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Title: Orthography - As Outlined in the State Course of Study for Illinois
Author: Cavins, Elmer W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Orthography - As Outlined in the State Course of Study for Illinois" ***

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                          AS OUTLINED IN THE

                       SEVENTH AND EIGHTH YEARS.

                          BY ELMER W. CAVINS,


                    SECOND EDITION—JANUARY, 1906.

                      _PUBLISHED BY C. M. PARKER,
                        TAYLORVILLE, ILLINOIS._

                   Copyright, 1904, by C. M. Parker.


This book is prepared for teachers and pupils who use the Illinois
State Course of Study. The outline in Orthography for the Seventh and
Eighth Years is the basis of all that is included herein. Three fifths
or more of this work is word analysis which, valuable as it is,
teachers as a rule are unable to teach without the aid of a text,
never having learned much of it themselves. What, for example, can the
average teacher unaided do toward writing a list of words to be
analyzed which contain the root _ann_, meaning year? He might turn in
the dictionary to _annual_, _anniversary_, and _annuity_, but he must
fall back on his acquired knowledge for such as, _biennial_,
_centennial_, _millennium_, _perennial_, and _superannuate_. And
having the list, very many teachers, as well as pupils, need help in
the analysis.

The aim of this book has been to set down in an orderly and convenient
form such facts as are needed by those who follow the State Course of

Emphasis has been placed upon word analysis. The author believes that
this has more value in education than is generally attributed to it.
When Mr. Kennedy named his work on word analysis “What Words Say”, he
gave it the best possible title. Composite words have a wealth of
meaning; each syllable is significant. And, as a rule, only to those
who can read this significance does the word yield its full meaning.
Accuracy is the mark of a scholar. Accuracy in speech and in the
understanding of speech cannot be attained by those whose knowledge of
words is vague and general. Pupils should early learn how to interpret
_what words say_, and to discriminate carefully in the use of words,
for these are the tools which they are to use in all the various
departments for acquiring knowledge.

Normal, Ill., Aug. 30, 1904. E. W. CAVINS.


                        BY DR. EDWIN C. HEWETT.

I have long thought that the careful, discriminating study of words is
much neglected in our schools. And I am glad to approve, and help to
forward, anything that will promote such a study.

Not only will such a study improve a person's language greatly, but it
will, at the same time, do much to improve the clearness and precision
of his thinking; thought and language have a reciprocal effect.

If a child, while young, can be made to be interested in words
themselves,—their origin, their exact meaning, their relations to
each other and some of the changes in their meaning which result from
their use,—he will be likely to retain that interest through life; it
will be more likely to increase than to diminish.

It seems often to be assumed that a student can do nothing profitably
with the study of words made up from Greek and Latin roots till he has
acquired some mastery of those languages. But I know from experience
and much observation that this is not true. Why should it be? Must one
master Greek and Latin before he can understand that, in English
words, _graph_ means write; _ge_ means earth; _phone_ means sound;
_cur_ means run; _fin_ means limit; _port_ means carry, etc.?

And then having learned the meaning of the prefixes and suffixes, is
it preposterous to train him to know the etymological significance of
a few hundred words by showing him how they are built up?

Of course, we know that many words in common use have shades of
meaning quite different from, and in some cases almost opposite to,
their literal significance. But will not the student be better able to
understand these derived meanings by knowing their literal
significance than in any other way? At any rate, I am fully persuaded
that such a study of words as this book proposes can be made very
profitable to those pupils for whose use it is prepared.

The teacher will find, however, that the teaching of this subject will
require much careful labor on his part. The mere learning of the
meaning of prefixes and suffixes and of the roots themselves, with the
brief remarks on the meaning of some of the words, will need to be
supplemented by a careful mastery of it all on his part. And to this
must be added much thought of his own, together with careful research
in the great dictionaries. But to the earnest and intelligent teacher,
such thought and research will yield very rich fruit in his own
thinking, and in his use of English speech.

I cheerfully commend the book as a move in the right direction; and as
adapted, in my opinion, to do much to supply a serious lack in the
present work of the schools.

Normal, Ill., Aug. 18, 1904. E. C. H.

                       SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

1. From the lists given in this book omit such words as in your
opinion are beyond the vocabulary of your pupils.

2. All words given for the first month's work are either defined or
illustrated below the lists. This is done to help make clear the
method of showing their _literal_ significance. Further along in each
year's work only the most difficult words are explained. Insist that
pupils in every case where it is possible define or illustrate so as
to show the _literal_ meaning, else much of the value of the study is

And, moreover, the ordinary, or current meaning, _where it differs
from the literal_, should be given. Very many of the words have
various uses. Thorough work requires that these be illustrated. This
necessitates a free use of the dictionary.

It is strongly urged that the pupils (with the aid of the teacher when
necessary) try to find _an appropriate sentence to illustrate each
word_ and write the same in an orderly way in a note book for the

In work of this kind a teacher should not underrate the value of
reviews. By this means fix facts on the minds of your pupils,
especially the meanings of roots and prefixes. Since these meanings
are given in a single word, reviews may proceed rapidly.

One convenient method of recitation in this subject is to send pupils
to the blackboard without their books, assign them by turns words to
be analyzed according to the examples given under “Directions to
Pupils”, and then let each pupil read to the class what he has written
on the board.

                         DIRECTIONS TO PUPILS.

Given in the seventh and eighth years' work of the State Course of
Study are 45 prefixes, 64 roots, and 33 suffixes,—in all 142 elements
or component parts of words. In this book a list of words is furnished
to illustrate each element, the average number of words in each list
being about eleven, and the total number of different words analyzed,
or partially analyzed, is over 1200.

                          TO ANALYZE A WORD.

1. Name its component parts—root, prefix, and suffix—and give the
literal meaning of each.

2. Combine these meanings in a definition, _supplying additional words
if necessary_, to make the sense complete. In exceptional cases,
however, the exact literal meanings of the parts cannot be put
together in a good definition. One or more of the parts must then be
omitted entirely, or represented by words which are not exactly

3. Give an illustration of the use of the word.

(Caution: Carefully distinguish verbs, adjectives and nouns. Do not
define adjectives as nouns or verbs, or vice versa. Do not, for
illustration, say _audible_ is _that which_ can be _heard_; but rather
say _audible_ means _capable of_ being _heard_.)


avert: (1) _a_, away + _vert_, turn.
       (2) To _turn away_; to ward off.
       (3) The evils which exist are necessary to _avert_ greater evils.

deify: (1) _dei_, god + _fy_, to make.
       (2) To _make_ a _god_ of; to praise and revere as if a deity.
       (3) The people of India _deify_ the Ganges River.

hostile: (1)_host_, enemy + _ile_, belonging to.
         (2) _Belonging to_ or having the characteristics of an _enemy_.
         (3) Yon tower which rears its head so high invites the
             _hostile_ winds.

portable: (1) _port_, carry + _able_, capable of.
          (2) _capable of_ being _carried_ or moved from place to place;
              not stationary.
          (3) A _portable_ photograph gallery stopped for three
              days at the cross-roads near my home.

benefactor: (1) _bene_, good + _fact_, make, do + _or_, one who.
            (2) _One who does good_; especially one who makes a
                charitable donation.
            (3) “He is a true _benefactor_ and alone worthy of honor who
                brings comfort where before was wretchedness, who dries
                the tear of sorrow.”

A careful study of the five examples given above will reveal that to
analyze words a pupil must—

1. Learn some _facts_—meanings of the component parts of words.

2. Be careful in putting these facts together to make a sensible

3. Use the dictionary to find the ordinary, or current, use of a word.

4. Gather illustrations. This is not easy, but it should not be
neglected, for it is the most practical feature of word analysis.
Pupils should help each other, and the teacher may contribute when his
help is needed. One good illustration for a difficult word might
suffice the entire class.

                               PART ONE

                            Word Analysis.

                             SEVENTH YEAR.

                             FIRST MONTH.

#a, ab, abs# = from, away.

1. a _vert_, turn
2. ab _brevi_ ate, short
3. ab _duct_, lead
4. ab _ject_, cast
5. ab _lut_ ion, wash
6. ab _origin_ es, beginning
7. ab _rupt_, break
8. ab _sorb_, suck in
9. ab _solve_, loosen
10. ab _use_, use.

2. To _shorten_, to take _from_; to make briefer.

3. To _lead away_; to carry off by force; to kidnap.

4. An _abject_ person is one sunk to low condition (as if _cast from_
the society of others).

5. An _ablution_ is a _washing_ or _cleansing_; especially a religious

6. The inhabitants of a country _from_ the _beginning_. The earliest
inhabitants of which anything is known.

7. _Broken_ or appearing as if broken _away_ or off; as an _abrupt_

8. To _suck_ up; to drink in. A brick will _absorb_ a pint of water.

9. To _loosen_ or set free, as _from_ some duty or obligation

10. To divert _from_ the proper _use_; to misuse.

#ambi, (amphi)# = both, on both sides, around.

1. ambi _dextr_ ous, right hand
2. ambi _ti_ on, go
3. amphi _bi_ ous, life
4. amphi _theatre_, view.

1. _Having_ skill with _both_ hands (as if both were _right hands_).

2. A _going around_ or about, as of a candidate soliciting votes;
eager for favors; strongly desirous.

3. _Living both_ on land and in water. Frogs, turtles, crocodiles,
seals, otters, and beavers are _amphibious_.

4. An _amphitheatre_ is a building built circular so that spectators
may _view_ a performance from _both sides_ or from all _around_.

#bene# = well, good.

1. bene _dict_ ion, speak
2. bene _fact_ ion, do
3. bene fact _or_, one who
4. bene _fic_ ent, do
5. bene fic _ial_, pertaining to
6. bene _fit_, do
7. bene _vol_ ent, will
8. beni _gn_, (genus) kind
9. beni gn _ant_, being
10. _nota_ bene, note

1. The _act of speaking well_ to or of; a blessing pronounced at the
close of divine service.

2. The _act of doing_ good; making a charitable donation.

4. _Doing_ or effecting _good_; performing acts of kindness.

5. _Pertaining to_ what _does good_, is useful or profitable.

6. A _good_ deed _done_; an act of kindness.

7. _Willing_ to _do good_; well-wishing; charitable.

8. _Good_ and _kind_ of heart; expressive of gentleness or kindness.
Literally, of a _good kind_.

9. _Being kind_ and gracious.

10. _Note well_; observe carefully; take notice. Usually abbreviated
to N. B.

#circum# = around.

1. circum _fer_ ence, carry
2. circum _flex_, bend
3. circum _locut_ ion, speak
4. circum _navig_ ate, sail
5. circum _scribe_, write, draw
6. circum _spect_, look
7. circum _sta_ nce, stand
8. circum _vent_, come.

1. Think the _circumference_ in the process of making; _carry_ the
crayon _around_ the circle to produce the _circumference_.

2. A _bending around_; a wave or bend of the voice embracing both a
rise and a fall on the same syllable.

3. The _act of speaking_ in a _round_ about way; particularly a
studied indirectness or evasiveness of speech.

4. The _act of sailing around_; especially the earth or globe.

5. To _draw_ a bounding line _round_; hence to mark out the limits of.

6. _Looking around_ on all sides; examining carefully.

7. That which attends or relates to (_stands around_, as it were,) an
event, a person or a thing.

8. To _circumvent_ one in any enterprise is to _come around_ in an
unexpected way for the purpose of gaining an advantage.

#contra, (contro, counter)# = against

1. contra _dict_, speak
2. contra _vene_, come
3. contra _st_, stand
4. counter _act_, do
5. counter _balance_, scales
6. contro _versy_, turn

1. To _speak against_; to assert the opposite of.

2. To _come against_; to oppose.

3. To _stand against_; to set in opposition to, as two or more objects
of a like kind with a view to showing their difference.

4. To act _against_; to _do_ what hinders.

5. To _weigh against_ with equal weight; equal weight, power or
influence acting in opposition to.

6. A _turning against_; debate, contention.

#ann# = year.

1. annu _al_, relating to
2. anni _vers_ ary, turn
3. annu _ity_, that which
4. _bi_ ennial, two
5. _cent_ ennial, hundred
6. _mille_ nnium, thousand
7. _per_ ennial, through
8. _super_ annuate, beyond

1. _Relating to_ a _year_; yearly.

2. _That_ day _which returns_ once a _year_ commemorating some event.

3. A stated sum of money payable _yearly_.

4. Happening once in _two years_; lasting two years.

5. Consisting of or lasting a _hundred years_. Happening every hundred

6. A period or interval of a _thousand years_.

7. _Throughout_ the _year_; lasting, perpetual.

8. Condition of being _beyond_ the _years_ of active service; impaired
or disabled by length of years.

#art# = skill.

1. art _ist_, one who
2. arti _fic_ ial, make
3. artist _ic_, relating to
4. art _less_, without

1. _One who_ is _skilled_ or adept in any of the fine arts.

2. Produced or _made_ by _art_ or _skill_ rather than by nature.

3. _Relating_ to _skill_ in any field.

4. _Without skill_; especially without skill in fraud or deceit.

#aster, (astr)# = star.

1. aster _isk_, little
2. aster _oid_, form
3. astr _olog_ er, speak.
4. astr _onomy_, distribute
5. _dis_ aster, apart

1. Literally, a _little star_; a mark like a star used to refer to a
note in the margin.

2. _Formed_ like a _star_.

3. _One who speaks_ about the _stars_; one who foretells events by the
stars, or interprets the supposed influence of the stars.

4. The science which treats of the _distribution_, arrangement and
size of heavenly bodies (_stars_).

5. An unfavorable aspect of a _star_ or planet, hence an ill portent,
a calamity.

#aud# = hear.

1. aud _ible_, capable of
2. audit _ory_, pertaining to
3. audit _ors_, those who
4. _in_ audible, not

1. _Capable of_ being _heard_.

2. _Pertaining to_ the _hearing_, or the sense of hearing.

3. _Those who hear_; people who assemble for the purpose of hearing
music or discourse.

4. _Not capable_ of being _heard_; indistinct.

                             SECOND MONTH.

#dis (dif)# = apart, from, away.

1. dis _burse_, purse
2. dis _cord_, heart
3. dis _cuss_, shake
4. dif _fer_, bear
5. dif _fuse_, pour
6. dis _loc_ ate, place
7. dis _miss_, send
8. dis _pel_, drive
9. dis _pose_, put
10. dis _rupt_, break
11. dis _sect_, cut
12. dis _tend_, stretch

1. To _disburse_ money is to pay it out (_from_ one's _purse_).

2. (Literally, _hearts apart_.) Want of harmony; not agreeing in
opinion, or in action.

3. The _discussion_ of a question _shakes_ it _apart_, for a more
thorough examination.

4. When two minds _differ_, one _bears_ in one direction, the other in
another, and thus they _bear apart_. They do not agree.

5. To _pour_ out and cause to spread _apart_, as a fluid; to
circulate; to scatter.

6. To _place apart_ or out of proper position.

7. To _dismiss_ a congregation is to _send_ the people (or allow them
to go) _apart_ to their homes.

8. To _dispel_ fear is to _drive_ it _away_.

9. To _dispose_ of property is to part with it (_put_ it _apart_ from

10. Rocks are _disrupted_ when _broken apart_.

11. To _dissect_ the eye of an ox is to _cut_ it _apart_, for the
purpose of examination.

12. To _distend_ is to _stretch apart_ or spread in all directions; to
dilate, to expand.

#extra# = beyond.

1. Extra _ordin_ ary, order, rule (_ary_, relating to). _Relating to_
what is _beyond_ or out of the common _rule_ or _order_; exceptional,

2. Extra _vag_ ant, _wander_ (_ant_, ing). _Wandering beyond_ bounds
or out of the regular course; excessive.

#inter# = between, among, through.

1. inter _cede_, go
2. inter _cept_, take
3. inter _course_, run
4. inter _ject_ ion, throw
5. inter _lop_ er, run
6. inter _mingle_, mix
7. inter _pose_, place
8. inter _rogate_, ask
9. inter _sect_, cut
10. inter _val_, wall
11. inter _vene_, come
12. inter _view_, see

1. To _go between_ parties for the purpose of reconciling those who
differ; to plead in favor of another.

2. To seize or _take between_ the starting point and destination; as
to _intercept_ a letter or messenger.

3. Frequent or habitual meeting or contact of one person with another
(a _running between_, to and fro).

4. An _interjection_ is a word _thrown_ in _between_ other words to
express emotion or feeling.

5. An _interloper_ is _one who runs_ in _between_ two parties to get
the advantage which one would obtain from the other. One who
intercepts and buys a basket of eggs between a farmer's wagon and a
grocery store would, from the standpoint of the merchant, be an

6. To _mix between_ or together.

7. To protect the eyes from a strong light _interpose_ (_place
between_ the eyes and light) a shade.

8. To _interrogate_ is to question. (The _questions_ come _between_
the answers.)

9. One line _intersects_ another when it _cuts_ through it, or
_between_ its parts.

10. An _interval_ is an open space or stretch between things or
limits. Formerly it meant a space _between walls_.

11. To _come between_ persons, things, or events.

12. A mutual exchange of _views between_ two or more people.

#non# = not, un.

The prefix _non-_ may be joined to the leading word by means of a
hyphen, or, in most cases, the hyphen may be dispensed with.

1. noncommittal
2. non compos mentis
3. nonconductor
4. nondescript
5. nonentity
6. nonessential
7. nonpareil
8. non-payment
9. nonplus
10. non-resident
11. nonsense
12. nonsuit

2. _Com_, with + _pos_, power + _mentis_, of mind. Literally, _not
with power of mind_. Not of sound mind; not capable, mentally, of
managing one's own affairs.

4. That which has _not_ been _described_; difficult to describe; new,
novel, odd.

5. _Entity_ means thing or being; hence a _nonentity_ is _no thing_ or
nothing. Often applied to a person or thing which counts for little or

9. _Plus_ means more. Literally, a person is _nonplused_ when he can
do _no more_, or go no further; puzzled, confounded, embarrassed.

(It seems unnecessary to append definitions or illustrations to other
words of the above list.)

#per# = through, thoroughly, by.

1. per _ambul_ ate, walk
2. per _ceive_, take
3. per _cent_, hundred
4. per _col_ ate, filter
5. per _enni_ al, year
6. per _fect_, make
7. per _for_ ate, bore
8. per _form_, form
9. per _fume_, smoke
10. per _mit_, let go
11. per _plex_, entangle
12. per _secute_, follow
13. per _sist_, stand
14. per _vade_, go
15. per _vert_, turn
16. per _vi_ ous, way

1. To _walk through_ or over. He got out of bed and _perambulated_ the
room for some minutes.

2. To _take_ or obtain knowledge _through_ the senses. To _take_ with
a _thorough_ mental grasp; to understand.

3. _By_ the _hundred_.

4. To pass _through_; as, a _filter_ or strainer.

5. Lasting _through_ the _year_, or through many years.

6. _Thoroughly made_; finished in every part; without blemish or

7. To _bore through_; to make holes in; to pierce.

8. To _form thoroughly_; to execute, accomplish, or carry out.

9. “To _perfume_ means literally to _smoke thoroughly_. Hence to
impregnate or fill with scent or odor.”—_Kennedy._

10. By this _permit_ we may _go through_ the factory.

11. To _entangle thoroughly_. “Love with doubts _perplexes_ still the

12. To _follow_ with persistence or _thoroughness_. To follow close
after; specifically to afflict or harass on account of adherence to a
particular creed. The early Christians suffered _persecution_.

13. To take a _thorough stand_; to continue steadily in some state or
course of action; especially in spite of opposition.

14. To _go through_; to spread throughout the whole.

15. To turn in another direction; to _turn thoroughly_ from a former
course. “Blessings unused _pervert_ into a waste.”

16. _Having_ a _way through_. “---- to have their way free and
_pervious_ to all places.”

#clud, clus# = shut.

1. close
2. clos _et_, little
3. _con_ clude, together
4. _dis_ close, un
5. _en_ close, in
6. _ex_ elude, out
7. exclus _ion_, act of
8. _in_ clude, within
9. _pre_ clude, before
10. _re_ cluse, back
11. _se_ clude, aside
12. se clus _ion_, state of being

1. To _shut_.

2. A _small_ side room in which, clothing and other articles are kept
_shut_ away from view.

3. To bring to an end. Literally to _shut_ in or _together_
(obsolete); as, “The body of Christ was _concluded_ in the grave.”

4. To _un-shut_; to open or uncover; to make known.

9. To put an obstacle _before_, or in the way of, in order to _shut_
out; to prevent or hinder.

10. One who is _shut_ up (or has _shut_ himself _back_) from the world
or public view.

11. To _shut_ off or keep apart or _aside_, as from company or

#cor, cord# = heart.

1. core
2. cordi_al_, relating to
3. _con_ cord, with
4. cord _ate_, shaped
5. _dis_ cord, apart
6. discord _ant_, being
7. _re_ cord, again
8. cour _age_, having

1. The _heart_ or innermost part of a thing; as the _core_ of an

2. _Relating to_ the _heart_; hearty, sincere.

3. Heart _with heart_; hence unity of sentiment or harmony. “Love
quarrels oft in _concord_ end.”

4. _Heart shaped_; as a _cordate_ leaf.

