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Title: Handbook of the Trees of New England
Author: Dame, Lorin Low, Brooks, Henry M. (Henry Mason), 1822-1898
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Handbook of the Trees of New England" ***

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  HANDBOOK OF THE
  TREES OF NEW ENGLAND


  _WITH RANGES THROUGHOUT THE
  UNITED STATES AND CANADA_

  BY
  LORIN L. DAME, S.D.
  AND
  HENRY BROOKS

  _PLATES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS_
  BY
  ELIZABETH GLEASON BIGELOW

  BOSTON, U.S.A.
  GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
  The Athenæum Press
  1904



  COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY
  LORIN L. DAME AND HENRY BROOKS

  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



PREFACE.


There is no lack of good manuals of botany in this country. There still
seems place for an adequately illustrated book of convenient size for
field use. The larger manuals, moreover, cover extensive regions and
sometimes fail by reason of their universality to give a definite idea
of plants as they grow within more limited areas. New England marks a
meeting place of the Canadian and Alleghanian floras. Many southern
plants, long after they have abandoned more elevated situations
northward, continue to advance up the valleys of the Connecticut and
Merrimac rivers, in which they ultimately disappear entirely or else
reappear in the valley of the St. Lawrence; while many northern plants
pushing southward maintain a more or less precarious existence upon the
mountain summits or in the cold swamps of New England, and sometimes
follow along the mountain ridges to the middle or southern states. In
addition to these two floras, some southwestern and western species have
invaded Vermont along the Champlain valley, and thrown out pickets still
farther eastward.

At or near the limit of a species, the size and habit of plants undergo
great change; in the case of trees, to which this book is restricted,
often very noticeable. There is no fixed, absolute dividing line between
trees and shrubs. In accordance with the usual definition, a tree must
have a single trunk, unbranched at or near the base, and must be at
least fifteen feet in height.

Trees that are native in New England, or native in other sections of the
United States and thoroughly established in New England, are described
and, for the most part, figured. Foreign trees, though locally
established, are not figured. Trees may be occasionally spontaneous
over a large area without really forming a constituent part of the
flora. Even the apple and pear, when originating spontaneously and
growing without cultivation, quickly become degenerate and show little
tendency to possess themselves of the soil at the expense of the native
growths. Gleditsia, for example, while clearly locally established, has
with some hesitation been accorded pictorial representation.

The geographical distribution is treated under three heads: Canada and
Alaska; New England; south of New England and westward. With regard to
the distribution outside of New England, the standard authorities have
been followed. An effort extending through several years has been made
to give the distribution as definitely as possible in each of the New
England states, and while previous publications have been freely
consulted, the present work rests mainly upon the observations of living
botanists.

All descriptions are based upon the habit of trees as they appear in New
England, unless special mention is made to the contrary. The
descriptions are designed to apply to trees as they grow in open land,
with full space for the development of their characteristics under
favorable conditions. In forest trees there is much greater uniformity;
the trunks are more slender, taller, often unbranched to a considerable
height, and the heads are much smaller.

When the trunk tapers uniformly from the ground upward, the given
diameter is taken at the base; when the trunk is reinforced at the base,
the measurements are made above the swell of the roots; when reinforced
at the ground and also at the branching point, as often in the American
elm, the measurements are made at the smallest place between the swell
of the roots and of the branches.

A regular order has been followed in the description for the purpose of
ready comparison. No explanation of the headings used seems necessary,
except to state that the _habitat_ is used in the more customary present
acceptation to indicate the place where a plant naturally grows, as in
swamps or upon dry hillsides. Under the head of "Horticultural Value,"
the requisite information is given for an intelligent choice of trees
for ornamental purposes.

The order and names of families follow, in the main, Engler and Prantl.
In accordance with the general tendency of New England botanists to
conform to the best usage until an authoritative agreement has been
reached with regard to nomenclature by an international congress, the
Berlin rule has been followed for genera, and priority under the genus
for species. Other names in use at the present day are given as synonyms
and included in the index.

Only those common names are given which are actually used in some part
of New England, whether or not the same name is applied to different
trees. It seems best to record what is, and not what ought to be. Common
names that are the creation of botanists have been disregarded
altogether. Any attempt to displace a name in wide use, even by one that
is more appropriate, is futile, if not mischievous.

The plates are from original drawings by Mrs. Elizabeth Gleason Bigelow,
in all cases from living specimens, and they have been carefully
compared with the plates in other works. So far as practicable, the
drawings were made of life size, with the exception of the dissected
portions of small flowers, which were enlarged. In this way, though not
on a perfectly uniform scale, they are, when reduced to the necessary
space, distinct in all their parts.

So far as consistent with due precision, popular terms have been used in
description, but not when such usage involved tedious periphrase.

Especial mention should be made of those botanists whose assistance has
been essential to a knowledge of the distribution of species in the New
England states: Maine,--Mr. M. L. Fernald; New Hampshire,--Mr. Wm. F.
Flint, Report of Forestry Commission; Vermont,--President Ezra Brainerd;
Massachusetts,--trees about Northampton, Mrs. Emily Hitchcock Terry;
throughout the Connecticut river valley, Mr. E. L. Morris; Rhode
Island,--Professor W. W. Bailey, Professor J. F. Collins;
Connecticut,--Mr. C. H. Bissell, Mr. C. K. Averill, Mr. J. N. Bishop.
Dr. B. L. Robinson has given advice in general treatment and in matters
of nomenclature; Dr. C. W. Swan and Mr. Charles H. Morss have made a
critical examination of the manuscript; Mr. Warren H. Manning has
contributed the "Horticultural Values" throughout the work; and Miss M.
S. E. James has prepared the index. To these and to all others who have
given assistance in the preparation of this work, the grateful thanks of
the authors are due.



CONTENTS.


                                     PAGES
  KEY TO THE TREES OF NEW ENGLAND      ix

  LIST OF PLATES                       xi

  AUTHORITIES                        xiii

  ABBREVIATIONS                      xvii

  TEXT AND PLATES                       1

  APPENDIX                            171

  GLOSSARY                            173

  INDEX                               179



KEY TO THE TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.

  I. LEAVES SIMPLE.

        =Leaves alternate=                            A
            Outline entire                               A C
            Outline slightly indented                    A D
            Outline lobed                                A E
              Lobes entire                             A E F
              Lobes slightly indented                  A E G
              Lobes coarsely toothed                   A E H
        =Leaves opposite=                             B

  A C    Ovate to oval, obscurely toothed                    Tupelo
  A C    Ovate to oval                                    Persimmon
  A C    Also 3-lobed                                     Sassafras
  A C    Sometimes opposite, clustered at the ends of
          the branchlets                                   Dogwoods
  A D    Tremulous habit, oval                              Poplars
  A D    Lanceolate, finely serrate, sometimes entire       Willows
  A D    Ovate-oval, serrate, doubly serrate            { Birches
                                                        { Hornbeams
  A D    Oval, serrate, oblong-lanceolate, veins        { Beeches
          terminating in teeth                          { Chestnut
  A D    Ovate-oblong, doubly serrate, surface rough           Elms
  A D    Ovate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate, surface
          slightly rough                                  Hackberry
  A D    Outline variable, ovate-oval, sometimes lobed
          (3-7), serrate-dentate                           Mulberry
  A D    Ovate, serrate, oblong                        { Shadbush
                                                       { Plums
                                                       { Cherries
  A D    Oval or oval-oblong, spines, evergreen               Holly
  A D    Broad-ovate, one-sided, serrate                     Linden
  A D    Obovate, oval, lanceolate, oblong            Chestnut oaks
  A D    Broad-ovate to broad-elliptical, thorny             Thorns
  A E F  Lobes rounded                                    Sassafras
  A E F  Base truncate or heart-shaped                   Tulip tree
  A E F  Obtuse, rounded lobes                           White oaks
  A E F  3-5-lobed, white-tomentose to glabrous
          beneath                                      White poplar
  A E G  5-lobed, finely serrate                          Sweet gum
  A E G  Irregularly 3-7-lobed, serrate-dentate with
          equal teeth                                     Mulberry
  A E H  Pointed or bristle-tipped lobes                 Black oaks
  A E H  Coarse-toothed or pinnate-lobed, short lobes
          ending in sharp point                            Sycamore
  B      Outline entire, ovate, veins prominent   Flowering dogwood
  B      Outline serrate, apex often tapering           Sheep berry
  B      Outline lobed                                       Maples



  II. LEAVES COMPOUND.

      =Leaves pinnately compound=                    I
          Leaflets alternate                         I A
            Outlines of leaflets entire              I A C
          Leaflets opposite                          I B
      =Leaves bi-pinnately compound=                 J

  I A    Outlines of leaflets with two or three teeth at base.   Ailanthus
  IA     Outlines of leaflets   serrate    { Sumacs (except Poison sumac)
                                   { Mountain ashes
                                   { Walnuts
                                   { Hickories
  I A C  Leaflets oval, apex obtuse   Locusts (except Honey locust)
  I A C  Leaflets oblong, apex acute                   Poison sumac
  I B    Outlines of leaflets entire  Ashes (except Mountain ashes)
  I B    Outlines of leaflets serrate   Ashes (except Mountain ashes)
  I B    Leaflets irregularly or coarsely toothed, 3-lobed or nearly
          entire     Box elder
  J      Irregularly bi-pinnate, outlines of leaflets entire, thorns
          on stem and trunk    Honey locust



LIST OF PLATES.


  PLATE                                                             PAGE

  I. Larix Americana                                                   4
  II. Pinus Strobus                                                    6
  III. Pinus rigida                                                    7
  IV. Pinus Banksiana                                                  9
  V. Pinus resinosa                                                   11
  VI. Picea nigra                                                     14
  VII. Picea rubra                                                    16
  VIII. Picea alba                                                    18
  IX. Tsuga Canadensis                                                20
  X. Abies balsamea                                                   22
  XI. Thuja occidentalis                                              24
  XII. Cupressus thyoides                                             26
  XIII. Juniperus Virginiana                                          28
  XIV. Populus tremuloides                                            30
  XV. Populus grandidentata                                           32
  XVI. Populus heterophylla                                           34
  XVII. Populus deltoides                                             35
  XVIII. Populus balsamifera                                          37
  XIX. Populus candicans                                              39
  XX. Salix discolor                                                  41
  XXI. Salix nigra                                                    43
  XXII. Juglans cinerea                                               47
  XXIII. Juglans nigra                                                49
  XXIV. Carya alba                                                    51
  XXV. Carya tomentosa                                                53
  XXVI. Carya porcina                                                 55
  XXVII. Carya amara                                                  57
  XXVIII. Ostrya Virginica                                            58
  XXIX. Carpinus Caroliniana                                          60
  XXX. Betula lenta                                                   62
  XXXI. Betula lutea                                                  64
  XXXII. Betula nigra                                                 66
  XXXIII. Betula populifolia                                          68
  XXXIV. Betula papyrifera                                            70
  XXXV. Fagus ferruginea                                              72
  XXXVI. Castanea sativa, var. Americana                              74
  XXXVII. Quercus alba                                                77
  XXXVIII. Quercus stellata                                           78
  XXXIX. Quercus macrocarpa                                           80
  XL. Quercus bicolor                                                 82
  XLI. Quercus Prinus                                                 84
  XLII. Quercus Muhlenbergii                                          85
  XLIII. Quercus rubra                                                87
  XLIV. Quercus coccinea                                              89
  XLV. Quercus velutina                                               91
  XLVI. Quercus palustris                                             93
  XLVII. Quercus ilicifolia                                           94
  XLVIII. Ulmus Americana                                             97
  XLIX.  Ulmus fulva                                                  98
  L. Ulmus racemosa                                                  100
  LI. Celtis occidentalis                                            102
  LII. Morus rubra                                                   103
  LIII.  Liriodendron Tulipifera                                     103
  LIV. Sassafras officinale                                          108
  LV. Liquidambar Styraciflua                                        109
  LVI. Platanus occidentalis                                         111
  LVII. Pyrus Americana                                              113
  LVIII. Pyrus sambucifolia                                          115
  LIX. Amelanchier Canadensis                                        117
  LX. Cratægus mollis                                                121
  LXI. Prunus nigra                                                  123
  LXII. Prunus Americana                                             124
  LXIII. Prunus Pennsylvanica                                        125
  LXIV. Prunus Virginiana                                            126
  LXV.  Prunus serotina                                              128
  LXVI. Gleditsia triacanthos                                        130
  LXVII.  Robinia Pseudacacia                                        132
  LXVIII. Rhus typhina                                               135
  LXIX. Rhus Vernix                                                  137
  LXX.  Ilex opaca                                                   140
  LXXI.  Acer rubrum                                                 142
  LXXII. Acer saccharinum                                            144
  LXXIII. Acer Saccharum                                             146
  LXXIV.  Acer Saccharum var. nigrum                                 147
  LXXV. Acer spicatum                                                149
  LXXVI. Acer Pennsylvanicum                                         151
  LXXVII. Acer Negundo                                               153
  LXXVIII. Tilia Americana                                           155
  LXXIX. Cornus florida                                              157
  LXXX. Cornus alternifolia                                          158
  LXXXI. Nyssa sylvatica                                             160
  LXXXII. Diospyros Virginiana                                       162
  LXXXIII. Fraxinus Americana                                        164
  LXXXIV. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica                                     165
  LXXXV. Fraxinus Pennsylvanica. var. lanceolata                     166
  LXXXVI. Fraxinus nigra                                             168
  LXXXVII. Viburnum Lentago                                          169



BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES.



                                                                     PAGE
ATKINS, C. G.             Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                        8

AVERILL, C. K.                                                         v

                          Populus balsamifera, L.
                             (_Rhodora_, II, 35)                      36

                          Prunus Americana, Marsh.                   123

                          Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.               84

BAILEY, L. H.             Populus candicans, Ait.                     37

BAILEY, W. W.             Celtis occidentalis, L.                    100

                          Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, _var._
                             lanceolata, Sarg.                       166

BARTRAM, WILLIAM          Quercus tinctoria (1791)                    89

BATCHELDER, F. W.         Betula nigra, L.                            65

                          Salix discolor, Muhl.
                               (Laconia, N. H.)                       41

BATES, J. A.              Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                        8

                          Sassafras officinale, Nees                 106

BISHOP, J. N.                                                          v

                          Celtis occidentalis, L.                    100

                          Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.             164

                          Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, _var._
                             lanceolata, Sarg.                       166

                          Juglans nigra, L.
                             (_in lit._, 1896)                        48

                          Morus rubra, L.                            102

                          Populus heterophylla, L.                    33

                          Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.               84

                          Thuja occidentalis, L.                      23

BISSELL, C. H.                                                         v

                          Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.                    117

                          Pinus sylvestris, L.
                             (_in lit._, 1899)                        12

                          Prunus Americana, Marsh.
                             (_in lit._, 1900)                       123

                          Rhus copallina                             137

BRAINERD, EZRA            Carya porcina, Nutt.                        53

                          Cratægus punctata, Jacq.                   118

                          Ulmus racemosa, Thomas                      99

BREWSTER, WILLIAM         Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                        8

BRITTON, NATHANIEL LORD   Acer Saccharum, _var._ nigrum              172

BROWNE, D. T.             Ilex opaca (_Trees of North
                             America_, 1846)                         139

_Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club_, XVIII, 150

Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                                                  8

CHAMBERLAIN, E. B.     Ulmus fulva, Michx. (1898)                     97

CHURCHILL, J. R.       Prunus Americana, Marsh.                      123

COLLINS, J. F.                                                         v
                               Gleditsia triacanthos, L.             129

DAME. L. L.           Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.                        171
                               Salix fragilis, L. (_Typical Elms and
                                  other Trees of Massachusetts_,
                                  p. 85)                              44

DAY, F. M.               Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                         8

DEANE, WALTER            Sassafras officinale, Nees (1895)           106

DUDLEY, W. R.            Populus heterophylla, L.                     33

EGGLESTON, W.W.          Carya porcina, Nutt.                         53
                                  Celtis occidentalis, L.            100
                                  Morus rubra, L.                    102
                                  Platanus occidentalis, L.          110
                                  Populus deltoides, Marsh.           34
                                  Sassafras officinale, Nees.        106
                                  Ulmus racemosa, Thomas.             99

ENGLER, ADOLPH                                           v

FERNALD, M. L.           Fraxinus Pennsylvania, Marsh, _var._
                                  lanceolata, Sarg. (_in lit._, Sept.,
                                   1901)                             172
                                  Gleditsia triacanthos, L.          129
                                  Populus balsamifera, L. _var._
                                   candicans, Gray (_Rhodora_.
                                   III, 233)                         171
                                  Salix balsamifera, Barratt.        171
                                  Salix discolor, Muhl.
                                  (_in lit._, Sept., 1901)           171

FLAGG                    Morus rubra, L.                             102

FLINT, W. F.                                                           v
                                  Acer Negundo, L.                   151
                                  Quercus alba, L.                    75

_Flora of Vermont_           Betula lenta, L. (1900)                  61
                                  Cratægus Crus-Galli, L. (1900)     117
                                  Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.
                                      (1900)                         164
                                  Picea nigra, Link (1900)            12
                                  Pinus rigida, Mill (1900)            6
                                  Populus deltoides, Marsh. (1900)    34
                                  Quercus alba, L. (1900)             75

FURBISH, MISS KATE       Cratægus coccinea, L. (May, 1899)           119
                                  Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                8

GOODALE, G. L.           Pinus Banksiana. Lamb                         8

GRANT                    Sassafras officinale, Nees                  106

GRAY, ASA                Ilex opaca, Ait. (_Manual of
                                   Botany_, 6th ed.)                 138

HAINES, MRS.             Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                         8

HARGER, E. B.            Picea nigra (_Rhodora_, II, 126)             13

HARPER, R. M.            Liriodendron Tulipifera, L. (_Rhodora_
                          II, 122)                                   104

HARRINGTON, A. K.        Picea alba, Link                             17

HASKINS, T. H.           Ulmus racemosa, Thomas (_Garden and
                          Forest_, V, 86)                             99

HOLMES, DR. EZEKIEL      Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh                      159

HOSFORD, F. H.           Cratægus mollis, Scheele                    120

HOYT, MISS FANNY E.      Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                         8

HUMPHREY, J. E.          Picea alba, Link                             17
                         Quercus palustris, Du Roi
                          (_Amherst Trees_)                           91

JACK, J. G.              Cratægus coccinea, L. (1899-1900)           119

JESSUP, HENRY GRISWOLD   Carya amara, Nutt                            55
                                  Ulmus racemosa, Thomas              99

JOSSELYN, JOHN           Sassafras officinale, Nees (_New England
                          Rarities_, 1672)                           106

KNOWLTON, C. H.          Pinus rigida, Mill. (_Rhodora_, II, 124)      6

MANNING, WARREN H.                                                    vi

MATTHEWS, F. SCHUYLER    Morus rubra. L.                             102

MICHAUX, FILS, FRANÇOIS ANDRÉ   Ulmus fulva (_Sylva of North
                                 America_, III, ed. 1853)             97

MORRIS, E. L.                                                          v

MORSS, CHARLES H.                                                     vi

OAKES, WILLIAM           Morus rubra, L.                             102

PARLIN, J. C.            Sassafras officinale, Nees (1896)           106

PRANTL, KARL VON                                                       v

PRINGLE, C. G.           Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                         8
                                  Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham.
                                   & Schlecht                        113
                                  Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm        84

RAND, E. L.              Pinus Banksiana                               8

_Rhodora_, III, 234    Acer Saccharum, Marsh., _var._ barbatum,
                          Trelease                                   172
                         Acer Saccharum, Marsh., _var._ nigrum,
                          Britton                                    172

_Rhodora_, III, 58           Ilex opaca, Ait.                        139

_Rhodora_, III, 234          Prunus Americana, Marsh                 171

ROBBINS, JAMES W.        Sassafras officinale, Nees                  106
                                  Ulmus racemosa, Thomas              99

ROBINSON, DR. B. L.                                                   vi

ROBINSON, JOHN           Cratægus coccinea, L. (1900)                119

ROBINSON, R. E.         Pinus Banksiana, Lamb                          8

RUSSELL, L. W.         Diospyros Virginiana. L.                      161
                                Quercus palustris, Du Roi             92
                                Quercus stellata. Wang                77

SARGENT, CHARLES S.   Cratægus coccinea, L. (_Botanical
                       Gazette_, XXXI, 12, 1901, by permission)      119
                          Cratægus mollis, Scheele
                           (_Botanical Gazette_. XXXI, 7, 223, 1901) 121

SETCHELL, W. A.        Populus heterophylla. L.                       33

STONE, W. E.           Quercus palustris.
                        Du Roi (_Bull. Torr. Club_, IX, 57)           91

SWAN, DR. C. W.                                                       vi

TERRY, MRS. EMILY H.   Picea alba. Link                               17

TRELEASE, WILLIAM      Acer Saccharum, Marsh., _var._ barbatum       172

TUCKERMAN, EDWARD      Betula papyrifera, _var._ minor, Marsh.        68

WAGHORNE, A. C.        Cratægus coccinea, L. (1894)                  119



ABBREVIATIONS.

  Ait.--Aiton, William.

  Barratt, Joseph.
  B. S. P.--Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Sterns, E. E., and Poggenburg,
    Justus F.
  Borkh.--Borkhausen, M. B.

  Carr.--Carrière, Éli Abel.
  Cham.--Chamisso, Adelbert von.
  Coulter, John Merle.

  DC.--De  Candolle,  Augustin Pyramus.
  Desf.--Desfontaines, René Louiche.
  Du Roi, Johann Philip.

  Ehrh.--Ehrhart, Friedrich.
  Engelm.--Engelmann, George.

  Gray, Asa.

  Jacq.--Jacquin, Nicholaus Joseph.

  Karst.--Karsten, Hermann Gustav Karl Wilhelm.
  Koch, Wilhelm Daniel Joseph.

  L.--Linnæus, Carolus.
  L. f.--Linnæus, fils, Carl von.
  Lam.--Lamarck, J. B. P. A. de Monet.
  Lamb, Aylmer Bourke.
  Link, Heinrich Friedrich.

  Marsh.--Marshall, Humphrey.
  Medic.--Medicus, Friedrich Casimir.
  Michx.--Michaux, André.
  Michaux, fils.--François André.
  Mill.--Miller, Philip.
  Moench, Konrad.
  Muhl.--Muhlenberg, H. Ernst.

  Nees--Nees von Esenbeck, C. G.
  Nutt.--Nuttall, Thomas.

  Peck, Charles H.
  Poggenburg, Justus F.
  Pursh, Friedrich Trangott.

  Roem.--Roemer, Johann Jacob.

  Sarg.--Sargent, Charles S.
  Scheele, A.
  Schlecht--Schlechtendal, D. F. L. von.
  Schr.--Schrader, Heinrich A.
  Spach, Eduard.
  Sterns, E. E.
  Sudw.--Sudworth, George B.
  Sweet, Robert.

  T. and G.--Torrey, John, and Gray, Asa.
  Thomas, David.

  Vent.--Ventenat, Étienne Pierre.

  Walt.--Walter, Thomas.
  Wang.--Wangenheim, F. A. J. von.
  Watson, Sereno.
  Waugh, Frank A.
  Willd.--Willdenow, Carl Ludwig.



TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.



PINOIDEÆ. PINE FAMILY. CONIFERS.


ABIETACEÆ. CUPRESSACEÆ.

Trees or shrubs, resinous; leaves simple, mostly evergreen, relatively
small, entire, needle-shaped, awl-shaped, linear, or scale-like;
stipules none; flowers catkin-like; calyx none; corolla none; ovary
represented by a scale (ovuliferous scale) bearing the naked ovules on
its surface.


ABIETACEÆ.

LARIX. PINUS. PICEA. TSUGA. ABIES.

Buds scaly; leaves evergreen and persistent for several years (except in
_Larix_), scattered along the twigs, spirally arranged or tufted,
linear, needle-shaped, or scale-like; sterile and fertile flowers
separate upon the same plant; stamens (subtended by scales) spirally
arranged upon a central axis, each bearing two pollen-sacs surmounted by
a broad-toothed connective; fertile flowers composed of spirally
arranged bracts or cover-scales, each bract subtending an ovuliferous
scale; cover-scale and ovuliferous scale attached at their bases;
cover-scale usually remaining small, ovuliferous scale enlarging,
especially after fertilization, gradually becoming woody or leathery and
bearing two ovules at its base; cones maturing (except in _Pinus_) the
first year; ovuliferous scales in fruit usually known as cone-scales;
seeds winged; roots mostly spreading horizontally at a short distance
below the surface.


CUPRESSACEÆ.

THUJA. CUPRESSUS. JUNIPERUS.

Leaf-buds not scaly; leaves evergreen and persistent for several years,
opposite, verticillate, or sometimes scattered, scale-like, often
needle-shaped in seedlings and sometimes upon the branches of older
plants; flowers minute; stamens and pistils in separate blossoms upon
the same plant or upon different plants; stamens usually bearing 3-5
pollen-sacs on the underside; scales of fertile aments few, opposite or
ternate; fruit small cones, or berries formed by coalescence of the
fleshy cone-scales; otherwise as in _Abietaceæ_.


Larix Americana, Michx.

_Larix laricina, Koch._

TAMARACK. HACMATACK. LARCH. JUNIPER.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low lands, shaded hillsides, borders of ponds; in
New England preferring cold swamps; sometimes far up mountain slopes.

     Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, west to the Rocky
     mountains; from the Rockies through British Columbia, northward
     along the Yukon and Mackenzie systems, to the limit of tree growth
     beyond the Arctic circle.

Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont,--abundant, filling swamps acres in
extent, alone or associated with other trees, mostly black spruce;
growing depressed and scattered on Katahdin at an altitude of 4000 feet;
Massachusetts,--rather common, at least northward; Rhode Island,--not
reported; Connecticut,--occasional in the northern half of the state;
reported as far south as Danbury (Fairfield county).

     South along the mountains to New Jersey and Pennsylvania; west to
     Minnesota.

=Habit.=--The only New England conifer that drops its leaves in the
fall; a tree 30-70 feet high, reduced at great elevations to a height of
1-2 feet, or to a shrub; trunk 1-3 feet in diameter, straight, slender;
branches very irregular or in indistinct whorls, for the most part
nearly horizontal; often ending in long spire-like shoots; branchlets
numerous, head conical, symmetrical while the tree is young, especially
when growing in open swamps; when old extremely variable, occasionally
with contorted or drooping limbs; foliage pale green, turning to a dull
yellow in autumn.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk reddish or grayish brown, separating at the
surface into small roundish scales in old trees, in young trees smooth;
season's shoots gray or light brown in autumn.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, globular, reddish.

Leaves simple, scattered along the season's shoots, clustered on the
short, thick dwarf branches, about an inch long, pale green,
needle-shaped; apex obtuse; sessile.

=Inflorescence.=--March to April. Flowers lateral, solitary, erect; the
sterile from leafless, the fertile from leafy dwarf branches; sterile
roundish, sessile; anthers yellow: fertile oblong, short-stalked; bracts
crimson or red.

=Fruit.=--Cones upon dwarf branches, erect or inclining upwards, ovoid
to cylindrical, 1/2-3/4 of an inch long, purplish or reddish brown while
growing, light brown at maturity, persistent for at least a year; scales
thin, obtuse to truncate; edge entire, minutely toothed or erose; seeds
small, winged.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; grows in any good soil,
preferring moist locations; the formal outline of the young trees
becomes broken, irregular, and picturesque with age, making the mature
tree much more attractive than the European species common to
cultivation. Rarely for sale in nurseries, but obtainable from
collectors. To be successfully transplanted, it must be handled when
dormant. Propagated from seed.

     =Note.=--The European species, with which the mature plant is often
     confused, has somewhat longer leaves and larger cones; a form
     common in cultivation has long, pendulous branches.

[Illustration: PLATE I.--Larix Americana.]

  1. Branch with sterile and fertile flowers.
  2. Sterile flowers.
  3. Different views of stamens.
  4. Ovuliferous scale with ovules.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Open cone.
  7. Cone-scale with seeds.
  8. Leaf.
  9. Cross-section of leaf.


PINUS.

The leaves are of two kinds, primary and secondary; the primary are
thin, deciduous scales, in the axils of which the secondary leaf-buds
stand; the inner scales of those leaf-buds form a loose, deciduous
sheath which encloses the secondary or foliage leaves, which in our
species are all minutely serrulate.


Pinus Strobus, L.

WHITE PINE.

=Habitat and Range.=--In fertile soils; moist woodlands or dry uplands.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, through Quebec and Ontario, to Lake
     Winnipeg.

New England,--common, from the vicinity of the seacoast to altitudes of
2500 feet, forming extensive forests.

     South along the mountains to Georgia, ascending to 2500 feet in the
     Adirondacks and to 4300 in North Carolina; west to Minnesota and
     Iowa.

=Habit.=--The tallest tree and the stateliest conifer of the New England
forest, ordinarily from 50 to 80 feet high and 2-4 feet in diameter at
the ground, but in northern New England, where patches of the primeval
forest still remain, attaining a diameter of 3-7 feet and a height
ranging from 100 to 150 feet, rising in sombre majesty far above its
deciduous neighbors; trunk straight, tapering very gradually; branches
nearly horizontal, wide-spreading, in young trees in whorls usually of
five, the whorls becoming more or less indistinct in old trees;
branchlets and season's shoots slender; head cone-shaped, broad at the
base, clothed with soft, delicate, bluish-green foliage; roots running
horizontally near the surface, taking firm hold in rocky situations,
extremely durable when exposed.

=Bark.=--On trunks of old trees thick, shallow-channeled, broad-ridged;
on stems of young trees and upon branches smooth, greenish; season's
shoots at first rusty-scurfy or puberulent, in late autumn becoming
smooth and light russet brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leading branch-buds 1/4-1/2 inch long, oblong
or ovate-oblong, sharp-pointed; scales yellowish-brown.

Foliage leaves in clusters of five, slender, 3-5 inches long, soft
bluish-green, needle-shaped, 3-sided, mucronate, each with a single
fibrovascular bundle, sessile.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Sterile flowers at the base of the season's
shoots, in clusters, each flower about one inch long, oval, light brown;
stamens numerous; connectives scale-like: fertile flowers near the
terminal bud of the season's shoots, long-stalked, cylindrical; scales
pink-margined.

=Fruit.=--Cones, 4-6 inches long, short-stalked, narrow-cylindrical,
often curved, finally pendent, green, maturing the second year; scales
rather loose, scarcely thickened at the apex, not spiny; seeds winged,
smooth.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; free from disease;
grows well in almost any soil, but prefers a light fertile loam; in open
ground retains its lower branches for many years. Good plants, grown
from seed, are usually readily obtainable in nurseries; small collected
plants from open ground can be moved in sods with little risk.

Several horticultural forms are occasionally cultivated which are
distinguished by variations in foliage, trailing branches, dense and
rounded heads, and dwarfed or cylindrical habits of growth.

  PLATE II.  PINUS STROBUS.

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen.
  3. Branch with fertile flowers.
  4. Bract and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  5. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  6. Branch with cones.
  7. Cross-section of leaf.


Pinus rigida, Mill.

PITCH PINE. HARD PINE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Most common in dry, sterile soils, occasional in
swamps.

     New Brunswick to Lake Ontario.

Maine,--mostly in the southwestern section near the seacoast; as far
north as Chesterville, Franklin county (C. H. Knowlton, _Rhodora_, II,
124); scarcely more than a shrub near its northern limits; New
Hampshire,--most common along the Merrimac valley to the White mountains
and up the Connecticut valley to the mouth of the Passumpsic, reaching
an altitude of 1000 feet above the sea level; Vermont,--common in the
northern Champlain valley, less frequent in the Connecticut valley
(_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); common in the other New England states,
often forming large tracts of woodland, sometimes exclusively occupying
extensive areas.

     South to Virginia and along the mountains to northern Georgia; west
     to western New York, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

=Habit.=--Usually a low tree, from 30 to 50 feet high, with a diameter
of 1-2 feet at the ground, but not infrequently rising to 70-80 feet,
with a diameter of 2-4 feet; trunk straight or more or less tortuous,
tapering rather rapidly; branches rising at a wide angle with the stem,
often tortuous, and sometimes drooping at the extremities, distinctly
whorled in young trees, but gradually losing nearly every trace of
regularity; roughest of our pines, the entire framework rough at every
stage of growth; head variable, open, often scraggly, widest near the
base and sometimes dome-shaped in young trees; branchlets stout,
terminating in rigid, spreading tufts of foliage.

[Illustration: PLATE II.--Pinus Strobus.]

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees thick, deeply furrowed, with broad
connecting ridges, separating on the surface into coarse dark grayish or
reddish brown scales; younger stems and branches very rough, separating
into scales; season's shoots rough to the tips.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leading branch-buds 1/2-3/4 inch long,
narrow-cylindrical or ovate, acute at the apex, resin-coated; scales
brownish.

Foliage leaves in threes, 3-5 inches long, stout, stiff, dark
yellowish-green, 3-sided, sharp-pointed, with two fibrovascular bundles;
sessile; sheaths when young about 1/2 inch long.

=Inflorescence.=--Sterile flowers at the base of the season's shoots,
clustered; stamens numerous; anthers yellow: fertile flowers at a slight
angle with and along the sides of the season's shoots, single or
clustered.

=Fruit.=--Cones lateral, single or in clusters, nearly or quite sessile,
finally at right angles to the stem or twisted slightly downward, ovoid,
ovate-conical; subspherical when open, ripening the second season;
scales thickened at the apex, armed with stout, straight or recurved
prickles.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; well adapted to
exposed situations on highlands or along the seacoast; grows in almost
any soil, but thrives best in sandy or gravelly moist loams; valuable
among other trees for color-effects and occasional picturesqueness of
outline; mostly uninteresting and of uncertain habit; subject to the
loss of the lower limbs, and not readily transplanted; very seldom
offered in quantity by nurserymen; obtainable from collectors, but
collected plants are seldom successful. Usually propagated from the
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE III.--Pinus rigida.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, top view.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower showing bract and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  6. Fertile flower showing ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  7. Fruiting branch with cones one and two years old.
  8. Open cone.
  9. Seed.
  10. Cross-section of leaf.


=Pinus Banksiana, Lamb.=

_Pinus divaricata. Sudw._

SCRUB PINE. GRAY PINE. SPRUCE PINE. JACK PINE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Sterile, sandy soil: lowlands, boggy plains, rocky
slopes.

     Nova Scotia, northwesterly to the Athabasca river, and northerly
     down the Mackenzie to the Arctic circle.

Maine,--Traveller mountain and Grand lake (G. L. Goodale); Beal's island
on Washington county coast, Harrington, Orland, and Cape Rosier (C. G.
Atkins); Schoodic peninsula in Gouldsboro, a forest 30 feet high (F. M.
Day, E. L. Rand, _et al._); Flagstaff (Miss Kate Furbush); east branch
of Penobscot (Mrs. Haines); the Forks (Miss Fanny E. Hoyt); Lake Umbagog
(Wm. Brewster); New Hampshire,--around the shores of Lake Umbagog, on
points extending into the lake, rare (Wm. Brewster _in lit._, 1899);
Welch mountains (_Bull. Torr. Bot. Club_, XVIII, 150); Vermont,--rare,
but few trees at each station; Monkton in Addison county (R. E.
Robinson); Fairfax, Franklin county (Bates); Starkesboro (Pringle).

     West through northern New York, northern Illinois, and Michigan to
     Minnesota.

=Habit.=--Usually a low tree, 15-30 feet high and 6-8 inches in diameter
at the ground, but under favorable conditions, as upon the wooded points
and islands of Lake Umbagog, attaining a height of 50-60 feet, with a
diameter of 10-15 inches. Extremely variable in habit. In thin soils and
upon bleak sites the trunk is for the most part crooked and twisted, the
head scrubby, stunted, and variously distorted, resembling in shape and
proportions the pitch pine under similar conditions. In deeper soils,
and in situations protected from the winds, the stem is erect, slender,
and tapering, surmounted by a stately head with long, flexible branches,
scarcely less regular in outline than the spruce. Foliage
yellowish-green, bunched at the ends of the branchlets.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees dark brown, rounded-ridged,
rough-scaly at the surface; branchlets dark purplish-brown, rough with
the persistent bases of the fallen leaves; season's shoots
yellowish-green, turning to reddish-brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Branch-buds light brown, ovate, apex acute or
rounded, usually enclosed in resin.

Leaves in twos, divergent from a short close sheath, about 1 inch in
length and scarcely 1/12 inch in width, yellowish-green, numerous,
stiff, curved or twisted, cross-section showing two fibrovascular
bundles; outline narrowly linear; apex sharp-pointed; outer surface
convex, inner concave or flat.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Sterile flowers at the base of the season's
shoots, clustered, oblong-rounded: fertile flowers along the sides or
about the terminal buds of the season's shoots, single, in twos or in
clusters; bracts ovate, roundish, purplish.

=Fruit.=--Cones often numerous, 1-2 inches long, pointing in the general
direction of the twig on which they grow, frequently curved at the tip,
whitish-yellow when young, and brown at maturity; scales when mature
without prickles, thickened at the apex; outline very irregular but in
general oblong-conical. The open cones, which are usually much
distorted, with scales at base closed, have a similar outline.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; slow growing and hard to
transplant; useful in poor soil; seldom offered by nurserymen or
collectors. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.--Pinus Banksiana.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, top view.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Open cone.
  8, 9. Variant leaves.
  10, 11. Cross-sections of leaves.


Pinus resinosa, Ait.

RED PINE. NORWAY PINE.

=Habitat and Range.=--In poor soils: sandy plains, dry woods.

     Newfoundland and New Brunswick, throughout Quebec and Ontario, to
     the southern end of Lake Winnipeg.

Maine,--common, plains, Brunswick (Cumberland county); woods, Bristol
(Lincoln county); from Amherst (western part of Hancock county) and
Clifton (southeastern part of Penobscot county) northward just east of
the Penobscot river the predominant tree, generally on dry ridges and
eskers, but in Greenbush and Passadumkeag growing abundantly on peat
bogs with black spruce; hillsides and lower mountains about Moosehead,
scattered; New Hampshire,--ranges with the pitch pine as far north as
the White mountains, but is less common, usually in groves of a few to
several hundred acres in extent; Vermont,--less common than _P. Strobus_
or _P. rigida_, but not rare; Massachusetts,--still more local, in
stations widely separated, single trees or small groups; Rhode
Island,--occasional; Connecticut,--not reported.

     South to Pennsylvania; west through Michigan and Wisconsin to
     Minnesota.

=Habit.=--The most beautiful of the New England pines, 50-75 feet high,
with a diameter of 2-3 feet at the ground; reaching in Maine a height of
100 feet and upwards; trunk straight, scarcely tapering; branches low,
stout, horizontal or scarcely declined, forming a broad-based, rounded
or conical head of great beauty when young, becoming more or less
irregular with age; foliage of a rich dark green, in long dense tufts at
the ends of the branches.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk reddish-brown, in old trees marked by flat ridges
which separate on the surface into thin, flat, loose scales; branchlets
rough with persistent bases of leaf buds; season's shoots stout,
orange-brown, smooth.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leading branch-buds conical, about 3/4
inch long, tapering to a sharp point, reddish-brown, invested with
rather loose scales.

Foliage leaves in twos, from close, elongated, persistent, and
conspicuous sheaths, about 6 inches long, dark green, needle-shaped,
straight, sharply and stiffly pointed, the outer surface round and the
inner flattish, both surfaces marked by lines of minute pale dots.

=Inflorescence.=--Sterile flowers clustered at the base of the season's
shoots, oblong, 1/2-3/4 inch long: fertile flowers single or few, at the
ends of the season's shoots.

=Fruit.=--Cones near extremity of shoot, at right angles to the stem,
maturing the second year, 1-3 inches long, ovate to oblong conical; when
opened broadly oval or roundish; scales not hooked or pointed, thickened
at the apex.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; a tall, dark-foliaged
evergreen, for which there is no substitute; grows rapidly in all
well-drained soils and in exposed inland or seashore situations; seldom
disfigured by insects or disease; difficult to transplant and not common
in nurseries. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE V.--Pinus resinosa.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, top view.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers and one-year-old cones.
  5. Bract and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  7. Fruiting branch showing cones of three different seasons.
  8. Seeds with cone-scale.
  9, 10. Cross-sections of leaves.


= Pinus sylvestris, L.=

SCOTCH PINE (sometimes incorrectly called the Scotch fir).

Indigenous in the northern parts of Scotland and in the Alps, and from
Sweden and Norway, where it forms large forests eastward throughout
northern Europe and Asia.

At Southington, Conn., many of these trees, probably originating from an
introduced pine in the vicinity, were formerly scattered over a rocky
pasture and in the adjoining woods, a tract of about two acres in
extent. Most of these were cut down in 1898, but the survivors, if left
to themselves, will doubtless multiply rapidly, as the conditions have
proved very favorable (C. H. Bissell _in lit._, 1899).

Like _P. resinosa_ and _P. Banksiana_, it has its foliage leaves in
twos, with neither of which, however, is it likely to be confounded;
aside from the habit, which is quite different, it may be distinguished
from the former by the shortness of its leaves, which are less than 2
inches long, while those of _P. resinosa_ are 5 or 6; and from the
latter by the position of its cones, which point outward and downward at
maturity, while those of _P. Banksiana_ follow the direction of the
twig.


Picea nigra, Link.

_Picea Mariana, B. S. P. (including Picea brevifolia, Peck)._

BLACK SPRUCE. SWAMP SPRUCE. DOUBLE SPRUCE. WATER SPRUCE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Swamps, sphagnum bogs, shores of rivers and ponds,
wet, rocky hillsides; not uncommon, especially northward, on dry uplands
and mountain slopes.

     Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, westward beyond the Rocky
     mountains, extending northward along the tributaries of the Yukon
     in Alaska.

Maine,--common throughout, covering extensive areas almost to the
exclusion of other trees in the central and northern sections,
occasional on the top of Katahdin (5215 feet); New Hampshire and
Vermont,--common in sphagnum swamps of low and high altitudes; the dwarf
form, var. _semi-prostrata_, occurs on the summit of Mt. Mansfield
(_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); Massachusetts,--frequent; Rhode Island,--not
reported; Connecticut,--rare; on north shore of Spectacle ponds in Kent
(Litchfield county), at an elevation of 1200 feet; Newton (Fairfield
county), a few scattered trees in a swamp at an altitude of 400 feet:
(New Haven county) a few small trees at Bethany; at Middlebury abundant
in a swamp of five acres (E. B. Harger, _Rhodora_, II, 126).

