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Title: Encyclopedia of Needlework
Author: Dillmont, Thérèse de, 1846-1890
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

NEEDLEWORK

BY

THÉRÈSE DE DILLMONT

[Illustration]


_ENGLISH EDITION_

       *       *       *       *       *

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



_To be had:_

_of TH. DE DILLMONT, DORNACH, Alsace, and at all booksellers, and
embroidery shops._

       *       *       *       *       *

Price, English bound with gilt edges:

English edition     Sh. 3.--
French edition      Fr. 5.75
German edition      Mk. 3.--



Preface.


The absolute want of any comprehensive book on needlework--such an one
as contains both verbal and pictorial descriptions of everything
included under the name of needlework--has led me to put into the
serviceable form of an Encyclopedia, all the knowledge and experience,
which years of unceasing study and practice have enabled me to
accumulate on the subject, with the hope that diligent female workers of
all ages, may be able, by its means to instruct themselves in every
branch of plain and fancy needlework.

All the patterns given, even the most insignificant, were worked afresh
for the purpose, and thus, not merely faithful representations, but also
lucid and intelligible explanations of the same, are secured.

In order that my readers may have something besides the dull theory, the
work is enlivened by a number of useful patterns, some new, some derived
from the artistic productions of such countries and epochs as have
become famous by special excellence in the domain of needlework.

Though, at first sight, the reproduction of many of these patterns may
seem to present insuperable difficulties, they will, after a careful
study of the text, and exact attention to the directions given, prove
easy to carry out.

Many of these interesting designs are drawn from private collections,
whose owners, with great kindness, placed their treasures at my
disposal, to copy and borrow from at discretion, for which I desire to
take the present opportunity, of tendering them my warmest thanks.

The choice of colours and material--a difficult matter to many--my
readers will find rendered comparatively easy to them by the notes
affixed to the illustrations; and I may point out, that most of the
patterns were worked with D.M.C cottons, which enjoy the well-earned
reputation of being, the very best of their kind, in the market of the
world.

Experience has convinced me that, in many instances, these cottons may
with advantage take the place of wool, linen thread, and even silk.

If this work meet with indulgent judges, and prove really useful, I
shall find ample reward in that fact for the trouble and difficulties
that have unavoidably attended its completion.



[Illustration: STRIPE SHOWING RUNNING, STITCHING, BUTTON-HOLING, AND
HERRING-BONING.]



Plain Sewing.


Many, on opening the Encyclopedia of needlework will be disposed to
exclaim as they read the heading of this first section: What is the use
of describing all the old well-known stitches, when machines have so
nearly superseded the slower process of hand-sewing? To this our reply
is that, of all kinds of needlework, Plain Sewing needs to be most
thoroughly learned, as being the foundation of all. Those who are able
to employ others to work for them, should at least know how to
distinguish good work from bad, and those who are in less fortunate
circumstances, have to be taught how to work for themselves.

POSITION OF THE BODY AND HANDS.--Before describing different kinds of
stitches, a word should be said as to the position of the body and hands
when at work. Long experience has convinced me that no kind of
needlework necessitates a stooping or cramped attitude. To obviate
which, see that your chair and table suit each other in height, and that
you so hold your work as hardly to need to bend your head at all. The
practice of fastening the work to the knee, besides being ungraceful, is
injurious to the health.

NEEDLES.--These should be of the best quality. To test a needle, try
to break it; if it resist, and then break clean in two, the steel is
good; if it bend without breaking, or break without any resistance, it
is bad. Never use a bent needle, it makes ugly and irregular stitches,
and see that the eye, whether round or egg-shaped, be well-drilled, that
it may not fray or cut the thread. Long or half-long needles are the
best for white work, long ones for dress-making, and longer ones still,
with long eyes, for darning. A stock of each, from No 5 to 12, is
advised. The needle should always be a little thicker than the thread,
to make an easy passage for it through the stuff.

To keep needles from rusting, strew a little stone alum in the packets,
and workers whose hands are apt to get damp, should have a small box of
it handy, to powder their fingers with. Blackened needles can be made
quite bright again by drawing them through an emery cushion.

SCISSORS.--Scissors are a very important accessory of the work-table,
and two varieties are indispensable; a pair of large ones for
cutting-out, with one point blunt and the other sharp, the latter to be
always held downwards; and a pair of smaller ones with two sharp points.
The handles should be large and round; if at all tight, they tire and
disfigure the hand.

THIMBLE.--Steel thimbles are the best; bone are very liable to break,
and silver ones are not deeply enough pitted, to hold the needle. A
thimble should be light, with a rounded top and flat rim.

THE THREAD.--Except for tacking, your thread should never be more than
from 40 to 50 c/m. long.[1] If the thread is in skeins, it does not
matter which end you begin with, but if you use reeled cotton, thread
your needle with the end that points to the reel, when you cut it; as
the other end will split, and unravel, when twisted from left to right,
which is generally done, to facilitate the process of threading. The
cotton should always be cut, as it is weakened by breaking.

KNOTTING THE THREAD INTO THE NEEDLE (fig. 1).--When the thread becomes
inconveniently short, and you do not want take a fresh one, it may be
knotted into the needle, thus: bring it round the forefinger close to
the needle, cross it on the inside next to the finger, hold the crossed
threads fast, with the thumb draw the needle out through the loop thus
formed, and tighten the loop round both ends.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. KNOTTING THE THREAD INTO THE NEEDLE.]

MATERIALS.--For tacking, use Coton à coudre D.M.C qualité supérieure
(black and gold stamp) Nos. 2 to 6.[A] For hand-sewing, Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C Nos. 30 to 700,[A] and Fil à dentelle D.M.C, balls or reels, Nos.
25 to 100[A] will be found most useful. For machine-work: Câblé 6 fils
pour machines D.M.C, Nos. 30 to 300,[A] black and white, or white and
blue stamp. These can also be used for hand-work. Both these and the
lace-thread (Fil à dentelle) on reels, are superfine in quality. The
medium sizes are the most useful; but the only suitable ones for very
fine and delicate fabrics are the Fil à dentelle D.M.C, and Fil
d'Alsace, and the latter only is manufactured in the higher numbers.

All these threads are to be had, wound in balls, or on reels, the buyer
may make his own choice; balls are apt to get tangled, but the cotton
preserves its roundness better than when it is wound on reels. Linen is
generally sewn with linen-thread, but Fil à dentelle and the Fil
d'Alsace are very good substitutes.

POSITION OF THE HANDS (fig. 2).--The stuff, fastened to a cushion,
must be held with the left hand, which should neither rest on the table,
nor on the cushion, the needle must be held between the thumb and
forefinger, of the right hand, and the middle finger, armed with the
thimble, pushes the needle far enough through the stuff, for the other
fingers to take hold of it and draw it out; the thread then comes to lie
between the fourth and fifth fingers in the form of a loop, which must
be tightened gradually to avoid its knotting.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

POSITION OF THE HANDS WITHOUT CUSHION (fig. 3).--When the work cannot
be fastened to a cushion it should be held between the forefinger and
the thumb, and left hanging down, over the other fingers. If it need to
be more firmly held, draw it between the fourth and fifth fingers, which
will prevent it from getting puckered or dragged.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. POSITION OF THE HANDS WITHOUT CUSHION.]

STITCHES.--Plain-Sewing comprises 4 varieties of stitches, (1)
running, (2) back-stitching, (3) hemming and (4) top or over-sewing.

(1) RUNNING-STITCH (fig. 4).--This is the simplest and easiest of all.
Pass the needle in and out of the material, at regular intervals, in a
horizontal direction, taking up three or four threads at a time. If the
stuff allow, several stitches may be taken on the needle at once, before
the thread is drawn out. Running-stitch is used for plain seams, for
joining light materials, for making gathers and for hems.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. RUNNING-STITCH.]

(2) BACK-STITCH (fig. 5).--Insert the needle, and draw it out six
threads further on, carry your thread back, from left to right, and
insert the needle three threads back from the point at which it was last
drawn out, and bring it out six threads beyond. Stitching and
back-stitching are better and more quickly done by machine than by hand.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. BACK-STITCH.]

STITCHING (fig. 6).--The production of a row of back-stitches, that
exactly meet one another, constitutes what is called stitching. Only one
stitch can be made at a time, and the needle must be put in, exactly at
the point where it was drawn out to form the preceding back-stitch, and
brought out as many threads further on as were covered by the last
back-stitch. The beauty of stitching depends on the uniform length of
the stitches, and the straightness of the line formed, to ensure which
it is necessary to count the threads for each stitch, and to draw a
thread to mark the line. If you have to stitch in a slanting line across
the stuff, or the stuff be such as to render the drawing of a thread
impossible, a coloured tacking thread should be run in first, to as a
guide.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. STITCHING.]

STITCHED HEM (fig. 7).--Make a double turning, as for a hem, draw a
thread two or three threads above the edge of the first turning, and do
your stitching through all three layers of stuff; the right side will be
that on which you form your stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. STITCHED HEM.]

(3) HEMMING-STITCH (fig. 8).--To make a good hem, your stuff must be
cut in the line of the thread. Highly dressed stuffs, such as linen and
calico; should be rubbed in the hand, to soften them, before the hem is
laid. Your first turning should not be more than 2 m/m. wide; turn down
the whole length of your hem, and then make the second turning of the
same width, so that the raw edge is enclosed between two layers of
stuff.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. HEMMING-STITCH.]

Narrow hems do not need to be tacked, but wide ones, where the first
turning should only be just wide enough to prevent the edge from
fraying, ought always to be. In hemming you insert the needle and
thread directed in a slanting position towards you, just below the edge
of the hem, and push it out two threads above, and so on to the end,
setting the stitches, two or three threads apart, in a continuous
straight line. To ensure the hem being straight, a thread may be drawn
to mark the line for the second turning, but it is not a good plan,
especially in shirt-making, as the edge of the stuff, too apt in any
case, to cut and fray, is, thereby, still further weakened. Hems in
woollen materials, which will not take a bend, can only be laid and
tacked, bit by bit. In making, what are called rolled hems, the needle
must be slipped in, so as only to pierce the first turning, in order
that the stitches may not be visible on the outside.

FLAT SEAM (fig. 9).--Lay your two edges, whether straight or slanting,
exactly even, tack them together with stitches 2 c/m. long, distant 1 to
2 c/m. from the edge, and then back-stitch them by machine or by hand,
following the tacking-thread. Cut off half the inner edge, turn the
outer one in, as for a hem and sew it down with hemming-stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. FLAT SEAM.]

Smooth the seam underneath with the forefinger as you go, to make it lie
quite flat. Beginners should flatten down the seam with their thimbles,
or with the handle of the scissors, before they begin to hem, as the
outer and wider edge is very apt to get pushed up and bulge over, in the
sewing, which hides the stitches.

ROUNDED SEAM.--Back-stitch your two edges together, as above directed,
then cut off the inner edge to a width of four threads, and roll the
outer one in, with the left thumb, till the raw edge is quite hidden,
hemming as you roll. This kind of seam, on the wrong side, looks like a
fine cord, laid on, and is used in making the finer qualities of
underclothing.

FASTENING THREADS OFF, AND ON (fig. 10).--Knots should be avoided in
white work. To fasten on, in hemming, turn the needle backwards with the
point up, take one stitch, and stroke and work the end of the thread in,
underneath the turning. To fasten on, in back-stitching or running,
make one stitch with the new thread, then take both ends and lay them
down together to the left, and work over them, so that they wind in, and
out of the next few stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 10. FASTENING THREADS OFF AND ON.]

(4) TOP OR OVER-SEWING STITCH (fig. 11).--This stitch is used for
joining selvedges together. To keep the two pieces even, it is better,
either to tack or pin them together first. Insert the needle, from right
to left, under the first thread of the selvedge, and through both edges,
and sew from right to left, setting your stitches not more than three
threads apart. The thread must not be drawn too tightly, so that when
the seam is finished and flattened with the thimble, the selvedges may
lie, side by side.

[Illustration: FIG. 11. TOP OR OVER-SEWING STITCH.]

ANOTHER KIND OF SEWING-STITCH (fig. 12)--For dress-seams and patching;
sew left to right, tacking or pinning the edges together first, and
holding them tightly with the thumb and finger, to keep perfectly even.

[Illustration: FIG 12. ANOTHER KIND OF SEWING-STITCH.]

ANTIQUE OR OLD-GERMAN SEAM (figs. 13 and 14).--Tack or pin the
selvedges together as above, then, pointing your needle upwards from
below, insert it, two threads from the selvedge, first on the wrong
side, then on the right, first through one selvedge, then through the
other, setting the stitches two threads apart. In this manner, the
thread crosses itself, between the two selvedges, and a perfectly flat
seam is produced. Seams of this kind occur in old embroidered linen
articles, where the stuff was too narrow to allow for any other. A
similar stitch, fig. 14, only slanting, instead of quite straight, as in
fig. 13, is used in making sheets.

[Illustration: FIG. 13. ANTIQUE OR OLD-GERMAN SEAM.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14. ANTIQUE OR OLD GERMAN SEAM.]

FRENCH DOUBLE SEAM (fig. 15).--For joining such stuffs as fray, use
the so-called French-seam.

[Illustration: FIG 15. FRENCH DOUBLE-SEAM.]

Run your two pieces of stuff together, the wrong sides touching, and the
edges perfectly even, then turn them round just at the seam, so that the
right sides come together inside, and the two raw edges are enclosed
between, and run them together again. See that no threads are visible on
the outside. This seam is used chiefly in dress-making, for joining
slight materials together which cannot be kept from fraying by any other
means.

HEMMED DOUBLE SEAM (figs. 16 and 17).--Turn in the two raw edges, and
lay them one upon the other, so that the one next the forefinger, lies
slightly higher than the one next the thumb. Insert the needle, not
upwards from below but first into the upper edge, and then, slightly
slanting, into the lower one. This seam is used in dress-making, for
fastening down linings. Fig. 17 shows another kind of double seam, where
the two edges are laid together, turned in twice, and hemmed in the
ordinary manner, with the sole difference, that the needle has to pass
through a sixfold layer of stuff.

[Illustration: FIG. 16. HEMMED DOUBLE-SEAM.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17. OPEN HEMMED DOUBLE-SEAM.]

GATHERING (fig. 18).--Gathers are made with running-stitches of
perfectly equal length; take up and leave three or four threads,
alternately, and instead of holding the stuff fast with your thumb, push
it on to the needle as you go, and draw up your thread after every four
or five stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 18. GATHERING.]

STROKING GATHERS (fig. 19).--When you have run in your gathering
thread, draw it up tight, and make it fast round the finger of your left
hand, and then stroke down the gathers with a strong needle, so that
they lie evenly side by side, pushing each gather, in stroking it, under
your left thumb, whilst you support the stuff at the back with your
other fingers.

[Illustration: FIG. 19. STROKING GATHERS.]

RUNNING IN A SECOND GATHERING THREAD (fig. 20).--This is to fix the
gathers after they have been stroked, and should be run in 1 or 2 c/m.
below the first thread, according to the kind of stuff, and the purpose
it is intended for: take up five or six gathers at a time, and draw your
two threads perfectly even, that the gathers may be straight to the line
of the thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 20. RUNNING IN A SECOND GATHERING-THREAD.]

SEWING ON GATHERS (fig. 21).--To distribute the fulness equally,
divide the gathered portion of material, and the band, or plain piece,
on to which it is to be sewn, into equal parts, and pin the two together
at corresponding distances, the gathered portion under the plain, and
hem each gather to the band or plain piece, sloping the needle to make
the thread slant, and slipping it through the upper threads only of the
gathers.

[Illustration: FIG. 21. SEWING ON GATHERS.]

WHIPPING (fig. 22).--Whipping is another form of gathering, used for
fine materials. With the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, roll the
edge over towards you, into a very tight thin roll, insert the needle on
the inside of the roll next the thumb, and bring it out on the outside
next the forefinger, at very regular distances, and draw up the thread
slightly, from time to time, to form the gathers.

[Illustration: FIG 22. WHIPPING.]

ORNAMENTAL HEM (fig. 23). For an ornamental hem, make a turning, 2 or
3 c/m. deep, and run in a thread, with small running-stitches up and
down, as shown in fig. 23. By slightly drawing the thread, the straight
edge will be made to look as if it were scalloped.

[Illustration: FIG. 23. ORNAMENTAL HEM.]

SEWING ON CORD (fig. 24).--For sewing on cord, use strong thread,
either Fil d'Alsace D.M.C, Fil à dentelle D.M.C or Câblé 6 fils D.M.C
No. 25, 30, 35 or 40.[A] Be careful not to stretch the cord, but to hold
it in, as you sew it, as it invariably shrinks more than the stuff in
the first washing. Fasten it with hemming stitches to the edge of the
turning, taking care that it does not get twisted.

[Illustration: FIG. 24. SEWING ON CORD.]

SEWING ON FLAPS (fig. 25).--These should be back-stitched on to the
right side of the article they are to be affixed to, quite close to the
edge, then folded over in half, and hemmed down on the wrong side. Like
the cord, the flap must, in the process, be held in very firmly with the
left hand. Though the back-stitching could be more quickly done by
machine, hand-work is here preferable, as the holding in cannot be done
by machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 25. SEWING ON FLAPS.]

SEWING ON TAPE-LOOPS (figs. 26 and 27).--These, in the case of the
coarser articles of household linen, are generally fastened to the
corners. Lay the ends of your piece of tape, which should be from 15 to
17 c/m. long, side by side, turn in and hem them down, on three sides:
the loop should be so folded as to form a three-cornered point, shewn in
the illustration. Join the two edges of the tape together in the middle
with a few cross-stitches, and stitch the edge of the hem of the article
to the loop, on the right side.

[Illustration: FIG. 26. SEWING ON TAPE-LOOPS TO THE CORNER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27. SEWING ON TAPE-LOOPS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE
ARTICLE.]

Fig. 27 shows how to sew on a loop in the middle of an article, the two
ends separately, one on one side, the other on the other.

