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Title: The Condition and Tendencies of Technical Education in Germany
Author: Chamberlain, Arthur Henry, 1870-1942
Language: English
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                    Technical Education in Germany


                       ARTHUR HENRY CHAMBERLAIN

       Professor of Education and Principal of the Normal School
            of Manual Training, Art, and Domestic Economy,
          Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, California:
                Author of “Educative Hand-Work Manuals”
                  and “A Bibliography of Manual Arts”


                            SYRACUSE, N. Y.
                       C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER

                   Copyright, 1908, by C. W. BARDEEN


The question of the technical phases of education is, with any nation, a
vital one. Perhaps this is true of Germany as it is of no other European
country. This may be mainly due to one of several causes. First, as to
the length of time technical education has had a place in the German
schools. In some form or another, and in a greater or lesser degree,
such instruction has been in vogue for many years, and has in no small
measure become part and parcel of the educational fabric of the nation.
Again, throughout the various German States, the work is rather widely
differentiated, this owing in part to the fact that the varying lines of
industry in adjacent localities even, give color and bent to the
technical education of any particular locality. An extensive field is
thus comprehended under the term “technical education”. Then, too,
Germany as a nation must needs better her condition in order that she
may prove self-sustaining. The country is not a wealthy one, and if in
trade, in manufacture, and in commerce, she is to compete, and that
successfully, with the world powers, strength must be gained along such
lines as those opening through technical education.

The hope is entertained that the following pages may prove of value, not
alone to the student of technical education as it exists in Germany, but
particularly to those who are endeavoring to institute and develop
industrial and technical training in this country. The possibility along
these lines is exceedingly great and the interest and attention of
thinking people is focused here. They look to this form of education as
a partial solution of some of the most obstinate problems now
confronting us.



    INTRODUCTION                                                     v

    CONTENTS                                                       vii

    PUBLISHER’S NOTE                                              viii

    SECTION I. Classification of Schools                             5

    SECTION II. Continuation Schools (Fortbildungsschulen)          16

    SECTION III. Trade Schools (Fachschulen)                        41

    SECTION IV. Secondary Technical Schools
                  (Gewerbliche Mittelschulen)                       61

                Schools for the Building Trades
                  (Baugewerkschulen)                                61

                Schools for Foremen (Werkmeisterschulen)            69

                Schools for the Textile Trades (Gewerbeschulen)     74

                Industrial Schools of Bavaria (Industrie Schulen)   82

    SECTION V.  Higher Technical Schools (Technische Hochschulen)   85

    SECTION VI. Schools of Industrial Arts or Art Trade Schools
                  (Kunstgewerbeschulen)                             98

    SECTION VII. Bibliography                                      105

                    Technical Education in Germany



If one were to point out the most distinctive feature of the educational
system in the Fatherland to-day, it would perhaps be the highly
specialized condition of the technical schools.

In approaching our problem we naturally ask ourselves the question as to
how far the industrial progress of a country is influenced by technical
education. In no time as in our own has so much stress been laid upon
the commercial side of our existence. New trades, new industries are
springing up; specialization is becoming more far-reaching and more
firmly established than ever before; competition is becoming keener;
the application of science to the arts is more varied.

In this latter field we find Germany in the very fore front, she having
developed along these lines to a greater extent than have many of our
nations. Illustrations of this application lie all about us,--in the
bettered transportation facilities by railroad and by ocean vessel; in
the more improved bridge and building construction; in the methods of
water supply and drainage; in modes of heat, light, and ventilation; in
electric vehicles, sound transmitters, labor-saving machinery; in finely
adjusted instruments that bring far away worlds almost within reaching
distance; in these and a thousand other ways is made manifest the result
of the application of science to the arts. Germany is taking a prominent
part in this warfare for industrial supremacy, and that she expects her
technical schools to be largely instrumental in answering many of the
problems of the present and the future cannot be doubted, especially
when one is made aware of the diversity and extent of the schools of a
technical character scattered over the Empire.

It will be readily understood from the foregoing how difficult a matter
it is to make any one classification that will cover in an adequate
manner the various types of existing institutions. Frequently a school
is found which in some respects is distinctive. To place such a school
in this or that category would of course do violence to the
classification, while to form a new class only serves to further
complicate and bewilder. Again, various of the institutions mentioned
may offer such a differentiated schedule or be made up of so many
parallel departments as to entitle them to admission into two or more of
the classes given.

Another point of difficulty lies in the fact that the term “technical”
would in Germany be somewhat more sweeping than with us in America. We
do not class technical training with so-called manual training or
handwork of the elementary schools. In our present study however, we
shall find that while in the main we are dealing with the technical
training of boys from fourteen to eighteen years of age,--comparable in
a measure to our high or secondary school courses, we shall also include
the industrial, vocational, or trade training of men and boys alike, as
well as work in the more simplified forms of handicraft, as carried on
in the lower or elementary school. Reference will also be made to the
instruction of a higher order,--such for example as makes for engineers.
These facts will be illuminated as the study proceeds.

In reading into these schools their real significance, several points
must be kept constantly in mind. At an early age the German youth is
supposed to have solved the problem of his likes and dislikes, his
abilities and shortcomings; to have gained such a perspective of his
probable chances for future success, as to choose the line of work or
occupation he shall follow. It is only fair to state, however, that
circumstances have much to do with such decision, viz,--the occupation
of the father, the financial outlook of the family, the industrial
demands of the locality, the particular educational opportunities
offered,--these and like problems entering in as vital elements.

Then too, the founding and sustaining of a technical school is a matter
to be noted. This may be in the hands of the general government, of the
state, of the municipality, or may be looked after by private
enterprise. The Guilds, Vereins or Associations may organize, equip and
foster schools of such character as train directly for their particular
lines of work. It must be stated however in this connection, that there
seems to be a strong tendency at the present time toward the
centralizing of control in the states. This has been brought about in
large measure through the ever-increasing willingness on the part of the
state to give financial backing to the schools, and thus has quite
naturally arisen the desire and necessity on the part of the state, that
it have a controlling voice in the school administration. Herein lies
one of the main differences between such education in Germany and that
of our own country.

Conrad’s Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, 1900, in an article
entitled “Gewerblicher Unterricht”, gives the following table on state
expenditure for trade and technical instruction in recent years:


  Marks 142,000 ($33,796) in 1874;
  Marks 475,000 ($114,050) in 1885;
  Marks 4,672,000 ($1,111,936) in 1899.


  Marks 235,000 ($60,214) in 1873;
  Marks 570,000 ($135,660) in 1885;
  Marks 1,138,000 ($270,844) in 1898.

Wurttemburg industrial continuation school:

  Marks, 58,000 ($13,804) in 1869;
  Marks 129,000 ($30,702) in 1879;
  Marks 164,000 ($39,032) in 1889;
  Marks 208,000 ($49,504) in 1897.

The cost of the state per capita of the population of the expenditures
was as follows:

  Prussia, Pfennigs 15 (3½ cts.) in 1899;
  Saxony, Pfennigs 29 (7 cts.) in 1898;
  Hesse, Pfennigs 22 (5 cts.) in 1898.

The cost per Marks 1,000 ($236) of the entire state expenditures was
Marks 2.27 (54 cts.) in Prussia in 1899, and Marks 5.88 ($1.40) in
Saxony in 1898.

In general the German schools are classified upon a basis of the grade
of instruction given rather than upon the character of the subjects
taught. Primary education is compulsory, that is to say, all children
are compelled by law to attend school from their sixth to their
fourteenth year. It is at this point that we find our difficulty. To
quote Dr. Alwin Pabst of Leipzig (who speaks of conditions governing
technical schools):

“The age of admission, length of course, fees and other conditions
(examinations) of these schools differ widely. Ages range from fourteen
to thirty years or over; length of course, one to four or five years;
fees perhaps twenty to thirty marks per year. The Fortbildungsschule is
the only institution in which no fee is charged.” (Taken from a personal

Several classifications commend themselves for use. Each has its
weaknesses and breaks down at some point, owing to the conditions
previously mentioned. In order the better to illustrate this difficulty
I shall give these various possible classifications.

The first refers chiefly to the scheme of secondary education and was
the one first chosen and later discarded. It was suggested mainly by Sir
Philip Magnus’s work on “Industrial Education” and the “Report of the
Industrial Commission”, Vol. 1.

  1. Industrieschulen

  2. Trade Schools

  3. Building Trade Schools

  4. Secondary Technical Schools
      Higher Technical

  5. Industrial Art Schools (Kunstgewerbe)
      Pure Art
      Applied Art

  6. Polytechnics or Technische Hochschulen

  7. Continuation Schools--Fortbildungsschulen

Another classification, suggested in most part by a German authority is
as follows:

  1. Fortbildungsschulen--Continuation schools
  2. Industrie--or Fachschulen--Special Trade Schools
  3. Gewerbeschulen
  4. Technische Schulen
  5. Technische Hochschulen
  6. Baugewerkschulen--School for Architects
  7. Kunstgewerbeschulen--Schools of Art

In the Seventeenth Annual Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Labor for
1902 we find the following:

  1. Technical Colleges
  2. Secondary or Intermediate Technical Schools
  3. Schools and Museums of Industrial Art
  4. Schools for Foremen
  5. Schools for the Textile Trades
  6. Trade and Industrial Continuation Schools
  7. Industrial Drawing Courses
  8. Other Institutions for Industrial Education.

