in the sense of "strange" or
"odd" it is not in good use.

HEALTHY, HEALTHFUL, WHOLESOME.--That is _healthy_ which is in good
health; that is _healthful_ or _wholesome_ which produces health.
_Wholesome_ commonly applies to food.

HUMAN, HUMANE.--_Human_ denotes what pertains to man as man;
as, "_human_ nature," "_human_ sacrifices." _Humane_ means "compassionate."

LATEST, LAST.--_Latest_, like the word "late," contains a distinct
reference to time; that is _latest_ which comes after all others in time:
as, "The _latest_ news;" "The _latest_ fashion." _Last_, which was
originally a contraction of "latest," is now used without any distinct
reference to time, and denotes that which comes after all others in space
or in a series: as, "The _last_ house on the street;" "The _Last_ of the

LENGTHY, LONG.--_Lengthy_ is said to have originated in the United
States, but the earliest quotations found are from British authors. In the
introduction to the second series of The Biglow Papers, Mr. Lowell wrote:
"We have given back to England the excellent adjective _lengthy_ ... thus
enabling their journalists to characterize our President's messages by a
word civilly compromising between _long_ and _tedious_, so as not to
endanger the peace of the two countries by wounding our national
sensitiveness to British criticism." _Lengthy_ is used chiefly of
discourses or writings, and implies tediousness. _Long_ is used of
anything that has length.

MAD, ANGRY.--_Mad_ means "insane;" in the sense of "angry" it is not
in good use.

NEW, NOVEL.--That is _new_ which is not old; that is _novel_ which is
both new and strange.

ORAL, VERBAL.--"_Oral_, in the sense of 'in spoken words,' is
preferable to _verbal_, since _verbal_ means 'in words' whether spoken or

PITIABLE, PITIFUL.--"_Pitiable,_ in the sense of 'deserving pity,' is
preferable to _pitiful,_ since _pitiful_ also means 'compassionate,' as,
'The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.'"[126]

PRACTICABLE, PRACTICAL.--That is _practicable_ which can be done;
that is _practical_ which is not theoretical only: as, "a _practicable_
plan," "a _practical_ electrician."

PROMINENT, EMINENT.--_Prominent_ means "conspicuous," "standing out
so as to be easily seen;" _eminent_ means "distinguished in character or

REAL, REALLY, VERY.--_Real_ is properly an adjective, meaning "not
imaginary or counterfeit," as, "_real_ diamonds." Its misuse for the
adverbs _really_ and _very_, as, "This is _real_ pretty," is a vulgarism.

SCARED, AFRAID.--The participle _scared_ means "frightened;" _afraid_
is an adjective meaning "in fear." Before "of," the proper word is
_afraid_: as, "She is _afraid_ of horses." _Scared of_ is not in good use.

MAGNIFICENT.--_Grand_ properly implies "grandeur;" _gorgeous_,
"splendid colors;" _awful_, "awe;" _elegant_, "elegance;" _splendid_,
"splendor;" _lovely,_ "surpassing loveliness;" _magnificent_,

"We talk, sometimes, with people whose conversation would lead you to
suppose that they had lived in a museum, where all the objects were
monsters and extremes.... They use the superlative of grammar: 'most
perfect,' 'most exquisite,' 'most horrible.' Like the French, they are
enchanted, they are desolate, because you have got or have not got a
shoestring or a wafer you happen to want--not perceiving that superlatives
are diminutives and weaken.... All this comes of poverty. We are unskilful
definers. From want of skill to convey quality, we hope to move admiration
by quantity. Language should aim to describe the fact.... 'Tis very
wearisome, this straining talk, these experiences all exquisite, intense,
and tremendous."[127]

[123] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[124] Ibid., p. 18.
[125] Ibid., p. 38.
[126] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[127] R.W. Emerson; The Superlative.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The average (ordinary) yield of wheat.
2. He is bound (determined) to come.
3. There was continual (continuous) fighting for three days.
4. It was deadly (deathly) cold in the cave.
5. A decided (decisive) victory.
6. The boy is dumb (stupid).
7. His story is apparently (evidently, manifestly) true.
8. The existing (extant) portraits of Milton.
9. His actions were very funny (odd).
10. This is a healthy (wholesome) plant.
11. A human (humane) being.
12. His latest (last) attempt.
13. Long (lengthy) explanations.
14. She became mad (angry).
15. A new (novel) style.
16. An oral (verbal) message.
17. A pitiable (pitiful) man.
18. Your purpose seems practical (practicable).
19. A prominent (an eminent) man.
20. He was really (very) glad to see us.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:--_

1. The motion which--- belongs to the sun, really belongs to the earth.
2. The stranger was--- in the prime of manhood.
3. The _apparent (evident)_ discrepancy between the two narratives is not
4. Our country is--- growing in wealth.
5. A straight line is--- the shortest distance between two points.

6. To be excited is not the--- state of the mind.
7. This picture has only--- merit.
8.--- conversation is not instructive.
9. The--- American is not wealthy.
10. The--- expenses per man of the Yale class of '95 during Freshman year
    were $912.
11. The life of the--- man is safer and more comfortable than it was a
    century ago.
12. The--- age of the signers of the Declaration of Independence was
    nearly forty-four.
13. Their--- duties were easy.

14. He worked hard at his piece, for he was--- to speak it well.
15. We have promised, therefore we are--- to go.
16. I am--- to win, if I can.
17. They were--- that they would see the end of the play, even though they
    should miss their train.

18. He was exposed to--- interruptions.
19. A--- line in space.
20. ---- victory makes leaders insolent.
21. A ---- siege of six months.
22. The power of abstract study or of ---- thought is rare.

23. A ---- stillness.
24. The ---- bite of the rattlesnake.
25. My wound is ----.
26. Her hands were ---- cold.
27. She, poor thing, was looking ---- pale.
28. Many savages have seen a musket kill small animals and yet have not
    known how ---- an instrument it is.

29. He felt a ---- aversion to company.
30. Smith spoke out boldly in a ---- tone.
31. Creasy's "Fifteen ---- Battles of the World."
32. The nature of lightning was not known until Franklin made his ----

33. A man who cannot write with wit on a proper subject is dull and ----.
34. A deaf and ---- person.
35. I was struck ---- with astonishment.
36. Judging from his recitations, I should say that John is either lazy
    or ----.

37. God created all ---- things.
38. Only two authentic portraits of Shakespeare are ----.
39. There are ---- seven hundred and sixty-five of Cicero's letters.
40. Every citizen should exert himself to remove ---- evils.

41. It is ---- he never told me of his marriage.
42. He made the boys laugh by drawing ---- pictures on his slate.
43. You must have thought it ---- we didn't send for you.
44. He amused us with ---- stories.

45. Tomatoes are said to be a very ---- food.
46. If a ---- body contributes to the health of the mind, so also a ----
    mind keeps the body well.
47. Gardening is a ---- recreation for a man of study or business.
48. ---- food in a ---- climate makes a ---- man.
49. A ---- situation. A ---- constitution.- ----diet.

50. A--- disposition is not cruel.
51. To err is---; to forgive, divine.
52. In the time of Abraham--- sacrifices were common among his heathen
53. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is
    a ---- organization.

54. The--- men in the procession.
55. The--- news.
56. The--- of the Incas.
57. Have you read the--- novel?
58. The--- foot-ball game of the season will be played with the
Yale Freshmen.

59. Cotton Mather wrote many--- dissertations.
60. It is a--- ride from Ellen's Isle to Stirling.
61. A--- line of ancestors.
63. We were wearied by his--- explanations.

63. His sarcastic manner makes me---.
64. That is nothing to get--- at.
65.   I have heard my grandsire say full oft,
      Extremity of griefs would make men ---.

66. We have a--- horse.
67. A--- feature of the entertainment was the "Broom Drill."
68. At the World's Fair we saw many--- sights, especially in the Midway
69. Alice had many--- experiences in Wonder Land.

70. Some slight--- changes have been made in the new edition of this book.
71. Were your instructions--- or written.

72. The condition of the poor in our great cities is---.
73.   Be gentle unto griefs and needs,
      Be --- as woman should.
74. The wretched girl was in a--- plight.
75. A--- sight.

76. We have hired a ---- gardener.
77. This plan of campaign is not ----.
78. We found the road not ---- because of the heavy rains.
79. A victory may be a ---- defeat.

80. Censure is the tax a man pays to the public for being ----.
81. The figure of a man is ---- in the picture.
82. Frogs have ---- eyes.
83. Washington was a (an) ---- man.
84. John Quincy Adams was the ---- son of a (an) ---- father.

85. She came home looking ---- well after her long visit.
86. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not ----
    changed, but remains ---- bread.
87. Homer tells us that the blood of the gods is not ---- blood, but only
    something like it.
88. I am ---- glad you have come.
89. He is ---- dead.
90. It was ---- kind in you to send me flowers.
91. Yes, I am ---- old; I am sixty.
92. He speaks ---- well, doesn't he?
93. ---- kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and affect a
    plain and poor exterior.
94. This is ---- pretty.
95. We came on a ---- fast train.
96. She seemed ---- glad to see us.
97. The hotel is situated ---- near the sea.