     South along the mountains to North Carolina and Tennessee; west
     through the northern tier of states to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--In New England, usually a small, slender tree, 10-30 feet high
and 5-8 inches in diameter; attaining northward and westward much
greater dimensions; reduced at high elevation to a shrub or dwarf tree,
2 or 3 feet high; trunk tapering very slowly, forming a narrow-based,
conical, more or less irregular head; branches rather short, scarcely
whorled, horizontal or more frequently declining with an upward tendency
at the ends, often growing in open swamps almost to the ground, the
lowest prostrate, sometimes rooting at their tips and sending up shoots;
spray stiff and rather slender; foliage dark bluish-green or glaucous.
This tree often begins to blossom after attaining a height of 2-5 feet,
the terminal cones each season remaining persistent at the base of the
branches, sometimes for many years.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk grayish-brown, separating into rather close, thin
scales; branchlets roughened with the footstalks of the fallen leaves;
twigs in autumn dull reddish-brown with a minute, erect, pale, rusty
pubescence, or nearly smooth.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds scaly, ovate, pointed, reddish-brown.
Leaves scattered, needle-shaped, dark bluish-green, the upper sides
becoming yellowish in the sunlight, the faces marked by parallel rows of
minute bluish dots which sometimes give a glaucous effect to the lower
surface or even the whole leaf on the new shoots, 4-angled, 1/4-3/4 of
an inch long, straight or slightly incurved, blunt at the apex, abruptly
tipped or mucronate, sessile on persistent, decurrent footstalks.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May, a week or two earlier than the red
spruce; sterile flowers terminal or axillary, on wood of the preceding
year; about 3/8 inch long, ovate; anthers madder-red: fertile flowers at
or near end of season's shoots, erect; scales madder-red, spirally
imbricated, broader than long, margin erose, rarely entire.

=Fruit.=--Cones, single or clustered at or near ends of the season's
shoots, attached to the upper side of the twig, but turning downward by
the twisting of the stout stalk, often persistent for years; 1/2-1-1/2
inches long; purplish or grayish brown at the end of the first season,
finally becoming dull reddish or grayish brown, ovate, ovate-oval, or
nearly globular when open; scales rigid, thin, reddish on the inner
surface; margin rounded, uneven, eroded, bifid, or rarely entire.

=Horticultural Value.=--Best adapted to cool, moist soils; of little
value under cultivation; young plants seldom preserving the broad-based,
cone-like, symmetrical heads common in the spruce swamps, the lower
branches dying out and the whole tree becoming scraggly and unsightly.
Seldom offered by nurserymen.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.--Picea nigra.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, side view.
  4. Stamen, top view.
  5. Branch with fertile flowers.
  6. Cover-scale and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  7. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  8. Fruiting branch.
  9. Seed.
  10. Leaf.
  11. Cross-sections of leaves.


=Picea rubra, Link.=

_Picea rubens, Sarg. Picea nigra, var. rubra, Engelm._

RED SPRUCE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Cool, rich woods, well-drained valleys, slopes of
mountains, not infrequently extending down to the borders of swamps.

     Prince Edward island and Nova Scotia, along the valley of the St.
     Lawrence.

Maine,--throughout: most common towards the coast and in the
extreme north, thus forming a belt around the central area, where
it is often quite wanting except on cool or elevated slopes; New
Hampshire,--throughout; the most abundant conifer of upper Coos, the
White mountain region where it climbs to the alpine area, and the higher
parts of the Connecticut-Merrimac watershed; Vermont,--throughout; the
common spruce of the Green mountains, often in dense groves on rocky
slopes with thin soil; Massachusetts,--common in the mountainous regions
of Berkshire county and on uplands in the northern sections, occasional
southward; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--not reported.

     South along the Alleghanies to Georgia, ascending to an altitude of
     4500 feet in the Adirondacks, and 4000-5000 feet in West Virginia;
     west through the northern tier of states to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A hardy tree, 40-75 feet high; trunk 1-2-1/2 feet in diameter,
straight, tapering very slowly; branches longer than those of the black
spruce, irregularly whorled or scattered, the lower often declined,
sometimes resting on the ground, the upper rising toward the light,
forming while the tree is young a rather regular, narrow, conical head,
which in old age and in bleak mountain regions becomes, by the loss of
branches, less symmetrical but more picturesque; foliage dark
yellowish-green.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk smoothish and mottled on young trees, at length
separating into small, thin, flat, reddish scales; in old trees striate
with shallow sinuses, separating into ashen-white plates, often
partially detached; spray reddish or yellowish white in autumn with
minute, erect, pale rusty pubescence.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds scaly, conical, brownish, 1/3 inch long.
Leaves solitary, at first closely appressed around the young shoots,
ultimately pointing outward, those on the underside often twisting
upward, giving a brush-like appearance to the twig, 1/2-3/4 inch long,
straight or curved (curvature more marked than in _P. nigra_),
needle-shaped, dark yellowish-green, 4-angled; apex blunt or more or
less pointed, often mucronate; base blunt; sessile on persistent
leaf-cushions.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile flowers terminal or axillary on wood of
the preceding year, 1/2-3/4 inch long, cylindrical; anthers pinkish-red:
fertile flowers lateral along previous season's shoots, erect; scales
madder-purple, spirally imbricated, broader than long, margin entire or
slightly erose.

=Fruit.=--Cones; single or clustered, lateral along the previous
season's shoots, recurved, mostly pointing downward at various angles,
on short stalks, falling the first autumn but sometimes persistent a
year longer, 1-2 inches long (usually larger than those of _P. nigra_),
reddish-brown, mostly ovate; scales thin, stiff, rounded; margin entire
or slightly irregular.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; adapts itself to a
great variety of soils and lives to a great age. Its narrow-based
conical form, dense foliage, and yellow green coloring form an effective
contrast with most other evergreens. It grows, however, slowly, is
subject to the loss of its lower branches and to disfigurement by
insects. Seldom offered in nurseries.

[Illustration: PLATE VII.--Picea rubra.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, side view.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Cover-scale and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  7. Fruiting branch with cones of two seasons.
  8. Seed.
  9. Leaf.
  10. Cross-sections of leaves.


=Picea alba, Link.=

_Picea Canadensis, B. S. P._

WHITE SPRUCE. CAT SPRUCE.[1] SKUNK SPRUCE.[2] LABRADOR SPRUCE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, damp, but not wet woods; dry, sandy soils,
high rocky slopes and exposed hilltops, often in scanty soil.

[Footnote 1, 2: So called from the peculiarly unpleasant odor of the
crushed foliage and young shoots,--a characteristic which readily
distinguishes it from the _P. nigra_ and _P. rubra_.]

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, through the provinces of Quebec and
     Ontario to Manitoba and British Columbia, northward beyond all
     other trees, within 20 miles of the Arctic sea.

Maine,--frequent in sandy soils, often more common than _P. rubra_, as
far south as the shores of Casco bay; New Hampshire,--abundant around
the shores of the Connecticut river, disappearing southward at
Fifteen-Mile falls; Vermont,--restricted mainly to the northern
sections, more common in the northeast; Massachusetts,--occasional in
the mountainous regions of Berkshire county; a few trees in Hancock (A.
K. Harrington); as far south as Amherst (J. E. Humphrey) and Northampton
(Mrs. Emily H. Terry), probably about the southern limit of the species;
Rhode Island and Connecticut,--not reported.

     West through the northern sections of the northern tier of states
     to the Rocky mountains.

=Habit.=--A handsome tree, 40-75 feet high, with a diameter of 1-2 feet
at the ground, the trunk tapering slowly, throwing out numerous
scattered or irregularly whorled, gently ascending or nearly horizontal
branches, forming a symmetrical, rather broad conical head, with
numerous branchlets and bluish-green glaucous foliage spread in dense
planes; gum bitter.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk pale reddish-brown or light gray, on very old
trees ash-white; not as flaky as the bark of the red spruce, the scales
smaller and more closely appressed; young trees and small branches much
smoother, pale reddish-brown or mottled brown and gray, resembling the
fir balsam; branchlets glabrous; shoots from which the leaves have
fallen marked by the scaly, persistent leaf-cushions; new shoots pale
fawn-color at first, turning darker the second season; bark of the tree
throughout decidedly lighter than that of the red or black spruces.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds scaly, ovoid or conical, about 1/4 inch
long, light brown. Leaves scattered, stout as those of _P. rubra_ or
very slender, those on the lower side straight or twisted so as to
appear on the upper side, giving a brush-like appearance to the twig,
about 3/4 of an inch long; bluish-green, glaucous on the new shoots,
needle-shaped, 4-angled, slightly curved, bluntish or sharp-pointed,
often mucronate, marked on each side with several parallel rows of dots,
malodorous, especially when bruised.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile flowers terminal or axillary, on
wood of the preceding season; distinctly stalked; cylindrical, 1/2 an
inch long; anthers pale red: fertile flowers at or near ends of season's
shoots; scales pale red or green, spirally imbricated, broader than
long; margin roundish, entire or nearly so; each scale bearing two
ovules.

=Fruit.=--Cones short-stalked, at or near ends of branchlets, light
green while growing, pale brownish when mature, spreading, 1-2-1/2
inches long, when closed cylindrical, tapering towards the apex,
cylindrical or ovate-cylindrical when open, mostly falling the first
winter; scales broad, thin, smooth; margin rounded, sometimes
straight-topped, usually entire.

=Horticultural Value.=--A beautiful tree, requiring cold winters for its
finest development, the best of our New England spruces for ornamental
and forest plantations in the northern sections; grows rapidly in moist
or well-drained soils, in open sun or shade, and in exposed situations.
The foliage is sometimes infested by the red spider. Propagated from
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE VIII.--Picea alba.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Stamen, front view.
  3. Stamen, side view.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Cover-scale and ovuliferous scale, outer side.
  6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  7. Fruiting branch.
  8. Open cone.
  9. Seed with ovuliferous scale.
  10. Leaves.
  11. Cross-sections of leaves.


=Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.=

HEMLOCK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Cold soils, borders of swamps, deep woods,
ravines, mountain slopes.

     Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, through Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--abundant, generally distributed in the southern and central
portions, becoming rare northward, disappearing entirely in most of
Aroostook county and the northern Penobscot region; New
Hampshire,--abundant, from the sea to a height of 2000 feet in the White
mountains, disappearing in upper Coos county; Vermont,--common,
especially in the mountain forests; Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware and along the mountains to Georgia and Alabama,
     ascending to an altitude of 2000 feet in the Adirondacks; west to
     Michigan and Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A large handsome tree, 50-80 feet high; trunk 2-4 feet in
diameter, straight, tapering very slowly; branches going out at right
angles, not disposed in whorls, slender, brittle yet elastic, the lowest
declined or drooping; head spreading, somewhat irregular, widest at the
base; spray airy, graceful, plume-like, set in horizontal planes;
foliage dense, extremely delicate, dark lustrous green above and silver
green below, tipped in spring with light yellow green.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk reddish-brown, interior often cinnamon red,
shallow-furrowed in old trees; young trunks and branches of large trees
gray brown, smooth; season's shoots very slender, buff or light
reddish-brown, minutely pubescent.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Winter buds minute, red brown. Leaves
spirally arranged but brought by the twisting of the leafstalk into two
horizontal rows on opposite sides of the twig, about 1/2 an inch long,
yellow green when young, becoming at maturity dark shining green on the
upper surface, white-banded along the midrib beneath, flat, linear,
smooth, occasionally minutely toothed, especially in the upper half;
apex obtuse; base obtuse; leafstalk slender, short but distinct,
resting on a slightly projecting leaf-cushion.

=Inflorescence.=--Sterile flowers from the axils of the preceding year's
leaves, consisting of globose clusters of stamens with spurred anthers:
fertile catkins at ends of preceding year's branchlets, scales crimson.

=Fruit.=--Cones, on stout footstalks at ends of branchlets, pointing
downward, ripening the first year, light brown, about 3/4 of an inch
long, ovate-elliptical, pointed; scales rounded at the edge, entire or
obscurely toothed.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows almost
anywhere, but prefers a good, light, loamy or gravelly soil on moist
slopes; a very effective tree single or in groups, useful in shady
places, and a favorite hedge plant; not affected by rust or insect
enemies; in open ground retains its lower branches for many years. About
twenty horticultural forms, with variations in foliage, of columnar,
densely globular, or weeping habit, are offered for sale in nurseries.

[Illustration: PLATE IX.--Tsuga Canadensis.]

  1. Branch with flower-buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flowers.
  4. Spurred anther.
  5. Branch with fertile flowers.
  6. Ovuliferous scale with ovule, inner side.
  7. Fruiting branch.
  8. Cover-scales with seeds.
  9. Leaf.
  10. Cross-section of leaf.


=Abies balsamea, Mill.=

FIR BALSAM. BALSAM. FIR.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich, damp, cool woods, deep swamps, mountain
slopes.

     Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, northwest to the Great
     Bear Lake region.

Maine,--very generally distributed, ordinarily associated with white
pine, black spruce, red spruce, and a few deciduous trees, growing at an
altitude of 4500 feet upon Katahdin; New Hampshire,--common in upper
Coos county and in the White mountains, where it climbs up to the alpine
area; in the southern part of the state, in the extensive swamps
around the sources of the Contoocook and Miller's rivers, it is the
prevailing timber; Vermont,--common; not rare on mountain slopes and
even summits; Massachusetts,--not uncommon on mountain slopes in the
northwestern and central portions of the state, ranging above the red
spruces upon Graylock; a few trees here and there in damp woods or cold
swamps in the southern and eastern sections, where it has probably been
accidentally introduced; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--not reported.

     South to Pennsylvania and along high mountains to Virginia; west to
     Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A slender, handsome tree, the most symmetrical of the New
England spruces, with a height of 25-60 feet, and a diameter of 1-2 feet
at the ground, reduced to a shrub at high altitudes; branches in young
trees usually in whorls; branchlets mostly opposite. The branches go out
from the trunk at an angle varying to a marked degree even in trees of
about the same size and apparent age; in some trees declined near the
base, horizontal midway, ascending near the top; in others horizontal or
ascending throughout; in others declining throughout like those of the
Norway spruce; all these forms growing apparently under precisely the
same conditions; head widest at the base and tapering regularly upward;
foliage dark bright green; cones erect and conspicuous.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees a variegated ashen gray, appearing
smooth at a short distance, but often beset with fine scales, with one
edge scarcely revolute, giving a ripply aspect; branches and young trees
mottled or striate, greenish-brown and very smooth; branchlets from
which the leaves have fallen marked with nearly circular leaf-scars;
season's shoots pubescent; bark of trunk in all trees except the oldest
with numerous blisters, containing the Canada balsam of commerce.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, roundish, resinous, grouped on
the leading shoots. Leaves scattered, spirally arranged in rows, at
right angles to twig, or disposed in two ranks like the hemlock; 1/2-1
inch long, dark glossy green on the upper surface, beneath silvery
bluish-white, and traversed lengthwise by rows of minute dots, flat,
narrowly linear; apex blunt, in young trees and upon vigorous shoots,
often slightly but distinctly notched, or sometimes upon upper branches
with a sharp, rigid point; sessile; aromatic.

=Inflorescence.=--Early spring. Lateral or terminal on shoots of the
preceding season; sterile flowers oblong-cylindrical, 1/4 inch in
length; anthers yellow, red-tinged: fertile flowers on the upper side of
the twig, erect, cylindrical; cover-scales broad, much larger than the
purple ovuliferous scales, terminating in a long, recurved tip.

=Fruit.=--Cones along the upper side of the branchlets, erect or nearly
so in all stages of growth, purplish when young, 3-5 inches long, 1 inch
or more wide; puberulous; cover-scales at maturity much smaller than
ovuliferous scales, thin, obovate, serrulate, bristle-pointed;
ovuliferous scales thin, broad, rounded; edge minutely erose, serrulate
or entire; both kinds of scales falling from the axis at maturity; seeds
winged, purplish.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England, but best adapted to the
northern sections; grows rapidly in open or shaded situations,
especially where there is cool, moist, rich soil; easily transplanted;
suitable for immediate effects in forest plantations, but not desirable
for a permanent ornamental tree, as it loses the lower branches at an
early period. Nurserymen and collectors offer it in quantity at a low
price. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE X.--Abies balsamea.]

  1. Branch with flower-buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Branch with fertile flowers.
  4. Cover-scale and ovuliferous scale with ovules, inner side.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Ovuliferous scales with ovules at maturity, inner side.
  7. Cone-scale and ovuliferous scale at maturity, outer side.
  8-9. Leaves.
  10-11. Cross-sections of leaves.


=Thuja occidentalis, L.=

ARBOR-VITÆ. WHITE CEDAR. CEDAR.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, swampy lands, rocky borders of rivers and
ponds.

     Southern Labrador to Nova Scotia; west to Manitoba.

Maine,--throughout the state; most abundant in the central and northern
portions, forming extensive areas known as "cedar swamps"; sometimes
bordering a growth of black spruce at a lower level; New
Hampshire,--mostly confined to the upper part of Coos county,
disappearing at the White river narrows near Hanover; seen only in
isolated localities south of the White mountains; Vermont,--common in
swamps at levels below 1000 feet; Massachusetts,--Berkshire county;
occasional in the northern sections of the Connecticut river valley;
Rhode Island,--not reported; Connecticut,--East Hartford (J. N. Bishop).

     South along the mountains to North Carolina and East Tennessee;
     west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--Ordinarily 25-50 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 1-2 feet,
in northern Maine occasionally 60-70 feet in height, with a diameter of
3-5 feet; trunk stout, more or less buttressed in old trees, tapering
rapidly, often divided, inclined or twisted, ramifying for the most part
near the ground, forming a dense head, rather small for the size of the
trunk; branches irregularly disposed and nearly horizontal, the lower
often much declined; branchlets many, the flat spray disposed in
fan-shaped planes at different angles; foliage bright, often
interspersed here and there with yellow, faded leaves.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees a dead ash-gray, striate with broad
and flat ridges, often conspicuously spirally twisted, shreddy at the
edge; young stems and large branches reddish-brown, more or less striate
and shreddy; branchlets ultimately smooth, shining, reddish-brown,
marked by raised scars; season's twigs invested with leaves.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds naked, minute. Leaves in opposite
pairs, 4-ranked, closely adherent to the branchlet and completely
covering it, keeled in the side pairs and flat in the others,
scale-like, ovate (in seedlings needle-shaped), obtuse or pointed at the
apex, glandular upon the back, exhaling when bruised a strong aromatic
odor.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Flowers terminal, dark reddish-brown;
sterile and fertile, usually on the same plant, rarely on separate
plants; anthers opposite; filaments short; ovuliferous scales opposite,
with slight projections near the base, usually 2-ovuled.

=Fruit.=--Cones, terminal on short branchlets, spreading or recurved,
about 1/2 inch long, reddish-brown, loose-scaled, opening to the base at
maturity; persistent through the first winter; scales 6-12, dry, oblong,
not shield-shaped, not pointed; margin entire or nearly so; seeds winged
all round.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; adapts itself to all soils
and exposures, but prefers moist locations; grows slowly. Young trees
have a narrowly conical outline, which spreads out at the base with age;
retains its lower branches in open places, and is especially useful for
hedges or narrow evergreen screens; little affected by insects; often
disfigured, however, by dead branches and discolored leaves; is
transplanted readily, and can be obtained in any quantity from
nurserymen and collectors. The horticultural forms in cultivation range
from thick, low, spreading tufts, through very dwarf, round, oval or
conical forms, to tall, narrow, pyramidal varieties. Some have all the
foliage tinged bright yellow, cream, or white; others have variegated
foliage; another form has drooping branches. The bright summer foliage
turns to a brownish color in winter. It is propagated from the seed and
its horticultural forms from cuttings and layers.

[Illustration: PLATE XI.--Thuja occidentalis.]

  1. Flowering branch with the preceding year's fruit.
  2. Branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Stamen.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Scale with ovules.


=Cupressus thyoides, L.=

_Chamæcyparis sphæroidea, Spach. Chamæcyparis thyoides, B. S. P._

WHITE CEDAR. CEDAR.

=Habitat and Range.=--In deep swamps and marshes, which it often fills
to the exclusion of other trees, mostly near the seacoast.

     Cape Breton island and near Halifax, Nova Scotia, perhaps
     introduced in both.

Maine,--reported from the southern part of York county; New
Hampshire,--limited to Rockingham county near the coast; Vermont,--no
station known; Massachusetts,--occasional in central and eastern
sections, very common in the southeast; Rhode Island,--common;
Connecticut,--occasional in peat swamps.

     Southward, coast region to Florida and west to Mississippi.

=Habit.=--20-50 feet high and 1-2 feet in diameter at the ground,
reaching in the southern states an altitude of 90 and a diameter of 4
feet; trunk straight, tapering slowly, throwing out nearly horizontal,
slender branches, forming a narrow, conical head often of great elegance
and lightness; foliage light brownish-green; strong-scented; spray flat
in planes disposed at different angles; wood permanently aromatic.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk thick, reddish, fibrous, shreddy, separating into
thin scales, becoming more or less furrowed in old trees; branches
reddish-brown; fine scaled; branches after fall of leaves, in the third
or fourth year, smooth, purplish-brown; season's shoots at first
greenish.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds naked, minute. Leaves mostly
opposite, 4-ranked, adherent to the branchlet and completely covering
it; keeled in the side pairs and slightly convex in the others, dull
green, pointed at apex or triangular awl-shaped, mostly with a minute
roundish gland upon the back.

=Inflorescence.=--April. Flowers terminal, sterile and fertile, usually
on the same plant, rarely on separate plants, fertile on short
branchlets: sterile, globular or oblong, anthers opposite, filaments
shield-shaped: fertile, oblong or globular; ovuliferous scales opposite,
slightly spreading at top, dark reddish-brown.

=Fruit.=--Cones, variously placed, 1/2 inch in diameter, roundish,
purplish-brown, opening towards the center, never to the base; scales
shield-shaped, woody; seeds several under each scale, winged.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, growing best in
the southern sections. Young trees are graceful and attractive, but soon
become thin and lose their lower branches; valued chiefly in landscape
planting for covering low and boggy places where other trees do not
succeed as well. Seldom for sale in nurseries, but easily procured from
collectors. Several unimportant horticultural forms are grown.

[Illustration: PLATE XII.--Cupressus thyoides.]

  1. Branch with flowers.
  2. Sterile flower.
  3. Stamen, back view.
  4. Stamen, front view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Ovuliferous scale with ovules.
  7. Fruiting-branch.
  8. Fruit.
  9. Branch.


=Juniperus Virginiana, L.=

RED CEDAR. CEDAR. SAVIN.

=Habitat and Range.=--Dry, rocky hills but not at great altitudes,
borders of lakes and streams, sterile plains, peaty swamps.

     Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Ontario.

Maine,--rare, though it extends northward to the middle Kennebec valley,
reduced almost to a shrub; New Hampshire,--most frequent in the
southeast part of the state; sparingly in the Connecticut valley as far
north as Haverhill (Grafton county); found also in Hart's location in
the White mountain region; Vermont,--not abundant; occurs here and there
on hills at levels less than 1000 feet; frequent in the Champlain and
lower Connecticut valleys; Massachusetts,--west and center occasional,
eastward common; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Florida; west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian
     Territory.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 25-40 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
8-20 inches, attaining much greater dimensions southward; extremely
variable in outline; the lower branches usually nearly horizontal, the
upper ascending; head when young very regular, narrow-based, close and
conical; in old trees frequently rather open, wide-spreading, ragged,
roundish or flattened. In very exposed situations, especially along the
seacoast, the trunk sometimes rises a foot or two and then develops
horizontally, forming a curiously contorted lateral head. Under such
conditions it occasionally becomes a dwarf tree 2-3 feet high, with
wide-spreading branches and a very dense dome; spray close, foliage a
sombre green, sometimes tinged with a rusty brownish-red; wood pale red,
aromatic.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk light reddish-brown, fibrous, shredding off, now
and then, in long strips, exposing the smooth brown inner bark; season's
shoots green.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds naked, minute. Leaves dull green or
brownish-red, of two kinds:

1. Scale-like, mostly opposite, each pair overlapping the pair above,
4-ranked, ovate, acute, sometimes bristle-tipped, more or less convex,
obscurely glandular.

2. Scattered, not overlapping, narrowly lanceolate or needle-shaped,
sharp-pointed, spreading. The second form is more common in young trees,
sometimes comprising all the foliage, but is often found on trees of all
ages, sometimes aggregated in dense masses.

=Inflorescence.=--Early May. Flowers terminating short branches, sterile
and fertile, more commonly on separate trees, often on the same tree;
anthers in opposite pairs; ovuliferous scales in opposite pairs,
slightly spreading, acute or obtuse; ovules 1-4.

=Fruit.=--Berry-like from the coalescence of the fleshy cone-scales, the
extremities of which are often visible, roundish, the size of a small
pea, dark blue beneath a whitish bloom, 1-4-seeded.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers sunny
slopes and a loamy soil, but grows well in poor, thin soils and upon
wind-swept sites; young plants increase in height 1-2 feet yearly and
have a very formal, symmetrical outline; old trees often become
irregular and picturesque, and grow very slowly; a long-lived tree;
usually obtainable in nurseries and from collectors, but must frequently
be transplanted to be moved with safety. If a ball of earth can be
retained about the roots of wild plants, they can often be moved
successfully. There are horticultural forms distinguished by a slender
weeping or distorted habit, and by variegated bluish or yellowish
foliage, occasionally found in American nurseries. The type is usually
propagated from the seed, the horticultural forms from cuttings or by
grafting.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.--Juniperus Virginiana.]

  1. Branch with sterile and fertile flowers.
  2. Sterile flower.
  3. Stamen with pollen-sacs.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Branch.
  7. Branch with needle-shaped leaves.



SALICACEÆ. WILLOW FAMILY.


Trees or shrubs; leaves simple, alternate, undivided, with stipules
either minute and soon falling or leafy and persistent; inflorescence
from axillary buds of the preceding season, appearing with or before the
leaves, in nearly erect, spreading or drooping catkins, sterile and
fertile on separate trees; flowers one to each bract, without calyx
or corolla; stamens one to many; style short or none; stigmas 2, entire
or 2-4-lobed; fruit a 2-4-celled capsule.


POPULUS.

Inflorescence usually appearing before the leaves; flowers with lacerate
bracts, disk cup-shaped and oblique-edged, at least in sterile flowers;
stamens usually many, filaments distinct; stigmas mostly divided,
elongated or spreading.


SALIX.

Inflorescence appearing with or before the leaves; flowers with entire
bracts and one or two small glands; disks wanting; stamens few.


=Populus tremuloides, Michx.=

POPLAR. ASPEN.

=Habitat and Range.=--In all soils and situations except in deep swamps,
though more usual in dry uplands; sometimes springing up in great
abundance in clearings or upon burnt lands.

     Newfoundland, Labrador, and Nova Scotia to the Hudson bay region
     and Alaska.

New England,--common, reaching in the White mountain region an altitude
of 3000 feet.

     South to New Jersey, along the mountains in Pennsylvania and
     Kentucky, ascending 3000 feet in the Adirondacks; west to the
     slopes of the Rocky mountains, along which it extends to Mexico and
     Lower California.

=Habit.=--A graceful tree, ordinarily 35-40 feet and not uncommonly
50-60 feet high; trunk 8-15 inches in diameter, tapering, surmounted by
a very open, irregular head of small, spreading branches; spray sparse,
consisting of short, stout, leafy rounded shoots set at a wide angle;
distinguished by the slenderness of its habit, the light color of trunk
and branches, the deep red of the sterile catkins in early spring, and
the almost ceaseless flutter of the delicate foliage.

=Bark.=--Trunk pale green, smooth, dark-blotched below the branches,
becoming ash-gray and roughish in old trees; season's shoots dark
reddish-brown or green, shining; bitter.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1/8-1/4 inch long, reddish-brown and
lustrous, usually smooth, ovate, acute, often slightly incurved at apex,
the upper often appressed. Leaves 1-2-1/2 inches long, breadth usually
equal to or exceeding the length, yellowish-green and ciliate when
young, dark dull green above when mature, lighter beneath, glabrous on
both sides, bright yellow in autumn; outline broadly ovate to orbicular,
finely serrate or wavy-edged, with incurved, glandular-tipped teeth,
apex rather abruptly acute or short-acuminate; base acute, truncate or
slightly heart-shaped, 3-nerved; leafstalk slender, strongly flattened
at right angles to the plane of the blade, bending to the slightest
breath of air; stipules lanceolate, silky, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins 1-3 inches long, fertile
at first about the same length, gradually elongating; bracts cut into
several lanceolate or linear divisions, silky-hairy; stamens about 10;
anthers red: ovary short-stalked; stigmas two, 2-lobed, red.

=Fruit.=--June. Capsules, in elongated catkins, conical; seeds numerous,
white-hairy.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England in the most exposed
situations; grows almost anywhere, but prefers a moist, rich loam; grows
rapidly; foliage and spray thin; generally short-lived; often used as a
screen for slow-growing trees; type seldom found in nurseries, but one
or two horticultural forms are occasionally offered. Propagated from
seed or cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.--Populus tremuloides.]

  1. Branch with sterile catkins.
  2. Sterile flower.
  3. Branch with fertile catkins.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Branch with mature leaves.
  7. Variant leaves.


=Populus grandidentata, Michx.=

POPLAR. LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN.

=Habitat and Range.=--In rich or poor soils; woods, hillsides, borders
of streams.

     Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Quebec, and Ontario.

New England,--common, occasional at altitudes of 2000 feet or more.

     South to Pennsylvania and Delaware, along the mountains to
     Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee; west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A tree 30-45 feet in height and 1 foot to 20 inches in
diameter at the ground, sometimes attaining much greater dimensions;
trunk erect, with an open, unsymmetrical, straggling head; branches
distant, small and crooked; branchlets round; spray sparse, consisting
of short, stout, leafy shoots; in time and manner of blossoming,
constant motion of foliage, and general habit, closely resembling _P.
tremuloides._

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk on old trees dark grayish-brown or blackish,
irregularly furrowed, broad-ridged, the outer portions separated into
small, thickish scales; trunk of young trees soft greenish-gray;
branches greenish-gray, darker on the underside; branchlets dark
greenish-gray, roughened with leaf-scars; season's twigs in fall dark
reddish-brown, at first tomentose, becoming smooth and shining.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1/8 inch long, mostly divergent, light
chestnut, more or less pubescent, dusty-looking, ovate, acute. Leaves
3-5 inches long, two-thirds as wide, densely white-tomentose when
opening, usually smooth on both sides when mature, dark green above,
lighter beneath, bright yellow in autumn; outline roundish-ovate,
coarsely and irregularly sinuate-toothed; teeth acutish; sinuses in
shallow curves; apex acute; base truncate or slightly heart-shaped;
leafstalks long, strongly flattened at right angles to the plane of the
blade; stipules thread-like, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--March to April. Sterile catkins 1-3 inches long,
fertile at first about the same length, but gradually elongating;
bracts cut into several lanceolate divisions, silky-hairy; stamens about
10; anthers red: ovaries short-stalked; stigmas two, 2-lobed, red.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins at length 3-6 inches long; capsule conical,
acute, roughish-scurfy, hairy at tip: seeds numerous, hairy.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows almost
anywhere, but prefers moist, rich loam; grows rapidly and is safely
transplanted, but is unsymmetrical, easily broken by the wind, and
short-lived; seldom offered by nurserymen, but readily procured from
northern collectors of native plants. Useful to grow for temporary
effect with permanent trees, as it will fail by the time the desirable
kinds are well established. Propagated from seed or cuttings.

=Note.=--Points of difference between _P. tremuloides_ and _P.
grandidentata_. These trees may be best distinguished in early spring by
the color of the unfolding leaves. In the sunlight the head of _P.
tremuloides_ appears yellowish-green, while that of _P. grandidentata_
is conspicuously cotton white. The leaves of _P. grandidentata_ are
larger and more coarsely toothed, and the main branches go off usually
at a broader angle. The buds of _P. grandidentata_ are mostly divergent,
dusty-looking, dull; of _P. tremuloides_, mostly appressed, highly
polished with a resinous lustre.

[Illustration: PLATE XV.--Populus grandidentata.]

  1. Branch with sterile catkins.
  2. Sterile flower, back view,
  3. Sterile flower, front view.
  4. Branch with fertile catkins.
  5. Bract of fertile flower.
  6. Fertile flower, front view.
  7. Fruiting branch with mature leaves.
  8. Fruit.
  9. Fruit.


=Populus heterophylla, L.=

POPLAR. SWAMP POPLAR. COTTONWOOD.

=Habitat and Range.=--In or along swamps occasionally or often
overflowed; rare, local, and erratically distributed.

Connecticut,--frequent in the southern sections; Bozrah (J. N. Bishop);
Guilford, in at least three wood-ponds (W. E. Dudley _in lit._), New
Haven, and near Norwich (W. A. Setchell).

     Following the eastern coast in wide belts from New York (Staten
     island and Long island) south to Georgia; west along the Gulf coast
     to western Louisiana, and northward along the Mississippi and Ohio
     basins to Arkansas, Indiana, and Illinois.

=Habit.=--A slender, medium-sized tree, attaining a height of 30-50
feet, reaching farther south a maximum of 90 feet; trunk 9-18 inches in
diameter, usually branching high up, forming a rather open hemispherical
or narrow-oblong head; branches irregular, short, rising, except the
lower, at a sharp angle; branchlets stout, roundish, varying in color,
degree of pubescence, and glossiness, becoming rough after the first
year with the raised leaf-scars; spray sparse.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark ash-gray, very rough, and broken into
loosely attached narrow plates in old trees; in young trees light
ash-gray, smooth at first, becoming in a few years roughish, low-ridged.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds conical, acute, more or less resinous.
Leaves 3-6 inches long, two-thirds as wide, densely white-tomentose when
young, at length dark green on the upper side, lighter beneath and
smooth except along the veins; outline ovate, wavy-toothed; base
heart-shaped, lobes often overlapping; apex obtuse; leafstalk long,
round, downy; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins when expanded 3-4 inches
long, at length pendent; scales cut into irregular divisions, reddish;
stamens numerous, anthers oblong, dark red: fertile catkins spreading,
few and loosely flowered, gradually elongating; scales reddish-brown;
ovary short-stalked; styles 2-3, united at the base; stigmas 2-3,
conspicuous.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins spreading or drooping, 4-5 inches long:
capsules usually erect, ovoid, acute, shorter than or equaling the
slender pedicels: seeds numerous, white-hairy.

=Horticultural Value.=--Not procurable in New England nurseries or from
collectors; its usefulness in landscape gardening not definitely known.

[Illustration: PLATE XVI.--Populus heterophylla.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile catkin.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Scale of sterile flower.
  5. Branch with fertile catkin.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch with mature leaves.


=Populus deltoides, Marsh.=

_Populus monilifera, Ait._

COTTONWOOD. POPLAR.

=Habitat and Range.=--In moist soil; river banks and basins, shores of
lakes, not uncommon in drier locations.

     Throughout Quebec and Ontario to the base of the Rocky mountains.

Maine,--not reported; New Hampshire,--restricted to the immediate
vicinity of the Connecticut river, disappearing near the northern part
of Westmoreland; Vermont,--western sections, abundant along the shores
of the Hoosac river in Pownal and along Lake Champlain (W. W.
Eggleston); in the Connecticut valley as far north as Brattleboro
(_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); Massachusetts,--along the Connecticut and
its tributaries; Rhode Island,--occasional; Connecticut,--occasional
eastward, common along the Connecticut, Farmington, and Housatonic
rivers.

     South to Florida; west to the Rocky mountains.

=Habit.=--A stately tree, 75-100 feet in height; trunk 3-5 feet in
diameter, light gray, straight or sometimes slightly inclined, of nearly
uniform size to the point of branching, surmounted by a noble,
broad-spreading, open, symmetrical head, the lower branches massive,
horizontal, or slightly ascending, more or less pendulous at the
extremities, the upper coarse and spreading, rising at a sharper angle;
branchlets stout; foliage brilliant green, easily set in motion; the
sterile trees gorgeous in spring with dark red pendent catkins.

=Bark.=--In old trees thick, ash-gray, separated into deep, straight
furrows with rounded ridges; in young trees light yellowish-green,
smooth; season's shoots greenish, marked with pale longitudinal lines.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds large, conical, smooth, shining. Leaves
3-6 inches long, scarcely less in width, variable in color and shape,
ordinarily dark green and shining above, lighter beneath, ribs raised on
both sides; outline broadly ovate, irregularly crenate-toothed; apex
abruptly acute or acuminate; base truncate, slightly heart-shaped or
sometimes acute; stems long, slender, somewhat flattened at right angles
to the plane of the blade; stipules linear, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. In solitary, densely flowered catkins;
bracts lacerate-fringed, each bract subtending a cup-shaped scale;
stamens very numerous; anthers longer than the filaments, dark red:
fertile catkins elongating to 5 or 6 inches; ovary ovoid; stigmas 3 or
4, nearly sessile, spreading.

=Fruit.=--Capsules ovate, rough, short-stalked; seeds densely cottony.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in southern-central New England; grows
rapidly in almost any soil and is readily obtainable in nurseries. Where
an immediate effect is desired, the cottonwood serves the purpose
excellently and frequently makes very fine large individual trees, but
the wood is soft and likely to be broken by wind or ice. Usually
propagated from cuttings.


[Illustration: PLATE XVII.--Populus deltoides.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile catkins.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Scale of sterile flower.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting catkin.
  8. Branch with mature leaves.
  9. Variant leaf.


=Populus balsamifera, L.=

BALSAM. POPLAR. BALM OF GILEAD.

=Habitat and Range.=--Alluvial soils; river banks, valleys, borders of
swamps, woods.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia west to Manitoba; northward to the
     coast of Alaska and along the Mackenzie river to the Arctic circle.

Maine,--common; New Hampshire,--Connecticut river valley, generally near
the river, becoming more plentiful northward; Vermont,--frequent;
Massachusetts and Rhode Island,--not reported; Connecticut,--extending
along the Housatonic river at New Milford for five or six miles, perhaps
derived from an introduced tree (C. K. Averill, _Rhodora_, II, 35).

     West through northern New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Dakota (Black
     Hills), Montana, beyond the Rockies to the Pacific coast.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 30-75 feet high, trunk 1-3 feet in
diameter, straight; branches horizontal or nearly so, slender for size
of tree, short; head open, narrow-oblong or oblong-conical; branchlets
mostly terete; foliage thin.

=Bark.=--In old trees dark gray or ash-gray, firm-ridged, in young trees
smooth; branchlets grayish; season's shoots reddish or greenish brown,
sparsely orange-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 3/4 inch long, appressed or slightly
divergent, conical, slender, acute, resin-coated, sticky, fragrant when
opening. Leaves 3-6 inches long, about one-half as wide, yellowish when
young, when mature bright green, whitish below; outline ovate-lanceolate
or ovate, finely toothed, gradually tapering to an acute or acuminate
apex; base obtuse to rounded, sometimes truncate or heart-shaped;
leafstalk much shorter than the blade, terete or nearly so; stipules
soon falling. The leaves of var. _intermedia_ are obovate to oval; those
of var. _latifolia_ closely approach the leaves of _P. candicans_.

=Inflorescence.=--April. Sterile 3-4 inches long, fertile at first about
the same length, gradually elongating, loosely flowered; bracts
irregularly and rather narrowly cut-toothed, each bract subtending a
cup-shaped disk; stamens numerous; anthers red: ovary short-stalked;
stigmas two, 2-lobed, large, wavy-margined.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins drooping, 4-6 inches long: capsules ovoid,
acute, longer than the pedicels, green: seeds numerous, hairy.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all
excepting very wet soils, in full sun or light shade, and in exposed
situations; of rapid growth, but subject to the attacks of borers, which
kill the branches and make the head unsightly; also spreads from the
roots, and therefore not desirable for ornamental plantations; most
useful in the formation of shelter-belts; readily transplanted but not
common in nurseries. Propagated from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII.--Populus balsamifera.]

  1. Branch with sterile flowers.
  2. Sterile flower, back view.
  3. Sterile flower, side view.
  4. Scales of sterile flower.
  5. Branch with fertile catkins.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting catkins, mature.
  8. Branch with mature leaves.


=Populus candicans, Ait.=

_Populus balsamifera_, var. _candicans, Gray._

BALM OF GILEAD.

=Habitat and Range.=--In a great variety of soils; usually in cultivated
or pasture lands in the vicinity of dwellings; infrequently found in a
wild state. The original site of this tree has not been definitely
agreed upon. Professor L. H. Bailey reports that it is indigenous in
Michigan, and northern collectors find both sexes in New Hampshire and
Vermont; while in central and southern New England the staminate tree is
rarely if ever seen, and the pistillate flowers seldom if ever mature
perfect fruit. The evidence seems to indicate a narrow belt extending
through northern New Hampshire, Vermont and Michigan, with the
intermediate southern sections of the Province of Ontario as the home of
the Balm of Gilead.

     Nova Scotia and New Brunswick,--occasional; Ontario,--frequent.

New England,--occasional throughout.

     South to New Jersey; west to Michigan and Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 40-60 feet high; trunk 1-3 feet in
diameter, straight or inclined, sometimes beset with a few crooked,
bushy branchlets; head very variable in shape and size; solitary in open
ground, commonly _broad-based, spacious, and pyramidal_, among other
trees more often rather small; loosely and irregularly branched, with
sparse, coarse, and often crooked spray; _foliage dark green, handsome,
and abundant_; all parts characterized by a strong and peculiar resinous
fragrance. A single tree multiplying by suckers often becomes parent of
a grove covering half an acre, more or less, made up of trees of all
ages and sizes.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and lower portions of large branches dark gray,
rough, irregularly striate and firm in old trees; in young trees and
upon smaller branches smooth, soft grayish-green, often flanged by
prominent ridges running down the stalk from the vertices of the
triangular leaf-scars; season's shoots often flanged, shining reddish or
olive green, with occasional longitudinal gray lines, viscid.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds dark reddish-brown, rather closely set
along the stalk, conical or somewhat angled, narrow, often falcate,
sharp-pointed, resinous throughout, viscid, aromatic, exhaling a
powerful odor when the scales expand, terminal about 3/4 inch long.
Leaves 4-6 inches long and nearly as wide, yellowish-green at first,
becoming dark green and smooth on the upper surface with the exception
of a _minute pubescence along the veins_, dull light green beneath,
finely serrate with incurved glandular points, usually ciliate with
minute stiff, whitish hairs; base heart-shaped; apex short-pointed;
petioles about 1-1-1/2 inches long, _more or less hairy_, somewhat
flattened at right angles to the blade; stipules short, ovate, acute,
soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--Similar to that of _P. balsamifera_.

=Fruit.=--Similar to that of _P. balsamifera_.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; has an attractive
foliage and grows rapidly in all soils and situations, but the branches
are easily broken by the wind, and its habit of suckering makes it
objectionable in ornamental ground; occasionally offered by nurserymen
and collectors. Propagated from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XIX.--Populus candicans.]

  1. Winter bud.
  2. Branch with fertile catkins.
  3. Fertile flower.
  4. Fruiting branch.


=Populus alba, L.=

ABELE. WHITE POPLAR. SILVER-LEAF POPLAR.

=Range.=--Widely distributed in the Old World, extending in Europe from
southern Sweden to the Mediterranean, throughout northern Africa, and
eastward in Asia to the northwestern Himalayas. Introduced from England
by the early settlers and soon established in the colonial towns, as in
Plymouth and Duxbury, on the western shore of Massachusetts bay. Planted
or spontaneous over a wide area.

     New Brunswick and Nova Scotia,--occasional.

New England,--occasional throughout, local, sometimes common.

     Southward to Virginia.