The order followed in the present study is finally given below. It is
one not to be found elsewhere, but more closely resembles that of Dr.
Pabst (the second classification) and that found in the Seventeenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor. It has undoubtedly its weak
points, but I feel it is the best that can be made however, as it is
based upon data recently published, and the results of correspondence
with German school authorities, in addition to a not very extended
knowledge gained through personal contact with the German schools. It
may be taken therefore, as bringing the work down to the present time:

  1. Continuation Schools or Fortbildungsschulen
  2. Trade Schools or Fachschulen
  3. Secondary or Intermediate Technical Schools or Gewerbliche
  4. Technical Colleges or Technische Hochschulen
  5. School and Museums of Industrial Art, or Kunstgewerbeschulen


                         CONTINUATION SCHOOLS


Since at the age of fourteen years the German youth is no longer under
the control of the compulsory school law, the value of the system of
continuation schools is realized. Of necessity the great mass of boys
are at this age, forced to enter some gainful pursuit. It was clearly
evident to the German people that boys should not be cut off from school
education at this early age. Dr. James H. Russell in his German Higher
Schools says:

“The elementary and secondary schools are quite independent of each
other--not one boy in ten thousand finds his way from the highest class
of the elementary school into the Gymnasium.”

It is evident that year by year an increasingly large number of boys
discontinue their education at the close of the elementary school, for a
statement made by Mr. Michael N. Sadler, (Vol. III of Special Reports on
Educational Subjects, London), some years prior to the above writing,
would seem to indicate a lesser percentage of dropping out than that
proposed by Dr. Russell.

The desire then for more extended educational advantages must have been
early felt, and there sprang into existence what has since developed
into one of the most significant features and far-reaching factors in
the German scheme,--the continuation school. I quote from Mr. H. Bertram
who writes of the continuation schools in Berlin, December, 1899:

“Amid the development of civilization among the nations the idea of the
continuation school is making its way with increasing strength. Urgently
required by the conditions of social organization, and in its turn
acting on them, the new institution appears in many forms. It claims its
place side by side with the Church and the School.

“Among the great number of those who enter early upon the practical
business of life, to whom the primary school has offered a start there
awakens, sooner or later, the desire to share in the stores of
knowledge which human intelligence has won, in the insight into the
working of the forces of nature, which it has acquired and applied to
industry, in the arts which ennoble and support human action; in short
to participate in the spiritual treasures which are, as it were, the
birthright of those born under a luckier star. This desire, which opens
to the diligent the way to material prosperity and inner contentment,
seems for society as a whole an important incentive to industrial
progress, and turns the discontent of the slaves of machinery into
happiness of men conscious of their own success. The more the old order
changes which held the work people in the narrow bonds of tradition, the
more is customary prescription replaced by education and independent
judgment, by insight into existing conditions, by special excellence
within a particular sphere. For this reason, the elementary school,
however efficient and methodically correct its action may be, cannot
suffice for the happiness of the masses, nor for the preservation of
society. The instruction must come into close contact with the life of
the future citizen, and must be at the command of everyone desirous to
learn, as long as he seeks it. But the seeker, born amid such conditions
as these, needs guidance. Public libraries, newspapers, magazines help
him the more he pushes forward, but without expert assistance he hardly
finds the beginning of the path.

“This is the object of the Continuation School.”

It is somewhat difficult to define the limits and scope of the
continuation or Fortbildungsschulen. Conditions vary in the different
German states and especially do they vary in the various kinds of
continuation schools. Definition is made even more doubtful when we find
that the limits of certain schools overlap. It may be said that
students are regularly admitted from fourteen to sixteen years of age.
Not infrequently however, boys and men of more mature years take
advantage of the courses offered. Instruction is carried on during the
week-day evenings from six to eight o’clock and on Sunday mornings.

Prussia leads the other states in the number and character of her
supplementary schools, the system having its fullest expression in
Berlin. The fact became early apparent that preparation, whatever line
the boy was to follow, was necessary, and this thought is confirmed in
the many skilled laborers in Germany to-day. In Prussia, as elsewhere,
it was found that boys many times left the common school before they
became proficient in any line of book work. The causes were various;
poverty, indifference, sickness, overcrowding, poor enforcement of the
compulsory attendance laws,--all these conspired to make supplementary
schools necessary. In the older provinces very little attention was
given the continuation school prior to 1875, and almost as much could be
said of those provinces which were acquired in 1866. In 1844 a report
issued by the Department of Public Instruction makes mention of the
usefulness of such schools, while two years later a second report has
only slightly more to say on the subject. This lack of interest may be
attributed in large measure to the non-financial support of these
schools by the government.

Several problems had to be faced in working out the scheme. Certain
definite relations between the primary and continuation schools must be
observed; those coming into the latter with an inadequate underschool
knowledge must be looked after; provision must be made for students of
lesser as well as of more mature years; all classes of occupation must
be given attention; these and many other difficult questions were to be
met and overcome.

“Three principles,” says Mr. Bertram, “have contributed to the solution
of this problem--free choices between the courses provided, free
enjoyment of the preparatory courses without fee, and the selection of
the teachers according to their attainments in a particular branch and
their ability to adapt their instruction to the needs of the pupils or
participants in the course.”

In certain sections, Nassau and Hanover for example, state aid came
early to the continuation school. In 1874 an increased appropriation
resulted in the betterment of the schools then existing and in the
further establishment of like institutions. Here the communities must
meet the cost of building, heating, lighting etc., and one-half of all
the expenses not covered by the actual tuition. Since 1878 there is a
fairly general acceptance throughout the Empire of the statute
providing that all employes under eighteen years of age must be allowed
to attend a continuation school, the period of attendance to be
determined by “competent authority”. This naturally leads the Public
Instruction Department to be free in its financial support.

It will be understood that in most cases six hours per week is the
attendance required and that only those who have left the Volksschule or
lower school and are not attending any higher institution are admitted.
In Saxony a somewhat different condition exists. Children who have not
made satisfactory progress in the Volksschule must, perforce, attend the
continuation school for two years.

The writer of this paper was thoroughly impressed with the work of the
Sunday classes as seen in Leipzig, Saxony, during the summer of 1899.
His first introduction to such work was made, when on joining a group
of boys, several of them carrying draughting-boards, he was conducted by
them to their school. The general character and deportment of the boys,
the spirit and enthusiasm manifested by them, and the thoughtful and
intelligent quality of the work produced, fully justified in his own
mind, the validity and worth of the Sunday class instruction.

As between the schools located in the cities and those in the smaller
towns and country places, there is some slight difference. They may be
classified as (_a_) rural or (_b_) city schools, on account of their
location. The distinction lies rather in the arrangement of their
curricula, the needs of the students in the particular locality being
kept in mind. In the rural schools the programme of studies is somewhat
general, comprising the German language, arithmetic, mensuration, nature
study; and in some instances may be added to these, geography, German
history, drawing, gymnastics and music. This programme is elective to
the extent that the capacity and previous education of the pupil are
considered, and too, the ability of the teacher, local conditions and
the time spent by the individual student. Such schools are admonished
not to take on the character of technical institutions, but rather to
continue the general education begun in the Volksschulen. Only under
certain conditions is less than four hours per week of instruction

In Prussia the city continuation schools are of two grades, each grade
made up of a number of classes. In the lower grade schools, instruction
is given in accordance with the particular trade or calling the pupil is
to follow. In the upper grade, work is much the same, proficiency being
the chief additional feature. When six hours of work is the minimum,
language, arithmetic, elementary geometry and drawing, form the body of
the course; while penmanship, geography, history, grammar and nature
study all are taken up in connection with the reading work. Business
forms are not overlooked. In the more fully equipped schools where the
teachers are prepared for such branches, higher mathematics, mechanics,
physics and advanced drawing are taken up.

If, as before stated, the various types of continuation schools overlap,
the same is true regarding the trade and industrial continuation
schools. While in many instances the work in the latter schools is of a
general character, aiming to supplement or round out the education of
the pupil, we find that many of the original schools of this class have
developed into a form of special or trade school. This is brought about
through pressure from without, as it were. When a certain industry
predominates in a locality supporting a continuation school, it is only
fair to suppose that the work done, general though it may be, will be
colored to some extent at least, by the demands of such industry. If
this process of merging is carried sufficiently far, as is in many cases
done, the school may lose almost or entirely its original trend, and
from a Fortbildungsschule, fall into the class of trade or Fachschulen.

In the main then, the instruction given in a continuation school proper,
is either of a theoretical nature or involves some form of drawing
perhaps, thus rendering any other than an ordinary school room
unnecessary for class use. In the city of Leipzig the situation is
dissimilar to that in some north German cities. Here the classes are
arranged according to the various trades followed, as bookbinders,
printers, lithographers, bakers, metal workers, workers in wood and
stone, etc. There are again in Southern Germany simply schools of
drawing with special reference to the various trades and industries. In
addition to these are classes of a general nature for boys not following
special trades. Such schools however, cannot be found in the smaller
towns or in the country. Certain other Saxon cities have schools of
somewhat similar character.

In the Consular Report, Vol. 54, No. 202, page 447, 1898, Mr. J. C.
Monoghan says, writing under the title Technical Education in Germany:

“The supplementary schools are for the people who have to work, what
Chautauquas, summer schools, and university extension courses are for
others.--Parties in politico-economic circles have found that the system
of common school education under which boys and girls were given an
ordinary education in reading, writing, arithmetic etc., up to their
fourteenth year, was inadequate, partially if not wholly, to the ends
aimed at in such a system. To supply this defect it was urged, and
finally proposed and favorably acted upon, that graduates of the common
schools, boys especially, in some few cases girls too, should continue
to get instruction a certain number of hours a week. This was made
compulsory. Manufacturers, shopkeepers, and mechanics in whose employ
such boys were found, and not the parents, were made responsible for the
boys’ attendance. In these schools, as indicated in the foregoing, the
boys get as good an idea as possible of the trade or branch of business
in which they are employed. As a rule, the hours of attendance are early
in the morning or a certain number of afternoons in the week. Sunday
mornings are not thought too sacred for such work. It seems to be an
acknowledgement that the years hitherto given to a boy in which to get
an education, viz., from his sixth to his fourteenth year, are not
enough to prepare him for the struggle for life that he has to enter
upon. Men have told me, successful merchants and agents here, that they
owe more to the hours spent in the developing or supplementary schools
from the practical character of the instruction given and the
information imparted, than to the many years spent in the common
schools. While one is hardly willing to believe this, there can be no
doubt of the good work done, and being done, by the schools referred

The Handwerkschulen in Berlin are very similar to Fortbildungsschulen in
Leipzig for example. These schools have seen a marvelous development
during the past few years. They have a technical quality, giving much
attention to drawing. The sessions are in the evening, eight hours per
week, the fee being six marks the half year. They are attended by
journeymen and apprentices who come recommended by their employers. In
connection with these schools various Sunday classes are conducted
throughout the city, each center specializing along certain trade lines.