98. She was badly ---- when her horse ran away.
99. Harry is ---- of tramps.
100. Helen was ---- of the cows in the meadow.


_Illustrate by original sentences the correct use of each of these words:_
--Both, each, every, aggravating, liable, likely, apt, mutual, partially,
quite, average, bound, continual, continuous, deadly, deathly, decided,
decisive, dumb, apparently, evidently, extant, funny, healthy, healthful,
wholesome, human, humane, latest, last, lengthy, mad, novel, verbal,
pitiable, pitiful, practicable, practical, prominent, eminent, real,
really, scared, grand, gorgeous, awful, splendid, elegant, lovely,

USE of the COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE.--The comparative degree
is preferable when two things or sets of things are compared, the
superlative when three or more are compared.

To say "Iron is more useful than _any_ metal" is clearly incorrect,
because iron is included in "any metal," and of course iron is not more
useful than itself. We must in thought set iron off in a class by itself,
which we can do by inserting "other" after "any." "Iron is more useful
than _any other_ metal" is correct. After comparatives accompanied by
"than," the words "any" and "all" should be followed by "other."

To say "Iron is the most useful of _any_ (or, _any other_) metal" is also
clearly incorrect, because we mean that iron is the most useful, not of
"one metal (no matter which)" or of "some metals (no matter which)," but
of all metals. We should therefore omit the word "any," saying simply
"Iron is the most useful of (all) metals." It is also incorrect to say
"Iron is the most useful of all _other_ metals," for iron is not one of
the "other metals." Beware of using "any" or "other" with superlatives
followed by "of."

[128] See note To the Teacher, p. 41.


_Which of the italicized forms is preferable?_--
1. Of London and Paris, London is the _wealthier (wealthiest)._
2. Of two evils, choose the _less (least)._
3. The _older (oldest)_ of the three boys was sent to college.
4. Which can run the _faster (fastest),_ your horse or mine?
5. Of the two Latin poets, Virgil and Horace, the _first (former)_ is the
   _better (best)_ known.
6. Which is the _better (best)_ of the two?
7. Which is the _farther (farthest)_ east, Boston New York, or
8. There is no doubt about _him (his)_ being the _better (best)_ in the
   little group of friends.
9. Which is the _larger (largest)_ number, the minuend or the subtrahend?


_Explain and correct the errors in the following sentences:_--

1. This picture is, of all others, the one I like best.
2. This engraving of mine I like better than any picture I have.
3. London is more crowded than any city in Great Britain.
4. London is the most crowded of any city in Great Britain.
5. She of all other girls ought to be the last to complain.
6. Our grammar lessons are the hardest of any we have.
7. St. Peter's is larger than any church in the world.
8. St. Peter's is the largest of any church in the world.
9. Noah and his family outlived all the people who lived before the flood.
10. Solomon was wiser than all men.
11. This State exports more cotton than all the states.
12. A cowboy is the most picturesque of any men.
13. Tabby has the worst temper of any cat I know.
14. He thinks Gettysburg has the prettiest girls of any town of its size.
15. The proposed method of Mr. F.G. Jackson, the English arctic explorer,
    appears to be the most practical and business-like of any yet
    undertaken for exploring the polar regions.


_Construct sentences comparing the following things, using first a
comparative, then a superlative form:_--

1. The large population of China; the smaller populations of other
  EXAMPLE.--China has a larger population than any other country. Of all
  countries, China has the largest population in the world.
2. John, who is very mischievous; other boys, who are less mischievous.
3. Eve, who was exceedingly fair; her daughters (female descendants), who
   are less fair.
4. Smith, the best athlete; the other boys in the school.
5. Mary's recitations; the poorer recitations of her classmates.
6. The population of London; the population of the other cities in the
7. The circulation of the "Star;" the smaller circulation of other
   newspapers in the county.
8. Ethel's eyes; the eyes of her playmates, which are not so bright.
9. The examination papers of Professor A.; the easier papers set by other
10. Philip; his classmates, who are less bright.
11. Solomon, the wisest king; other kings.
12. Samson, the strongest man; other men.
13. Jacob's love for Joseph; his love for his other children.
14. Youth; the other periods of life, which are less important.
15. Demosthenes; the other and inferior orators of Greece.
16. The books read by Fannie; the fewer books read by her classmates.
17. This shady grove; other groves I know, which are less shady.
18. The reign of Louis XIV.; the shorter reigns of other French kings.
19. Shakespeare; other English poets, all of whom are inferior to him.
20. The Falls of Niagara; other falls in the United States.

Some adjectives and adverbs have meanings which do not vary in degree: as,
_dead, perfect, wooden._ Such adjectives cannot properly be compared or
modified by the words "more," "most," "so," "too," and "very."

[129] "Foundations," p. 135.


_Which of the following adjectives and adverbs do not vary in degree?_--
Absolutely, brave, cloudless, cold, conclusively, continually, entirely,
essentially, extreme, faultless, French, fundamental, golden, happy,
impregnable, inaudible, incessant, incredible, indispensable, insatiate,
inseparable, intangible, intolerable, invariable, long, masterly, round,
sharp, square, sufficient, unanimous, unbearable, unbounded, unerring,
unique, universally, unparalleled, unprecedented.

MISPLACED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.[130]--A word, a phrase, or a clause
used as an adjective or an adverb should come next to the word, or words,
which it modifies.

The word _only_ requires special care. Observe how the position of _only_
affects the meaning in the following sentences: "Only he lost his hat;"
"He only lost his hat;" "He lost only his hat," or "He lost his hat only;"
"He lost his only hat."

[130] "Foundations," p. 136.


_Correct the errors of position in the following sentences_:--

1. Metal reflectors are only used now for cheap search-lights.
2. I will only mention some of the best.
3. I only had time to read "King Lear."
4. He only spoke to me, not to you.
5. Coons are only killed with the help of dogs. The coon only comes out in
   the night-time.
6. Lost, a Scotch terrier, by a gentleman, with his ears cut close.
7. Canteens were issued to the soldiers with short necks.
8. We all went to the sea-shore for a little fresh air from the city.
9. At one time Franklin was seen bringing some paper to his
   printing-office from the place where he had purchased it in a
10. He went to Germany to patronize the people in the little German
    villages from which he came with his great wealth.
11. The three young men set out and finally arrived at the college dressed
    in girls' clothes.
12. The maskers were nearly dressed alike.
13. Erected to the memory of John Smith accidentally shot as a mark of
    affection by his brother.
14. Lost, an umbrella by a gentleman with an ivory head.
15. A piano for sale by a lady about to cross the channel in an oak case
    with carved legs.
16. He blew out his brains after bidding his wife good-bye with a gun.
17. The Moor, seizing a bolster, full of rage and jealousy, smothered
18. Wanted, a handsome Shetland pony suitable for a child with a long mane
    and tail.
19. Wolsey left many buildings which he had begun at his death in an
    unfinished state.
20. My cousin caught a crab and took it home in a pail of water which we
    had for our tea.
21. I scarcely ever remember to have had a rougher walk.

ADVERBS between TO and THE INFINITIVE.--"A careful writer
will do well to avoid the construction which places the adverb between
_to_ and the infinitive. It is true that the construction is a common one;
but it is also true that those who are most addicted to the practice are
not those who count most as authorities on questions of good usage."[131]

[131] "Foundations," p. 140.


_Improve the arrangement in the following sentences_--

1. Hermes caused the milk pitcher of the old couple to never be empty.
2. His political enemies tried to in this way impeach the courage of the
3. He promises to earnestly try to do better.
4. To really know the man we must read his books.
5. Another project is to in some way modify the power of the House of
6. She dwelt upon what was comforting, though conscious that there was
   little to veritably console.
7. He proposed to either largely decrease the appropriation or to wholly
   do away with it.



MISUSED PREPOSITIONS.[132]--A writer, in choosing the proper
preposition to express his meaning, must rely chiefly on his sense of
idiom, that is, his knowledge of English usage, but he may find the
following notes helpful.

AMONG, BETWEEN.--"_Among_ is the proper word when the reference is to
more than two persons or things, or groups of persons or things;
_between_, when the reference is to two only."[133]

AT, IN.--Before names of places to denote "where," _at_ is used when
the place is so small as to be treated as a mere point, or when, although
large, it is viewed as a mere point; _in_ is used when it is desired to
make prominent the idea "within the bounds of:" as, "He arrived _at_
Liverpool in the morning and remained _in_ that city two days." Before the
name of the place in which the speaker dwells, if the place is of any
size, _in_ is generally preferred to _at_, unless the place is so remote
that it dwindles in the mental vision to a point.

