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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 2 - or Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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   THE

  ~BOTANICAL MAGAZINE~;

   OR,


  ~FLOWER-GARDEN DISPLAYED~:


   IN WHICH


  The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open
  Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in
  their natural Colours.


  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,


  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to
  the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of
  Flowering:


  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.


  A WORK


  Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and
  GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the
  Plants they cultivate.


  ~By WILLIAM CURTIS~,

  Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.



  ~VOL. II~



  "A Garden is the purest of human Pleasures."
                                     VERULAM.


  LONDON:

  Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street,

  For W. CURTIS, at his BOTANIC-GARDEN, Lambeth-Marsh;

  And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

  M DCC XC.



[37]

~Chironia Frutescens. Shrubby Chironia.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ rotata. _Pistillum_ declinatum. _Stamina_ tubo corollæ
infidentia. _Antheræ_ demum spirales. _Peric._ 2-loculare.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CHIRONIA _frutescens_, foliis lanceolatis subtomentosis, calycibus
campanulatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 229._

CENTAURIUM foliis binis oppositis angustis linearibus, flore magno
rubente. _Burm. Afric. 205. t. 74. fig. 1._

[Illustration: No 37]

Of the genus _Chironia_, ten species are enumerated in Prof. MURRAY's
last edition of the _Syst. Vegetab._ of LINNÆUS, exclusive of the
_Chironia Centaurium_ which we first added to this genus in the 42d
number of the _Flora Londinensis_.

Of these, the _frutescens_ is the most shewy, and therefore the most
cultivated.

It is a native of different parts of Africa.

The flowers are produced from June to autumn, and the seeds ripen in
October. This plant should be placed in an airy glass case in winter,
where it may enjoy a dry air, and much sun, but will not thrive in a
warm stove, nor can it be well preserved in a common green-house, because
a damp moist air will soon cause it to rot.

The seed of this plant should be sown in small pots filled with light
sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot-bed; sometimes the seeds
will lie a long time in the ground; so that if the plants do not appear
the same season, the pots should not be disturbed, but preserved in
shelter till the following spring, and then plunged into a fresh
hot-bed, which will bring up the plants in a short time if the seeds are
good. When the plants are fit to remove, they should be transplanted
into small pots, four or five in each pot, then plunged into a moderate
hot-bed, where they must have a large share of air in warm weather; when
they have obtained some strength, they must be gradually inured to the
open air; when exposed abroad, they should be mixed with such plants as
require little water, placed in a warm situation, and screened from
heavy rains, which are apt to rot them. The cuttings of this sort take
root if properly managed. _Miller's Gard. Dict._



[38]

~Viburnum Tinus. Common Laurustinus.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Trigynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus, superus. _Cor._ 5-fida. _Bacca_ 1-sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms_.

VIBURNUM _Tinus_ foliis integerrimis ovatis: ramificationibus venarum
subtus villoso-glandulosis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 294._

LAURUS sylvestris, corni fæminæ foliis subhirsutis. _Bauh. Pin. 461._

The wild Bay-tree. _Park. Parad. p. 400._

[Illustration: No 38]

We scarcely recollect a plant whose blossoms are so hardy as those of
the Laurustinus, they brave the inclemency of our winters, and are not
destroyed but in very severe seasons.

The beauties of this most charming shrub can be enjoyed by those only
who cultivate it at some little distance from town, the smoke of London
being highly detrimental to its growth.

It is a native of Portugal, Spain, and Italy.

Botanists enumerate many varieties of the Laurustinus, and so
considerably do some of these differ, that MILLER has been
induced to make two species of them, which he distinguishes by the names
of _Virburnum Tinus_ and _V. lucidum_; the last of these is the most
ornamental, and at the same time the most tender; there are some other
trifling varieties, besides those, with variegated leaves, or the gold
and silver-striped.

It is only in very favourable situations that these shrubs ripen their
seeds in England, hence they are most commonly propagated by layers,
which readily strike root: MILLER says, that the plants raised
from seeds are hardier than those produced from layers.

It thrives best in sheltered situations and a dry soil.



[39]

~Franklin's Tartar.~


_A Scarlet Bizarre Carnation._

[Illustration: No 39]

The Carnation here exhibited is a seedling raised by Mr.
FRANKLIN, of Lambeth-Marsh, an ingenious cultivator of these
flowers, whose name it bears: we have not figured it as the most perfect
flower of the kind, either in form or size, but as being a very fine
specimen of the sort, and one whose form and colours it is in the power
of the artist pretty exactly to imitate.

The _Dianthus Caryophyllus_ or _wild Clove_ is generally considered as
the parent of the Carnation, and may be found, if not in its wild state,
at least single, on the walls of Rochester Castle, where it has been
long known to flourish, and where it produces two varieties in point of
colour, the pale and deep red.

Flowers which are cultivated from age to age are continually producing
new varieties, hence there is no standard as to _name_, _beauty_, or
_perfection_, amongst them, but what is perpetually fluctuating; thus
the _red Hulo_, the _blue Hulo_, the _greatest Granado_, with several
others celebrated in the time of PARKINSON, have long since
been consigned to oblivion; and it is probable, that the variety now
exhibited, may, in a few years, share a similar fate; for it would be
vanity in us to suppose, that the Carnation, by assiduous culture, may
not, in the eye of the Florist, be yet considerably improved.

To succeed in the culture of the Carnation, we must advert to the
situation in which it is found wild, and this is observed to be dry and
elevated; hence excessive moisture is found to be one of the greatest
enemies this plant has to encounter; and, on this account, it is found
to succeed better, when planted in a pot, than in the open border;
because in the former, any superfluous moisture readily drains off; but,
in guarding against too much wet, we must be careful to avoid the
opposite extreme.

To keep any plant in a state of great luxuriance, it is necessary that
the soil in which it grows be rich; hence a mixture of light-loam, and
perfectly rotten horse or cow dung, in equal proportions, is found to
be a proper compost for the Carnation. Care should be taken that no
worms, grubs, or other insects, be introduced with the dung; to prevent
this, the dung, when sifted fine, should be exposed to the rays of the
sun, on a hot summer's day, till perfectly dry, and then put by in a box
for use; still more to increase the luxuriance of the plants, water it
in the spring and summer with an infusion of sheep's dung.

The Carnation is propagated by seeds, layers, and pipings; new varieties
can only be raised from seed, which, however, is sparingly produced from
good flowers, because the petals are so multiplied, as nearly to exclude
the parts of the fructification essential to their production.

"The seed must be sown in April, in pots or boxes, very thin, and placed
upon an East border.

"In July, transplant them upon a bed in an open situation, at about four
inches asunder; at the end of August transplant them again upon another
bed, at about ten inches asunder, and there let them remain till they
flower: shade them till they have taken root, and in very severe weather
in winter, cover the bed with mats over some hoops.