The Berlin Handwerker Verein is a type of continuation school, sustained
not by the state but by an association. The Verein, founded in 1859, has
for its object the promotion of general culture, a partial knowledge at
least of the several callings represented, and good manners (gute
Sitten). The moral and ethical elements are not lacking. Here public
lectures of real merit are given, together with music, gymnastics, and
instruction in general and technical subjects. Boys of good character,
over seventeen years of age, are admitted. The families of the boys in
attendance are also allowed to avail themselves of such general
exercises, lectures, music, etc., as the school offers.

What may also be styled as belonging in a sense in the continuation
school category is the German Association for the Diffusion of Popular
Education, with headquarters in Berlin. Branches of this association are
scattered throughout various parts of the Empire.

In the year 1869, the industrial code provided that all boys under
eighteen years of age might, at the discretion of the local authorities,
be compelled to attend school. It is thus evident that the local or
State authority was here consulted, rather than the General Government.
At the present time however, when the adjustment of this matter is not
in the hands of local authority, the employer must, if those engaged
with him desire so to do, allow such boys to attend school at their
option. In some States however, Saxony, Bavaria, Hesse and Baden,
compulsory school laws are in force among all boys fourteen to eighteen
years of age. At present the law of 1891 is active and the portion
touching our problem is here given:

“Employers are required to give the necessary time, to be determined
eventually by the competent authorities, to their workingmen under
eighteen years of age who attend an educational establishment recognized
by the communal administration or by the State as an adult’s school.
Instruction shall not be given on Sunday except where the hours are so
fixed that the pupils are not prevented from attending the principal
religious exercise or a religious exercise of their faith especially
conducted for them with the consent of the ecclesiastical authorities.
The central administration may, until October 1, 1894, accord exemptions
from the last provision to adult schools already in existence,
attendance upon which is not obligatory.

“For purposes of this law schools giving instruction in manual work and
domestic duties to women shall be considered as adult schools.”

This citation points out that the Sunday class work must not conflict
with the religious services. There is a strong sentiment in many places
in favor of a repeal of such laws as prohibit Sunday classes at such
times as church services are held. Many of the clergy are opposed to the
extending of Sunday continuation schools, while for the most part the
government authorities are favorable to such extension.

As regards the compulsory age limit, Prussia of all the German states is
following out the option given the individual States. It is worthy of
note that she declares (while declining to accept the law) that where
freedom is allowed, boys are more likely to continue in school after
their eighteenth year. It is insisted also that with the restrictions
removed, a deeper interest is excited in the school studies. The
statement is made however that in Prussia two thirds of the industrial
continuation schools have compulsory attendance laws in force as the
local authorities may determine. Certain it is that much stress is laid
upon the ethical side of instruction in the continuation schools and it
is agreed that the compulsory school should not transplant the regular
continuation school, except where it seems absolutely necessary to do
so. In Bavaria for example, where the age limit by law is thirteen, the
compulsory school has a place for the time being at least.

In Berlin, a century ago, Sunday afternoon classes were inaugurated,
with a programme no more varied than that furnished by the three R’s.
Apprentices not equipped with sufficient school training were forced to
attend the schools. In 1869 the power was wrested from the trade guilds
and the elective system resulted, later producing the Elementary
Continuation School. The local city government founded at a later date
three such schools, and in these a more diversified curriculum was
operated, adding to the three R’s, German composition and literature,
modern languages, natural science, political science, law, bookkeeping
and drawing. For various reasons these schools were not attended by a
full measure of success and the city authorities formulated the plan of
placing the continuation schools in some of the higher institutions of
learning, courses to be operative in winter only. Later, from the
preparatory school, which fitted for the continuation school proper,
grew up the technical continuation school.

There are at the present twelve schools of the continuation type in
Berlin. A large attendance is desired, for with large classes groups of
various intellectual standards may be formed. The student is free to
elect subjects--as between certain languages, mathematics or art
studies. The Director of the school, by keeping in touch with the
employers in the various trades and shops, can thus control the
attendance and shape the course of the lines of work offered.

Some ten years since, two special lines of instruction were withdrawn
from the continuation school proper--the carpenters’ school and the
Gewerbesaal, comprising work in drawing and theory involved in machine
construction and the like. Courses for turners are offered in the
carpenters’ schools. In Berlin there are in excess of nine centers for
the last named school and ten centers for the Gewerbesaal, the winter
classes running up to 2000 and 850 pupils respectively.

This example serves to illustrate the fact mentioned in a previous
connection, viz., that the Fortbildungsschule was in some cases merged
into a special school, for here in reality a Fach or trade institution
has developed from the original continuation school. This practice has
been going on more or less extensively among the various schools; and in
Berlin especially, the continuation school has been the foundation of
most of the Fachschulen. Something more will be said in this connection
in the section under trade schools.

Regarding the continuation schools for girls and women a word may be
added. As with the boys’ schools, so these designed for girls were put
on foot, partly at least, from an ethical standpoint. Girls spending
their days in the factory and shop were in need of a refining influence,
and this the continuation school afforded. Courses were offered in the
German language, arithmetic, sewing and dressmaking. The efforts made to
give girls this training were not entirely successful. So many
objections to Sunday work were brought forward that it was discontinued.
The burdens of the day fell so heavily upon the girls that they were not
ambitious to attend evening classes. At the present time the schools are
more largely attended by girls who, during the day, remain in the
family, and in the school take up the household arts, sewing, cutting
out, and the like, and also languages, mathematics, geography, etc.,
gymnastics and music, shorthand and typewriting. It is hoped soon to
introduce cookery in all girls’ schools. Drawing is given much

There are in Berlin, nine municipal continuation schools for girls,
which are, as the name indicates, maintained by the city.


                           TRADE SCHOOLS[1]

As has been indicated in another connection, the classification of trade
schools as such, is somewhat uncertain. It has been shown that many of
the present schools for special trades have evolved from the
continuation schools of the past. In the transition state it is
sometimes quite difficult to definitely place a certain school, whether
in the trade continuation, or trade group proper, or to class it with
the Industrieschulen. The trade continuation schools have largely
superseded the regular trade schools, in many localities at least, and
where this condition exists, trade instruction seems to be losing
ground, here the Fortbildungsschulen on the one hand, and regular
apprenticeships on the other, coming in to supplant trade teaching.

[Footnote 1: The two previous articles were published in the School
Bulletin for July and August, 1906.]

The seeming contradictory statements made here must be interpreted in
the spirit rather than in the letter, if the full meaning and
significance of the trade school is to be grasped. Trades are taught as
formerly. The point made is that while the trade school, per se, is
doing its work, boys are, more and more, being trained for their trades
in the so-called trades continuation schools and as apprentices in the
shops. The latter form of training will be spoken of elsewhere in this
section of the paper.

We have noted in following the work of the continuation school, that the
attempt has been mainly toward the teaching of theoretical subjects, the
practical lines being carried forward in the regular daily occupations
of the individuals. Hence the trade is not held specifically in mind,
although the desired end is always kept in view. In the trade schools
on the other hand, the work is largely of a practical nature, dealing
with some particular occupation. The foregoing statement may be taken as
fairly representing the Fachschule point of view, but it should be
observed that while these schools are special trade schools, training
for example iron workers, or joiners, or tailors, there is a
differentiation within the general class. I refer to the Gewerbeschulen,
where theoretical lessons are sometimes taught. These schools will be
given mention in the secondary group.

Admission to the trade schools is gained usually at fourteen years of
age, the length of each course covering a period of three years. The
schools are in receipt of financial aid from both state and local

To simplify our study, we shall consider only such institutions as deal
with a single trade each, leaving the schools for the building trades
and the like, and those dealing with industrial art and drawing to be
treated elsewhere. Specialization has been carried so far that the
following lists of schools, each training for its own particular trade
or calling, may be given. The list is arranged alphabetically and
without reference to the relative importance of the various vocations,
or to the number of schools. Such schools are now found pretty generally
in the larger cities throughout the Empire. Some of these are day
schools; some evening schools, and others again offer both day and
evening courses and Sunday instruction.


  Schools for Bakers
     "     "  Barbers and Hairdressers
     "     "  Basketmakers, Wickerworkers, and Strawplaiters
     "     "  Blacksmiths
     "     "  Bookbinders
     "     "  Carpenters and Cabinetmakers
     "     "  Chimney Sweeps
     "     "  Confectioners
     "     "  Coopers
     "     "  Gardeners
     "     "  Glaziers
     "     "  Joiners
     "     "  Marine Machinists
     "     "  Masons
     "     "  Painters
     "     "  Paperhangers and Decorators
     "     "  Plumbers
     "     "  Photographers
     "     "  Potters
     "     "  Printers
     "     "  Saddlers, Trimmers and Trunkmakers
     "     "  Shoemakers
     "     "  Tailors
     "     "  Tinsmiths
     "     "  Toymakers
     "     "  Upholsterers
     "     "  Wagonmakers and Wheelwrights
     "     "  Watch and Clockmakers
     "     "  Woodcarvers

Some of the above named institutions are in certain localities styled
apprenticeship schools. These train workmen and foremen of a minor
degree. Shop work is offered, and in some cases pure and applied art as

The evening work of the so-called Artisans’ Schools of Berlin, are
deserving of special mention. There are two such institutions, called
respectively school number one and school number two. The first was
established in 1880; the second in 1892. The aim of these schools is to
give to tradesmen and apprentices in their leisure hours such a
knowledge of drawing, the arts and sciences, as will find an application
in their own lines of work.

