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Title: The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner, Volume 1 - With an Account of His Travels Round Three Parts of the Globe, - Written By Himself, in Two Volumes
Author: Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1731
Language: English
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Daniel De Foe was descended from a respectable family in the county of
Northampton, and born in London, about the year 1663. His father, James
Foe, was a butcher, in the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and a
protestant dissenter. Why the subject of this memoir prefixed the _De_
to his family name cannot now be ascertained, nor did he at any period
of his life think it necessary to give his reasons to the public. The
political scribblers of the day, however, thought proper to remedy this
lack of information, and accused him of possessing so little of the
_amor patriae_, as to make the addition in order that he might not be
taken for an Englishman; though this idea could have had no other
foundation than the circumstance of his having, in consequence of his
zeal for King William, attacked the prejudices of his countrymen in his
"Trueborn Englishman."

After receiving a good education at an academy at Newington, young De
Foe, before he had attained his twenty-first year, commenced his career
as an author, by writing a pamphlet against a very prevailing sentiment
in favour of the Turks, who were at that time laying siege to Vienna.
This production, being very inferior to those of his maturer years, was
very little read, and the indignant author, despairing of success with
his pen, had recourse to the sword; or, as he termed it, when boasting
of the exploit in his latter years, "displayed his attachment to liberty
and protestanism," by joining the ill-advised insurrection under the
Duke of Monmouth, in the west. On the failure of that unfortunate
enterprise, he returned again to the metropolis; and it is not
improbable, but that the circumstance of his being a native of London,
and his person not much known in that part of the kingdom where the
rebellion took place, might facilitate his escape, and be the means of
preventing his being brought to trial for his share in the transaction.
With the professions of a writer and a soldier, Mr. De Foe, in the year
1685, joined that of a trader; he was first engaged as a hosier, in
Cornhill, and afterwards as a maker of bricks and pantiles, near Tilbury
Fort, in Essex; but in consequence of spending those hours in the
hilarity of the tavern which he ought to have employed in the
calculations of the counting-house, his commercial schemes proved
unsuccessful; and in 1694 he was obliged to abscond from his creditors,
not failing to attribute those misfortunes to the war and the severity
of the times, which were doubtless owing to his own misconduct. It is
much to his credit, however, that after having been freed from his debts
by composition, and being in prosperous circumstances from King
William's favour, he voluntarily paid most of his creditors both the
principal and interest of their claims. This is such an example of
honesty as it would be unjust to De Foe and to the world to conceal. The
amount of the sums thus paid must have been very considerable, as he
afterwards feelingly mentions to Lord Haversham, who had reproached him
with covetousness; "With a numerous family, and no helps but my own
industry, I have forced my way through a sea of misfortunes, and reduced
my debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less than
five thousand pounds."

At the beginning of the year 1700, Mr. De Foe published a satire in
verse, which excited very considerable attention, called the "Trueborn
Englishman." Its purpose was to furnish a reply to those who were
continually abusing King William and some of his friends as
_foreigners_, by showing that the present race of Englishmen was a mixed
and heterogeneous brood, scarcely any of which could lay claim to native
purity of blood. The satire was in many parts very severe; and though it
gave high offence, it claimed a considerable share of the public
attention. The reader will perhaps be gratified by a specimen of this
production, wherein he endeavours to account for--

     "What makes this discontented land appear
     Less happy now in times of peace, than war;
     Why civil fends disturb the nation more,
     Than all our bloody wars had done before:
     Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
     And men are always honest in disgrace:
     The court preferments make men knaves in course,
     But they, who would be in them, would be worse.
     'Tis not at foreigners that we repine,
     Would foreigners their perquisites resign:
     The grand contention's plainly to be seen,
     To get some men put out, and some put in."

It will be immediately perceived that De Foe could have no pretensions
to the character of a _poet_; but he has, notwithstanding, some nervous
and well-versified lines, and in choice of subject and moral he is in
general excellent. The Trueborn Englishman concludes thus:

     Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
     And see their offspring thus degenerate;
     How we contend for birth and names unknown,
     And build on their past actions, not our own;
     They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
     And openly disown the vile degenerate race.
     For fame of families is all a cheat;

For this defence of foreigners De Foe was amply rewarded by King
William, who not only ordered him a pension, but, as his opponents
denominated it, appointed him _pamphlet-writer general to the court_; an
office for which he was peculiarly well calculated, possessing, with a
strong mind and a ready wit, that kind of yielding conscience which
allowed him to support the measures of his benefactors, though convinced
they were injurious to his country. De Foe now retired to Newington with
his family, and for a short time lived at ease; but the death of his
royal patron deprived him of a generous protector, and opened a scene of
sorrow which probably embittered his future life.

He had always discovered a great inclination to engage in religious
controversy, and the furious contest, civil and ecclesiastical, which
ensued on the accession of Queen Anne, gave him an opportunity of
gratifying his favourite passion. He therefore published a tract,
entitled "The shortest Way with the Dissenters, or Proposals for the
Establishment of the Church," which contained an ironical recommendation
of persecution, but written in so serious a strain, that many persons,
particularly Dissenters, at first mistook its real intention. The high
church party however saw, and felt the ridicule, and, by their
influence, a prosecution was commenced against him, and a proclamation
published in the Gazette, offering a reward for his apprehension[1].
When De Foe found with how much rigour himself and his pamphlet were
about to be treated, he at first secreted himself; but his printer and
bookseller being taken into custody, he surrendered, being resolved, as
he expresses it, "to throw himself upon the favour of government, rather
than that others should be ruined for his mistakes." In July, 1703, he
was brought to trial, found guilty, and sentenced to be imprisoned, to
stand in the pillory, and to pay a fine of two hundred marks. He
underwent the infamous part of the punishment with great fortitude, and
it seems to have been generally thought that he was treated with
unreasonable severity. So far was he from being ashamed of his fate
himself, that he wrote a hymn to the pillory, which thus ends, alluding
to his accusers:

     Tell them, the men that plac'd him here
     Are scandals to the times;
     Are at a loss to find his guilt,
     And can't commit his crimes.

Pope, who has thought fit to introduce him in his Dunciad, (probably
from no other reason than party difference) characterizes him in the
following line:

     Earless on high stood unabash'd De Foe.

This is one of those instances of injustice and malignity which so
frequently occur in the Dunciad, and which reflect more dishonour on the
author than on the parties traduced. De Foe lay friendless and
distressed in Newgate, his family ruined, and himself without hopes of
deliverance, till Sir Robert Harley, who approved of his principles, and
foresaw that during a factious age such a genius could be converted to
many uses, represented his unmerited sufferings to the Queen, and at
length procured his release. The treasurer, Lord Godolphin, also sent a
considerable sum to his wife and family, and to him money to pay his
fine and the expense of his discharge. Gratitude and fidelity are
inseparable from an honest man; and it was this benevolent act that
prompted De Foe to support Harley, with his able and ingenious pen, when
Anne lay lifeless, and his benefactor in the vicissitude of party was
persecuted by faction, and overpowered, though not conquered,
by violence.

The talents and perseverance of De Foe began now to be properly
estimated, and as a firm supporter of the administration, he was sent by
Lord Godolphin to Scotland, on an errand which, as he says, was far from
being unfit for a sovereign to direct, or an honest man to perform. His
knowledge of commerce and revenue, his powers of insinuation, and, above
all, his readiness of pen, were deemed of no small utility in promoting
the union of the two kingdoms; of which he wrote an able history in
1709, with two dedications, one to the Queen, and another to the Duke of
Queensbury. Soon afterwards he unhappily, by some equivocal writings,
rendered himself suspected by both parties, so that he once more retired
to Newington, in hopes of spending the remainder of his days in peace.
His pension being withdrawn, and wearied with politics, he began to
compose works of a different kind.--The year 1715 may therefore be
regarded as the period of De Foe's political life. Faction henceforth
found other advocates, and parties procured other writers to disseminate
their suggestions, and to propagate their falsehoods.

In 1715 De Foe published the "Family Instructor;" a work inculcating the
domestic duties in a lively manner, by narration and dialogue, and
displaying much knowledge of life in the middle ranks of society.
"Religious Courtship" also appeared soon after, which, like the "Family
Instructor," is eminently religious and moral in its tendency, and
strongly impresses on the mind that spirit of sobriety and private
devotion for which the dissenters have generally been distinguished. The
most celebrated of all his works, "The Life and Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe," appeared in 1719. This work has passed through numerous
editions, and been translated into almost all modern languages. The
great invention which is displayed in it, the variety of incidents and
circumstances which it contains, related in the most easy and natural
manner, together with the excellency of the moral and religious
reflections, render it a performance of very superior and uncommon
merit, and one of the most interesting works that ever appeared. It is
strongly recommended by Rosseau as a book admirably calculated to
promote the purposes of natural education; and Dr. Blair says, "No
fiction, in any language, was ever better supported than the Adventures
of Robinson Crusoe. While it is carried on with that appearance of truth
and simplicity, which takes a strong hold of the imagination of all
readers, it suggests, at the same time, very useful instruction; by
showing how much the native powers of man may be exerted for
surmounting the difficulties of any external situation." It has been
pretended, that De Foe surreptitiously appropriated the papers of
Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch mariner, who lived four years alone on the
island of Juan Fernandez, and a sketch of whose story had before
appeared in the voyage of Captain Woodes Rogers. But this charge, though
repeatedly and confidently brought, appears to be totally destitute of
any foundation. De Foe probably took some general hints for his work
from the story of Selkirk, but there exists no proof whatever, nor is it
reasonable to suppose that he possessed any of his papers or memoirs,
which had been published seven years before the appearance of Robinson
Crusoe. As a farther proof of De Foe's innocence, Captain Rogers'
Account of Selkirk may be produced, in which it is said that the latter
had neither preserved pen, ink, or paper, and had, in a great measure,
lost his language; consequently De Foe could not have received any
written assistance, and we have only the assertion of his enemies to
prove that he had any verbal.

The great success of Robinson Crusoe induced its author to write a
number of other lives and adventures, some of which were popular in
their times, though at present nearly forgotten. One of his latest
publications was "A Tour through the Island of Great Britain," a
performance of very inferior merit; but De Foe was now the garrulous
old man, and his spirit (to use the words of an ingenious biographer)
"like a candle struggling in the socket, blazed and sunk, blazed and
sunk, till it disappeared at length in total darkness." His laborious
and unfortunate life was finished on the 26th of April, 1731, in' the
parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate.

Daniel De Foe possessed very extraordinary talents; as a commercial
writer, he is fairly entitled to stand in the foremost rank among his
contemporaries, whatever may be their performances or their fame. His
distinguishing characteristics are originality, spirit, and a profound
knowledge of his subject, and in these particulars he has seldom been
surpassed. As the author of Robinson Crusoe he has a claim, not only to
the admiration, but to the gratitude of his countrymen; and so long as
we have a regard for supereminent merit, and take an interest in the
welfare of the rising generation, that gratitude will not cease to
exist. But the opinion of the learned and ingenious Dr. Beattie will be
the best eulogium that can be pronounced on that celebrated romance:
"Robinson Crusoe," says the Doctor, "must be allowed, by the most rigid
moralist, to be one of those novels which one may read, riot only with
pleasure, but also with profit. It breathes throughout a spirit of
piety and benevolence; it sets in a very striking light the importance
of the mechanic arts, which they, who know not what it is to be without
them, are so apt to under-value; it fixes in the mind a lively idea of
the horrors of solitude, and, consequently, of the sweets of social
life, and of the blessings we derive from conversation and mutual aid;
and it shows how, by labouring with one's own hands, one may secure
independence, and open for one's self many sources of health and
amusement. I agree, therefore, with Rosseau, that it is one of the best
books that can be put into the hands of children."


[Footnote 1: _St. James's, January 10, 1702-5._ "Whereas Daniel De Foe,
alias De Fooe, is charged with writing a scandalous and seditious
pamphlet, entitled 'The shortest Way with the Dissenters:' he is a
middle-sized spare man, about 40 years old, of a brown complexion, and
dark-brown coloured hair, but wears a wig, a hooked nose, a sharp chin,
grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth, was born in London, and for
many years was a hose-factor, in Freeman's Yard, in Cornhill, and now is
owner of the brick and pantile works near Tilbury Fort, in Essex;
whoever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe, to one of her Majesty's
Principal Secretaries of State, or any of her Majesty's Justices of
Peace, so as he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of £50, which
her Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
_London Gaz._ No. 3879.]





I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who
settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving
off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay we call
ourselves, and write, our name Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than
my father or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as
house-education and a country free-school generally go, and designed me
for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me so strongly, against the will, nay, the
commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which
was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons more than a mere
wandering inclination I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes on one hand,
or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world,
the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by one thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wish they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just
standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of
life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances,
on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and
insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves
by the natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings
attending the middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to
the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not
enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter,
feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's experience to
know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to
have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere
fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would
do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to
give me any encouragement to go away: and to close all, he told me I had
my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where
he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, and
especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed: and that when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was so
full he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days
wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further
importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act so hastily neither as my first heat of
resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I thought her
a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts were
so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to
any thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I
was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from my master
before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a double diligence,
to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to any such thing
so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it: that for her part, she
would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have
it to say, that my mother was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I have heard
afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father,
after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, "That boy
might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will
be the most miserable wretch that was ever born; I can give no
consent to it."

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in
the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling
to business, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother
about their being so positively determined against what they knew my
inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;
but, I say, being there, and one of my companions then going by sea to
London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz. that it should cost me nothing
for my passage, I consulted neither father or mother any more, not so
much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began
sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out
of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for wickedly leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my parents, my
father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind;
and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after: but it was enough
to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known any
thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God here to
spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land
again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the
goodness of his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been
exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm, and indeed
some time after; but the next day, as the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave
for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night
the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine
evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that
I ever saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and
terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in a
little time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me and said, "Well;
Bob," clapping me on the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I warrant
you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full
of wind?"--"A cap-full do you call it?" said I; "it was a terrible
storm."--"A storm, you fool you," replied he, "do you call that a
storm? why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room,
and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a
fresh-water sailor. Bob, Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll
forget all that; do you see what charming weather it is now?" To make
short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of all sailors; the
punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, and all my resolutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my
fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being
forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found,
indeed, some intervals of reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself
to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so
I called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience, as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled
with it, could desire: but I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or
eight days, during which tune a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the River.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have tided it up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or
five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as
a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong, our
men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the
eighth day in the morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-masts, and make every thing snug and close, that
the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high
indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors a-head,
and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as
he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to
himself several times, "Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost;
we shall be all undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot
describe my temper: I could ill reassume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I thought the
bitterness of death had been past, and that this would be nothing like
the first: but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted: I got up but
of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the
sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes:
when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress around us: two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rid about a
mile a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that
with not a mast standing. The light ships-fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by
us, running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do: but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the-fore-mast, the
main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a
little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts that I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account
of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the
resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself;
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me in such a condition,
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out, she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that I did
not know what they meant by _founder_, till I inquired. However, the
storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the
bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very word my
heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side
of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and
run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so
surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had
happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stept up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead; and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little,
yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a port,
so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had
rid it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for
us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at
last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after great labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got
all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon
shore he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship but we
saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by
a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to
look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from that moment
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in; my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the
waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along
the strand to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow
way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past
the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all
safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to
carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I
had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I
went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while
before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling
decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes
open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have
pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master's
son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we
were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered, and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
"Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a
seafaring man,"--"Why, Sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?" "That
is another case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, "what are you; and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion; "What had I done," says he, "that such
an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds," This indeed was,
as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And young man," said he,
"depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more: which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best notions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even every body else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in
such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; nor ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible
reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed a while, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated,
the little notion I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till
at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,
that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my
fortune; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to
make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the
commands of my father: I say, the same influence, whatever it was,
presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the duty and
office of a foremast-man; and in time might have qualified myself for a
mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and
good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, or learnt
to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows as
I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early: but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would
go the voyage with him I should be at no expense; I should be his
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry any thing with me, I
should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and
perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with
him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I
carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to
buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first

This was the only voyage which I may say I was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learnt how to keep an account
of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me
in London at my return almost £300, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the
excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the
coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in his former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, and which I
lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz. our
ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry to have got clear; but finding the pirate
gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by
mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he
intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning
our fire, and pouring in also his small-shot from near 200 men which he
had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but
laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging
to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,
and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable, and
have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass, that I could not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had
overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption: but, alas! this was
but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the
sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again,
believing that it would sometime or other be his fate to be taken by a
Spanish or Portugal man of war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to
sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again
from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it:
nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had
nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me, no fellow slave,
no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never
had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or
twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that
sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth of Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a
fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league from the shore
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we
laboured all day, and all the next night, and when the morning came we
found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and
that we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were
all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our
English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little
state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a
barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and haul home the
main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the
sails: she sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and the
boom gibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for
fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board
the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had
ordered me to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as well
as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants out, and every thing
to accommodate his guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that fell
out, and ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither I should steer; for any where, to get out of that
place, was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to
get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was true: so he
brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master: I conveyed also
a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and
a hammer, all which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the
wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also; his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley; so
I called him: "Moley," said I, "our patron's guns are on board the boat;
can you not get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship."--"Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;"
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that
had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at
the same time I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle,
which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no
notice of us: and we were not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E. which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I
would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to fate.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish
on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, "This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we
must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the
head of the boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the
sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him,
and told him, I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would
do him none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm; but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you through the
head, for I am resolved to have my liberty." so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
"Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a great man; but if
you will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father's beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not
mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might
think me gone towards the Straits' mouth; (as indeed any one that had
been in their wits must have been supposed to do) for who would have
supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with the
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabout, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of
me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and come to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what,
or where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what
river: I neither saw, or desired to see any people; the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country; but, as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we
knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then I
won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as
those lions."--"Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing,
"make them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a
dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,
Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three
hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of
many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frightened when we heard one of these mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him
by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast; Xury said it
was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor and row away: "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip
our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it
was) within two oars' length, which something surprised me; however, I
immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at
him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing
I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before:
this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night
upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get
it, was the point: Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one
of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me.
I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made me love him
ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
wey."--"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a
piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the
shore as we thought was proper, and so waded to shore; carrying nothing
but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river: but the boy seeing a low place about
a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come
running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted
with some wild beast, and I run forward towards him to help him, but
when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
colour, and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for
a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh
when the tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled
our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on
our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of
the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation
to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least
remembering what latitude they were in, and knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I
stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of
trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was, must be that
country, which, lying between the emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of
tigers, lions, and leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour
there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go
like an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and indeed for near
an hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring
of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a
great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going
too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design,
and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left
this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he,
"look yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast
asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little
over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury
looked frightened, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;" one
mouthful he meant: however, I said no more to the boy, but bad him lie
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it
down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we
had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best
aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at
first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a
little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up
the second piece immediately, and, though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore; "Well, go," said I; so the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?"
said I, "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one.

I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him might one way
or other be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took
us both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in
two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to
for fresh water: my design in this was, to make the river Gambia or
Senegal, that is to say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was
in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the Negroes, I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this Cape, or those islands; and in a word, I put the whole of my
fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at
us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was
once inclined to have gone off shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer
the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they run along the
shore by me a good way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Nury said was a lance,
and that they would throw them a great way with a good aim; so I kept
at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and
particularly made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and
in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we were willing to
accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for
venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it
down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends;
but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully;
for while we were lying by the shore came two mighty creatures, one
pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but
in the night; and in the second place, we found the people terribly
frightened, especially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did
not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of
the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if
they had come for their diversion: at last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I
had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot
him directly in the head: immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for
life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures, at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the
creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to
come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water;
and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes
to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held
up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I
found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so
I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no
knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as
readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very
freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
suppose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and
leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more,
without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make
this point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I
concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de
Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I
had best to do; for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might
neither reach one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and
sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
Master, master, a ship with a sail! and the foolish boy was frightened
out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore: upon
which, I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them, if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair,
they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses, and
that it was some European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to
some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail, to let me come up. I
was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on board, I
made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they
did not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee: they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I
was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to
the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he
generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. "For," says
he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides," continued he, "when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away that
life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese," (Mr. Englishman,) says he;
"I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again."

As he was charitable, in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
offer to touch any thing I had: then he took every thing into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he
would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what I would have
for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in every thing, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that
I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to
sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to
be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself, I was now
to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for
the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my
boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such
as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
bees-wax,--for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this
stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good honest man, like himself, who had an ingeino as they call it, (that
is, a plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making
of sugar: and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them: endeavouring, in the mean time, to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To
this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased
as much land that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan
for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but: born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went
on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than any thing else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so
that Ihe third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come: but we
both wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in
parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great
wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got into an employment
quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted
in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his
good advice: nay, I was coining into the very middle station, or upper
degree of low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and never
have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done: and I used often to
say to myself, I could have done this as well in England, among my
friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among strangers
and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to hear
from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour; no work
to be done, but by the labour of my hands: and I used to say, I lived
just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with others
that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience: I say, how just
has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island
of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared
it with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in
all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me
up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in providing his
lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when, telling
him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this
friendly and sincere advice: "Seignior Inglese," says he, for so he
always called me, "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and
in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders for
but one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and
let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply."

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired me.

I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures;
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at
sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in,
with all other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story
to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her:
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket,
sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils: among which, without
my direction, (for I was too young in my business to think of them,) he
had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils,
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the
five pounds, which my friend had sent him as a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service,
and would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable
in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say, I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a
Negro slave, and ail European servant also; I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success
in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours;
and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often
the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the station
I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen
me, for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life,
and which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to be
full of: but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I
should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my
apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination, of wandering
about, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those
prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not
be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story:--You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my
plantation, I had not only learned the language, but had contracted an
acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among
the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my
discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase on the coast for trifles--such
as beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like--not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c. but
Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes; which
was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as
it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings
of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few
Negroes were bought, and those excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations: and, in a
word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship,
to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me
that I should have an equal share of the Negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not a settlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a
good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established,
and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could be
guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation
and effects, in case of my death; making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving
circumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular
misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy,
rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners
in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of
September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my
father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority,
and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns,
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd
trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissars, hatchets,
and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast.
When they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which,
it seems, was the manner of their course in those days, we had very good
weather, only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came
to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor,
indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about 11
degrees north latitude, but that he was 22 degrees of longitude
difference, west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazons, toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
ship was leaky and very much disabled, add he was going directly back to
the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for
Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay
or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W. in
order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for being in the latitude of 12
degrees 18 minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
in the morning cried out, Land! and we had no sooner run out of the
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray
of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like condition, to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances; we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven,
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and
as the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes,
without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat looking upon one
another, and expecting death every moment, and every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this: that which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began
to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect
her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by
dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her: we had another boat on board, but how to get her off into the
sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us
she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's
side; and getting all into her, let her go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea: for though the
storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the
shore, and might be well called _den wild zee_, as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that
the sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we should
be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had,
could we have done any thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we
all knew that when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was--whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal--we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation, was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat
in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; and as we made nearer and nearer the
shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us,
and plainly bade us expect the _coup de grace_. In a word, it took us
with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us,
as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to
say, "O God!" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver
myself from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and
having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the
land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me
up again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the
sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy,
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by
swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore,
if possible; my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath, and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent
itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then took to my
heels, and ran with what strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves
and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow
taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my
body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled
in the water: but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and seeing I should again be covered with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as the first,
being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where, to my
great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there were, some minutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express,
to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at
the custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with
it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the
surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him.

     For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as
I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel--when the breach and froth of the
sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off--and
considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and what
was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a
word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to
shift me, nor any thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither
did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into such terrible
agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at
night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts; at that time, was, to get up
into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny--which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night--and consider the next day what death
I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a
furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting
up into it, endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I should fall
asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition; and found myself the most
refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from
the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been
so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again,
and the first thing I found was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand.
I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so
far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship: and
here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if
we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all
got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced
tears from my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great
difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free: and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had
indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had, and
this extremity roused my application: we had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the
ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many overboard
as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light: so I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a
spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it
from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft;
these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goats' flesh, (which we lived much upon,) and a
little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls
which we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There
had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it
all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or
six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chests, nor any room for them. While I was doing
this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on
shore and it was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I secured
first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to
my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset
all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea: 2dly, The tide
rising, and setting in to the shore: 3dly, What little wind there was,
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken
oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put
to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I
guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream. But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart; for knowing nothing
of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo
had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but holding up
the chests with all my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and
then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore,
for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as
near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got
so near, as that reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it
would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to
hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground; one on one-side, near one
end, and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay till
the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent, or
on an island; whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus
armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill; where,
after I had, with great labour and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw
my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island, environed
every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay
a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, however,
I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds;
neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and
what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting
upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying, every one according to his usual note; but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a
kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or
claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work
to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day: what
to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I
was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need
for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for
that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run
out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I
resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as
I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in
pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing
out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to
say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but this
appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut;
having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags of
nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grind-stone. All these I
secured together, with several things belonging to the gunner;
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of
powder more; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship's side.

Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I
loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back, I
found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat,
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned,
and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore--though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks--I went to work to make me a little tent, with the
sail, and some poles, which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I
brought every thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and
I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to
fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch
all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still: for while the ship
sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out of
her that I could: so every day, at low water, I went on board, and
brought away something or other; but particularly the third time I went,
I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last; only that I was
fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.

But that which comforted me still more, was, that, last of all, after I
had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with; I say,
after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large
runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied
the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in
pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now having plundered the ship of
what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and
cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two
cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing
I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods;
and came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove,
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for
it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece
by piece; but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissars with some
ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "O drug!" said I aloud,
"what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while I was
preparing this, I found the sky over-cast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It
presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft
with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before
the tide of flood began, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even
that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very
hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the
morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a
little surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory
reflection, viz. that I had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to
get every thing out of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had
more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any thing out of
her, except what might drive on shore, from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what
kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth,
or a tent upon the earth: and in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome; and more particularly because there was no
fresh water near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy and more
convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just now mentioned: 2dly,
Shelter from the heat of the sun: 3dly, Security from ravenous
creatures, whether men or beasts: 4thly, A view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.

In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave,
or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to
pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about
twice as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of
it, descended irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered
from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end
being out of the ground about five feet and a half and sharpened on the
top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and laid them
in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of
stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to
cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over
after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards,
there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the
rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made
double, viz. one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it, and
covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as
I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised
the ground within about a foot and an half; and thus I made me a cave,
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost
me much labour and many days, before all these things were brought to
perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the
effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was
with a thought, which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself: O my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I thought, that
at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I
laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself
to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little
and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not
all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about 240 lb. weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it
in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to
it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could
kill any thing fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself
with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I presently
discovered that there were goats upon the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,
viz. that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the most difficult thing in the world to come at them: but I was not
discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as
it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that by the
position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that
they did not readily see objects that were above them: so, afterwards, I
took this method--I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she
gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only
so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as
possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of in its proper place: but I must first give
some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which,
it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage; and a great way, viz. some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why
Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so
absolutely miserable; so abandoned without help, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and
to reprove me: and particularly, one day, walking with my gun in my
hand, by the sea side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
thus: "Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into
the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why
were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?" And then I
pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is
in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened
(which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the
place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that
I had time to get all these things out of her: what would have been my
case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them? "Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself,) what
should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make any thing, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or
any manner of covering?" and that now I had all these to a sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to
live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived; for
I considered, from the beginning, how I should provide for the accidents
that might happen, and for the time that was to come, not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened
and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my
account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I
first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself,
by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north
of the Line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and
pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath days from the working
days: but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz. "I came on shore here on the 30th of
September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long one:
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.

But it happened, that among the many things which I brought out of the
ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I
got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I found, some time after, in rummaging the chests; as, in
particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of
navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I might want them or
no: also I found three very good bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese
books also, and, among them, two or three popish prayer books, and
several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something, in its place: for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things
very exact, but after that was gone I could not; for I could not make
any ink, by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was one; as also
a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that without much

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or
surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods,
and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days
in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron crows;
which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving these posts or
piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food; which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstance I
was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me (for I was like to
have but few heirs,) as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:


     I am cast upon a horrible,
     desolate island, void of all
     hope of recovery.

     I am singled out and separated,
     as it were, from all the
     world, to be miserable.

     I am divided from mankind,
     a solitaire; one banished
     from human society.

     I have no clothes to cover

     I am without any defence,
     or means to resist any violence
     of man or beast.

     I have no soul to speak to,
     or relieve me.


     But I am alive; and not
     drowned, as all my ship's company

     But I am singled out too
     from all the ship's crew, to be
     spared from death; and he
     that miraculously save me
     from death, can deliver me
     from this condition.

     But I am not starved, and
     perishing in a barren place,
     affording no sustenance.

     But I am in a hot climate,
     where, if I had clothes, I could
     hardly wear them.

     But I am cast on an island
     where I see no wild beast to
     hurt me, as I saw on the coast
     of Africa: and what if I had
     been shipwrecked there?

     But God wonderfully sent
     the ship in near enough to the
     shore, that I have got out so
     many necessary things as will
     either supply my wants, or
     enable me to supply myself,
     even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something
negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable of all
conditions in this world, that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.