"The following summer they will flower, when you must mark such as you
like, make layers from, and pot them." _Ellis's Gardener's Pocket
Calendar._

The means of increasing these plants by layers and pipings, are known to
every Gardener.

Such as wish for more minute information concerning the culture,
properties, divisions, or varieties, of this flower, than the limits of
our Work will admit, may consult _Miller's Gard. Dict._ or the _Florists
Catalogues_.



[40]

~Trillium Sessile. Sessile Trillium.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Trigynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 3-phyllus. _Cor._ 3-petala. _Bacca_ 3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TRILLIUM flore sessili erecto. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 349._

PARIS foliis ternatis, flore sessili erecto. _Gron. virg. 44._

SOLANUM triphyllum. _Pluk. alm. 352. t. 111. f. 6._ _Catesb. car.
t. 50._

[Illustration: 40]

Of this genus there are three species, all of which are natives of
North-America, and described by MILLER, in his _Gardener's
Dictionary_, where the genus is called _American Herb Paris_; but as the
_Paris_ and _Trillium_, though somewhat similar in the style of their
foliage, are very different in their parts of fructification, we have
thought it most expedient to anglicise _Trillium_, it being to the full
as easily pronounced as _Geranium_, and many other Latin names now
familiar to the English ear.

This species takes its' trivial name of _sessile_, from the flowers
having no foot-stalk, but sitting as it were immediately on the end of
the stalk.

The figure here exhibited was taken from a plant which flowered in my
garden last spring, from roots sent me the preceding autumn, by Mr.
ROBERT SQUIBB, Gardener, of Charleston, South-Carolina, who is
not only well versed in plants, but indefatigable in discovering and
collecting the more rare species of that country, and with which the
gardens of this are likely soon to be enriched.

It grows in shady situations, in a light soil, and requires the same
treatment as the _Dodecatheon_ and _round-leav'd Cyclamen_. We have not
yet had a fair opportunity of observing whether this species ripens its
seeds with us: though of as long standing in this country as the
_Dodecatheon_, it is far less common; hence one is led to conclude that
it is either not so readily propagated, or more easily destroyed.



[41]

~Calceolaria pinnata. Pinnated Slipper-wort.~


_Class and Order._

~Diandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ ringens inflata. _Caps._ 2-locularis, 2-valvis. _Cal._ 4-partitus
æqualis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CALCEOLARIA _pinnata_ foliis pinnatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 64._

CALCEOLARIA foliis scabiosæ vulgaris. _Fewill Peruv. 3, t. 12. fig. 7._

[Illustration: 41]

There being no English name to this plant, we have adopted that of
_Slipper-wort_, in imitation of _Calceolaria_, which is derived from
_Calceolus_, a little shoe or slipper.

This species of Calceolaria is one of the many plants introduced into
our gardens, since the time of MILLER: it is an annual, a
native of Peru, and, of course, tender: though by no means a common
plant in our gardens, it is as easily raised from seed as any plant
whatever. These are to be sown on a gentle hot-bed in the spring; the
seedlings, when of a proper size, are to be transplanted into the
borders of the flower-garden, where they will flower, ripen, and scatter
their seeds; but being a small delicate plant, whose beauties require a
close inspection, it appears to most advantage in a tan stove, in which,
as it will grow from cuttings, it may be had to flower all the year
through, by planting them in succession.

This latter mode of treatment is used by Mr. HOY, Gardener to
his Grace of Northumberland, at Sion-House, where this plant may be seen
in great perfection.



[42]

~Camellia Japonica. Rose Camellia.~


_Class and Order._

~Monadelphia Polyandria.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ imbricatus, polyphyllus: foliolis interioribus majoribus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CAMELLIA _japonica_ foliis acute serratis acuminatis. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 632._ _Thunberg Fl. Japon. t. 273._

TSUBAKI _Kempfer Amoen. 850. t. 851._

ROSA chinensis. _Ed. av. 2. p. 67. t. 67._

THEA chinensis pimentæ jamaicensis folio, flore roseo. _Pet. Gaz. t.
33. fig. 4._

[Illustration: 42]

This most beautiful tree, though long since figured and described, as
may be seen by the above synonyms, was a stranger to our gardens in the
time of MILLER, or at least it is not noticed in the last
edition of his Dictionary.

It is a native both of China and Japan.

THUNBERG, in his _Flora Japonica_, describes it as growing
every where in the groves and gardens of Japan, where it becomes a
prodigiously large and tall tree, highly esteemed by the natives for the
elegance of its large and very variable blossoms, and its evergreen
leaves; it is there found with single and double flowers, which also are
white, red, and purple, and produced from April to October.

Representations of this flower are frequently met with in Chinese
paintings.

With us, the _Camellia_ is generally treated as a stove plant, and
propagated by layers; it is sometimes placed in the green-house; but it
appears to us to be one of the properest plants imaginable for the
conservatory. At some future time it may, perhaps, not be uncommon to
treat it as a _Laurustinus_ or _Magnolia_: the high price at which it
has hitherto been sold, may have prevented its being hazarded in this
way.

The blossoms are of a firm texture, but apt to fall off long before they
have lost their brilliancy; it therefore is a practice with some to
stick such deciduous blossoms on some fresh bud, where they continue to
look well for a considerable time.

PETIVER considered our plant as a species of Tea tree; future
observations will probably confirm his conjecture.



[43]

~Cistus incanus. Hoary, or Rose Cistus.~


_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 5-petala. _Calyx_ 5-phyllus, foliolis duobus minoribus.
_Capsula_.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CISTUS _incanus_ arborescens exstipulatus, foliis spatulatis tomentosis
rugosis inferioribus basi connatis vaginantibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab.
p. 497._

CISTUS mas angustifolius. _Bauh. Pin. 464._

[Illustration: 43]

Few plants are more admired than the Cistus tribe; they have indeed one
imperfection, their petals soon fall off: this however is the less to be
regretted, as they in general have a great profusion of flower-buds,
whence their loss is daily supplied. They are, for the most part,
inhabitants of warm climates, and affect dry, sheltered, though not
shady, situations.

The present species is a native of Spain, and the south of France, and
being liable to be killed by the severity of our winters, is generally
kept with green-house plants.

It may be propagated either by seeds, or cuttings; the former make the
best plants.



[44]

~Cyclamen persicum. Persian Cyclamen.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ rotata, reflexa, tubo brevissimo: fauce prominente. _Bacca_
tecta capsula.

_Specific Character._

CYCLAMEN _persicum_ foliis cordatis serratis. _Miller's Dict. 4to.
ed. 6._

[Illustration: 44]

LINNÆUS in this, as in many other genera, certainly makes too
few species, having only two; MILLER, on the contrary, is
perhaps too profuse in his number, making eight. The ascertaining the
precise limits of species, and variety, in plants that have been for a
great length of time objects of culture, is often attended with
difficulties scarcely to be surmounted, is indeed a Gordian Knot to
Botanists.

