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Title: The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States
Author: Delany, Martin Robison, 1812-1885
Language: English
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THE CONDITION, ELEVATION, EMIGRATION, AND DESTINY OF THE COLORED PEOPLE
OF THE UNITED STATES

Published 1852.



CONTENTS

The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People
                         of the United States

      Preface.                                                        35

    Chapter I. Condition of Many Classes in Europe Considered         41

   Chapter II. Comparative Condition of the
               Colored People of the United States                    44

  Chapter III. American Colonization                                  58

   Chapter IV. Our Elevation in the United States                     63

    Chapter V. Means of Elevation                                     67

   Chapter VI. The United States Our Country                          74

  Chapter VII. Claims of Colored Men as Citizens of the United States 75

 Chapter VIII. Colored American Warriors                              91

   Chapter IX. Capacity of Colored Men and Women
               as Citizen Members of Community                       106

    Chapter X. Practical Utility of Colored People of the Present
               Day as Members of Society--Business Men and Mechanics 113

   Chapter XI. Literary and Professional Colored Men and Women       128

  Chapter XII. Students of Various Professions                       148

 Chapter XIII. A Scan at Past Things                                 151

  Chapter XIV. Late Men of Literary, Professional and Artistic Note  155

   Chapter XV. Farmers and Herdsmen                                  158

  Chapter XVI. National Disfranchisement of Colored People           161

 Chapter XVII. Emigration of the Colored People of the United States 175

Chapter XVIII. "Republic of Liberia"                                 177

  Chapter XIX. The Canadas                                           189

   Chapter XX. Central and South America and the West Indies         193

  Chapter XXI. Nicaragua and New Grenada                             202

 Chapter XXII. Things as They Are                                    204

Chapter XXIII. A Glance at Ourselves--Conclusion                     211

     Appendix. A Project for an Expedition of Adventure,
               to the Eastern Coast of Africa                        221



_Sincerely dedicated to the American People, North and South._


_By Their Most Devout, and Patriotic Fellow Citizen, the Author_



PREFACE


The author of this little volume has no other apology for offering it to
the public, than the hurried manner in which it has been composed. Being
detained in the city of New York on business, he seized the opportunity
of a tedious delay, and wrote the work in the inside of one month,
attending to other business through the day, and lecturing on physiology
sometimes in the evening. The reader will therefore not entertain an
idea of elegance of language and terseness of style, such as should rule
the sentences of every composition, by whomsoever written.

His sole object has been, to place before the public in general, and the
colored people of the United States in particular, great truths
concerning this class of citizens, which appears to have been heretofore
avoided, as well by friends as enemies to their elevation. By opponents,
to conceal information, that they are well aware would stimulate and
impel them on to bold and adventurous deeds of manly daring; and by
friends, who seem to have acted on the principle of the zealous
orthodox, who would prefer losing the object of his pursuit to changing
his policy.

There are also a great many colored people in the United States, who
have independence of spirit, who desire to, and do, think for
themselves; but for the want of general information, and in consequence
of a prevailing opinion that has obtained, that no thoughts nor opinions
must be expressed, even though it would eventuate in their elevation,
except it emanate from some old, orthodox, stereotyped doctrine
concerning them; therefore, such a work as this, which is but a mere
introduction to what will henceforth emanate from the pen of colored men
and women, appeared to be in most anxious demand, in order to settle
their minds entirely, and concentrate them upon an effective and
specific course of procedure. We have never conformed with that class of
philosophers who would keep the people in ignorance, lest they might
change their opinion from former predilections. This we shall never do,
except pressing necessity demands it, and then only as a measure to
prevent bad consequences, for the time.

The colored people of to-day are not the colored people of a quarter of
a century ago, and require very different means and measures to satisfy
their wants and demands, and to effect their advancement. No wise
statesman presumes the same measures for the satisfaction of the
American people now, that may have been with propriety adopted
twenty-five years ago; neither is it wisdom to presume, that the
privileges which satisfied colored people twenty years ago, they will be
reconciled with now. That with which the father of the writer may have
been satisfied, even up to the present day, the writer cannot be content
with; the one lived in times antecedent to the birth of the other; that
which answered then, does not answer now: so is it with the whole class
of colored people in the United States. Their feelings, tastes,
predilections, wants, demands, and sympathies, are identical, and
homogeneous with those of all other Americans.

     "Fleecy locks and black complexions,
         Cannot alter nature's claim;
     Skins may differ, but affections,
         Dwell in black and white the same."

Many of the distinguished characters referred to in this work, who lived
in former days, for which there is no credit given, have been obtained
from various sources--as fragments of history, pamphlets, files of
newspapers, obsolete American history, and some from Mrs. Child's
Collection. Those of modern date, are living facts known to the writer
in his travels through the United States, having been from Canada and
Maine to Arkansas and Texas. The origin of the breast-works of cotton
bales on Chalmet Plains, at the battle of New Orleans, the writer
learned in that city, from old colored men in 1840, and subsequently,
from other sources; as well as much useful information concerning that
battle, from _Julien Bennoit_, spoken of in the work. He has before
referred to it some five or six years ago, through the columns of a
paper, of which he was then editor, and not until subsequently to his
narrating the same facts in these columns, was he aware that it was ever
mentioned in print, when he saw, on the 3d day of March, on looking over
the contributions of the "Liberty Bell," a beautiful annual of Boston,
the circumstances referred to by DAVID LEE CHILD, Esq., the particulars
of which will be found in our version.

The original intention was to make this a pamphlet of a few pages, the
writer commencing with that view; but finding that he could not thus
justify the design of the work, will fully explain the cause of its
present volume. The subject of this work is one that the writer has
given thought for years, and the only regret that he has now in placing
it before the public is, that his circumstances and engagements have
not afforded him such time and opportunity as to do justice to it. But,
should he succeed in turning the attention of the colored people, in
general, in this direction--he shall have been amply compensated for the
labor bestowed. An appendix will be found giving the plan of the author,
laid out at twenty-four years of age, but subsequently improved on, for
the elevation of the colored race. That plan of course, as this work
will fully show, has been abandoned for a far more glorious one; albeit,
we as a race, still lay claim to the project, which one day must be
added to our dashing strides in national advancement, successful
adventure, and unsurpassed enterprise.

One part of the American people, though living in near proximity and
together, are quite unacquainted with the other; and one of the great
objects of the author is, to make each acquainted. Except the character
of an individual is known, there can be no just appreciation of his
worth; and as with individuals, so is it with classes.

The colored people are not yet known, even to their most professed
friends among the white Americans; for the reason, that politicians,
religionists, colonizationists, and abolitionists, have each and all, at
different times, presumed to _think_ for, dictate to, and _know_ better
what suited colored people, than they knew for themselves; and
consequently, there has been no other knowledge of them obtained, than
that which has been obtained through these mediums. Their history--past,
present, and future, has been written by them, who, for reasons well
known, which are named in this volume, are not their representatives,
and, therefore, do not properly nor fairly present their wants and
claims among their fellows. Of these impressions, we design disabusing
the public mind, and correcting the false impressions of all classes
upon this great subject. A moral and mental, is as obnoxious as a
physical servitude, and not to be tolerated; as the one may, eventually,
lead to the other. Of these we feel the direful effects.

     "If I'm designed your lordling's slave,
         By nature's law designed;
     Why was an independent wish
         E'er planted in my mind!"



I

CONDITION OF MANY CLASSES IN EUROPE CONSIDERED


That there have been in all ages and in all countries, in every quarter
of the habitable globe, especially among those nations laying the
greatest claim to civilization and enlightenment, classes of people who
have been deprived of equal privileges, political, religious and social,
cannot be denied, and that this deprivation on the part of the ruling
classes is cruel and unjust, is also equally true. Such classes have
even been looked upon as inferior to their oppressors, and have ever
been mainly the domestics and menials of society, doing the low offices
and drudgery of those among whom they lived, moving about and existing
by mere sufferance, having no rights nor privileges but those conceded
by the common consent of their political superiors. These are historical
facts that cannot be controverted, and therefore proclaim in tones more
eloquently than thunder, the listful attention of every oppressed man,
woman, and child under the government of the people of the United States
of America.

In past ages there were many such classes, as the Israelites in Egypt,
the Gladiators in Rome, and similar classes in Greece; and in the
present age, the Gipsies in Italy and Greece, the Cossacs in Russia and
Turkey, the Sclaves and Croats in the Germanic States, and the Welsh and
Irish among the British, to say nothing of various other classes among
other nations.

That there have in all ages, in almost every nation, existed a nation
within a nation--a people who although forming a part and parcel of the
population, yet were from force of circumstances, known by the peculiar
position they occupied, forming in fact, by the deprivation of political
equality with others, no part, and if any, but a restricted part of the
body politic of such nations, is also true.

Such then are the Poles in Russia, the Hungarians in Austria, the
Scotch, Irish, and Welsh in the United Kingdom, and such also are the
Jews, scattered throughout not only the length and breadth of Europe,
but almost the habitable globe, maintaining their national
characteristics, and looking forward in high hopes of seeing the day
when they may return to their former national position of
self-government and independence, let that be in whatever part of the
habitable world it may. This is the lot of these various classes of
people in Europe, and it is not our intention here, to discuss the
justice or injustice of the causes that have contributed to their
degradation, but simply to set forth the undeniable facts, which are as
glaring as the rays of a noonday's sun, thereby to impress them
indelibly on the mind of every reader of this pamphlet.

It is not enough, that these people are deprived of equal privileges by
their rulers, but, the more effectually to succeed, the equality of
these classes must be denied, and their inferiority by nature as
distinct races, actually asserted. This policy is necessary to appease
the opposition that might be interposed in their behalf. Wherever there
is arbitrary rule, there must be necessity, on the part of the dominant
classes, superiority be assumed. To assume superiority, is to deny the
equality of others, and to deny their equality, is to premise their
incapacity for self-government. Let this once be conceded, and there
will be little or no sympathy for the oppressed, the oppressor being
left to prescribe whatever terms at discretion for their government,
suits his own purpose.

Such then is the condition of various classes in Europe; yes, nations,
for centuries within nations, even without the hope of redemption among
those who oppress them. And however unfavorable their condition, there
is none more so than that of the colored people of the United States.



II

COMPARATIVE CONDITION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES


The United States, untrue to her trust and unfaithful to her professed
principles of republican equality, has also pursued a policy of
political degradation to a large portion of her native born countrymen,
and that class is the Colored People. Denied an equality not only of
political but of natural rights, in common with the rest of our fellow
citizens, there is no species of degradation to which we are not
subject.

Reduced to abject slavery is not enough, the very thought of which
should awaken every sensibility of our common nature; but those of their
descendants who are freemen even in the non-slaveholding States, occupy
the very same position politically, religiously, civilly and socially,
(with but few exceptions,) as the bondman occupies in the slave States.

In those States, the bondman is disfranchised, and for the most part so
are we. He is denied all civil, religious, and social privileges, except
such as he gets by mere sufferance, and so are we. They have no part nor
lot in the government of the country, neither have we. They are ruled
and governed without representation, existing as mere nonentities among
the citizens, and excrescences on the body politic--a mere dreg in
community, and so are we. Where then is our political superiority to the
enslaved? none, neither are we superior in any other relation to
society, except that we are defacto masters of ourselves and joint
rulers of our own domestic household, while the bondman's self is
claimed by another, and his relation to his family denied him. What the
unfortunate classes are in Europe, such are we in the United States,
which is folly to deny, insanity not to understand, blindness not to
see, and surely now full time that our eyes were opened to these
startling truths, which for ages have stared us full in the face.

It is time that we had become politicians, we mean, to understand the
political economy and domestic policy of nations; that we had become as
well as moral theorists, also the practical demonstrators of equal
rights and self-government. Except we do, it is idle to talk about
rights, it is mere chattering for the sake of being seen and heard--like
the slave, saying something because his so called "master" said it, and
saying just what he told him to say. Have we not now sufficient
intelligence among us to understand our true position, to realise our
actual condition, and determine for ourselves what is best to be done?
If we have not now, we never shall have, and should at once cease
prating about our equality, capacity, and all that.

Twenty years ago, when the writer was a youth, his young and yet
uncultivated mind was aroused, and his tender heart made to leap with
anxiety in anticipation of the promises then held out by the prime
movers in the cause of our elevation.

In 1830 the most intelligent and leading spirits among the colored men
in the United States, such as James Forten, Robert Douglass, I. Bowers,
A.D. Shadd, John Peck, Joseph Cassey, and John B. Vashon of
Pennsylvania; John T. Hilton, Nathaniel and Thomas Paul, and James G.
Barbodoes of Massachusetts; Henry Sipkins, Thomas Hamilton, Thomas L.
Jennings, Thomas Downing, Samuel E. Cornish, and others of New York; R.
Cooley and others of Maryland, and representatives from other States
which cannot now be recollected, the data not being at hand, assembled
in the city of Philadelphia, in the capacity of a National Convention,
to "devise ways and means for the bettering of our condition." These
Conventions determined to assemble annually, much talent, ability, and
energy of character being displayed; when in 1831 at a sitting of the
Convention in September, from their previous pamphlet reports, much
interest having been created throughout the country, they were favored
by the presence of a number of whites, some of whom were able and
distinguished men, such as Rev. R.R. Gurley, Arthur Tappan, Elliot
Cresson, John Rankin, Simeon Jocelyn and others, among them William
Lloyd Garrison, then quite a young man, all of whom were staunch and
ardent Colonizationists, young Garrison at that time, doing his
mightiest in his favorite work.

Among other great projects of interest brought before the convention at
a previous sitting, was that of the expediency of a general emigration,
as far as it was practicable, of the colored people to the British
Provinces of North America. Another was that of raising sufficient means
for the establishment and erection of a College for the proper education
of the colored youth. These gentlemen long accustomed to observation and
reflection on the condition of their people saw at once, that there must
necessarily be means used adequate to the end to be attained--that end
being an unqualified equality with the ruling class of their fellow
citizens. He saw that as a class, the colored people of the country were
ignorant, degraded and oppressed, by far the greater portion of them
being abject slaves in the South, the very condition of whom was almost
enough, under the circumstances, to blast the remotest hope of success,
and those who were freemen, whether in the South or North, occupied a
subservient, servile, and menial position, considering it a favor to get
into the service of the whites, and do their degrading offices. That the
difference between the whites and themselves, consisted in the superior
advantages of the one over the other, in point of attainments. That if a
knowledge of the arts and sciences, the mechanical occupations, the
industrial occupations, as farming, commerce, and all the various
business enterprises, and learned professions were necessary for the
superior position occupied by their rulers, it was also necessary for
them. And very reasonably too, the first suggestion which occurred to
them was, the advantages of a location, then the necessity of a
qualification. They reasoned with themselves, that all distinctive
differences made among men on account of their origin, is wicked,
unrighteous, and cruel, and never shall receive countenance in any shape
from us, therefore, the first acts of the measure entered into by them,
was to protest, solemnly protest, against every unjust measure and
policy in the country, having for its object the proscription of the
colored people, whether state, national, municipal, social, civil, or
religious.

But being far-sighted, reflecting, discerning men, they took a political
view of the subject, and determined for the good of their people to be
governed in their policy according to the facts as they presented
themselves. In taking a glance at Europe, they discovered there, however
unjustly, as we have shown in another part of this pamphlet, that there
are and have been numerous classes proscribed and oppressed, and it was
not for them to cut short their wise deliberations, and arrest their
proceedings in contention, as to the cause, whether on account of
language, the color of eyes, hair, skin, or their origin of
country--because all this is contrary to reason, a contradiction to
common sense, at war with nature herself, and at variance with facts as
they stare us every day in the face, among all nations, in every
country--this being made the pretext as a matter of _policy_ alone--a
fact worthy of observation, that wherever the objects of oppression are
the most easily distinguished by any peculiar or general
characteristics, these people are the more easily oppressed, because the
war of oppression is the more easily waged against them. This is the
case with the modern Jews and many other people who have
strongly-marked, peculiar, or distinguishing characteristics. This
arises in this wise. The policy of all those who proscribe any people,
induces them to select as the objects of proscription, those who
differed as much as possible, in some particulars, from themselves. This
is to ensure the greater success, because it engenders the greater
prejudice, or in other words, elicits less interest on the part of the
oppressing class, in their favor. This fact is well understood in
national conflicts, as the soldier or civilian, who is distinguished by
his dress, mustache, or any other peculiar appendage, would certainly
prove himself a madman, if he did not take the precaution to change his
dress, remove his mustache, and conceal as much as possible his peculiar
characteristics, to give him access among the repelling party.

This is mere policy, nature having nothing to do with it. Still, it is a
fact, a great truth well worthy of remark, and as such as adduce it for
the benefit of those of our readers, unaccustomed to an enquiry into the
policy of nations.

In view of these truths, our fathers and leaders in our elevation,
discovered that as a policy, we the colored people were selected as the
subordinate class in this country, not on account of any actual or
supposed inferiority on their part, but simply because, in view of all
the circumstances of the case, they were the very best class that could
be selected. They would have as readily had any other class as
subordinates in the country, as the colored people, but the condition of
society _at the time_, would not admit of it. In the struggle for
American Independence, there were among those who performed the most
distinguished parts, the most common-place peasantry of the Provinces.
English, Danish, Irish, Scotch, and others, were among those whose names
blazoned forth as heroes in the American Revolution. But a single
reflection will convince us, that no course of policy could have induced
the proscription of the parentage and relatives of such men as Benjamin
Franklin the printer, Roger Sherman the cobbler, the tinkers, and others
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. But as they were
determined to have a subservient class, it will readily be conceived,
that according to the state of society at the time, the better policy on
their part was, to select some class, who from their political
position--however much they may have contributed their aid as we
certainly did, in the general struggle for liberty by force of arms--who
had the least claims upon them, or who had the _least chance_, or was
the _least potent_ in urging their claims. This class of course was the
colored people and Indians.

The Indians who in the early settlement of the continent, before an
African captive had ever been introduced thereon, were reduced to the
most abject slavery, toiling day and night in the mines, under the
relentless hands of heartless Spanish taskmasters, but being a race of
people raised to the sports of fishing, the chase, and of war, were
wholly unaccustomed to labor, and therefore sunk under the insupportable
weight, two millions and a half having fallen victims to the cruelty of
oppression and toil suddenly placed upon their shoulders. And it was
only this that prevented their farther enslavement as a class, after the
provinces were absolved from the British Crown. It is true that their
general enslavement took place on the islands and in the mining
districts of South America, where indeed, the Europeans continued to
enslave them, until a comparatively recent period; still, the design,
the feeling, and inclination from policy, was the same to do so here, in
this section of the continent.

Nor was it until their influence became too great, by the political
position occupied by their brethren in the new republic, that the German
and Irish peasantry ceased to be sold as slaves for a term of years
fixed by law, for the repayment of their passage-money, the descendants
of these classes of people for a long time being held as inferiors, in
the estimation of the ruling class, and it was not until they assumed
the rights and privileges guaranteed to them by the established policy
of the country, among the leading spirits of whom were their relatives,
that the policy towards them was discovered to be a bad one, and
accordingly changed. Nor was it, as is frequently very erroneously
asserted, by colored as well as white persons, that it was on account of
hatred to the African, or in other words, on account of hatred to his
color, that the African was selected as the subject of oppression in
this country. This is sheer nonsense; being based on policy and nothing
else, as shown in another place. The Indians, who being the most foreign
to the sympathies of the Europeans on this continent, were selected in
the first place, who, being unable to withstand the hardships, gave way
before them.

But the African race had long been known to Europeans, in all ages of
the worlds history, as a long-lived, hardy race, subject to toil and
labor of various kinds, subsisting mainly by traffic, trade, and
industry, and consequently being as foreign to the sympathies of the
invaders of the continent as the Indians, they were selected, captured,
brought here as a laboring class, and as a matter of policy held as
such. Nor was the absurd idea of natural inferiority of the African ever
dreamed of, until recently adduced by the slave-holders and their
abettors, in justification of the policy. This, with contemptuous
indignation, we fling back into their face, as a scorpion to a vulture.
And so did our patriots and leaders in the cause of regeneration know
better, and never for a moment yielded to the base doctrine. But they
had discovered the great fact, that a cruel policy was pursued towards
our people, and that they possessed distinctive characteristics which
made them the objects of proscription. These characteristics being
strongly marked in the colored people, as in the Indians, by color,
character of hair and so on, made them the more easily distinguished
from other Americans, and the policies more effectually urged against
us. For this reason they introduced the subject of emigration to Canada,
and a proper institution for the education of the youth.

At this important juncture of their proceedings, the afore named white
gentlemen were introduced to the notice of the Convention, and after
gaining permission to speak, expressed their gratification and surprise
at the qualification and talent manifested by different members of the
Convention, all expressing their determination to give the cause of the
colored people more serious reflection. Mr. Garrison, the youngest of
them all, and none the less honest on account of his youthfulness, being
but 26 years of age at the time, (1831) expressed his determination to
change his course of policy at once, and espouse the cause of the
elevation of the colored people here in their own country. We are not at
present well advised upon this point, it now having escaped our memory,
but we are under the impression that Mr. Jocelyn also, at once changed
his policy.

During the winter of 1832, Mr. Garrison issued his "Thoughts on African
Colonization," and near about the same time or shortly after, issued the
first number of the "Liberator," in both of which, his full convictions
of the enormity of American slavery, and the wickedness of their policy
towards the colored people, were fully expressed. At the sitting of the
Convention in this year, a number, perhaps all of these gentlemen were
present, and those who had denounced the Colonization scheme, and
espoused the cause of the elevation of the colored people in this
country, or the Anti-Slavery cause, as it was now termed, expressed
themselves openly and without reserve.

Sensible of the high-handed injustice done to the colored people in the
United States, and the mischief likely to emanate from the unchristian
proceedings of the deceptious Colonization scheme, like all honest
hearted penitents, with the ardor only known to new converts, they
entreated the Convention, whatever they did, not to entertain for a
moment, the idea of recommending emigration to their people, nor the
establishment of separate institutions of learning. They earnestly
contended, and doubtless honestly meaning what they said, that they (the
whites) had been our oppressors and injurers, they had obstructed our
progress to the high positions of civilization, and now, it was their
bounden duty to make full amends for the injuries thus inflicted on an
unoffending people. They exhorted the Convention to cease; as they had
laid on the burden, they would also take it off; as they had obstructed
our pathway, they would remove the hindrance. In a word, as they had
oppressed and trampled down the colored people, they would now elevate
them. These suggestions and promises, good enough to be sure, after they
were made, were accepted by the Convention--though some gentlemen were
still in favor of the first project as the best policy, Mr. A.D. Shadd
of West Chester, Pa., as we learn from himself, being one among that
number--ran through the country like wild-fire, no one thinking, and if
he thought, daring to speak above his breath of going any where out of
certain prescribed limits, or of sending a child to school, if it should
but have the name of "colored" attached to it, without the risk of being
termed a "traitor" to the cause of his people, or an enemy to the
Anti-Slavery cause.

At this important point in the history of our efforts, the colored men
stopped suddenly, and with their hands thrust deep in their
breeches-pockets, and their mouths gaping open, stood gazing with
astonishment, wonder, and surprise, at the stupendous moral colossal
statues of our Anti-Slavery friends and brethren, who in the heat and
zeal of honest hearts, from a desire to make atonement for the many
wrongs inflicted, promised a great deal more than they have ever been
able half to fulfill, in thrice the period in which they expected it.
And in this, we have no fault to find with our Anti-Slavery friends, and
here wish it to be understood, that we are not laying any thing to their
charge as blame, neither do we desire for a moment to reflect on them,
because we heartily believe that all that they did at the time, they did
with the purest and best of motives, and further believe that they now
are, as they then were, the truest friends we have among the whites in
this country. And hope, and desire, and request, that our people should
always look upon _true_ anti-slavery people, Abolitionists we mean, as
their friends, until they have just cause for acting otherwise. It is
true, that the Anti-Slavery, like all good causes, has produced some
recreants, but the cause itself is no more to be blamed for that, than
Christianity is for the malconduct of any professing hypocrite, nor the
society of Friends, for the conduct of a broad-brimmed hat and
shad-belly coated horsethief, because he spoke _thee_ and _thou_ before
stealing the horse. But what is our condition even amidst our
Anti-Slavery friends? And here, as our sole intention is to contribute
to the elevation of our people, we must be permitted to express our
opinion freely, without being thought uncharitable.

In the first place, we should look at the objects for which the
Anti-Slavery cause was commenced, and the promises or inducements it
held out at the commencement. It should be borne in mind, that
Anti-Slavery took its rise among _colored men_, just at the time they
were introducing their greatest projects for their own elevation, and
that our Anti-Slavery brethren were converts of the colored men, in
behalf of their elevation. Of course, it would be expected that being
baptized into the new doctrines, their faith would induce them to
embrace the principles therein contained, with the strictest possible
adherence.

The cause of dissatisfaction with our former condition, was, that we
were proscribed, debarred, and shut out from every respectable position,
occupying the places of inferiors and menials.

It was expected that Anti-Slavery, according to its professions, would
extend to colored persons, as far as in the power of its adherents,
those advantages nowhere else to be obtained among white men. That
colored boys would get situations in their shops and stores, and every
other advantage tending to elevate them as far as possible, would be
extended to them. At least, it was expected, that in Anti-Slavery
establishments, colored men would have the preference. Because, there
was no other ostensible object in view, in the commencement of the
Anti-Slavery enterprise, than the _elevation_ of the _colored man_, by
facilitating his efforts in attaining to equality with the white man. It
was urged, and it was true, that the colored people were susceptible of
all that the whites were, and all that was required was to give them a
fair opportunity, and they would prove their capacity. That it was
unjust, wicked, and cruel, the result of an unnatural prejudice, that
debarred them from places of respectability, and that public opinion
could and should be corrected upon this subject. That it was only
necessary to make a sacrifice of feeling, and an innovation on the
customs of society, to establish a different order of things,--that as
Anti-Slavery men, they were willing to make these sacrifices, and
determined to take the colored man by the hand, making common cause with
him in affliction, and bear a part of the odium heaped upon him. That
his cause was the cause of God--that "In as much as ye did it not unto
the least of these my little ones, ye did it not unto me," and that as
Anti-Slavery men, they would "do right if the heavens fell." Thus, was
the cause espoused, and thus did we expect much. But in all this, we
were doomed to disappointment, sad, sad disappointment. Instead of
realising what we had hoped for, we find ourselves occupying the very
same position in relation to our Anti-Slavery friends, as we do in
relation to the pro-slavery part of the community--a mere secondary,
underling position, in all our relations to them, and any thing more
than this, is not a matter of course affair--it comes not by established
anti-slavery custom or right, but like that which emanates from the
pro-slavery portion of the community by mere sufferance.

It is true, that the "Liberator" office, in Boston, has got Elijah
Smith, a colored youth, at the cases--the "Standard," in New York, a
young colored man, and the "Freeman," in Philadelphia, William Still,
another, in the publication office, as "packing clerk"; yet these are
but three out of the hosts that fill these offices in their various
departments, all occupying places that could have been, and as we once
thought, would have been, easily enough, occupied by colored men.
Indeed, we can have no other idea about anti-slavery in this country,
than that the legitimate persons to fill any and every position about an
anti-slavery establishment are colored persons. Nor will it do to argue
in extenuation, that white men are as justly entitled to them as colored
men; because white men do not from _necessity_ become anti-slavery men
in order to get situations; they being white men, may occupy any
position they are capable of filling--in a word, their chances are
endless, every avenue in the country being opened to them. They do not
therefore become abolitionists, for the sake of employment--at least, it
is not the song that anti-slavery sung, in the first love of the new
faith, proclaimed by its disciples.

And if it be urged that colored men are incapable as yet to fill these
positions, all that we have to say is, that the cause has fallen far
short; almost equivalent to a failure, of a tithe, of what it promised
to do in half the period of its existence, to this time, if it have not
as yet, now a period of twenty years, raised up colored men enough, to
fill the offices within its patronage. We think it is not unkind to say,
if it had been half as faithful to itself, as it should have been--its
professed principles we mean; it could have reared and tutored from
childhood, colored men enough by this time, for its own especial
purpose. These we know could have been easily obtained, because colored
people in general, are favorable to the anti-slavery cause, and wherever
there is an adverse manifestation, it arises from sheer ignorance; and
we have now but comparatively few such among us. There is one thing
certain, that no colored person, except such as would reject education
altogether, would be adverse to putting their child with an anti-slavery
person, for educational advantages. This then could have been done. But
it has not been done, and let the cause of it be whatever it may, and
let whoever may be to blame, we are willing to let all that pass, and
extend to our anti-slavery brethren the right-hand of fellowship,
bidding them God-speed in the propagation of good and wholesome
sentiments--for whether they are practically carried out or not, the
profession are in themselves all right and good. Like Christianity, the
principles are holy and of divine origin. And we believe, if ever a man
started right, with pure and holy motives, Mr. Garrison did; and that,
had he the power of making the cause what it should be, it would all be
right, and there never would have been any cause for the remarks we have
made, though in kindness, and with the purest of motives. We are
nevertheless, still occupying a miserable position in the community,
wherever we live; and what we most desire is, to draw the attention of
our people to this fact, and point out what, in our opinion, we conceive
to be a proper remedy.



III

AMERICAN COLONIZATION


When we speak of colonization, we wish distinctly to be understood, as
speaking of the "American Colonization Society"--or that which is under
its influence--commenced in Richmond, Virginia, in 1817, under the
influence of Mr. Henry Clay of Ky., Judge Bushrod Washington of Va., and
other Southern slaveholders, having for their express object, as their
speeches and doings all justify us in asserting in good faith, the
removal of the free colored people from the land of their birth, for the
security of the slaves, as property to the slave propagandists.

This scheme had no sooner been propagated, than the old and leading
colored men of Philadelphia, Pa., with Richard Allen, James Forten, and
others at their head, true to their trust and the cause of their
brethren, summoned the colored people together, and then and there, in
language and with voices pointed and loud, protested against the scheme
as an outrage, having no other object in view, than the benefit of the
slave-holding interests of the country, and that as freemen, they would
never prove recreant to the cause of their brethren in bondage, by
leaving them without hope of redemption from their chains. This
determination of the colored patriots of Philadelphia was published in
full, authentically, and circulated throughout the length and breadth of
the country by the papers of the day. The colored people every where
received the news, and at once endorsed with heart and soul, the doings
of the Anti-Colonization Meeting of colored freemen. From that time
forth, the colored people generally have had no sympathy with the
colonization scheme, nor confidence in its leaders, looking upon them
all, as arrant hypocrites, seeking every opportunity to deceive them. In
a word, the monster was crippled in its infancy, and has never as yet
recovered from the stroke. It is true, that like its ancient sire, that
was "more subtile than all the beasts of the field," it has inherited a
large portion of his most prominent characteristic--an idiosyncrasy with
the animal--that enables him to entwine himself into the greater part of
the Church and other institutions of the country, which having once
entered there, leaves his venom, which put such a spell on the
conductors of those institutions, that is only on condition that a
colored person consents to go to the neighborhood of his kindred brother
monster the boa, that he may find admission in the one or the other. We
look upon the American Colonization Society as one of the most arrant
enemies of the colored man, ever seeking to discomfit him, and envying
him of every privilege that he may enjoy. We believe it to be
anti-Christian in its character, and misanthropic in its pretended
sympathies. Because if this were not the case, men could not be found
professing morality and Christianity--as to our astonishment we have
found them--who unhesitatingly say, "I know it is right"--that is in
itself--"to do" so and so, "and I am willing and ready to do it, but
only on condition, that you go to Africa." Indeed, a highly talented
clergyman, informed us in November last (three months ago) in the city
of Philadelphia, that he was present when the Rev. Doctor J.P. Durbin,
late President of Dickinson College, called on Rev. Mr. P. or B., to
consult him about going to Liberia, to take charge of the literary
department of an University in contemplation, when the following
conversation ensued: Mr. P.--"Doctor, I have as much and more than I can
do here, in educating the youth of our own country, and preparing them
for usefulness here at home." Dr. D.--"Yes, but do as you may, you can
never be elevated here." Mr. P.--"Doctor, do you not believe that the
religion of our blessed Redeemer Jesus Christ, has morality, humanity,
philanthropy, and justice enough in it to elevate us, and enable us to
obtain our rights in this our own country?" Dr. D.--"No, indeed, sir, I
do not, and if you depend upon that, your hopes are vain!" Mr.
P.--Turning to Doctor Durbin, looking him solemnly, though
affectionately in the face, remarked--"Well, Doctor Durbin, we both
profess to be ministers of Christ; but dearly as I love the cause of my
Redeemer, if for a moment, I could entertain the opinion you do about
Christianity, I would not serve him another hour!" We do not know, as we
were not advised, that the Rev. Doctor added in fine,--"Well, you may
quit now, for all your serving him will not avail against the power of
the god (hydra) of Colonization." Will any one doubt for a single
moment, the justice of our strictures on colonization, after reading the
conversation between the Rev. Dr. Durbin and the colored clergyman?
Surely not. We can therefore make no account of it, but that of setting
it down as being the worst enemy of the colored people.