BACK OF.--_Back of_, though frequently heard in conversation and
sometimes seen in print, is not in good use.

BESIDE, BESIDES.--_Beside_ means "by the side of;" _besides_ is now
used only in the sense of "in addition to," "other than:" as, "Who sits
_beside_ you?" "Who _besides_ us knows this?"

BY, WITH.--To introduce the agent of an action _by_ is now commonly
used; the material instrument or tool is usually introduced by _with_: as,
"Duncan was murdered _by_ Macbeth _with_ a dagger."

DIFFERENT FROM, DIFFERENT TO.--_Different from_ is preferable to
_different to_ and _different than_.

IN, INTO.--"_In_ implies presence inside of, or within; _into_
implies movement to the inside of. Before a man can move _in_ a room, he
must already have moved _into_ it."[134]

IN, ON.--Before names of streets, _in_ implies some reference to
surroundings; _on_ is less definite, indicating location only.

ON TO, ONTO.--"Good use does not support either _on to_ or

WAIT FOR, WAIT ON.--_To wait for_ means "to await," as, "We will
_wait for_ you at the corner." _To wait on_ means "to attend on," as, "At
dinner the women _waited on_ the men."

[132] "Foundations," pp. 142-148.
[133] Ibid., p. 143.
[134] Ibid., p. 145.
[135] "Foundations," p. 146.


_Insert the proper preposition in each blank_:--

1. He divided the apples ---- the five boys.
2. There was a generous rivalry ---- the two friends.
3. I have no preference ---- many of Tennyson's poems.
4. There is bad feeling ---- China and Japan.
5. The money was divided ---- the six heirs.

6. Napoleon died ---- Longwood, a villa on the island of St. Helena; Byron
   died ---- Missolonghi, ---- Greece.
7. Did he graduate ---- Oxford or ---- Cambridge?
8. He is now ---- Ireland.
9. Milton was educated ---- Christ's College.
10. When shall we arrive ---- Rome?
11. I am eager to visit a hundred places ---- Florence.
12. We live ---- New York.
13. Macaulay lived ---- London.

14. Have you nothing to tell us ---- what we have already heard?
15. The boy stood ---- her.
16. ---- the large planets, there are hundreds of smaller planets called
17. Let me sit ---- you.

18. The door was fastened ---- nails ---- the carpenter.
19. The Great Charter was signed ---- King John.
20. Thebes was founded ---- Cadmus.
21. Truth finds an easy entrance into the mind when she is introduced ----
    Desire and attended ---- Pleasure.
22. He entertained us ---- a story.
23. He struck me ---- his cane.

24. The dog is ---- the water.
25. Come ---- the house.
26. Look ---- my desk.
27. Put more life ---- your speaking.
28. Throw it ---- the fire.
29. What put this idea ---- your head?
30. Carry the basket ---- the kitchen.
31. She threw herself ---- a chair.

32. The cable cars ---- Broadway.
33. Ellen and Harry are playing ---- the street.
34. The Murray Hill Hotel is ---- Fourth Avenue.
35. They carry on their business ---- William Street.

"With certain words good use requires special prepositions.
Among these words are the following:--

abhorrence of.
absolve from.
accord with.
acquit of.
adapted to or for.
affinity between, to, or with.
agree with (a person).
agree to (a proposal).
averse from or to.
bestow upon.
change for (a thing).
change with (a person).
comply with.
center on (= give to).
confer with (= talk with).
confide in (= trust in).
confide to (= intrust to).
conform to.
in conformity with or to.
convenient for or to.
conversant with.
correspond to or with (a thing).
correspond with (a person).
dependent on (but independent of).
derogatory to.
differ from (a person or thing).
differ from or with (in opinion).
disappointed of (what we cannot get).
disappointed in (what we have).
dissent from.
glad at or of.
involve in.
martyr for or to.
need of.
part from or with.
profit by.
reconcile to or with.
taste of (food).
taste for (art).
Thirst for or after."[136]

[136] "Foundations," p. 148.


I. _Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. She confides in (to) her sister.
2. He differs from (with) me.
3. We are disappointed of (in) our guests.
4. He is in (_at_) New York.
5. He waited on (for) his mother.

II. _Tell what prepositions are required with these words_: Abhorrence,
absolve, accord, acquit, adapted, affinity, agree, agreeable, averse,
bestow, change (verb), comply, confer, confide, conform, in conformity,
convenient, conversant, correspond, dependent, derogatory, differ,
different, disappointed, dissent (verb), eager, exception, expert, glad,
independent, involve, martyr, need (noun), part (verb), profit (verb),
reconcile, taste (noun), thirst (noun), worthy.


_Insert the proper preposition in each blank_:--[137]

1. Please wait ---- me; I will come as soon as I can.
2. She married him ---- her father's consent.
3. The cathedral was rich ---- all kinds of golden vessels.
4. Moses received the laws ---- the people on Mount Sinai.
5. Evangeline died ---- Philadelphia.
6. ---- whom did they rent the house?
7. ---- whom can I rely?
8. The boy went in search ---- his sister.
9. The streams ---- this region abound ---- trout.
10. The traces of a struggle were seen ---- the tree.
11. They got ---- the carriage and rode away.
12. He has moved ---- New York, where he lives ---- an elegant mansion.
13. He thought that he put the money ---- his pocket, but he found it ----
    his shoe.
14. The paper was cut ---- small strips.
15. We stood ---- the landing.
16. The firemen went ---- the roof of the house.
17. He is down ---- the village.
18. What was the matter ---- him?
19. He died ---- a fever.
20. When we were ---- Rome we stayed ---- a small hotel.
21. He lives ---- a frame house ---- Cambridge.
22. Her unladylike behavior gave occasion ---- many unpleasant remarks.
23. Caterpillars change ---- butterflies.
24. She lives ---- College Street, ---- No. 1009.
25. It was conducive ---- my comfort.
26. The calm was followed ---- a sudden storm.
27. The soil of Virginia is adapted ---- the production of hemp and
28. The flower is excellently adapted ---- catching insects.
29. Congress consists ---- a Senate and a House of Representatives.
30. ---- what does happiness consist?
31. ---- some sentences the conjunction is omitted.
32. A judge who has an interest in a case is disqualified ---- hearing it.
33. He was accused ---- robbery.
34. He died ---- starvation, she ---- pneumonia.
35. You may rely ---- what I say, and confide ---- my honesty.
36. The bird flew ---- the tree.
37. He let the knife fall ---- the creek.
38. What is my grief in comparison ---- that which she bears?
39. Most persons feel an abhorrence ---- snakes.
40. He aspires ---- political distinction.
41. We were disappointed ---- the pleasure of seeing you.
42. There is need ---- great watchfulness.
43. I have been ---- New Orleans, and I am now going ---- New York.
44. We lived ---- a little village ---- the South.
45. I find no difficulty ---- keeping up with my class.
46. ---- every class of people selfishness prevails.
47. He divided his estate ---- his son, his daughter, and his nephew.
48. He is very different ---- his brother.
49. This was different ---- what I expected.
50. Compare your work ---- his, and you will see the difference.
51. My old yacht was small in comparison ---- this.
52. He is adapted ---- an out-door life.
53. His disobedience was attended ---- serious consequences.
54. His mother was overcome ---- grief.
55. We were accompanied ---- our parents.
56. A man should try to rid himself ---- prejudice.
57. He will profit ---- his experience.
58. The room was redolent ---- the perfume.
59. You must conform ---- the rules.
60. Fondness ---- horses was his leading trait.
61. We felt the need ---- some adviser.
62. I cannot reconcile this assertion ---- your other one.
63. Let us cut it ---- three equal parts.
64. He is acquitted ---- all blame.
65. The Pope absolved him ---- his oath of allegiance.
66. This fact does not accord ---- her declaration.
67. I do not agree ---- you; therefore I cannot agree ---- your proposal.
68. The queen bestowed ---- Tennyson the title of baron.
69. The college has conferred ---- my uncle the degree of Doctor of
70. The two emperors conferred ---- each other for an hour.
71. He is conversant ---- many languages.
72. They were independent ---- each other.
73. His sisters are dependent ---- him.
74. That is not derogatory ---- their character.
75. I dissent ---- that proposition.
76. We are glad ---- his promotion.
77. He has a taste ---- poetry; she, a thirst ---- knowledge.
78. In 1842 he emerged ---- obscurity.
79. His property was merged ---- the common stock.
80. She often went ---- town shopping.
81. He plunged ---- the deepest part of the lake.
82. These bands of Indians were accompanied ---- settlers from Detroit.
83. The settlers were in company ---- Indians.
84. His proposal is likely to stir up ill-will ---- the various classes.
85. The Greeks, fearing that they would be surrounded, wheeled about and
    halted, with the river ---- their backs.
86. We are within three miles ---- Salisbury.