Our plant is the _Cyclamen persicum_ of MILLER, and has been
introduced into our gardens long since the European ones; being a native
of the East-Indies, it is of course more tender than the others, and
therefore requires to be treated more in the style of a green-house
plant.

It is generally cultivated in pots, in light undunged earth, or in a
mixture of loam and lime rubbish, and kept in frames, or on the front
shelf of a green-house, where it may have plenty of air in the summer,
but guarded against too much moisture in the winter.

May be raised from seeds in the same manner as the round-leaved Cyclamen
already figured in this work, p. n. 4.

Flowers early in the spring, and is admirably well adapted to decorate
the parlour or study.

Varies with fragrant flowers, and the eye more or less red.



[45]

~Crocus vernus. Spring Crocus.~


_Class and Order_

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-partita, æqualis. _Stigmata_ convoluta.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CROCUS _vernus_ foliis latioribus margine patulo. _Jacq. Fl. Austr.
Vol. 5. app. t. 36._ _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 83. var. sativ._

CROCUS vernus latifolius. _Bauh. Pin. 65, 66._

The Yellow Crocus. _Parkins. Parad. p. 166._

[Illustration: 45]

LINNÆUS considers the Crocus, or Saffron of the shops, which
blows invariably in the autumn, and the spring Crocus, with its numerous
varieties (of which PARKINSON, in his Garden of Pleasant
Flowers, enumerates no less than twenty-seven) as one and the same
species; other Botanists have considered them as distinct, particularly
PROF. JACQUIN, whose opinion on this subject we deem the most
decisive.

We have figured the yellow variety, which is the one most commonly
cultivated in our gardens, though according to the description in the
_Flora Austriaca_, the _Crocus vernus_, in its wild state, is usually
purple or white.

The cultivation of this plant is attended with no difficulty; in a light
sandy loam, and dry situation, the roots thrive, and multiply so much as
to require frequent reducing; they usually flower about the beginning of
March, and whether planted in rows, or patches, on the borders of the
flower-garden, or mixed indiscriminately with the herbage of the lawn,
when expanded by the warmth of the sun, they produce a most brilliant
and exhilirating effect.

The most mischievous of all our common birds, the sparrow, is very apt
to commit great depredations amongst them when in flower, to the no
small mortification of those who delight in their culture; we have
succeeded in keeping these birds off, by placing near the object to be
preserved, the skin of a cat properly stuffed: a live cat, or some bird
of the hawk kind confined in a cage, might perhaps answer the purpose
more effectually, at least in point of duration.



[46]

~Leucojum vernum. Spring Snow-Flake.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campaniformis, 6-partita, apicibus incrassata, _Stigma_
simplex.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LEUCOJUM _vernum_ spatha uniflora, stylo clavato. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab.
p. 316._

LEUCOJUM bulbosum vulgare. _Bauh. Pin. 55._

The great early bulbous Violet. _Park. Parad._

[Illustration: 46]

The blossoms of the _Leucojum_ and _Galanthus_, or Snow-Drop, are very
similar at first sight, but differ very essentially when examined; the
Snow-Drop having, according to the Linnæan description, a three-leaved
nectary, which is wanting in the Leucojum; the two genera then being
very distinct, it becomes necessary to give them different names; we
have accordingly bestowed on the Leucojum the name of _Snow-Flake_,
which, while it denotes its affinity to the Snow-Drop, is not
inapplicable to the meaning of Leucojum.

As the spring Snow-Flake does not increase so fast by its roots, as the
Snow-Drop, or even the summer Snow-Flake, so it is become much scarcer
in our gardens; it may, indeed, be almost considered as one of our
plantæ rariores, though at the same time a very desirable one.

It does not flower so soon by almost a month, as the Snow-Drop; but its
blossoms, which are usually one on each foot-stalk, sometimes two, are
much larger, and delightfully fragrant.

It is found wild in shady places and moist woods in many parts of
Germany and Italy. The most proper situation for it is a north or east
border, soil a mixture of loam and bog earth; but by having it in
different aspects, this, as well as other plants, may have its flowering
forwarded or protracted, and, consequently, the pleasure of seeing them
in blossom, considerably lengthened.

In a favourable soil and situation, it propagates tolerably fast by
offsets.



[47]

~Amaryllis formosissima. Jacobæan Amaryllis.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, campanulata. _Stigma_ trifidum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AMARYLLIS _formosissima_ spatha uniflora, corolla inæquali petalis
tribus, staminibus pistilloque declinatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 320._

LILIO-NARCISSUS jacobæus, flore sanguineo nutante, _Dillen. elth. 195.
t. 162. f. 196._

The Indian Daffodil with a red flower. _Park. Par. 71. f. 3._

[Illustration: 47]

A native of South-America: according to LINNÆUS, first known in
Europe in 1593, figured by PARKINSON in 1629, and placed by him
among the Daffodils; stoves and green-houses were then unknown, no
wonder therefore it did not thrive long.

"Is now become pretty common in the curious gardens in England, and
known by the name of Jacobæa Lily; the roots send forth plenty of
offsets, especially when they are kept in a moderate warmth in winter;
for the roots of this kind will live in a good green-house, or may be
preserved through the winter under a common hot-bed frame; but then they
will not flower so often, nor send out so many offsets as when they are
placed in a moderate stove in winter. This sort will produce its flowers
two or three times in a year, and is not regular to any season; but from
March to the beginning of September, the flowers will be produced, when
the roots are in vigour.

"It is propagated by offsets, which may be taken off every year; the
best time to shift and part these roots is in August, that they may take
good root before winter; in doing of this, there should be care taken
not to break off the fibres from their roots. They should be planted in
pots of a middling size, filled with light kitchen-garden earth; and, if
they are kept in a moderate degree of warmth, they will produce their
flowers in plenty, and the roots will make great increase." _Miller's
Gard. Dict._



[48]

~Narcissus triandrus. Reflexed Daffodil.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ sex, æqualia. _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo, _Stamina_
intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _triandrus_ spatha sub-biflora, floribus cernuis, petalis
reflexis, staminibus tribus longioribus.