Having now, brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving
over these things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock,--surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I
might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against it
of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside: and after some time (I
think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some times of
the year, very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no
order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I
set myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it
was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I
worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out in the
outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back-way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found
I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure, without a
table: so I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating, and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most rational judgment
of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I
had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing
but I could have made, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious deal of
time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way
as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the
first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I
brought on my raft from the ship. But when I wrought out some boards, as
above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one
over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails,
and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in
their places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into
the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would hang
up: so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things; and I had every thing so ready at my hand, that it
was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only hurry as to
labour, but in much discomposure of mind; and my journal would, too,
have been full of many dull things: for example, I must have said
thus--"_Sept_. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and
crying out, 'I was undone, undone!' till, tired and faint, I was forced
to lie down on the ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured."

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got
all that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the top
of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship:
then fancy that, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with
the hopes of it, and, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind,
lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household-stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all
as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal: of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these
particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I
was forced to leave it off.

       *       *       *       *       *


_September_ 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR;
all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither food, house, clothes,
weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me; that I should either be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but
slept soundly, though it rained all night.

_October_ 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer
the island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing her
sit upright, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I
might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my
relief,) so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have
saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the ship
almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of _October_ to the 24th. All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship; which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the
rainy season.

_Oct_. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered
many of them when the tide was out.

_Oct_. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing a little
harder than before) and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

_Oct_. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place
to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack
in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon
a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my
encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or
fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and
without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods
to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.

_November_ 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.

_Nov_. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.

_Nov_. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon I went to work to make me a table.

_Nov_. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had
to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next was wholly employed in making my
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman: though time and necessity
made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would
any one else.

_Nov. 5._ This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and killed a wild
cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: of every
creature that I killed I took off the skins, and preserved them. Coming
back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not
understand: but was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three
seals; which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they
were) got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

_Nov. 6._ After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking: nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.

_Nov. 7._ Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday, according to my
reckoning) I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado,
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and, even in
the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.

_Note._ I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

_Nov. 13._ This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and
lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

_Nov. 14, 15, 16._ These three days I spent in making little square
chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most,
of powder: and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and as remote from one another as possible. On one of these three
days I killed a large bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what
to call it.

_Nov. 17._ This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to
make room for my farther convenience.

_Note._ Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz. a
pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow, or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply these wants, and make me some
tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough, though heavy: but, the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing
effectually without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

_Nov. 18._ The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron tree, from
its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece; and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough,
for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my
having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel
or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me
so long: however, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient: for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-barrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make wicker-ware; at least, none yet found out: and
as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but
that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it: besides,
I had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of
the wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
labourers carry mortar in for the brick-layers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel: and yet this and the shovel,
and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took me up
no less than four days; I mean, always excepting my morning walk with my
gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing home
something fit to eat.

_Nov. 23._ My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished I went on; and working every day,
as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in
widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods

_Note._ During all this time, I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen,
a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard
that I could not keep myself dry; which caused me afterwards to cover
all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.

_December 10._ I began now to think my cave or vault finished; when on a
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side: so much, that, in short, it frightened
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under it, I should
never have wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.

_Dec. 11._ This day I went to work with it accordingly; and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board
across over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off
my house.

_Dec. 17._ From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that could be hung up: and
now I began to be in some order within doors.

_Dec. 20._ I carried every thing into the cave, and began to furnish my
house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me: also I made
me another table.

_Dec. 24._ Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.

_Dec. 25._ Rain all day.

_Dec. 26._ No rain; and the earth much cooler than before, and

_Dec. 27._ Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that I catched it,
and led it home in a string: when I had it home, I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke.

_N.B._ I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew well, and
as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed
upon the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

_Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31._ Great heats, and no breeze; so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time I spent in
putting all my things in order within doors.

_January 1._ Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the vallies which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
down. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats: but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

_Jan. 3._ I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

_N.B._ This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time
than from the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall; though it was no more than about 25 yards in
length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another
place, about twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the
centre, behind it.

All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together: but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what
inexpressible labour every thing was done with, especially the bringing
piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made
them much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a
turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there they would not perceive any thing like a
habitation: and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,
when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in these
walks, of something or other to my advantage; particularly, I found a
kind of wild pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and, taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when
they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps, was at first for
want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them: however, I
frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very
good meat. And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for
me to make; as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, I could
never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one
by them, though I spent many weeks about it: I could neither put in the
heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold
water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great
loss for candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remember the lump of
bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had
none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a
goat, I saved the tallow; and with a little dish made of clay, which I
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened, that in rummaging
my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry; not for this voyage, but
before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little
remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats,
and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use (I think, it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use,) I shook the
husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that I threw
this stuff away; taking no notice of any thing, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown any thing there: when about a month after,
I saw some few stalks of something green, shooting out of the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised,
and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of any thing that had befallen me,
otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God;
without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world. But after I saw barley
grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely;
and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes; and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon
my account: and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks,
which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen
it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went over
all that part of the island where I had been before, searching in every
corner, and under every rock, for more of it; but I could not find any.
At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of
chicken's-meat in that place, and then the wonder began to cease: and I
must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence began to
abate too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a providence, as if it had been miraculous: for it was really
the work of Providence, as to me, that should order or appoint that ten
or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropt from heaven; as also,
that I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it any where else, at that time, it would have been burnt up and

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I
resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time, to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year
that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall show afterwards, in its order; for I lost
all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; as
I sowed just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at
least not as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved with the same care; and whose use was of the
same kind, or to the same purpose, viz. to make me bread, or rather
food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that
also after some time.--But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my wall
done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving to get into it,
not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no
sign on the outside of my habitation.

_April 16._ I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside: this
was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first mount
my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was thus:--As I
was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the entrance into
my cave, I was terribly frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing
indeed; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two
of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had
done before: and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my
ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall
for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll down upon
me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly
saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three
times at about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood
about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also that the very
sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt the like,
nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was like one dead or
stupified; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one
that was tossed at sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked
me, as it were; and rousing me from the stupified condition I was in,
filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing but the hill falling
upon my tent and my household goods, and burying all at once; this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I
began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground
greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
while, I had not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the
common _Lord, have mercy upon me!_ and when it was over, that went
away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it
would rain; and soon after the wind rose by little, and little, so that
in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea
was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered
with a breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a
terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very
hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and
dejected; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds
and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself
was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to
persuade me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was
forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear
it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,
viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in
my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a
small sup of rum; which, however, I did then, and always, very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must
consider of building me some little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men; for if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where
it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and
which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent.
I spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being
swallowed alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the
apprehension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it:
but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing was put in
order, how pleasantly I was concealed, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loth to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me that it
would require a vast deal of time for me to do this; and that I must be
contented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed a convenient
camp, and secured it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion I
composed myself for a time; and resolved that I would go to work with
all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c. in a circle as
before, and set up my tent in it when it was finished; but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to.
This was the 21st.

_April_ 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
measure into execution; but I was at a great loss about the tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets
for traffic with the Indians;) but with much chopping and cutting knotty
hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a
grind-stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This caused me
as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point
of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I
contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

_Note._ I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very
common there: besides that, my grind-stone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.

_April 28, 29._ These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grind-stone performing very well.

_April 30._ Having perceived that my bread had been low a great while, I
now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.

_May 1._ In the morning, looking toward the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it
looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two
or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by
the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it
seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of
gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone: however, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present, and
went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to
look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six
feet: and the stern (which was broke to pieces, and parted from the
rest, by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging of her)
was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side: and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out; whereas there was a great piece of
water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into the ship: but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of any
thing, I resolved to pull every thing to pieces that I could of the
ship, concluding that every thing I could get from her would be of some
use or other to me.

_May 3._ I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together; and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the
side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time.

_May 4._ I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of,
till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a
young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no
hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

_May 5._ Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir-planks off from the decks; which I tied together, and
made swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.

_May 6._ Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

_May 7._ Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work; but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose; and the inside
of the hold lay so open that I could see into it; but almost full of
water and sand.

_May 8._ Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.

_May 9._ Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of
the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could
stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.

_May 10--14._ Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many pieces
of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight
of iron.

_May 15._ I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it
with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

_May 16._ It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I staid so long in the woods, to
get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck
that day.

_May 17._ I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

_May 24._ Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first
blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests:
but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but
pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but
the salt-water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every
day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food; which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide
was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out: and by this time I
had gotten timber, and plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a
good boat, if I had known how: and I also got, at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.

_June 16._ Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity: for had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough
for them.

_June 17._ I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore
eggs: and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that I ever tasted in my life; having had no flesh, but of
goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.

_June 18._ Rained all that day, and I staid within. I thought, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which I knew was
not usual in that latitude.

_June 19._ Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

_June 20._ No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

_June 21._ Very ill; frightened almost to death with the apprehensions
of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the
first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or
why, my thoughts being all confused.

_June 22._ A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of

_June 23._ Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent

_June 24._ Much better.

_June 25._ An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot, with faint sweats after it.

_June 26._ Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed
it, and made some broth, but had no pot.

_June 27._ The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I
had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed: and when I was not, I was so
ignorant that I knew not what to say; only lay and cried, "Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell
asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found
myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I
had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream:
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall,
where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a
man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and
light upon the ground: he was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most
inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe: when he
stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to
my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He had
no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a
long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a
rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it: all that I
can say I understood, was this: "Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which words I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I should be
able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision; I mean,
that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is
it any more possible to describe the impression that remained upon my
mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted series,
for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation
with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last
degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that
so much as tended either to looking upward towards God, or inward
towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain stupidity of soul,
without desire of good, or consciousness of evil, had entirely
overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors, can be supposed to be; not having
the least sense, either of the fear of God, in danger, or of
thankfulness to him, in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety of
miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one
thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment
for my sin; either my rebellious behaviour against my father, or my
present sins, which were great; or even as a punishment for the general
course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what
would become of me; or one wish to God to direct me whither I should go,
or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well
from voracious creatures as cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless
of a God or a Providence; acted like a mere brute, from the principles
of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only; and indeed hardly
that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portuguese
captain, well used, and dealt with justly and honourably, as well as
charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When,
again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I
only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable.

It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might
have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a
mere common flight of joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive,
without the least reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all
the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful to me: just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally
have, after they are got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown
all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over:
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on
due consideration, made sensible of my condition,--how I was cast on
this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of
relief, or prospect of redemption,--as soon as I saw but a prospect of
living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far
enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven,
or as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,
some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness,
as long as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as
that part of the thought was removed, all the impression which was
raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the
earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or
more immediately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs
such things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impression it
had made went off also. I had no more sense of God, or his judgments,
much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being from his
hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life. But
now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink
under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with
the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to
awake; and I reproached myself with my past life, in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me
under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful
reproaches of my conscience, extorted from me some words like praying to
God: though I cannot say it was a prayer attended either with desires or
with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My
thoughts were confused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the
horror of dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapours in my head
with the mere apprehension: and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew not
what my tongue might express: but it was rather exclamation, such as,
"Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall
certainly die for want of help; and what will become of me?" Then the
tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In
this interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this
story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery. "Now,"
said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice
has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the
voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a station of life
wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it
myself, nor learn from my parents to know the blessing of it. I left
them to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it: I refused their help and assistance, who would have
pushed me in the world, and would have made every thing easy to me; and
now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature
itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no advice." Then I
cried out, "Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress." This was the
first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years. But I
return to my Journal.

_June 28._ Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror
of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague
would return again the next day, and now was my time to get something to
refresh and support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case-bottle with water; and set it upon my
table, in reach of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish
disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh,
and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about;
but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense
of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next
day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs; which I
roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell: and this was
the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, as I could
remember, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but
found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never
went out without that;) so I went but a little way, and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to
me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is
it produced? And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame,
human and brutal? Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by some secret
power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?
Then it followed most naturally, It is God that has made all. Well, but
then, it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, he guides
and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the power
that could make all things, must certainly have power to guide and
direct them: if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that I am here,
and am in this dreadful condition: and if nothing happens without his
appointment, he has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to
my thought, to contradict any of these conclusions: and therefore it
rested upon me with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God
had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole power, not
of me only, but of every thing that happens in the world. Immediately it
followed, Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used?
My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had
blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me like a voice, "Wretch! dost
_thou_ ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life,
and ask thyself, what thou hast _not_ done? Ask, why is it that thou
wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads; killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man of
war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned
_here_, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost _thou_ ask what
thou hast done?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer to myself; and,
rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went over my
wall, as if I bad been going to bed: but my thoughts were sadly
disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in the
chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the
apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it
occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured; and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt: for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz. the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took
out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I
had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I
took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor
whether it was good for it or not; but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a
piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such
as I had not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down:
and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close
over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it; as well for the heat,
as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up
the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these: "Call
on me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me." These words were very apt to my case; and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; for, as for being _delivered_, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in
my apprehension of things, that, as the children of Israel said when
they were promised flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?" so I began to say, Can even God himself deliver me from
this place? And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It now
grew late; and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much, that I
inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should
want any thing in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I
did what I never had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day of
trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was
over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down:
immediately upon this I went to bed. I found presently the rum flew up
into my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion, that I
slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after;
for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in
the days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if
I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the Line, I should have lost
more than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful:
when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but
continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something
like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so
much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke: however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of
July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit,
but it was not much.

_July 2._ I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

_July 3._ I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,
my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, "I will deliver thee;"
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of
my ever expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my
deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance
I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these, viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from
sickness; from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was
so frightful to me? and what notice have I taken of it? Have I done my
part? God has delivered me, but I have not glorified him; that is to
say, I have not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance: and
how can I expect a greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

_July 4._ In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed upon myself to read
awhile every morning and every night; not binding myself to the number
of chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not
long after I set seriously to this work, that I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of my dream revived; and the words, "All these things have
not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was
earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened
providentially, the very same day, that, reading the scripture, I came
to these words, "He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour; to give
repentance, and to give remission." I threw down the book; and with my
heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalted
Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!" This was the first time in all
my life I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed; for
now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture
view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of God: and from
this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, "Call on me, and I
will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever done
before; for then I had no notion of any thing being called
_deliverance_, but my being delivered from the captivity I was in: for
though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I
learned to take it in another sense: now I looked back upon my past life
with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all
my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much
as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no
consideration, in comparison with this. And I add this part here, to
hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense
of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction. But, leaving this part, I return to
my Journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of
living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by
constantly reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a
higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I
knew nothing of; also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred
me to furnish myself with every thing that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man
that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it is
hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced.
The application which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what
had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one to
practise, by this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in
my nerves and limbs for some time: I learned from it also this, in
particular; that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains
which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain
which came in the dry season was almost always accompanied with such
storms, so I found that this rain was much more dangerous than the rain
which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I
had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and
to see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey
of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I
brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up,
that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no more than a
little brook of running water, very fresh and good: but this being the
dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least,
not any stream. On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass: and on the
rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where the water as it
might be supposed, never overflowed,) I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a very great and strong stalk: and there were
divers other plants, which I had no knowledge of, or understanding
about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I
could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians,
in all that climate, make their bread of; but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and
goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little
observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants
in the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose
now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
the savannahs begin to cease, and the country become more woody than
before. In this part I found different fruits; and particularly I found
melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees:
the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the clusters of grapes
were now just in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising
discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them, but I was warned by my
experience to eat sparingly of them; remembering that when I was ashore
in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who
were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found,
however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry
them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept;
which I thought would be (as indeed they were) as wholesome and as
agreeable to eat, when no grapes were to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation;
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. At night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree,
where I slept well; and the next morning proceeded on my discovery,
travelling near four miles, as I might judge by the length of the
valley; keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and
north sides of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other
way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green, so
flourishing, every thing being in a constant verdure, or flourish of
spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on
the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of
pleasure (though mixed with other afflicting thoughts,) to think that
this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it,
I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, and orange, lemon, and
citron trees, but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit; at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to
eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water,
which made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now
I had business enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up
a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons to furnish myself for the
wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to this, I gathered a
great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place; and a
great parcel of limes and melons in another place; and, taking a few of
each with me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to come again, and
bring a bag or sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I
must now call my tent and my cave:) but before I got thither, the grapes
were spoiled; the richness of the fruits, and the weight of the juice,
having broken and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as
to the limes, they were good, but I could bring only a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags
to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming to my heap
of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here,
some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts which had done this, but what they
were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up in
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack; but that one way they would
be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight; I took another course: I then gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I
carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure
the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation;
the security from storms on that side; the water and the wood: and
concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode in, which was
by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to
consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally
safe as where I was now situate; if possible, in that pleasant fruitful
part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head; and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me: but when I came to
a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where
it was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage,
and, by the same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable, but
impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the month of July; and though,
upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above stated, not to remove; yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with
a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked, and filled between with brush-wood. Here I lay very secure,
sometimes two or three nights together; always going over it with a
ladder, as before: so that I fancied now I had my country and my
sea-coast house. This work took me up till the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when
the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation: for
though I had made a tent like the other, with a piece of sail, and
spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the
sun: so I began to take them down from the trees; and it was very happy
that I did so, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and
I should have lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain: and from
hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day
till the middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not
stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family. I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me,
or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me, because, about the end of August, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a
different kind from our European cats: yet the young cats were the same
kind of house-breed as the old one; and both of my cats being females, I
thought it very strange. But from these three, I afterwards came to be
so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or
wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day
killed a goat, and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus: I ate
a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of
the turtle, broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew any thing;) and two or three of the turtle's
eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards
one side, till I came to the outside of the hill; and made a door, or
way out, which came beyond my fence or wall: and so I came in and out
this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open: for as I had
managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I
thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.

_September_ 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast; setting
it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with
the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging
his righteous judgments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me
through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit
and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it.
I had all this time observed no sabbath-day; for as at first I had no
sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were: but
now having cast up the days, as above, I found I had been there a year;
so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a
sabbath: though I found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day or
two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink beginning to fail me, I
contented myself to use it more sparingly; and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum
of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to me,
and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but
I bought all my experience before I had it; and what I am going to
relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that I had made
at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley, and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found sprung up, as I thought, of
themselves. I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the
rains; the sun being in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly I dug a piece of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden
spade; and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but, as I was
sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all
at first, because I did not know when was the proper time for it; so I
sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each: and
it was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain
of what I sowed this time came to any thing; for the dry month
following, and the earth having thus had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all
till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been
but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily
imagined was from the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower,
and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox. This having the rainy month of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having only
part of the seed left, and not daring to sow all that I had, I got but a
small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck
of each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when was the proper time to sow; and that I might
expect two seed-times, and two harvests, every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was of use
to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began
to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower; where, though I had not been some months, yet I
found all things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I
had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut
out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out, and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first
year after lopping its head; but I could not tell what tree to call it
that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well
pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to
grow as much alike as I could: and it is scarce credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge made a
circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I
might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade,
sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to
cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling,) which I did; and
placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards
distance from my first fence, they grew presently; and were at first a
fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also;
as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the
dry seasons, which were generally thus: From the middle of February to
the middle of April, rainy; the sun being then on or near the equinox.
From the middle of April till the middle of August, dry; the sun being
then north of the line. From the middle of August till the middle of
October, rainy; the sun being then come back to the line. From the
middle of October till the middle of February, dry; the sun being then
to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and sometimes shorter, as the
winds happened to blow; but this was the general observation I made.
After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad
in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand,
that I might not be obliged to go out: and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment,
and very suitable also to the time; for I found great occasion for many
things which I had no way to furnish myself with, but by hard labour and
constant application: particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a
basket: but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle,
that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a
basketmaker's in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and
a great observer of the manner how they worked those things, and
sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, so that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came
into my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and
osiers, in England; and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day, I
went to my country house, as I called it; and cutting some of the
smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire:
whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a
quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These
I set up to dry within my circle or hedge; and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave: and here, during the next season, I
employed myself in making, as well as I could, several baskets; both to
carry earth, or to carry or lay up any thing as I had occasion for.
Though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose: and thus, afterwards, I took
care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made
more; especially strong deep baskets, to place my corn in, instead of
sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it,
I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two other wants. I
had no vessel to hold any thing that was liquid, except two runlets,
which were almost full of rum; and some glass bottles, some of the
common size, and others (which were case-bottles) square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil
anything; except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and
which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz. to make broth, and
stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I would fain have had,
was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible for me to make one; however, I
found a contrivance for that too at last. I employed myself in planting
my second row of stakes or piles, and also in this wicker-working, all
the summer or dry season; when another business took me up more time
than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the whole island; and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I had built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of
the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore, on
that side: so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual; with two biscuit-cakes, and a
great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for my store; I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within
view of the sea, to the west; and it being a very clear day, I fairly
descried land, whether an island or continent I could not tell; but it
lay very high, extending from W. to W.S.W. at a very great distance; by
my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be; otherwise than
that I knew it must be part of America; and, as I concluded, by all my
observations, must be near the Spanish dominions; and perhaps was all
inhabited by savages, where, if I should have landed, I had been in a
worse condition than I was now. I therefore acquiesced in the
dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe
ordered every thing for the best; I say, I quieted my mind with this,
and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this
land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see
some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the
savage coast between the Spanish country and the Brazils, whose
inhabitants are indeed the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or
men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all human beings that fall
into their hands.

With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward, I found this
side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter than mine; the open
or savannah fields sweetly adorned with flowers and grass, and full of
very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots; and fain would have caught
one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after taking some pains, catch a young parrot: for I knocked
it down with a stick, and, having recovered it, I brought it home: but
it was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last I
taught him to call me by my name very familiarly. But the accident that
followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I found in the low grounds
hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes: but they differed greatly
from all the other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy myself to
eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous:
for I had no want of food, and of that which was very good too;
especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or
tortoise. With these, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-Market could not
have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company; and
though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for
thankfulness; as I was not driven to any extremities for food; but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled on this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns, to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I
resolved to sit down for the night; and then I either reposed myself in
a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes, set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could
come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had
taken up my lot on the worst side of the island: for here indeed the
shore was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on the other side,
I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number of fowls of many kinds; some of which I had seen, and some of
which I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat; but such
as I knew not the names of, except those called Penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my
powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I
could, which I could better feed on. But though there were many goats
here, more than on my side the island, yet it was with much more
difficulty that I could come near them; the country being flat and even,
and they saw me much sooner than when I was upon a hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; yet I
had not the least inclination to remove; for as I was fixed in my
habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was
here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I
travelled along the sea-shore towards the east, I suppose about twelve
miles; and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I
concluded I would go home again; and that the next journey I took should
be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again: of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could
easily keep so much of the island in my view, that I could not miss my
first dwelling by viewing the country: but I found myself mistaken; for
being come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a
very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered
with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day. And it happened to my farther
misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or four days while I
was in this valley; and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about
very uncomfortable, and at last was obliged to find out the sea-side,
look for my post, and come back the same way I went; and then by easy
journies I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun,
ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey, my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it; and
running to take hold of it, I caught it, and saved it alive from the
dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could; for I had often
been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so
raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and
shot should be all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and
with a string which I had made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him; for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey,
without a settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my
own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me,
compared to that; and it rendered every thing about me so comfortable,
that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long
journey: during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty
affair of making a cage for my Pol, who began now to be more domestic,
and to be mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the
poor kid which I had penned within my little circle, and resolved to
fetch it home, or give it some food: accordingly I went, and found it
where I left it (for indeed it could not get out,) but was almost
starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches
of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I
tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being
hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a
dog: and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it was from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the
anniversary of my landing on the island; having now been there two
years, and no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came
there. I spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for
the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended
with, and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks to God for having been pleased to discover
to me, that it was possible I might be more happy even in this solitary
condition, than I should have been in the enjoyment of society, and in
all the pleasures of the world: that he could fully make up to me the
deficiencies of my solitary state, and the wont of human society, by his
presence, and the communications of his grace to my soul; supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon his providence here, and
to hope for his eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked,
cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days: and now I
changed both my sorrows and my joys: my very desires altered, my
affections changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from
what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the
country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me
on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the
woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner,
locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an
uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and
make me wring my hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take
me in the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh,
and look upon the ground for an hour or two together: this was still
worse to me; but if I could burst into tears, or give vent to my
feelings by words, it would go off; and my grief being exhausted,
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily read the
word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One
morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, "I will
never leave thee, nor forsake thee:" immediately it occurred that these
words were to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one
forsaken of God and man? "Well then," said I, "if God does not forsake
me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the
world should forsake me; seeing on the other hand, if I had all the
world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss?"

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible
for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it
was probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in
the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for
bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought and I durst not speak the words. "How canst thou
be such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to pretend to be thankful
for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented
with, thou wouldest rather pray heartily to be delivered from?" Here I
stopped: but though I could not say I thanked God for being here, yet I
sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting
providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my
very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England,
without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods; and for
assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of
my works this year as the first, yet in general it may be observed, that
I was very seldom idle; but having regularly divided my time, according
to the several daily employments that were before me; such as, first, My
duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day: secondly, Going abroad with my
gun for food, which generally took me up three hours every morning, when
it did not rain: thirdly, Ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what
I had killed or catched for my supply: these took up great part of the
day; also it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to
stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I
could be supposed to work in; with this exception, that sometimes I
changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to work in the
morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for want of
tools, want of help, and want of skill, every thing I did took up out of
my time: for example, I was full two and forty days making me a board
for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with
their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same
tree in half a day.

My case was this; it was a large tree which was to be cut down, because
my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days cutting down,
and two more in cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or
piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both
the sides of it into chips, till it was light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board, from end
to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both
sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece of work;
but labour and patience carried me through that, and many other things:
I only observe this in particular, to show the reason why so much of my
time went away with so little work, viz. that what might be a little to
be done with help and tools, was a vast labour, and required a
prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. Notwithstanding this, with
patience and labour I went through many things; and, indeed, every thing
that my circumstances made necessary for me to do, as will appear by
what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of
barley and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck, having lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but
now my crop promised very well; when, on a sudden, I found I was in
danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarce possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade,
lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close,
that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

I saw no remedy for this, but by making an enclosure about it with a
hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the more, because it
required speed. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my
crop, I got it tolerably well fenced in about three weeks' time; and
shooting some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it
in the night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand
and bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the
place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so
the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear: for
going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop
surrounded with fowls, I know not of how many sorts, who stood, as it
were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among them
(for I always had my gun with me;) I had no sooner shot, but there rose
up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the
corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would
devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to
raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not tell: however, I
resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it
night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage
was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that
as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great, but that
the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see
the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited
till I was gone away; and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked
off, as if gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropt
down, one by one, into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could
not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain
they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the
consequence; so coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three
of them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served them
as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz. hanged them in chains,
for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine that this should
have such an effect as it had; for the fowls not only never came to the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I
could never see a bird near the place as long as my scare-crows hung
there. This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down: and all I
could do was to make one as well as I could, out of one of the broad
swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship.
However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to
cut it down: in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the
ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so
rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I
found that out of my half peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice,
and above two bushels and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess,
for I had no measure.

However, this was great encouragement to me; and I foresaw that, in
time, it would please God to supply me with bread; and yet here I was
perplexed again; for I neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my
corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it; nor if made into meal, how
to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake
it: these things being added to my desire of having a good quantity for
store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of
this crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and,
in the mean tune, to employ all my study and hours of working to
accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a little
wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz.
the strange multitude of little things necessary in the providing,
producing, curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article
of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily
discouragement, and was made more sensible of it every hour, even after
I had got the first handful of seed-corn which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to dig
it: well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I observed
before; but this did my work but in a wooden manner; and though it cost
me a great many days to make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore
out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and performed it much
worse. However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with
patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When the corn
was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag
a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be
called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it was growing and grown, I
have observed already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it,
mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff,
and save it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; and yet all
these things I did without, as shall be observed; and the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to me: all this, as I said, made every
thing laborious and tedious to me, but that there was no help for;
neither was my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a
certain part of it, was every day appointed to these works; and as I
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity
by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and
invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all
the operations necessary for making corn fit for my use.

But now I was to prepare more land; for I had seed enough to sow above
an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's work at least to
make me a spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed,
and very heavy, and required double labour to work with it: however, I
went through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground,
as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in
with a good hedge; the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which
I had set before, and knew it would grow; so that, in one year's time, I
knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that would want but little
repair. This work took me up full three months; because a great part of
the time was in the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within
doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found
employment on the following occasions; always observing, that while I
was at work, I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching
him to speak; and I quickly learned him to know his own name, and at
last to speak it out pretty loud, Pol; which was the first word I ever
heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was
not my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a
great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some
means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which indeed I
wanted much, but knew not where to come at them: however, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any
clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun,
be hard and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold any thing that
was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in the
preparing corn, meal, &c. which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to
make some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold
what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how
many awkward ways I took to raise this pastil; what odd, misshapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay
not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many
fell in pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were
dried: and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the
clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I could
not make above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars)
in about two months' labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them
very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets,
which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as
between the pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I
stuffed it full of the rice and barley-straw; and these two pots being
to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made
several smaller things with better success; such as little round pots,
flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any thing my hand turned to; and
the heat of the sun baked them very hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to
hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It
happened some time after, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a
broken piece of one of my earthen-ware vessels in the fire, burnt as
hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it;
and said to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if
they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn some
pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of
glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I
placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one upon
another, and placed my fire-wood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside,
and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite
through, and observed that they did not crack at all: when I saw them
clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the
sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat,
and would have run into glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire
gradually, till the pots began to abate of the red colour; and watching
them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins, and two
other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired; and one of them
perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of
earthen-ware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them,
they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, as I had no way of
making them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make
pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I
found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had
hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one on the
fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did
admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth;
though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to make
it so good as I would have had it been.