Recently, there has been a strained effort in the city of New York on
the part of the Rev. J.B. Pinney and others, of the leading white
colonizationists, to get up a movement among some poor pitiable colored
men--we say pitiable, for certainly the colored persons who are at this
period capable of loaning themselves to the enemies of their race,
against the best interest of all that we hold sacred to that race, are
pitiable in the lowest extreme, far beneath the dignity of an enemy,
and therefore, we pass them by with the simple remark, that this is the
hobby that colonization is riding all over the country, as the
"tremendous" access of colored people to their cause within the last
twelve months. We should make another remark here perhaps, in
justification of governor Pinney's New York allies--that is, report
says, that in the short space of some three or five months, one of his
confidants, benefited himself to the "reckoning" of from eleven to
fifteen hundred dollars, or "such a matter," while others were benefited
in sums "pretty considerable" but of a less "reckoning." Well, we do not
know after all, that they may not have quite as good a right, to pocket
part of the spoils of this "grab game," as any body else. However, they
are of little consequence, as the ever watchful eye of those excellent
gentlemen and faithful guardians of their people's rights--the
_Committee of Thirteen_, consisting of Messrs. John J. Zuille,
_Chairman_, T. Joiner White, Philip A. Bell, _Secretaries_, Robert
Hamilton, George T. Downing, Jeremiah Powers, John T. Raymond, Wm.
Burnett, James McCune Smith, Ezekiel Dias, Junius C. Morel, Thomas
Downing, and Wm. J. Wilson, have properly chastised this pet-slave of
Mr. Pinney, and made it "know its place," by keeping within the bounds
of its master's enclosure.

In expressing our honest conviction of the designedly injurious
character of the Colonization Society, we should do violence to our own
sense of individual justice, if we did not express the belief, that
there are some honest hearted men, who not having seen things in the
proper light, favor that scheme, simply as a means of elevating the
colored people. Such persons, so soon as they become convinced of their
error, immediately change their policy, and advocate the elevation of
the colored people, anywhere and everywhere, in common with other men.
Of such were the early abolitionists as before stated; and the great and
good Dr. F.J. Lemoyne, Gerrit Smith, and Rev. Charles Avery, and a host
of others, who were Colonizationists, before espousing the cause of our
elevation, here at home, and nothing but an honorable sense of justice,
induces us to make these exceptions, as there are many good persons
within our knowledge, whom we believe to be well wishers of the colored
people, who may favor colonization.[1] But the animal itself is the same
"hydra-headed monster," let whomsoever may fancy to pet it. A serpent is
a serpent, and none the less a viper, because nestled in the bosom of an
honest hearted man. This the colored people must bear in mind, and keep
clear of the hideous thing, lest its venom may be test upon them. But
why deem any argument necessary to show the unrighteousness of
colonization? Its very origin as before shown--the source from whence it
sprung, being the offspring of slavery--is in itself, sufficient to
blast it in the estimation of every colored person in the United States,
who has sufficient intelligence to comprehend it.

We dismiss this part of the subject, and proceed to consider the mode
and means of our elevation in the United States.

FOOTNOTE:

[1] Benjamin Coates, Esq., a merchant of Philadelphia, we believe to be
an honest hearted man, and real friend of the colored people, and a
true, though as yet, rather undecided philanthropist. Mr. Coates, to our
knowledge, has supported three or four papers published by colored men,
for the elevation of colored people in the United States, and given, as
he continues to do, considerable sums to their support. We have recently
learned from himself, that, though he still advocates Colonization,
simply as a means of elevating the colored race of the United States,
that he has _left_ the Colonization Society, and prefers seeing colored
people located on this continent, to going to Liberia, or elsewhere off
of it--though his zeal for the enlightenment of Africa, is unabated, as
every good man's should be; and we are satisfied, that Mr. Coates is
neither well understood, nor rightly appreciated by the friends of our
cause. One thing we do know, that he left the Colonization Society,
because he could not conscientiously subscribe to its measures.



IV

OUR ELEVATION IN THE UNITED STATES


That very little comparatively as yet has been done, to attain a
respectable position as a class in this country, will not be denied, and
that the successful accomplishment of this end is also possible, must
also be admitted; but in what manner, and by what means, has long been,
and is even now, by the best thinking minds among the colored people
themselves, a matter of difference of opinion.

We believe in the universal equality of man, and believe in that
declaration of God's word, in which it is there positively said, that
"God has made of one blood all the nations that dwell on the face of the
earth." Now of "the nations that dwell on the face of the earth," that
is, all the people--there are one thousand millions of souls, and of
this vast number of human beings, two-thirds are colored, from black,
tending in complexion to the olive or that of the Chinese, with all the
intermediate and admixtures of black and white, with the various
"crosses" as they are physiologically, but erroneously termed, to white.
We are thus explicit in stating these points, because we are determined
to be understood by all. We have then, two colored to one white person
throughout the earth, and yet, singular as it may appear, according to
the present geographical and political history of the world, the white
race predominates over the colored; or in other words, wherever there is
one white person, that one rules and governs two colored persons. This
is a living undeniable truth, to which we call the especial attention of
the colored reader in particular. Now there is a cause for this, as
there is no effect without a cause, a comprehensible remediable cause.
We all believe in the justice of God, that he is impartial, "looking
upon his children with an eye of care," dealing out to them all, the
measure of his goodness; yet, how can we reconcile ourselves to the
difference that exists between the colored and the white races, as they
truthfully present themselves before our eyes? To solve this problem, is
to know the remedy; and to know it, is but necessary, in order
successfully to apply it. And we shall but take the colored people of
the United States, as a fair sample of the colored races everywhere of
the present age, as the arguments that apply to the one, will apply to
the other, whether Christians, Mahomedans, or pagans.

The colored races are highly susceptible of religion; it is a
constituent principle of their nature, and an excellent trait in their
character. But unfortunately for them, they carry it too far. Their hope
is largely developed, and consequently, they usually stand still--hope
in God, and really expect Him to do that for them, which it is necessary
they should do themselves. This is their great mistake, and arises from
a misconception of the character and ways of Deity. We must know God,
that is understand His nature and purposes, in order to serve Him; and
to serve Him well, is but to know him rightly. To depend for assistance
upon God, is a _duty_ and right; but to know when, how, and in what
manner to obtain it, is the key to this great Bulwark of Strength, and
Depository of Aid.

God himself is perfect; perfect in all his works and ways. He has means
for every end; and every means used must be adequate to the end to be
gained. God's means are laws--fixed laws of nature, a part of His own
being, and as immutable, as unchangeable as Himself. Nothing can be
accomplished but through the medium of, and conformable to these laws.

They are _three_--and like God himself, represented in the three persons
in the God-head--the _Spiritual_, _Moral_ and _Physical_ Laws.

That which is Spiritual, can only be accomplished through the medium of
the Spiritual law; that which is Moral, through the medium of the Moral
law; and that which is Physical, through the medium of the Physical law.
Otherwise than this, it is useless to expect any thing. Does a person
want a spiritual blessing, he must apply through the medium of the
spiritual law--_pray_ for it in order to obtain it. If they desire to do
a moral good, they must apply through the medium of the moral
law--exercise their sense and feeling of _right_ and _justice_, in order
to effect it. Do they want to attain a physical end, they can only do so
through the medium of the physical law--go to _work_ with muscles,
hands, limbs, might and strength, and this, and nothing else will attain
it.

The argument that man must pray for what he receives, is a mistake, and
one that is doing the colored people especially, incalculable injury.
That man must pray in order to get to Heaven, every Christian will
admit--but a great truth we have yet got to learn, that he can live on
earth whether he is religious or not, so that he conforms to the great
law of God, regulating the things of earth; the great physical laws. It
is only necessary, in order to convince our people of their error and
palpable mistake in this matter, to call their attention to the fact,
that there are no people more religious in this Country, than the
colored people, and none so poor and miserable as they. That prosperity
and wealth, smiles upon the efforts of wicked white men, whom we know to
utter the name of God with curses, instead of praises. That among the
slaves, there are thousands of them religious, continually raising
their voices, sending up their prayers to God, invoking His aid in their
behalf, asking for a speedy deliverance; but they are still in chains,
although they have thrice suffered out their three score years and ten.
That "God sendeth rain upon the just and unjust," should be sufficient
to convince us that our success in life, does not depend upon our
religious character, but that the physical laws governing all earthly
and temporary affairs, benefit equally the just and the unjust. Any
other doctrine than this, is downright delusion, unworthy of a free
people, and only intended for slaves. That all men and women, should be
moral, upright, good and religious--we mean _Christians_--we would not
utter a word against, and could only wish that it were so; but, what we
here desire to do is, to correct the long standing error among a large
body of the colored people in this country, that the cause of our
oppression and degradation, is the displeasure of God towards us,
because of our unfaithfulness to Him. This is not true; because if God
is just--and he is--there could be no justice in prospering white men
with his fostering care, for more than two thousand years, in all their
wickedness, while dealing out to the colored people, the measure of his
displeasure, for not half the wickedness as that of the whites. Here
then is our mistake, and let it forever henceforth be corrected. We are
no longer slaves, believing any interpretation that our oppressors may
give the word of God, for the purpose of deluding us to the more easy
subjugation; but freemen, comprising some of the first minds of
intelligence and rudimental qualifications, in the country. What then is
the remedy, for our degradation and oppression? This appears now to be
the only remaining question--the means of successful elevation in this
our own native land? This depends entirely upon the application of the
means of Elevation.



V

MEANS OF ELEVATION


Moral theories have long been resorted to by us, as a means of effecting
the redemption of our brethren in bonds, and the elevation of the free
colored people in this country. Experience has taught us, that
speculations are not enough; that the _practical_ application of
principles adduced, the thing carried out, is the only true and proper
course to pursue.

We have speculated and moralised much about equality--claiming to be as
good as our neighbors, and every body else--all of which, may do very
well in ethics--but not in politics. We live in society among men,
conducted by men, governed by rules and regulations. However arbitrary,
there are certain policies that regulate all well organized institutions
and corporate bodies. We do not intend here to speak of the legal
political relations of society, for those are treated on elsewhere. The
business and social, or voluntary and mutual policies, are those that
now claim our attention. Society regulates itself--being governed by
mind, which like water, finds its own level. "Like seeks like," is a
principle in the laws of matter, as well as of mind. There is such a
thing as inferiority of things, and positions; at least society has made
them so; and while we continue to live among men, we must agree to all
_just_ measures--all those we mean, that do not necessarily infringe on
the rights of others. By the regulations of society, there is no
equality of attainments. By this, we do not wish to be understood as
advocating the actual equal attainments of every individual; but we mean
to say, that if these attainments be necessary for the elevation of the
white man, they are necessary for the elevation of the colored man. That
some colored men and women, in a like proportion to the whites, should
be qualified in all the attainments possessed by them. It is one of the
regulations of society the world over, and we shall have to conform to
it, or be discarded as unworthy of the associations of our fellows.

Cast our eyes about us and reflect for a moment, and what do we behold!
every thing that presents to view gives evidence of the skill of the
white man. Should we purchase a pound of groceries, a yard of linen, a
vessel of crockery-ware, a piece of furniture, the very provisions that
we eat,--all, all are the products of the white man, purchased by us
from the white man, consequently, our earnings and means, are all given
to the white man.

Pass along the avenues of any city or town, in which you live--behold
the trading shops--the manufacturies--see the operations of the various
machinery--see the stage-coaches coming in, bringing the mails of
intelligence--look at the railroads interlining every section, bearing
upon them their mighty trains, flying with the velocity of the swallow,
ushering in the hundreds of industrious, enterprising travellers. Cast
again your eyes widespread over the ocean--see the vessels in every
direction with their white sheets spread to the winds of heaven,
freighted with the commerce, merchandise and wealth of many nations.
Look as you pass along through the cities, at the great and massive
buildings--the beautiful and extensive structures of
architecture--behold the ten thousand cupolas, with their spires all
reared up towards heaven, intersecting the territory of the clouds--all
standing as mighty living monuments, of the industry, enterprise, and
intelligence of the white man. And yet, with all these living truths,
rebuking us with scorn, we strut about, place our hands akimbo,
straighten up ourselves to our greatest height, and talk loudly about
being "as good as any body." How do we compare with them? Our fathers
are their coachmen, our brothers their cookmen, and ourselves their
waiting-men. Our mothers their nurse-women, our sisters their
scrub-women, our daughters their maid-women, and our wives their
washer-women. Until colored men, attain to a position above permitting
their mothers, sisters, wives, and daughters, to do the drudgery and
menial offices of other men's wives and daughters; it is useless, it is
nonsense, it is pitiable mockery, to talk about equality and elevation
in society. The world is looking upon us, with feelings of
commiseration, sorrow, and contempt. We scarcely deserve sympathy, if we
peremptorily refuse advice, bearing upon our elevation.

We will suppose a case for argument: In this city reside, two colored
families, of three sons and three daughters each. At the head of each
family, there is an old father and mother. The opportunities of these
families, may or may not be the same for educational advantages--be that
as it may, the children of the one go to school, and become qualified
for the duties of life. One daughter becomes school-teacher, another a
mantua-maker, and a third a fancy shop-keeper; while one son becomes a
farmer, another a merchant, and a third a mechanic. All enter into
business with fine prospects, marry respectably, and settle down in
domestic comfort--while the six sons and daughters of the other family,
grow up without educational and business qualifications, and the highest
aim they have, is to apply to the sons and daughters of the first named
family, to hire for domestics! Would there be an equality here between
the children of these two families? Certainly not. This, then, is
precisely the position of the colored people generally in the United
States, compared with the whites. What is necessary to be done, in order
to attain an equality, is to change the condition, and the person is at
once changed. If, as before stated, a knowledge of all the various
business enterprises, trades, professions, and sciences, is necessary
for the elevation of the white, a knowledge of them also is necessary
for the elevation of the colored man; and he cannot be elevated without
them.

White men are producers--we are consumers. They build houses, and we
rent them. They raise produce, and we consume it. They manufacture
clothes and wares, and we garnish ourselves with them. They build
coaches, vessels, cars, hotels, saloons, and other vehicles and places
of accommodation, and we deliberately wait until they have got them in
readiness, then walk in, and contend with as much assurance for a
"right," as though the whole thing was bought by, paid for, and belonged
to us. By their literary attainments, they are the contributors to,
authors and teachers of, literature, science, religion, law, medicine,
and all other useful attainments that the world now makes use of. We
have no reference to ancient times--we speak of modern things.

These are the means by which God intended man to succeed: and this
discloses the secret of the white man's success with all of his
wickedness, over the head of the colored man, with all of his religion.
We have been pointed and plain, on this part of the subject, because we
desire our readers to see persons and things in their true position.
Until we are determined to change the condition of things, and raise
ourselves above the position in which we are now prostrated, we must
hang our heads in sorrow, and hide our faces in shame. It is enough to
know that these things are so; the causes we care little about. Those we
have been examining, complaining about, and moralising over, all our
life time. This we are weary of. What we desire to learn now is, how to
effect a _remedy_; this we have endeavored to point out. Our elevation
must be the result of _self-efforts_, and work of our _own hands_. No
other human power can accomplish it. If we but determine it shall be so,
it will be so. Let each one make the case his own, and endeavor to rival
his neighbor, in honorable competition.

These are the proper and only means of elevating ourselves and attaining
equality in this country or any other, and it is useless, utterly
futile, to think about going any where, except we are determined to use
these as the necessary means of developing our manhood. The means are at
hand, within our reach. Are we willing to try them? Are we willing to
raise ourselves superior to the condition of slaves, or continue the
meanest underlings, subject to the beck and call of every creature
bearing a pale complexion? If we are, we had as well remained in the
South, as to have come to the North in search of more freedom. What was
the object of our parents in leaving the south, if it were not for the
purpose of attaining equality in common with others of their fellow
citizens, by giving their children access to all the advantages enjoyed
by others? Surely this was their object. They heard of liberty and
equality here, and they hastened on to enjoy it, and no people are more
astonished and disappointed than they, who for the first time, on
beholding the position we occupy here in the free north--what is called,
and what they expect to find, the free States. They at once tell us,
that they have as much liberty in the south as we have in the
north--that there as free people, they are protected in their
rights--that we have nothing more--that in other respects they have the
same opportunity, indeed the preferred opportunity, of being their
maids, servants, cooks, waiters, and menials in general, there, as we
have here--that had they known for a moment, before leaving, that such
was to be the only position they occupied here, they would have remained
where they were, and never left. Indeed, such is the disappointment in
many cases, that they immediately return back again, completely insulted
at the idea, of having us here at the north, assume ourselves to be
their superiors. Indeed, if our superior advantages of the free States,
do not induce and stimulate us to the higher attainments in life, what
in the name of degraded humanity will do it? Nothing, surely nothing.
If, in fine, the advantages of free schools in Massachusetts, New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and wherever else we may have them, do not
give us advantages and pursuits superior to our slave brethren, then are
the unjust assertions of Messrs. Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Theodore
Frelinghuysen, late Governor Poindexter of Mississippi, George McDuffy,
Governor Hammond of South Carolina, Extra Billy (present Governor)
Smith, of Virginia, and the host of our oppressors, slave-holders and
others, true, that we are insusceptible and incapable of elevation to
the more respectable, honorable, and higher attainments among white men.
But this we do not believe--neither do you, although our whole life and
course of policy in this country are such, that it would seem to prove
otherwise. The degradation of the slave parent has been entailed upon
the child, induced by the subtle policy of the oppressor, in regular
succession handed down from father to son--a system of regular
submission and servitude, menialism and dependence, until it has become
almost a physiological function of our system, an actual condition of
our nature. Let this no longer be so, but let us determine to equal the
whites among whom we live, not by declarations and unexpressed
self-opinion, for we have always had enough of that, but by actual proof
in acting, doing, and carrying out practically, the measures of
equality. Here is our nativity, and here have we the natural right to
abide and be elevated through the measures of our own efforts.



VI

THE UNITED STATES OUR COUNTRY


Our common country is the United States. Here were we born, here raised
and educated; here are the scenes of childhood; the pleasant
associations of our school going days; the loved enjoyments of our
domestic and fireside relations, and the sacred graves of our departed
fathers and mothers, and from here will we not be driven by any policy
that may be schemed against us.

We are Americans, having a birthright citizenship--natural claims upon
the country--claims common to all others of our fellow citizens--natural
rights, which may, by virtue of unjust laws, be obstructed, but never
can be annulled. Upon these do we place ourselves, as immovably fixed as
the decrees of the living God. But according to the economy that
regulates the policy of nations, upon which rests the basis of
justifiable claims to all freeman's rights, it may be necessary to take
another view of, and enquire into the political claims of colored men.



VII

CLAIMS OF COLORED MEN AS CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES


The political basis upon which rests the establishment of all free
nations, as the first act in their organization, is the security by
constitutional provisions, of the fundamental claims of citizenship.

The legitimate requirement, politically considered, necessary to the
justifiable claims for protection and full enjoyment of all the rights
and privileges of an unqualified freeman, in all democratic countries
is, that each person so endowed, shall have made contributions and
investments in the country. Where there is no investment there can be
but little interest; hence an adopted citizen is required to reside a
sufficient length of time, to form an attachment and establish some
interest in the country of his adoption, before he can rightfully lay
any claims to citizenship. The pioneer who leads in the discovery or
settlement of a country, as the first act to establish a right therein,
erects a building of whatever dimensions, and seizes upon a portion of
the soil. The soldier, who braves the dangers of the battle-field, in
defence of his country's rights, and the toiling laborer and husbandman,
who cuts down and removes the forest, levels and constructs post-roads
and other public highways--the mechanic, who constructs and builds up
houses, villages, towns, and cities, for the conveniency of
inhabitants--the farmer, who cultivates the soil for the production of
breadstuffs and forage, as food and feed for man and beast--all of
these are among the first people of a democratic state, whose claims are
legitimate as freemen of the commonwealth. A freeman in a political
sense, is a citizen of unrestricted rights in the state, being eligible
to the highest position known to their civil code. They are the
preferred persons in whom may be invested the highest privileges, and to
whom may be entrusted fundamentally the most sacred rights of the
country; because, having made the greatest investments, they necessarily
have the greatest interests; and consequently, are the safest hands into
which to place so high and sacred a trust. Their interest being the
country's, and the interest of the country being the interest of the
people; therefore, the protection of their own interests necessarily
protects the interests of the whole country and people. It is this
simple but great principle of primitive rights, that forms the
fundamental basis of citizenship in all free countries, and it is upon
this principle, that the rights of the colored man in this country to
citizenship are fixed.

The object of this volume is, to enlighten the minds of a large class of
readers upon a subject with which they are unacquainted, expressed in
comprehensible language, therefore we have studiously avoided using
political and legal phrases, that would serve more to perplex than
inform them. To talk about the barons, King John, and the Magna Charta,
would be foreign to a work like this, and only destroy the interest that
otherwise might be elicited in the subject. Our desire is, to arrest the
attention of the American people in general, and the colored people in
particular, to great truths as heretofore but little thought of. What
claims then have colored men, based upon the principles set forth, as
fundamentally entitled to citizenship? Let the living records of history
answer the enquiry.

When Christopher Columbus, in 1492, discovered America, natives were
found to pay little or no attention to cultivation, being accustomed by
hereditary pursuit, to war, fishing, and the sports of the chase. The
Spaniards and Portuguese, as well as other Europeans who ventured here,
came as mineral speculators, and not for the purpose of improving the
country.

As the first objects of speculation are the developments of the mineral
wealth of every newly discovered country, so was it with this. Those who
came to the new world, were not of the common people, seeking in a
distant land the means of livelihood, but moneyed capitalists, the
grandees and nobles, who reduced the natives to servitude by confining
them to the mines. To have brought large numbers of the peasantry at
that early period, from the monarchies of Europe, to the wilds of
America, far distant from the civil and military powers of the home
governments, would have been to place the means of self-control into
their own hands, and invite them to rebellion against the crowns. The
capitalist miners were few, compared to the number of laborers required;
and the difficulty at that time of the transportation of suitable
provisions for their sustenance, conduced much to the objection of
bringing them here. The natives were numerous, then easily approached by
the wily seductions of the Europeans, easily yoked and supported, having
the means of sustenance at hand, the wild fruits and game of the forest,
the fish of the waters and birds of the country. All these as naturally
enough, European adventurers would be cautious against introducing into
common use among hundreds of thousands of laborers, under all the
influences incident of a foreign climate in a foreign country, in its
primitive natural state. The Indians were then preferred for many
reasons, as the common laborers on the continent, where nothing but the
mining interests were thought of or carried on. This noble race of
Aborigines, continued as the common slaves of the new world, to bear the
yoke of foreign oppression, until necessity induced a substitute for
them. They sunk by scores under the heavy weight of oppression, and were
fast passing from the shores of time. At this, the foreigners grew
alarmed, and of necessity, devised ways and means to obtain an adequate
substitute. A few European laborers were brought into the country, but
the influence of climate and mode of living, operated entirely against
them. They were as inadequate to stand the climate, as the nobles were
themselves.

From the earliest period of the history of nations, the African race had
been known as an industrious people, cultivators of the soil. The grain
fields of Ethiopia and Egypt were the themes of the poet, and their
garners, the subject of the historian. Like the present America, all the
world went to Africa, to get a supply of commodities. Their massive
piles of masonry, their skilful architecture, their subterranean vaults,
their deep and mysterious wells, their extensive artificial channels,
their mighty sculptured solid rocks, and provinces of stone quarries;
gave indisputable evidence, of the hardihood of that race of people.

Nor was Africa then, without the evidence of industry, as history will
testify. All travelers who had penetrated towards the interior of the
continent, have been surprised at the seeming state of civilization and
evidences of industry among the inhabitants of that vast country. These
facts were familiar to Europeans, who were continually trading on the
coast of Africa, as it was then the most important part of adventure and
research, known to the world. In later periods still, the history of
African travelers, confirm all the former accounts concerning the
industry of the people.

John and Richard Lander, two young English noblemen, in 1828, under the
patronage of the English government, sailed to the western coast of
Africa, on an expedition of research. In their voyage up the river
Niger, their description of the scenes is extravagant. They represent
the country on each side of the river, for several hundred miles up the
valley, as being not only beautiful and picturesque, but the fields as
in a high state of cultivation, clothed in the verdure of husbandry,
waving before the gentle breezes, with the rich products of
industry--maize, oats, rye, millet, and wheat, being among the fruits of
cultivation. The fences were of various descriptions: hedge, wicker,
some few pannel, and the old fashioned zig-zag, known as the "Virginia
worm fence"--the hedge and worm fence being the most common. Their
cattle were fine and in good order, looking in every particular, except
perhaps in size, as well as European cattle on the best managed farms.
The fruit groves were delightful to the eye of the beholder. Every
variety common to the country, were there to be seen in a high state of
cultivation. Their roads and public highways were in good condition, and
well laid out, as by the direction of skillful supervising surveyors.
The villages, towns, and cities, many of them, being a credit to the
people. Their cities were well laid out, and presented evidence of
educated minds and mechanical ingenuity. In many of the workshops in
which they went, they found skillful workmen, in iron, copper, brass,
steel, and gold; and their implements of husbandry and war, were as well
manufactured by African sons of toil, as any in the English
manufactories, save that they had not quite so fine a finish, garnish
and embellishment. This is a description, given of the industry and
adaptedness of the people of Africa, to labor and toil of every kind. As
it was very evident, that where there were manufactories of various
metals, the people must of necessity be inured to mining operations, so
it was also very evident, that this people must be a very hardy and
enduring people.

In 1442, fifty years previous to the sailing of Columbus in search of a
new world, Anthony Gonzales, Portuguese, took from the gold coast of
Guinea, ten Africans and a quantity of gold dust, which he carried back
to Lisbon with him. These Africans were set immediately to work in the
gardens of the emperor, which so pleased his queen, that the number were
much augmented, all of whom were found to be skillful and industrious in
agriculture.

In 1481, eleven years prior to the discovery by Columbus, the Portuguese
built a fort on the Gold Coast, and there commenced mining in search of
gold. During this time until the year 1502, a period of ten years, had
there been no other evidence, there was sufficient time and opportunity,
to give full practical demonstrations of the capacity of this people to
endure toil, especially in the mining operations, and for this cause and
this alone, were they selected in preference to any other race of men,
to do the labor of the New World. They had proven themselves physically
superior either to the European or American races--in fact, superior
physically to any living race of men--enduring fatigue, hunger and
thirst--enduring change of climate, habits, manners and customs, with
infinitely far less injury to their physical and mental system, than any
other people on the face of God's earth.

     The following extract shows, that even up to the year 1676, the
     Indians were enslaved--but that little value were attached to them
     as laborers, as the price at which they were disposed and sold to
     purchasers, fully shows:

     SLAVERY IN PROVIDENCE, R.I.--Immediately after the struggle between
     the natives and some of the New England settlers, known as "King
     Philip's war," it became necessary to dispose of certain Indian
     captives then in Providence. The method adopted was common in that
     day, but to us remarkable, as also the names of those who figured
     prominently therein. Only think of ROGER WILLIAMS sharing in the
     proceeds of a slave sale. The following is from the "Annals of
     Providence."

     "A town meeting was held before Thomas Field's house, under a tree,
     by the water side, on the 14th of August, 1676. A committee was
     appointed to determine in what manner the Indians should be
     disposed of. They reported as follows:

     "Inhabitants wanting, can have Indians at the price they sell at
     the Island of Rhode Island or elsewhere. All under five, to serve
     till thirty; above five and under ten, till twenty-eight; above ten
     to fifteen, till twenty-seven; above fifteen to twenty, till
     twenty-six; from twenty to thirty, shall serve eight years; all
     above thirty, seven years.

     "We whose names are underwritten, being chosen by the town to see
     the disposal of the Indians now in town, we agree that Roger
     Williams, N. Waterman, T. Fenner, H. Ashton, J. Morey, D. Abbot, J.
     Olney, V. Whitman, J. Whipple, sen., E. Pray, J. Pray, J. Angell,
     Jas. Angell, T. Arnold, A. Man, T. Field, E. Bennett, T. Clemence,
     W. Lancaster, W. Hopkins, W. Hawkins, W. Harris, Z. Field, S.
     Winsor, and Capt. Fenner, shall each have a whole share in the
     product. I. Woodward and R. Pray, three-fourths of a share each. J.
     Smith, E. Smith, S. Whipple, N. Whipple, and T. Walling each half a
     share."

     Signed, "Roger Williams, Thomas Harris, sen., Thomas X Angell,
     Thomas Field, John Whipple, Jr."

     To gratify curiosity as to the price of Indians on those terms, the
     following extracts are made from an account of sales about this
     time;

     "To Anthony Low, five Indians, great and small, £8.

     "To James Rogers, two, for twenty bushels of Indian corn.

     "To Philip Smith, two, in silver, $4 10.

     "To Daniel Allen, one, in silver, $2 10.

     "To C. Carr, one, twelve bushels of Indian corn.

     "To Elisha Smith, one, in wool, 100 lbs.

     "To Elisha Smith, one, for three fat sheep."

From 1492, the discovery of Hispaniola, to 1502, the short space of but
four years, such was the mortality among the natives, that the Spaniards
then holding rule there, "began to employ a few" Africans in the mines
of the Island. The experiment was effective--a successful one. The
Indian and African were enslaved together, when the Indian sunk, and the
African stood. It was not until June the 24th of the year 1498, that the
Continent was discovered by John Cabot, a Venetian, who sailed in August
of the previous year 1497, from Bristol, under the patronage of Henry
VII., King of England, with two vessels, "freighted by the merchants of
London and Bristol, with articles of traffic," his son Sebastian, and
300 men. In 1517, but the short period of thirteen years from the date
of their first introduction, Carolus V., King of Spain, by the right of
a patent, granted permission to a number of persons, annually, to supply
to the Islands of Hispaniola, (St. Domingo,) Cuba, Jamaica, and Porto
Rico, natives of Africa, to the number of four thousand annually. John
Hawkins, an unprincipled Englishman--whose name should be branded with
infamy--was the first person known to have engaged in so inhuman a
traffic, and that living monster his mistress, Queen Elizabeth, engaged
with him and shared in the profits.

The natives of Africa, on their introduction into a foreign country,
soon discovered the loss of their accustomed food, and mode and manner
of living. The Aborigines subsisted mainly by game and fish, with a few
patches of maize or Indian corn near their wigwams, which were generally
attended by the women, while the men were absent. The grains and
fruits, such as they had been accustomed to, were not to be had among
the Aborigines of the country, and this first induced the African to
cultivate patches of ground in the neighborhood of the mines, for the
raising of food for his own sustenance. This trait in their character
was observed, and regarded by the Spaniards with considerable interest;
and when on contracting with the English slave-dealer, Captain Hawkins,
and others for new supplies of slaves, they were careful to request them
to secure a quantity of the seeds and different products of the country,
to bring with them to the New World. Many of these were cultivated to
some extent, while those indigenous to America, were cultivated by them
with considerable success. And up to this day, it is a custom on many of
the slave plantations of the South, to allow the slave his "patch," and
Saturday afternoon or Sabbath day, to cultivate it.

Shortly after the commencement of the shameful traffic in the blood and
bones of men--the destiny and chastity of women by Captain Hawkins, and
what was termed England's "Virgin Queen"; Elizabeth gave a license to
Sir Walter Raleigh, to search for uninhabited lands, and seize upon all
uninhabited by Christians. Sir Walter discovered the coast of North
Carolina and Virginia, assigning the name of "Virginia" to the whole
coast now composing the old state. A feeble colony was settled here,
which did not avail, and it was not until the month of April, 1607, that
the first permanent settlement was made in Virginia, under the patronage
of letters patent from James I, King of England, to Thomas Gates and his
associates.

This was the first settling of North America, and thirteen years
anterior to the landing of the Pilgrims.

"No permanent settlement was effected in what is now called the United
States, till the reign of James the First."--_Ramsay's Hist. U.S._, vol.
I., p. 38.