5. Heart _apart_ from _heart_; hence disagreement or want of harmony.

6. State of _being_ out of harmony.

7. _Record_; through the Latin _recordari_, to remember (or know
_again_). To get by _heart_; hence to register; to write or inscribe
an authentic account of.

8. _Having heart_; hence bravery, calmness, firmness. (The heart is
accounted the seat of bravery; hence the derivative sense of courage.)

#corpus, corpor# = body.

1. corpse
2. corps (pronounce core)
3. corpor _al_, relating to
4. corpu _lent_, full of
5. incorpor _ate_, make
6. corpus _cle_, small
7. corset
8. _habeas_ corpus. You may have

1. The _body_ only; hence a dead body.

2. A _body_ of soldiers.

3. _Relating to_ the _body_; as _corporal_ punishment.

4. A _corpulent_ person is fleshy; literally _full of body_.

5. To _make into_ a _body_ in the legal sense, so that a number of
individuals may transact business legally as one person.

6. A _small body_; a minute particle.

7. In the middle ages, a close-fitting _body_ garment, having sleeves
and skirt.

8. Literally, _you may have the body_. A writ requiring the body of a
person restrained of liberty to be brought into court that the
lawfulness of the restraint may be investigated.

#cura, curo# = care.

1. cure
2. cur_able_, capable of
3. cur_ate_, one who
4. curi _ous_, full of
5. _mani_ cure, hand
6. _ac_ cur ate, to
7. _pro_ cure, for
8. _se_ cure, aside

1. To take _care_ of; to restore to health.

2. _Capable of_ being cured or restored by _care_.

3. _One who_ has the _care_ of souls; a parish priest.

4. Formerly, _curious_ meant _full of care_, or careful, nice,
precise; as, “Men were not _curious_ what syllables or particles they
used.” Eager to learn; inquisitive.

5. To _care_ for the _hands_ and nails.

6. A thing is made _accurate_ by giving _care to_ it.

7. Literally, to _care for_; to look after; as, “I _procured_ that
rumor to be spread.” To obtain; to get.

8. _Aside_, or free, from _care_, anxiety, or fear; safe.

                             THIRD MONTH.

#pre# = before.

1. pre _amble_, walk
2. pre _cede_, go
3. pre ced _ent_, that which
4. pre _cip_ ice, head
5. pre _clude_, shut
6. pre _coc_ ious, cook, ripe
7. pre _curs_ or, run
8. pre _destinate_, to determine
9. pre _dict_, speak
10. pre _face_, say
11. pre _fer_, bring
12. pre _fix_, fasten
13. pre _judice_, judgment
14. pre _limin_ ary, threshold
15. pre _mature_, ripe
16. pre _monit_ ion, warning
17. pre _pare_, make ready
18. pre _posit_ ion, place
19. pre _poster_ ous, after
20. pre _scribe_, write

1. The introductory part of a discourse. Formerly _preamble_ meant, to
_walk_ over _before_hand; as, “I will take a thorough view of those
who have _preambled_ this by path.”

3. _That which_ has _gone before_. A previous example or usage which
has, in some measure at least, become established; as, a custom,
habit, or rule.

4. A _head_long fall; an abrupt descent. Literally, _head_ _fore_most.

5. See second month, page 16.

6. _Ripe_ in understanding at an early age or _before_ due time; as, a
_precocious_ child.

7. A _precursor_ is a _forerunner_. That which precedes an event and
indicates its approach.

8. To _determine_ _before_hand by an unchangeable purpose or decree.
“Whom He did foreknow He also did _predestinate_ to be conformed to
the image of His Son.”

11. To _prefer_ one thing to another is to _bring_ or set it before
the other in estimation. To hold in greater liking or esteem.

13. A _prejudgment_ formed without due examination. “_Prejudice_ is
the child of ignorance.”

14. Literally, _before_ the _threshold_. Preceding or leading up to
something more important; as _preliminary_ arrangements.

18. A _preposition_ is so called because usually _placed before_ the
word with which it is phrased.

19. Anything is _preposterous_ when it is contrary to nature, reason,
or common sense. Literally, having that _last_ which ought to be
_first_; as, the “cart before the horse”.

20. To lay down _before_hand in _writing_ as a rule of action.
“_Prescribe_ not us our duties.”

#re# = back, again.

1. re _bound_, leap
2. re _cede_, go
3. re _claim_, call
4. re _cluse_, shut
5. re _cogn_ ize, know
6. re con _struct_, build
7. re _course_, run
8. re _create_, make
9. re _cruit_, grow
10. re _cur_, run
11. re _flect_, bend
12. re _fresh_, new
13. re _hash_, chop
14. re im _burse_, purse
15. re _ject_, throw
16. re _juven_ ate, young
17. re _lapse_, slip
18. re _late_, carry
19. re _lease_, loose
20. re _mit_, send
21. re _morse_, bite
22. re _nov_ ate, new
23. re _pel_, drive
24. re _plen_ ish, full
25. re _pulse_, drive
26. re _sult_, leap
27. re _sume_, take (up)
28. re _surrect_ ion, rise
29. re _tain_, hold
30. re _tract_, draw

Use each of the above words in a sentence and illustrate its meaning,
thus: A ball thrown against a brick wall will _rebound_ (_leap back_).

#semi# = half.

1. semicircle
2. semicolon
3. semidiameter
4. semilunar
5. semivowel
6. semiweekly

#super# = over, above, beyond.

1. super _annu_ ate, year
2. super _cili_ ous, pride
3. super _fic_ ial, face
4. super _flu_ ous, flow
5. super _natur_ al, nature
6. super _numer_ ary, number
7. super _pose_, put
8. super _script_ ion, write
9. super _struct_ ure, build.
10. super _vise_, see

1. A _superannuate_ is one who has become impaired or disabled by
length of years. Specifically, one living _beyond_ the _years_ of
active service and allowed to retire on a pension.

2. Lofty with _pride_; _over_bearing. “A _supercilious_ nabob of the
east, haughty and purse-proud.”

3. Literally, not extending below (i. e. in depth _beyond_) the
sur_face_; shallow. “She despised _superficiality_, and looked deeper
than the color of things.”

4. _Overflowing_; more than is needed; as, a composition abounding
with _superfluous_ words.

5. Being _beyond_ or exceeding the powers of _nature_. Miracles were
performed by _supernatural_ power.

6. _Beyond_ a stated or required _number_; as, a _supernumerary_
officer in a regiment.

7. To _put over_ or upon; as to _superpose_ one rock upon another.

8. A _superscription_ is a _writing over_ or _upon_; especially an
address on a letter.

9. A _superstructure_ is something _built over_ something else;
particularly an edifice in relation to its foundation.

10. To _oversee_; as, to _supervise_ the erection of a house.

#tri# = three.

1. tri _angle_, angle
2. tri _cuspid_, point
3. tri _cycle_, circle
4. tri _dent_, tooth
5. tri _enni_ al, year
6. tri _gam_ ist, marriage.
7. tri gon _ometry_, measure
8. tri _later_ al, side
9. tri _nomi_ al, term
10. trio
11. tri _pod_, foot
12. tri _sect_, cut
13. tri _syllable_, syllable
14. trium _vir_, man
15. tri _une_, one
16. tri _via_ l, way

2. A _tricuspid_ tooth has _three points_.

4. A _three-toothed_ or three-pronged spear. Specifically, a fishing

    “His nature is too noble for the world;
     He would not flatter Neptune for his _trident_,
     Or Jove for his power to thunder.”

6. A _trigamist_ is one who has been _three_ times _married_;
especially one who has three wives or three husbands at the same time.

7. _Trigonometry_ literally means _three angle measure_. That branch
of mathematics which treats of the relations of sides and angles of
triangles, and applies them to other figures.

9. A _trinomial_ in algebra is a quantity consisting of _three terms_.

10. A _trio_ is a musical composition in _three_ parts.

11. A _tripod_ has _three feet_ or legs; as a three-legged table or
stool, a three-footed kettle or vase.

14. A _triumvir_ is one of _three men_ united in office; specifically
in ancient Rome.

15. The _triune_ is _three_ in _one_; the three-fold personality of
one divine being,—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

16. _Trivial_ formerly meant, pertaining to _three ways_; where three
ways or roads cross; of the cross roads; hence, common, commonplace,
such as may be picked up anywhere; ordinary; trifling; of little

#due# = lead, draw.

1. _ab_ duct, away
2 _ad_ duce, to
3. _aque_ duct, water
4. _con_ duct, with
5. _de_ duct, from
6. duct _ile_, capable of
7. duke, a leader
8. _e_ duc ate, out
9. _in_ duce, into
10. in duce _ment_, that which
11. _intro_ duce, into
12. _pro_ duce, forth
13. _se_ duce, aside
14. _re_ duce, back

1. To _lead_ or carry _away_ wrongfully and usually by force; to
kidnap; as, to _abduct_ a child.

2. To _lead_ or bring _to_; to bring forward or offer as an argument
in a case. “I too prize facts and shall _adduce_ nothing else.”

3. An _aqueduct_ is a _lead_way or artificial channel for conveying

4. A guide _conducts_ a traveler when he goes _with_ him and, in a
sense, _leads_ him along a safe route.

5. To _deduct_ is to take _from_; to _draw_ away.

6. A _ductile_ metal is one _capable of_ being _drawn_ into wire; as,
copper, platinum, steel, etc.

8. To develop mentally and morally by instruction. _Educate_ literally
means to _lead_ forth, to _draw out_.

11. An _introduction_ is the initial step which _leads_ people _into_
one another's acquaintance.

14. (1) To _lead_ or bring _back_ to a former state; as,

    “It were but right
    And equal to _reduce_ me to my dust.”

(2) To bring to any specific state or form.

#fac, fact# = do, make.

(fec, fic, fy, fea, fash are variations.)

1. fact
2. fact _ory_, place where
3. facil _ity_, quality of
4. _bene_ fact or, good
5. _manu_ fact ure, hand
6. _ef_ fect, (ex.) out
7. _per_ fect, thoroughly
8. _im_ perfect, not
9. _arti_ ficial, skill
10. _bene_ ficial, good
11. _sacri_ fice, sacred
12. _paci_ fic, peace
13. feat
14. _de_ feat, un
15. feas _ible_, capable of
16. fashion.

1. A _fact_ is something _done_ or brought to pass.

3. _Quality_ of being easily _done_.

5. _Manufacture_ formerly meant to _make_ by _hand_.

6. An _effect_ is something worked _out_, or _done_.

7. A thing is _perfect_ when _thoroughly made_, or _finished_.

11. _Sacrifice_ literally means to _make sacred_; to set apart as

12. _Pacific_ means pertaining to _peace_; suited to _make_ or restore

13. A _feat_ is an act, a deed, an exploit; something _done_.

14. To _defeat_ means to overcome or vanquish. Literally to _un do_.

16. The _fashion_ of a thing is, in a sense, the _make_ of it.

NOTE.—_fy_, meaning to make, is found as a suffix in derivatives too
numerous to mention; as, purify (to _make pure_), rarefy (to _make
rare_), classify (to _make_ or put into a _class_), etc.

#fer, ferr# = carry, bear, bring.

1. _circum_ fer ence, around
2. _con_ fer, together
3. _dif_ fer, apart
4. fert _ile_, capable of
5. _of_ fer, (ob) near.
6. _pro_ (f)fer, forth
7. _re_ fer, back
8. re fer _ee_, one who
9. _suf_ fer, (sub) under
10. _trans_ fer, across

1. See first month, page 10.

2. When two or more persons _confer_ they _bring together_ opinions
and facts on some special subject.

3. See second month, page 13.

5. To _bring near_ to; to present for acceptance; as, to _offer_ one's

6. To _bring_ or put _forward_; to hold _forth_ so that a person may
take; as, to _proffer_ a gift.

7. To direct for information. Literally, to _carry back_; as, “Mahomet
_referred_ his new laws to the angel Gabriel, by whose direction he
gave out they were made.”

9. To _suffer_ is to _bear under_; to undergo.

NOTE.—_Ferr_ is an irregular Latin verb the principal parts of which
are: _fero_, _ferre_, _tuli_, _latus_. The last form is found in a
number of English words; as, dilate, elate, legislate, relate,
superlative, translate. The meaning of the root in these words, as in
the ten given above, is _bear_, _carry_, or _bring_.

#fest# = feast.

1. fest _al_. _Pertaining to_ a _feast_, a holiday or celebration.

2. fest _ive_. _Pertaining to_ or becoming a _feast_; festal, joyous,

3. festival. A time of _feasting_ or celebration.

4. festivity. Joyousness, gayety, such as becomes a _feast_.

5. festoon. Originally an ornament for decoration at a _feast_.

6. fête. Modern French, equivalent of _feast_.

                             FOURTH MONTH.

#uni# = one.

1. unit, one
2. un _ity_, ness
3. un _ion_, state of being
4. unite
5. _dis_ unite, not
6. _re_ unite, again
7. un _anim_ ous, mind
8. unanim _ity_, state of being
9. uni _corn_, horn
10. uni _form_, form
11. uni _son_, sound
12. uni _verse_, turn
13. unique
14. onion

9. The _unicorn_ is a fabulous _one-horned_ animal.

12. The _universe_ consists of all things considered as _one_ whole.

13. A thing is _unique_ when it is the only _one_ of its kind.

14. _Onion_ comes from the Latin _unio_, which means _oneness_; also a
single pearl of large size resembling the onion.

#anti# = against, opposed to.

1. anti _climax_, ladder
2. anti _christ_, Christ
3. anti _dote_, give
4. anti _path_ y, feel
5. anti _pod_ es, foot
6. anti _thesis_, place
7. anti _slave_ ry, slave
8. anti _soci_ al, companion

1. An _anti climax_ is _opposed to_ or in contrast with a _climax_. In
rhetoric it is a figure or fault of style consisting of an abrupt
descent (down the _ladder_) from stronger to weaker expressions.

3. An _antidote_ is something _given_ to counteract (act _against_)
poison or disease.

5. Those who live at _opposite_ points on the globe so that their
_feet_ are directly toward each other are _antipodes_. Figuratively,
things opposed to each other.

6. In rhetoric an _antithesis_ is a figure of speech which consists of
one idea _placed against_ another; a contrast.

8. A person is _antisocial_ when he is averse or _opposed to_ society,
social intercourse or _companionship_.

#dia# = across, through, between.

1. dia_gon_ al, angle
2. dia _gram_, writing
3. dia _lect_, speech
4. dia _log_, speech
5. dia _meter_, measure
6. dia _pason_, all
7. dia _phragm_, fence

1. A _diagonal_ is a line _across_ from _angle_ to _angle_.

2. A _diagram_ is that which is marked out by lines drawn or _written_
across; as, a figure, a plan.

3. _Dialect_ is _speech_ or language by means of which ideas are
communicated (_across_) from one to another.

6. The _diapason_ is one of certain stops in the organ, so called
because it extends _through all_ notes of the scale.

7. The _diaphragm_ is a membranous partition or _fence between_ the
thorax and abdomen.

#en# = on.

1. en _dorse_, back
2. en _grave_, carve
3. en _throne_, throne
4. en _list_, list

1. To _endorse_ a check is to write one's name _on_ the _back_ of it.

NOTE.—_en_ in most words is the equivalent of the Latin _in_, meaning
in, into, within; as in encage, encase, encircle, enclose, encourage,
enrage, enroll, entangle, entice, entomb, entrap, entwine, envelop,

#foli# = leaf.

1. foliage. A cluster of _leaves_.
2. folio. A _leaf_-sheet folded once.
3. foil. A thin _leaf_ of metal.
4. _tre_foil. A plant with _three leaves_; as, clover.
5. _port_-folio. A case for _carrying_ loose _leaves_ of paper.

#fort, forc# = strong.

1. fort
2. forti _fy_, make
3. fortr _ess_
4. _ef_ fort, (ex.) out
5. forti _tude_, quality of
6. force
7. forc _ible_, capable of
8. _en_ force, on
9. _com_ fort, with
10. _piano_ forte, soft

1. A _fort_ is a _strong_hold.

2. To _make strong_; to strengthen or secure by means of forts,
batteries, or other military works.

3. _Ess_ is a feminine ending. A “maiden fortress” is a fortification
which has never been taken. A _fortress_ is a very strong fort.

4. An _effort_ is a putting _out_ of one's _strength_ for the
accomplishment of some end.

5. _Fortitude_ is _strength_ or firmness of mind in meeting danger,
pain, or adversity.

6. _Force_ is _strength_ in general, physical, mental, moral.

9. To _comfort_ is to _strengthen_ with hope and cheer; to give
consolation to.

10. The _piano forte_ is an instrument having both _soft_ and loud
(_strong_) tones. The name is generally shortened to _piano_.

#fract, frang# = break.

1. frail
2. frail _ty_, quality
3. fract _ure_, that which
4. fract _ion_, that which
5. fract _ious_, quality of
6. frag _ile_, capable of
7. frag _ment_, that which
8. _in_ fringe, in

1. A thing is _frail_ when it is easily _broken_.

2. _Frailty_ is a _quality_ of things easily _broken_.

3. A _fracture_ is a _break_; as of a bone.

4. A _fraction_ is a part, as if _broken_ off.

5. A _fractious_ person is one apt to _break_ out into a passion.

6. “The stalk of ivy is tough and not _fragile_” (_capable of_ being

7. A _fragment_ is _that which_ is _broken_ off.

8. To _infringe_ is to _break in_ upon; to trespass on another's

#frater, fratr# = brother.

1. fratern _al_, pertaining to
2. fratern _ity_, that which
3. fratern _ize_, make
4. frater
5. friar
6. friary

1. _Fraternal_ means _brotherly_; like brothers.

2. An organization in _which_ the members hold one another in
_brotherly_ relations.

3. To _fraternize_ means to _make_ a _brother_ of; to receive into a

4. _Frater._ A _brother_; especially a monk.

5. _Friar._ A _brother_ of any religious order, but especially one of
certain monastic orders of the Roman Catholic church.

6. _Friary._ A home for friars (_brothers_); a monastery.

                             FIFTH MONTH.

#mono# = one, single, alone, solitary.

1. mon _arch_, rule
2. mono _gam_ ist, marriage
3. mono _gram_, write
4. mono _logue_, speak
5. mono _mania_, mind
6. mo _nomi_ al, term
7. mono _poly_, sell
8. mono _syllable_, syllable
9. mono _the_ ism, God
10. mono _tone_, tone, sound

1. A _monarch_ is a _sole_ or supreme _ruler_.

2. A _monogamist_ is _one who_ believes in _marriage_ with _one_
person only.

3. A _monogram_ is a single character formed of two or more letters
interwoven (as if done at _one writing_).

4. A _speak_ing by _one_ person.

5. _Monomania_ is a derangement of _mind_ in regard to a _single_
subject only.

6. A _monomial_ in algebra is a quantity which consists of a _single

7. A _monopoly_ is the sole (or _single_) right to _sell_ a certain
article, or to sell it at a given place.

9. _Monotheism_ is the doctrine of belief that there is but _one God_.

10. A _monotone_ is a _single tone_ without harmony or variation in

#para# = aside, beside, similar

1. para _ble_ (ballo), throw
2. para _graph_, write
3. par _allel_, one another
4. para _phrase_, speak
5. para _site_, feed
6. par en _thesis_, put

1. A _parable_ is a short fictitious narrative placed (_thrown_)
_beside_ something which it is intended to illustrate.

2. A _paragraph_ was originally a mark or note of comment _written
beside_ the line or place where a division should be made; now a
distinct part of a discourse or writing.

3. _Parallel_ lines extend _beside one another_.

4. _Paraphrasing_ is telling (_speaking_) the _same_ thing in other

5. A _parasite_ is an animal or plant which lives _beside_ or in
another organism on which it _feeds_.

6. Marks of _parenthesis_ are often used for a word, phrase, clause,
or sentence _put in_ by way of explanation to what it stands _beside_.

#peri# = around.

1. peri _anth_, flower
2. peri _cardium_, heart
3. peri _meter_, measure
4. peri _tone_ um, stretch
5. peri _oste_ um

1. The _perianth_ is the floral envelope _around_ the _flower_.

2. The _pericardium_ is the membrane which _surrounds_ the _heart_.

3. The _perimeter_ of a figure is the outer boundary or _measure
around_ it.

4. The _peritoneum_ is the membrane which is _stretched around_ the

5. The _periosteum_ is the membrane _around_ the _bones_.

#syn (syl, sym)# = with, together.

1. syl _lable_, take
2. sym _pathy_, feel
3. sym _phony_, sound
4. syn _chron_ ous, time
5. syn _onym_, name
6. syn _ops_ is, view
7. syn _thesis_, put, place

1. Literally, a _syllable_ is two or more sounds _taken together_, or
uttered by one impulse of the voice. Many syllables, however, comprise
but one sound.

2. _Sympathy_ is _feeling with_ another, especially his sorrows and

3. A _symphony_ is a _sounding together_; a harmony of sounds.

4. _Synchronous._ Happening or existing at the _same time_.

5. _Synonym._ Literally, a word having the _same name_. But it is
applied to words of like or kindred meaning.

6. A _synopsis_ is a _view_ of the whole _together_. A summary giving
a general view of some subject.

7. The _putting_ of two or more things _together_. _Synthesis_ is the
opposite of analysis.

#tele# = far (distance).