The grade of instruction varies from quite elementary work to that for
advanced students, the latter being obliged to present evidence of
fitness before entering.

The following courses are offered, the figures indicating the number of
hours per week devoted to each.

  Arithmetic                                                 2
  Algebra                                                    2
  Geometry                                                   2
  Trigonometry                                               2
  Analytical geometry and calculus                           1
  Mathematical problems involving physics and mechanics      2
  Descriptive geometry                                       4
  Bookkeeping                                                2
  Physics                                                    4
  Mechanics                                                  2
  Electro-technics                                           4
  Chemistry                                                  4
  Chemistry and pharmacy                                     4
  Free-hand drawing                                        2-4
  Aquarelle                                                  4
  Projection                                                 4
  Ornament                                                   4
  Trade drawing according to occupation                      4
  Modeling in wax and clay                                   4
  Decorative painting                                        4

In addition to the foregoing, school number two offers:

  Chasing                                                    4
  Practical wrought-iron work                                4
  Sketching and calculating the elements of machinery        2

The courses continue for two years.

It is interesting to note that whereas certain enactments are in force
regarding the Sunday sessions of the Fortbildungsschulen, there are no
such restrictions placed upon the Fachschulen, Sunday morning classes
being held at the discretion of the school authorities.

Let us refer to our table of single trade schools as given above. The
statements which follow have in most cases been taken from data relating
to the schools of Berlin, and may be said to fairly represent the
general existing conditions throughout the Empire.

In the school for bakers, instruction is given one day weekly for two
and one half hours. The theoretical work (which in common with all such
work in the regular trade schools, is related directly to the particular
trade under discussion) is made up of chemistry and bookkeeping.

In the barbers’ and hairdressers’ schools, instruction is carried on six
days each week, four hours daily, the school continuing six months of
the year, covering the winter period. Each class receives fourteen hours
instruction per week. While the bakers’ school is supported by the
guild, the barbers’ school is jointly maintained by state, city and
guild. The curriculum includes shaving, hair cutting, and hair dressing,
wig making, and ladies’ hair dressing. A tuition of three marks is
charged for the term, in the case of apprentices, and six marks for
journeymen; a charge five times as great is made for ladies’ hair
dressing, and for the surgical lectures, ten marks.

The guild, state and municipality maintain the school for basketmakers
and wickerworkers. Apprentices receive instruction free, four marks each
semester being charged the journeymen and adults. Attendance is
compulsory on the part of apprentices of guild members. Four hours work
per week are given, on Saturdays. The annual expenses of the school, are
about five hundred and fifty dollars. Four courses are offered, as
follows: first, general basket making and wicker furniture; second,
making of small wicker furniture; third, large wicker furniture; fourth,
fine and artistic wicker working.

In the blacksmiths’ school the instruction is for two hours, one day
each week. Theoretical work in horseshoeing, and drawing related to the
course are taught.

The city and guild support the school for bookbinders. The students are
both apprentices and journeymen. They work week day evenings and Sunday
mornings. The purpose is not to produce tradesmen, but rather to make
more proficient those engaged in some form of bookbinding, and to this
end applicants must have had experience amounting to two years work
before entering the school. All students must be grounded in the general
elements underlying the trade before they are allowed to take up any
phase as a specialty. No fee is charged the apprentices of guild
members; others pay five marks per term; journeymen pay nine marks per

In the cabinetmakers’ school, all lines of work pertaining to the trade
are taken up, drawing and designing for trade purposes; free-hand
drawing; modeling, carving; properties of woods, etc. Instruction is
given week day evenings and Sunday forenoons. Four marks are charged
for the first term in the drawing course and for each subsequent term,
two marks. The subjects taken up are: chemistry, free-hand drawing,
projection, trade drawing, perspective and shadows, drawing from cast,
modeling and wood carving, joinery. The school is under public control.

In most of the remaining trade schools, instruction is pretty generally
given on week day evenings and Sunday mornings, the apprentices of guild
members paying no fee, a small charge being made for outsiders. The
support comes from city, state and guild in most cases. In the school
for masons however, there is a preparatory course and also a carpenters’
course, the whole covering a three years term. In this school the
instruction is thorough, covering plans, drawings and specifications;
stone, brick, and wood construction; foundations, arches, staircases,
roofs, and the like. Almost without exception in all these schools the
winter attendance is greater than that in the summer.

Certain individual schools throughout the Empire deserve special
mention, the Royal Fachschule of Iserlohn, the first in Prussia, being a
notable example. Here handwork is combined with industrial art adapted
to metal work. Boys who entered the trade were, in the early days of the
school, found to be in need of both theoretical and practical work, so
each has a place in the curriculum. The length of the course is three
years, covering the trades of designers, wood carvers, moulders,
founders, turners, chasers, engravers, gilders, and etchers. Here are
taught drawing in all its branches; modeling in wax and clay; history of
art and metal work; elements of chemistry and physics; mathematics;
German. Practical work in the department in which the student is
engaged, is given, the student stating on entrance what subject he
desires to take up. The time of instruction is from eight to twelve, in
the winter season, and from seven to eleven in the summer. The afternoon
session is from two to six. In the engineering trade school, three hours
per day are devoted to ornamental drawing, German, physics and
arithmetic. As the instruction is planned for working people it is
largely theoretical.

The Reimscheid school is of the apprenticeship order. Attention is given
the making of edge tools and such other implements as are manufactured
in the district. All students take drawing and design as applied to iron
work. They are made acquainted with the different kinds of iron work
that can be carried on in the home; are schooled in the use of the tools
made; learn regarding the markets at which they are sold, and the
various methods of their manufacture. Thus a general understanding of
the principles underlying his trade is given the boy and he becomes
acquainted with the commercial side of his calling while undergoing the
necessary preparation in manipulation. The theoretical work is given in
the morning and what shop practice is offered is in the afternoon from
two to seven. The tuition is twenty dollars per year.

The Pottery Trade School at Hohr Grenzhausen, Prussia, is under State
control. There are day and evening classes, the former attended for the
most part by the sons of manufacturers; the evening classes by men and
women who are employed otherwise during the day. There are Sunday
classes also. Decorated stoneware is given much attention. The day class
boys enter with a fairly good knowledge of drawing and have perhaps
attended the Fortbildungsschule. Drawing, descriptive geometry,
modeling in clay and wax, new forms of vessels and original
ornamentation, painting, designing and decorative art, manufacture of
earthenware, lectures and study of collections, make up the curriculum.
Any original model made becomes the property of the father of the boy,
or of the person financially supporting such boy during his attendance
at school. Two duplicates of the model must be left at the school. The
courses are three years, daily sessions, Saturdays excepted. The fees
are nominal, being only five dollars per year for the day classes,
thirty hours weekly, and one dollar for evening work, two hours weekly.
Pupils living outside the municipality pay six dollars per year for day

The Furtwangen, or Black Forest schools are made up of several
divisions, giving rather a high class of instruction. Clock making, wood
carving, and straw plaiting, are largely carried on.

This paper would not be complete without some mention of the system of
apprenticeship in vogue in Germany. The Lehrwerkstätten or apprentice
shops play a considerable part in the industrial life of the Empire. In
some instances they are maintained in connection with the trade schools,
or again, are semi-private or separate shops. The apprenticeship shops
on the one hand, and the continuation schools upon the other, are doing
much of the work formerly undertaken by the trade schools proper. While
manufacturing upon a larger scale is recognized as possessing advantages
over the smaller productive plants, it has seemed wise to hold to the
handicrafts, in a measure at least. The apprentice system helps to
preserve the traditions and sentiments of the German people, by handing
down these handicrafts. The associations, vereins, and guilds of past
time, are to-day, through the aid of legislation, coming to the fore,
and bringing with them many boys trained in the shops under the masters.
To show the power and scope of the guild, and in some cases it is
incumbent upon a community to form a guild whether or no, let me give
the following quotation:

“Persons carrying on trades on their own account can form guilds for the
advancement of their common trade interests. The object of the guild
shall be:

1. the cultivation of an esprit de corps and professional pride among
the members of a trade;

2. the maintenance of amicable relations between employers and their
employes, and the securing of work for unemployed journeymen and their
shelter during the period of their nonemployment;

3. the detailed regulations of the conditions of apprenticeship and the
care for the technical and moral education of apprentices;

4. the adjustment of disputes between guild members and their
apprentices, as contemplated by the law of July 20, 1890, concerning
industrial arbitration.”

The shops offer about the same lines of work as do the private concerns,
aiming however to be more systematic and to cover a wider scope. It is
asserted by some that the instruction gained in the shop is superficial,
and not to be compared with that obtained from the traveling
master-workmen. When the shop is connected with some enterprise or
manufacturing interest, a master-workman has one apprentice only under
his charge, for which he receives from the state some thirty-five
dollars yearly, the boy being given board, lodging and proper training.
The master must have attained the age of twenty-four years, and must
fulfil certain technical qualifications. The instruction is practical in
the highest degree and thus follows the lead of the trade schools in
letter and spirit. The fees are mainly paid in by guild members, and
those not members even, provided such reside in the district and are
connected with the trade for which the school stands. Local and state
aid is furnished. While the period of apprenticeship may extend over
four years, three years is the usual term.


                           ART TRADE SCHOOLS

The various types of institutions taken up under this head are of an
intermediate grade, standing half way between the trade school on the
one hand and the higher technical institutions upon the other. Indeed,
they contain many elements in common with the lower group, their scope
however being broader and more general or indirect, theoretical work
finding a place in their curricula. Owing to a similarity in the
instruction given, several classes of schools seem to demand a hearing
under this section. We shall begin with the more general trade schools
omitted from our previous study.