STRINGS AND LOOPS FOR FINE UNDER-LINEN (fig. 28).--Sew these on,
likewise, on the wrong side of the article, hemming down the ends, and
fastening them on the right side, with two rows of stitching crossing
each other, and a third row along the edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 28. STRINGS AND LOOPS ON FINE UNDER-LINEN.]

BUTTON-HOLES IN LINEN (fig. 29).--Cut your hole perfectly straight,
and of exactly, the diameter of the button, having previously marked
out the place for it, with two rows of running-stitches, two or three
threads apart. Put in your needle at the back of the slit, and take up
about three threads, bring the working thread round, from right to left
under the point of the needle, and draw the needle out through the loop,
so that the little knot comes at the edge of the slit, and so on to the
end, working from the lower left-hand corner to the right. Then make a
bar of button-hole stitching across each end, the knotted edge towards
the slit.

[Illustration: FIG. 29. BUTTON-HOLES IN LINEN.]

BUTTON HOLES IN DRESS MATERIALS (fig. 30).--Mark out and cut them as
above described; if however, the material be liable to fray, wet the
slit as soon as you have cut it, with liquid gum, and lay a strand of
strong thread along the edge to make your stitches over; one end of
dress button-holes must be round, the stitches diverging like rays from
the centre, and when you have worked the second side, thread the needle
with the loose strand, and pull it slightly, to straighten the edges;
then fasten off, and close the button-hole with a straight bar of
stitches across the other end, as in fig. 29.

[Illustration: FIG. 30. BUTTON-HOLES IN DRESS-MATERIALS.]

SEWING ON BUTTONS (figs. 31 and 32).--To sew linen, or webbed buttons
on to underclothing, fasten in your thread with a stitch or two, at the
place where the button is to be; bring the needle out through the middle
of the button, and make eight stitches, diverging from the centre like a
star, and if you like, encircle them by a row of stitching, as in fig.
32. This done, bring the needle out between the stuff and the button,
and twist the cotton six or seven times round it, then push the needle
through to the wrong side, and fasten off.

[Illustration: FIG. 31. SEWING ON LINEN BUTTONS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 32. SEWING ON WEBBED BUTTONS.]

BINDING SLITS (figs. 33, 34, 35, 36).--Nothing is more apt to tear
than a slit whether it be hemmed or merely bound. To prevent this, make
a semicircle of button-hole stitches at the bottom of the slit, and
above that, to connect the two sides, a bridge of several threads,
covered with button-hole stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 33. BINDING SLITS WITH HEM.]

[Illustration: FIG. 34. BINDING SLITS WITH PIECE ON CROSS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 35. BINDING SLITS WITH BROAD BAND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 36. STRENGTHENING SLITS WITH GUSSET.]

In fig. 33, we show a hemmed slit, and in figs. 34 and 35, are two slits
backed the one with a narrow, the other, with a broad piece of the
material, cut on the cross.

In under-linen, it often so happens that two selvedges meet at the slit,
which renders binding unnecessary; in that case take a small square of
stuff, turn in the raw edges, top-sew it into the slit on two sides,
turn in the other two, fold over on the bias, and hem them down over the
top-sewing, as shewn in fig. 36. Such little squares of material,
inserted into a slit or seam, to prevent its tearing, are called
gussets.

SEWING ON PIPING (fig. 37). Piping is a border, consisting of a cord or
bobbin, folded into a stripe of material, cut on the cross, and affixed
to the edge of an article to give it more strength and finish. It is a
good substitute for a hem or binding on a bias edge, which by means of
the cord, can be held in, and prevented from stretching. Cut your
stripes diagonally, across the web of the stuff, and very even; run them
together, lay the cord or bobbin along the stripe, on the wrong side, 5
m/m. from the edge, fold the edge over, and tack the cord lightly in.
Then lay it on the raw edge of the article, with the cord towards you,
and with all the raw edges turned away from you. Back-stitch the piping
to the edge, keeping close to the cord. Then turn the article round,
fold in the raw outside edge over the others, and hem it down like an
ordinary hem.

[Illustration: FIG. 37. SEWING ON PIPING.]

FIXING WHALE-BONES (fig. 38).--Before slipping the whale-bone into its
case or fold of stuff, pierce holes in it, top and bottom, with a red
hot stiletto. Through these holes, make your stitches, diverging like
rays or crossing each other as shown in fig. 38.

[Illustration: FIG 38. FIXING WHALE-BONES.]

HERRING-BONING (fig. 39).--This stitch is chiefly used for seams in
flannel, and for overcasting dress-seams, and takes the place of
hemming, for fastening down the raw edges of a seam that has been run or
stitched, without turning them in. Herring-boning is done from left to
right, and forms two rows of stitches. Insert the needle from right to
left, and make a stitch first above, and then below the edge, the
threads crossing each other diagonally, as shewn in fig. 39.

[Illustration: FIG. 39. HERRING-BONING]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Our readers should be provided with a French metre, with the English
yard marked on the back for purposes of comparison.

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: SPECIMENS OF PATTERN DARNS.]



Mending.


The mending of wearing-apparel and house-linen, though often an
ungrateful task, is yet a very necessary one, to which every female hand
ought to be carefully trained. How best to disguise and repair the wear
and tear of use or accident is quite as valuable an art, as that of
making new things.

Under the head of mending, we include the strengthening and replacing of
the worn and broken threads of a fabric, and fitting in of new stuff in
the place of that which is torn or damaged. The former is called
darning, the latter, patching.

DARNING.--When only a few of the warp or woof threads are torn or
missing, a darn will repair the mischief, provided the surrounding parts
be sound. When the damage is more extensive, the piece must be cut out.

In some cases the warp of the stuff itself can be used for darning,
otherwise thread as much like the stuff as possible should be chosen.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR MENDING.--Coton à repriser D.M.C is used for
most kinds of darning. It can be had in 18 different sizes, from Nos. 8
to 100, white and unbleached, and in all the colours of the D.M.C
colour-card in Nos. 12, 25 and 50.

It is but very slightly twisted and can be split or used double, if
necessary, according to the material. For all the coarser articles of
house-linen, unbleached cotton is the best, and for the finer white
fabrics, Coton surfin D.M.C Nos. 110, 120 and 150[A]. This cotton, which
is not the least twisted, and is to be had both white and unbleached,
can be used, by subdividing it, for darning the finest cambric.

VARIETIES OF DARNING.--These are four, (1) Linen darning, (2) Damask
darning, (3) Satin or Twill darning, and (4) Invisible darning, called
also, Fine-drawing.

(1) LINEN DARNING (figs. 40 and 41).--All darns should be made on the
wrong side of the stuff, excepting fig. 54, which it is sometimes better
to make on the right side. The longitudinal running, to form the warp,
must be made first. The thread must not be drawn tightly in running your
stitches backwards and forwards, and be careful to leave loops at each
turning, to allow for the shrinking of the thread in the washing,
without its pulling the darn together.

[Illustration: FIG. 40. LINEN DARNING. DRAWING IN THE WARP THREADS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 41. LINEN DARNING. DRAWING IN THE WOOF THREADS.]

Run your needle in, about one c/m. above the damaged part, take up one
or two threads of the stuff and miss the same number, working straight
to a thread; on reaching the hole, carry your cotton straight across it,
take up alternate threads beyond, and proceed as before. Continue the
rows backwards and forwards, taking up in each row, the threads left in
the preceding one. Turn the work round and do the same for the woof;
alternately taking up and leaving the warp threads, where the cotton
crosses the hole. The threads must lie so alone both ways, that the
darn, when completed, replaces the original web. The threads are only
drawn so far apart in the illustrations, for the sake of clearness.

When the material to be darned does not admit of a fleecy thread, such
as Coton à repriser D.M.C, one that as nearly as possible matches the
material, should be chosen from the D.M.C cottons.[A]

DIAGONAL LINEN DARNING (fig. 42).--Darns are sometimes begun from the
corner, so as to form a diagonal web, but they are then much more
visible than when they are worked straight to a thread, and therefore
not advisable.

[Illustration: FIG. 42. DIAGONAL LINEN DARNING.]

(2) SATIN OR TWILL DARNING (fig. 43).--By twill darning, the damaged
web of any twilled or diagonal material can be restored. It would be
impossible to enumerate all the varieties of twilled stuffs, but the
illustrations and accompanying directions will enable the worker to
imitate them all.

[Illustration: FIG. 43. SATIN OR TWILL DARNING.]

Begin, as in ordinary darning by running in the warp threads, then take
up one thread, and miss three. In every succeeding row, advance one
thread in the same direction. Or, miss one thread of the stuff and take
up two, and as before, advance, one thread in the same direction, every
succeeding row. The order in which threads should be missed and taken
up, must depend on the web which the darn is intended to imitate.

When the original is a coloured stuff, it is advisable to make a
specimen darn first, on a larger scale, so that you may be more sure of
obtaining a correct copy of the original web.

(3) DAMASK DARNING (figs. 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49).--A damask darn is
begun in the same way as all other darns are; the pattern is formed by
the cross-runnings and will vary with the number of warp threads taken
up and missed, in each successive running. The woven design which you
are to copy with your needle must therefore be carefully examined first.

Figs. 44 and 45 show the wrong and right sides of a damask darn, in
process of being made.

[Illustration: FIG. 44. DAMASK DARNING. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 45. DAMASK DARNING. RIGHT SIDE.]

Fig. 46 represents a completed one. In the case of coloured webs, a
light shade of cotton is generally used for the warp, one that matches
the stuff, for the shot or woof.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. DAMASK DARNING. COVERED GROUND.]

Figs. 47 and 48, illustrate two specimens of darning, formerly done in
the convents, from which it will be seen, that the warp and the woof
were first drawn in with rather fine thread and the pattern then worked
into this foundation with coarser, or else, coloured thread. When this
kind of darn is in two colours, take, for the darker shade, Coton à
broder D.M.C, or Coton à repriser D.M.C, which are both of them to be
had in all the bright and faded shades, to match alike both old and new
linen.

[Illustration: FIG. 47. DAMASK DARNING ON NEEDLE-MADE GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 48. DAMASK DARNING ON NEEDLE-MADE GROUND.]

Fig. 49, which is executed in two colours, and is likewise copied from
an old work on darning, shows you the manner in which a dice-pattern is
to be reproduced.

[Illustration: FIG. 49. DAMASK DARNING WITH COLOURED THREAD.]

(4) DARNING, LOST IN THE GROUND (fig. 50).--A kind of darn used for
repairing rents, the edges of which fit exactly into one another.
Neither the torn threads of the material nor the rough edges must be cut
off; the torn part is to be tacked upon a piece of oil-cloth, wrong side
uppermost, and the edges, drawn together by a thread, run in backwards,
and forwards, across them. The stitches must be set as closely together
as possible, and regularly inverted, as in every other darn. A much
finer thread relatively than that of which the material is composed
should, in all cases be used for darning. In this instance also, for the
sake of greater distinctness, the size of the thread has been magnified
in the illustration. Coton surfin D.M.C, will be found the best for
darning both calico and linen.

[Illustration: FIG. 50. DARNING LOST IN THE GROUND.]

FINE DRAWING (fig. 51).--The art of making invisible darns in cloth,
though such a useful one, is all but unknown. It is a tedious process
and one which, though easy enough to understand, requires great care in
the execution.

[Illustration: FIG. 51. FINE DRAWING.]

Use as fine a needle as possible and thread it with hair, instead of
silk, or any other kind of fibre. Red and white hair is the strongest,
and stronger than the ravellings of the stuff. Of course the hair has
first to be carefully cleansed from grease. Pare the edges of the rent,
on the right sides, quite clean and even, with a razor, so that both
rent and stitches may be lost in the hairy surface of the cloth.
Scissors do not cut so closely, and are liable moreover, to disturb the
nap, and render the darn more visible. When this is done, fit the edges
exactly together, and overcast them. Then thread a needle with a hair by
the root, and slip it in, 2 or 3 m/m. from the one edge and back again
pointed towards you, through the other, so that, neither needle nor
hair, are visible on either side. The stitches should be set slightly
slanting and must be quite lost in the thickness of the cloth. The
needle must always be put in, exactly at the place where it came out,
and the hair not be too tightly drawn.

When the darn is finished, lay the article on a bare table, or
ironing-board, cover it with a damp cloth, and iron it. The sharpest eye
will fail to detect a rent, when carefully darned in this manner.

PATCHING.--As we have already said, when the defective part is past
darning, it must be cut out, and a new piece of stuff inserted in its
place. If the garment be no longer new, it should be patched with a
slighter material than that of which it was originally made. The patch
should be of the same shape, and cut the same way of the stuff, as the
piece it is to replace, it should also be, just so much larger, as to
allow for the turnings in, and can either be top-sewn, or else, run and
felled in.

BACK-STITCHING AND FELLING IN A PATCH (fig. 52).--Tack in the new
piece, so that its edges over-lap the edges of the hole. The
back-stitching must be done on the article itself, as this renders it
easier to do the corners neatly. The hem is turned down on to the patch.
Make a little snip at the corners with your scissors to prevent
puckering. The back-stitching should form a right angle at each corner.

[Illustration: FIG. 52. BACK-STITCHING AND FELLING IN A PATCH.]

TOP-SEWING IN A PATCH (fig. 53).--To do this, the edges of the hole
and of the patch, must first be turned in, and either overcast or
hemmed, to prevent their fraying, after which, sew the two edges
together. The raw edges may also be turned in with herring-boning as in
fig. 39, putting the needle, only through one layer of stuff.

[Illustration: FIG. 53. TOP-SEWING IN A PATCH.]

DRAWING IN A PATCH (fig. 54).--Take a square piece of the original
stuff, 5 or 6 c/m. larger each way, than the hole it is to fill, draw
out threads on all the four sides, till the piece exactly matches the
hole, and tack it into its place. Thread a very fine needle with the two
ends of a thread of silk or Fil d'Alsace D.M.C No. 700, run it in at the
corner of the stuff, and draw it out, leaving a loop behind. Into this
loop, slip the first of the threads, which as it were, form a fringe to
the patch, and tighten the loop round it, and so on with each thread,
alternately taking up and leaving threads in the stuff, as in ordinary
darning.

[Illustration: FIG. 54. DRAWING IN A PATCH.]

To put a patch into a thin material, in this manner, you must darn in
the threads, a good long way, into the material, in order that the
double layer of threads may be less visible.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: STRIPE OF CUT OPEN-WORK ON WHITE LINEN.]



Single and cut Open-work.


The above heading comprises every sort of needle-work, to which the
drawing out of threads is a preliminary. By sewing over the single
threads that remain, and drawing them together in different ways, an
infinite variety of patterns can be produced. Many pretty combinations
also, can be made of open-work, cross-stitch, and other kinds of
embroidery.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR OPEN-WORK.--For all the coarser stuffs, such as
Holbein-linen, Java and linen-canvas and the like, now in such favour
for the imitation of old needlework, it will be best to use: Fil à
pointer D.M.C, No. 30[A] and Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, Nos. 10 to 20,[A]
and for the finer stuffs, such as antique-linen and linen-gauze;
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 50 to 150,[A] Fil d'Alsace D.M.C, Nos. 20 to
100, and Fil à dentelle D.M.C, Nos. 25 to 80.

Coloured patterns can also be executed in open-work, with Coton à broder
D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35, and Coton à repriser D.M.C, Nos. 25 to 50[A].

THE TWO DIFFERENT KINDS OF OPEN-WORK.--The one is called, single
open-work, the Italian Punto tirato, in which the first step is to draw
out one layer of threads; the other, cut open-work, the Italian Punto
tagliato, for which, both the warp, and the woof threads, have to be
drawn out.

SINGLE OPEN-WORK (PUNTO TIRATO).--This, in its simplest form, is the
ornamental latticed hem, in common use where something rather more
decorative than an ordinary hem (fig. 8) is required, and consists in
drawing out one layer of threads, either the warp or the woof.

SINGLE HEM-STITCH (fig. 55).--Draw out, according to the coarseness of
the stuff, two or four threads, below the edge of the turning, and tack
your hem down to the line thus drawn. Fasten your thread in to the left,
and work your hem from right to left, taking up three or four
cross-threads at a time, and inserting your needle, immediately above,
into the folded hem, three or four threads from the edge, and then
drawing it out.

[Illustration: FIG. 55. SINGLE HEM-STITCH.]

The same stitch is used for preventing the fringes, that serve as a
finish to so many articles of house-linen, from ravelling.

SECOND HEM-STITCH (fig. 56).--Prepare your hem as for fig. 55, and
work from left to right; with this difference, that after drawing two or
three cross-threads together, from right to left, you skip the same
number of perpendicular threads you took up below, and insert your
needle downwards from above, bringing it out at the bottom edge of the
hem.

[Illustration: FIG. 56. SECOND HEM-STITCH.]

These stitches, which can be used for the right side also, form a kind
of little tress, along the edge of the hem.

LADDER STITCH HEM (fig. 57). Complete the hem, as already directed in
fig. 55, then draw out three or five threads more, turn the work round,
and repeat the process, taking up the same clusters of threads which
you took up in the first row of stitches, thus forming little
perpendicular bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 57. LADDER STITCH HEM.]

DOUBLE HEM-STITCH (fig. 58). Begin as in fig. 55, forming your
clusters of an even number of threads; and then, in making your second
row of stitches, draw half the threads of one cluster, and half of the
next together, thereby making them slant, first one way and then the
other.

[Illustration: FIG. 58. DOUBLE HEM-STITCH.]

ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH (figs 59, 60, 61 and 62). In the old, elaborate,
linen needlework, we often meet two kinds of hem-stitching seldom found
in modern books on needle-work. Figs. 59 to 62 are magnified
representations of the same. At the necessary depth for forming a narrow
hem, a thread is drawn, in the case of very fine textures where the edge
is rolled, not laid; then fasten in the working thread at the left, and
work the stitches from left to right. Passing your needle, from right to
left, under three or four threads, draw the thread round the cluster and
carry your needle on, through as many threads of the upper layer of
stuff, as you took up below, so that the stitch may always emerge from
the middle of the cluster.