1. tele _gram_, write
2. tele _graph_, write
3. tele _pathy_, feel
4. tele _meter_, measure
5. tele _phone_, sound
6. tele _scope_, view

1. A _telegram_ is a message transmitted (_written_) from _afar_.

3. _Telepathy_ is the sympathetic communication at a _distance_ of one
mind with another; not by the ordinary methods, but through _feeling_.

4. _Telemeter._ An instrument for _measuring distances_ in surveying.

#liber# = free.

1. liber _al_, relating to
2. _il_ liberal, not
3. liberal _ity_, quality of
4. liber _ate_, act of
5. liberat _or_, one who
6. liber _ty_, state of being
7. liberal _ize_, make
8. _de_ liver, from
9. deliver _er_, one who
10. deliver _y_, act of

1. _Liberal._ Relating to or possessing a _free_ and generous heart.

3. _Liberality_ is the quality of being _free_ or generous.

7. To _liberalize_ is to _make free_, as to free from narrow views or

8. To _deliver_ means to set _free from_ bondage or restraint.

#liter# = letter.

1. letter
2. letters
3. liter _ary_, pert. to
4. liter _ate_, condition of
5. _il_ literate, not
6. _al_ literation, (ad) to
7. liter _al_, relating to
8. _ob_ literate, against

1. _Letter_ (from L. linere, to besmear); so called because smeared on
parchment and not cut on wood.

2. _Letters_ usually means literature in general; hence knowledge
gained from books; literary culture.

6. _Alliteration_ is a repetition of the same letter or sound at the
beginning of two or more words in close succession. Examples: “A whole
fleet of _b_ulky _b_ottomed _b_oats.” “What a _t_ale of _t_error now
_t_heir _t_urbulency _t_ells.” Literally, _letter to letter_.

8. In _obliterate_, _ob_ means _against_ or the reverse. The reverse
of _besmear_ is to rub off; hence to _obliterate_ means to rub out, to

NOTE.—Other words from the same root are, literally, illiteracy,
literati, literature, literalize, literalist.

#man (manus)# = hand.

1. _bi_ mana, two
2. e man _cip_ ate, take
3. man _acle_, cuff
4. man _euver_, work
5. man (n) _er_, relating to
6. manu _al_, pert. to
7. manu _fact_ ory, make
8. manu _script_, write

1. _Bimana_ is a term applied to man as a special order of mammalia.
Animals having _two hands_.

2. To _emancipate_ a slave is to _take_ him _out_ of the _hands_ of
his master.

3. The word _manacle_ comes from _manicula_, which means _handcuff_.

4. Literally, _maneuver_ means a _working_ with the _hands_. To make
adroit and artful moves; as, of an army.

5. _Manner relates to_ the way of _handling_ or doing things.

6. _Manual._ Performed, made, or used by the _hands_; as manual labor,
manual arts.

#mater# = mother.

1. _alma_ mater, foster
2. matern _al_, pert. to
3. matern _ity_, state of being
4. matri _cide_, kill
5. metro _polis_, city
6. metropolit _an_, relating to
7. matron
8. matron _ly_, like

1. Literally, _alma mater_ means _foster mother_. It is applied by
students to the university or college in which they have been trained.

5. _Metropolis_ means _mother city_; the chief city of a state or
country. Chicago is the metropolis of Illinois.

6. _Metropolitan._ _Relating to_ the metropolis; as, a metropolitan

7. A _matron_ is a woman with _motherly_ duties; as the _matron_ of a
school or hospital.

                             SIXTH MONTH.

#able# = capable of, fit to be.

1. _ar_ able, plow
2. _cap_ able, take, hold
3. _dur_ able, last, hard
4. _lia_ ble, bind
5. _mut_ able, change
6. _laud_ able, praise
7. _port_ able, carry
8. _soci_ able, companion
9. _ten_ able, hold
10. _us_ able, use.

1. _Arable_ land is _capable_ of being _plowed_.

2. A _capable_ mind can _take_ and _hold_ ideas (understand and

4. One is _liable_ for a debt when legally _bound_ to pay it.

7. A _portable_ library is one fitted for being _carried_ from place
to place.

9. _Tenable_ ground for argument is ground which is _capable of_ being
_held_ or maintained.

#acy# = state of being, office of.

1. _celib_ acy, unmarried
2. _delic_ acy, pleasing
3. _magistr_ acy, master
4. _obdur_ acy, hard
5. _obstin_ acy, firmly set
6. _pap_ acy, pope
7. _intim_ acy, inmost
8. _intric_ acy, entangle

1. _Celibacy_ is the _state of being unmarried_; especially that of a
bachelor or of one bound by vows not to marry.

3. _Magistracy._ The _office of master_; of one clothed with power, as
a civil officer.

4. _Obduracy_ is the _state of being hardened_, especially against
moral influences; hard-hearted; stubbornly wicked.

6. The _papacy_ is the _office of_ the _pope_.

7. _Intimacy_ is the _state of being inmost_ or near in relationship.

#an# = pertaining to.

This suffix is seldom used except with names of countries and states.
It means, _pertaining to_ what is of that country or state; as,
American history, American products, American people.

1.  African
2.  Alaskan
3.  Armenian
4.  Australian
5.  Bolivian
6.  Bulgarian
7.  Corsican
8.  European
9.  Georgian
10. Hawaiian
11. Indian
12. Mexican
13. Ohioan
14. Persian
15. Russian
16. amphibian
17. republican
18. metropolitan

16. _Amphibian_: _amphi_, both (two); _bi_, life; _an_, pertaining to:
_pertaining to two_ kinds of _life_; i. e. life on the land and in the
water. Frogs, turtles, crocodiles, seals, walruses, otters, beavers,
etc., are _amphibians_, because they can live in water (for a time at
least) and on land.

18. _Metropolitan._ _Pertaining to_ the _mother city_. (See fifth
month's work, page 32.)

#ary# = one who, that which.

1. ad _vers_ ary, turn
2. _anni_ vers ary, year
3. _antiqu_ ary, ancient
4. _drom_ ed ary, run
5. _miss_ ion ary, send
6. _e_ miss ary, out
7. _not_ ary, note
8. _sal_ ary, salt
9. _secret_ ary, secret

1. Literally, an _adversary_ is _one who turns toward_ another (to
oppose him); hence, one who turns against another.

2. _That_ day _which returns_ each _year_ commemorating some event is
an _anniversary_.

3. An _antiquary_ is _one who_ collects and examines old (_ancient_)
things; as, coins, medals, weapons.

4. A _dromedary_ is a thorough-bred Arabian camel of more than
ordinary speed and bottom; hence well adapted for _running_.

5. A _missionary_ is _one who_ is _sent_ on a mission; especially one
sent to propagate religion.

6. An _emissary_ is _one who_ is _sent out_; especially one sent on
secret business, as a spy. “I am charged with being an _emissary_ to
France.”—_Robert Emmet._

7. A _notary_ was formerly _one whose_ vocation was to make _notes_ or
memoranda of acts of others. Now, a public officer usually spoken of
as notary public.

8. A _salary_ was formerly an allowance (_that which_ was) given to
soldiers with which to buy _salt_.

9. A _secretary_ was formerly _one who_ was intrusted with the private
or _secret_ matters of his chief. One employed to do clerical work.

_Ary_ is also a suffix of adjectives, meaning _relating to_; as in,
arbitrary, contrary, culinary, exemplary, antiquary, hereditary,
military, primary, revolutionary, solitary, secondary, visionary.

_Ary_ also means _place where_; as in, granary, infirmary, library,
seminary, sanctuary.

#ate# = having.

1. _corpor_ ate, body
2. de _sper_ ate, hope
3. ef _femin_ ate, woman
4. _fortun_ ate, luck
5. in _anim_ ate, breath
6. _cord_ ate, heart
7. _cruci_ ate, cross
8. _cuspid_ ate, point
9. _dent_ ate, tooth
10. _glomer_ ate, ball
11. _labi_ ate, lip
12. _lun_ ate, moon
13. _pin_ (n) ate, feather
14. _serr_ ate, saw
15. _sagitt_ ate, arrow
16. _stell_ ate, star

1. _Corporate_ means _having_ a _body_. (See incorporate, second
month, page 18.)

2. _Having_ no _hope_; as, “Continued misfortune had rendered him

3. _Effeminate._ _Having_ the qualities of a _woman_; soft, delicate,
to an unmanly degree. Applied to men.

5. _Inanimate._ _Not having breath_; without life.

6. _Cordate._ _Having_ the shape of a _heart_; as a cordate leaf.

#pel, puls# = drive.

1. _com_ pel, together
2. compuls _ion_, act of
3. _dis_ pel, apart
4. _ex_ pel, out
5. expuls _ion_, act of
6. _im_ pel, on
7. _im_ pulse, on
8. pulse
9. _pro_ pel, forward
10. _re_ pel, back
11. _re_ pulse, back
12. repuls _ive_, quality

1. To _compel_, literally means to _drive together_; as a herd (a
Latinism and rare). To _drive_ or urge with force.

8. The _pulse_ is caused by _driving_ the blood through the arteries.

12. A person is _repulsive_ when he has _qualities_ which tend to
_drive_ others _back_ or away.

#pend, pens# = hang.

1. _ap_ pend, to
2. append _age_, that which
3. _de_ pend, from
4. depend _ent_, one who
5. depend _ence_, state or quality of
6. _in_ dependence, not
7. independ_ent_, one who
8. _im_ pend, over
9. pend _ant_, that which
10. pendulum
11. _per_ pendicular, through
12. _sus_ pend, under
13. suspend _ers_, that which
14. suspens _ion_, state of

1. _Append._ To _hang_ or attach _to_.

2. An _appendage_ is _that which hangs to_ something as a part of it.
“This little pensive _appendage_ or tender (the moon) to our fuming
engine of an earth.”—_De Quincey._

3. _Depend._ To _hang from_; to be fastened or attached to something
above; to rely upon.

4. A _dependent_ is _one who hangs_ (figuratively), or relies on
another for support.

8. _Impend._ To _hang over_, be ready to fall; threaten. “We seriously
consider the dreadful judgments that now _impend_ the nation.”—_Penn._

9. A _pendant_ is _that which hangs_ from something else; as, an
earring or a tassel.

10. The _pendulum_ of a clock _hangs_ and swings to and fro.

11. A plumb line is a line _perpendicular_ to the horizon, _hanging_
(_through_ the air).

12. _Suspend._ To _hang under_ or from beneath.

13. _Suspenders_ are _that_ from _which_ trousers are _hung_.

#ped (pod)# = foot.

1. _anti_ podes, against
2. _bi_ ped, two
3. _centi_ ped, hundred
4. _ex_ pedite, out
5. expedi _ent_, that which
6. _im_ pede, in
7. impedi _ment_, that which
8. ped _al_, pertaining to
9. peddl _er_, one who
10. pede _stal_, stand
11. pedestr _ian_, one who
12. pedun _cle_, little
13. _quadru_ ped, four
14. _tri_ pod, three
15. _octo_ pus, eight
16. pedi _gree_, crane

1. See fourth month, page 25.

2. _Biped._ A _two-footed_ animal, as man.

3. _Centiped._ An animal so called from having a great many _feet_
(indefinitely a _hundred_).

4. _Expedite._ Literally, to take the _feet out_ of entanglement;
hence, to hasten.

6. _Impede._ Literally, to entangle the _feet_. To obstruct the
progress, motion, or effect of.

8. _The pedal_ is something made to be moved by the _feet_.

9. A _peddler_, literally, is a trader _who_ travels on _foot_.

10. _Pedestal._ That which forms the base (_standing_ place for the
_feet_) of a statue, column, vase, etc.

12. A _peduncle_ is a (_little_) _foot_stalk of a flower or leaf.

15. An _octopus_ is an _eight-footed_ or armed cuttlefish.

16. _Pedigree_ means, literally, _crane's foot_. Why so called is
uncertain, but supposed to be on account of a fancied resemblance of
the lines of a pedigree, as drawn out on paper, to a crane's foot.
(Compare _crow's foot_, applied to the lines of age about the eyes.)

#pon, pos# = place, put.

1. _ap_ position, to
2. _com_ pose, together
3. compos _ite_, being
4. composit _ion_, act of
5. compon _ent_, that which
6. _com_ pound, together
7. _de_ pose, down
8. _de_ posit, down (away)
9. deposit _ory_, place where
10. _dis_ pose, apart
11. _ex_ pose, out
12. _im_ pose, upon
13. _inter_ pose, between
14. _im_ post, upon
15. im post _or_, one who
16. _op_ pose, (ob.) against
17. oppos _ite_, being
18. posit _ion_, state of being
19. _pro_ pose, before
20. _trans_ pose, across

1. One word is in _apposition_ to another when it is _placed_ near
_to_ it, by way of explanation.

3. _Being_ made by _putting together_ separate parts or elements; as,
a _composite_ flower.

5. One of the several parts or elements _which_, when _placed
together_, form the whole, is a _component_ part.

6. To _compound_ is to _put_ or mix _together_ two or more elements or

8. To _put away_ for safe keeping; as, to _deposit_ money in a bank.

10. To _dispose_ of anything is to _put_ it _apart_ from one; to get
rid of it.

11. To _place out_ where all may see; to uncover; as, to _expose_

15. An _impostor_ is _one who puts_ burdens _on_ others; commonly
applied to one who assumes a character for the purpose of deceiving

18. _Position._ The manner in which a thing is _placed_; the _state of
being placed_.

20. To _transpose_ a quantity from one side of an equation to another
is to _place_ it _across_.

                            SEVENTH MONTH.

#ic# = pertaining to.

1. _arct_ ic, bear
2. _aromat_ ic, spice
3. _civ_ ic, citizen
4. _class_ ic, first class
5. _com_ ic, revelry
6. _democrat_ ic, rule of the people
7. _despot_ ic, master
8. _domest_ ic, house
9. _empir_ ic, experience
10. _metr_ ic, measure
11. _numer_ ic, number
12. _phon_ ic, sound
13. _prosa_ ic, prose
14. _plast_ ic, form
15. _graph_ ic, write

1. _Arctic_ literally means _pertaining to_ the _Bear_; i. e. the
northern constellations called the Great and Little Bears; hence,
pertaining to the northern polar regions.

2. _Aromatic._ _Pertaining to_ an agreeable or _spicy_ odor; fragrant.

3. One's _civic_ duties are those _pertaining to_ him as a _citizen_,
in distinction from those as a soldier.

4. _Classic pertains to_ what is _first class_ in literature or art,
especially that of the Greeks and Romans.

5. _Comic pertains to revelry_; to what provokes mirth; as a _comic_

9. _Empiric pertains to experience_, or what is founded on experience;
relying on or guided by practical experience rather than scientific

13. _Prosaic_ means _pertaining to prose_; especially to that which
lacks animation or interest.

14. _Plastic_ means _pertaining to_ the process of _forming_ or
modeling; capable of being moulded into a desired form.

15. _Graphic_ means _pertaining to_ the art of _writing_ or drawing. A
_graphic_ illustration is generally in the form of a drawing.

#id# = (ness) quality, condition.

1. _ac_ id, sour
2. _flor_ id, flower
3. _flu_ id, flow
4. _frig_ id, cold
5. in _sip_ id, taste
6. in _trep_ id, tremble
7. _luc_ id, light
8. _morb_ id, disease
9. _pal_(l) id, pale
10. _splend_ id, shine
11. _tep_ id, warm
12. _torr_ id, parch
13. _torp_ id, numb
14. _viv_ id, life

1. The distinguishing _quality_ of _acid_ is its _sour_ness.

2. Having the _quality_ or appearance of _flowers_; specifically,
flushed with red; as a _florid_ countenance.

5. That which is _insipid_ has _not_ those _qualities_ which affect
the _taste_; tasteless.

6. An _intrepid_ person is brave and daring; he does _not tremble_
with _fear_.

13. _Torpid._ _Benumbed_; insensible; inactive; as an animal in
hibernation, when it passes its time in sleep.

#ity# = state or quality of being.

1. _alacr_ ity, lively
2. _brev_ ity, short
3. _enm_ ity, enemy
4. _fidel_ ity, faith
5. _mortal_ ity, death
6. _rotund_ ity, wheel
7. _sanct_ ity, holy
8. _seren_ ity, calm
9. _tranquil_ (l)ity, quiet
10. _un_ ity, one
11. _util_ ity, use
12. _veloc_ ity, swift

5. _Mortality._ _State of being_ subject to _death_; frequency of
death; hence the death-rate.

#ive# = one who, that which.

1. ad _ject_ ive, throw
2. _alter_ native, other
3. _capt_ ive, take
4. con _nect_ ive, bind
5. ex _ecut_ ive, follow
6. ex _plet_ ive, fill
7. _fugit_ ive, flee
8. in _finit_ ive, limit
9. loco_mot_ive, move
10. _nat_ ive, born
11. _negat_ ive, deny
12. _posit_ ive, place

1. (_ad_, to) An _adjective_ is a word _which_ is added (_thrown_)
_to_ a noun to qualify its meaning.

2. _Alternative_ in the plural means two things of _which one_ or the
_other_ may be taken as a choice.

5. The _executive_ of a state or nation is the _one whose_ duty it is
to _follow out_ the decrees of the law making bodies; i. e. to see
that the laws are obeyed.

6. An _expletive_ is _that_ word _which fills out_ the sentence that
contains it; as an _expletive_ adverb.

8. (_in_, not) An _infinitive_ is _that_ verb _which_ is _not limited_
by person and number.

9. (_loco_, place) A _locomotive_ is _that which_ can _move_ cars from
_place_ to place.

12. The _positive_ is _that which_ has a real standing _place_. Not
admitting of doubt; definitely laid down; clearly stated.

#ment# = act of, that which.

1. com _ple_ ment, fill
2. _fila_ ment, thread
3. _frag_ment, break
4. _gar_ment, protect
5. im_pedi_ ment, foot
6. in_duce_ment, lead
7. _liga_ ment, bind
8. _monu_ ment, remind
9. _orna_ ment, deck
10. re_fresh_ ment, new

1. _That which fills_ or _completes_.

2. A _filament_ is _that which_ is _thread_like; as, the filament of
silk, or flax.

5. Literally, an _impediment_ is _that which_ entangles the _feet_;
hence, that which hinders or interferes.

10. _Refreshments_ consist of _that which_ makes one fresh or _new

#tang, tact, tig# = touch.

1. _con_ tact, together
2. contag_ion_, act of
3. contag _ious_, quality of
4. contamin _ate_, to make
5. contigu _ity_, state of being
6. contigu_ous_, quality of
7. _en_ tire, not
8. _in_ teger, not
9. integr _al_, relating to
10. integr _ity_, state of being
11. tact
12. _in_ tact, not
13. tact _ile_, relating to
14. tang_ent_, that which
15. tang _ible_, capable of
16. _in_ tangible, not

1. The coming _together_ of two bodies; _touching_.

2. The _act of_ communicating disease by the _touch_.

3. Having the _quality of_ being imparted by _touch_; catching; as,
_contagious_ diseases.

4. To _contaminate_ is to make impure by mixture (_touching

5. _Contiguity_ is the _state of being_ within _touching_ distance.

7. _Entire._ Whole or complete; _not touched_.

8. An _integer_ is a complete or _not touched_ whole; a whole number.

10. _State_ of _being untouched_ or unimpaired; freedom from
corruption or impurity; as, _integrity_ of character.

11. _Tact_ is skill in _touching_; nice perception or discernment in
dealing with others.

12. _Intact._ _Not touched_, especially by anything that misplaces,
harms, or defiles.

13. _Tactile._ _Relating to_ the sense of _touch_.

14. A _tangent_ is a line _which touches_ a curve.

15. Anything is _tangible_ when it is _capable of_ being _touched_, or
perceived by senses.

#tempor# = time.

1. contempor _ary_, one who
2. contemporane_ous_, quality of
3. _ex_ tempore, out
4. tempor _al_, relating to
5. tempor _ary_, that which
6. temporari _ly_, state of being
7. tempor _ize_, do
8. tense
9. tempus _fugit_, flies

1. (_con_, together) _One who_ lives at the same _time together_ with
another is his _contemporary_; occurring or existing at the same time.

3. _Extempore_ means, literally, _out_ of the _moment_. On the spur of
the moment; without previous study or preparation.

4. _Relating to time_ as opposed to eternity; earthly, transient; as,
our _temporal_ affairs.

5. _That which_ lasts for a brief _time_ only; not permanent; as, a
_temporary_ scaffolding.

7. To _temporize_ is to comply with the _time_ or occasion; to yield
to the current of opinion or circumstances; to “_do_ as the _times_

8. The modification of verbs to indicate _time_, is called _tense_.

9. _Tempus fugit_ is a Latin phrase frequently met with in English. It
means, literally, _time flies_.

#ten, tent, tain# = hold.

1. _abs_ tain, from
2. _con_ tain, together
3. _de_ tain, from
4. detent _ion_, act of
5. _main_ tain, hand
6. _re_ tain, back
7. _sus_ tain, (sub) under
8. ten _ant_, one who
9. tenet
10. ten _able_, capable of
11. ten_acious_, quality of
12. ten_ure_, that which

1. To _abstain_ from drink is to _hold from_ it, to refrain

2. A vessel _contains_ a liquid when it _holds_ its particles

3. To _detain_ the wages of a laborer is to _hold_ them _from_ him
after they are due.

5. _Maintain_ literally means to _hold_ by the _hand_; to preserve
from falling. To hold fast; to keep in possession; as, to _maintain_
one's ground in battle.