My next concern was to get a stone mortar to stamp or beat some corn in;
for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection
of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great
loss; for, of all trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified
for a stonecutter, as for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go
about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough
to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar; but could find none at all,
except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut
out: nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of sufficient hardness,
as they were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which would neither bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling
it with sand: so, after a great deal of time lost in searching for a
stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out a great block of hard
wood, which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my axe
and hatchet; and then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made
a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After
this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called
iron-wood; and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my meal,
and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which I did not see
it possible I could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing,
even but to think on; for I had nothing like the necessary thing to make
it; I mean fine thin canvass or stuff, to searce the meal through. Here
I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do;
linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats'-hair, but
neither knew how to weave it nor spin it; and had I known how, here were
no tools to work it with: all the remedy I found for this was, at last
recollecting I had, among the seamen's clothes which were saved out of
the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin, with some pieces of these
I made three small sieves, proper enough for the work; and thus I made
shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should
make bread when I came to have corn: for, first, I had no yeast: as to
that part there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself
much about it; but for an oven I was indeed puzzled. At length I found
out an expedient for that also, which was this; I made some earthen
vessels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two feet
diameter, and not above nine inches deep: these I burned in the fire, as
I had done the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I
made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square
tiles, of my own making and burning also; but I should not call
them square.

When the fire-wood was burned into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there let them
lie till the hearth was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers, I
set down my loaf, or loaves, and covering them with the earthen pot,
drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to
the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley-loaves, and became, in a little time, a good pastry-cook into the
bargain; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; but
made no pies, as I had nothing to put into them except the flesh of
fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most part of
the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be observed, in the
intervals of these things, I had my new harvest and husbandry to manage:
I reaped my corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could,
and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub
it out; for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash
it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build
my barns bigger: I wanted a place to lay it up in; for the increase of
the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about twenty
bushels, and of rice as much, or more, insomuch that now I resolved to
begin to use it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great while:
I resolved also to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole
year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were
much more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a
quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran
many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other
side of the island; and I was not without some secret wishes that I was
on shore there; fancying, that seeing the main land, and an inhabited
country, I might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and
perhaps at last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a
condition, and that I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps
such as I might have reason to think far worse than the lions and tigers
of Africa; that if I once came in their power, I should run a hazard of
more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten;
for I had heard that the people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals,
or man-eaters; and I knew, by the latitude, that I could not be far off
from that shore. Then supposing they were not cannibals, yet that they
might kill me, as they had many Europeans who had fallen into their
hands, even when they have been ten or twenty together; much more I, who
was but one, and could makee little or no defence; all these things, I
say, which I ought to have considered well of, and did cast up in my
thoughts afterwards, took up none of my apprehensions at first; yet my
head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on
the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I thought I would go and
look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the
shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast away. She lay
nearly where she did at first, but not quite; having turned, by the
force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward, against a high
ridge of beachy rough sand; but no water about her, as before. If I had
had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her into the water,
the boat would have done very well, and I might have gone back into the
Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have foreseen, that I could
no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could
remove the island; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and
rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, and repair the
damage she had received, she would be a very good boat, and I might
venture to sea in her.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I
think, three or four weeks about it: at last, finding it impossible to
heave her up with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine her, and so as to make her fall down, setting pieces of
wood to thrust and guide her right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir her up again, or to get
under her, much less to move her forward towards the water; so I was
forced to give it over: and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the
boat, my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than
diminished, as the means for it seemed impossible.

At length, I began to think whether it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even
without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of a
great tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased
myself extremely with the idea of making it, and with my having much
more convenience for it than any of the Negroes or Indians; but not at
all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more
than the Indians did, viz. the want of hands to move it into the water
when it was made, a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all
the consequences of want of tools could be to them: for what could it
avail me, if, after I had chosen my tree, and with much trouble cut it
down, and might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into
the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so as to make a boat of it; if, after all this, I must leave it
just where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?

One would imagine, if I had had the least reflection upon my mind of my
circumstances while I was making this boat, I should have immediately
thought how I was to get it into the sea: but my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage in it, that I never once considered how I should get it
off the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to
guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than the forty-five fathoms of
land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did,
who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design,
without determining whether I was able to undertake it; not but that the
difficulty of launching my boat came often into my head; but I put a
stop to my own inquiries into it, by this foolish answer: Let me first
make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it along when
it is done.

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy
prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I question
much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the Temple
at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part
next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet, where it lessened, and then parted into branches. It
was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty
days hacking and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it, cut off: after
this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to
something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and
work it out so as to make an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed,
without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour,
till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it.
The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua,
that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost,
you may be sure; and there remained nothing but to get it into the
water; which, had I accomplished, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that
ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost
me inexpressible labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the
water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to
dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity: this I
begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains; (but who grudge pains
that have their deliverance in view?) when this was worked through, and
this difficulty managed, it was still much the same, for I could no more
stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured the distance
of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water up to
the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I
began this work; and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found by the number of hands I had, having none but my own, that it must
have been ten or twelve years before I could have gone through with it;
for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been at
least twenty feet deep; this attempt, though with great reluctancy, I
was at length obliged to give over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of
beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly
of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place, and
kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as
before; for, by a constant study and serious application to the word of
God, and by the assistance of his grace, I gained a different knowledge
from what I had before; I entertained different notions of things; I
looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do
with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a word, I
had nothing to do with it, nor was ever likely to have; I thought it
looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz. as, a place I had
lived in, but was come out of it; and well might I say, as father
Abraham to Dives, "Between me and thee is a great gulf fixed."

In the first place, I was here removed from all the wickedness of the
world; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the
pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now
capable of enjoying: I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I
might call myself king or emperor over the whole country which I had
possession of; there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to
dispute sovereignty or command with me: I might have raised
ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow
as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle enough,
but now and then one was as much as I could put to any use: I had timber
enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have
made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when
it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had enough to
eat and supply my wants, and what was the rest to me? If I killed more
flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or vermin; if I sowed more
corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down
were lying to rot on the ground; I could make no more use of them than
for fuel, and that I had no other occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just
reflection, that all the good things of this world, are of no farther
good to us than for our use; and that whatever we may heap up to give
others, we enjoy only as much as we can use, and no more. The most
covetous griping miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of
covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more
than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was for
things which I had not, and they were comparatively but trifles, though
indeed of great use to me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money,
as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there
the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay: I had no manner of business for
it; and I often thought within myself, that I would have given a handful
of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn;
nay, I would have given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot
seed from England, or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of
ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it, or benefit from it;
but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave
in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had
been the same case,--they had been of no manner of value to me because
of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much more comfortable in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand of
God's providence, which had thus spread my table in the wilderness: I
learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon
the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed, rather than what I
wanted: and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot
express them; and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented
people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given
them, because they see and covet something that he has not given them.
All our discontents about what we want, appeared to me to spring from
the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to
any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was,
to compare my present condition with what I at first expected it would
be; nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the good providence
of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up near to the
shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got
out of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot
for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, in
the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out
of the ship. I could not have so much as got any food, except fish and
turtles; and that, as it was long before I found any of them, I must
have perished; that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a
mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance,
I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the
bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it
with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to
me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships
and misfortunes: and this part also I cannot but recommend to the
reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to say, Is any
affliction like mine? Let them consider how much worse the cases of some
people are, and their case might have been, if Providence had
thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with
hopes; and this was comparing my present condition with what I had
deserved, and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of
Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the
knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by my father and
mother; neither had they been wanting to me, in their endeavours to
infuse an early religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty,
and what the nature and end of my being required of me. But, alas!
falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all lives, is the most
destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are always before them;
I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring
company, all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was
laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers,
and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long absence
from all manner of opportunities to converse with any thing but what was
like myself, or to hear any thing that was good, or tending towards it.

So void was I of every thing that was good, or of the least sense of
what I was, or was to be, that in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed
(such as my escape from Sallee, my being taken up by the Portuguese
master of a ship, my being planted so well in the Brazils, my receiving
the cargo from England, and the like,) I never had once the words, Thank
God, so much as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress
had I so much as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to say, Lord,
have mercy upon me! no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it was to
swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have
already observed, on account of my wicked and hardened life past; and
when I looked about me, and considered what particular providences had
attended me since my coming into this place, and how God had dealt
bountifully with me,--had not only punished me less than my iniquity had
deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me,--this gave me great
hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in
store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to a resignation
to the will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but
even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition; and that I, who was yet
a living man, ought not to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment
of my sins; that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have
expected in that place, that I ought never more to repine at my
condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily
bread, which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I
ought to consider I had been fed by a miracle, even as great as that of
feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series of miracles: and that I
could hardly have named a place in the uninhabitable part of the world
where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I
had no society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no
ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no
venomous or poisonous creatures which I might feed on to my hurt; no
savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a life of
sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing
to make it a life of comfort, but to make myself sensible of God's
goodness to me, and care over me in this condition; and after I did make
a just improvement of these things, I went away, and was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I brought on shore
for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all but a very
little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was
so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon the paper. As long
as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down the days of the month on
which any remarkable thing happened to me: and, first, by casting up
times past, I remember that there was a strange concurrence of days in
the various providences which befel me, and which, if I had been
superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might
have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from my
father and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the
same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man of war, and made a
slave: the same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of the
ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day-year afterwards I made my escape
from Sallee in the boat: and the same day of the year I was born on,
viz. the 30th of September, that same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island:
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on one day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread, I mean the
biscuit which I brought out of the ship; this I had husbanded to the
last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a
year; and yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got any
corn of my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at
all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to linen, I had none for a
great while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of
the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, because many times I
could bear no clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me
that I had, among all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three dozen
of shirts. There were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the
seamen's which were left, but they were too hot to wear: and though it
is true that the weather was so violently hot that there was no need of
clothes, yet I could not go quite naked, no, though I had been inclined
to it, which I was not, nor could I abide the thought of it, though, I
was all alone. The reason why I could not go quite naked was, I could
not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin: whereas,
with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and whistling under
the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more could I ever
bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or hat; the
heat of the sun beating with such violence as it does in that place,
would give me the head-ach presently, by darting so directly upon my
head, without a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if
I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had,
which I called clothes, into some order: I had worn out all the
waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make
jackets out of the great watch-coats that I had by me, and with such
other materials as I had; so I set to work a tailoring, or rather,
indeed; a botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made
shift to make two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me
a great while: as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift
indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned, that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I
killed, I mean four-footed ones; and I had hung them up, stretched out
with sticks, in the sun, by which means some of them were so dry and
hard that they were fit for little, but others I found very useful. The
first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hair
on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well,
that after this I made me a suit of clothes wholly of the skins, that is
to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose; for
they were rather wanting to keep me cool than warm. I must not omit to
acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad
carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made very
good shift with; and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair
of my waistcoat and cap being uppermost, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me an
umbrella: I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to
make one; I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they were very
useful in the great heats which are there; and I felt the heats every
jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox: besides,
as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as
well for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was
a great while before I could make any thing likely to hold; nay, after I
thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to
my mind; but at last I made one that answered indifferently well; the
main difficulty I found was to make it to let down: I could make it
spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was not portable
for me any way but just over my head, which would not do. However, at
last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with skins, the
hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept
off the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the
weather with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest; and
when I had no need of it, could close it, and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by
resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the
disposal of his providence. This made my life better than sociable; for
when I began to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself,
whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and, as I hope I
may say, with even God himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the
utmost enjoyment of human society in the world?

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing
happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture
and place, just as before; the chief things I was employed in, besides
my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my raisins,
of both which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of
one year's provision beforehand; I say, besides this yearly labour, and
my daily pursuit of going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make me
a canoe, which at last I finished: so that by digging a canal to it of
six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost
half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it
without considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able
to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the water, or bring
the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a
memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time: indeed, the next time,
though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I
could not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said,
near half a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave
it over: and though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged
my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was
not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the
first; I mean, of venturing over to the _terra firma_, where it was
above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted
to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had
a boat, my next design was to make a cruise round the island; for as I
had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already
described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in that little
journey made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and now I
had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do every thing with discretion and
consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to
it out of some of the pieces of the ship's sails which lay in store, and
of which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and
tried the boat, I found she would sail very well: then I made little
lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions,
necessaries, ammunition, &c. into, to be kept dry, either from rain or
the spray of the sea; and a little long hollow place I cut in the inside
of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over
it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand
over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and
thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but never
went far out, nor far from the little creek. At last, being eager to
view the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise;
and accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two
dozen of loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of,) a
little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for killing more,
and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I mentioned before, I had
saved out of the seamen's chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the
other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my
captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found
it much longer than I expected; for though the island itself was not
very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a great
ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some above water,
some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league
more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double
the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise,
and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back again; so I came to
an anchor; for I had made me a kind of an anchor with a piece of a
broken grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up on
a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent
of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a
strong, and indeed a most furious current, which ran to the east, and
even came close to the point; and I took the more notice of it, because
I saw there might be some danger, that when I came into it, I might be
carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the
island again: and, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe
it would have been so; for there was the same current on the other side
the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there
was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out
of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at
E.S.E. and that being just contrary to the said current, made a great
breach of the sea upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep
too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off because of
the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-night, the
sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning piece again to all
rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I
was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found myself in a
great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill; it
carried my boat along with it with such violence, that all I could do
could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried
me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand.
There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do with my
paddles signified nothing: and now I began to give myself over for lost;
for as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few
leagues distance they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably
gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no
prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm
enough, but of starving for hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the
shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat;
and I had a great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen
pots; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where,
to be sure, there was no shore, no main land or island, for a thousand
leagues at least?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make even the
most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back upon my
desolate solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world; and
all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again. I
stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes: "O happy desert!" said
I, "I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I
going!" Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how I
had repined at my solitary condition; and now what would I give to be on
shore there again! Thus we never see the true state of our condition
till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value
what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarce possible to imagine
the consternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for
so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues,
and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked
hard, till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as
much to the northward, that is, towards the side of the current which
the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed
the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially
when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this
time I was got at a frightful distance from the island, and had the
least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way
too; for I had no compass on board, and should never have known how to
have steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it; but
the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again,
and spread my sail, standing away to the north as much as possible, to
get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away,
I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current
was near; for where the current was so strong, the water was foul; but
perceiving the water clear, I found the current abate; and presently I
found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some
rocks: these rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the
main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made
a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a very
sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the
ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such-like extremities, may guess what my present surprise
of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this eddy;
and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running
cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly
towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward than the
current which carried me away at first: so that when I came near the
island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it, that is to say,
the other end of the island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the help of this
current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther.
However, I found that being between two great currents, viz. that on the
south side, which had hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay
about a league on the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and
having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly
for the island, though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o'clock in the evening, being then within a league of the
island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster,
stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and casting
off the current more southerly, had, of course, made another eddy to the
north, and this I found very strong, but not directly setting the way my
course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a
fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west: and, in
about an hour, came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my
deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
boat; and refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat
close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied under some trees,
and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue
of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat: I had run
so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it
by the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the
west side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures; so I
only resolved in the morning to make my way westward along the shore,
and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in
safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles,
or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay,
about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet
or brook, where I found a very convenient harbour for my boat, and where
she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on purpose for her.
Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore, to
look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been
before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of
my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceeding hot, I began my
march. The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been
upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found every
thing standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being,
as I said before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade, to rest my limbs,
for I was very weary, and fell asleep: but judge you, if you can, that
read my story, what a surprise I must be in, when I was awaked out of my
sleep by a voice, calling me by my name several times, "Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe; poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are
you? Where have you been!"

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling,
as it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking the latter
part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but dozing between sleeping and
waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me; but as the voice
continued to repeat Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe, at last I began to wake
more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up
in the utmost consternation; but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw
my Pol sitting on the top of the hedge; and immediately knew it was he
that spoke to me; for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk
to him, and teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly, that he would
sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, "Poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been? How came you here?"
and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could
be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself.
First, I was amazed how the creature got thither, and then, how he
should just keep about the place, and no where else: but as I was well
satisfied it could be nobody but honest Pol, I got over it; and holding
out my hand, and calling him by his name, Pol, the sociable creature
came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do and continued
talking to me, Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I come here? and where had
I been? just as if he had been overjoyed to see me again: and so I
carried him home along with me.

I now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to do
for many days, to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in.
I would have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the
island; but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the
east side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough
there was no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very
blood run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I did not know how it might be there; but supposing the current
ran with the same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it
on the other, I might run the same risk of being driven down the stream,
and carried by the island, as I had been before of being carried away
from it; so, with these thoughts, I contented myself to be without any
boat, though it had been the product of so many months' labour to make
it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year, lived a very
sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being
very much composed, as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning
myself to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very
happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my
necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I could, upon
occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how
few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-ware,
and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found
infinitely easier and better; because I made things round and shapable,
which before were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I was
never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for any thing I
found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and though it
was a very ugly clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like
other earthen-ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the
smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been always used
to smoke: and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first,
not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when
I searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes at all.

In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and made abundance of necessary
baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome,
yet they were such as were very handy and convenient for my laying
things up in, or fetching things home. For example, if I killed a goat
abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in
pieces, and bring it home in a basket; and the like by a turtle: I could
cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was
enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest
behind me. Also large deep baskets were the receivers of my corn, which
I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in
great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; this was a want
which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to
say, how I should do to kill any goats. I had, as is observed, in the
third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and
I was in hopes of getting a he-goat: but I could not by any means bring
it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I could never find in
my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said,
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive;
and particularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young. For this
purpose, I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they were more
than once taken in them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire,
and I always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length I
resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits in the earth, in
places where I had observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits
I placed hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the
trap; and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten
up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length I set
three traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found them all
standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone; this was very discouraging.
However, I altered my traps; and, not to trouble you with particulars,
going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a large old
he-goat, and in one of the others three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce, I
durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about to bring
him away alive, which was what I wanted: I could have killed him, but
that was not my business, nor would it answer my end; so I even let him
out, and he ran away, as if he had been frightened out of his wits. But
I did not then know what I afterwards learnt, that hunger will tame a
lion. If I had let him stay there three or four days without food, and
then have carried him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he
would have been as tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty
sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time:
then I went to the three kids, and taking them one by one, I tied them
with strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them some sweet
corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found that
if I expected to supply myself with goat's flesh when I had no powder or
shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might
have them about my house like a flock of sheep. But then it occurred to
me, that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always
run wild when they grew up: and the only way for this was, to have some
enclosed piece of ground, well fenced, either with hedge or pale, to
keep them in so effectually, that those within might not break out, or
those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet as I saw there
was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first work was to find out a
proper piece of ground, where there was likely to be herbage for them
to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very little
contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for all these
(being a plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah, as our people
call it in the western colonies,) which had two or three little drills
of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody; I say, they will
smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them, I began my enclosing this
piece of ground in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have been
at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to the
compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time enough
to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so
much compass as if they had had the whole island, and I should have so
much room to chase them in, that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe about fifty yards, when
this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the
first beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece of about 150 yards in
length, and 100 yards in breadth; which, as it would maintain as many as
I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could
add more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I
was about three months hedging in the first piece; and, till I had done
it, I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to
feed as near me as possible, to make them familiar; and very often I
would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and
feed them out of my hand: so that after my enclosure was finished, and I
let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating after me for
a handful of corn.

This answered my end; and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more, I had three and
forty, besides several that I took and killed for my food. After that I
enclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens
to drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece
of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat's flesh to feed on
when I pleased, but milk too; a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I
did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts,
was really an agreeable surprise: for now I set up my dairy, and had
sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as nature, who gives
supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make
use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen
butter or cheese made, only when I was a boy, after a great many essays
and miscarriages, made me both butter and cheese at last, and also salt
(though I found it partly made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon
some of the rocks of the sea,) and never wanted it afterwards. How
mercifully can our Creator treat his creatures, even in those conditions
in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can he
sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us cause to praise him for
dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread for me in a
wilderness, where I saw nothing, at first, but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a stoic smile, to have seen me and my little family
sit down to dinner: there was my majesty, the prince and lord of the
whole island; I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command;
I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away; and no rebels among
all my subjects. Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants! Pol, as if he had been my favourite, was the
only person permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown very old
and crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat
always at my right hand; and two cats, one on one side of the table, and
one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark
of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for
they were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by
my own hand; but one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind
of creature, these were two which I had preserved tame; whereas the rest
run wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last; for
they would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at last I
was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they
left me.--With this attendance, and in this plentiful manner, I lived;
neither could I be said to want any thing but society: and of that, some
time after this, I was like to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my
boat, though very loth to run any more hazards; and therefore sometimes
I sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I
sat myself down contented enough without her. But I had a strange
uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I
have said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore
lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had to do: this
inclination increased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to
travel thither by land, following the edge of the shore. I did so; but
had any one in England been to meet such a man as I was, it must either
have frightened him, or raised a great deal of laughter: and as I
frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the
notion of my travelling through Yorkshire, with such an equipage, and in
such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows:

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap
hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck: nothing being so hurtful in these
climates as the rain upon the flesh, under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the
breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the
middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a
pair of somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like buskins, to
flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes: but of a
most barbarous shape, as inded were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew together with
two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog on
either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw
and a hatchet; one on one side, and one on the other. I had another
belt, not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my
shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches,
both made of goat's skin too; in one of which hung my powder, in the
other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, and on my shoulder my
gun; and over my head a great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella, but
which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me, next to
my gun. As for my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living
within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered
to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both
scissars and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short, except what
grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee; for the Moors
did not wear such, though the Turks did: of these mustachios or
whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them,
but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as, in
England, would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence; so I say no more to
that part. In this kind of figure I went my new journey, and was out
five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks;
and having no boat now to take care of, I went over the land, a nearer
way, to the same height that I was upon before; when looking forward to
the point of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to double
with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised to see the sea all
smooth and quiet; no rippling, no motion, no current, any more there
than in any other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this,
and resolved to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing
from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently
convinced how it was, viz. that the tide of ebb setting from the west,
and joining with the current of waters, from some great river on the
shore, must be the occasion of this current; and that according as the
wind blew more forcibly from the west, or from the north, this current
came nearer, or went farther from the shore; for waiting thereabouts
till evening, I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb
being made, I plainly saw the current again as before, only that it ran
farther off, being near half a league from the shore; whereas in my
case, it set close upon the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along
with it; which, at another time, it would not have done.

This observation convinced me, that I had nothing to do but to observe
the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my
boat about the island again: but when I began to think of putting it in
practice, I had such a terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the
danger I had been in, that I could not think of it again with any
patience; but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was
more safe, though more laborious; and this was, that I would build, or
rather make me another periagua or canoe; and so have one for one side
of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations
in the island; one, my little fortification or tent, with the wall about
it, under the rock, with the cave behind me, which, by this time, I had
enlarged into several apartments or caves, one within another. One of
these, which was the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my
wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to
the rock, was all filled up with the large earthen pots, of which I have
given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which
would hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of
provision, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the
straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles
grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so
very much, that there was not the least appearance, to any one's view,
of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and
upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly
cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its
season: and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land
adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat; and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also: for, first, I had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair; that is to say, I kept the hedge which
encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
standing always in the inside: I kept the trees, which at first were no
more than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, always cut
so, that they might spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more
agreeable shade; which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of
this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over
poles, set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or
renewing; and under this I had made me a squab or couch, with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things; and a blanket
laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved,
and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion to
be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my
goats; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and
enclose this ground, I was so anxious to see it kept entire, lest the
goats should break through, that I never left off, till, with infinite
labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes,
and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and
there was scarce room to put a hand through between them; which
afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy
season, made the enclosure strong like a wall,--indeed, stronger
than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains
to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support;
for I considered the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my
hand would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for
me as long as I lived in the place, if it were to be forty years; and
that keeping them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my
enclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure of keeping them
together; which, by this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so very
thick, that I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended
on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve
very carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet:
and indeed they were not only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome,
nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the
place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my
way thither; for I used frequently to visit my boat; and I kept all
things about, or belonging to her, in very good order: sometimes I went
out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go,
nor scarce ever above a stone's cast or two from the shore, I was so
apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents
or winds, or any other accident. But now I come to a new scene of
my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was
exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the shore,
which was very plain to be seen in the sand. I stood like one
thunder-struck, or as if I had seen an apparition; I listened, I looked
round me, but I could hear nothing, nor see any thing; I went up to a
rising ground, to look farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore,
but it was all one; I could see no other impression but that one. I went
to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might
not be my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was exactly
the print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot: how it came
thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine; but, after
innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out
of myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the
ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree: looking behind me at
every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying
every stump at a distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe
how many various shapes my affrighted imagination represented things to
me in, how many wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what
strange unaccountable whimsies came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this,) I
fled into it like one pursued; whether I went over by the ladder, as
first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which I had called
a door, I cannot remember; no, nor could I remember the next morning;
for never frightened hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more
terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my
fright, the greater my apprehensions were; which is something contrary
to the nature of such things, and especially to the usual practice of
all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with my own frightful
ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to
myself, even though I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it
must be the Devil, and reason joined in with me upon this supposition;
for how should any other thing in human shape come into the place? Where
was the vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any other
footsteps? And how was it possible a man should come there? But then to
think that Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place, where
there could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of
his foot behind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not
be sure I should see it,--this was an amusement the other way. I
considered that the Devil might have found out abundance of other ways
to have terrified me than this of the single print of a foot; that as I
lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never have been so
simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one
whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the
first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely:
all this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the
notions we usually entertain of the subtilty of the Devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all
apprehensions of its being the Devil; and I presently concluded then,
that it must be some more dangerous creature, viz. that it must be some
of the savages of the main land over against me, who had wandered out to
sea in their canoes, and either driven by the currents or by contrary
winds, had made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate
island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful
in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that
time, or that they did not see my boat, by which they would have
concluded that some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps have
searched farther for me: then terrible thoughts racked my imagination
about their having found my boat, and that there were people here; and
that if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater numbers,
and devour me; that if it should happen so that they should not find me,
yet they would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away
all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence
in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of
his goodness, as if he that had fed me by miracle hitherto could not
preserve, by his power, the provision which he had made for me by his
goodness. I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any
more corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as if
no accident would intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was
upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved
for the future to have two or three years' corn beforehand; so that
whatever might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man! and by what
secret different springs are the affections hurried about, as different
circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we
seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear,
nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of; this was exemplified in me,
at this time, in the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only
affliction was that I seemed banished from human society, that I was
alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I called silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven
thought not worthy to be numbered among the living, or to appear among
the rest of his creatures; that to have seen one of my own species would
have seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and the greatest
blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation,
could bestow; I say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehensions
of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow
or silent appearance of a man's having set his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a great many
curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my first
surprise. I considered that this was the station of life the infinitely
wise and good providence of God had determined for me; that as I could
not foresee what the ends of divine wisdom might be in all this, so I
was not to dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was his creature, had an
undoubted right, by creation, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as
he thought fit; and who, as I was a creature that had offended him, had
likewise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment he thought
fit; and that it was my part to submit to bear his indignation, because
I had sinned against him. I then reflected, that as God, who was not
only righteous, but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to punish and
afflict me, so he was able to deliver me; that if he did not think fit
to do so, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and
entirely to his will; and, on the other hand, it was my duty also to
hope in him, pray to him, and quietly to attend the dictates and
directions of his daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say, weeks and
months; and one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I
cannot omit: One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with
thoughts about my danger from the appearances of savages, I found it
discomposed me very much; upon which these words of the Scripture came
into my thoughts, "Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." Upon this, rising cheerfully
out of my bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and
encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done
praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words
that presented to me were, "Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and
he shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord." It is
impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully
laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it
came into my thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of
my own, and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I
came on shore from my boat: this cheered me up a little too, and I began
to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but
my own foot: and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as
I was going that way to the boat? Again, I considered also, that I could
by no means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and where I had not;
and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had
played the part of those fools who try to make stories of spectres and
apparitions, and then are frightened at them more than any body.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not
stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to
starve for provisions; for I had little or nothing within doors but some
barley-cakes and water: then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked
too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the poor creatures were
in great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost
spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk. Encouraging
myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print
of one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to start at my own
shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-house to milk
my flock: but to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked
behind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket,
and run for my life, it would have made any one have thought I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly
frightened; and so, indeed, I had. However, as I went down thus two or
three days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and
to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I
could not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the
shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and
see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it
was my own foot: but when I came to the place, first, it appeared
evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be on
shore any where thereabouts: secondly, when I came to measure the mark
with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both
these things filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me the
vapours again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like one
in an ague; and I went home again, filled with the belief that some man
or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island was
inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware; and what course
to take for my security I knew not.