[Illustration: FIG. 59. ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 60. ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH. RIGHT SIDE.]

ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH (figs. 61 and 62).--These show, the right and
wrong sides of the hem; here the rolled hem is prepared as above, but
the stitches are worked from right to left, and the thread is carried
round the little roll, so that, as shown in fig. 62, it is visible on
both sides of the hem. The needle does not enter the stuff, but is
carried back at once, from the outside, and put in again between two
clusters of threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 61.--ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--ANTIQUE HEM-STITCH. RIGHT SIDE.]

SLANTING HEM-STITCH (figs. 63 and 64).--Bring out your needle and
thread, two or three threads above the edge of the turning, between the
first and second of the three cross-threads that compose the cluster,
and then slip it under the cluster, from right to left. The loop must
lie in front of the needle. When you have drawn up the stitch, put the
needle in, one thread further on, and take up two threads. Fig. 64 shows
the stitch on the right side.

[Illustration: FIG. 63. SLANTING HEM-STITCH. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 64. SLANTING HEM-STITCH. RIGHT SIDE.]

DOUBLE-ROWED ORNAMENTAL SEAM (figs. 65, 66, 67).--Begin with any one
of the hems already described, then counting as many threads downwards,
as are clustered together in the first row, draw out a second thread,
and cluster the perpendicular threads in this second line together, as
shown in figs. 65 and 66. On the right side the stitch is straight (fig.
67). Coloured cottons should be used for all the above patterns of
hem-stitch, when they are to be introduced into coloured embroideries.

[Illustration: FIG. 65. DOUBLE-ROWED ORNAMENTAL SEAM. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 66. DOUBLE-ROWED ORNAMENTAL SEAM. WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 67. DOUBLE-ROWED ORNAMENTAL SEAM. RIGHT SIDE.]

SINGLE THREE-ROWED OPEN-WORK (fig. 68).--This, and the following
patterns, are suitable for the headings of hems, and for connecting
stripes of embroidery, and are also often used instead of lace, and lace
insertion.

Fig. 68 will be found specially useful, in cases where the object is, to
produce a good deal of effect, at the cost of as little labour as
possible. Make six rows of hem-stitching, as in fig. 55; the first and
sixth rows to serve as a finish, above and below.

[Illustration: FIG. 68. SINGLE THREE-ROWED OPEN-WORK.]

The second and third, after drawing out six threads, the third and
fourth after drawing out eight. The clusters must all consist of an even
number of threads. The upper and the lower band of open-work is to be
copied from fig. 58, the centre one, from fig. 57. Divide the threads of
the perpendicular clusters in two; insert the needle, from left to
right, underneath half the second cluster, turn the needle's eye, by a
second movement, from left to right, and take up the second part of the
first cluster, drawing it under, and at the same time, in front of the
first half of the second cluster. Be careful not to draw your thread too
tightly.

OPEN-WORK WITH TWO THREADS DRAWN THROUGH (fig. 69).--One such wide
lane of open-work, between two finishing rows of stitches, may have two
threads drawn through it.

[Illustration: FIG. 69. OPEN-WORK WITH TWO THREADS DRAWN THROUGH.]

OPEN-WORK WITH THREE THREADS DRAWN THROUGH (fig. 70). Overcast both
edges with single stitches; draw the clusters together in the middle, as
in fig. 68; then above and below the middle thread, draw in first one
thread and then a second, straight above it, securing the latter with
back-stitches to enclose the clusters between two threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 70. OPEN-WORK WITH THREE THREADS DRAWN THROUGH.]

CLUSTERED OPEN-WORK (fig. 71).--Draw out from sixteen to eighteen
threads, between two hem-stitched edges. Fasten your thread in, 3 m/m.
above the seam-edge, and wind it three times round every two clusters,
passing the needle, the third time, under the two first rounds, to
fasten the thread. The thread, thus drawn through, must be left rather
slack. A second row of stitches, similar to the first, and at the same
distance from the bottom edge, completes this pattern. To give it
greater strength, you may if you like, work back over the first thread,
with a second, taking care to pass it under the knot, which was formed
by the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 71. CLUSTERED OPEN-WORK.]

DOUBLE-ROWED CLUSTER-OPEN-WORK (fig. 72).--A very good effect can be
obtained by making the above stitch in such a manner, as to form groups
of three clusters each, between hem-stitched bands of the stuff.

[Illustration: FIG. 72. DOUBLE-ROWED CLUSTER-OPEN-WORK.]

TURKISH CLUSTER OPEN-WORK (fig. 73).--After portioning off, and sewing
up the clusters on one side, draw out twelve or fourteen threads, and
make your connecting-stitch and hem, all in one, as follows: bring out
the thread before the cluster, and pass it round it, then from right to
left, over three horizontal and under four perpendicular threads, again
from left to right, over the four threads just passed over, and out at
the second cluster; laying it over this, you bring it out behind the
first cluster, wind it round the middle of them both, and pass it
through, between the over-casting stitches back to the hem; encircle the
second cluster with a loop-stitch, and carry your thread again over
three horizontal and four perpendicular threads, and upwards, slanting
underneath the stuff, out in front of the next cluster.

[Illustration: FIG. 73. TURKISH CLUSTER OPEN-WORK.]

OPEN-WORK WITH DARNING STITCH (fig. 74).--Draw out from eight to
twelve threads, according to the quality of the stuff. Insert your
needle and thread between two clusters, and pass it, as if you were
darning, backwards and forwards over them, until they are encased half
way down with stitches. In so doing, work with the eye of the needle
forward, and the point towards your thimble. To pass to the next
cluster, take one stitch back, under the one just darned, and bring your
thread underneath the threads of the stuff, to the second cluster.

[Illustration: FIG. 74. OPEN-WORK WITH DARNING STITCH.]

OPEN-WORK IN THREE COLOURS (fig. 75).--This pattern which is to be
done in the same way as fig. 74, requires the drawing out of, at least,
eighteen threads. Every cross-line of three clusters is to be worked in
one colour. The colours may all be different, or you may if you prefer,
take shades of the same colour.

[Illustration: FIG. 75. OPEN-WORK IN THREE COLOURS. COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo
311, 322, 334, Brun-Caroubier 354, 303, 357, or Rouge-Géranium 349, 351,
352.[A]]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION (figs. 76 and 77).--For both these, the edges are
to be overcast, and the darning stitches packed sufficiently closely
together, for the threads of the stuff to be entirely covered.

Fig. 76 requires the drawing out of eighteen threads, fig. 77, of
thirty. Both admit of several colours being used.

[Illustration: FIG. 76. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 77. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION (fig. 78).--After drawing out sixteen or eighteen
threads, bind both sides with stitches made over four horizontal and
four perpendicular threads, as follows; make one back-stitch over four
disengaged threads, then bring up your thread from right to left, over
four horizontal and under four perpendicular threads, back over the four
last threads, and draw it out beside the next cluster. The clusters, as
they now stand, are bound together in the middle, three by three, with
darning-stitches. The thread must be fastened in and cut off, after each
group is finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 78. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION (fig. 79).--First bind the two edges with
stitches, in the ordinary way. At the last stitch introduce the thread
slanting, according to the dotted line, pass it under four horizontal
and three perpendicular threads of the stuff and draw it out; then over
three threads from right to left, and back under the same, from left to
right, and out again; over four horizontal threads, and, under and again
over, three perpendicular ones; for the next stitch, you again follow
the dotted slanting line.

[Illustration: FIG. 79. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

Then make the darning stitch over nine threads, or three clusters. At
half their length, you leave out three threads, first on the right, then
on the left, whilst in the other half, you, in a similar manner, take in
three; so that you have two darned and two undarned clusters, standing
opposite each other. Finally, you overcast the single clusters, and
connect every two with a lock-stitch, as shown in the accompanying
illustration.

OPEN-WORK INSERTION (fig. 80).--Draw out twenty threads, overcast both
edges with stitches, made over three threads. Then, make slanting
stitches, proceeding out from these, over three, six and nine threads
respectively, all three terminating in a perpendicular line, one below
the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 80. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

For the open-work, twist the thread five times, quite tightly round and
round one cluster, bring it to the edge, between the second and third
clusters, and connect these by means of six darning-stitches to and fro:
join the first and second clusters in the same way by twelve stitches,
and finish, by twisting the thread five times round the remaining length
of the first cluster. The second half of the open-work figure is
carried out in a similar manner over the third and fourth clusters.

OPEN-WORK INSERTION IN FOUR COLOURS (fig. 81).--Draw out, from
twenty-five to thirty threads. The outside figures are executed over six
clusters, of three threads each, in a dark and light shade alternately
of the same colour. Each of the middle figures combines three clusters
of the two figures above it, and may be executed, either in a different
colour altogether, or in a lighter shade of the one employed in the top
row. The little star in the centre should be worked in dark red, or
black.

[Illustration: FIG. 81. OPEN-WORK INSERTION IN FOUR COLOURS.

MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 20, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos.
15 to 30.[A]

COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321, Bleu-Indigo 312, 334, Noir grand Teint 310.[A]]

OPEN-WORK INSERTIONS (figs. 82, 83, 84).--For each of these draw out
forty threads. Fig. 82 worked in white, and Rouge-Grenat clair 309,
comprises fourteen clusters, of four threads each. Begin at the top of
the big pyramid, so that the threads which you run in, can be more
closely crowded together.

[Illustration: FIG. 82. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

In fig. 83, the two rows of short clusters are worked in Gris-Tilleul
moyen, and, Gris-Tilleul clair, 392 and 330;[A] the pyramid of steps,
in Brun-Chamois moyen, 324;[A] the three inner clusters in Brim-Chamois
très clair, 418. One figure consists of fourteen clusters, of three
threads each.

[Illustration: FIG. 83. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

Fig. 84 also is to be worked in three colours; the light squares in
unbleached cotton, the middle figure in Bleu-Indigo très clair, 334, the
large squares on either side in Brun-Cuir clair 432. Each figure
contains eighteen clusters, of three threads each.

[Illustration: FIG. 84. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH SPIDERS (fig. 85).--The edges are to be
herring-boned, as described in fig. 39. In the middle, the so-called
spiders are made, over every group of four clusters. The thread that
runs out from the spider, passes over two clusters and under one, and
then three or four times, over and under the clusters, as in darning,
and so back, under the spider, at the place at which it was drawn in,
and then on, to the next four strands of thread.

[Illustration: FIG 85. OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH SPIDERS.]

THREE-ROWED OPEN-WORK (fig. 86).--Draw out five threads for the narrow
stripe, and from fourteen to sixteen for the wide one. Each cluster
should consist of four threads. The narrow bands between, are to be
herring-boned on either side. The dotted line shows the course of the
thread, on the wrong side. Then unite each separate cluster in the
middle, with a back-stitch, as shown in the illustration, and finally,
join every group of four clusters together, with three stitches, and
make a spider in the middle of the open-work, at the point where the
threads intersect each other.

[Illustration: FIG 86. THREE-ROWED OPEN-WORK.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH RINGS (fig. 87).--Bind the edges on both
sides, with straight, two-sided, stitches. Take, for this, Coton à
broder D.M.C, No. 30, (embroidery cotton), using it double. Draw out,
from twenty-four to thirty threads. Wind your thread six or seven times
round the middle of each cluster of nine threads, and then make
darning-stitches, above and below, to a length of 3 m/m. When you have
completed two clusters, join them together, by four interlocked
stitches; wind your thread three times round the single thread, and sew
it over with close stitches.

[Illustration: FIG 87. OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH RINGS.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH SPIDERS (fig. 88).--Draw out twenty-four
threads. Ornament the two edges with half-spiders. You begin these over
two threads, and go on taking in others, to the number of eight. The
whole spider in the middle, is made as above described.

[Illustration: FIG. 88. OPEN-WORK INSERTION WITH SPIDERS.]

OPEN-WORK INSERTION (figs. 89 and 90).--The beauty of this otherwise
simple pattern, lies in the peculiar knot, with which the edges of the
stuff are ornamented.

[Illustration: FIG. 89. OPEN-WORK INSERTION.]

Carry the working thread, as shown in fig. 90, from right to left, (see
the description of the right side) over and under four threads; then
bring the needle back, under the thread which lies slanting, form a loop
with the forefinger of the left hand, slip it on to the needle, and draw
it up close to the first stitch; pull the needle through the knot, and
proceed to the next stitch.

The illustration explains how the open-work in the middle should be
carried out.

[Illustration: FIG. 90. EXPLANATION OF THE STITCH FOR FIG. 89.]

OPEN-WORK WITH WINDING STITCH (fig. 91).--For this pattern, which is a
very laborious one to work, draw out twenty-eight threads. Bind the
edges with two-sided stitches, over two, three, four and five threads,
respectively. For the middle figures, you must reckon four threads for
the clusters, round which the working thread is tightly twisted, eight
for the darned clusters, ornamented with picots (see fig. 165), and
sixteen for the rectangular rosettes, in two colours.

Make a loose spider over the threads, as a background for the rosette.
Work the picots in a different colour from the cluster, and the
rosettes, likewise, in two colours. The connecting loops between the
figures should be made as you go along, the thread being always carried
back into the loop just made.

[Illustration: FIG. 91. OPEN-WORK WITH WINDING STITCH.]

CUTTING OUT THREADS AT THE CORNERS (figs. 92, 93, 94, 95). If you want
to carry a latticed-hem or a simple open-work pattern, round a corner,
you must cut and loosen the threads, on both sides, about one c/m. from
the edge of the hem, as seen in fig. 92. The loose threads can be pushed
into the turning, and the edge button-holed, as in fig. 93.

If however, on the other hand, the stitching be continued without
interruption, as indicated in the upper part of fig. 94, the loose
threads must be brought to the wrong side, and as represented in the
lower part of fig. 94, fastened down with a few stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 92. THE CUTTING AND LOOSENING OF THE THREADS AT THE
CORNERS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 93. THE OVER CASTING OF THE DISENGAGED EDGE AT THE
CORNER, THE THREADS BEING TURNED IN WITHIN THE HEM.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94. BORDERING THE DISENGAGED EDGE WITH
HEM-STITCHING, THE THREADS BEING TURNED OVER]

[Illustration: FIG. 95. FILLING IN THE CORNER WITH A SPIDER, AND
CONTINUATION OF THE LATTICE-WORK THENCE.]

CUT OPEN-WORK (PUNTO TAGLIATO).--For cut open-work, threads have to be
drawn out both ways, the number of course to depend on the pattern.
Threads, left between others that have been cut out, serve as a
foundation on which a great variety of stitches can be worked. Stuffs,
equally coarse in the warp and woof, should be chosen for all cut
open-work, for then the empty spaces that remain, where threads have
been drawn out both ways, will be perfectly square.

DRAWING OUT THREADS BOTH WAYS (fig. 96).--The same number of threads
must be drawn out each way; most patterns require the same number of
threads to be left as are drawn out. In fig. 96, three threads have been
drawn out and three left.

[Illustration: FIG. 96. DRAWING OUT THREADS BOTH WAYS, WITHOUT REGARD TO
THE EDGES.]

CUTTING OUT THREADS (fig. 97).--We often meet with cut open-work
patterns, set in another kind of embroidery. In such cases, the threads
that are to be cut out, must be cut a few millimetres within the edge,
and then drawn out, so that there may be a frame of the stuff left
intact outside.

[Illustration: FIG. 97. CUTTING OUT THREADS, IN THE MIDDLE OF THE
STUFF.]

BUTTON-HOLING THE RAW EDGES (fig. 98).--In very fine linen textures,
the threads can simply be cut out, but in the case of coarser stuffs,
and when a pattern ends in steps as in figs. 103, 104, 105, the raw
edges must be button-holed as in fig. 98, or 99.

[Illustration: FIG. 98. BUTTON-HOLING THE RAW EDGES OF CUT OPEN-WORK.]

OVERCASTING THE RAW EDGES (fig. 99).--Cording the raw edges, is even
better than button-holing them. Count the number of threads carefully
that have to be cut out, run in a thread to mark the pattern, and then
only, cut the threads through, at least two threads within the line.

[Illustration: FIG. 99. OVERCASTING THE RAW EDGES OF CUT OPEN-WORK.]

OVERCASTING THE TRELLISED GROUND (fig. 100).--If you only have a small
surface to embroider, you can draw out all the threads at once. But in
the case of a large piece of work it is better to begin by removing the
threads in one direction only, and completing all the little bars, one
way first; after which you draw out the threads the other way and
embroider those you leave. In this way you will secure greater equality
and finish in your work.

[Illustration: FIG. 100.--OVERCASTING THE TRELLISED GROUND.]

GROUND FOR SQUARE, FIG. 105 (figs. 101 and 102).--Finish the first row
of bars along the edge completely, to begin with. In the second row,
overcast the bar, down to half its length, then carry your thread over
two empty spaces, see the letter _a_, come back to the bar, overcasting
the thread which you threw across first, and passing the needle under
the bars of the stuff. In the second rows that intersect the first,
marked by letter _b_, the threads meet in the middle of the empty space.

In fig. 102, finish the bars, overcast both ways first, and then fill in
the ground with interlaced threads, worked row by row, throwing the
thread from one square to the other as you go, and doubling it, as you
return. For the bars, see the chapters on net embroidery, and Irish
lace.

[Illustration: FIG. 101. LATTICE-GROUND FOR SQUARE IN FIG. 105, SHOWING
THE COURSE OF THE STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 102. LATTICE-GROUND FOR SQUARE IN FIG. 105.]

LATTICE-GROUND AND DAMASK STITCH FOR SQUARE, FIG. 105 (fig. 103).--Our
illustration shows a third kind of openwork ground with one corner in
damask stitch, of the square represented in fig. 105. The little bars
which intersect each square crossways, are made in two divisions, by
carrying the thread to the opposite bar and back. In the same way, the
second thread is carried over the first. The damask stitches are
described in the next chapter, in figs. 143 and 144.

[Illustration: FIG. 103. LATTICE-GROUND WITH A PORTION OF SQUARE, FIG.
105.]