"The month of April, 1607, is the epoch of the first permanent
settlement on the coast of Virginia; the name then given to all that
extent of country which forms thirteen States."--_Ibid._, p. 39. The
whole coast of the country was now explored, not for the purpose of
trade and agriculture--because there were no products in the
country--the natives not producing sufficient provisions to supply
present wants, and, consequently, nothing to trade for; but like the
speculations of their Spanish and Portuguese predecessors, on the
islands and in South America, but for that of mining gold. Trade and the
cultivation of the soil was foreign to their designs and intention on
coming to the continent of the new world, and they were consequently,
disappointed when failing of success. "At a time when the precious
metals were conceived to be the peculiar and only valuable productions
of the new world, when every mountain was supposed to contain a
treasure, and every rivulet was searched for its golden sands, this
appearance was fondly considered as an infallible indication of the
mine. Every hand was eager to dig."...

"There was now," says Smith, "no talk, no hope, no work; but dig gold,
wash gold, refine gold. With this imaginary wealth, the first vessel
returning to England was loaded, while the _culture of the land_, and
every useful occupation was _totally neglected_."...

The colonists, thus left, were in miserable circumstances for want of
provisions. The remainder of what they had brought with them, was so
small in quantity, as to be soon expended--and so damaged in the course
of a long voyage, as to be a source of disease.... In their expectation
of getting gold, the people were disappointed, the glittering substance
they had sent to England, proving to be a valueless mineral. "Smith, on
his return to Jamestown, found the colony reduced to thirty-eight
persons, who, in despair, were preparing to abandon the country. He
employed caresses, threats, and even violence, in order to prevent them
from executing this fatal resolution." _Ibid._, pp. 45-46. In November,
1620, the Pilgrims or Puritans made the harbor of Cape Cod, and after
solemn vows and organization previous to setting foot on shore, they
landed safely on "Plymouth Rock," December the 20th, about one month
after. They were one hundred and one in number, and from the toils and
hardships consequent to a severe season, in a strange country, in less
than six months after their arrival, "forty-four persons, nearly
one-half of their original number," had died.

... "In 1618, in the reign of James I, the British government
established a regular trade on the coast of Africa. In the year 1620,
negro slaves began to be imported into Virginia: a Dutch ship bringing
twenty of them for sale."--_Sampson's Hist. Dict._, p. 348. The Dutch
ship landed her cargo at New Bedford, (now Massachusetts,) as it will be
remembered, that the whole coast, now comprising the "Old Thirteen," and
original United States, was then called Virginia, so named by Sir Walter
Raleigh, in honor of his royal Mistress and patron, Elizabeth, the
Virgin Queen, under whom he received his royal patent commission of
adventure and expedition.

Beginning their preparation in the slave-trade in 1618, just two years
previous, giving time for successfully carrying out the project against
the landing of the first emigrant settlers, it will be observed that the
African captain, and the "Puritan" emigrants, landed upon the same
section of the continent at the same time, 1620--the Pilgrims at
Plymouth, and the captives at New Bedford, but a few miles
comparatively south.

The country at this period, was one vast wilderness. "The continent of
North America was then one continued forest."... There were no horses,
cattle, sheep, hogs, or tame beasts of any kind.... There were no
domestic poultry.... There were no gardens, orchards, public roads,
meadows, or cultivated fields.... They "often burned the woods that they
could advantageously plant their corn."... They had neither spice, salt,
bread, butter, cheese, nor milk.... They had no set meals, but eat when
they were hungry, and could find any thing to satisfy the cravings of
nature.... Very little of their food was derived from the earth, except
what it spontaneously produced.... The ground was both their seat and
table.... Their best bed was a skin.... They had neither steel, iron,
nor any metallic instruments....--_Ramsay's Hist._, pp. 39-40.

We adduce not these historical extracts to disparage our brother the
Indian--far be it: whatever he may think of our race, according to the
manner in which he has been instructed to look upon it, by our mutual
oppressor the American nation; we admire his, for the many deeds of
noble daring, for which the short history of his liberty-loving people
are replete: we sympathise with them, because our brethren are the
successors of their fathers in the degradation of American bondage--but
we adduce them in evidence against the many aspersions charged against
the African race, that their inferiority to the other races caused them
to be reduced to servitude. For the purpose of proving that their
superiority, and not inferiority, alone was the cause which first
suggested to Europeans the substitution of Africans for that of
aboriginal or Indian laborers in the mines; and that their superior
skill and industry, first suggested to the colonists, the propriety of
turning their attention to agricultural and other industrial pursuits,
than that of mining.

It is very evident, from what has been adduced, the settlement of
Captain John Smith, being in the course of a few months, reduced to
thirty-eight, and that of Plymouth, from one hundred and one, to that of
fifty-seven in six months--it is evident, that the whites nor the
Indians were equal to the hard and almost insurmountable difficulties,
that now stood wide-spread before them.

An endless forest, the impenetrable earth; the one to be removed, and
the other to be excavated. Towns and cities to be built, and farms to be
cultivated--all these presented difficulties too arduous for the
European then here, and unknown to the Indian.

It is very evident, that at a period such as this, when the natives
themselves had fallen victims to tasks imposed upon them by their
usurpers, and the Europeans were sinking beneath the weight of climate
and hardships; when food could not be had nor the common conveniences of
life procured--when arduous duties of life were to be performed and none
capable of doing them, but those who had previously by their labors, not
only in their native country, but in the new, so proven themselves--as
the most natural consequence, the Africans were resorted to, for the
performance of every duty common to domestic life.

There were no laborers known to the colonists from Cape Cod to Cape Look
Out, than those of the African race. They entered at once into the
mines, extracting therefrom, the rich treasures that for a thousand ages
lay hidden in the earth. And from their knowledge of cultivation, the
farming interests in the North, and planting in the South, were
commenced with a prospect never dreamed of before the introduction of
this most extraordinary, hardy race of men: though pagans, yet skilled
in all the useful duties of life. Farmers, herdsmen, and laborers in
their own country, they required not to be taught to work, and how to do
it--but it was only necessary to tell them to go to work, and they at
once knew what to do, and how it should be done.

It is notorious, that in the planting States, the blacks themselves are
the only skillful cultivators--the proprietor knowing little or nothing
about the art, save that which he learns from the African husbandman,
while his ignorant white overseer, who is merely there to see that the
work is attended to, knows a great deal less. Tobacco, cotton, rice,
hemp, indigo, the improvement in Indian corn, and many other important
products, are all the result of African skill and labor in this country.
And the introduction of the zigzag, or "Virginia Worm Fence," is purely
of African origin. Nor was their skill as herdsmen inferior to their
other attainments, being among the most accomplished trainers and
horsemen in the world. Indeed, to this class of men may be indebted the
entire country for the improvement South in the breed of horses. And any
one who has travelled South, could not fail to have observed, that all
of the leading trainers, jockies, and judges of horses, as well as
riders, are men of African descent.

In speaking of the Bornouese, a people from among whom a great many
natives have been enslaved by Arabian traders, and sold into foreign
bondage, and of course many into this country, "It is said that Bornou
can muster 15,000 Shonaas in the field mounted. They are the greatest
breeders of cattle in the country, and annually supply Soudan with from
two to three thousand horses."... "Our road lying along one of them,
gave me an excellent view of beautiful villages all round, and herds of
cattle grazing in the open country."... "Plantations of cotton or indigo
now occupy the place where the houses formerly stood."... "The Souga
market is well supplied with every necessary and luxury in request among
the people of the interior." "The country still open and well
cultivated, and the villages numerous. We met crowds of people coming
from Karro with goods. Some carried them on their heads, others had
asses or bullocks, according to their wealth."... "The country still
highly cultivated."... "We also passed several walled towns, quite
deserted, the inhabitants having been sold by their conquerors, the
Felatohs." "Women sat spinning cotton by the road side, offering for
sale to the passing caravans, gussub water, roast-meat, sweet potatoes,
coshen nuts," &c. (_Dunham and Clapperton's Travels and Discoveries in
North and Central Africa_, vol. 2, pp. 140, 230, 332, 333, 353.)

The forests gave way before them, and extensive verdant fields, richly
clothed with produce, rose up as by magic before these hardy sons of
toil. In the place of the unskillful and ill-constructed wigwam, houses,
villages, towns and cities quickly were reared up in their stead. Being
farmers, mechanics, laborers and traders in their own country, they
required little or no instruction in these various pursuits. They were
in fact, then, to the whole continent, what they are in truth now to the
whole Southern section of the Union--the bone and sinews of the country.
And even now, the existence of the white man, South, depends entirely on
the labor of the black man--the idleness of the one, is sustained by the
industry of the other. Public roads and highways are the result of their
labor, as are also the first public works, as wharves, docks, forts, and
all such improvements. Are not these legitimate investments in the
common stock of the nation, which should command a proportionate
interest?

We shall next proceed to review the contributions of colored men to
other departments of the nation, and as among the most notorious and
historical, we refer to colored American warriors.



VIII

COLORED AMERICAN WARRIORS


Among the highest claims that an inhabitant has upon his country, is
that of serving in its cause, and assisting to fight its battles. There
is no responsibility attended with more personal hazard, and
consequently, none for which the country owes a greater debt of
gratitude. _Amor patria_, or love of country, is the first requisition
and highest attribute of every citizen; and he who voluntarily ventures
his own safety for that of his country, is a patriot of the purest
character.

When the country's attention is arrested--her fears aroused--her peace
disturbed, and her independence endangered--when in the dread and
momentous hour, the tap of the drum, the roll of the reveille, the
shrill sound of the bugler's trumpet, or the thunders of the cannon's
roar, summons the warrior on to the pending conflict--upon whom then do
the citizens place their dependence, and in whom the country her trust?
Upon him who braves the consequences, and fights his country's battles
for his country's sake. Upon whom does the country look, as the most
eligible of her favored sons? Upon none more so than he, who shoulders
his musket, girds on his sword, and faces the enemy on to the charge.
The hero and the warrior, have long been estimated, the favorite sons of
a favored people.

In the Convention for the formation of the national compact, when the
question arose on the priority of citizen's rights, an honorable
member--Mr. Jefferson, if we mistake not--arose and stated, that for the
purpose of henceforward settling a question of such moment to the
American people, that nativity of birth, and the descendants of all who
had borne arms in their country's struggle for liberty, should be always
entitled to all the rights and privileges to which an American citizen
could be eligible. This at once, enfranchised the native citizen, and
the posterity of all those at the time, who may have been so fortunate
as to have been born on the American continent. The question was at once
settled, as regards American citizenship. And if we establish our right
of equal claims to citizenship with other American people, we shall have
done all that is desirable in this view of our position in the country.
But if in addition to this, we shall be able to prove, that colored men,
not only took part in the great scene of the first act for independence,
but that they were the actors--a colored man was really the hero in the
great drama, and actually the first victim in the revolutionary
tragedy--then indeed, shall we have more than succeeded, and have reared
a monument of fame to the history of our deeds, more lasting than the
pile that stands on Bunker Hill.

For a concise historical arrangement of colored men, who braved the
dangers of the battlefield, we are much indebted to William C. Nell,
Esq., formerly of Boston, now of Rochester, N.Y., for a pamphlet,
published by him during the last year, which should be read by every
American the country through.

For ten years previous, a dissatisfaction had prevailed among the
colonists, against the mother country, in consequence of the excessive
draughts of supplies, and taxation, made upon them, for the support of
the wars carried on in Europe. The aspect began to change, the light
grew dim, the sky darkened, the clouds gathered lower and lower, the
lightning glimmered through the black elements around--the storm
advanced, until on the fifth of March, 1773, it broke out in terrible
blasts, drenching the virgin soil of America, with the blood of her own
native sons--Crispus Attuck, a colored man, was the first who headed,
the first who commanded, the first who charged, who struck the first
blow, and the first whose blood was spilt, and baptized the colony, as a
peace-offering on the altar of American liberty. "The people were
greatly exasperated. The multitude, armed with clubs, ran towards King
street, crying, 'Let us drive out the ribalds; they have no business
here!' The rioters rushed furiously towards the Custom House; they
approached the sentinel crying, 'Kill him, kill him!' They assaulted him
with snowballs, pieces of ice, and whatever they could lay their hands
upon. They encountered a band of the populace led by a mulatto named
Attucks, who brandished their clubs and pelted them with snow-balls. The
maledictions, the imprecations, the execrations of the multitudes were
horrible. In the midst of a torrent of invectives from every quarter,
the military were challenged to fire. The populace advanced to the
points of the bayonets; the soldiers appeared like statues; the cries,
the howlings, the menaces, the violent din of bells still sounding the
alarm, increased the confusion and the horrors of these moments: at
length the mulatto and twelve of his companions, pressing forward
environed the soldiers, and striking their muskets with their clubs
cried to the multitude: 'Be not afraid, they dare not fire; why do you
hesitate, why do you not kill them, why not crush them at once?' The
mulatto lifted his arm against Captain Preston, having turned one of the
muskets, he seized the bayonet with his left hand, as if he intended to
execute his threat. At this moment confused cries were heard: 'The
wretches dare not fire!' Firing succeeds. Attucks is slain. Two other
discharges follow. Three were killed, five severely wounded, and several
others slightly." Attucks was killed by Montgomery, one of Captain
Preston's soldiers. He had been foremost in resisting, and was first
slain; as proof of front and close engagement, received two balls, one
in each breast." "John Adams, counsel for the soldier, admitted that
Attucks appeared to have undertaken to be the hero of the night, and to
lead the army with banners. John Hancock, in 1774, invokes the injured
shades of Maverick, Gray, Caldwell, _Attucks_ and Carr." _Nell's Wars_,
1776 and 1812, pp. 5, 6.--RHODE ISLAND also contributes largely to the
capital stock of citizenship. "In Rhode Island, the blacks formed an
entire regiment, and they discharged their duty with zeal and fidelity.
The gallant defence of Red Bank, in which the black regiment bore a
part, is among the proofs of their valor." In this contest it will be
recollected, that four hundred men met and repulsed, after a terrible
sanguinary struggle, fifteen hundred Hessian troops, headed by count
Donop." _Ibid._, p. 10. CONNECTICUT next claims to be heard and given
credit on the nation's books. In speaking of the patriots who bore the
standard of their country's glory, Judge Goddard, who held the office of
commissioner of pensions for nineteen colored soldiers, says, "I cannot
refrain from mentioning one aged black man, Primus Babcock, who proudly
presented to me an honorable discharge from service during the war,
dated at the close of it, wholly in the hand-writing of GEORGE
WASHINGTON. Nor can I forget the expression of his feelings, when
informed that, after his discharge had been sent to the department, that
it could not be returned. At his request it was written for, as he
seemed to spurn the pension and reclaim the discharge." It is related of
Babcock, that when the British in a successful charge took a number of
the Americans prisoners, they were ordered to deliver up their arms by
the British officer of the detachment, which demand was readily conceded
to by all the prisoners except Babcock, who looking at the officer
sternly--at the margin of a mud pond foot of Bunker Hill--turned his
musket bayonet downwards, thrusting it into the mire up to the armpit,
drawing out his muddy arm, turned to the British officer, and said, "Now
dirty your silk glove, and take it--you red coat!" The officer raised
his sword as if to cut him down for the impertinence, then replied, "You
are too brave a soldier to be killed, you black devil!" A few years
since, a musket evidently a relic of the Revolution, was found near the
same spot in the singular position of that thrust down by Babcock, no
doubt being the same, which was deposited among the relics in the
archives at Washington. Babcock died but a few years ago, aged we
believe 101 years.

"When Major Montgomery, one of the leaders in the expedition against the
colonists, was lifted upon the walls of the fort by his soldiers,
flourishing his sword and calling on them to follow him, Jordan Freeman
received him on the point of a pike and pinned him dead to the earth."
"NEW HAMPSHIRE gives her testimony to the deposit of colored interest.
There was a regiment of blacks in the same situation, a regiment of
negroes fighting for our liberty and independence, not a white man among
them but the officers, in the same dangerous and responsible position.
Had they been unfaithful, or given way before the enemy all would have
been lost. Three times in succession were they attacked with most
desperate fury by well disciplined and veteran troops, and three times
did they successfully repel the assault, and thus preserve the army.
They fought thus through the war. They were brave and hearty troops."
_Nell_, pp. 11, 13.

NEW YORK comes bravely to the call, and sends her investments by land
and sea. In the convention of 1821, for revising the constitution of the
State, the question of equal rights having been introduced, Doctor
Clarke among other things said, "In the war of the Revolution, these
people helped to fight our battles by land and by sea. Some of your
states were glad to turn out corps of colored men, and to stand
'shoulder to shoulder' with them. In your late war, they contributed
largely towards some of your most splendid victories. On lakes Erie and
Champlain, where your fleets triumphed over a foe superior in numbers
and engines of death, they were manned in a large proportion with men of
color. And in this very house, in the fall of 1814, a bill passed
receiving all the branches of your government, authorising the governor
to accept the services of a corps of two thousand free people of color.
These were times when a man who shouldered his musket did not know but
he bared his bosom to receive a death wound from the enemy ere he laid
it aside; and in these times these people were found as ready and as
willing to volunteer in your service as any other. They were not
compelled to go; they were not draughted.... They were volunteers...."
Said Martindale of New York in congress 22 of first month 1828: "Slaves,
or negroes who had been slaves, were enlisted as soldiers in the War of
the Revolution; and I myself saw a battalion of them, as fine martial
looking men as I ever saw, attached to the northern army in the last
war, on its march from Plattsburg to Sackett's Harbor."

PENNSYLVANIA contributes an important share in the stock of
Independence, as will be seen by the following historical reminiscence:
"On the capture of Washington by the British forces, it was judged
expedient to fortify without delay, the principal towns and cities
exposed to similar attacks. The Vigilance Committee of Philadelphia
waited upon three of the principal Colored citizens, namely, James
Forten, Bishop Allen, and Absalom Jones, soliciting the aid of the
people of Color in erecting suitable defences for the city. Accordingly
two thousand five hundred Colored men assembled in the State House yard,
and from thence marched to Gray's Ferry, where they labored for two
days, almost without intermission. Their labors were so faithful and
efficient, that a vote of thanks was tendered them by the Committee. A
battalion of Colored troops were at the same time organized in the city,
under an officer of the United States army; and they were on the point
of marching to the frontier when peace was proclaimed."--_Ibid._, pp.
14-17-18.[2]

And even in the slave States, where might reasonably be expected,
nothing but bitter hate and burning revenge to exist--where the
displeasure of Heaven and anger of God was invoked--where it is thought
the last glimmering spark of patriotic fire has been quenched, and every
aid withheld--even there, in the hour of their country's danger, did
they lay aside every consideration of the ten thousand wrongs
inflicted--throw in their contributions, and make common cause.

Says Mr. Nell, "The celebrated Charles Pinkney, of South Carolina, in
his speech on the Missouri question, in defence of the Slave
representation of the South, made the following admission:--They (the
colored people) were in numerous instances the pioneers, and in all the
labors of our army. To their hands we are owing the greatest part of the
fortifications raised for the protection of the country. Fort Moultrie
gave, at an early period of inexperience and untried valor of our
citizens, immortality to the American arms." And were there no other
proof on record, the testimony given to the brave followers of the
renowned hero of Chalmet Plains, would of itself be sufficient to
establish the right of the colored man to eligibility in his native
country. "In 1814," continues Mr. Nell, "when New Orleans was in danger,
and the proud criminal distinctions of caste were again demolished by
one of those emergencies in which nature puts to silence for the moment
the base partialities of art, the free colored people were called into
the field in common with the whites; and the importance of their
services was thus acknowledged by General Jackson:--


                                         "HEAD-QUARTERS SEVENTH MILITARY
                                   DISTRICT, MOBILE, SEPTEMBER 21, 1814.

     "_To the Free Colored Inhabitants of Louisiana:_


     "Through a mistaken policy, you have heretofore been deprived of a
     participation in the glorious struggle for national rights, in
     which _our_ country is engaged. This no longer shall exist. As
     sons of Freedom you are now called upon to defend your most
     estimable blessings. _As Americans_, your country looks with
     confidence to her adopted children, for a valorous support, as a
     faithful return for the advantages enjoyed under her mild and
     equitable government. As fathers, husbands, and brothers, you are
     summoned to rally round the standard of the Eagle, to defend all
     which is dear in existence.

     "_Your country_, although calling for your exertions, does not wish
     you to engage in her cause, without remunerating you for the
     services rendered. Your intelligent minds are not to be led away by
     false representations--your love of honor would cause you to
     despise the man who should attempt to deceive you. In the sincerity
     of a soldier, and the language of truth I address you.

     "To every noble hearted free man of color, volunteering to serve
     during the present contest with Great Britain, and no longer, there
     will be paid the same bounty in money and lands now received by
     white soldiers of the United States, namely, one hundred and
     twenty-four dollars in money and one hundred and sixty acres in
     land. The non-commissioned officers and privates will also be
     entitled to the same monthly pay and daily rations and clothes
     furnished to any American soldiers.

     "On enrolling yourselves in companies, the Major General commanding
     will select officers for your government from your white
     fellow-citizens. Your non-commissioned officers will be appointed
     from among yourselves.

     "Due regard will be paid to the feelings of free men and soldiers.

     "You will not, by being associated with white men in the same
     corps, be exposed to improper comparison, or unjust sarcasm. As a
     distinct, independent battalion or regiment, pursuing the path of
     glory, you will, undivided, receive the applause and gratitude of
     your countrymen.

     "To assure you of the sincerity of my intentions, and my anxiety to
     engage your invaluable services to our country, I have communicated
     my wish to the Governor of Louisiana, who is fully informed as to
     the manner of enrollments, and will give you every necessary
     information on the subject of this address.

                                                        "ANDREW JACKSON,
                                             "Major General Commanding."


On the 18th of December, 1814, through his Aid-de-camp, Colonel Butler,
the General issued another address to the colored soldiers, who had
proven themselves, in every particular, worthy of their country's trust,
and in every way worthy of the proudest position of enfranchised
freemen. To deny to men and their descendants, who are capable of such
deeds as are acknowledged in this proclamation, equal rights with other
men, is a moral homicide--as assassination, which none but the most
malicious and obdurate are capable of perpetrating. Surely, surely, it
cannot be, that our fellow-citizens, who control the destiny of the
country, one fully advised of the claims of their brethren in
adversity--we cannot be persuaded that a people, claiming the
self-respect and consideration of the American people, can be satisfied
that the perils of war be encountered by them--their country's rights
sustained--and their liberty, the liberty of their wives and children
defended and protected; then, with a cool deliberation, unknown to any
uncivilized people on the face of the earth, deny them a right--withhold
their consent to their having equal enjoyment of human rights with other
citizens, with those who have never contributed aid to our country--but
we give the proclamation and let it speak for itself. Of it Mr. Nell
says:--

"The second proclamation is one of the highest compliments ever paid by
a military chief to his soldiers."

"SOLDIERS! When on the banks of the Mobile, I called you to take up
arms, inviting you to partake the perils and glory of your _white
fellow-citizens, I expected much_ from you; for I was not ignorant that
you possessed qualities most formidable to an invading enemy. I knew
with what fortitude you could endure hunger and thirst, and all the
fatigues of a campaign. _I knew well how you love your native country_,
and that you, as well as ourselves, had to defend what _man_ holds most
dear--his parents, wife, children, and property. _You have done more
than I expected._ In addition to the previous qualities I before knew
you to possess, I found among you noble enthusiasm, which leads to the
performance of great things.


     "Soldiers! The President of the United States shall hear how
     praise-worthy was your conduct in the hour of danger; and the
     representatives of the American people will give you the praise
     your exploits entitle you to. The General anticipates them in
     applauding your noble ardor.

     "The enemy approaches; his vessels cover our lakes; our brave
     citizens are united, and all contentions have ceased among them.
     Their only dispute is, who shall win the prize of valor, or who the
     most glory, its noblest reward.

                               "By order,
                    "THOMAS BUTLER, Aid-de-camp."


A circumstance that reflects as well upon the devisor, as upon the
commander, or the engineer of the army, is not generally known to the
American people. The redoubt of cotton bales, has ever been attributed
to the judgment, skill, quick perception, and superior tact of Major
General Andrew Jackson; than whom, a braver heart, never beat in the
breast of man. But this is a mistake. The suggestion of the cotton
bales was made by a colored man, at the instant, when the city of New
Orleans was put under martial law. The colored troops were gathering,
and their recruiting officers (being colored,) were scouring the city in
every direction, and particularly on the Levee, where the people throng
for news--to hear, see, and be seen. At such times in particular, the
blacks are found in great numbers. The cotton shipped down the
Mississippi in large quantities to the city, is landed and piled in
regular terrace walls, several thousand feet long, sometimes double
rows--and fifteen or twenty feet high. When the sun shines in winter,
the days become warm and pleasant after the morning passes off, and at
such times, there may be found many of the idle blacks, lying upon the
top, and in comfortable positions between or behind those walls of
cotton bales. On the approach of the recruiting officer, a number of
persons were found stretched out upon the bales, lying scattered upon
the ground. On addressing them, they were found to be slaves, which the
pride of the recently promoted free colored soldiers, nor the policy of
the proclamation, then, justified them in enrolling. On questioning them
respecting their fears of the approaching contest--they expressed
themselves as perfectly satisfied and _safe_, while permitted to lie
_behind_ the bales. The idea was at once impressed--Chalmet Plain, the
battle field, being entirely barren without trees, brush, or stone, and
the ingenuity of the General-in-chief and engineer of the army, having
been for several days taxed, without successful device; the officer
determined that he would muster courage, and hazard the consequences of
an approach to the General, and suggest the idea suggested to him, by
the observation of a slave, who was indifferent to the safety of others,
so that he was secure--and perhaps justly so--whether conscious or not
of the importance of its bearing. General Jackson, whatever may be said
to the contrary, though firm and determined, was pleasant, affable, and
easily approached, and always set equal estimate upon the manhood of a
colored man; believing every thing of him, that he expressed in his
proclamation to the colored freemen of Louisiana. He did not pretend to
justify the holding of slaves, especially on the assumed unjust plea of
their incapacity for self-government--he always hooted at the idea;
never would become a member of the Colonization Society, always saying
"Let the colored people be--they were quiet now, in comparative
satisfaction--let them be." But he held them as a policy, by which to
make money--and would just as readily have held a white man, had it been
the policy of the country, as a black one in slavery. The General was
approached--the suggestion made--slaves set to work--the bales conveyed
down--the breast-works raised--the Americans protected, as the musketry
and artillery proved powerless against the elastic cushion-wall of
cotton bales; the battle fought--the British vanquished--the Americans
victorious, and Major General Andrew Jackson "all covered with glory,"
as the most distinguished and skillful captain of the age. It has always
been thought by colored men familiar with this circumstance, that the
reference of the General is directed to this, when he expresses himself
in his last proclamation to them: "_You have done more than I
expected_." Doubtless this was the case. Whatever valor and capacity to
endure hardships, the General knew colored men to possess, it _was_ more
than he expected of them, to bring skill to his aid, and assist in
counseling plans for the defence of the army.

On the _Eighth_ of January, 1851, the celebration of the Battle of New
Orleans, in that city one year ago, "Ninety of the colored veterans who
bore a conspicuous part in the dangers of the day," (the day of battle,)
held "a conspicuous place in the procession," in exaltation of their
country's glory. Nor was the NAVY without the representative of colored
interest in the liberty of the country. In speaking of the war of 1812,
a colored veteran of Philadelphia, the late James Forten, who had
himself enlisted and was imprisoned on board of a British man-of-war,
the "Old Jersey Prison Ship," affirms: "The vessels of war of that
period were all, to a greater or less extent, manned with colored men."
The father-in-law of the writer, has often related to him that he saw
the three hundred and sixty colored marines, in military pomp and naval
array, when passing through Pittsburg in 1812 on their way to the
frigate Constitution, then on lake Erie under command of the gallant
Commodore Perry. And we cannot close this view of our subject, without
reference to one of the living veterans of the battle of New Orleans,
now residing where he has for many years, in the city of Pittsburg, Pa.,
to whom we are indebted for more oral information concerning that
memorable conflict, than to any other living person. MR. JOHN JULIUS,
was a member of the valiant regiment of colored soldiers, who held so
conspicuous a place in the estimation of their General, their country's
struggles for Liberty and Independence. He is a tall, good-looking,
brown skin creole of Louisiana, now about sixty-three years of age,
bearing the terrible gashes of the bayonet still conspicuously in his
neck. He was one of the few Americans who encountered the British in
single-handed charges on top of the breast-works. _Julien Bennoit_,
(pronounced _ben wah_,) for such is his name, though commonly known as
John Julius, is a man of uprightness and strict integrity of character,
having all the delicate sensibility and pride of character known to the
Frenchman; and laments more at the injustice done him, in the neglect of
the authorities to grant him his claims of money and land, according to
the promises set forth in the Proclamation, than at any reverse of
fortune with which he has ever met. He is enthusiastic on the subject of
the battle scenes of Chalmet Plains, and anxious that all who converse
with him may know that he is one of the actors. Not so much for his own
notoriety--as all soldiers have a right to--as for the purpose of making
known and exposing the wrongs done to him and hundreds of his fellows,
who fought shoulder to shoulder with him, in the conflict with Sir
Edward Packenham. Mr. Julius is the only person in whose possession we
have ever seen a complete draught of the plan of the battle fought on
the 8th of January, 1815, drawn on the field, by the U.S. Engineer.

This consists of two charts, one quite large, and the other smaller; the
larger giving the whole plan of battle, and the other being the key,
which shows the position of the different battalions and regiments of
troops, with the several officers of command, in which the Colored
Regiment is beautifully and conspicuously displayed. He sets great
estimate upon them. Col. Marshall John M. Davis, who was an officer
under General Jackson at the battle of New Orleans, now still residing
in Allegheny Co., near Pittsburg, bears testimony to the truthfulness of
Mr. Julien Bennoit having been a soldier in the Army of the Mississippi
in 1814. The deeds of these tried and faithful daring sons of Liberty,
and defenders of their country, shall live triumphantly, long after the
nation shall have repented her wrongs towards them and their
descendants, and hung her head with shame, before the gaze of manhood's
stern rebuke.

Mr. John B. Vashon, of Pittsburg, embarked in the service of the United
States, and in an engagement of the American squadron in South America,
was imprisoned, with Major Henry Bears, a respectable white citizen,
still living in that city.

FOOTNOTE:

[2] Captain Jonathan Tudas, who led the 500 brave blacks out to build
the Redoubt, is now living in Philadelphia, and since the commencement
of this publication, we learned the following particulars: When the news
arrived of the approach of the British under Major General Ross, upon
Baltimore, the expectation ran high, that the city would be taken, and
forced marches made, immediately upon Philadelphia. The whole City
consequently was thrown into great alarm, when Captain Tudas, applied to
the United States Engineer, and offered the services of colored men, who
during the week, were summoned to meet at the African Methodist
Episcopal Church, on the following Sabbath; when from the pulpit, the
Right Rev. Richard Allen, Bishop of the Connexion, made known to the
people the peril of the Country, and demands of the Commonwealth; when,
the next day, Monday, five hundred volunteered, working incessantly
during that day, and on Tuesday, six hundred more were added, swelling
the number to eleven hundred men. William Stansberry, arrested and tried
a few years ago, as a fugitive slave from Maryland, and Mr. Ignatius
Beck, an old respectable colored man, who appeared as a witness, and by
whose testimony alone, Mr. Stansberry was released from the grasp of the
oppression of his Country, and thereby saved from endless bondage, were
both under Captain Tudas, and belong to the faithful eleven hundred
Philadelphia black warriors. He farther informs us, that the Engineer
gave them credit for having thrown up superior works to any other men
employed in the service, and having done more work in the same time, and
_drank less_, by four-fifth, than twice their number of "Old
Countrymen." The relics of the breastworks, still stand on or near the
banks of the Schuylkill, as a living monument of the fidelity of the
black race to their State and Country. Mr. Stansberry, is still living,
and Captain Tudas, now quite an old man, about "turning the corner," as
he expresses it, is a very intelligent old gentleman, and a living
history of facts. There are few white men of his age and opportunities,
that equal him at all in intelligence on any subject. He is a kind of
living synoptic-historical Encyclopedia.