NARCISSUS _triandrus_ spatha sub-uniflora, nectario campanulato crenato
dimidio petalis breviore, staminibus ternis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 317._

NARCISSUS juncifolius, albo flore reflexo. _Clus. app. alt._

The yellow turning Junquilia, or Rush Daffodil. _Parkins. Parad. 93.
fig. 2, 3._

[Illustration: 48]

The present species of _Narcissus_ is considered by the Nursery-men near
London as the _triandrus_ of LINNÆUS, which it no doubt is,
though it does not accord in every particular with his description: his
_triandrus_ is white, ours is pale yellow, but colour is not in the
least to be depended on, for it is found to vary in this as in all the
other species; his _triandrus_ he describes as having in general only
three stamina, whence the name he has given it; ours, so far as we have
observed, has constantly six, three of which reach no further than the
mouth of the tube, a circumstance so unusual, that LINNÆUS
might overlook it without any great impeachment of his discernment; he
says, indeed, that it has sometimes six: perhaps, the three lowermost
ones may, in some instances, be elongated so as to equal the others; if
he had observed the great inequality of their length, he would certainly
have mentioned it.

This species is found wild on the Pyrenean mountains; was an inhabitant
of our gardens in the time of PARKINSON (who has very accurately
described it, noticing even its three stamina) to which, however, it has
been a stranger for many years: it has lately been re-introduced, but is
as yet very scarce. Our figure was taken from a specimen which flowered
in Mr. LEE's Nursery at Hammersmith.

It grows with as much readiness as any of the others of the genus, and
flowers in March and April.



[49]

~Soldanella alpina. Alpine Soldanella.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata, lacero-multifida. _Caps._ 1-locularis, apice
multidentata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SOLDANELLA _alpina._ _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 194._

SOLDANELLA alpina rotundifolia. _Bauh. Pin. 295._

[Illustration: 49]

Of this genus there is at present only one known species, the _alpina_
here figured, which is a native of Germany, and, as its name imports, an
alpine plant.

Its blossoms are bell-shaped, of a delicate blue colour, sometimes
white, and strikingly fringed on the edge.

It flowers usually in March, in the open ground; requires, as most
alpine plants do, shade and moisture in the summer, and the shelter of a
frame, in lieu of its more natural covering snow, in the winter; hence
it is found to succeed best in a northern aspect: will thrive in an open
border, but is more commonly kept in pots.

May be increased by parting its roots early in autumn.



[50]

~Iris sibirica. Siberian Iris.~


_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
_Stigmata_ petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. _Thunb. Diss. de Iride._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _sibirica_ imberbis foliis linearibus, scapo subtrifloro tereti,
germinibus trigonis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab._ _p._ 91.

IRIS pratensis angustifolia, non foetida altior. _Bauh. Pin. 32._

IRIS _bicolor._ _Miller's Dict. ed. 6, 4to._

The greater blue Flower-de-luce with narrow leaves. _Parkins. Parad. p.
185. fig. 2._

[Illustration: 50]

This species of Iris is a native of Germany and Siberia, and is
distinguished from those usually cultivated in our gardens by the
superior height of its stems, and the narrowness of its leaves; from
which last character it is often, by mistake, called _graminea_; but the
true _graminea_ is a very different plant.

The _Iris sibirica_ is a hardy perennial, and will thrive in almost any
soil or situation; but grows most luxuriantly in a moist one, and
flowers in June.

Is propagated most readily, by parting its roots in autumn.



[51]

~Narcissus major. Great Daffodil.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ 6 æqualia: _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. _Stamina_
intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _major_ foliis subtortuosis, spatha uniflora, nectario
campanulato patulo crispo æquante petala.

NARCISSUS _major_ totus luteus calyce prælongo. _Bauhin Pin. 52._

NARCISSI sylvestris alia icon. _Dodon. Stirp. p. 227._

The great yellow Spanish Bastard Daffodil. _Parkins. Parad. t. 101.
fig. 1._

[Illustration: 51]

The present species of Daffodil is the largest of the genus, and bears
the most magnificent flowers, but, though it has long been known in this
country, it is confined rather to the gardens of the curious.

It is a native of Spain, and flowers with us in April. As its roots
produce plenty of offsets, it is readily propagated.

It approaches in its general appearance very near to the _Narcissus
Pseudo-Narcissus_, but differs in being a much taller plant, having its
leaves more twisted, as well as more glaucous, its flowers (but
especially its Nectary) much larger, and its petals more spreading; and
these characters are not altered by culture.

It answers to the _bicolor_ of LINNÆUS in every respect but
colour, and we should have adopted that name, had not the flowers with
us been always of a fine deep yellow; we have therefore taken
BAUHIN's name as the most expressive.

It varies with double flowers.



[52]

~Gentiana acaulis. Large-Flowered Gentian, or Gentianella.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Digynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ monopetala. _Capsula_ bivalvis, 1-locularis. _Receptaculis_
2-longitudinalibus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GENTIANA _acaulis_ corolla quinquefida campanulata caulem excedente.
_Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 267._

GENTIANA alpina latifolia magno flore. _Bauh. Pin. 187._

Small Gentian of the Spring. _Park. Par. p. 352. t. 351. f. 3._

[Illustration: 52]

Plants growing in mountainous situations, where they are constantly
exposed to strong-blowing winds, are always dwarfish; in such
situations, the present plant has no stalk, whence its name _acaulis_,
but cultivated in gardens it acquires one.

Most of the plants of this family are beautiful, and, cultivated in
gardens, in brilliancy of colour none exceed the present species.

As most Alpine plants do, this loves a pure air, an elevated situation,
and a loamy soil, moderately moist; it is however somewhat capricious,
thriving without the least care in some gardens, and not succeeding in
others; at any rate it will not prosper very near London.

It flowers usually in May, and sometimes in the autumn.

Is propagated by parting its roots at the close of summer; but
MILLER says, the strongest and best plants are produced from
seed.



[53]

~Cineraria lanata. Woolly Cineraria.~


_Class and Order._

~Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.~

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ nudum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Calyx_ simplex, polyphyllus,
æqualis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CINERARIA _lanata_ caule suffruticoso, foliis subquinquelobis, subtus
tomentosis; foliolis ad pedunculos lanatis.

[Illustration: 53]

In the beauty of its blossoms, this species of _Cineraria_, lately
introduced from Africa, by far eclipses all the others cultivated in our
gardens; its petals exteriorly are of a most vivid purple, interiorly
white; this change of colour adds much to the brilliancy of the flower.

What renders this plant a more valuable acquisition to the green-house,
is its hardiness, its readiness to flower, and the facility with which
it may be propagated.

It flowers early in the spring, and, by proper management, may be made
to flower the whole year through; it is sometimes kept in the stove, and
may be made to flower earlier by that means; but it succeeds better in a
common green-house, with no more heat than is just necessary to keep out
the frost, indeed it may be preserved in a common hot-bed frame through
the winter, unless the weather prove very severe.

Certain plants are particularly liable to be infested with _Aphides_,
or, in the vulgar phrase, to become lousy, this is one: the only way to
have handsome, healthy, strong-flowering plants, is to procure a
constant succession by cuttings, for there is no plant strikes more
readily; these should be placed in a pot, and plunged into a bed of tan.