O what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It
deprives them of the use of those means which reason offers for their
relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was, to throw down my
enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods, lest the
enemy should find them, and then frequent the island in prospect of the
same or the like booty: then to the simple thing of digging up my two
corn fields, lest they should find such a grain there, and still be
prompted to frequent the island: then to demolish my bower and tent,
that they might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to
look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night's cogitataions after I was
come home again, while the apprehensions which had so over-run my mind
were fresh upon me, and my head was full of vapours, as above. Thus fear
of danger is ten thousand times more terrifying than danger itself, when
apparent to the eyes; and we find the burthen of anxiety greater, by
much, than the evil which we are anxious about: and, which was worse
than all this, I had not that relief in this trouble from the
resignation I used to practise, that I hoped to have. I looked, I
thought, like Saul, who complained not, only that the Philistines were
upon him, but that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways
to compose my mind, by crying to God in my distress, and resting upon
his providence, as I had done before, for my defence and deliverance;
which, if I had done, I had at least been more cheerfully supported
under this new surprise, and perhaps carried through it with more

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night; but in the
morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amusement of my mind, been, as
it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and
waked much better composed than I had ever been before. And now I began
to think sedately; and, upon the utmost debate with myself, I concluded
that this island, which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no
farther from the main land than as I had seen, was not so entirely
abandoned as I might imagine; that although there were no stated
inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes come
boats off from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but
when they were driven by cross winds, might come to this place; that I
had lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with the least shadow
or figure of any people yet; and that if at any time they should be
driven here, it was probable they went away again as soon as ever they
could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion;
that the most I could suggest any danger from, was from any casual
accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was
likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills, so
they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed;
seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of
the tides and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to
do but to consider of some safe retreat, in case I should see any
savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring
a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my
fortification joined to the rock: upon maturely considering this,
therefore, I resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the same
manner of a semi-circle, at a distance from my wall, just where I had
planted a double row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made
mention: these trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted
but few piles to be driven between them, that they might be thicker and
stronger, and my wall would be soon finished: so that I had now a double
wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables,
and every thing I could think of, to make it strong; having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside
of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, with continually
bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall,
and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant
the muskets, of which I took notice that I had got seven on shore out of
the ship; these I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames,
that held them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven guns
in two minutes' time: this wall I was many a weary month in finishing,
and yet never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great
length every way, as full with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like
wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand; insomuch,
that I believe I might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a
pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might have room to
see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if
they attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years'
time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so monstrous thick and
strong, that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no men, of what
kind soever, would ever imagine that there was any thing beyond it, much
less a habitation. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in
and out (for I left no avenue,) it was by setting two ladders, one to a
part of the rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to
place another ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down,
no man living could come down to me without doing himself mischief; and
if they had come down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own
preservation; and it will be seen, at length, that they were not
altogether without just reason; though I foresaw nothing at that time
more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs;
for I had a great concern upon me for my little herd of goats; they were
not only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and began to be
sufficient for me, without the expense of powder and shot, but also
without the fatigue of hunting after the wild ones; and I was loth to
lose the advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up
over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two
ways to preserve them: one was, to find another convenient place to dig
a cave under ground, and to drive them into it every night; and the
other was, to enclose two or three little bits of land, remote from one
another, and as much concealed as I could, where I might keep about half
a dozen young goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened to
the flock in general, I might be able to raise them again with little
trouble and time: and this, though it would require a great deal of time
and labour, I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the
island; and I pitched upon one, which was as private, indeed, as my
heart could wish for: it was a little damp piece of ground, in the
middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost
lost myself once before, endeavouring to come back that way from the
eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near
three acres, so surrounded with woods, that it was almost an enclosure
by nature; at least, it did not want near so much labour to make it so
as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground, and in less than a
month's time I had so fenced it round, that my flock, or herd, call it
which you please, who were not so wild now as at first they might be
supposed to be, were well enough secured in it: so, without any farther
delay, I removed ten young she-goats and two he-goats to this piece;
and when they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had
made it as secure as the other; which, however, I did at more leisure,
and it took me up more time by a great deal. All this labour I was at
the expense of, purely from my apprehensions on the account of the print
of a man's foot which I had seen; for, as yet, I never saw any human
creature come near the island; and I had now lived two years under this
uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable than it
was before, as may be well imagined by any who know what it is to live
in the constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must observe, with
grief too, that the discomposure of my mind had too great impressions
also upon the religious part of my thoughts: for the dread and terror of
falling into the hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits,
that I seldom found myself in a due temper for application to my Maker,
at least not with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I
was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under great affliction and
pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation every night
of being murdered and devoured before morning; and I must testify from
my experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and
affection, is much the more proper frame for prayer than that of terror
and discomposure; and that under the dread of mischief impending, a man
is no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty of praying to
God, than he is for a repentance on a sick bed; for these discomposures
affect the mind, as the others do the body; and the discomposure of the
mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body, and
much greater; praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not
of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living
stock, I went about the whole island, searching for another private
place to make such another deposit; when, wandering more to the west
point of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I
thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance. I had found a
perspective-glass or two in one of the seamen's chests, which I saved
out of our ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so remote, that
I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes
were not able to hold to look any longer: whether it was a boat or not,
I do not know, but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of
it; so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective-glass in my pocket. When I was come down the hill to the end
of the island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I was presently
convinced that the seeing the print of a man's foot was not such a
strange thing in the island as I imagined: and, but that it was a
special providence that I was cast upon the side of the island where the
savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing was more
frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a
little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for
harbour: likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the
victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this
shore, where, according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals,
they would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the
S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is
it possible for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore
spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and
particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a
circle dug in the earth, like a cock-pit, where I supposed the savage
wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of
their fellow creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained
no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: all my
apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman,
hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature,
which, though I had heard of it often, yet I never had so near a view of
before: in short, I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle; my
stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature
discharged the disorder from my stomach; and having vomited with
uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay
in the place a moment; so I got me up the hill again with all the speed
I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still
awhile, as amazed, and then recovering myself, I looked up with the
utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave
God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the world where I
was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as these; and that,
though I had esteemed my present condition very miserable, had yet given
me so many comforts in it, that I had still more to give thanks for than
to complain of: and this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable
condition, been comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of
His blessing; which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to
all the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be
much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was
before: for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in
search of what they could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not
expecting, any thing here; and having often, no doubt, been up in the
covered, woody part of it, without finding any thing to their purpose. I
knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps of human creature there before; and I might be eighteen years
more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to
them, which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only business
to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a better
sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I
entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been
speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and
eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close
within my own circle, for almost two years after this; when I say my
own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz. my castle, my
country-seat, which I called my bower, and my enclosure in the woods:
nor did I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure for my
goats; for the aversion which nature gave me to these hellish wretches
was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing the Devil
himself. I did not so much as go to look after my boat all this time,
but began rather to think of making me another; for I could not think of
ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the island
to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in which
if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would
have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of
being discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about
them; and I began to live just in the same composed manner as before;
only with this difference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes
more about me, than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any
of them; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest
any of them being on the island should happen to hear it. It was
therefore a very good providence to me that I had furnished myself with
a tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about the
woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them after this, it
was by traps and snares, as I had done before: so that for two years
after this, I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never went
out without it; and, which was more, as I had saved three pistols out
of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least two of them,
sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I also furbished up one of the great
cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on
also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went
abroad, if you add to the former description of myself, the particular
of two pistols, and a great broad-sword hanging at my side in a belt,
but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, excepting
these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm sedate way of living.
All these things tended to show me, more and more, how far my condition
was from being miserable, compared to some others; nay, to many other
particulars of life, which it might have pleased God to have made my
lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be among
mankind at any condition of life, if people would rather compare their
condition with those that were worse, in order to be thankful, than be
always comparing them with those which are better, to assist their
murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I
wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these
savage wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation,
had taken off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences; and I
had dropped a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts too much
upon, and that was, to try if I could not make some of my barley into
malt, and then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical
thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it; for I
presently saw there would be the want of several things necessary to the
making my beer, that it would be impossible for me to supply: as, first,
casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed
already, I could never compass; no, though I spent not only many days,
but weeks, nay, months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no
copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet, with all these things
wanting, I verily believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages intervened, I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought
it to pass too; for I seldom gave any thing over without accomplishing
it, when once I had it in my head to begin it. But my invention now ran
quite another way; for, night and day, I could think of nothing but how
I might destroy some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody
entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they should bring
hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this whole work
is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these creatures, or at
least frightening them so as to prevent their coming hither any more:
but all this was abortive; nothing could be possible to take effect,
unless I was to be there to do it myself: and what could one man do
among them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them
together, with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where they made
their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which, when
they kindled their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up all
that was near it: but as, in the first place, I should be unwilling to
waste so much powder upon them, my store being now within the quantity
of one barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any
certain time, when it might surprise them; and, at best, that it would
do little more than just blow the fire about their ears, and fright
them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place: so I laid it
aside; and then proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some
convenient place, with my three guns all double-loaded, and, in the
middle of their bloody ceremony, let fly at them, when I should be sure
to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot; and then falling in
upon them with my three pistols, and my sword, I made no doubt but that
if there were twenty I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my
thoughts for some weeks; and I was so full of it, that I often dreamed
of it, and sometimes that I was just going to let fly at them in my
sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed myself
several days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as I
said, to watch for them; and I went frequently to the place itself,
which was now grown more familiar to me: but while my mind was thus
filled with thoughts of revenge, and a bloody putting twenty or thirty
of them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the place,
and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring one another,
abetted my malice. Well, at length, I found a place in the side of the
hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of
their boats coming: and might then, even before they would be ready to
come on shore, convey myself, unseen, into some thickets of trees, in
one of which there was a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely and
there I might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full
aim at their heads, when they were so close together as that it would be
next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail
wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In this place, then, I
resolved to fix my design; and, accordingly, I prepared two muskets and
my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of
slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of
pistol-bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of
swan-shot, of the largest size: I also loaded my pistols with about four
bullets each; and in this posture, well provided with ammunition for a
second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and, in my imagination,
put it in practice, I continually made my tour every morning up to the
top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I called it, about three
miles, or more, to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea, coming
near the island, or standing over towards it: but I began to tire of
this hard duty, after I had, for two or three months, constantly kept
my watch, but came always back without any discovery; there having not,
in all that time, been the least appearance, not only on or near the
shore, but on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses could reach
every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I
kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the
while in a suitable form for so outrageous an execution as the killing
twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence which I had not at all
entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any farther than my
passions were at first fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural
custom of the people of that country; who, it seems, had been suffered
by Providence, in his wise disposition of the world, to have no other
guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated passions; and,
consequently, were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act
such horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but
nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish
degeneracy, could have run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I
began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which I had made so long
and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of the action itself
began to alter; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to
consider what I was going to engage in; what authority or call I had to
pretend to be judge and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom
Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go
on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of his judgments one upon
another. How far these people were offenders against me, and what right
I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed
promiscuously upon one another, I debated this very often with myself,
thus: How do I know what God himself judges in this particular case? It
is certain these people do not commit this as a crime; it is not against
their own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching them; they
do not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in defiance of
divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit. They think it
no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war, than we do to kill an
ox; nor to eat human flesh, than we do to eat mutton.

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was
certainly in the wrong in it; that these people were not murderers in
the sense that I had before condemned them in my thoughts, any more than
those Christians were murderers who often put to death the prisoners
taken in battle; or more frequently, upon many occasions, put whole
troops of men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw
down their arms and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me,
that although the usage they gave one another was thus brutish and
inhuman, yet it was really nothing to me; these people had done me no
injury: that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary, for my
immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something might be said for
it; but that I was yet out of their power, and they really had no
knowledge of me, and consequently no design upon me; and therefore it
could not be just for me to fall upon them: that this would justify the
conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practised in America,
where they destroyed millions of these people: who, however they were
idolaters and barbarians, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in
their customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were
yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent people; and that the rooting
them out of the country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and
detestation by even the Spaniards themselves at this time, and by all
other Christian nations in Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody and
unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and for
which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and
terrible to all people of humanity, or of Christian compassion; as if
the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the produce of a race
of men who were without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels
of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of generous
temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind of a full
stop; and I began, by little and little, to be off my design, and to
conclude I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to attack the
savages; and that it was not my business to meddle with them, unless
they first attacked me; and this it was my business, if possible, to
prevent; but that if I were discovered and attacked by them, I knew my
duty. On the other hand, I argued with myself, that this really was the
way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy myself; for
unless I was sure to kill every one that not only should be on shore at
that time, but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one of
them escaped to tell their country-people what had happened, they would
come over again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and
I should only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which, at
present, I had no manner of occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded,
that neither in principle nor in policy, I ought, one way or other, to
concern myself in this affair: that my business was, by all possible
means, to conceal myself from them, and not to leave the least signal to
them to guess by that there were any living creatures upon the island, I
mean of human shape. Religion joined in with this prudential resolution;
and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty
when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent
creatures, I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes they were guilty
of towards one another, I had nothing to do with them; they were
national, and I ought to leave them to the justice of God, who is the
governor of nations, and knows how, by national punishments, to make a
just retribution for national offences, and to bring public judgments
upon those who offend in a public manner, by such ways as best please
him. This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater
satisfaction to me than that I had not been suffered to do a thing which
I now saw so much reason to believe would have been no less a sin than
that of wilful murder, if I had committed it; and I gave most humble
thanks on my knees to God, that had thus delivered me from
blood-guiltiness; beseeching him to grant me the protection of his
providence, that I might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or
that I might not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call
from Heaven to do it, in defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and so far
was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in
all that time I never once went up the hill to see whether there were
any of them in sight, or to know whether any of them had been on shore
there or not, that I might not be tempted to renew any of my
contrivances against them, or be provoked, by any advantage which might
present itself, to fall upon them: only this I did, I went and removed
my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it
down to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little
cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason
of the currents, the savages durst not, at least would not come, with
their boats, upon any account whatever. With my boat I carried away
every thing that I had left there belonging to her, though not necessary
for the bare going thither, viz. a mast and sail which I had made for
her, and a thing like an anchor, but which, indeed, could not be called
either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I could make of its
kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the least shadow of
any discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any human
habitation, upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said,
more retired than ever, and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my
constant employment, viz. to milk my she-goats, and manage my little
flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was quite out of danger; for certain it is, that these savage
people, who sometimes haunted this island, never came with any thoughts
of finding any thing here, and consequently never wandered off from the
coast; and I doubt not but they might have been several times on shore
after my apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well as before.
Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts of what my
condition would have been if I had chopped upon them and been discovered
before that, when, naked and unarmed, except with one gun, and that
loaded often only with small shot, I walked every where, peeping and
peering about the island to see what I could get; what a surprise should
I have been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man's foot, I had,
instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing
me, and by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escaping
them! The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul within me, and
distressed my mind so much, that I could not soon recover it, to think
what I should have done, and how I should not only have been unable to
resist them, but even should not have had presence of mind enough to do
what I might have done; much less what now, after so much consideration
and preparation, I might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking
of these things, I would be very melancholy, and sometimes it would last
a great while; but I resolved it all, at last, into thankfulness to that
Providence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and had
kept from me those mischiefs which I could have no way been the agent in
delivering myself from, because I had not the least notion of any such
thing depending, or the least supposition of its being possible. This
renewed a contemplation which often had come to my thoughts in former
time, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in
the dangers we run through in this life; how wonderfully we are
delivered when we know nothing of it; how, when we are in a quandary,
(as we call it) a doubt or hesitation, whether to go this way, or that
way, a secret hint shall direct us this way, when we intended to go that
way: nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business, has
called to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind, from
we know not what springs, and by we know not what power, shall over-rule
us to go this way; and it shall afterwards appear, that had we gone that
way which we should have gone, and even to our imagination ought to have
gone, we should have been ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like
reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever
I found those secret hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing
any thing that presented, or going this way or that way, I never failed
to obey the secret dictate; though I knew no other reason for it than
that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I could give
many examples of the success of this conduct in the course of my life,
but more especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy
island; besides many occasions which it is very likely I might have
taken notice of, if I had seen with the same eyes then that I see with
now. But it is never too late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all
considering men, whose lives are attended with such extraordinary
incidents as mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight
such secret intimations of Providence, let them come from what invisible
intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot
account for; but certainly they are a proof of the converse of spirits,
and a secret communication between those embodied and those unembodied,
and such a proof as can never be withstood; of which I shall have
occasion to give some very remarkable instances in the remainder of my
solitary residence in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess that
these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that
was now upon me, put an end to all invention, and to all the
contrivances that I had laid for my future accommodations and
conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now upon my hands than
that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I might make should be heard: much less would I
fire a gun, for the same reason: and, above all, I was intolerably
uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great
distance in the day, should betray me. For this reason I removed that
part of my business which required fire, such as burning of pots and
pipes, &c. into my new apartment in the woods; where, after I had been
some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave
in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say, no
savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to venture
in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like me, wanted
nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where by
mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe
all such things now to Providence,) I was cutting down some thick
branches of trees to make charcoal; and before I go on, I must observe
the reason of my making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of
making a smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and yet I could
not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &c.; so I
contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under
turf, till it became chark, or dry coal: and then putting the fire out,
I preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the other services for
which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by the
by:--While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that behind a
very thick branch of low brush-wood, or under-wood, there was a kind of
hollow place: I was curious to look in it, and getting with difficulty
into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large: that is to say,
sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps another with me:
but I must confess to you that I made more haste out than I did in,
when, looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I
saw two broad shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew
not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave's mouth
shining directly in, and making the reflection. However, after some
pause, I recovered myself, and began to call myself a thousand fools,
and to think, that he that was afraid to see the devil was not fit to
live twenty years in an island all alone; and that I might well think
there was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself. Upon
this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed
again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not gone three steps in,
but I was almost as much frightened as I was before; for I heard a very
loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a
broken noise, as of words half-expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I
stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise, that it put me
into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not answer
for it, that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still plucking up
my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself a little with
considering that the power and presence of God was every where, and was
able to protect me, upon this I stepped forward again, and by the light
of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying on
the ground a most monstrous, frightful, old he-goat just making his
will, as we say, and gasping for life; and dying, indeed, of mere old
age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with
myself he might even lie there; for if he had frightened me, so he would
certainly fright any of the savages, if any one of them should be so
hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when I
found the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about
twelve feet over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor square,
no hands having ever been employed in making it but those of mere
Nature. I observed also that there was a place at the farther side of it
that went in further, but was so low that it required me to creep upon
my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not: so
having no candle, I gave it over for that time; but resolved to come
again the next day, provided with candles and a tinder-box, which I had
made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some wild fire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my
own making (for I made very good candles now of goats' tallow, but was
hard set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and
sometimes the dried rind of a weed like nettles;) and going into this
low place, I was obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost
ten yards; which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough,
considering that I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it.
When I had got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I
believe near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen in
the island, I dare say, as it was, to look round the sides and roof of
this vault or cave; the wall reflected an hundred thousand lights to me
from my two candles. What it was in the rock, whether diamonds, or any
other precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it to be, I
knew not. The place I was in was a most delightful cavity or grotto of
its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry
and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there
was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any
damp or wet on the sides or roof: the only difficulty in it was the
entrance; which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a
retreat as I wanted, I thought that was a convenience; so that I was
really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to
bring some of those things which I was most anxious about to this place;
particularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all
my spare arms, viz. two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all, and
three muskets, for of them I had eight in all: so I kept at my castle
only five, which stood ready-mounted, like pieces of cannon, on my
outmost fence; and were ready also to take out upon any expedition. Upon
this occasion of removing my ammunition, I happened to open the barrel
of powder, which I took up out of the sea, and which had been wet; and I
found that the water had penetrated about three or four inches into the
powder on every side, which, caking, and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kernel in the shell; so that I had near sixty pounds of
very good powder in the centre of the cask: this was a very agreeable
discovery to me at that time; so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me in my castle, for
fear of a surprise of any kind: I also carried thither all the lead I
had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants, which were said to
live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them; for
I persuaded myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were
to hunt me, they could never find me out; or, if they did, they would
not venture to attack me here. The old goat, whom I found expiring, died
in the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this discovery: and I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and
cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to
prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island; and
was so naturalized to the place, and the manner of living, that could I
have but enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place
to disturb me, I could have been content to have capitulated for
spending the rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had
laid me down and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived
to some little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass a
great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before: as, first, I had
taught my Pol, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly,
and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me;
for I believe no bird ever spoke plainer; and he lived with me no less
than six and twenty years: how long he might have lived afterwards I
know not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they
live a hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant and loving companion to
me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old
age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that
degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep
them from devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the two old
ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time continually
driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they
all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which I
kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned; and
these were part of my family. Besides these, I always kept two or three
household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had
two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call Robin
Crusoe, but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with
any of them that I had done with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls,
whose names I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and cut their
wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle wall
being now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among
these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so
that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I
led, if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages. But it
was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for all people who shall
meet with my story, to make this just observation from it, viz. How
frequently, in the course of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek
most to shun, and which, when we are, fallen into, is the most dreadful
to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into. I
could give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life;
but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the
circumstances of my last years of solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third
year; and this, being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call
it,) was the particular time of my harvest, and required my being pretty
much abroad in the fields: when going out pretty early in the morning,
even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a
light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two
miles, towards the end of the island where I had observed some savages
had been, as before, and not on the other side; but, to my great
affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within
my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised, and yet I had
no more peace within, from the apprehensions I had that if these
savages, in rambling over the island, should find my corn standing or
cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would immediately
conclude that there were people in the place, and would then never give
over till they had found me out. In this extremity, I went back directly
to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things without
look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence:
I loaded all my cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my muskets,
which were mounted upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and
resolved to defend myself to the last gasp; not forgetting seriously to
commend myself to the divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to
deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. I continued in this
posture about two hours; and began to be mighty impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After sitting
awhile longer, and musing what I should do in this, I was not able to
bear sitting in ignorance any longer; so setting up my ladder to the
side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before,
and then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again, and mounted
to the top of the hill; and pulling out my perspective-glass, which I
had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground, and
began to look for the place. I presently found there were no less than
nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they had made, not to
warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of human
flesh, which they had brought with them, whether alive or dead, I
could not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up upon the shore;
and as it was then tide of ebb, they seemed to me to wait for the return
of the flood to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion
this sight put me into, especially seeing them come on my side of the
island, and so near me too; but when I considered their coming must be
always with the current of the ebb, I began, afterwards, to be more
sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety
all the time of the tide of flood, if they were not on shore before: and
having made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest-work with
the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made to the
westward, I saw them all take boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it)
away. I should have observed, that for an hour or more before they went
off, they went a dancing; and I could easily discern their postures and
gestures by my glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest observation,
but that they were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon
them; but whether they were men or women, I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon my
shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side,
without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able to make, went away
to the hill where I had discovered the first appearance of all; and as
soon as I got thither, which was not in less than two hours (for I could
not go apace, being so loaden with arms as I was,) I perceived there had
been three canoes more of savages at that place; and looking out
farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over for the main.
This was a dreadful sight to me, especially as, going down to the shore,
I could see the marks of horror, which the dismal work they had been
about had left behind it, viz. the blood, the bones, and part of the
flesh, of human bodies, eaten and devoured by those wretches with
merriment and sport. I was so filled with indignation at the sight, that
I now began to premeditate the destruction of the next that I saw there,
let them be whom or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that the
visits which they made thus to this island were not very frequent, for
it was above fifteen months before any more of them came on shore there
again; that is to say, I neither saw them; nor any footsteps or signals
of them, in all that time; for, as to the rainy seasons, then they are
sure not to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while I lived
uncomfortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions of their coming
upon me by surprise: from whence I observe, that the expectation of evil
is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there is no room to
shake off that expectation, or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humour, and took up most of
my hours, which should have been better employed, in contriving how to
circumvent and fall upon them, the very next time I should see them;
especially if they should be divided, as they were the last time, into
two parties: nor did I consider at all, that if I killed one party,
suppose ten or a dozen, I was still the next day, or week, or month, to
kill another, and so another, even _ad infinitum_, till I should be at
length no less a murderer than they were in being man-eaters, and
perhaps much more so. I spent my days now in great perplexity and
anxiety of mind, expecting that I should, one day or other, fall into
the hands of these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time
venture abroad, it was not without looking round me with the greatest
care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd of goats; for I
durst not, upon any account, fire my gun, especially near that side of
the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages; and
if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again, with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them, in a few days, and then I
knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found them again,
as I shall soon observe. It is true, they might have been there once or
twice, but either they made no stay, or at least I did not see them: but
in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four and
twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with them; of which in
its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen months'
interval, was very great; I slept unquiet, dreamed always frightful
dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the night: in the day great
troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the night, I dreamed often of
killing the savages, and of the reasons why I might justify the doing of
it. But, to wave all this for a while.--It was in the middle of May, on
the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would
reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it was on the
sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind all day, with a
great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after
it. I knew not what was the particular occasion of it, but as I was
reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my
present condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a
different nature from any I had met with before; for the notions this
put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the
middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and mounting it the
second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of
fire bid me listen for a second gun, which accordingly, in about half a
minute, I heard; and, by the sound, knew that it was from that part of
the sea where I was driven down the current in my boat. I immediately
considered that this must be some ship in distress, and that they had
some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired these guns for
signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of mind, at
that minute, to think, that though I could not help them, it might be
they might help me: so I brought together all the dry wood I could get
at hand, and making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the
hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burnt fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was any
such thing as a ship, they must needs see it, and no doubt they did; for
as soon as ever my fire blazed up I heard another gun, and after that
several others, all from the same quarter, I plied my fire all night
long, till daybreak; and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up,
I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not with my glass;
the distance was so great, and the weather still something hazy also; at
least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did
not move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and
being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand,
and ran towards the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had
formerly been carried away with the current; and getting up there, the
weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my
great sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those
concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my boat; and which
rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream, and made a kind of
counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in, all my life.
Thus, what is one man's safety is another man's destruction; for it
seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their knowledge, and
the rocks being wholly under water, had been driven upon them in the
night, the wind blowing hard at E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I
must necessarily suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have
endeavoured to have saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat;
but their firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts: first, I imagined that
upon seeing my light, they might have put themselves into their boat,
and endeavoured to make the shore; but that the sea going very high,
they might have been cast away: other times I imagined that they might
have lost their boat before, as might be the case many ways; as,
particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many
times obliges men to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes
to throw it overboard with their own hands: other times I imagined they
had some other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of
distress they had made, had taken them up and carried them off: other
times I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being
hurried away by the current that I had been formerly in, were carried
out into the great ocean, where there was nothing but misery and
perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by this time think of starving,
and of being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was
in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of the poor men, and
pity them; which had still this good effect on my side, that it gave me
more and more cause to give thanks to God, who had so happily and
comfortably provided for me in my desolate condition; and that of two
ships' companies who were now cast away upon this part of the world, not
one life should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe,
that it is very rare that the providence of God casts us into any
condition of life so low, or any misery so great, but we may see
something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in worse
circumstances than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of
whom I could not so much as see room to suppose any of them were saved;
nothing could make it rational so much as to wish or expect that they
did not all perish there, except the possibility only of their being
taken up by another ship in company; and this was but mere possibility
indeed, for I saw not the least sign or appearance of any such thing. I
cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a strange longing
or hankering of desires I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out
sometimes thus: "O that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one
soul, saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might but
have had one companion, one fellow-creature to have spoken to me, and to
have conversed with!" In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt
so earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures,
or so deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which, when they
are set a going by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet
rendered present to the mind by the power of imagination, that motion
carries out the soul, by its impetuosity, to such violent, eager
embracings of the object, that the absence of it is insupportable. Such
were these earnest wishings that but one man had been saved. I believe I
repeated the words, "O that it had been but one!" a thousand times; and
my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words my hands
would clinch together, and my fingers would press the palms of my
hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my hand, it would have
crushed it involuntarily; and the teeth in my head would strike
together, and set against one another so strong, that for some time I
could not part them again. Let the naturalists explain these things, and
the reason and manner of them: all I can say to them is, to describe the
fact, which was even surprising to me, when I found it, though I knew
not from whence it proceeded: it was doubtless the effect of ardent
wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realizing the comfort
which the conversation of one of my fellow-christians would have been to
me.--But it was not to be; either their fate or mine, or both, forbade
it: for, till the last year of my being on this island, I never knew
whether any were saved out of that ship or no; and had only the
affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on
shore at the end of the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no
clothes on but a seaman's waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers,
and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as to guess
what nation he was of: he had nothing in his pockets but two
pieces-of-eight and a tobacco-pipe;--the last was to me of ten times
more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that might
be useful to me: but that did not altogether press me so much as the
possibility that there might be yet some living creature on board, whose
life I might not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my
own to the last degree; and this thought clung so to my heart, that I
could not be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on
board this wreck; and committing the rest to God's providence, I thought
the impression was so strong upon my mind that it could not be resisted,
that it must come from some invisible direction, and that I should be
wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle,
prepared every thing for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great
pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had
still a great deal of that left,) and a basket of raisins: and thus,
loading myself with every thing necessary, I went down to my boat, got
the water out of her, put her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and
then went home again for more. My second cargo was a great bag of rice,
the umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another large pot of
fresh water, and about two dozen of my small loaves, or barley-cakes,
more than before, with a bottle of goat's milk and a cheese: all which,
with great labour and sweat, I carried to my boat; and praying to God to
direct my voyage, I put out; and rowing, or paddling, the canoe along
the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the island on the
north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either
to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran
constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were
very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in
before, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was
driven into either of those currents, I should be carried a great way
out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or sight of the island again;
and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind
should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my
enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore,
I stepped out, and sat me down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive
and anxious, between fear and desire, about my voyage; when, as I was
musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come
on; upon which my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this,
presently it occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of
ground I could find, and observe, if I could how the sets of the tide,
or currents, lay when the flood came in, that I might judge whether, if
I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be driven another way
home, with the same rapidness of the currents. This thought was no
sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which
sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear
view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was to guide
myself in my return. Here I found, that as the current of the ebb set
out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the flood
set in close by the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to
do but to keep to the north side of the island in my return, and I
should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set
out with the first of the tide; and reposing myself for the night in my
canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first
made a little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit
of the current, which set eastward, and which carried me at a great
rate; and yet did not so hurry me as the current on the south side had
done before, so as to take from me all government of the boat; but
having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went at a great rate directly
for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up to it. It was a
dismal sight to look at: the ship, which, by its building, was Spanish,
stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks; all the stern and quarter of
her were beaten to pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle, which
stuck in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast and
foremast were brought by the board, that is to say, broken short off;
but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm. When I
came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried; and as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to
come to me; I took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with
hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it
like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the snow: I
then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would
have let him, he would have burst himself. After this, I went on board;
but the first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or
forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I
concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in
a storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that the
men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant
rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been under water.
Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had life; nor
any goods, that I could see, but what were spoiled by the water. There
were some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay
lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see;
but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I
believed belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the
boat, without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been
fixed, and the fore-part broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a
good voyage; for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to
suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may
guess from the course she steered, she must have been bound from Buenos
Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the
Brazils, to the Havanna, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain.
She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time,
to any body; and what became of her crew, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about
twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There
were several muskets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about
four pounds of powder in it; as for the muskets, I had no occasion for
them, so I left them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fireshovel and
tongs, which I wanted extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron: and with this cargo, and
the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island again,
weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night in the boat;
and in the morning I resolved to harbour what I had got in my new cave,
and not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got all
my cargo on shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of
liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at the
Brazils, and, in a word, not at all good; but when I came to open the
chests, I found several things of great use to me: for example, I found
in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with
cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about three pints
each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top, that the salt
water had not hurt them; and two more of the same, which the water had
spoiled. I found some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me;
and about a dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths; the former were also very welcome, being exceeding
refreshing to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to
the till in the chest, I found there three great bags of
pieces-of-eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in
one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some
small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all weigh near a
pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little value; but,
by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner's mate; though
there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder, in
three small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces
on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was
of any use to me; for, as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for
it; it was to me as the dirt under my feet; and I would have given it
all for three or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were
things I greatly wanted, but had none on my feet for many years. I had
indeed got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two
drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more in one of
the chests, which were very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, either for ease or service, being rather what we call
pumps than shoes. I found in this seaman's chest about fifty
pieces-of-eight in rials, but no gold: I suppose this belonged to a
poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer. Well,
however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had
done that before which I brought from our own ship: but it was a great
pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship had not come to my
share; for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times
over with money; and, thought I, if I ever escape to England, it might
lie here safe enough till I may come again and fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back
to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old
harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old
habitation, where I found every thing safe and quiet. I began now to
repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of my family
affairs; and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only that I was more
vigilant than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so
much; and if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always to
the east part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the
savages never came, and where I could go without so many precautions,
and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I
went the other way. I lived in this condition near two years more; but
my unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born to make my
body miserable, was all these two years filled with projects and
designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this island:
for, sometimes I was for making another voyage to the wreck, though my
reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the hazard of my
voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another; and I believe
verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have
ventured to sea, bound any where, I knew not whither. I have been, in
all my circumstances, a _memento_ to those who are touched with the
general plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one half of their
miseries flow; I mean that of not being satisfied with the station
wherein God and nature hath placed them: for, not to look back upon my
primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the
opposition to which was, as I may call it, my _original sin_, my
subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been the means of my coming
into this miserable condition; for had that Providence, which so happily
seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me with confined desires,
and I could have been contented to have gone on gradually, I might have
been, by this time, I mean in the time of my being in this island, one
of the most considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I am persuaded,
that by the improvements I had made in that little time I lived there,
and the increase I should probably have made if I had remained, I might
have been worth a hundred thousand moidores: and what business had I to
leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and
increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience
and time would have so increased our stock at home, that we could have
bought them at our own door from those whose business it was to fetch
them? and though it had cost us something more, yet the difference of
that price was by no means worth saving at so great a hazard. But as
this is usually the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of
it is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought
experience of time: so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the
mistake taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my
station, but was continually poring upon the means and possibility of my
escape from this place: and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the
reader, bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be improper
to give some account of my first conceptions on the subject of this
foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what foundation I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late voyage to
the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my
condition restored to what it was before; I had more wealth, indeed,
than I had before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no more use
for it than the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four and
twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude, I
was lying in my bed, or hammock, awake; very well in health, had no
pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of mind,
more than ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as
to sleep; no, not a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows:--It
is impossible to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this
night's time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or
by abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and also
of that part of my life since I came to this island. In my reflections
upon the state of my case since I came on shore on this island, I was
comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my
habitation here, compared to the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which
I had lived in, ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand;
not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island even
all the while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times on
shore there; but I had never known it, and was incapable of any
apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger
was the same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had
never really been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many
very profitable reflections, and particularly this one: How infinitely
good that Providence is, which has provided, in its government of
mankind, such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of things; and
though he walks in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of
which, if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink his
spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having the events of things hid
from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came to reflect
seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this
very island, and how I had walked about in the greatest security, and
with all possible tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow
of a hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of night, had been
between me and the worst kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into
the hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me with the
same view as I would on a goat or a turtle, and have thought it no more
a crime to kill and devour me, than I did of a pigeon or curlew. I would
unjustly slander myself, if I should say I was not sincerely thankful to
my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with
great humility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and without
which I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in
considering the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages,
and how it came to pass in the world, that the wise Governor of all
things should give up any of his creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to
something so much below even brutality itself, as to devour its own
kind: but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations,
it occurred to me to inquire, what part of the world these wretches
lived in? how far off the coast was, from whence they came? what they
ventured over so far from home for? what kind of boats they had? and why
I might not order myself and my business so, that I might be as able to
go over thither as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with
myself when I went thither; what would become of me, if I fell into the
hands of the savages; or how I should escape from them, if they attacked
me; no, nor so much as how it was possible for me to reach the coast,
and not be attacked by some or other of them, without any possibility of
delivering myself; and if I should not fall into their hands, what I
should do for provision, or whither I should bend my course: none of
these thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly
bent upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the main land. I
looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that could
possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into any thing, but
death, that could be called worse; and if I reached the shore of the
main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did
on the African shore, till I came to some inhabited country, and where I
might find some relief; and after all, perhaps, I might fall in with
some Christian ship that might take me in; and if the worst came to the
worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these miseries at
once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an
impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the long continuance of
my troubles, and the disappointments I had met in the wreck I had been
on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining what I so earnestly
longed for, viz. somebody to speak to, and to learn some knowledge from
them of the place where I was, and of the probable means of my
deliverance. I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of
mind, in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the
dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it were,
no power to turn my thoughts to any thing but to the project of a voyage
to the main; which came upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity
of desire, that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such
violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as
if I had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary fervour of my
mind about it, nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the
very thought of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought
I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of any thing relating
to it: out I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning, as usual,
from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages
coming to land, and that they brought with them another savage, whom
they were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the
savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life;
and I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick
grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him
alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him that way, showed
myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged him: that he kneeled
down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed him my
ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became my
servant: and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself, "Now
I may certainly venture to the main land; for this fellow will serve me
as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for
provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being devoured; what
places to venture into, and what to shun." I waked with this thought;
and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of
my escape in my dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming
to myself, and finding that it was no more than a dream, were equally
extravagant the other way, and threw me into a very great dejection
of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion; that my only way to go about
to attempt an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my
possession; and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners whom
they had condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill. But
these thoughts still were attended with this difficulty, that it was
impossible to effect this without attacking a whole caravan of them, and
killing them all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and
might miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the
lawfulness of it to myself; and my heart trembled at the thoughts of
shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not
repeat the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the
same mentioned before: but though I had other reasons to offer now, viz.
that those men were enemies to my life, and would devour me if they
could; that it was self-preservation, in the highest degree, to deliver
myself from this death of a life, and was acting in my own defence as
much as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say, though
these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for
my deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means
reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at last, after many
secret disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about it (for
all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head a long
time,) the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all
the rest; and I resolved, if possible, to get one of those savages into
my hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to contrive how to do
it, and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on: but as I could
pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon
the watch, to see them when they came on shore, and leave the rest to
the event; taking such measures as the opportunity should present, let
what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as
often as possible, and indeed so often, that I was heartily tired of it;
for it was above a year and a half that I waited; and for great part of
that time went out to the west end, and to the south-west corner of the
island, almost every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This
was very discouraging, and began to trouble me much; though I cannot say
that it did in this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the
edge of my desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed,
the more eager I was for it: in a word, I was not at first so careful to
shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by them, as I was
now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one,
nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely
slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their
being able at any time to do me any hurt. It was a great while that I
pleased myself with this affair; but nothing still presented; all my
fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near me for a
great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long
musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an
occasion to put them into execution,) I was surprised, one morning
early, with seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together on my
side the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed, and out
of my sight. The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so
many, and knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more,
in a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures, to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay still in
my castle, perplexed and discomforted: however, I put myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action, if any thing had presented. Having waited a good
while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very
impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to
the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; standing so, however,
that my head did not appear above the hill, so that they could not
perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help of my
perspective-glass, that they were no less than thirty in number; that
they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had
cooked it I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I
know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way,
round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two
miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were
laid by, and were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of
them immediately fall, being knocked down, I suppose, with a club or
wooden sword, for that was their way, and two or three others were at
work immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the other
victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him.
In that very moment, this poor wretch seeing himself a little at
liberty, and unbound, nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he
started away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the
sands, directly towards me, I mean towards that part of the coast where
my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when
I perceived him run my way, and especially when, as I thought, I saw him
pursued by the whole body: and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove:
but I could not depend, by any means, upon my dream for the rest of it,
viz. that the other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him
there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover, when
I found that there was not above three men that followed him; and still
more was I encouraged when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly
in running, and gained ground of them; so that if he could but hold it
for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I mentioned often
in the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the
ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor
wretch would be taken there: but when the savage escaping came thither,
he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but plunging in,
swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran on
with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to
the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third could
not, and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the others, but
went no farther, and soon after went softly back again; which, as it
happened, was very well for him in the end. I observed, that the two who
swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the creek as the
fellow was that fled from them. It came now very warmly upon my
thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to get me a
servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant, and that I was called
plainly by Providence to save this poor creature's life. I immediately
ran down the ladders with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns,
for they were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed above, and
getting up again, with the same haste, to the top of the hill, I crossed
towards the sea, and having a very short cut, and all down hill, placed
myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud
to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first, perhaps, as much
frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come
back; and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced towards the two that
followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down
with the stock of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would not have
the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have been easily
heard, and being out of sight of the smoke too, they would not have
easily known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I
advanced apace towards him: but as I came nearer, I perceived presently
he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was
then necessitated to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at
the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw
both his enemies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened
with the fire and noise of my piece, that he stood stock-still, and
neither came forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather inclined
still to fly, than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and made signs
to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little way; then
stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could
then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner,
and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to
him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement
that I could think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down
every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for saving his
life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to
come still nearer: at length he came close to me; and then he kneeled
down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and
taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up, and made much
of him, and encouraged him all I could. But there was more work to do
yet; for I perceived the savage whom I knocked down was not killed, but
stunned with the blow, and began to come to himself: so I pointed to
him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke
some words to me, and though I could not understand them, yet I thought
they were pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a man's
voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years.
But there was no time for such reflections now; the savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the ground, and
I perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I
presented my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him: upon this
my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my
sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner
had it, but he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow, cut off his head so
cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better;
which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never
saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however,
it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will cut off heads
even with them, aye, and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had
done this, he comes laughing to me, in sign of triumph, and brought me
the sword again, and with abundance of gestures, which I did not
understand, laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had
killed, just before me. But that which astonished him most, was to know
how I killed the other Indian so far off: so pointing to him, he made
signs to me to let him go to him; so I bade him go, as well as I could.
When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning
him first on one side, then on the other, looked at the wound the bullet
had made, which, it seems, was just in his breast, where it had made a
hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled
inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came
back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them. Upon this, he made signs
to me that he should bury them with sand, that they might not be seen by
the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so.
He fell to work; and, in an instant, he had scraped a hole in the sand
with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him
into it, and covered him; and did so by the other also: I believe he had
buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I
carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther
part of the island: so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part,
viz. that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and
a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was
indeed in great distress for, by his running; and having refreshed him,
I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place
where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to
sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and went
to sleep.