The schools for the building trades, of which there are a half hundred
in the Empire, are very similar in character throughout. The Munich
school, established in 1823, was the first of its kind. Their aim, as
indicated in the title, is the giving of training in the trades
connected with the various building operations. The majority of these
schools offer a course two years in length. The age of admission is
fourteen to sixteen years. It is a requisite under some boards, that
applicants have had practical experience in the line to be followed, at
least two half-years and in some cases two full years, before entrance
to the school. They must have also a fair general knowledge of their own
language, and of reading and writing as well. The candidate must be a
graduate of the Volksschule or must subject himself to an examination.
The fees in these schools vary from fifty to two hundred marks per year.
These are day sessions only. The governing power is in some cases vested
in the municipality, frequently in the State, and again in private

While those who go out from these schools may, some of them at least,
follow the trades as regular laborers, others again are qualified as
master-workmen and leaders in their craft. Construction in wood, stone,
iron and metals; laws of building; modes of heat, light and ventilation;
plumbing; interior fittings; these and other occupations are taken up.
The sessions of most schools extend over the winter months only, the
students being actively engaged in their several trades during the
summer season. These schools holding continuous sessions, are sparsely
attended during the summer. When theoretical work is given, such
subjects are included as bookkeeping, descriptive geometry, physics and
mechanics, German, free-hand and mechanical drawing, design, principles
of architecture. The practical programme comprehends a study of building
materials and the procuring and working of the same; relative strengths
and adaptability to purpose; models of construction; ornamentation;
architecture and design; estimates; chemical properties of materials;
supports, trusses, arches and the like. In the more advanced
institutions, algebra, surveying, mechanics, study of machines and
chemistry may be added to the theoretical list given, while the
practical studies are more intensive, and of a somewhat higher order.
Special departments for engineering, (Tiefbauabteilungen) preparing men
to occupy positions as superintendents, managers of public works,
construction directors, etc., are sustained in some instances.

Such schools are of an inferior engineering type, and deal with problems
of advanced work as related to the construction of roads, water works
and railroads; municipal engineering; bridge construction;
electro-technics. The theoretical lines are similar to those pursued in
other courses.

The schools to which we have just referred illustrate well the statement
made in a previous connection, that the grade of instruction rather than
the character of the subjects taught, determines the classification of
schools into groups. Three classes of trade instruction have just been
mentioned, and might well be styled lower, middle and upper schools for
trade teaching. Another point of interest lies in the fact, that while
we have been speaking of theoretical and practical subjects as forming
the curricula of the schools for the building trades, the distinction
should rather be drawn on the line of traditional book subjects and
applied or laboratory practice. Practical work, per se, is not carried
on in the school. Thus we have a close connection between theory and
practice; more closely perhaps than is found to exist in other trades.

The following table shows the distribution of building trade schools
throughout the Empire, the cities in which such schools are located
being given.

  Anhalt                      Zerbst

  Baden                       Carlsruhe

  Bavaria                     Nuremburg

  Brunswick                   Holzminden


  Mecklenburg-Strelitz        Strelitz

  Oldenburg                   Varel
  Prussia                     Görlitz

  Reuss-Schleitz              Gera

  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha           Coburg


  Saxony                      Leipzig

  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen   Arnstadt

  Wurttemberg                 Stuttgart

                          SCHOOLS FOR FOREMEN


The Werkmeisterschulen or schools for foremen, are quite prominent in
the scheme of secondary instruction. The courses given in these schools
are of a general character, for the most part practical, and the
institution, as the name implies, fits men to occupy positions as
foremen and overseers. Machine construction is the chief industry for
which these schools train. The first school of this character was opened
in 1855 at Chemnitz, Saxony. There are at present twenty-one schools of
this class in the Empire. Sixteen is the regular age of admission.
Candidates must have an elementary education on presenting themselves.
Two years is the average length of course, including both winter and
summer terms. A requisite for admission also is practical experience in
the trade, hence little other than theoretical instruction is given.

To the objection made by some, to extending the course over two years of
residence and of including the elementary branches in the curriculum
(such opposition favoring a reduction in time given to preparation) the
answer comes that the school should give a well grounded education, such
as will fit the participant for all the functions of his social and
industrial life. Fifty to sixty marks is charged yearly for tuition
fees. Certain of these schools have both evening and Sunday classes, the
tuition being twenty marks yearly for week day evenings, eight to nine
forty-five, and Sundays, eight to ten in the forenoon.

Table showing location of schools for foremen:

  Anhalt              Dessau
  Baden               Mannheim
  Bavaria             Four Mechanische Fachschulen


  Prussia             Gleiwitz

  Saxony              Mittweida

The following data were compiled from tables appearing in the Report of
the Commissioner of Labor of the United States, for 1902. The hours per
week allowed each subject taught in the schools of machinery
construction, at Duisburg and Dortmund, Prussia, are given.

                             |         DUISBURG        ||         DORTMUND
                             | FIRST YEAR | SECOND YEAR|| FIRST YEAR |SECOND YEAR
                             |Half |Half  |Half |Half  ||Half |Half  |Half |Half
German language and law      |   4 |   4  |   2 |   2  ||   5 |   3  |   2 |  --
Arithmetic                   |   4 |   1  |  -- |  --  ||   5 |   2  |  -- |  --
Bookkeeping                  |  -- |  --  |  -- |   2  ||  -- |  --  |  -- |   3
Descriptive Geometry         |  -- |   3  |  -- |  --  ||  -- |  --  |  -- |  --
Mathematics                  |   8 |   6  |   4 |   2  ||   7 |   6  |   5 |   2
Experimental Physics         |  -- |  --  |  -- |  --  ||   4 |   2  |  -- |  --
Physics and Electricity      |   4 |   3  |   2 |   2  ||  -- |   4  |   3 |   3
Experimental Chemistry       |   2 |  --  |  -- |  --  ||   2 |  --  |  -- |  --
Penmanship                   |   2 |  --  |  -- |  --  ||   1 |  --  |  -- |  --
Drawing                      |  12 |  --  |  -- |  --  ||  17 |  --  |  -- |  --
Machine Drawing              |  -- |   6  |   8 |   8  ||  -- |  10  |   8 |  14
Projection                   |  -- |  --  |  -- |  --  ||  -- |   2  |  -- |  --
Mechanics                    |  -- |   4  |   4 |   4  ||  -- |   5  |   5 |   2
Technology of mechanics,     |     |      |     |      ||     |      |     |
    smelting and refining    |  -- |  --  |   6 |   4  ||  -- |   2  |   6 |   4
Theory of machines           |  -- |   6  |  -- |  --  ||  -- |   6  |  -- |  --
Steam boilers and hoist      |     |      |     |      ||     |      |     |
    machines                 |  -- |  --  |   6 |  --  ||  -- |  --  |   7 |  --
Steam engines and hydraulics |     |      |     |      ||     |      |     |
    and small motors         |  -- |  --  |  -- |   6  ||  -- |  --  |  -- |   8
Heating                      |  -- |   3  |  -- |  --  ||  -- |  --  |  -- |  --
Theory of building           |     |      |     |      ||     |      |     |
    construction             |  -- |  --  |   4 |  --  ||  -- |  --  |   2 |   2
Practice in the work shop for|     |      |     |      ||     |      |     |
    machinery construction   |  -- |  --  |  -- |  --  ||  -- |  --  |   4 |   4
Estimated wages              |  -- |  --  |  -- |   6  ||  -- |  --  |  -- |  --
First aid to the injured     |  -- |  --  |   1 |  --  ||  -- |   1  |  -- |  --
        Total                |  36 |  36  |  37 |  36  ||  41 |  43  |  42 |  42

The following table showing the occupations of one time students at
three of the Prussian schools was compiled in April, 1898. This table
may be found on page 883 of the Seventeenth Annual Report of the
Commissioner of Labor of the United States.


A Duisburg: Graduates from Sept. 29, 1883 to April 10, 1898
B Dortmund: Graduates from Sept. 29, 1892 to April 10, 1898
C Magdeburg: Graduates from Sept. 29, 1893 to April 10, 1898

           OCCUPATION                      |  A  |  B  |  C  |
Heads of establishments                    |  54 |   1 |   1 |
Other officers of establishments           | 237 | 107 |  11 |
Machine builders and foremen               |  39 |  18 |   1 |
Wage-workers                               |  34 |   9 |     |
Owners of establishments or shops          |  10 |   3 |     |
Draftsmen and technical experts in offices |  86 |  55 |  83 |
Assistant Chemists                         |   3 |     |     |
Students at other schools                  |  11 |   1 |   2 |
Other than technical work                  |   4 |   1 |     |
Military service                           |  16 |  23 |     |
Deceased                                   |  11 |     |     |
Unknown                                    |  26 |  21 |   5 |
                                           | --- | --- | --- |
    Total                                  | 531 | 239 | 103 |


One of the most interesting groups of trade schools are those for the
promotion of the textile industry in its various aspects, there existing
at the present time no less than seventy-nine such institutions. The
fourfold classification of these schools which follow, seems to be in
accordance with the spirit of the work attempted.

First; the superior weaving school (Höhere Webschulen).

Second; the secondary weaving schools (Webschulen).

Third; the apprentice shops for weaving and knitting

Fourth; instruction by traveling or itinerant masters. (Wanderlehrer)

Not only does Germany rank high in the character of her textile schools,
but instruction is exceedingly wide spread. Then again all lines of the
industry are taken up, from the most elementary to the most technical
processes known. It will thus be seen that men are trained for the lower
as well as for the higher branches of the art. In the highest classes of
institutions weaving is almost exclusively carried on. The general
Government assumes the control of these schools notwithstanding that in
the beginning, many such institutions were put on foot through the
initiative of associations and guilds. In each of the several classes
the work is both theoretical and practical. The age of admission is
usually fourteen years and the course of two years duration.

The Webschulen train, not for specialists as do the schools just
mentioned, but rather aim to turn out foremen and bosses. The
apprenticeship shops come more closely in touch with the workmen of
small means and those using hand machinery, while the Wanderlehrer
schools are moveable. In the latter instance, the home becomes the
school when the teacher is present; that is a competent instructor is
employed to travel from place to place, visiting the small factories or
home manufacturers, and giving such instruction as he deems wise and
necessary. Much good work is still done in the rural homes of Germany,
and through the means mentioned the standards are kept up.