LATTICE-GROUND AND DAMASK STITCHES FOR SQUARE, FIG. 105 (fig.
104).--Damask, or gobelin stitches, are given in figs. 152, 153, 154.
The ground of this part of the square (fig. 104) is adorned with narrow
bars, worked in darning stitch. From the centre of one bar, proceed
three bars made on three foundation-threads, and a fourth made on two,
on account of the passage to the next bar.

[Illustration: FIG. 104. LATTICE-GROUND AND DAMASK STITCH FOR SQUARE,
FIG. 105.]

QUARTER OF THE SQUARE IN SINGLE AND CUT OPEN-WORK, AND DAMASK-STITCH
(fig. 105).--Original size 48 c/m. square. This handsome square is
worked in unbleached cotton on a white ground; it may also be worked in
colours. A very good effect is produced by using Chiné d'or D.M.C[A]
red, blue, or green for the gobelin stitch, and a uniform pale tint for
the cut open-work.

Figs. 101, 102, 103, 104 illustrate in detail, one quarter of the
square, which is represented here one third of the original size. The
centre piece (fig. 104) is bordered by four stripes, two long and two
short; the former containing two lozenge-shaped open-work figures
separated and finished off by damask stitches; the latter, only one such
figure. For the insertion in single open-work, that recurs three times,
you will find a variety of designs in figs. 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88.

[Illustration: FIG. 105.--QUARTER OF THE SQUARE IN SINGLE AND CUT
OPEN-WORK, AND DAMASK STITCH.

Original size 48 c/m. square.

MATERIALS suitable for Holbein linen: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 15 or 20,
and Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 25.[A]

For antique linen: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 25 or 30, or Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C No. 50, 60, or 70, and Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 50 or, in
place of the latter, Coton à broder surfin D.M.C No. 190.[A]]

DRAWING IN THE PATTERN (fig. 106).--Darning in the threads, as you do
into a net foundation is a slower process and one that requires greater
skill than drawing them in. The illustration shows the proper order and
direction of stitches for Fig. 108. In this case likewise, the little
bars must be finished, before the actual pattern is filled in.

[Illustration: FIG. 106. DRAWING IN THE PATTERN. (Explanation of fig.
108)]

DARNING IN THE THREADS (fig. 107)--In old needle-work we often find
the pattern reserved, that is, left blank and outlined by the grounding.
As it is difficult, especially in executing minute, and delicate
figures, to withdraw the threads partially, without injuring the linen
foundation, they are withdrawn throughout, and new ones drawn in, to
form the pattern. To explain this more clearly, the original threads of
the material are represented in a lighter shade than the new ones that
are drawn in; the course of the stitches is indicated in a darker shade.

[Illustration: FIG 107. DARNING IN THE THREADS. (Explanation of fig.
109).]

BROAD INSERTION IN CUT OPEN-WORK, WITH THE PATTERN DRAWN IN (fig.
108).--This insertion, suitable according to the foundation it is worked
on, for the decoration either of curtains, table-covers, bed-linen or
underclothing, is made as shown in fig. 106. If intended for the
decoration of any article made of white linen, we recommend unbleached
materials for the lattice-work, and bleached for the pattern, to bring
it out in strong relief.

[Illustration: FIG. 108. BROAD INSERTION IN CUT OPEN-WORK, WITH PATTERN
DRAWN IN.]

INSERTION IN CUT OPEN-WORK, WITH PATTERN DARNED IN (fig. 109).--This
insertion can be introduced into any kind of linen material, and used
for ornamenting towels, aprons, bed-linen and table-linen. When it is
used to connect bands of cross-stitch embroidery, the open-work should
be of the same colour as the embroidery, and the pattern worked in white
or unbleached cotton, to correspond with the foundation. In fig. 109,
the pattern is half as large again as in the original.

[Illustration: FIG. 109. INSERTION IN CUT OPEN-WORK, WITH PATTERN DARNED
IN.

MATERIALS--For Holbein linen: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 15 or 20,
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 8, 10 or 15 for the bars.--Coton à tricoter
D.M.C No. 16 or Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 12 or 25 for darning or
drawing in the pattern.

For finer linens: Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 30, or Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 40 for the bars and Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 50
for darning or drawing in the pattern.]

CUT OPEN-WORK PATTERN (figs. 110 and 111).--This pattern, more of the
nature of lace than any of the former, is well adapted for trimming, not
only household articles but also church furniture, altar-cloths and the
like, which are required to wash, as it can be worked in any width.

Fig. 110, a magnified representation of the work in process of
execution, shows alternately, ten threads withdrawn each way and six
left, with open spaces between. The arcs are worked over three
carefully laid threads, carried across from the middle of one bar to the
middle of the bar at right angles to it, the wheels on the other hand
are begun and finished at the same corner. Overcast the cut edges, and
hem-stitch the outside layer of stuff (figs. 61 and 62).

[Illustration: FIG. 110. CUT OPEN-WORK PATTERN. Fig. 111 in process of
execution.]

[Illustration: FIG. 111. CUT OPEN-WORK PATTERN. MATERIALS: Fil à pointer
D.M.C No. 20 or 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 50 or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.]

GREEK CUT OPEN-WORK PATTERN (fig. 112).--After the foregoing
explanations, no difficulty will be found in copying the beautiful Greek
cut open-work pattern, illustrated in fig. 112. Here, we have in the
original, 48 threads drawn out in the middle, both ways, from one
straight bar to another, (these bars being darned) with open spaces
between; and in the lower and narrower division, 21 threads drawn out
each way. The cut edges, from bar to bar, are hem-stitched on both
sides, leaving four threads of the stuff between.

The long bars, in the second figure, are button holed on both sides,
those with the picots, on one side only.

[Illustration: FIG. 112. GREEK CUT OPEN-WORK PATTERN. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 20 to 100
or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.]

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See, at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: NET STRIPE, IN IMITATION OF BRUSSELS LACE.]



Net and damask stitches.


Many net embroidery patterns and damask stitches consist of a
combination of ordinary running and darning, others of chain, stem and
cross stitch.

NET EMBROIDERY.--All these kinds of stitches can be worked on the
coarse Greek net, as it is called, as well as on the finest quality of
real Brussels net.

Stripes of net, finished off with button-hole edging, and ornamented
with one or other of the following patterns, make very pretty washing
laces and the like; net laid upon Irish point and converted by
needlework into a lace ground, makes an excellent substitute for a
hand-made ground, which demands much labour and time.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR NET EMBROIDERY.--The choice of material must be
determined by the quality of the net and the effect to be produced. For
a coarse make of net and a very marked pattern, the lowest numbers of
D.M.C cottons, or the narrowest braids, such as Soutache D.M.C Nos. 1,
2, 3 should be used; if the net be fine and the pattern a delicate one,
then the higher numbers of the following are preferable: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 8 to 20, Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70, Coton
à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 50, Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, Coton
à broder surfin D.M.C Nos. 100, 120, 150. The latter must be adjusted to
the required size before being used, that is to say as many strands of
it removed, as is necessary in order to reduce it to the proper
thickness.

TRACING WITH RUNNING STITCHES (fig. 113).--Have your pattern traced on
linen or paper; tack the net upon it, and copy it carefully on the net
with running stitches. As in darning, the stitches must run first above
and then beneath, alternating in each succeeding row. At the turn of the
lines, the stitches cross each other, as shown in the illustration.

[Illustration: FIG. 113. TRACING WITH RUNNING STITCHES.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 114).--Here too the pattern is traced with running
stitches, which are run in on both sides of each row of meshes. The
thread is carried first to the right, and then to the left, under every
alternate bar of the net and out again. Between the first and second
rows, one thread of the foundation must be left uncovered. In the next
row, the thread is carried back again, so that it encircles each mesh.
In the third row, the thread passes under the same bar of net as in the
second, the threads touching each other. The fourth row is a repetition
of the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 114. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 115).--This consists of two rows of stitches. In the
first, the single stitches run diagonally from left to right, over and
under a mesh; in the second row the triple stitches, also carried
diagonally across a mesh, lie from right to left.

[Illustration: FIG. 115. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 116).--Begin with a double row, as in fig. 114; this
is followed by a row of cross-stitch, touching the others, for which the
thread has to be carried, first under one of the straight bars of the
mesh and then diagonally, across it. A second, similar row of stitches
backwards, completes the crosses. This can be further varied by the
introduction of a row of triple stitches, after the double row, as in
fig. 115, and the repetition of the two first only.

[Illustration: FIG. 116. NET PATTERN.]

These rows can also be worked in two colours, or in white thread and
washing gold.

NET PATTERN (fig. 117).--Begin at the top, carrying the thread, first
under and then over two bars and a mesh, and then underneath as before.
In the second as in the first row, the threads must be drawn in, so that
4 threads always meet in one mesh, and two run parallel to each other
through the same mesh.

[Illustration: FIG. 117. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 118).--This pattern, which resembles fig. 117 in the
execution, is thickened by triple stitches. Above, where in the
preceding row three threads were laid, the thread should be single.

[Illustration: FIG. 118. NET PATTERN.]

Very pretty varieties are to be obtained by the introduction of several
colours. Take white, for instance, for the first row, and different
shades of the same colour for the second, third, fourth and fifth rows;
such as, Bleu-Lapis 345, 344, 343, 333, 342, ([A]) or Rouge-Cardinal
348, 305, 304, 347, 346, ([A]) or Rouge-Géranium, Brun-Caroubier or any
other colour that is absolutely fast.

NET PATTERN (fig. 119).--After one row of cross-stitch, such as was
described in fig. 116, add a second, carrying the thread under the bar
that lies between the first stitches, so that the two rows only cover
three threads of the net. The close bands of cross-stitch must be
divided from each other by one row of net bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 119. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 120).--Draw the thread twice backwards and forwards,
as in darning, through one row of meshes. In the next, make four
stitches over one mesh and two bars. After the fourth stitch, the thread
is carried forward under two bars to the next group. The meshes filled
in thus are divided from each other by two double rows of darning
stitches. Here you may introduce a variety in the colour, using either
white and unbleached, or unbleached and pale blue, or some other
combination of the kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 120. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 121).--Make three diagonal stitches over three bars
and two meshes, then returning to the mesh out of which the first
stitches come, make three more in the opposite direction. In the second
row, the stitches meet in the same mesh as those of the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 121. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 122).--Carry the thread upwards from below, over a
bar of the net, then pass it horizontally under another bar and carrying
it downwards, pass it under a diagonal bar and cover the other three. In
the second row, your loops must be turned the opposite way. When the
whole foundation is finished, run a thread over the whole surface and
overcast it. A good effect is produced by using white and unbleached
cottons, in alternate rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 122. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 123).--This pattern consists of one row of
overcasting, one of stitches like those described in fig. 114, and one
of cross-stitch, as in fig. 39, running diagonally across the stuff.
Besides the cottons already mentioned, washing gold thread (Or fin D.M.C
pour la broderie), may be used for the overcasting. Dead gold introduced
into simple needlework of this kind enlivens it extremely.

[Illustration: FIG. 123. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 124).--Three kinds of stitches are required for this
pattern. In the first row the stitch lies crossed underneath the net; in
the second, 3 stitches are made over one mesh, the first and the last of
which are carried across three meshes. In the third row, button-hole
stitches are carried from right to left over two diagonal bars, in such
a manner that the thread is drawn through the mesh facing the loops, and
the next stitch comes out under the loop of the preceding one.

[Illustration: FIG. 124. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 125).--Fill in every other diagonal row of meshes
with chain stitch, inserting the needle into the same mesh it came out
of, so that the thread lies in front of the needle, in a loop. The rows
of chain stitch may be made with two or three rows of meshes between
them. Even the diagonal lines by themselves, make a very pretty
foundation for other stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 125. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 126).--The first row worked from left to right,
consists of three loop stitches upwards and three downwards, each over
one bar. In the second row, divided from the first by one row of
stitches, the inner loops must be turned towards each other; in the
third, the outer ones. Any of the stitches, already described, can be
introduced into this pattern to enliven it.

[Illustration: FIG. 126. NET PATTERN.]

NET INSERTIONS (figs. 127 and 128).--These two, as well as the
subsequent patterns, are most of them worked in darning stitch and
simple overcasting.

The scallops in fig. 127 are formed of darning stitches, over 4, 3, 2
and 1 mesh, respectively. In the intervening space, which is five meshes
wide, the stitch shown in fig. 118, may be introduced.

[Illustration: FIG. 127. NET INSERTION.]

In repeating the pattern, the stitches forming the scallops, must be
made to run in the opposite direction. Instead of the thread, simply
drawn through the middle, little stars like those described in fig. 134,
have a very pretty effect.

In fig. 128, the thread is first carried round one mesh and then on to
the next scallop. In the second scallop, which turns the opposite way,
the thread is carried once more round the last mesh after the pyramid is
completed, and then on, to the next figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 128. NET INSERTION.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 129).--This checked pattern is also worked in
darning stitch. Carry the thread, as in fig. 125, through every second
row of meshes. When the bottom rows are all finished, the upper ones are
worked across them in the same way. Here the stitches may, if preferred,
be distributed more sparingly. But if they are set wider apart, the
spaces between should be filled up in some way. Little dots, made of
Coton à repriser D.M.C, will answer the purpose best.

[Illustration: FIG. 129. NET PATTERN.]

NET INSERTIONS (figs. 130, 131, 132).--These three patterns are
specially suitable, for insertions, neck-tie lappets and the like, in
the place of crochet, pillow, and other kinds of lace. Both design and
stitch are clearly enough represented in the subjoined figure for
further explanation to be unnecessary. All three should be worked with
rather coarse cotton, and Soutache D.M.C[A] (braid) drawn in, produces
an excellent effect.

[Illustration: FIG. 130. NET INSERTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 131. NET INSERTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 132. NET INSERTION.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 133).--These delicate little figures can be worked
into a close pattern, or can be strewn singly over the surface. The
closer you set the stitches, the more clear and distinct the stars will
be. The thread must be drawn in to the centre mesh from without, so as
to be invisible if possible, and then back again to the outside when the
stitches are finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 133. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 134).--These flowerets have a very pretty effect,
set either singly, or in double or triple rows, and are very useful for
filling up gaps or supplementing rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 134. NET PATTERN.]

NET PATTERN (fig. 135).--These star-shaped figures, their longest
stitch covering three straight bars and two meshes, the shortest, three
diagonal bars and two meshes, may like the above flowerets, be ranged
closely together in rows, so that four stitches, two horizontal and two
vertical ones, meet in one mesh. Cotton of two colours should be used,
in order that the figures may be distinct from each other: white and
unbleached are the best, in cases where bright colours would be
unsuitable.

[Illustration: FIG. 135. NET PATTERN.]

NET INSERTION (fig. 136).--These diamonds make a very pretty grounding
either set separately, or in a continuous pattern. The design is slight,
nevertheless, when it is worked in coarse cotton, the effect is
exceedingly handsome, especially if the inside, in addition to the star
here given, be enriched with ordinary darning-stitches, worked in fine
gold thread, as we have already mentioned.

[Illustration: FIG. 136. NET INSERTION.]

NET TRACERY WITH BORDER (fig. 137).--In order to bring out the pattern
and the colours, use instead of cotton, Soutache D.M.C, or Lacets
surfins D.M.C. Both are to be had in all the colours, given in the list
of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons. The little border can be
used in conjunction with any of the preceding patterns, but care must
be taken not to let it get twisted in the working. To prevent this,
slip a coarse needle under the last stitch, and draw the braid flat over
it.

[Illustration: FIG. 137. NET TRACERY WITH BRAIDS. MATERIALS: Soutache
D.M.C No. 2 in Bleu-Indigo 334 and Rouge-Turc 321.]

BROAD NET LACE TRACERY (fig. 138).--The pattern of this pretty lace
must first be transferred to stout paper, or oil-cloth. All the leaves
and stalks, and the buttonholing round the open centres of the flowers,
are worked in a pale green, the two bottom flowers in Turkey red, the
star-shaped one in blue, the calyx in which the stalks unite, in dark
red, and the little bells, in the lightest green.

[Illustration: FIG. 138. BROAD NET LACE TRACERY. MATERIALS: Coton à
broder D.M.C No. 30, 35 or 40.--COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321, Rouge-Cardinal
346, Bleu-Indigo 322, Gris-Tilleul 393 and Vert-Pistache 369.]

NET DARNING.--We conclude with some directions for darning net, a
valuable art, by means of which many a curious piece of old needlework
is preserved. Coarse and fine net are all darned in the same way.

Laying the first thread (fig. 139).--Tack the net which is to be darned,
closely to the defective part, upon either oil-cloth or coloured paper
and cut the edges straight to the thread; Your thread must be of exactly
the same size, as that of which the net is made. It takes three rows of
stitches to imitate the net ground; in the first place, as shown in fig.
139, cross-threads must be laid from side to side, carried as in
darning, a little beyond the edges of the hole and so as to surround
each mesh with a slanting stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 139. NET DARNING. LAYING THE FIRST THREAD.]

LAYING THE SECOND THREAD (fig. 140).--Secondly, beginning from one
corner, threads are laid diagonally across the first layer. The
cross-threads of the foundation are encircled by a stitch, made from
right to left, the needle is then carried under the next horizontal bar,
and the first layer of threads is overcast with similar stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 140. NET DARNING. LAYING THE SECOND THREAD.]

LAYING THE THIRD THREAD (fig. 141).--Thirdly, threads are carried
across the second and first layers. They must start, far enough from the
edge, for the second layer of threads to be overcast at the same time,
so that there may be no loose threads left on the wrong side. In this
third journey, every diagonal thread of the foundation is to be
encircled with a stitch, taken upwards from below, the cut edges being
strengthened in the same way. Then, to form the little cross in the
fabric, the thread must be conducted by means of a second stitch, under
the single horizontal thread, outwards, to the next-diagonal thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 141. NET DARNING. LAYING THE THIRD THREAD.]

In places where the net is worn, it can be strengthened in the same
manner, the stitches being made the way of the stuff.