=Habit.=--A handsome tree, resembling _P. grandidentata_ more than any
other American poplar, but of far nobler proportions; 40-75 feet high
and 2-4 feet in diameter at the ground; growing much larger in England;
head large, spreading; round-topped, in spring enveloped in a dazzling
cloud of cotton white, which resolves itself later into two
conspicuously contrasting surfaces of dark green and silvery white.

=Bark.=--Light gray, smooth upon young trees, in old trees furrowed upon
the trunk.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds not viscid, cottony. Leaves 1-4 inches
long, densely white-tomentose while expanding, when mature dark green
above and white-tomentose to glabrous beneath; outline ovate or deltoid,
3-5-lobed and toothed or simply toothed, teeth irregular; base
heart-shaped or truncate; apex acute to obtuse; leafstalk long, slender,
compressed; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence and Fruit.=--April to May. Sterile catkins 2-4 inches
long, cylindrical, fertile at first shorter,--stamens 6-16; anthers
purple: capsules 1/4 inch long, narrow-ovoid; seeds hairy.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy. Thrives even in very poor soils and in
exposed situations; grows rapidly in good soils; of distinctive value in
landscape gardening but not adapted for planting along streets and upon
lawns of limited area on account of its habit of throwing out numerous
suckers and its liability to damage from heavy winds. The sides of
country roads where the abele has been planted are sometimes obstructed
for a considerable distance by the thrifty shoots from underground.


=Salix discolor. Muhl.=

PUSSY WILLOW. GLAUCOUS WILLOW.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, wet grounds; banks of streams, swamps, moist
hillsides.

     Nova Scotia to Manitoba.

Maine,--abundant; common throughout the other New England states.

     South to North Carolina; west to Illinois and Missouri.

=Habit.=--Mostly a tall shrub with several stems, but occasionally
assuming a tree-like habit, with a height of 15-20 feet and trunk
diameter of 5-10 inches; one tree reported at Laconia, N. H., 35 feet
high (F. W. Batchelder); branches few, stout, ascending, forming a very
open, hemispherical head.

=Bark.=--Trunk reddish-brown; branches dark-colored; branchlets light
green, orange-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate-conical; apex obtuse to acute.
Leaves simple, alternate, 2-4 inches long, smooth and bright green
above, smooth and whitish beneath when fully grown; outline
ovate-lanceolate to narrowly oblong-oval, crenulate-serrate to entire;
apex acute, base acute and entire; leafstalk short; stipules toothed or
entire.

=Inflorescence.=--March to April. Appearing before the leaves in
catkins, sterile and fertile on separate plants, occasionally both kinds
on the same plant, sessile,--sterile spreading or erect,
oblong-cylindrical, silky; calyx none; petals none; bracts entire,
reddish-brown turning to black, oblong to oblong-obovate, with long,
silky hairs; stamens 2; filaments distinct: fertile catkins spreading;
bracts oblong to ovate, hairy; style short; stigma deeply 4-lobed.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins somewhat declined: capsules ovate-conical,
tomentose, stem two-thirds the length of the scale: seeds numerous.

=Horticultural Value.=--Picturesque in blossom and fruit; its value
dependent chiefly upon its matted roots for holding wet banks, and its
ability to withstand considerable shade. Sold by plant collectors;
easily propagated from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XX.--Salix discolor.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Branch with sterile catkins.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile catkins.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Mature leaves.


=Salix nigra, Marsh.=

BLACK WILLOW

=Habitat and Range.=--In low grounds, along streams or ponds, river
flats.

     New Brunswick to western Ontario.

New England,--occasional throughout, frequent along the larger streams.

     South to Florida; west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian
     territory, Louisiana, Texas, southern California, and south into
     Mexico.

=Habit.=--A large shrub or small tree, 25-40 feet high and 10-15 inches
in trunk diameter, attaining great size in the Ohio and Mississippi
valleys and the valley of the lower Colorado; trunk short, surmounted by
an irregular, open, often roundish head, with stout, spreading branches,
slender branchlets, and twigs brittle towards their base.

_S. nigra_, var. _falcata_, Pursh., covers about the same range as the
type and differs chiefly in its narrower, falcate leaves.

=Bark.=--Trunk rough, in young trees light brown, in old trees
dark-colored or nearly black, deeply and irregularly ridged, separated
on the surface into thick, plate-like scales; branchlets reddish-brown;
twigs bronze olive.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds narrowly conical, acute. Leaves simple,
alternate, appearing much later than those of _S. discolor_, 2-5 inches
long, somewhat pubescent on both sides when young, when mature green and
smooth above, paler and sometimes pubescent along the veins beneath;
outline narrowly lanceolate, finely serrate; apex acute or acuminate,
often curved; base acutish to rounded or slightly heart-shaped; petiole
short, usually pubescent; stipules large and persistent, or small and
soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Appearing with the leaves from the axils
of the short, lateral shoots, in catkins, sterile and fertile on
different trees, stalked,--sterile spreading, narrowly cylindrical;
calyx none; corolla none; bracts entire, rounded to oblong, villous,
ciliate; stamens about 5: fertile catkins spreading; calyx none; corolla
none; bracts ovate to narrowly oblong, acute, villous; ovary
short-stalked, with two small glands at its base, ovate-conical,
sometimes obovate, smooth; stigmas 2, short.

=Fruit.=--Fertile catkins drooping: capsules ovate-conical,
short-stemmed, minutely granular; style very short: seeds numerous.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; grows rapidly in all
soils, particularly useful in very wet situations; seriously affected by
insects; occasionally offered in nurseries; transplanted readily;
propagated from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XXI.--Salix nigra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile catkins.
  3. Sterile flower, side view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Branch with fertile catkins.
  6. Fertile flower, side view.
  7. Fertile flower, front view.
  8. Fruiting branch.
  9. Fruit enlarged.


=Salix fragilis and Salix alba.=

The _fragilis_ and _alba_ group of genus _Salix_ gives rise to puzzling
questions of determination and nomenclature. Pure _fragilis_ and pure
_alba_ are perfectly distinct plants, _fragilis_ occasional, locally
rather common, and _alba_ rather rare within the limits of the United
States. Each species has varieties; the two species hybridize with each
other and with native species, and the hybrids themselves have varietal
forms. This group affords a tempting field for the manufacture of
species and varieties, about most of which so little is known that any
attempt to assign a definite range would be necessarily imperfect and
misleading. The range as given below in either species simply points out
the limits within which any one of the various forms of that species
appears to be spontaneous.


=Salix fragilis, L.=

CRACK WILLOW. BRITTLE WILLOW.

=Habitat and Range.=--In low land and along river banks. Indigenous in
southwestern Asia, and in Europe where it is extensively cultivated;
introduced into America probably from England for use in basket-making,
and planted at a very early date in many of the colonial towns; now
extensively cultivated, and often spontaneous in wet places and along
river banks, throughout New England and as far south as Delaware.

=Habit.=--Tree often of great size; attaining a maximum height of 60-90
feet; head open, wide-spreading; branches except the lowest rising at a
broad angle; branchlets reddish or yellowish green, smooth and polished,
very brittle at the base. In 1890 there was standing upon the Groome
estate, Humphreys Street, Dorchester, Mass., a willow of this species
about 60 feet high, 28 feet 2 inches in girth five feet from the ground,
with a spread of 110 feet (_Typical Elms and other Trees of
Massachusetts_, p. 85).

=Bark.=--Bark of the trunk gray, smooth in young trees, in old trees
very rough, irregularly ridged, sometimes cleaving off in large plates.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds about 1/3 inch long, reddish-brown,
narrow-conical. Leaves simple, alternate, 2-6 inches long, smooth, dark
green and shining above, pale or glaucous beneath and somewhat pubescent
when young; outline lanceolate, glandular-serrate; apex long-acuminate;
tapering to an acute or obtuse base; leafstalk short, glandular at the
top; stipules half-cordate when present, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Catkins appearing with the leaves,
spreading, stalked,--sterile 1-2 inches long; stamens 2-4, usually 2;
filaments distinct, pubescent below; ovary abortive: fertile catkins
slender; stigma nearly sessile; capsule long-conical, smooth,
short-stalked.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows best near
streams, but adapts itself readily to all rich, damp soils. A handsome
ornamental tree when planted where its roots can find water, and its
branches space for free development. Readily propagated from slips.


SALIX ALBA, L.

WHITE WILLOW.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, moist grounds; along streams. Probably
indigenous throughout Europe, northern Africa, and Asia as far south as
northwestern India. Extensively introduced in America, and often
spontaneous over large areas.

     New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario.

New England,--sparingly throughout.

     South to Delaware; extensively introduced in the western states.

=Habit.=--A large tree, 50-80 feet in height; trunk usually rather short
and 2-7 feet in diameter; head large, not as broad-spreading as that of
_S. fragilis_; branches numerous, mostly ascending.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees gray and coarsely ridged, in young
trees smooth; twigs smooth, olive.

=Leaves.=--Leaves simple, alternate, 2-4 inches long, _silky-hairy on
both sides when young, when old still retaining more or less pubescence,
especially on the paler under surface_; outline narrowly lanceolate or
elliptic-lanceolate, glandular-serrate, tapering to a long pointed apex
and to an acute base; leafstalk short, usually without glands; stipules
ovate-lanceolate, soon falling.

=Note.=--Var. _vitellina_, Koch., by far the most common form of this
willow; mature leaves glabrous above; twigs _yellow_. Var. _cærulea_,
Koch.; mature leaves bluish-green, glabrous above, glaucous beneath;
twigs _olive_.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Catkins appearing with the leaves,
slender, erect, stalked; scales linear; stamens 2; filaments distinct,
hairy below the middle; stigma nearly sessile, deeply cleft; capsule
glabrous, sessile or nearly so.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows best in
moist localities; extensively cultivated to bind the soil along the
banks of streams. Easily propagated from slips.



JUGLANDACEÆ. WALNUT FAMILY.


=Juglans cinerea, L.=

BUTTERNUT. OILNUT. LEMON WALNUT.

=Habitat and Range.=--Roadsides, rich woods, river valleys, fertile,
moist hillsides, high up on mountain slopes.

     New Brunswick, throughout Quebec and eastern Ontario.

Maine,--common, often abundant; New Hampshire,--throughout the
Connecticut valley, and along the Merrimac and its tributaries, to the
base of the White mountains; Vermont,--frequent; Massachusetts,--common
in the eastern and central portions, frequent westward; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware, along the mountains to Georgia and Alabama; west
     to Minnesota, Kansas, and Arkansas.

=Habit.=--Usually a medium-sized tree, 20-45 feet in height, with a
disproportionately large trunk, 1-4 feet in diameter; often attaining
under favorable conditions much greater dimensions. It ramifies at a few
feet from the ground and throws out long, rather stout, and nearly
horizontal branches, the lower slightly drooping, forming for the height
of the tree a very wide-spreading head, with a stout and stiffish spray.
At its best the butternut is a picturesque and even beautiful tree.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark gray, rough, narrow-ridged and wide-furrowed
in old trees, in young trees smooth, dark gray; branchlets brown gray,
with gray dots and prominent leaf-scars; season's shoots greenish-gray,
faint-dotted, with a clammy pubescence. The bruised bark of the nut
stains the skin yellow.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds flattish or oblong-conical, few-scaled,
2-4 buds often superposed, the uppermost largest and far above the
axil. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, 1-1-1/2 feet long,
viscid-pubescent throughout, at least when young; rachis enlarged at
base; stipules none; leaflets 9-17, 2-4 inches long, about half as wide,
upper surface rough, yellowish when unfolding in spring, becoming a dark
green, lighter beneath, yellow in autumn; outline oblong-lanceolate,
serrate; veins prominent beneath; apex acute to acuminate; base obtuse
to rounded, somewhat inequilateral, sessile, except the terminal
leaflet; stipels none.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing while the leaves are unfolding, sterile
and fertile flowers on the same tree,--the sterile from terminal or
lateral buds of the preceding season, in single, unbranched, stout,
green, cylindrical, drooping catkins 3-6 inches long; calyx irregular,
mostly 6-lobed, borne on an oblong scale; corolla none; stamens 8-12,
with brown anthers: fertile flowers sessile, solitary, or several on a
common peduncle from the season's shoots; calyx hairy, 4-lobed, with 4
small petals at the sinuses; styles 2, short; stigmas 2, large,
feathery, diverging, rose red.

=Fruit.=--Ripening in October, one or several from the same footstalk,
about 3 inches long, oblong, pointed, green, downy, and sticky at first,
dark brown when dry: shells sculptured, rough: kernel edible, sweet but
oily.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in any
well-drained soil, but prefers a deep, rich loam; seldom reaches its
best under cultivation. Trees of the same age are apt to vary in vigor
and size, dead branches are likely to appear early, and sound trees 8 or
10 inches in diameter are seldom seen; the foliage is thin, appears late
and drops early; planted in private grounds chiefly for its fruit; only
occasionally offered in nurseries, collected plants seldom successful.
Best grown from seed planted where the tree is to stand, as is evident
from many trees growing spontaneously.

[Illustration: PLATE XXII.--Juglans cinerea.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, side view.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruit.
  6. Leaf.


=Juglans nigra, L.=

BLACK WALNUT.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich woods.

Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont,--not reported native;
Massachusetts,--rare east of the Connecticut river, occasional along the
western part of the Connecticut valley to the New York line; Rhode
Island,--doubtfully native, Apponaug (Kent county) and elsewhere;
Connecticut,--frequent westward, Darien (Fairfield county); Plainville
(Hartford county, J. N. Bishop _in lit._, 1896); in the central and
eastern sections probably introduced.

     South to Florida; west to Minnesota, Kansas, Arkansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A large tree, 50-75 feet high, with a diameter above the swell
of the roots of 2-5 feet; attaining in the Ohio valley a height of 150
feet and a diameter of 6-8 feet; trunk straight, slowly tapering,
throwing out its lower branches nearly horizontally, the upper at a
broad angle, forming an open, spacious, noble head.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees thick, blackish, and deeply
furrowed; large branches rough and more or less furrowed; branchlets
smooth; season's twigs downy.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate or rounded, obtuse, more or
less pubescent, few-scaled. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate; rachis
smooth and swollen at base, but less so than that of the butternut;
stipules none; leaflets 13-21 (the odd leaflet at the apex often
wanting), opposite or alternate, 2-5 inches long, about half as wide;
dark green and smooth above, lighter and slightly glandular-pubescent
beneath, turning yellow in autumn; outline ovate-lanceolate; apex
taper-pointed; base oblique, usually rounded or heart-shaped; stemless
or nearly so, except the terminal leaflet; stipels none. Aromatic when
bruised.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing while the leaves are unfolding, sterile
and fertile flowers on the same tree,--the sterile along the sides or at
the ends of the preceding year's branches, in single, unbranched,
green, stout, cylindrical, pendulous catkins, 3-6 inches long; perianth
of 6 rounded lobes, stamens numerous, filaments very short, anthers
purple: fertile flowers in the axils of the season's shoots, sessile,
solitary or several on a common peduncle; calyx 4-toothed, with 4 small
petals at the sinuses; stigmas 2, reddish-green.

=Fruit.=--Ripening in October at the ends of the branchlets, single, or
two or more together; round, smooth, or somewhat roughish with uneven
surface, not viscid, dull green turning to brown: husk not separating
into sections: shell irregularly furrowed: kernel edible.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in central and southern New England; grows
well in most situations, but in a deep rich soil it forms a large and
handsome tree. Readily obtainable in western nurseries; transplants
rather poorly, and collected plants are of little value. Its leaves
appear late and drop early, and the fruit is often abundant. These
disadvantages make it objectionable in many cases. Grown from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIII.--Juglans nigra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, front view.
  4. Sterile flower, back view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Carya alba, Nutt.=

_Hicoria ovata, Britton._

SHAGBARK. SHAGBARK OR SHELLBARK HICKORY. WALNUT.

=Habitat and Range.=--In various soils and situations, fertile slopes,
brooksides, rocky hills.

     Valley of the St. Lawrence.

Maine,--along or near the coast as far north as Harpswell (Cumberland
county); New Hampshire,--common as far north as Lake Winnepesaukee;
Vermont,--occasional along the Connecticut to Windsor, rather common in
the Champlain valley and along the western slopes of the Green
mountains; Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware and along the mountains to Florida; west to
     Minnesota, Kansas, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--The tallest of the hickories and proportionally the most
slender, from 50 to 75 feet in height, and not more than 2 feet in trunk
diameter; rising to a great height in the Ohio and Indiana river
bottoms. The trunk, shaggy in old trees, rises with nearly uniform
diameter to the point of furcation, throwing out rather small branches
of unequal length and irregularly disposed, forming an oblong or rounded
head with frequent gaps in the continuity of the foliage.

=Bark.=--Trunk in young trees and in the smaller branches ash-gray,
smoothish to seamy; in old trees, extremely characteristic, usually
shaggy, the outer layers separating into long, narrow, unequal plates,
free at one or both ends, easily detachable; branchlets smooth and gray,
with conspicuous leaf-scars; season's shoots stout, more or less downy,
numerous-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds tomentose, ovate to oblong, terminal
buds large, much swollen before expanding; inner scales numerous,
purplish-fringed, downy, enlarging to 5-6 inches in length as the leaves
unfold. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, 12-20 inches long; petiole
short, rough, and somewhat swollen at base; stipules none; leaflets
usually 5, sometimes 3 or 7, 3-7 inches long, dark green above,
yellowish-green and downy beneath when young, the three upper large,
obovate to lanceolate, the two lower much smaller, oblong to
oblong-lanceolate, all finely serrate and sharp-pointed; base obtuse,
rounded or acute, mostly inequilateral; nearly sessile save the odd
leaflet; stipels none.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile and fertile flowers on the same tree,
appearing when the leaves are fully grown,--sterile at the base of the
season's shoots, in slender, green, pendulous catkins, 4-6 inches long,
usually in threes, branching umbel-like from a common peduncle;
flower-scales 3-parted, the middle lobe much longer than the other two,
linear, tipped with long bristles; calyx adnate to scale; stamens
mostly in fours, anthers yellow, bearded at the tip: fertile flowers
single or clustered on peduncles at the ends of the season's shoots;
calyx 4-toothed, hairy, adherent to ovary; corolla none; stigmas 2,
large, fringed.

=Fruit.=--October. Spherical, 3-6 inches in circumference: husks rather
thin, firm, green turning to brown, separating completely into 4
sections: nut variable in size, subglobose, white, usually 4-angled:
kernel large, sweet, edible.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers light,
well-drained, loamy soil; when well established makes a moderately rapid
growth; difficult to transplant, rarely offered in nurseries; collected
plants seldom survive; a fine tree for landscape gardening, but its nuts
are apt to make trouble in public grounds. Propagated from a seed. A
thin-shelled variety is in cultivation.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIV.--Carya alba.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, front view.
  4. Sterile flower, back view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Carya tomentosa, Nutt.=

_Hicoria alba, Britton._

MOCKERNUT. WHITE-HEART HICKORY. WALNUT.

Habitat and Range.--In various soils; woods, dry, rocky ridges, mountain
slopes.

    Niagara peninsula and westward.

Maine and Vermont,--not reported; New Hampshire,--sparingly along the
coast; Massachusetts,--rather common eastward; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--common.

    South to Florida, ascending 3500 feet in Virginia; west to Kansas,
    Nebraska, Missouri, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tall and rather slender tree, 50-70 feet high, with a
diameter above the swell of the roots of 2-3 feet; attaining much
greater dimensions south and west; trunk erect, not shaggy, separating
into a few rather large limbs and sending out its upper branches at a
sharp angle, forming a handsome, wide-spreading, pyramidal head.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark gray, thick, hard, close, and rough,
becoming narrow-rugged-furrowed; crinkly on small trunks and branches;
leaf-scars prominent; season's shoots stout, brown, downy or dusty
puberulent, dotted, resinous-scented.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds large, yellowish-brown, ovate, downy.
Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, 15-20 inches long; rachis large,
downy, swollen at the base; stipules none; leaflets 7-9, opposite,
large, yellowish-green and smooth above, beneath paler and thick-downy,
at least when young, turning to a clear yellow or russet brown in
autumn, the three upper obovate, the two lower ovate, all the leaflets
slightly serrate or entire, pointed, base acute to rounded, nearly
sessile except the odd one. Aromatic when bruised.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile and fertile flowers on the same tree,
appearing when the leaves are fully grown,--sterile at the base of the
season's shoots, in slender, pendulous, downy catkins, 4-8 inches long,
usually in threes, branching umbel-like from a common peduncle; scales
3-lobed, hairy; calyx adnate; stamens 4 or 5, anthers red, bearded at
the tip: fertile flowers on peduncles at the end of the season's shoots;
calyx toothed, hairy, adherent to ovary; corolla none; stigmas 2, hairy.

=Fruit.=--October. Generally sessile on terminal peduncles, single or in
pairs, as large or larger than the fruit of the shagbark, or as small as
that of the pignut, oblong-globose to globose: husk hard and thick,
separating in 4 segments nearly to the base, strong-scented: nut
globular, 4-ridged near the top, thick-shelled: kernel usually small,
sweet, edible. The superior size of the fruit and the smallness of the
kernel probably give rise to the common name, "mockernut."

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a rich,
well-drained soil, but grows well in rocky, ledgy, exposed
situations, and is seldom disfigured by insect enemies. Young trees have
large, deep roots, and are difficult to transplant successfully unless
they have been frequently transplanted in nurseries, from which,
however, they are seldom obtainable. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXV.--Carya tomentosa.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, front view.
  4. Sterile flower, side view.
  5. Sterile flower, top view.
  6. Fertile flower, side view.
  7. Fruiting branch.


=Carya porcina, Nutt.=

_Hicoria glabra, Britton_.

PIGNUT. WHITE HICKORY.

=Habitat and Range.=--Woods, dry hills, and uplands.

    Niagara peninsula and along Lake Erie.

Maine,--frequent in the southern corner of York county; New
Hampshire,--common toward the coast and along the lower Merrimac valley;
abundant on hills near the Connecticut river, but only occasional above
Bellows Falls; Vermont,--Marsh Hill, Ferrisburgh (Brainerd); W.
Castleton and Pownal (Eggleston); Massachusetts,--common eastward; along
the Connecticut river valley and some of the tributary valleys more
common than the shagbark; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--common.

    South to the Gulf of Mexico; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas,
    Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A stately tree, 50-65 feet high, reaching in the Ohio basin a
height of 120 feet; trunk 2-5 feet in diameter, gradually tapering,
surmounted by a large, oblong, open, rounded, or pyramidal head, often
of great beauty.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark ash-gray, uniformly but very coarsely
roughened, in old trees smooth or broken into rough and occasionally
projecting plates; branches gray; leaf-scars rather prominent; season's
shoots smooth or nearly so, purplish changing to gray, with numerous
dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Lateral buds smaller than in _C. tomentosa_,
oblong, pointed; terminal, globular, with rounded apex; scales numerous,
the inner reddish, lengthening to 1 or 2 inches, not dropping till after
expansion of the leaves. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, 10-18
inches long; petiole long and smooth; stipules none; leaflets 5-7,
opposite, 2-5 inches long, yellowish-green above, paler beneath, turning
to an orange brown in autumn, smooth on both sides; outline, the three
upper obovate, the two lower oblong-lanceolate, all taper-pointed; base
obtuse, sometimes acute, especially in the odd leaflet.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile and fertile flowers on the same tree,
appearing when the leaves are fully grown,--sterile at the base of the
season's shoots, in pendulous, downy, slender catkins, 3-5 inches long,
usually in threes, branching umbel-like from a common peduncle; scales
3-lobed, nearly glabrous, lobes of nearly equal length, pointed, the
middle narrower; stamens mostly 4, anthers yellowish, beset with white
hairs: fertile flowers at the ends of the season's shoots; calyx
4-toothed, pubescent, adherent to the ovary; corolla none; stigmas 2.

=Fruit.=--October. Single or in pairs, sessile on a short, terminal
stalk, shape and size extremely variable, pear-shaped, oblong, round, or
obovate, usually about 1-1/2 inches in diameter: husk thin, green
turning to brown, when ripe parting in four sections to the center and
sometimes nearly to the base: nut rather thick-shelled, not ridged, not
sharp-pointed: kernel much inferior in flavor to that of the shagbark.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all
well-drained soils, but prefers a deep, rich loam; a desirable tree for
ornamental plantations, especially in lawns, as the deep roots do not
interfere with the growth of grass above them; ill-adapted, like all the
hickories, for streets, as the nuts are liable to cause trouble; less
readily obtainable in nurseries than the shellbark hickory and equally
difficult to transplant. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVI.--Carya porcina.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3, 4. Sterile flower, back view.
  5. Fertile flower, side view.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Carya amara, Nutt.=

_Hicoria minima, Britton_.

BITTERNUT. SWAMP HICKORY.

=Habitat and Range.=--In varying soils and situations; wet woods, low,
damp fields, river valleys, along roadsides, occasional upon uplands and
hill slopes.

     From Montreal west to Georgian bay.

Maine,--southward, rare; New Hampshire,--eastern limit in the
Connecticut valley, where it ranges farther north than any other of our
hickories, reaching Well's river (Jessup); Vermont,--occasional west of
the Green mountains and in the southern Connecticut valley;
Massachusetts,--rather common, abundant in the vicinity of Boston; Rhode
Island and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Florida, ascending 3500 feet in Virginia; west to
     Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tall, slender tree, 50-75 feet high and 1 foot-2-1/2 feet in
diameter at the ground, reaching greater dimensions southward. The
trunk, tapering gradually to the point of branching, develops a
capacious, spreading head, usually widest near the top, with lively
green, finely cut foliage of great beauty, turning to a rich orange in
autumn. Easily recognized in winter by its flat, yellowish buds.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk gray, close, smooth, rarely flaking off in thin
plates; branches and branchlets smooth; leaf-scars prominent; season's
shoots yellow, smooth, yellow-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Terminal buds long, yellow, flattish, often
scythe-shaped, pointed, with a granulated surface; lateral buds much
smaller, often ovate or rounded, pointed. Leaves pinnately compound,
alternate, 12-15 inches long; rachis somewhat enlarged at base; stipules
none; leaflets 5-11, opposite, 5-6 inches long, 1-2 inches wide, bright
green and smooth above, paler and smooth or somewhat downy beneath,
turning to orange yellow in autumn; outline lanceolate, or narrowly oval
to oblong-obovate, serrate; apex taper-pointed to scarcely acute; base
obtuse or rounded except that of the terminal leaflet, which is acute;
sessile and inequilateral, except in terminal leaflet, which has a short
stem and is equal-sided; sometimes scarcely distinguishable from the
leaves of _C. porcina_; often decreasing regularly in size from the
upper to the lower pair.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile and fertile flowers on the same tree,
appearing when the leaves are fully grown,--sterile at the base of the
season's shoots, or sometimes from the lateral buds of the preceding
season, in slender, pendulous catkins, 3-4 inches long, usually in
threes, branching umbel-like from a common peduncle; scale 3-lobed,
hairy-glandular, middle lobe about the same length as the other two but
narrower, considerably longer toward the end of the catkin; stamens
mostly 5, anthers bearded at the tip: fertile flowers on peduncles at
the end of the season's shoots; calyx 4-lobed, pubescent, adherent to
the ovary; corolla none; stigmas 2.

=Fruit.=--October. Single or in twos or threes at the ends of the
branchlets, abundant, usually rather small, about 1 inch long, the width
greater than the length; occasionally larger and somewhat pear-shaped:
husk separating about to the middle into four segments, with sutures
prominently winged at the top or almost to the base, or nearly wingless:
nut usually thin-shelled: kernel white, sweetish at first, at length
bitter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows almost
anywhere, but prefers a rich, loamy or gravelly soil. A most graceful
and attractive hickory, which is transplanted more readily and grows
rather more rapidly than the shagbark or pignut, but more inclined than
either of these to show dead branches. Seldom for sale by nurserymen or
collectors. Grown readily from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVII.--Carya amara.]

  1. Winter bud.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.



BETULACEÆ. BIRCH FAMILY.


=Ostrya Virginica, Willd.=

_Ostrya Virginiana, Willd._

HOP HORNBEAM. IRONWOOD. LEVERWOOD.

=Habitat and Range.=--In rather open woods and along highlands.

     Nova Scotia to Lake Superior.

Common in all parts of New England.

     Scattered throughout the whole country east of the Mississippi,
     ranging through western Minnesota to Nebraska, Kansas, Indian
     territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A small tree, 25-40 feet high and 8-12 inches in diameter at
the ground, sometimes attaining, without much increase in height, a
diameter of 2 feet; trunk usually slender; head irregular, often oblong
or loosely and rather broadly conical; lower branches sometimes slightly
declining at the extremities, but with branchlets mostly of an upward
tendency; spray slender and rather stiff. Suggestive, in its habit, of
the elm; in its leaves, of the black birch; and in its fruit, of
clusters of hops.

=Bark.=--Trunk and large limbs light grayish-brown, very narrowly and
longitudinally ridged, the short, thin segments in old trees often loose
at the ends; the smaller branches, branchlets, and in late fall the
season's shoots, dark reddish-brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, oblong, pointed, invested with
reddish-brown scales. Leaves simple, alternate, roughish, 2-4 inches
long, 1-2 inches wide, more or less appressed-pubescent on both sides,
dark green above, lighter beneath; outline ovate to oblong-ovate,
sharply and for the most part doubly serrate; apex acute to acuminate;
base slightly and narrowly heart-shaped, rounded or truncate, mostly
with unequal sides; leafstalks short, pubescent; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile flowers from wood of the
preceding season, lateral or terminal, in drooping, cylindrical catkins,
usually in threes; scales broad, laterally rounded, sharp-pointed,
ciliate, each subtending several nearly sessile stamens, filaments
sometimes forked, with anthers bearded at the tip: fertile catkins about
1 inch in length, on short leafy shoots, spreading; bracts lanceolate,
tapering to a long point, ciliate, each subtending two ovaries, each
ovary with adherent calyx, enclosed in a hairy bractlet; styles 2, long,
linear.

=Fruit.=--Early September. A small, smooth nut, enclosed in the
distended bract; the aggregated fruit resembling a cluster of hops.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers dry or
well-drained slopes in gravelly or rocky soil; graceful and attractive,
but of rather slow growth; useful in shady situations and worthy of a
place in ornamental plantations, but too small for street use. Seldom
raised by nurserymen; collected plants moved with difficulty. Propagated
from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVIII.--Ostrya Virginica.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile catkin.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch.


=Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.=

HORNBEAM. BLUE BEECH. IRONWOOD. WATER BEECH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, wet woods, and margins of swamps.

     Province of Quebec to Georgian bay.

Rather common throughout New England, less frequent towards the coast.

     South to Florida; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian
     territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A low, spreading tree, 10-30 feet high, with a trunk diameter
of 6-12 inches, rarely reaching 2 feet; trunk short, often given a
fluted appearance by projecting ridges running down from the lower
branches to the ground; in color and smoothness resembling the beech;
lower branches often much declined, upper going out at various angles,
often zigzag but keeping the same general direction; head wide, close,
flat-topped to rounded, with fine, slender spray.

=Bark.=--Trunk smooth, close, dark bluish-gray; branchlets grayish;
season's shoots light green turning brown, more or less hairy.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds small, oval or ovoid, acute to
obtuse. Leaves simple, alternate, 2-3 inches long, dull green above,
lighter beneath, turning to scarlet or crimson in autumn; outline ovate
or slightly obovate oblong or broadly oval, irregularly and sharply
doubly serrate; veins prominent and pubescent beneath, at least when
young; apex acuminate to acute; base rounded, truncate, acute, or
slightly and unevenly heart-shaped; leafstalk rather short, slender,
hairy; stipules pubescent, falling early.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile flowers from growth of the preceding
season in short, stunted-looking, lateral catkins, mostly single; scales
ovate or rounded, obtuse, each subtending several stamens; filaments
very short, mostly 2-forked; anthers bearded at the tip: fertile flowers
at the ends of leafy shoots of the season, in loose catkins; bractlets
foliaceous, each subtending a green, ovate, acute, ciliate, deciduous
scale, each scale subtending two pistils with long reddish styles.

=Fruit.=--In terminal catkins made conspicuous by the pale green, much
enlarged, and leaf-like 3-lobed bracts, each bract subtending a
dark-colored, sessile, striate nutlet.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers moist,
rich soil, near running water, on the edges of wet land or on rocky
slopes in shade. Its irregular outline and curiously ridged trunk make
it an interesting object in landscape plantations. It is not often used,
however, because it is seldom grown in nurseries, and collected plants
do not bear removal well. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIX.--Carpinus Caroliniana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile catkin.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch.


=BETULA.=

Inflorescence.--In scaly catkins, sterile and fertile on the same tree,
appearing with or before the leaves from shoots of the previous
season,--sterile catkins terminal and lateral, formed in summer, erect
or inclined in the bud, drooping when expanded in the following spring;
sterile flowers usually 3, subtended by a shield-shaped bract with 2
bractlets; each flower consisting of a 1-scaled calyx and 2 anthers,
which appear to be 4 from the division of the filaments into two parts,
each of which bears an anther cell: fertile catkins erect or inclined at
the end of very short leafy branchlets; fertile flowers subtended by a
3-lobed bract falling with the nuts; bractlets none; calyx none; corolla
none; consisting of 2-3 ovaries crowned with 2 spreading styles.


=Betula lenta, L.=

BLACK BIRCH. CHERRY BIRCH. SWEET BIRCH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Moist grounds; rich woods, old pastures, fertile
hill-slopes, banks of rivers.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to the Lake Superior region.

Maine,--frequent; New Hampshire,--in the highlands of the southern
section, and along the Connecticut river valley to a short distance
north of Windsor; Vermont,--frequent in the western part of the state,
and in the southern Connecticut valley (_Flora of Vermont_, 1900);
Massachusetts and Rhode Island,--frequent throughout, especially in the
highlands, less often near the coast; Connecticut,--widely distributed,
especially in the Connecticut river valley, but not common.

     South to Delaware, along the mountains to Florida; west to
     Minnesota and Kansas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized or rather large tree, 50-75 feet high, with a
trunk diameter of 1-4 feet, often conspicuous along precipitous ledges,
springing out of crevices in the rocks and assuming a variety of
picturesque forms. In open ground the dark trunk develops a symmetrical,
wide-spreading, hemispherical head broadest at its base, the lower limbs
horizontal or drooping sometimes nearly to the ground. The limbs are
long and slender, often more or less tortuous, and separated ultimately
into a delicate, polished spray. Distinguished by its long
purplish-yellow, pendulous catkins in spring, and in summer by its
glossy, bright green, and abundant foliage, which becomes yellow in
autumn.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk on old trees very dark, separating and cleaving
off in large, thickish plates; on young trees and on branches a dark
reddish-brown, not separating into thin layers, smooth, with numerous
horizontal lines 1-3 inches long; branchlets reddish-brown, shining,
with shorter lateral lines; season's shoots with small, pale dots. Inner
bark very aromatic, having a strong checkerberry flavor,--hence the
common name, "checkerberry birch"; called also "cherry birch," from the
resemblance of its bark to that of the garden cherry.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds reddish-brown, oblong or conical,
pointed, inner scales whitish, elongating as the bud opens. Leaves
simple, in alternate pairs, 3-4 inches long and one-half as wide,
shining green above and downy when young, paler beneath and
silvery-downy along the prominent, straight veins; outline ovate-oval,
ovate-oblong, or oval; sharply serrate to doubly serrate; apex acute to
acuminate; base heart-shaped to obtuse; leafstalk short, often curved,
hairy when young; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins 3-4 inches long,
slender, purplish-yellow; scales fringed: fertile catkins erect or
suberect, sessile or nearly so, 1/2-1 inch long, oblong-cylindrical;
bracts pubescent; lateral lobes wider than in _B. lutea._

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins oblong-cylindrical, nearly erect; bracts with
3 short, nearly equal diverging lobes: nut obovate-oblong, wider than
its wings; upper part of seed-body usually appressed-pubescent.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows everywhere
from swamps to hilltops, but prefers moist rocky slopes and a loamy or
gravelly soil; occasionally offered by nurserymen; both nursery and
collected plants are moved without serious difficulty; apt to grow
rather unevenly.

[Illustration: PLATE XXX.--Betula lenta.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Fruit.
  8. Mature leaf.


=Betula lutea, Michx. f.=

YELLOW BIRCH. GRAY BIRCH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, rich woodlands, mountain slopes.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Rainy river.

New England,--abundant northward; common throughout, from borders of
lowland swamps to 1000 feet above the sea level; more common at
considerable altitudes, where it often occurs in extensive patches or
belts.

     South to the middle states, and along the mountains to Tennessee
     and North Carolina; west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A large tree, at its maximum in northern New England 60-90
feet high and 2-4 feet in diameter at the base. In the forest the main
trunk separates at a considerable height into a few large branches which
rise at a sharp angle, curving slightly, forming a rather small,
irregular head, widest near the top; while in open ground the head is
broad-spreading, hemispherical, with numerous rather equal, long and
slender branches, and a fine spray with drooping tendencies. In the
sunlight the silvery-yellow feathering and the metallic sheen of trunk
and branches make the yellow birch one of the most attractive trees of
the New England forest.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunks and large limbs in old trees gray or blackish,
lustreless, deep-seamed, split into thick plates, standing out at all
sorts of angles; in trees 6-8 inches in diameter, scarf-bark lustrous,
parted in ribbon-like strips, detached at one end and running up the
trunk in delicate, tattered fringes; season's shoots light
yellowish-green, minutely buff-dotted, woolly-pubescent, becoming in
successive seasons darker and more lustrous, the dots elongating into
horizontal lines. Aromatic but less so than the bark of the black birch;
not readily detachable like the bark of the canoe birch.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds conical, 1/4 inch long, mostly
appressed, tips of scales brownish. Leaves simple, in alternate pairs or
scattered singly along the stem; 3-5 inches long, 1/2-2 inches wide,
dull green on both sides, paler beneath and more or less pubescent on
the straight veins; outline oval to oblong, for the most part doubly
serrate; apex acuminate or acute; base heart-shaped, obtuse or truncate;
leafstalk short, grooved, often pubescent or woolly; stipules soon
falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins 3-4 inches long,
purplish-yellow; scales fringed: fertile catkins sessile or nearly so,
about 1 inch long, cylindrical; bracts 3-lobed, nearly to the middle,
pubescent, lobes slightly spreading.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins oblong or oblong-ovoid, about 1 inch long and
two-thirds as thick, erect: nut oval to narrowly obovate, tapering at
each end, pubescent on the upper part, about the width of its wing.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in wet or
dry situations, but prefers wet, peaty soil, where its roots can find a
constant supply of moisture; similar to the black birch, equally
valuable in landscape-gardening, but less desirable as a street tree;
transplanted without serious difficulty.

Differences between black birch and yellow birch:

=Black Birch.=--Bark reddish-brown, not separable into thin layers;
leaves bright green above, finely serrate; fruiting catkins cylindrical;
bark of twigs decidedly aromatic.

=Yellow Birch.=--Bark yellow, separable into thin layers; leaves dull
green above; serration coarser and more decidedly doubly serrate;
fruiting catkins ovoid or oblong-ovoid; flavor of bark less distinctly
aromatic.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXI.--Betula lutea.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4-6. Sterile flowers.
  7. Fertile flower.
  8. Bract.
  9. Fruiting branch.
  10. Fruit.


=Betula nigra, L.=

RED BIRCH. RIVER BIRCH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Along rivers, ponds, and woodlands inundated a
part of the year.

     Doubtfully and indefinitely reported from Canada.

No stations in Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, or Connecticut; New
Hampshire,--found sparingly along streams in the southern part of the
state; abundant along the banks of Beaver brook, Pelham (F. W.
Batchelder); Massachusetts,--along the Merrimac river and its
tributaries, bordering swamps in Methuen and ponds in North Andover.

     South, east of the Alleghany mountains, to Florida; west, locally
     through the northern tier of states to Minnesota and along the Gulf
     states to Texas; western limits, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian
     territory, and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 30-50 feet high, with a diameter at the
ground of 1-1-1/2 feet; reaching much greater dimensions southward. The
trunk, frequently beset with small, leafy, reflexed branchlets, and
often only less frayed and tattered than that of the yellow birch,
develops a light and feathery head of variable outline, with numerous
slender branches, the upper long and drooping, the reddish spray clothed
with abundant dark-green foliage.

=Bark.=--Reddish, more or less separable into layers, fraying into
shreddy, cinnamon-colored fringes; in old trees thick, dark
reddish-brown, and deeply furrowed; branches dark red or cinnamon,
giving rise to the name of "red birch"; season's shoots downy,
pale-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, mostly appressed near the ends of
the shoots, tapering at both ends. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-4 inches
long, two-thirds as wide, dark green and smooth above, paler and
soft-downy beneath, turning bright yellow in autumn; outline
rhombic-ovate, with unequal and sharp double serratures; leafstalk short
and downy; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins usually in threes, 2-4
inches long, scales 2-3-flowered: fertile catkins bright green,
cylindrical, stalked; bracts 3-lobed, the central lobe much the longest,
tomentose, ciliate.

=Fruit.=--June. Earliest of the birches to ripen its seed; fruiting
catkins 1-2 inches long, cylindrical, erect or spreading; bracts with
the 3 lobes nearly equal in width, spreading, the central lobe the
longest: nut ovate to obovate, ciliate.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all
soils, but prefers a station near running water; young trees grow
vigorously and become attractive objects in landscape plantations;
especially useful along river banks to bind the soil; retains its lower
branches better than the black or yellow birches. Seldom found in
nurseries, and rather hard to transplant; collected plants do fairly
well.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXII.--Betula nigra.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Branch with sterile and fertile catkins.
  4. Sterile flower.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Scale of fertile flower.
  7. Fruit.
  8. Fruiting branch.


=Betula populifolia, Marsh.=

WHITE BIRCH. GRAY BIRCH. OLDFIELD BIRCH. POPLAR BIRCH. POVERTY
BIRCH. SMALL WHITE BIRCH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Dry, gravelly soils, occasional in swamps and
frequent along their borders, often springing up on burnt lands.

     Nova Scotia to Lake Ontario.

Maine,--abundant; New Hampshire,--abundant eastward, as far north as
Conway, and along the Connecticut to Westmoreland; Vermont,--common in
the western and frequent in the southern sections; Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut,--common.

     South, mostly in the coast region, to Delaware; west to Lake
     Ontario.

=Habit.=--A small tree, 20-35 feet high, with a diameter at the ground
of 4-8 inches, occasionally much exceeding these dimensions; under
favorable conditions, of extreme elegance. The slender, seldom erect
trunk, continuous to the top of the tree, throws out numerous short,
unequal branches, which form by repeated subdivisions a profuse, slender
spray, disposed irregularly in tufts or masses, branches and branchlets
often hanging vertically or drooping at the ends. Conspicuous in winter
by the airy lightness of the narrow open head and by the contrast of the
white trunk with the dark spray; in summer, when the sun shines and the
air stirs, by the delicacy, tremulous movement, and brilliancy of the
foliage.