7. _Sustain._ To _hold_ up from _beneath_; to uphold; to support; to

8. A _tenant_ is _one who holds_ land under another.

9. A _tenet_ is an opinion or doctrine _held_ as true.

10. _Tenable._ _Capable of_ being _held_; as ground taken for

11. _Tenacious._ Having the _quality_ of _holding_ fast.

12. One's _tenure_ of office is _that_ time during _which_ he _holds_

#terr# = earth.

1. _in_ ter, in
2. inter _ment_, act of
3. _sub_ terranean, under
4. terr _ace_, that which
5. terra _cotta_, baked
6. terrestri _al_, relating to
7. terr _ier_, that which
8. territ _ory_, relating to
9. _Medi_ terranean, middle
10. Terra del _Fuego_, fire
11. Terre _Haute_, high
12. terra _firma_, firm

1. To bury _in_ the _earth_; as a dead body.

3. Situated or occurring _under_ the surface of the _earth_; as
_subterranean_ forests—buried forests.

4. A _terrace_ is a long mound or raised portion of _earth_.

5. _Terra cotta_ is literally _baked earth_. A species of hard pottery
used in building; ornamentation.

6. _Terrestrial._ _Relating to_ the _earth_, earthly.

7. A _terrier_ is one of a small breed of dogs, named from their
propensity to scratch the ground or _earth_ in pursuit of prey.

8. _Territory._ _Relating to_ the _earth_; a large extent or tract of

9. The Mediterranean Sea is so called because situated in the _middle_
of the _land_. In the middle of the ancient known world.

10. Terra del _Fuego_ means literally the land of fire (_del_, of).

11. _Terre Haute_ means _high land_. A city in Indiana situated on
high land.

12. _Terra firma_ is a Latin phrase, frequently met in English. It
means _firm land_.

                             EIGHTH MONTH.

#ac# = pertaining to.

1. _cardi_ ac, heart
2. _demoni_ ac, demon
3. _mani_ ac, mad
4. _zodi_ ac, animal

1. _Cardiac._ _Pertaining to_ or resembling the _heart_; exciting
action in the heart.

2. _Demoniac._ _Pertaining to demons_; one possessed of an evil
spirit; a lunatic.

3. _Maniac._ Raving with _madness_; crazy; insane.

4. _Zodiac._ _Pertaining to_ the imaginary _animals_ figured in the
twelve constellations forming a circle around the sun.

#ics# = science of.

1. _civ_ ics, citizen
2. _eth_ ics, character
3. _econom_ ics, (see below)
4. _mechan_ ics, machine
5. _opt_ ics, see
6. _phys_ ics, nature
7. _phon_ ics, sound
8. _polit_ ics, city

1. _Civics._ The _Science_ which treats of _citizen_ship.

2. _Ethics._ The _science_ of right conduct—of _character_-building.

3. _Economics_ literally means, the science of _managing_ the
_household_; the science of the production and distribution of wealth,
or the means of living well.

4. _Mechanics._ The _science of machinery_, or the theory of machines.

5. _Optics._ The _science_ which treats of light and _vision_, and all
that is connected with the phenomena of sight.

6. _Physics._ The _science_ which treats _of_ the forces of _nature_;
as, gravitation, light, heat, electricity.

7. _Phonics._ The _science of sound_; especially of sounds produced by
the human voice.

8. _Politics._ The _science_ which treats of the government of states
and _cities_.

#ism# = state of being, theory of.

1. _altru_ ism, other
2. _barbar_ ism, foreign
3. _ego_ tism, self, I
4. _commun_ ism, common
5. _hero_ ism, hero
6. _hypnot_ ism, sleep
7. _organ_ ism, organ
8. _sensual_ ism, sense

1. _Altruism._ The _theory_ that devotion to the interests of _others_
is the highest good.

2. _Barbarism._ The _state_ of _being foreign_; rude in point of
manners, arts and literature.

3. _Egotism._ The _state of being self_-centered, self-conceited, and
unduly self-confident; selfish as opposed to altruistic.

4. _Communism._ A _theory of_ government and social order according to
which property is held in _common_, and the profits of all labor
devoted to the general good.

5. The _state of being_ a _hero_ or having heroic qualities; as, lofty
aim, fearlessness, fortitude.

6. _Hypnotism._ An artificially induced _state of sleep_, in which the
mind becomes passive, but acts readily upon suggestion or direction.

7. _Organism._ The _state of being_ composed of different _organs_ or
parts, working together and each necessary to the whole.

8. _Sensual_ism. The _state_ which regards the gratification of the
_senses_ as the highest good.

#y# = state of being.

1. a _path_ y, feel
2. _anti_ pathy, against
3. an _arch_ y, rule
4. bi _gam_ y, marriage
5. eu _phon_ y, sound
6. melan _chol_ y, bile
7. mis _anthrop_ y, mankind
8. _phil_ anthrop y, love
9. mono _pol_y, sell
10. _poly_ gam y, many
11. _sym_ path y, with

1. _Apathy_ (a = without). _State of being without feeling_; lack of
interest; mental indifference; sluggishness.

2. _Antipathy._ A _state of feeling against_ or antagonistic to a
person or thing; as, _antipathy_ to spiders.

3. _Anarchy_ (an = without). _State of being without rule_; social and
political disorder.

4. _Bigamy_ (bi = two). _State of being married twice_; having two
wives or two husbands at the same time.

5. _Euphony_ (eu = well). _State of being_ agreeable in _sound_;

6. _Melancholy_ (melan = black). _State of having black bile_; gloomy
state of mind arising from grief or natural indisposition.

7. _Misanthropy_ (mis = hatred). _State of having hatred_ for
_mankind_; ill will for people in general.

9. _Monopoly_ (mono = one). _State of having_ the exclusive (_sole_)
privilege or power to _sell_ an article at a certain place and time.

11. _Sympathy._ _State of feeling with_ another (as he feels) on
account of his sufferings, misfortune, or joy.

NOTE.—The suffix _y_ has the same meaning in the following words.
They are, however, too simple to need defining; in fact, there are no
simpler words on which to base definitions: airy, balky, bony, briny,
chunky, downy, dusty, healthy, hearty, miry, musty, rusty, scaly,
showy, sinewy, wealthy, worthy.

#chron# = time.

1. chron _ic_, pertaining to
2. chronicl _er_, one who
3. chron _ology_, science of
4. chrono _meter_, measure
5. _syn_ chron ous, together
6. ana chron _ism_, state of

1. _Pertaining to time_; continuing a long time, as a _chronic_
disease; hence mild as to intensity and slow as to progress.

2. _Chronicler._ _One who_ records events in the order of their
occurrence in _time_.

3. _Chronology._ The _science of_ ascertaining the true historic order
(in _time_) of past events and their exact dates.

4. _Chronometer._ Any instrument for _measuring time_; as, clock,
watch, dial. Specifically, an instrument of great accuracy used on
vessels for determining longitude.

5. _Synchronous._ Occurring _together_ in _time_; happening or
existing at the same time.

6. _Anachronism_ (ana = back). Any error in respect to dates.
Literally, _state of being_ placed at a wrong _time_. The significance
of _ana_ in this word is not clear; the original meaning probably was,
the referring of an event to a _time back_ of its correct date.

#ge# = earth.

1. geo _graph_ y, write
2. geo _logy_, science of
3. geo _metr_ y, measure
4. Ge_orge_, (erg) work

1. _Geography._ A description (_writing_) of the _earth_ and its

2. _Geology._ The _science_ which treats of the structure of the
_earth_; of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys,
mountains, etc.

3. _Geometry._ That branch of mathematics which treats of the
measurement of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles. So called because
one of its earliest and most important applications was to the
_measurement_ of the _earth's_ surface.

4. _George._ A tiller (_worker_) of the _earth_; a farmer.

NOTE 1.—Other words, kindred to the above, containing this root-form
are: geometric, geometrical, geometrician, geographic, geologize,

NOTE 2.—_O_ is no part of the root. It is the “wedding ring” that
ties roots of families together.

#graph# = write.

1. _auto_ graph, self
2. _bio_ graphy, life
3. _chiro_ graphy, hand
4. _tri_ graph, three
5. graph_ic_, pertaining to
6. graphite
7. _litho_ graph, stone
8. _mono_ graph, single
9. ortho _graphy_, right
10. _para_ graph, beside
11. _phono_ graph, sound
12. _photo_ graphy, light
13. _steno_ graphy, narrow
14. _topo_ graphy, place

6. _Graphite_ is a mineral used in lead pencils for _writing_.

7. _Lithograph._ A _writing_ on _stone_ [Rare]. Made by printing
(_writing_) from _stone_; as a picture.

8. _Monograph._ A _written_ account or description of a _single_
thing, or class of things.

9. _Orthography._ The art of _writing_ words correctly (_right_), or
according to standard usage.

10. _Paragraph._ (See fifth month, page 29.)

12. A _photograph_ is produced by the action of _light_ (_writing_, as
it were,) upon chemically prepared paper.

13. _Stenography_ is short (in a somewhat vague sense _narrow_) hand

14. _Topography._ A _written_ description of a particular _place_,
town, or tract of land; especially the description of the physical
features of a locality.

#log, logy# = speech, reason, science of.

1. logic
2. logic _ian_, one who
3. _apo_ logy, from
4. _chrono_ logy, time
5. _deca_ logue, ten
6. _dia_ logue, between
7. _epi_logue, upon
8. _eu_ logy, well
9. eulog _ize_, act of
10. _geo_ logy, earth
11. _mono_ logue, single
12. _myth_ ology, fable
13. _ornith_ ology, bird
14. _psych_ ology, soul
15. _pro_ logue, before
16. _theo_ logy, God
17. _dox_ ology, praise
18. _zoo_ logy, animal

1. _Logic._ The science of _reason_.

3. An _apology_ is a _speech_ in defense of what appears to others
wrong, the speaker thereby seeking relief _from_ blame.

5. _Decalogue._ The _ten_ commandments (_speeches_) given to Moses on
Mount Sinai.

7. _Epilogue._ A _speech_ or poem at the end of an argument or
address; a speech _upon_ (on top of, or in addition to) what has been

14. _Psychology._ The _science_ which treats of the human _soul_ (mind
and spirit included) and its operations.

                             EIGHTH YEAR.

                             FIRST MONTH.

#ad# = to, toward.

(ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, denote the same as _ad_. The
consonant is changed for the sake of euphony.)

1. ad _dress_, direct
2. ad _equate_, equal
3. ad _here_, stick
4. adher _ent_, one who
5. a _dieu_, God
6. ad _ject_ ive, throw
7. ad _journ_, day
8. ad _mon_ ish, warning
9. ad _apt_, fit
10. ad _opt_, choose
11. ad _vent_, come
12. ad _vert_ ise, turn
13. ag _greg_ ate, flock
14. al _lure_, entice
15. an _nex_, bind
16. ap _pend_, hang
17. af _fix_, fasten
18. ar _rive_, bank
19. as _sail_, leap
20. at _tach_, fasten

1. To _address_ a letter is to _direct_ it _to_ its destination.

2. One is _adequate_ to a duty or occasion when _equal to_ it.

3. To _adhere_ is to _stick to_; as, a stamp to an envelope.

4. “Every great man has his _adherents_” (_those who stick to_ him).

5. _Adieu._ A farewell; a commendation _to_ the care of _God_.

6. An _adjective_ is a word added (in a sense _thrown_) _to_ a noun to
modify its meaning.

7. _Adjourn._ To put off _to_ another _day_, or indefinitely.

8. To _admonish_ is to give a friendly _warning to_; to give advice.

9. To _adapt_ is to _fit to_ a certain purpose.

10. To _adopt_ is to _choose_ (_to_ one's self); as to _adopt_ a

11. _Advent._ The second _coming_ of Christ (_to_ the earth).

12. To _advertise_ goods is to cause the public to _turn_ their
attention _to_ them.

13. To _aggregate_ is to collect _into_ a _flock_; to collect into a
mass or sum.

14. To _allure_ is to attempt to _entice_ or draw (_to_) by the offer
of some good, real or apparent.

15. To _annex_ is to _bind_, join or add _to_, as a smaller thing to a

16. _Append_ means to _hang_ or attach _to_, as by a string.

17. _Affix._ To _fasten to_; to add at the close or end.

18. _Arrive_ literally means to come _to_ the _bank_ or shore (from
out on the water). In present usage it means to reach any object or

19. _Assail._ To _leap toward_; to attack with violence.

20. _Attach._ To _fasten to_; to affix or connect.

#ante# = before.

1. ante _ced_ ent, go
2. ante di _luv_ ian, wash
3. ante _meridi_ an, midday
4. ante pen _ult_, last

1. _Antecedent._ That which _goes before_ in time.

2. _Antediluvian_ (di = away) (ian = one who). _One who_ lived
_before_ the flood (_wash away_).

3. _Antemeridian._ _Before_ the _middle_ of the _day_. Generally
abbreviated to A. M.

4. _Antepenult_ (pen = almost). _Before almost_ the _last_. The last
syllable of a word but two.

#bi (bis)# = two (twice).

1. bi _ceps_, head
2. bi _cuspid_, point
3. bi _cycle_, circle.
4. bi _ennial_, year
5. bi _gamy_, marriage
6. bi _mana_, hand
7. bi _nomi_al, name or term
8. bi _ped_, foot
9. bis _cuit_, cook
10. bi _sect_, cut
11. bi _valve_, door
12. ba _lance_, plate

1. The _biceps_ is a muscle which draws up the forearm; so called
because it has _two heads_ or origins.

2. The _bicuspid_ teeth have _two points_.

3. A _bicycle_ has _two_ wheels or _circles_.

4. _Biennial_ means lasting _two years_ or occurring once in two

5. A _bigamist_ is one who has been _married twice_, and who has two
wives or two husbands at the same time.

6. The _bimana_ are animals having _two hands_; as man.

7. A _binomial_ in algebra is a quantity consisting of _two terms_.

8. A _biped_ is an animal having but _two feet_; as man.

9. _Biscuit_ were so called because formerly baked or _cooked twice_.

10. To _bisect_ a line is to _cut_ it into _two_ equal parts.

11. _Bivalve._ Having _two doors_; as the clam. (Each side or shell is
comparable to a door, opening and shutting on a hinge.)

12. _Balances_ are so called because they consist of _two plates_ or
pans suspended from the balance beam.

#con (col com cor)# = with, together.

1. col _lapse_, slip, fall
2. col _lect_, choose, gather
3. col _lide_, strike
4. col _loquy_, talk
5. com _mingle_, mix
6. com _miser_ate, pity
7. com _motion_, move
8. com _mute_, change
9. com _pany_, bread
10. com _posit_ion, put
11. com _peer_ (_par_), equal
12. con _cur_, run
13. con _fide_, faith
14. con _cord_, heart
15. con _flict_, strike
16. con _greg_ate, flock
17. con _tact_, touch
18. cor _robor_ ate, strength

1. A building _collapses_ when its sides _fall together_; when it
tumbles down.

2. To _collect_ botanical specimens is to _gather_ them _together_.

3. Two objects _collide_ when they _strike together_.

4. A _colloquy_ is a _talking together_ of two or more people.

5. _Commingle_ means to _mix together_; as people in society.

6. _Commiserate._ To feel sorrow, pain or _pity_ (_with_ another).

7. A _commotion_ is a _moving together_; a tumult.

8. _Commute._ To _change_ one thing (_with_) for another; to exchange.
To substitute a less thing for a greater.

9. _Company_ formerly meant an assembly of people eating _bread

10. _Composition._ The act of _putting_ parts _together_ to produce a
harmonious whole.

11. One's _compeer_ is the _equal with_ himself in rank, age, prowess,

12. Two people _concur_ in regard to a matter when their minds _run
together_; when they agree.

13. To _confide_ in one is to have _faith_ in him; to intrust secrets
_with_ him.

14. _Concord_ means literally _heart with_ heart; agreement; harmony.

15. _Conflict._ A _striking together_; hostile contest.

16. To _congregate_ means to _flock_ or assemble _together_.

17. _Contact._ A _touching together_; a close union of bodies.

18. _Corroborate._ To _strengthen_; to make more certain; to confirm.
Two statements _corroborate_ when one agrees _with_ the other; each
thus _strengthens_ the other.

#de# = down, from.

1. de _capi_ tate, head
2. de _cid_ uous, fall
3. de _fine_, end, limit
4. de _grade_, step, degree
5. de _ject_ ed, cast
6. de _pose_, place put
7. de _preci_ ate, price
8. de _scend_, climb
9. de _spic_ able, look
10. de _tract_, draw

1. _Decapitate._ To take the _head from_ the body; to behead.

2. The leaves of _deciduous_ trees _fall_ (_down_) once a year.

3. _Define._ To put _down_, or mark out the bounds or _limit_; to
fence _from_; to determine the precise meaning; to describe

4. _Degrade._ To reduce from a higher (_down_) to a lower rank or

5. _Dejected._ _Cast down_ in spirit; discouraged.

6. _Depose._ To _put down_; especially to remove from a throne or high

7. _Depreciate._ To put _down_ the _price_; to reduce the value of.

8. _Descend._ To _climb down_.

9. _Despicable._ Deserving to be _looked down_ upon; low, mean,

10. _Detract._ To _draw from_; to take away; as, to take credit or
reputation from.

#capt (caput)# = head.

1. _bi_ ceps, two
2. capit _al_, pertaining to
3. capt _ain_, one who
4. capit ul _ate_, act of
5. _de_ capitate, from
6. cab(b) _age_, that which
7. _per_ capita, by
8. cap.
9. cape

1. _Biceps._ A large muscle of the upper arm, so called because it has
_two heads_ or origins.

2. _Pertaining to_ the _head_; chief; principal; as the _capital_

3. _One who_ is at the _head_; a leader; as the _captain_ of a vessel,
or a company of soldiers.

4. _Capitulate._ To surrender on stipulated terms or conditions; to
draw up items under _heads_ or chapters.

5. _Decapitate._ To take the _head from_ the body.

6. _Cabbage._ A vegetable _which_ has a _head_.

7. _By_ the _head_; as a _per capita_ tax.

8. A _cap_ is a covering for the _head_.

9. A _cape_ is a _head_ of land.

#cede, ced, cess# = go, yield.

1. _ac_cede, to
2. _ante_cedent, before
3. _ex_ceed, out, beyond
4. _inter_cede, between
5. _pre_cede, before
6. _pro_ceed, forward
7. _re_cede, back
8. _se_cede, aside
9. _suc_ceed, (sub) after, under
10. access
11. an (te) cestor
12. excess
13. intercessor
14. predecessor
15. process
16. recess
17. secession
18. successor

1. _Accede._ To _yield to_; to agree; consent, concur; go to.

2. The _antecedent_ of a pronoun is the noun which _goes before_ it,
and for which the pronoun stands.

3. _Exceed._ To _go beyond_ what is needed or expected.

4. To _go between_ two persons as a mediator; especially to plead with
the person who has some advantage over the other.

5. _Precede._ To _go before_ in order of time.

6. To _go_ on or _forward_; as _proceed_ with your work.

7. _Recede._ To _go back_ from a given position.

8. To _go aside_; to separate; as to _secede_ from the church.

9. To _go_ or follow _after_ in order of time; as, one shock
_succeeded_ another with great rapidity.

NOTE 1.—The principal parts of the Latin verb are _cedo_, _cedere_,
_cessi_, _cessum_. From this it appears that words 10-18 above are
kindred in meaning and correspond to words 1-9.

NOTE 2.—Observe that in three of these words the root is spelled
_ceed_, in the others _cede_.

#cent# = hundred.

1. cent _enni_ al, year
2. centi _grade_, step, degree
3. centi _meter_, measure
4. centi _ped_, foot
5. _per_ cent, by

1. Happening once in a _hundred years_. The _Centennial_ Exposition
was held in Philadelphia in 1876, one hundred years after the signing
of the Declaration of Independence.

2. Divided into one _hundred degrees_. On the _centigrade_ thermometer
there are one hundred degrees between the freezing point and the
boiling point.

3. _Centimeter._ The _hundredth_ part of a meter (standard of

4. _Centiped._ A segmented invertebrate animal of the class nyrapod
(Greek for _many feet_), so called because it has a great many
(indefinitely one _hundred_) _feet_.

5. _By_ the _hundred_; as, six _per cent_; that is, six cents on the

#civ# = citizen.

1. _civ_ic, pertaining to
2. civ _il_, quality of
3. civil _ize_, to make
4. civil _ian_, one who

1. _Civic._ _Pertaining to_ a _citizen_, or the affairs of a city.

2. _Civil._ Fit to live in a state or society with _citizens_.

3. _Civilize._ To _make civil_. To instruct in the arts and customs of

4. A _civilian_ is _one whose_ pursuits are those of a _citizen_ and
not of a _soldier_.

                             SECOND MONTH.

#ex# = out, beyond, from.

(_e_, _ec_, and _ef_, are euphonic variations of _ex_.)