DAMASK STITCHES.--As a rule the pattern is simply outlined with stem
and cord stitch, and the inside spaces are left plain. In spite of the
time this simple tracing takes to do, the effect is rather poor and
scanty. If however, the inside of the leaves and flowers, be filled in
with damask stitch, the result is very handsome.

Not only can the following stitches, which are suitable for any linen
coarse or fine, be used for this kind of embroidery, but most of the net
and lace patterns too, and these combined with buttonholing and flat
stitch produce charming effects.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR DAMASK STITCHES.--All the threads and cottons
used for net work can also be used for damask stitches, according to
the material and the kind of work. We will enumerate them once more:
Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 8 to 20, Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 25 to
70, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 50, Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to
50, Coton à broder surfin D.M.C Nos. 100, 120, 150.[A]

This kind of embroidery is generally done with a very coarse needle, to
press the threads of the stuff closely together and make the light
spaces between, which appear in many of the following illustrations.

FIRST PATTERN (fig. 142).--Carry the needle in a slanting direction
over three threads and bring it out, from right to left, under three
perpendicular ones, then again slanting, over three threads, from left
to right, and out again underneath three horizontal ones, downwards from
above. Thus the first stitch lies across, from right to left, the
second, lengthways. On the wrong side, the stitch forms a regular
succession of steps.

[Illustration: FIG 142. FIRST PATTERN]

SECOND PATTERN (fig. 143).--This is worked exactly in the same manner
as fig. 142, only that the second row of stitches touches the first, so
that two threads enter and issue from the same hole.

[Illustration: FIG 143. SECOND PATTERN]

THIRD PATTERN (fig. 144).--Though at first sight, this stitch is very
like the Holbein or stroke stitch, it is very different in the
execution. It is worked in two rows, to and fro; in the first, you make
all the vertical stitches side by side in the width of the stuff,
drawing your thread very tightly, in the second, coming back, you make
the horizontal stitches in a straight line, at right angles to the first
stitches. On the wrong side the stitches are crossed; they in thin
stuffs, show through, and quite alter the appearance of the right side.

[Illustration: FIG. 144. THIRD PATTERN.]

FOURTH, PATTERN (fig. 145).--In the first row, the thread is carried
slanting upwards from right to left, over two threads, then downwards
under two. Coming back, the stitches must be set the opposite way, so
that four threads meet in one hole.

[Illustration: FIG. 145. FOURTH PATTERN.]

FIFTH PATTERN (fig. 146).--This is worked like fig. 145, only that the
stitches must cover three threads each way. In the second row, you take
up one thread on the right and two on the left, to form your stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 146. FIFTH PATTERN.]

SIXTH PATTERN (fig. 147).--Here, the stitches form a chess-board
pattern. You begin with a diagonal stitch over two threads and bring
your needle up again into the same line it started from. The second
stitch covers three threads, the third six, the fourth eight; the next
three decrease, successively in length, in the same proportion.

[Illustration: FIG. 147. SIXTH PATTERN.]

SEVENTH PATTERN (fig. 148).--Two kinds of cotton have to be used for
this pattern, one of them soft and flat, like Colon à repriser D.M.C[A]
(darning cotton) or Coton à tricoter D.M.C (knitting cotton)[A] for the
flat stitches, and the other strongly twisted, like Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 8, 10, 12 or 15,[A] for the cross stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 148. SEVENTH PATTERN.]

The five flat stitches cover three threads in width and six in height,
and lie from right to left and from left to right. In the second row,
which must be two threads distant from the first, the stitches must lie
in the contrary direction. In the lozenge-shaped space between, make
four cross stitches, over four threads in height and two in width.

EIGHTH PATTERN (figs. 149 and 150).--Make five stitches over 8
horizontal threads, miss 6 threads and make another 5 stitches. The
groups of long stitches above and beneath the first row, encroach over
two threads of the first group, so that a space of only four threads
remains between two groups. The stitch between these groups is generally
known as the rococo stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 149. EIGHTH PATTERN.]

Bring out your needle between the third and fourth of these threads, and
insert it again above, drawing it out afterwards between the second and
third horizontal thread, and securing the first stitch with a back
stitch. Make the three remaining stitches, as explained in fig. 150.

[Illustration: FIG. 150. EXPLANATION OF THE ROCOCO STITCH IN FIG. 149.]

NINTH PATTERN (fig. 151).--This consists of straight bands of flat
stitches, covering three threads each way, with spaces 8 threads wide
between, ornamented with a small pattern in stroke stitch, (see chapter
on Tapestry and Linen embroidery).

[Illustration: FIG 151. NINTH PATTERN.]

DAMASK STITCH FOR FIGS. 103 AND 105 (fig. 152).--The stitches, here
represented on a large scale, form the border to the square in cut
open-work in fig. 105. The long diagonal stitches, on either side, can
be made to look fuller and more distinct, by using a soft, coarse
cotton.

[Illustration: FIG. 152. DAMASK STITCH FOR FIGS. 103 AND 105.]

TENTH AND ELEVENTH PATTERNS (figs. 153 and 154).--The former of these
is used for filling in the short stripe in fig. 105, the second for the
long inside one. Fig. 153 is clear enough to need no explanation; with
reference to fig. 154, it is however as well to point out that the
shortest stitch should cover 4 threads and the longest 12, the rest is
easily learnt from the illustration. This is a very suitable design for
the decoration of large surfaces and combines well with any running
diagonal pattern, when it can be made to form a large star which can be
worked as a separate figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 153. TENTH PATTERN. DAMASK STITCH FOR FIGS. 104 AND
105.]

[Illustration: FIG. 154. ELEVENTH PATTERN. DAMASK STITCH FOR FIG. 105.]

TWELFTH PATTERN (fig. 155).--In cases where this and the following
stitches are to be executed on a light, transparent stuff, it is best to
use a very strongly twisted thread, such as Fil d'Alsace D.M.C ([A]) or,
Fil à dentelle D.M.C ([A]) instead of a softer and looser material. A
stiff thread compresses the threads of the stuff better and the open
spaces, thus made in it, are rendered more visible.

[Illustration: FIG. 155. TWELFTH PATTERN.]

Count 6 threads vertically, put in the needle and draw it through from
right to left, underneath 3 diagonal threads. For the next stitch, carry
it upwards over 6 threads, and back under 3. The second row is worked
back over the first in the same way. Leave 6 threads between each row.

THIRTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 156).--Carry the thread, from right to left
over four vertical threads, and under the same number of horizontal
ones. The second row of stitches touches the first, so that the thread
it is worked with seems to be drawn through under the same threads of
the stuff, as the one the first row was worked with.

[Illustration: FIG. 156. THIRTEENTH PATTERN.]

FOURTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 157).--Here, the stitches, contrary to those
in fig. 147, are set vertically. The first stitch covers 2 threads, the
second 6, the third 10, the fourth 14, the fifth 18. The longest
stitches of two checks always meet in the same hole.

[Illustration: FIG. 157. FOURTEENTH PATTERN.]

FIFTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 158).--Cover the whole expanse with rows of
stitches, such as are described in fig. 155, with intervals of 12
threads between them.

[Illustration: FIG. 158. FIFTEENTH PATTERN.]

These rows are intersected by others, to which the thread is passed,
from between the sixth and seventh of the 12 threads between the first
rows. Where the stitches of the two rows meet, the working thread of the
second row must be drawn through, under that of the first.

SIXTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 159).--Between every two rows of cross-stitch,
leave an interval of 6 threads, counting those on each side of the rows.
Over these 6 threads work 2 rows, as shown in fig. 148, but so, that in
the second, the lower stitch of the first row and the upper one of the
second, cover the same threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 159. SIXTEENTH PATTERN.]

SEVENTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 160).--This consists of stripes, 4 stitches
wide, like those of fig. 155, with 3 threads between, which are overcast
in the ordinary manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 160. SEVENTEENTH PATTERN.]

EIGHTEENTH PATTERN (fig. 161).--Small squares of 7 stitches, inclined
alternately, to the right and left, and so formed, that the longest
stitch of one square is crossed by the first short stitch of the next,
so that a space only 6 threads wide and 4 long, remains uncovered. The
intervening stripes are filled with 3 rows of overcasting stitches,
covering 2 threads each way.

[Illustration: FIG. 161. EIGHTEENTH PATTERN.]

NINETEENTH PATTERN (fig. 162).--The steps formed by this pattern are
11 stitches high, and 11 wide, and each stitch covers 4 threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 162. NINETEENTH PATTERN.]

Eight threads intervene between each row of steps, which are covered at
the bend, by a square of stitches, from the last of which, the thread is
carried on at once, to the four single stitches.

TWENTIETH PATTERN (fig. 163).--The 4 squares set opposite to each
other, with 2 threads between, are edged all round by 3 rows of
overcasting.

[Illustration: FIG. 163. TWENTIETH PATTERN.]

TWENTY-FIRST PATTERN (fig. 164).--Begin by rows of stitches, like
those described in fig. 155, over 4 and 2 threads, with 4 threads
between, not counting those covered with cross-stitch. Between the two
rows of cross-stitch, join 6 threads together by a back-stitch, and
carry your thread over the two last of the 6, to the 2 first of the next
cluster. The narrow diagonal stripes are separated by 24 threads,
exclusive of those covered by the cross-stitches. These spaces are
filled in with squares, 10 threads wide and 10 long, formed by
back-stitches crossed on the wrong side.

[Illustration: FIG. 164. TWENTY-FIRST PATTERN.]

TWENTY-SECOND PATTERN (fig. 165).--In the closer stuffs, of a coarse
texture, the threads of which do not admit of being drawn together, as
you can those, of a loose thin stuff, where, by simply pulling your
thread a little tighter you get open spaces, you must begin by cutting
out every fourth or fifth thread. After which, you overcast all the
rows, first one way, and then the other, with stitches covering 4
threads, each way. On this foundation with strong, loosely-twisted
cotton, Coton à broder D.M.C or Coton à tricoter D.M.C No. 25, 30, 35,
or 40, make long stitches, as indicated in the illustration.

[Illustration: FIG. 165. TWENTY-SECOND PATTERN.]

TWENTY-THIRD PATTERN (fig. 166.)--From the point where the thread
comes out of the stuff, make 16 stitches, four times over, all coming
out of the same hole, over 8, 6, 4 and 6 threads, thus forming a star.
Leave an interval of four threads between the stars, and unite the
intervening threads by cross-stitches one way, and whip-stitches, the
other.

[Illustration: FIG. 166. TWENTY-THIRD PATTERN.]

TWENTY-FOURTH PATTERN (fig. 167).--Make a succession of diagonal
stitches, increasing in length, and advancing one thread at a time,
until the seventh stitch covers seven threads, and completes the
triangle. Then begin a second triangle on the nearest, adjacent thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 167. TWENTY-FOURTH PATTERN.]

TWENTY-FIFTH PATTERN (fig. 168).--Cover your whole surface with
squares of 16 stitches, as in fig. 147, and fill in the intervening
squares with 23 stitches, all radiating from one centre.

[Illustration: FIG. 168. TWENTY-FIFTH PATTERN.]

TWENTY-SIXTH PATTERN (fig. 169).--Diagonal trellised stripes, made as
indicated in fig. 165, and overcast, form the ground. Twelve threads are
to be left between the stripes, upon which, work six-cornered,
lozenge-shaped groups of stitches, set at right angles to each other, in
diagonal rows.

[Illustration: FIG 169. TWENTY-SIXTH PATTERN.]

TWENTY-SEVENTH PATTERN (fig. 170).--We conclude our chapter with a
circular design, which combines a variety of stitches, and introduces
our workers to two new patterns, as well as to an advantageous way of
hiding the junction of several kinds of stitches by semicircles of
button-hole stitching.

[Illustration: FIG. 170. TWENTY-SEVENTH PATTERN.]

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: STRIPE IN FLAT AND RAISED SATIN STITCH, AND MADEIRA
EMBROIDERY.]



White Embroidery.


We have retained the familiar term, white embroidery, for this kind of
needlework, for convenience sake, in spite of its inaccuracy, now that
coloured materials are quite as much used for it as white.

It is executed, either on a backing of oil-cloth, or in an embroidery
frame, called «tambour-frame». Only skilful workers can dispense with
these, for an untrained hand can hardly avoid puckering. If you work
without a foundation, the material must be held, quite smoothly over the
forefinger, so that the threads lie perfectly straight, otherwise, the
pattern is very apt to get pulled out of shape in the working. With your
three other fingers you hold the material fast, the thumb resting on the
work itself, beyond the outline of the pattern, which must be turned
towards the worker. It is always the outside line of a pattern that is
drawn in double lines, that should be turned towards the palm of the
hand.

TRACING PATTERNS.--Patterns are generally to be had ready traced, but
as it is often necessary to repeat, enlarge, or reduce them,
descriptions of several modes of doing so, will be found at the end of
the concluding chapter.

MATERIALS.--A loose, soft make of cotton, the looser the better, and
very little twisted, is the best material for embroidery. We recommend
for white embroidery in general, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 150;
for monograms on cambric, Coton à broder surfin D.M.C Nos. 100, 120,
150;[A] and for English or Madeira embroidery, Coton Madeira D.M.C Nos.
40, 50, 60;[A] for padding, or raising the embroidery, all the
different kinds of Coton à repriser D.M.C[A] can be used.

OUTLINING AND PADDING.--The outlining of a pattern is a very important
preliminary. A want of precision in the ultimate effect is often due,
merely to careless outlining. This part of the work should be done with
rather a coarser cotton than the embroidery itself. Fasten in the thread
by a few running stitches, never with a knot, a rule to be observed also
in embroidering, except in very rare cases. Finish off your thread by
drawing it through the tracing stitches, or through some part of the
pattern that is already finished. Fill in the spaces between the lines
with a padding of run threads, run loosely, and so that they lie thickly
and solidly in the centre, and shade off on both sides. The fullness,
and roundness of embroidery, depends on the firmness of this sub-stratum
of threads. The outlining and the padding of the different rounded and
pointed scallops, as well as of other figures that occur in white
embroidery, are illustrated in figs. 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 189,
190 and 191.

BLANKET, OR BUTTON-HOLE STITCH (fig. 171).--Work from left to right;
run in a foundation line, hold down the working thread below the run
line with the right thumb; insert the needle above and bring it out
below the run line but above the working thread; tighten the loop thus
formed, without drawing up the stuff, and continue in this manner,
setting your stitches closely and regularly, side by side.

[Illustration: FIG. 171. BLANKET, OR BUTTON-HOLE STITCH.]

STRAIGHT STEM STITCH (fig. 172).--Work from left to right. The needle
must always be inserted above the run thread, and brought out underneath
it. In the case of a very delicate pattern, take up only just as much
stuff as the run thread covers.

[Illustration: FIG. 172. STRAIGHT STEM STITCH.]

SLOPING STEM STITCH (fig. 173).--Work without a run thread; insert the
needle from right to left in a slanting direction, under 1 or 2
horizontal threads, and 5 or 6 perpendicular ones; so that each stitch
reaches halfway back to the last.

[Illustration: FIG. 173. SLOPING STEM STITCH.]

This kind of stem stitch is chiefly used for the fine upstrokes of
letters and numbers, and for linen embroidery.

BACK-STITCHING (fig. 174).--Back-stitching, that is small, even
stitches set closely together, is done from right to left, along a
straight line, and is chiefly used for filling in the centres of
letters, leaves and flowers.

[Illustration: FIG. 174. BACK-STITCHING.]

CROSSED BACK-STITCH (figs. 175 and 176).--Used, generally speaking,
only for very transparent materials; it forms a close seam of
cross-stitch, on the wrong side, and two straight rows of back-stitching
on the right. To work, insert the needle as if for an ordinary
back-stitch, pass it under the stuff, sloping it a little towards the
second outline of the pattern, and draw it out almost in front of the
first stitch. After making a back-stitch, pass the needle up again under
the stuff and bring it out at the spot where the next stitch is to be.

[Illustration: FIG. 175. CROSSED BACK-STITCH. RIGHT SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 176. CROSSED BACK-STITCH. WRONG SIDE.]

Fig. 176 shows the interlacing of the stitches on the wrong side, and
the way in which this stitch, when it is used for filling in centres,
can be worked on the right side.

SIMPLE KNOT STITCH (fig. 177). This consists of two back-stitches,
side by side, covering the same threads; it is chiefly used for filling
in leaves, embroidered on very thin materials, or in conjunction with
flat stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 177. SIMPLE KNOT STITCH.]

TWISTED KNOT STITCH (fig. 178). To work hold the working thread down
with the thumb close to the spot where you first brought it out, twist
it twice round the needle, turn the needle round from left to right,
following the direction indicated by the arrow, pass it through the
fabric at the place which is marked by a dot, and draw it out at the
place where the next stitch is to be.

[Illustration: FIG. 178. TWISTED KNOT STITCH.]

POST STITCH (fig. 179).--Something like knot stitch and much used for
patterns, composed of small flowers and leaves, where it often takes the
place of raised satin stitch. The illustration represents five leaves
finished, and the sixth in process of being worked.

[Illustration: FIG. 179. POST STITCH.]

To work, bring the needle up from the back and twist the thread round it
as many times as the length of the stitch requires, hold the left thumb
on the species of curl thus formed, and passing the needle and thread
through it, insert it at the end of the leaf where it first came out,
and draw it out at the right place for the next stitch.

BUTTON-HOLE BARS (fig. 180).--When a pattern is ornamented with
open-work bars, begin by tracing the outside parallel lines. Then
button-hole the whole lower line and the upper one, till you come to the
place where the first bar is to be; then you carry your thread across
and bring up the needle from below through one of the loops, as, shown
in the figure; lay three threads in this manner, inserting your needle
the third time one loop further on. Then cover the three threads thickly
with button-holing.

[Illustration: FIG. 180. BUTTON-HOLE BARS.]

DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCALLOPS (figs. 181, 182, 183).--The outlining,
padding and button-holing of these scallops is executed in the manner
already described. Be careful to adapt the length of the stitches to the
shape and size of the scallops. If they are pointed (figs. 182, 183),
the stitches will have to be set very closely together on the inner
line, and a little play allowed them on the outer, to come exactly to
the point, which should be very sharply defined.