=Bark.=--Trunk grayish-white, with triangular, dusty patches below the
insertion of the branches; not easily separable into layers; branches
dark brown or blackish; season's shoots brown, with numerous small round
dots becoming horizontal lines and increasing in length with the age of
the tree. The white of the bark does not readily come off upon clothing.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds somewhat diverging from the twig; narrow
conical or cylindrical, reddish-brown. Leaves simple, alternate, single
or in pairs, 3-4 inches long, two-thirds as wide, bright green above,
paler beneath, smooth and shining on both sides, turning to a pale
shining yellow in autumn, resinous, glandular-dotted when young; outline
triangular, coarsely and irregularly doubly serrate; apex taper-pointed;
base truncate, heart-shaped, or acute; leafstalks long and slender;
stipules dropping early.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins usually solitary or in pairs,
slender-cylindrical, 2-3 inches long: fertile catkins erect, green,
stalked; bracts minutely pubescent.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins erect or spreading, cylindrical, about 1-1/4
inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter, stalked; scales 3-parted above the
center, side lobes larger, at right angles or reflexed: nuts small,
ovate to obovate, narrower than the wings, combined wings from broadly
obcordate to butterfly-shape, wider than long.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, growing in every
kind of soil, finest specimens in deep, rich loam. Were this tree not so
common, its graceful habit and attractive bark would be more appreciated
for landscape gardening; only occasionally grown by nurserymen, best
secured through collectors; young collected plants, if properly
selected, will nearly all live.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIII.--Betula populifolia.]

  1. Branch with sterile and fertile catkins.
  2. Sterile flower, back view.
  3. Fertile flower.
  4. Scale of fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Fruit.


=Betula papyrifera, Marsh.=

CANOE BIRCH. WHITE BIRCH. PAPER BIRCH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Deep, rich woods, river banks, mountain slopes.

     Canada, Atlantic to Pacific, northward to Labrador and Alaska, to
     the limit of deciduous trees.

Maine,--abundant; New Hampshire,--in all sections, most common on
highlands up to the alpine area of the White mountains, above the range
of the yellow birch; Vermont,--common; Massachusetts,--common in the
western and central sections, rare towards the coast; Rhode Island,--not
reported; Connecticut,--occasional in the southern sections, frequent
northward.

     South to Pennsylvania and Illinois; west to the Rocky mountains and
     Washington on the Pacific coast.

Var. _minor_, Tuckerman, is a dwarf form found upon the higher mountain
summits of northern New England.

=Habit.=--A large tree, 50-75 feet high, with a diameter of 1-3 feet;
occasionally of greater dimensions. The trunk develops a
broad-spreading, open head, composed of a few large limbs ascending at
an acute angle, with nearly horizontal secondary branches and a
slender, flexible spray without any marked tendency to droop.
Characterized by the dark metallic lustre of the branchlets, the dark
green foliage, deep yellow in autumn, and the chalky whiteness of the
trunk and large branches; a singularly picturesque tree, whether
standing alone or grouped in forests.

=Bark.=--Easily detachable in broad sheets and separable into thin,
delicately colored, paper-like layers, impenetrable by water, outlasting
the wood it covers. Bark of trunk and large branches chalky-white when
fully exposed to the sun, lustreless, smooth or ragged-frayed, in very
old forest trees encrusted with huge lichens, and splitting into broad
plates; young trunks and smaller branches smooth, reddish or grayish
brown, with numerous roundish buff dots which enlarge from year to year
into more and more conspicuous horizontal lines. The white of the bark
readily rubs off upon clothing.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, flattish, acute to
rounded. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-5 inches long, two-thirds as wide,
dark green and smooth above, beneath pale, hairy along the veins,
sometimes in young trees thickly glandular-dotted on both sides; outline
ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-orbicular, more or less doubly serrate;
apex acute to acuminate; base somewhat heart-shaped, truncate or obtuse;
leafstalk 1-2 inches long, grooved above, downy; stipules falling early.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Sterile catkins mostly in threes, 3-4
inches long: fertile catkins 1-1-1/2 inches long, cylindrical,
slender-peduncled, erect or spreading; bracts puberulent.

=Fruit.=--Fruiting catkins 1-2 inches long, cylindrical, short-stalked,
spreading or drooping: nut obovate to oval, narrower than its wings;
combined wings butterfly-shaped, nearly twice as wide as long.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a
well-drained loam or gravelly soil, but does fairly well in almost any
situation; young trees rapid growing and vigorous, but with the same
tendency to grow irregularly that is shown by the black and yellow
birches; transplanted without serious difficulty; not offered by many
nurserymen, but may be obtained from northern collectors.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIV.--Betula papyrifera.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flower, front view.
  6. Scale of fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch.
  8. Fruit.


=Alnus glutinosa, Medic.=

EUROPEAN ALDER.

This is the common alder of Great Britain and central Europe southward,
growing chiefly along water courses, in boggy grounds and upon moist
mountain slopes; introduced into the United States and occasionally
escaping from cultivation; sometimes thoroughly established locally. In
Medford, Mass., there are many of these plants growing about two small
ponds and upon the neighboring lowlands, most of them small, but among
them are several trees 30-40 feet in height and 8-12 inches in diameter
at the ground, distinguishable at a glance from the shrubby native
alders by their greater size, more erect habit, and darker trunks.



FAGACEÆ. BEECH FAMILY.


=Fagus ferruginea, Ait.=

_Fagus Americana, Sweet. Fagus atropunicea, Sudw._


BEECH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Moist, rocky soil.

Nova Scotia through Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--abundant; New Hampshire,--throughout the state; common on the
Connecticut-Merrimac watershed, enters largely into the composition of
the hardwood forests of Coos county; Vermont,--abundant;
Massachusetts,--in western sections abundant, common eastward;
Rhode Island and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Florida; west to Wisconsin, Missouri, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tree of great beauty, rising to a height of 50-75 feet, with
a diameter at the ground of 1-1/2-4 feet; under favorable conditions
attaining much greater dimensions; trunk remarkably smooth, sometimes
fluted, in the forests tall and straight, in open situations short and
stout; head symmetrical, of various shapes,--rounded, oblong, or even
obovate; branches numerous, mostly long and slender, curving slightly
upward at their tips, near the point of branching horizontal or slightly
drooping, beset with short branchlets which form a flat, dense, and
beautiful spray; roots numerous, light brown, long, and running near the
surface. Tree easily distinguishable in winter by the dried
brownish-white leaves, spear-like buds, and smooth bark.

=Bark.=--Trunk light blue gray, smooth, unbroken, slightly corrugated in
old trees, often beautifully mottled in blotches or bands and invested
by lichens; branches gray; branchlets dark brown and smooth; spray
shining, reddish-brown; season's shoots a shining olive green,
orange-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds conspicuous, long, very slender,
tapering slowly to a sharp point; scales rich brown, lengthening as the
bud opens. Leaves set in plane of the spray, simple, alternate, 3-5
inches long, one-half as wide, silky-pubescent with fringed edges when
young, nearly smooth when fully grown, green on both sides, turning to
rusty yellows and browns in autumn, persistent till mid-winter; outline
oval, serrate; apex acuminate; base rounded; veins strong, straight,
terminating in the teeth; leafstalk short, hairy at first; stipules
slender, silky, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing with the leaves from the season's
shoots, sterile flowers from the lower axils, in heads suspended at the
end of silky threads 1-2 inches long; calyx campanulate, pubescent,
yellowish-green, mostly 6-lobed; petals none; stamens 6-16; anthers
exserted; ovary wanting or abortive: fertile flowers from the upper
axils, usually single or in pairs, at the end of a short peduncle;
involucre 4-lobed, fringed with prickly scales; calyx with six
awl-shaped lobes; ovary 3-celled; styles 3.

=Fruit.=--A prickly bur, thick, 4-valved, splitting nearly to the base
when ripe: nut sharply triangular, sweet, edible.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows well in any
good soil, but prefers deep, rich, well-drained loam; usually obtainable
in nurseries; when frequently transplanted, safely moved. Its clean
trunk and limbs, deep shade, and freedom from insect pests make it one
of the most attractive of our large trees for use, summer or winter, in
landscape gardening; few plants, however, will grow beneath it; the bark
is easily disfigured; it has a bad habit of throwing out suckers and is
liable to be killed by any injury to the roots. Propagated from the
seed. The purple beech, weeping beech, and fern-leaf beech are
well-known horticultural forms.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXV.--Fagus ferruginea.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Section of fruit.
   7. Nut.


=Castanea sativa, var. Americana, Watson and Coulter.=

_Castanea dentata, Borkh. Castanea vesca, var. Americana, Michx._


CHESTNUT.

=Habitat and Range.=--In strong, well-drained soil; pastures, rocky
woods, and hillsides.

     Ontario,--common.

Maine,--southern sections, probably not indigenous north of latitude 44°
20'; New Hampshire,--Connecticut valley near the river, as far north as
Windsor, Vt.; most abundant in the Merrimac valley south of Concord, but
occasional a short distance northward; Vermont,--common in the
southern sections, especially in the Connecticut valley; occasional as
far north as Windsor (Windsor county), West Rutland (Rutland county),
Burlington (Chittenden county); Massachusetts,--rather common throughout
the state, but less frequent near the sea; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware, along the mountains to Alabama; west to
     Michigan, Indiana, and Tennessee.

=Habit.=--A tree of the first magnitude, rising to a height of 60-80
feet and reaching a diameter of 5-6 feet above the swell of the roots,
with a spread sometimes equaling or even exceeding the height; attaining
often much greater proportions. The massive trunk separates usually a
few feet from the ground into several stout horizontal or ascending
branches, the limbs higher up, horizontal or rising at a broad angle,
forming a stately, open, roundish, or inversely pyramidal head;
branchlets slender; spray coarse and not abundant; foliage bright green,
dense, casting a deep shade; flowers profuse, the long, sterile catkins
upon their darker background of leaves conspicuous upon the hill
slopes at a great distance. A tree that may well dispute precedence with
the white or red oak.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees deeply cleft with wide ridges, hard,
rough, dark gray; in young trees very smooth, often shining; season's
shoots green or purplish-brown, white-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, brown, acutish. Leaves
simple, alternate, 5-10 inches long, 1-3 inches wide, bright clear
green above, paler beneath and smooth on both sides; outline
oblong-lanceolate, sharply and coarsely serrate; veins straight,
terminating in the teeth; apex acuminate; base acute or obtuse;
leafstalk short; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--June to July. Appearing from the axils of the season's
shoots, after the leaves have grown to their full size; sterile catkins
numerous, clustered or single, erect or spreading, 4-10 inches long,
slender, flowers pale yellowish-green or cream-colored; calyx pubescent,
mostly 6-parted; stamens 15-20; odor offensive when the anthers are
discharging their pollen: fertile flowers near the base of the upper
sterile catkins or in separate axils, 1-3 in a prickly involucre; calyx
6-toothed; ovary ovate, styles as many as the cells of the ovary,
exserted.

=Fruit.=--Burs round, thick, prickly, 2-4 inches in diameter, opening by
4 valves: nuts 1-5, dark brown, covered with whitish down at apex, flat
on one side when there are several in a cluster, ovate when only one,
sweet and edible.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers fertile,
well-drained, gravelly or rocky soil; rather difficult to transplant;
usually obtainable in nurseries. Its vigorous and rapid growth, massive,
broad-spreading head and attractive flowers make it a valuable tree for
landscape gardening, but in public places the prickly burs and edible
fruit are a serious disadvantage. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVI.--Castanea sativa, var. Americana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruit.
  6. Nut.


=QUERCUS.=

Inflorescence appearing with the leaves in spring; sterile catkins from
terminal or lateral buds on shoots of the preceding year, bracted,
usually several in a cluster, unbranched, long, cylindrical, pendulous;
bracts of sterile flowers minute, soon falling; calyx parted or lobed;
stamens 3-12, undivided: fertile flowers terminal or axillary upon the
new shoots, single or few-clustered, bracted, erect; involucre scaly,
becoming the cupule or cup around the lower part of the acorn; ovary
3-celled; stigma 3-lobed.


WHITE OAKS.

Leaves with obtuse or rounded lobes or teeth; cup-scales thickened or
knobbed at base; stigmas sessile or nearly so; fruit maturing the first
year.


BLACK OAKS.

Leaves with pointed or bristle-tipped lobes and teeth; cup-scales flat;
stigmas on spreading styles; fruit maturing the second year.


=Quercus alba, L.=

WHITE OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Light loams, sandy plains, and gravelly ridges,
often constituting extensive tracts of forest.

     Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--southern sections; New Hampshire,--most abundant eastward; in
the Connecticut valley confined to the hills in the immediate vicinity
of the river, extending up the tributary streams a short distance and
disappearing entirely before reaching the mouth of the Passumpsic (W. F.
Flint); Vermont,--common west of the Green mountains, less so in the
southern Connecticut valley (_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, and Connecticut,--common.

     South to the Gulf of Mexico; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas,
     Arkansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tree of the first rank, 50-75 feet high and 1-6 feet in
diameter above the swell of the roots, exhibiting considerable diversity
in general appearance, trunk sometimes dissolving into branches like the
American elm, and sometimes continuous to the top. The finest specimens
in open land are characterized by a rather short, massive trunk, with
stout, horizontal, far-reaching limbs, conspicuously gnarled and twisted
in old age, forming a wide-spreading, open head of striking grandeur,
the diameter at the base of which is sometimes two or three times the
height of the tree.

=Bark.=--Trunk and larger branches light ash-gray, sometimes nearly
white, broken into long, thin, loose, irregular, soft-looking flakes; in
old trees with broad, flat ridges; inner bark light; branchlets
ash-gray, mottled; young shoots grayish-green, roughened with minute
rounded, raised dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1/8 to 1/4 inch long, round-ovate,
reddish-brown. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-7 inches long, 2-4 inches
wide, delicately reddish-tinted and pubescent upon both sides when
young; at maturity glabrous, light dull or glossy green above, paler and
somewhat glaucous beneath, turning to various reds in autumn; outline
obovate to oval; lobes 5-9; ascending, varying greatly in different
trees; when few, short and wide-based, with comparatively shallow
sinuses; when more in number, ovate-oblong, with deeper sinuses, or
somewhat linear-oblong, with sinuses reaching nearly to midrib; apex of
lobe rounded; base of leaf tapering; leafstalks short; stipules linear,
soon falling. The leaves of this species are often persistent till
spring, especially in young trees.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing when the leaves are half grown; sterile
catkins 2-3 inches long, with slender, usually pubescent thread; calyx
yellow, pubescent; lobes 5-9, pointed: pistillate flowers sessile or
short-peduncled, reddish, ovate-scaled.

=Fruit.=--Maturing in the autumn of the first year, single, or more
frequently in pairs, sessile or peduncled: cup hemispherical to deep
saucer-shaped, rather thin; scales rough-knobby at base: acorn varying
from 1/2 inch to an inch in length, oblong-ovoid: meat sweet and edible,
said to be when boiled a good substitute for chestnuts.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; grows well in all except
very wet soils, in all open exposures and in light shade; like all oaks,
difficult to transplant unless prepared by frequent transplanting in
nurseries, from which it is not readily obtainable in quantity; grows
very slowly and nearly uniformly up to maturity; comparatively free
from insect enemies but occasionally disfigured by fungous disease which
attacks immature leaves in spring. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVII.--Quercus alba.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3-4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flower, side view.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7-8. Variant leaves.


=Quercus stellata, Wang.=

_Q. obtusiloba, Michx. Q. minor, Sarg_.

POST OAK. BOX WHITE OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=

     Doubtfully reported from southern Ontario.

In New England, mostly in sterile soil near the sea-coast;
Massachusetts,--southern Cape Cod from Falmouth to Brewster, the most
northern station reported, occasional; the islands of Naushon, Martha's
Vineyard where it is rather common, and Nantucket where it is rare;
Rhode Island,--along the shore of the northern arm of Wickford harbor
(L. W. Russell); Connecticut,--occasional along the shores of Long
Island sound west of New Haven.

     South to Florida; west to Kansas, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--Farther south, a tree of the first magnitude, reaching a
height of 100 feet, with a trunk diameter of 4 feet; in southern New
England occasionally attaining in woodlands a height of 50-60 feet; at
its northern limit in Massachusetts, usually 10 to 35 feet in height,
with a diameter at the ground of 6-12 inches. The trunk throws out
stout, tough, and often conspicuously crooked branches, the lower
horizontal or declining, forming a disproportionately large head, with
dark green, dense foliage. Near the shore the limbs often grow very low,
stretching along the ground as if from an underground stem.

=Bark.=--Resembling that of the white oak, but rather a darker gray,
rougher and firmer; upon old trunks furrowed and cut into oblongs; small
limbs brownish-gray, rough-dotted; season's shoots densely
tawny-tomentose.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, rounded or conical, brownish,
scales minutely pubescent or scurfy. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-8
inches long, two-thirds as wide, thickish, yellowish-green and tomentose
upon both sides when young, becoming a deep, somewhat glossy green
above, lighter beneath, both sides still somewhat scurfy; general
outline of leaf and of lobes, and number and shape of the latter,
extremely variable; type-form 5-lobed, all the lobes rounded, the three
upper lobes much larger, more or less subdivided, often squarish, the
two lower tapering to an acute, rounded, or truncate base; sinuses deep,
variable, often at right angles to the midrib; leafstalk short,
tomentose; stipules linear, pubescent, occasionally persistent till
midsummer. The leaves are often arranged at the tips of the branches in
star-shaped clusters, giving rise to the specific name _stellata_.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins 1-3 inches long, connecting
thread woolly; calyx 4-8 parted, lobes acute, densely pubescent, yellow;
stamens 4-8, _anthers with scattered hairs_: pistillate flowers single
or in clusters of 2, 3, or more, sessile or on a short stem; stigma red.

=Fruit.=--Maturing the first season, single and sessile, or nearly so,
or in clusters of 2, 3, or more, on short footstalks: cup top-shaped or
cup-shaped, 1/3-1/2 the length of the acorn, about 3/4 inch wide, thin;
scales smooth or sometimes hairy along the top, acutish or roundish,
slightly thickened at base: acorn 1/2-1 inch long, sweet.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; prefers a good,
well-drained, open soil; quite as slow-growing as the white oak; seldom
found in nurseries and difficult to transplant. Propagated from the
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVIII.--Quercus stellata.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.=

BUR OAK. OVER-CUP OAK. MOSSY-CUP OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Deep, rich soil; river valleys.

     Nova Scotia to Manitoba, not attaining in this region the size of
     the white oak, nor covering as large areas.

Maine,--known only in the valleys of the middle Penobscot (Orono)
and the Kennebec (Winslow, Waterville); Vermont,--lowlands
about Lake Champlain, especially in Addison county, not common;
Massachusetts,--valley of the Ware river (Worcester county), Stockbridge
and towns south along the Housatonic river (Berkshire county); Rhode
Island,--no station reported; Connecticut,--probably introduced in
central and eastern sections, possibly native near the northern border.

     South to Pennsylvania and Tennessee; west to Montana, Nebraska,
     Kansas, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 40-60 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
1-3 feet; attaining great size in the Ohio and Mississippi river basins;
trunk erect, branches often changing direction, ascending, save the
lowest, which are often nearly horizontal; branchlets numerous, on the
lowest branches often declined or drooping; head wide-spreading, rounded
near the center, very rough in aspect; distinguished in summer by the
luxuriance of the dark-green foliage and in autumn by the size of its
acorns.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and branches ash-gray, but darker than that of
the white oak, separating on old trees into rather firm, longitudinal
ridges; bark of branches sometimes developed into conspicuous corky,
wing-like layers; season's shoots yellowish-brown, minutely hairy, with
numerous small, roundish, raised dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds brown, 1/16 to 1/8 inch long, conical,
scattered along the shoots and clustered at the enlarged tips. Leaves
simple, alternate, 6-9 inches long, 3-4 inches broad, smooth and dark
green above, lighter and downy beneath; outline obovate to oblong,
varying from irregularly and deeply sinuate-lobed, especially near the
center, to nearly entire, base wedge-shaped; stalk short; stipules
linear, pubescent.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins 3-5 inches long; calyx mostly
5-parted, yellowish-green; divisions linear-oblong, more or less
persistent; stamens 10; anthers yellow, glabrous: pistillate flowers
sessile or short-stemmed; scales reddish; stigma red.

=Fruit.=--Maturing the first season; extremely variable; sessile or
short-stemmed: cup top-shaped to hemispherical, 3/4-2 inches in
diameter, with thick, close, pointed scales, the upper row often
terminating in a profuse or sparing hairy or leafy fringe: acorn ovoid,
often very large, sometimes sunk deeply and occasionally entirely in the
cup.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; in general appearance
resembling the swamp white oak, but better adapted to upland; grows
rather slowly in any good, well-drained soil; difficult to transplant;
seldom disfigured by insects or disease; occasionally grown in
nurseries. Propagated from seed. A narrower-leafed form with small
acorns (var. _olivæformis_) is occasionally offered.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIX.--Quercus macrocarpa.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flowers.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus bicolor, Willd.=

_Quercus platanoides, Sudw._

SWAMP WHITE OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--In deep, rich soil; low, moist, fertile
grounds, bordering swamps and along streams.

     Quebec to Ontario, where it is known as the blue oak.

Maine,--York county; New Hampshire,--Merrimac valley as far as the mouth
of the Souhegan, and probably throughout Rockingham county;
Vermont,--low grounds about Lake Champlain; Massachusetts,--frequent in
the western and central sections, common eastward; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware and along the mountains to northern Georgia; west
     to Minnesota, Iowa, east Kansas, and Arkansas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 40-60 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
2-3 feet; attaining southward of the Great Lakes and in the Ohio basin
much greater dimensions; roughest of all the oaks, except the bur oak,
in general aspect; trunk erect, continuous, in young trees often beset
at point of branching with down-growing, scraggly branchlets, surmounted
by a rather regular pyramidal head, the lower branches horizontal or
declining, often descending to the ground, with a short, stiff,
abundant, and bushy spray; smaller twigs ridgy, widening beneath buds;
foliage a dark shining green; heads of large trees less regular, rather
open, with a general resemblance to the head of the white oak, but
narrower at the base, with less contorted limbs.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and larger branches thick, dark grayish-brown,
longitudinally striate, with flaky scales; bark of young stems,
branches, and branchlets darker, separating in loose scales which curl
back, giving the tree its shaggy aspect; season's shoots
yellowish-green.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds brown, roundish-ovate, obtuse. Leaves
simple, alternate, 3-8 inches long, 2-4 wide, downy on both sides when
unfolding, at maturity thick and firm, smooth and dark shining green
above, slightly to conspicuously whitish-downy beneath, in autumn
brownish-yellow; obovate, coarsely and deeply crenate or obtusely
shallow-lobed, when opening sometimes pointed and tapering to a
wedge-shaped base, often constricted near the center; leafstalk short;
stipules linear, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins 2-3 inches long, thread hairy;
calyx deeply 3-7-parted, pale yellow, hairy; stamens 5-8; anthers
yellow, glabrous: pistillate flowers tomentose, on rather long, hairy
peduncles; stigmas red.

=Fruit.=--Variable, on stems 1-3 inches long, maturing the first season,
single or frequently in twos: cup rounded, rather thin, deep, rough to
mossy, often with fringed margins: acorn about 1 inch long,
oblong-ovoid, more or less tapering: meat sweet, edible.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in any good
soil, wet or dry, but prefers a position on the edge of moist or boggy
land, where its roots can find a constant supply of water; growth fairly
rapid; seldom affected by insects or disease; occasionally offered by
nurserymen and rather less difficult to transplant than most of the
oaks. Its sturdy, rugged habit and rich dark green foliage make it a
valuable tree for ornamental plantations or even for streets.

[Illustration: PLATE XL.--Quercus bicolor.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, side view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flowers.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus Prinus, L.=

CHESTNUT OAK. ROCK CHESTNUT OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Woods, rocky banks, hill slopes.

     Along the Canadian shore of Lake Erie.

Maine,--Saco river and Mt. Agamenticus, near the southern coast (York
county); New Hampshire,--belts or patches in the eastern part of the
state and along the southern border, Hinsdale, Winchester, Brookline,
Manchester, Hudson; Vermont,--western part of the state throughout, not
common; abundant at Smoke mountain at an altitude of 1300 feet, and
along the western flank of the Green mountains, at least in Addison
county; Massachusetts,--eastern sections, Sterling, Lancaster, Russell,
Middleboro, rare in Medford and Sudbury, frequent on the Blue hills;
Rhode Island,--locally common; Connecticut,--common.

     South to Delaware and along the mountains to Georgia, extending
     nearly to the summit of Mt. Pisgah in North Carolina; west to
     Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama.

=Habit.=--A small or medium-sized tree, 25-50 feet high, with a trunk
diameter of 1-2-1/2 feet, assuming noble proportions southward, often
reaching a height of 75-100 feet and trunk diameter of 5-6 feet; trunk
tall, straight, continuous to the top of the tree, scarcely tapering to
the point of ramification, surmounted by a spacious, open head.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and large branches deep gray to dark brown or
blackish, in firm, broad, continuous ridges, with small, close surface
scales; bark of young trees and of branchlets smooth, brown, and more or
less lustrous; season's shoots light brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate to cylindrical, mostly acute,
brownish. Leaves simple, alternate, 5-8 inches long, 2-5 inches wide,
dark green and smooth above, paler and more or less downy beneath;
outline obovate to oval, undulate-crenate; apex blunt-pointed; base
wedge-shaped, obtuse or slightly rounded, often unequal-sided; veins
straight, parallel, prominent beneath; leafstalk 1/2-1-1/2 inches long;
stipules linear, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Sterile catkins 2-3 inches long; calyx
5-9-parted, yellow, hairy; divisions oblong, densely pubescent; stamens
5-9; anthers yellow, glabrous: pistillate flowers with hairy scales and
dark red stigmas.

=Fruit.=--Seldom abundant, maturing the first season, variable in size,
on stems usually equal to or shorter than the leaf-stems: cup thin,
hemispheric or somewhat top-shaped, deep; scales small, knobby-thickened
at the base: acorns 3/4-1-1/2 inches long, ovoid-conical, sweet.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a light
gravelly or stony soil; rapid-growing and free from disease; more easily
and safely transplanted than most oaks; occasionally offered by
nurserymen, who propagate it from the seed. Its vigorous, clean habit of
growth and handsome foliage should give it a place in landscape
gardening and street use.

[Illustration: PLATE XLI.--Quercus Prinus.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, back view.
  4. Sterile flower, front view.
  5. Fertile flowers.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Variant leaf.


=Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.=

_Quercus acuminata, Sarg._

CHESTNUT OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Dry hillsides, limestone ridges, rich bottoms.

     Ontario.

Vermont,--Gardner's island, Lake Champlain; Ferrisburg (Pringle);
Connecticut,--frequent (J. N. Bishop, 1895); on the limestone formation
in the neighborhood of Kent (Litchfield county, C. K. Averill); often
confounded by collectors with _Q. Prinus_; probably there are other
stations. Not authoritatively reported from the other New England
states.

     South to Delaware and District of Columbia, along the mountains to
     northern Alabama; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Indian
     territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 30-40 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
1-2 feet, attaining much greater dimensions in the basins of the Ohio,
Mississippi, and their tributaries; trunk in old trees enlarged at the
base, erect, branches rather short for the genus, forming a narrow
oblong or roundish head.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and large branches grayish or pale ash-colored,
comparatively thin, flaky; branchlets grayish-brown; season's shoots in
early summer purplish-green with pale dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, acute to obtuse, brownish. Leaves
simple, alternate; in the typical form as recognized by Muhlenburg, 3-6
inches long, 1-1/2-2 inches wide, glossy dark green above, pale and
minutely downy beneath; outline lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, with
rather equal, coarse, sharp, and often inflexed teeth; apex acuminate;
base wedge-shaped or acute; stipules soon falling. There is also a form
of the species in which the leaves are much larger, 5-7 inches in length
and 3-5 inches in width, broadly ovate or obovate, with rounded teeth;
distinguishable from _Q. Prinus_ only by the bark and fruit.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing with the leaves; sterile catkins 2-4
inches long; calyx yellow, hairy, segments 5-8, ciliate; stamens 5-8,
anthers yellow: pistillate flowers sessile or on short spikes; stigma
red.

=Fruit.=--Maturing the first season, sessile or short-peduncled: cup
covering about half the nut, thin, shallow, with small, rarely much
thickened scales: acorn ovoid or globose, about 3/4 inch long.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; grows in all good dry or
moist soils, in open or partly shaded situations; maintains a nearly
uniform rate of growth till maturity, and is not seriously affected by
insects. It forms a fine individual tree and is useful in forest
plantations. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLII.--Quercus Muhlenbergii.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flowers.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus prinoides, Willd.=

SCRUB WHITE OAK. SCRUB CHESTNUT OAK.

More or less common throughout the states east of the Mississippi;
westward apparently grading into _Q. Muhlenbergii_, within the limits of
New England mostly a low shrub, rarely assuming a tree-like habit. The
leaves vary from rather narrow-elliptical to broadly obovate, are rather
regularly and coarsely toothed, bright green and often lustrous on the
upper surface.


=Quercus rubra, L.=

RED OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Growing impartially in a great variety of soils,
but not on wet lands.

     Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to divide west of Lake Superior.

Maine,--common, at least south of the central portions; New
Hampshire,--extending into Coos county, far north of the
White mountains; Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut,--common; probably in most parts of New England the most
common of the genus; found higher up the slopes of mountains than the
white oak.

     South to Tennessee, Virginia, and along mountain ranges to Georgia;
     reported from Florida; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, and
     Texas.

=Habit.=--The largest of the New England oaks, 50-85 feet high, with a
diameter of 2-6 feet above the swell of the roots; occasionally
attaining greater dimensions; trunk usually continuous to the top of the
tree, often heavily buttressed; point of branching higher than in the
white oak; branches large, less contorted, and rising at a sharper
angle, the lower sometimes horizontal; branchlets rather slender; head
extremely variable, in old trees with ample space for growth, open,
well-proportioned, and imposing; sometimes oblong in outline, wider near
the top, and sometimes symmetrically rounded, not so broad, however, as
the head of the white oak; conspicuous in summer by its bright green,
abundant foliage, which turns to dull purplish-red in autumn.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and lower parts of branches in old trees dark
gray, firmly, coarsely, and rather regularly ridged, smooth elsewhere;
in young trees greenish mottled gray, smooth throughout; season's shoots
at first green, taking a reddish tinge in autumn, marked with pale,
scattered dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, conical, sharp-pointed. Leaves
simple, alternate, 4-8 inches long, 3-5 inches broad, bright green
above, paler beneath, dull brown in autumn; outline oval or obovate,
sometimes scarcely distinguishable by the character of its lobing from
_Q. tinctoria_; in the typical form, lobes broadly triangular or oblong,
with parallel sides bristle-pointed; leafstalks short; stipules linear,
soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--Earliest of the oaks, appearing in late April or early
May, when the leaves are half-grown; sterile catkins 3-5 inches long;
calyx mostly 4-lobed; lobes rounded; stamens mostly 4; anthers yellow:
pistillate flowers short-stemmed; calyx lobes mostly 3 or 4; stigmas
long, spreading.

=Fruit.=--Maturing in the second year, single or in pairs, sessile or
short-stalked: cup sometimes turbinate, usually saucer-shaped with a
flat or rounded base, often contracted at the opening and surmounted by
a kind of border; scales closely imbricated, reddish-brown, more or less
downy, somewhat glossy, triangular-acute to obtuse, pubescent: acorn
nearly cylindrical or ovoid, tapering to a broad, rounded top.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all
well-drained soils, but prefers a rich, moist loam; more readily
obtainable than most of our oaks; in common with other trees of the
genus, nursery trees must be transplanted frequently to be moved with
safety; grows rapidly and is fairly free from disfiguring insects; the
oak-pruner occasionally lops off its twigs. When once established, it
grows as rapidly as the sugar maple, and is worthy of much more extended
use in street and landscape plantations. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIII.--Quercus rubra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flowers, side view.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus coccinea, Wang.=

SCARLET OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Most common in dry soil.

     Ontario.

Maine,--valley of the Androscoggin, southward; New Hampshire and
Vermont,--not authoritatively reported by recent observers;
Massachusetts,--more common in the eastern than western sections,
sometimes covering considerable areas; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--common.

     South to the middle states and along the mountains to North
     Carolina and Tennessee; reported from Florida; west to Minnesota,
     Nebraska, and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 30-50 feet high and 1-3 feet in trunk
diameter; attaining greater dimensions southward; trunk straight and
tapering, branches regular, long, comparatively slender, not contorted,
the lower nearly horizontal, often declined at the ends; branchlets
slender; head open, narrow-oblong or rounded, graceful; foliage deeply
cut, shining green in summer and flaming scarlet in autumn; the most
brilliant and most elegant of the New England oaks.

=Bark.=--Trunk in old trees dark gray, roughly and firmly ridged; inner
bark red; young trees and branches smoothish, often marked with dull red
seams and more or less mottled with gray.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, reddish-brown, ovate to oval,
acutish, partially hidden by enlarged base of petiole. Leaves simple,
alternate, extremely variable, more commonly 3-6 inches long, two-thirds
as wide, bright green and shining above, paler beneath, smooth on both
sides but often with a tufted pubescence on the axils beneath, turning
scarlet in autumn, deeply lobed, the rounded sinuses sometimes reaching
nearly to the midrib; lobes 5-9, rather slender and set at varying
angles, sparingly toothed and bristly tipped; apex acute; base truncate
to acute; leafstalk 1-1-1/2 inches long, slender, swollen at base.

=Inflorescence.=--Early in May. Appearing when the leaves are half
grown; sterile catkins 2-4 inches long; calyx most commonly 4-parted;
pubescent; stamens commonly 4, exserted; anthers yellow, glabrous:
pistillate flowers red; stigmas long, spreading, reflexed.

=Fruit.=--Maturing in the autumn of the second year, single or in twos
or threes, sessile or on rather short footstalks: cup top-shaped or
cup-shaped, about half the length of the acorn, occasionally nearly
enclosing it, smooth, more or less polished, thin-edged; scales closely
appressed, firm, elongated, triangular, sides sometimes rounded,
homogeneous in the same plant: acorn 1/2-3/4 inch long, variable in
shape, oftenest oval to oblong: kernel white within; less bitter than
kernel of the black oak.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in any
light, well-drained soil, but prefers a fertile loam. Occasionally
offered by nurserymen, but as it is disposed to make unsymmetrical young
trees it is not grown in quantity, and it is not desirable for streets.
Its rapid growth, hardiness, beauty of summer foliage, and its brilliant
colors in autumn make it desirable in ornamental plantations. Propagated
from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIV.--Quercus coccinea.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flowers, side view.
  4. Fertile flower, side view.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus velutina, Lam.=

_Quercus tinctoria, Bartram. Quercus coccinea_, var. _tinctoria, Gray._

BLACK OAK. YELLOW OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Poor soils; dry or gravelly uplands; rocky ridges.

     Southern and western Ontario.

Maine,--York county; New Hampshire,--valley of the lower Merrimac and
eastward, absent on the highlands, reappearing within three or four
miles of the Connecticut, ceasing at North Charlestown;
Vermont,--western and southeastern sections; Massachusetts,--abundant
eastward; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--frequent.

     South to the Gulf states; west to Minnesota, Kansas, Indian
     territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--One of our largest oaks, 50-75 feet high and 2-4 feet in
diameter, exceptionally much larger, attaining its maximum in the Ohio
and Mississippi basins; resembling _Q. coccinea_ in the general
disposition of its mostly stouter branches; head wide-spreading,
rounded; trunk short; foliage deep shining green, turning yellowish or
reddish brown in autumn.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark gray or blackish, often lighter near the
seashore, thick, usually rough near the ground even in young trees, in
old trees deeply furrowed, separating into narrow, thick, and firmly
adherent block-like strips; inner bark thick, yellow, and bitter;
branches and branchlets a nearly uniform, mottled gray; season's shoots
scurfy-pubescent.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1/8-1/4 inch long, bluntish to pointed,
conspicuously clustered at ends of branches. Leaves simple, alternate,
of two forms so distinct as to suggest different species, _a_ (Plate
XLV, 8) varying towards _b_ (Plate XLV, 6), and _b_ often scarcely
distinguishable from the leaf of the scarlet oak; in both forms outline
obovate to oval, lobes usually 7, densely woolly when opening, more or
less pubescent or scurfy till midsummer or later, dark shining green
above, lighter beneath, becoming brown or dull red in autumn.

Form _a_, sinuses shallow, lobes broad, rounded, mucronate.

Form _b_, sinuses deep, extending halfway to the midrib or farther,
oblong or triangular, bristle-tipped.

=Inflorescence.=--Early in May. Appearing when the leaves are half
grown; sterile catkins 2-5 inches long, with slender, pubescent threads;
calyx usually 3-4-lobed; lobes ovate, acute to rounded, hairy-pubescent;
stamens 3-7, commonly 4-5; anthers yellow: pistillate flowers reddish,
pubescent, at first nearly sessile; stigmas 3, red, divergent,
reflexed.

=Fruit.=--Maturing the second year; nearly sessile or on short
footstalks: cup top-shaped to hemispherical; scales less firm than in
_Q. coccinea_, tips papery and transversely rugulose, obtuse or rounded,
or some of them acutish, often lacerate-edged, loose towards the thick
and open edge of the cup: acorn small: kernel yellow within and bitter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in
well-drained soils, but prefers a rich, moist loam; of vigorous and
rapid growth when young, but as it soon begins to show dead branches and
becomes unsightly, it is not a desirable tree to plant, and is rarely
offered by nurserymen. Propagated from seed.

=Note.=--Apparently runs into _Q. coccinea_, from which it may be
distinguished by its rougher and darker trunk, the yellow color and
bitter taste of the inner bark, its somewhat larger and more pointed
buds, the greater pubescence of its inflorescence, young shoots and
leaves, the longer continuance of scurf or pubescence upon the leaves,
the yellow or dull red shades of the autumn foliage, and by the yellow
color and bitter taste of the nut.

[Illustration: PLATE XLV.--Quercus velutina.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, 4-lobed calyx.
  4. Sterile flower, 3-lobed calyx.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Fruit.
  8. Variant leaf.


=Quercus palustris, Du Roi.=

PIN OAK. SWAMP OAK. WATER OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low grounds, borders of forests, wet woods, river
banks, islets in swamps.

     Ontario.

Northern New England,--no station reported; Massachusetts,--Amherst
(Stone, _Bull. Torrey Club_, IX, 57; J. E. Humphrey, _Amherst Trees_);
Springfield, south to Connecticut, rare; Rhode Island,--southern
portions, bordering the great Kingston swamp, and on the margin of the
Pawcatuck river (L. W. Russell); Connecticut,--common along the sound,
frequent northward, extending along the valley of the Connecticut river
to the Massachusetts line.

     South to the valley of the lower Potomac in Virginia; west to
     Minnesota, east Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Indian territory.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 40-50 feet high, with trunk diameter of
1-2 feet, occasionally reaching a height of 60-70 feet (L. W. Russell),
but attaining its maximum of 100 feet in height and upward in the basins
of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers; trunk rather slender, often fringed
with short, drooping branchlets, lower tier of branches short and mostly
descending, the upper long, slender, and often beset with short, lateral
shoots, which give rise to the common name; head graceful, open, rounded
and symmetrical when young, in old age becoming more or less irregular;
foliage delicate; bright shining green in autumn, often turning to a
brilliant scarlet.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark, furrowed and broken in old trees, in young
trees grayish-brown, smoothish; branchlets shining, light brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds short, conical, acute. Leaves simple,
alternate, 3-5 inches long, bright green, smooth and shining above,
duller beneath, with tufted hairs in the angles of the veins; outline
broadly obovate to ovate; lobes divergent, triangular, toothed or
entire, bristle-pointed; sinuses broad, rounded; leafstalk slender;
stipules linear, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing when the leaves are half grown; sterile
catkins 2-4 inches long; segments of calyx mostly 4 or 5, obtuse or
rounded, somewhat lacerate; stamens mostly 4 or 5, anthers yellow,
glabrous: pistillate flowers with broadly ovate scales; stigmas stout,
red, reflexed.

=Fruit.=--Abundant, maturing the second season, short-stemmed: cup
saucer-shaped, with firm, appressed scales, shallow: acorns ovoid to
globose, about 1/2 inch long, often striate, breadth sometimes equal to
entire length of fruit.

=Horticultural Value.=--Probably hardy throughout New England; grows in
wet soils, but prefers a rich, moist loam; of rapid and uniform
growth, readily and safely transplanted, and but little disfigured by
insects; obtainable in leading nurseries. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVI.--Quercus palustris.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower, side view.
  4. Fertile flower, side view.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.=

_Quercus nana, Sarg. Quercus pumila, Sudw._

SCRUB OAK. BEAR OAK.

=Habitat and Range.=--In poor soils; sandy plains, gravelly or rocky
hills.

Maine,--frequent in eastern and southern sections and upon Mount Desert
island; New Hampshire,--as far north as Conway, more common near the
lower Connecticut; Vermont,--in the eastern and southern sections as far
north as Bellows Falls; Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut,--too abundant, forming in favorable situations dense
thickets, sometimes covering several acres.

     South to Ohio and the mountain regions of North Carolina and
     Kentucky; west to the Alleghany mountains.

=Habit.=--Shrub or small tree, usually 3-8 feet high, but frequently
reaching a height of 15-25 feet; trunk short, sometimes in peaty swamps
10-13 inches in diameter near the ground, branches much contorted,
throwing out numerous branchlets of similar habit, forming a stiff,
flattish head; beautiful for a brief week in spring by the delicate
greens and reds of the opening leaves and reds and yellows of the
numerous catkins. Sometimes associated with _Q. prinoides_.

=Bark.=--Old trunks dark gray, with small, closely appressed scales;
small trunks and branches grayish-brown, not furrowed or scaly; younger
branches marked with pale yellow, raised dots; season's shoots
yellowish-green, with a tawny, scurfy pubescence.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1/8-1/4 inch long, ovoid or conical,
covered with imbricated, brownish, minutely ciliate scales. Leaves
simple, alternate, 3-4 inches long and 2-3 inches broad; when unfolding
reddish above and woolly on both sides, when mature yellowish-green and
somewhat glossy above, smooth except on the midrib, rusty-white, and
pubescent beneath; very variable in outline and in the number (3-7) and
shape of lobes, sometimes entire, oftenest obovate with 5 bristle-tipped
angular lobes, the two lower much smaller; base unequal, wedge-shaped,
tip obtuse or rounded; leafstalk short; stipules linear, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--Early in May. Appearing when the leaves are half
grown; sterile catkins 2-4 inches long; calyx pubescent, lobes oftenest
2-3, rounded; stamens 3-5; anthers red or yellow: pistillate flowers
numerous; calyx lobes ovate, pointed, reddish, pubescent; stigmas 3,
reddish, recurved, spreading.