OMITTED PREPOSITIONS.[138]--"Beware of omitting a preposition that is
needed to make the meaning clear or the sentence grammatical."[139]

"Before 'home' the preposition 'at' should never be omitted, but the
preposition 'to' is always omitted: _e.g.,_ 'I am going home.'"[138]

[137] In this exercise the pupil must rely chiefly on his knowledge of
English usage or on a dictionary. In some of the sentences more than one
preposition is allowable, according to the sense.
[138] "Foundations," p. 149.
[139] Ibid., p. 150.


_Insert the necessary prepositions in the following sentences:_--

1. What use is this piece of ribbon?
2. The oak was five feet diameter.
3. My business prevented me attending the last meeting of the committee.
4. I could not refrain shedding tears.
5. The remark is worthy the fool that made it.
6. It is unworthy your notice.
7. He lives the other side the river.
8. He fled the country, and went either to England or France.
9. Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as admiration.
10. Religion is a comfort in youth as well as old age.
11. It's no use to give up.
12. This side the mountain the country is thickly settled; the other side
    there are few inhabitants.
13. I wrote Mr. Knapp to come Wednesday, and promised that he should find
    us home.
14. Wealth is more conducive to worldliness than piety.
15. He is not home, but I think he is coming home to-night.

REDUNDANT PREPOSITIONS.[140]--Beware of inserting prepositions which
are not needed.

[140] Ibid., p. 150.


_Strike out the redundant prepositions:_--

1. He met a boy of about eighteen years old.
2. Cadmus stood pondering upon what he should do.
3. Let a gallows be erected of fifty cubits high.
4. Hercules was very willing to take the world off from his shoulders and
   give it to Atlas again.
5. No one can help from loving her.
6. From thence in two days the Greeks marched twenty miles.
7. There was much of wisdom in their plan.
8. A workman fell off of the ladder.
9. On one day I caught five trout, on another twelve.
10. We must examine into this subject more carefully.
11. A child copies after its parents.
12. The proposal to go to the woods was approved of by all of the boys.
13. At about what time will father return?
14. After having heard his story, I gave him a dollar.
15. The spring is near to the house.
16. Bruno followed on after his master.
17. Wanted, a young man of from sixteen to twenty-one years of age.
18. They went on to the steamer soon after dinner.
19. Look out of the window.



VULGARISMS.[141]--Every educated person is expected to know the correct
use of the following words:--

LIKE, AS.--In good use _like_ is never a conjunction, and therefore
it cannot be used instead of _as_ to introduce a clause. It is incorrect
to say, "Walk _like_ I walk," but one may say, "He walks _like_ me," or
"He looks _like_ his grandfather."[142]

EXCEPT, WITHOUT, UNLESS.--_Except_, which was originally a
past-participle, was once in good use as a conjunction; but in modern use
it has been displaced as a conjunction by _unless_, and is now a
preposition only. We may say, "All went _except_ me," but we may not say,
"_Except_ you go with me, I will stay at home." Another word not in good
use as a conjunction, but often heard instead of "unless," is _without_.

[141] "Foundations," p. 152.
[142] See page 109.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:_--

1. Do ---- I do.
2. She fears a chicken ---- you fear a snake.
3. Thin bushy hair falls down on each side of his face somewhat ----
   Longfellow's hair did in his later life.
4. I wish I could sing ---- she can.
5. I will be a lawyer ---- my father.
6. I will be a lawyer ---- my father was.
7. She looks ---- (if) she were crying.
8. He acted ---- (if) he were guilty.
9. Our snow-tunnel looked ---- we imagined Aladdin's cave looked.
10. He treated me ---- a cat treats a mouse.
11. Seventy-five cents a day will not feed those men ---- they wish to be
12. The lines in this stanza are not forced ---- in other stanzas.
13. If I were a boy ---- Ralph is, I would try to stop the thing.

14. I do not know how my horse got away ---- somebody untied him.
15. Do not come ---- you hear from me.
16. I will not go ---- father is willing.
17. I will not go ---- father's consent.
18. ---- you study better, you will be dropped.
19. It will be cool to-morrow ---- a hot wave comes.
20. I cannot go ---- money.
21. I cannot go ---- father sends me some money.
22. I will be there promptly ---- I hear from you.
23. Do not write ---- you feel in the mood for it.
24. She has no fault ---- diffidence.
25. She has no fault ---- it be diffidence.
26. He cannot enlist ---- with his guardian's consent.

MISUSED CONJUNCTIONS.[143]--Conjunctions are few in number and are more
definite in their meanings than prepositions. Most errors in using them
spring from confused thinking or hasty writing. "A close reasoner and a
good writer in general may be known by his pertinent use of

AND.--_And_ has, generally speaking, the meaning of "in addition to."

BUT.--_But_ implies some exception, opposition, or contrast.
Equivalent, or nearly equivalent, expressions are "however," "on the other
hand," "yet," "nevertheless."

AS.--"_As_ has so many meanings that it is better, when possible, to
use a conjunction that covers less ground."[145]

BECAUSE, FOR, SINCE.--The difference between these words is chiefly a
difference in emphasis. "We will not go, _because_ it is raining" is the
strongest way of expressing the relation of cause and effect. In "_Since_
it is raining, we will not go," the emphasis is shifted from the cause to
the effect, which becomes the prominent idea. In "We will not go, _for_ it
is raining," the reason, "it is raining," is announced as itself a bit of
news. Often the choice between these words is decided by the ear.

HOW.--_How_ properly means "in what manner" or "to what extent." It
is often misused for "that" to introduce an object clause.

NOR, OR.--_Nor_ is the correlative of _neither_, sometimes of other
negatives. _Or_ is the correlative of _either_.

THEREFORE, SO.--In the sense of "for this reason," _therefore_ is
preferable to _so_, since _so_ has other meanings.

THOUGH.--_Though_ means "notwithstanding," "in spite of the fact

AS IF, AS THOUGH.--"_As if_ is, on the whole, preferable to _as

WHEN, WHILE.--_When_ means "at the time that;" _while_, "during the
time that," "as long as." "_When_ fixes attention on a date or period;
_while_ fixes attention on the lapse of time."[147]

[143] "Foundations," p.152.
[144] Coleridge: Table Talk. Quoted by A.S. Hill in Principles of
[145] "Foundations," p. 153.
[146] "Foundations," p. 156.
[147] Ibid., p. 157.


_Insert the proper conjunction in each blank, if a conjunction is
needed. Do not confine your choice to those mentioned above:_--

1. Roland was mild and modest, ---- Charles was coarse and boastful.
2. ---- they were without provisions, they thought they should starve.
3. In Addison's day innumerable vices were prevalent, ---- chief among them
   was the custom of drinking.
4. Charles was a large, brawny fellow, ---- Orlando was a slender youth.
5. When the barn was full of people, the doors were suddenly shut and
   bolted ---- the barn was set on fire.
6. Hereward's men wanted booty, ---- Hereward took them to the Golden
7. He read a short ---- interesting account of "Theobald's."
8. Longfellow received a good education ---- he was not a poor boy.
9. He was disappointed in the speed of his yacht, ---- he had expected her
   to be very fast.
10. The man said "to sell" was not needed on the sign ---- no one would
    expect the hats to be given away.
11. There is no doubt ---- the earth is spherical.
12. I know very little about the "Arabian Nights" ---- I have never read
    that book.
13. When Gulliver began to pull, the ships would not move ---- their
    anchors held them.
14. He had to be cautious in using his Bible ---- at that time reading it
    was prohibited; ---- he fastened it with tapes on the underside of
    a stool.
15. The Liberal Arts Building at Chicago had twice as much iron in its
    frame ---- the Brooklyn Bridge.
16. The lumbermen must keep open a road to the railroad, ---- all their
    provisions must be brought from the city.
17. Scarcely had I thrown in my line ---- I felt a nibble.
18. The fly seems to have been created for no other purpose ---- to purify
    the air.
19. At first you wonder where the boats are, ---- on entering the grove you
    can see only a small cabin.
20. I do not doubt ---- he will succeed.
21. I cannot deny ---- he is honest.
22. He was dismissed, not so much because he was too young ---- because he
    was indolent.
23. The land is equally adapted to farming ---- to pasturage.
24. Proportion is ---- simple ---- compound.
25. I wonder ---- he will come.
26. The last of the horses had scarcely crossed the bridge ---- the head of
    the third battalion appeared on the other side.
27. He looked as ---- he could play football.
28. ---- I saw her, she was young ---- beautiful.
29. Bruce spoke of himself as being neither Scotch ---- English.
30. I could ---- buy ---- borrow it.
31. He has no love ---- veneration for his superiors.
32. There was no place so hidden ---- so remote ---- the plague did
    not find it.
33. We need not, ---- do not, complain of our lot.
34. He could not deny ---- he had borrowed money.
35. There is no question ---- the universe has bounds.
36. A corrupt government is nothing else ---- a reigning sin.
37. She thinks, I regret to say, of little else ---- clothes.
38. O fairest flower, no sooner blown ---- blasted.
39. There is no other hat here ---- mine.
40. ---- you have come, I will go with you.
41. ---- Virgil was the better artist, Homer was the greater genius.
42. He has not decided ---- he will let me go to college.
43. Sheep are white ---- black.
44. The King has no arbitrary power; your Lordships have not ---- the
    Commons; ---- the whole Legislature.
45. No tie of gratitude ---- of honor could bind him.
46. She had no sooner arrived ---- she prepared to go boating.
47. Scarcely had she left the house ---- she returned.
48. He was punished, ---- he was guilty.
49. He was punished, ---- he was not guilty.
50. We cannot go ---- we finish our task.
51. ---- the rain came down in torrents, we started for the lake.
52. She could ---- dance ---- sing, ---- she played the piano.
53. I do not know ---- I shall walk ---- ride.
54. Hardly had he left the room ---- the prisoner attempted to escape.
55. The chances are ten to one ---- he will forget it.
56. Stand up so ---- you can be seen.