[54]

~Anemone sylvestris, Snowdrop Anemony.~


_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ nullus. _Petala_ 6-9. _Semina_ plura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANEMONE _sylvestris_ pedunculo nudo, feminibus subrotundis, hirsutis,
muticis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 510._

ANEMONE sylvestris alba major. _Bauh. Pin. p. 176._

The white wild broad-leafed Wind-Flower. _Park. Par. 202._

[Illustration: 54]

PARKINSON very accurately notices the striking characters of
this species of Anemone, which are its creeping roots, its large white
flowers standing on the tops of the flower-stalks, which sometimes grow
two together, but most commonly singly; the leaves on the stalk, he
observes, are more finely divided than those of the root, and its seeds
are woolly.

MILLER describes it as having little beauty, and therefore but
seldom planted in gardens; it is true, it does not recommend itself by
the gaudiness of its colours, but there is in the flowers, especially
before they expand, a simple elegance, somewhat like that of the
Snowdrop, and which affords a pleasing contrast to the more shewy
flowers of the garden.

It flowers in May, and ripens its seeds in June.

It will grow in almost any soil or situation, is propagated by offsets
from the root, which it puts out most plentifully, so as indeed
sometimes to be troublesome. Is a native of Germany.



[55]

~Geranium striatum. Striped Geranium.~


_Class and Order._

~Monadelphia Decandria.~

_Generic Character._

Monogynia. _Stigmata_ 5. _Fructus_ rostratus 5-coccus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GERANIUM _striatum_ pedunculis bifloris, foliis quinquelobis: lobis
medio dilatatis, petalis bilobis venosoreticulatus. _Linn. Syst.
Vegetab. p. 616._

GERANIUM _striatum_ pedunculis bifloris, foliis caulinis trilobis,
obtuse crenatis. _Miller's Dict._

GERANIUM Romanum versicolor sive striatum.

The variable striped Cranesbill. _Park. Parad. p. 229._

[Illustration: 55]

This species is distinguished by having white petals, finely reticulated
with red veins, and the corners of the divisions of the leaves marked
with a spot of a purplish brown colour, which PARKINSON has
long since noticed.

Is said by LINNÆUS to be a native of Italy, is a very hardy
plant, flowers in May and June, and may be propagated by parting its
roots in Autumn, or by seed; prefers a loamy soil and shady situation.



[56]

~Geranium lanceolatum. Spear-Leaved Geranium.~


_Class and Order._

~Monadelphia Decandria.~

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Stigmata_ 5. _Fructus_ rostratus 5-coccus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GERANIUM _glaucum_ calycibus monophyllis, foliis lanceolatis
integerrimis glaucis, caule erecto suffruticoso. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
p. 614. Supp. Pl. p. 306._

[Illustration: 56]

This elegant and very singular species of _Geranium_ appears to have
been first cultivated in this country; its introduction was attended
with circumstances rather unusual. Mr. LEE, Nurseryman of the
Vineyard, Hammersmith, in looking over some dried specimens in the
Possession of Sir JOSEPH BANKS, which he had recently received
from the Cape of Good Hope, was struck with the singular appearance of
this Geranium, no species having before been seen in this country with
spear-shaped leaves; on examining the specimens attentively, he
perceived a few ripe seeds in one of them, those he solicited, and
obtained; and to his success in making them vegetate, we are indebted
for the present species.

The shape of the leaf readily suggested the name of _lanceolatum_, an
epithet by which it has been generally distinguished in this country,
and which, from its extreme fitness, we have continued, notwithstanding
young Professor LINNÆUS has given it that of _glaucum_, though,
at the same time, his illustrious father had distinguished another
species by the synonymous term of _glaucophyllum_.

This species rarely ripens its seeds with us, and is therefore to be
raised from cuttings, which however are not very free to strike.

It has been usual to keep it in the stove, but we have found by
experience, that it succeeds much better in a common green-house, in
which it will flower during the whole of the summer. Small young plants
of this, as well as most other Geraniums, make the best appearance, and
are therefore to be frequently obtained by cuttings.



[57]

~Papaver orientale. Eastern Poppy.~


_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 4-petala. _Cal._ 2-phyllus. _Capsula,_ 1-locularis sub stigmate
persistente poris dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PAPAVER _orientale_ capsulis glabris, caulibus unifloris scabris
foliosis pinnatis serratis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 490._

Papaver orientale hirsutissimum, magno flore. _Tournes. cor. 17.
itin. 3. p. 127. t. 127._

[Illustration: 57]

Most of the plants of this tribe are distinguished by the splendour of
their colours, most of them also are annuals, in gaiety of colour none
exceed the present species; but it differs in the latter character, in
having not only a perennial root, but one of the creeping kind, whereby
it increases very much, and by which it is most readily propagated.

Though a native of the East, as its name imports, it bears the severity
of our climate without injury, flowers in May, and as its blossoms are
extremely shewy, it gives great brilliancy to the flower-garden or
plantation; prefers a dry soil.



[58]

~Iris spuria. Spurious Iris.~


_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
_Stigmata_ petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. _Conf. Thunb._ _Diss. de
Iride._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _spuria_ imberbis foliis linearibus, scapo subtrifloro tereti,
germinibus hexagonis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 91._ _Jacq. Fl. austr.
tab. 4._

IRIS pratensis angustifolia, folio foetido. _Bauh. Pin. 32._

The greater blue Flower-de-luce with narrow leaves. _Park. Parad. p.
184._

[Illustration: 58]

Some plants afford so little diversity of character, that an expressive
name can scarcely be assigned them; such is the present plant, or
LINNÆUS would not have given it the inexpressive name of
_spuria_, nor we have adopted it.

This species is distinguished by the narrowness of its leaves, which
emit a disagreeable smell when bruised, by the colour of its flowers,
which are of a fine rich purple inclining to blue, and by its hexangular
germen.

It is a native of Germany, where, as Professor JACQUIN informs
us, it grows in wet meadows; is a hardy perennial, thrives in our
gardens in almost any soil or situation, flowers in June, and is
propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.



[59]

~Mesembryanthemum bicolorum. Two-Coloured Fig-Marigold.~


_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa, linearia. _Caps._ carnosa, infera,
polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _bicolorum_ foliis subulatis punctatis lævibus
distinctis, caule frutescente, corollis bicoloribus. _Linn. Syst.
Vegetab. p. 470._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM tenuifolium fruticescens, flore croceo. _Dill. Elth.
267. t. 202. f. 258._

[Illustration: 59]

Contrary to the _Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme_, lately figured in this
work, this species expands its flowers in the day-time, and that only
when the sun shines powerfully on them; on such occasions, the blossoms
on the top of the branches being very numerous, exhibit a most splendid
appearance.

It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, flowers in July, and is most
readily propagated by cuttings.

Like most of the Cape plants, it requires the shelter of a green-house
during the winter.