The work of these textile schools is largely specialized, depending upon
the the location of the school. In some localities wool, in others linen
or cotton, or again in others silk will be given the chief attention.
Both theory and practice have a place in the school instruction. Work in
the various courses includes a study at first hand of the materials
used, cost of production, relative values, various processes of
manipulation, chemistry, drawing, designing, painting, lectures on
fabrics, elements of weaving and machinery used, and original design
and practical work.

The distribution of textile schools is shown in the following table.

                      | Superior Textile
                      |   | Secondary Weaving
                      |   |
                      |   |   | Primary Weaving
                      |   |   |
                      |   |   |    | Weaving, Knitting and Trimming
                      |   |   |    |
                      |   |   |    |    | Spinning, Weaving and Knitting
      STATE           |   |   |    |    |
                      |   |   |    |    |   | Spinning and Weaving
                      |   |   |    |    |   |
                      |   |   |    |    |   |   | Primary Knitting
                      |   |   |    |    |   |   |
Alsace-Lorraine       |   |   |    |    |   | 1 |
Bavaria               |   | 3 |    |    |   |   |
Hesse                 |   | 1 |    |    |   |   |
Prussia               | 8 | 8 | 22 |    |   |   |
Reuss-Greitz          |   | 1 |    |    |   |   |
Reuss-Schleitz        |   | 1 |    |    |   |   |
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach  |   |   |    |    |   |   | 1
Saxony                |   |   |    | 27 |   |   |
Wurttemberg           |   |   |    |    | 1 |   |

The Prussian superior textile schools are located as follows:


The Berlin textile schools may be taken as fairly representing the
higher and more completely equipped institutions of this class. The age
of admission is sixteen years, a secondary education being necessary to
entrance. Several courses are offered as follows:

  knitting, one year;
  weaving, one and one-half years;
  designing, two years;
  passementerie making, one year;
  dyeing, one year;
  embroidery, one-fourth year.

There are day, evening and Sunday classes. The accompanying table shows
the subjects taught in each course and the number of hours given to each
subject, reckoned on the basis of the entire length of course.

                           | For manufacturers and
                           |   superintendents, 1½ yrs.
                           |    | Designing, 2 yrs.
                           |    |
                           |    |    | Knitting, 1 yr.
                           |    |    |
       SUBJECTS            |    |    |    | Passementerie making, 1 yr.
                           |    |    |    |
                           |    |    |    |    |  Dyeing, 1 yr.
Theory of weaving          |  4 |  3 |  6 |  6 |  2
Design transfer            | 13 |  9 |  3 |  8 |
Materials                  |  1 |  ½ |  1 |  1 |
Hand and power looms       |  3 |  2 |    |    |
Motors                     |  1 |    |    |    |
Preparing apparatus        |  1 |    |    |    |
Finishing apparatus        |  1 |    |    |    |
Practical exercises        |  8 |  6 | 18 | 12 | 33
Dyeing                     |  2 |    |  2 |  2 |
Analysis and production of |    |    |    |    |
  knitting goods           |    |    |  4 |    |
Chemistry of fibers        |    |    |    |    |  2
Chemistry and physics      |    |    |    |    |  4
Drawing                    |  8 | 23 |  2 |  5 |
Arithmetic and bookkeeping |  2 |    |  3 |  3 |
Jurisprudence              |  2 |    |  1 |  1 |
Lecture                    |    |    |  2 |    |

In many instances the weaving schools have in connection with them
departments for dyeing and finishing. In such cases much attention is
given to color blending and harmony and to chemistry as well.


Extended mention will not be made of the Gewerbeschulen, as the point of
distinction between such schools and the Fachschulen was set forth under
the last section. They partake of the character of trade schools, but
are more general in their tendencies. While both theoretical and
practical work are given, the former is not always applied theory, the
Gewerbeschulen being based upon, what we in America speak of, as the
educational side of trade instruction. These schools are attended by
boys and men fourteen to twenty-four years of age,--individuals
representing the various trades. The courses cover a period of three
years. Both State and local moneys go to the support of these schools.

The Gewerbliche Fachschule of Cologne is somewhat distinctive. It
instructs chiefly the sons of tradesmen and superior artisans. There
are three departments in the school:

First--that of engineering and architectural drawing.

Second--modeling department.

Third--the department of decoration, housepainting, etc.

The session covers both winter and summer months, the winter term, as in
other cases, being the better attended. Other typical Gewerbeschulen are
located at Grenzhausen and at Reimscheid. Applicants for admission must
have prepared in the Volksschule or elementary school. The programme
comprises the German language, French, English, literature, plane and
descriptive geometry, physics, chemistry, drawing, mechanics, machine
construction. The preparation here obtained fits the participants to
enter the higher schools, or to act as foremen and masters. These
schools also lead up to the industrial schools of Bavaria, of which we
shall now speak.



The industrial schools of the Bavarian Kingdom stand out as a distinct
class of educational institutions. Here, since 1872, there has been a
clean cut system, presided over by a Minister of Education. While the
quality and character of the work done are quite similar to that taken
up in the secondary schools elsewhere, the institutions are in some
respects more exactly defined and supervision and instruction in the
schools of weaving, woodcarving, basketmaking, pottery, violin making,
etc., is frequently superior to that in some other locality.

The age of admission is sixteen years, two years being the usual length
of course; the education of the Real-Schule is a requisite, or failing
this, an examination must be taken. In 1901-1902 the Munich schools had
an enrollment of 241 students, distributed as follows: mechanical
engineering 124; chemical engineering 27; architecture 62; commercial
28. The graduates are fitted to occupy positions of trust and prominence
in the various industrial pursuits of the country and to enter the
technical colleges.

The Industrieschulen of Bavaria are four in number, located at


they having been established in 1868. Advanced courses are offered in
mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, building construction, and
commercial education. The school at Würzburg is of a somewhat superior
order, although secondary in its tendencies, machinery construction and
electro-technics being given attention.

In the mechanical engineering course the following subjects are studied:

  elementary mathematics
  descriptive geometry
  machine work
  machine construction
  mechanical drawing
  practical work.

In the chemistry course the curriculum is made up of

  machine construction
  laboratory work.

The building construction course offers language, mechanical drawing
and architecture.


                       HIGHER TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

                        Technische Hochschulen

We have at this point in our study reached the schools of highest rank
offering training of a technical character, called variously technical
high schools, technical colleges, or polytechnics, the Technische
Hochschulen. These schools are not high schools in the sense that the
term would be applied to our American institutions, but are rather
schools of collegiate grade, ranking in fact, as the title indicates in
the university class. While not exactly comparable to our engineering
schools, they approach more nearly these than they do any other of our
American educational institutions.

Before the beginning of the century just closed it was apparent to some
German minds more far seeing than the rest, that schools of a higher
than secondary rank must be inaugurated to offer training in the
sciences; give opportunity to show the application of science to the
arts; and prepare young men to grapple with scientific industrial
problems such as were constantly springing up. Should the university
attempt such work? An effort was made looking toward this end. It was at
once evident that here was not the place to begin. The university was an
institution in and of itself. Its methods, curriculum and aim were
fixed, owing to long established customs. It had a certain work to
perform, its own peculiar function to fulfill, and traditional and
classical tendency were too strong to be checked in their movement, or
to allow a branch stream to flow in and thus add to or modify the
existing content.

The war for industrial supremacy, between England and Germany
particularly, was a prominent factor leading up to the establishment of
technical schools in the latter country. Germany saw the necessity for
heroic action, and her people, anxious to improve from the standpoint of
her industries at home not only, but that they might rival and surpass
their neighbors across the “Silver Streak” readily took up the cry for
advanced scientific training. This then was the object of the Technische

“They were intended to secure for science a foothold in the workshop, to
assist with the light of reasoned theory the progress of arts and
industry, till then fettered by many a prejudice and hindered through
lack of knowledge; on the other hand, they sought to raise that part of
the nation engaged in industry to such a love of culture as would secure
to it its due measure of public respect.”

[Footnote 2: Note on the earlier History of the Technical High School in
Germany by A. E. Twentyman in Special Reports on Educational Subjects,
London, Vol 9, page 468.]

The dates of the founding of the now existing Technische Hochschulen
vary somewhat, certain of the schools growing out of a foundation which
at the beginning was of a low or intermediate grade. Several of the
schools have passed through a period of transition or reorganization
state during the course of their existence. The institution, and time of
establishment of each are as follows.

  Berlin,        1799
  Carlsruhe,     1825
  Munich,        1827
  Dresden,       1828
  Stuttgart,     1829
  Brunswick,     1835
  Darmstadt,     1868
  Aachen,        1870
  Hannover,      1879

In 1799 was instituted in Berlin the Bauakademie, a State institution
whose purpose was set forth in the royal decree thus:

“To train in theoretical and practical knowledge capable surveyors,
architects, civil engineers, and masons, principally for the King’s
dominions, but foreigners may find admittance if no disadvantage accrue
thereby to the King’s subjects.”

Later, in 1821, Gewerbeschule came into existence, and in 1879 the union
of these two formed the Berlin Technische Hochschule which is located in
Charlottenburg, a suburb of the city. Owing to the high standards of
this institution, it is styled the Königliche Technische Hochschule.
Since its reorganization the plans of the other schools of like
character have been modified in accordance with the Berlin scheme.

The preparation necessary for admission to the Hochschulen is equivalent
to that demanded by the university proper. The age of admission probably
never drops below seventeen, the average age being considerably greater.
Men of mature years and of wide experience and training avail themselves
to the privileges offered. The courses are from three to four years in

[3] “The new universities thus developed have the purpose of affording
higher instruction for the technical positions in state and community
service, as well as in industrial life, and of cultivating sciences and
arts which are intimately connected with the field of technology (Berlin
provisory statute, 1879). They prove themselves equal to universities in
the following points: they claim for their matriculated students the
same preparatory education required by the old universities, namely,
nine years at a classical high school; they grant and insist upon
perfect freedom in teaching and learning; and are under the direction of
rectors elected for one year, instead of having principals chosen for
life as in secondary schools.”