OMITTED CONJUNCTIONS.--Careless writers sometimes omit conjunctions
that are necessary either to the grammar or to the sense. A common form of
this fault is illustrated in "This is as good if not better than that"--a
sentence in which "as" is omitted after "as good." The best way to correct
the sentence is to recast it, thus: "This is as good as that, if not


_Correct the faults in these sentences:_--

1. Ralph is as young or younger than Harry.
2. Cedar is more durable but not so hard as oak.
3. I never heard any one speak more fluently or so wittily as he.
4. She is fairer but not so amiable as her sister.
5. Though not so old, he is wiser than his brother.

REDUNDANT CONJUNCTIONS.--[148] Careless writers sometimes insert
conjunctions that are useless or worse than useless.
A common form of this fault is the use in certain cases of "and" or "but"
before the words "who," "which," "when," or "where," which are themselves
connectives: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man
little known up to that time, _but_ to _whom_ Rosalind had taken a great
liking." If the relative clause introduced by "who," "which," "when," or
"where" is to be joined to a preceding relative clause, the conjunction is
proper: as, "The challenge was accepted by Orlando, a young man _who_ was
little known at that time, _but_ to whom Rosalind had taken a great

[148] See "Foundations," pp. 208-211.


_Which conjunctions in these sentences are redundant_?--

1. I have again been so fortunate as to obtain the assistance of Dr.
   Jones, a teacher of great experience, and whose ideas are quite in
   harmony with my own.
2. Franklin had noticed for some time the extreme dirtiness of the
   streets, and especially of the street that he lived on.
3. This animal was considered as irresistible.
4. But how to get him there was a problem. But it was decided to convey
   him on one of the wagons used in carrying the Emperor's men-of-war from
   the woods, where they were made, to the water.
5. He forgot to pay for the wine--a shortness of memory common with such
   men, and which his host did not presume to correct.
6. Next came Louis, Duke of Orleans, the first prince of the blood royal,
   and to whom the attendants rendered homage as the future king.
7. So from all this you can see that such things are not impossible.
8. Her expression of countenance induced most persons to address her with
   a deference inconsistent with her station, and which nevertheless she
   received with easy composure.
9. Our escort consisted of MacGregor, and five or six of the handsomest,
   best armed, and most athletic mountaineers of his band, and whom he had
   generally in immediate attendance upon his own person.
10. The little town of Lambtos, Mrs. Gardiner's former home, and where
    she had lately learned that some acquaintance still remained.
11. He spoke in a deep and low tone, but which nevertheless was heard from
    one end of the hall to the other.

MISPLACED CORRELATIVES.--When conjunctions are used as correlatives,
as "both-and," "either-or," each of the correlated words should be so
placed as to indicate clearly what ideas are to be connected in thought.
This principle is violated in "He _not only_ visited Paris, _but_ Berlin
_also._" In this sentence the position of "not only" before the verb
"visited" leads one to expect some corresponding verb in the second part
of the sentence; in fact, however, the two connected words are "Paris" and
"Berlin;" "visited" applies to both. This meaning is clearly indicated by
putting "not only" before "Paris:" thus, "He visited _not only_ Paris,
_but_ Berlin _also_." As a rule the word after the first correlative
should be the same part of speech as the word after the second


_Correct the errors of position in_--

1. Few complaints were made either by the men or the women.
2. Search-lights are not useful only on ships, but also on land.
3. Adversity both teaches to think and to be patient.
4. My uncle gave me not only the boat, but also taught me to row it.
5. The prisoner was not only accused of robbery, but of treason.
6. The wise ruler does not aim at the punishment of offenders, but at the
   prevention of offences.
7. The king was weak both in body and mind.
8. He either is stupid or insolent.
9. He worked not to provide for the future, but the present.
10. Every composition is liable to criticism both in regard to its design
    and to its execution.
11. The gods are either angry or nature is too powerful.
12. We are neither acquainted with the Doctor nor with his family.
13. In estimating the work of Luther, we must neither forget the temper of
    the man nor the age in which he lived.
14. The wise teacher should not aim to repress, but to encourage his
15. Such rules are useless both for teachers and pupils.
16. Her success is neither the result of cleverness nor of studiousness.



The following suggestions are made in answer to many inquiries from
teachers who perceive the rare excellence of the "Foundations of
Rhetoric," but who do not clearly see, because of the novel method of the
book, how to turn its merits to account in their class-rooms. The
suggestions outline one way in which the book has been used to great

It should never be forgotten that the illustrative sentences in the
"Foundations" have no value except as they help the student to grasp a
principle that he can apply in his own use of language. In every case the
emphasis should be laid on the principle which is announced or
illustrated. Merely learning the corrected sentences by heart is useless
and should not be permitted.

In taking a class over PART I., which treats of words, it is the writer's
practice to assign a short lesson--from one to three pages--in connection
with every recitation in English. The leading ideas and most typical
sentences in each lesson are privately marked in the teacher's book with
colored pencil, so that they may readily catch his eye, and from five to
twelve minutes of each recitation period are taken up with a rapid
questioning on these leading ideas and typical sentences. Corrections or
answers unaccompanied by reasons are not accepted. Attention is always
fixed, not on the form of the illustrative sentence, but on the principle
of usage under discussion. Pupils would rather commit to memory the
sentences than trouble themselves about reasons; but they will master
reasons when they find they must. After principles have been mastered,
exercises in the choice of forms and words are needed in order that
knowledge may be converted into habit.

In PARTS II. and III. the lessons are equally short and the emphasis is
unceasingly laid on the question "Why?" If the subject is difficult, it is
desirable, at the time that the lesson is assigned, to lead the class over
the text and some of the illustrative sentences in order to open, as it
were, the eyes of the pupils. Since these parts of the book treat not of
single words, but of sentences and paragraphs, recitations on them seem to
call for the use of pencil or chalk. One successful teacher conducts the
recitation with books open, requiring her pupils to cover the correct
sentences with a strip of paper while they explain and correct the faults
in the incorrect sentences. The writer's practice is to paste the faulty
sentences on cards of convenient size and thickness--the arrangement of
columns is such that the sentences can all be cut from _one_ old book--and
to distribute them among eight or ten pupils at the beginning of the
recitation hour. While other matters are being attended to, these pupils
write the sentences in correct form on the blackboard, and, when the time
comes, give their reasons for the changes which they have made. Their work
is discussed, if necessary, by the whole class. Reviews and written tests
should be frequent. As fast as the various principles explained and
illustrated in PARTS II. and III. are studied, the attention of pupils
should be immediately turned to their own writing. It will be far more
profitable for them to correct their own offences against clearness,
force, ease, and unity than to correct similar offences committed by
others. For this reason the PRACTICAL EXERCISES IN ENGLISH contains no
exercises on the subjects discussed in PARTS II. and III. of the