IX

CAPACITY OF COLORED MEN AND WOMEN AS CITIZEN MEMBERS OF COMMUNITY


The utility of men in their private capacity as citizens, is of no less
import than that of any other department of the community in which they
live; indeed, the fitness of men for positions in the body politic, can
only be justly measured by their qualification as citizens. And we may
safely venture the declaration, that in the history of the world, there
has never been a nation, that among the oppressed class of
inhabitants--a class entirely ineligible to any political position of
honor, profit or trust--wholly discarded from the recognition of
citizens' rights--not even permitted to carry the mail, nor drive a mail
coach--there never has, in the history of nations, been any people thus
situated, who has made equal progress in attainments with the colored
people of the United States. It would be as unnecessary as it is
impossible, to particularize all the individuals; we shall therefore be
satisfied, with a classification and a few individual cases. Our history
in this country is well known, and quite sufficiently treated on in
these pages already, without the necessity of repetition here; it is
enough to know that by the most cruel acts of injustice and crime, our
forefathers were forced by small numbers, and enslaved in the
country--the great body now to the number of three millions and a half,
still groaning in bondage--that the half million now free, are the
descendants of the few who by various means, are fortunate enough to
gain their liberty from Southern bondage--that no act of general
emancipation has ever taken place, and no chance as yet for a general
rebellion--we say in view of all these facts, we proceed to give a
cursory history of the attainments--the civil, social, business and
professional, and literary attainments of colored men and women, and
challenge comparison with the world--according to circumstances--in
times past and present.

Though shorn of their strength, disarmed of manhood, and stripped of
every right, encouraged by the part performed by their brethren and
fathers in the Revolutionary struggle--with no records of their deeds in
history, and no means of knowing them save orally, as overheard from the
mouths of their oppressors, and tradition as kept up among
themselves--that memorable event, had not yet ceased its thrill through
the new-born nation, until a glimmer of hope--a ray of light had beamed
forth, and enlightened minds thought to be in total darkness. Minds of
no ordinary character, but those which embraced business, professions,
and literature--minds, which at once grasped the earth, encompassed the
seas, soared into the air, and mounted the skies. And it is none the
less creditable to the colored people, that among those who have stood
the most conspicuous and shone the brightest in the earliest period of
our history, there are those of pure and unmixed African blood. A
credit--but that which is creditable to the African, cannot disgrace any
into whose veins his blood may chance to flow. The elevation of the
colored man can only be completed by the elevation of the pure
descendants of Africa; because to deny his equality, is to deny in a
like proportion, the equality of all those mixed with the African
organization; and to establish his inferiority, will be to degrade every
person related to him by consanguinity; therefore, to establish the
equality of the African with the European race, establishes the
equality of every person intermediate between the two races. This
established beyond contradiction, the general equality of men.

In the year 1773, though held in servitude, and without the advantages
or privileges of the schools of the day, accomplishing herself by her
own perseverance; Phillis Wheatley appeared in the arena, the brilliancy
of whose genius, as a poetess, delighted Europe and astonished America,
and by a special act of the British Parliament, 1773, her productions
were published for the Crown. She was an admirer of President
Washington, and addressed to him lines, which elicited from the Father
of his country, a complimentary and courteous reply. In the absence of
the poem addressed to General Washington, which was not written until
after her work was published, we insert a stanza from one addressed
(intended for the students) "To the University at Cambridge." We may
further remark, that the poems were originally written, not with the
most distant idea of publication, but simply for the amusement and
during the leisure moments of the author.

     "Improve your privileges while they stay,
     Ye pupils, and each hour redeem, that bears
     Or good or bad report of you to heav'n.
     Let sin, that baneful evil of the soul,
     By you be shunn'd, nor once remit your guard;
     Suppress the deadly serpent in its egg.
     Ye blooming plants of human race divine,
     An _Ethiop_ tells you 'tis your greatest foe;
     Its transient sweetness turns to endless pain,
     And in immense perdition sinks the soul."


                                          "CAMBRIDGE, FEBRUARY 28, 1776.
     "MISS PHILLIS:

     "Your favor of the 26th of October, did not reach my hands till the
     middle of December. Time enough, you will say, to have given an
     answer ere this. Granted. But a variety of important occurrences,
     continually interposing to divert the mind and withdraw the
     attention, I hope will apologise for the delay, and plead my excuse
     for the seeming, but not real neglect. I thank you most sincerely
     for your polite notice of me, in the elegant lines you enclosed;
     and however undeserving I may be of such encomium and panegyric,
     the style and manner exhibit a striking proof of your poetic
     talents; in honor of which, and as a tribute justly due to you, I
     would have published the poem, had I not been apprehensive, that,
     while I only meant to give the world this new instance of your
     genius, I might have incurred the imputation of vanity. This, and
     nothing else, determined me not to give it place in the public
     prints.

     "If you should ever come to Cambridge, or near head-quarters, I
     shall be happy to see a person so favored by the Muses, and to whom
     Nature has been so liberal and beneficent in her dispensations.

     "I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
                                                     "GEORGE WASHINGTON.
     "Miss Phillis Wheatley."


The tenor, style, and manner of President Washington's letter to Miss
Wheatley--the publication of her works, together with an accompanying
likeness of the author, and her inscription and dedication of the volume
to the "Right Honorable the Countess of Huntingdon," show, that she,
though young, was a person of no ordinary mind, no common attainments;
but at the time, one of the brightest ornaments among the American
literati. She also was well versed in Latin, in which language she
composed several pieces. Miss Wheatley died in 1780, at the age of 26
years, being seven years of age when brought to this country in 1761.

Doctor Peter, who married Miss Wheatley, 1775, was a man of business,
tact, and talents--being first a grocer, and afterwards studied law,
which he practised with great success, becoming quite wealthy by
defending the cause of the oppressed before the different tribunals of
the country. And who shone brighter in his day, than Benjamin Bannaker,
of Baltimore county, Maryland, who by industry and force of character,
became a distinguished mathematician and astronomer,--"for many years,"
says Davenport's Biographical Dictionary, "calculated and published the
Maryland Ephemerides." He was a correspondent of the Honorable Thomas
Jefferson, Secretary of State of the United States, taking the earliest
opportunity of his acquaintanceship, to call his attention to the evils
of American slavery, and doubtless his acquaintance with the apostle of
American Democracy, had much to do with his reflections on that most
pernicious evil in this country. Mr. Bannaker was also a naturalist, and
wrote a treatise on locusts. He was invited by the Commission of United
States Civil Engineers, to assist in the survey of the Ten Miles Square,
for the District of Columbia. He assisted the Board, who, it is thought,
could not have succeeded without him. His Almanac was preferred to that
of Leadbeater, or any other calculator cotemporary with himself. He had
no family, and resided in a house alone, but principally made his home
with the Elliott family. He was upright, honorable, and virtuous;
entertaining religious scruples similar to the Friends. He died in 1807,
near Baltimore. Honorable John H.B. Latrobe, Esq., of Baltimore, is his
biographer.

In 1812, Captain Paul Cuffy was an extensive trader and mariner,
sailing out of Boston, to the West Indies and Europe, by which
enterprise, he amassed an immense fortune. He was known to the
commercial world of his day, and, if not so wealthy, stood quite as
fair, and as much respected, as Captain George Laws or Commodore
Vanderbilt, the Cunards of America. Captain Cuffy went to Africa, where
he died in a few years.

James Durham, originally of Philadelphia, in 1778, at the early age of
twenty-one, was the most learned physician in New Orleans. He spoke
English, French and Spanish, learnedly, and the great Dr. Rush said of
him, "I conversed with him on medicine, and found him very learned. I
thought I could give him information concerning the treatment of
diseases; but I learned from him more than he could expect from me." And
it must be admitted, he must have been learned in his profession, to
have elicited such an encomium from Dr. Rush, who stood then at the head
of his profession in the country.

We have designed nothing here, but merely to give an individual case of
the various developments of talents and acquirements in the several
departments of respectability, discarding generalization, and name none
but the Africo-American of unmixed extraction, who rose into note
subsequent to the American Revolution. In the persons of note and
distinction hereafter to be given, we shall not confine ourselves to any
such narrow selections, but shall name persons, male and female,
regardless of their extraction, so that they are colored persons, which
is quite enough for our purpose. And our only excuse for the policy in
the above course is, that we desire to disarm the vilifiers of our race,
who disparage us, giving themselves credit for whatever is commendable
that may emanate from us, if there be the least opportunity of claiming
it by "blood." We shall now proceed to review the attainments of colored
men and women of the present day.



X

PRACTICAL UTILITY OF COLORED PEOPLE OF THE PRESENT DAY AS MEMBERS OF
SOCIETY--BUSINESS MEN AND MECHANICS


In calling attention to the practical utility of colored people of the
present day, we shall not be general in our observations, but simply,
direct attention to a few particular instances, in which colored persons
have been responsibly engaged in extensive business, or occupying useful
positions, thus contributing to the general welfare of community at
large, filling their places in society as men and women.

It will studiously be borne in mind, that our sole object in giving
these cases publicity, is to refute the objections urged against us,
that we are not useful members of society. That we are consumers and
non-producers--that we contribute nothing to the general progress of
man. No people who have enjoyed no greater opportunity for improvement,
could possibly have made greater progress in the same length of time
than have done the colored people of the present day.

A people laboring under many disadvantages, may not be expected to
present at once, especially before they have become entirely
untrammeled, evidence of entire equality with more highly favored
people.

When Mr. Jefferson, the great American Statesman and philosopher, was
questioned by an English gentleman, on the subject of American
greatness, and referred to their literature as an evidence of
inferiority to the more highly favored and long-existing European
nations; Mr. Jefferson's reply was--"When the United States have existed
as long as a nation, as Greece before she produced her Homer and
Socrates; Rome, before she produced her Virgil, Horace, and Cicero; and
England, before she produced her Pope, Dryden, and Bacon"; then he might
consider the comparison a just one. And all we shall ask, is not to wait
so long as this, not to wait until we become a nation at all, so far as
the United States are concerned, but only to unfetter our brethren, and
give us, the freemen, an equal chance for emulation, and we will admit
any comparison you may please to make in a quarter of a century after.

For a number of years, the late James Forten, of Philadelphia, was the
proprietor of one of the principal sail manufactories, constantly
employing a large number of men, black and white, supplying a large
number of masters and owners of vessels, with full rigging for their
crafts.

On the failure of an extensive house, T. & Co., in that city, during the
pressure which followed a removal of the deposits of the United States
Treasury in 1837, Mr. Forten lost by that firm, nine thousand dollars.
Being himself in good circumstances at the time, hearing of the failure
of old constant patrons, he called at the house; one of the proprietors,
Mr. T., on his entering the warehouse door, came forward, taking him by
the hand observed, "Ah! Mr. Forten, it is useless to call on us--we are
gone--we can do nothing!" at which Mr. Forten remarked, "Sir, I hope you
think better of me than to suppose me capable of calling on a friend to
torture him in adversity! I came, sir, to express my regret at your
misfortune, and if possible, to cheer you by words of encouragement. If
your liabilities were all in my hands, you should never be under the
necessity of closing business." Mr. Forten exchanged paper and
signatures with some of the first business men in Philadelphia, and
raised and educated a large and respectable family of sons and
daughters, leaving an excellent widow.

Joseph Cassey, recently deceased, was the "architect of his own
fortune," and by industry and application to business, became a money
broker in the city of Philadelphia; who becoming indisposed from a
chronic affection, was obliged to retire from business for many years
previous to his death. Had Mr. Cassey been favored with health, he
doubtless would have become a very wealthy man. His name and paper was
good in any house in the city, and there was no banker of moderate
capital, of more benefit to the business community than was Joseph
Cassey. He also left a young and promising family of five sons, one
daughter, a most excellent widow, and a fortune of seventy-five thousand
dollars, clear of all encumbrance.

Stephen Smith, of the firm of Smith and Whipper, is a remarkable man in
many respects, and decidedly the most wealthy colored man in the United
States. Mr. Smith commenced business after he was thirty years of age,
without the advantages of a good business education, but by application,
qualified himself for the arduous duties of his vocation. For many
years, he has been known as the principal lumber merchant in Columbia,
Lancaster Co., Pa., and for several years past associated with W.
Whipper, a gentleman of great force of character, talents, and business
qualifications, Mr. Smith residing in Philadelphia. Smith and Whipper,
are very extensive business men, and very valuable members of the
community, both of Lancaster and Philadelphia counties. By the judicious
investment of their capital, they keep in constant employment a large
number of persons; purchasing many rafts at a time, and many thousand
bushels of coal. It is not only the laborer in "drawing boards," and the
coal hauler and heaver, that are here benefitted by their capital, but
the original owners of the lumber and coal purchased by them, and the
large number of boatmen and raftsmen employed in bringing these
commodities to market.

In the winter of 1849, these gentlemen had in store, several thousand
bushels of coal, two million two hundred and fifty thousand feet of
lumber; twenty-two of the finest merchantmen cars running on the railway
from Philadelphia to Baltimore; nine thousand dollars' worth of stock in
the Columbia Bridge; eighteen thousand dollars in stock in the Columbia
Bank; and besides this, Mr. Smith was then the reputed owner of
fifty-two good brick houses of various dimensions in the city of
Philadelphia, besides several in the city of Lancaster, and the town of
Columbia. Mr. Smith's paper, or the paper of the firm, is good for any
amount wherever they are known; and we have known gentlemen to present
the paper of some of the best men in the city, which was cashed by him
at sight. The principal active business attended to by Mr. S. in person,
is that of buying good negotiable and other paper, and speculating in
real estate. The business of the firm is attended to by Mr. Whipper, who
is a relative. Take Smith and Whipper from Lancaster and Philadelphia
counties, and the business community will experience a hiatus in its
connexion, that may not be easily filled.

Samuel T. Wilcox, of Cincinnati, Ohio, also stands conspicuously among
the most respectable business men of the day. Being yet a young man,
just scanning forty, he is one among the extraordinary men of the times.
Born, like the most of colored men in this country, in obscurity, of
poor parents, raised without the assistance of a father, and to a
commonplace business, without the advantages of schools, by his own
perseverance, he qualified himself to the extent that gave him an
inclination to traffic, which he did for several years on the
Mississippi and Ohio rivers, investing his gains in real estate, until
he acquired a considerable property. For the purpose of extending his
usefulness, and at the same time pursuing a vocation more in accordance
with his own desires, a few years since, he embarked in the wholesale
and retail Family Grocery business, and now has the best general
assortment and most extensive business house of the kind, in the city of
Cincinnati. The establishment is really beautiful, having the appearance
more of an apothecary store, than a Grocery House. Mr. Wilcox has a
Pickling and Preserving establishment besides, separate from his
business house, owning a great deal of first class real estate. There is
no man in the community in which he lives, that turns money to a greater
advantage than Mr. Wilcox, and none by whom the community is more
benefited for the amount of capital invested. He makes constant and
heavy bills in eastern houses, and there are doubtless now many
merchants in New York, Boston, and Baltimore cities, who have been
dealing with S.T. Wilcox, and never until the reading of this notice of
him, knew that he was a colored man. He has never yet been east after
his goods, but pursuing a policy which he has adopted, orders them; but
if deceived in an article, never deals with the same house again. He
always gets a good article. The paper of Mr. Wilcox, is good for any
amount.

Henry Boyd, is also a man of great energy of character, the proprietor
of an extensive Bedstead manufactory, with a large capital invested,
giving constant employment to eighteen or twenty-five men, black and
white. Some of the finest and handsomest articles of the bedstead in the
city, are at the establishment of Mr. Boyd. He fills orders from all
parts of the West and South, his orders from the South being very heavy.
He is the patentee, or holds the right of the Patent Bedsteads, and like
Mr. Wilcox, there are hundreds who deal with Mr. Boyd at a distance,
who do not know that he is a colored man. Mr. Boyd is a useful member of
society, and Cincinnati would not, if she could, be without him. He
fills a place that every man is not capable of supplying, of whatever
quarter of the globe his forefathers may have been denizens.

Messrs. Knight and Bell of the same place, Cincinnati, Ohio, are very
successful and excellent mechanics. In the spring of 1851, (one year
ago) they put in their "sealed proposal" for the plastering of the
public buildings of the county of Hamilton--alms-house, &c.--and got the
contract, which required ten thousand dollars' security. The work was
finished in fine artistic style, in which a large number of mechanics
and laborers were employed, while at the same time, they were carrying
on many other contracts of less extent, in the city--the public
buildings being some four miles out. They are men of stern integrity,
and highly respected in the community.

David Jenkins of Columbus, Ohio, a good mechanic, painter, glazier, and
paper-hanger by trade, also received by contract, the painting, glazing,
and papering of some of the public buildings of the State, in autumn
1847. He is much respected in the capital city of his state, being
extensively patronised, having on contract, the great "Neill House," and
many of the largest gentlemen's residences in the city and neighborhood,
to keep in finish. Mr. Jenkins is a very useful man and member of
society.

John C. Bowers, for many years, has been the proprietor of a fashionable
merchant tailor house, who has associated with him in business, his
brother Thomas Bowers, said to be one of the best, if not the very best,
mercers in the city. His style of cutting and fitting, is preferred by
the first business men, and other gentlemen of Philadelphia, in whom
their patrons principally consist.

Mr. Cordovell, for more than twenty-five years, was the leading mercer
and tailor, reporter and originator of fashions in the city of New
Orleans, Louisiana. The reported fashions of Cordovell, are said to have
frequently become the leading fashions of Paris; and the writer was
informed, by Mr. B., a leading merchant tailor in a populous city, that
many of the eastern American reports were nothing more than a copy, in
some cases modified, of those of Cordovell. Mr. Cordovell, has for the
last four or five years, been residing in France, living on a handsome
fortune, the fruits of his genius; and though "retired from business,"
it is said, that he still invents fashions for the Parisian reporters,
which yields him annually a large income.

William H. Riley, of Philadelphia, has been for years, one of the
leading fashionable gentlemen's boot-makers. Riley's style and cut of
boots, taking the preeminence in the estimation of a great many of the
most fashionable, and business men in the city. Mr. Riley is much of a
gentleman, and has acquired considerable means.

James Prosser, Sen., of Philadelphia, has long been the popular
proprietor of a fashionable restaurant in the city. The name of James
Prosser, among the merchants of Philadelphia, is inseparable with their
daily hours of recreation, and pleasure. Mr. Prosser, is withal, a most
gentlemanly man, and has the happy faculty of treating his customers in
such a manner, that those who call once, will be sure to call at his
place again. His name and paper is good among the business men of the
city.

Henry Minton also is the proprietor of a fashionable restaurant and
resort of business men and gentlemen of the city. The tables of Mr.
Henry Minton are continually laden with the most choice offerings to
epicures, and the saloon during certain hours of the day, presents the
appearance of a bee hive, such is the stir, din, and buz, among the
throng of Chesnut street gentlemen, who flock in there to pay tribute at
the shrine of bountifulness. Mr. Minton has acquired a notoriety, even
in that proud city, which makes his house one of the most popular
resorts.

Mr. Hill, of Chillicothe, Ohio, was for years, the leading tanner and
currier in that section of country, buying up the hides of the
surrounding country, and giving employment to large numbers of men. Mr.
Hill kept in constant employment, a white clerk, who once a year took
down, as was then the custom, one or more flatboats loaded with leather
and other domestic produce, by which he realised large profits,
accumulating a great deal of wealth. By endorsement, failure, and other
mistransactions, Mr. Hill became reduced in circumstances, and died in
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1845. He gave his children a liberal
business education.

Benjamin Richards, Sen., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, forty years ago,
was one of the leading business men of the place. Being a butcher by
trade, he carried on the business extensively, employing a white clerk,
and held a heavy contract with the United States, supplying the various
military posts with provisions. Mr. Richards possessed a large property
in real estate, and was at one time reputed very wealthy, he and the
late general O'H. being considered the most wealthy individuals of the
place,--Mr. Richards taking the precedence; the estate of general O'H.
now being estimated at seven millions of dollars. Mr. Richards has been
known, to buy up a drove of cattle at one time. By mismanagement, he
lost his estate, upon which many gentlemen are now living at ease in the
city.

William H. Topp, of Albany, N.Y., has for several years been one of the
leading merchant tailors of the city. Starting in the world without aid,
he educated and qualified himself for business; and now has orders from
all parts of the state, the city of New York not excepted, for "Topp's
style of clothing." Mr. Topp stands high in his community as a business
man, and a useful and upright member of society. His paper or
endorsement is good at any time.

Henry Scott & Co., of New York city, have for many years been engaged
extensively in the pickling business, keeping constantly in warehouse, a
very heavy stock of articles in their line. He, like the most of others,
had no assistance at the commencement, but by manly determination and
perseverance, raised himself to what he is. His business is principally
confined to supplying vessels with articles and provisions in his line
of business, which in this great metropolis is very great. There have
doubtless been many a purser, who cashed and filed in his office the
bill of Henry Scott, without ever dreaming of his being a colored man.
Mr. Scott is extensively known in the great City, and respected as an
upright, prompt, energetic business man, and highly esteemed by all who
know him.

Mr. Hutson, for years, kept in New York, an intelligence office. At his
demise, he was succeeded by Philip A. Bell, who continues to keep one of
the leading offices in the city. Mr. Bell is an excellent business man,
talented, prompt, shrewd, and full of tact. And what seems to be a trait
of character, only to be found associated with talent, Mr. Bell is
highly sensitive, and very eccentric. A warm, good hearted man, he has
not only enlisted the friendship of all his patrons, but also endeared
himself to the multitude of persons who continually throng his office
seeking situations. One of his usual expressions to the young women and
men in addressing himself to them is, "My child"--this is kind, and
philanthropic, and has a tendency to make himself liked. His business is
very extensive, being sought from all parts of the city, by the first
people of the community. It is said to be not unusual, for the
peasantry of Liverpool, to speak of Mr. Bell, as a benefactor of the
emigrant domestics. Mr. Bell is extensively known in the business
community--none more so--and highly esteemed as a valuable citizen.

Thomas Downing, for thirty years, in the city of New York, has been
proprietor of one of the leading restaurants. His establishment situated
in the midst of the Wall street bankers, the business has always been of
a leading and profitable character. Mr. Downing has commanded great
influence, and much means, and it is said of him that he has made "three
fortunes." Benevolent, kind, and liberal minded, his head was always
willing, his heart ready, and his hands open to "give." Mr. Downing is
still very popular, doing a most excellent business, and highly
respected throughout New York. Indeed, you scarcely hear any other
establishment of the kind spoken of than Downing's.

Henry M. Collins, of the City of Pittsburg, stands among the men of
note; and we could not complete this list of usefulness, without the
name of Mr. Collins. Raised a poor boy, thrown upon the uncertainties of
chance, without example of precept, save such as the public at large
presents; Mr. Collins quit his former vocation of a riverman, and
without means, except one hundred and fifty dollars, and no assistance
from any quarter, commenced speculating in real estate. And though only
rising forty, has done more to improve the Sixth Ward of Pittsburg, than
any other individual, save one, Captain W., who built on Company
capital. Mr. Collins was the first person who commenced erecting an
improved style of buildings; indeed, there was little else than old
trees in that quarter of the city when Mr. Collins began. He continued
to build, and dispose of handsome dwellings, until a different class of
citizens entirely, was attracted to that quarter of the town, among
them, one of the oldest and most respectable and wealthy citizens, an
ex-Alderman. After this, the wealthy citizens turned their attention to
the District; and now, it is one of the most fashionable quarters of the
City, and bids fair to become, the preferred part for family residences.
Mr. Collins' advice and counsel was solicited by some of the first
lawyers, and land speculators, in matters of real estate. He has left or
contemplates leaving Pittsburg, in April, for California, where he
intends entering extensively into land speculation, and doubtless, with
the superior advantages of this place, if his success is but half what
it was in the former, but a few years will find him counted among the
wealthy. Mr. Collins is a highly valuable man in any community in which
he may live, and he leaves Pittsburg much to the regret of the leading
citizens. Without capital, he had established such a reputation, that
his name and paper were good in some of the first Banking houses.

Owen A. Barrett of Pittsburg, Pa., is the original proprietor of "B.A.
Fahnestock's Celebrated Vermifuge." Mr. Fahnestock raised Mr. Barrett
from childhood, instructing him in all the science of practical
pharmacy, continuing him in his employment after manhood, when Mr.
Barrett discovered the "sovereign remedy" for _lumbricalii_, and as an
act of gratitude to his benefactor, he communicated it to him, but not
until he had fully tested its efficacy. The proprietor of the house,
finding the remedy good, secured his patent, or copy right, or whatever
is secured, and never in the history of remedies in the United States,
has any equaled, at least in sale, this of "B.A. Fahnestock's
Vermifuge." Mr. Fahnestock, like a gentleman and Christian, has kept Mr.
Barrett in his extensive House, compounding this and other medicines,
for sixteen or eighteen years.

In 1840 it was estimated, that of this article alone, the concern had
realized eighty-five thousand dollars. Doubtless, this is true, and
certainly proves Mr. Barrett to be of benefit, not only in his
community, but like many others we have mentioned, to the country and
the world.

Lewis Hayden, of Boston, is well deserving a place among the examples of
character here given. But eight years ago, having emerged from bondage,
he raised by his efforts, as an act of gratitude and duty, six hundred
and fifty dollars, the amount demanded by mutual agreement, by the
authorities in Kentucky, as a ransom for Calvin Fairbanks, then in the
State Prison, at Frankfort, accused for assisting him in effecting his
escape. In 1848, he went to Boston, and having made acquaintance, and
gained confidence with several business men, Mr. Hayden opened a
fashionable Clothing House in Cambridge street, where he has within the
last year, enlarged his establishment, being patronized by some of the
most respectable citizens of that wealthy Metropolis. Mr. Hayden has
made considerable progress, considering his disadvantages, in his
educational improvements. He has great energy of character, and
extensive information. Lewis Hayden by perseverance, may yet become a
very wealthy man. He is generally esteemed by the Boston people--all
seeming to know him.

George T. Downing, a gentleman of education and fine business
attainments, is proprietor of one of the principal Public houses and
places of resort, at Newport, Rhode Island, during the watering Season.
This fashionable establishment is spoken of as among the best conducted
places in the country--the Proprietor among the most gentlemanly.

Edward V. Clark, is among the most deserving and active business men in
New York, and but a few years are required, to place Mr. Clark in point
of business importance, among the first men in the city. His stock
consists of Jewelry and Silver Wares, and consequently, are always
valuable, requiring a heavy capital to keep up business. His name and
paper, has a respectable credit, even among the urbane denizens of Wall
street.

John Julius and Lady, were for several years, the Proprietors of Concert
Hall, a _Caffé_, then the most fashionable resort for ladies and
gentlemen in Pittsburg. Mr. and Mrs. Julius, held Assemblies and Balls,
attended by the first people of the city--being himself a fine violinist
and dancing master, he superintended the music and dancing. When General
William Henry Harrison in 1840, then the President elect of the United
States, visited that city, his levee to and reception of the Ladies were
held at Concert Hall, under the superintendence of Monsieur John and
Madame Edna Julius, the colored host and hostess. No House was ever
better conducted than under their fostering care, and excellent
management, and the citizens all much regretted their retirement from
the establishment.

In Penyan, Western New York, Messrs. William Platt and Joseph C. Cassey,
are said to be the leading Lumber Merchants of the place. Situated in
the midst of a great improving country, their business extends, and
increases in importance every year. The latter gentleman was raised to
the business by Smith and Whipper, the great Lumber Merchants of
Columbia, Pa., where he was principal Book-Keeper for several years. Mr.
Cassey has the credit of being one of the best Accountants, and Business
Men in the United States of his age. Doubtless, a few years'
perseverance, and strict application to business, will find them ranked
among the most influential men of their neighborhood.

Anthony Weston, of Charleston, South Carolina, has acquired an
independent fortune, by his mechanical ingenuity, and skillful
workmanship. About the year 1831, William Thomas Catto, mentioned in
another place, commenced an improvement on a Thrashing Machine, when on
taking sick, Mr. Weston improved on it, to the extent of thrashing a
thousand bushels a day. This Thrashing Mill, was commenced by a Yankee,
by the name of Emmons, who failing to succeed, Mr. Catto, then a
Millwright--since a Minister--improved it to the extent of thrashing
five hundred bushels a day; when Mr. Weston, took it in hand, and
brought it to the perfection stated, for the use of Col. Benjamin
Franklin Hunt, a distinguished lawyer of Charleston, upon whose
plantation, the machine was built, and to whom it belonged. Anthony
Weston, is the greatest Millwright in the South, being extensively
employed far and near, and by Southern people, thought the best in the
United States.

Dereef and Howard, are very extensive Wood-Factors, keeping a large
number of men employed, a regular Clerk and Book-Keeper, supplying the
citizens, steamers, vessels, and factories of Charleston with fuel. In
this business a very heavy capital is invested: besides which, they are
the owners and proprietors of several vessels trading on the coast. They
are men of great business habits, and command a great deal of respect
and influence in the city of Charleston.

There is nothing more common in the city of New Orleans, than Colored
Clerks, Salesmen and Business men. In many stores on Chartier, Camp and
other business streets, there may always be seen colored men and women,
as salesmen, and saleswomen, behind the counter. Several of the largest
Cotton-Press houses, have colored Clerks in them; and on the arrival of
steamers at the Levees, among the first to board them, and take down the
Manifestos to make their transfers, are colored Clerks. In 1839-40, one
of the most respectable Brokers and Bankers of the City, was a black
gentleman.

Mr. William Goodrich of York, Pennsylvania, has considerable interest
in the branch of the Baltimore Railroad, from Lancaster. In 1849, he had
a warehouse in York, and owned ten first-rate merchandise cars on the
Road, doing a fine business. His son, Glenalvon G. Goodrich, a young man
of good education, is a good artist, and proprietor of a Daguerreo-type
Gallery.

Certainly, there need be no further proofs required, at least in this
department, to show the claims and practical utility of colored people
as citizen members of society. We have shown, that in proportion to
their numbers, they vie and compare favorably in point of means and
possessions, with the class of citizens who from chance of superior
advantages, have studiously contrived to oppress and deprive them of
equal rights and privileges, in common with themselves.



XI

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL COLORED MEN AND WOMEN


Dr. James McCune Smith, a graduate of the Scientific and Medical Schools
of the University of Glasgow, has for the last fifteen years, been a
successful practitioner of medicine and surgery in the city of New York.
Dr. Smith is a man of no ordinary talents, and stands high as a scholar
and gentleman in the city, amidst the _literati_ of a hundred seats of
learning.

In 1843, when the character of the colored race was assailed to
disparagement, by the representative of a combination of maligners, such
was the influence of the Doctor, that the citizens at once agreed to
give their presence to a fair public discussion of the subject--the
Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the races. This discussion was
kept up for several evenings, attended by large and fashionable
assemblages of ladies and gentlemen, until it closed. Doctor Smith, in
the estimation of the audience, easily triumphed over his antagonist,
who had made this a studied subject. The Doctor is the author of several
valuable productions, and in 1846, a very valuable scientific paper,
issued from the press in pamphlet form, on the "Influence of Climate on
Longevity, with special reference to Life Insurance." This paper, we may
surmise, was produced in refutation of the attempt at a physiological
disquisition on the part of Hon. John C. Calhoun, United States Senator,
on the colored race, which met with considerable favor from some
quarters, until the appearance of Dr. Smith's pamphlet--since when, we
have heard nothing about Calhoun's learned argument. It may be well to
remark, that Senator Calhoun read medicine before he read law, and it
would have been well for him if he had left medical subjects remain
where _he left_ them, for law. We extract a simple note of explanation
without the main argument, to show with what ease the Doctor refutes an
absurd argument: "The reason why the proportion of mortality is not a
measure of longevity, is the following:--The proportion of mortality is
a statement of how many persons die in a population; this, of course,
does not state the age at which those persons die. If 1 in 45 die in
Sweden, and 1 in 22 in Grenada, the ages of the dead might be alike in
both countries; here the greater mortality might actually accompany the
greater longevity."--Note to page 6.

About three months since, at a public meeting of scientific gentlemen,
for the formation of a "Statistic Institute," Doctor Smith was nominated
as one of five gentlemen, to draught a constitution. This, of course,
anticipated his membership to the Institution. He, for a number of
years, has held the office of Physician to the Colored Orphan Asylum, an
excellent institution, at which he is the only colored officer. The
Doctor is very learned.

Rev. Samuel Ringgold Ward was, for several years, pastor of a white
congregation, in Courtlandville, N.Y., of the Congregational persuasion,
and editor of an excellent newspaper, devoted to the religious elevation
of that denomination. Mr. Ward is a man of great talents--his fame is
widespread as an orator and man of learning, and needs no encomium from
us. His name stood on nomination for two or three years, as
Liberty-party candidate for Vice President of the United States. Mr.
Ward has embraced the legal profession, and intends to practise law.
Governor Seward said of him, that he "never heard true eloquence until
he heard Samuel R. Ward speak." Mr. Ward has recently left the United
States, for Canada West, and is destined to be a great statesman.