=Fruit.=--Abundant, maturing in the autumn of the second year, clustered
along the branchlets on stout, short stems: cup top-shaped or
hemispherical: acorn about 1/2 inch long, varying greatly in shape,
mostly ovoid or spherical, brown, often striped lengthwise.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; grows well in dry,
gravelly, ledgy, or sandy soil, where few other trees thrive; useful in
such situations where a low growth is required; but as it is not
procurable in quantity from nurseries, it must be grown from the seed.
The leaves are at times stripped off by caterpillars, but otherwise it
is not seriously affected by insects or fungous diseases.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVII.--Quercus ilicifolia.]

  1. Flowering branch.
  2. Sterile flower, side view.
  3. Fertile flowers, side view.
  4. Fruiting branch.
  5. Variant leaves.



ULMACEÆ. ELM FAMILY.


=Ulmus Americana, L.=

ELM. AMERICAN ELM. WHITE ELM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, moist ground; thrives especially on rich
intervales.

     From Cape Breton to Saskatchewan, as far north as 54° 30'.

Maine,--common, most abundant in central and southern portions; New
Hampshire,--common from the southern base of the White mountains to the
sea; in the remaining New England states very common, attaining its
highest development in the rich alluvium of the Connecticut river
valley.

     South to Florida; west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--In the fullness of its vigor the American elm is the most
stately and graceful of the New England trees, 50-110 feet high and 1-8
feet in diameter above the swell of the roots; characterized by an
erect, more or less feathered or naked trunk, which loses itself
completely in the branches, by arching limbs, drooping branchlets set at
a wide angle, and by a spreading head widest near the top. Modifications
of these elements give rise to various well-marked forms which have
received popular names.

1. In the vase-shaped tree, which is usually regarded as the type, the
trunk separates into several large branches which rise, slowly
diverging, 40-50 feet, and then sweep outward in wide arches, the
smaller branches and spray becoming pendent.

2. In the umbrella form the trunk remains entire nearly to the top of
the tree, when the branches spread out abruptly, forming a broad,
shallow arch, fringed at the circumference with long, drooping
branchlets.

3. The slender trunk of the plume elm rises, usually undivided, a
considerable height, begins to curve midway, and is capped with a
one-sided tuft of branches and delicate, elongated branchlets.

4. The drooping elm differs from the type in the height of the arch and
greater droop of the branches, which sometimes sweep the ground.

5. In the oak form the limbs are more or less tortuous and less arching,
forming a wide-spreading, rounded head.

In all forms short, irregular, pendent branchlets are occasional along
the trunks. The trees most noticeably feathered are usually of medium
size, and have few large branches, the superfluous vitality manifesting
itself in a copious fringe, which sometimes invests and obliterates the
great pillars which support the masses of foliage. Conspicuous at all
seasons of the year,--in spring when its brown buds are swollen to
bursting, or when the myriads of flowers, insignificant singly, give in
the sunlight an atmosphere of purplish-brown; when clothed with light,
airy masses of deep green in summer or pale yellow in autumn, or in
winter when the great trunk and mighty sweep of the arching branches
distinguish it from all other trees. The roots lie near the surface and
run a great distance.

=Bark.=--Dark gray, irregularly and broadly striate, rather firmly
ridged, in very old trees sometimes partially detached in plates;
branches ash-gray, smooth; branchlets reddish-brown; season's shoots
often pubescent, light brown in late fall.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, brown, flattened, obtuse to
acute, smooth. Leaves simple, alternate, 2-5 inches long, 2-3 inches
wide, dark green and roughish above, lighter and downy at first beneath;
outline ovate or oval to obovate-oblong, sharply and usually doubly
serrate; apex abruptly pointed; base half acute, half rounded, produced
on one side, often slightly heart-shaped or obtuse; veins straight and
prominent; leafstalk stout, short; stipules small, soon falling. Leaves
drop in early autumn.

=Inflorescence.=--April. In loose lateral clusters along the preceding
season's shoots; flowers brown or purplish, mostly perfect, with
occasional sterile and fertile on the same tree; stems slender; calyx
7-9-lobed, hairy or smooth; stamens 7-9, filaments slender, anthers
exserted, brownish-red; ovary flat, green, ciliate; styles 2.

=Fruit.=--Ripening in May, before the leaves are fully grown, a samara,
1/2 inch in diameter, oval or ovate, smooth on both sides, hairy on
the edge, the notch in the margin closed or partially closed by the two
incurved points.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in any soil,
but prefers a deep, rich loam; the ideal street tree with its high,
overarching branches and moderate shade; grows rapidly, throws out few
low branches, bears pruning well; now so seriously affected by numerous
insect enemies that it is not planted as freely as heretofore;
objectionable on the borders of gardens or mowing land, as the roots run
along near the surface for a great distance. Very largely grown in
nurseries, usually from seed, sometimes from small collected plants.
Though so extremely variable in outline, there are no important
horticultural forms in cultivation.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVIII.--Ulmus Americana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower, side view.
  4. Fruiting branch.
  5. Mature leaf.


=Ulmus fulva, Michx.=

_Ulmus pubescens, Walt._

SLIPPERY ELM. RED ELM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich, low grounds, low, rocky woods and hillsides.

     Valley of the St. Lawrence, apparently not abundant.

Maine,--District of Maine (Michaux, _Sylva of North America_, ed. 1853,
III, 53), rare; Waterborough (York county, Chamberlain, 1898); New
Hampshire,--valley of the Connecticut, usually disappearing within ten
miles of the river; ranges as far north as the mouth of the Passumpsic;
Vermont,--frequent; Massachusetts,--rare in the eastern sections,
frequent westward; Rhode Island.--infrequent; Connecticut,--occasional.

    South to Florida; west to North Dakota and Texas.

=Habit.=--A small or medium-sized tree, 40-60 feet high, with a trunk
diameter of 1-2-1/2 feet; head in proportion to the height of the tree,
the widest spreading of the species, characterized by its dark, hairy
buds and rusty-green, dense and rough foliage.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk brown and in old trees deeply furrowed; larger
branches grayish-brown, somewhat striate; branchlets grayish-brown,
rough, marked with numerous dots, downy; season's shoots light gray and
very rough; inner bark mucilaginous, hence the name "slippery elm."

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate to rounded-cylindrical, acute or
obtuse, very dark, densely tomentose, very conspicuous just before
unfolding. Leaves simple, alternate, 4-8 inches long, 3-4 inches wide,
thickish, minutely hairy above and woolly beneath when young, at
maturity pale rusty-green and very rough both ways upon the upper
surface, scarcely less beneath, rough and hairy along the ribs;
sweet-scented when dried; outline oblong, ovate-oblong, or oval, doubly
serrate; apex acuminate; base more or less heart-shaped or obtuse,
inequilateral; leafstalk short, rough, hairy; stipules small, soon
falling.

=Inflorescence.=--March to April. Preceding the leaves, from the lateral
buds of the preceding season, in clusters of nearly sessile, purplish
flowers; sterile, fertile, and perfect on the same tree; calyx
5-9-lobed, downy; corolla none; stamens 5-9, anthers dark red; ovary
flattened; styles two, purple, downy.

=Fruit.=--A samara, winged all round, 3/4 inch in diameter, roundish,
pubescent over the seed, not fringed, larger than the fruit of _U.
Americana_.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; does well in
various situations, but prefers a light, sandy or gravelly soil near
running water; grows more rapidly than _U. Americana_, and is less
liable to the attacks of insects; its large foliage and graceful outline
make it worthy of a place in ornamental plantations. Propagated from
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIX.--Ulmus fulva.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch,
  3. Flower, top view.
  4. Flower, side view, part of perianth and stamens removed.
  5. Pistil.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Ulmus racemosa, Thomas.=

CORK ELM. ROCK ELM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Dry, gravelly soils, rich soils, river banks.

     Quebec through Ontario.

Maine,--not reported; New Hampshire,--rare and extremely local; Meriden
and one or two other places (Jessup); Vermont,--rare, Bennington, Pownal
(Robbins), Knowlton (Brainerd), Highgate (Eggleston); comparatively
abundant in Champlain valley and westward (T. H. Haskins, _Garden and
Forest_, V, 86); Massachusetts,--rare; Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--not reported native.

     South to Tennessee; west to Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A large tree, scarcely inferior at its best to _U. Americana_,
50-75 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 2-3 feet; reaching in southern
Michigan a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 5 feet; trunk rather
slender; branches short and stout, often twiggy in the interior of the
tree; branchlets slender, spreading, sometimes with a drooping tendency;
head rather narrow, round-topped.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk brownish-gray, in old trees irregularly separated
into deep, wide, flat-topped ridges; branches grayish-brown; leaf-scars
conspicuous; season's shoots light brown, more or less pubescent or
glabrous, oblong-dotted; branches and branchlets often marked lengthwise
with corky, wing-like ridges.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate to oblong, pointed, scales
downy-ciliate, pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-4 inches long,
half as wide, glabrous above, minutely pubescent beneath; outline ovate,
doubly serrate (less sharp than the serratures in _U. Americana_); apex
acuminate; base inequilateral, produced and rounded on one side, acute
or slightly rounded on the other; veins straight; leafstalk short,
stout; stipules soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Appearing before the leaves from lateral
buds of the preceding season, in drooping racemes; calyx lobes 7-8,
broad-triangular, with rounded edges and a mostly obtuse apex: pedicels
thread-like, jointed; stamens 5-10, exserted, anthers purple, ovary
2-styled: stigmas recurved or spreading.

=Fruit.=--Samara ovate, broadly oval, or obovate, pubescent, margin
densely fringed, resembling fruit of _U. Americana_ but somewhat larger.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a moist,
rich soil, in open situations; less variable in habit than the American
elm and a smaller tree with smaller foliage, scarcely varying enough to
justify its extensive use as a substitute. Not often obtainable in
nurseries, but readily transplanted, and easily propagated from the
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE L.--Ulmus racemosa.]

  1. Winter buds, at the time the flowers open.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower, side view.
  4. Flower, side view, perianth and stamens partly removed.
  5. Fruiting branch.


CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS, L.

HACKBERRY. NETTLE TREE. HOOP ASH. SUGAR BERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--In divers situations and soils; woods, river
banks, near salt marshes.

     Province of Quebec to Lake of the Woods, occasional.

Maine,--not reported; New Hampshire,--sparingly along the Connecticut
valley, as far as Wells river; Vermont,--along Lake Champlain, not
common; Norwich and Windsor on the Connecticut (Eggleston);
Massachusetts,--occasional throughout the state; Rhode Island,--common
(Bailey); Connecticut,--common (J. N. Bishop).

     South to the Gulf states; west to Minnesota and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A small or medium-sized tree, 20-45 feet high, with a trunk
diameter of 8 inches to 2 feet; attaining farther south a maximum of 100
feet in height, with a trunk diameter of 4-6 feet; variable; most
commonly the rough, straight trunk, sometimes buttressed at the base,
branches a few feet from the ground, sending out a few large limbs and
numerous slender, horizontal or slightly drooping and more or less
tortuous branches; head wide-spreading, flattish or often rounded, with
deep green foliage which lasts into late autumn with little change in
color, and with cherry-like fruit which holds on till the next spring.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in young trees grayish, rough, unbroken, in old
trees with deep, short ridges; main branches corrugated; secondary
branches close and even; branchlets pubescent; season's shoots
reddish-brown, often downy, more or less shining.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, acute, scales chestnut
brown. Leaves simple, alternate, extremely variable in size, outline,
and texture, usually 2-4 inches long, two-thirds as wide, thin, deep
green, and scarcely rough above, more or less pubescent beneath, with
numerous and prominent veins, outline ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply
serrate above the lower third; apex usually narrowly and sharply
acuminate; base acutish, inequilateral, 3-nerved, entire; leafstalk
slender; stipules lanceolate, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing with the leaves from the axils of the
season's shoots, sterile and fertile flowers usually separate on the
same tree; flowers slender-stemmed, the sterile in clusters at the base
of the shoot, the fertile in the axils above, usually solitary; calyx
greenish, segments oblong; stamens 4-6, in the fertile flowers about the
length of the 4 lobes, in the sterile exserted; ovary with two long,
recurved stigmas.

=Fruit.=--Drupes, on long slender stems, globular, about the size of the
fruit of the wild red cherry, purplish-red when ripe, thin-meated,
edible, lasting through the winter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all
well-drained soils, but prefers a deep, rich, moist loam. Young trees
grow rather slowly and are more or less distorted, and trees of the same
age often vary considerably in size and habit; hence it is not a
desirable street tree, but it appears well in ornamental grounds. A
disease which seriously disfigures the tree is extending to New England,
and the leaves are sometimes attacked by insects. Occasionally offered
by nurserymen and easily transplanted.

[Illustration: PLATE LI.--Celtis occidentalis.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.



MORACEÆ. MULBERRY FAMILY.


=Morus rubra, L.=

MULBERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--Banks of rivers, rich woods.

     Canadian shore of Lake Erie.

A rare tree in New England. Maine,--doubtfully reported; New
Hampshire,--Pemigewasset valley, White mountains (Matthews);
Vermont,--northern extremity of Lake Champlain, banks of the Connecticut
(Flagg), Pownal (Oakes), North Pownal (Eggleston); Massachusetts,--rare;
Rhode Island,--no station reported; Connecticut,--rare; Bristol,
Plainville, North Guilford, East Rock and Norwich (J. N. Bishop).

    South to Florida; west to Michigan, South Dakota, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A small tree, 15-25 feet in height, with a trunk diameter of
8-15 inches; attaining much greater dimensions in the Ohio and
Mississippi basins; a wide-branching, rounded tree, characterized by a
milky sap, rather dense foliage, and fruit closely resembling in shape
that of the high blackberry.

=Bark.=--Trunk light brown, rough, and more or less furrowed according
to age; larger branches light greenish-brown; season's shoots gray and
somewhat downy.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, obtuse. Leaves simple, alternate,
4-8 inches long, two-thirds as wide, rough above, yellowish-green and
densely pubescent when young; at maturity dark green and downy beneath,
turning yellow in autumn; conspicuously reticulated; outline variable,
ovate, obovate, oblong or broadly oval, serrate-dentate with equal
teeth, or irregularly 3-7-lobed; apex acuminate; base heart-shaped to
truncate; stalk 1-2 inches long; stipules linear, serrate, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing with the leaves from the season's
shoots, in axillary spikes, sterile and fertile flowers sometimes on the
same tree, sometimes on different trees,--sterile flowers in spreading
or pendulous spikes, about 1 inch long; calyx 4-parted; petals none;
stamens 4, the inflexed filaments of which suddenly straighten
themselves as the flower expands: fertile spikes spreading or pendent;
calyx 4-parted, becoming fleshy in fruit; ovary sessile; stigmas 2,
spreading.

=Fruit.=--July to August. In drooping spikes about 1 inch long and 1/2
inch in diameter; dark purplish-red, oblong, sweet and edible;
apparently a simple fruit but really made up of the thickened calyx
lobes of the spike.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in southern New England; grows rapidly in
a good, moist soil in sun or shade; the large leaves start late and drop
early; useful where it is hardy, in low tree plantations or as an
undergrowth in woods; readily transplanted, but seldom offered for sale
by nurserymen or collectors; propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LII.--Morus rubra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flower with stamens incurved.
  4. Sterile flower expanded.
  5. Branch with fertile flowers.
  6. Fertile flower, side view.
  7. Fruiting branch.


=Morus alba, L.=

Probably a native of China, where its leaves have from time immemorial
furnished food for silkworms; extensively introduced and naturalized in
India and central and southern Europe; introduced likewise into the
United States and Canada from Ontario to Florida; occasionally
spontaneous near dwellings, old trees sometimes marking the sites of
houses that have long since disappeared.

It may be distinguished from _M. rubra_ by its smooth, shining leaves,
its whitish or pinkish fruit, and its greater susceptibility to frost.



MAGNOLIACEÆ. MAGNOLIA FAMILY.


=Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.=

TULIP TREE. WHITEWOOD. POPLAR.

=Habitat and Range.=--Prefers a rich, loamy, moist soil.

Vermont,--valley of the Hoosac river in the southwestern corner of the
state; Massachusetts,--frequent in the Connecticut river valley and
westward; reported as far east as Douglas, southeastern corner of
Worcester county (R. M. Harper, _Rhodora_, II, 122); Rhode Island and
Connecticut,--frequent, especially in the central and southern portions
of the latter state.

     South to the Gulf states; west to Wisconsin; occasional in the
     eastern sections of Missouri and Arkansas; attains great size in
     the basins of the Ohio and its tributaries, and southward along the
     Mississippi river bottoms.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 50-70 feet high; trunk 2-3 feet in
diameter, straight, cylindrical; head rather open, more or less
cone-shaped, in the dense forest lifted high and spreading; branches
small for the size of the tree, set at varying angles, often decurrent,
becoming scraggly with age. The shapely trunk, erect, showy blossoms,
green, cone-like fruit, and conspicuous bright green truncate leaves
give the tulip tree an air of peculiar distinction.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk ashen-gray and smoothish in young trees, becoming
at length dark, seamed, and furrowed; the older branches gray; the
season's shoots of a shining chestnut, with minute dots and conspicuous
leaf-scars; glabrous or dusty-pubescent; bark of roots pale brown,
fleshy, with an agreeable aromatic smell and pungent taste.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Terminal buds 1/2-1 inch long; narrow-oblong;
flattish; covered by two chestnut-brown dotted scales, which persist as
appendages at the base of the leafstalk, often enclosing several leaves
which develop one after the other. Leaves simple, alternate, lobed; 3-5
inches long and nearly as broad, dark green and smooth on the upper
surface, lighter, with minute dusty pubescence beneath, becoming yellow
and russet brown in autumn; usually with four rounded or pointed lobes,
the two upper abruptly cut off at the apex, and separated by a slight
indentation or notch more or less broad and shallow at the top; all the
lobes entire, or 2-3 sublobed, or coarsely toothed; base truncate, acute
or heart-shaped; leafstalks as long or longer than the blade, slender,
enlarged at the base; stipules 1-2 inches long, pale yellow, oblong,
often persisting till the leaf is fully developed.

=Inflorescence.=--Late May or early June. Flowers conspicuous, solitary,
terminal, held erect by a stout stem, tulip-shaped, 1-1/2-2 inches long,
opening at the top about 2 inches. There are two triangular bracts which
fall as the flower opens; three greenish, concave sepals, at length
reflexed; six greenish-yellow petals with an orange spot near the base
of each; numerous stamens somewhat shorter than the petals; and pistils
clinging together about a central axis.

=Fruit.=--Cone-like, formed of numerous carpels, often abortive, which
fall away from the axis at maturity; each long, flat carpel encloses in
the cavity at its base one or two orange seeds which hang out for a time
on flexible, silk-like threads.

=Horticultural Value.=--An ornamental tree of great merit; hardy except
in the coldest parts of New England; difficult to transplant, but
growing rapidly when established; comes into leaf rather early and holds
its foliage till mid-fall, shedding it in a short time when mature;
adapts itself readily to good, light soils, but grows best in moist
loam. It has few disfiguring insect enemies. Mostly propagated by seed,
but sometimes successfully collected; for sale in the leading nurseries
and usually obtainable in large quantities. Of abnormal forms offered by
nurserymen, one has an upright habit approaching that of the Lombardy
poplar; another has variegated leaves, and another leaves without lobes.

[Illustration: PLATE LIII.--Liriodendron Tulipifera.]

  1. Winter bud, terminal.
  2. Opening leaf-bud with stipules.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4. Fruit.
  5. Fruit with many carpels removed.
  6. Carpel with seeds.



LAURACEÆ. LAUREL FAMILY.


=Sassafras officinale, Nees.=

_Sassafras Sassafras, Karst._

SASSAFRAS.

=Habitat and Range.=--In various soils and situations; sandy or rich
woods, along the borders of peaty swamps.

     Provinces of Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--this tree grows not beyond Black Point (Scarboro, Cumberland
county) eastward (Josselyn's _New England Rarities_, 1672); not reported
again by botanists for more than two hundred years; rediscovered at
Wells in 1895 (Walter Deane) and North Berwick in 1896 (J. C. Parlin);
New Hampshire,--lower Merrimac valley, eastward to the coast and along
the Connecticut valley to Bellows Falls; Vermont,--occasional south of
the center; Pownal (Robbins, Eggleston); Hartland and Brattleboro
(Bates), Vernon (Grant); Massachusetts,--common especially in the
eastern sections; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Florida; west to Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--Generally a shrub or small tree but sometimes reaching a
height of 40-50 feet and a trunk diameter of 2-4 feet; attaining a
maximum in the southern and southwestern states of 80-100 feet in height
and a trunk diameter of 6-7 feet; head open, flattish or rounded;
branches at varying angles, stout, crooked, and irregular; spray bushy;
marked in winter by the contrasting reddish-brown of the trunk, the
bright yellowish-green of the shoots and the prominent flower-buds, in
early spring by the drooping racemes of yellow flowers, in autumn by the
rich yellow or red-tinted foliage and handsome fruit, at all seasons by
the aromatic odor and spicy flavor of all parts of the tree, especially
the bark of the root.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk deep reddish-brown, deeply and firmly ridged in
old trees, in young trees greenish-gray, finely and irregularly striate,
the outer layer often curiously splitting, resembling a sort of filagree
work; branchlets reddish-brown, marked with warts of russet brown;
season's shoots at first minutely pubescent, in the fall more or less
mottled, bright yellowish-green.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Flower-buds conspicuous, terminal, ovate to
elliptical, the outer scales rather loose, more or less pubescent, the
inner glossy, pubescent; lateral buds much smaller. Leaves simple,
alternate, often opposite, 3-5 inches long, two-thirds as wide,
downy-tomentose when young, at maturity smooth, yellowish-green above,
lighter beneath, with midrib conspicuous and minutely hairy; outline of
two forms, one oval to oblong, entire, usually rounded at the apex,
wedge-shaped at base; the other oval to obovate, mitten-shaped or
3-lobed to about the center, with rounded sinuses; apex obtuse or
rounded; base wedge-shaped; leafstalk about 1 inch long; stipules none.

=Inflorescence.=--April or early May. Appearing with the leaves in
slender, bracted, greenish-yellow, corymbous racemes, from terminal buds
of the preceding season, sterile and fertile flowers on separate
trees,--sterile flowers with 9 stamens, each of the three inner with two
stalked orange-colored glands, anthers 4-celled, ovary abortive or
wanting: fertile flowers with 6 rudimentary stamens in one row; ovary
ovoid; style short.

=Fruit.=--Generally scanty, drupes, ovoid, deep blue, with club-shaped,
bright red stalk.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; adapted to a great
variety of soils, but prefers a stony, well-drained loam or gravel. Its
irregular masses of foliage, which color so brilliantly in the fall,
make it an extremely interesting tree in plantations, but it has always
been rare in nurseries and difficult to transplant; suckers, however,
can be moved readily. Propagated easily from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LIV.--Sassafras officinale.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.



HAMAMELIDACEÆ. WITCH HAZEL FAMILY.


=Liquidambar Styraciflua, L.=

SWEET GUM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, wet soil, swamps, moist woods.

Connecticut,--restricted to the southwest corner of the state, not far
from the seacoast; Darien to Five Mile river, probably the northeastern
limit of its natural growth.

     South to Florida; west to Missouri and Texas.

=Habit.=--Tree 40-60 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 10 inches to 2
feet, attaining a height of 150 feet and a diameter of 3-5 feet in the
Ohio and Mississippi valleys; trunk tall and straight; branches rather
small for the diameter and height of the tree, the lower mostly
horizontal or declining; branchlets beset with numerous short, rather
stout, curved twigs; head wide-spreading, ovoid or narrow-pyramidal,
symmetrical; conspicuous in summer by its deep green, shining foliage,
in autumn by the splendor of its coloring, and in winter by the
long-stemmed, globular fruit, which does not fall till spring.

=Bark.=--Trunk gray or grayish-brown, in old trees deeply furrowed and
broken up into rather small, thickish, loose scales; branches
brown-gray; branchlets with or without prominent corky ridges on the
upper side; young twigs yellowish.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, reddish-brown, glossy, acute.
Leaves simple, alternate, regular, 3-4 inches in diameter, dark green
turning to reds, purples, and yellows in autumn, cut into the figure of
a star by 5-7 equal, pointed lobes, glandular-serrate, smooth, shining
on the upper surface, fragrant when bruised; base more or less
heart-shaped; stalk slender.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Developing from a bud of the season; sterile
flowers in an erect or spreading, cylindrical catkin; calyx none; petals
none, stamens many, intermixed with minute scales: fertile flowers
numerous, gathered in a long peduncled head; calyx consisting of fine
scales; corolla none; pistil with 2-celled ovary and 2 long styles.

=Fruit.=--In spherical, woody heads, about 1 inch in diameter, suspended
by a slender thread: a sort of aggregate fruit made up of the hardened,
coherent ovaries, holding on till spring, each containing one or two
perfect seeds.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy along the southern shores of New England;
grows in good wet or dry soils, preferring clays. Young plants are
tender in Massachusetts, but if protected a few seasons until well
established make hardy trees of medium size. It is offered by
nurserymen, but must be frequently transplanted to be moved with safety;
rate of growth rather slow and nearly uniform to maturity. Propagated
from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LV.--Liquidambar styraciflua.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.



PLATANACEÆ. PLANE-TREE FAMILY.


=Platanus occidentalis, L.=

BUTTONWOOD. SYCAMORE. BUTTONBALL. PLANE TREE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Near streams, river bottoms, and low, damp woods.

     Ontario.

Maine,--apparently restricted to York county; New Hampshire,--Merrimac
valley towards the coast; along the Connecticut as far as Walpole;
Vermont,--scattering along the river shores, quite abundant along the
Hoosac in Pownal (Eggleston); Massachusetts,--occasional; Rhode Island
and Connecticut,--rather common.

     South to Florida; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tree of the first magnitude, 50-100 feet and upwards in
height, with a diameter of 3-8 feet; reaching in the rich alluvium of
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys a maximum of 125 feet in height and a
diameter of 20 feet; the largest tree of the New England forest,
conspicuous by its great height, massive trunk and branches, and by its
magnificent, wide-spreading, dome-shaped or pyramidal, open head. The
sunlight, streaming through the large-leafed, rusty foliage, reveals the
curiously mottled patchwork bark; and the long-stemmed, globular fruit
swings to every breeze till spring comes again.

The lower branches are often very long and almost horizontal, and the
branchlets frequently have a tufted, broom-like appearance, due probably
to the action of a fungous disease on the young growth.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and large branches dark greenish-gray, sometimes
rough and closely adherent, but usually flaking off in broad, thin,
brittle scales, exposing the green or buff inner bark, which becomes
nearly white on exposure; branchlets light brown, sometimes ridgy
towards the ends, marked with numerous inconspicuous dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds short, ovate, obtuse, enclosed in the
swollen base of a petiole, and, after the fall of the leaf, encircled
by the leaf-scar. Leaves simple, alternate, 5-6 inches long, 7-10 wide,
pubescent on both sides when young, at maturity light rusty-green above,
light green beneath, finally smooth, turning yellow in autumn,
coriaceous; outline reniform; margin coarse-toothed or sinuate-lobed,
the short lobes ending in a sharp point; base heart-shaped to nearly
truncate; leafstalk 1-2 inches long, swollen at the base; stipules
sheathing, often united, forming a sort of ruffle.

=Inflorescence.=--May. In crowded spherical heads; flowers of both kinds
with insignificant calyx and corolla,--sterile heads from terminal or
lateral buds of the preceding season, on short and pendulous stems;
stamens few, usually 4, anthers 2-celled: fertile heads from shoots of
the season, on long, slender stems, made up of closely compacted ovate
ovaries with intermingled scales, ovaries surmounted by hairy one-sided
recurved styles, with bright red stigmas.

=Fruit.=--In heads, mostly solitary, about 1 inch in diameter,
persistent till spring: nutlets small, hairy, 1-seeded.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a deep,
rich, loamy soil near water, but grows in almost any situation; of more
rapid growth than almost any other native tree, and formerly planted
freely in ornamental grounds and on streets, but fungous diseases
disfigure it so seriously, and the late frosts so often kill the young
leaves that it is now seldom obtainable in nurseries; usually propagated
from seed. The European plane, now largely grown in some nurseries, is a
suitable substitute.

[Illustration: PLATE LVI.--Platanus occidentalis.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch with sterile and fertile heads.
  3. Stamen.
  4. Pistil.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Stipule.
  7. Bud with enclosing base of leafstalk.



POMACEÆ. APPLE FAMILY.


Trees or shrubs; leaves simple or pinnate, mostly alternate, with
stipules free from the leafstalk and usually soon falling; flowers
regular, perfect; calyx 5-lobed; calyx-tube adnate to ovary; petals 5,
inserted on the disk which lines the calyx-tube; stamens usually many,
distinct, inserted with the petals; carpels of the ovary 1-5, partially
or entirely united with each other; ovules 1-2 in each carpel; styles
1-5; fruit a fleshy pome, often berry-like or drupe-like, formed by
consolidation of the carpels with the calyx-tube.


PYRUS. MALUS. AMELANCHIER. CRATÆGUS.


=Pyrus Americana, DC.=

_Sorbus Americana, Marsh._

MOUNTAIN ASH.

=Habitat and Range.=--River banks, cool woods, swamps, and mountains.

     Newfoundland to Manitoba.

Maine,--common; New Hampshire,--common along the watersheds of the
Connecticut and Merrimac rivers and on the slopes of the White
mountains; Vermont,--abundant far up the slopes of the Green mountains;
Massachusetts,--Graylock, Wachusett, Watatic, and other mountainous
regions; rare eastward; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--occasional in the
northern sections.

     South, in cold swamps and along the mountains to North Carolina;
     west to Michigan and Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A small tree, 15-20 feet high, often attaining in the woods of
northern Maine and on the slopes of the White mountains a height of
25-30 feet, with a trunk diameter of 12-15 inches; reduced at its
extreme altitudes to a low shrub; head, in open ground, pyramidal or
roundish; branches spreading and slender.

=Bark.=--Closely resembling bark of _P. sambucifolia_.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.,=--Buds more or less scythe-shaped, acute,
smooth, glutinous. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate; stem grooved,
enlarged at base, reddish-brown above; stipules deciduous; leaflets
11-19, 2-4 inches long, bright green above, paler beneath, smooth,
narrow-oblong or lanceolate, the terminal often elliptical, finely and
sharply serrate above the base; apex acuminate; base roundish to acute
and unequally sided; sessile or nearly so, except in the odd leaflet.

=Inflorescence.=--In terminal, densely compound, large and flattish
cymes; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5, white, roundish, short-clawed; stamens
numerous; ovary inferior; styles 3.

=Fruit.=--Round, bright red, about the size of a pea, lasting into
winter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a good,
well-drained soil; rate of growth slow and nearly uniform. It is readily
transplanted and would be useful on the borders of woods, in plantations
of low trees, and in seaside exposures. Rare in nurseries and seldom for
sale by collectors. The readily obtainable and more showy European _P.
aucuparia_ is to be preferred for ornamental purposes.

[Illustration: PLATE LVII.--Pyrus Americana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. Petal.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht.=

_Sorbus sambucifolia, R[oe]m._

MOUNTAIN ASH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Mountain slopes, cool woods, along the shores of
rivers and ponds, often associated with _P. Americana_, but climbing
higher up the mountains.

From Labrador and Nova Scotia west to the Rocky mountains, then
northward along the mountain ranges to Alaska.

Maine,--abundant in Aroostook county, Piscataquis county, Somerset
county at least north to the Moose river, along the boundary mountains,
about the Rangeley lakes and locally on Mount Desert Island; New
Hampshire,--in the White mountain region; Vermont,--Mt. Mansfield,
Willoughby mountain (Pringle); undoubtedly in other sections of these
states; to be looked for along the edges of deep, cool swamps and at
considerable elevations.

     South of New England, probably only as an escape from cultivation;
     west through the northern tier of states to the Rocky mountains,
     thence northward along the mountain ranges to Alaska and south to
     New Mexico and California.

=Habit.=--A shrub 3-10 feet high, or small tree rising to a height of
15-25 feet, reaching its maximum in northern New England, where it
occasionally attains a height of 30-35 feet, with a trunk diameter of 15
inches. It forms an open, wide-spreading, pyramidal or roundish head,
resembling the preceding species in the color of bark, in foliage and
fruit. Whether these are two distinct species is at the present
problematical, as there are many intermediate forms, and the same tree
sometimes furnishes specimens that would indubitably be referred to
different species.

=Bark.=--On old trees light brown and roughish on the trunk, separating
into small scales curling up on one side; large limbs light-colored,
smoothish, often conspicuously marked with coarse horizontal blotches
and leaf-scars; season's shoots light brown, smooth, silvery dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Terminal bud 1 inch long, lateral 1/2 inch,
appressed, brownish, scythe-shaped, acute, more or less glutinous.
Leaves pinnately compound, alternate, stems grooved and reddish above,
enlarged at base; stipules deciduous; leaflets 7-15, the odd one
stalked, 1-3 inches long, 1/2-1 inch wide, bright green above, paler
beneath, smooth, mostly ovate-oblong, serrate above the base; apex
rounded or more usually tapering suddenly to a short point, or rarely
acuminate; base inequilateral.

=Inflorescence.=--In broad, compound cymes at the ends of the branches;
flowers white and rather larger than those of _P. Americanus_; calyx
5-lobed; petals 5, ovate, short-clawed; stamens numerous; pistil
3-styled.

=Fruit.=--In broad cymes; berries bright red, roundish, rather larger
than those of _P. Americana_, holding on till winter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England, though of shrub-like
proportions in the southern sections; grows in exposed situations
inland, and along the seashore. The dwarf habit, graceful foliage, and
showy fruit give it an especial value in artificial plantations; but it
is seldom for sale in nurseries and only occasionally by collectors. It
is readily transplanted and is propagated by seed.

=Note.=--In the European mountain ash, _P. aucuparia_, the leaves have a
blunter apex than is usually found in either of the American species,
and have a more decided tendency to double serration.

[Illustration: PLATE LVIII.--Pyrus sambucifolia.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. Fruiting branch.


=Pyrus communis, L.=

PEAR TREE.

The common pear, introduced from Europe; a frequent escape from
cultivation throughout New England and elsewhere; becomes scraggly and
shrubby in a wild state.


=Pyrus Malus, L.=

_Malus Malus, Britton_.

APPLE TREE.

The common apple; introduced from Europe; a more or less frequent escape
wherever extensively cultivated, like the pear showing a tendency in a
wild state to reversion.


=Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic.=

SHADBUSH. JUNE-BERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--Dry, open woods, hillsides.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Lake Superior.

New England,--throughout.

     South to the Gulf of Mexico; west to Minnesota, Kansas, and
     Louisiana.

=Habit.=--Shrub or small tree, 10-25 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
6-10 inches, reaching sometimes a height of 40 feet and trunk diameter
of 18 inches; head rather wide-spreading, slender-branched, open;
conspicuous in early spring, while other trees are yet naked, by its
profuse display of loose spreading clusters of white flowers, and the
delicate tints of the silky opening foliage.

=Bark.=--Trunk and large branches greenish-gray, smooth; branchlets
purplish-brown, smooth.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, oblong-conical, pointed. Leaves
2-3-1/2 inches long, about half as wide, slightly pubescent when young,
dark bluish-green above at maturity, lighter beneath; outline varying
from ovate to obovate, finely and sharply serrate; apex pointed or
mucronate, often abruptly so; base somewhat heart-shaped or rounded;
leafstalk about 1 inch long; stipules slender, silky, ciliate, soon
falling.

=Inflorescence.=--April to May. Appearing with the leaves at the end of
the branchlets in long, loose, spreading or drooping, nearly glabrous
racemes; flowers large; calyx 5-cleft, campanulate, pubescent to nearly
glabrous; segments lanceolate, acute, reflexed; petals 5, whole,
narrow-oblong or oblong-spatulate, about 1 inch long, two to three times
the length of the calyx; stamens numerous: ovary with style deeply
5-parted.

=Fruit.=--June to July. In drooping racemes, globose, passing through
various colors to reddish, purplish, or black purple, long-stemmed,
sweet and edible without decided flavor.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in all soils
and situations except in wet lands, but prefers deep, rich, moist loam;
very irregular in its habit of growth, sometimes forming a shrub, at
other times a slender, unsymmetrical tree, and again a symmetrical tree
with well-defined trunk. Its beautiful flowers, clean growth, attractive
fruit and autumn foliage make it a desirable plant in landscape
plantations where it can be grouped with other trees. Occasionally in
nurseries; procurable from collectors.

[Illustration: PLATE LIX.--Amelanchier Canadensis.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. Fruiting branch.


CRATÆGUS.

A revision of genus _Cratægus_ has long been a desideratum with
botanists. The present year has added numerous new species, most of
which must be regarded as provisional until sufficient time has elapsed
to note more carefully the limits of variation in previously existing
species and to eliminate possible hybrids. During the present period of
uncertainty it seems best to exclude most of the new species from the
manuals until their status has been satisfactorily established by
raising plants from the seed, or by prolonged observation over wide
areas.


=Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.=

COCKSPUR THORN.

Rich soils, edge of swamps.

     Quebec to Manitoba.

Found sparingly in western Vermont (_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); southern
Connecticut (C. H. Bissell).

     South to Georgia; west to Iowa.

A small tree, 10-25 feet in height and 6-12 inches in trunk diameter;
best distinguished by its thorns and leaves.

Thorns numerous, straight, long (2-4 inches), slender; leaves thick,
smooth, dark green, shining on the upper surface, pale beneath, turning
dark orange red in autumn; outline obovate-oblanceolate, serrate above,
entire or nearly so near base; apex acute or rounded; base decidedly
wedge-shaped shaped; leafstalks short.

Fruit globose or very slightly pear-shaped, remaining on the tree
throughout the winter.

Hardy throughout southern New England; used frequently for a hedge
plant.


=Cratægus punctata, Jacq.=

Thickets, hillsides, borders of forests.

     Quebec and Ontario.

Small tree, common in Vermont (Brainerd) and occasional in the other New
England states.

     South to Georgia.

Thorns 1-2 inches long, sometimes branched; leaves 1-2-1/2 inches long,
smooth on the upper surface, finally smooth and dull beneath; outline
obovate, toothed or slightly lobed above, entire or nearly so beneath,
short-pointed or somewhat obtuse at the apex, wedge-shaped at base;
leafstalk slender, 1-2 inches long; calyx lobes linear, entire; fruit
large, red or yellow.


=Cratægus coccinea, L.=

In view of the fact of great variation in the bark, leaves,
inflorescence, and fruit of plants that have all passed in this country
as _C. coccinea_, and in view of the further uncertainty as to the plant
on which the species was originally founded, it seems "best to consider
the specimen in the Linnæan herbarium as the type of _C. coccinea_ which
can be described as follows:

     "Leaves elliptical or on vigorous shoots mostly semiorbicular,
     acute or acuminate, divided above the middle into numerous acute
     coarsely glandular-serrate lobes, cuneate and finely
     glandular-serrate below the middle and often quite entire toward
     the base, with slender midribs and remote primary veins arcuate
     and running to the points of the lobes, at the flowering time
     membranaceous, coated on the upper surface and along the upper
     surface of the midribs and veins with short soft white hairs, at
     maturity thick, coriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper
     surface, paler on the lower surface, glabrous or nearly so, 1-1/2-2
     inches long and 1-1-1/2 inches wide, with slender glandular
     petioles 3/4-1 inch long, slightly grooved on the upper surface,
     often dark red toward the base, and like the young branchlets
     villous with pale soft hairs; stipules lanceolate to oblanceolate,
     conspicuously glandular-serrate with dark red glands, 1/2-3/4 inch
     long. Flowers 1/2-3/4 inch in diameter when fully expanded, in
     broad, many-flowered, compound tomentose cymes; bracts and
     bractlets linear-lanceolate, coarsely glandular-serrate, caducous;
     calyx tomentose, the lobes lanceolate, glandular-serrate, nearly
     glabrous or tomentose, persistent, wide-spreading or erect on the
     fruit, dark red above at the base; stamens 10; anthers yellow;
     styles 3 or 4. Fruit subglobose, occasionally rather longer than
     broad, dark crimson, marked with scattered dark dots, about 1/2
     inch in diameter, with thin, sweet, dry yellow flesh; nutlets 3 or
     4, about 1/4 inch long, conspicuously ridged on the back with high
     grooved ridges.

     "A low, bushy tree, occasionally 20 feet in height with a short
     trunk 8-10 inches in diameter, or more frequently shrubby and
     forming wide dense thickets, and with stout more or less zigzag
     branches bright chestnut brown and lustrous during their first
     year, ashy-gray during their second season and armed with many
     stout, chestnut-brown, straight or curved spines 1-1-1/2 inches
     long. Flowers late in May. Fruit ripens and falls toward the end of
     October, usually after the leaves.

     "Slopes of hills and the high banks of salt marshes usually in
     rich, well-drained soil, Essex county, Massachusetts, John
     Robinson, 1900; Gerrish island, Maine, J. G. Jack, 1899-1900;
     Brunswick, Maine, Miss Kate Furbish, May, 1899; Newfoundland, A. C.
     Waghorne, 1894."[1]

[Footnote 1: Prof. C. S. Sargent in _Bot. Gaz._, XXXI, 12. By permission
of the publishers.]


=Cratægus mollis, Scheele.=

_Cratægus subvillosa, Schr. Cratægus coccinea,_ var. _mollis, T. & G._

THORN.

=Habitat and Range.=--Bordering on low lands and along streams.

     Provinces of Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--as far north as Mattawamkeag on the middle Penobscot, Dover on
the Piscataquis, and Orono on the lower Penobscot; reported also from
southern sections; Vermont,--Charlotte (Hosford); Massachusetts,--in the
eastern part infrequent; no stations reported in the other New England
states.

     South to Pennsylvania, Louisiana, and Texas; west to Michigan and
     Missouri.

=Habit.=--Shrub or often a small tree, 20-30 feet high, with trunk 6-12
inches in diameter, often with numerous suckers; branches at 4-6 feet
from the ground, at an acute angle with the stem, lower often horizontal
or declining; head spreading, widest at base, spray short, angular, and
bushy; thorns slender, 1-3 inches long, straight or slightly recurved.

=Bark.=--Bark of the whole tree, except the ultimate shoots, light gray,
on the trunk and larger branches separating lengthwise into thin narrow
plates, in old trees dark gray and more or less shreddy; season's shoots
reddish or yellowish-brown, glossy.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, reddish-brown, shining;
scales broad, glandular-edged. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-5 inches
long, light green above, lighter beneath, broad-ovate to
broad-elliptical; rather regularly and slightly incised with fine,
glandular-tipped teeth; apex acute; base wedge-shaped, truncate, or
subcordate; roughish above and slightly pubescent beneath, especially
along the veins; leaf-stalk pubescent; stipules linear,
glandular-edged, deciduous.

=Inflorescence.=--May to June. In cymes from the season's growth;
flowers white, 3/4 inch broad, ill-smelling; calyx lobes 5, often
incised, pubescent; petals roundish; stamens indefinite, styles 3-5;
flower stems pubescent; bracts glandular.

=Fruit.=--A drupe-like pome, 1/2-1 inch long, bright scarlet, larger
than the fruit of the other New England species; ripens and falls in
September.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England. An attractive and useful
tree in low plantations; rarely for sale by nurserymen or collectors;
propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LX.--Cratægus mollis.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with thorns.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  5. Fruiting branch.