[Illustration: FIG. 181. ROUND, BUTTON-HOLED SCALLOPS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 182. LARGE, POINTED, BUTTON-HOLED SCALLOPS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 183. SMALL, POINTED, BUTTON-HOLED SCALLOPS.]

ROSE SCALLOPS (figs. 184 and 185).--These are, large button-holed
scallops with indented edges, in the one case, rounded at the top and
sharply pointed at the join; in the other, pointed at the top, and
joined at the bottom by a straight bar of button-holing.

[Illustration: FIG. 184. ROUNDED ROSE SCALLOPS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 185. POINTED ROSE SCALLOPS.]

EYELET HOLES (figs. 186, 187, 188).--Outline the eyelet holes very
carefully first by running a thread round them, then cut out the
enclosed stuff with a sharp pair of finely pointed scissors, and edge
the hole with plain overcasting stitches, worked from left to right.

[Illustration: FIG. 186. OVERCAST EYELET HOLES.]

When you have a long row of eyelet holes to make, outline the upper and
lower halves alternately, first on one side and then on the other, using
two threads, and then overcast them in the same way. The double crossing
of the working threads between the eyelet holes makes them much
stronger, than if each hole were finished off separately, and the thread
passed underneath from one to the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 187. BUTTON-HOLED SHADED EYELET HOLES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 188. SHADED EYELET HOLES HALF OVERCAST, HALF
BUTTON-HOLED.]

The lower halves of shaded eyelet holes, (see figs. 187 and 188), are
worked with very short stitches, and the upper halves with long ones;
they may be edged entirely, either with button-holing or overcasting, or
half with one and half with the other.

SIX LEAVES IN RAISED SATIN STITCH (fig. 189).--Raised satin stitch is
chiefly used for working flowers, leaves, petals, dots, initials and
monograms. After tracing the outline of the design, fill in the centres
with a padding of long, close stitches for which you can again take
Coton à repriser D.M.C[A] and then, beginning always at the point of the
leaf, see letter A, cover it with flat, perfectly even stitches, worked
from right-to-left. B illustrates a leaf, divided through the middle by
a line of overcasting; C, one with a corded vein; D, a divided leaf
worked in sloping satin stitch; E, a leaf, with a corded vein and framed
in sloping satin stitch; F, a leaf worked half in satin stitch, half in
back-stitch and straight stem stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 189. SIX LEAVES IN RAISED SATIN STITCH.]

Leaves and flowers of all descriptions, can be executed in any of these
stitches, and in different combinations of the same.

SIX WAYS OF MAKING DOTS (fig. 190).--Dots, when they are well made,
are exceedingly effective in white embroidery, particularly if they are
worked in a variety of stitches. Dot A is worked in raised satin stitch;
B, in raised satin stitch, framed in back stitch; C, in raised satin
stitch, framed in twisted knot stitch; D is composed of several post
stitches of different lengths, set in a frame of stem stitches; E is
worked in back-stitch, and F consists of a small eyelet hole, with a
corded setting, which forms the centre.

[Illustration: FIG. 190. SIX WAYS OF MAKING DOTS.]

VENETIAN EMBROIDERY (fig. 191).--Scallops, worked in very high relief,
called Venetian embroidery, are an imitation on stuff of Venetian lace.

Real Venetian point is entirely needle-made; in the embroidered
imitations of it, the stuff takes the place of the needle-made lace
foundation. To make it more like the original however, the ground is
seldom left plain, but is covered with fancy stitches, such as are
represented in the illustration, or with one or other of the damask
stitches in figs. 146 to 170. The button-hole bars may be made with or
without picots. A full description of the latter will be found in the
chapters on net embroidery, and Irish lace. The space to be buttonholed,
must be well padded, for thereon depends the roundness of the
embroidery. For this purpose take 6 or 8 threads of Coton à repriser
D.M.C No. 25,[A] and fasten them down on to the pattern with loose
stitches, laying on extra threads, and cutting them gradually away,
according to the width the line is to be. The stuff underneath the
bars should only be cut away when the embroidery is quite finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 191. VENETIAN EMBROIDERY.]

RENAISSANCE EMBROIDERY (figs. 192 and 193).--This is the term applied,
more especially in France, to embroidery patterns, which are worked
entirely in button-holing, and connected by button-hole bars without
picots, as shewn in the two accompanying figures. The outside edge in
fig. 193, is embellished with picots, described in the chapters just
referred to.

[Illustration: FIG. 192. RENAISSANCE EMBROIDERY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 193. RENAISSANCE EMBROIDERY.]

RICHELIEU EMBROIDERY (fig. 194).--The name given to embroidery of a
similar kind to the former, but in which the connecting bars, instead of
being left plain as they are in the Renaissance embroidery, are
ornamented with picots.

[Illustration: FIG. 194. RICHELIEU EMBROIDERY.]

MADEIRA WORK (figs. 195, 196, 197).--This kind of embroidery, which
consists chiefly of eyelet holes, and is distinguished for the
excellence of its workmanship used to be known as English, but is now
generally called Madeira work, from the island where it originated. The
scallops in figs. 195 and 197, are bordered with shaded eyelet holes,
worked half in button-hole stitch, half in overcasting; the finely
scalloped edge, in fig. 196, is entirely button-holed. In working eyelet
holes, the material must always be turned in, up to the inside line, and
completely worked in, underneath the in order that no loose threads may
be visible on the wrong side.

[Illustration: FIG. 195. MADEIRA WORK.]

[Illustration: FIG. 196. MADEIRA WORK. MATERIALS: Coton Madeira D.M.C
No. 40, 50 or 60. (Special cotton for Madeira work)[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 197. MADEIRA-WORK. MATERIALS: Coton Madeira D.M.C
No. 40, 50 or 60. (Special cotton for Madeira-work).]

SWISS EMBROIDERY FRAME (fig. 198).--Letters, monograms, coronets and
the like, require extreme care in the working, and can only be really
well done in a frame. The round Swiss frame, or tambour frame, is the
one most commonly used. It consists of two wooden hoops, fitting loosely
into each other; the inner one, fastened to a support with a wooden
screw let into the lower part of it, with which to fasten the frame to
the table. The outside hoop is loose.

Place the fabric to be embroidered over the smaller hoop, the pattern in
the middle, and press the other down over it so that it is tightly
stretched and fixed between the two hoops.

A leathern strap with holes and a buckle, sometimes takes the place of
the second hoop.

[Illustration: FIG. 198. SWISS EMBROIDERY FRAME.]

ORDINARY EMBROIDERY FRAME (fig. 199).--Tambour frames can only be used
for embroidering pocket-handkerchiefs and other small articles; all
larger work has to be done in an ordinary frame. Sew a piece of strong
stuff into the frame, stretch it as tightly and evenly as possible, and
cut out a square in the middle to the size of the pattern. Then tack
your work in underneath, straight to the thread, dividing it out
carefully with pins first, to ensure its being set in perfectly evenly.
Roll or fold up the rest of the stuff over the edges of the frame,
and secure it with a few stitches or pins, to keep it out of the way of
your hand as you work.

[Illustration: FIG. 199. ORDINARY EMBROIDERY FRAME.]

ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS (figs. 200 to 205).--On account of the
difficulty of devising a good monogram for marking under-linen, we
subjoin two alphabets, by the aid of which our workers will be able to
compose their own.

The letters are of a good medium size, which can be magnified or reduced
according to the worker's own taste.

For any such modifications, we would again draw our reader's attention
to the directions given in the concluding chapter. The three first
plates represent large wide letters, intended to contain or encompass
the more elongated ones, represented in the fourth and fifth plates,
figs. 203 and 204.

The interlacing of the letters requires to be carefully done, and our
workers should study the following specimens, so as to learn the
stitches also, which are most suitable for this branch of embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 200. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Outside letters A to
H.]

[Illustration: FIG. 201. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Outside letters J to
Q.]

[Illustration: FIG. 202. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Outside letters R to
Y.]

[Illustration: FIG. 203. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Inside letters A to
L.]

[Illustration: FIG. 204. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Inside letters M to
X.]

[Illustration: FIG. 205. ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS. Last inside and
outside letters.]

MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS A AND D (fig. 206).--Here, letter A is
worked in flat satin stitch, in Bleu-Indigo 312, and set in stem stitch,
worked in Rouge-Turc 321. D as a contrast to A, is embroidered in
transverse bars, the left part in pale blue and white, the right in pale
blue and dark blue. The little ornaments may be worked according to
fancy, either in white, or in one of the given colours.

[Illustration: FIG. 206. MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS A AND D DRAWN FROM
THE ALPHABETS OF MONOGRAMS. MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 100 to
150. COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 334, Rouge-Turc 321 and white.[A]]

MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS V AND S (fig. 207).--The flat satin
stitch in both letters is worked in white; the setting, is in red, in
short stem stitch, or if preferred, in knotted back stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 207. MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS V AND S DRAWN FROM
THE ALPHABETS OF MONOGRAMS. MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 120.
COLOURS: White and Rouge-Cardinal 305.[A]]

MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS R AND C (fig. 208).--These are worked in
black and grey, for mourning; the way C is divided, admits of a variety
in the stitch; for instance, the back-stitches, in the illustration, may
be replaced by very small eyelet holes.

[Illustration: FIG. 208. MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS R AND C DRAWN FROM
THE ALPHABETS OF MONOGRAMS. MATERIALS: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 150.
COLOURS: Gris-Cendre 318 and Noir grand Teint 310.]

MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS G AND E (fig. 209).--The flat satin
stitching and back-stitching in E, and the stem-stitched edges of G are
worked in white Coton à broder D.M.C; the inside of G in ivory white
Coton surfin D.M.C.

[Illustration: FIG. 209. MONOGRAM COMPOSED OF LETTERS G AND E DRAWN FROM
THE ALPHABETS OF MONOGRAMS. MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 120
white and Coton surfin D.M.C No. 120, unbleached.]

BORDER IN GOBELIN STITCH (fig. 210).--Gobelin embroidery is merely
raised satin stitch, worked directly upon the pattern, without any
foundation, or padding. The effectiveness of this kind of embroidery,
which appears so complicated and is really so easy, and the many ways in
which it can be utilised, soon brought it into favour. It can be worked
on the article itself, or on stripes, laid on afterwards, with a
hem-stitch bordering. The original of fig. 210 was in blue and red;
Bleu Indigo 312 for the grounding, Rouge-Turc 321, for the setting in
stem-stitch. The herring-boning along the edges of the pattern, top and
bottom, is also in red.

[Illustration: FIG. 210. BORDER IN GOBELIN STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
broder D.M.C No. 35 in two different colours such as: Bleu-Indigo 312
and Rouge-Cardinal 304, Rouge-Grenat 358 and 309 or, Gris-Tilleul 393
and Rouge-Cardinal 305.[A]]

Should a different selection of colours be made, it is important to
remember that in all cases a sharp contrast is desirable.

ALPHABET AND NUMERALS, LEFT BLANK, AND OUTLINED BY THE GROUNDING,
WORKED IN GOBELIN STITCH (figs. 211 to 215).

[Illustration: FIG. 211. ALPHABET LEFT BLANK AND OUTLINED BY THE
GROUNDING. Letters A to N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 212. ALPHABET LEFT BLANK AND OUTLINED BY THE
GROUNDING. Letters O to Z.]

[Illustration: FIG. 213. LETTER O, FROM THE ALPHABET GIVEN IN FIGS. 211
AND 212.]

[Illustration: FIG. 214. NUMERALS LEFT BLANK AND OUTLINED BY THE
GROUNDING.]

The border worked in Gobelin stitch, illustrated in fig. 210, suggested
to us the idea of an alphabet and numerals, to be executed in a similar
style, left blank, that is to say, and outlined by a grounding in
Gobelin stitch, which are better suited to embroideries of the kind than
those generally used. Our limited space prevents us from giving all the
letters in the diagonal position they are intended to occupy on the
article itself. O and W only, are represented in the right position. No
difficulty will be found in copying the other letters, in giving them
the proper direction.

[Illustration: FIG. 215. LETTER W, FROM THE ALPHABET GIVEN IN FIG. 211
AND 212.]

In order to economize room, J and H are represented in one square, but
they are easily distinguishable from each other.

Fig. 214 represents the numerals, executed in the same way. We should
like to draw our readers attention to a few other ways in which letters
and numerals may be outlined by the back-ground; for example, the solid
parts can be worked either in plain or twisted knot stitch (figs. 177
and 178); in very fine chain stitch; in old German knot or bead stitch
(fig. 873), or even in piqué embroidery (fig. 877).

BORDER OUTLINED BY GROUNDING, WORKED IN GOBELIN AND STEM STITCH (fig.
216). The grounding of this pattern is worked on stiff white linen, and
entirely in Rouge-Turc 321, and the outlining in Noir grand Teint 310.
The same pattern can equally well be worked on gauzes and other
transparent stuffs, but with Coton à repriser, instead of Coton à broder
D.M.C, for the solid parts. Two shades of Rouge-Grenat, one dark and one
very light, may be taken instead, or two of Jaune-Rouille, or of
Violet-Mauve, employing always the lighter shade for the grounding and
the darker for the setting.

[Illustration: FIG. 216. BORDER, OUTLINED BY THE GROUNDING WORKED IN
GOBELIN AND STEM STITCH. First part.]

[Illustration: FIG. 216. Second part. MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C
No. 50.--COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321 and Noir grand Teint 310.[A]]

Be careful, in the grounding, not to make the red stitches near the
edge, longer than they are represented in the illustration and to set
the black stem stitches as close as possible to the grounding.

The pattern, which could only be reproduced in the original size, had to
be divided in two, to fit the page. In copying it, join the A and B of
the first part to the A and B of the second; the same in fig. 217, each
time the pattern is repeated, the flowers are to droop from the + as
seen from the position of the buds in the first part, at the beginning
of the drawing.

FLOWER GARLAND IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF STITCHES (figs. 217 and
218).--Most of the stitches, described at the beginning of this chapter,
will be found in this graceful garland, in the execution of which a
considerable variety of colours can be introduced. The rose-buds may be
worked in two shades of Vert-Pistache and of Rouge-Grenat, in the
stitches described in figs. 173, 177, 189 A; the forget-me-nots, in two
or even three shades of Bleu-Indigo, in raised satin stitch and knotted
stitch; the slender green leaves in Vert-de-gris, or Gris-Tilleul, the
stamens in Jaune-Citron, and the stalks of the roses in Brun-Acajou.

[Illustration: FIG. 217. FLOWER-GARLAND IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF STITCHES.
First part.]

[Illustration: FIG. 217. Second part. MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C
No. 40. COLOURS: Rouge-Grenat 326 and 335, Bleu-Indigo 312 and 334,
Vert-Pistache 319 and 320, Vert-de-gris 474 and 475, Brun-Acajou 301,
Jaune-citron 446.]

[Illustration: FIG. 218. SHOWING THE WORKING OF THE OUTSIDE STITCHES IN
FIG. 217.]

The border that completes this charming pattern, consists of four rows
of button holing, worked in four colours. The first row in our
illustration is worked in pale pink, followed by three shades of green,
the palest of which is used for the second row of stitches.

When these rows are worked upon a satine or cambric foundation, it is
advisable to begin by making a small drawing, in which the height of the
stitches and the distance between them is accurately marked out, then
prick the pattern through and pounce it upon the material beneath.

When they are worked on a material, the threads of which can be counted
no such precaution is necessary.

INSERTION IN GOBELIN AND STEM STITCH (fig. 219).--Owing to the
shortness of the stitches, this pattern is easier to work than the
foregoing ones. The little flowers are embroidered alternately in dark
and light red; the setting varies to correspond, the light red flower
being set in dark red, and vice versa. The interior of the leaves is in
light green and the setting, as well as the connecting bars, in dark
green.

[Illustration: FIG. 219. INSERTION IN GOBELIN AND STEM STITCH.
MATERIALS: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 35--COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 347 and
Rouge-Géranium 352 with Gris-Tilleul 392 and 331, or Bleu-Indigo 312 and
334 with Vert-Mousse 469 and 471, or Violet-Mauve 375 and 376 with
Jaune-Rouille 364 365.[A]]

STRIPES OF EMBROIDERY WITH LACE INSERTION BETWEEN (fig. 220).--We
conclude this chapter, by showing how stripes of embroidery can be used
alone, or in conjunction, either with bands of open-work, or lace,
crochet, or net insertion. Such combinations are useful for ornamenting
aprons, table-cloths, curtains etc., every description in short of
household linen and of children's garments. One great advantage,
moreover, which stripes of this kind, have over larger pieces of
embroidery is that they require neither frame nor pillow, nor wearisome
counting of stitches, but can be worked in the hand, at all times and
places.

[Illustration: FIG. 220. STRIPES OF EMBROIDERY WITH INSERTION BETWEEN.]

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: STRIPE OF GOLD EMBROIDERY IN GOLD THREAD, PURL, AND
FLATTENED GOLD WIRE.]



Flat stitch and Gold embroidery.


The terms, flat stitch and gold embroidery, suggest as a rule,
needle-work upon rich materials, such as velvet, brocade, plush and the
like.

Nevertheless, a great deal of beautiful embroidery is to be met with, in
silk and gold thread upon quite common stuffs; Persian and Moorish
embroidery for instance, both remarkable for their delicacy and
minuteness, and executed upon ordinary linen, or cotton fabrics.

As a fact, the material is quite a secondary matter; almost any will do
equally well as a foundation, for the stitches described in these pages.
Flat stitch, and some of the other stitches used in gold embroidery, can
be worked with any kind of thread, but best of all with the D.M.C
cottons.

FLAT STITCH EMBROIDERY.--Decorative designs, and conventional flowers,
are the most suitable for flat stitch embroidery; a faithful
representation of natural flowers should not be attempted, unless it be
so well executed, as to produce the effect of a painting and thus
possess real artistic merit.