He was a comely handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight
strong limbs, not too large, tall, and well shaped; and, as I reckon,
about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a
fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his
face; and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of an European in
his countenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair was long and
black, not curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a
great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his
skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow,
nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of
America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive colour, that had in it
something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face was
round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the Negroes; a very good
mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke
again, and came out of the cave to me, for I had been milking my goats,
which I had in the enclosure just by: when he espied me, he came
running to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the
possible signs of an humble thankful disposition, making a great many
antic gestures to show it. At last, he lays his head flat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he
had done before; and after this, made all the signs to me of subjection,
servitude, and submission, imaginable, to let me know how he would serve
me so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him
know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak
to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I let him know his
name should be FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life: I called him
so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say Master; and
then let him know that was to be my name: I likewise taught him to say
Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an
earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in
it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept
there with him all that night; but as soon as it was day, I beckoned to
him to come with me, and let him know I would give him some clothes; at
which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the
place where he had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place,
and showed me the marks that he had made to find them again, making
signs to me that we should dig them up again, and eat them. At this I
appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would
vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come
away; which he did immediately, with great submission. I then led him up
to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and pulling out
my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had been, but
no appearance of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were
gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more courage,
and consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving
him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I
found he could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me,
and I two for myself; and away we marched to the place where these
creatures had been; for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence
of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins,
and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the spectacle; indeed, it
was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made
nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground dyed
with their blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there,
half-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the
triumphant feast they had been making there, after a victory over their
enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four
legs and feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday,
by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four prisoners
to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing
to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle between
them and their next king, whose subject, it seems, he had been one of,
and that they had taken a great number of prisoners; all which were
carried to several places by those who had taken them in the fight, in
order to feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon those
they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever
remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make a great fire upon
it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering
stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature;
but I discovered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at
the least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it: for I had, by
some means, let him know, that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there I fell to
work for my man Friday: and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen
drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner's chest I mentioned, which I
found in the wreck; and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very
well: and then I made him a jerkin of goat's-skin, as well as my skill
would allow (for I was now grown a tolerable good tailor;) and I gave
him a cap, which I made of hare's-skin, very convenient and fashionable
enough: and thus he was clothed for the present, tolerably well, and was
mighty well pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master.
It is true, he went awkwardly in these clothes at first; wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him; and the sleeves of the waistcoat
galled his shoulders, and the inside of his arms; but a little easing
them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, he
took to them at length very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider
where I should lodge him; and that I might do well for him, and yet be
perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place
between my two fortifications, in the inside of the last and in the
outside of the first. As there was a door or entrance there into my
cave, I made a formal framed door case, and a door to it of boards, and
set it up in the passage, a little within the entrance; and causing the
door to open in the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my
innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting over that it
must needs waken me; for my first wall had now a complete roof over it
of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the
hill; which was again laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths,
and then thatched over a great thickness with the rice-straw, which was
strong, like reeds; and at the hole or place which was left to go in or
out by the ladder, I had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had
been attempted on the outside, would not have opened at all, but would
have fallen down, and make a great noise: as to weapons, I took them all
into my side every night. But I needed none of all this precaution; for
never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant, than Friday was
to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like those of a child to a
father; and I dare say, he would have sacrificed his life for the saving
mine, upon any occasion whatsoever: the many testimonies he gave me of
this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me that I needed to use no
precautions, as to my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with wonder, that
however it had pleased God, in his providence, and in the government of
the works of his hands, to take from so great a part of the world of his
creatures the best uses to which their faculties and the powers of their
souls are adapted, yet that he has bestowed upon them the same powers,
the same reason, the same affections, the same sentiments of kindness
and obligation, the same passions and resentments of wrongs, the same
sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing
good, and receiving good, that he has given to us; and that when he
pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready,
nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which they were
bestowed, than we are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in
reflecting, as the several occasions presented, how mean a use we make
of all these, even though we have these powers enlightened by the great
lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of his word
added to our understanding; and why it has pleased God to hide the like
saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge
by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it than we did.
From hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the sovereignty of
Providence, and as it were arraign the justice of so arbitrary a
disposition of things, that should hide that light from some, and reveal
it to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but I shut it up,
and checked my thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not
know by what light and law these should be condemned; but that as God
was necessarily, and, by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and
just, so it could not be, but if these creatures were all sentenced to
absence from himself, it was on account of sinning against that light,
which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules
as their consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the foundation
was not discovered to us; and, secondly, That still, as we all are the
clay in the hand of the potter, no vessel could say to him, "Why hast
thou formed me thus?"

But to return to my new companion:--I was greatly delighted with him,
and made it my business to teach him every thing that was proper to make
him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially to make him speak, and
understand me when I spoke: and he was the aptest scholar that ever was;
and particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be so easy,
that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe from more
savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from the place where
I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought
that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and
from the relish of a cannibal's stomach, I ought to let him taste other
flesh; so I took him out with me one morning to the woods. I went,
indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home
and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the
shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of
Friday;--Hold, said I; stand still; and made signs to him not to stir:
immediately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids. The
poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage,
his enemy, but did not know, nor could imagine, how it was done, was
sensibly surprised, trembled and shook, and looked so amazed, that I
thought he would have sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or
perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to feel whether
he was not wounded; and, as I found presently, thought I was resolved to
kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees,
said a great many things I did not understand; but I could easily see
the meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and
taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which
I had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did: and
while he was wondering, and looking to see how the creature was killed,
I loaded my gun again. By and by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk,
sitting upon a tree, within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little
what I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which
was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I say,
pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground under the
parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him understand that
I would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him
look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one
frightened again, notwithstanding all I had said to him; and I found he
was the more amazed, because he did not see me put any thing into the
gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful fund of death and
destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or any thing
near or far off; and the astonishment this created in him was such, as
could not wear off for a long time; and I believe, if I would have let
him, he would have worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he
would not so much as touch it for several days after; but he would speak
to it, and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by
himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to
kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this, I
pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
staid some time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered
away a good distance from the place where she fell: however, he found
her, took her up, and brought her to me; and as I had perceived his
ignorance about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun
again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any
other mark that might present; but nothing more offered at that time: so
I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and
cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit for that purpose, I
boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good broth. After
I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of
it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him, was to
see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good
to eat; and putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate
it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water
after it: on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without
salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as
he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would never care for
salt with his meat or in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and
then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast
him the next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I did, by
hanging it before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in
England, setting two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one
across on the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting the
meat turn continually. This Friday admired very much; but when he came
to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked
it, that I could not but understand him: and at last he told me, as well
as he could, he would never eat man's flesh any more, which I was very
glad to hear.

The next day, I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it
in the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon understood
how to do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what the
meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread of; for after that I
let him see me make my bread, and bake it too; and in a little time
Friday was able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do
it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one,
I must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity
of corn than I used to do; so I marked out a larger piece of land, and
began the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday worked not
only very willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully: and I
told him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread,
because he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and
myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that
he thought I had much more labour upon me on his account, than I had for
myself; and that he would work the harder for me, if I would tell him
what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place;
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost
every thing I had occasion to call for, and of every place I had to send
him to, and talked a great deal to me; so that, in short, I began now to
have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little
occasion for before, that is to say, about speech. Besides the pleasure
of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself:
his simple unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and more every day, and
I began really to love the creature; and, on his side, I believe he
loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love any
thing before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination to his own
country again; and having taught him English so well that he could
answer me almost any question, I asked him whether the nation that he
belonged to never conquered in battle? At which he smiled, and said,
"Yes, yes, we always fight the better:" that is, he meant, always get
the better in fight; and so we began the following discourse:

_Master_. You always fight the better; how came you to be taken prisoner
then, Friday?

_Friday_. My nation beat much for all that.

_Master_. How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you to be taken?

_Friday_. They more many than my nation in the place where me was; they
take one, two, three, and me: my nation over-beat them in the yonder
place, where me no was; there my nation take one, two, great thousand.

_Master_. But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your
enemies then?

_Friday_. They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in the canoe; my
nation have no canoe that time.

_Master_. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they
take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as these did?

_Friday_. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.

_Master_. Where do they carry them?

_Friday_. Go to other place, where they think.

_Master_. Do they come hither?

_Friday_. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

_Master_. Have you been here with them?

_Friday_. Yes, I have been here (points to the N.W. side of the island,
which, it seems, was their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on
the same man-eating occasions he was now brought for; and, some time
after, when I took the courage to carry him to that side, being the same
I formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me he was
there once when they eat up twenty men, two women, and one child: he
could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so
many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows; that after
I had this discourse with him, I asked him how far it was from our
island to the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told
me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that, after a little
way out to sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in the
morning, the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be no more
than the sets of the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards
understood it was occasioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty
river Oroonoko, in the mouth or gulf of which river, as I found
afterwards, our island lay; and that this land which I perceived to the
W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the
mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about the
country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were
near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness imaginable. I
asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of people, but
could get no other name than Caribs: from whence I easily understood,
that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of
America which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana,
and onwards to St. Martha. He told me that up a great way beyond the
moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must be west from
their country, there dwelt white bearded men, like me, and pointed to my
great whiskers, which I mentioned before; and that they had killed much
mans, that was his word: by all which I understood, he meant the
Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
country, and were remembered by all the nations, from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island and get
among those white men; he told me, Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe. I
could not understand what he meant, or make him describe to me what he
meant by two canoe; till, at last, with great difficulty, I found he
meant it must be in a large boat, as big as two canoes. This part of
Friday's discourse began to relish with me very well; and from this time
I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I might find an
opportunity to make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he began
to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation
of religious knowledge in his mind: particularly I asked him one time,
Who made him? The poor creature did not understand me at all, but
thought I had asked him who was his father: but I took it up by another
handle, and asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the
hills and woods? He told me, it was one old Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all; he could describe nothing of this great person, but that he
was very old, much older, he said, than the sea or the land, than the
moon or the stars. I asked him then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? He looked very grave, and
with a perfect look of innocence said, All things say O to him. I asked
him if the people who die in his country went away any where? He said,
Yes; they all went to Benamuckee: then I asked him whether these they
eat up went thither too? He said, Yes.

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true
God: I told him that the great Maker of all things lived up there,
pointing up towards heaven; that he governed the world by the same power
and providence by which he made it; that he was omnipotent, and could do
every thing for us, give every thing to us, take every thing from us;
and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great
attention, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being
sent to redeem us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and
his being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day, that if
our God could hear us up beyond the sun, he must needs be a greater God
than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet could not
hear till they went up to the great mountains where he dwelt to speak to
him. I asked him if ever he went thither to speak to him? He said, No;
they never went that were young men; none went thither but the old men,
whom he called their Oowokakee; that is, as I made him explain it to me,
their religious, or clergy; and that they went to say O (so he called
saying prayers,) and then came back, and told them what Benamuckee said.
By this I observed, that there is priestcraft even among the most
blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a secret
of religion, in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the
clergy, is not only to be found in the Roman, but perhaps among all
religions in the world, even among the most brutish and
barbarous savages.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday; and told him,
that the pretence of their old men going up to the mountains to say O to
their god Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word from thence
what he said was much more so; that if they met with any answer, or
spake with any one there, it must be with an evil spirit: and then I
entered into a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of
him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his
setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped
instead of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made use of to
delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our
passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our
inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own tempters, and run
upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about
the devil, as it was about the being of a God: nature assisted all my
arguments to evidence to him even the necessity of a great First Cause,
and over-ruling, governing Power, a secret, directing Providence, and of
the equity and justice of paying homage to him that made us, and the
like; but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil
spirit; of his original, his being, his nature, and, above all, of his
inclination to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too: and the poor
creature puzzled me once in such a manner, by a question merely natural
and innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been talking
a great deal to him of the power of God, his omnipotence, his aversion
to sin, his being a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity; how, as
he had made us all, he could destroy us and all the world in a moment;
and he listened with great seriousness to me all the while. After this,
I had been telling him how the devil was God's enemy in the hearts of
men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good designs of
Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the
like. "Well," says Friday, "but you say God is so strong, so great; is
he not much strong, much might as the devil?"--"Yes, yes," says I,
"Friday, God is stronger than the devil: God is above the devil, and
therefore we pray to God to tread him down under our feet, and enable us
to resist his temptations, and quench his fiery darts."--"But," says he
again, "if God much stronger, much might as the devil, why God no kill
the devil, so make him no more do wicked?" I was strangely surprised at
this question; and, after all, though I was now an old man, yet I was
but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or a solver of
difficulties; and, at first, I could not tell what to say; so I
pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said; but he was too
earnest for an answer, to forget his question, so that he repeated it in
the very same broken words as above. By this time I had recovered myself
a little, and I said, "God will at last punish him severely; he is
reserved for the judgment, and is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to
dwell with everlasting fire." This did not satisfy Friday; but he
returns upon me, repeating my words, "_Reserve at last_! me no
understand: but why not kill the devil now; not kill great ago?"--"You
may as well ask me," said I, "why God does not kill you and me, when we
do wicked things here that offend him: we are preserved to repent and be
pardoned." He mused some time on this: "Well, well," says he, mighty
affectionately, "that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve,
repent, God pardon all." Here I was run down again by him to the last
degree; and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions of nature,
though they will guide reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a God,
and of a worship or homage due to the supreme being of God, as the
consequence of our nature, yet nothing but divine revelation can form
the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us, of a
Mediator of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of
God's throne; I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven can form these
in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord and Saviour
Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit of God, promised
for the guide and sanctifier of his people, are the absolutely necessary
instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and the
means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man, rising
up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of going out; then sending him
for something a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that he would
enable me to instruct savingly this poor savage; assisting, by his
Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of
the knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling him to himself, and would
guide me to speak so to him from the word of God, as his conscience
might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came
again to me, I entered into a long discourse with him upon the subject
of the redemption of man by the Saviour of the world, and of the
doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven, viz. of repentance towards
God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as
well as I could; why our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of
angels, but the seed of Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen
angels had no share in the redemption; that he came only to the lost
sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I
took for this poor creature's instruction, and must acknowledge, what I
believe all that act upon the same principle will find, that in laying
things open to him, I really informed and instructed myself in many
things that either I did not know, or had not fully considered before,
but which occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for
the information of this poor savage; and I had more affection in my
inquiry after things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so
that, whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had
great reason to be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief sat
lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure:
and when I reflected, that in this solitary life which I had been
confined to, I had not only been moved to look up to heaven myself, and
to seek to the hand that had brought me here, but was now to be made an
instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I knew,
the soul, of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of
religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ
Jesus, in whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these
things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and I frequently
rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which I had so often
thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have
befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my time; and the
conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was such,
as made the three years which we lived there together perfectly and
completely happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can he formed
in a sublunary state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much
better than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that
we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here
the word of God to read, and no farther off from his Spirit to instruct,
than if we had been in England. I always applied myself, in reading the
Scriptures, to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I
read; and he again, by his serious inquiries and questionings, made me,
as I said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture-knowledge than
I should ever have been by my own mere private reading. Another thing I
cannot refrain from observing here also, from experience in this retired
part of my life, viz. how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is
that the knowledge of God; and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ
Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the word of God, so easy to be
received and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made me
capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me directly on to
the great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and laying hold of a
Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in practice, and
obedience to all God's commands, and this without any teacher or
instructor, I mean human; so the same plain instruction sufficiently
served to the enlightening this savage creature, and bringing him to be
such a Christian, as I have known few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which have
happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines, or
schemes of church-government, they were all perfectly useless to us,
and, for aught I can yet see, they have been so to the rest of the
world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz. the word of God; and we
had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the Spirit of God teaching and
instructing us by his word, leading us into all truth, and making us
both willing and obedient to the instruction of his word. And I cannot
see the least use that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of
religion, which have made such confusions in the world, would have been
to us, if we could have obtained it.--But I must go on with the
historical part of things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he could
understand almost all I said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though
in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my own history, or at
least so much of it as related to my coming to this place; how I had
lived here, and how long: I let him into the mystery, for such it was to
him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a
knife; which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a belt,
with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and in
the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only
as good a weapon, in some cases, but much more useful upon other

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly England, which I
came from; how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave
him an account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed
him, as near as I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten
in pieces before, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength
then; but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat,
Friday stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it
was he studied upon? At last, says he, "Me see such boat like come to
place at my nation." I did not understand him a good while; but, at
last, when I had examined farther into it, I understood by him, that a
boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country where he
lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of
weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must have been
cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get loose, and drive
ashore; but was so dull, that I never once thought of men making their
escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they might come: so I only
inquired after a description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, "We save the white mans
from drown." Then I presently asked him, if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat? "Yes," he said; "the boat full of white
mans." I asked him how many? He told upon his fingers seventeen, I
asked him then what became of them? He told me, "They live, they dwell
at my nation."