[60]

~Lathyrus odoratus. Sweet Pea, or Vetchling.~


_Class and Order._

~Diadelphia Decandria.~

_Generic Character._

_Stylus_ planus, supra villosus, superne latior. _Cal._ laciniæ
superiores 2-breviores.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LATHYRUS _odoratus_ pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis diphyllis, foliolis
ovato-oblongis, leguminibus hirsutis, _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 663._

LATHYRUS distoplatyphyllos hirsutus mollis, magno et peramæno flore
odoro. _Comm. hort. 2. p. 219. t. 80._

[Illustration: 60]

There is scarcely a plant more generally cultivated than the _Sweet
Pea_, and no wonder, since with the most delicate blossoms it unites an
agreeable fragrance.

Several varieties of this plant are enumerated by authors, but general
cultivation extends to two only, the one with blossoms perfectly white,
the other white and rose-coloured, commonly called the _Painted Lady
Pea_.

The Sweet Pea is described as a native of Sicily, the Painted Lady
Variety as an inhabitant of Ceylon; they have both been introduced since
the time of PARKINSON and EVELYN.

It is an annual, and not a very tender one; seedling plants sown in
Autumn frequently surviving our winters.

As it is desirable to have this plant in flower for as great a length of
time as possible, to have them early, we must sow them in the Autumn,
either in pots or in the open border; if sown in pots, they can the more
readily be secured from any severe weather, by placing them in a hot-bed
frame, a common practice with gardeners who raise them for the London
markets, in which they are in great request: others again should be sown
early in the spring, and the sowings repeated every month; they grow
readily in almost any soil or situation, and by this means may be had to
flower most of the year through.

If sown in pots, care must be taken to water them frequently.



[61]

~Iris ochroleuca. Tall Iris.~


_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
_Stigmata_ petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. _Thunb. Diss. de Iride._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _ochroleuca_ imberbis foliis ensiformibus, scapo subtereti
germinibus hexagonis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 90._

[Illustration: 61]

Of the several species of Iris cultivated in our gardens, this excels in
point of height; we have taken our English name therefore from this
character, and not from the term _ochroleuca_, which, if translated,
would be too expressive of the colour of the blossoms of the _Iris
Pseudacorus_, with which the _ochroleuca_ has some affinity in point of
size as well as colour.

Notwithstanding Mr. MILLER's description of his _orientalis_
accords very badly with that of LINNÆUS's _ochroleuca_, they
have been generally considered in this country as one and the same
plant, distinguished by the name of POCOCKE's Iris, Dr.
POCOCKE being the person who, according to MILLER, in
his time first introduced it from _Carniola_ (by inadvertence spelt
_Carolina_, in the 6th 4to edition of the Dictionary). There are
grounds, however, for suspecting some error in the habitat of this
plant, for had it grown spontaneously in Carniola, it is not probable
that SCOPOLI would have omitted it in his _Flora Carniolica_.

Leaving its place of growth to be more accurately ascertained hereafter,
we shall observe, that it appears perfectly naturalized to this country,
growing luxuriantly in a moist rich soil, and increasing, like most of
the genus, very fast by its roots. It flowers later than most of the
others.



[62]

~Centaurea glastifolia. Woad-Leaved Centaurea.~


_Class and Order._

~SyngenesiA Polygamia Superflua.~

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ setosum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Corollæ_ radii
infundibuliformes, longiores, irregulares.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CENTAUREA _glastifolia_ calycibus scariosis, foliis indivisis
integerrimis decurrentibus. _Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 787._ _Gmelin Sib. 2.
p. 83._

CENTAURIUM majus orientale erectum, glasti folio, flore luteo. _Comm.
rar. 39. t. 39._

[Illustration: 62]

Assumes the name of _glastifolia_ from the similitude which the leaves
bear to those of the _Isatis tinctoria_, or _Woad_, _Glastum_ of the old
Botanists.

In this plant we have an excellent example of the _Folium decurrens_ and
_Calyx scariosus_ of LINNÆUS, the leaves also exhibit a curious
phenomenon, having veins prominent on both their sides; the scales of
the calyx are moreover distinguished by a beautiful silvery appearance,
which it is difficult to represent in colours.

It is a native of the East, as well as of Siberia; flowers with us in
July, in the open border, and is readily propagated by parting its roots
in autumn, which are of the creeping kind: requires no particular
treatment.

MILLER, in the last 4to edition of his Dictionary, enumerates a
_Cent. glastifolia_; but his description in detail, by no means accords
with the plant.



[63]

~Fragaria monophylla. One-Leaved Strawberry, or Strawberry of
Versailles.~


_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 10-fidus. _Petala_ 5. _Receptaculum_ feminum ovatum, baccatum,
deciduum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FRAGARIA _monophylla_ foliis simplicibus. _Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 476._
_Le Fraisier de Versailles. Duchesne Hist. nat. des Frais, p. 124._

[Illustration: 63]

The first mention made of this Strawberry, we find in
DUCHESNE'S _Histoire naturelle des Fraisiers_, where we have
its complete history, and from which we learn, that it was originally
raised by him at Versailles, in the Year 1761, from seeds of the Wood
Strawberry.

From France this plant has been conveyed to most parts of Europe; how it
has happened we know not, but it is certainly very little known in this
country: in the 14th edit of the _Syst. Veg._ of LINNÆUS, it appears as
a species under the name of _monophylla_, originally imposed on it by
DUCHESNE; LINNÆUS, however, has his doubts as to its being a species
distinct from the _vesca_, and, in our humble opinion, not without
reason; for it can certainly be regarded as a very singular variety
only; its origin indeed is a proof of this; in addition to which we may
observe, that plants raised from the runners will sometimes, though very
rarely indeed, have three leaves instead of one: and it is observed by
the very intelligent author of the _Hist. nat._ abovementioned, that
seedling plants sometimes produced leaves with three divisions, like
those of the Wood Strawberry. Besides the remarkable difference in the
number of the leaves in this plant, the leaves themselves are observed
to be much smaller in the winter season, and their ribs less branched;
the runners also are slenderer and more productive, and the fruit in
general more oblong or pyramidal. As an object of curiosity, this plant
is deserving a place in every garden of any extent; nor is its
singularity its only recommendation, its fruit being equal to that of
the finest Wood Strawberry, with which it agrees in the time of its
flowering, fruiting, and mode of treatment.



[64]

~Hemerocallis fulva. Tawny Day-Lily.~


_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata: tubo cylindrico. _Stamina_ declinata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HEMEROCALLIS _fulva_ foliis lineari-subulatis carinatis, corollis
fulvis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 339._

LILIUM rubrum asphodeli radice. _Bauh. Pin. 80._

The gold red Day-Lily. _Park. Parad. p. 148. t. 149. f. 5._

[Illustration: 64]

According to LINNÆUS, this species is a native of China.