ENCROACHING FLAT STITCH (fig. 221).--Small delicate flowers, leaves,
and arabesques, should in preference, be worked either in straight flat
stitch (figs. 189 and 190) or in encroaching flat stitch. The stitches
should all be of equal length, the length to be determined by the
quality of the thread; a fine thread necessitating short, and a coarse
one, long stitches. The stitches should run, one into the other, as
shown in the illustration. They are worked in rows, those of the second
row encroaching on those of the first, and fitting into one another.

[Illustration: FIG. 221. ENCROACHING SATIN STITCH.]

Work your flowers and leaves from the point, never from the calyx or
stalk. If they are to be shaded, begin by choosing the right shade for
the outside edge, varying the depth according to the light in which the
object is supposed to be placed. The stitches should always follow the
direction of the drawing.

ORIENTAL STITCH (figs. 222, 223, 224).--The three following stitches,
which we have grouped under one heading, are known also, under the name
of Renaissance or Arabic stitches. We have used the term Oriental,
because they are to be met with in almost all Oriental needlework and
probably derive their origin from Asia, whose inhabitants have, at all
times, been renowned for the beauty of their embroideries.

[Illustration: FIG. 222. ORIENTAL STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 223. ORIENTAL STITCH.]

These kind of stitches are only suitable for large, bold designs. Draw
in the vertical threads first; in working with a soft, silky material,
to economise thread, and prevent the embroidery from becoming too heavy,
you can begin your second stitch close to where the first ended.

[Illustration: FIG. 224. ORIENTAL STITCH.]

But if the thread be one that is liable to twist, take it back
underneath the stuff and begin your next stitch in a line with the
first, so that all the stitches of the first layer, which form the
grounding, are carried from the top to the bottom. The same directions
apply to figs. 223, 224 and 226.

When you have laid your vertical threads, stretch threads horizontally
across, and fasten them down with isolated stitches, set six vertical
threads apart. The position of these fastening stitches on the
transverse threads must alternate in each row, as indicated in fig. 222.

For fig. 223, make a similar grounding to the one above described,
laying the horizontal threads a little closer together, and making the
fastening stitches over two threads.

In fig. 224, the second threads are carried diagonally across the
foundation-threads, and the fastening stitches are given a similar
direction.

For these stitches, use either one material only, a fleecy thread like
Coton à repriser D.M.C for instance, or else two, such as Coton à
repriser D.M.C for the grounding, and a material with a strong twist
like Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C or Fil à pointer D.M.C for the stem stitch.

PLAITED STITCH (fig. 225).--When the vertical stitches are laid, a
kind of plait is formed in the following way. Pass the thread three
times, alternately under and over three foundation threads. To do this
very accurately, you must take the thread back, underneath, to its
starting-point; and consequently, always make your stitch from right to
left.

[Illustration: FIG. 225. PLAITED STITCH.]

If you have chosen a washing material, and D.M.C cottons to work with,
use one colour of cotton for the foundation, and Chiné d'or D.M.C No.
30, for the plaited stitch.

MOSAIC STITCH (fig. 226).--In old embroideries we often find this
stitch, employed as a substitute for plush or other costly stuffs,
appliquéd on to the foundation. It is executed in the same manner as the
four preceding stitches, but can only be done in thick twist, such as
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C or Ganse turque D.M.C.

[Illustration: FIG. 226. MOSAIC STITCH.]

Each stitch should be made separately, and must pass underneath the
foundation, so that the threads which form the pattern are not flat, as
they are in the preceding examples, but slightly rounded.

BORDER IN PERSIAN STITCH (fig. 227).--This stitch, of Persian origin,
resembles the one represented in fig. 175. Instead of bringing the
needle out, however, as indicated in fig. 176, take it back as you see
in the illustration, to the space between the outlines of the drawing,
and behind the thread that forms the next stitch. Before filling in the
pattern, outline it with short stem stitches, or a fine cord, laid on,
and secured with invisible stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 227. BORDER IN PERSIAN STITCH. MATERIALS: Cordonnet
6 fils D.M.C No. 14, 15, 20 or 25. COLOURS: Noir grand Teint 310,
Vert-Mousse 469 and 471, Rouge-Cardinal 346, Jaune-vieil-Or 680,
Violet-Mauve 315 and 316.]

This graceful design which can be utilised in various ways is formed of
leaves of 7 lobes, worked alternately in dark and light green; of
flowers of 3 petals, worked in red and the centres in yellow, and of
small leaves in violet. The setting, throughout, is worked either in
black or in dark brown.

STRIPE WORKED IN FLAT STITCH (fig. 228).--This pattern, simple as it
is, will be found both useful and effective for the trimming of all
kinds of articles of dress. The bottom edge should be finished off with
rounded scallops or toothed vandykes worked in button-hole stitch. The
flowers in flat stitch, are worked alternately, in Rouge-Géranium 351
and 352, and the leaves alternately, in Vert-de-gris 474 and 475; the
centres of the flowers are worked in knot stitch, in Jaune-Rouille 308.

[Illustration: FIG. 228. STRIPE WORKED IN FLAT STITCH.
MATERIALS--According to the stuff: Fil à dentelle D.M.C, Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C or Coton à repriser D.M.C[A]

COLOURS--For the flowers: Rouge-Géranium 351 and 352.--For the knot
stitch: Jaune-Rouille 308.--For the foliage: Vert-de-gris 474 and
475.[A]]

BOUQUET IN STRAIGHT AND ENCROACHING FLAT STITCH (fig. 229). As we have
already observed, it is by no means easy to arrange the colours in an
embroidery of this kind, so as to obtain a really artistic effect.
Whether the design be a conventional one or not, the great point is to
put in the lights and shadows at the right place. If you want to make a
faithful copy of a natural flower, take the flower itself, or a coloured
botanical drawing of it, and if possible, a good black and white drawing
of the same, match the colours in 6 or 7 shades, by the flower itself,
keeping them all rather paler in tone, and take the black and white
drawing as a guide for the lights and shadows. The colours for the
leaves and petals, which should always be worked from the outside,
should be chosen with a view to their blending well together. The
stamens and the centres of the flowers should be left to the last, but
the veins and ribs of the leaves, should always be put in before the
grounding.

[Illustration: FIG. 229. BOUQUET IN STRAIGHT AND ENCROACHING FLAT
STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 50. COLOURS--For the
forget-me-nots: Bleu-Indigo 312, 322 and 334.--For the other flowers:
Jaune-Rouille 365 and 366, Violet-Mauve 376, 316 and 377, Vert-Pistache
369.--For the foliage: Vert-de-Gris 474, Vert-Mousse 468, 469, 471 and
472.--For the stalks: Brun-Havane 455 and 457.[A]]

For embroideries of this kind, suitable materials must be selected; the
more delicate and minute the design, and the more varied the colouring,
the softer and finer should be the quality of the material employed.
Specially to be recommended, as adapted to every form of stitch and as
being each of them capable of being subdivided, are Filoselle,
Marseille, open Chinese silk and Coton à repriser D.M.C.[A].

FLOWERS EMBROIDERED IN THE CHINESE MANNER (fig. 230).--All Chinese
embroidery displays undoubted originality and wonderful skill and
judgment in the choice of material and colour. It excels particularly,
in the representation of figures, flowers, and animals, but differs from
European work in this, that instead of using flat stitch and making the
colours blend together as we do, the Chinese put them, side by side,
without intermediate tones, or they sometimes work the whole pattern in
knot stitch. The little knots, formed by this stitch are generally set
in gold thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 230. FLOWERS EMBROIDERED IN THE CHINESE MANNER.]

Often too, instead of combining a number of colours, as we do, the
Chinese fill in the whole leaf with long stitches and upon this
foundation, draw the veins in a different stitch and colour. Even the
flowers, they embroider in the same way, in very fine thread, filling
in the whole ground first, with stitches set very closely together and
marking in the seed vessels afterwards, by very diminutive knots, wide
apart.

CHINESE ENCROACHING FLAT STITCH (fig. 231).--Another easy kind of
embroidery, common in China, is done in encroaching flat stitch. The
branch represented in our drawing, taken from a large design, is
executed in three shades of yellow, resembling those of the
Jaune-Rouille series on the D.M.C colour card.[A]

[Illustration: FIG. 231. CHINESE ENCROACHING FLAT STITCH.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 20 to 50 or Chiné d'or D.M.C.

COLOURS--For the cotton: Jaune-Rouille 363, 308, 366.--For Chiné d'or:
Red and gold, blue and gold, green and gold.[A]]

The stitches of the different rows encroach upon one another, as the
working detail shows, and the three shades alternate in regular
succession. Flowers, butterflies and birds are represented in Chinese
embroidery, executed in this manner. It is a style, that is adapted to
stuffs of all kinds, washing materials as well as others, and can be
worked in the hand and with any of the D.M.C threads and cottons.[A]

RAISED EMBROIDERY (figs. 232 and 233).--Raised embroidery worked in
colours, must be stuffed or padded first, like the white embroidery in
fig. 191. If you outline your design with a cord, secure it on the right
side with invisible stitches, untwisting the cord slightly as you insert
your needle and thread, that the stitch may be hidden between the
strands. Use Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 25, for the padding. These
cottons are to be had in all the colours, indicated in the D.M.C colour
card, and are the most suitable for the kind of work.

[Illustration: FIG. 232. RAISED EMBROIDERY. PREPARATORY WORK.]

[Illustration: FIG. 233. RAISED EMBROIDERY. WORK COMPLETED.]

Use Coton à broder D.M.C for the transverse stitches and over the smooth
surface which is thus formed, work close lines of satin stitch in silk
or cotton; the effect produced, will bear more resemblance to appliqué
work than to embroidery. The centres of the flowers are filled in with
knot stitches, which are either set directly on the stuff or on an
embroidered ground.

EMBROIDERY IN THE TURKISH STYLE (figs. 234 and 235).--This again is a
style of embroidery different from any we are accustomed to. The solid
raised parts are first padded with common coarse cotton and then worked
over with gold, silver, or silk thread.

Contrary to what is noticeable in the real Turkish embroidery, the
preparatory work here is very carefully done, with several threads of
Coton à repriser D.M.C used as one. A rope of five threads is laid down,
and carried from right to left and from left to right, across the width
of the pattern. After laying it across to the right, as explained in
fig. 234, bring the needle out a little beyond the space occupied by the
threads, insert it behind them and passing it under the stuff, draw it
out at the spot indicated by the arrow. The stitch that secures the
threads, should be sufficiently long to give them a little play, so that
they may lie perfectly parallel, side by side, over the whole width of
the pattern.

This kind of work can be done on wollen or cotton materials, and
generally speaking, with D.M.C cottons, and gold thread shot with colour
(Chiné d'or D.M.C.)

Very pretty effects can be obtained, by a combination of three shades of
Rouge-Cardinal 347, 346 and 304, with Chiné d'or gold and dark blue or
with Chiné d'or, gold and light blue.[A]

This kind of embroidery may be regarded as the transition from satin
stitch to gold embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 234. EMBROIDERY IN THE TURKISH STYLE. PREPARATORY
WORK.]

[Illustration: FIG. 235. EMBROIDERY IN THE TURKISH STYLE. WORK
COMPLETED.]

GOLD EMBROIDERY.--Up to the present time, dating from the end of the
eighteenth century, gold embroidery has been almost exclusively confined
to those who made it a profession; amateurs have seldom attempted what,
it was commonly supposed, required an apprenticeship of nine years to
attain any proficiency in.

But now, when it is the fashion to decorate every kind of fancy article,
whether of leather, plush, or velvet, with monograms and ingenious
devices of all descriptions, the art of gold embroidery has revived and
is being taken up and practised with success, even by those to whom
needlework is nothing more than an agreeable recreation.

We trust that the following directions and illustrations will enable our
readers to dispense with the five years training, which even now,
experts in the art consider necessary.

IMPLEMENTS AND MATERIALS.--The first and needful requisites for gold
embroidery, are a strong frame, a spindle, two pressers, one flat and
the other convex, a curved knife, a pricker or stiletto, and a tray, to
contain the materials.

EMBROIDERY FRAME (fig. 236).--The frame, represented here, is only
suitable for small pieces of embroidery, for larger ones, which have to
be done piece by piece, round bars on which to roll up the stuff, are
desirable, as sharp wooden edges are so apt to mark the stuff.

[Illustration: FIG. 236. EMBROIDERY FRAME FOR GOLD EMBROIDERY.]

Every gold embroidery, on whatever material it may be executed, requires
a stout foundation, which has to be sewn into the frame, in doing which,
hold the webbing loosely, almost in folds, and stretch the stuff very
tightly. Sew on a stout cord to the edges of the foundation, which are
nearest the stretchers, setting the stitches, 3 or 4 c/m. apart. Then
put the frame together and stretch the material laterally to its fullest
extent, by passing a piece of twine, in and out through the cord at the
edge and over the stretchers. Draw up the bracing until the foundation
is strained evenly and tightly. Upon this firm foundation lay the stuff
which you are going to embroider, and hem or herring-bone it down,
taking care to keep it perfectly even with the thread of the foundation
and, if possible, more tightly stretched to prevent it from being
wrinkled or puckered when you come to take it off the backing. For
directions how to transfer the pattern to your stuff, and prepare the
paste with which the embroidery has to be stiffened before it is taken
out of the frame, see the concluding chapter in the book.

THE SPINDLE (fig. 237).--The spindle to wind the gold thread upon,
should be 20 c/m. long and made of hard wood. Cover the round stalk and
part of the prongs with a double thread of Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16,
or pale yellow Cordonnet D.M.C No. 25, and terminate this covering with
a loop, to which you fasten the gold thread that you wind round the
stalk.

[Illustration: FIG. 237. THE SPINDLE.]

THE PRESSERS (figs. 238 and 239).--These, so called 'pressers', are
small rectangular boards with a handle in the middle. The convex one,
fig. 238, should be 15 c/m. long by 9 broad; the other, fig. 239, which
is quite flat, should be 32 c/m. by 20.

[Illustration: FIG. 238. CONVEX PRESSER, FOR PRESSING THE STUFF ON THE
WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 239. FLAT PRESSER FOR LAYING ON THE PATTERN.]

Having cut out your pattern in cartridge paper, lay it down, on the
wrong side, upon a board thinly spread with embroidery paste. Let it get
thoroughly impregnated with the paste and then transfer it carefully to
its proper place on the stuff; press it closely down with the large
presser, and with the little convex one rub the stuff firmly, from
beneath, to make it adhere closely to the pasted pattern; small, pointed
leaves and flowers will be found to need sewing down besides, as you
will observe in fig. 242, where each point is secured by stitches. The
embroidery should not be begun until the paste is perfectly dry, and the
pattern adheres firmly to the stuff.

THE KNIFE (fig. 240).--Most gold embroideries require a foundation of
stout cartridge paper, and, in the case of very delicate designs, the
paper should further be covered with kid, pasted upon it.

[Illustration: FIG. 240. THE KNIFE. REDUCED SCALE.]

Transfer the design on to the paper or kid, in the manner described in
the concluding chapter, and cut it out with the knife. You can only make
very short incisions with this tool, which should be kept extremely
sharp and held, in cutting, with the point outwards, and the rounded
part towards you, as shown in the drawing.

TRAY TO CONTAIN THE MATERIALS (fig. 241).--Cut out as many divisions
in a thin board, or sheet of stout cardboard, as you will require
materials for your embroidery; these include not only gold thread of all
kinds, but likewise beads and spangles of all sorts and sizes as well as
bright and dead gold and silver purl, or bullion, as it is also called.
For the pieces of purl alone, which should be cut ready to hand, you
should have several divisions, in order that the different lengths may
be kept separate.

[Illustration: FIG. 241. TRAY TO CONTAIN THE MATERIALS.]

USE OF THE SPINDLE (fig. 242).--Gold embroidery thread should be wound
double upon the spindle. It is laid backwards and forwards and secured
with two stitches at each turn, as described in fig. 234. Small holes
where the stitches are to come, have first to be pierced in the material
with the pricker, from the right side, for the needle to pass through.
In soft stuffs, this is unnecessary, but in brocaded materials, and in
plush and leather, where every prick shows and would often spoil the
whole effect, it is indispensable.

[Illustration: FIG. 242. USE OF THE SPINDLE]

Gold thread which is stiff and difficult to work with, can be rendered
soft and pliable by putting it into the oven, or any other warm place,
for a short time.

EMBROIDERY WITH GOLD PURL (fig. 243).--Embroidery is the easiest kind
of gold embroidery; you have only to thread the little pieces of purl,
cut into the required lengths beforehand, like beads on your needle, and
fasten them down upon the foundation like the beads in bead-work. Smooth
and crimped gold purl, or silver and gold purl used together, look
exceedingly well, particularly where the pattern requires effects of
light and shade to be reproduced.

[Illustration: FIG. 243. EMBROIDERY WITH GOLD PURL.]

EMBROIDERY IN DIAMOND STITCH (fig. 244).--The diamond stitch is a
charming novelty in gold embroidery. Short lengths of purl, not more
than 1½ m/m. long, are threaded on the needle, and the needle is put
in and drawn out at the same hole. These stitches which resemble knot
stitches, form so many little glittering knots, turned alternately to
the right and left, and look like seed-diamonds in appearance, more
especially, when they are made in silver purl. The shorter the pieces
are, and the more closely you set the knots together, the handsomer and
richer the effect will be.

[Illustration: FIG. 244. DIAMOND STITCH.]

CHINESE GOLD EMBROIDERY (figs. 245 and 246).--We recommend the
imitation of Chinese gold embroidery to our readers as an easy and
grateful recreation. It consists simply in laying down a gold thread, on
a delicately outlined pattern and securing it by stitches. It can be
done on any material, washing or other, the costliest as well as the
most ordinary.

[Illustration: FIG. 245. CHINESE GOLD EMBROIDERY. First part.]

[Illustration: FIG. 245. Second part]

[Illustration: FIG. 246. CHINESE GOLD EMBROIDERY. First part.]

[Illustration: FIG. 246. Second part.]