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that these
might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight
of my island, as I now called it; and who, after the ship was struck on
the rock, and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in
their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon
this, I inquired of him more critically what was become of them; he
assured me they lived still there; that they had been there about four
years; that the savages let them alone, and gave them victuals to live
on. I asked him how it came to pass they did not kill them, and eat
them? He said, "No, they make brother with them;" that is, as I
understood him, a truce; and then he added, "They no eat mans but when
make the war fight;" that is to say, they never eat any men but such as
come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the
hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I have said, I
had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent of America,
Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very earnestly towards the
main land, and, in a kind of surprise, fells a jumping and dancing, and
calls out to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked him what
was the matter? "O joy!" says he; "O glad! there see my country, there
my nation!" I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in
his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a
strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country again.
This observation of mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made
me at first not so easy about my new man Friday as I was before; and I
made no doubt but that if Friday could get back to his own nation again,
he would not only forget all his religion, but all his obligation to me,
and would be forward enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and
come back perhaps with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon
me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those of his
enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest
creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as
my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little more
circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before: in which I
was certainly in the wrong too; the honest, grateful creature, having no
thought about it, but what consisted with the best principles, both as a
religious Christian, and as a grateful friend; as appeared afterwards,
to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day pumping
him, to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I
suspected were in him: but I found every thing he said was so honest and
so innocent, that I could find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and, in
spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again;
nor did he, in the least, perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I
could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so
that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, "Friday,
do not you wish yourself in your own country, your own nation?"--"Yes,"
he said, "I be much O glad to be at my own nation." "What would you do
there?" said I: "would you turn wild again, eat men's flesh again, and
be a savage as you were before?" He looked full of concern, and shaking
his head, said, "No, no, Friday tell them to live good; tell them to
pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man
again."--"Why then," said I to him, "they will kill you." He looked
grave at that, and then said, "No, no; they no kill me, they willing
love learn." He meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added,
they learned much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I
asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me
that he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe for him.
He told me he would go, if I would go with him. "I go!" says I, "why,
they will eat me if I come there."--"No, no," says he, "me make they no
eat you; me make they much love you," He meant, he would tell them how I
had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them
love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to
seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on
shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess I had a mind to venture over, and see if I
could possibly join with those bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were
Spaniards and Portuguese: not doubting but if I could, we might find
some method to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good
company together, better than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, and alone, without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to
work again, by way of discourse; and told him I would give him a boat to
go back to his own nation; and accordingly I carried him to my frigate,
which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it of
water (for I always kept it sunk in water,) I brought it out, showed it
him, and we both went into it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at
managing it, and would make it go almost as swift again as I could. So
when he was in, I said to him, "Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your
nation?" He looked very dull at my saying so; which, it seems, was
because he thought the boat too small to go so far: I then told him I
had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the first boat
lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the water. He said
that was big enough: but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had
lain two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split and dried
it, that, it was in a manner rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do
very well, and would carry "much enough vittle, drink, bread;" that was
his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over
with him to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as
big as that, and he should go home in it. He answered not one word, but
looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him? He
asked me again, "Why you angry mad with Friday? what me done?" I asked
him what he meant: I told him I was not angry with him at all. "No
angry!" says he, repeating the words several times, "why send Friday
home away to my nation?"--"Why," says I, "Friday, did not you say you
wished you were there?"--"Yes, yes," says he, "wish be both there; no
wish Friday there, no master there." In a word, he would not think of
going there without me. "I go there, Friday!" says I, "what shall I do
there?" He returned very quick upon me at this: "You do great deal much
good," says he; "you teach wild mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell
them know God, pray God, and live new life."--"Alas! Friday," says I,
"thou knowest not what thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man
myself."--"Yes, yes," says he, "you teachee me good, you teachee them
good."--"No, no, Friday," says I, "you shall go without me; leave me
here to live by myself, as I did before." He looked confused again at
that word; and running to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he
takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. "What must I do with this?"
says I to him. "You take kill Friday," says he. "What must I kill you
for?" said I again. He returns very quick, "What you send Friday away
for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away." This he spoke so earnestly,
that I saw tears stand in his eyes: in a word, I so plainly discovered
the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I
told him then, and often after, that I would never send him away from
me, if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found, by all his discourse, a settled affection to
me, and that nothing should part him from me, so I found all the
foundation of his desire to go to his own country was laid in his ardent
affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing,
which, as I had no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought, or
intention, or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong
inclination to my attempting an escape, as above, founded on the
supposition gathered from the discourse, viz. that there were seventeen
bearded men there: and, therefore, without any more delay, I went to
work with Friday, to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a
large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees
enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas, or
canoes, but even of good large vessels: but the main thing I looked at
was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was
made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched
upon a tree; for I found he knew much better than I what kind of wood
was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the
tree we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call fustic,
or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same
colour and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this
tree out, to make it for a boat, but I showed him how to cut it with
tools; which, after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily:
and in about a month's hard labour we finished it, and made it very
handsome; especially when, with our axes, which I showed him how to
handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat.
After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight's time to get her
along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but
when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so big, it amazed me to
see with what dexterity, and how swift my man Friday would manage her,
turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if he would, and if we
might venture over in her. "Yes," he said, "we venture over in her very
well, though great blow wind." However, I had a farther design that he
knew nothing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her
with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so
I pitched upon a straight young cedar tree, which I found near the
place, and which there were great plenty of in the island: and I set
Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape and
order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had
old sails, or rather pieces of old sails enough; but as I had had them
now six and twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to
preserve them, not imagining that I should ever have this kind of use
for them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten, and, indeed, most of
them were so. However, I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good,
and with these I went to work; and with a great deal of pains, and
awkward stitching, you may be sure, for want of needles, I, at length,
made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a
shoulder of mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short
sprit at the top, such as usually our ships' long-boats sail with, and
such as I best knew how to manage, as it was such a one I had to the
boat in which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in the first
part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz. rigging and
fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete, making a
small stay, and a sail, or fore-sail, to it, to assist, if we should
turn to windward; and, which was more than all, I fixed a rudder to the
stern of her to steer with. I was but a bungling shipwright, yet, as I
knew the usefulness, and even necessity of such a thing, I applied
myself with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to pass;
though, considering the many dull contrivances I had for it that failed,
I think it cost me almost as much labour as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what
belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he knew very well how
to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing what belonged to a sail and a rudder;
and was the most amazed when he saw me work the boat to and again in the
sea by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way, or that
way, as the course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he stood
like one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use, I made all
these things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor, except
that as to the compass; I could make him understand very little of that.
On the other hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom
or never any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for a
compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen by night, and the shore
by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir
abroad, either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven and twentieth year of my captivity in
this place; though the three last years that I had this creature with me
ought rather to be left out of the account, my habitation being quite of
another kind than in all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of
my landing here with the same thankfulness to God for his mercies as at
first; and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much
more so now, having such additional testimonies of the care of
Providence over me, and the great hopes I had of being effectually and
speedily delivered; for I had an invincible impression upon my thoughts
that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be another year
in this place. I went on, however, with my husbandry; digging, planting,
and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every
necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was, in the mean time, upon me, when I kept more within
doors than at other times. We had stowed our new vessel as secure as we
could, bringing her up into the creek, where, as I said in the
beginning, I landed my rafts from the ship; and hauling her up to the
shore, at high-water mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just
big enough to hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to
float in; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across
the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry, as to the
tide, from the sea; and to keep the rain off, we laid a great many
boughs of trees, so thick, that she was as well thatched as a house; and
thus we waited for the months of November and December, in which I
designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my design
returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage:
and the first thing I did was to lay by a certain quantity of
provisions, being the stores for our voyage: and intended, in a week or
a fortnight's time, to open the dock, and launch out our boat. I was
busy one morning upon something of this kind, when I called to Friday,
and bid him go to the sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle, or
tortoise, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake of
the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been long gone, when he
came running back and flew over my outer-wall, or fence, like one that
felt not the ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had
time to speak to him, he cries out to me, "O master! O master! O sorrow!
O bad!"--"What's the matter, Friday?" says I. "O yonder, there," says
he, "one, two, three canoe; one, two, three!" By this way of speaking, I
concluded there were six; but, on inquiry, I found it was but three.
"Well, Friday," says I, "do not be frightened." So I heartened him up
as well as I could: however, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly
scared; for nothing ran in his head but that they were come to look for
him, and would cut him in pieces, and eat him; and the poor fellow
trembled so, that I scarce knew what to do with him. I comforted him as
well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as he, and that
they would eat me as well as him. "But," says I, "Friday, we must
resolve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday!"--"Me shoot," says he;
but there come many great number."--No matter for that," said I, again;
"our guns will fright them that we do not kill." So I asked him whether,
if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and stand by me, and do
just as I bid him. He said, "Me die, when you bid die, master." So I
went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave him; for I had been so good
a husband of my rum, that I had a great deal left. When he drank it, I
made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and
loaded them with large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets; then I
took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs, and five small
bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each;
I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his
hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective-glass,
and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover; and I
found quickly, by my glass, that there were one and twenty savages,
three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole business seemed
to be the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a barbarous
feast indeed! but nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual with
them. I observed also, that they were landed, not where they had done
when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek: where the shore was
low, and where a thick wood came almost close down to the sea. This,
with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came about,
filled me with such indignation, that I came down again to Friday, and
told him I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all; and asked
him if he would stand by me. He had now got over his fright, and his
spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given him, he was very
cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took and divided the arms which I had charged, as
before, between us: I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and
three guns upon his shoulder; and I took one pistol, and the other three
guns, myself; and in this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle
of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and
bullets; and, as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and
not to stir, or shoot, or do any thing, till I bid him; and, in the mean
time, not to speak a word. In this posture, I fetched a compass to my
right hand of near a mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into
the wood, so that I might come within shot of them before I should be
discovered, which I had seen, by my glass, it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began to
abate my resolution: I do not mean that I entertained any fear of their
number; for, as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was
superior to them; nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my
thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what necessity I was in,
to go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done
or intended me any wrong? Who, as to me, were innocent, and whose
barbarous customs were their own disaster; being, in them, a token
indeed of God's having left them, with the other nations of that part of
the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses; but did not
call me to take upon me to be a judge of their actions, much less an
executioner of his justice; that, whenever he thought fit, he would take
the cause into his own hands, and, by national vengeance, punish them,
as a people, for national crimes; but that, in the mean time, it was
none of my business; that, it was true, Friday might justify it, because
he was a declared enemy, and in a state of war with those very
particular people, and it was lawful for him to attack them; but I could
not say the same with respect to myself. These things were so warmly
pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved I would
only go and place myself near them, that I might observe their barbarous
feast, and that I would act then as God should direct; but that, unless
something offered that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would
not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood; and, with all possible
weariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I marched
till I came to the skirt of the wood, on the side which was next to
them, only that one corner of the wood lay between me and them. Here I
called softly to Friday, and showing him a great tree, which was just at
the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if
he could see there plainly what they were doing. He did so; and came
immediately back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there;
that they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of their
prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the sand, a little from them,
which, he said, they would kill next, and which fired the very soul
within me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the
bearded men he had told me of, that came to their country in the boat. I
was filled with horror at the very naming the white-bearded man; and,
going to the tree, I saw plainly, by my glass, a white man, who lay upon
the beach of the sea, with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or
things like rushes, and that he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty
yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which, by going a
little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I
should be within half a shot of them: so I withheld my passion, though I
was indeed enraged to the highest degree; and going back about twenty
paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to
the other tree; and then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a
full view of them, at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful wretches
sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the
other two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps, limb by
limb, to their fire; and they were stooping down to untie the bands at
his feet. I turned to Friday--"Now, Friday," said I, "do as I bid thee."
Friday said he would. "Then, Friday," says I, "do exactly as you see me
do; fail in nothing." So I set down one of the muskets and the
fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his; and with
the other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him to do the
like: then asking him if he was ready, he said, "Yes." "Then fire at
them," said I; and the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side that he
shot, he killed two of them, and wounded three more; and on my side, I
killed one, and wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful
consternation; and all of them who were not hurt jumped upon their feet,
but did not immediately know which way to run, or which way to look, for
they knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes
close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so,
as soon as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece, and took up
the fowling-piece, and Friday did the like: he saw me cock and present;
he did the same again. "Are you ready, Friday?" said I.--"Yes," says he.
"Let fly, then," says I, "in the name of God!" and with that, I fired
again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces
were now loaden with what I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets,
we found only two drop, but so many were wounded, that they ran about
yelling and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them
miserably wounded, whereof three more fell quickly after, though not
quite dead.

"Now, Friday," says I, laying down the discharged pieces, and taking up
the musket which was yet loaden, "follow me;" which he did with a great
deal of courage; upon which I rushed out of the wood, and showed myself,
and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I
shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so too; and running as
fast as I could, which, by the way, was not very fast, being loaded with
arms as I was, I made directly towards the poor victim, who was, as I
said, lying upon, the beach, or shore, between the place where they sat
and the sea. The two butchers, who were just going to work with him, had
left him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three more of
the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step
forwards, and fire at them; he understood me immediately, and running
about forty yards, to be nearer them, he shot at them, and I thought he
had killed them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap into the boat,
though I saw two of them up again quickly: however, he killed two of
them, and wounded the third so, that he lay down in the bottom of the
boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife and cut the
flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I
lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese tongue, what he was. He
answered in Latin, Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he could
scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it
him, making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a
piece of bread, which he eat. Then I asked him what countryman he was:
and he said, Espagniole; and being a little recovered, let me know, by
all the signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his
deliverance. "Seignior," said I, with as much Spanish as I could make
up, "we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now: if you have any
strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you." He took
them very thankfully; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but,
as if they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like
a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth
is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so
much frightened with the noise of our pieces, that they fell down for
mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their own
escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot: and that was the case
of those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell
with the hurt they received, so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep
my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword:
so I called to Friday, and bade-him run up to the tree from whence we
first fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had been
discharged, which he did with great swiftness; and then giving him my
musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come
to me when they wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened
a fierce engagement between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who
made at him with one of their great wooden swords, the same-like weapon
that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented it. The
Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak,
had fought this Indian a good while, and had cut him two great wounds on
his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with
him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing my sword out of
his hand; when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the
sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the
body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help
him, could come near him.

Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches, with
no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with that he dispatched those
three, who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and all
the rest he could come up with: and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun,
I gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the
savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not able to run, they
both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed
one of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was
wounded, yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam, with all his
might, off to those two who were left in the canoe, which three in the
canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no, were
all that escaped our hands of one and twenty; the account of the whole
is as follows: three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed
at the next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday
of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood; three
killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped here and there,
of their wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped
in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead.--Twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-shot, and
though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he
hit any of them. Friday would fain have had me take one of their
canoes, and pursue them; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their
escape, lest carrying the news home to their people, they should come
back perhaps with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by
mere multitude; so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one
of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I was
in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature lie there,
bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost
dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter; for he had not been
able to look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and
heels, and had been tied so long, that he had really but little life
in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him
with, and would have helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but
groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only
unbound in order to be killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak
to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and, pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came
to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one to
tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him,
cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again,
wrung his hands, beat his own face and head; and then sung and jumped
about again, like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I
could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he
came a little to himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and
filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his
father, and of his being delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I
describe half the extravagances of his affection after this; for he went
into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many times: when he went in
to him, he would sit down by him, open his breast, and hold his father's
head close to his bosom for many minutes together, to nourish it; then
he took his arms and ancles, which were numbed and stiff with the
binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving
what the case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with,
which did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other
savages, who were now got almost out of sight; and it was happy for us
that we did not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before
they could be got a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard
all night, and that from the north-west, which was against them, that I
could not suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their
own coast.

But, to return to Friday; he was so busy about his father, that I could
not find in my heart to take him off for some time: but after I thought
he could leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and
laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme; then I asked him if he
had given his father any bread. He shook his head, and said, "None; ugly
dog eat all up self," I then gave him a cake of bread, out of a little
pouch I carried on purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself, but he
would not taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket two
or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his
father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw him
come out of the boat, and run away, as if he had been bewitched, he ran
at such a rate; for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I
saw: I say, he ran at such a rate, that he was out of sight, as it were,
in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out too, after him, it
was all one, away he went; and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come
back again, though not so fast as he went; and as he came nearer, I
found his pace slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he
came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen jug, or
pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had two more
cakes or loaves of bread; the bread he gave me, but the water he carried
to his father; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took, a little sup
of it. The water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I
had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to know, if there was any
water left: he said, "Yes;" and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard,
who was in as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the
cakes, that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very
weak, and was reposing himself upon a green place under the shade of a
tree; and whose limbs were also very stiff and very much swelled with
the rude bandage he had been tied with. When I saw that, upon Friday's
coming to him with the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread,
and began to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins: he
looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness
that could appear in any countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding
he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could not stand up upon
his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but was really not able,
his ancles were so swelled and so painful to him; so I bade him sit
still, and caused Friday to rub his ancles, and bathe them with rum, as
he had done his father's.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps
less, all the while he was here, turn his head about, to see if his
father was in the same place and posture as he left him sitting; and at
last he found he was not to be seen; at which he started up, and,
without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him, that one could
scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went: but when he
came, he only found he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so
Friday came back to me presently; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to
let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then
he should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him: but
Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite up upon his back,
and carried him away to the boat, and set him down softly upon the side
or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and then
lifting him quite in, he set him close to his father; and presently
stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along the
shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too: so
he brought them both safe into our creek, and leaving them in the boat,
ran away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to him, and
asked him whither he went. He told me, "Go fetch more boat:" so away he
went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had
the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land; so
he wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them able to walk, so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday to
bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of
a hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried them both up
together upon it, between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification, we
were at a worse loss than before, for it was impossible to get them
over, and I was resolved not to break it down: so I set to work again;
and Friday and I, in about two hours' time, made a very handsome tent,
covered with old sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in
the space without our outward fence, and between, that and the grove of
young wood which I had planted: and here we made them two beds of such
things as I had, viz. of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it,
to lie on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in subjects;
and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently made, how like a king
I looked. First of all, the whole country was my own mere property, so
that I had an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my people were
perfectly subjected; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver; they all owed
their lives to me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if there had
been occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three
subjects, and they were of three different religions: my man Friday was
a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard
was a Papist: however, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout my
dominions:--But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners, and given them
shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to think of making some
provision for them; and the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take
a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock,
to be killed; when I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into
small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them
a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some
barley and rice also into the broth: and as I cooked it without doors,
for I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the
new tent, and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and eat my
dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them, and
encouraged them. Friday was my interpreter, especially to his father,
and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the language of
the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of
the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for
want of time, we had left upon the place of battle: and, the next day, I
ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay
open to the sun, and would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to
bury the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I knew were
pretty much, and which I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could
not bear to see them, if I went that way; all which he punctually
performed, and effaced the very appearance of the savages being there;
so that when I went again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise
than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two new
subjects: and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he
thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might
expect a return of them, with a power too great for us to resist. His
first opinion was, that the savages in the boat never could live out the
storm which blew that night they went off, but must, of necessity, be
drowned, or driven south to those other shores, where they were as sure
to be devoured as they were to be drowned, if they were cast away: but,
as to what they would do, if they came safe on shore, he said he knew
not; but it was his opinion, that they were so dreadfully frightened
with the manner of their being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that
he believed they would tell the people they were all killed by thunder
and lightning, not by the hand of man; and that the two which appeared,
viz. Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come down to
destroy them, and not men with weapons. This, he said, he knew; because
he heard them all cry out so, in their language, one to another; for it
was impossible for them to conceive that a man could dart fire, and
speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting up the hand, as
was done now: and this old savage was in the right; for, as I understood
since, by other hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the
island afterwards, they were so terrified with the accounts given by
those four men (for, it seems, they did escape the sea,) that they
believed whoever went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with
fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and therefore was under
continual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard,
with all my army: for, as there were now four of us, I would have
ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of their
coming wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage to
the main into consideration; being likewise assured, by Friday's
father, that I might depend upon good usage from their nation, on his
account, if I would go. But my thoughts were a little suspended when I
had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that
there were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who, having
been cast away, and made their escape to that side, lived there at
peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put to it for
necessaries, and indeed for life. I asked him all the particulars of
their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de
la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave their loading there,
which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back what European
goods they could meet with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen
on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five of their own
men were drowned, when first the ship was lost, and that these escaped,
through infinite dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on
the cannibal coast, where they expected to have been devoured every
moment. He told me they had some arms with them, but they were perfectly
useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the
sea having spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used, at
their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they had
formed any design of making their escape. He said they had many
consultations about it; but that having neither vessel, nor tools to
build one, nor provisions of any kind, their councils always ended in
tears and despair. I asked him how he thought they would receive a
proposal from me, which might tend towards an escape; and whether, if
they were all here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I
feared mostly their treachery and ill usage of me, if I put my life in
their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of
man, nor did men always square their dealings by the obligations they
had received, so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I
told him it would be very hard that I should be the instrument of their
deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me their prisoner in
New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be made a sacrifice, what
necessity, or what accident soever brought him thither; and that I had
rather be delivered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall
into the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into the
Inquisition. I added, that otherwise I was persuaded, if they were all
here, we might, with so many hands, build a bark large enough to carry
us all away, either to the Brazils, southward, or to the islands, or
Spanish coast, northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I
had put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their own
people, I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my case
worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness, that their
condition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that,
he believed, they would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that
should contribute to their deliverance; and that if I pleased, he would
go to them with the old man, and discourse with them about it and return
again, and bring me their answer; that he would make conditions with
them upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my
leading, as their commander and captain; and that they should swear upon
the holy sacraments and gospel, to be true to me, and go to such
Christian country as that I should agree to, and no other, and to be
directed wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they were landed
safely in such country as I intended; and that he would bring a contract
from them, under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me he would
first swear to me himself, that he would never stir from me as long as
he lived, till I gave him orders; and that he would take my side to the
last drop of his blood, if there should happen the least breach of faith
among his countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil,
honest men, and they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having
neither weapons or clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and
discretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to their
own country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their relief,
they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if
possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to
treat. But when we had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard
himself started an objection, which had so much prudence in it, on one
hand, and so much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not but be
very well satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance
of his comrades for at least half a year. The case was thus: He had been
with us now about a month, during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for my
support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up;
which, though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased
to four; but much less would it be sufficient if his countrymen, who
were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should come over; and, least of
all, would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we should build
one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America; so he
told me he thought it would be more adviseable to let him and the other
two dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed to
sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might have a
supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should come; for want might
be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves
delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. "You
know," says he, "the children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first
for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God
himself, that delivered them, when they came to want bread in the

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not
but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied
with his fidelity: so we fell to digging all four of us, as well as the
wooden tools we were furnished with permitted; and in about a month's
time, by the end of which it was seed-time, we had got as much land
cured and trimmed up as we sowed two and twenty bushels of barley on,
and sixteen jars of rice; which was, in short, all the seed we had to
spare: nor, indeed, did we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own
food, for the six months that we had to expect our crop; that is to say,
reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing; for it is not
to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out
of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been
very great, we went freely all over the island, whenever we found
occasion; and as here we had our escape or deliverance upon our
thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to have the means of it
out of mine. For this purpose, I marked out several trees which I
thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cutting
them down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my
thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them
with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they had made about a
dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet
long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what prodigious labour
it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of tame goats
as much as I could; and, for this purpose, I made Friday and the
Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we
took our turns,) and by this means we got about twenty young kids to
breed up with the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids,
and added them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the
grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in
the sun, that, I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of
the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and
these, with our bread, was a great part of our food, and was very good
living too, I assure you, for it is exceeding nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not the most
plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough
to answer our end; for from twenty-two bushels of barley we brought in
and threshed out above two hundred and twenty bushels, and the like in
proportion of the rice; which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or
if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have
victualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the world, that is
to say, any part of America. When we had thus housed and secured our
magazine of corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-ware, viz. great
baskets, in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not make some
things for defence of this kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now having a full supply of food for all the guests I expected, I
gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see what he could do
with those he had left behind them there. I gave him a strict charge not
to bring any man with him who would not first swear, in the presence of
himself and the old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or
attack the person he should find in the island, who was so kind as to
send for them in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand
by him, and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they
went, would be entirely under and subjected to his command; and that
this should be put in writing, and signed with their hands. How they
were to have done this, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a
question which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard
and the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes
which they might be said to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the savages. I gave each of
them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about eight charges of powder
and ball, charging them to be very good husbands of both, and not to use
either of them but upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view
of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some days. I gave them
provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for
many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days'
time; and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go; agreeing with them
about a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should
know them again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore. They went away with a fair gale, on the day that the moon was at
full, by my account in the month of October; but as for an exact
reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it
again; nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to be
sure I was right; though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my
account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a strange and
unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not perhaps been
heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my
man Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, "Master, master,
they are come, they are come!" I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I
went out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove,
which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I
say, regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my
custom to do: but I was surprised, when turning my eyes to the sea, I
presently saw a boat at about a league and a half distance, standing in
for the shore, with a shoulder of mutton sail, as they call it, and the
wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I observed presently,
that they did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but from
the southernmost end of the island. Upon this, I called Friday in, and
bade him lie close, for these were not the people we looked for, and
that we might not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In the
next place, I went in to fetch my perspective-glass, to see what I could
make of them; and having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top
of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of any thing, and
to take my view the plainer, without being discovered. I had scarce set
my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at an
anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E. but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my observation, it appeared
plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though the joy of seeing a
ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own
countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe; but
yet I had some secret doubts hung about me, I cannot tell from whence
they came, bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first place, it
occurred to me to consider what business an English ship could have in
that part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any part of
the world where the English had any traffic; and I knew there had been
no storms to drive them in there, as in distress; and that if they were
really English, it was most probable that they were here upon no good
design; and that I had better continue as I was, than fall into the
hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger, which
sometimes are given him when he may think there is no possibility of its
being real. That such hints and notices are given us, I believe few that
have made any observations of things can deny; that they are certain
discoveries of an invisible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot
doubt; and if the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether
supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the question,) and that
they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of this
reasoning; for had I not been made cautious by this secret admonition,
come it from whence it will, I had been undone inevitably, and in a far
worse condition than before, as you will see presently. I had not kept
myself long in this posture, but I saw the boat draw near the shore, as
if they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of
landing; however, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not
see the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but run their
boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from me, which was
very happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just at my door,
as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and
perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was
fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two
I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all eleven
men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and, as I thought,
bound; and when the first four or five of them were jumped on shore,
they took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of the three I
could perceive using the most passionate gestures of entreaty,
affliction, and despair, even to a kind of extravagance; the other two,
I could perceive, lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared
concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was
perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it
should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, "O
master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage
mans."--"Why, Friday," says I, "do you think they are going to eat them
then?"--"Yes," says Friday, "they will eat them."--"No, no," says I,
"Friday; I am afraid they will murder them, indeed, but you may be sure
they will not eat them."

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but stood
trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when the
three prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains
lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword,
to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every
moment; at which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my
veins. I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage that was
gone with him, or that I had any way to have come undiscovered within
shot of them, that I might have rescued the three men, for I saw no
fire-arms they had among them; but it fell out to my mind another way.
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by the
insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering about the island,
as if they wanted to see the country. I observed that the three other
men had liberty to go also where they pleased; but they sat down all
three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like men in despair.
This put me in mind of the first time when I came on shore, and began to
look about me; how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I looked
round me; what dreadful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the
tree all night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew
nothing, that night, of the supply I was to receive by the providential
driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I
have since been so long nourished and supported; so these three poor
desolate men knew nothing how certain of deliverance and supply they
were, how near it was to them, and how effectually and really they were
in a condition of safety, at the same time that they thought themselves
lost, and their case desperate. So little do we see before us in the
world, and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great
Maker of the world, that he does not leave his creatures so absolutely
destitue, but that, in the worst circumstances, they have always
something to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their deliverance
than they imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliverance by the
means by which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came on shore;
and partly while they rambled about to see what kind of a place they
were in, they had carelessly staid till the tide was spent, and the
water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat aground. They had
left two men in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having drank a
little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, one of them waking a
little sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast aground for
him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling about;
upon which they all soon came to the boat: but it was past all their
strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that
side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this condition,
like true seamen, who are perhaps the least of all mankind given to
forethought, they gave it over, and away they strolled about the country
again; and I heard one of them say aloud to another, calling them off
from the boat, "Why, let her alone, Jack, can't you? she'll float next
tide:" by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what
countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself very close, not once
daring to stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of
observation, near the top of the hill; and very glad I was to think how
well it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the
boat could float again, and by that time it would be dark, and I might
be at more liberty to see their motions, and to hear their discourse, if
they had any. In the mean time, I fitted myself up for a battle, as
before, though with more caution, knowing I had to do with another kind
of enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an
excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took
myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure,
indeed, was very fierce; I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the
great cap I have mentioned, a naked sword by my side, two pistols in my
belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt till it
was dark: but about two o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found
that, in short, they were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I
thought, laid down to sleep. The three poor distressed men, too anxious
for their condition to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under the
shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved to
discover myself to them, and learn something of their condition;
immediately I marched in the figure as above, my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but not making
quite so staring a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called
aloud to them in Spanish, "What are ye, gentlemen?" They started up at
the noise; but were ten times more confounded when they saw me, and the
uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at all, but I thought I
perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in
English: "Gentlemen," said I, "do not be surprised at me: perhaps you
may have a friend near, when you did not expect it."--"He must be sent
directly from Heaven then," said one of them very gravely to me, and
pulling off his hat at the same time to me; "for our condition is past
the help of man."--"All help is from Heaven, Sir," said I: "But can you
put a stranger in the way how to help you? for you seem to be in some
great distress. I saw you when you landed; and when you seemed to make
application to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up
his sword to kill you."