     =Note.=--The New England plants here put under the head of
     _Cratægus mollis_ have been referred by Prof. C. S. Sargent to
     _Cratægus submollis_ (_Bot. Gaz_., XXXI, 7, 1901). The new species
     differs from the true _Cratægus mollis_ in its smaller ovate leaves
     with cuneate base and more or less winged leafstalk, in the smaller
     number of its stamens, usually 10, and in its pear-shaped
     orange-red fruit, which drops in early September.

     It is also probable that _C. Arnoldiana_, Sargent, new species, has
     been collected in Massachusetts as _C. mollis_. It differs from _C.
     submollis_ "in its broader, darker green, more villose leaves which
     are usually rounded, not cuneate at the base, in its smaller
     flowers, subglobose, not oblong or pear-shaped, crimson fruit with
     smaller spreading calyx lobes, borne on shorter peduncles and
     ripening two or three weeks earlier, and by its much more zigzag
     and more spiny branches, which make this tree particularly
     noticeable in winter, when it may readily be recognized from all
     other thorn trees."--C. S. Sargent in _Bot. Gaz._, XXXI, 223, 1901.



DRUPACEÆ. PLUM FAMILY.


Trees or shrubs; bark exuding gum; bark, leaves, and especially seeds of
several species abounding in prussic acid; leaves simple, alternate,
mostly serrate; stipules small, soon falling; leafstalk often with one
to several glands; flowers in umbels, racemes, or solitary, regular;
calyx tube free from the ovary, 5-lobed; petals 5, inserted on the
calyx; stamens indefinite, distinct, inserted with the petals; pistil 1,
ovary with 1 carpel, 1-seeded; fruit a more or less fleshy drupe.


=Prunus nigra, Ait.=

_Prunus Americana_, var. _nigra, Waugh._

WILD PLUM. RED PLUM. HORSE PLUM. CANADA PLUM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Native along streams and in thickets, often
spontaneous around dwellings and along fences.

     From Newfoundland through the valley of the St. Lawrence to Lake
     Manitoba.

Maine,--abundant in the northern sections and common throughout; New
Hampshire and Vermont,--frequent, especially in the northern sections;
Massachusetts,--occasional; Rhode Island and Connecticut,--not reported.

     Rare south of New England; west to Wisconsin.

=Habit.=--A shrub or small tree, 20-25 feet high; trunk 5-8 inches in
diameter; branches stout, ascending, somewhat angular, with short, rigid
branchlets, forming a stiff, narrow head.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk grayish-brown, smooth in young trees, in old
trees separating into large plates; smaller branches dark brown,
season's shoots green.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, acute, dark brown.

Leaves 3-5 inches long, light green on the upper side, paler beneath,
pubescent when young; outline ovate-obovate or orbicular,
crenulate-serrate; teeth not bristle-tipped; apex abruptly acuminate;
base wedge-shaped, rounded, somewhat heart-shaped, or narrowing to a
short petiole more or less red-glandular near the blade; stipules
usually linear, ciliate, soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--Appearing in May before the leaves, in lateral,
2-3-flowered, slender-stemmed umbels; flowers about an inch broad, white
when expanding, turning to pink; calyx 5-lobed, glandular; petals 5,
obovate-oblong, contracting to a claw; stamens numerous; style 1, stigma
1.

=Fruit.=--A drupe, oblong-oval, 1-1-1/2 inches long, orange or
orange-red, skin tough, flesh adherent to the flat stone and pleasant to
the taste. The fruit toward the southern limit of the species is often
abortive, or develops through the growth of a fungus into monstrous
forms.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, and will grow,
when not shaded, in almost any dry or moist soil. It has a tendency to
sucker freely, forming low, broad thickets, especially attractive from
their early spring flowers and handsome autumn leaves.

[Illustration: PLATE LXI.--Prunus nigra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with petals removed.
  4. Petal.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Stone.


=Prunus Americana, Marsh.=

A rare plant in New England, scarcely attaining tree-form. The most
northern station yet reported is along the slopes of Graylock,
Massachusetts, where a few scattered shrubs were discovered in 1900 (J.
R. Churchill). In Connecticut it seems to be native in the vicinity of
Southington, shrubs, and small trees 10-15 feet high (C. H. Bissell _in
lit._, 1900); New Milford and Munroe, small trees (C. K. Averill).

Distinguished from _P. nigra_ by its sharply toothed leaves, smaller
blossoms (the petals of which do not turn pink), and by its globose
fruit.

[Illustration: PLATE LXII.--Prunus Americana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. Petal.
  5. Flowering branch.
  6. Stone.

=Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.=

 RED CHERRY. PIN CHERRY. PIGEON CHERRY. BIRD CHERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--Roadsides, clearings, burnt lands, hill slopes,
occasional in rather low grounds.

     From Labrador to the Rocky mountains, through British Columbia to
     the Coast Range.

Throughout New England; very common in the northern portions, as high up
as 4500 feet upon Katahdin, less common southward and near the seacoast.

     South to North Carolina; west to Minnesota and Missouri.

=Habit=.--A slender tree, seldom more than 30 feet high; trunk 8-10
inches in diameter, erect; branches at an angle of 45° or less; head
rather open, roundish or oblong, characterized in spring by clusters of
long-stemmed white flowers, and in autumn by a profusion of small red
fruit.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in fully grown trees dark brownish-red,
conspicuously marked with coarse horizontal lines; the outer layer
peeling off in fine scales, disclosing a brighter red layer beneath; in
young trees very smooth and shining throughout; lines very conspicuous
in the larger branches; branchlets brownish-red with small horizontal
lines; spray and season's shoots polished red, with minute orange dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, broad-conical, acute. Leaves
numerous, 3-4 inches long, 1-2 inches wide, light green and shining on
both sides, ovate-lanceolate, oval or oblong-lanceolate, finely
serrate; teeth sharp-pointed, sometimes incurved; apex acuminate; base
obtuse or roundish; midrib depressed above; leafstalks short, channeled;
stipules falling early.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Appearing with the leaves, in lateral clusters,
the flowers on long, slender, somewhat branching stems; calyx 5-cleft;
segments thin, reflexed; petals 5, white, obovate, short-clawed; stamens
numerous; pistil 1; style 1.

=Fruit.=--About the size of a pea, round, light red, thin-meated and
sour: stone oval or ovate.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a light
gravelly loam, but grows in poor soils and exposed situations; habit so
uncertain and tendency to sprout so decided that it is not wise to use
it in ornamental plantations; sometimes very useful in sterile land. A
variety with transparent yellowish fruit is occasionally met with, but
is not yet in cultivation.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIII.--Prunus Pennsylvanica.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. Petal.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Prunus Virginiana, L.=

CHOKECHERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--In varying soils; along river banks, on dry
plains, in woods, common along walls, often thickets.

     From Newfoundland across the continent, as far north on the
     Mackenzie river as 62°.

Common throughout New England; at an altitude of 4500 feet upon Mt.
Katahdin.

     South to Georgia; west to Minnesota and Texas.

=Habit.=--Usually a shrub a few feet high, but occasionally a tree 15-25
feet in height, with a trunk diameter of 5-6 inches; head, in open
places, spreading, somewhat symmetrical, with dull foliage, but very
attractive in flower and fruit, the latter variable in color and
quantity.

=Bark.=--Trunk and branches dull gray, darker on older trees, rough with
raised buff-orange spots; branchlets dull grayish or reddish brown;
season's shoots lighter, minutely dotted. Bitter to the taste.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds 1-1-1/4 inches long, conical,
sharp-pointed, brown, slightly divergent from the stem.

Leaves 2-5 inches long and two-thirds as wide, dull green on the upper
side, lighter beneath, obovate or oblong, thin, finely, sharply, and
often doubly serrate; apex abruptly pointed; base roundish, obtuse or
slightly heart-shaped; leafstalk round, grooved, with two or more glands
near base of leaf; stipules long, narrow, ciliate, falling when the
leaves expand.

=Inflorescence.=--Appearing in May, a week earlier than _P. serotina_,
terminating lateral, leafy shoots of the season in numerous handsome,
erect or spreading racemes, 2-4 inches long; flowers short-stemmed,
about 1/3 inch across; petals white, roundish; edge often eroded; calyx
5-cleft with thin reflexed lobes, soon falling; stamens numerous; pistil
1; style 1.

=Fruit.=--In drooping racemes; varying from yellow to nearly black,
commonly bright red, edible, but more or less astringent; stem somewhat
persistent after the cherry falls.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in almost
any soil, but prefers a deep, rich, moist loam. Vigorous young trees are
attractive, but in New England they soon begin to show dead branches,
and are so seriously affected by insects and fungous diseases that it is
not wise to use them in ornamental plantations, or to permit them to
remain on the roadside.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIV.--Prunus Virginia.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. A petal.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Prunus serotina, Ehrh.=

RUM CHERRY. BLACK CHERRY.

=Habitat and Range.=--In all sorts of soils and exposures; open places
and rich woods.

     Nova Scotia to Lake Superior.

Maine,--not reported north of Oldtown (Penobscot county); frequent
throughout the other New England states.

     South to Florida; west to North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas,
     extending through Mexico, along the Pacific coast of Central
     America to Peru.

=Habit.=--Usually a medium-sized tree, 30-50 feet in height, with a
trunk diameter varying from 8 or 10 inches to 2 feet; attaining much
greater dimensions in the middle and southern states; branches few,
large, often tortuous, subdividing irregularly; head open, widest near
the base, rather ungraceful when naked, but very attractive when clothed
with bright green, polished foliage, profusely decked with white
flowers, or laden with drooping racemes of handsome black fruit.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk deep reddish-brown and smooth in young trees, in
old trees very rough, separating into close, thick, irregular, blackish
scales; branches dark reddish-brown, marked with small oblong, raised
dots. Bitter to the taste.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovate, 1/8 inch long, covered with
imbricated brown scales.

Leaves 2-5 inches long, about half as wide, dark green above and glossy
when full grown, paler below, turning in autumn to orange, deep red, or
pale yellow, firm, smooth on both sides, elliptical, oblong, or
lanceolate-oblong; finely serrate with short, incurved teeth; apex
sharp; base acute or roundish; meshes of veins minute; petioles 1/2 inch
long, with usually two or more glands near the base of the leaf;
stipules glandular-edged, falling as the leaf expands.

=Inflorescence.=--May to June. From new leafy shoots, in simple, loose
racemes, 4-5 inches long; flowers small; calyx with 5 short teeth
separated by shallow sinuses, persistent after the cherry falls; petals
5, spreading, white, obovate; stamens numerous; pistil one; style
single.

=Fruit.=--September. Somewhat flattened vertically, 1/4 inch in
diameter; purplish-black, edible, slightly bitter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England; in rich soil in open
situations young trees grow very rapidly, old trees rather slowly.
Seldom used for ornamental purposes, but serves well as a nurse tree for
forest plantations, or where quick results and a luxurious foliage
effect is desired, on inland exposures or near the seacoast. The
branches are very liable to disfigurement by the black-knot and the
foliage by the tent-caterpillar. Large plants are seldom for sale, but
seedlings may be obtained in large quantities and at low prices. A
weeping horticultural form is occasionally offered. Propagated from
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXV.--Prunus serotina.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
  4. A petal.
  5. Fruiting branch.
  6. Mature leaf.


=Prunus Avium, L.=

MAZARD CHERRY.

Introduced from England; occasionally spontaneous along fences and the
borders of woodlands. As an escape, 25-50 feet high, with a trunk
diameter of 1-2 feet; head oblong or ovate; branches mostly ascending.
Leaves ovate to obovate, more or less pubescent beneath, serrate, 3-5
inches long; leafstalk about 1/2 inch long, often glandular near base of
leaf; inflorescence in umbels; flowers white, expanding with the leaves;
fruit dark red, sweet, mostly inferior or blighted.



LEGUMINOSÆ. PULSE FAMILY.


=Gleditsia triacanthos, L.=

HONEY LOCUST. THREE-THORNED ACACIA.

=Habitat and Range.=--In its native habitat growing in a variety of
soils; rich woods, mountain sides, sterile plains.

     Southern Ontario.

Maine,--young trees in the southern sections said to have been
produced from self-sown seed (M. L. Fernald); New Hampshire and
Vermont,--introduced; Massachusetts,--occasional; Rhode
Island,--introduced and fully at home (J. F. Collins); Connecticut,--not
reported. Probably sparingly naturalized in many other places in New
England.

     Spreading by seed southward; indigenous along the western slopes of
     the Alleghanies in Pennsylvania; south to Georgia and Alabama; west
     from western New York through southern Ontario (Canada) and
     Michigan to Nebraska, Kansas, Indian territory, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, reaching a height of 40-60 feet and a
trunk diameter of 1-3 feet; becoming a tree of the first magnitude in
the river bottoms of Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee; trunk dark and
straight, the upper branches going off at an acute angle, the lower
often horizontal, both trunk and larger branches armed above the axils
with stout, sharp-pointed, simple, three-pronged or numerously branched
thorns, sometimes clustered in forbidding tangles a foot or two in
length; head wide-spreading, very open, rounded or flattish, with
extremely delicate, fern-like foliage lying in graceful planes or
masses; pods flat and pendent, conspicuous in autumn.

=Bark.=--Trunk and larger branches a sombre iron gray, deepening on old
trees almost to black; yellowish-brown in second year's growth; season's
shoots green, marked with short buff, longitudinal lines; branchlets
rough-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Winter buds minute, in clusters of three or
four, the upper the largest. Leaves compound, once to twice pinnate,
both forms often in the same leaf, alternate, 6 inches to 1 foot long,
rachis abruptly enlarged at base and covering the winter buds: leaflets
18-28, 3/4-1-1/4 inches long, about one-third as wide, yellowish-green
when unfolding, turning to dark green above, slightly lighter beneath,
yellow in autumn; outline lanceolate, oblong to oval, obscurely
crenulate-serrate; apex obtuse, scarcely mucronate; base mostly rounded;
leafstalks and leaves downy, especially when young.

=Inflorescence.=--Early June. From lateral or terminal buds on the old
wood, in slender, pendent, greenish racemes scarcely distinguishable
among the young leaves; sterile and fertile flowers on different trees
or on the same tree and even in the same cluster; calyx somewhat
campanulate, 3-5-cleft; petals 3-5, somewhat wider than the sepals, and
inserted with the 3-10 stamens on the calyx: pistil in sterile flowers
abortive or wanting, conspicuous in the fertile flowers. Parts of the
flower more or less pubescent, arachnoid-pubescent within, near the
base.

=Fruit.=--Pods dull red, 1-1-1/2 feet long, flat, pendent, and often
twisted, containing several flat brown seeds.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, grows in any
well-drained soil, but prefers a deep, rich loam; transplants readily,
grows rapidly, is long-lived, free from disease, and makes a picturesque
object in ornamental plantations, but is objectionable in public places
and highly finished grounds on account of the stiff spines, which are a
source of danger to pedestrians, and also on account of the long
strap-shaped pods, which litter the ground. There is a thornless form
which is better adapted than the type for ornamental purposes. The type
is sometimes offered in nurseries at a low price by the quantity.
Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVI.--Gleditsia triacanthos.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Winter buds with thorns.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4. Sterile flower, enlarged.
  5. Flowering branch, flowers mostly fertile.
  6. Fertile flower, enlarged.
  7. Fruiting branch.
  8. Leaf partially twice pinnate.


=Robinia Pseudacacia, L.=

LOCUST.

=Habitat and Range.=--In its native habitat growing upon mountain
slopes, along the borders of forests, in rich soils.

     Naturalized from Nova Scotia to Ontario.

Maine,--thoroughly at home, forming wooded banks along streams; New
Hampshire,--abundant enough to be reckoned among the valuable timber
trees; Vermont,--escaped from cultivation in many places; Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, and Connecticut,--common in patches and thickets and along
the roadsides and fences.

     Native from southern Pennsylvania along the mountains to Georgia;
     west to Iowa and southward.

=Habit.=--Mostly a small tree, 20-35 feet high, under favorable
conditions reaching a height of 50-75 feet; trunk diameter 8 inches to 2
1/2 feet; lower branches thrown out horizontally or at a broad angle,
forming a few-branched, spreading top, clothed with a tender green,
delicate, tremulous foliage, and distinguished in early June by loose,
pendulous clusters of white fragrant flowers.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk dark, rough and seamy even in young trees, and
armed with stout prickles which disappear as the tree matures; in old
trees coarsely, deeply, and firmly ridged, not flaky; larger branches a
dull brown, rough; branchlets grayish-brown, armed with prickles;
season's shoots green, more or less rough-dotted, thin, and often
striped.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Winter buds minute, partially sunken within
the leaf-scar. Leaves pinnately compound, alternate; petiole swollen at
the base, covering bud of the next season; often with spines in the
place of stipules; leaflets 7-21, opposite or scattered, 3/4-1-1/4
inches long, about half as wide, light green; outline ovate or
oval-oblong; apex round or obtuse, tipped with a minute point; base
truncate, rounded, obtuse or acutish; distinctly short-stalked;
stipellate at first.

=Inflorescence.=--Late May or early June. Showy and abundant, in loose,
pendent, axillary racemes; calyx short, bell-shaped, 5-cleft, the two
upper segments mostly coherent; corolla shaped like a pea blossom, the
upper petal large, side petals obtuse and separate; style and stigma
simple.

=Fruit.=--A smooth, dark brown, flat pod, about 3 inches long,
containing several small brown flattish seeds, remaining on the tree
throughout the winter.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England in all dry, sunny
situations, of rapid growth, spreading by underground stems, ordinarily
short-lived and subject to serious injury by the attacks of borers.
Occasionally procurable in large quantities at a low rate. In Europe
there are many horticultural forms, a few of which are occasionally
offered in American nurseries. The type is propagated from seed, the
forms by grafting.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVII.--Robinia Pseudacacia.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with corolla removed.
  4. Fruiting branch.


=Robinia viscosa, Vent.=

CLAMMY LOCUST.

This tree appears to be sparingly established in southern Canada and at
many points throughout New England.

Common in cultivation and occasionally established through the middle
states; native from Virginia along the mountains of North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Georgia.

Easily distinguished from _R. Pseudacacia_ by its smaller size,
glandular, viscid branchlets, later period of blossoming, and by its
more compact, usually upright, scarcely fragrant, rose-colored
flower-clusters.



SIMARUBACEÆ. AILANTHUS FAMILY.


=Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.=

AILANTHUS. TREE-OF-HEAVEN. CHINESE SUMAC.

Sparsely and locally naturalized in southern Ontario, New England, and
southward.

A native of China; first introduced into the United States on an
extensive scale in 1820 at Flushing, Long Island; afterwards
disseminated by nursery plants and by seed distributed from the
Agricultural Department at Washington. Its rapid growth, ability to
withstand considerable variations in temperature, and its dark luxuriant
foliage made it a great favorite for shade and ornament. It was planted
extensively in Philadelphia and New York, and generally throughout the
eastern sections of the country. When these trees began to fill the
ground with suckers and the vile-scented sterile flowers poisoned the
balmy air of June and the water in the cisterns, occasioning many
distressing cases of nausea, a reaction set in and hundreds of trees
were cut down. The female trees, against the blossoms of which no such
objection lay, were allowed to grow, and have often attained a height of
50-75 feet, with a trunk diameter of 3-5 feet. The fruit is very
beautiful, consisting of profuse clusters of delicate pinkish or
greenish keys.

The tree is easily distinguished by its ill-scented compound leaves,
often 2-3 feet long, by the numerous leaflets, sometimes exceeding 40,
each ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, with one or two teeth near the base, by
its vigorous growth from suckers, and in winter by the coarse, blunt
shoots and conspicuous, heart-shaped leaf-scars.



ANACARDIACEÆ. SUMAC FAMILY.


=Rhus typhina, L.=

_Rhus hirta, Sudw._

STAGHORN SUMAC.

=Habitat and Range.=--In widely varying soils and localities; river
banks, rocky slopes to an altitude of 2000 feet, cellar-holes and waste
places generally, often forming copses.

     From Nova Scotia to Lake Huron.

Common throughout New England.

     South to Georgia; west to Minnesota and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A shrub, or small tree, rarely exceeding 25 feet in height;
trunk 8-10 inches in diameter; branches straggling, thickish, mostly
crooked when old; branchlets forked, straight, often killed at the tips
several inches by the frost; head very open, irregular, characterized by
its velvety shoots, ample, elegant foliage, turning in early autumn to
rich yellows and reds, and by its beautiful, soft-looking crimson cones.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk light brown, mottled with gray, becoming dark
brownish-gray and more or less rough-scaly in old trees; the season's
shoots densely covered with velvety hairs, like the young horns of deer
(giving rise to the common name), the pubescence disappearing after two
or three years; the extremities dotted with minute orange spots which
enlarge laterally in successive seasons, giving a roughish feeling to
the branches.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds roundish, obtuse, densely covered with
tawny wool, sunk within a large leaf-scar. Leaves pinnately compound,
1-2 feet long; stalk hairy, reddish above, enlarged at base covering the
axillary bud; leaflets 11-31, mostly in opposite pairs, the middle pair
longest, nearly sessile except the odd one, 2-4 inches long; dark green
above, light and often downy beneath; outline narrow to broad-oblong or
broad-lanceolate, usually serrate, rarely laciniate, long-pointed,
slightly heart-shaped or rounded at base; stipules none.

=Inflorescence.=--June to July. Flowers in dense terminal, thyrsoid
panicles, often a foot in length and 5-6 inches wide; sterile and
fertile mostly on separate trees, but sterile, fertile, and perfect
occasionally on the same tree; calyx small, the 5 hairy,
ovate-lanceolate sepals united at the base and, in sterile flowers,
about half the length of the usually recurved petals; stamens 5,
somewhat exserted; ovary abortive, smooth; in the fertile flowers the
sepals are nearly as long as the upright petals; stamens short; ovary
pubescent, 1-celled, with 3 short styles and 3 spreading stigmas.

=Fruit.=--In compound terminal panicles, 6-10 or 12 inches long, made up
of small, dryish, smooth-stoned drupes densely covered with acid,
crimson hairs, persistent till spring.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England. Grows in any
well-drained soil, but prefers a deep, rich loam. The vigorous growth,
bold, handsome foliage, and freedom from disease make it desirable for
landscape plantations. It spreads rapidly from suckers, a single plant
becoming in a few years the center of a broad-spreading group. Seldom
obtainable in nurseries, but collected plants transplant easily.

The cut-leaved form is cultivated in nurseries for the sake of its
exceedingly graceful and delicate foliage.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVIII.--Rhus typhina.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with staminate flowers.
  3. Staminate flower.
  4. Branch with pistillate flowers.
  5. Pistillate flower.
  6. Fruit cluster.
  7. Fruit.


=Rhus Vernix, L.=

_Rhus venenata, DC._

DOGWOOD. POISON SUMAC. POISON ELDER.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low grounds and swamps; occasional on the moist
slopes of hills.

     Infrequent in Ontario.

Maine,--local and apparently restricted to the southwestern sections; as
far north as Chesterville (Franklin county); Vermont,--infrequent;
common throughout the other New England states, especially near the
seacoast.

     South to northern Florida; west to Minnesota and Louisiana.

=Habit.=--- A handsome shrub or small tree, 5-20 feet high; trunk
sometimes 8-10 inches in diameter; broad-topped in the open along the
edge of swamps; conspicuous in autumn by its richly colored foliage and
diffusely panicled, pale, yellowish-white fruit.

=Bark.=--Trunk and branches mottled gray, roughish with round spots;
branchlets light brown; season's shoots reddish at first, turning later
to gray, thickly beset with rough yellowish warts; leaf-scars prominent,
triangular.

=Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, roundish. Leaves pinnately compound,
alternate; rachis abruptly widened at base; leaflets 5-13, opposite,
short-stalked except the odd one, 2-3 inches long, 1-2 inches wide,
smooth, light green and mostly glossy when young, becoming dark green
and often dull, obovate to oval or ovate; entire, often wavy-margined;
apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse; base mostly obtuse or rounded; veins
prominent, often red; stipules none.

=Inflorescence.=--Early in July. Near the tips of the branches, in
loose, axillary clusters of small greenish flowers; sterile, fertile,
and perfect flowers on the same tree, or occasionally sterile and
fertile on separate trees; calyx deeply 5-parted, divisions ovate,
acute; petals 5, oblong; stamens 5, exserted in the sterile flowers;
ovary globose, styles 3.

=Fruit.=--Drupes about as large as peas, smooth, more or less glossy,
whitish; stone ridged; strongly resembling the fruit of _R.
Toxicodendron_ (poison ivy).

=Horticultural Value.=--No large shrub or small tree, so attractive as
this, does so well in wet ground; it grows also in any good soil, but it
is seldom advisable to use it, on account of its noxious qualities. It
can be obtained only from collectors of native plants.

=Note.=--This sumac has the reputation of being the most poisonous of
New England plants. The treacherous beauty of its autumn leaves is a
source of grief to collectors. Many are seriously affected, without
actual contact, by the exhalation of vapor from the leaves, by grains of
pollen floating in the air, and even by the smoke of the burning wood.

It is easily distinguished from the other sumacs. The leaflets are not
toothed like those of _R. typhina_ (staghorn sumac) and _R. glabra_
(smooth sumac); it is not pubescent like _R. typhina_ and _R. copallina_
(dwarf sumac); the rachis of the compound leaf is not wing-margined as
in _R. copallina_; the panicles of flower and fruit are not upright and
compact, but drooping and spreading; the fruit is not red-dotted with
dense crimson hairs, but is smooth and whitish. Unlike the other sumacs,
it grows for the most part in lowlands and swamps.

In the vicinity of Southington, southern Connecticut, _Rhus copallina_
is occasionally found with a trunk 5 or 6 inches in diameter (C. H.
Bissell).

[Illustration: PLATE LXIX.--Rhus Vernix.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.



AQUIFOLIACEÆ. HOLLY FAMILY.


=Ilex opaca, Ait.=

HOLLY. AMERICAN HOLLY.

=Habitat and Range.=--Generally found in somewhat sheltered situations
in sandy loam or in low, moist soil in the vicinity of water.

Maine,--reported on the authority of Gray's _Manual_, sixth edition, in
various botanical works, but no station is known; New Hampshire and
Vermont,--no station reported; Massachusetts,--occasional from Quincy
southward upon the mainland and the island of Naushon; rare in the peat
swamps of Nantucket; Rhode Island,--common in South Kingston and Little
Compton and sparingly found upon Prudence and Conanicut islands in
Narragansett bay; Connecticut,--mostly restricted to the southwestern
sections.

     Southward to Florida; westward to Missouri and the bottom-lands of
     eastern Texas.

=Habit.=--A shrub or small tree, exceptionally reaching a height of 30
feet, with a trunk diameter of 15-18 inches, but attaining larger
proportions south and west; head conical or dome-shaped, compact;
branches irregular, mostly horizontal, clothed with a spiny evergreen
foliage. The fertile trees are readily distinguished through late fall
and early winter by the conspicuous red berries.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk thick, smooth on young trees, roughish, dotted on
old, of a nearly uniform ash-gray on trunk and branches; the young
shoots more or less downy, bright greenish-yellow, becoming smooth and
grayish at the end of the season.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds short, roundish, generally obtuse,
scales minutely ciliate. Leaves evergreen, simple, alternate, 2-4 inches
long, 1-1/2-3 inches wide, flat when compared with those of the European
holly, thickish, smooth on both sides, yellowish-green, scarcely glossy
on the upper surface, paler beneath, elliptical, oval or oval-oblong;
apex acutish, spine-tipped; base acutish or obtuse; margin wavy and
concave between the large spiny teeth, sometimes with one or two teeth
or entire; midrib prominent beneath; leafstalks short, grooved; stipules
minute, awl-shaped, becoming blackish, persistent.

=Inflorescence.=--Flowers in June along the base of the season's shoots;
sterile and fertile flowers usually on separate trees,--the sterile in
loose, few-flowered clusters, the fertile mostly solitary; peduncles and
pedicels slender, bracted midway; calyx persistent, with 4 pointed,
ciliate teeth; corolla white, monopetalous, with 4 roundish, oblong
divisions; stamens 4, alternating with and shorter than the lobes of the
corolla in the fertile flowers, but longer in the sterile; ovary green,
nearly cylindrical, surmounted by the sessile, 4-lobed stigma. Parts of
the flower sometimes in fives or sixes.

=Fruit.=--A dull red, berry-like drupe, with 4 nutlets, ribbed or
grooved on the convex back, ripening late, and persistent into winter. A
yellow-fruited form reported at New Bedford, Mass. (_Rhodora_, III, 58).

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in southern New England; though preferring
moist, gravelly loam, it does fairly well in dry soil; of slow growth;
useful to form low plantation in shade and to enrich the undergrowth of
woods; occasionally sold by collectors but rare in nurseries; nursery
plants must be frequently transplanted to be moved successfully; only a
small percentage of ordinary collected plants live. The seed seldom
germinates in less than two years.

=Notes.=--The cultivated European holly, which the American tree closely
resembles, may be distinguished by its deeper green, glossier, and more
wave-margined leaves and the deeper red of its berries.

"There are several fine specimens of the _Ilex opaca_ on the farm of
Col. Minot Thayer in Braintree, Mass., which are about a foot in
diameter a yard above the ground and 25 feet in height. They have
maintained their present dimensions for more than fifty years."--D. T.
Browne's _Trees of North America_, published in 1846.

This estate is now owned by Mr. Thomas A. Watson. Several of these
trees have been cut down, but one of them is still standing and of
substantially the dimensions given above. It must have reached the limit
of growth a hundred years ago and now shows very evident signs of
decrepitude. This may be due, however, to the loss of a square foot or
more of bark from the trunk.

[Illustration: PLATE LXX.--Ilex opaca.]

  1. Branch with staminate flowers.
  2. Staminate flower.
  3. Pistillate flower.
  4. Fruiting branch.



ACERACEÆ. MAPLE FAMILY.


=Acer rubrum, L.=

RED MAPLE. SWAMP MAPLE. SOFT MAPLE. WHITE MAPLE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Borders of streams, low lands, wet forests,
swamps, rocky hillsides.

     Nova Scotia to the Lake of the Woods.

Common throughout New England from the sea to an altitude of 3000 feet
on Katahdin.

     South to southern Florida; west to Dakota, Nebraska, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A medium-sized tree, 40-50 feet high, rising occasionally in
swamps to a height of 60-75 feet; trunk 2-4 feet in diameter, throwing
out limbs at varying angles a few feet from the ground; branches and
branchlets slender, forming a bushy spray, the tips having a slightly
upward tendency; head compact, in young trees usually rounded and
symmetrical, widest just above the point of furcation. In the first warm
days of spring there shimmers amid the naked branches a faint glow of
red, which at length becomes embodied in the abundant scarlet, crimson,
or yellow of the long flowering stems; succeeded later by the brilliant
fruit, which is outlined against the sober green of the foliage till it
pales and falls in June. The colors of the autumn leaves vie in
splendor with those of the sugar maple.

=Bark.=--In young trees smooth and light gray, becoming very dark and
ridgy in large trunks, the surface separating into scales, and in very
old trees hanging in long flakes; young shoots often bright red in
autumn, conspicuously marked with oblong white spots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds aggregated at or near the ends of the
preceding year's shoots, about 1/8 inch long; protected by dark reddish
scales; inner scales lengthening with the growth of the shoot. Leaves
simple, opposite, 3-4 inches long, green and smooth above, lighter and
more or less pubescent beneath, especially along the veins; turning
crimson or scarlet in early autumn; ovate, 3-5-lobed, the middle lobe
generally the longest, the lower pair (when 5 lobes are present) the
smallest; unequally sharp-toothed, with broad, acute sinuses; apex
acute; base heart-shaped, truncate, or obtuse; leafstalk 1-3 inches
long. The leaves of the red maple vary greatly in size, outline, lobing,
and shape of base.

=Inflorescence.=--April 1-15. Appearing before the leaves in close
clusters encircling the shoots of the previous year, varying in color
from dull red or pale yellow to scarlet; the sterile and fertile flowers
mostly in separate clusters, sometimes on the same tree, but more
frequently on different trees; calyx lobes oblong and obtuse; petals
linear-oblong; pedicels short; stamens 5-8, much longer than the petals
in the sterile and about the same length in the fertile flowers; the
smooth ovary surmounted by a style separating into two much-projecting
stigmatic lobes.

=Fruit.=--Fruit ripe in June, hanging on long stems, varying from brown
to crimson; keys about an inch in length, at first convergent, at
maturity more or less divergent.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; found in a wider
range of soils than any other species of the genus, but seeming to
prefer a gravelly or peaty loam in positions where its roots can reach a
constant supply of moisture. It is more variable than any other of the
native maples and consequently is not so good a tree for streets, where
a symmetrical outline and uniform habit are required. It is
transplanted readily, but recovers its vigor more slowly than does the
sugar or silver maple and is usually of slower growth. Its variable
habit makes it an exceedingly interesting tree in the landscape.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXI.--Acer rubrum.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Branch with sterile flowers.
  4. Sterile flower.
  5. Branch with sterile and fertile flowers.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch.
  8. Variant leaves.


=Acer saccharinum, L.=

_Acer dasycarpum, Ehrh._

SILVER MAPLE. SOFT MAPLE. WHITE MAPLE. RIVER MAPLE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Along streams, in rich intervale lands, and in
moist, deep-soiled forests, but not in swamps.

     Infrequent from New Brunswick to Ottawa, abundant from Ottawa
     throughout Ontario.

Occasional throughout the New England states; most common and best
developed upon the banks of rivers and lakes at low altitudes.

     South to the Gulf states; west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and
     Indian territory; attaining its maximum size in the basins of the
     Ohio and its tributaries; rare towards the seacoast throughout the
     whole range.

=Habit.=--A handsome tree, 50-60 feet in height; trunk 2-5 feet in
diameter, separating a few feet from the ground into several large,
slightly diverging branches. These, naked for some distance, repeatedly
subdivide at wider angles, forming a very wide head, much broader near
the top. The ultimate branches are long and slender, often forming on
the lower limbs a pendulous fringe sometimes reaching to the ground.
Distinguished in winter by its characteristic graceful outlines, and by
its flower-buds conspicuously scattered along the tips of the
branchlets; in summer by the silvery-white under-surface of its deeply
cut leaves. It is among the first of the New England trees to blossom,
preceding the red maple by one to three weeks.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk smooth and gray in young trees, becoming with age
rougher and darker, more or less ridged, separating into thin, loose
scales; young shoots chestnut-colored in autumn, smooth, polished,
profusely marked with light dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Flower-buds clustered near the ends of the
branchlets, conspicuous in winter; scales imbricated, convex, polished,
reddish, with ciliate margins; leaf-buds more slender, about 1/8 inch
long, with similar scales, the inner lengthening, falling as the leaf
expands. Leaves simple, opposite, 3-5 inches long, of varying width,
light green above, silvery-white beneath, turning yellow in autumn;
lobes 3, or more usually 5, deeply cut, sharp-toothed, sharp-pointed,
more or less sublobed; sinuses deep, narrow, with concave sides; base
sub-heart-shaped or truncate; stems long.

=Inflorescence.=--March to April. Much preceding the leaves; from short
branchlets of the previous year, in simple, crowded umbels; flowers
rarely perfect, the sterile and fertile sometimes on the same tree and
sometimes on different trees, generally in separate clusters,
yellowish-green or sometimes pinkish; calyx 5-notched, wholly included
in bud-scales; petals none; sterile flowers long, stamens 3-7 much
exserted, filaments slender, ovary abortive or none: fertile flowers
broad, stamens about the length of calyx-tube, ovary woolly, with two
styles scarcely united at the base.

=Fruit.=--Fruit ripens in June, earliest of the New England maples. Keys
large, woolly when young, at length smooth, widely divergent,
scythe-shaped or straight, yellowish-green, one key often aborted.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in cultivation throughout New England. The
grace of its branches, the beauty of its foliage, and its rapid growth
make it a favorite ornamental tree. It attains its finest development
when planted by the margin of pond or stream where its roots can reach
water, but it grows well in any good soil. Easily transplanted, and more
readily obtainable at a low price than any other tree in general use for
street or ornamental purposes. The branches are easily broken by wind
and ice, and the roots fill the ground for a long distance and exhaust
its fertility.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXII.--Acer saccharinum.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Branch with sterile flowers.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Branch with sterile and fertile flowers.
  6. Sterile flower.
  7. Fertile flower.
  8. Perfect flower.
  9. Fruiting branch.


=Acer Saccharum, Marsh.=

_Acer saccharinum, Wang._ _Acer barbatum, Michx._

ROCK MAPLE. SUGAR MAPLE. HARD MAPLE. SUGAR TREE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich woods and cool, rocky slopes.

     Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, westward to Lake of the Woods.

New England,--abundant, distributed throughout the woods, often forming
in the northern portions extensive upland forests; attaining great size
in the mountainous portions of New Hampshire and Vermont, and in the
Connecticut river valley; less frequent toward the seacoast.

     South to the Gulf states; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, and
     Texas.

=Habit.=--A noble tree, 50-90 feet in height; trunk 2-5 feet in
diameter, stout, erect, throwing out its primary branches at acute
angles; secondary branches straight, slender, nearly horizontal or
declining at the base, leaving the stem higher up at sharper and sharper
angles, repeatedly subdividing, forming a dense and rather stiff spray
of nearly uniform length; head symmetrical, varying greatly in shape; in
young trees often narrowly cylindrical, becoming pyramidal or broadly
egg-shaped with age; clothed with dense masses of foliage, purple-tinged
in spring, light green in summer, and gorgeous beyond all other trees of
the forest, with the possible exception of the red maple, in its
autumnal oranges, yellows, and reds.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and principal branches gray, very smooth, close
and firm in young trees, in old trees becoming deeply furrowed, often
cleaving up at one edge in long, thick, irregular plates; season's
shoots at length of a shining reddish-brown, smooth, numerously
pale-dotted, turning gray the third year.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds sharp-pointed, reddish-brown, minutely
pubescent, terminal 1/4 inch long, lateral 1/8 inch, appressed, the
inner scales lengthening with the growth of the shoot. Leaves simple,
opposite, 3-5 inches long, with a somewhat greater breadth, purplish and
more or less pubescent when opening, at maturity dark green above,
paler, with or without pubescence beneath, changing to brilliant reds
and yellows in autumn; lobes sometimes 3, usually 5, acuminate,
sparingly sinuate-toothed, with shallow, rounded sinuses; base
subcordate, truncate, or wedge-shaped; veins and veinlets conspicuous
beneath; leafstalks long, slender.

=Inflorescence.=--April 1-15. Appearing with the leaves in nearly
sessile clusters, from terminal and lateral buds; flowers
greenish-yellow, pendent on long thread-like, hairy stems; sterile and
fertile on the same or on different trees, usually in separate, but not
infrequently in the same cluster; the 5-lobed calyx cylindrical or
bell-shaped, hairy; petals none; stamens 6-8, in sterile flowers much
longer than the calyx, in fertile scarcely exserted; ovary smooth,
abortive in sterile flowers, in fertile surmounted by a single style
with two divergent, thread-like, stigmatic lobes.

=Fruit.=--Keys usually an inch or more in length, glabrous, wings broad,
mostly divergent, falling late in autumn.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England. Its long life,
noble proportions, beautiful foliage, dense shade, moderately rapid
growth, usual freedom from disease or insect disfigurement, and
adaptability to almost any soil not saturated with water make it a
favorite in cultivation; readily obtainable in nurseries, transplants
easily, recovers its vigor quickly, and has a nearly uniform habit of
growth.

=Note.=--Not liable to be taken for any other native maple, but
sometimes confounded with the cultivated Norway maple, _Acer
platanoides_, from which it is easily distinguished by the milky juice
which exudes from the broken petiole of the latter.

The leaves of the Norway maple are thinner, bright green and glabrous
beneath, and its keys diverge in a straight line.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIII.--Acer saccharum.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower, part of perianth and stamens removed.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Acer saccharum, Marsh., var. nigrum, Britton.=

_Acer nigrum, Michx. Acer saccharinum,_ var. _nigrum, T. & G. Acer
barbatum,_ var. _nigrum, Sarg._

BLACK MAPLE.

=Habitat and Range.=--Low, damp ground on which, in New England at
least, the sugar maple is rarely if ever seen, or upon moist, rocky
slopes.

     Apparently a common tree from Ottawa westward throughout Ontario.

The New England specimens, with the exception of those from the
Champlain valley, appear to be dubious intermediates between the type
and the variety.

Maine,--the Rangeley lake region; New Hampshire,--occasional near the
Connecticut river; Vermont,--frequent in the western part in the
Champlain valley, occasional in all other sections, especially in the
vicinity of the Connecticut; Massachusetts,--occasional in the
Connecticut river valley and westward, doubtfully reported from eastern
sections; Rhode Island,--doubtful, resting on the authority of Colonel
Olney's list; Connecticut,--doubtfully reported.

     South along the Alleghanies to the Gulf states; west to the 95th
     meridian.

The extreme forms of _nigrum_ show well-marked varietal differences; but
there are few, if any, constant characters. Further research in the
field is necessary to determine the status of these interesting plants.

=Habit.=--The black maple is somewhat smaller than the sugar maple, the
bark is darker and the foliage more sombre. It generally has a
symmetrical outline, which it retains to old age.

=Leaves.=--The fully grown leaves are often larger than those of the
type, darker green above, edges sometimes drooping, width equal to or
exceeding the length, 5-lobed, margin blunt-toothed, wavy-toothed, or
entire, the two lower lobes small, often reduced to a curve in the
outline, broad at the base, which is usually heart-shaped; texture firm;
the lengthening scales of the opening leaves, the young shoots, the
petioles, and the leaves themselves are covered with a downy to a
densely woolly pubescence. As the parts mature, the woolliness usually
disappears, except along the midrib and principal veins, which become
almost glabrous.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, preferring a
moist, fertile, gravelly loam; young trees are rather more vigorous than
those of the sugar maple, and easily transplanted. Difficult to secure,
for it is seldom offered for sale or recognized by nurseries, although
occasionally found mixed with the sugar maple in nursery rows.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIV.--Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum.]

  1. Fruiting branch.


=Acer spicatum, Lam.=

MOUNTAIN MAPLE.

=Habitat and Range.=--In damp forests, rocky highland woods, along the
sides of mountain brooks at altitudes of 500-1000 feet.

     From Nova Scotia and Newfoundland to Saskatchewan.

Maine,--common, especially northward in the forests; New Hampshire and
Vermont,--common; Massachusetts,--rather common in western and central
sections, occasional eastward; Rhode Island,--occasional northward;
Connecticut,--occasional in northern and central sections; reported as
far south as North Branford (New Haven county).

     Along mountain ranges to Georgia.