Rev. Henry Highland Garnett, was also the pastor of a white
congregation, in Troy, N.Y. Mr. Garnett is a graduate of Oneida
Institute, a speaker of great pathetic eloquence, and has written
several valuable pamphlets. In 1844, Mr. Garnett appeared before the
Judiciary Committee of the Legislature at the capital, in behalf of the
rights of the colored citizens of the State, and in a speech of
matchless eloquence, he held them for four hours spell-bound.

He has also been co-editor of a newspaper, which was conducted with
ability. As a token of respect, the "Young Men's Literary Society of
Troy," elected him a life-member--and he was frequently solicited to
deliver lectures before different lyceums. Mr. Garnett left the United
States in the summer of 1849, and now resides in England, where he is
highly esteemed.

Rev. James William Charles Pennington, D.D., a clergyman of New York
city, was born in Maryland,--left when young--came to Brooklyn--educated
himself--studied divinity--went to Hartford, Conn.;--took charge of a
Presbyterian congregation of colored people--went to
England--returned--went to the West Indies--returned--was called to the
Shiloh Presbyterian Colored Congregation--was sent a Delegate to the
Peace Congress at Paris, in 1849, preached there, and attended the
National Levee at the mansion of the Foreign Secretary of State,
Minister De Tocqueville; and had the degree of _Doctor of Divinity_
conferred on him by the ancient time-honored University of Heidleburg,
in Germany.

Dr. Pennington is very learned in theology, has fine literacy
attainments, and has written several useful pamphlets, and contributed
to science, by the delivery of lectures before several scientific
institutions in Europe.

He has, by invitation, delivered lectures before the "Glasgow Young
Men's Christian Association"; and "St. George's Biblical, Literary, and
Scientific Institute," London. In one of the discourses, the following
extract will give an idea of the style and character of the
speaker:--"One of the chief attributes of the mind is a desire for
freedom; but it has been the great aim of slavery to extinguish that
desire."

"To extinguish this attribute would be to extinguish mind itself. Every
faculty which the master puts forth to subdue the slave, is met by a
corresponding one in the latter."... "Christianity is the highest and
most perfect form of civilization. It contains the only great standard
of the only true and perfect standard of civilization. When tried by
this standard, we are compelled to confess, that we have not on earth,
one strictly civilized nation; for so long as the sword is part of a
nation's household furniture, it cannot be called strictly civilized;
and yet there is not a nation, great or small, black or white, that has
laid aside the sword."--pp. 7-14. The Doctor has been editor of a
newspaper, which was ably conducted. He belongs to the Third Presbytery
of New York, and stands very high as a minister of the Gospel, and
gentleman.

Rev. John Francis Cook, a learned clergyman of Washington City, has
taught an academy in the District of Columbia for years, under the
subscribed sanction and patronage of many of the members of Congress,
the Mayor of Washington, and some of the first men of the nation, for
the education of colored youth of both sexes. Mr. Cook has done a great
deal of good at the Capitol; is highly esteemed, and has set as
Moderator of a body of Presbyterian Clergymen, assembled at Richmond,
Va., all white, except himself.

Charles L. Reason, Esq., a learned gentleman, for many years teacher in
one of the Public Schools in New York, in 1849, was elected by the
trustees of that institution, Professor of Mathematics and Belles
Lettres in Centre College, at McGrawville, in the State of New York.
After a short connection with the College, Professor Reason, for some
cause, retired from the Institution, much to the regret of the students,
who, though a young man, loved him as an elder brother--and contrary to
the desire of his fellow-professors.

Mr. Reason is decidedly a man of letters, a high-souled gentleman, a
most useful citizen in any community--much respected and beloved by all
who know him, and most scrupulously modest--a brilliant trait in the
character of a teacher. We learn that Professor Reason, is about to be
called to take charge of the High School for the education of colored
youth of both sexes, now in course of completion in Philadelphia. The
people of New York will regret to part with Professor Reason.

Charles Lenox Remond, Esq., of Salem, Massachusetts, is among the most
talented men of the country. Mr. Remond is a native of the town he
resides in, and at an early age, evinced more than ordinary talents. At
the age of twenty-one, at which time (1832) the cause of the colored
people had just begun to attract public attention, he began to take an
interest in public affairs, and was present for the first time, at the
great convention of colored men, of that year, at which the
distinguished colonization gentlemen named in another part of this work,
among them, Rev. R.R. Gurley, and Elliot Cresson, Esqs., were present.
At this convention, we think, Mr. Remond made his virgin speech. From
that time forth he became known as an orator, and now stands second to
no living man as a declaimer. This is his great forte, and to hear him
speak, sends a thrill through the whole system, and a tremor through the
brain.

In 1835, he went to England, making a tour of the United Kingdom, where
he remained for two years, lecturing with great success; and if we
mistake not was presented the hospitality of one of the towns of
Scotland, at which he received a token of respect, in a code of
resolutions adopted expressive of the sentiments of the people, signed
by the town officers, inscribed to "Charles Lenox Remond, Esq.," a form
of address never given in the United Kingdom, only where the person is
held in the highest esteem for their attainments; the "Mr." always being
used instead.

To C.L. Remond, are the people of Massachusetts indebted for the
abolition of the odious distinction of caste, on account of condition.
For up to this period, neither common white, nor genteel colored
persons, could ride in first class cars; since which time, all who are
able and willing to pay, go in them. In fact, there is but one class of
cars, (except the emigrant cars which are necessary for the safety and
comfort of other passengers) in Massachusetts.

Mr. Remond, appeared at one time before the legislature of
Massachusetts, in behalf of the rights of the people above named, where
with peals of startling eloquence, he moved that great body of
intelligent New Englanders, to a respectful consideration of his
subject; which eventually resulted as stated. The distinguished Judge
Kelley, of Philadelphia, an accomplished scholar and orator, in 1849, in
reply to an expression that Mr. Remond spoke like himself, observed,
that it was the greatest compliment he ever had paid to his talents.
"Proud indeed should I feel," said the learned Jurist, "were I such an
orator as Mr. Remond." Charles Lenox Remond is the soul of an honorable
gentleman.

Robert Morris, Jr., Esq., attorney and counsellor at law, is a member
of the Essex county bar in Boston. Mr. Morris has also had the
commission of magistracy conferred upon him, by his excellency George N.
Briggs, recent governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, a high
honor and compliment to an Attorney; the commission usually being
conferred on none but the oldest or most meritorious among the members
of the bar. He also keeps the books of one of the wealthy rail road
companies, a business almost entirely confined to lawyers in that city.
Mr. Morris is a talented gentleman, and stands very high at the Boston
bar. He sometimes holds the magistrate's court in Chelsea, where his
family resides, and is very highly esteemed by the whole community of
both cities, and has a fine practice.

Macon B. Allen, Esq., attorney and counsellor at law, is also a member
of the Essex bar. He is spoken of as a gentleman of fine education.

Robert Douglass, Jr., for many years, has kept a study and gallery of
painting and daguerreotype in the city of Philadelphia. Mr. Douglass is
an excellent artist--being a fine portrait and landscape painter, which
art he practised before the discovery of daguerreotype. He is also a
good lithographer, a gentleman of fine educational attainments, very
clever talents, and highly esteemed in that city. Mr. Douglass has been
twice to the West Indies and Europe.

J. Presley Ball is the principal daguerreotypist of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Mr. Ball commenced the practice of his art about seven years ago, being
then quite young, and inexperienced, as all young beginners are,
laboring under many difficulties. He nevertheless, persevered, until he
made a business, and established confidence in his skill; and now he
does more business than any other artist in the profession in that city.
His gallery, which is very large, finely skylighted, and handsomely
furnished, is literally crowded from morning until evening with ladies,
gentlemen, and children. He made some valuable improvements in the art,
all for his own convenience. There is none more of a gentleman than J.
Presley Ball. He has a brother, Mr. Thomas Ball, and a white gentleman
to assist him. Few go to Cincinnati, without paying the daguerrean
gallery of Mr. Ball, a visit.

The great organ of the "Liberty Party" in the United States, is now
conducted by one who requires not a notice from such an obscure
source--we mean Frederick Douglass, of Rochester, N.Y. His history is
well known--it was written by more faithful hands than ours--it was
written by himself. It stands enrolled on the reminiscences of Germany,
and France, and in full length oil, in the academy of arts, and in bust
of bronze or marble, in the museum of London. Mr. Douglass is also the
sole owner of the printing establishment from which the paper is issued,
and was promoted to this responsible position, by the power of his
talents. He is a masterly letter writer, ably edits his paper, and as a
speaker, and orator, let the scenes of a New York tabernacle, within two
years, answer instead. Mr. Douglass is highly respected as a citizen and
gentleman in Rochester.

In Syracuse, N.Y., resides George Boyer Vashon, Esq., A.M., a graduate
of Oberlin Collegiate Institute, Attorney at Law, Member of the Syracuse
Bar. Mr. Vashon, is a ripe scholar, an accomplished Essayist, and a
chaste classic Poet; his style running very much in the strain of
Byron's best efforts. He probably takes Byron as his model, and Childe
Harold, as a sample, as in his youthful days, he was a fond admirer of
GEORGE GORDON NOEL BYRON, always calling his whole name, when he named
him. His Preceptor in Law, was the Honorable Walter, Judge Forward, late
Controller, subsequently, Secretary of the Treasury of the United
States, and recently _Charge de Affaires_ to Denmark, now President of
the Bench of the District Court of the Western District of Pennsylvania.

Mr. Vashon was admitted to the Bar of the city of New York, in the fall
of 1847, to practise in all the Courts of the State. He immediately
subsequently, sailed to the West Indies, from whence he returned in the
fall of 1850. He has contributed considerably to a number of the
respectable journals of the country.

Mrs. Ann Maria Johnson, of the School of Mrs. Tillman and Mrs. Johnson,
Teachers in French Worsted Needle Work, at the Exhibition of the
Mechanics' Institute in Chicago, Ill., 1846, took the First Prize, and
got her Diploma, for the best embroidery in cloth. This was very
flattering to those ladies, especially the Diplomast, considering the
great odds they had to contend with. The ladies were very successful
teachers--their classes were always large.

In Williamsburg there is T. Joiner White, M.D.; in Brooklyn Peter Ray,
M.D.; and in the city of New York, also, John Degrass, M.D., all young
Physicians, who have time and experience yet before them, and promise
fair to be good and useful members of society.

Miss Eliza Greenfield the BLACK SWAN, is among the most extraordinary
persons of the present century. Being raised in obscurity, inured to
callings far beneath her propensity, and unsuited to her taste, she had
a desire to cultivate her talents, but no one to encourage her. Whenever
she made the effort, she was discouraged--perhaps ridiculed; and thus
discouraged, she would shrink again from her anxious task. She knew she
could sing, and knew she could sing unlike any body else; knew she sung
better than any whom she had heard of the popular singers, but could not
tell why others could not think with, and appreciate her. In this way it
seems, she was thrown about for three years, never meeting with a
person who could fully appreciate her talents; and we have it from her
own lips, that not until after the arrival of Jenny Lind and Parodi in
the country, was she aware of the high character of her own talents. She
knew she possessed them, because they were inherent, inseparable with
her being. She attended the Concerts of Mad'll. Jenny Lind, and Operas
of Parodi, and at once saw the "secret of their success"--they possessed
talents, that no other popular singers mastered.

She went home; her heart fluttered; she stole an opportunity when no one
listened, to mock or gossip; let out her voice, when _ecce!_ she found
her strains _four_ notes _above_ Sweden's favored Nightingale; she
descended when lo! she found her tones _three_ notes _below!_ she
thanked God with a "still small voice"; and now, she ranks second in
point of voice, to no vocalist in the world. Miss Greenfield, if she
only be judicious and careful, may become yet, in point of popularity,
what Miss Lind was. The Black Swan, is singing to fine fashionable
houses, and bids fair to stand unrivalled in the world of Song.

Patrick Henry Reason, a gentleman of ability and fine artist, stands
high as an Engraver in the city of New York. Mr. Reason has been in
business for years, in that city, and has sent out to the world, many
beautiful specimens of his skillful hand. He was the first artist, we
believe in the United States, who produced a plate of that beautiful
touching little picture, the Kneeling Slave; the first picture of which
represented a handsome, innocent little girl upon her knees, with hands
outstretched, leaving the manacles dangling before her, anxiously
looking and wishfully asking, "_Am I not a sister?_" It was
beautiful--sorrowfully beautiful. He has we understand, frequently done
Government engraving. Mr. P.H. is a brother of Professor Charles L.
Reason.

David Jones Peck, M.D., a graduate of Rush Medical College, a talented
young gentleman, practised Medicine for two years in Philadelphia. He
left there in 1850.

William H. Allen, Esq., A.B., successor to Professor C.L. Reason, is
Professor of Languages in Centre College, at McGrawville, N.Y. Professor
Allen, is a gentleman of fine education, a graduate of Oneida Institute,
and educated himself entirely by his own industry, having the aid of but
fifty dollars during the whole period. The Professor is a talented
Lecturer on Ancient History, and much of a gentleman.

Martin H. Freeman, A.B., a young gentleman, graduate of Rutland College,
in Vermont, is "Junior Professor," in Allegheny Institute, Allegheny
county, Pa. The Professor is a gentleman of talents, and doing much good
in his position.

Rev. Molliston Madison Clark, a gentleman of great talents, a noble
speaker, educated at Jefferson College, Pa., sailed to Europe in 1846,
and was a member of the Evangelical Alliance. Mr. Clark kept a regular
Journal of his travels through the United Kingdom of England, Scotland
and Ireland. As well as a Greek and Latin, he is also a French and
Spanish Linguist. He has all the eccentricity of Rowland Hill,
manifested only in a very different manner.

William C. Nell, of Rochester, N.Y., formerly of Boston, has long been
known as a gentleman of chaste and lofty sentiments, and a pure
philanthropist. Mr. Nell, in company with Mr. Frederick Douglass, was
present by invitation, and took his seat at table, at the celebration of
Franklin's Birth Day, by the Typographical and Editorial corps of
Rochester. In 1850, being again residing in Boston, he was nominated and
ran for the Legislature of Massachusetts, by the Free Soil party of
Essex county. Mr. Nell stood even with his party vote in the District.

He recently issued from the Boston press a Pamphlet, on the colored men
who served in the wars of the United States of 1776, and 1812. This
pamphlet is very useful as a book of reference on this subject, and Mr.
Nell, of course does not aim at a full historical view. The
circumstances under which it was got out, justify this belief. He was
collecting materials in the winter of 1850-51, when he was taken down to
his bed with a severe attack of disease of one of his lungs, with which
he lingered, unable to leave his room for weeks. In the Spring,
recovering somewhat his health, so as to go out--during this time, he
had the little pamphlet published, as a means of pecuniary aid,
promising another part to be forthcoming some subsequent period, which
the writer hopes may soon be issued. Mr. Nell, is an excellent man, and
deserves the patronage of the public.

Joseph G. Anderson, successor to Captain Frank Johnson, of Philadelphia,
is now one of the most distinguished musicians in the country. Mr.
Anderson is an artist professionally and practically, mastering various
instruments, a composer of music, and a gentleman of fine
accomplishments in other respects. His musical fame will grow with his
age, which one day must place him in the front ranks of his profession,
among the master in the world.

William Jackson, is among the leading musicians of New York city, and
ranks among the most skillful violinists of America. This gentleman is a
master of his favorite instrument, executing with ease the most
difficult and critical composition. He is generally preferred in social
and private parties, among the first families of the city, where the
amateur and gentleman is more regarded than the mere services of the
musician. Mr. Jackson is a teacher of music, and only requires a more
favorable opportunity to vie with Ole Bull or Paganini.

Rev. Daniel A. Payne, commenced his literary career in Charleston,
South Carolina, where he taught school for some time. In 1833 or 1834,
he came North, placing himself in the Lutheran Theological Seminary, at
Gettysburg, under the tutorage of the learned and distinguished Dr.
Schmucker, where he finished his education as a Lutheran clergyman. To
extend his usefulness, he joined the African Methodist Connexion, and
for several years resided in Baltimore, where he taught an Academy for
colored youth and maidens, gaining the respect and esteem of all who had
the fortune to become acquainted with him. He is now engaged travelling
and collecting information, for the publication of a history of one of
the colored Methodist denominations in the United States. Mr. Payne is a
pure and chaste poet, having published a small volume of his productions
in 1850, under the title of "Pleasures and other Miscellaneous Poems, by
Daniel A. Payne," issued from the press of Sherwood and Company,
Baltimore, Maryland.

Rev. William T. Catto, a clergyman of fine talents, finished his
education in the Theological Seminary in Charleston, South Carolina. He
was ordained by the Presbytery of Charleston, and in 1848, under the
best recommendations for piety, acquirements, and all the qualifications
necessary to his high mission as a clergyman, was sent out as a
missionary to preach the Gospel to all who needed it; but to make
himself more useful, he joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church
Connexion, and is now a useful and successful preacher in Philadelphia.

The musical profession of Philadelphia has long had a valuable votary in
the person of William Appo, an accomplished pianist. Mr. Appo has been a
teacher of the piano forte, for more than twenty years, alternately in
the cities of New York and Philadelphia, and sometimes in Baltimore.
His profession extends amongst the citizens generally, from the more
moderate in circumstances, to the ladies and daughters of the most
wealthy gentlemen in community. This gentleman is a fine scholar, and as
well as music, teaches the French language successfully. His young
daughter, Helen, a miss of fourteen years of age, inherits the musical
talents of her father, and is now organist in the central Presbyterian
Church. The name of William Appo, is generally known as a popular
teacher of music, but few who are not personally acquainted with him,
know that he is a colored gentleman.

Augustus Washington, an artist of fine taste and perception, is numbered
among the most successful Daguerreotypists in Hartford, Connecticut. His
establishment is said to be visited daily by large numbers of the
citizens of all classes; and this gallery is perhaps, the only one in
the country, that keeps a female attendant, and dressing-room for
ladies. He recommends, in his cards, black dresses to be worn for
sitting; and those who go unsuitably dressed, are supplied with drapery,
and properly enrobed.

John Newton Templeton, A.M., for fifteen years an upright, active, and
very useful citizen of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, was a graduate of Athens
College, in the State of Ohio. Mr. Templeton, after an active life of
more than twenty years, principally spent in school teaching, died in
Pittsburg, in July, 1851, leaving an amiable widow and infant son.

Thomas Paul, A.B., of Boston, a gentleman of fine talents and amiable
disposition, whose life has been mainly devoted to teaching, is a
graduate of Bowdoin College, in Maine. Mr. Paul is now the recipient of
a salary of fifteen hundred dollars a year as teacher of a school in
Boston.

Rev. Benjamin Franklin Templeton, pastor of St. Mary street Church,
Philadelphia, was educated at Hanover College, near Madison, Indiana. In
1838, Mr. Templeton was ordained a minister of the Ripley Presbytery, in
Ohio; subsequently, in 1841, established a church, the Sixth
Presbyterian, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, from which place he was
called, in 1844, to take charge of his present pastorate. Mr. Templeton
is a beautiful speaker, and an amiable gentleman.[3]

John B. Russworm, a gentleman of splendid talents, graduated at Bowdoin
College, many years ago. Mr. Russworm was a class-mate of Honorable John
P. Hale, United States Senator, and after leaving College as his first
public act, commenced the publication of a newspaper, for the elevation
of colored Americans, called "Freedom's Journal." Subsequently to the
publication of his paper, Mr. Russworm became interested in the
Colonization scheme, then in its infancy, and went to Liberia; after
which he went to Bassa Cove, of which place he was made governor, where
he died in 1851.

Benjamin Coker, a colored Methodist clergyman, forty years ago, wrote
and issued, in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, a pamphlet, setting
forth in glowing terms, the evils of American slavery, and the wrongs
inflicted on the colored race. Rev. Daniel A. Payne, a talented
clergyman, mentioned in this work, has now in his possession a copy of
the pamphlet, and informs us, that the whole ground assumed by the
modern abolitionists, was taken and reviewed in this pamphlet, by Daniel
Coker. We may reasonably infer, that the ideas of Anti-Slavery, as
taught by the friends of the black race at the present day, were
borrowed from Mr. Coker; though, perhaps, policy forbade due credit to
the proper source. Coker, like Russworm, became interested in the cause
of African Colonization, and went to Africa; where he subsequently
became an extensive coast trader, having several vessels, one of which
he commanded in person, taking up his residence on the island of
Sherbro, where he is said to have lived in great splendor. He died in
1845 or 1846, at an advanced age, leaving a family of sons and
daughters.

Henry Bibb, an eloquent speaker, for several years, was the principal
traveling lecturer for the Liberty Party of Michigan. Mr. Bibb, with
equal advantages, would equal many of those who fill high places in the
country, and now assume superiority over him and his kindred. He fled an
exile from the United States, in 1850, to Canada, to escape the terrible
consequences of the Republican Fugitive Slave Law, which threatened him
with a total destruction of liberty. Mr. Bibb established the "Voice of
the Fugitive," a newspaper, in Sandwich, Canada West, which is managed
and conducted with credit.

Titus Basfield, graduated at Franklin College, New Athens, Ohio,
receiving his religious instruction from the late Dr. Jonathan Walker,
of that place, a physician and Covenanter clergyman. He afterwards
graduated in theology at the Theological Seminary of Cannonsburg,
Pennsylvania, was ordained, and traveled preaching and lecturing to the
people of his peculiar faith and the public, for several years. He went
to New London, Canada West, where he has charge of a Scotch congregation
of religious votaries to that ancient doctrine of salvation.

Mary Ann Shadd, a very intelligent young lady, peculiarly eccentric,
published an excellent pamphlet, issued from the press in Wilmington,
Delaware, in 1849, on the elevation of the colored people. The writer of
this work, was favored with an examination of it before publication,
which he then highly approved of, as an excellent introduction to a
great subject, fraught with so much interest. Miss Shadd has traveled
much, and now has charge of a school in Sandwich, Canada West.

James McCrummill, of Philadelphia, is a skillful surgeon-dentist, and
manufacturer of porcelain teeth, having practised the profession for
many years in that city. He is said to be equal to the best in the city,
and probably only requires an undivided attention to establish the
reality.

Joseph Wilson, Thomas Kennard, and William Nickless, are also practising
dentists in the city of Philadelphia. Mr. Kennard is said to be one of
the best _workmen_ in the manufacture of artificial teeth, and _gums_--a
new discovery, and very valuable article, in this most beautiful and
highly useful art. He devotes several hours a day, to the manufacture of
these articles for one of the principal surgeon-dentists of Arch street.

James M. Whitfield, of Buffalo, New York, though in an humble position,
(for which we think he is somewhat reprehensible), is one of the purest
poets in America. He has written much for different newspapers; and, by
industry and application--being already a good English scholar--did he
but place himself in a favorable situation in life, would not be second
to John Greenleaf Whittier, nor the late Edgar A. Poe.

Mary Elizabeth Miles, in accordance with the established rules,
graduated as a teacher, in the Normal School, at Albany, New York,
several years ago. Miss Miles (now Mrs. Bibb) was a very talented young
lady and successful teacher. She spent several years of usefulness in
Massachusetts, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after which she went to
Cincinnati, as assistant-teacher in Gilmore's "High School for Colored
Children," which ended her public position in life. She now resides in
Sandwich, Canada West.

Lucy Stanton, of Columbus, Ohio, is a graduate of Oberlin Collegiate
Institute, in that State. She is now engaged in teaching school in that
city, in which she is reputed to be successful. She is quite a young
lady, and has her promise of life all before her, and bids fair to
become a woman of much usefulness in society.

Doctor Bias, of Philadelphia, spoken of in another place, graduated at
the close of the session of 1851-52, in the Eclectic Medical College, in
that city. The doctor is highly esteemed by the physicians of his
system, who continually interchange calls with him. He is also a
practical phrenologist,--which profession he does not now attend to,
giving his undivided attention to the practice of medicine,--and has
written a pamphlet on that subject, entitled, "Synopsis of Phrenology,
and the Phrenological Developments, as given by J.J. Gould Bias." No man
perhaps, in the community of Philadelphia, possesses more self-will, and
determination of character, than Dr. James Joshua Gould Bias. Mr.
Whipper says of him, that he is "a Napoleon in character." The sterling
trait in his character is, that he grasps after _originality_, and
grapples with every difficulty. Such a man, must and will succeed in his
undertakings.

FOOTNOTE:

[3] During the last twenty years, there have been, at different periods,
published among the colored people of the United States, twenty odd
newspapers, some of which were conducted with ability. Among them, the
"Colored American," in New York city; Samuel E. Cornish, Philip A. Bell,
and Charles B. Ray, at different times, Editors. "The Demosthenian
Shield," issued from a Literary Society of young colored men, in the
city of Philadelphia. "The Straggler," by Philip A. Bell, New York, out
of which the Colored American took its origin. The "National Reformer,"
an able monthly periodical, in pamphlet form, in Philadelphia; William
Whipper, Editor. "The Northern Star," a Temperance monthly newspaper,
published in Albany, N.Y.; Stephen Myers, Editor, still in
existence--changed to ----. "The Mystery," of Pittsburg, Pa.; Martin
Robison Delany, Editor--succeeded by a committee of colored gentlemen as
Editors. The "Palladium of Liberty," issued in Columbus, O., by a
committee of colored gentlemen; David Jenkins, Editor. "The
Disfranchised American," by a committee of colored gentlemen,
Cincinnati, O.; A.M. Sumner, Editor--succeeded by the "Colored Citizen";
Rev. Thomas Woodson, and William Henry Yancey, Editors. The "National
Watchman," Troy, N.Y.; William H. Allen and Henry Highland Garnett,
Editors. Another issued in New York city, the name of which, we cannot
now remember; James William Charles Pennington, D.D., and James McCune
Smith, M.D., Editors: the issue being alternately at Hartford, the then
residence of Dr. Pennington--and New York city, the residence of Dr.
Smith. The "Excelsior," an ephemeral issue, which appeared but once, in
Detroit, Mich.; William H. Day, Editor.

The "Christian Herald," the organ of the A.M. Episcopal Church,
published under the auspices of the General Conference of that body;
Augustus Richardson Green, Editor, and General Book Steward. This
gentleman has, also, written and published several small volumes of a
religious character; a pamphlet on the Episcopacy and Infant Baptism,
and the Lives of Reverends Fayette Davis and David Canyou. The
"Elevator," of Philadelphia; James McCrummill, Editor. The "Ram's Horn,"
New York city; Thomas Vanrensellear, Editor. There is now a little
paper, the name of which we cannot recollect, issued at Newark, N.J.,
merely a local paper, very meager in appearance. "The Farmer and
Northern Star," in Courtland, N.Y., afterwards changed to the "Impartial
Citizen," and published in Boston; Samuel Ringgold Ward, Editor. "The
North Star," published in Rochester, N.Y.; Frederick Douglass, and
Martin Robinson Delany, Editors--subsequently changed to the "Frederick
Douglass' Paper"; Frederick Douglass, Editor.

A number of gentlemen have been authors of narratives, written by
themselves, some of which are masterly efforts, manifesting great force
of talents. Of such, are those by Frederick Douglass, William Wells
Brown, and Henry Bibb.

Of the various churches and clergy we have nothing to say, as these do
not come within our province; except where individuals, from position,
come within the sphere of our arrangement.

There have been several inventors among the colored people. The youth
Henry Blair, of Maryland, some years ago, invented the Corn-Planter, and
Mr. Roberts of Philadelphia, 1842, a machine for lifting cars off the
railways.

It may be expected that we should say something about a book issued in
Boston, purporting to be a history of ancient great men of African
descent, by one Mr. Lewis, entitled "Light and Truth." This book is
nothing more than a compilation of selected portions of Rollin's,
Goldsmith's, Furguson's, Hume's, and other ancient histories; added to
which, is a tissue of historical absurdities and literary blunders,
shamefully palpable, for which the author or authors should mantle their
faces.

If viewed in the light of a "Yankee trick," simply by which to make
money, it may, peradventure, be a very clever trick; but the publisher
should have recollected, that the ostensible object of his work was, the
edification and enlightenment of the public in general and the colored
people in particular, upon a great and important subject of truth; and
that those who must be the most injured by it, will be the very class of
people, whom he professes a desire to benefit. We much regret the fact,
that there are but too many of our brethren, who undertake to dabble in
literary matters, in the shape of newspaper and book-making, who are
wholly unqualified for the important work. This, however, seems to be
called forth by the palpable neglect, and indifference of those who have
had the educational advantages, but neglected to make such use of them.

There is one redeeming quality about "Light and Truth." It is a capital
offset to the pitiable literary blunders of Professor George R. Gliddon,
late Consul to Egypt, from the United States, Lecturer on Ancient
Egyptian Literature, &c., &c., who makes all ancient black men, _white_;
and asserts the Egyptians and Ethiopians to have been of the _Caucasian_
or white race!--So, also, this colored gentleman, makes all ancient
great white men, black--as Diogenes, Socrates, Themistocles, Pompey,
Caesar, Cato, Cicero, Horace, Virgil, et cetera. Gliddon's idle nonsense
has found a capital match in the production of Mr. Lewis' "Light and
Truth," and both should be sold together. We may conclude by expressing
our thanks to our brother Lewis, as we do not think that Professor
Gliddon's learned ignorance, would have ever met an equal but for "Light
and Truth." Reverends D.A. Payne, M.M. Clark, and other learned colored
gentlemen, agree with us in the disapproval of this book.--EDITOR.



XII

STUDENTS OF VARIOUS PROFESSIONS


There are a number of young gentlemen who have finished their literary
course, who are now studying for the different learned professions, in
various parts of the country.

Jonathan Gibbs, A.B., a very talented young gentleman, and fine speaker,
is now finishing his professional studies in the Theological School at
Dartmouth University. Mr. Gibbs also studied in the Scientific
Department of the same Institution.

William H. Day, Esq., A.B., a graduate of Oberlin Collegiate Institute,
is now in Cleveland Ohio, preparing for the Bar. Mr. Day is, perhaps,
the most eloquent young gentleman of his age in the United States.

John Mercer Langston, A.B., of Chillicothe, Ohio, also a graduate of
Oberlin College, a talented young gentleman, and promising orator, is
completing a Theological course at the School of Divinity at Oberlin. It
is said, that Mr. Langston intends also to prepare for the Bar. He
commenced the study of Law previous to that of Theology, under Judge
Andrews of Cleveland.

Charles Dunbar, of New York city, a promising, very intelligent young
gentleman, is now in the office of Dr. Childs, and having attended one
course of Lectures at Bowdoin Medical School in Maine, will finish next
fall and winter, for the practice of his profession.

Isaac Humphrey Snowden, a promising young gentleman of talents, is now
reading Medicine under Dr. Clarke of Boston, and attended the session of
the Medical School of Harvard University, of 1850-51.

Daniel Laing, Jr., Esq., a fine intellectual young gentleman of Boston,
a student also of Dr. Clarke of that city, one of the Surgeons of the
Massachusetts General Hospital, who attended the course of Lectures the
session of 1850-51, at the Medical School of Harvard University, is now
in Paris, to spend two years in the hospitals, and attend the Medical
Lectures of that great seat of learning. Mr. Laing, like most medical
students, has ever been an admirer, and anxious to sit under the
teachings of that great master in Surgery, Velpeau.

Dr. James J. Gould Bias, a Botanic Physician, and talented gentleman of
Philadelphia, is a member of the class of 1851-52, of the Eclectic
Medical School of that city. Dr. Bias deserves the more credit for his
progress in life, as he is entirely self-made.

Robert B. Leach, of Cleveland, Ohio, a very intelligent young gentleman,
is a member of the medical class for 1851-52, of the Homeopathic
College, in that City. Mr. Leach, when graduated, will be the _First
Colored Homeopathic_ Physician in the United States.

Dr. John Degrass, of New York city, named in another place, spent two
years in Paris Hospitals, under the teaching of the great lecturer and
master of surgery, Velpeau, to whom he was assistant and dresser, in the
hospital--the first position--for advantages, held by a student. The
Doctor has subsequently been engaged as surgeon on a Havre packet, where
he discharged the duties of his office with credit.

Also Dr. Peter Ray, of Brooklyn, named on the same page, graduated at
Castleton Medical School, Vermont, spent some time at the Massachusetts
General Hospital, Boston, where he held the position of assistant and
dresser to Surgeon Parkman, in his ward of the hospital.