It has long been inured to our climate, and few plants thrive better in
any soil or situation, but a moist soil suits it best; its leaves on
their first emerging from the ground, and for a considerable time
afterwards, are of the most delicate green imaginable; the appearance
which the plant assumes at this period of its growth is, indeed, so
pleasing, that it may be said to constitute one half of its beauty; its
blossoms which appear in July and August, are twice the size of those of
the _flava_, of a tawny orange colour, without gloss or smell, the
Petals waved on the edge, the flowers are rarely or never succeeded by
ripe Capsules as in the _flava_, which is a circumstance that has been
noticed by PARKINSON; when these several characters, in which
the _fulva_ differs so essentially from the _flava_, are attentively
considered, we shall wonder that LINNÆUS could entertain an
idea of their being varieties of each other.

The _Hemerocallis fulva_, from its size, and from the great
multiplication of its roots, is best adapted to large gardens and
plantations.

May be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.



[65]

~Clematis integrifolia. Entire-Leaved Clematis, or
Virgins-Bower.~


_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 0. _Petala_ 4. rarius 5.--vel 6. _Sem._ caudata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CLEMATIS _integrifolia_ foliis simplicibus ovato-lanceolatis, floribus
cernuis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 512._

CLEMATITIS coerulea erecta. _Bauh. Pin. 300._

CLEMATIS coerulea Pannonica. The Hungarian Climer. _Park. Parad. p. 393._

[Illustration: 65]

The _Clematis integrifolia_ is not an uncommon plant in the nurseries
about London, and is deserving a place in gardens, if not for the beauty
of its flowers, at least for their singularity.

It is a native of Germany, flowers in July, and is one of those hardy
perennials which suit most people, requiring little more than an
introduction.

Is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.



[66]

~Passiflora alata. Winged Passion-Flower.~


_Class and Order._

~Gynandria Pentandria.~

_Generic Character._

Trigyna. _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Nectarium_ corona. _Bacca_
pedicellata.

_Specific Character._

PASSIFLORA _alata_ foliis indivisis cordatis integerrimis, petiolis
quadriglandulosis, cauli membranaceo tetragono.

[Illustration: 66]

This species of Passion-flower is one of those which have been
introduced into the English gardens since the time of MILLER;
if it does not equal the _coerulea_ in elegance, it excels it in
magnificence, in brilliancy of colour, and in fragrance, the blossoms
being highly odoriferous: as yet, it is by no means so general in this
country, as its extraordinary beauty merits, we have seen it flower this
year, both summer and autumn, in great perfection in the stove of our
very worthy friend JAMES VERE, Esq. Kensington-Gore; at the
Physic Garden, Chelsea; and at Mr. MALCOM's, Kennington; at
Chelsea, in particular, it afforded the richest assemblage of foliage
and flowers we ever saw.

It appears to the greatest advantage, when trained up an upright pole,
nearly to the height of the back of the stove, and then suffered to run
along horizontally.

By some it has been considered as a variety only of the _Passiflora
quadrangularis_, others, with whom we agree in opinion, have no doubt of
its being a very distinct species; it differs from the _quadrangularis_,
in having leaves more perfectly heart-shaped, and less veiny; in having
four glands on the foot-stalks of the leaves, instead of six; and in not
producing fruit with us, which the _quadrangularis_ has been known
frequently to do.

The Nursery-men report, that this species was first raised in this
country, by a gentleman in Hertfordshire, from West-India seeds.

The usual mode of propogating it here, is by cuttings.



[67]

~Mesembryanthemum pinnatifidum. Jagged-Leaved Fig-Marigold.~


_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa linearia. _Caps._ carnosa infera
polysperma.

_Specific Character._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _pinnatifidum_ foliis pinnatifidis. _Linn. Syst.
Vegetab. p. 470. Suppl. p. 260._

[Illustration: 67]

This species of _Mesembryanthemum_, so different in the shape of its
foliage from all the others hitherto introduced into this country, is
first described in the _Supplementum Plantarum_ of the younger
LINNÆUS, from which we learn that it grew in the Upsal Garden,
into which it was most probably introduced by professor
THUNBERG, as on his authority it is mentioned as a native of
the Cape of Good Hope.

Mr. ZIER, Apothecary, of Castle-Street, was so obliging as to
present me this summer with the seeds of this curious plant, I sowed
them in a pot of earth, plunged in a tan pit, whose heat was nearly
exhausted; they quickly vegetated, and though the summer was far
advanced, they proceeded rapidly into flower, and bid fair to produce
ripe seeds, as the Capsules have long since been formed.

The whole plant is sprinkled over with glittering particles like the ice
plant, to which it bears some affinity in its duration, being an annual
and requiring the same treatment.

The blossoms are small and yellow, and if the weather be fine, open
about two or three o'clock in the afternoon, the stalks are of a bright
red colour, and the foliage yellowish green.



[68]

~Sempervivum arachnoideum. Cobweb Houseleek.~


_Class and Order._

~Dodecandria Dodecagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 12-partitus. _Petala_ 12. _Caps._ 12. polyspermæ.

_Specific Character._

SEMPERVIVUM _arachnoideum_ foliis pilis intertextis, propaginibus
globosis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 456._

SEDUM montanum tomentosum. _Bauh. Pin. 284._

[Illustration: 68]

By the old Botanists, this plant was considered as a _Sedum_; and to
this day it is generally known in the gardens by the name of the _Cobweb
Sedum_, though its habit or general appearance, independent of its
fructification, loudly proclaims it a _Houseleek_.

In this species the tops of the leaves are woolly; as they expand they
carry this woolly substance with them, which being thus extended,
assumes the appearance of a cobweb, whence the name of the plant.

Like most of the Houseleeks it is best kept in a pot, or it will grow
well and appear to great advantage on a wall or piece of rock-work; the
more it is exposed to the sun, the more colour will enliven its stalks
and foliage, and the more brilliant will be its flowers; the latter make
their appearance in July.

It is propagated by offsets which it sends forth in abundance.

It is no uncommon practice to treat this beautiful species of Houseleek,
as a native of a warm climate; under such an idea we have seen it nursed
up in stoves, while the plant spontaneously braves the cold of the
Switzerland Alps.



[69]

~Rosa muscosa. Moss Rose.~


_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ 5. _Cal._ urceolatus, 5-fidus, carnosus, collo coarctatus.
_Sem._ plurima, hispida, calycis interiori lateri affixa.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ROSA _muscosa_ caule petiolisque aculeatis, pedunculis calycibusque
pilosissimis. _Miller's Dict._

[Illustration: 69]

If there be any one genus of plants more universally admired than the
others, it is that of the Rose--where is the Poet that has not
celebrated it? where the Painter that has not made it an object of his
imitative art?