1. ex _ceed_, go
2. ex _cept_, take
3. ex _clude_, shut
4. ex _curs_ion, run
5. ex _cuse_, charge
6. ex _hale_, breathe
7. ex _it_, go
8. ex _pand_, spread
9. ex _pect_, look
10. ex _ped_ ite, foot
11. ex _pel_, drive
12. ex _pire_, breathe
13. ex _port_, carry
14. ex _tent_, stretch
15. ex _tract_, draw

5. To _excuse_ is to relieve (take _out_) from the _charge_ of blame.

10. To _expedite_ is to hurry forward; especially by removing
hinderances (as _from_ the _feet_).

#in (il, im, ir)# = in, into, on, not.

1. il _leg_ al, law
2. il _liter_ ate, letter
3. im _bibe_, drink
4. im _mature_, ripe
5. im _mense_, measure
6. im _merse_, plunge
7. im _mort_ al, death
8. im _mut_ able, change
9. im _pel_, drive
10. im per _vi_ ous, way
11. im _pious_, reverent
12. im _port_, carry
13. im _pose_, put
14. im _pulse_, drive
15. im _pun_ ity, punish
16. in _carn_ ate, flesh
17. in _clem_ ent, mild
18. in _cognito_, known
19. in _clude_, shut
20. in _crease_, grow
21. in _cred_ ible, believe
22. in _cur_, run
23. in _dorse_, back
24. in _duce_, lead
25. in _del_ ible, rub out
26. in _dent_, tooth
27. in _evit_ able, avoid
28. in _fid_el, faithful
29. in _fant_, speak
30. in _grate_, thankful
31. in _hale_, breathe
32. in _ject_, throw
33. in _nate_, born
34. in _nov_ ate, new
35. in _sect_, cut
30. in _spect_, look
37. in _toxic_ ate, poison
38. in _trude_, thrust
39. in _vade_, go
40. in _vert_, turn

NOTE.—In defining the words in this list choose that meaning of the
prefix from the four given above (_in_, _into_, _on_, _not_) which is
most suitable; thus: _imbibe_ means to drink _in_; immature, _not_
ripe; immerse, to plunge _into_; indorse, to write _on_ the back of.

2. An _illiterate_ person is one _not_ familiar with _letters_; one
who has little or no learning.

5. Literally, anything is _immense_ when it can _not_ be _measured_;
of vast extent.

7. _Immortal._ _Not_ liable to _death_.

10. Having _no way through_ (per = through); as, cloth which is
_impervious_ to water; waterproof.

14. An _impulse_ is a sudden mental motive or feeling which tends to
_drive_ one _on_ to say or do something.

15. _Not_ liable to _punishment_; freedom from the bad consequences
which usually result from an act; as, the magician could eat fire with

16. _In_ the _flesh_; as Christ was the _incarnate_ Son of God.

17. _Not mild_, but harsh and severe; as _inclement_ weather.

18. _Not known_; under an assumed name; disguised; as a nobleman
traveling _incognito_.

21. A story is _incredible_ when it is _not_ capable of being
_believed_; unworthy of belief.

26. _Indent._ To cut _into_ points like a row of _teeth_.

29. _Infant._ A young babe (_not_ yet able to _speak_).

35. _Insect._ A small animal apparently _cut into_ segments.

40. _Invert._ To _turn_ the outside _in_; to place in a contrary way.

#ob# = against, in the way of.

(_oc_, _of_, _op_, are euphonic variations of _ob_.)

1. ob _ject_, throw
2. ob _loqu_ y, speak
3. ob _sta_ cle, stand
4. ob _struct_, build
5. ob _trude_, thrust
6. oc _cupy_, hold
7. of _fend_, strike
8. op _pon_ ent, place

1. An _objection_ to a proposition is an opinion _thrown against_ or
in opposition to it.

2. _Obloquy._ A _speaking against_; language that casts contempt on
men and their actions.

6. To take and _hold_ (_against_ the possession of another); as to
preëmpt and _occupy_ a homestead.

#post# = after, behind.

1. post _date_, date 2. post _pone_, place 3. post _script_, write 4.
post _meridian_, midday 5. post _mortem_, death 6. _pre_ poster ous,

6. _Preposterous_ originally meant, having that _first_ which ought to
be _last_; hind side before; reversing the natural order. In present
day usage, contrary to nature, reason, or common sense; absurd.

#curr, curs# = run.

1. couri _er_, one who
2. _con_ cur, together
3. _con_ course, together
4. curs _ory_, ing
5. course
6. _ex_ curs ion, out
7. _in_ cur, into
8. _inter_ course, between
9. _pre_ curs or, before
10. _re_ course, back

1. A _courier_ is _one who runs_, or goes hastily with a message.

2. The opinions of people _concur_ when they agree, or _run together_.

3. A _concourse_ is an assemblage of people who have come (or _run_)

4. A _cursory_ glance is a hasty, and hence, a _running_ glance.

5. A race _course_ is a place for _running_.

7. To _incur_ a debt is to _run into_ it.

10. One who adds to his indorsement of a note or check the words
“without _recourse_”, says in effect, “You can't _run back_ on me for

#dent# = tooth.

1. dent
2. dent _al_, pertaining to
3. dent _ate_, shaped like
4. dent _ist_, one who
5. _e_ dent ate, without
6. dan _de lion_, of lion

1. A _dent_ is an impression like that made by a _tooth_.

5. _Edentate_ animals, such as the sloth, are _without teeth_, or at
least are without the incisors.

6. The _dandelion_ has yellow compound flowers which resemble the
_tooth of_ the _lion_.

#dict# = speak, say, tell.

1. _bene_ dict ion, well
2. _contra_ dict, against
3. diction _ary_, that which
4. dict _ate_, act of
5. _e_ dict, out
6. _pre_ dict, before
7. _ver_ dict, truth
8. _male_ dict ion, bad

1. A _benediction_ is a blessing (a _speech_ to the effect that it may
be _well_ with thee).

3. A _dictionary_ is a book in _which_ we may learn about words, the
elements of _speech_.

4. To _dictate_ is to _speak_ or _say_ what another shall _write_ or

7. The _verdict_ of a jury is what they _say_ to be the _truth_ in the

#doc, doct# = teach.

1. doc _ile_, capable of
2. doct _or_, one who
3. doct _rine_, that which
4. docu _ment_, that which

1. _Docile._ Capable of being easily _taught_.

2. A _doctor_ is _one who_, by virtue of his master's degree, is
qualified to _teach_.

3. Doctrine is _that which_ is _taught_; a principle taught as a part
of a system of belief.

4. A _document_ is _that which teaches_ by means of the evidence it

                             THIRD MONTH.

#pro# = for, forth, forward, before.

1. pro _bat_ ion, try, prove
2. pro _bosc_ is, feed
3. pro _crastin_ ate, tomorrow
4. pro _duce_, lead
5. pro (f) _fer_, bear, bring
6. pro _fuse_, pour
7. pro _gnostic_ ate, know
8. pro _gram_, write
9. pro _gress_, step
10. pro _ject_, cast
11. pro _logue_, speech
12. pro _mise_, send
13. pro _mote_, move
14. pro _noun_, noun
15. pro _pel_, drive
16. pro _pose_, put
17. pro _spect_, look
18. pro _trude_, thrust
19. pro _vide_, see
20. pro _voke_, call

1. One who joins a church on _probation_ is given a _trial_ to _prove_
his worthiness _before_ being fully admitted.

2. A hollow organ attached to the head or mouth (the _forward_
portion) of the animal with which he _feeds_.

3. To put _forward_ till _tomorrow_, or to put off from time to time.
“Procrastination is the thief of time.”

6. A _profuse_ speaker _pours forth_ ideas freely.

12. One's _promise_ is his word, spoken or written, _sent forth_ as
evidence of something more substantial to follow.

16. When a young man _proposes_ he _puts_ the question _before_ his

19. A good _provider sees_ necessities _before_hand and prepares to
meet them.

20. To _provoke_ laughter is to _call_ it _forth_.

#retro# = backward.

1. retro _grade_, step
2. retro _spect_, look

#se (sed)# = aside.

1. se _cede_, go
2. se _clude_, shut
3. se _cure_, care
4. se _duce_, lead
5. se _greg_ ate, flock
6. se _lect_, gather

3. _Secure._ Free (_aside_) from _care_, as to danger or risk; as,
_secure_ from attack, or _secure_ against loss by fire.

4. _Seduce._ To _lead_ or draw _aside_; especially from a path of
rectitude. To lead into evil.

5. _Segregate._ To place or group (_flock_) _aside_ from others or the
rest. In science, to put into a new or separate class.

#sub# = under, after, near.

(_suc_, _suf_, _sug_, _sup_, _sur_, are euphonic variations of _sub_.)

1. sub _due_ lead
2. sub _jug_ ate, yoke
3. sub _lunar_, moon
4. sub _merge_, plunge
5. sub _ordin_ ate, rank
6. sub _poena_, penalty
7. sub _scribe_, write
8. sub _side_, sit
9. sub _soil_, ground
10. sub _stance_, stand
11. sub _terr_ anean, earth
12. sub _trahe_ nd, draw
13. sub _urbs_, city
14. sub _way_, way
15. suc _cess_ or, go
16. suc _cumb_, lie
17. suf _fer_, bear
18. suf _fix_, fasten
19. suf _focate_, throat
20. sup _port_, carry

1. _Subdue._ To _lead_ or bring _under_ authority; to conquer.

2. _Subjugate._ To bring _under_ the _yoke_ of power or dominion.

3. _Sublunar._ Situated _under_neath the _moon_; hence earthly.

6. _Subpoena._ A writ commanding attendance _under penalty_.

7. _Subscribe._ To bind one's self to, by _writing_ one's name
_under_neath; as to _subscribe_ to the terms of a contract.

8. _Subside._ To _sit_ (or settle) _under_ (down).

10. _Substance._ That which underlies (_stands under_) all outward

11. _Subterranean._ Situated or occurring _under_ the surface of the

12. The _subtrahend_ is placed _under_ the minuend to be _drawn_ from

13. _Suburb._ A town or village so _near_ to a _city_ that it may be
used for residence by those doing business in the city.

15. _One who goes_ or follows _after_; as, a _successor_ in office.

16. _Succumb._ To _lie under_ discouragement, rather than to surmount

19. Certain fumes or vapors _under_ the mouth (or _throat_), will
_suffocate_ one.

20. _Support._ To _carry_ on; keep up; as to _support_ a conversation;
to _support_ a war. To bear the weight of, especially by holding up
from beneath (_under_).

#trans# = across, over, through.

1. trans _act_, drive
2. trans _alpine_, Alps
3. trans _atlantic_, Atlantic
4. tran _scend_, climb
5. tran _scribe_, write
6. trans _fer_, carry
7. trans _form_, shape
8. trans _fuse_, pour
9. trans _gress_, step
10. trans _it_, go
11. trans _late_, carry
12. trans _lucent_, shining
13. trans _marine_, sea
14. trans _migration_, moving
15. trans _mit_, send
16. trans _mute_, change
17. trans _parent_, appear
18. trans _port_, carry
19. trans _pose_, put
20. trans _verse_, turn

The literal meanings of the twenty words given above are so apparent
as to need no explanation. Illustrate each with a sentence.

#fin# = end, limit.

1. _Final._ _Pertaining to_ the _end_; the last.

2. _Finale._ The _end_ of a musical composition.

3. _Finish._ To _make_ an _end_ of.

4. _Fine._ Well _finished_. Also, a penalty assessed at the _end_ of
the case.

5. _Refine._ Finished over (or _again_).

6. _Finite._ Having a _limit_ in power or knowledge.

7. _Infinite._ Having _no limit_ in power or knowledge.

8. _Confine._ To keep _within limits_ or bounds.

9. _Superfine._ _Over_ or extra finish.

#firm# = strong, steadfast.

1. _in_firm, not
2. infirm _ity_, that which
3. infirm _ary_, place where
4. _con_ firm, with
5. farm

1. _Infirm._ _Not strong_, but weak and defective.

2. _Infirmity._ _That_ with _which_ one is afflicted or infirm.

4. The testimony of one witness is made _stronger_ when that of
another witness agrees _with_ or _confirms_ it.

5. A _farm_ is a substantial possession, _steadfast_ and immovable.

#flex, flect# = bend, turn.

1. flex _ible_, capable of
2. _in_ flexible, not
3. flexibil _ity_, quality
4. flect _or_, that which
5. _circum_ flex, around
6. _de_ flect, from
7. _re_ flection, back
8. _re_ flex, back

4. _That which bends_; as, the biceps muscle is the _flector_ which
_bends_ the arm.

5. A _circumflex_ is a _bending around_ of the voice,—a rise and a
fall on the same syllable.

7. _Reflection._ A _turning_ of the thoughts _back_ to things of the

8. Sensations arrested at the nerve centers and _turned back_ without
their reaching the brain results in _reflex_ action.

#flu# = flow.

1. flu _ent_, characteristic of
2. _af_ fluence, (ad) to
3. _con_ fluence, together
4. _in_ fluence, in
5. influenz _a_
6. _in_ flux, in
7. _super_ fluous, over
8. fluid
9. flush

1. A _fluent_ speaker uses smooth and _flowing_ language.

2. People of _affluence_ have wealth _flowing to_ them.

3. The _confluence_ of two streams is their _flowing together_.

4. _Influence_ literally means _flowing in_. The bringing about a
result by a gradual process; gradual because _flowing_.

5. _Influenza._ A disease, somewhat allied to a cold, formerly
attributed to the _influence_ of the stars.

8. A _fluid_ is so called because it is capable of _flowing_.

9. _Flush._ To _flow_ swiftly.

                             FOURTH MONTH.

#vice# = instead of.

1. vice president
2. vice admiral
3. vice _roy_, king
4. vic _ar_, one who
5. vice _versa_, turn

3. _Viceroy._ A ruler acting with kingly authority _instead of_ the

4. _Vicar._ In general, _one who_ is authorized to perform functions,
especially religious ones, _instead of_ another.

5. _Vice versa._ _Turned_, one _instead of_ the other, interchanged.

#a (an)# = without, not.

1. a _byss_, bottom
2. a _cephal_ ous, head
3. a _chrom_ atic, color
4. a _gnostic_ ism, knowledge
5. an _archy_, rule
6. an _ecdote_, given out
7. an _esthetic_, feeling
8. an _onym_ ous, name
9. a _pathy_, suffer, feel
10. a _sylum_, right of seizure
11. a _the_ ist, God
12. a _tom_, cut

4. _Agnosticism._ The doctrine or theory that man has _not_ any real
or absolute _knowledge_ of anything, but can know only “impressions”.

5. _Anarchy._ A state of society in which there is _no_ authority or
_ruling_ power.

6. _Anecdote_ [ec (ex) = out]. Originally a personal or biographical
incident _not given out_ for publication.

7. That which causes a loss of sensation; hence, one who has taken an
_anesthetic_ is _without_ the _feeling_ of pain.

10. _Asylum._ Originally a place of refuge where criminals or debtors
were free from (_without_) the _right of seizure_.

11. _Atheist._ _One who_ is _without_ belief in the existence of a

12. _Atom._ The smallest particle of matter; hence a particle which
_cannot_ be further _cut_ or divided.

#auto# = self.

1. auto _crat_, rule
2. auto _graph_, write
3. auto _bio_ graphy, life
4. auto _maton_, strive
5. auto _mobile_, move
6. aut _ops_ y, see

1. _Autocrat._ An absolute sovereign, one who has the _ruling_ power
all in him_self_.

3. _Autobiography._ A _writing_ of one's _life_ by him_self_.

4. _Automaton._ A _self_ acting (_striving_) machine; one having its
motive power within itself.

6. _Autopsy._ _Seeing_ by one's _self_; personal observation or

#epi# = upon.

1. epi _cycle_, circle
2. epi _demic_, people
3. epi _dermis_, skin
4. epi _gram_, write
5. epi _sode_, way
6. epi _taph_, tomb
7. epi _thet_, place
8. epi _zoötic_, animal

1. _Epicycle._ A circle whose center moves around _upon_, or in, the
circumference of another _circle_; as the orbit of the moon in its
motion with the earth around the sun.

4. _Epigram._ Literally, to _write upon_. A short, pointed poem, or a
bright thought concisely and sharply expressed.

5. _Episode._ Something which happens _upon_ the _way_, or comes in
incidentally to the main enterprise.

7. _Epithet._ An adjective or term _placed upon_ a person or thing and
expressing some quality especially appropriate to that person or

8. _Epizoötic._ A disease _upon_ many _animals_ in a community.

#micro# = little.

micro _be_, life; micro _cosm_, world; micro _scope_, see, view.

#grat (grac)# = pleasing, favor, thankful.

1. grati _tude_, ness
2. grate _ful_, full of
3. grati _fy_, make
4. _in_ grati ate, into
5. _in_ grate, not
6. _un_ grateful, not
7. _dis_ grace, from
8. grac _ious_, having
9. _a_ gree, (ad) according to
10. gratis
11. grace

4. To become _ingratiated_ with another is to get _into_ his _favor_.
“The pigmy had contrived to _ingratiate_ himself into every man's

5. An _ingrate_ is _not thankful_ for benefits received.

7. One in _disgrace_ is out of (away _from_) _favor_ with others.

9. An _agreement_ is entered into _according to_ the _pleasure_ of
both parties.

10. _Gratis._ Out of, or because of, _favor_; without recompense.

11. _Grace._ Literally, _pleasing_; beloved.

#greg# = flock, herd.

1. _ag_ gregate, (ad) to
2. _con_ gregate, together
3. gregari _ous_, quality
4. _se_ gregate, aside

3. _Gregarious._ _Quality_ or characteristic of animals which tend to
gather in _flocks_; as, sheep, geese, deer.

4. _Segregate._ To separate (_aside_) from others and form into an
isolated group (_flock_).

#ject# = cast, throw.

1. _ab_ ject, away
2. _de_ jected, down
3. _e_ ject, out
4. _in_ ject, in
5. _ob_ ject, against
6. _pro_ ject, forth
7. _re_ ject, back
8. _ad_ jective, to
9. _inter_ jection, between
10. _sub_ ject, under

#leg# = law.

1. leg _al_, pertaining to
2. _il_ legal, not
3. legal _ity_, state of
4. legal _ize_, make
5. legis _late_, bring forth
6. _privi_ lege, private

6. A _private law_, a peculiar benefit, right, or favor not enjoyed by
others or by all, is a _privilege_.

                             FIFTH MONTH.

#aceous# = having the quality of.

[In defining words of this ending, combine the meaning of the suffix
with the meaning of the root; thus, _cretaceous_ means having the
quality of _chalk_.]

1. _creta_ ceous, chalk
2. _crust_ aceous, shell
3. _carbon_ aceous, coal
4. _farin_ aceous, grain
5. _herb_ aceous, herb
6. _sapon_ aceous, soap

#al# = pertaining to.

1. _capit_ al, head
2. _corpor_ al, body
3. _cymb_ al, cup
4. _dent_ al, tooth
5. _di_ al, day
6. _fest_ al, feast
7. _fili_ al, son, daughter
8. _fin_ al, end
9. _flor_ al, flower
10. _frug_ al, fruit
11. _jovi_ al, merry
12. _leg_ al, law
13. _miner_ al, mine
14. _nas_ al, nose
15. _nat_ al, born
16. _nomin_ al, name
17. _norm_ al, rule
18. _pen_ al, punishment
19. _plur_ al, more
20. _reg_ al, king
21. _roy_ al, king
22. _rur_ al, country
23. _vit_ al, life
24. _voc_ al, voice

1. _Pertaining to_ the _head_, as, _capital_ punishment, which
involves the forfeiture of the _head_.

10. A _frugal_ person is economical with his means, hence _fruitful_
in saving.

16. _Pertaining to_ the _name_ only, not real; as, a _nominal_

17. _Pertaining to_ the standard or _rule_; as, the _normal_ color of
the crow is black.

#ence#, as a suffix to nouns like the following, means _state of being_.

1. abs _tin_ ence, hold
2. af _flu_ ence, flow
3. bene _vol_ ence, wish
4. con _dol_ ence, grief
5. con _fid_ ence, faith
6. de _pend_ ence, hang
7. im _pot_ ence, power
8. _omni_ pot ence, all
9. re _tic_ ence, silent
10. _sequ_ ence, follow

1. _State of holding from_ something which tempts and entices; as,
_abstinence_ from strong drink.

2. (See third month, page 63.)

3. _State of being_ actively desirous (_wishing_) for the _well_-being
of others. “The laws of social _benevolence_ require that every man
should try to assist others by his experience.”

4. _Condolence._ _State of being_ in _grief_ or sympathy _with_ others
on account of their afflictions.

5. _Confidence._ _State of being_ confident (of having _faith_ in
others or in one's self).

6. _Dependence._ _State of being_ dependent (of _hanging_ [relying] on
others for support).

7. _Impotence._ _State of being_ impotent (of having no _power_; weak;

8. _Omnipotence._ _State of being all powerful._

9. _Reticence_. _State_ or quality _of being silent_; refraining from

10. _Sequence._ _State of being_ sequent (_following_); order of

#ance#, as a suffix to nouns like the following, means _state of being_.

1. con _cord_ ance, heart
2. con _son_ ance, sound
3. dis _cord_ ance, heart
4. dis _son_ ance, sound
5. _domin_ ance, master
6. ex _pect_ ance, look
7. _fragr_ ance, scent
8. re _pugn_ ance, fist
9. _sembl_ ance, similar
10. _temper_ ance, time

1. _Concordance._ _State of being heart with heart_; harmony;

2. _Consonance._ _State of_ agreement of _sound with sound_; tones in

8. _Repugnance._ Literally, the _state of being_ disposed to fight
(strike) _back_ (with the _fist_) [obsolete]. Opposition; aversion;

10. _Temperance._ _State of being_ well _timed_ (regular in habits) in
eating, drinking, sleeping, exercising, etc.