Dr. John P. Reynolds, has for a number of years been one of the most
popular and successful physicians in Vincennes, Indiana. We believe Dr.
Reynolds, was not of the "regular" system, but some twenty-three or-four
years ago, studied under an "Indian physician," after which, he
practised very successfully in Zanesville, Ohio, subsequently removing
to Vincennes, where he has for the last sixteen years, supported an
enviable reputation as a physician. We understand Doctor Reynolds has
entered into all the scientific improvements of the "eclectic school" of
medicine, which has come into being in the United States, long since his
professional career commenced. His popularity is such, that he has
frequently been entrusted, with public confidence, and on one occasion,
in 1838, was appointed by the court, sole executor of a very valuable
orphans' estate. The Doctor has grown quite wealthy it is said,
commanding a considerable influence in the community.

Dr. McDonough, a skillful young physician, graduated at the Institute,
Easton, Pennsylvania, and finished his medical education at the
University of New York. The Doctor is one of the most thorough of the
young physicians; has been attached to the greater part of the public
institutions of the city of New York, and is a good practical chemist.

Of course, there are many others, but as we have taken no measures
whatever, to collect facts or information from abroad, only getting such
as was at hand, and giving the few sketches here, according to our own
recollection of them, we close this short chapter at this point.



XIII

A SCAN AT PAST THINGS


It may not be considered in good taste to refer to those still living,
who formerly occupied prominent business positions, and by dint of
misfortune or fortune, have withdrawn. Nevertheless, we shall do so,
since our simple object in this hasty sketch of things, is to show that
the colored people of the country have not as has been charged upon
them, always been dregs on the community and excrescences on the body
politic, wherever they may have lived. We only desire to show that they
have been, all things considered, just like other people.

Several years ago, there lived in the city of St. Louis, Missouri, Mr.
Berry Mechum. This gentleman was very wealthy, and had at one time, two
fine steamers plying on the Mississippi, all under the command and
management of white men, to whom he trusted altogether. As late as 1836,
he sent two sons to the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, desiring that they
might become educated, in order to be able to manage his business; who,
although he could read and write, was not sufficiently qualified and
skilled in the arts of business to vie with the crafty whites of the
Valley. But before his sons were fitted for business though reputed very
wealthy, which there is no doubt he was, his whole property was seized
and taken: and as he informed the writer himself, he did not know what
for, as he had no debts that he knew of, until these suits were
entered. Mr. Mechum was an energetic, industrious, persevering old
gentleman--a baptist clergyman, and published a small pamphlet on the
condition of the colored race. And although, it evinces great deficiency
of literary qualifications, yet, does credit to the good old man, for
the sound thoughts therein contained.

Also in the city of St. Louis, David Desara, who was a Mississippi pilot
for many years. He made much money at his business, and owned at one
time, a steamboat, which he piloted himself. Mr. Desara also failed, in
consequence of having his business all in the hands of white men, as
most of the slave state colored people have, entrusting to them
entirely, without knowing anything of their own concerns.

Charles Moore, long and familiarly known as "Chancy Moore the Pilot,"
was for many years, one of the most popular pilots on the Ohio and
Mississippi rivers. Mr. Moore made much money, and withdrew from his old
business, purchasing a large tract of land in Mercer County, Ohio, where
he has for the last ten or twelve years been farming.

Mr. Moore was an honest man, and we believe upon him originated the
purely Western phrase, "Charley Moore the fair thing"; he always in his
dealings saying "gentlemen, do the _fair_ thing."

Abner H. Francis and James Garrett were formerly extensive clothes
dealers in Buffalo, N.Y., doing business to the amount of sixty thousand
dollars annually. They were energetic, industrious, persevering
gentlemen, commencing business under very unfavorable circumstances, in
fact, commencing on but _seventy-five_ dollars, as the writer has been
authentically informed by the parties.

They continued successfully for years, where their paper and
endorsements were good for any amount they wanted--highly respected and
esteemed; Mr. Francis sitting at one time as juryman in the court of
quarter sessions. These gentlemen failed in business in 1849, but since
then, have nearly adjusted the claims against them. Mr. Francis has
since settled in Oregon Territory, Portland City, where he is again
doing a fair mercantile business. They bid fair again to rank among the
"merchant princes" of the times.

Robert Banks was for many years, a highly esteemed and extensive clothes
dealer, on Jefferson Avenue, in Detroit, Mich. No man was more highly
respected for unswerving integrity, and uprightness of purpose, than
Robert Banks, of Detroit. Mr. Banks, had much enlarged his business,
immediately succeeding a fire in which he was burnt out two years
previous to closing, which ensued in July, 1851, being the second time
he had lost his store by fire. He might have, had he done as merchants
usually do under such circumstances, continued his business; but
instead, he made an assignment, with few preferred creditors, rather as
he expressed it, ruin his business, than wilfully wrong a creditor. What
speaks volumes in his behalf, every person, even his greatest creditors
say, "He is an honest man"; and while settling the business of the late
concern, those to whom he was indebted, offered him assistance to
commence business again. But this he thankfully declined, preferring to
take his chance with others in the land of gold, California, where he
now is, than commence again under the circumstances. Doubtless, if no
special prevention ensue, Mr. Banks will be fully able to redeem his
present obligations, and once more be found prospering and happy.

Henry Knight, of Chicago, commenced business in that city without
capital; but by industry, soon gained the esteem and confidence of the
public, making many friends. He fast rose in prosperity, until he became
the proprietor of the most extensive livery establishment in the city,
in which he had much capital invested. Determined to be equal to the
times, the growing prosperity of the city, and the demands of the
increasing pride of the place, he extended his possessions--erecting
costly buildings, besides increasing his stock and livery extensively.
He was burnt out--a pressure came upon him--he sold out his stock, staid
suits against himself; went to California, returned in a year and a
half--paid off old claims, saved his property--went back; opened a
California hotel, returned in less than one year with several thousand
dollars, and now stands entirely clear of all debt--and all this done in
the space of two and a half years. Mr. Knight is a man of business, and
will hold his position with others if he have but half a chance. With
such a man, there is "no such a thing as fail"--he could not again, if
he desired, because, his friends would not permit him.



XIV

LATE MEN OF LITERARY, PROFESSIONAL AND ARTISTIC NOTE


Late Captain Frank Johnson, of Philadelphia, the most renowned band
leader ever known in the United States, was a man of science, and master
of his profession. In 1838, Captain Johnson went to England with his
noble band of musicians, where he met with great success--played to Her
Majesty Queen Victoria and His Royal Highness Prince Albert--Captain
Johnson receiving a handsome French bugle, by order of her Majesty,
valued at five hundred dollars--returning, he held throughout the
Eastern, Northern, and Western States, grand concerts, known as "Soirees
Musicales." He was a great composer and teacher of music, and some of
the finest Marches and Cotillions now extant, have been originally
composed by Captain Frank Johnson. On his Western tour, by some
awkwardness of management, he lost at Buffalo, original music in
manuscript, which never had been published--as much of his composition
had been; valued at one thousand dollars, which, although advertised, he
never got. But his name was sufficient to give additional value to the
prize; and there is no doubt, but the world is now being benefited by
the labors of Captain Johnson, the credit being given to others than
himself. This was an unfortunate circumstance, and had his amiable and
excellent widow, Mrs. Helen Johnson of Philadelphia, now this
composition, she could support herself in ease, by the sale of the
published work. Captain Frank Johnson, died in Philadelphia in 1844,
universally respected, and regretted as an irreparable loss to society.
At his death the band divided, different members taking a leadership.

Andrew J. Conner, one of the members of Captain Johnson's band, also
became a distinguished composer and teacher of music. Mr. Conner taught
the piano forte in the best families in the city of Philadelphia--among
merchants, bankers, and professional men. He contributed to the popular
literary Magazines of the day, and very many who have read in Graham's
and other literary issues, "Music composed by A.J. Conner," did not for
a moment think that the author was a colored gentleman. Mr. Conner died
in Philadelphia in 1850.

James Ulett, formerly of New York, became quite celebrated a few years
since, as a comedian. He played several times in the old "Richmond Hill"
Theatre, and quite successfully in Europe. Mr. Ulett was not well
educated, and consequently, labored under considerable inconvenience in
reading, frequently making grammatical blunders, as the writer noticed
in a private rehearsal, in 1836, in the city of New York. He, however,
possessed great intellectual powers, and his success depended more upon
that, than his accuracy in reading. Of course, he was a great delineator
of character, which being the principal feature in a comedian, his
language was lost sight of in common conversation. Mr. Ulett died in New
York a few years ago.

Doctor Lewis G. Wells was a most talented orator and man of literary
qualifications. Residing in Baltimore, Maryland, he raised himself high
in the estimation of all who knew him. He studied medicine, and was
admitted into the Washington Medical College, attending the regular
courses, and would have graduated, but for some misunderstanding
between himself and the professors, which prevented it. He was a most
successful practitioner, and effected more cures during the prevalence
of the cholera in 1832, than any other physician in the city. Doctor
Wells was also a most successful practical phrenologist, and lectured to
large and fashionable houses of the first class ladies and gentlemen of
Baltimore, and other cities. Being a great wit, he kept his audiences in
uproars of laughter. Mr. Wells was also an ordained minister of the
Gospel, belonging to the white Methodist connexion; and was author of
several productions, among them, a large Methodist hymn book, containing
several fine original poems. Dr. Wells died the same year of cholera,
after successfully saving many others, because there was no physician at
that time who understood the treatment of the disease.



XV

FARMERS AND HERDSMEN


Little need be said about farmers; there are hundreds of them in all
parts of the country, especially in the Western States; still these may
not be considered of a conspicuous or leading character--albeit, they
are contributing largely to the wants of community, and wealth of the
country at large. Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and
Indiana, all, are largely represented by the farming interests of
colored men. We shall name but a sufficient number to show the character
of their enterprise in this department of American industry.

Rev. William Watson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, is the owner of a fine farm in
Mercer county, and six hundred acres of additional land.

Mr. Richard Phillips, of the same city, is owner of a fine farm in the
same county, and three hundred and fifty additional acres of land.

Rev. Reuben P. Graham, of Cincinnati, owns a finely cultivated farm in
Mercer county, three hundred acres of adjoining land; and one near
Cincinnati.

Mr. John Woodson, of Jackson county, is one of the most successful
farmers in the State of Ohio. Having a large tract of land, he has one
of the best cultivated farms in the West, in a most productive state,
raising grains, fruits, and livestock. In the year 1842, his farm
produced that season, three thousand bushels of wheat, several hundred
bushels of rye, eleven hundred bushels of oats, large crops of corn,
potatoes, and other vegetables; large quantities of fruits, three
hundred stacks of hay, with a large stock of several hundred heads of
cattle on the place. Mr. Woodson has for many years, been a highly
respectable man in his neighborhood, and continues his farming interests
with unabated success.

Dr. Charles Henry Langston, of Columbus, Ohio, is also the proprietor of
a very fine farm of eleven hundred acres, in Jackson county, upon which
he has a white tenant. This gentleman is a surgeon-dentist by
profession, educated at Oberlin College, making his home in Columbus.

Robert Purvis, Esq., a gentleman of collegiate education, is proprietor
of one of the best improved farms in Philadelphia county, fifteen miles
from Philadelphia. His cattle consist of the finest English breed.

Joseph Purvis, Esq., of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, a gentleman also of
education and wealth, is an amateur stock farmer. Every animal on Mr.
Purvis' farm is of the very best breed--Godolphin horses, Durham cattle,
Leicestershire sheep, Berkshire swine, even English bull-terrier dogs,
and whatever else pertains to the blooded breeds of brutes, may be found
on the farm of Joseph Purvis. Mr. Purvis supplies a great many farmers
with choice breeds of cattle, and it is said that he spends ten thousand
dollars annually, in the improvement of his stocks.

Robert Briges Forten, also of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, is an amateur
farmer. Mr. Forten is a gentleman of fine education, a pure, chaste
poet, and attends to farming for the love of nature. He is a valuable
member of the farming enterprise in the country.

If such evidence of industry and interest, as has been exhibited in the
various chapters on the different pursuits and engagements of colored
Americans, do not entitle them to equal rights and privileges in our
common country, then indeed, is there nothing to justify the claims of
any portion of the American people to the common inheritance of Liberty.

We proceed to another view of our condition in the United States.



XVI

NATIONAL DISFRANCHISEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE


We give below the Act of Congress, known as the "Fugitive Slave Law,"
for the benefit of the reader, as there are thousands of the American
people of all classes, who have never read the provisions of this
enactment; and consequently, have no conception of its enormity. We had
originally intended, also, to have inserted here, the Act of Congress of
1793, but since this Bill includes all the provisions of that Act, in
fact, although called a "supplement," is a substitute, _de facto_, it
would be superfluous; therefore, we insert the Bill alone, with
explanations following:--

     AN ACT

     TO AMEND, AND SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE ACT, ENTITLED, "AN ACT
     RESPECTING FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE, AND PERSONS ESCAPING FROM THE
     SERVICE OF THEIR MASTERS," APPROVED FEBRUARY 12, 1793.

     _Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
     United States of America in Congress assembled_, That the persons
     who have been, or may hereafter be, appointed commissioners, in
     virtue of any act of Congress, by the circuit courts of the United
     States, and who, in consequence of such appointment, are authorized
     to exercise the powers that any justice of the peace or other
     magistrate of any of the United States may exercise in respect to
     offenders for any crime or offence against the United States, by
     arresting, imprisoning, or bailing the same under and by virtue of
     the thirty-third section of the act of the twenty-fourth of
     September, seventeen hundred and eighty-nine, entitled "An act to
     establish the judicial courts of the United States," shall be, and
     are hereby authorized and required to exercise and discharge all
     the powers and duties conferred by this act.

     SEC. 2. _And be it further enacted_, That the superior court of
     each organized territory of the United States shall have the same
     power to appoint commissioners to take acknowledgments of bail and
     affidavit, and to take depositions of witnesses in civil causes,
     which is now possessed by the circuit courts of the United States;
     and all commissioners who shall hereafter be appointed for such
     purposes by the superior court of any organized territory of the
     United States shall possess all the powers and exercise all the
     duties conferred by law upon the commissioners appointed by the
     circuit courts of the United States for similar purposes, and shall
     moreover exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred
     by this act.

     SEC. 3. _And be it further enacted_, That the circuit courts of the
     United States, and the superior courts of each organized territory
     of the United States, shall from time to time enlarge the number of
     commissioners, with a view to afford reasonable facilities to
     reclaim fugitives from labor, and to the prompt discharge of the
     duties imposed by this act.

     SEC. 4. _And be it further enacted_, That the commissioners above
     named shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the
     circuit and district courts of the United States, in their
     respective circuits and districts within the several States, and
     the judges of the superior courts of the Territories, severally and
     collectively, in term time and vacation; and shall grant
     certificates to such claimants, upon satisfactory proof being made,
     with authority to take and remove such fugitives from service or
     labor, under the restrictions herein contained, to the State or
     territory from which such persons may have escaped or fled.

     SEC. 5. _And be it further enacted_, That it shall be the duty of
     all marshals and deputy marshals to obey and execute all warrants
     and precepts issued under the provisions of this act, when to them
     directed; and should any marshal or deputy marshal refuse to
     receive such warrant or other process, when tendered, or to use all
     proper means diligently to execute the same, he shall, on
     conviction thereof, be fined in the sum of one thousand dollars to
     the use of such claimant, on the motion of such claimant, by the
     circuit or district court for the district of such marshal; and
     after arrest of such fugitive by such marshal or his deputy, or
     whilst at any time in his custody, under the provisions of this
     act, should such fugitive escape, whether with or without the
     assent of such marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall be liable,
     on his official bond, to be prosecuted, for the benefit of such
     claimant for the full value of the service or labor of said
     fugitive in the State, Territory, or district whence he escaped;
     and the better to enable the said commissioners, when thus
     appointed, to execute their duties faithfully and efficiently, in
     conformity with the requirements of the constitution of the United
     States and of this art, they are hereby authorized and empowered,
     within their counties respectively, to appoint in writing under
     their hands, any one or more suitable persons, from time to time,
     to execute all such warrants and other process as may be issued by
     them in the lawful performance of their respective duties; with an
     authority to such commissioners, or the persons to be appointed by
     them, to execute process as aforesaid, to summon and call to their
     aid the bystanders, or _posse comitatus_ of the proper county,
     when necessary to insure a faithful observance of the clause of the
     constitution referred to, in conformity with the provisions of this
     act: and all good citizens are hereby commanded to aid and assist
     in the prompt and efficient execution of this law, whenever their
     services may be required, as aforesaid, for that person; and said
     warrants shall run and be executed by said officers anywhere in the
     State within which they are issued.

     SEC. 6. _And be it further enacted_, That when a person held to
     service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States has
     heretofore or shall hereafter escape into another State or
     Territory of the United States, the person or persons to whom such
     service or labor may be due, or his, her, or their agent or
     attorney, duly authorized, by power of attorney, in writing,
     acknowledged and certified under the seal of some legal office or
     court of the State or Territory in which the game may be executed,
     may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a
     warrant from some one of the courts, judges, or commissioners
     aforesaid, of the proper circuit, district or county, for the
     apprehension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by seizing
     and arresting such fugitive, where the same can be done without
     process, and by taking and causing such person to be taken
     forthwith before such court, judge or commissioner, whose duty it
     shall be to hear and determine the case of such claimant in a
     summary manner; and upon satisfactory proof being made, by
     deposition or affidavit, in writing, to be taken and certified by
     such court, judge, or commissioner, or by other satisfactory
     testimony, duly taken and certified by some court, magistrate,
     justice of the peace, or other legal officer authorized to
     administer an oath, and take depositions under the laws of the
     State or Territory from which such person owing service or labor
     may have escaped, with a certificate of such magistracy or other
     authority, as aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court or
     officer thereto attached, which seal shall be sufficient to
     establish the competency of the proof, and with proof, also by
     affidavit, of the identity of the person whose service or labor is
     claimed to be due as aforesaid, that the person so arrested does in
     fact owe service or labor to the person or persons claiming him or
     her, in the State or Territory from which such fugitive may have
     escaped as aforesaid, and that said person escaped, to make out and
     deliver to such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, a
     certificate setting forth the substantial facts as to the service
     or labor due from such fugitive to the claimant, and of his or her
     escape from the State or Territory in which such service or labor
     was due to the State or Territory in which he or she was arrested,
     with authority to such claimant, or his or her agent or attorney to
     use such reasonable force and restraint as may be necessary under
     the circumstances of the case, to take and remove such fugitive
     person back to the State or Territory from whence he or she may
     have escaped as aforesaid. In no trial or hearing under this act
     shall the testimony of such alleged fugitive be admitted in
     evidence; and the certificates in this and the first section
     mentioned shall be conclusive of the right of the person or persons
     in whose favor granted to remove such fugitive to the State or
     Territory from which he escaped, and shall prevent all molestation
     of said person or persons by any process issued by any court,
     judge, magistrate, or other person whomsoever.

     SEC. 7. _And be it further enacted_, That any person who shall
     knowingly and willingly obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant,
     his agent or attorney, or any person or persons lawfully assisting
     him, her, or them, from arresting such a fugitive from service or
     labor, either with or without process as aforesaid; or shall
     rescue, or attempt to rescue such fugitive from service or labor,
     from the custody of such claimant, his or her agent or attorney or
     other person or persons lawfully assisting as aforesaid, when so
     arrested, pursuant to the authority herein given and declared: or
     shall aid, abet, or assist such person, so owing service or labor
     as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, to escape from such claimant,
     his agent or attorney, or other person or persons, legally
     authorized as aforesaid; or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive,
     so as to prevent the discovery and arrest of such person, after
     notice or knowledge of the fact that such person was a fugitive
     from service or labor as aforesaid, shall, for either of said
     offences, be subject to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars,
     and imprisonment not exceeding six months, by indictment and
     conviction before the district court of the United States for the
     district in which such offence may have been committed, or before
     the proper court of criminal jurisdiction, if committed within any
     one of the organized territories of the United States; and shall
     moreover forfeit and pay, by way of civil damages to the party
     injured by such illegal conduct, the sum of one thousand dollars
     for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be recovered by action
     of debt in any of the district or territorial courts aforesaid,
     within whose jurisdiction the said offence may have been committed.

     SEC. 8. _And be it further enacted_, That the marshals, their
     deputies, and the clerks of the said district and territorial
     courts, shall be paid for their services the like fees as may be
     allowed to them for similar services in other cases; and where such
     services rendered exclusively in the arrest, custody, and delivery
     of the fugitive to the claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or
     where such supposed fugitive may be discharged out of custody for
     the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid, then such fees are to be
     paid in the whole by such claimant, his agent or attorney; and in
     all cases where the proceedings are before a commissioner, he shall
     be entitled to a fee of ten dollars in full for his services in
     each case, upon delivery of the said certificate to the claimant,
     his or her agent or attorney; or a fee of five dollars in cases
     where the proof shall not, in the opinion of such commissioner,
     warrant such certificate and delivery, inclusive of all services
     incident to such arrest and examination, to be paid in either case,
     by the claimant, his or her agent or attorney. The person or
     persons authorized to execute the process to be issued by such
     commissioners for the arrest and detention of fugitives from
     service or labor as aforesaid, shall also be entitled to a fee of
     five dollars each for each person he or they may arrest and take
     before any such commissioner as aforesaid at the instance and
     request of such claimant, with such other fees as may be deemed
     reasonable by such commissioner for such other additional services
     as may be necessarily performed by him or them: such as attending
     to the examination, keeping the fugitive in custody, and providing
     him with food and lodging during his detention, and until the final
     determination of such commissioner; and in general for performing
     such other duties as may be required by such claimant, his or her
     attorney or agent, or commissioner in the premises; such fees to be
     made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by the officers
     of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, as
     near as may be practicable, and paid by such claimants, their
     agents or attorneys, whether such supposed fugitive from service or
     labor be ordered to be delivered to such claimants by the final
     determination of such commissioners or not.

     SEC. 9. _And be it further enacted_, That upon affidavit made by
     the claimant of such fugitive, his agent or attorney, after such
     certificate has been issued, that he has reason to apprehend that
     such fugitive will be rescued by force from his or their possession
     before he can be taken beyond the limits of the State in which the
     arrest is made, it shall be the duty of the officer making the
     arrest to retain such fugitive in his custody, and to remove him to
     the State whence he fled, and there to deliver him to said
     claimant, his agent or attorney. And to this end the officer
     aforesaid is hereby authorized and required to employ so many
     persons as he may deem necessary, to overcome such force, and to
     retain them in his service so long as circumstances may require;
     the said officer and his assistants, while so employed, to receive
     the same compensation, and to be allowed the same expenses as are
     now allowed by law for the transportation of criminals, to be
     certified by the judge of the district within which the arrest is
     made, and paid out of the treasury of the United States.

     SEC. 10. _And be it further enacted_, That when any person held to
     service or labor in any State or Territory, or in the District of
     Columbia, shall escape therefrom, the party to whom such service or
     labor shall be due, his, her, or their agent or attorney may apply
     to any court of record therein, or judge thereof, in vacation, and
     make satisfactory proof to such court, or judge, in vacation, of
     the escape aforesaid, and that the person escaping owed service or
     labor to such party. Whereupon the court shall cause a record to be
     made of the matters so proved, and also a general description of
     the person so escaping, with such convenient certainty as may be;
     and a transcript of such record authenticated by the attestation of
     the clerk, and of the seal of the said court, being produced in any
     other State, Territory, or District in which the person so escaping
     may be found, and being exhibited to any judge, commissioner, or
     other officer, authorized by the law of the United States to cause
     persons escaping from service or labor to be delivered up, shall be
     held and taken to be full and conclusive evidence of the fact of
     escape, and that the service or labor of the person escaping is due
     to the party in such record mentioned. And upon the production by
     the said party of other and further evidence, if necessary, either
     oral or by affidavit, in addition to what is contained in the said
     record of the identity of the person escaping, he or she shall be
     delivered up to the claimant. And the said court, commissioner,
     judge or other person authorized by this act to grant certificates
     to claimants of fugitives, shall, upon the production of the record
     and other evidences aforesaid, grant to such claimant a certificate
     of his right to take any such person identified and proved to be
     owing service or labor as aforesaid, which certificate shall
     authorize such claimant to seize or arrest and transport such
     person to the State or Territory from which he escaped: _Provided_,
     That nothing herein contained shall be construed as requiring the
     production of a transcript of such record as evidence as aforesaid;
     but in its absence, the claim shall be heard and determined upon
     other satisfactory proofs competent in law.

                               HOWELL COBB,
                              _Speaker of the House of Representatives_.

                               WILLIAM R. KING,
                              _President of the Senate, pro tempore_.

Approved September 18, 1850.
                                                       MILLARD FILLMORE.


The most prominent provisions of the Constitution of the United States,
and those which form the fundamental basis of personal security, are
they which provide, that every person shall be secure in their person
and property: that no person may be deprived of liberty without due
process of law, and that for crime or misdemeanor; that there may be no
process of law that shall work corruption of blood. By corruption of
blood is meant, that process, by which a person is _degraded_ and
deprived of rights common to the enfranchised citizen--of the rights of
an elector, and of eligibility to the office of a representative, of the
people; in a word, that no person nor their posterity, may ever be
debased beneath the level of the recognised basis of American
citizenship. This debasement and degradation is "corruption of blood";
politically understood--a legal acknowledgement of inferiority of birth.

Heretofore, it ever has been denied, that the United States recognised
or knew any difference between the people--that the Constitution makes
no distinction, but includes in its provisions, all the people alike.
This is not true, and certainly is blind absurdity in us at least, who
have suffered the dread consequences of this delusion, not now to see
it.

By the provisions of this bill, the colored people of the United States
are positively degraded beneath the level of the whites--are made liable
at any time, in any place, and under all circumstances, to be
arrested--and upon the claim of any white person, without the privilege,
even of making a defence, sent into endless bondage. Let no visionary
nonsense about _habeas corpus_, or a _fair trial_, deceive us; there are
no such rights granted in this bill, and except where the commissioner
is too ignorant to understand when reading it, or too stupid to enforce
it when he does understand, there is no earthly chance--no hope under
heaven for the colored person who is brought before one of these
officers of the law. Any leniency that may be expected, must proceed
from the whims or caprice of the magistrate--in fact, it is optional
with them; and _our_ rights and liberty entirely at their disposal.

We are slaves in the midst of freedom, waiting patiently, and
unconcernedly--indifferently and stupidly, for masters to come and lay
claim to us, trusting to their generosity, whether or not they will own
us and carry us into endless bondage.

The slave is more secure than we; he knows who holds the heel upon his
bosom--we know not the wretch who may grasp us by the throat. His master
may be a man of some conscientious scruples; ours may be unmerciful.
Good or bad, mild or harsh, easy or hard, lenient or severe, saint or
satan--whenever that master demands any one of us--even our affectionate
wives and darling little children, _we must go into slavery_--there is
_no alternative_. The _will_ of the man who sits in judgment on our
liberty, is the law. To him is given _all power_ to say, whether or not
we have a right to enjoy freedom. This is the power over the slave in
the South--this is now extended to the North. The will of the man who
sits in judgment over us is the law; because it is explicitly provided
that the _decision_ of the commissioner shall be final, from which there
can be no appeal.

The freed man of the South is even more secure than the freeborn of the
North; because such persons usually have their records in the slave
states, bringing their "papers" with them; and the slaveholders will be
faithful to their own acts. The Northern freeman knows no records; he
despises the "papers."

Depend upon no promised protection of citizens in any quarter. Their own
property and liberty are jeopardised, and they will not sacrifice them
for us. This we may not expect them to do.

Besides, there are no people who ever lived, love their country and obey
their laws as the Americans.

Their country is their Heaven--their Laws their Scriptures--and the
decrees of their Magistrates obeyed as the fiat of God. It is the most
consummate delusion and misdirected confidence to depend upon them for
protection; and for a moment suppose even our children safe while
walking in the streets among them.

A people capable of originating and sustaining such a law as this, are
not the people to whom we are willing to entrust our liberty at
discretion.

What can we do? What shall we do? This is the great and important
question:--Shall we submit to be dragged like brutes before heartless
men, and sent into degradation and bondage?--Shall we fly, or shall we
resist? Ponder well and reflect.

A learned jurist in the United States, (Chief Justice John Gibson of
Pennsylvania,) lays down this as a fundamental right in the United
States: that "Every man's house is his castle, and he has the right to
defend it unto the taking of life, against any attempt to enter it
against his will, except for crime," by well authenticated process.

But we have no such right. It was not intended for us, any more than any
other provision of the law, intended for the protection of Americans.
The policy is against us--it is useless to contend against it.

This is the law of the land and must be obeyed; and we candidly advise
that it is useless for us to contend against it. To suppose its repeal,
is to anticipate an overthrow of the Confederative Union; and we must be
allowed an expression of opinion, when we say, that candidly we believe,
the existence of the Fugitive Slave Law _necessary_ to the continuance
of the National Compact. This Law is the foundation of the
Compromise--remove it, and the consequences are easily determined. We
say necessary to the continuance of the National Compact: certainly we
will not be understood as meaning that the enactment of such a Law was
_really_ necessary, or as favoring in the least this political
monstrosity of the THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS of the UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA--surely not at all; but we speak logically and politically,
leaving morality and right out of the question--taking our position on
the acknowledged popular, basis of American Policy; arguing from premise
to conclusion. We must abandon all vague theory, and look at _facts_ as
they really are; viewing ourselves in our true political position in the
body politic. To imagine ourselves to be included in the body politic,
except by express legislation, is at war with common sense, and contrary
to fact. Legislation, the administration of the laws of the country, and
the exercise of rights by the people, all prove to the contrary. We are
politically, not of them, but aliens to the laws and political
privileges of the country. These are truths--fixed facts, that quaint
theory and exhausted moralising, are impregnable to, and fall harmlessly
before.

It is useless to talk about our rights in individual States: we can have
no rights here as citizens, not recognised in our common country; as the
citizens of one State, are entitled to all the rights and privileges of
an American citizen in all the States--the nullity of the one
necessarily implying the nullity of the other. These provisions then do
not include the colored people of the United States; since there is no
power left in them, whereby they may protect us as their own citizens.
Our descent, by the laws of the country, stamps us with
inferiority--upon us has this law worked _corruption of blood_. We are
in the hands of the General Government, and no State can rescue us. The
Army and Navy stand at the service of our enslavers, the whole force of
which, may at any moment--even in the dead of night, as has been
done--when sunk in the depth of slumber, called out for the purpose of
forcing our mothers, sisters, wives, and children, or ourselves, into
hopeless servitude, there to weary out a miserable life, a relief from
which, death would be hailed with joy. Heaven and earth--God and
Humanity!--are not these sufficient to arouse the most worthless among
mankind, of whatever descent, to a sense of their true position? These
laws apply to us--shall we not be aroused?

What then shall we do?--what is the remedy--is the important question to
be answered?

This important inquiry we shall answer, and find a remedy in when
treating of the emigration of the colored people.



XVII

EMIGRATION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES


That there have been people in all ages under certain circumstances,
that may be benefited by emigration, will be admitted; and that there
are circumstances under which emigration is absolutely necessary to
their political elevation, cannot be disputed.

This we see in the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt to the land of Judea;
in the expedition of Dido and her followers from Tyro to Mauritania; and
not to dwell upon hundreds of modern European examples--also in the ever
memorable emigration of the Puritans, in 1620, from Great Britain, the
land of their birth, to the wilderness of the New World, at which may be
fixed the beginning of emigration to this continent as a permanent
residence.

This may be acknowledged; but to advocate the emigration of the colored
people of the United States from their native homes, is a new feature in
our history, and at first view, may be considered objectionable, as
pernicious to our interests. This objection is at once removed, when
reflecting on our condition as incontrovertibly shown in a foregoing
part of this work. And we shall proceed at once to give the advantages
to be derived from emigration, to us as a people, in preference to any
other policy that we may adopt. This granted, the question will then be,
Where shall we go? This we conceive to be all important--of paramount
consideration, and shall endeavor to show the most advantageous
locality; and premise the recommendation, with the strictest advice
against any countenance whatever, to the emigration scheme of the so
called Republic of Liberia.



XVIII

"REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA"


That we desire the civilization and enlightenment of Africa--the high
and elevated position of Liberia among the nations of the earth, may not
be doubted, as the writer was among the first, seven or eight years ago,
to make the suggestion and call upon the Liberians to hold up their
heads like men; take courage, having confidence in their own capacity to
govern themselves, and come out from their disparaging position, by
formally declaring their Independence.