[Footnote 3: Report of the United States Commissioner of Education,
1897-1898, page 70.]

It may be said here that an exception to the rule of the annual election
of the administrative officers, is furnished in the example of the
Munich school, which retains a permanent Director as the custom
prevailed in times past.

Unless otherwise qualified, students must have prepared in the
Industrieschule, the Gymnasium, the Real-Gymnasium or in the trade or
building schools. In lieu of this an examination is demanded.
Twenty-four is the minimum age of graduation.

In tracing the development of these schools from unpretentious
beginnings to their present high standards of excellence, we see that
more and more they have become unified in purpose and similar in
curricula. In the early days too, the qualifications for admission,
their dynamic government, and educational standards were lower and more
diversified than we find them to-day. Sustained by the State and each
administered by its board or council, they are doing a work which cannot
be excelled by the universities themselves.

The organization of departments of work offered is approximately the
same in all schools. In Berlin there are six departments:

  first, general school of applied science;
  second, general construction engineering;
  third, machine construction;
  fourth, naval engineering;
  fifth, chemistry and mining engineering;
  sixth, architecture.

Special attention is given certain subjects in one or another of these
schools; civil or mechanical engineering, building construction,
industrial chemistry, etc. An agricultural department is maintained at
Munich, and a forestry department at Carlsruhe. That a knowledge of the
application of electricity is considered essential in our modern methods
is shown in the fact that all students in departments of machine
construction engage in the study of electro-technics.

The courses of study are to-day upon more of an elective basis than
formerly although even now the results of the work of Nebenius are
clearly seen. The success of the Hochschulen is due to the efforts of
Nebenius more than to any other one man. His ideas were worked out at
Carlsruhe and in greater or lesser degree incorporated into all the
schools. It was insisted by him that a proper foundation must be laid
before any successful special technical training can be had. Preliminary
work must be mastered and a natural sequence of studies followed. To
this end a fixed graduated course is recommended, the student to be
promoted as ability may determine. The one course plan however has been
substituted for the several.[4]

[Footnote 4: “Programm der Königl. Technischen Hochschule zu Hannover,
1901-1902, page 90. Den Hörern bleibt die Wahl der Lehrfächer frei
überlassen, für ein geordnetes Studium empfiehlt sich aber die Beachtung
der folgenden Studien und Stundenpläne.”]

The following table compiled from various sources will give some idea of
the extent of the work as carried on in Berlin. The school has a library
of 54,000 volumes; a student body of upwards of 4,500 and a modern
equipment throughout.

Departments  | No.     | SUBJECTS                              |No. of
             | of      |                                       |Professors
             | courses |                                       |and
             |         |                                       |Instructors
General      | 58      | Mechanics, Physics and general        | 33
Science      |         | science studies; literature,          |
             |         | French, English, Italian, law,        |
             |         | political science.                    |
Civil        | 34      | Mechanics, railway construction,      | 13
Engineering  |         | bridges, canals, harbors, hydraulics, |
             |         | drainage, land surveying.             |
Mechanical   | 54      | Kinematics, machine construction,     | 23
Engineering  |         | mechanical technology,                |
             |         | machine design, water, steam          |
             |         | and electrical machines,              |
             |         | electro-technics, electro-mechanics,  |
             |         | electrical and railway                |
             |         | works.                                |
Naval        |  19     | Theory of ship building,              |  6
Engineering  |         | classification of ships, designing of |
             |         | warships, boilers, machine            |
             |         | construction, practical               |
             |         | ship building.                        |
Chemistry    |  51     | Organic and inorganic chemistry       | 27
and          |         | including physical, electro and       |
Metallurgy   |         | technological chemistry,              |
             |         | crystallography, metallurgy, foundry  |
             |         | work, cements, botany,                |
             |         | chemistry of plants and foods.        |
Architecture | 65      | History of art, architecture and      | 36
             |         | ornament; building construction,      |
             |         | designing of buildings                |
             |         | in different materials and for        |
             |         | various purposes, preparation         |
             |         | of estimates, etc.                    |

The rivalry existing among the various schools is in some respects a
point to be commended. Then, too, the idea taking form in the
Hochschulen and being more fully appreciated by the educationalists of
our own country, that each school should specialize along some
particular line, is worthy of attention. Energy is saved thereby, and
students may have the advantage of increased facilities in equipment and
instruction. Many Americans are studying in these schools, possibly more
in Munich than elsewhere. While thorough in their treatment of subjects,
the practical side of the work is too much lost sight of in the
theoretical treatment. Testing and applied work are certainly given
considerable attention however. To quote Dean Victor C. Alderson of the
Armour Institute, Chicago, who says in reference to testing:

    “Professors regard this work as professional practice, just as
    doctors, who are professors in medical schools, have an outside
    practice. The technical school allows the professors free use of
    the laboratories, but assumes no responsibility for the accuracy
    of the results or opinions expressed.”

The degree of Doctor of Engineering is conferred by these institutions,
and that their work has been highly instrumental in developing the
country cannot be doubted, especially in the line of applied chemistry
in which branch of engineering Germany leads the nations. How closely
the development of the industries of Germany are related to the work of
the Technische Hochschulen it is difficult to say, but that these
schools have shown through the accomplishments of their graduates that
high standards of moral and intellectual training can be had in other
than the traditional universities, and that as efficient social service
can be rendered through the application of science to the arts and
industries as by means of the languages, cannot be doubted.



The Kunstgewerbeschulen are schools of art. The causes leading to their
inception are clearly set forth in a paragraph contained in the 1902
Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor. It reads:

“The international museums of 1851, 1855 and 1862, in England, Austria
and Germany, respectively called attention to the fact that with all
their technical excellence the industrial products of Germany possessed
few qualities of artistic finish and design. France showed what could be
done in this direction. Her products easily held first rank in this
respect, her eminence being the result of centuries of training in this
field. Since Colbert’s time industrial art education has been emphasized
in the training of French workmen, and the accumulated skill and taste
due to this training, has left its impress on French products. The
German states at once set about to remedy this weakness in this respect,
and since that time have so persistently established museums and schools
for industrial art training that now there is no important city in the
Empire which does not possess one or more of these institutions”.

Considerable variety exists among the various types of art schools and
even among those belonging in the same class and separated as to
location we find differences. In Leipzig, Saxony, for example the
Kunstgewerbeschule aims at the graphic arts mainly. In Berlin, Dresden,
Carlsruhe, and certain other cities these schools train for sculptors
and painters, and the term “Akademie” is frequently applied to these
institutions. They are in fact, art trade schools whose main purpose,
while yet industrial, is also the instilling of an artistic feeling into
industrial work. They reach on and out from the trade school and up to
the institutions for the teaching of the fine arts. They are then a
middle grade of applied art schools.

The genesis of the industrial art schools really lies in the
establishment of museums of industrial art. The museums were an
inspiring and energizing force, for here the best work could be
exhibited and studied. The municipality and general government financed
the movement for the museums. Schools sprang up in connection with the
museums and later, independent art schools were established.

A moderate fee is charged those who pursue work here, twenty to forty
marks yearly. Candidates must have had practical experience in the line
of work they propose to take up, and both these schools and the
so-called industrial drawing courses assume a certain proficiency on the
part of the candidates; a proficiency in general subjects and in
drawing particularly. An examination is given those who cannot present
the desired credentials. The length of the courses in these schools is
usually three years. The classes are both day and evening, 8 A. M. to 4
P. M. and from 5 to 10 P. M. In some instances Sunday sessions are held

The courses consist of architectural designing in wood and metal, metal
engraving and chasing, modeling, steel engraving and etching, design for
fabrics, pattern designing, artistic embroidery, decorative painting,
enamel painting, designing and painting figures and plants. The work
throughout is both theoretical and practical in its nature, the
instruction gained in the class being applied in the shop. The subjects
of instruction and time devoted to each differ according to the course
pursued. As an example of the programme offered, the following, taken
from the architectural draftsman’s course in the Munich school is given;
the figures show the number of hours per week devoted to each subject.

  First year,
    linear drawing                                 7
    ornament drawing                               9
    modelling of ornament and of the human
      figure                                      21
    history of art                                 1
    style                                          1
    geometry and projections                       3

  Second year,
    architectural drawing                          7
    drawing and modeling of the human
      figure and modeling of ornaments            20
    history of art                                 1
    style                                          1
    perspective and shadows                        2
    anatomy, xylography, architecture,
      sculpture, or chasing                       10

  Third year,
    architectural drawing                          7
    drawing and modeling of the human figure
      and modeling of ornaments                   10
    anatomy                                        1
    xylography, architecture, sculpture or
      chasing                                     24

The Bauschule are only for those who wish proficiency in architectural

What the Industrial Hall at Carlsruhe, the Industrial Art Museum at
Berlin, and the National Museum at Munich are to the art schools proper,
the open drawing halls are to the industrial drawing courses. Here, as
in the museums, are kept models and designs of rare merit and students
may pursue work under competent instruction. Such halls are established
in Bavaria, Hesse, Prussia, Saxony and Wurttemberg.

In these art courses skill and originality are aimed at equally. The
relation existing between the art work and the trade or industry with
which it is connected is such as to make more valuable the latter.

It is needless to speak further of the museums. The art products there
exhibited give much incentive to students, as well as a feeling for the
best from the standpoint of the beautiful and artistic, and all who
visit them are consciously or unconsciously influenced for the better.

The following table shows the distribution of industrial art schools
throughout the various States.

  _Alsace-Lorraine_, Mülhausen, Strasburg.
  _Anhalt_, Dessau.
  _Baden_, Carlsruhe, Pforzheim.
  _Bavaria_, Kaiserslautern, Munich, Nuremberg.
  _Hesse_, Mentz, Offenbach.
  _Prussia_, Aix-la-Chappelle, Barmen, Berlin, Breslau, Cassel,
    Cologne, Düsseldorf, Elberfeld, Frankfort-on the-Main, Hanau,
    Hanover, Iserlohn, Königsberg, Magdeburg.
  _Saxony_, Dresden, Leipzig, Plauen.
  _Wurttemberg_, Stuttgart.