_A, an_, or _the_, 12.
_Abbot_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Abbreviations, 22.
_Ability, capacity_, distinguished, 29.
_Abundance, plenty_, distinguished, 32.
_Accept, except_, distinguished, 99.
_Acceptance, acceptation_, distinguished, 25.
_Access, accession_, distinguished, 25.
_Accredit, credit_, distinguished, 92.
_Actor_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Acts, actions_, distinguished, 25.
_Adherence, adhesion_, distinguished, 29.
ADJECTIVES, 109-133; defined, 109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113;
  singular and plural, 110; adjective or adverb, 113-116; redundant, 117-118;
  misused, 119-129; use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131;
  adjectives incapable of comparison, 131-132;   misplaced, 132-133.
_Admit, confess_, distinguished, 95.
_Advance, advancement_, distinguished, 25.
ADVERBS, 109-133; defined,109; vulgarisms in the use of, 109-113;
  adverb or adjective, 113-116; redundant, 117-118; misused, 119-129;
  use of the comparative and superlative degrees, 129-131;
  adverbs incapable of comparison, 131-132; misplaced, 132-133;
  between _to_ and the infinitive, 133.
_Advise_ distinguished from _advertise_, 99;
  from _persuade_, 100.
_Affect, effect_, distinguished, 99.
_Affirm, claim, maintain_, distinguished, 94-95.
_Afraid, scared_, distinguished, 124.
_Aggravating, irritating_, distinguished, 119.
_Ain't_, 71.
Alienisms, defined, 10.
_Alight, light_, distinguished, 62.
_All_ distinguished from _the whole_, 23;
  from _each_, 56; after comparatives, 129.
_Allege, affirm, assert_, etc., distinguished, 94.
_Alleviate, relieve_, distinguished, 99.
_Allow, admit, think_, distinguished, 99.
_Allude_ to, _refer_ to, _mention_, distinguished, 99.
_Allusion, illusion, delusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Almost, most_, distinguished, 109.
_Alone, only_, distinguished, 116.
_Alumnus, alumna_, plural of, 20.
Americanisms, defined, 10.
_Among, between_, distinguished, 134.
_Amount, quantity, number_, distinguished, 29.
_Analysis_, plural of, 20.
_And_, 143.
Anglicisms, defined, 10.
_Angry, mad_, distinguished, 123.
_Antagonize, oppose_, distinguished, 94.
_Anticipate, expect, suspect_, distinguished, 101.
_Any_, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
_Any one_, number of, 58; distinguished from _either_, 55-56.
_Apparently, evidently, manifestly_, distinguished, 122.
_Appear, materialize_, distinguished, 95.
_Apt, likely, liable_, distinguished, 119.
Archaic, defined, 10.
_Aren't_, 71.
_Argue, augur_, distinguished, 99.
_Argument, plea_, distinguished, 29.
_Arise, rise_, distinguished, 92.
ARTICLES, 12-15; meaning of, 12; generic, 12; superfluous and omitted, 13.
_As_, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2; a relative
  pronoun, 54; distinguished from _that_ after _same_, 54;
  from so when correlative with as, 119-120; from _like_, 142.
_As if_ preferred to _as though_, 144.
_As well as_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Ask, demand_, distinguished, 95.
_Assert, allege, declare_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Assertion, statement_, distinguished, 23.
_At, in_, before names of places, distinguished, 134.
_Augur, argue_, distinguished, 99.
Auxiliary verbs, defined, 72.
_Average, ordinary_, distinguished, 122.
_Avocation, vocation_, distinguished, 25.
_Awake_, principal parts of, 61.
_Awful_, 124.

_Bachelor_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Back of_, 134.
_Bacterium_, plural of, 20.
_Balance, rest, remainder_, distinguished, 29.
Barbarism, defined, 10.
_Barge_, for _omnibus_, 4.
_Beau_, plural of, 21.
_Because, for, since_, distinguished, 143.
_Began, begun_, distinguished, 61.
_Begin_, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from
  _commence, start_, 100-101.
_Beseech_, principal parts of, 61.
_Beside, besides_, distinguished, 134.
_Between, among_, distinguished, 134.
BIBLE, quoted, 3.
_Bid_, principal parts of, 61.
_Blow_, principal parts of, 61.
_Bound, determined_, distinguished, 122.
_Both, each, every_, distinguished, 119.
_Break_, principal parts of, 61.
_Bring, fetch, carry_, distinguished, 94.
_Broke, broken_, distinguished, 61.
_Buck_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Bullock_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Burglarize_, 10.
_Burst_, principal parts of, 61.
_But_, 143.
_By, with_, distinguished, 134.

_Calculate, intend_, distinguished, 94.
_Can_ or _may_, 71.
_Can't_, 71.
_Canto_, plural of, 18.
_Capacity, ability_, distinguished, 29.
_Captivate, capture_, distinguished, 92.
_Carry, fetch, bring_, distinguished, 94.
Case, possessive, of nouns, 17; of pronouns, 43;
  nominative or objective, 43-50.
_Centre, middle_, distinguished, 30.
CENTURY DICTIONARY, quoted, 25, 26, 32, 54, 92, 99, 116.
_Champion, support_, distinguished, 94.
Change of pronoun, 56-58.
_Character, reputation_, distinguished, 30.
CHAUCER, quoted, 72.
_Cherub_, plural of, 21.
_Choose_, principal parts of, 61.
_Claim, assert, allege_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
COLERIDGE, S.T., quoted, 143.
Colloquialisms, defined, 10.
_Come_, principal parts of, 61.
_Commence, begin, start_, distinguished, 100-101.
_Common, mutual_, distinguished, 119.
_Compare with, compare to, contrast_, distinguished, 99.
Comparative and superlative, use of the, 129-131.
Comparison, adjectives and adverbs incapable of, 131-132.
_Complement, compliment_, distinguished, 30.
_Completion, completeness_, distinguished, 26.
Compound nouns, possessive of, 16; plural of, 18.
Conditional mood, 85; sentences, 85-86.
_Confess, admit_, distinguished, 95.
CONJUNCTIONS, 142-149; vulgarisms in the use of, 142--143; misused, 143-146;
  omitted, 146.; redundant, 146-148; misplaced correlatives, 148-149.
_Conscience, consciousness_, distinguished, 30.
_Construe, construct_, distinguished, 99.
_Continual, continuous_, distinguished, 122.
Contractions, 43, 71.
_Contrast, compare to, compare with_, distinguished, 99.
Conversation and good use, 7.
_Convince, convict_, distinguished, 99.
_Could_, distinguished from _might_, 71-72;
  tense of the infinitive with, 79.
_Council, counsel_, distinguished, 30.
_Countess_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Credit, accredit_, distinguished, 92.
_Crisis_, plural of, 21.
_Curriculum_, plural of, 21.
_Custom, habit_, distinguished, 30.
_Czar_, feminine corresponding to, 21.

_Daresn't_, 71.
_Datum_, plural of, 21.
_Deadly, deathly_, distinguished, 122.
_Deception, deceit_, distinguished, 30.
_Declare, assert, claim_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Decided, decisive_, distinguished, 122.
_Delusion, illusion, allusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Demand, ask_, distinguished, 95.
Dependent clauses, _will_ or _shall_ in, 73; tenses in, 78.
_Depreciate, deprecate_, distinguished, 92-93.
_Detect, discriminate_, distinguished,99.
_Determined, bound_, distinguished, 122.
Dictionaries, usefulness of, 9; quoted, see CENTURY and MURRAY.
_Die_ (noun), plurals of, 19.
_Different from, different to_, 134.
_Disclose, discover_, distinguished, 99.
_Discover, invent_, distinguished, 31.
_Discriminate, detect_, distinguished, 99.
_Dive_, principal parts of, 61.
_Do_, principal parts of, 61.
_Doe_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Doesn't_, 71.
_Dominate, domineer_, distinguished, 99.
_Don't_, 71.
_Drake_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Drank, drunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Drive_, principal parts of, 61; distinguished from _ride_, 99.
_Duck_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Duke_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Dumb, stupid_, distinguished, 122.
_Duodecimo_, plural of, 18.

_Each_, distinguished from _all_, 56; from _every and both_, 119;
  number of, 58, 89.
_Earl_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
EARLE, JOHN, quoted, 82.
_Eat_, principal parts of, 61.
_Effect, affect_, distinguished, 99.
_Egoists, egotists; egoism, egotism_, distinguished, 30.
_Either_, distinguished from _any one,_ 55-56; number of, 58, 89.
_Either_--_or_, number of the verb with singular subjects
  connected by, 89.
_Electrocute_, 10.
_Elegant_, 124.
_Elicit, eliminate_, distinguished, 100.
EMERSON, R.W., quoted, 124.
_Emigration, immigration_, distinguished, 30.
_Eminent, prominent_, distinguished, 123.
_Enormity, enormousness_, distinguished, 30.
_Enthuse_, 10.
_Esteem, estimate, estimation_, distinguished, nouns, 30; verbs, 100.
_Every_, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from _each_ and _both_, 119.
_Everywheres_, 110.
_Evidently, apparently, manifestly_, distinguished, 122.
_Ewe_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Except, accept_, distinguished, 99.
_Except, without, unless_, distinguished, 142.
_Existing, extant_, distinguished, 122.
_Expect, suspect, anticipate_, distinguished, 101.
_Expose, expound_, distinguished, 100.
_Extant, existing_, distinguished, 122.

_Falsity, falseness_, distinguished, 31.
_Fetch, bring, carry_, distinguished, 94.
_Fewer, less, smaller_, distinguished, 109.
Figures, plural of, 19.
_Find, locate_, distinguished, 100.
_Fish_, plurals of, 19.
_Flee_, principal parts of, 61.
_Fled, flew, flown_, distinguished, 61.
_Fly_, principal parts of, 61.
_For, because, since_, distinguished, 143-144.
_For, on_, after _wait_, distinguished, 135.
Foreign origin, plural of nouns of, 20-21.
Foreignisms, defined, 10.
_Forget_, principal parts of, 61.
  quoted, 6, 17, 54, 67, 61, 62, 113, 119, 133, 134, 135, 136, 143, 144.
_Frances, Francis_, distinguished, 21.
_Freeze_, principal parts of, 61.
_Frighten_, 100.
_Froze, frozen_, distinguished, 61.
_Funny, odd_, distinguished, 122.