As our desire is to impart information, and enlighten the minds of our
readers on the various subjects herein contained, we present below a
large extract from the "First Annual Report of the Trustees of Donations
for Education in Liberia." This Extract will make a convenient statistic
reference for matters concerning Liberia. We could only wish that many
of our readers possessed more historical and geographical information of
the world, and there could be little fears of their going anywhere that
might be incongenial and unfavorable to their success. We certainly do
intend to deal fairly with Liberia, and give the reader every
information that may tend to enlighten them. What the colored people
most need, is _intelligence_; give them this, and there is no danger of
them being duped into anything they do not desire. This Board was
incorporated by the Legislature of Massachusetts, March 19th,
1850--Ensign H. Kellogg, Speaker of the House, Marshall P. Wilder,
President of the Senate. Trustees of the Board--Hon. George N. Briggs,
LL.D., Hon. Simon Greenleaf, LL.D., Hon. Stephen Fairbanks, Hon. William
J. Hubbard, Hon. Joel Giles, Hon. Albert Fearing, Amos A. Lawrence, Esq.
Officers of the Board--Hon. G.N. Briggs, President; Hon. S. Fairbanks,
Treasurer; Rev. J. Tracy, Secretary. The conclusion of the Report
says:--"In view of such considerations, the Trustees cannot doubt the
patrons of learning will sustain them in their attempt to plant the
FIRST COLLEGE on the _only_ continent which yet remains _without_ one."
In this, the learned Trustees have fallen into a statistical and
geographical error, which we design to correct. The _continent_ is _not
without_ a College. There are now in Egypt, erected under the patronage
of that singularly wonderful man, Mehemet Ahi, four colleges conducted
on the European principle--Scientific, Medical, Legal, and Military.[4]
These are in successful operation; the Military College having an
average of eleven hundred students annually. The continent of Africa
then, is not without a college, but though benighted enough, even to an
apparent hopeless degeneration, she is still the seat of learning, and
must some day rise, in the majesty of ancient grandeur, and vindicate
the rights and claims of her own children, against the incalculable
wrongs perpetrated through the period of sixty ages by professedly
enlightened Christians, against them.

     A glance at the map will show a sharp bend in this coast at Cape
     Palmas, from which it extends, on time one side, about 1,100 miles
     north-west and north, and on the other, about 1,200 or 1,300 almost
     directly east. In this bend is the Maryland Colony of Cape Palmas,
     with a jurisdiction extending nearly 100 miles eastward. This
     Colony is bounded on the north-west by the Republic of Liberia,
     which extends along the coast about 400 miles to Sherbro. These two
     governments will ultimately be united in one Republic, and may be
     considered as one, for all the purposes of this inquiry. The extent
     of their united sea-coast is about 520 miles. The jurisdiction of
     the Republic over the four hundred miles or more which it claims,
     has been formally acknowledged by several of the leading powers of
     Europe, and is questioned by none. To almost the whole of it, the
     native title has been extinguished; the natives, however, still
     occupying, as citizens, such portions of it as they need.

     The civilized population of these governments, judging from the
     census of 1843, and other information, is some 7,000 or 8,000. Of
     the heathen population, no census has ever been taken; but it
     probably exceeds 300,000.

     The grade of Liberian civilization may be estimated from the fact,
     that the people have formed a republican government, and so
     administer it, as to secure the confidence of European governments
     in its stability. The native tribes who have merged themselves in
     the Republic, have all bound themselves to receive and encourage
     teachers; and some of them have insisted on the insertion, in their
     treaties of annexation, of pledges that teachers and other means of
     civilization shall be furnished.

     Our accounts of churches, clergy and schools are defective, but
     show the following significant facts:

     The clergy of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Liberia are nearly
     all Liberian citizens, serving as missionaries of the Methodist
     Missionary Society in the United States. The last Report of that
     Society gives the names of fifteen missionaries, having in charge
     nine circuits, in which are 882 members in full communion, and 235
     probationers; total, 1,117. They have 20 Sabbath Schools, with 114
     officers and teachers, 810 scholars, and 507 volumes in their
     libraries. They have a Manual Labor School and Female Academy. The
     number of Day Schools is not reported; but seven of the
     missionaries are reported as superintendents of schools, and the
     same number have under their charge several "native towns," in some
     of which there are schools. The late superintendent of the missions
     writes:--

     "It appears plain to my mind, that nothing can now retard the
     progress of our missions in this land, unless it be the want of a
     good high school, in which to rear up an abundant supply of well
     qualified teachers, to supply, as they shall rapidly increase in
     number, all your schools."

     The Baptists are next in number to the Methodists. The Northern
     Baptist Board, having its seat in Boston, has in Liberia one
     mission, two out-stations, one boarding school, and two day
     schools, with about twenty scholars each, one native preacher, and
     four native assistants. The whole mission is in the hands of
     converted natives. The Southern Board operates more extensively.
     More than a year since, the Rev. John Day, its principal agent
     there, reported to the Rev. R.R. Gurley, United States Commissioner
     to Liberia, as follows:

     "In our schools are taught, say, 330 children, 92 of whom are
     natives. To more than 10,000 natives, the Word of Life is statedly
     preached; and in every settlement in these colonies, we have a
     church, to whom the means of grace are administered; and in every
     village we have an interesting Sunday school, where natives as well
     as colonists are taught the truths of God's word. Say, in our
     Sunday schools, are taught 400 colonists, and 200 natives.... We
     have this year baptized 18 natives and 7 colonists, besides what
     have been baptized by Messrs. Murray and Drayton, from whom I have
     had no report."

     The missionaries are all, or nearly all, Liberian citizens.

     The Board of Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United
     States has five missionaries at four stations in Liberia. The first
     is at Monrovia, under the care of the Rev. Harrison W. Ellis, well
     known as "the Learned Black Blacksmith." While a slave in Alabama,
     and working at his trade as a blacksmith, he acquired all the
     education, in English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Theology, which is
     required for ordination as a Presbyterian minister. The
     Presbyterians of that region then bought him, and sent him out as a
     missionary. His assistant, Mr. B.V.R. James, a colored man, was for
     some years a printer in the service of the American Board at their
     mission at Cape Palmas and the Gaboon River. He first went to
     Liberia as a teacher, supported by a society of ladies in New York.
     In the Presbyterian Church under the care of Mr. Ellis are 39
     communicants. During the year, 24 had been added, and 8 had been
     dismissed to form a new church in another place. Mr. Ellis also has
     charge of the "Alexander High School," which is intended mainly for
     teaching the rudiments of a classical education. This institution
     has an excellent iron school-house, given by a wealthy citizen of
     New York, at the cost of one thousand dollars, and a library and
     philosophical apparatus, which cost six hundred dollars, given by a
     gentleman in one of the southern States. The library contains a
     supply of classical works, probably equal to the wants of the
     school for some years. The land needed for the accommodation of the
     school was given by the government of Liberia. The number of
     scholars appears to be between twenty and thirty, a part of whom
     support themselves by their daily labor. The English High School
     under the care of Mr. James, had, according to the last Annual
     Report, 52 scholars. At a later date, the number in both schools
     was 78. Mr. James has also a large Sabbath school; but the number
     of pupils is not given.

     The second station is at the new settlement of Kentucky, on the
     right or north bank of the St. Paul's, about fifteen miles from
     Monrovia, and six miles below Millsburgh. The missionary is a
     Liberian, Mr. H.W. Erskine. On a lot of ten acres, given by the
     government, buildings on an economical scale have been erected, in
     which is a school of twenty scholars. A church was organized in
     November, 1849, with eight members from the church in Monrovia.
     They have since increased to fourteen. Here, too, is a flourishing
     Sabbath school. The citizens, and especially the poor natives in
     the neighbourhood, are extremely anxious that a boarding school
     should be established. To this the Committee having charge of this
     mission objects, as the expense for buildings and for the support
     of pupils would be great, and would absorb funds that can be more
     profitably expended on day schools.

     The third station is on the Sinou river, 150 miles down the coast
     from Monrovia, where, at the mouth of the river, is the town of
     Greenville, and a few miles higher up, the newer settlements of
     Readville and Rossville. It is under the care of the Rev. James M.
     Priest. The number of communicants, at the latest date, was thirty,
     and the field of labor was rapidly enlarging by immigration. The
     station is new, and it does not appear that any mission school had
     yet been organized.

     The fourth station is at Settra Kroo, where there are five or six
     miles of coast, to which the native title has not yet been
     extinguished. This station has been maintained for some years, at a
     lamentable expense of the lives and health of white missionaries.
     About 200 boys and a few girls have been taught to read. The
     station is now under the care of Mr. Washington McDonogh, formerly
     a slave of the late John McDonogh, of Louisiana, so well known for
     the immense estate which he has bequeathed to benevolent purposes.
     He was well educated, and with more than eighty others, sent out
     some years since at his master's expense. He has a school of
     fifteen scholars, with the prospect of a large increase.

     The mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church is located in the
     Maryland Colony at Cape Palmas. Its last Report specifies seven
     schools, and alludes to several others, in actual operation; all
     containing from 200 to 300 scholars, of whom about 100 are in one
     Sabbath school. Five other schools had been projected, and have
     probably gone into operation since that time. The greater part of
     the pupils are from native families. The Report states the number
     of communicants at sixty-seven, of whom forty are natives. A High
     school was opened January 1, 1850.

     The laws of the Republic of Liberia provide for a common school in
     every town. It is supposed, however, that where there is a mission
     school, accessible to all children of suitable age, no other school
     exists; so that, in fact, nearly all the common schools in Liberia
     are connected with the different missions, the missionaries have
     the superintendence of their studies, and the Missionary Societies
     defray a large portion of the expense. Yet it must be remembered
     that a large majority of the missionaries are citizens of the
     Republic, and some of them native Africans; so that the immediate
     control of the schools is not generally in foreign hands. A
     portion, also, of the missionary funds, is contributed in Liberia;
     and something is paid by parents for the tuition of their children.
     Yet the Republic evidently needs an educational system more
     independent of missionary aid and control; and for that purpose,
     needs a supply of teachers who are not raised up in mission
     schools. And we have it in testimony, that the missions themselves
     might be more efficient for good, if well supplied with teachers of
     higher qualifications.

     Here, then, we have a Republic of some 300,000 inhabitants, of whom
     7,000 or 8,000 may be regarded as civilized, and the remainder as
     having a right to expect, and a large part of them actually
     expecting and demanding the means of civilization and Christianity.
     We have,--supplying as well as we can by estimate, the numbers not
     definitely given,--more than 2,000 communicants in Christian
     churches, and more than 1,500 children in Sabbath Schools; some 40
     day schools containing, exclusive of the Methodists, who are the
     most numerous, and of whose numbers in school we have no report,
     about 635 scholars. The whole number in day schools, therefore, is
     probably not less than 1,200. We have the Alexander High School at
     Monrovia, where instruction is given to some extent in the
     classics; the English High School, at the same place, under Mr.
     James; the Methodist Manual Labor School and Female Academy at
     Millsburg; the Baptist Boarding School at Bexley; and the
     Protestant Episcopal High School at Cape Palmas. These institutions
     must furnish some students for a higher seminary, such as we
     propose to establish; and such a population must need their labors
     when educated.

However foreign to the designs of the writer of ever making that country
or any other out of America, his home; had this been done, and honorably
maintained, the Republic of Liberia would have met with words of
encouragement, not only from himself, an humble individual, but we dare
assert, from the leading spirits among, if not from the whole colored
population of the United States. Because they would have been willing to
overlook the circumstances under which they went there, so that in the
end, they were willing to take their stand as men, and thereby throw off
the degradation of slaves, still under the control of American
slave-holders, and American slave-ships. But in this, we were
disappointed--grievously disappointed, and proceed to show in short, our
objections to Liberia.

_Its geographical position_, in the first place, is objectionable,
being located in the _sixth degree_ of latitude North of the equator, in
a district signally unhealthy, rendering it objectionable as a place of
destination for the colored people of the United States. We shall say
nothing about other parts of the African coast, and the reasons for its
location where it is: it is enough for us to know the facts as they are,
to justify an unqualified objection to Liberia.

In the second place, it originated in a deep laid scheme of the
slaveholders of the country, to _exterminate_ the free colored of the
American continent; the origin being sufficient to justify us in
impugning the motives.

Thirdly and lastly--Liberia is not an Independent Republic: in fact, _it
is not_ an independent nation at all; but a poor _miserable mockery_--a
_burlesque_ on a government--a pitiful dependency on the American
Colonizationists, the Colonization Board at Washington city, in the
District of Columbia, being the Executive and Government, and the
principal man, called President, in Liberia, being the echo--a mere
parrot of Rev. Robert R. Gurley, Elliot Cresson, Esq., Governor Pinney,
and other leaders of the Colonization scheme--to do as they bid, and say
what they tell him. This we see in all of his doings.

Does he go to France and England, and enter into solemn treaties of an
honorable recognition of the independence of his country; before his own
nation has any knowledge of the result, this man called President,
dispatches an official report to the Colonizationists of the United
States, asking their gracious approval? Does king Grando, or a party of
fishermen besiege a village and murder some of the inhabitants, this
same "President," dispatches an official report to the American
Colonization Board, asking for instructions--who call an Executive
Session of the Board, and immediately decide that war must be waged
against the enemy, placing ten thousand dollars at his disposal--and war
_actually declared in Liberia_, by virtue of the _instructions_ of the
_American Colonization Society_. A mockery of a government--a disgrace
to the office pretended to be held--a parody on the position assumed.
Liberia in Africa, is a mere dependency of Southern slaveholders, and
American Colonizationists, and unworthy of any respectful consideration
from us.

What would be thought of the people of Hayti, and their heads of
government, if their instructions emanated from the American
Anti-Slavery Society, or the British Foreign Missionary Board? Should
they be respected at all as a nation? Would they be worthy of it?
Certainly not. We do not expect Liberia to be all that Hayti is; but we
ask and expect of her, to have a decent respect for herself--to endeavor
to be freemen instead of voluntary slaves. Liberia is no place for the
colored freemen of the United States; and we dismiss the subject with a
single remark of caution against any advice contained in a pamphlet,
which we have not seen, written by Hon. James G. Birney, in favor of
Liberian emigration. Mr. Birney is like the generality of white
Americans, who suppose that we are too ignorant to understand what we
want; whenever they wish to get rid of us, would drive us any where, so
that we left them. Don't adhere to a word therein contained; we will
think for ourselves. Let Mr. Birney go his way, and we will go ours.
This is one of those confounded gratuities that is forced in our faces
at every turn we make. We dismiss it without further comment--and with
it Colonization _in toto_--and Mr. Birney _de facto_.

But to return to emigration: Where shall we go? We must not leave this
continent; America is our destination and our home.

That the continent of America seems to have been designed by Providence
as an asylum for all the various nations of the earth, is very apparent.
From the earliest discovery, various nations sent a representation here,
either as adventurers and speculators, or employed seamen and soldiers,
hired to do the work of their employers. And among the earliest and most
numerous class who found their way to the New World, were those of the
African race. And it is now ascertained to our mind, beyond a
peradventure, that when the continent was discovered, there were found
in Central America, a tribe of the black race, of fine looking people,
having characteristics of color and hair, identifying them originally of
the African race--no doubt being a remnant of the Africans who, with the
Carthaginian expedition, were adventitiously cast upon this continent,
in their memorable excursion to the "Great Island," after sailing many
miles distant to the West of the Pillars of Hercules.

We are not inclined to be superstitious, but say, that we can see the
"finger of God" in all this; and if the European race may with
propriety, boast and claim, that this continent is better adapted to
their development, than their own father-land; surely, it does not
necessarily detract from our father-land, to claim the superior
advantages to the African race, to be derived from this continent. But
be that as it may, the world belongs to mankind--his common Father
created it for his common good--his temporal destiny is here; and our
present warfare, is not upon European rights, nor for European
countries; but for the common rights of man, based upon the great
principles of common humanity--taking our chance in the world of rights,
and claiming to have originally more right to this continent, than the
European race. And had we no other claims than those set forth in a
former part of this work, they are sufficient to cause every colored
man on the continent, to stand upon the soil unshaken and unmoved. The
aboriginee of the continent, is more closely allied to us by
consanguinity, than to the European--being descended from the Asiatic,
whose alliance in matrimony with the African is very common--therefore,
we have even greater claims to this continent on that account, and
should unite and make common cause in elevation, with our similarly
oppressed brother, the Indian.

The advantages of this continent are superior, because it presents every
variety of climate, soil, and production of the earth, with every
variety of mineral production, with all kinds of water privileges, arid
ocean coast on all sides, presenting every commercial advantage. Upon
the American continent we are determined to stay, in spite of every odds
against us. What part of the great continent shall our destination
be--shall we emigrate to the North or South?

FOOTNOTE:

[4] It may be, that the Medical and Legal Schools, are adjunct
departments of the Scientific College, which would make the number of
Colleges in Egypt but two: as we are certain that the Military is
separate entirely from the Scientific School, and spoken of by travelers
as a splendid College.



XIX

THE CANADAS


This is one of the most beautiful portions of North America. Canada
East, formerly known as Lower Canada, is not quite so favorable, the
climate being cold and severe in winter, the springs being late, the
summers rather short, and the soil not so productive. But Canada West,
formerly called Upper Canada, is equal to any portion of the Northern
States. The climate being milder than that of the Northern portions of
New York, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, or any of the States
bordering on the lakes, the soil is prolific in productions of every
description. Grains, vegetables, fruits, and cattle, are of the very
best kind; from a short tour by the writer, in that country in the fall,
1851, one year ago, he prefers Canada West to any part of North America,
as a destination for the colored people. But there is a serious
objection to the Canadas--a political objection. The Canadians are
descended from the same common parentage as the Americans on this side
of the Lakes--and there is a manifest tendency on the part of the
Canadians generally, to Americanism. That the Americans are determined
to, and will have the Canadas, to a close observer, there is not a
shadow of doubt; and our brethren should know this in time. This there
would be no fear of, were not the Canadian people in favor of the
project, neither would the Americans attempt an attack upon the
provinces, without the move being favored by the people of those places.

Every act of the Americans, ostensibly as courtesy and friendship, tend
to that end. This is seen in the policy pursued during the last two or
three years, in the continual invitations, frequently reciprocated, that
pass from the Americans to their "Canadian brethren"--always couched in
affectionate language--to join them in their various celebrations, in
different parts of the States. They have got them as far as Boston, and
we may expect to hear of them going to New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore--and instead of the merrymaking over the beginning or ending
of internal improvements, we may expect to see them ere long, wending
their way to the seat of the federal government--it may be with William
McKenzie, the memorable _patriot_ and present member of the Colonial
parliament, bearing in his hand the stars and stripes as their
ensign--there to blend their voices in the loud shout of jubilee, in
honor of the "bloodless victory," of Canadian annexation. This we
forewarn the colored people, in time, is the inevitable and not far
distant destiny of the Canadas. And let them come into the American
Republic when they may, the fate of the colored man, however free
before, is doomed, doomed, forever doomed. Disfranchisement,
degradation, and a delivery up to slave catchers and kidnappers, are
their only fate, let Canadian annexation take place when it will. The
odious infamous fugitive slave law, will then be in full force with all
of its terrors; and we have no doubt that fully in anticipation of this
event, was the despicable law created.

Let not colored people be deceived and gulled by any visionary argument
about original rights, or those of the people remaining the same as they
were previous to secession of the territory. The people can claim no
rights than such as are known to exist previous to their annexation.
This is manifestly the case with a large class of the former
inhabitants of Mexico, who though citizens before, in the full exercise
of their rights as such, so soon as the cession of the territory took
place, lost them entirely, as they could claim only such as were enjoyed
by the people of a similar class, in the country to which they made
their union. The laudatories heaped upon the Americans, within the
hearing of the writer, while traveling the provinces the last fall, by
one of the Canadian officiaries, in comparing their superior
intelligence to what he termed the "stupid aristocracy," then returning
from the Boston celebration, where there was a fair opportunity of
comparing the intellect of their chief magistrate, his excellency, Lord
Elgin, governor-general of the Canadas, and Sir Allen Napier McNab,
knight baronet with that of some of the "plain republicans" who were
present on the occasion, were extravagant. The Canadians generally were
perfectly carried away with delight at their reception. They reminded us
of some of our poor brethren, who had just made their escape from
Southern bondage, and for the first time in their life, had been taken
by the hand by a white man, who acknowledged them as equals. They don't
know when to stop talking about it, they really annoy one with
extravagant praises of them. This was the way with those gentlemen; and
we dare predict, that from what we heard on that occasion, that Mr.
McKenzie nor Big Bill Johnson, hero of the Forty Islands, are no greater
_patriots_ than these Canadian visitors to the Boston husa! We are
satisfied that the Canadas are no place of safety for the colored people
of the United States; otherwise we should have no objection to them.

But to the fugitive--our enslaved brethren flying from Southern
despotism--we say, until we have a more preferable place--go on to
Canada. Freedom, always; liberty any place and ever--before slavery.
Continue to fly to the Canadas, and swell the number of the twenty-five
thousand already there. Surely the British cannot, they will not look
with indifference upon such a powerful auxiliary as these brave, bold,
daring men--the very flower of the South, who have hazarded every
consequence, many of whom have come from Arkansas and Florida in search
of freedom. Worthy surely to be free, when gained at such a venture. Go
on to the North, till the South is ready to receive you--for surely, he
who can make his way from Arkansas to Canada, can find his way from
Kentucky to Mexico. The moment his foot touches this land South, he is
free. Let the bondman but be assured that he can find the same freedom
South that there is in the North; the same liberty in Mexico, as in
Canada, and he will prefer going South to going North. His risk is no
greater in getting there. Go either way, and he in the majority of
instances must run the gauntlet of the slave states.



XX

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES


Central and South America, are evidently the ultimate destination and
future home of the colored race on this continent; the advantages of
which in preference to all others, will be apparent when once pointed
out.[5]

Geographically, from the Northern extremity of Yucatan, down through
Central and South America, to Cape Horn, there is a variation of climate
from the twenty-second degree of North latitude, passing through the
equatorial region; nowhere as warm as it is in the same latitude in
Africa; to the _fifty-fifth degree_ of South latitude, including a
climate as cold as that of the Hudson Bay country in British America,
colder than that of Maine, or any part known to the United States of
North America; so that there is every variety of climate in South, as
well as North America.

In the productions of grains, fruits, and vegetables, Central and South
America are also prolific; and the best of herds are here raised.
Indeed, the finest Merino sheep, as well as the principal trade in rice,
sugar, cotton, and wheat, which is now preferred in California to any
produced in the United States--the Chilian flour--might be carried on by
the people of this most favored portion of God's legacy to man. The
mineral productions excel all other parts of this continent; the rivers
present the greatest internal advantages, and the commercial prospects,
are without a parallel on the coast of the new world.

The advantages to the colored people of the United States, to be derived
from emigration to Central, South America, and the West Indies, are
incomparably greater than that of any other parts of the world at
present.

In the first place, there never have existed in the policy of any of the
nations of Central or South America, an inequality on account of race or
color, and any prohibition of rights, has generally been to the white,
and not to the colored races.[6] To the whites, not because they were
white, not on account of their color, but because of the policy pursued
by them towards the people of other races than themselves. The
population of Central and South America, consist of fifteen millions two
hundred and forty thousand, adding the ten millions of Mexico;
twenty-five millions two hundred and forty thousand, of which vast
population, but _one-seventh_ are whites, or the pure European race.
Allowing a deduction of one-seventh of this population for the European
race that may chance to be in those countries, and we have in South and
Central America alone, the vast colored population of _thirteen millions
one hundred and seventy-seven thousand_; and including Mexico, a
_colored_ population on this glorious continent of _twenty-one millions,
six hundred and forty thousand_.

This vast number of people, our brethren--because they are precisely the
same people as ourselves and share the same fate with us, as the case of
numbers of them have proven, who have been adventitiously thrown among
us--stand ready and willing to take us by the hand--nay, are anxiously
waiting, and earnestly importuning us to come, that they may make common
cause with us, and we all share the same fate. There is nothing under
heaven in our way--the people stand with open arms ready to receive us.
The climate, soil, and productions--the vast rivers and beautiful
sea-coast--the scenery of the landscape, and beauty of the starry
heavens above--the song of the birds--the voice of the people say
come--and God our Father bids us go.--Will we go? Go we must, and go we
will, as there is no alternative. To remain here in North America, and
be crushed to the earth in vassalage and degradation, we never will.

Talk not about religious biases--we have but one reply to make. We had
rather be a Heathen _freeman_, than a Christian _slave_.

There need be no fear of annexation in these countries--the prejudices
of the people are all against it, and with our influences infused among
them, the aversion would be ten-fold greater. Neither need there be any
fears of an attempt on the part of the United States, at a subjugation,
of these countries. Policy is against it, because the United States has
too many colored slaves in their midst, to desire to bring under their
government, twenty-one millions of disfranchised people, whom it would
cost them more to keep under subjection, than ten-fold the worth of the
countries they gained. Besides, let us go to whatever parts of Central
and South America we may, we shall make common cause with the people,
and shall hope, by one judicious and signal effort, to assemble one
day--and a glorious day it will be--in a great representative
convention, and form a glorious union of South American States,
"inseparably connected one and forever."

This can be done, easily done, if the proper course be pursued, and
necessity will hold them together as it holds together the United States
of North America--self-preservation. As the British nation serves to
keep in check the Americans; so would the United States serve to keep in
Union the South American States.

We should also enter into solemn treaties with Great Britain, and like
other free and independent nations, take our chance, and risk
consequences. Talk not of consequences; we are now in chains; shall we
shake them off and go to a land of liberty? shall our wives and children
be protected, secure, and affectionately cherished, or shall they be
debased and degraded as our mothers and fathers were? By the light of
heaven, no! By the instincts of nature, no!

Talk not about consequences. White men seek responsibilities; shall we
shun them? They brave dangers and risk consequences; shall we shrink
from them? What are consequences, compared in the scale of value, with
liberty and freedom; the rights and privileges of our wives and
children? In defence of our liberty--the rights of my wife and children;
had we the power, we would command the vault of a volcano, charged with
the wrath of heaven, and blast out of existence, every thing that dared
obstruct our way.

The time has now fully arrived, when the colored race is called upon by
all the ties of common humanity, and all the claims of consummate
justice, to go forward and take their position, and do battle in the
struggle now being made for the redemption of the world. Our cause is a
just one; the greatest at present that elicits the attention of the
world. For it there is a remedy; that remedy is now at hand. God himself
as assuredly as he rules the destinies of nations, and entereth measures
into the "hearts of men," has presented these measures to us. Our race
is to be redeemed; it is a great and glorious work, and we are the
instrumentalities by which it is to be done. But we must go from among
our oppressors; it never can be done by staying among them. God has, as
certain as he has ever designed any thing, has designed this great
portion of the New World, for us, the colored races; and as certain as
we stubborn our hearts, and stiffen our necks against it, his protecting
arm and fostering care will be withdrawn from us.

Shall we be told that we can live nowhere, but under the will of our
North American oppressors; that this (the United States,) is the country
most favorable to our improvement and progress? Are we incapable of
self-government, and making such improvements for ourselves as we
delight to enjoy after American white men have made them for themselves?
No, it is not true. Neither is it true that the United States is the
best country for our improvement. That country is the best, in which our
manhood can be best developed; and that is Central and South America,
and the West Indies--all belonging to this glorious Continent.

Whatever may be our pretended objections to any place, whenever and
wherever our oppressors go, there will our people be found in
proportionate numbers. Even now could they get possession of the
equatorial region of South America, there would colored men be found
living on their boats and in their houses to do their menial services;
but talk to them about going there and becoming men, and a thousand
excuses and objections are at once raised against the climate or
whatever else.

The writer, within the past few years, and as early as seventeen years
ago, then being quite young, and flushed with geographical and
historical speculations, introduced in a Literary Institution of Young
Men, the subject of Mexican, Californian, and South American Emigration.
He was always hooted at, and various objections raised: one on account
of distance, and another that of climate.

He has since seen some of the same persons engage themselves to their
white American oppressors--officers in the war against Mexico, exposing
themselves to the chances of the heat of day and the damp of
night--risking the dangers of the battle-field, in the capacity of
servants. And had the Americans taken Mexico, no people would have
flocked there faster than the colored people from the United States. The
same is observed of California.

In conversation, in the city of New York, a few weeks ago, with a
colored lady of intelligence, one of the "first families," the
conversation being the elevation of the colored people, we introduced
emigration as a remedy, and Central America as the place. We were
somewhat surprised, and certainly unprepared to receive the rebuking
reply--"Do you suppose that I would go in the woods to live for the sake
of freedom? no, indeed! if you wish to do so, go and do it. I am free
enough here!" Remarking at the same time, that her husband was in San
Francisco, and she was going to him, as she learned that that city was
quite a large and handsome place.

We reminded her, that the industry of white men and women, in four
years' time, had made San Francisco what it is. That in 1846, before the
American emigration, the city contained about seven hundred people,
surrounded by a dense wilderness; and that we regretted to contrast her
conduct or disposition with that of the lady of Col. Fremont, a daughter
of Senator Benton, who tenderly and indulgently raised, in the spring
after his arduous adventure across the mountains, and almost miraculous
escape, while the country was yet a wilderness, left her comfortable
home in Missouri, and braved the dangers of the ocean, to join her
husband and settle in the wilderness. That she was going now to San
Francisco, because it was a populous and "fine city"--that Mrs. Fremont
went, when it was a wilderness, to help to _make_ a populous and fine
city.

About two hours previous to the writing of the following fact, two
respectable colored ladies in conversation, pleasantly disputing about
the superiority of the two places, Philadelphia and New York, when one
spoke of the uniform cleanliness of the streets of Philadelphia, and the
dirtiness of those of New York; when the other triumphantly
replied,--"The reason that our streets are so dirty is, that we do more
business in one day, than you do in a month." The other acknowledged the
fact with some degree of reluctance, and explained, with many "buts" as
an excuse in extenuation. Here was a seeming appreciation of business
and enterprise; but the query flashed through our mind in an instant, as
to whether they thought for a moment, of the fact, that _they_ had no
interest in either city, nor its _business_. It brought forcibly to our
mind, the scene of two of our oppressed brethren South, fighting each
other, to prove his _master_ the greatest gentleman of the two.

Let no objections be made to emigration on the ground of the difficulty
of the fugitive slave, in reaching us; it is only necessary for him to
know, that he has safety South, and he will find means of reaching the
South, as easily as he now does the North. Have no fears about that--his
redemption draws nigh, the nearer we draw to him. Central and South
America, _must be our future homes_. Our oppressors will not want us to
go there. They will move heaven and earth to prevent us--they will talk
about us getting our rights, and offer us a territory here, and all
that. It is of no use. They have pressed us to the last retreat--the die
is cast--the Rubicon must be crossed--go we will, in defiance of all the
slave-power in the Union. And we shall not go there, to be idle--passive
spectators to an invasion of South American rights. No--go when we will,
and where we may, we shall hold ourselves amenable to defend and protect
the country that embraces us. We are fully able to defend ourselves,
once concentrated, against any odds--and by the help of God, we will do
it. We do not go, without counting the cost, cost what it may; all that
it may cost, it is worth to be free.

In going, let us have but one object--to become elevated men and women,
worthy of freedom--the worthy citizens of an adopted country. What to us
will be adopted--to our children will be legitimate. Go not with an
anxiety of political aspirations; but go with the fixed intention--as
Europeans come to the United States--of cultivating the soil, entering
into the mechanical operations, keeping of shops, carrying on
merchandise, trading on land and water, improving property--in a word,
to become the producers of the country, instead of the consumers.

Let young men who go, have a high object in view; and not go with a
view of becoming servants to wealthy gentlemen there; for be assured,
that they place themselves beneath all respectful consideration.

FOOTNOTES:

[5] The native language of these countries, as well as the greater part
of South America, is _Spanish_, which is the easiest of all foreign
languages to learn. It is very remarkable and worthy of note, that with
a view of going to Mexico or South America, the writer several years ago
paid some attention to the Spanish language; and now, a most singular
coincidence, without preunderstanding, in almost every town, where there
is any intelligence among them, there are some _colored persons_ of both
sexes, who are studying the Spanish language. Even the Methodist and
other clergymen, among them. And we earnestly entreat all colored
persons who can, to study, and have their children taught Spanish. No
foreign language will be of such _import_ to colored people, in a very
short time, as the Spanish. Mexico, Central and South America, importune
us to speak their language; and if nothing else, the silent indications
of Cuba, urge us to learn the Spanish tongue.