=Habit.=--Mostly a shrub, but occasionally attaining a height of 25
feet, with a diameter, near the ground, of 6-8 inches; characterized by
a short, straight trunk and slender branches; bright green foliage
turning a rich red in autumn, and long-stemmed, erect racemes of
delicate flowers, drooping at length beneath the weight of the maturing
keys.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk thin, smoothish, grayish-brown; primary branches
gray; branchlets reddish-brown streaked with green, retaining in the
second year traces of pubescence; season's shoots yellowish-green,
reddish on the upper side when exposed to the sun, minutely pubescent.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, flattish, acute, slightly
divergent from the stem. Leaves simple, opposite, 4-5 inches long,
two-thirds as wide, pubescent on both sides when unfolding, at length
glabrous on the upper surface, 3-lobed above the center, often with two
small additional lobes at the base, coarsely or finely serrate, lobes
acuminate; base more or less heart-shaped; veining 3-5-nerved,
prominent, especially on the lower side, furrowed above; leafstalks
long, enlarged at the base.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Appearing after the expansion of the leaves, in
long-stemmed, terminal, more or less panicled, erect or slightly
drooping racemes; flowers small and numerous, both kinds in the same
raceme, the fertile near the base; all upon very slender pedicels; lobes
of calyx 5, greenish, downy, about half as long as the alternating
linear petals; stamens usually 8, in the sterile flower nearly as long
as the petals, in the fertile much shorter; pistil rudimentary, hairy in
the sterile flower; in the fertile the ovary is surmounted by an erect
style with short-lobed stigma.

=Fruit.=--In long racemes, drooping or pendent; the keys, which are
smaller than those of any other American maple, set on hair-like
pedicels, and at a wide but not constant angle; at length reddish, with
a small cavity upon one side.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in cultivation throughout New England;
prefers moist, well-drained, gravelly loam in partial shade, but grows
well in any good soil; easily transplanted, but recovers its vigor
rather slowly; foliage free from disease.

Seldom grown in nurseries, but readily obtainable from northern
collectors of native plants.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXV.--Acer spicatum.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Abortive ovary in sterile flower.
  5. Fertile flower with part of the perianth and stamens removed.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.=

STRIPED MAPLE. MOOSEWOOD. WHISTLEWOOD.

=Habitat and Range.=--Cool, rocky or sandy woods.

     Nova Scotia to Lake Superior.

Maine,--abundant, especially northward in the forests; New Hampshire and
Vermont,--common in highland woods; Massachusetts,--common in the
western and central sections, rare towards the coast; Rhode
Island,--frequent northward; Connecticut,--frequent, reported as far
south as Cheshire (New Haven county).

     South on shaded mountain slopes and in deep ravines to Georgia;
     west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--Shrub or small tree, 15-25 feet high, with a diameter at the
ground of 5-8 inches; characterized by a slender, beautifully striate
trunk and straight branches; by the roseate flush of the opening
foliage, deepening later to a yellowish-green; and by the long,
graceful, pendent racemes of yellowish flowers, succeeded by the
abundant, drooping fruit.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk and branches deep reddish-brown or dark green,
conspicuously striped longitudinally with pale and blackish bands;
roughish with light buff, irregular dots; the younger branches marked
with oval leaf-scars and the linear scars of the leaf-scales; the
season's shoots smooth, light green, mottled with black.

In spring the bark of the small branches is easily separable, giving
rise to the name "whistle wood."

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Terminal bud long, short-stalked, obscurely
4-sided, tapering to a blunt tip; lateral buds small and flat; opening
foliage roseate. Leaves simple, opposite; 5-6 inches long and nearly as
broad; the upper leaves much narrower; when fully grown light green
above, paler beneath, finally nearly glabrous, yellow in autumn, divided
above the center into three deep acuminate lobes, finely, sharply, and
usually doubly serrate; base heart-shaped, truncate, or rounded;
leafstalks 1-3 inches long, grooved, the enlarged base including the
leaf-buds of the next season.

=Inflorescence.=--In simple, drooping racemes, often 5-6 inches long,
appearing after the leaves in late May or early June; the sterile and
fertile flowers mostly in separate racemes on the same tree; the
bell-shaped flowers on slender pedicels; petals and sepals
greenish-yellow; sepals narrowly oblong, somewhat shorter than the
obovate petals; stamens usually 8, shorter than the petals in the
sterile flower, rudimentary in the fertile, the pistil abortive or none
in the sterile flower, in the fertile terminating in a recurved
stigma.

=Fruit.=--In long, drooping racemes of pale green keys, set at a wide
but not uniform angle; distinguished from the other maples, except _A.
spicatum_, by a small cavity in the side of each key; abundant; ripening
in August.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy, under favorable conditions, throughout
New England. Prefers a rich, moist soil near water, in shade; but grows
well in almost any soil when once established, many young plants failing
to start into vigorous growth. Occasionally grown by nurserymen, but
more readily obtainable from northern collectors of native plants.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVI.--Acer Pennsylvanicum.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Fertile flower with part of the perianth removed.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Acer Negundo, L.=

_Negundo aceroides, Moench. Negundo Negundo, Karst._

BOX ELDER. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE.

=Habitat and Range.=--In deep, moist soil; river valleys and borders of
swamps.

     Infrequent from eastern Ontario to Lake of the Woods; abundant from
     Manitoba westward to the Rocky mountains south of 55° north
     latitude.

Maine,--along the St. John and its tributaries, especially in the French
villages, the commonest roadside tree, brought in from the wild state
according to the people there; thoroughly established young trees,
originating from planted specimens, in various parts of the state; New
Hampshire,--occasional along the Connecticut, abundant at Walpole;
extending northward as far as South Charlestown (W. F. Flint _in lit._);
Vermont,--shores of the Winooski river and of Lake Champlain;
Connecticut,--banks of the Housatonic river at New Milford, Cornwall
Bridge, and Lime Rock station.

     South to Florida; west to the Rocky and Wahsatch mountains,
     reaching its greatest size in the river bottoms of the Ohio and its
     tributaries.

=Habit.=--A small but handsome tree, 30-40 feet high, with a diameter of
1-2 feet. Trunk separating at a small height, occasionally a foot or two
from the ground, into several wide-spreading branches, forming a broad,
roundish, open head, characterized by lively green branchlets and
foliage, delicate flowers and abundant, long, loose racemes of
yellowish-green keys hanging till late autumn, the stems clinging
throughout the winter.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk when young, smooth, yellowish-green, in old trees
becoming grayish-brown and ridgy; smaller branchlets greenish-yellow;
season's shoots pale green or sometimes reddish-purple, smooth and
shining or sometimes glaucous.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, enclosed in two dull-red,
minutely pubescent scales. Leaves pinnately compound, opposite; leaflets
usually 3, sometimes 5 or 7, 2-4 inches long, 1-1/2-2-1/2 inches broad,
light green above, paler beneath and woolly when opening, slightly
pubescent at maturity, ovate or oval, irregularly and remotely
coarse-toothed mostly above the middle, 3-lobed or nearly entire; apex
acute; base extremely variable; veins prominent; petioles 2-3 inches
long, enlarging at the base, leaving, when they fall, conspicuous
leaf-scars which unite at an angle midway between the winter buds.

=Inflorescence.=--April 1-15. Flowers appearing at the ends of the
preceding year's shoots as the leaf-buds begin to open, small,
greenish-yellow; sterile and fertile on separate trees,--the sterile in
clusters, on long, hairy, drooping, thread-like stems; the calyx hairy,
5-lobed, with about 5 hairy-stemmed, much-projecting linear anthers;
pistil none: the fertile in delicate, pendent racemes, scarcely
distinguishable at a distance from the foliage; ovary pubescent, rising
out of the calyx; styles long, divergent; stamens none.

=Fruit.=--Loose, pendent, greenish-yellow racemes, 6-8 inches long, the
slender-pediceled keys joined at a wide angle, broadest and often
somewhat wavy near the extremity, dropping in late autumn from the
reddish stems, which hang on till spring.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; flourishes best in
moist soil near running water or on rocky slopes, but accommodates
itself to almost any situation; easily transplanted. Plants of the same
age are apt to vary so much in size and habit as to make them unsuitable
for street planting.

An attractive tree when young, especially when laden with fruit in the
fall. There are several horticultural varieties with colored foliage,
some of which are occasionally offered in nurseries. A western form,
having the new growth covered with a glaucous bloom, is said to be
longer-lived and more healthy than the type.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVII.--Acer Negundo.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.



TILIACEÆ. LINDEN FAMILY.


=Tilia Americana, L.=

BASSWOOD. LINDEN. LIME. WHITEWOOD.

=Habitat and Range.=--In rich woods and loamy soils.

     Southern Canada from New Brunswick to Lake Winnipeg.

Throughout New England, frequent from the seacoast to altitudes of 1000
feet; rare from 1000 to 2000 feet.

     South along the mountains to Georgia; west to Kansas, Nebraska, and
     Texas.

=Habit.=--A large tree, 5O-75 feet high, rising in the upper valley of
the Connecticut river to the height of 100 feet; trunk 2-4 feet in
diameter, erect, diminishing but slightly to the branching point; head,
in favorable situations, broadly ovate to oval, rather compact,
symmetrical; branches mostly straight, striking out in different trees
at varying angles; the numerous secondary branches mostly horizontal,
slender, often drooping at the extremities, repeatedly subdividing,
forming a dense spray set at broad angles. Foliage very abundant, green
when fully grown, almost impervious to sunlight; the small creamy
flowers in numerous clusters; the pale, odd-shaped bracts and pea-like
fruit conspicuous among the leaves till late autumn.

=Bark.=--Dark gray, very thick, smooth in young trees, later becoming
broadly and firmly ridged; in old trees irregularly furrowed; branches,
especially upon the upper side, dark brown and blackish; the season's
shoots yellowish-green to reddish-brown, and numerously rough-dotted.
The inner bark is fibrous and tough.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds small, conical, brownish red,
contrasting strongly with the dark stems. Leaves simple, alternate, 4-5
inches long, three-fourths as wide, green and smooth on both sides,
thickish, paler beneath, broad-ovate, one-sided, serrate, the point
often incurved; apex acuminate or acute; base heart-shaped to truncate;
midrib and veins conspicuous on the under surface with minute, reddish
tufts of down at the angles; stems smooth, 1-1-1/2 inches long; stipules
soon falling.

=Inflorescence.=--Late June or early July. In loose, slightly fragrant,
drooping cymes, the peduncle attached about half its length to a
narrowly oblong, yellowish bract, obtuse at both ends, free at the top,
and tapering slightly at the base, pedicels slender; calyx of 5 colored
sepals united toward the base; corolla of 5 petals alternate with the
sepals, often obscurely toothed at the apex; 5 petal-like scales in
front of the petals and nearly as long; calyx, petals, and scales
yellowish-white; stamens indefinite, mostly in clusters inserted with
the scales; anthers 2-celled, ovary 5-celled; style 1; stigma 5-toothed.

=Fruit.=--About the size of a pea, woody, globose, pale green, 1-celled
by abortion: 1-2 seeds.

=Horticultural Value.=--Useful as an ornamental or street tree; hardy
throughout New England, easily transplanted, and grows rapidly in almost
any well-drained soil; comes into leaf late and drops its foliage in
early fall. The European species are more common in nurseries. They are,
however, seriously affected by wood borers, while the native tree has
few disfiguring insect enemies. Usually propagated from the seed. A
horticultural form with weeping branches is sometimes cultivated.

=Note.=--There is so close a resemblance between the lindens that it is
difficult to distinguish the American species from each other, or from
their European relatives.

American species sometimes found in cultivation:

_Tilia pubescens, Ait._, is distinguished from _Americana_ by its
smaller, thinner leaves and densely pubescent shoots.

_Tilia heterophylla, Vent._, is easily recognized by the pale or silver
white under-surface of the leaves.

There are several European species more or less common in cultivation,
indiscriminately known in nurseries as _Tilia Europæa_. They are all
easily distinguished from the American species by the absence of
petal-like scales.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVIII.--Tilia Americana.]


  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower enlarged.
  4. Pistil with cluster of stamens, petaloid scale, petal, and sepal.
  5. Fruiting branch.



CORNACEÆ. DOGWOOD FAMILY.


=Cornus florida, L.=

FLOWERING DOGWOOD. BOXWOOD.

=Habitat and Range.=--Woodlands, rocky hillsides, moist, gravelly
ridges.

     Provinces of Quebec and Ontario.

Maine,--Fayette Ridge, Kennebec county; New Hampshire,--along the
Atlantic coast and very near the Connecticut river, rarely farther north
than its junction with the West river; Vermont,--southern and
southwestern sections, rare; Massachusetts,--occasional throughout the
state, common in the Connecticut river valley, frequent eastward; Rhode
Island and Connecticut,--common.

     South to Florida; west to Minnesota and Texas.

=Habit.=--A small tree, 15-30 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 6-10
inches. The spreading branches form an open, roundish head, the young
twigs curving upwards at their extremities. In spring, when decked with
its abundant, showy white blossoms, it is the fairest of the minor trees
of the forest; in autumn, scarcely less beautiful in the rich reds of
its foliage and fruit.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in old trees blackish, broken-ridged, rough,
often separating into small, firm, 4-angled or roundish plates; branches
grayish, streaked with white lines; season's twigs purplish-green,
downy; taste bitter.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Terminal leaf-buds narrowly conical, acute;
flower-buds spherical or vertically flattened, grayish. Leaves simple,
opposite, 3-5 inches long, two-thirds as wide, dark green above, whitish
beneath, turning to reds, purples, and yellows in the autumn, ovate to
oval, nearly smooth, with minute appressed pubescence on both surfaces;
apex pointed; base acutish; veins distinctly indented above, ribs
curving upward and parallel; leafstalk short-grooved.

=Inflorescence.=--May to June. Appearing with the unfolding leaves in
close clusters at the ends of the branches, each cluster subtended by
a very conspicuous 4-leafed involucre (often mistaken for the corolla
and constituting all the beauty of the blossom), the leaves of which are
white or pinkish, 1-1/2 inches long, obovate, curiously notched at the
rounded end. The real flowers are insignificant, suggesting the tubular
disk flowers of the Compositæ; calyx-tube coherent with the ovary,
surmounting it by 4 small teeth; petals greenish-yellow, oblong,
reflexed; stamens 4; pistil with capitate style.

=Fruit.=--Ovoid, scarlet drupes, about 1/2 inch long, united in
clusters, persistent till late autumn or till eaten by the birds.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in southern and southern-central New
England, but liable farther north to be killed outright or as far down
as the surface of the snow; not only one of the most attractive small
trees on account of its flowers, habit, and foliage, but one of the most
useful for shady places or under tall trees. The species, a
red-flowering and also a weeping variety are obtainable in leading
nurseries. Collected plants can be made to succeed. It is a plant of
rather slow growth.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIX.--Cornus florida.]

  1. Leaf-buds.
  2. Flower-buds.
  3. Flowering branch.
  4. Flower.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Cornus alternifolia, L. f.=

DOGWOOD. GREEN OSIER.

=Habitat and Range.=--Hillsides, open woods and copses, borders of
streams and swamps.

     Nova Scotia and New Brunswick along the valley of the St. Lawrence
     river to the western shores of Lake Superior.

Common throughout New England.

     South to Georgia and Alabama; west to Minnesota.

=Habit.=--A shrub or small tree, 6-20 feet high, trunk diameter 3-6
inches; head usually widest near the top, flat; branches nearly
horizontal with lateral spray, the lively green, dense foliage lying in
broad planes.

=Bark.=--Trunk and larger branches greenish, warty, streaked with gray;
season's shoots bright yellowish-green or purplish, oblong-dotted.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, acute. Leaves simple, alternate
or sometimes opposite, clustered at the ends of the branchlets, 2-4
inches long, dark green on the upper side, paler beneath, with minute
appressed pubescence on both sides, ovate to oval, almost entire; apex
long-pointed; base acutish or rounded; veins indented above, ribs
curving upward and parallel; petiole long, slender, and grooved.

=Inflorescence.=--June. From shoots of the season, in irregular open
cymes; calyx coherent with ovary, surmounting it by 4 minute teeth;
corolla white or pale yellow, with the 4 oblong petals at length
reflexed: stamens 4, exserted; style short, with capitate stigma.

=Fruit.=--October. Globular, blue or blue black, on slender, reddish
stems.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England, adapting itself to
a great variety of situations, but preferring a soil that is constantly
moist. Nursery or good collected plants are easily transplanted. A
disease, similar in its effect to the pear blight, so often disfigures
it that it is not desirable for use in important plantations.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXX.--Cornus alternifolia.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower with one petal and two stamens removed, side view.
  4. Flower, view from above.
  5. Fruiting branch.


=Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.=

TUPELO. SOUR GUM. PEPPERIDGE.

=Habitat and Range.=--In rich, moist soil, in swamps and on the borders
of rivers and ponds.

     Ontario.

Maine,--Waterville on the Kennebec, the most northern station
yet reported (Dr. Ezekiel Holmes); New Hampshire,--most
common in the Merrimac valley, seldom seen north of the White
mountains; Vermont,--occasional; Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
and Connecticut,--rather common.

     South to Florida; west to Michigan, Missouri, and Texas.

=Habit.=--Tree 20-50 feet high, with a trunk diameter of 1-2 feet,
rising in the forest to the height of 60-80 feet; attaining greater
dimensions farther south; lower branches horizontal or declining, often
touching the ground at their tips, the upper horizontal or slightly
rising, angular, repeatedly subdividing; branchlets very numerous, short
and stiff, making a flat spray; head extremely variable, unique in
picturesqueness of outline; usually broad-spreading, flat-topped or
somewhat rounded; often reduced in Nantucket and upon the southern shore
of Cape Cod to a shrub or small tree of 10-15 feet in height, forming
low, dense, tangled thickets. Foliage very abundant, dark lustrous
green, turning early in the fall to a brilliant crimson.

=Bark.=--Trunk of young trees grayish-white, with irregular and shallow
striations, in old trees darker, breaking up into somewhat hexagonal or
lozenge-shaped scales; branches smooth and brown; season's shoots
reddish-green, with a few minute dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds ovoid, 1/8-1/4 inch long, obtuse. Leaves
simple, irregularly alternate, often apparently whorled when clustered
at the ends of the shoots, 2-5 inches long, one-half as wide; at first
bright green beneath, dullish-green above, becoming dark glossy green
above, paler beneath, obovate or oblanceolate to oval; entire, few or
obscurely toothed, or wavy-margined above the center; apex more or less
abruptly acute; base acutish; firm, smooth, finely sub-veined; stem
short, flat, grooved, minutely ciliate, at least when young; stipules
none.

=Inflorescence.=--May or early June. Appearing with the leaves in
axillary clusters of small greenish flowers, sterile and fertile usually
on separate trees, sometimes on the same tree,--sterile flowers in
simple or compound clusters; calyx minutely 5-parted, petals 5, small or
wanting; stamens 5-12, inserted on the outside of a disk; pistil none:
fertile flowers larger, solitary, or several sessile in a bracted
cluster; petals 5, small or wanting; calyx minutely 5-toothed.

=Fruit.=--Drupes 1-several, ovoid, blue black, about 1/2 inch long,
sour: stone striated lengthwise.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; adapts itself
readily to most situations but prefers deep soil near water. Seldom
offered in nurseries and difficult to transplant unless frequently
root-pruned or moved; collected plants do not thrive well; seedlings are
raised with little difficulty. Few trees are of greater ornamental
value.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXI.--Nyssa sylvatica.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3-4. Sterile flowers.
  5. Branch with fertile flowers.
  6. Fertile flower.
  7. Fruiting branch.



EBENACEÆ. EBONY FAMILY.


=Diospyros Virginiana, L.=

PERSIMMON.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rhode Island,--occasional but doubtfully native;
Connecticut,--at Lighthouse Point, New Haven, near the East Haven
boundary line, there is a grove consisting of about one hundred
twenty-five small trees not more than a hundred feet from the water's
edge, in sandy soil just above the beach grass, exposed to the
buffeting of fierce winds and the incursions of salt water, which comes
up around them during the heavy winter storms. These trees are not in
thriving condition; several are dead or dying, and no new plants are
springing up to take their places. A cross-section of the trunk of a
dead tree, as large as any of those living, shows about fifty annual
rings. There is no reason to suppose that the survivors are older. This
station is said to have been known as early as 1846, at which date the
ground where they stand was grassy and fertile. These trees, if standing
at that time, must assuredly have been in their infancy. The
encroachment of the sea and subsequent change of conditions account well
enough for the present decrepitude, but their general similarity in size
and apparent age point rather to introduction than native growth.

     South to Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana; west to Iowa, Kansas, and
     Texas.

=Habit.=--One of the Rhode Island trees measured 3 feet 11 inches girth
at the base, and gradually tapered to a height of more than 40 feet (L.
W. Russell). The trees at New Haven are 15-20 feet in height, with a
trunk diameter of 6-10 inches, trunk and limbs much twisted by the
winds. Their branches, beginning to put out at a height of 6-8 feet, lie
in almost horizontal planes, forming a roundish, open head.

=Bark.=--Trunk in old trees dark, rough, deeply furrowed, separating
into small, firm sections; large limbs dark reddish-brown; season's
shoots green, turning to brown.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds oblong, conical, short. Leaves simple,
alternate, 3-6 inches long, about half as wide, dark green and mostly
glossy above, somewhat lighter and minutely downy (at least when young)
beneath, ovate to oval, entire; apex acute to acuminate; base acute,
rounded or truncate; leafstalk short; stipules none.

=Inflorescence.=--June. Sterile and fertile flowers on separate or on
the same trees; not conspicuous, axillary; sterile often in clusters,
fertile solitary; calyx 4-6-parted; corolla 4-6-parted; about 1/2 inch
long, pale yellow, thickish, urn-shaped, constricted at the mouth and
somewhat smaller in the sterile flowers; stamens 16 in the sterile
flowers, in fertile flowers 8 or less, imperfect; styles 4, ovary
8-celled.

=Fruit.=--A berry, ripe in late fall, roundish, about an inch in
diameter, larger farther south, with thick, spreading, persistent calyx,
yellow to yellowish-brown, very astringent when immature, edible and
agreeable to the taste after exposure to the frost; several-seeded.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy along the south shore of New England;
prefers well-drained soil in open situations; free from disfiguring
enemies; occasionally cultivated in nurseries but difficult to
transplant. Propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXII.--Diospyros Virginiana.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Vertical section of sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Section of fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.



OLEACEÆ. OLIVE FAMILY.


Fraxinus Americana, L.

WHITE ASH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich or moist woods, fields and pastures, near
streams.

     Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Ontario.

Maine,--very common, often forming large forest areas; in the other New
England states, widely distributed, but seldom occurring in large
masses.

     South to Florida; west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas.

=Habit.=--A tall forest tree, 50-75 feet high, with a trunk diameter of
2-3 feet; rising in the rich bottom lands of the Ohio river 100 feet or
more, often in the forest half its height without a limb. In open
ground the trunk, separating at a height of a few feet, throws off two
or three large limbs, and is soon lost amid the slender, often gently
curving branches, forming a rather open, rounded head widest at or near
the base, with light and graceful foliage, and a stout, rather sparse,
glabrous, and sometimes flattish spray.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk in mature trees easily distinguishable at some
distance by the characteristic gray color and uniform striation; ridges
prominent, narrow, flattish, firm, without surface scales but with fine
transverse seams; furrows fine and strong, sinuous, parallel or
connecting at intervals; large limbs more or less furrowed; smaller
branches smooth and grayish-green; season's shoots polished olive green;
leaf-scars prominent.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds short, rather prominent, smooth, dark or
pale rusty brown. Leaves pinnately compound, opposite, 6-12 inches long;
petiole smooth and grooved; leaflets 5-9, 2-5 inches long, deep green
and smooth above, paler and smooth, or slightly pubescent (at least when
young) beneath; ovate to lance-oblong, entire or somewhat toothed; apex
pointed; base obtuse, rounded or sometimes acute; leaflet stalks short,
smooth; stipules and stipels none.

=Inflorescence.=--May. In loose panicles from lateral or terminal buds
of the previous season's shoots, sterile and fertile flowers for the
most part on separate trees, numerous, inconspicuous; calyx in sterile
flowers 4-toothed, petals none, stamens 2-4, anthers oblong; calyx in
fertile flowers unequally 4-toothed or nearly entire, persistent; petals
none, stamens none, pistil 1, style 1, stigma 2-cleft.

=Fruit.=--Ripening in early fall, and hanging in clusters into the
winter; a samara or key 1-2 inches long, body nearly terete, marginless
below, dilating from near the tip into a wing two or three times as long
as the body.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a rich,
moist, loamy soil, but grows in any well-drained situation; easily
transplanted, usually obtainable in nurseries, and can be collected
successfully. It is one of the most desirable native trees for landscape
and street plantations, on account of its rapid and clean growth,
freedom from disease, moderate shade, and richly colored autumn foliage.
As the leaves appear late in spring and fall early in autumn, it is
desirable to plant with other trees of different habit. Propagated from
seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXIII.--Fraxinus Americana.]


  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flowers.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.


=Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.=

_Fraxinus pubescens, Lam._

RED ASH. BROWN ASH. RIVER ASH.

=Habitat and Range.=--River banks, swampy lowlands, margins of streams
and ponds.

     New Brunswick to Manitoba.

Maine,--infrequent; New Hampshire,--occasional, extending as far north
as Boscawen in the Merrimac valley; Vermont,--common along Lake
Champlain and its tributaries (_Flora of Vermont_, 1900); occasional in
other sections; Massachusetts and Rhode Island,--sparingly scattered
throughout; Connecticut,--reported from East Hartford, Westville,
Canaan, and Lisbon (J. N. Bishop).

     South to Florida and Alabama; west to Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and
     Missouri.

=Habit.=--Medium-sized to large tree, 30-70 feet high, with trunk 1-3
feet in diameter; erect, branches spreading, broad-headed; in general
appearance resembling the white ash.

=Bark.=--Trunk dark gray or brown, smooth in young trees, furrowed in
old, furrows rather shallower than in the white ash; branches grayish;
young shoots greenish-gray with a rusty-velvety or scurfy pubescence
lasting often into the second year.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds rounded, dark reddish-brown, more or
less downy, smaller than those of the white ash, partially covered by
the swollen petiole. Leaves pinnately compound, opposite, 9-15 inches
long; petiole short, downy, enlarged at base; leaflets 7-9, opposite,
3-5 inches long, about one half as wide, light green and smooth above,
paler and more or less downy beneath; outline extremely variable, ovate,
narrow-oblong, elliptical or sometimes obovate, entire or slightly
toothed; apex acute to acuminate; base acute or rounded; leaflet stalks
short, grooved, downy; stipules and stipels none.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Similar to that of the white ash.

=Fruit.=--Ripening in early fall, and hanging in clusters into the
winter; samara or key about 1-1/2 inches long; body of the fruit
narrowly cylindrical, the edges gradually widening from about the center
into linear or spatulate wings, obtuse or rounded at the ends, sometimes
mucronate.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows readily in
any good soil, but prefers a wet or moist, rich loam; almost as rapid
growing when young as the white ash, and is not seriously affected by
insects or fungous diseases; worthy of a place in landscape plantations
and on streets, but not often found in nurseries; propagated from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXIV.--Fraxinus Pennsylvanica.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flowers.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Mature leaf.


=Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata, Sarg.=

_Fraxinus viridis, Michx. f. Fraxinus lanceolata, Borkh._

GREEN ASH.

River valleys and wet woods.

     Ontario to Saskatchewan.

Maine,--common along the Penobscot river from Oldtown to Bangor;
Vermont,--along Lake Champlain; Gardner's island, and the north end of
South Hero; Rhode Island (Bailey); Connecticut,--frequent (J. N. Bishop,
_Report of Connecticut Board of Agriculture_, 1895).

     South along the mountains to Florida; west to the Rocky mountains.

The claims to specific distinction rest mainly upon the usual absence of
pubescence from the young shoots, leaves and petioles, the color of the
leaves (which is bright green above and scarcely less so beneath), the
usually more distinct serratures above the center, and a rather more
acuminate apex.

Apparently an extreme form of _F. pubescens_, connected with it by
numerous intermediate forms through the entire range of the species.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXV.--Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var.
lanceolata.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Fruiting branch.


=Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.=

_Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lam._

BLACK ASH. SWAMP ASH. BASKET ASH. HOOP ASH. BROWN ASH.

=Habitat and Range.=--Wet woods, river bottoms, and swamps.

     Anticosti through Ontario.

Maine,--common; New Hampshire,--south of the White mountains;
Vermont,--common; Massachusetts,--more common in central and western
sections; Rhode Island,--infrequent; Connecticut,--occasional
throughout.

     South to Delaware and Virginia; west to Arkansas and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A tall tree reaching a height of 60-80 feet, with a trunk
diameter of 1-2 feet; attaining greater dimensions southward. In swamps,
when shut in by other trees, the trunk is straight, very slender,
scarcely tapering to point of branching, in open situations under
favorable conditions forming a large, round, open head. Easily
distinguished from the other ashes by its sessile leaflets.

=Bark.=--Bark of trunk a soft ash-gray, in old trees marked by parallel
ridges separating into fine, thin, close flakes; limbs light gray,
rough-warted, the smaller with conspicuous leaf-scars; season's shoots
olive green, stout; flattened at apex, with small, black, vertical dots.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds roundish, pointed, very dark, the
terminal 1/8 inch long. Leaves compound, opposite, 12-15 inches long;
stipules none; stem grooved and smooth; leaflets 7-11, more frequently
9, 3-5 inches long, 1-1/2-2 inches wide, green on both sides, lighter
beneath and more or less hairy on the veins; outline variable, more
usually oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate; apex acuminate; base obtuse
to rounded, sessile except the odd leaflets; stipels none.

=Inflorescence.=--May. Appearing before the leaves in loose panicles
from lateral or terminal buds of the preceding season, sterile and
fertile flowers on different trees; bracted; calyx none; petals none.

=Fruit.=--August to September. Samaras, in panicles, rather more than 1
inch long, rounded at both ends: body entirely surrounded by the wing.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; grows in any good
soil, but prefers swamp or wet land. Its very tall, slender habit makes
it a useful tree in some positions, but it is not readily obtainable in
nurseries and is seldom used. Propagated from the seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXVI.--Fraxinus nigra.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Branch with sterile flowers.
  3. Sterile flower.
  4. Branch with fertile flowers.
  5. Fertile flower.
  6. Fruiting branch.
  7. Fruit.



CAPRIFOLIACEÆ. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY.


=Viburnum Lentago, L.=

SHEEP BERRY. SWEET VIBURNUM. NANNY PLUM.

=Habitat and Range.=--Rich woods, thickets, river valleys, along fences.

     Province of Quebec to Saskatchewan.

Frequent throughout New England.

     South along the mountains to Georgia and Kentucky; west to
     Minnesota, Nebraska, and Missouri.

=Habit.=--A shrub or small tree, 10-25 feet in height with numerous
branches forming a wide-spreading, compact rounded head; conspicuous by
rich foliage, profuse, fragrant yellowish-white flowers, and long,
drooping clusters of crimson fruit which deepen to a rich purple when
fully ripe.

=Bark.=--Trunk and larger branches dark purplish or reddish brown,
separating in old trees into small, firm sections; branchlets
grayish-brown; season's shoots reddish-brown, dotted, more or less
scurfy.

=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Leaf-buds long, narrow, covered with scurfy,
brown, leaf-like scales; flower-buds much longer, swollen at the base,
with two leaf-like scales extended into a long, spire-like point. Leaves
simple, opposite, 2-4 inches long, upper surface bright green, lower
paler and set with rusty scales, ovate to oblong-ovate or orbicular,
sharply and finely serrate, smooth, tapered or abruptly pointed; base
acute to rounded or truncate; stem slender, wavy-margined, channeled
above; stipules none.

=Inflorescence.=--May or early June. Terminal, in broad, flat-topped,
compound, sessile cymes; calyx-tube adherent to the ovary, 5-toothed;
corolla white, salver-shaped, segments 5, oval, reflexed; stamens 5,
projecting, anthers yellow; pistil truncate.

=Fruit.=--Profuse, in clusters; drupes 1/2 inch long, oval, crimson when
ripening, deep purple when fully ripe, edible, sweet: stone flat, oval,
rough, obscurely striate lengthwise.

=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy throughout New England; prefers a rich
soil in open places or in light shade. Its showy flowers, healthy
foliage, and vigorous growth make it a desirable plant for high shrub
plantations, and as an undergrowth in open woods. Offered for sale by
collectors and occasionally by nurserymen; easily transplanted;
propagated from seed or from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXVII.--Viburnum Lentago.]

  1. Winter buds.
  2. Flowering branch.
  3. Flower.
  4. Flower, side view.
  5. Flower with petals and stamens removed.
  6. Fruiting branch.



APPENDIX.


The range of several trees as given in the text has been extended by
discoveries made during the summer of 1901, but reported too late for
incorporation in its proper place.

_Populus balsamifera_, L., var. _candicans_, Gray.--One of the commonest
and stateliest trees in the alluvium of the Connecticut and the Cold
rivers; with negundo, river maple, and white and slippery elm, forming a
tall and dense forest along the Connecticut at the foot of Fall
mountain, and opposite Bellows Falls. The densely pubescent petioles and
the ciliate margins of the broad cordate leaves at once distinguish this
tree from the usually smaller but more common _P. balsamifera_ ("Some
Trees and Shrubs of Western Cheshire County, N. H." Mr. M. L. Fernald,
in _Rhodora_, III, 233).

The above is the _Populus candicans_, Ait., of the text.

_Salix discolor_, Muhl.--There are many fine trees at Fort Kent, Maine,
one with trunk 13 inches in diameter. (M. L. Fernald _in lit._,
September, 1901.)

_Salix balsamifera_, Barrett.--A handsome tree at Fort Kent, 25-30 feet
high, with trunk 4-6 inches in diameter. (M. L. Fernald _in lit._,
September, 1901.)

_Cratægus Crus-Galli_, L.--Nantucket, Massachusetts. Young trees were
set out in 1830, enclosing an oblong of about an acre and a half. The
most flourishing of these have obtained a height of about 30 feet and a
trunk diameter near the ground of 10-12 inches. Now established,
probably through the agency of birds, along swamps and upon
hill-slopes. (L. L. D.)

_Prunus Americana_, Marsh.--One clump of small trees in a thicket at
Alstead Centre, N. H., has the characteristic spherical fruit of this
species. _P. nigra_, Ait., with oblong, laterally flattened fruit, is
abundant. (_Rhodora_, III, 234.)

_Acer Saccharum_, Marsh., var. _barbatum_, Trelease.--Characteristic
trees (Cheshire County, N. H.), with small, firm, deep green,
three-lobed leaves, appear very distinct, but many transitions are noted
between this and the typical _Acer Saccharum_. (_Rhodora_, III, 234.)

_Acer Saccharum_, Marsh., var. _nigrum_, Britton.--Occasional in
alluvium of the Cold river (Cheshire county, N. H.). The large, dark
green, "flabby" leaves, with closed sinuses and with densely pubescent
petioles and lower surfaces, quickly distinguish this tree from the
ordinary forms of the sugar maple. (_Rhodora_, III. 234.)

_Fraxinus Pennsylvanica_. Marsh., var. _lanceolata_, Sarg.--Common along
the Connecticut at Walpole, N. H. (M. L. Fernald _in lit._, September,
1901.)



GLOSSARY.


=Abortive.= Defective or barren, through non-development of a part.

=Acuminate.= Long-pointed.

=Acute.= Ending with a sharp but not prolonged point.

=Adherent.= Growing fast to; adnate anther, attached for its whole
length to the ovary.

=Adnate.= Essentially same as adherent, with the added idea of
congenital adhesion.

=Aggregate fruits.= Formed by crowding together all the carpels of the
same flower; as in the blackberry.

=Ament.= Name given to such flower-clusters as those of the willow,
birch, poplar, etc.

=Anther.= The part of the stamen which bears the pollen.

=Appressed.= Lying close against another organ.

=Ascending.= Rising upward, or obliquely upward.

=Axil.= Angle formed on the upper side between the leaf stem or flower
stem and the branch from which it springs.

=Bract.= Reduced leaf subtending a flower or flower-cluster.

=Branches, primary.= The leading or main branches thrown out directly
from the trunk, giving a general shape to the head.

=Branches, secondary.= Never directly from the trunk but from other
branches.

=Buttressed.= Supported against strain in any direction by a conspicuous
ridge-like enlargement of the trunk vertically to the roots. Several of
these buttresses often give a tree a square appearance.

=Caducous.= Dropping off very early after development.

=Calyx.= The outer set of the leaves of the flower.

=Campanulate.= Bell-shaped.

=Capitate.= Head-shaped or collected in a head.

=Capsule.= A dry compound fruit.

=Carpel.= A simple pistil.

=Catkin.= See ament.

=Ciliate.= Margin with hairs or bristles.

=Coherent.= One organ uniting with another.

=Compound.= See leaf, ovary, etc.

=Connate.= Similar organs, more or less grown together.

=Connective.= The part of the anther connecting its two cells.

=Coriaceous.= Thick, leathery in texture.

=Corolla.= Leaves of the flower within the calyx.

=Corymb.= That sort of flower-cluster in which the flower stems arranged
along the central axis elongate, forming a broad convex or level top,
the flowers opening successively from the outer edge towards the center.

=Crenate.= Edge with rounded teeth.

=Crenulate.= Edge with small rounded teeth.

=Cyme.= Flat-topped or convex flower-cluster, the central flower opening
first; blossoming outward.

=Deciduous.= Falling off, as leaves in autumn, or calyx and corolla
before fruit grows.

=Declining.= Bent downwards.

=Decurrent.= Leaves prolonged on the stem beneath the insertion:
branchlets springing out beneath the point of furcation, as the
feathering along the trunk of elms, etc.

=Dentate.= With teeth pointing outwards.

=Disk.= Central part of a head of flowers; fleshy expansion of the
receptacle of a flower; any rounded, flat surface.

=Drupe.= A stone fruit; soft externally with a stone at the center, as
the cherry and peach.

=Erose.= Eroded, as if gnawed.

=Exserted.= Protruding, projecting out of.

=Falcate.= Scythe-shaped.

=Fertile.= Flowers containing the pistil, capable of producing fruit.
Anthers in such blossoms, if any, are generally abortive.

=Fibrovascular.= Bundle or tissue, formed of wood fibers, ducts, etc.

=Filament.= Part of stamen supporting anther.

=Fungus.= A division of cryptogamous plants, including mushrooms, etc.

=Furcation.= Branching.

=Glabrous.= Smooth without hairiness or roughness.

=Glandular.= Bearing glands or appendages having the appearance of
glands.

=Glaucous.= Covered with a bloom: bluish hoary.

=Globose= or =globous.= Spherical or nearly so.

=Habit.= The general appearance of a plant.

=Habitat.= The place where a plant naturally grows, as in swamps, in
water, upon dry hillsides, etc.

=Hybrid.= A cross between two species.

=Imbricated.= Overlapping.

=Inflorescence.= Mode of disposition of flowers; sometimes applied to
the flower-cluster itself.

=Involucre.= Bracts subtending a flower or a cluster of flowers.

=Keeled.= Having a central dorsal ridge like the keel of a boat.

=Key.= A winged fruit; a samara.

=Lacerate.= Irregularly cleft, as if torn.

=Lanceolate.= Lance-shaped, broadest above the base, gradually narrowing
to the apex.

=Leaf.= Consisting when botanically complete of a blade, usually flat, a
footstalk and two appendages at base of the footstalk; often consisting
of blade only.

=Leaf, compound.= Having two to many distinct blades on a common
leafstalk or rachis. These blades may be sessile or have leafstalks of
their own.

=Leaf, pinnately compound.= With the leaflets arranged along the sides
of the rachis.

=Leaf, palmately compound.= With leaflets all standing on summit of
petiole.

=Leaf-cushions.= Organs resembling persistent decurrent footstalks, upon
which leaves of spruces, etc., stand; sterigmata.

=Leaf-scar.= The scar left on the twig where the petiole was attached.

=Lenticel.= Externally appearing upon the bark as spots, warts, and
perpendicular or transverse lines.

=Linear.= Long and narrow with sides nearly parallel.

=Monopetalous.= Having petals more or less united.

=Mucronate.= Abruptly tipped with a small, sharp point.

=Nerved.= Having prominent unbranched ribs or veins.

=Obcordate.= Inversely heart-shaped.

=Obovate.= Ovate with the broader end towards the apex.

=Obtuse.= Blunt or rounded at the end.

=Orbicular.= Having a circular or nearly circular outline.

=Ovary.= The part of the pistil containing the ovules.

=Ovoid.= A solid with an oval or ovate outline.

=Ovuliferous.= Bearing ovules.

=Panicle.= General term for any loose and irregular flower-cluster,
commonly of the racemose type, with pedicellate flowers.

=Pedicel.= The stalk of a single flower in the ultimate divisions of an
inflorescence.

=Peduncle.= The stem of a solitary flower or of a cluster.

=Perfect.= Having both pistils and stamens.

=Perianth.= The floral envelope consisting of calyx, corolla, or both.

=Persistent.= Not falling for a long time.

=Petal.= A division of the corolla.

=Petiole.= The stalk of a leaf.

=Petiolule.= The stalk of a leaflet in a compound leaf.

=Pistil.= The seed-bearing organ of the flower.

=Pistillate.= Provided with pistils; usually applied to flowers without
stamens.

=Pollen.= The fertilizing grains contained in the anthers.

=Puberulent.= Minutely pubescent.

=Pubescent.= Covered with short soft or downy hairs.

=Raceme.= A simple cluster of pediceled flowers upon a common axis.

=Rachis.= The main axis of a compound leaf, of a raceme or of a spike.

=Ramification.= Branching.

=Range.= The geographical extent and limits of a species.

=Reflexed.= Turned backward.

=Reticulated.= Netted; in the form of a network.

=Revolute.= Rolled backward from the margin or apex.

=Samara.= Key fruit; winged fruit, like that of the ash or maple.

=Scarf-bark.= The thin, outermost layer which often peels off.

=Segment.= One of the divisions into which a plane organ, such as a
leaf, may be divided.

=Sepal.= A calyx leaf.

=Serrate.= With teeth inclining forward.

=Serrulate.= With small teeth inclining forward.

=Sessile.= Not stalked, as when the leaf blade or flower rests directly
upon the twig.

=Simple leaf.= Not compound, having one blade not jointed with its stem.

=Sinuate.= Strongly wavy-margined.

=Sinus.= Interval between two lobes or divisions of a leaf; sometimes
sharp-angular, sometimes rounded.

=Spatulate.= Gradually narrowed downward from a rounded summit.

=Spike.= A cluster of sessile or nearly sessile lateral flowers on an
elongated axis.

=Spray.= The smaller branches and ultimate branchlets of a tree taken as
a whole.

=Stamens.= The pollen-bearing organs of a flower, each stamen consisting
of a filament (stem) and anther which contains the pollen.

=Staminate.= Having stamens.

=Sterile.= Variously applied: to flowers with stamens only; to stamens
without anthers; to anthers without pollen; to ovaries not producing
seed, etc.

=Stigma.= Part of pistil which receives the pollen.

=Stipels.= Appendages to a leaflet, analogous to the stipules of a leaf.

=Stipules.= Appendages of a leaf, usually at the point of insertion.

=Striate.= Streaked, or very finely ridged lengthwise.

=Style.= Part of pistil uniting ovary with stigma; often wanting.

=Sucker.= A shoot of subterranean origin.