Beobachtungen und Vergleiche über Einrichtungen für Gewerbliche
Erziehung, 1901.--Dr. G. Kerschensteiner.

Das Gewerbeschulwesen.--Carl Melchior.

Denkschriften über die Entwickelung der Gewerblichen Fachschulen und der
Fortbildungsschulen in Preussen.--Lüders.

Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik.--W. Rein.

English Technical Instruction Commission, 1896. Report on the Recent
Progress of Technical Education in Germany.

Fortbildungsschule in unserer Zeit.--J. B. Meyer.

German Higher Schools.--James E. Russell.

German Technical Schools, 1901.--Victor C. Alderson.

Gewerbliche Fortbildungsschulen Deutschlands.--R. Nagel.

Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, 1900.--Conrad.

Höherer Polytechnischer Unterricht in Deutschland, etc.--Carl Koristka.

Industrial Education.--Philip Magnus.

Jahresbericht der Königlichen Industrieschule und Baugewerkschule zu
München, 1898-1899.

Jahresbericht der Technischen Staatslehranstalten zu Chemnitz, 1890.

Jahresbericht über die Berliner Fortbildungsschule, 1890-1891.

Kunstgewerbe als Beruf, 1901.

Note on the Earlier History of the Technical High Schools in
Germany.--A. E. Twentyman.

Special Reports on Educational Subjects, London, 1902, Vol. 9, page 465.

Paches’ Handbook, 1899.

Problems in Prussian Secondary Education for Boys.--Michael E. Sadler.

Special Reports on Educational Subjects, London, 1898, Vol. 3.

Programm der Königlichen Fachschule zu Iserlohn Metal Industrie.

Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1889-1890, page

Same, 1894-1895, Vol. 1, page 345-380.

Supplementary and Industrial Schools in Germany.

Same, 1895-1896, Vol. 1, page 138.

Same, 1897-1898, Vol. 1, page 69. German Technical Colleges.

Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor, 1892, Eighth Annual.

Industrial Education in Germany.

Same, 1902, Seventeenth Annual.

Trade and Technical Education in Germany, page 871.

Second Report of the Royal Commission on Technical Education, London,
1884, Vol. 1.

The Educational Foundations of Trade and Industry, 1902.--Fabian Ware.

The Continuation Schools in Berlin.--Dr. H. Bertram.

Special Reports on Educational Subjects, London, 1902, Vol. 9, page 451.

United States Consular Reports. Description of the School of Carpentry
and Cabinetmaking in Magdeburg, Prussia, No. 238, July, 1900.--Wm.

Same. School of Marine Machinists, Flensburg, Prussia. No. 174, March,

Same. Technical and Merchant Schools 56:208, page 78.--J. C. Monoghan.

Same. Technical Education in Germany. 54:202, page 447.--J. C. Monoghan.

                           PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This book was published under some disadvantages, as it was delayed by
the removal of our office to a larger place of business, and by a
printers’ strike, which resulted in four changes in foremen. This,
together with the fact that the author was upon the Pacific coast and
proof was delayed and sometimes lost has led to errors for which he is
not responsible. Besides typographical blunders easily recognized the
following are noted:

Page 13, next line to last for _Air_ read _Art_.

     19, 5th line, for _enable_ read _ennoble_.

     23, 4th line from below, for _committee_ read _communities_.

     25, 5th line, for _development_ read _deportment_.

     63, 7th line, for _models_ read _modes_.

     72, next to last line, the 1 should be in _second_ half of first
         year, making the totals 41 and 43 instead of 42 and 42.

     79, in table, Knitting should have _1 yr._ instead of _2 yrs._, and
         the line beginning _Machinery_ is to be omitted.

     81, 4th line from below, insert _to_ before _enter_.

     93, last part of paragraph, read “The one course plan however has
         been substituted for the several.”

Transcriber’s Note: The table below lists all corrections applied to the
original text.

p. viii: for _development_ read _department_ -> _deportment_
p. 007: make any one clasification -> classification
p. 010: Conrad’s Handworterbuch -> Handwörterbuch
p. 011: Wurtemburg industrial -> Wurttemburg
p. 012: other conditions (examinations) or these schools -> of
p. 012: Ages ranges from fourteen to thirty -> range
p. 012: the only instition -> institution
p. 013: [errata] Pure Air -> Art
p. 014: Technischeschulen -> Technische Schulen
p. 016: Continuation Schools or Fortbilbungsschulen -> Fortbildungsschulen
p. 016: Fortbildtngsshulen -> Fortbildungsschulen
p. 017: [extra comma] at this age, forced to -> age forced
p. 017: a statsment made by Mr. Michael N. Sadler-> statement
p. 018: [quote added] “Among the great number
p. 019: [errata] in the arts which enable -> ennoble
p. 019: born under a luckler star -> luckier
p. 020: continuation of Fortbildungsschulen -> or
p. 023: adapt their instrnction -> instruction
p. 023: [errata] Here the committee must meet -> communities
p. 025: [errata] character and development of the boys -> deportment
p. 027: higher mathemematics, mechanics, physics -> mathematics
p. 028: is carried suffciently far -> sufficiently
p. 028: classes are arranged acording to -> according
p. 029: smaller towns or in the conntry -> country
p. 029: university extention courses -> extension
p. 031: similar to Fortbildungsschulen in Leipsig -> Leipzig
p. 031: schools have seen a marvelous developement -> development
p. 032: attended by journeyman and apprentices -> journeymen
p. 032: good manners (gute sitten) -> Sitten
p. 033: [normalized] throughout various parts of the empire -> Empire
p. 033: [extra comma] under eighteen years of age, might -> age might
p. 033: [extra comma] the employer, must -> employer must
p. 033: Baden. compulsory school laws -> Baden, compulsory
p. 034: to be determined eventually be -> by
p. 035: worthy of note that she delares -> declares
p. 039: that the Forthildungsschule -> Fortbildungsschule
p. 039: foundation of most of the Faceschulen -> Fachschulen
p. 046: Wagonmakers and Wheelrights -> Wheelwrights
p. 047: Free hand drawing -> Free-hand
p. 056: becomes the property ot the father -> of
p. 057: The Lehrwerkstatten or apprentice shops -> Lehrwerkstätten
p. 059: fulfil certain teohnical qualifications -> technical
p. 059: practical iu the highest degree -> in
p. 062: [missing letter] The governing power is in ome cases -> some
p. 063: [errata] laws of building; models of heat -> modes
p. 067: Buxtehede -> Buxtehude
p. 067: Magdeberg -> Magdeburg
p. 068: Orchatz -> Oschatz
p. 068: Zitteau -> Zittau
p. 069: [normalized] schools of this class in the empire -> Empire
p. 070: the elementary ranches in the curriculm -> curriculum
p. 071: Inserlohn -> Iserlohn
p. 071: Mlttweida -> Mittweida
p. 071: compiled from tables appearing the Report -> appearing in the
p. 074: [missing letters] Webereilehrwerkstä en -> Webereilehrwerkstätten
p. 074: itinerant masters. (Wenderlehrer) -> Wanderlehrer
p. 074: lines of the indnstry -> industry
p. 075: In each of the several classses -> classes
p. 077: Grefeld -> Crefeld
p. 079: [errata] Knitting, 2 yrs. -> Knitting, 1yr.
p. 079: [errata, removed line] Machinery  |   |   | 3 | 6 | 2
p. 081: superior artizans -> artisans
p. 081: prepared in the Volkschule -> Volksschule
p. 081: [errata] the participants enter -> participants to enter
p. 085: [added chapter number] V
p. 086: show the aplication of science -> application
p. 087: in the atter country -> latter
p. 087: the necessity or heroic action -> for heroic
p. 087: due measure of public respsct -> respect
p. 087: by A. E. Twentymen -> by A. E. Twentyman
p. 088: Dresden, 1826 -> 1828
p. 088: principally for the Kiugs dominions -> King’s
p. 089: styled the Koeniglische Technische Hochschule -> Königliche
p. 090: Berlin provisory statue -> statute
p. 091: State and and each administered -> State and each
p. 092: The organization of deparments of work -> departments
p. 093: [errata] For the one course plan however -> The one
p. 093: [errata] have been substituted -> has
p. 093: [errata] substituted the several -> substituted for the
p. 093: Program der Königl. Technischen Hochschule -> Programm
p. 093: Den Horern bleibt die Wahl -> Hörern
p. 093: frei überlassen, Für ein geordnetes -> überlassen, für
p. 098: Kunstgewerbsechulen are schools of art -> Kunstgewerbeschulen
p. 104: Alcace-Lorraine, Mülhausen, Strasburg -> Alsace
p. 104: Prussia, Aix-la Chapelle -> Aix-la-Chappelle
p. 105: Enrichtungen für -> Einrichtungen
p. 105: Gewerbliche Erzichnung -> Erziehung
p. 105: Dr. G. Kerschenteuer -> Kerschensteiner
p. 105: Denkschriften über die Entiwickelung -> Entwickelung
p. 105: Fortbildungschulen in Prussen -> Fortbildungsschulen in Preussen
p. 105: Encyklopädischer Handbuch -> Encyklopädisches
p. 105: Handbuch der Pädogik -> Pädagogik
p. 105: in unserer zeit -> Zeit
p. 105: [removed in] Fortbildungsschulen in Deutschlands
p. 106: [removed comma] Jahresbericht der Königlichen, Industrieschule
p. 106: Technischen Stattslehranstalten -> Staatslehranstalten
p. 107: Program der Königlichen Fachschule -> Programm
p. 108: School of Marine Machinists, Fleusburg, Prussia -> Flensburg

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Condition and Tendencies of Technical Education in Germany" ***

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