In the opinion of MILLER, the Moss Rose, or Moss Province, as
it is frequently called, is a perfectly distinct species;
LINNÆUS considers it as a variety only of the _centifolia_: as
it is found in our Nurseries in a double state only, and as we are
ignorant of what country it is the produce, the decision of this matter
must be left to future observation and inquiry.

Though it may not increase so fast by suckers, nor be increased so
readily by layers, as the _centifolia_, there is no difficulty in
propagating it either way; the latter mode is usually adopted.



[70]

~Mesembryanthemum barbatum. Bearded Fig-Marigold.~


_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Pentagynia~.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. Petala numerosa, linearia. _Caps._ carnosa, infera,
polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _barbatum_, foliis subovatis papulosis distinctis,
apice barbatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 469._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM radiatum, ramulis prolixis recumbentibus. _Dillen.
Hort. Elth. 245. t. 190. f. 234._

[Illustration: 70]

The leaves of this species have small hairs, issuing like rays from
their points, whence its name of _barbatum_; there are two others
figured by DILLENIUS, whose leaves have a great similarity of
structure, and which are considered by LINNÆUS as varieties of
this species; our plant is the _Stellatum_ of MILLER's _Dict._
_ed._ 6. 4_to_.

Like most of this tribe it inhabits the Cape, flowers in July, and is
readily propagated by cuttings.



[71]

~Statice sinuata. Purple-cup't Statice, or Thrift.~


_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 1-phyllus, integer, plicatus, scariosus. _Petala_ 5. _Sem._ 1.
superum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

STATICE _sinuata_ caule herbaceo, foliis radicalibus alternatim pinnato
sinuatis: caulinis ternis triquetris subulatis decurrentibus. _Lin.
Syst. Vegetab._ _p._ 301.

LIMONIUM peregrinum foliis asplenii. _Bauh. Pin. 192._

LIMONIUM Rauwolfii Marsh Buglosse. _Parkins. Parad. p. 250._

[Illustration: 71]

That this singular species of _Statice_ was long since an inhabitant of
our gardens, appears from PARKINSON, who in his _Garden of
Pleasant Flowers_, gives an accurate description of it, accompanied with
an expressive figure; since his time it appears to have been confined to
few gardens: the nurserymen have lately considered it as a
newly-introduced species, and sold it accordingly.

It is one of those few plants whose calyx is of a more beautiful colour
than the corolla (and which it does not lose in drying); it therefore
affords an excellent example of the _calyx coloratus_, as also of
_scariosus_, it being sonorous to the touch.

Being a native of Sicily, Palestine, and Africa, it is of course liable
to be killed with us in severe seasons, the common practice is therefore
to treat it as a green-house plant, and indeed it appears to the
greatest advantage in a pot; it is much disposed to throw up new
flowering stems; hence, by having several pots of it, some plants will
be in blossom throughout the summer; the dried flowers are a pretty
ornament for the mantle-piece in winter.

Though a kind of biennial, it is often increased by parting its roots,
but more advantageously by seed; the latter, however, are but sparingly
produced with us, probably for the want, as PARKINSON expresses
it, "of sufficient heate of the Sunne."



[72]

~Helleborus lividus. Livid or Purple Hellebore.~


_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ nullus. _Petala_-5. sive plura. _Nectaria_ bilabiata, tubulata.
_Caps._ polyspermæ, erectiusculæ.

_Specific Character._

HELLEBORUS _lividus_ caule multifloro folioso, foliis ternatis. _Ait.
Hort. Kew. ined. 2. p. 272._

[Illustration: 72]

It is not a little extraordinary that this plant which has for many
years been cultivated in this country, should have escaped the notice of
LINNÆUS; it is equally wonderful that we should at this moment
be strangers to its place of growth.

Having three leaves growing together, it has been considered by many as
the _trifoliatus_ of LINNÆUS but his _trifoliatus_ is a very
different plant, a native of Canada, producing small yellow flowers.

It has been usual to treat this species as a green-house plant, or at
least to shelter it under a frame in the winter; probably it is more
hardy than we imagine.

It is propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and by seeds, though
few of the latter in general ripen, nor do the roots make much
increase--to these causes we must doubtless attribute its present
comparative scarcity.

It flowers as early as February; on which account, as well as that of
its singularity, it is a very desirable plant in collections.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Second Volume_
are alphabetically arranged.


           _Pl._

  47 Amaryllis formosissima.
  54 Anemone sylvestris.
  41 Calceolaria pinnata.
  42 Camellia japonica.
  62 Centaurea glastifolia.
  37 Chironia frutescens.
  53 Cineraria lanata.
  43 Cistus incanus.
  65 Clematis integrifolia.
  45 Crocus vernus.
  44 Cyclamen persicum.
  39 Dianthus Caryophyllus, var.
  63 Fragaria monophylla.
  52 Gentiana acaulis.
  55 Geranium striatum.
  56 ---- lanceolatum.
  72 Helleborus lividus.
  64 Hemerocallis fulva.
  61 Iris ochroleuca.
  50 ---- sibirica.
  58 ---- spuria.
  60 Lathyrus odoratus.
  46 Leucojum vernum.
  70 Mesembryanthemum barbatum.
  59 ---- bicolorum.
  67 ---- pinnatifidum.
  51 Narcissus major.
  48 ---- triandrus.
  57 Papaver orientale.
  66 Passiflora alata.
  69 Rosa muscosa.
  49 Soldanella alpina.
  68 Sempervivum arachnoideum.
  71 Statice sinuata.
  40 Trillium sessile.
  38 Viburnum Tinus.



INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Second
Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.


          _Pl._


  47 Amaryllis Jacobean.
  54 Anemony Snowdrop.
  42 Camellia Rose.
  43 Centaurea woad-leaved.
  37 Chironia shrubby.
  53 Cineraria woolly.
  43 Cistus, hoary or rose.
  65 Clematis, or Virgin's-bower entire-leaved.
  45 Crocus spring.
  44 Cyclamen Persian.
  51 Daffodil great.
  48 ---- reflexed.
  64 Day-lily tawny.
  39 Franklin's Tartar.
  70 Fig-marigold bearded.
  67 ---- jagged-leaved.
  59 ---- two-coloured.
  52 Gentian large-flowered, or Gentianella.
  56 Geranium spear-leaved.
  55 ---- striped.
  68 Houseleek cobweb.
  72 Hellebore, livid or purple.
  50 Iris Siberian.
  58 ---- spurious.
  61 ---- tall.
  38 Laurustinus common.
  66 Passion-flower winged.
  60 Pea, or Vetchling sweet.
  57 Poppy eastern.
  69 Rose moss.
  41 Slipper-wort pinnated.
  46 Snow-flake spring.
  49 Soldanella alpine.
  63 Strawberry one-leav'd.
  40 Trillium sessile.
  71 Thrift purple-cup't.





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