Gallicisms, defined, 10.
_Gander_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
Gender, nouns of different, 21.
_Genius_, plural of, 21.
_Genus_, plural of, 21.
Gerunds, 50-51.
_Get_, principal parts of, 61.
_Go_, principal parts of, 61.
Good reading, the foundation of good writing and speaking, 8.
GOOD USE, 3-11; defined, 6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7;
  not to be learned from any one book or writer, 7; to be learned
  from good reading, 8; and from dictionaries, 9; and from books
  like the "Foundations of Rhetoric," 9.
_Good, well_, distinguished, 109.
_Goose_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Gorgeous_, 124.
_Gotten_ for _got_, 61.
_Grand_, 124.
_Gums_ for _overshoes_, 4.

_Habit, custom_, distinguished, 30.
_Halo_, plural of, 18.
_Hang_, principal parts of, 61.
_Happen, transpire_, distinguished, 96.
_Hart_, feminine of, 21.
_He, him, himself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_He, his, him_, for mankind in general, 58.
_Healthy, healthful, wholesome_, distinguished, 122-123.
_Heifer_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Her, herself, she_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Hero_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
HILL, A.S., quoted, 6, 8, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 54, 61, 62, 74,
  89, 92, 95, 99, 100, 113, 119, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 140, 143, 144.
_Him, his_, before verbal nouns, 61.
_Him, himself, he_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Hind_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_Hire, let, lease_, distinguished, 95.
_His, him_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Home_, distinguished from _house_, 23; preposition before, 140.
_How_, 144.
_Human, humane_, distinguished, 123.
_Hung, hanged_, distinguished, 61.
_Hypothesis_, plural of, 21.

_I, me, myself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Identity, identification_, distinguished, 31.
_Illusion, allusion, delusion_, distinguished, 25.
_Illy_, 110.
_Immigration, emigration_, distinguished, 30.
_Import, importance_, distinguished, 81.
Improprieties, defined, 10.
_Impugn, impute_, distinguished, 93.
_In, at, into, on_, distinguished, 134-135.
_In addition to_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Index_, plurals of, 19.
Indicative, use of the perfect, 78; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89.
Infinitive, tenses of the, 78-79; adverbs between _to_ and the, 133.
_Inquire, investigate_, distinguished, 100.
_Insure, secure_, distinguished, 100.
_Intend, calculate_, distinguished, 94.
_Invent, discover_, distinguished, 31.
_Investigate, inquire_, distinguished, 100.
_It, its_, before verbal nouns, 51.

_Junto_, plural of, 18.

_Laid, lay, lain_, distinguished, 61-62.
_Lasso_, plural of, 18.
_Last, latest_, distinguished, 123.
_Lay, lie, laid, lain_, distinguished, 61-62.
_Learn, teach_, distinguished, 95.
_Lease, let, hire_, distinguished, 95.
_Leave, let_, distinguished, 100.
_Lend, loan_, distinguished, 93.
_Lengthy, long_, distinguished, 123.
_Less, fewer, smaller_, distinguished, 109.
_Lesser_, 110.
_Let, leave_, distinguished, 100.
_Let, lease, hire_, distinguished, 95.
Letters, plural of, 19.
_Liable, likely, apt_, distinguished, 119.
_Lie, lay_, distinguished, 61-62; principal parts of, 62.
_Light, alight_, distinguished, 62.
_Light-complected_, 110.
_Lighted, lit_, distinguished, 62.
_Like, as_, distinguished, 142.
_Like, likely, probably_, distinguished, 109.
_Like, love_, distinguished, 95.
_Likely, liable, apt_, distinguished, 119.
_Limit, limitation_, distinguished, 31.
_Lion_, feminine of, 21.
_Loan, lend_, distinguished, 93.
_Locate, find_, distinguished, 100.
_Long, lengthy_, distinguished, 123.
_Lot, number_, distinguished, 31.
_Love, like_, distinguished, 95.
_Lovely_, 124.

_Mad, angry_, distinguished, 128.
_Magnificent_, 124.
_Manifestly, evidently, apparently_, distinguished, 122.
_Maintain, assert, allege_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Majority, plurality_, distinguished, 31.
_Man after man_, number of, 58.
_Many, much_, distinguished, 119.
_Many a_, number of, 89.
_Marquis_, feminine of, 21.
_Materialize, appear_, distinguished, 95.
_May, can_, distinguished, 71.
_Me, myself, I_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Me, my_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Memento_, plural of, 18.
_Mention, refer_ to, _allude_ to, distinguished, 99.
_Middle, centre_, distinguished, 30.
_Might_, distinguished from _could_, 71;
  tense of the infinitive with, 79.
Misplaced adjectives and adverbs, 132-133; correlatives, 148-149.
Misused nouns, 22-42; verbs, 92-108; adjectives and adverbs, 119-129;
  prepositions, 134-139; conjunctions, 143-146.
_Monk_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Most, almost_, distinguished, 109.
_Much, many_, distinguished, 119.
_Muchly_, 110.
MURRAY'S DICTIONARY, quoted, 54, 94, 101, 119.
_Must_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Mutual, common_, distinguished, 119.
_My, me_, before verbal nouns, 51, 52.
_Myself, me, I_, proper choice among, 43-45.

National use, 4-6.
_Near, nearly_, distinguished, 109.
_Need_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Negligence, neglect_, distinguished, 31.
_Neither_, number of, 58, 89; distinguished from _no one_, 55-66.
_Neither_--_nor_, number of the verb
  with singular subjects joined by, 89.
_New, novel_, distinguished, 123.
Newspapers and good use, 7.
_Nobody_, number of, 58.
Nominative or objective, 43-50.
_No one, neither_, choice between,55-56.
_Nor, or_, choice between, 144.
Notional verbs, defined, 72.
Nouns, 16-42; form of the possessive case, 16-17; use and misuse of the
  possessive case, 17-18; singular and plural, 18-21; plural forms of
  foreign origin, 20; gender, 21; abbreviations, 22; misused, 22-42;
  gerunds and verbal nouns, 50-51.
_Novel, new_, distinguished, 123.
_Novice, novitiate_, distinguished, 31.
_Nowhere near_, 110.
Number, singular and plural, of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60;
  of verbs, 89-92; of adjectives, 110.
_Number_, distinguished from _quantity_ and _amount_, 29;
  from _lot_, 81.
_Number, quantity, amount_, distinguished, 29.
_Nun_, masculine corresponding to, 21.

_Oasis_, plural of, 21.
Objective case, 43-50.
_Observance, observation_, distinguished, 26.
Obsolete, defined, 4,
_Octavo_, plural of, 18.
_Odd, funny_, distinguished, 122.
_Of_ after verbal nouns, 51.
_Of which, whose_, choice between, 54.
Omitted articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adverbs, 117; prepositions, 140;
  conjunctions, 146.
_On, in_, before names of streets, distinguished, 135.
_On, for_, after _wait_, distinguished, 135.
_One_, possessive and reflexive of, 56-57.
_Only_, distinguished from _alone_, 116; position of, 132.
_Onto_, 135.
_Oppose, antagonize_, distinguished, 94.
_Or, nor_, use of, 144.
_Oral, verbal_, distinguished, 123.
_Ordinary, average_, distinguished, 122.
_Organism_, organization, distinguished, 31.
_Other_, with comparatives and superlatives, 129.
_Ought_, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Our, us_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Ourselves, we, us_, proper choice among, 43-46.

_Parenthesis_, plural of, 21.
_Part, portion_, distinguished, 31.
Participle, defined, 50.
_Partly, partially_, distinguished, 119.
Parts of verbs, principal, 61-62.
_Party, person_, distinguished, 23.
_Penny_, plurals of, 19.
Perfect indicative, 78; infinitive, 78-79.
Person, change from one to another in pronouns, 56-57.
_Person, party_, distinguished, 23.
_Persuade, advise_, distinguished, 100.
_Phenomenon_, plural of, 21.
_Piano_, plural of, 18.
_Pitiable, pitiful_, distinguished, 123.
_Plea, argument_, distinguished, 29.
_Plead_, principal parts of, 62.
_Plenty_, distinguished from _abundance_, 32;
  as adjective and adverb, 109-110.
Plural of nouns, 18-21; of pronouns, 58-60; of verbs, 89-92;
  of adjectives, 110.
_Plurality, majority_, distinguished, 31.
_Portion, part_, distinguished, 31.
Possessive case, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 43.
_Practicable, practical_, distinguished, 123.
_Predicate, predict_, distinguished, 100.
_Predominance, prominence_, distinguished, 32.
PREPOSITIONS, 134-141; misused, 134-139; omitted, 140; redundant, 140.
_Prescribe, proscribe_, distinguished, 100.
Present use, 3-4.
Principal parts of verbs, 61-62.
_Probably, likely, like_, distinguished, 109.
_Produce, product, production_, distinguished, 32.
_Prominence, predominance_, distinguished, 32.
_Prominent, eminent_, distinguished, 123.
PRONOUNS, 43--60; possessive case of, 43, 56; in "self," 44-45;
  before verbal nouns, 50-61; choice of relative, 53-55;
  omission of, 53-54; change of, 56-57; singular or plural, 58;
  omitted, 60; redundant, 60.
Proper nouns, plural of, 18; 19 note 3.
_Proposal, proposition_, distinguished, 26.
_Propose, purpose_, distinguished, 100.
_Proscribe, prescribe_, distinguished, 100.
_Prove_, principal parts of, 62.
Provincialisms, defined, 10.
_Proviso_, plural of, 18.
Punctuation of relative clauses, 53.
_Purpose, propose_, distinguished, 100.