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looking
like one astonished, returned, "Am I talking to God or man? Is it a real
man or an angel?"--"Be in no fear about that, Sir," said I; "if God had
sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and
armed after another manner than you see me: pray lay aside your fears; I
am a man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you: you see I have one
servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve
you? What is your case?"--"Our case," said he, "Sir, is too long to tell
you, while our murderers are so near us; but, in short, Sir, I was
commander of that ship, my men have mutinied against me; they have been
hardly prevailed on not to murder me; and at last have set me on shore
in this desolate place, with these two men with me, one my mate, the
other a passenger, where we expected to perish, believing the place to
be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of it."--"Where are these
brutes, your enemies?" said I: "Do you know where they are
gone?"--"There they lie, Sir," said he, pointing to a thicket of trees;
"my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak; if
they have, they will certainly murder us all."--"Have they any
fire-arms?" said I. He answered, "they had only two pieces, one of which
they left in the boat." "Well then," said I, "leave the rest to me; I
see they are all asleep, it is an easy thing to kill them all: but shall
we rather take them prisoners?" He told me there were two desperate
villains among them, that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but
if they were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their
duty. I asked him which they were? He told me he could not at that
distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in any thing I
would direct. "Well," says I, "let us retreat out of their view or
hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further." So they
willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

"Look you, Sir," said I, "if I venture upon your deliverance, are you
willing to make two conditions with me?" He anticipated my proposals, by
telling me, that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly
directed and commanded by me in every thing; and, if the ship was not
recovered, he would live and die with me in what part of the world
soever I would send him; and the two other men said the same. "Well,"
says I, "my conditions are but two: first, That while you stay in this
island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put
arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island; and, in the mean
time, be governed by my orders: secondly, That if the ship is, or may be
recovered, you will carry me and my man to England, passage free."

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith of man could
devise, that he would comply with these most reasonable demands; and,
besides, would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all
occasions, as long as he lived. "Well then," said I, "here are three
muskets for you, with powder and ball: tell me next what you think is
proper to be done." He showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that
he was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought
it was hard venturing any thing; but the best method I could think of
was to fire upon them at once, as they lay, and if any were not killed
at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might save them, and so
put it wholly upon God's providence to direct the shot. He said very
modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he could help it: but that
those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the authors of all
the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we should be undone still;
for they would go on board and bring the whole ship's company, and
destroy us all. "Well then," says I, "necessity legitimates my advice,
for it is the only way to save our lives." However, seeing him still
cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and
manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon
after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them
were the heads of the mutiny? He said, No. "Well then," said I, "you may
let them escape; and Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose
to save themselves.--Now," says I, "if the rest escape you, it is your
fault." Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in his
hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him, with each
a piece in his hand; the two men who were with him going first, made
some noise, at which one of the seamen who was awake turned about, and
seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then, for
the moment he cried out they fired; I mean the two men, the captain
wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the
men they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the other
very much wounded; but not being dead, he started up on his feet, and
called eagerly for help to the other; but the captain stepping to him,
told him it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to
forgive his villany; and with that word knocked him down with the stock
of his musket, so that he never spoke more: there were three more in the
company, and one of them was also slightly wounded. By this time I was
come; and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist,
they begged for mercy. The captain told them he would spare their lives,
if they would give him any assurance of their abhorrence of the
treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him
in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica,
from whence they came. They gave him all the protestations of their
sincerity that could be desired, and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against, only that I obliged him to
keep them bound hand and foot while they were on the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain's mate to the boat,
with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails, which they
did: and by and by three straggling men, that were (happily for them)
parted from the rest, came back upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing
the captain, who before was their prisoner, now their conqueror, they
submitted to be bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another's
circumstances: I began first, and told him my whole history, which he
heard with an attention even to amazement; and particularly at the
wonderful manner of my being furnished with provisions and ammunition;
and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected
him deeply. But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the
tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word more. After this
communication was at an end, I carried him and his two men into my
apartment, leading them in just where I came out, viz. at the top of the
house, where I refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and showed
them all the contrivances I had made, during my long, long inhabiting
that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing; but,
above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I had
concealed my retreat with a grove of trees, which, having been now
planted near twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in
England, was become a little wood, and so thick, that it was impassable
in any part of it, but at that one side where I had reserved my little
winding passage into it. I told him this was my castle and my residence,
but that I had a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither I
could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that too another time:
but at present our business was to consider how to recover the ship. He
agreed with me as to that; but told me, he was perfectly at a loss what
measures to take, for that there were still six and twenty hands on
board, who having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had
all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by
desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that, if they were subdued,
they would be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or
to any of the English colonies; and that, therefore, there would be no
attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
rational conclusion, and that, therefore, something was to be resolved
on speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their
surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon
this, it presently occurred to me, that in a little while the ship's
crew, wondering what was become of their comrades, and of the boat,
would certainly come on shore in their other boat, to look for them;
and that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for us:
this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we
had to do was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off: and taking every thing out of her, leave her so
far useless as not to be fit to swim: accordingly we went on board, took
the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found
there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few
biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in a piece of
canvass (the sugar was five or six pounds;) all which was very welcome
to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had none left for
many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore, (the oars, mast, sail,
and rudder of the boat were carried away before, as above,) we knocked a
great hole in her bottom, that if they had come strong enough to master
us, yet they could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my
thoughts that we could be able to recover the ship; but my view was,
that if they went away without the boat, I did not much question to make
her fit again to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our
friends the Spaniards in my way; for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main
strength, heaved the boat upon the beach so high, that the tide would
not float her off at high water mark, and besides, had broke a hole in
her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were set down musing what
we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and saw her make a waft with
her ensign as a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat
stirred; and they fired several times, making other signals for the
boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and
they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my
glasses, hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore; and we
found, as they approached, that there were no less than ten men in her;
and that they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of
them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces; because the
tide having set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed
up under shore, to come to the same place where the other had landed,
and where the boat lay; by this means, I say, we had a full view of
them, and the captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in
the boat, of whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who,
he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being
overpowered and frightened; but that as for the boatswain, who, it
seems, was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as
outrageous as any of the ship's crew, and were no doubt made desperate
in their new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive he was that they
would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told him that men in
our circumstances were past the operation of fear; that seeing almost
every condition that could be was better than that which we were
supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether
death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance, I asked him what he
thought of the circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance were
not worth venturing for? "And where, Sir," said I, "is your belief of my
being preserved here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a
little while ago? For my part," said I, "there seems to me but one thing
amiss in all the prospect of it."--"What is that?" says he. "Why," said
I, "it is, that as you say there are three or four honest fellows among
them, which should be spared, had they been all of the wicked part of
the crew I should have thought God's providence had singled them out to
deliver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes
ashore are our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us." As I
spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it
greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat's coming from the ship,
considered of separating our prisoners; and we had, indeed, secured them
effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than
ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my
cave, where they were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or
discovered, or of finding their way out of the woods if they could have
delivered themselves: here they left them bound, but gave them
provisions; and promised them, if they continued there quietly, to give
them their liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted their
escape, they should be put to death without mercy. They promised
faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and were very
thankful that they had such good usage as to have provisions and light
left them; for Friday gave them candles (such as we made ourselves) for
their comfort; and they did not know but that he stood centinel over
them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned,
indeed, because the captain was not free to trust them; but the other
two were taken into my service, upon the captain's recommendation, and
upon their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and
the three honest men we were seven men well armed; and I made no doubt
we should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were coming,
considering that the captain had said there were three or four honest
men among them also. As soon as they got to the place where their other
boat lay, they ran their boat into the beach, and came all on shore,
hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to see; for I was
afraid they would rather have left the boat at an anchor, some distance
from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should
not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing they did,
they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see they were under
a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in her,
and a great hole in her bottom. After they had mused a while upon this,
they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might,
to try if they could make their companions hear; but all was to no
purpose: then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
small arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods
ring; but it was all one; those in the cave we were sure could not hear,
and those in our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet durst
give no answer to them. They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board
again, to their ship, and let them know that the men were all murdered,
and the long-boat staved; accordingly, they immediately launched their
boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded at this, believing
they would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their
comrades over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he
was in hopes we should have recovered; but he was quickly as much
frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we perceived them all
coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct, which
it seems they consulted together upon, viz. to leave three men in the
boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look
for their fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we
were at a loss what to do; as our seizing those seven men on shore would
be no advantage to us, if we let the boat escape; because they would
then row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to
weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost.
However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of things
might present. The seven men came on shore, and the three who remained
in the boat put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to
an anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for us to come at
them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept close together, marching
towards the top of the little hill under which my habitation lay; and we
could see them plainly, though they could not perceive us. We could have
been very glad they would have come nearer to us, so that we might have
fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we might
have come abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where
they could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards
the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and
hallooed till they were weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far
from the shore, nor far from one another, they sat down together under a
tree, to consider of it. Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep
there, as the other part of them had done, they had done the job for us;
but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to
sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was they had to
fear neither.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of
theirs, viz. that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to
endeavour to make their fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon
them, just at the Juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and
they would certainly yield, and we should have them without bloodshed. I
liked this proposal, provided it was done while we were near enough to
come up to them before they could load their pieces again. But this
event did not happen; and we lay still a long time, very irresolute what
course to take. At length I told them there would be nothing done, in my
opinion, till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat,
perhaps we might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so
might use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on shore. We
waited a great while, though very impatient for their removing; and were
very uneasy, when, after long consultations, we saw them all start up,
and march down towards the sea: it seems they had such dreadful
apprehensions upon them of the danger of the place, that they resolved
to go on board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and
so go on with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them to go towards the shore, I imagined it to
be, as it really was, that they had given over their search, and were
for going back again; and the captain, as soon as I told him my
thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it: but I presently
thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and which answered my
end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain's mate to go over the
little creek westward, towards the place where the savages came on shore
when Friday was rescued, and as soon as they came to a little rising
ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them halloo out, as loud
as they could, and wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as
soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it
again; and then keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering
when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island, and among
the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to me, by such ways
as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed:
and they presently heard them, and answering, run along the shore
westward, towards the voice they heard, when they were presently stopped
by the creek, where the water being up, they could not get over, and
called for the boat to come up and set them over; as, indeed, I
expected. When they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat
being gone a good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour
within the land, they took one of the three men out of her, to go along
with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her to the
stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I wished for; and
immediately leaving Friday and the captain's mate to their business, I
took the rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight, we
surprised the two men before they were aware; one of them lying on the
shore, and the other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between
sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain, who was
foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then called out to
him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There needed very few
arguments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five men upon
him, and his comrade knocked down; besides, this was, it seems, one of
the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to
join very sincerely with us. In the mean time, Friday and the captain's
mate so well managed their business with the rest, that they drew them,
by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood
to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left them where
they were very sure they could not reach back to the boat before it was
dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the time
they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to fall
upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat; and we could
hear the foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to
those behind to come along; and could also hear them answer, and
complain how lame and tired they were, and not able to come any faster;
which was very welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat:
but it is impossible to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone.
We could hear them call to one another in a most lamentable manner,
telling one another they were got into an enchanted island; that either
there were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or else
there were devils and spirits in it, and they should be all carried away
and devoured. They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by
their names a great many times; but no answer. After some time, we could
see them, by the little light there was, run about, wringing their
hands like men in despair; and that sometimes they would go and sit down
in the boat, to rest themselves: then come ashore again, and walk about
again, and so the same thing over again. My men would fain have had me
give them leave to fall upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing
to take them at some advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of
them as I could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing
any of our men, knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to
wait, to see if they did not separate; and, therefore, to make sure of
them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain to
creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the ground as they could,
that they might not be discovered, and get as near them as they could
possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was the
principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with
two more of the crew: the captain was so eager at having this principal
rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let
him come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue
before: but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up
on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot;
the next man was shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did
not die till an hour or two after; and the third run for it. At the
noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole army,
which was now eight men, viz. myself, generalissimo; Friday, my
lieutenant-general; the captain and his two men, and the three prisoners
of war, whom we had trusted with arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the
dark, so that they could not see our number; and I made the man they had
left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by name, to try if
I could bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce them to
terms; which fell out just as we desired: for indeed it was easy to
think, as their condition then was, they would be very willing to
capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could, to one of them, "Tom
Smith! Tom Smith!" Tom Smith answered immediately, "Is that Robinson?"
For it seems he knew the voice. The other answered, "Aye aye; for God's
sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you are all dead men
this moment."--"Who must we yield to? Where are they?" says Smith again.
"Here they are," says he; "here's our captain and fifty men with him;
have been hunting you these two hours: the boatswain is killed, Will Fry
is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if you do not yield, you are all
lost."--"Will they give us quarter then?" says Tom Smith, "and we will
yield."--"I'll go and ask, if you promise to yield," says Robinson: so
he asked the captain; and the captain himself then calls out, "You,
Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down your arms immediately, and
submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins."

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, "For God's sake, captain, give me
quarter; what have I done? They have all been as bad as I:" which, by
the way, was not true neither; for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the
first man that laid hold of the captain, when they first mutinied, and
used him barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving him injurious
language. However, the captain told him he must lay down his arms at
discretion, and trust to the governor's mercy: by which he meant, me,
for they all called me governor. In a word, they all laid down their
arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with
them, and two more, who bound them all; and then my great army of fifty
men, which, particularly with those three, were in all but eight, came
up and seized upon them, and upon their boat; only that I kept myself
and one more out of sight for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the ship: and
as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he
expostulated with them upon the villany of their practices with him, and
at length upon the further wickedness of their design, and how certainly
it must bring them to misery and, distress in the end, and perhaps to
the gallows. They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their
lives. As for that, he told them they were none of his prisoners, but
the commander's of the island; that they thought they had set him on
shore in a barren, uninhabited island; but it had pleased God so to
direct them, that it was inhabited, and that the governor was an
Englishman; that he might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he
had given them all quarter, he supposed he would send them to England,
to be dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was
commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death, for that he
would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired
effect: Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede with
the governor for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for God's
sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliverance was come, and
that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be
hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I retired in the dark from
them, that they might not see what kind of a governor they had, and
called the captain to me: when I called, as at a good distance, one of
the men was ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, "Captain,
the commander calls for you;" and presently the captain replied, "Tell
his excellency I am just a coming." This more perfectly amused them, and
they all believed that the commander was just by with his fifty men.
Upon the captain's coming to me, I told him my project for seizing the
ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in
execution the next morning. But, in order to execute it with more art,
and to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst of
them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay. This was
committed to Friday, and the two men who came on shore with the captain.
They conveyed them to the cave, as to a prison: and it was, indeed, a
dismal place, especially to men in their condition. The others I
ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a full
description; and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was
secure enough, considering they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a
parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought
they might be trusted or no to go on board and surprise the ship. He
talked to them of the injury done him, of the condition they were
brought to, and that though the governor had given them quarter for
their lives as to the present action, yet that if they were sent to
England, they would all be hanged in chains, to be sure; but that if
they would join in so just an attempt as to recover the ship, he would
have the governor's engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by men
in their condition; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and
promised, with the deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to
him to the last drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and
would go with him all over the world; that they would own him as a
father as long as they lived. "Well," says the captain, "I must go and
tell the governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to
consent to it." So he brought me an account of the temper he found them
in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that we
might be very secure, I told him he should go back again and choose out
those five, and tell them, that they might see he did not want men, that
he would take out those five to be his assistants, and that the
governor would keep the other two, and the three that were sent
prisoners to the castle (my cave) as hostages for the fidelity of those
five; and that if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five
hostages should be hanged in chains alive on the shore. This looked
severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest: however,
they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business
of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five
to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first, The
captain, his mate, and passenger: second, Then the two prisoners of the
first gang, to whom, having their character from the captain, I had
given their liberty, and trusted them with arms: third, The other two
that I had kept till now in my bower pinioned, but, on the captain's
motion, had now released: fourth, These five released at last: so that
they were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave
for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on
board the ship: but as for me and my man Friday, I did not think it was
proper for us to stir, having seven men left behind; and it was
employment enough for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with
victuals. As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but
Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and
I made the other two carry provisions to a certain distance, where
Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who
told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after them:
and that it was the governor's pleasure they should not stir any where
but by my direction; that if they did, they would be fetched into the
castle, and be laid in irons: so that as we never suffered them to see
me as a governor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of the
governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two
boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger
captain of one, with four of the men; and himself, his mate, and five
more, went in the other; and they contrived their business very well,
for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as they came within
call of the ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them they had
brought off the men and the boat, but that it was a long time before
they had found them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came
to the ship's side; when the captain and the mate entering first, with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter with
the but end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their
men; they secured all the rest that were upon the mainland quarterdecks,
and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them down that were below; when
the other boat and their men entering at the fore-chains, secured the
forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle which went down into the
cook-room, making three men they found there prisoners. When this was
done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three
men, to break into the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, who
having taken the alarm, had got up, and with two men and a boy had got
fire-arms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow, split open the
door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among them, and wounded
the mate with a musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more
of the men, but killed nobody. The mate calling for help, rushed,
however, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and with his pistol
shot the new captain through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth,
and came out again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a word
more: upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually,
without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the: captain ordered seven guns to
be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of
his success, which you may be sure I was very glad to hear, having sat
watching upon the shore for it till near two o'clock in the morning.
Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; and it having been
a day of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was something
surprised with the noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a
man call me by the name of Governor, Governor, and presently I knew the
captain's voice; when climbing up to the top of the hill, there he
stood, and pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms. "My dear
friend and deliverer," says he, "there's your ship, for she is all
your's, and so are we, and all that belong to her." I cast my eyes to
the ship, and there she rode within little more than half a mile of the
shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they were masters of
her, and the weather being fair, had brought her to an anchor just
against the mouth of the little creek; and the tide being up, the
captain had brought the pinnace in near the place where I at first
landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door, I was at first ready to
sink down with the surprise; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly
put into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry
me away whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not able
to answer him one word; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast
by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He perceived the
surprise, and immediately pulls a bottle out of his pocket, and gave me
a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me. After I had
drank it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it brought me to
myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All
this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under
any surprise, as I was; and he said a thousand kind and tender things to
me, to compose and bring me to myself: but such was the flood of joy in
my breast, that it put all my spirits into confusion; at last it broke
out into tears; and in a little while after I recovered my speech. I
then took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced
together. I told him I looked upon him as a man sent from Heaven to
deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of
wonders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a
secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that the
eye of an infinite power could search into the remotest corner of the
world, and send help to the miserable whenever he pleased. I forgot not
to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven; and what heart could
forbear to bless him, who had not only in a miraculous manner provided
for me in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but from
whom every deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed?

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had brought me some
little refreshment, such as the ship afforded, and such as the wretches
that had been so long his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this he
called aloud to the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that
were for the governor; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been
one that was not to be carried away with them, but as if I had been to
dwell upon the island still. First, he had brought me a case of bottles
full of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine,
(the bottles held two quarts each,) two pounds of excellent good
tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship's beef, and six pieces of pork,
with a bag of peas, and about an hundred weight of biscuit: he also
brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two
bottles of lime juice, and abundance of other things. But, besides
these, and what was a thousand times more useful to me, he brought me
six new clean shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one
pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a very good suit
of clothes of his own, which had been worn but very little; in a word,
he clothed me from head to foot. It was a very kind and agreeable
present, as any one may imagine, to one in my circumstances; but never
was any thing in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and
uneasy, as it was to me to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were
brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be
done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth considering whether we
might venture to take them away with us or no, especially two of them,
whom he knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree; and
the captain said he knew they were such rogues, that there was no
obliging them; and if he did carry them away, it must be in irons, as
malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at the first English colony
he could come at; and I found that the captain himself was very anxious
about it. Upon this I told him, that if he desired it, I would undertake
to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he
should leave them upon the island. "I should be very glad of that," says
the captain, "with all my heart."--"Well," says I, "I will send for
them up, and talk with them for you," So I caused Friday and the two
hostages, for they were now discharged, their comrades having performed
their promise; I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the
five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there till
I came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit; and now
I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain with me, I
caused the men to be brought before me, and I told them I had got a full
account of their villanous behaviour to the captain, and how they had
run away with the ship, and were, preparing to commit farther robberies,
but that Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they
were fallen into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know
that by my direction the ship had been seized; that she lay now in the
road; and they might see, by and by, that their new captain had received
the reward of his villany, and that they would see him hanging at the
yard-arm: that as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I
should not execute them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my
commission they could not doubt but I had authority so to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to
say but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But I told them I knew not
what mercy to show them; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the
island with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for
England; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England
other than as prisoners, in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running
away with the ship; the consequence of which, they must needs know,
would be the gallows; so that I could not tell what was best for them,
unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island; if they desired
that, as I had liberty to leave the island, I had some inclination to
give them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They
seemed very thankful for it, and said they would much rather venture to
stay there than be carried to England to be hanged: so I left it on
that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he
durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry with the
captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not his; and that
seeing I had offered them so much favour, I would be as good as my word;
and that if he did not think fit to consent to it I would set them at
liberty, as I found them; and if he did not like it, he might take them
again if he could catch them. Upon this they appeared very thankful, and
I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods
to the place whence they came, and I would leave them some fire-arms,
some ammunition, and some directions how they should live very well, if
they thought fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship; but told
the captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and desired
him to go on board, in the mean time, and keep all right in the ship,
and send the boat on shore next day for me; ordering him, at all events,
to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm,
that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my apartment,
and entered seriously into discourse with them on their circumstances. I
told them I thought they had made a right choice; that if the captain
had carried them away, they would certainly be hanged. I showed them the
new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had
nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told them I
would let them into the story of my living there, and put them into the
way of making it easy to them: accordingly, I gave them the whole
history of the place, and of my coming to it; showed them my
fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted my corn, cured my
grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary to make them easy. I told
them the story also of the seventeen Spaniards that were to be expected,
for whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them in common
with themselves. Here it may be noted, that the captain had ink on
board, who was greatly surprised that I never hit upon a way of making
ink of charcoal and water, or of something else, as I had done things
much more difficult.

I left them my fire-arms, viz. five-muskets, three fowling-pieces; and
three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left; for after
the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a
description of the way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and
fatten them, and to make both butter and cheese: in a word, I gave them
every part of my own story; and told them I should prevail with the
captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden
seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of: also I gave
them the bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade
them be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on board the
ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The
next morning early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship's
side, and making a most lamentable complaint of the other three, begged
to be taken into the ship, for God's sake, for they should be murdered,
and begged the captain to take them on board, though he hanged them
immediately. Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without
me; but after some difficulty, and after their solemn promises of
amendment, they were taken on board, and were some time after soundly
whipped and pickled: after which they proved very honest and
quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide being up,
with the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my
intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be added, which they
took, and were very thankful for. I also encouraged them, by telling
them that if it lay in my power to send any vessel to take them in, I
would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for reliques, the
great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also
I forgot not to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had lain by
me so long useless, that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could
hardly pass for silver, till it had been a little rubbed and handled; as
also the money I found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left
the island, the 19th of December, as I found by the ship's account, in
the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight and twenty years, two
months, and nineteen days; being delivered from this second captivity
the same day of the month that I first made my escape in the long-boat,
from among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I
arrived in England the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been
thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger to all the world as
if I had never been known there. My benefactor and faithful steward,
whom I had left my money in trust with, was alive, but had had great
misfortunes in the world; was become a widow the second time, and very
low in the world. I made her very easy as to what she owed me, assuring
her I would give her no trouble; but on the contrary, in gratitude for
her former care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my
little-stock would afford; which, at that time, would indeed allow me to
do but little for her; but I assured her I would never forget her former
kindness to me; nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to help her,
as shall be observed in its proper place. I went down afterwards into
Yorkshire; but my father was dead, and my mother and all the family
extinct, except that I found two sisters, and two of the children of one
of my brothers; and as I had been long ago given over for dead, there
had been no provision made for me: so that, in a word, I found nothing
to relieve or assist me; and that the little money I had would not do
much for me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not expect; and
this was, that the master of the ship whom I had so happily delivered,
and by the same means saved the ship and cargo, having given a very
handsome account to the owners of the manner how I had saved the lives
of the men, and the ship, they invited me to meet them, and some other
merchants concerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment
upon the subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of my life,
and how little way this would go towards settling me in the world, I
resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not come by some
information of the state of my plantation in the Brazils, and of what
was become of my partner, who, I had reason to suppose, had some years
past given me over for dead. With this view I took shipping for Lisbon,
where I arrived in April following; my man Friday accompanying me very
honestly in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant
upon all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and
to my particular satisfaction, my old friend the captain of the ship who
first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He was now grown old,
and had left off going to sea, having put his son, who was far from a
young man, into his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The old
man did not know me; and, indeed, I hardly knew him: but I soon brought
him to my remembrance, and as soon brought myself to his remembrance,
when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance between us, I
inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my partner. The old
man told me he had not been in the Brazils for about nine years; but
that he could assure me, that when he came away my partner was living;
but the trustees, whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of my
part, were both dead: that, however, he believed I would have a very
good account of the improvement of the plantation; for that upon the
general belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had given
in the account of the produce of my part of the plantation to the
procurator-fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came to
claim it, one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St.
Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of the poor, and for the
conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that if I appeared,
or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be restored; only
that the improvement or annual production, being distributed to
charitable uses, could not be restored: but he assured me that the
steward of the king's revenue from lands, and the provedore, or steward
of the monastery, had taken great care all along that the incumbent,
that is to say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account of the
produce, of which they had duly received my moiety. I asked him if he
knew to what height of improvement he had brought the plantation, and
whether he thought it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my
going thither, I should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my
just right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly to what
degree the plantation was improved; but this he knew, that my partner
was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying his part of it; and that, to
the best of his remembrance, he had heard that the king's third of my
part, which was, it seems, granted away to some other monastery or
religious house, amounted to above two hundred moidores a year: that as
to my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was no question
to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness my title, and my
name being also enrolled in the register of the country; also he told
me, that the survivors of my two trustees were very fair honest people,
and very wealthy; and he believed I would hot only have their assistance
for putting me in possession, but would find a very considerable sum of
money in their hands for my account, being the produce of the farm while
their fathers held the trust, and before it was given up, as above;
which, as he remembered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account, and
inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the trustees should
thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that I had made my will, and
had made him, the Portuguese captain, my universal heir, &c.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of my being
dead, he could not act as executor, until some certain account should
come of my death; and, besides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a
thing so remote: that it was true he had registered my will, and put in
his claim; and could he have given any account of my being dead or
alive, he would have acted by procuration, and taken possession of the
ingeino, (so they called the sugar-house) and have given his son, who
was now at the Brazils, orders to do it. "But," says the old man, "I
have one piece of news to tell you, which perhaps may not be so
acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, believing you were lost, and
all the world believing so also, your partner and trustees did offer to
account with me, in your name, for six or eight of the first years'
profits, which I received. There being at that time great disbursements
for increasing the works, building an ingeino, and buying slaves, it did
not amount to near so much as afterwards it produced: however," says the
old man, "I shall give you a true account of what I have received in
all, and how I have disposed of it."

After a few days' farther conference with this ancient friend, he
brought me an account of the first six years' income of my plantation,
signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees, being always delivered
in goods, viz. tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum,
molasses, &c. which is the consequence of a sugar-work; and I found, by
this account, that every year the income considerably increased; but, as
above, the disbursements being large, the sum at first was small:
however, the old man let me see that he was debtor to me four hundred
and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen
double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he having been
shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my leaving
the place. The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes, and
how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover his losses,
and buy him a share in a new ship. "However, my old friend," says he,
"you shall not want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as my son
returns, you shall be fully satisfied." Upon this, he pulls out an old
pouch, and gives me one hundred and sixty Portugal moidores in gold; and
giving the writings of his title to the ship, which his son was gone to
the Brazils in, of which he was a quarter-part owner, and his son
another, he puts them both into my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the poor man to be
able to bear this; and remembering what he had done for me, how he had
taken me up at sea, and how generously he had used me on all occasions,
and particularly how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly
refrain weeping at what he had said to me; therefore I asked him if his
circumstances admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and if
it would not straiten him? He told me he could not say but it might
straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money, and I might want
it more than he.

Every thing the good man said was full of affection, and I could hardly
refrain from tears while he spoke; in short, I took one hundred of the
moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give him a receipt for them:
then I returned him the rest, and told him if ever I had possession of
the plantation, I would return the other to him also, (as, indeed, I
afterwards did;) and that as to the bill of sale of his part in his
son's ship, I would not take it by any means; but that if I wanted the
money, I found he was honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but
came to receive what he gave me reason to expect, I would never have a
penny more from him.

When this was past, the old man asked me if he should put me into a
method to make my claim to my plantation? I told him I thought to go
over to it myself. He said I might do so if I pleased; but that if I did
not, there were ways enough to secure my right, and immediately to
appropriate the profits to my use: and as there were ships in the river
of Lisbon just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a
public register, with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was
alive, and that I was the same person who took up the land for the
planting the said plantation at first. This being regularly attested by
a notary, and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with a
letter of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the place;
and then proposed my staying with him till an account came of
the return.