=Suture.= The line of union between parts which have grown together;
most often used with reference to the line along which an ovary opens.

=Terete.= Cylindrical.

=Ternate.= In threes.

=Tomentose.= Densely pubescent or woolly.

=Truncate.= As if cut off at the end.

=Umbel.= An inflorescence in which the flower stems spring from the same
point like the rays of an umbrella.

=Verticillate.= Arranged in a circle round an axis; whorled.

=Villose= or =villous.= With long, soft hairs.

=Whorl.= Arranged in a circle about an axis.



INDEX.


  A

  Abele. (Populus alba, L.) 39, 40

  Abies balsamea, Mill. _Fir balsam_ 20-22

  =Abietacæ.= (=Pinoideæ=) 1-22
    Larix 1-4
    Pinus 4-12
    Picea 12-18
    Tsuga 19, 20
    Abies 20-22

  Acacia, (Robinia Pseudacacia, L.) 131, 132
          (Robinia viscosa, Vent.) 132
          Three-thorned. (Gleditsia triacanthos, L.) 129, 130

  =Aceraceæ.= (Maple family). 140-153
    Acer barbatum, Michx. _Rock, Sugar, Hard maple, Sugar tree_ 144-146
       barbatum, var. nigrum, Sarg. _Black maple_ 146, 147
       dasycarpum, Ehrh. _Silver, Soft, White, River maple_ 142-144
       Negundo, L. _Box elder, Ash-leaved maple_ 151-153
       nigrum, Michx. _Black maple_ 146,147
       Pennsylvanicum, L. _Striped maple, Moosewood, Whistlewood_ 149-151
       platanoides _Norway maple_ 146
       rubrum, L. _Red, Swamp, Soft, White maple_ 140-142
       saccharinum, L. _Silver, Soft, White, River maple_ 142-144
       saccharinum, Wang. _Rocky Sugar, Hard maple, Sugar tree_ 144-146
       saccharinum, var. nigrum, T. and G. _Black maple_ 146, 147
       Saccharum, Marsh. _Rock, Sugar, Hard maple, Sugar tree_ 144-146
       Saccharum, Marsh., var. barbatum, Trelease 172
       Saccharum, Marsh., var. nigrum, Britton. _Black maple_ 146, 147, 172
       spicatum, Lam. _Mountain maple_ 148, 149
    Negundo aceroides, Moench. _Box elder, Ash-leaved maple_ 151-153
            Negundo, Karst, _Box elder, Ash-leaved maple_ 151-153

  Ailanthus family. (=Simarubaceæ=) 133

  Ailanthus, Tree of Heaven, Chinese sumac (Ailanthus glanulosus,
              Desf.) 133

  Alder, European. (Alnus glutinosa, Medic.) 70

  Alnus glutinosa, Medic, _European alder_ 70
  Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic. _Shadbush, June-berry_, 116, 117
  American elm (Ulmus Americana, L.) 95-97
           holly. (Hex opaca, Alt.) 138-146

  =Anacardiaceæ.=  (Sumac family) 134-137
    Rhus copallina.      _Dwarf sumac_, 137
         glabra.         _Smooth sumac_, 137
         hirta, Sudw.    _Staghorn sumac_, 134, 135
         toxicodendron.  _Poison ivy_, 137
         typhina, L.     _Staghorn sumac_, 134, 135
         venenata, DC.   _Dogwood, Poison sumac. Poison elder_, 136, 137
         vernix, L. _Dogwood, Poison sumac. Poison elder_, 136, 137

  Apple family. (=Pomaceæ=) 112-121
    Apple tree. (Pyrus malus, L.) 1
  =Aquifoliaceæ.= (Holly family) 138-140
    Ilex opaca, Ait. _American holly_ 138, 140

  Ash, Black, Swamp, Basket, Hoop, Brown ash. (Fraxinus nigra,
         Marsh.) 167-168
       European mountain ash. (Pyrus aucuparia) 113, 115
       Green ash.  (Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata,
                     Sarg.) 166, 172
       Mountain ash. (Pyrus Americana, DC.) 112, 113
       Mountain ash. (Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht.) 113-115
       Red, Brown, River ash. (Fraxinus pubescens. Lam.) 164,165
       White ash.  (Fraxinus Americana, L.) 162-164

  Ash-leaved maple. (Acer negundo, L.) 151-153

  Aspen, Large-toothed. (Populusgrandidentata, Michx.) 31, 32
                        (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) 29, 30


  B

  Balm of Gilead. (Populus balsamifera, L.) 36, 37
                  (Populus candicans, Alt.). 37-39, 171

  Balsam.         (Abies balsamea, Mill.) 20-22
                  (Populus balsamifera, L.) 36, 37

  Basket ash.    (Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.) 167, 168

  Basswood.      (Tilia Americana, L.) 153-155

  Bear oak.     (Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.) 93, 94

  Beech family. (=Fagaceæ=) 70-94

  Beech      (Fagus ferruginea, Alt.) 70-72
      Blue beech, Water beech. (Carpinus Caroliniana. Walt.) 59, 60

  Betula lenta, L.    _Black, Cherry, Sweet birch_  61, 62
         lutea, Michx. L.   _Yellow, Gray birch_  63, 64
         nigra, L.   _Red, River birch_ 55,66
         papyrifera. Marsh.   _White, Canoe. Paper birch,_ 68-70
  Betula papyrifera, var. minor, Tuckerman. _Dwarf birch_ 68
    populifolia, Marsh. _Gray, Poplar, Oldfield, Poverty, Small
      white birch_ 66-68

  =Betulaceæ.= (Birch family) 57-70
    Alnus glutinosa, Medic.  _European alder_ 70
    Betula lenta, L.    _Black, Cherry, Sweet birch_ 61, 62
      lutea, Michx. f.   _Yellow, Gray birch_  63, 64
      nigra, L.       _Red, River birch_ 65, 66
      papyrifera, Marsh.  _White, Canoe, Paper birch_ 68-70
      var. minor, Tuckerman.  _Dwarf birch_ 68
      populifolia, Marsh. _Gray, Poplar, Oldfield, Poverty, Small
        white birch_ 66-68
    Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt. _Hornbeam, Blue beech, Ironwood,
      Water beech_ 59, 60
    Ostrya Virginica, Willd. _Hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood_ 57, 58

  Birch family. (=Betulaceæ=)  57-70

  Birch. Black, Cherry, Sweet birch. (Betula lenta, L.) 61, 62
    Canoe, White, Paper birch. (Betula papyrifera, Marsh.) 68-70
    Red, River birch    (Betula nigra, L.) 65, 66
    White, Gray, Oldfield, Poplar, Poverty, Small white birch
       (Betula populifolia, Marsh.)  66-68
    Yellow, Gray birch. (Betula lutea, Michx. f.) 63, 64

  Bird cherry     (Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.) 124, 125

  Bitternut    (Carya amara, Nutt.) 55-57

  Black ash    (Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.) 167, 168
    birch   (Betula lenta, L.) 61, 62
    cherry  (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) 127, 128
    maple (Acer Saccharum, Marsh., _var_. nigrum, Britton) 146, 147, 172
    oak    (Quercus velutina, Lam.) 89-91
    spruce    (Picea nigra, Link) 12-14
    walnut   (Juglans nigra, L.) 48, 49
    willow   (Salix nigra, Marsh.) 42, 43

  Blue beech   (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) 59, 60

  Box elder     (Acer negundo, L.) 151-153
    white oak  (Quercus stellata, Wang.) 77, 78

  Boxwood     (Cornus florida, L.) 156, 157

  Braintree, Mass. Fine specimen of _Ilex opaca_ on farm of
    Col. Minot Thayer 139

  Brittle willow    (Salix fragilis, L.) 43-45

  Brown ash   (Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.) 167, 168
      (Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.) 164, 165

  Bur oak     (Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.) 79, 80

  Butternut    (Juglans cinerea, L.) 46, 47

  Buttonball     (Platanus occidentalis, L.) 110, 111

  Buttonwood     (Platanus occidentalis, L.) 110, 111


  C

  Canada plum  (Primus nigra. Ait.), 122, 123

  Canoe birch  (Betula papyrifera, Marsh.), 68-70

  =Caprifoliaceæ.=  (Honeysuckle family) 168, 169

    Viburnum Lentas L. _Sheep berry sweet viburnum. Nanny plum_ 168, 169

  Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt. _Hornbeam. Blue beech. Ironwood.
    Water beech_ 59,60

  Carya alba, Nutt. _Shagbark, Shellbark hickory, Walnut_ 49-51
    amara, Nutt.     _Bitter nut. Swamp hickory_ 55-57
    porcina, Nutt.   _Pignut. White hickory_ 53-55
    tomentosa, Nutt. _Mockernut. White-heart hickory. Walnut_ 51-53

  Castanea dentata. Borkh. _Chestnut_ 72-74
    sativa, _var._ Americana, Watson & Coulter.  _Chestnut_ 72-74
    vesca, _var._ Americana, Michx. _Chestnut_ 72-74

  Cat spruce.   (Picea alba, Link) 16-18

  Cedar, Arbor vitæ. White cedar. (Thuja occidentals, L.) 23,24
    Red cedar. Savin. (Juniperus Virginiana. L.) 26-28
    White cedar. (Chamæcyparis sphæroidea, Spach) 25,26

  Celtis occidentalis. L. _Hackberry, Nettle tree, Hoop ash,
    Sugar berry_ 100-102

  Chamæcyparis sphæroidea. Spach.  White cedar 25,26

  Cherry.      (Primus Avium, L.) 128
    Chokecherry.   (Prunus Virginiana, L.) 125,126
    Rum, Black cherry. (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) 127,128
    Wild red, Pin, Pigeon, Bird cherry Prunus Pennsylvania, L. f. 124,125

  Cherry birch.   (Betula lenta, L.) 61,62

  Chestnut. (Castanea sativa, _var_. Americana, Watson & Coulter) 72-74

  Chestnut oak.    (Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.) 84,85
      (Quercus prinus, L.) 82-84

  Chinese sumac.     (Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.) 133

  Chokecherry.    (Prunus Virginiana, L.) 125,126

  Clammy locust.      (Robinia viscosa, Vent.) 132

  Cockspur thorn   (Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.) 117, 118, 171

  Conifer family, (=Pinoideæ=) 1-28

  Cork elm.      (Ulmus racemosa, Thomas) 99,100

  =Cornaceæ.= (Dogwood family)     150-160
    Cornus alternifolia, L, f. _Dogwood, Green osier_ 157, 158
      florida, L  _Flowering dogwood, Boxwood_ 156, 157
    Nyssa sylvatica. Marsh. _Tupelo, Sour gum, Pepperidge_ 159, 160

  Cottonwood   (Populus deltoides, Marsh.) 34, 35
    (Populus heterophylla. L.) 33, 34

  Crack willow. (Salix fragilis, L.) 43-45

  Cratægus Arnoldiana, Sarg. _Thorn_ 121
    coccinea, L. _Thorn_ 118, 119
    coccinea, _var._ mollis, T. & G.  _Thorn_, 120, 121
    Crus-Galli, L. _Cockspur thorn_ 117, 118, 171
    mollis, Scheele _Thorn_ 120, 121
    punctata, Jacq. _Cockspur thorn_ 118
    submollis, Sarg. _Thorn_ 121
    subvillosa, Schr. _Thorn_ 120, 121

  =Cupressaceæ.= (Pinoideæ) 23-28
    Cupressus 25, 26
    Juniperus 26-28
    Thuja 23, 24

  Cupressus thyoides, L. _White cedar_ 25, 26


  D

  Diospyros Virginiana, L.  _Persimmon_ 160-162

  Dogwood family. (=Cornaceæ=) 156-160

  Dogwood (Rhus vernix, L.) 136, 137
    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida, L.) 156, 157
    Green osier (Cornus alternifolia, L. f.) 157, 158

  Double spruce (Picea nigra, Link) 12-14

  =Drupaceæ.= (Plum family) 122-128
    Prunus Americana, Marsh. _Wild plum_ 123, 124, 171
      Americana, _var._ nigra, Waugh. _Wild, Red, Horse,
        Canada plum_ 122, 123
      Avium, L. _Mazard cherry_ 128
      nigra, Ait. _Wild, Red, Horse, Canada plum_ 122, 123, 171
      Pennsylvanica, L. f. _Wild red, Pin, Pigeon, Bird cherry_ 124, 125
      serotina, Ehrh. _Rum, Black cherry_ 127, 128
      Virginiana, L.  _Chokecherry_ 125, 126

  Dwarf birch. (Betula papyrifera, _var._ minor, Tuckerman) 68
    black spruce. (Picea nigra, var. semiprostrata) 12
    sumac. (Rhus copallina) 137


  E

  =Ebenaceæ.= (Ebony family) 160-162
    Diospyros Virginiana, L.  Persimmon 160-162

  Ebony family. (=Ebenaceæ=) 160-162

  Elder, Poison elder. (Rhus vernix, L.) 136, 137

  Elm family. (=Ulmaceæ=) 95-102

  Elm, American elm (Ulmus Americana, L.) 95-97
    Cork, Rock elm (Ulmus racemosa. Thomas) 99, 100
    Slippery, Red elm  (Ulmus fulva, Michx.) 97, 98

  European alder (Alnus glutinosa. Medic.) 70
    mountain ash  (Pyrus aucuparia) 113-115


  F

  =Fagaceæ.=  (Beech family) 70-94

  Castanea dentata, Borkh. _Chestnut_ 72-74
    sativa, _var._ Americana, Watson & Coulter _Chestnut_ 72-74
    vesca, _var._ Americana, Michx. _Chestnut_ 72-74

  Fagus Americana, Sweet _Beech_ 70-72
    atropunicea, Sudw. _Beech_ 70-72
    ferruginea, Ait.  _Beech_ 70-72

  Quercus acuminata, Sarg. _Chestnut oak_ 84, 85
    alba, L. _White oak_ 75-77
    bicolor, Willd. _Swamp white oak_ 80-82
    coccinea, Wang. _Scarlet oak_ 88, 89
    coccinea, _var._ tinctoria, Gray. _Black, Yellow oak_ 89-91
    ilicifolia, Wang. _Scrub, Bear oak_ 93, 94
    macrocarpa, Michx.   _Bur, Over-cup, Mossy-cup oak_ 79, 80
    minor, Sarg.   _Post, Box white oak_ 77-78
    Muhlenbergii, Engelm. _Chestnut oak_ 84, 85
    nana, Sarg.    _Scrub oak, Bear oak_ 93, 94
    obtusiloba, Michx.   _Post, Box white oak_ 77, 78
    palustris, Du Roi   _Pin, Swamp, Water oak_ 91-93
    platanoides, Sudw.  _Swamp white oak_ 80-82
    prinoides, Willd. _Scrub white oak. Scrub chestnut oak_ 85
    prinus, L.   _Chestnut, Rock chestnut oak_ 82-84
    pumila, Sudw.  _Scrub, Bear oak_ 93, 94
    rubra, L. _Red oak_ 86, 87
    stellata, Wang. _Post, Box white oak_ 77, 78
    tinctoria, Bartram  _Black, Yellow oak_ 89-91
    velutina, Lam.   _Black, Yellow oak_ 89-91

  Fir (Abies balsamea, Mill.) 20-22

  Fir balsam (Abies balsamea, Mill.) 20-22

  Fraxinus Americana, L. _White ash_ 162-164
    lanceolata. Borkh.  _Green ash_ 166, 172
    nigra. Marsh. _Black, Swamp, Basket, Hoop, Brown ash_ 167, 168
    Pennsylvanica, Marsh. _Red, Brown, River ash_ 164, 165

  Fraxinus Pennsylvania, _var._ lanceolata, Sarg. _Green ash_ 166, 172
    pubescens, Lam. _Red, Brown, River ash_ 164,165
    sambucifolia, Lam. _Black, Swamp, Basket, Hoop, Brown ash_ 167, 168
    viridis, Michx. f. _Green ash_ 166, 172


  G

  Glaucous willow. (Salix discolor, Muhl.) 40, 41

  Gleditsia triacanthos, L. _Honey locust_ 129, 130

  Gray birch. (Betula lutea, Michx. f.) 63,64
      (Betula populifolia, Marsh.) 66-68
    pine. (Pinus Banksiana, Lam.) 8, 9

  Green ash. (Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, _var._ lanceolata, Sarg.) 166, 172
    osier. (Cornus alternifolia, L. f.) 157, 158

  Groome estate, Dorchester, Mass., Willow. (_Salix fragilis_, 1890) 44

  Gum, (Liquidambar Styraciflua, L.) 108, 109
    Sour gum. (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) 159, 160


  H

  Hackberry. (Celtis occidentalis, L.) 100-102

  Hacmatack. (Larix Americana, Michx.) 2-4

  =Hamamelidaceæ.= (Witch Hazel family) 108, 109
    Liquidambar styraciflua, L. _Sweet gum_ 108, 109

  Hard maple. (Acer Saccharum, Marsh.) 144-146
    pine. (Pinus rigida, Mill.) 6, 7

  Hemlock. (Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.) 19, 20

  Hickory. Bitternut, Swamp hickory. (Carya amara, Nutt.) 55-57
    Mockernut, White-heart hickory.  (Carya tomentosa, Nutt.) 51-53
    Pignut, White hickory. (Carya porcina, Nutt.) 53-55
    Shagbark, Shellbark hickory. (Carya alba, Nutt.) 49-51

  Hicoria alba, Britton. _Mockernut, White-heart hickory, Walnut_ 51-53
    glabra, Britton.  _Pignut, White hickory_ 53-55
    minima, Britton. _Butternut, Swamp hickory_ 55-57
    ovata, Britton. _Shagbark, Shellbark hickory, Walnut_ 49-51

  Holly family. (=Aquifoliaceæ=) 138-140

  Holly, American holly. (Ilex opaca, Ait.) 138-140

  Honey locust. (Gleditsia triacanthos, L.) 129,130

  Honeysuckle family. (=Caprifoliaceæ=) 168,169

  Hoop ash. (Celtis occidentals, L.) 100-102
    (Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.) 167, 168

  Hop hornbeam. (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) 57,58

  Hornbeam. (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) 59, 60

  Horse plum. (Prunus nigra, Ait.) 122,123


  I

  Ilex opaca, Ait. _American holly_ 138-140

  Ironwood.    (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) 59, 60
    (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) 57, 58

  Ivy, Poison ivy. (Rhus toxicodendron) 137


  J

  Jack pine. (Pinus Banksiana, Lamb) 8, 9

  =Juglandaceæ.= (Walnut family) 47-57
    Carya alba, Nutt.  _Shagbark, Shellbark hickory, Walnut_ 49-51
      amara, Nutt.  _Bitternut, Swamp hickory_ 55-57
      porcina, Nutt. _Pignut, White hickory_ 53-55
      tomentosa, Nutt. _Mockernut, White-heart hickory. Walnut_ 51-53

    Hicoria alba, Britton   _Mockernut, White-heart hickory. Walnut_ 51-53
      glabra, Britton.  _Pignut, White hickory_ 53-55
      minima, Britton.   _Bitternut, Swamp hickory_ 55-57
      ovata, Britton.     _Shagbark, Shellbark hickory, Walnut_,  49-51

    Juglans cinerea, L.    _Butternut, Oilnut, Lemon walnut_, 46, 47
      nigra, L.       _Black walnut_ 48, 49

  June-berry. (Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic.) 116, 117

  Juniper.  (Larix Americana, Michx.) 2-4

  Juniperus Virginiana, L. _Red cedar, Savin_ 26-28


  L

  Labrador spruce.    (Picea alba, Link) 16-18

  Laconia, N.H., Pussy willow, 35 ft. high. (Salix discolor, Muhl.) 41

  Larch.        (Larix Americana, Michx.) 2-4

  Large-toothed aspen . . (Populus grandidenta, Michx.) 31,32

  Larix Americana, Michx. _Tamarack, Hacmatack, Larch, Juniper_ 2-4
    laricina, Koch.      _Tamarack, Hacmatack, Larch, Juniper_ 2-4

  =Lauraceæ.= (Laurel family) 106-108
    Sassafras officinale. Nees.  _Sassafras_ 106-108
      Sassafras, Karst. _Sassafras_ 106-108

  Laurel family. (=Lauraceæ=) 106-108

  =Leguminosæ.=  (Pulse family) 129-132
    Gleditsia triacanthos, L. _Honey locust, Three-thorned acacia_ 129, 130
    Robinia pseudacacia. L. _Locust_ 131, 132
      viscosa, Vent.  _Clammy locust_ 132

  Lemon walnut (Juglans cinerea, L.) 46, 47

  Leverwood      (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) 57, 58

  Lime.        (Tilia Americana, L.) 153-155

  Linden family. (=Tiliaceæ=) 153-155

  Linden.      (Tilia Americana, L.) 153-155

  Liquidambar Styraciflua, L. _Sweet gum_ 108, 109

  Liriodendron Tulipifera, L. _Tulip tree, Whitewood, Poplar_ 104-106

  Locust.  (Robinia pseudacacia, L.) 131, 132
    Clammy locust  (Robinia viscosa, Vent.) 132
    Honey locust  (Gleditsia triacanthos, L.) 129,130


  M

  Magnolia family. (=Magnoliaceæ=) 104-106

  =Magnoliaceæ.=  (Magnolia family) 104-106
    Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.  _Tulip tree, Whitewood, Poplar_ 104-106

  Malus Malus, Britton.   Apple tree 115

  Maple family. (=Aceraceæ=) 140-153

  Maple, Black maple  (Acer Saccharum, Marsh., _var._ nigrum,
      Britton) 127, 146, 172
    Box elder, Ash-leaved maple. (Acer negundo, L.) 151-153
    Mountain maple      (Acer spicatum, Lam.) 148, 149
    Norway maple (_cultivated_)    (Acer platanoides) 146
    Red, Swamp, Soft, White maple. (Acer rubrum, L.) 140-142
    Rock, Sugar, Hard maple, Sugar tree. (Acer Saccharum,
      Marsh.) 144-146, 172
    Silver, Soft, White maple, River     (Acer saccharinum, L.) 142-144
    Striped maple, Moosewood, Whistlewood. (Acer Pennsylvanicum,
      L.) 149-151

  Mazard cherry.    (Prunus Avium, L.) 128

  Mockernut.  (Carya tomentosa, Nutt.) 51-53

  Moosewood.       (Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.) 149-151

  =Moraceæ.=  (Mulberry family) 102-104

    Morus alba, L.  _White mulberry_ 104
      rubra, L.   _Red mulberry_ 102, 103

  Mossy-cup oak   (Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.) 79, 80

  Mountain ash  (Pyrus Americana, DC.) 112, 113
      (Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht.) 113-115

  Mountain ash, European. (Pyrus aucuparia) 113, 115
    maple  (Acer spicatum, Lam.) 148, 149

  Mulberry family. (=Moraceæ=) 102-104

  Mulberry, Red mulberry. (Morus rubra. L.) 102, 103
    White mulberry. (Morus alba, L.) 104


  N

  Nanny plum (Viburnum Lentago, L.) 168, 169

  Negundo aceroides, Moench. _Box elder, Ash-leaved maple_ 151-153
    Negundo, Karst. 151-153

  Nettle tree (Celtis occidentalis, L.) 100-102

  Norway maple. (Acer platanoides) 146
    pine (Pinus resinosa, Ait.) 10, 11

  Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.  _Tupelo, Sour gum, Pepperidge_ 159, 160


  O

  Oak, Black, Yellow oak  (Quercus velutina, Lam.) 89-91
    Bur, Over-cup, Mossy-cup oak (Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.) 79, 80
    Chestnut oak (Quercus Muhlenbergii) 84, 85
    Chestnut, Rock chestnut oak (Quercus prinus, L.) 82-84
    Pin, Swamp, Water oak (Quercus palustris, Du Roi) 91-08
    Post, Box white oak (Quercus stellata, Wang.) 77, 78
    Red oak (Quercus rubra, L.) 86, 87
    Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea, Wang.) 88, 89
    Scrub, Bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.) 93, 94
    Scrub chestnut, Scrub white oak (Quercus prinoides. Willd.) 85
    Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor, Willd.), 80-82
    White oak (Quercus alba, L.) 75-77

  Oilnut (Juglans cinerea, L.) 46, 47

  Oldfield birch (Betula populifolia, Marsh.) 66-68

  =Oleaceæ.= (Olive family) 162-168
    Fraxinus Americana, L.  _White ash_ 162-164
      lanceolata, Borkh.  _Green ash_ 166, 172
      nigra, Marsh.  _Black, Swamp, Basket, Hoop, Brown ash_ 167, 168
      Pennsylvania, Marsh. _Red, Brown, River ash_ 164, 165
      Pennsylvania, _var._ lanceolata, Sarg. _Green ash_ 166, 172
      pubescens, Lam.  _Red, Brown, River ash_ 164, 165
      sambucifolia, Lam.  _Black, Swamp, Basket, Hoop, Brown ash_ 167, 168
      viridis, Michx. f.  _Green ash_ 166

  Olive family. (=Oleaceæ=) 162-168

  Osier (Cornus alternifolia, L. f.) 157, 158

  Ostrya Virginica, Willd.  _Hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood_ 57, 58

  Over-cup oak. (Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.) 79, 80


  P

  Paper birch (Betula papyrifera, Marsh.) 68-70

  Pear tree (Pyrus communis, L.) 115

  Pepperidge (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) 159, 160

  Persimmon (Diospyros Virginiana, L.) 160-162

  Picea alba, Link _White spruce_ 16-18
    Canadensis, B. S. P. _White spruce_ 16-18
    nigra, Link. _Black spruce_ 12-14
    nigra, _var._ semiprostrata _Dwarf black spruce_ 12
    rubra, Link  _Red spruce_ 15, 16

  Pigeon cherry (Primus Pennsylvanica, L. f.) 124, 125

  Pignut (Carya porcina, Nutt.) 53-55

  Pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.) 124, 125
    oak (Quercus palustris, Du Roi)  91-93

  Pine family: Conifers.  (=Pinoideæ=) 1-28

  Pine. Jack, Gray, Scrub, Spruce pine  (Pinus Banksiana, Lamb) 8, 9
    Pitch, Hard pine (Pinus rigida, Mill.) 6, 7
    Red, Norway pine (Pinus resinosa, Ait.) 10, 11
    Scotch pine (_dit_ incorrectly Scotch fir) (Pinus sylvestris,
      L.) 11, 12
    White pine (Pinus Strobus, L.) 4-6

  =Pinoideæ.=  (Pine family: Conifers) 1-28
    =Abietaceæ.= 1-22
      Abies balsamea, Mill. _Fir balsam, Balsam, Fir_ 20-22
      Larix Americana, Michx. _Tamarack, Hacmatack, Larch, Juniper_  2-4
        laricina, Koch. _Tamarack, Hacmatack, Larch,  Juniper_ 2-4
      Picea alba, Link  _White, Cat, Skunk, Labrador spruce_ 16-18
        Canadensis, B.S.P. _White, Cat, Skunk, Labrador spruce_ 16-18
        nigra, Link.   _Black, Double, Swamp, Water spruce_ 12-14
        rubra, Link.   _Red spruce_ 15, 16
        semiprostrata  _Dwarf black spruce_ 12
      Pinus Banksiana, Lamb. _Jack, Gray, Scrub, Spruce pine_ 8, 9
        resinosa, Ait. _Red, Norway pine_ 10, 11
        rigida, Mill. _Pitch, Hard pine_ 6, 7
        Strobus, L. _White pine_ 4-6
        sylvestris, L. _Scotch pine_ 11, 12
      Tsuga Canadensis, Carr. _Hemlock_ 19, 20

  =Cupressaceæ.= 2, 23-28
    Chamæcyparis sphæroidea, Spach. _White cedar, Cedar_ 25, 26
      thyoides, L. _White cedar, Cedar_ 25, 26
    Juniperus Virginiana, L. _Red cedar, Savin_ 26-28
    Thuja occidentalis, L. _Arbor-vitæ, White cedar_ 23, 24

  Pitch pine. (Pinus rigida. Mill.) 6, 7

  Plane tree family. (=Platanaceæ=) 110, 111
  =Platanaceæ.=  (Plane tree family) 110, 111

    Platanus occidentalis, L. _Buttonwood, Sycamore. Buttonball,
      Plane tree_ 110, 111

  Plum family.  (=Drupaceæ=) 122-128

  Plum, Wild plum. (Prunus Americana, Marsh.) 123, 124, 171
    Wild, Red, Horse, Canada plum. (Prunus nigra, Ait.) 122, 123, 171

  Poison elder  (Rhus vernix. L.) 136, 137
    ivy  (Rhus toxicodendron) 137
    sumac  (Rhus vernix, L.) 136, 137

  =Pomaceæ.=  (Apple family) 112-121
    Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic. _Shadbush, June-berry_ 116, 117
    Cratægus Arnoldiana, Sarg., _Thorn_ 121
      coccinea, L,. _Thorn_ 118, 119
      coccinea, _var._ mollis, T. & G. 120, 121
      Crus-Galli, L. _Cockspur thorn_ 117, 118, 171
      mollis, Scheele _Thorn_ 120, 121
      punctata, Jacq....._Cockspur thorn_ 118
      submollis, Sarg. _Thorn_ 121
      subvillosa, Schr. _Thorn_ 120, 121

    Malus malus, Britton  _Apple tree_ 115

    Pyrus Americana, DC. _Mountain ash_ 112, 113
      aucuparia _European mountain ash_ 113, 115
      communis, L. _Pear tree_ 115
      malus, L. _Apple tree_ 115
      sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht. _Mountain ash_ 113-115

    Sorbus Americana, Marsh. _Mountain ash_ 112, 113
      sambucifolia, R[oe]m.  _Mountain ash_ 113, 115

  Poplar, Tulip tree, White wood. (Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.) 104-106
    Aspen. (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) 29, 30
    Balsam, Balm of Gilead.  (Populus balsamifera. L.) 36, 37
    Cottonwood. (Populus deltoides, Marsh.) 34, 35
    Poplar, Large-toothed aspen. (Populus grandidentata, Michx.) 31, 32
    Swamp poplar, Cottonwood, Poplar. (Populus heterophylla, L.) 33, 34
    White, Silver-leaved poplar. (Populus alba, L.) 39, 40

  Poplar birch. (Betula populifolia, Marsh.)  66-68

  Populus alba, L. _Abele, White, Silver-leaved poplar_ 39, 40
    balsamifera, L. _Balsam_ 3, 36, 37
    balsamifera, _var._ candicans, Gray. _Balm of Gilead_ 37-39, 171
    balsamifera, _var._ intermedia  _Balsam, Poplar, Balm of Gilead_ 36

  Populus balsamifera, _var._ latifolia  _Balsam, Poplar,
      Balm of Gilead_ 36
    candicans, Ait., _Balm of Gilead_ 37-39, 171
    deltoides, Marsh.  _Cottonwood, Poplar_ 34, 35
    grandidentata, Michx.  _Poplar, Large-toothed aspen_ 31, 32
    heterophylla, L. _Swamp poplar, Poplar, Cottonwood_ 33, 34
    monilifera, Ait.  _Cottonwood_  34, 35
    tremuloides, Michx.  _Aspen, Poplar_  29, 30

  Post oak (Quercus stellata, Wang.) 77, 78

  Poverty birch (Betula populifolia, Marsh.) 66-68

  Prunus Americana, Marsh. _Wild plum_ 123, 124, 171
      _var_. nigra, Waugh _Wild, Red, Horse, Canada plum_ 122, 123, 171
    Avium, L. _Mazard cherry_ 128
    nigra, Ait.  _Wild plum_ 122, 123, 171
    Pennsylvanica, L. f. _Wild red, Pin, Pigeon, Bird cherry_ 124, 125
    serotina, Ehrh. _Rum, Black cherry_ 127, 128
    Virginiana, L. _Chokecherry_ 125, 126

  Pulse family. (=Leguminosæ=) 129-132

  Pussy willow (Salix discolor, Muhl.) 40, 41, 171

  Pyrus Americana, DC. _Mountain ash_ 112, 113
    aucuparia  _European mountain ash_ 113, 115
    communis, L. _Pear tree_ 115
    malus, L. _Apple tree_ 115
    sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht. _Mountain ash_ 113-115


  Q

  Quercus acuminata, Sarg. _Chestnut oak_ 84, 85
    alba, L. _White oak_ 75-77
    bicolor, Willd. _Swamp white oak_ 80-82
    coccinea, Wang. _Scarlet oak_ 88, 89
    coccinea, _var._ tinctoria, Gray.  _Black oak_ 89-91
    ilicifolia, Wang. _Scrub, Bear oak_ 93, 94
    macrocarpa, Michx. _Bur, Over-cup, Mossy-cup oak_ 79, 80
    minor, Sarg. _Post, Box white oak_ 77, 78
    Muhlenbergii, Engelm. _Chestnut oak_ 84, 85
    nana, Sarg. ...._Scrub, Bear oak_ 93, 94
    obtusiloba, Michx. _Post, Box white oak_ 77, 78
    palustris, Du Roi. _Pin, Swamp, Water oak_ 91-93
    platanoides, Sudw. _Swamp white oak_ 80-82
    prinoides, Willd. _Scrub white, Scrub chestnut oak_ 85
    prinus, L. _Chestnut, Rock chestnut oak_ 82-84
    pumila, Sudw. _Scrub, Bear oak_ 93, 94

  Quercus rubra, L. _Red oak_ 86, 87
    stellata, Wang.  _Post, Box white oak_ 77, 78
    tinctoria, Bartram.  _Black, Yellow oak_ 89-91
    velutina, Lam. _Black, Yellow oak_ 89-91


  R

  Red ash (Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.) 164, 165
    birch (Betula nigra, L.) 65, 66
    cedar (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) 26-28
    elm  (Ulmus fulva, Michx.) 97, 98
    maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 140-142
    mulberry (Morus rubra, L.) 102, 103
    oak  (Quercus rubra, L.)  86, 87
    pine (Pinus resinosa, Ait.) 10, 11
    plum (Prunus nigra, Ait.) 22, 123
    spruce  (Picea rubra, Link) 15, 16

  Rhus copallina _Dwarf sumac_ 137
    glabra _Smooth sumac_ 137
    hirta, Sudw. _Staghorn sumac_ 134, 135
    toxicodendron _Poison ivy_ 137
    typhina, L.  _Staghorn sumac_ 134, 135
    venenata, DC.  _Dogwood, Poison sumac_ 136, 137
    vernix, L.   _Dogwood, Poison sumac_ 136, 137

  River ash  (Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.) 164, 165
    birch  (Betula nigra, L.) 65, 66
    maple  (Acer saccharinum, L.) 142-144

  Robinia pseudacacia, L.  _Locust_ 131, 132
    viscosa, Vent.  _Clammy locust_ 132

  Rock chestnut oak (Quercus prinus, L.) 82-84
    elm  (Ulmus racemosa, Thomas) 99, 100
    maple  (Acer Saccharum, Marsh.) 144-146, 172

  Rum cherry (Primus serotina, Ehrh.) 127, 128


  S

  =Salicaceæ.= (Willow family) 28-46
    Populus alba, L. _Abele, White, Silver-leaf poplar_ 39, 40
      balsamifera, L.  _Poplar, Balsam. Balm of Gilead_ 36, 37
      balsamifera, _var._ candicans, Gray. _Balm of Gilead_ 37-39, 171
      balsamifera, _var._ intermedia _Poplar, Balsam_ 36
      balsamifera, _var._ latifolia _Poplar, Balsam_ 36
      candicans, Ait. _Balm of Gilead_ 37-39, 171
      deltoides, Marsh. _Cottonwood, Poplar_ 34, 35

  Populus grandidentata, Michx.  _Poplar, Large-toothed aspen_ 31, 32
      heterophylla, L.  _Poplar, Swamp poplar, Cottonwood_ 33, 34
      monilifera, Ait. _Cottonwood poplar_ 34, 35
      tremuloides, Michx. _Poplar, Aspen_ 29, 30

    Salix alba, L. _White willow_ 43, 45, 46
        _var._ cærulea, Koch _White willow_ 45
        _var._ vitellina, Koch _White willow_ 4
      balsamifera, Barrett 171
      discolor, Muhl. _Pussy willow, Glaucous willow_ 40, 41, 171
      falcata, Pursh _Black willow_ 42
      fragilis, L. _Crack willow, Brittle willow_ 43-45
      nigra, Marsh. _Black willow_ 42, 43

  Sassafras officinale, Nees _Sassafras_ 106-108
    Sassafras, Karst. _Sassafras_ 106-108

  Savin  (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) 26-28

  Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea, Wang.) 88, 89

  Scotch pine  (Pinus sylvestris, L.) 11, 12

  Scrub chestnut oak  (Quercus prinoides, Willd.) 85
    oak  (Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.) 93, 94
    pine (Pinus Banksiana, Lamb) 8,9
    white oak  (Quercus prinoides, Willd.) 85

  Shadbush (Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic.) 116, 117

  Shagbark (Carya alba, Nutt.) 49-51

  Sheep berry  (Viburnum Lentago, L.) 168, 169

  Silver-leaf poplar   (Populus alba, L.) 39, 40
    maple  (Acer saccharinum, L.) 142-144

  =Simarubaceæ.= (Ailanthus family) 133
    Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf. _Tree of Heaven, Chinese sumac_ 133

  Skunk spruce (Picea alba, Link) 16-18

  Slippery elm  (Ulmus fulva, Michx.) 97, 98

  Small white birch  (Betula populifolia, Marsh.)  66-68

  Smooth sumac  (Rhus glabra) 137

  Soft maple  (Acer rubrum, L.) 140-142
      (Acer saccharinum, L.), 142-144

  Sorbus Americana, Marsh. _Mountain ash_ 112, 113
    sambucifolia, R[oe]m.  _Mountain ash_ 113, 115

  Sour gum (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) 159, 160

  Spruce, Black, Swamp, Double, Water. (Picea nigra, Link) 12-14
    Red spruce  (Picea rubra, Link) 15, 16
    White, Cat, Skunk, Labrador.  (Picea alba, Link) 16-18

  Spruce pine (Pinus Banksiana, Lamb) 8, 9

  Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina, L.) 134, 135

  Striped maple (Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.) 149-151

  Sugar berry (Celtis occidentalis, L.) 100-102

  Sugar maple (Acer Saccharum, Marsh.) 144-146
    tree (Acer Saccharum, Marsh.) 144-146

  Sumac family. (=Anacardiaceæ=) 134-137

  Sumac, Ailanthus, Tree of Heaven, Chinese sumac
      (Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.) 133
    Dogwood, poison sumac. (Rhus vernix, L.) 136, 137
    Dwarf sumac (Rhus copallina) 137
    Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) 137
    Staghorn sumac (Rhus tyhina, L.) 134, 135

  Swamp ash (Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.) 167, 168
    hickory (Carya amara, Nutt.) 55-57
    maple (Acer rubrum, L.), 140-142
    oak (Quercus palustris, Du Roi) 91-93
    poplar (Populus heterophylla, L.) 33, 34
    spruce (Picea nigra, Link) 12-14
    white oak (Quercus bicolor, Willd.) 80-82

  Sweet birch (Betula lenta, L.) 61, 62
    gum (Liquidambar Styraciflua, L.) 108, 109
    viburnum (Viburnum Lentago, L.) 168, 169

  Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis, L.) 110, 111


  T

  Tamarack. (Larix Americana, Michx.) 2-4

  Thayer, Col. Minot estate, Braintree, Mass.,
     _Ilex opaca_, fine specimen 139

  Thorn. Cockspur (Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.) 117, 118, 171
      (Cratægus coccinea, L.) 118, 119
      (Cratægus mollis, Scheele) 120, 121

  Three-thorned acacia (Gleditsia tricanthus, L.) 129, 130

  Thuja occidentalis, L. _Arbor-vitæ, White cedar, Cedar_ 23, 24

  =Tiliaceæ.= (Linden family) 153-155
    Tilia Americana, L.  _Basswood, Linden, Lime, Whitewood_ 153-155
    Europæa _Basswood, Linden, Lime, Whitewood_ 155
    heterophylla, Vent. _Basswood, Linden, Lime, Whitewood_ 155
    puebescens, Ait. _Basswood, Linden, Lime, Whitewood_ 155

  Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.) 183

  Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.  _Hemlock_ 19, 20

  Tulip tree (Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.) 104-106

  Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.) 159, 160


  U

  =Ulmaceæ.=  (Elm family) 95-102
    Celtis occidentalis, L.  _Hackberry_, _Nettle tree_, _Hoop ash_,
      _Sugar berry_ 100-102
    Ulmus Americana, L.  _American_, _White elm_ 95-97
      fulva, Michx.  _Slippery_, _Red elm_ 97, 98
      puebescens, Walt. _Slippery_, _Red elm_ 97, 98
      racemosa, Thomas.  _Cork_, _Rock elm_ 99, 100


  V

  Viburnum Lentago, L.  _Sheep berry_ 168, 169


  W

  Walnut family.  (=Juglandaceæ=) 47-57

  Walnut, Black walnut   (Juglans nigra, L.) 48, 49
    Butternut, Oilnut, Lemon walnut. (Juglans cinerea, L.) 46, 47
    Mockernut, White-heart hickory. (Carya tomentosa, Nutt.) 51-53
    Walnut, Shagbark, Shellbark hickory. (Carya alba, Nutt.) 49-51

  Water beech  (Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.) 59, 60
    oak  (Quercus palustris, Du Roi) 91-93
    spruce  (Picea nigra, Link) 12-14

  Watson, Thomas, Braintree, Mass., _Ilex opaca_, on estate of 139

  Whistlewood  (Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.) 149-151

  White ash  (Fraxinus Americana, L.) 162-164
    birch  (Betula papyrifera, Marsh.) 68-70
           (Betula populifolia, Marsh.) 66-68
    cedar  (Cupressus thyoides, L.) 25, 26
           (Thuja occidentalis, L.) 23, 24
    elm  (Ulmus Americana, L.) 95-97
    hickory  (Carya porcina, Nutt.) 53-55
    maple  (Acer rubrum, L.) 140-142
           (Acer saccharinum, L.) 142-144
    mulberry  (Morus alba, L.) 104
    oak  (Quercus alba, L.) 75-77
    pine  (Pinus Strobus, L.) 4-6
    poplar  (Populus alba, L.) 39, 40
    spruce  (Picea alba, Link) 16-18
    willow  (Salix alba) 43, 45, 46

  White-heart hickory  (Carya tomentosa, Nutt) 51-53

  Whitewood  (Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.) 104-106

  Whitewood  (Tilia Americana, L.) 153-155

  Wild plum  (Prunus Americana, Marsh.) 171
      (Prunus nigra, Ait.) 122, 123, 171
    red cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.) 124, 125

  Willow family. (=Salicaceæ=) 28-46

  Willow, Black willow (Salix nigra, Marsh.) 42, 43
    Crack, Brittle willow. (Salix fragilis, L.) 43-45
    Pussy willow, Glaucous willow (Salix discolor, Muhl.) 40, 41, 171
    White willow. (Salix alba, L., _var._ vitellina, Koch) 45, 46

  Witch hazel family.  (=Hamamelidaceæ=) 108, 109


  Y

  Yellow birch. (Betula lutea, Michx. f.) 63, 64
    oak.  (Quercus velutina, Lam.) 89-91





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