_Quantity, number, amount_, distinguished, 29.
_Quarto_, plural of, 18.
_Quite, very_, distinguished, 119.

_Raise_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _rise_, 62.
_Ram_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Rang, rung_, distinguished, 62.
_Real, really, very_, distinguished, 124.
_Receipt, recipe_, distinguished, 32.
_Recourse, resource, resort_, distinguished, 32.
Redundant articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117;
  prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
_Refer_ to, _allude_ to, _mention_, distinguished, 99.
Reflexive pronouns, 45, 57.
_Relation, relationship_, distinguished, 26.
_Relative, relation_, distinguished, 32.
Relative pronouns, 53-54.
_Relieve, alleviate_, distinguished, 99.
_Remainder, rest, balance_, distinguished, 29.
_Repel, repulse_, distinguished, 100.
Reputable use, 6.
_Reputation, character_, distinguished, 30.
_Requirement, requisite, requisition_, distinguished, 32.
_Resort, resource, recourse_, distinguished, 32.
_Rest, remainder, balance_, distinguished, 29.
_Ride_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _drive_, 4, 99.
_Rise_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _raise_, 62;
  from _arise_, 92.
_Run_, principal parts of, 62.

_Same as, same that_, distinguished, 64.
_Sang, sung_, distinguished, 62.
_Sank, sunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Sat, set, sit_, 62.
_Scared, afraid_, distinguished, 124.
_Second, secondly_, distinguished, 110.
_Secreting, secretion_, distinguished, 32.
_Secure, insure_, distinguished, 100.
_See_, principal parts of, 62.
_Self_, pronouns in, 44-45, 57.
Sequence of tenses, 78.
_Seraph_, plural of, 21.
_Series, succession_, distinguished, 23.
_Set_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _sit_, 62.
_Sewage, sewerage_, distinguished, 32.
_Shake_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shall or will_, 72-77.
_She, her, herself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Shoe_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shot_, plurals of, 19.
_Should_ distinguished from _would_, 74, 77;
  in sense of ought, tense of the infinitive with, 78-79.
_Show_, principal parts of, 62.
_Shrank, shrunk_, distinguished, 62.
_Since, for, because_, distinguished, 143.
Singular and plural, nouns, 18-21; pronouns, 58-60;
  verbs, 89, 92; adjectives, 110.
_Sit_, principal parts of, 62; distinguished from _set_ and _sat_, 62.
_Situation, site_, distinguished, 32.
Slang, defined, 10.
_Slay_, principal parts of, 62.
_Slew, Slain_, distinguished, 62.
_Smaller, fewer Jess_, distinguished, 109.
_So_ or _as_, correlative to as, 119-120.
_So, therefore_, distinguished, 144.
Solecisms, defined, 10.
_Solicitude, solicitation_, distinguished, 26.
_Solo_, plural of, 18.
_Some, somewhat, something_, distinguished, 110.
_Speak_, principal parts of, 62.
_Speciality, specialty_, distinguished, 33.
_Splendid_, 124.
_Spoke, spoken_, distinguished, 62.
_Sprang, sprung_, distinguished, 62.
_Staff_, plurals of, 19.
_Staff_, feminine corresponding to, 21.
_Start, begin, commence_, distinguished, 100-101.
_State, declare, assert_, etc., distinguished, 94-95.
_Statement, assertion_, distinguished, 23.
_Stay, stop_, distinguished, 95,
_Steal_, principal parts of, 62.
_Stiletto_, plural of, 18.
_Stimulant, stimulation, stimulus_, distinguished, 26.
_Stole, stolen_, distinguished, 62.
_Stop, stay_, distinguished, 95.
_Stratum_, plural of, 21.
_Stupid, dumb_, distinguished, 122.
Subjunctive, 82-89; forms of, 83-84; uses of, 84-86;
  in conditional sentences, 85-86; in wishes, 86.
_Succession, scries_, distinguished, 23.
Suggestions to teachers, 151.
_Sultan_, feminine of, 21.
Superfluous articles, 13; pronouns, 60; adjectives and adverbs, 117-118;
  prepositions, 140; conjunctions, 146-147.
_Superlative_, use of the, 129-131.
_Support, champion_, distinguished, 94.
_Suspect, expect, anticipate_, distinguished, 101.
_Swam, swum_, distinguished, 62.
Symbols, plural of, 19.

_Tableau_, plural of, 21.
_Take_, principal parts of, 62.
_Teach, learn_, distinguished, 95.
Teachers, suggestions to, 151-152.
Tense, questions of, 78-82; in conditional sentences, 85; in wishes, 86.
_Testimony, verdict_, distinguished, 23.
_Than_, clause after, often omitted in part, 45 note 2.
_That_ distinguished from as after _same_, 54.
_That, those_, 110.
_That, who, which_, as relatives, 53-54.
_The_ or a, 12.
_The_ before verbal nouns, 51.
_Thee, thyself, thou_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Their, them_, before verbal nouns, 51.
_Them, themselves, they_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Therefore, so_, choice between, 144.
_These, this_, 110.
_Thesis_, plural of, 21.
_They, them, themselves_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_This, these_, 110.
_Those, that_, 110.
_Thou, thee, thyself_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Though_, 144; verbs in clauses introduced by, 86.
_Throw_, principal parts of, 62.
_Thyself, thee, thou_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Tiger_, feminine of, 21.
_Together with_, words joined to the subject by, 89.
_Torso_, plural of, 18.
_Transpire, happen_, distinguished, 96.
_Tyro_, plural of, 18.

_Unbeknown_, 110.
_Union, unity_, distinguished, 33.
_Unless_, verbs in clauses introduced by, 86;
  distinguished from _without_ and _except_, 142.
_Us_ or _our_ before verbal nouns, 51.
_Us, ourselves, we_, pro per choice among, 43-45.

USE 3-11; defined, 6; conversation and, 7; newspapers and, 7;
   no one book or writer decisive of, 7-8; relation of dictionaries to, 9.
Use, present, 3-4; national, 4-6; reputable, 6.

Verbal nouns, construction with, 50-51.
_Verbal, oral_, distinguished, 123.
VERBS, 61-108; principal parts often misused, 61-70; contractions, 71;
  _may or can_, 71; _will or shall_, 72-76;
  notional and auxiliary, defined, 72; _would_ or _should_, 74-77;
  questions of tense, 78-82; indicative or subjunctive, 82-89;
  singular or plural, 89-92; misused, 92-108.
_Verdict, testimony_, distinguished, 23.
_Very_, distinguished from _quite_, 119; from _real, really_, 124.
_Visitor, visitant_, 33.
_Vocation, avocation_, distinguished, 25-26.
Vulgarisms, defined, 10; in the use of adjectives and adverbs, 109-113;
  of conjunctions, 142-143.

_Wait for, wait on_, distinguished, 135.
_Wake_, principal parts of, 62.
_We, us, ourselves_, proper choice among, 43-45.
_Well, good_, distinguished, 109.
WENDELL, BARRETT, quoted, 7-8.
_Went, gone_, distinguished, 61.
_What_ as a relative pronoun, 54.
_When, while_, distinguished, 144.
_Which, who, that_ (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
_Who, whom_, choice between, 43-45.
_Who, which, that_ (relative), proper choice among, 53-55.
_Whoever, whomever_, choice between, 45.
_Whole, all_, distinguished, 23.
_Wholesome, healthy, healthful_, distinguished, 122-123.
_Whose, of which_, choice between, 54.
_Will_ or _shall_, 72-76.
Wishes, moods and tenses in, 86.
_Witch_, masculine corresponding to, 21.
_With_, words joined to the subject by, 89; distinguished from _by_, 134.
_Without, except, unless_, distinguished 142.
_Wizard_, feminine corresponding to 21.
_Would_ or _should_, 74-77.
_Write_, principal parts of, 62.


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