#ent# = one who, that which.

1. ad _her_ ent, stick
2. ante _ced_ ent, go
3. _belliger_ ent, wage war
4. de _pend_ ent, hang
5. equi _val_ ent, power
6. in _solv_ ent, loosen
7. pre _ced_ ent, go
8. op _pon_ ent, place
9. re _pell_ ent, drive
10. _tang_ ent, touch

NOTE.—The meanings of the above prefixes have frequently been given.
Combine the meaning of suffix, root, and prefix, adding other words
when necessary, to make definitions. The only word in the list which
can give any difficulty is number four, which is explained in the work
of seventh year, sixth month, page 35.

#ment# = mind.

1. mental
3. mention
4. memento
5. demented

1. One's _mental_ powers are the powers of his _mind_, including
intellect, feeling, and will.

2. One's _comments_ on a topic generally reveal to some degree the
state of his _mind_ in regard to it.

3. The _mention_ of a thing calls it to _mind_.

4. A _memento_ is a _reminder_.

5. A _demented_ person has the powers of his _mind_ impaired.

#mit, mitt# = send, let go.

1. _ad_ mit, to
2. _com_ mit, with
3. _e_ mit, out
4. _o_ mit, (ob) by
5. _per_ mit, through
6. _re_ mit, back
7. _sub_ mit, under
8. _trans_ mit, across

1. A ticket will _admit_ you (_let_ you _go_) to the entertainment.

2. To place in custody; to entrust _with_; as to _commit_ a fund to
the care of trustees; to _commit_ (_send_) a prisoner to jail.

3. To _send_ or give _out_; as, the fountain _emits_ water.

4. To _let go by_; to neglect; to overlook; as, to _omit_ a fact.

5. A _permit_ will _let_ you _go through_ the factory.

6. To _remit_ is to _send_ (_back_) value for value received.

7. To give up or _let_ one's self _go under_ the government of
another; to yield, or surrender. “Do not _submit_ yourself to insult.”

8. To _send_ (_across_) from one to another; as, to _transmit_ a

#norm# = rule.

1. norm _al_, pertaining to
2. _ab_ normal, from
3. _e_ normous, out
4. enorm _ity_, state of

1. _Pertaining to_ the usual _rule_ or type; as, his pulse is

2. Deviating _from_ the natural condition, course, or _rule_; as, an
_abnormal_ appetite.

3. _Out_ of the ordinary; not conforming to the usual _rule_; as the
death rate was _enormous_.

4. The _state_ or quality _of_ being enormous; especially the quality
of being extremely bad; as, the _enormity_ of his crime.

#pater# = father.

1. patern _al_, pertaining to
2. patri _arch_, rule
3. patron _ize_, act of
4. patri _cide_, kill
5. patri _ot_, one who
6. patrimony

1. Pertaining to a _father_; fatherly; as, _paternal_ love.

2. _Patriarch._ One of the _fathers_ and _rulers_ of a tribe or race;
particularly applied to the early tribes of mankind.

3. _Patronize._ To _act_ like a patron, or one who protects, fosters,
or supports some enterprise, as a _father_ looks after those under his

4. _Patricide._ The _killing_ of a _father_.

5. _Patriot._ _One who_ loves and supports the institutions of his
country somewhat as a _father_ cares for the interests of his family.

6. _Patrimony._ An inheritance from an ancestor; especially from one's

                             SIXTH MONTH.

#fy# = to make.

1. _ampli_ fy, large
2. _certi_ fy, certain
3. _clari_ fy, clear
4. _dei_ fy, god
5. _exempli_ fy, example
6. _falsi_ fy, false
7. _forti_ fy, strong
8. _horri_ fy, horror
9. _identi_ fy, the same
10. _justi_ fy, right
11. _lique_ fy, liquid
12. _magni_ fy, large
13. _puri_ fy, pure
14. _rare_ fy, rare
15. _recti_ fy, right
16. _terri_ fy, frighten
17. _testi_ fy, witness
18. _typi_ fy, type
19. _veri_ fy, true
20. _vivi_ fy, life

#ile# = pertaining to, belonging to, capable of, like.

1. _ag_ ile, act
2. _duct_ ile, draw
3. _frag_ ile, break
4. _fert_ ile, bear
5. _host_ ile, enemy
6. _juven_ ile, young
7. _puer_ ile, child
8. _serv_ ile, serve
9. _vers_ atile, turn
10. _vir_ ile, man

2. A _ductile_ substance is one which is _capable of_ being _drawn_
into wire.

9. A _versatile_ person is _capable of turning_ readily from one thing
to another; manysided.

#ine# = belonging to, like.

1. _aquil_ ine, eagle
2. _bov_ ine, cow
3. _can_ ine, dog
4. _dent_ ine, tooth
5. _div_ ine, deity
6. _fel_ ine, cat
7. _femin_ ine, woman
8. _mar_ ine, sea
9. _mascul_ ine, male
10. _sal_ ine, salt

1. An _aquiline_ nose is one hooked like the beak which _belongs_ to
an _eagle_.

3. The _canine_ teeth are so called because they correspond to those
best developed in the _dog_.

#ion# = the act of, ing. (In many words _ion_ means _that which_.)

1. _ablut_ ion, washing away
2. _bisect_ ion, cutting in two
3. _expans_ ion, spreading out
4. _expuls_ ion, driving out
5. _inspect_ ion, looking into
6. _intercess_ ion, going between
7. _collect_ ion, gathering together
8. _combust_ ion, burn
9. _commot_ ion, move
10. _frict_ ion, rub
11. _junct_ ion, join
12. _opt_ ion, choose
13. _resurrect_ ion, rising again
14. _secess_ ion, going aside
15. _stat_ ion, stand
16. _tens_ ion, stretch

1. An _ablution_ is the _act of washing away_, or cleansing.

15. A _station_ is a _standing_ place for the train.

#ite# = one who.

1. A _Canaanite_ is _one who_ dwelt in the land of _Canaan_.
2. A _Dowieite_ is _one who_ is a follower of _Dowie_.
3. A _favorite_ is _one who_ receives special _favor_.
4. A _hypocrite_ is _one who pretends_ to be what he is not.
5. An _Israelite_ is _one who_ is a descendant of _Israel_, or Jacob.
6. A _Levite_ is _one who_ is a descendant of _Levi_.

#port# = carry.

1. port _able_, capable of
2. port _folio_, leaf
3. port _er_, one who
4. _ex_ port, out
5. _im_ port, into
6. _re_ port, back
7. _sup_ port, under
8. _trans_ port, across
9. port

1. _Capable of_ being _carried_ or moved without difficulty; as, a
_portable_ engine.

2. _Portfolio._ A case or folder in which _leaves_ of loose paper or
other stationery may be _carried_.

3. _Porter._ Literally, _one who carries_ burdens.

7. _Support._ To _carry_ or uphold from beneath (_under_).

9. _Port._ The manner in which one _carries_ himself.

#rupt# = break.

1. _ab_ rupt, away
2. _bank_ rupt, bench
3. _dis_ rupt, apart
4. _e_ ruption, out
5. _inter_ rupt, between
6. rupt _ure_, ing
7. rout
8. route

2. At Florence, it is said, a trader or money changer who failed in
business had his _banca_, or money _bench, broken_; hence, one who is
unable to pay his debts is _bankrupt_.

6. A _rupture_ is a _breaking_ apart; as the _rupture_ of a blood

7. To _break_ the ranks of, and throw into confusion; as to _rout_ an

8. _Route_ originally meant a road _broken_ through a new and
untraveled section of country. After thus _broken_ it became a way or
_route_ for travel.

#scribe, script# = write.

1. _circum_ scribe, around
2. _de_ scribe, down
3. _in_ scribe, in, upon
4. _pre_ scribe, before
5. _sub_ scribe, under
6. _tran_ scribe, across
7. _post_ script, after
8. _in_ scription, upon
9. scribe
10. scribble
11. script
12. scripture

1. _Circumscribe._ To draw (_write_) a bounding line _around_; hence,
to lay down the limits or restrict the action of.

9. A _scribe_, in Jewish history, was a custodian and _writer_ of the
official records of the nation.

10. To _scribble_ is to do hasty or careless _writing_.

11. _Script_ consists of characters _written_ by hand.

12. _Scripture._ The sacred _writings_ of any people.

#spec, spect# = look, see, view.

1. _a_ spect, (ad) toward
2. _circum_ spect, around
3. _ex_ pect, out
4. _in_ spect, into
5. _per_ spective, through
6. _pro_ spect, before
7. _retro_ spect, backward
8. spectat _or_, one who
9. _sus_ pect, under
10. spectacle
11. spectacles

1. The appearance of a thing as _viewed_ (looked _toward_ or at) by
the eye or mind; as, a stern _aspect_; the southern _aspect_ of a

2. _Looking around_ in all directions, as against danger or error. “Of
all these circumstances, the slow, _circumspect_ eye of the master
took cognizance one by one.”

5. _Perspective._ That which is _seen through_ an opening or vista.
The effect of distance upon the appearance of objects.

9. _Suspect._ To _underlook_; to imagine or infer that appearances
misrepresent; hence one who _suspects_ is inclined to _look beneath_
the surface.

10. _Spectacle._ Something exhibited to be _looked_ at, especially if
it be held worthy of unusual notice.

                            SEVENTH MONTH.

#ory# = place where.

1. _arm_ ory, arms
2. _deposit_ ory, put away
3. _dorm_ itory, sleep
4. _fact_ ory, make
5. _laborat_ ory, work
6. _manufact_ ory, hand made
7. _observ_ atory, observe
8. _prepar_ atory, to make ready
9. _reform_ atory, form again
10. _terr_ itory, land

1. An _armory_ is a _place where arms_ and other instruments of war
are kept.

2. A _depository_ is a _place where_ things are or may be _put away_
for safe keeping.

5. A _laboratory_ is, literally, a _place_ for _labor_; particularly a
place for scientific experimentation.

6. A _manufactory_ was formerly so called because it named a _place
where_ things were _made_ by _hand_. The first part of the word is now
generally omitted, and appropriately so, because a small part of the
work in a factory is done by hand.

10. _Territory_ is extent of _land_ belonging to or ruled by the
government. Literally it means a _place where_ there is _land_.

#ous# = having, consisting of, full of, pertaining to.

1. _amphi bi_ ous, double + life
2. _aque_ ous, water
3. _bili_ ous, bile
4. _clamor_ ous, to cry out
5. _decidu_ ous, fall
6. _furi_ ous, rage
7. _greg_ arious, flock
8. _hetero gene_ ous, other + kind
9. _homo gene_ ous, like + kind
10. _im per vi_ ous, no + through + way
11. _numer_ ous, number
12. _preci_ ous, price, value
13. _pre coci_ ous, early + ripe
14. _ponder_ ous, weigh
15. _pre poster_ ous, before + after
16. _viv_ acious, life

1. _Living both_ on land and in water. “Seals of _amphibious_ nature,
are either for the land or water.”

2. _Pertaining to_, or containing _water_; as, an _aqueous_ vapor.

3. A _state of_ ill health due to a disordered condition of the liver,
the gland which secretes _bile_.

4. _Consisting of_ loud and repeated _outcries_ or noise; as, a
_clamorous_ crowd.

5. The leaves of _deciduous_ trees _fall_ once a year.

8. _Consisting_ of unlike elements or ingredients of different
(_other_) _kinds_.

13. _Having_ the mental faculties _prematurely_ developed; as, a
_precocious_ child.

15. Contrary to nature, reason, or common sense. Originally,
_preposterous_ meant _having_ the _after_ part _before_.

#ulent# = full of.

1. _corp_ ulent, body
2. _fraud_ ulent, fraud
3. _op_ ulent, wealth
4. _succ_ ulent, juice
5. _esc_ ulent, food
6. _vir_ ulent, poison

1. A _corpulent_ person is one who has an excess of fat; hence,
literally speaking, is _full of body_.

4. _Succulent_ plants are _full of juice_; as, the stalk of the sugar

5. _Esculent_ plants are those suitable for _food_ (literally, _full
of food_).

“Every lover of that invaluable _esculent_ (the potato) has reason to
remember with gratitude the settlers of Londonderry.”—_Whittier._

#ure# = act or state of, that which.

1. _capt_ ure, take
2. _depart_ ure, from + part
3. _en clos_ ure, within + shut
4. _fixt_ ure, fasten
5. _fract_ ure, break
6. _gest_ ure, act, do
7. _junct_ ure, join
8. _manu fact_ ure, hand + make
9. _overt_ ure, open
10. _past_ ure, feed
11. _pict_ ure, paint
12. _pleas_ ure, please
13 _post_ ure, place
14. _pro ced_ ure, forward + go
15. _rapt_ ure, carry away
16. _script_ ure, write
17. _signat_ ure, mark or sign
18. _sut_ ure, sew
19. _text_ ure, weave
20. _verd_ ure, green

#y# = state of being, full of, consisting or made of.

1. bloody
2. dewy
3. dressy
4. curly
5. faulty
6. filthy
7. fleshy
8. frosty
9. fussy
10. gaudy
11. gloomy
12. grassy
13. guilty
14. hardy
15. hoary
16. lofty
17. marshy
18. rainy
19. rosy
20. sandy
21. shady
22. spunky
23. thirsty
24. wealthy

While the above words serve to illustrate the use of _y_ as a suffix,
to analyze them would not be profitable. On account of their
simplicity no illustrations are needed to show their use, and no
definitions; in fact, there are no words simpler on which to base

The eight words following, which end in _y_, can, however, be analyzed
with profit:

1. _an arch_ y, without + rule
2. _a path_ y, without + feel
3. _aut ops_ y, self + see
4. _col loqu_ y, together + speak
5. _ob loqu_ y, against + speak
6. _poly gam_ y, many + marriage
7. _sym path_ y, together + feel
8. _sym phon_ y, together + sound

#tort, tors# = twist, wring, wrest.

1. _con_ tort, together
2. _dis_ tort, aside
3. _ex_ tort, out
4. _re_ tort, back
5. torch
6. tor _ment_, that which
7. tortoise
8. tort _ure_, that which

1. To _twist together_; to turn awry. “A form _contorted_ and
misshapen from that which nature gave.”

2. To _twist aside_; to twist out of shape; to wrest from the true
meaning. “For gold the hireling judge _distorts_ the laws.”

3. To _wring_ or wrest _out of_ or away from; to get by force or by
taking unfair advantage. “'Till the injurious Romans did _extort_ this
tribute from us, we were free.”

4. To bend, _twist_ or turn _back_. A _retort_ is a short and pointed
reply _turned back_ on an assailant. A _retort_ tube is one _twisted_
or bent back at one end.

5. The _torch_ is so called because the wick is _twisted_ like a rope.

6. _Torment_ comes from _tormentum_, a machine (engine) for throwing
stones to inflict _torture_.

7. The _tortoise_ is so called because of its _twisted_ or crooked

8. _Wringing_ pain; anguish of body or mind. “In ancient Greece,
_torture_ was never employed except in case of treason”.

#tract# = draw.

1. _abs_ tract, away
2. _at_ tract, to
3. _con_ tract, together
4. _de_ tract, from
5. _dis_ tract, apart
6. _ex_ tract, out
7. _pro_ tract, forward
8. _re_ tract, back
9. _re_ treat, back
10. _sub_ tract, under
11. trace
12. tract _able_, capable of
13. trail
14. train

1. To _draw away_; to consider apart. “In truth the object and
sensation are the same thing and cannot be _abstracted_ from each

2. To _draw to_ or toward. A magnet _attracts_ iron filings.

3. To _draw together_ or closer. Heat expands and cold _contracts_.

4. To _draw_ away _from_. To take away a part of something, especially
from one's credit. “Should I detract his worth, 'twould argue want of
merit in myself.”

5. To _draw apart_ or away. The attention is _distracted_ when it is
_drawn apart_ from the thing in hand.

6. To _draw out_, to withdraw. Honey is sometimes _extracted_ from the
honeycomb and the comb replaced in the beehive.

7. To _draw_ forward; to extend or prolong; as, “England desired not
to _protract_ the war.”

8. To _draw back_; to take back what has been said. When one finds he
has said a hasty thing he would do well to _retract_ it.

9. To _draw back_, as from an enemy. “Come, shepherd, let us make an
honorable _retreat_.”

10. To _draw_ away; as apart from the whole. Literally to _draw_ away
from _under_, or in an underhanded way, as by stealth. The word is
very seldom used literally.

11. A _trace_ is one of the tugs or straps by which a vehicle is

12. A _tractable_ child is one which can be easily led or _drawn_.

13. _Trail_ means to _draw_ along, or what is _drawn_.

14. A _train_ consists of cars _drawn_ by a locomotive.

#ven, vent# = come.

1. _ad_ vent, to
2. _ad_ vent ure, upon
3. _a_ venue, to
4. _con_ vene, together
5. _circum_ vent, around
6. _e_ vent, out
7. _inter_ vention, between
8. _in_ vent, upon
9. _re_ venue, back
10. _pre_ vent, before

1. A _coming_ or arrival of any important event or personage. The
_advent_ of summer. An _Adventist_ is one who makes the second
personal coming of Christ a special feature in his doctrine.

2. An _adventure_ is a stirring experience, _come upon_, as it were,
suddenly and unexpectedly.

3. That which _comes to_ a certain place. Formerly an _avenue_ was a
roadway bordered with trees which _comes to_ a residence.

4. To _come together_. “The household fowls _convene_.”

5. To _circumvent_ an individual is to gain an advantage over him in a
secret and round about (_coming around_) way.

6. The _outcome_ of an occurrence; as, “In that _event_ all will be
right.” “Marriage is the principal _event_ for good or evil in all

7. The act of _coming between_ persons or objects; especially
interference with the acts of others.

8. To _come upon_; to find out or discover.

9. _Revenue_ is that which _comes back_, as from an investment; income
from all forms of one's property.

10. To stop or hinder from happening by means of previous measures.
Originally _prevent_ meant to _come before_; as in Matt. xvii:25:
“When Peter was come into the house, Jesus _prevented_ him.”

#vers, vert# = turn.

1. _ad_ verse, to (against)
2. ad vers _ity_, state of
3. _ad_ vert, to
4. ad vert _ise_, act of
5. _a_ vers ion, away
6. _a_ vert, away
7. _di_ verse, apart
8. _di_ version, aside
9. _di_ vorce, apart
10. _in_ vert, into
11. _per_ verse, thoroughly
12. _re_ verse, back
13. _trans_ verse, across
14. _versat_ ile, capable of
15. vers _ion_, that which
16. vertex
17. vertigo
18. vortex

1. _Turned against_; antagonistic. _Adverse_ winds. “Error is
_adverse_ to human happiness.”

2. _State of_ adverse fortune; a condition of calamity, distress, or
unhappiness. “Ye have this day rejected your God, who himself saved
you out of all _adversities_.”

3. To _turn_ the mind or attention _to_; as, “I will only _advert_ to
some leading points in the argument.”—_Emerson._

4. To _advertise_ an article is to cause the public to _turn_
attention _to_ it.

5. A _turning away_ from. “Adhesion to vice and _aversion_ to

6. To _turn away_ or aside. “Till ardent prayer _averts_ the public

7. _Diverse_ ways are different ways—they _turn apart_.

8. The act of _turning aside_ from a course; as the _diversion_ of the
mind from study.

9. A judgment or decree dissolving marriage, and thus _turning_
husband and wife _apart_ from each other.

10. To _turn into_ another position; as, upside down, inside out, end
for end, etc.

11. A _perverse_ inclination is one _thoroughly_ wrong or _turned_
from the right.

12. To _turn back_; as to _reverse_ an engine.

13. A _transverse_ beam is one _turned across_ others.

14. _Capable of_ moving or _turning_ around; as a _versatile_ spindle;
turning with ease from one thing to another; many sided; as, a
_versatile_ writer.

15. _That which_ is translated (or _turned_) from another language;
as, the King James _version_ of the Bible.

16. The highest point, peak, or summit. Literally the _turning_ point.

17. A _turning_ or whirling around; dizziness or giddiness.

    “That old _vertigo_ in his head
     Will never leave him till he's dead.”

18. A _whirl_pool. (_Vortex_ is another form of _vertex_.)

                             EIGHTH MONTH.

#ic# = pertaining to.

1. _aqua_ tic, water
2. _arc_ tic, bear
3. _barbar_ ic, foreign; uncivilized
4. _chron_ ic, time
5. _civ_ ic, citizen
6. _dom_ estic, house
7. _epi dem_ ic, upon + people
8. _erra_ tic, wander
9. _Homer_ ic, Homer
10. _luna_ tic, moon
11. _lyr_ ic, lyre, harp
12. _metal_ lic, metal
13. _metr_ ic, measure
14. _numer_ ic, number
15. _op_ tic, eye
16. _pan_ ic, Pan
17. _phon_ ic, sound
18. _publ_ ic, people
19. _rust_ ic, country
20. _techn_ ic, art, trade

2. _Arctic_ means, literally, _pertaining to_ the northern
constellations called the Great and Little _Bears_; hence pertaining
to the north polar regions.