[6] The Brazilians have formed a Colonization Society, for the purpose
of colonizing free blacks to Africa. The Brazilians are Portuguese, the
only nation that can be termed white, and the only one that is a real
slave holding nation in South America. Even the black and colored men
have equal privileges with whites; and the action of this society will
probably extend only to the sending back of such captives as may be
taken from piratical slavers. Colonization in Brazil, has doubtless been
got up under the influence of United States slave holders and their
abettors, such as the consuls and envoys, who are sent out to South
America, by the government. Chevalier Niteroi, _charge de affaires_ from
Brazil near the government of Liberia, received by the President on the
28th of last January, is also charged with the mission of establishing a
colony of free blacks in Liberia. The Chevalier was once a Captain in
the Brazilian navy on the coast of Africa; and no doubt is conversant
with the sentiments of Roberts, who was charged with the slave trade at
one time. The scheme of United States slaveholders and President J.J.
Roberts, their agent of Liberia, will not succeed, in establishing
prejudice against the _black_ race; not even in slaveholding Brazil.

We have no confidence in President Roberts of Liberia, believing him to
be wholly without principle--seeking only self-aggrandizement; even
should it be done, over the ruined prospects of his staggering infant
country. The people of Liberia, should beware of this man. His _privy
councillors_ are to be found among _slaveholders_ in the United States.



XXI

NICARAGUA AND NEW GRENADA


As it is not reasonable to suppose, that all who read this
volume--especially those whom it is intended most to benefit--understand
geography; it is deemed advisable, to name some particular places, as
locality of destination.

We consequently, to begin with, select NICARAGUA, in Central America,
North, and NEW GRENADA, the Northern part of South America, South of
Nicaragua, as the most favorable points at present, in every particular,
for us to emigrate to.

In the first place, they are the nearest points to be reached, and
countries at which the California adventurers are now touching, on their
route to that distant land, and not half the distance of California.

In the second place, the advantages for all kinds of enterprise, are
equal if not superior, to almost any other points--the climate being
healthy and highly favorable.

In the third place, and by no means the least point of importance, the
British nation is bound by solemn treaty, to protect both of those
nations from foreign imposition, until they are able to stand alone.

Then there is nothing in the way, but every thing in favor, and
opportunities for us to rise to the full stature of manhood. Remember
this fact, that in these countries, colored men now fill the highest
places in the country: and colored people have the same chances there,
that white people have in the United States. All that is necessary to
do, is to go, and the moment your foot touches the soil, you have all
the opportunities for elevating yourselves as the highest, according to
your industry and merits.

Nicaragua and New Grenada, are both Republics, having a President,
Senate, and Representatives of the people. The municipal affairs are
well conducted; and remember, however much the customs of the country
may differ, and appear strange to those you have left behind--remember
that you are free; and that many who, at first sight, might think that
they could not become reconciled to the new order of things, should
recollect, that they were once in a situation in the United States, (in
_slavery_,) where they were compelled to be content with customs
infinitely more averse to their feelings and desires. And that customs
become modified, just in proportion as people of different customs from
different parts, settle in the same communities together. All we ask is
Liberty--the rest follows as a matter of course.



XXII

THINGS AS THEY ARE

     "And if thou boast TRUTH to utter,
     SPEAK, and leave the rest to God."


In presenting this work, we have but a single object in view, and that
is, to inform the minds of the colored people at large, upon many things
pertaining to their elevation, that but few among us are acquainted
with. Unfortunately for us, as a body, we have been taught to believe,
that we must have some person to think for us, instead of thinking for
ourselves. So accustomed are we to submission and this kind of training,
that it is with difficulty, even among the most intelligent of the
colored people, an audience may be elicited for any purpose whatever, if
the expounder is to be a colored person; and the introduction of any
subject is treated with indifference, if not contempt, when the
originator is a colored person. Indeed, the most ordinary white person,
is almost revered, while the most qualified colored person is totally
neglected. Nothing from them is appreciated.

We have been standing comparatively still for years, following in the
footsteps of our friends, believing that what they promise us can be
accomplished, just because they say so, although our own knowledge
should long since, have satisfied us to the contrary. Because even were
it possible, with the present hate and jealousy that the whites have
towards us in this country, for us to gain equality of rights with them;
we never could have an equality of the exercise and enjoyment of those
rights--because, the great odds of numbers are against us. We might
indeed, as some at present, have the right of the elective
franchise--nay, it is not the elective franchise, because the _elective
franchise_ makes the enfranchised, _eligible_ to any position
attainable; but we may exercise the right of _voting_ only, which to us,
is but poor satisfaction; and we by no means care to cherish the
privilege of voting somebody into office, to help to make laws to
degrade us.

In religion--because they are both _translators_ and _commentators_, we
must believe nothing, however absurd, but what our oppressors tell us.
In Politics, nothing but such as they promulge; in Anti-Slavery, nothing
but what our white brethren and friends say we must; in the mode and
manner of our elevation, we must do nothing, but that which may be laid
down to be done by our white brethren from some quarter or other; and
now, even on the subject of emigration, there are some colored people to
be found, so lost to their own interest and self-respect, as to be
gulled by slave owners and colonizationists, who are led to believe
there is no other place in which they can become elevated, but Liberia,
a government of American slave-holders, as we have shown--simply,
because white men have told them so.

Upon the possibility, means, mode and manner, of our Elevation in the
United States--Our Original Rights and Claims as Citizens--Our
Determination not to be Driven from our Native Country--the Difficulties
in the Way of our Elevation--Our Position in Relation to our
Anti-Slavery Brethren--the Wicked Design and Injurious Tendency of the
American Colonization Society--Objections to Liberia--Objections to
Canada--Preferences to South America, &c., &c., all of which we have
treated without reserve; expressing our mind freely, and with candor, as
we are determined that as far as we can at present do so, the minds of
our readers shall be enlightened. The custom of concealing information
upon vital and important subjects, in which the interest of the people
is involved, we do not agree with, nor favor in the least; we have
therefore, laid this cursory treatise before our readers, with the hope
that it may prove instrumental in directing the attention of our people
in the right way, that leads to their Elevation. Go or stay--of course
each is free to do as he pleases--one thing is certain; our Elevation is
the work of our own hands. And Mexico, Central America, the West Indies,
and South America, all present now, opportunities for the individual
enterprise of our young men, who prefer to remain in the United States,
in preference to going where they can enjoy real freedom, and equality
of rights. Freedom of Religion, as well as of politics, being tolerated
in all of these places.

Let our young men and women, prepare themselves for usefulness and
business; that the men may enter into merchandise, trading, and other
things of importance; the young women may become teachers of various
kinds, and otherwise fill places of usefulness. Parents must turn their
attention more to the education of their children. We mean, to educate
them for useful practical business purposes. Educate them for the Store
and the Counting House--to do every-day practical business. Consult the
children's propensities, and direct their education according to their
inclinations. It may be, that there is too great a desire on the part of
parents, to give their children a professional education, before the
body of the people, are ready for it. A people must be a business
people, and have more to depend upon than mere help in people's houses
and Hotels, before they are either able to support, or capable of
properly appreciating the services of professional men among them. This
has been one of our great mistakes--we have gone in advance of
ourselves. We have commenced at the superstructure of the building,
instead of the foundation--at the top instead of the bottom. We should
first be mechanics and common tradesmen, and professions as a matter of
course would grow out of the wealth made thereby. Young men and women,
must now prepare for usefulness--the day of our Elevation is at
hand--all the world now gazes at us--and Central and South America, and
the West Indies, bid us come and be men and women, protected, secure,
beloved and Free.

The branches of Education most desirable for the preparation of youth,
for practical useful every-day life, are Arithmetic and good Penmanship,
in order to be Accountants; and a good rudimental knowledge of
Geography--which has ever been neglected, and under estimated--and of
Political Economy; which without the knowledge of the first, no people
can ever become adventurous--nor of the second, never will be an
enterprising people. Geography, teaches a knowledge of the world, and
Political Economy, a knowledge of the wealth of nations; or how to make
money. These are not abstruse sciences, or learning not easily acquired
or understood; but simply, common School Primer learning, that every
body may get. And, although it is the very key to prosperity and success
in common life, but few know any thing about it. Unfortunately for our
people, so soon as their children learn to read a Chapter in the New
Testament, and scribble a miserable hand, they are pronounced to have
"Learning enough"; and taken away from School, no use to themselves, nor
community. This is apparent in our Public Meetings, and Official Church
Meetings; of the great number of men present, there are but few capable
of filling a Secretaryship. Some of the large cities may be an exception
to this. Of the multitudes of Merchants, and Businessmen throughout this
country, Europe, and the world, few are qualified, beyond the branches
here laid down by us as necessary for business. What did John Jacob
Astor, Stephen Girard, or do the millionaires and the greater part of
the merchant princes, and mariners, know about Latin and Greek, and the
Classics? Precious few of them know any thing. In proof of this, in
1841, during the Administration of President Tyler, when the mutiny was
detected on board of the American Man of War Brig Somers, the names of
the Mutineers, were recorded by young S---- a Midshipman in Greek.
Captain Alexander Slidell McKenzie, Commanding, was unable to read them;
and in his despatches to the Government, in justification of his policy
in executing the criminals, said that he "discovered some curious
characters which he was unable to read," &c.; showing thereby, that that
high functionary, did not understand even the Greek Alphabet, which was
only necessary, to have been able to read proper names written in Greek.

What we most need then, is a good business practical Education; because,
the Classical and Professional education of so many of our young men,
before their parents are able to support them, and community ready to
patronize them, only serves to lull their energy, and cripple the
otherwise, praiseworthy efforts they would make in life. A Classical
education, is only suited to the wealthy, or those who have a prospect
of gaining a livelihood by it. The writer does not wish to be
understood, as underrating a Classical and Professional education; this
is not his intention; he fully appreciates them, having had some such
advantages himself; but he desires to give a proper guide, and put a
check to the extravagant idea that is fast obtaining, among our people
especially, that a Classical, or as it is termed, a "finished
education," is necessary to prepare one for usefulness in life. Let us
have an education, that shall practically develope our thinking
faculties and manhood; and then, and not until then, shall we be able to
vie with our oppressors, go where we may. We as heretofore, have been on
the extreme; either no qualification at all, or a Collegiate education.
We jumped too far; taking a leap from the deepest abyss to the highest
summit; rising from the ridiculous to the sublime; without medium or
intermission.

Let our young women have an education; let their minds be well informed;
well stored with useful information and practical proficiency, rather
than the light superficial acquirements, popularly and fashionably
called accomplishments. We desire accomplishments, but they must be
_useful_.

Our females must be qualified, because they are to be the mothers of our
children. As mothers are the first nurses and instructors of children;
from them children consequently, get their first impressions, which
being always the most lasting, should be the most correct. Raise the
mothers above the level of degradation, and the offspring is elevated
with them. In a word, instead of our young men, transcribing in their
blank books, recipes for _Cooking_; we desire to see them making the
transfer of _Invoices of Merchandise_. Come to our aid then; the
_morning_ of our _Redemption_ from degradation, adorns the horizon.

In our selection of individuals, it will be observed, that we have
confined ourself entirely to those who occupy or have occupied positions
among the whites, consequently having a more general bearing as useful
contributors to society at large. While we do not pretend to give all
such worthy cases, we gave such as we possessed information of, and
desire it to be understood, that a large number of our most intelligent
and worthy men and women, have not been named, because from their more
private position in community, it was foreign to the object and design
of this work. If we have said aught to offend, "take the will for the
deed," and be assured, that it was given with the purest of motives, and
best intention, from a true hearted man and brother; deeply lamenting
the sad fate of his race in this country, and sincerely desiring the
elevation of man, and submitted to the serious consideration of all, who
favor the promotion of the cause of God and humanity.



XXIII

A GLANCE AT OURSELVES--CONCLUSION

     With broken hopes--sad devastation;
     A race _resigned_ to DEGRADATION!


We have said much to our young men and women, about their vocation and
calling; we have dwelt much upon the menial position of our people in
this country. Upon this point we cannot say too much, because there is a
seeming satisfaction and seeking after such positions manifested on
their part, unknown to any other people. There appears to be, a want of
a sense of propriety or _self-respect_, altogether inexplicable; because
young men and women among us, many of whom have good trades and homes,
adequate to their support, voluntarily leave them, and seek positions,
such as servants, waiting maids, coachmen, nurses, cooks in gentlemens'
kitchen, or such like occupations, when they can gain a livelihood at
something more respectable, or elevating in character. And the worse
part of the whole matter is, that they have become so accustomed to it,
it has become so "fashionable," that it seems to have become second
nature, and they really become offended, when it is spoken against.

Among the German, Irish, and other European peasantry who come to this
country, it matters not what they were employed at before and after they
come; just so soon as they can better their condition by keeping shops,
cultivating the soil, the young men and women going to night-schools,
qualifying themselves for usefulness, and learning trades--they do so.
Their first and last care, object and aim is, to better their condition
by raising themselves above the condition that necessity places them in.
We do not say too much, when we say, as an evidence of the deep
degradation of our race, in the United States, that there are those
among us, the wives and daughters, some of the _first ladies_, (and who
dare say they are not the "first," because they belong to the "first
class" and associate where any body among us can?) whose husbands are
industrious, able and willing to support them, who voluntarily leave
home, and become chamber-maids, and stewardesses, upon vessels and
steamboats, in all probability, to enable them to obtain some more fine
or costly article of dress or furniture.

We have nothing to say against those whom _necessity_ compels to do
these things, those who can do no better; we have only to do with those
who can, and will not, or do not do better. The whites are always in the
advance, and we either standing still or retrograding; as that which
does not go forward, must either stand in one place or go back. The
father in all probability is a farmer, mechanic, or man of some
independent business; and the wife, sons and daughters, are
chamber-maids, on vessels, nurses and waiting-maids, or coachmen and
cooks in families. This is retrogradation. The wife, sons, and daughters
should be elevated above this condition as a necessary consequence.

If we did not love our race superior to others, we would not concern
ourself about their degradation; for the greatest desire of our heart
is, to see them stand on a level with the most elevated of mankind. No
people are ever elevated above the condition of their _females_; hence,
the condition of the _mother_ determines the condition of the child. To
know the position of a people, it is only necessary to know the
_condition_ of their _females_; and despite themselves, they cannot rise
above their level. Then what is our condition? Our _best ladies_ being
washerwomen, chambermaids, children's traveling nurses, and common house
servants, and menials, we are all a degraded, miserable people, inferior
to any other people as a whole, on the face of the globe.

These great truths, however unpleasant, must be brought before the minds
of our people in its true and proper light, as we have been too delicate
about them, and too long concealed them for fear of giving offence. It
would have been infinitely better for our race, if these facts had been
presented before us half a century ago--we would have been now
proportionably benefitted by it.

As an evidence of the degradation to which we have been reduced, we dare
premise, that this chapter will give offence to many, very many, and
why? Because they may say, "He dared to say that the occupation of a
_servant_ is a degradation." It is not necessarily degrading; it would
not be, to one or a few people of a kind; but a _whole race of servants_
are a degradation to that people.

Efforts made by men of qualifications for the toiling and degraded
millions among the whites, neither gives offence to that class, nor is
it taken unkindly by them; but received with manifestations of
gratitude; to know that they are thought to be, equally worthy of, and
entitled to stand on a level with the elevated classes; and they have
only got to be informed of the way to raise themselves, to make the
effort and do so as far as they can. But how different with us. Speak of
our position in society, and it at once gives insult. Though we are
servants; among ourselves we claim to be _ladies_ and _gentlemen_, equal
in standing, and as the popular expression goes, "Just as good as any
body"--and so believing, we make no efforts to raise above the common
level of menials; because the _best_ being in that capacity, all are
content with the position. We cannot at the same time, be domestic and
lady; servant and gentleman. We must be the one or the other. Sad, sad
indeed, is the thought, that hangs drooping in our mind, when
contemplating the picture drawn before us. Young men and women, "we
write these things unto you, because ye are strong," because the writer,
a few years ago, gave unpardonable offence to many of the young people
of Philadelphia and other places, because he dared tell them, that he
thought too much of them, to be content with seeing them the servants of
other people. Surely, she that could be the mistress, would not be the
maid; neither would he that could be the master, be content with being
the servant; then why be offended, when we point out to you, the way
that leads from the menial to the mistress or the master. All this we
seem to reject with fixed determination, repelling with anger, every
effort on the part of our intelligent men and women to elevate us, with
true Israelitish degradation, in reply to any suggestion or proposition
that may be offered, "Who made thee a ruler and judge?"

The writer is no "Public Man," in the sense in which this is understood
among our people, but simply an humble individual, endeavoring to seek a
livelihood by a profession obtained entirely by his own efforts, without
relatives and friends able to assist him; except such friends as he
gained by the merit of his course and conduct, which he here gratefully
acknowledges; and whatever he has accomplished, other young men may, by
making corresponding efforts, also accomplish.

We have advised an emigration to Central and South America, and even to
Mexico and the West Indies, to those who prefer either of the last named
places, all of which are free countries, Brazil being the only real
slave-holding State in South America--there being nominal slavery in
Dutch Guiana, Peru, Buenos Ayres, Paraguay, and Uraguay, in all of which
places colored people have equality in social, civil, political, and
religious privileges; Brazil making it punishable with death to import
slaves into the empire.

Our oppressors, when urging us to go to Africa, tell us that we are
better adapted to the climate than they--that the physical condition of
the constitution of colored people better endures the heat of warm
climates than that of the whites; this we are willing to _admit_,
without argument, without adducing the physiological reason why, that
colored people can and do stand warm climates better than whites; and
find an answer fully to the point in the fact, that they also stand _all
other_ climates, cold, temperate, and modified, that white people can
stand; therefore, according to our oppressors' own showing, we are a
_superior race_, being endowed with properties fitting us for _all
parts_ of the earth, while they are only adapted to _certain_ parts. Of
course, this proves our right and duty to live wherever we may _choose_;
while the white race may only live where they _can_. We are content with
the fact, and have ever claimed it. Upon this rock, they and we shall
ever agree.

Of the West India Islands, Santa Cruz, belonging to Denmark; Porto Rico,
and Cuba with its little adjuncts, belonging to Spain, are the only
slaveholding Islands among them--three-fifths of the whole population of
Cuba being colored people, who cannot and will not much longer endure
the burden and the yoke. They only want intelligent leaders of their own
color, when they are ready at any moment to charge to the conflict--to
liberty or death. The remembrance of the noble mulatto, PLACIDO, the
gentleman, scholar, poet, and intended Chief Engineer of the Army of
Liberty and Freedom in Cuba; and the equally noble black, CHARLES BLAIR,
who was to have been Commander-in-Chief, who were shamefully put to
death in 1844, by that living monster, Captain General O'Donnell, is
still fresh and indelible to the mind of every bondman of Cuba.

In our own country, the United States, there are _three million five
hundred thousand slaves_; and we, the nominally free colored people, are
_six hundred thousand_ in number; estimating one-sixth to be men, we
have _one hundred thousand_ able bodied freemen, which will make a
powerful auxiliary in any country to which we may become adopted--an
ally not to be despised by any power on earth. We love our country,
dearly love her, but she don't love us--she despises us, and bids us
begone, driving us from her embraces; but we shall not go where she
desires us; but when we do go, whatever love we have for her, we shall
love the country none the less that receives us as her adopted children.

For the want of business habits and training, our energies have become
paralyzed; our young men never think of business, any more than if they
were so many bondmen, without the right to pursue any calling they may
think most advisable. With our people in this country, dress and good
appearances have been made the only test of gentleman and ladyship, and
that vocation which offers the best opportunity to dress and appear
well, has generally been preferred, however menial and degrading, by our
young people, without even, in the majority of cases, an effort to do
better; indeed, in many instances, refusing situations equally
lucrative, and superior in position; but which would not allow as much
display of dress and personal appearance. This, if we ever expect to
rise, must be discarded from among us, and a high and respectable
position assumed.

One of our great temporal curses is our consummate poverty. We are the
poorest people, as a class, in the world of civilized mankind--abjectly,
miserably poor, no one scarcely being able to assist the other. To this,
of course, there are noble exceptions; but that which is common to, and
the very process by which white men exist, and succeed in life, is
unknown to colored men in general. In any and every considerable
community may be found, some one of our white fellow-citizens, who is
worth more than all the colored people in that community put together.
We consequently have little or no efficiency. We must have means to be
practically efficient in all the undertakings of life; and to obtain
them, it is necessary that we should be engaged in lucrative pursuits,
trades, and general business transactions. In order to be thus engaged,
it is necessary that we should occupy positions that afford the
facilities for such pursuits. To compete now with the mighty odds of
wealth, social and religious preferences, and political influences of
this country, at this advanced stage of its national existence, we never
may expect. A new country, and new beginning, is the only true,
rational, politic remedy for our disadvantageous position; and that
country we have already pointed out, with triple golden advantages, all
things considered, to that of any country to which it has been the
province of man to embark.

Every other than we, have at various periods of necessity, been a
migratory people; and all when oppressed, shown a greater abhorrence of
oppression, if not a greater love of liberty, than we. We cling to our
oppressors, as the objects of our love. It is true that our enslaved
brethren are here, and we have been led to believe that it is necessary
for us to remain, on that account. Is it true, that all should remain in
degradation, because a part are degraded? We believe no such thing. We
believe it to be the duty of the Free, to elevate themselves in the most
speedy and effective manner possible; as the redemption of the bondman
depends entirely upon the elevation of the freeman; therefore, to
elevate the free colored people of America, anywhere upon this
continent; forebodes the speedy redemption of the slaves. We shall hope
to hear no more of so fallacious a doctrine--the necessity of the free
remaining in degradation, for the sake of the oppressed. Let us apply,
first, the lever to ourselves; and the force that elevates us to the
position of manhood's considerations and honors, will cleft the manacle
of every slave in the land.

When such great worth and talents--for want of a better sphere--of men
like Rev. Jonathan Robinson, Robert Douglass, Frederick A. Hinton, and a
hundred others that might be named, were permitted to expire in a
barber-shop; and such living men as may be found in Boston, New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Washington City, Charleston, (S.C.)
New Orleans, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Buffalo,
Rochester, Albany, Utica, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukie, Chicago,
Columbus, Zanesville, Wheeling, and a hundred other places, confining
themselves to Barber-shops and waiter-ships in Hotels; certainly the
necessity of such a course as we have pointed out, must be cordially
acknowledged; appreciated by every brother and sister of oppression; and
not rejected as heretofore, as though they preferred inferiority to
equality. These minds must become "unfettered," and have "space to
rise." This cannot be in their present positions. A continuance in any
position, becomes what is termed "Second Nature"; it begets an
_adaptation_, and _reconciliation_ of _mind_ to such condition. It
changes the whole physiological condition of the system, and adapts man
and woman to a higher or lower sphere in the pursuits of life. The
offsprings of slaves and peasantry, have the general characteristics of
their parents; and nothing but a different course of training and
education, will change the character.

The slave may become a lover of his master, and learn to forgive him for
continual deeds of maltreatment and abuse; just as the Spaniel would
couch and fondle at the feet that kick him; because he has been taught
to reverence them, and consequently, becomes adapted in body and mind to
his condition. Even the shrubbery-loving Canary, and lofty-soaring
Eagle, may be tamed to the cage, and learn to love it from habit of
confinement. It has been so with us in our position among our
oppressors; we have been so prone to such positions; that we have
learned to love them. When reflecting upon this all important, and to
us, all absorbing subject; we feel in the agony and anxiety of the
moment, as though we could cry out in the language of a Prophet of old:
"Oh that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I
might weep day and night for the" degradation "of my people! Oh that I
had in the wilderness a lodging place of way-faring men; that I might
leave my people, and go from them!"

The Irishman and German in the United States, are very different persons
to what they were when in Ireland and Germany, the countries of their
nativity. There their spirits were depressed and downcast; but the
instant they set their foot upon unrestricted soil; free to act and
untrammeled to move; their physical condition undergoes a change, which
in time becomes physiological, which is transmitted to the offspring,
who when born under such circumstances, is a decidedly different being
to what it would have been, had it been born under different
circumstances.

A child born under oppression, has all the elements of servility in its
constitution; who when born under favorable circumstances, has to the
contrary, all the elements of freedom and independence of feeling. Our
children then, may not be expected, to maintain that position and manly
bearing; born under the unfavorable circumstances with which we are
surrounded in this country; that we so much desire. To use the language
of the talented Mr. Whipper, "they cannot be raised in this country,
without being stoop shouldered." Heaven's pathway stands unobstructed,
which will lead us into a Paradise of bliss. Let us go on and possess
the land, and the God of Israel will be our God.

The lessons of every school book, the pages of every history, and
columns of every newspaper, are so replete with stimuli to nerve us on
to manly aspirations, that those of our young people, who will now
refuse to enter upon this great theatre of Polynesian adventure, and
take their position on the stage of Central and South America, where a
brilliant engagement, of certain and most triumphant success, in the
drama of human equality awaits them; then, with the blood of _slaves_,
write upon the lintel of every door in sterling Capitals, to be gazed
and hissed at by every passer by--

     Doomed by the Creator
     To servility and degradation;
     The SERVANT of the _white man_,
     And despised of every nation!



APPENDIX

A PROJECT FOR AN EXPEDITION OF ADVENTURE, TO THE EASTERN COAST OF AFRICA


Every people should be the originators of their own designs, the
projector of their own schemes, and creators of the events that lead to
their destiny--the consummation of their desires.

Situated as we are, in the United States, many, and almost
insurmountable obstacles present themselves. We are four-and-a-half
millions in numbers, free and bond; six hundred thousand free, and
three-and-a-half millions bond.

We have native hearts and virtues, just as other nations; which in their
pristine purity are noble, potent, and worthy of example. We are a
nation within a nation;--as the Poles in Russia, the Hungarians in
Austria, the Welsh, Irish, and Scotch in the British dominions.

But we have been, by our oppressors, despoiled of our purity, and
corrupted in our native characteristics, so that we have inherited their
vices, and but few of their virtues, leaving us in character, really a
_broken people_.

Being distinguished by complexion, we are still singled out--although
having merged in the habits and customs of our oppressors--as a distinct
nation of people; as the Poles, Hungarians, Irish, and others, who still
retain their native peculiarities, of language, habits, and various
other traits. The claims of no people, according to established policy
and usage, are respected by any nation, until they are presented in a
national capacity.

To accomplish so great and desirable an end, there should be held, a
great representative gathering of the colored people of the United
States; not what is termed a National Convention, represented en masse,
such as have been, for the last few years, held at various times and
places; but a true representation of the intelligence and wisdom of the
colored freemen; because it will be futile and an utter failure, to
attempt such a project without the highest grade of intelligence.

No great project was ever devised without the consultation of the most
mature intelligence, and discreet discernment and precaution.

To effect this, and prevent intrusion and improper representation, there
should be a CONFIDENTIAL COUNCIL held; and circulars issued, only to
such persons as shall be _known_ to the projectors to be equal to the
desired object.

The authority from whence the call should originate, to be in this
wise:--The originator of the scheme, to impart the contemplated
Confidential Council, to a limited number of known, worthy gentlemen,
who agreeing with the project, endorse at once the scheme, when becoming
joint proprietors in interest, issue a _Confidential Circular_, leaving
blanks for _date_, _time_, and _place_ of _holding_ the Council; sending
them to trusty, worthy, and suitable colored freemen, in all parts of
the United States, and the Canadas, inviting them to attend; who when
met in Council, have the right to project any scheme they may think
proper for the general good of the whole people--provided, that the
project is laid before them after its maturity.

By this Council to be appointed, a Board of Commissioners, to consist of
three, five, or such reasonable number as may be decided upon, one of
whom shall be chosen as Principal or Conductor of the Board, whose duty
and business shall be, to go on an expedition to the EASTERN COAST of
AFRICA, to make researches for a suitable location on that section of
the coast, for the settlement of colored adventurers from the United
States, and elsewhere. Their mission should be to all such places as
might meet the approbation of the people; as South America, Mexico, the
West Indies, &c.

The Commissioners all to be men of decided qualifications; to embody
among them, the qualifications of physician, botanist, chemist,
geologist, geographer, and surveyor,--having a sufficient knowledge of
these sciences, for practical purposes.

Their business shall be, to make a topographical, geographical,
geological, and botanical examination, into such part or parts as they
may select, with all other useful information that may be obtained; to
be recorded in a journal kept for that purpose.

The Council shall appoint a permanent Board of Directors, to manage and
supervise the doings of the Commissioners, and to whom they shall be
amenable for their doings, who shall hold their office until successors
shall be appointed.

A National Confidential Council, to be held once in three years; and
sooner, if necessity or emergency should demand it; the Board of
Directors giving at least three months' notice, by circulars and
newspapers. And should they fail to perform their duty, twenty-five of
the representatives from any six States, of the former Council, may
issue a call, authentically bearing their names, as sufficient authority
for such a call. But when the Council is held for the reception of the
report of the Commissioners, a general mass convention should then take
place, by popular representation.


MANNER OF RAISING FUNDS.

The National Council shall appoint one or two Special Commissioners, to
England and France, to solicit, in the name of the Representatives of a
Broken Nation, of four-and-a-half millions, the necessary outfit and
support, for any period not exceeding three years, of such an
expedition. Certainly, what England and France would do, for a little
nation--mere nominal nation, of five thousand civilized Liberians, they
would be willing and ready to do, for five millions; if they be but
authentically represented, in a national capacity. What was due to
Greece, enveloped by Turkey, should be due to US, enveloped by the
United States; and we believe would be respected, if properly presented.
To England and France, we should look for sustenance, and the people of
those two nations--as they would have every thing to gain from such an
adventure and eventual settlement on the EASTERN COAST OF AFRICA--the
opening of an immense trade being the consequence. The whole Continent
is rich in minerals, and the most precious metals, as but a superficial
notice of the topographical and geological reports from that country,
plainly show to any mind versed in the least, in the science of the
earth.

The Eastern Coast of Africa has long been neglected, and never but
little known, even to the ancients; but has ever been our choice part of
the Continent. Bounded by the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean, it
presents the greatest facilities for an immense trade, with China,
Japan, Siam, Hindoostan, in short, all the East Indies--of any other
country in the world. With a settlement of enlightened freemen, who with
the immense facilities, must soon grow into a powerful nation. In the
Province of Berbera, south of the Strait of Babelmandel, or the great
pass, from the Arabian to the Red Sea, the whole commerce of the East
must touch this point.

Also, a great rail road could be constructed from here, running with
the Mountains of the Moon, clearing them entirely, except making one
mountain pass, at the western extremity of the Mountains of the Moon,
and the southeastern terminus of the Kong Mountains; entering the
Province of Dahomey, and terminating on the Atlantic Ocean West; which
would make the GREAT THOROUGHFARE for all the trade with the East Indies
and Eastern Coast of Africa, and the Continent of America. All the world
would pass through Africa upon this rail road, which would yield a
revenue infinitely greater than any other investment in the world.

The means for prosecuting such a project--as stupendous as it may
appear--will be fully realised in the prosecution of the work. Every
mile of the road, will thrice pay for itself, in the development of the
rich treasures that now lie hidden in the bowels of the earth. There is
no doubt, that in some one section of twenty-five miles, the
developments of gold would more than pay the expenses of any one
thousand miles of the work. This calculation may, to those who have
never given this subject a thought, appear extravagant, and visionary;
but to one who has had his attention in this direction for years, it is
clear enough.

But a few years will witness a development of gold, precious metals, and
minerals in Eastern Africa, the Moon and Kong Mountains, ten-fold
greater than all the rich productions of California.

There is one great physiological fact in regard to the colored
race--which, while it may not apply to all colored persons, is true of
those having black skins--that they can bear _more different_ climates
than the white race. They bear _all_ the temperates and extremes, while
the other can only bear the temperates and _one_ of the extremes. The
black race is endowed with natural properties, that adapt and fit them
for temperate, cold, and hot climates; while the white race is only
endowed with properties that adapt them to temperate and cold climates;
being unable to stand the warmer climates; in them, the white race
cannot work, but become perfectly indolent, requiring somebody to work
for them--and these, are always people of the black race.

The black race may be found, inhabiting in healthful improvement, every
part of the globe where the white race reside; while there are parts of
the globe where the black race reside, that the white race cannot live
in health.

What part of mankind is the "denizen of every soil, and the lord of
terrestrial creation," if it be not the black race? The Creator has
indisputably adapted us for the "denizens of _every soil_," all that is
left for us to do, is to _make_ ourselves the "_lords_ of terrestrial
creation." The land is ours--there it lies with inexhaustible resources;
let us go and possess it. In Eastern Africa must rise up a nation, to
whom all the world must pay commercial tribute.





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