Never was any thing more honourable than the proceedings upon this
procuration; for in less than seven months I received a large packet
from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for whose account I
went to sea, in which were the following particular letters and
papers enclosed.

First, There was the account-current of the produce of my farm or
plantation, from the year when their fathers had balanced with my old
Portugal captain, being for six years; the balance appeared to be one
thousand one hundred and seventy-four moidores in my favour.

Secondly, There was the account of four years more, while they kept the
effects in their hands, before the government claimed the
administration, as being the effects of a person not to be found, which
they called civil death; and the balance of this, the value of the
plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand four hundred and
forty-six crusadoes, being about three thousand two hundred and
forty moidores.

Thirdly, There was the prior of Augustine's account, who had received
the profits for above fourteen years; but not being to account for what
was disposed of by the hospital, very honestly declared he had eight
hundred and seventy-two moidores not distributed, which he acknowledged
to my account: as to the king's part, that refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner's, congratulating me very
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how the estate
was improved, and what it produced a year; with a particular of the
number of squares or acres that it contained, how planted, how many
slaves there were upon it, and making two and twenty crosses for
blessings, told me he had said so many _Ave Marias_ to thank the blessed
Virgin that I was alive; inviting me very passionately to come over and
take possession of my own; and, in the mean time, to give him orders to
whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not come myself; concluding
with a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of his family; and sent
me, as a present, seven fine leopards' skins, which he had, it seems,
received from Africa, by some other ship that he had sent thither, and
who, it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He sent me also five
chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined,
not quite so large as moidores. By the same fleet, my two
merchant-trustees shipped me one thousand two hundred chests of sugar,
eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole account
in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was better than
the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutterings of my very
heart when I found all my wealth about me; for as the Brazil ships come
all in fleets, the same ships which brought my letters brought my goods:
and the effects were safe in the river before the letters came to my
hand. In a word, I turned pale, and grew sick; and had not the old man
run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had
overset nature, and I had died upon the spot: nay, after that, I
continued very ill, and was so some hours till a physician being sent
for, and something of the real cause of my illness being known, he
ordered me to be let blood; after which I had relief, and grew well: but
I verily believe, if I had not been eased by a vent given in that manner
to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five thousand pounds
sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call it, in the
Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of
lands in England; and, in a word, I was in a condition which I scarce
knew how to understand, or how to compose myself for the enjoyment of
it. The first thing I did was to recompense my original benefactor, my
good old captain, who had been first charitable to me in my distress,
kind to me in my beginning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him
all that was sent to me; I told him, that next to the providence of
Heaven, which disposed all things, it was owing to him; and that it now
lay on me to reward him, which I would do a hundredfold: so I first
returned to him the hundred moidores I had received of him; then I sent
for a notary, and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge
from the four hundred and seventy moidores, which he had acknowledged he
owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner possible. After which I
caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering him to be my receiver of
the annual profits of my plantation, and appointing my partner to
account with him, and make the returns by the usual fleets to him in my
name; and a clause in the end, being a grant of one hundred moidores a
year to him during his life, out of the effects, and fifty moidores a
year to his son after him, for his life: and thus I requited my old man.

I was now to consider which way to steer my course next, and what to do
with the estate that Providence had thus put into my hands; and, indeed,
I had more care upon my head now than I had in my silent state of life
in the island, where I wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing
but what I wanted; whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my
business was how to secure it. I had never a cave now to hide my money
in, or a place where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew
mouldy and tarnished before any body would meddle with it: on the
contrary, I knew not where to put it, or whom to trust with it. My old
patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was the only refuge I
had. In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to summon me
thither; but now I could not tell how to think of going thither till I
had settled my affairs, and left my effects in some safe hands behind
me. At first I thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew was
honest, and would be just to me; but then she was in years, and but
poor, and, for aught. I knew, might be in debt; so that, in a word, I
had no way but to go back to England myself, and take my effects
with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this; and therefore,
as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his satisfaction, who
had been my former benefactor, so I began to think of my poor widow,
whose husband had been my first benefactor, and she, while it was in her
power, my faithful steward and instructor. So the first thing I did, I
got a merchant in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London, not
only to pay a bill, but to go find her out, and carry her in money a
hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her in her
poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived, have a further supply:
at the same time I sent my two sisters in the country a hundred pounds,
each, they being, though not in want, yet not in very good
circumstances; one having been married and left a widow; and the other
having a husband not so kind to her as he should be. But among all my
relations or acquaintances, I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I
durst commit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to the
Brazils, and leave things safe behind me; and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and have settled myself
there, for I was, as it were, naturalized to the place; but I had some
little scruple in my mind about religion, which insensibly drew me back.
However, it was not religion that kept me from going there for the
present; and as I had made no scruple of being openly of the religion of
the country all the while I was among them, so neither did I yet; only
that, now and then, having of late thought more of it than formerly,
when I began to think of living and dying among them, I began to regret
my having professed myself a papist, and thought it might not be the
best religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me from going
to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with whom to leave my
effects behind me; so I resolved, at last, to go to England with it,
where, if I arrived, I concluded I should make some acquaintance, or
find some relations that would be faithful to me; and, accordingly, I
prepared to go to England with all my wealth.

In order to prepare tilings for my going home, I first, the Brazil fleet
being just going away, resolved to give answers suitable to the just and
faithful account of things I had from thence; and, first, to the prior
of St. Augustine I wrote a letter full of thanks for their just
dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred and seventy-two moidores
which were undisposed of, which I desired might be given, five hundred
to the monastery, and three hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as the
prior should direct; desiring the good padre's prayers for me, and the
like. I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all the
acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty called for; as for
sending them any present, they were far above having any occasion for
it. Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in the
improving the plantation, and his integrity in increasing the stock of
the, works; giving him instructions for his future government of my
part, according to the powers I had left with my old patron, to whom I
desired him to send whatever became due to me, till he should hear from
me more particularly; assuring him that it was my intention not only to
come to him, but to settle myself there for the remainder of my life. To
this I added a very handsome present of some Italian silks for his wife
and two daughters, for such the captain's son informed me he had; with
two pieces of fine English broad-cloth, the best I could get in Lisbon,
five pieces of black baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all my effects
into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was, which way to go to
England: I had been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a
strange aversion to go to England by sea at that time; and though I
could give no reason for it, yet the difficulty increased upon me so
much, that though I had once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I
altered my mind, and that not once, but two or three times.

It is true; I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might be some
of the reasons; but let no man slight the strong impulses of his own
thoughts in cases of such moment: two of the ships which I had singled
out to go in, I mean more particularly singled out than any other,
having put my things on board one of them, and in the other to have
agreed with the captain; I say, two of these ships miscarried, viz. one
was taken by the Algerines, and the other was cast away on the Start,
near Torbay, and all the people drowned, except three; so that in either
of those vessels I had been made miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to whom I
communicated every thing, pressed me earnestly not to go by sea, but
either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross over the Bay of Biscay to
Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy and safe journey by land to
Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Madrid, and so all the
way by laud through France. In a word, I was so prepossessed against my
going by sea at all, except from Calas to Dover, that I resolved to
travel all the way by land; which, as I was not in haste, and did not
value the charge, was by much the pleasanter way: and to make it more
so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the son of a merchant
in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after which we picked up
two more English merchants also, and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the
last going to Paris only; so that in all there were six of us, and five
servants; the two merchants and the two Portuguese contenting themselves
with one servant between two, to save the charge; and as for me, I got
an English sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides my man Friday,
who was too much a stranger to be capable of supplying the place of a
servant on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being very well
mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof they did me the
honour to call me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as
because I had two servants, and, indeed, was the original of the
whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals, so I shall trouble
you now with none of my land journal; but some adventures that happened
to us in this tedious and difficult journey I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to Spain, were
willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain, and to see what was
worth observing; but it being the latter part of the summer, we hastened
away, and set out from Madrid about the middle of October; but when we
came to the edge of Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the
way, with an account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of
the mountains, that several travellers were obliged to come back to
Pampeluna, after having attempted, at an extreme hazard, to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed; and to me, that
had been always used to a hot climate, and to countries where I could
scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was insufferable: nor, indeed, was
it more painful than surprising, to come but ten days before out of Old
Castile, where the weather was not only warm, but very hot, and
immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains so very keen, so
severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to endanger benumbing and
perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains all covered
with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never seen or felt before
in his life. To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna, it continued
snowing with so much violence, and so long, that the people said winter
was come before its time; and the roads, which were difficult before,
were now quite impassable; for, in a word, the snow lay in some places
too thick for us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the case in
the northern countries, there was no going without being in danger of
being buried alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at
Pampeluna; when seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood of its
being better, for it was the severest winter all over Europe that had
been known in the memory of man, I proposed that we should all go away
to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for Bourdeaux, which was a very
little voyage. But while I was considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who having been stopped on the French side of the
passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a guide, who,
traversing the country near the head of Languedoc, had brought them over
the mountains by such ways, that they were not much incommoded with the
snow; for where they met with snow in any quantity, they said it was
frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses. We sent, for this
guide, who told us he would undertake to carry us the same way with no
hazard from the snow, provided we were armed sufficiently to protect
ourselves from wild beasts; for, he said, upon these great snows it was
frequent for some wolves to show themselves at the foot of the
mountains, being made ravenous for want of food, the ground being
covered with snow. We told him we were well enough prepared for such
creatures as they were, if he would ensure us from a kind of two-legged
wolves, which, we were told, we were in most danger from, especially on
the French side of the mountains. He satisfied us that there was no
danger of that kind in the way that we were to go: so we readily agreed
to follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants,
some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go, and were
obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna, with our guide, on the 15th of
November; and, indeed, I was surprised, when, instead of going forward,
he came directly back with us on the same road that we came from Madrid,
about twenty miles; when having passed two rivers, and come into the
plain country, we found ourselves in a warm climate again, where the
country was pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but on a sudden, turning
to his left, he approached the mountains another way: and though it is
true the hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made so many
tours, such meanders, and led us by such winding ways, that we
insensibly passed the height of the mountains without being much
encumbered with the snow; and, all on a sudden, he showed us the
pleasant fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, all green and
flourishing, though, indeed, at a great distance, and we had some rough
way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed one whole day
and a night so fast, that we could not travel; but he bid us be easy; we
should soon be past it all: we found, indeed, that we began to descend
every day, and to come more north than before; and so depending upon our
guide, we went on.

It was about two hours before night, when our guide being something
before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and
after them a bear, out of a hollow way adjoining to a thick wood: two of
the wolves made at the guide, and had he been far before us, he would
have been devoured before we could have helped him; one of them fastened
upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with that violence, that
he had not time, or presence of mind enough, to draw his pistol, but
hallooed and cried out to us most lustily. My man Friday being next me,
I bade him ride up, and see what was the matter. As soon as Friday came
in sight of the man, he hallooed out as loud as the other, "O master! O
master!" but, like a bold fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and
with his pistol shot the wolf that attacked him in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday; for he having
been used to such creatures in his country, he had no fear upon him, but
went close up to him and shot him, as above; whereas any other of us
would have fired at a farther distance, and have perhaps either missed
the wolf, or endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I; and, indeed, it
alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of Friday's pistol, we
heard on both sides the most dismal howling of wolves; and the noise,
redoubled by the echo of the mountains, appeared to us as if there had
been a prodigious number of them; and perhaps there was not such a few
as that we had no cause of apprehensions: however, as Friday had killed
this wolf, the other that had fastened upon the horse left him
immediately, and fled, without doing him any damage, having happily
fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle had stuck in his
teeth. But the man was most hurt; for the raging creature had bit him
twice, once in the arm, and the other time a little above his knee; and
though he had made some defence, he was just as it were tumbling down by
the disorder of his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday's pistol we all mended
our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was very difficult,
would give us leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as we came
clear of the trees, which blinded us before, we saw clearly what had
been the case, and how Friday had disengaged the poor guide, though we
did not presently discern what kind of creature it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a surprising
manner, as that which followed between Friday and the bear, which gave
us all, though at first we were surprised and afraid for him, the
greatest diversion imaginable. As the bear is a heavy clumsy creature,
and does not gallop as the wolf does, who is swift and light, so he has
two particular qualities, which generally are the rule of his actions:
first, as to men, who are not his proper prey, (he does not usually
attempt them, except they first attack him, unless he be excessive
hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the ground being
covered with snow,) if you do not meddle with him, he will not meddle
with you; but then you must take care to be very civil to him, and give
him the road, for he is a very nice gentleman; he will not go a step out
of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is
to look another way, and keep going on; for sometimes if you stop, and
stand still, and look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront;
but if you throw or toss any thing at him, and it hits him, though it
were but a bit of stick as big as your finger, he thinks himself abused,
and sets all other business aside to pursue his revenge, and will have
satisfaction in point of honour;--this is his first quality: the next
is, if he be once affronted, he will never leave yon, night nor day,
till he has his revenge, but follows, at a good round rate, till he
overtakes yon.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came up to him, he
was helping him off from his horse, for the man was both hurt and
frightened, when, on a sudden, we espied the bear come out of the wood,
and a vast monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw. We
were all a little surprised when we saw him; but when Friday saw him,
it was easy to see joy and courage in the fellow's countenance: "O, O,
O!" says Friday, three times, pointing to him; "O master! you give me
te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me makee you good laugh."

I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased; "You fool," says I,
"he will eat you up,"--"Eatee me up! eatee me up!" says Friday, twice
over again; "me eatee him up; me' makee you good laugh; you all stay
here, me show you good laugh." So down he sits, and gets off his boots
in a moment, and puts on a pair of pumps, (as we call the flat shoes
they wear, and which he had in his pocket,) gives my other servant his
horse, and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with nobody, till
Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the bear could understand
him, "Hark ye, hark ye," says Friday, "me speakee with you." We followed
at a distance; for now being come down on the Gaseony side of the
mountains, we were entered a vast great forest, where the country was
plain and pretty open, though it had many trees in it scattered here and
there. Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up with
him quickly, and takes up a great stone and throws it at him, and hit
him just on the head, but did him no more harm than if he had thrown it
against a wall; but it answered Friday's end, for the rogue was so void
of fear that he did it purely to make the bear follow him, and show us
some laugh, as he called it. As soon as the bear felt the blow, and saw
him, he turns about, and comes after him, taking devilish long strides,
and shuffling on at a strange rate, so as would have put a horse to a
middling gallop: away runs Friday, and takes his course as if he run
towards us for help; so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear,
and deliver my man; though I was angry at him heartily for bringing the
bear back upon us, when he was going about his own business another way:
and especially I was angry that he had turned the bear upon us, and then
run away; and I called out, "You dog, is this your making us laugh? Come
away, and take your horse, that we may shoot the creature." He heard me,
and cried out, "No shoot, no shoot; stand still, and you get much
laugh:" and as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear's one, he
turned on a sudden, on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit
for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and doubling his pace, he
gets nimbly up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at about
five or six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the
tree, and we followed at a distance: the first thing he did, he stopped
at the gun, smelt to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the
tree, climbing like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at
the folly, as I thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see any
thing to laugh at yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode
near to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the small end of a
large branch, and the bear got about half way to him. As soon as the
bear got out to that part where the limb of the tree was weaker,--"Ha!"
says he to us, "now you see me teachee the bear dance:" so he falls a
jumping and shaking the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but
stood still, and began to look behind him, to see how he should get
back; then, indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with
him by a great deal; when seeing him stand still, he calls out to him
again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English, "What, you
come no farther? pray you come farther:" so he left jumping and shaking
the tree; and the bear, just as if he understood what he said, did come
a little farther; then he fell a jumping again, and the bear stopped
again. We thought now was a good time to knock him in the head, and
called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot the bear: but he
cried out earnestly, "O pray! O pray! no shoot, me shoot by and then;"
he would have said by and by. However, to shorten the story, Friday
danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that we had laughing
enough, but still could not imagine what the fellow would do: for first
we thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and we found the bear
was too cunning for that too; for he would not go out far enough to be
thrown down, but clings fast with his great broad claws and feet, so
that we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and what the jest
would be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt quickly: for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, "Well, well," says Friday, "you no come farther, me go; you
no come to me, me come to you:" and upon this he goes out to the smaller
end of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently lets
himself down by it, sliding down the bough, till he came near enough to
jump down on his feet, and away he runs to his gun, takes it up, and
stands still. "Well," said I to him, "Friday, what will you do now? Why
don't you shoot him?"--"No shoot," says Friday, "no yet; me shoot now,
me no kill; me stay, give you one more laugh:" and, indeed, so he did,
as you will see presently; for when the bear saw his enemy gone, he
comes back from the bough where he stood, but did it mighty cautiously,
looking behind him every step, and coming backward till he got into the
body of the tree; then with the same hinder end foremost, he came down
the tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot at a time,
very leisurely. At this juncture, and just before he could set his hind
foot on the ground, Friday stepped up close to him, clapped the muzzle
of his piece into his ear, and shot him dead. Then the rogue turned
about to see if we did not laugh; and when he saw we were pleased, by
our looks, he falls a laughing himself very loud. "So we kill bear in
my country," says Friday. "So you kill them?" says I: "why, you have no
guns."--"No," says he, "no gun, but shoot great much long arrow." This
was a good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild place, and our
guide very much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew: the howling of
wolves ran much in my head; and, indeed, except the noise I once heard
on the shore of Africa, of which I have said something already, I never
heard any thing that filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else, as
Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken the skin of
this monstrous creature off, which was worth saving; but we had near
three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us; so we left him, and went
forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep and dangerous
as on the mountains; and the ravenous creatures, as we heard afterwards,
were come down into the forest and plain country, pressed by hunger, to
seek for food, and had done a great deal of mischief in the villages,
where they surprised the country people, killed a great many of their
sheep and horses, and some people too. We had one dangerous place to
pass, which our guide told us, if there were more wolves in the country
we should find them there; and this was a small plain, surrounded with
woods on every side, and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we were to
pass to get through the wood, and then we should come to the village
where we were to lodge. It was within half an hour of sunset when we
entered the first wood, and a little after sunset when we came into the
plain; we met with nothing in the first wood, except that, in a little
plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over, we saw
five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after another, as if
they had been in chase of some prey, and had it in view; they took no
notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a few moments. Upon this our
guide, who, by the way, was but a fainthearted fellow, bid us keep in a
ready posture, for he believed there were more wolves a coming. We kept
our arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we saw no more wolves till we
came through that wood, which was near half a league, and entered the
plain. As soon as we came into the plain, we had occasion enough to look
about us: the first object we met with was a dead horse, that is to say,
a poor horse which the wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them
at work, we could not say eating of him, but picking of his bones
rather; for they had eaten up all the flesh before. We did not think fit
to disturb them at their feast, neither did they take much notice of us.
Friday would have let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any
means; for I found we were like to have more business upon our hands
than we were aware of. We were not gone half over the plain, when we
began to hear the wolves howl in the wood on our left in a frightful
manner, and presently after we saw about a hundred coming on directly
towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a line, as regularly as
an army drawn up by experienced officers. I scarce knew in what manner
to receive them, but found, to draw ourselves in a close line was the
only way; so we formed in a moment: but that we might not have, too
much interval, I ordered that only every other man should fire, and that
the others who had not fired should stand ready to give them a second
volley immediately, if they continued to advance upon us; and then that
those who had fired at first should not pretend to load their fusees
again, but stand ready every one with a pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man; so we were, by this method,
able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time: however, at present we
had no necessity; for upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a
full stop, being terrified as well with the noise as with the fire; four
of them being shot in the head, dropped; several others were wounded,
and went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow. I found they
stopped, but did not immediately retreat; whereupon, remembering that I
had been told that the fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of
a man, I caused all the company to halloo as loud as we could; and I
found the notion not altogether mistaken; for upon our shout they began
to retire, and turn about. I then ordered a second volley to be fired in
their rear, which put them to the gallop, and away they went to the
woods. This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again; and that we
might lose no time, we kept going: but we had but little more than
loaded our fusees, and put ourselves in readiness, when we heard a
terrible noise in the same wood, on our left, only that it was farther
onward, the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky, which made it
worse on our side; but the noise increasing, we could easily perceive
that it was the howling and yelling of those hellish creatures; and, on
a sudden, we perceived two or three troops of wolves, one on our left,
one behind us, and one in our front, so that we seemed to be surrounded
with them: however, as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way
forward, as fast as we could make our horses go, which, the way being
very rough, was only a good hard trot. In this manner we came in view of
the entrance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at the farther
side of the plain; but we were greatly surprised, when coming nearer the
lane or pass, we saw a confused number of wolves standing just at the
entrance. On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard the
noise of a gun, and looking that way, out rushed a horse, with a saddle
and a bridle on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen or seventeen
wolves after him, full speed; indeed the horse had the heels of them,
but as we supposed that he could not hold it at that rate, we doubted
not but they would get up with him at last; no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight; for riding up to the entrance
where the horse came out, we found the carcasses of another horse and of
two men, devoured by the ravenous creatures; and one of the men was no
doubt the same whom we heard fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by
him fired off; but as to the man, his head and the upper part of his
body were eaten up. This filled us with horror, and we knew not what
course to take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered
about us presently, in hopes of prey; and I verily believe there were
three hundred of them. It happened very much to our advantage, that at
the entrance into the wood, but a little way from it, there lay some
large timber-trees, which had been cut down the summer before, and I
suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my little troop in among those
trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one long tree, I advised
them all to alight, and keeping that tree before us for a breastwork, to
stand in a triangle, or three fronts, enclosing our horses in the
centre. We did so, and it was well we did; for never was a more furious
charge than the creatures made upon us in this place. They came on with
a growling kind of noise, and mounted the piece of timber, which, as I
said, was our breastwork, as if they were only rushing upon their prey;
and this fury of theirs, it seems, was principally occasioned by their
seeing our horses behind us. I ordered our men to fire as before, every
other man; and they took their aim so sure, that they killed several of
the wolves at the first volley; but there was a necessity to keep a
continual firing, for they came on like devils, those behind pushing on
those before.

When we had fired a second volley of our fusees, we thought they stopped
a little, and I hoped they would have gone off, but it was but a moment,
for others came forward again; so we fired two volleys of our pistols;
and I believe in these four firings we had killed seventeen or eighteen
of them, and lamed twice as many, yet they came on again. I was loath to
spend our shot too hastily; so I called my servant, not my man Friday,
for he was better employed, for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable,
he had charged my fusee and his own while we were engaged; but, as I
said, I called my other man, and giving him a horn of powder, I bade him
lay a train all along the piece of timber, and let it be a large train.
He did so; and had but just time to get away, when the wolves came up to
it, and some got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol close to
the powder, set it on fire: those that were upon the timber were
scorched with it, and six or seven of them fell, or rather jumped in
among us, with the force and fright of the fire; we dispatched these in
an instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which the
night, for it was now very near dark, made more terrible, that they drew
back a little; upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in
one volley, and after that we gave a shout: upon this the wolves turned
tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame ones, that we
found struggling on the ground, and fell a cutting them with our
swords, which answered our expectation; for the crying and howling they
made was better understood by their fellows; so that they all fled
and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them; and had it been
daylight, we had killed many more. The field of battle being thus
cleared, we made forward again, for we had still near a league to go. We
heard the ravenous creatures howl and yell in the woods as we went,
several times, and sometimes we fancied we saw some of them, but the
snow dazzling our eyes, we were not certain: in about an hour more we
came to the town where we were to lodge, which we found in a terrible
fright, and all in arms; for, it seems, the night before, the wolves and
some bears had broke into the village, and put them in such terror, that
they were obliged to keep guard night and day, but especially in the
night, to preserve their cattle, and, indeed, their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled so much
with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go no farther; so we
were obliged to take a new guide here, and go to Thoulouse, where we
found a warm climate, a fruitful pleasant country, and no snow, no
wolves, nor any thing like them: but when we told our story at
Thoulouse, they told us it was nothing but what was ordinary in the
great forest at the foot of the mountains, especially when the snow lay
on the ground; but they inquired much what kind of a guide we had got,
who would venture to bring us that way in such a severe season; and told
us it was surprising we were not all devoured. When we told them how we
placed ourselves, and the horses in the middle, they blamed us
exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but we had been all
destroyed; for it was the sight of the horses which made the wolves so
furious, seeing their prey; and that, at other times, they are really
afraid of a gun; but being excessive hungry, and raging on that account,
the eagerness to come at the horses had made them senseless of danger;
and that if we had not, by the continued fire, and at last by the
stratagem of the train of powder, mastered them, it had been great odds
but that we had been torn to pieces: whereas, had we been content to
have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they would not have
taken the horses so much for their own, when men were on their backs, as
otherwise; and withal they told us, that at last, if we had stood all
together, and left our horses, they would have been so eager to have
devoured them, that we might have come off safe, especially having our
fire-arms in our hands, and being so many in number. For my part, I was
never so sensible of danger in my life; for seeing above three hundred
devils come roaring and open-mouthed to devour us, and having nothing to
shelter us, or retreat to, I gave myself over for lost; and, as it was,
I believe I shall never care to cross those mountains again; I think I
would much rather go a thousand leagues by sea, though I was sure to
meet with a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage through France,
nothing but what other travellers have given an account of, with much
more advantage than I can. I travelled from Thoulouse to Paris, and
without any considerable stay came to Calais, and landed safe at Dover,
the 14th of Jan. after having a severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a little time all
my new-discovered estate safe about me; the bills of exchange which I
brought with me having been very currently paid.

My principal guide and privy counsellor was my good ancient widow; who,
in gratitude for the money I had sent her, thought no pains too much,
nor care too great, to employ for me; and I trusted her so entirely with
every thing, that I was perfectly easy as to the security of my effects:
and, indeed, I was very happy from the beginning, and now to the end, in
the unspotted integrity of this good gentlewoman.

And now having resolved to dispose of my plantation in the Brazils, I
wrote to my old friend at Lisbon; who having offered it to the two
merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived in the Brazils, they
accepted the offer, and remitted thirty-three thousand pieces-of-eight
to a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon, to pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which they sent
from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me the bills of
exchange for 32,800 pieces-of-eight for the estate; reserving the
payment of 100 moidores a year to him (the old man) during his life, and
50 moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which I had promised
them; and which the plantation was to make good as a rent-charge. And
thus I have given the first part of a life of fortune and adventure, a
life of Providence's chequer-work, and of a variety which the world will
seldom be able to show the like of: beginning foolishly, but closing
much more happily than any part of it ever gave me leave so much as
to hope for.

Any one would think, that in this state of complicated good fortune, I
was past running any more hazards, and so indeed I had been, if other
circumstances had concurred: but I was inured to a wandering life, had
no family, nor many relations; nor, however rich, had I contracted much
acquaintance; and though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I
could not keep that country out of my head, and had a great mind to be
upon the wing again; especially I could not resist the strong
inclination I had to see my island, and to know if the poor Spaniards
were in being there. My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me
from it, and so far prevailed with me, that, for almost seven years, she
prevented my running abroad; during which time I took my two nephews,
the children of one of my brothers, into my care: the eldest having
something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a
settlement of some addition to his estate, after my decease. The other I
put out to a captain of a ship: and after five years, finding him a
sensible, bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him into a good ship,
and sent him to sea: and this young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old
as I was, to farther adventures myself.

In the mean time, I in part settled myself here; for, first of all, I
married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and
had three children, two sons and one daughter; but my wife dying, and my
nephew coming home with good success from a voyage to Spain, my
inclination to go abroad, and his importunity, prevailed, and engaged
me to go in his ship as a private trader to the East Indies: this was in
the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island, saw my successors
the Spaniards, had the whole story of their lives, and of the villains I
left there; how at first they insulted the poor Spaniards, how they
afterwards agreed, disagreed, united, separated, and how at last the
Spaniards were obliged to use violence with them; how they were
subjected to the Spaniards; how honestly the Spaniards used them; an
history, if it were entered into, as full of variety and wonderful
accidents as my own part: particularly also as to their battles with the
Caribbeans, who landed several times upon the island, and as to the
improvement they made upon the island itself; and how five of them made
an attempt upon the main land, and brought away eleven men and five
women prisoners; by which, at my coming, I found about twenty young
children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days; left them supplies of all necessary
things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two
workmen, which I brought from England with me; viz. a carpenter and
a smith.

Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved to
myself the property of the whole, but gave them such parts respectively,
as they agreed on; and, having settled all things with them, and engaged
them not to leave the place, I left them there.

From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a bark, which
I bought there, with more people, to the island; and in it, besides
other supplies, I sent seven women, being such as I found proper for
service, or for wives to such as would take them. As to the Englishmen,
I promised them to send them some women from England, with a good cargo
of necessaries, if they would apply themselves to planting; which I
afterwards could not perform: the fellows proved very honest and
diligent, after they were mastered, and had their properties set apart
for them. I sent them also from the Brazils five cows, three of them
being big with calf, some sheep, and some hogs, which, when I came again
were considerably increased.

But all these things, with an account how three hundred Caribbees came
and invaded them, and ruined their plantations, and how they fought with
that whole number twice, and were at first defeated and one of them
killed; but at last a storm destroying their enemies canoes, they
famished or destroyed almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the
possession of their plantation, and still lived upon the island.

All these things, with some very surprising incidents in some new
adventures of my own, for ten years more, I shall give a farther account
of in another volume.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner, Volume 1 - With an Account of His Travels Round Three Parts of the Globe, - Written By Himself, in Two Volumes" ***

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