8. _Erratic_ means _wandering_ from the proper or usual course in
opinion or conduct.

9. _Homeric_ means _relating to Homer_, the great epic poet of ancient
Greece, or to the poetry which he wrote.

10. A _lunatic_ is one who is periodically insane, with intervals of
sanity (as if affected by the _moon_).

11. _Lyric_ poetry is that which is adapted to the _lyre_ or harp; fit
to be sung to an accompaniment.

16. _Panic_ means sudden or groundless fright, such as was said to
have been caused by _Pan_, the god of pastures and forests.

#ise, (ize)# = make, do, cause.

1. _ad vert_ ise, to + turn
2. _critic_ ise, judge
3. _familiar_ ize, family
4. _fertil_ ize, bear, produce
5. _leg_ alize, law
6. _re cogn_ ize, again + know
7. _sym path_ ize, with + feel
8. _tan tal_ ize, Tantalus
9. agonize
10. brutalize
11. civilize
12. crystallize
13. equalize
14. generalize
15. harmonize
16. humanize
17. idolize
18. magnetize
19. modernize
20. naturalize
21. organize
22. realize
23. systematize
24. tyrannize

1. A merchant when he _advertises_ goods hopes thereby to _cause_
people to _turn_ their attention _to_ them.

2. To _criticise_ is to (_make_) pass _judgment_ upon.

3. To _familiarize_ means, literally, to _make_ as one of the
_family_, to become intimate with.

4. Ground is _fertilized_ when it is _caused_ to _produce_ more

5. Any conduct is _legalized_ when it is _made lawful_.

6. We _recognize_ a person when we _know_ him _again_; as, one whom we
have known before.

7. To _sympathize_ is to _feel with_ another.

8. _Tantalize_ is derived from Tantalus, a Phyrgian king who,
according to Greek mythology, was punished in the lower world by being
placed in a lake of pure water up to his chin, while there hung over
him luscious fruit, the fruit and the water receding whenever he
sought to satisfy his hunger or thirst. Hence tantalize means to
tease or torment by presenting something desirable to the view and
frustrating expectation by keeping it out of reach.

Words 9 to 24 may be defined in a simple and satisfactory manner by
using some meaning of the suffix _ize_ in the definition with the
first part of the word; thus, _agonize_ means to _cause_ to have

#ist# = one who.

1. _agri cultur_ ist, field + culture
2. _an arch_ ist, without + rule
3. _art_ ist, art
4. _a the_ ist, without + god
5. _botan_ ist, plant
6. _de_ ist, god
7. _dent_ ist, tooth
8. _flor_ ist, flower
9. _ge olog_ ist, earth + science
10. _hypno_ tist, sleep
11. _journ_ alist, day
12. _jur_ ist, right
13. _loy_ alist, law
14. _oc_ ulist, eye
15. _optim_ ist, best
16. _pessim_ ist, worst
17. _re viv_ alist, again + life
18. _roy_ alist, king
19. _sci_ entist, knowledge
20. _somn ambul_ ist, sleep + walk

4. An _atheist_ is _one who_ is _without_ belief in a personal _God_.

6. A _deist_ is _one who_ believes in _God_ but denies revealed

15. An _optimist_ is _one who_ holds the opinion that all events are
ordered for the _best_.

16. A _pessimist_ is _one who_ has a disposition to take the least
hopeful (_worst_) view of things; one who believes that the ultimate
tendency of the world is toward evil and not good.

#oid# = having the form of, shaped like.

1. _aster_ oid, star
2. _dent_ oid, tooth
3. _ethm_ oid, sieve
4. _spher_ oid, sphere
5. _typh_ oid, cloud, stupor
6. _variol_ oid, various

#meter, metr# = measure.

1. _anemo_ meter, wind
2. _baro_ meter, weight
3. _chrono_ meter, time
4. _dia_ meter, across
5. _gas_ ometer, gas
6. _ge_ ometer, earth
7. _hexa_ meter, six
8. _hydro_ meter, water
9. _lacto_ meter, milk
10. metr _ic_, pertaining to
11. _penta_ meter, five
12. _peri_ meter, around
13. _thermo_ meter, heat
14. _tri gon_ ometry, three + angle

1. The _anemometer_ is an instrument for _measuring_ the force and
velocity of the _wind_.

2. The _barometer measures_ the _weight_ of the atmosphere, and thus
aids in determining the indications of the weather.

3. A _chronometer_ is an instrument for _measuring time_.
Specifically, it is a large and very accurate watch for use in
astronomical observations.

6. _Geometry_ literally means _earth measure_. It treats of the
measurement of surfaces, and is therefore applied in the _measurement_
of _land_.

7. The _hexameter_ in poetry is a _measure_ having _six_ poetic feet
to the line.

8. The _hydrometer_ is used for _measuring_ the specific gravity of
_water_ and other liquids.

9. The _lactometer_ is used for _measuring_ the purity and richness of

10. The _metric_ system of weights and measures is one in which the
meter is the unit of _measure_.

12. The _perimeter_ is the _measure around_ a body or figure.

14. _Trigonometry_ treats of _measurements_ based on the triangle
(_three angles_).

#phon# = sound.

1. _eu_ phony, well
2. phon _etic_, pertaining to
3. phon _ic_, pertaining to
4. phono _graph_, write
5. _sym_ phony, with
6. _tele_ phone, far

#polis# = city.

1. _acro_ polis, high, upper
2. _Anna_ polis, Ann
3. _Constantin_ ople, Constanine
4. _Indiana_ polis, Indiana
5. _metro_ polis, mother
6. _Minne_ apolis, Minne
7. police
8. politics

1. The _acropolis_ was the _upper_ part of a Grecian _city_. It
commanded a view of the surrounding country.

2. Named for Queen _Ann_.

3. A contraction of Constantinopolis. Named for _Constantine_.

4. _Indiana_ means, literally, the _land_ of the _Indians_.
_Indianapolis_ means _city_ of _Indiana_.

5. The _metropolis_ is the chief, or _mother city_, of the state or

6. The _city_ of _Minne_ (haha).

7. A _police_ force is a body of civil officers in a _city_ organized
for its protection.

8. _Politics_ is the science of government in state or _city_.

#scop# = view.

1. _horo_ scope, hour
2. _kaleido_ scope, beautiful + form
3. _micro_ scope, small
4. _stereo_ scope, solid
5. _tele_ scope, far

1. The _horoscope_ is an instrument for _viewing_ the heavens at the
_hour_ of one's birth, by which the astrologers professed to foretell
the events of a person's life.

2. The _kaleidoscope_ is an optical instrument in which an endless
variety of _beautiful_ patterns or _forms_ may be _viewed_ by changing
its position.

4. The _stereoscope_ is an instrument, with two eye glasses, for
giving to pictures the appearance of _solid_ forms as seen in nature.

                               PART TWO

                  Letters, Sounds, Syllables, Words,
                   Principles of Pronunciation, and
                          Rules of Spelling.

                             SEVENTH YEAR.

                            (First Month.)

                         TERMS TO BE DEFINED.

An ELEMENTARY SOUND is the simplest sound of spoken language.

There are forty-four elementary sounds in the English language. As
there are only twenty-six letters in the alphabet some letters
represent more than one sound. Certain marks or distinguishing
characters used with the letters to indicate the various sounds are

PHONOTYPY is a method of representing each of the elementary sounds by
a distinct printed character or letter.

The VOCALS or TONICS are those elementary sounds made by an unmodified
or uninterrupted tone of the voice; as ā, ĕ.

The SUBVOCALS or SUBTONICS are those elementary sounds made by the
tone of the voice modified by the organs of speech, making an
undertone; as b, d, g, r.

The ASPIRATES or ATONICS are those elementary sounds made by merely
breathing modified by the organs of speech; sometimes called breath
sounds; as p, t, s.

                      TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

                   [From Swett's Normal Word Book.]

                _I. Vocals._

  |   a            ā-le, āi-m
  |   ä            ä-lms, ä-rt
  |   a̤            a̤-ll, b-a̤-ll
  |   ă            ă-n, m-ă-n
  |   â            c̵-â-re, â-ir
  |   ȧ            ȧ-sk, f-ȧ-st
  |   ē            ē-ve, b-ē
  |   ě            ě-nd, m-ě-n
  |   ẽ            h-ẽ-r, ẽ-rr
  |   ī, ȳ          ī-ce, b-ȳ
  |   ĭ, y̆          ĭ-t, h-y̆-mn
  |   ō            ō-ld, n-ō
  |   ǒ            ǒ-n, n-ǒ-t
  |   o̤, o͞o        m-o-ve, m-o͞o-n
  |   ū            ū-se, m-ū-şe
  |   ǔ            ǔ-p, b-ǔ-t
  |   û            û-rge, b-û-rn
  |   ụ, o͝o        f-ụ-ll, w-o͝o-l
  |  oi, oy        oi-l, b-oy
  |  ou, ow        ou-t, ow-l

                _II. Subvocals._

  | b          b-i-b, b-a-be
  | d          d-i-d, d-ea-d
  | ḡ          ḡ-i-ḡ, ḡ-a-ḡ
  | j          j-ar, j-et
  | l          l-u-ll, te-ll
  | m          m-ai-m, c̵a-me
  | n          n-u-n, n-o-ne
  | ng, ṉ      ri-ng, i-ṉ-k
  | r          r-oa-r, r-ea-r
  | th         th-ese, wi-th
  | v          val-ue, v-ain
  | w          w-ell, w-eb
  | y          y-es, y-et
  | z          z-one, z-est
  | zh, z      a-z´-ure, sei-z´-ure

                _III. Aspirates._

  |  f           | f-i-fe, o-ff            |
  |  h           | h-at, h-ome             |
  |  k           | k-ite, k-ill            |
  |  p           | p-i-pe, to-p            |
  |  s           | s-un, s-ame             |
  |  t           | t-en-t, t-ar-t          |
  |  ch          | ch-ur-ch, ch-ild        |
  |  sh          | sh-all, wi-sh           |
  |  th          | th-in, th-ree           |
  |  wh          | wh-ere, wh-y            |

NOTE.—The foregoing forty-four sounds are those most employed in the
English language. Some of these sounds are represented by other
letters, as shown in the following:

                     #IV.—Table of Equivalents.#

                 [Dictionary Work—Metcalf & DeGarmo.]

   ē = ī
   ẽ = ĩ = û
   ā = e̱
   â = ê
   ô = a̤ (_broad a_)
   o̤ = o͞o = ṳ
   ĭ = y̆
   ŭ = ȯ

   ŏ = ạ
   ọ = o͝o = ụ
   ī = ȳ
  oi = oy
  ou = ow
   ū = ew

   j = ġ (soft)
   g = ḡ (hard)
   z = ṣ̱
   k = c̵ = c̵h
   f = ph
   s = ç (_cedilla c_)
  sh = çh
   ṉ = ng
   x = ks
   x̱ = gz

COGNATE sounds are such as are produced by the same organs of speech
in a similar position. The cognates are in pairs, as follows:
_Vowels_: ā ĕ, ē ĭ, â ă, ä ȧ, a̤ ŏ, û ŭ, ōō o͝o; _consonants_: g´ k,
b p, d t, j ch, th th, v f, z s.

                           #[Second Month.]#


A LETTER is a mark or character used to represent a sound,—usually an
elementary sound.

An ALPHABET is an orderly arrangement of all the letters of a

The NUMBER OF LETTERS in the different alphabets vary, as follows:
English 26, Arabic 28, French 25, German 26, Greek 24, Hebrew 22,
Italian 21, Russian 33, Spanish 27, Sanskrit 49. The Chinese have no
alphabet, but about 20,000 syllabic characters.

The POWER OF A LETTER is the elementary sound for which it stands.

LETTERS AS TO FORM are either script or print.

There are many different STYLES OF LETTERS; as, Roman, Italic, Old
English, and Script.

As to SIZE letters are both capital and lower case.

                           #[Third Month.]#


A VOWEL sound is a free and uninterrupted sound of the voice. The
vowel sounds are formed by the voice modified, but not interrupted, by
the various positions of the tongue and lips.

A CONSONANT sound is an articulate sound made by the obstructed voice,
and which in utterance is usually combined with a vowel sound.

There is no absolute division between vowels and consonants. Certain
vowels are so open as to be only vowels, certain consonants are so
close as to be only consonants; but there are yet others which have
the value now of vowels and now of consonants; as, _i_, _u_, _w_, and

“_Y_ as a vowel is a substitute for _i_, and _i_ is a consonant as a
substitute for _y_. _W_ and _y_ are vowels: (1) When they end words or
syllables, (2) when they are not followed by a vowel in the same
syllable, (3) when they are followed by a silent vowel in the same
syllable. _W_ and _y_ are consonants when they begin words or
syllables and are immediately followed by a vowel. _I_ is a consonant
when it represents the consonant _y_, as in _alien_. _U_ is a
consonant when it represents the consonant _w_, as in _quick_,
_language_.”—_Irish's Orthography._

A DIPHTHONG is produced by running together two vowel sounds in the
same syllable.

A diphthong is PROPER if both the vowels are sounded; as _o_ and _i_
in _boil_.

An IMPROPER DIPHTHONG or DIGRAPH is merely a collection of two vowels
in the same syllable, of which only one is sounded; as in _rain_,

The diphthongs in the following words are all that are in common use,
viz.: t_oi_l, t_oy_, s_ou_nd, c_ow_, p_ea_l, _oi_l, _au_dible,
_aw_ning, s_ay_, s_ei_ne, p_eo_ple, f_eu_d, ob_ey_, esch_ew_,
bel_ie_ve, l_oa_n, h_oe_, h_ue_, j_ui_ce. Of these _oi_, _oy_, _ou_,
and _ow_ are the only _proper_ diphthongs.

A TRIPHTHONG is produced by running together three vowel sounds in the
same syllable.

A triphthong is PROPER if all three of the vowels are sounded. (But
there are no proper triphthongs that I know of.)

A triphthong is IMPROPER or is called a TRIGRAPH if one or two of the
three vowels is silent; as in ad_ieu_, b_eau_ty.

                           #[Fourth Month.]#


CONSONANTS are divided on three different bases; as follows:


The mutes represent an explosive sound, and are so called because the
mouth organs are closed just before the sound is uttered and the voice
is momentarily _mute_.

The four subvocals _b_, _d_, _j_, _g_, and their cognates, _p_, _t_,
_ch_, and _k_, are generally classed as mutes. Pronounce them and see
if they do not represent _explosive_ sounds.

All other consonants are _semivowels_, and are pronounced with a
_continuous_ sound. The sound may be continued so long as the breath
lasts; but in the case of mutes the sound must stop with the explosive

II. The SUBVOCALS and ASPIRATES are shown in the vertical columns of
the table below. The subvocals are sometimes called _voice_ consonants
and the aspirates _breath_ consonants. These are fit terms, for they
indicate the basis of classification.

III. LABIALS, LINGUA-DENTALS, and PALATALS constitute a classification
of the consonants with respect to the place of formation. Bead the
table from left to right. The _lips_ have most to do with making the
labial sounds; the lingua-dentals are formed at the point of the
_tongue_ in contact with the _teeth_, the palatals between the tongue
and hard and soft _palate_.

                 #Consonant Table.#

          #Subvocals.#    #Aspirates.#
          (Voice.)              (Breath.)
Labials. {   b                        p
(Lips.)  {   v                        f
         {   w                        wh
         {   m

Lingua-  {   d                        t
Dentals. {   z                        s
(Point of{   th (sonant) (non-sonant) th
tongue.) {   l
         {   n
         {   r

Palatals.{   zh                       sh
(Between {   j                        ch
tongue   {   g                        k
and      {   y
palate.) {   h
         {   ng

                             EIGHTH YEAR.

                           #[First Month.]#


SYLLABLE literally means _taken together_.

A SPOKEN SYLLABLE is an elementary sound, or a combination of
elementary sounds, uttered _together_, or with a single impulse of the
voice. It constitutes a word or a part of a word.

A WRITTEN or printed syllable is a part of a word separated from the
rest, and capable of pronunciation by a single impulse of the voice.

As to where a word shall be divided in making it into syllables
depends upon the PURPOSE OF SYLLABICATION. When the purpose is to show
the derivation the division is made with reference to the component
parts (roots, prefixes, and suffixes); but if the purpose is to
indicate correct pronunciation, the result may be very different. For
illustration, the following words are divided, first, to show
derivation: abs-tract, bene-vol-ent, pre-de-cess-or, e-duc-ate,
phon-o-typ-y, pro-gress, e-lig-ible; and, second, to indicate correct
pronunciation: ab-stract, be-nev-o-lent, pred-e-ces-sor, ed-u-cate,
pho-not-y-py, prog-ress, el-i-gi-ble.

While in the illustrations here given the syllables formed for one
purpose are very different from those formed for the other, yet in the
majority of words the resulting syllables are the same whether divided
for one purpose or for the other.

In the United States the prevailing purpose of syllabication is to
indicate pronunciation.

The ULTIMATE syllable of a word is the last (_ultimus_ = last); the
PENULTIMATE is next to the last (_pen_ = almost); the ANTEPENULTIMATE
is the third from the last (literally, _before almost_ the _last_);
the PREANTEPENULTIMATE is the fourth from the last (literally,
_before_ the one that is _before_ the one _almost last_).

                           #[Second Month.]#


ACCENT is stress of voice on a particular syllable in pronouncing a

In long words two, and sometimes three, syllables are accented. But
one syllable is always accented more strongly than the others are. The
stronger accent is called the PRIMARY accent, the weaker is called the
SECONDARY. Thus, in _am´ mu ni´ tion_ the primary accent falls on the
third syllable and the secondary on the first.

The “PRINCIPLES” which govern the placing of accent are complicated.
The International Dictionary says there are no principles by which to
determine the accent in English. Another high authority says: “All
attempts to assign rules for the place of the accent in English only
serve to render the subject hopelessly intricate and confounded.”

There are, however, certain _tendencies_ which mature pupils might
profitably consider, but the limited scope of this book will not
permit me to attempt to set them forth.

In the words of the following list the accent changes with a change of
meaning. When nouns or adjectives these words are accented on the
first syllable; when verbs, on the second:


                           #[Third Month.]#


A WORD is a sign of an idea. It may be either spoken or written.

A PRIMITIVE, OR ROOT, word is one not derived from any other word of
the language; as, _fix_, _strike_, _man_.

A DERIVATIVE is a word formed from a primitive by changing it
internally, or by adding a prefix or suffix; as, _men_, _suffix_,

A SIMPLE WORD is a single word. It may be either primitive or

A COMPOUND WORD is a combination of two or more simple words; as,
buck-saw, well-behaved, school-room.

A word of one syllable is a _monosyllable_ (mono = one); of two
syllables, a _dissyllable_ (dis = two); of three syllables, a
_trisyllable_ (tri = three); of three or more syllables, a
_polysyllable_ (poly = many).

The ROOT of a word is its fundamental or elementary part which carries
the primitive notion or significance with it, without prefix or
suffix; as, _ge_ (earth), _graph_ (write), _vol_ (wish).

A PREFIX is a significant syllable joined to the beginning of a word;
as, _auto_graph, _circum_vent, _amphi_theater.

A SUFFIX is a significant syllable joined to the end of a word; as,
man _ly_, fert _ile_, ment _ion_.

AFFIX is a general term for prefixes and suffixes; it may be applied
to either or to both together.

                             SEVENTH YEAR.

                           #[Fifth Month.]#

                            SILENT LETTERS.

Silent letters have at least four uses:

1. To modify sounds of other letters in the same syllable.

Drop final silent _e_ from such words as the following and note the
effect on the sound of the other vowel in the same syllable: _bare_,
_pure_, _ripe_, _lame_.

2. To indicate pronunciation.

In the four words last given, for illustration, the pronunciation
changes when the final silent _e_ is dropped.

Another class of words ending in _ce_ and _ge_ retain the final silent
_e_ on adding a suffix beginning with _a_ or _o_ to preserve the soft
sound of _c_ and _g_, and with it the correct pronunciation of the
word; as, _serviceable_, _noticeable_, _changeable_, _courageous_.

3. To show the meaning of words.

Illustrations: _clime_, _climb_, _plumb_, _belle_, _butt_, _dyeing_,
_singeing_, _guilt_, _damn_.

4. To show the derivation of words.

Numerous illustrations are found in words derived from the Greek. In
_chronic_, and _chronology_, the _h_ is silent, but serves to indicate
that the root of those words is identical with the Greek root _chron_,
which means _time_. Similarly the _g_ in _gnostic_, the _e_ in
_eulogy_, _p_ in _pneumonia_, the _h_ in _chromatic_.

In _honour_ and _favour_ _u_ is silent, and therefore a useless
letter, so far as sound is concerned. The _u_ signifies that the word
came to us through the French, instead of directly from the Latin. The
question is, whether we shall go to the trouble of writing the extra
letter in a large class of such words for the sake of the historical
association. Perhaps one in a thousand would choose to do so, but
others of us are more intent on saving time and ink. When the spelling
reform idea becomes operative with English speaking people, a great
many silent letters will go the way of the _u_ in _labour_, _favour_,
and the like.

The following are some of the numerous classes of silent letters
together with the principle found to be operative through them.

                           #[Sixth Month.]#

“_E_ final is silent when preceded by another vowel in the same

change   sense     adverse    Chinese   condense
brace    quite     bade       oppose    deceive
force    scribe    burlesque  embrace   machine
crease   measure   canine     emerge    endorse
cease    absolve   caprice    examine   advise

                          #[Seventh Month.]#

“_B_ is usually silent before _t_ or after _m_ in the same syllable.”

lamb   tomb      numb    debt     bomb
comb   thumb     dumb    doubt    crumb
limb   climb     plumb   redoubt  jamb

                           #[Eighth Month.]#

“_C_ is silent before _k_ in the same syllable. _C_ is silent in czar,
victuals, muscle, corpuscle, indict, and Connecticut.”

back    deck   lack    stack    Patrick
buck    duck   hack    stick    reckon
burdock chick  luck    suck     thicken
clock   click  lick    beckon   Cossack

                             EIGHTH YEAR.

                           #[First Month.]#

“_D_ is silent before _g_ in the same syllable.”

edge    hedge   ridge    lodge     misjudge
wedge   budge   bridge   sledge    judgment
pledge  drudge  fudge    begrudge  lodgment

                           #[Second Month.]#

“_G_ is silent before _m_ or _n_ in the same syllable.”

phlegm   malign     gnaw    campaign  gnash
arraign  paradigm   feign   foreign   gnu
benign   diaphragm  reign   design    seignior
resign   gnat       assign  gnarl     consign

                           #[Third Month.]#

“_H_ is silent when it follows _g_ or _r_ in the same syllable.”

ghost    myrrh       rheumatism  rhapsody  rhinoceros
aghast   hemorrhage  rhyme       rhythm    Rhine
gherkin  rhubarb     rhombus     rhomboid  catarrh

                           #[Fourth Month.]#

“_K_ is silent before _n_ in the same syllable.”

knack   kneel    knot    knap sack  knob
knave   knife    knock   knowledge  knucks
knead   knight   knoll   knuckle    knarl
knee    knit     know    knell      knout

                           #[Fifth Month.]#

“_N_ final after _l_ or _m_ is silent.”

hymn    contemn    solemn    limn      damn
kiln    condemn    column    autumn

                           #[Sixth Month.]#

“_T_ is silent before _ch_ in the same syllable.”

hitch      pitch    match    notch       catch
kitchen    botch    hatch    scratch     patch
latch      Dutch    watch    Mitchell    satchel
thatch     ditch    witch    batch       Scotch

                          #[Seventh Month.]#

“_W_ is silent before _r_ in the same syllable.”

wrestle    wren      wrist     writing    wreak
wrong      wrote     wreck     wrest      writ
wring      wraith    awry      write      wrought
wrath      wretch    wreath    wrinkle    wrangle

                           #[Eighth Month.]#

“_Gh_ is always silent after _i_ and, when not a substitute for _f_ or
_k_, is also silent after _au_ and _ou_.”

sight    plight    weigh      fraught     through
light    wright    weight     caught      although
fight    height    freight    thought     slaughter
might    wight     aught      daughter    laughter

                             SEVENTH YEAR.


                           #[Sixth Month.]#

“_A_ constituting or ending an unaccented syllable is short Italian

again      America      banana    fatality    papa
alas       amuse        canine    fatigue     parasol
algebra    apparatus    China     lapel       pica
alkali     area         data      massacre    sacrament
amass      arena        drama     ornament    valise

                          #[Seventh Month.]#

“_E_ constituting or ending a syllable is long.”

depot       memento      obedience    really        society
event       museum       penal        recess        superior
feline      nausea       precedence   resource      theater
frequent    negro        precise      sacrilegious  theology
mechanic    notoriety    pretense     secretary     veto

                           #[Eighth Month.]#

“_O_ constituting or ending a syllable is long.”

broken       explosive   melodeon    poem       spoken
chosen       gondola     melody      police     tobacco
composition  licorice    open        potato     trophy
coquet       location    opponent    promotion  zodiac
cupola       locust      pantomime   proviso    zoölogy

                             EIGHTH YEAR.

                           #[Fourth Month.]#

“_I_constituting or ending an unaccented syllable, not initial, is
always short, and is usually short even in initial syllables, if

divide    tirade       sentinel    fidelity    residence
direct    intimate     continent   digest      levity
finance   indivisible  defensible  hilarious   reticent
imitate   equidistant  predicate   maritime    reticule
piazza    nobility     finance     invitation  direction

In the _initial_ syllables _i_, _bi_, _chi_, _cli_, _cri_, _pri_,
_tri_, however, _i_ is generally _long_.

idea        biology      climatic    primeval    tripod
idle        Chinese      criterion   triangular  triune
isothermal  chirography  biennial    binomial    priority

                           #[Fifth Month.]#

_E_ before terminal _n_ should always be silent in participles, and
also in most other words.

given   stolen   ridden   bidden   forsaken
taken   proven   shaken   woven    gotten
broken  driven   written  shaven   risen
spoken  frozen   arisen   chidden  smitten
fallen  hidden   beaten   eaten    stricken


heaven  oaken    happen   burden   leaven
often   leaden   seven    garden   brazen
widen   golden   even     eleven   christen

But in the following words _e_ should be sounded:

hyphen  chicken  marten   lichen   sudden
linden  linen    gluten   mitten   aspen

_E_ should also be sounded in any word (not a participle) in which
terminal _en_ is immediately preceded by _l_, _m_, _n_, or _r_.

women   Ellen    Helen    omen     pollen
barren  linen    woolen   Allen    Warren

                           #[Sixth Month.]#

“_E_ before terminal _l_ should usually be sounded.”

Abel    model    morsel   cancel   marvel
level   travel   rebel    gravel   barrel
nickel  apparel  towel    channel  kennel
chapel  citadel  revel    Mabel    libel
camel   laurel   bevel    funnel   parcel

But in the following words and in their derivatives _e_ before
terminal _l_ should not be sounded:

easel   weasel   ravel    mantel   shekel
navel   chattel  shrivel  drivel   snivel
shovel  grovel   mussel   hazel    teasel

                          #[Seventh Month.]#

“In most words _i_ before terminal _l_ or _n_ should be sounded.”

Latin    vigil    anvil    goblin    coffin
cavil    cabin    council  rosin     origin
javelin  pencil   axil     assassin  tranquil
resin    bobbin   violin   peril     moccasin
retail   satin    utensil  pistil    daffodil

In the following words _i_ should not be sounded:

devil    basin    evil     cousin    weevil     raisin

                           #[Eighth Month.]#

“_I_ accented in most words from the French has the sound of long

pique       quarantine  police   critique   unique
machine     routine     ravine   regime     intrigue
caprice     suite       valise   Bastile    magazine
guillotine  fatigue     antique

                             SEVENTH YEAR.

                          RULES OF SPELLING.

Many people think that rules of spelling are of no value, because they
are hard to remember and because of numerous exceptions. This is
certainly true of a great many such rules (and there are a great
many); but three or four of these rules apply to so many words
difficult to spell, and they have such a small number of exceptions
that they are well worth while. Several hundred words are spelled
according to the first rule given below. The rule itself is short, and
all of the exceptions could be learned “for keeps” by a pupil in an
hour. But _pupils must have drill in applying the rules_ or they may
be able to repeat the rules perfectly and glibly and not be able to
spell the words coming under them.

Since the rule given for the work of the first month, seventh year,
and that given for the second month, are counterparts, each of the
other, I prefer to take them together. Knowing that “_silent final e
is dropped when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added_”, we
naturally infer its counterpart, viz.: “_Silent final e is retained
when a suffix beginning with a consonant is added._”

To bring about the necessary drill and insure attention to the
application of the rule, I suggest that a class of pupils, reciting by
turns, spell at least twenty-five words according to the following
model. [The words are on the board in this form: love + able, care +

“The suffix _able_ begins with the vowel _a_; therefore when it is
added to the word _love_ the final silent _e_ is dropped, and the word
is spelled _lovable_.” Or,

“The suffix _less_ begins with the consonant _l_; therefore, when it
is added to the word _care_ the final silent _e_ is not dropped, and
the word is spelled _careless_.”

Words to be spelled according to this model should be mixed,—those in
which the suffix to be added begins with a vowel mixed with those in
which the suffix begins with a consonant. Exceptions ought to be
thrown into the mixture, and when a pupil comes to an exception, he
can proceed according to the model, concluding with, “but this word is
an exception to the rule”.

Fifty words are here given to illustrate this rule, but pupils who
want to do thorough work should spell several such fifties.

                           #[First Month.]#

love—able        adventure—ous   decide—ing
care—less        change—ing      ice—berg
blame—able       extreme—ly      house—keeper
achieve—ment     fickle—ness     idle—ness
brake—man        fore—cast       excite—ment
cure—able        compare—able    console—able
discourage—ment  continue—ally   endure—ance
prove—able       contrive—ance   amaze—ment
move—able        guide—ance      fierce—ness
acquire—ing      forgive—ness    peace—ful
else—where       hate—ful        deface—ment
enlarge—ment     believe—ing     disgrace—ful
admire—able      converse—ed     blue—ish
abide—ing        hedge—hog       lodge—ing
advertise—ment   achieve—ing     amuse—ment
eye—brow         hoarse—ness     dine—ing
pursue—ing       argue—ing       revenge—ful


Words ending in _ce_ and _ge_ retain the _e_ when a suffix beginning
with _a_ or _o_ is added.

changeable    challengeable  pronounceable
exchangeable  peaceable      advantageous
chargeable    serviceable    outrageous
manageable    traceable      courageous
marriageable  noticeable     vengeance

                           OTHER EXCEPTIONS.

hoeing   singeing  seer       nursling   truly
shoeing  tingeing  seeing     loathsome  duty
toeing   freeing   agreeable  awful      wisdom
dyeing   fleeing   mileage    duly       wholly

Five other exceptions, to be remembered together: argument, judgment,
lodgment, abridgment, acknowledgment.

The exceptions here given, which are practically all of the exceptions
to this rule, should be reviewed until they cannot be forgotten. The
value of the rule depends much on a thorough committal of the

                           #[Third Month.]#

Rule II: “When a suffix is added to a word ending in _y_, preceded by
a consonant, the _y_ is changed to _i_, unless the suffix begins with

Model for drill on this rule (supply + ed, display + ed are written on
the board):

“The _y_ in _supply_ is preceded by a consonant, therefore, when the
suffix _ed_ is added the _y_ is changed to _i_ and the word is
spelled, _supplied_.” Or,

“The _y_ in display is preceded by a vowel, therefore when the suffix
_ed_ is added the _y_ is not changed, and the word is spelled,

carry + ed    study + es    espy + ed     juicy + est
hurry + es    destroy + ed  deny + ing    homely + est
marry + ing   pity + ing    survey + ed   pity + ful
decay + ed    pity + less   employ + ing  rally + es
annoy + s     joy + less    noisy + est   pretty + est
copy + ed     city + es     mighty + er   pity + able


_y_ does not change before _'s_; as in

la´dy's     en´e my's   ba´by's     coun´try's

Other exceptions to the rule, or to what is inferred from it:

staid (_or_ stayed) slain      dry´ly               la´dy like
paid                dai´ly     dry ness             la dy bug
laid                sly ly     (_but_, dri´er,      la dy ship
said                sly ness   dri´est)             ba by hood
saith               shy ly     shy ness             ba by house

                     #[Fourth and Fifth Months.]#

Rule III: “Monosyllables or words accented on the last syllable,
ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double the
final consonant on receiving a suffix beginning with a vowel.” This
rule carries with it the inference that the final consonant is not
doubled unless these conditions are all complied with.

Model for drill on this rule:

“_Refer_ is not a monosyllable, but it is accented on the last
syllable; it ends in a single consonant _r_, preceded by a single
vowel _e_; therefore, on adding the suffix _ed_, beginning with the
vowel _e_, the final consonant _r_ is doubled, and the word is
spelled, _referred_.”

refer + ed    gallop + ed    suspend + ed    suffer + ing
omit + ed     abhor + ence   kidnap + ed     travel + ed
cheat + ed    join + ing     admit + ing     rebel + ious
flatter + ed  benefit + ed   differ + ence   fertil + izer
prefer + ing  permit + ed    enamel + ed     quarrel + ing
remit + ance  map + ing      drug + ist      brag + art
heap + ing    connect + ing  emit + ed       unfit + ed
confer + ing  offer + ed     conceal + ed    parallel + ed
acquit + ed*  commit + ee    shelter + ed    stir + ing
root + ed     squeal + ing   intermit + ent  equal + ed
depend + ent  begin + er     cheer + ed      vigor + ous
occur + ed    shovel + ed    forgot + en     regret + ed
submit + ed   transmit + ed  drum + er       spin + ing

* After _q_, _u_ is a consonant.


The final consonant is not doubled when, in the derivative, the accent
is thrown from the last syllable of the primitive; as, _re fer´_,
_ref´er ence_.

ref´er ence    def´er ence    ref er ee´
pref er ence   in fer ence    ref´er a ble _or_
con fer ence   pref er a ble   re fer´ri ble

                           OTHER EXCEPTIONS.

gas es         (but gassy)     tranquillity
gas eous       humbug ging     trans fer able
crystallize    humbug ged      ex cellence

NOTE.—There is a large class of words ending in _l_, and accented on
some other syllable than the last, in whose derivatives the _l_ is
doubled by many writers; but it accords more with the analogy of the
language not to double the _l_. Such words are the following: apparel,
cancel, channel, cudgel, dishevel, drivel, duel, enamel, equal,
gambol, grovel, jewel, libel, marshal, marvel, metal, model, panel,
peril, quarrel.

                     REFERENCE TABLE OF SUFFIXES.

_able_, see ble
_age_, that which, having
_ain_, see ian
_al_, pertaining to
_an_, pertaining to, one who
_ant_, one who, that which, quality of, condition of
_ary_, one who, that which, place where, condition of, quality of,
       pertaining to
_ate_, act of, state of, shaped like
_ble_, capable of, fit to be
_cle_, little, that which
_ed_,  condition of
_ee_, one who
_ence_, see ant
_ent_, see ant
_er_, one who, that which
_es_, see er
_et_, little
_ful_, full of, having
_fy_, to make
_ial_, see al
_ian_, one who
_ible_, see ble
_ic_, pertaining to
_il_, see ile
_ile_, capable of, quality of
_ion_, act of, state of, that which
_ious_, see ous
_ish_, act of
_is_, that which
_ise_, see ize
_ism_, state of, doctrine of
_ist_, one who
_ity_, that which, state of being, quality of
_ive_, that which, quality of
_ize_, act of
_lent_, full of
_less_, without
_ly_, state of being
_ment_, that which
_oid_, form
_or_, one who
_ory_, see ary
_ous_, full of, quality of, having
_tic_, see ic
_tude_, quality of
_ty_, see ity
_ure_, that which, act of
_y_, that which

                            INDEX TO ROOTS.

This index is to be used as a cross-reference by means of which, words
in different parts of the book having a common root may be associated.


act                11, 61
ambl               15, 18, 82
anim               25, 35
*ann               11
aqua               74, 80
arch               28, 45, 82
*art               12
*aster             12
*aud               13
bi, be             9, 64, 65, 74
brev               9, 39
burse              13, 20
*capt, caput       53
*ced, cess         53
*cent              54
cept               14, 55
*chron             46
cep, cip           18, 50
*civ               55
clam, claim        20, 74
clud, clus         16
cogn               20, 56, 81
*cord, card        17
*corpus, corpor    17
*cura, curo        18
*curr              58
cuspid             21, 35, 50
cycl               21, 50, 64
*dent              58
*dict              58
*doc, doct         59
dors               26, 56
dote               25, 63
*duc               22
dur                32, 33
*fac, fec, fic     23
femin              35, 71
*fer, lat          24
*fest              24
fid                39, 51, 56, 67
*fin               62
*firm              62
fix                19, 49, 60
*flex, flect       62
flor               39, 66, 82
*flu               63
*foli              26
form               15, 25, 61, 73
*fort              26
*fract, frang      27
*frater            27
fresh              20, 40
fuse               13, 59, 61
fy                 70
gam                21, 28, 45
*ge                47
gnost              59, 63
gon                26, 83
grad, gress        52, 54, 59, 60, 61
*graph             47
*grat, grac        65
*greg              65
hale               55, 56
hypnot             45, 82
itio, it           9, 55, 61
*ject              66
journ              49, 82
junct              71, 75
juven              20, 70
laps               20, 51
lect               51, 60, 71
*leg               66
*liber             30
*liter             31
loc                13, 40
*log, logy         48
loqu               51, 57, 59, 76
luc                39, 61
luna               60, 80
lut, luv           9, 50
*manu              31
mar                61, 71
*mater             32
matur              19, 56
*ment              68
meridi             50, 57
*meter             83
mingle             14, 51
*mit               69
moni               19, 49
mort               39, 56, 57
mot                40, 51, 59, 71
mut                32, 51, 56, 61
nat                40, 56, 66
nomi               21, 28, 50, 66
*norm              69
nov                20, 56
numer              38, 74
opo, opt           29, 44, 64, 76, 80
*pater             69
path               25, 29, 30, 45, 63, 76, 81
*ped, pod          36
*pel, puls         35
*pend, pens        35
*phon              83
ple, plen          20, 40
*polis             84
*pon, pos          37
*port              72
preci              52, 74
roy                63, 66, 82
*rupt              72
sal                34, 71
scend              52, 61
*scop              84
*scrib, scrip      72
secu               15, 40
sect               13, 14, 21, 50, 56, 71
soci               25, 32
solv               9, 68
son                25, 68
*spec              73
sta, sist          11, 15, 57, 60, 71
struct             20, 57
surrect            20, 71
*tang, tact        41
*tempor            41
*ten, tain         42
*terr              43
thesis             25, 29, 64
*tors, tort        76
*tract             77
trude              56, 57, 59
une                21, 39
use, uti           9, 32, 39
vade               15, 56
*ven               78
*vers, vert        79
via, vi            15, 21, 56, 74
vir                21, 70
viv                39, 70, 74, 82
vol                10, 67
zoo                48, 64

    * Given in the Illinois State Course of Study.

                          INDEX TO PREFIXES.


a (an)              63
a, ab, abs          9
ad (ac, etc.)       49
ambi, amphi         9
ante                50
anti                25
auto                64
bene                10
bi                  50
circum              10
con (col, etc.)     51
contra              11
de                  52
dia                 26
dis                 13
en (on)             26
epi                 64
ex (e, ec)          55
extra               14
in (im)             56
inter               14
micro               65
non                 15
mono                28
ob (op)             57
para                29
per                 15
peri                29
post                57
pre                 18
pro                 59
re                  20
retro               60
se                  60
semi                20
sub (suc, etc.)     60
super               20
syn (sym)           29
tele                30
trans               61
tri                 21
uni                 25
vice                63

                          INDEX TO SUFFIXES.


able                32
ac                  44
aceous              66
acy                 33
al                  66
an                  33
ance                68
ary                 34
ate                 35
ence                67
ent                 68
fy                  70
ic                  38, 80
ics                 44
id                  39
ile                 70
ine                 71
ion                 71
ise                 81
ist                 82
ism                 45
ite                 71
ity                 39
ive                 40
ment                40
oid                 82
ory                 73
ous                 74
ulent               75
ure                 75
y                   45, 75


Seventh Year.

First Month.                                Page.
  Word Analysis                             9-13
  Elementary Sounds                         85
  Rule of Spelling                          100

Second Month.
  Word Analysis                             13-18
  Letters, Alphabet, etc.                   87
  Rule of Spelling                          100

Third Month.
  Word Analysis                             18-24
  Vowels                                    88
  Rule of Spelling                          101

Fourth Month.
  Word Analysis                             25-28
  Consonants                                89
  Rule of Spelling                          102

Fifth Month.
  Word Analysis                             28-32
  Silent Letters—Principle                  93
  Rule of Spelling                          102

Sixth Month.
  Word Analysis                             32-38
  Silent Letters—Principle                  94
  Principle of Pronunciation                96

Seventh Month.
  Word Analysis                             38-43
  Silent Letters—Principle                  94
  Principle of Pronunciation                97

Eighth Month.
  Word Analysis                             44-48
  Silent Letters—Principle                  95
  Principle of Pronunciation                97

Eighth Year.

First Month.
  Word Analysis                             49-55
  Syllables                                 90
  Silent Letters—Principle                  95

Second Month.
  Word Analysis                             55-59
  Accent                                    91
  Silent Letters—Principle                  95

Third Month.
  Word Analysis                             59-63
  Words                                     92
  Silent Letters—Principle                  95

Fourth Month.
  Word Analysis                             63-66
  Silent Letters—Principle                  95
  Principle of Pronunciation                97

Fifth Month.
  Word Analysis                             66-70
  Silent Letters—Principle                  96
  Principle of Pronunciation                98

Sixth Month.
  Word Analysis                             70-73
  Silent Letters—Principle                  96
  Principle of Pronunciation                98

Seventh Month.
  Word Analysis                             73-80
  Silent Letters—Principle                  96
  Principle of Pronunciation                99

Eighth Month.
  Word Analysis                             80-84
  Silent Letters—Principle                  96
  Principle of Pronunciation                99

Reference Table of Suffixes                 105

Index to Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes      106-107

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Orthography - As Outlined in the State Course of Study for Illinois" ***

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