For a washing material use, Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie, No. 20, 30 or
40,[A] which, as it washes perfectly, is well adapted for the embroidery
of wearing apparel, and household linen. Plain gold thread and gold
thread with a thread of coloured silk twisted round it, are very
effective used together.

Thus in fig. 245, the trees, foliage and flowers, are worked in plain
gold, the grasses, in gold shot with green, the butterflies in gold with
red, the two birds in gold with dark blue, and gold with light blue.

Two threads of gold should be laid down side by side and secured by
small catching stitches, set at regular intervals from one another, and
worked in Fil d'Alsace D.M.C No. 200,[A] of the same colour. Where the
design requires it, you may separate the gold threads, and work with one
alone.

The second specimen of Chinese embroidery, fig. 246, resembles the
first, as far as materials and execution are concerned, but the design
is different. The grotesque animals, flowers and shells it represents,
can be worked separately, or connected together so as to form a running
pattern.

STRIPE WORKED IN VARIOUS STITCHES (fig. 247).--All the designs
described thus far, are worked in the same way, but the stripe now
presented to our readers introduces them to several kinds of gold
thread, and a variety of stitches. The small, turned-back petals of the
flowers are worked in plain gold thread, and outlined with crimped; the
rest of the petals are worked in darning stitch, with plain gold thread.
The latticed leaves are edged with picots, worked with bright purl. The
other parts of the design are all worked with a double gold thread, the
stalks in dead gold, the leaves in crimped. The gold thread is secured
by overcasting stitches in gold-coloured thread, Jaune d'or 667, but it
looks very well if you use black or red thread for fastening the crimped
gold and dark or light green for the leaves and tendrils.

[Illustration: FIG. 247. STRIPE WORKED IN VARIOUS STITCHES.]

GOLD EMBROIDERY ON A FOUNDATION OF CORDS (fig. 248).--In the old
ecclesiastical embroideries, especially those representing the figures
of saints, we often find thick whip cords used as a foundation, instead
of cardboard, for the good reason that the stiff cardboard does not give
such soft and rounded contours as a cord foundation, which will readily
take every bend and turn that you give to it. In the following
illustrations, we have adhered strictly to the originals, as far as the
manner of working the surface is concerned, but have substituted for the
cord, which in their case has been used for the foundation, Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C No. 1, which is better for padding than the grey whip cord,
as it can be had in white or yellow, according to whether it is intended
to serve as a foundation to silver or gold work.

[Illustration: FIG. 248. EMBROIDERY IN FLATTENED GOLD WIRE AND PURL.]

Lay down as many cords as are necessary to give the design the requisite
thickness, in many cases up to 8 or 10 m/m. in height, taking care to
lay them closely and solidly in the centre, and graduate them down at
the sides and ends. When you have finished the foundation, edge it with
a thick gold cord, such as Cordonnet d'or D.M.C No. 6 and then only
begin the actual embroidery, all the directions just given, applying
merely to the preparatory work.

Only four of the many stitches that are already in use and might be
devised are described here. For the pattern, represented in fig. 248,
flattened gold or silver wire is necessary, which should be cut into
pieces, long enough to be turned in at the ends so as to form a little
loop through which the thread that fastens them down is passed. Over
each length of gold or silver wire small lengths of purl are laid at
regular intervals, close enough just to leave room for the next stitch,
the pieces of one row, alternating in position with those of the
preceding one.

PLAITED STITCH IN GOLD PURL ON A CORD FOUNDATION (fig. 249).
--Distribute the stitches as in the previous figure, substituting purl,
for the flattened gold wire, and covering the purl with short lengths of
gold thread of the same kind. All these stitches may be worked in gold
and silver thread, mixed or in the one, or the other alone.

[Illustration: FIG. 249. PLAITED STITCH IN GOLD PURL ON A CORD
FOUNDATION.]

SCALE STITCH WORKED IN GOLD THREAD AND PURL ON A CORD FOUNDATION (fig.
250).--Begin by covering the whole padded surface with gold or silver
thread, then sew on short lengths of purl, long enough to cover six or
eight threads, 2 or 3 m/m. apart, as shown in the engraving. These
stitches in dead gold purl are then surrounded by shining or crimped
purl.

[Illustration: FIG. 250. SCALE STITCH IN GOLD THREAD AND PURL ON A CORD
FOUNDATION.]

You bring out the working thread to the left of the purl stitch, which
you take on your needle, put the needle in on the other side, draw it
out above the little stroke, and secure the crimped purl with an
invisible stitch.

CONVENTIONAL FLOWER WORKED ON A CORD FOUNDATION (fig. 251).--The half
finished flower, represented here, was copied from a handsome piece of
ecclesiastical embroidery enriched with ornament of this kind. The three
foregoing stitches and a fourth, are employed in its composition. The
finished portions on the left hand side, are executed in silver and gold
purl, whilst the egg-shaped heart of the flower is formed of transverse
threads, carried over the first padding, and secured by a stitch between
the two cords. In the subsequent row, the catching stitch is set between
the cords, over which the first gold threads were carried.

[Illustration: FIG. 251. CONVENTIONAL FLOWER WORKED ON A CORD
FOUNDATION. MATERIALS.--For padding: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 1 to 5
or Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 10.--For sewing on the gold thread and purl:
Soie de coton D.M.C No. 50 or 70, Fil à dentelle D.M.C on reels Nos. 25
to 50.[A]]

The heavier the design is, the thicker your padding should be, and cords
a good deal thicker than those which are represented in the drawing
should be used, as the more light and shade you can introduce into
embroidery of this kind, the greater will be its beauty and value.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: INSERTION IN CROSS STITCH, ALIKE ON BOTH SIDES, THE
PATTERN LEFT BLANK.]



Tapestry and Linen Embroidery.


Tapestry is one of the oldest kinds of needlework and one which has
always been popular every where.

There are two distinct sorts of canvas in use for tapestry, called
respectively, 'plain (single thread) canvas', and 'Penelope (double
thread) canvas'. The latter is generally preferred, because it is easier
to count the stitches upon it, but both make an equally good foundation
for the embroidery, as the following examples will show.

Besides canvas, other fabrics bearing a close resemblance to it, are
often used, especially Java linen, the close texture of which renders
grounding unnecessary.

Cloth, velvet or plush can also be overlaid with canvas, the threads of
which are pulled away after the pattern is finished. For work of this
kind, we however prefer a material with less dressing, such as a twisted
tammy, or Colbert linen, because the pulling out of the harsh rough
threads of the canvas is very apt to injure the material beneath.

Stitches, worked upon two stuffs, must be drawn very tight, or they will
look loose and untidy when the auxiliary fabric is taken away.

Tapestry can be done either in a frame, or in the hand; in the latter
case, the ends of the piece of canvas should be weighted with stones or
lead, to prevent its puckering.

The stitches, which ought completely to hide the canvas, should all lean
one way and the underneath ones always from left to right, as the
letters in writing.

MARKING OUT THE EMBROIDERY GROUND (fig. 252).--Before beginning a
piece of canvas work and tacking on the auxiliary fabric, count how many
stitches it will contain, and mark them out in tens, with a coloured
thread, as shown in fig. 252, along two sides at least, in the length
and breadth. Having ascertained the number of stitches both ways, divide
them in two, and starting each time from the middle stitch, trace two
lines, one horizontal, the other vertical, right across the canvas. The
point of intersection will be the centre. This sort of ground-plan will
be found most useful, and should not be pulled out until, at least, half
the work be finished. If moreover, you have corners to work, or a
pattern to reverse, in the angle of a piece of embroidery, trace a
diagonal line besides, from the corner to the centre.

[Illustration: FIG. 252. MARKING OUT THE EMBROIDERY GROUND.]

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR TAPESTRY.--Hitherto, wool and silk, were the
materials chiefly used for canvas work; a very thick wool for carpets,
as being warmer and more durable. Silk is too delicate a fibre to resist
much wear and tear, and cannot therefore be recommended for articles
that are intended for constant use, and wool, though stronger, is
subject to the destructive agency of moths; whereas cotton, which is
cheaper than both, and quite as brilliant, is free from all these
disadvantages and is extremely easy to clean.

For most kinds of tapestry we can therefore with perfect confidence,
recommend the use of Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 20, Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 15, and even Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 25.[A]

CROSS STITCH (fig. 253).--Cross stitch is the foundation of every
other stitch, and the one in most common use. It is also called
marking-stitch, being used for marking linen. It is worked in two lines.
In the first, the thread is carried diagonally from left to right across
a square of threads, and then, downwards, underneath the two horizontal
threads; in the second, the stitches are carried from the right-hand
lower corner of the square to the upper left-hand corner, so that the
four points of the two stitches form a perfect square.

[Illustration: FIG. 253. CROSS STITCH.]

HALF CROSS STITCH (fig. 254).--If the cotton is too coarse, or the
canvas too fine, to make the double stitch, carry the thread back along
the whole line and make the half-stitches across it, from left to
right; the same in the case of a piece of work, which you buy with
a part of the pattern ready-worked.

[Illustration: FIG. 254. HALF CROSS STITCH.]

GOBELIN STITCH ON PLAIN CANVAS (fig. 255).--This is worked over two
horizontal threads and one perpendicular. In a frame, you can work the
second row, from right to left, otherwise, you must turn the work round,
and bring out your needle behind the last-made stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 255. GOBELIN STITCH.]

GOBELIN STITCH ON PENELOPE CANVAS (fig. 256).--For the same stitch on
Penelope canvas, you need rather a coarse needle, which will make its
way easily between the threads of the canvas.

[Illustration: FIG. 256. GOBELIN STITCH ON PENELOPE CANVAS.]

REPS STITCH (fig. 257).--Contrary to Gobelin stitch, this stitch which
is an imitation of reps, is worked in vertical lines, over two vertical
threads and one horizontal one.

[Illustration: FIG. 257. REPS STITCH.]

TENT STITCH (fig. 258).--This stitch is simply the first half of a
cross or marking stitch, worked over a single thread each way. The
illustration shows the working of a row, from right to left, the thread
being carried forward, underneath the vertical threads. Tent stitch is
used for the most part, in conjunction with cross stitch, for the more
delicate lines and the shaded parts of flowers and figures.

[Illustration: FIG. 258. TENT STITCH.]

WIDE GOBELIN STITCH (fig. 259).--This stitch covers two vertical and
two horizontal threads, and advances one thread at a time.

[Illustration: FIG. 259. WIDE GOBELIN STITCH.]

BROAD CROSS STITCH (fig. 260).--Worked over two vertical and four
horizontal threads, and very useful for filling in large surfaces as it
can be done twice as quickly as the ordinary cross stitch. It may be
varied by turning the crosses first one way and then the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 260. BROAD CROSS STITCH.]

DOUBLE STITCH (fig. 261).--Begin with a simple cross stitch over every
alternate intersection of the threads then make a second row of stitches
between those of the first, but in this case, over two and six threads,
so that they extend beyond the first each way. In the subsequent rows, a
square stitch should be opposed to a long one and a long stitch to a
square one.

[Illustration: FIG. 261. DOUBLE STITCH.]

RICE STITCH (fig. 262).--Fill in the whole ground first, with large
cross stitches, over four threads each way, then upon these, make the
so-called rice stitches. These cross the four points of the large cross
stitches, and meet in the space between, where they form another cross.
The large cross stitches should be worked in rather coarse cotton, the
rice stitches in one of a finer quality.

[Illustration: FIG. 262. RICE STITCH.]

DOUBLE STITCH, SET TWO WAYS (fig. 263).--This consists of diagonal and
upright cross stitches, alternately. Work from left to right, and carry
the thread over four vertical threads and downwards, under two
horizontal ones, then diagonally upwards, over four threads and
downwards under two, then again over four vertical threads, and so on.
Coming back, you cross the first threads, and pass the working thread
each time in a straight line, underneath the two threads of the canvas.
The stitches of the third and fourth rows are set, as the illustration
shows, the opposite way to those of the two first, the thread being laid
the contrary way. Gold thread is generally used for this second set of
stitches; Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie, or Chiné d'or D.M.C will be
found to be the most suitable for the purpose.[A]

[Illustration: FIG. 263. DOUBLE STITCH SET TWO WAYS.]

PLAIT STITCH (fig. 264).--It requires great attention to work this
stitch, to and fro; the easier way is to carry the thread back each
time, to the starting point.

[Illustration: FIG. 264. PLAIT STITCH.]

Carry the thread from left to right, over two horizontal threads, and
downwards under four perpendicular ones, then under two threads, from
right to left, as the figure indicates.

STEM STITCH (fig. 265).--Here, the stitches are worked in separate
rows, over four threads each way. The working thread passes first under
the two middle threads, from right to left, and then under the two upper
ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 265. STEM STITCH.]

LEAF STITCH (fig. 266).--Carry the thread diagonally over two double
threads each way, and back under one double thread, to the row whence
the stitch started. Make rows of back-stitches in a different colour
between the rows of long ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 266. LEAF STITCH.]

FISH-BONE STITCH (fig. 267).--The difference between this and the
preceding stitch is, that the working thread after passing over three
perpendicular and three horizontal threads, is secured by a back-stitch
over the last intersection of the canvas threads. These back-stitches
lean to the right or left, according to the direction of the long
stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 267. FISH-BONE STITCH.]

DIAGONAL WEB STITCH (fig. 268).--Stretch diagonal threads across the
whole surface you are going to embroider, and secure them with rows of
overcasting stitches, set, if you are working on Penelope canvas,
between the double threads of the canvas. In the next rows the stitches
must be set the opposite way, which produces the effect of diagonal or
twilled cloth.

[Illustration: FIG. 268. DIAGONAL WEB STITCH.]

CASHMERE STITCH (fig. 269).--To imitate this texture in needlework
first make one stitch over one crossing of the canvas threads, and then
two stitches over two crossings.

[Illustration: FIG. 269. CASHMERE STITCH.]

FLORENTINE STITCH (fig. 270).--Florentine stitch is worked in slanting
lines, the thread being carried, diagonally first over one and then over
two double threads of the canvas.

[Illustration: FIG. 270. FLORENTINE STITCH.]

MOSAIC STITCH (fig. 271).--The first row consists of one short and one
long stitch, alternately; the second, of short stitches only, set
between the long stitches of the first row; the third row is a
repetition of the first, and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 271. MOSAIC STITCH.]

KNOTTED STITCH (fig. 272).--Carry the working thread over two threads
in width and six in height, bring the needle back, four threads lower
down, in front of the double threads, and insert it behind the preceding
stitch, and over the middle threads, and then carry it down to the line
of the stitches. In the subsequent rows, the stitches extend over four
threads and encroach on two of the previous row, so that the stitches of
the second row lie between those of the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 272. KNOTTED STITCH.]

STAR, OR SMYRNA STITCH (fig. 273).--- Make a plain cross stitch over
four threads, each way, and then over that, another cross stitch,
standing upright. The same stitch can be made over six or seven threads;
if you work over more than four threads, it follows that you increase
the number of stitches accordingly.

[Illustration: FIG. 273. STAR, OR SMYRNA STITCH.]

ROCOCO STITCH (figs. 274, 275, 276).--After fastening in your thread,
lay it over four single or two double threads, as the case may be, and
carry the needle through to the left, under one double thread; then, as
fig. 274 shows, bring it back over the first stitch, put it in by the
side of it, and bring it out below, under half the horizontal threads
covered by the first stitch. Then make a stitch to the right, similar to
the one just made to the left.

[Illustration: FIG. 274. ROCOCO STITCH. FIRST STITCHES ON THE WRONG
SIDE.]

When you have finished one stitch, carry the needle under one thread, in
an oblique line, to the next stitch, see fig. 273. The whole pattern is
worked in diagonal lines.

[Illustration: FIG. 275. ROCOCO STITCH. STITCHES ON THE RIGHT SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 276. ROCOCO STITCH. COMPLETED.]

PARISIAN STITCH (fig. 277).--This stitch, though it is generally
worked on silk canvas, can also be worked on the different cotton and
linen materials already referred to more than once in this Encyclopedia.
It makes a very good grounding in cases where the material is not
intended to be completely hidden. It consists of a long stitch over
three threads, and a short stitch over one thread, alternately.

[Illustration: FIG. 277. PARISIAN STITCH.]

GREEK STITCH (fig. 278).--This differs from the ordinary cross stitch,
in the oblique inclination given to the threads, and the manner in which
it is begun. Instead of taking up the two threads that follow the first
stitch, you bring your needle back from right to left, under the
vertical threads of the first stitch, carry it downwards, and then from
right to left, to a distance of four threads beyond the first stitch.
The next stitch is made like the first. The rows may be joined together,
either by the short or the long stitches, but you must follow one rule
throughout. This stitch is much used in Slavonic countries, for the
adornment of linen garments, and there we have observed that the short
stitches are generally made to encounter the long ones. A coarse
material that covers the ground well, such as, Coton à tricoter D.M.C
Nos. 6 to 12, is the best one to use for this stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 278. GREEK STITCH.]

SCOTCH STITCH (fig. 279).--Squares, composed of slanting stitches,
made over one, three, five, three threads respectively, and then again
over one thread, and separated from each other by rows of Gobelin
stitches, constitute what is ordinarily known by the name of Scotch
stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 279. SCOTCH STITCH.]

MOORISH STITCH (fig. 280).--For this stitch, instead of surrounding
squares of stitches, made in the way we have just described, with
Gobelin stitch, the squares are made to touch, rising like steps one
above the other, and bordered only at the sides by Gobelin stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 280. MOORISH STITCH.]

ORIENTAL STITCH (fig. 281).--Here, you make four diagonal stitches
over one, two, three and four double threads respectively; which four
stitches form so many triangles, one above the other. The empty spaces
between are filled up with Gobelin stitches covering two threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 281. ORIENTAL STITCH.]

SHELL STITCH (fig. 282).--Carry your thread upwards over six
horizontal threads, then from right to left, under one vertical thread
and downwards over six horizontal ones. When you have made four vertical
stitches in this way, bring the needle out behind the third double
thread, counted lengthways, and between the third and fourth, counted
across, and fasten the four long stitches together with a back-stitch,
to the middle thread of the canvas. Draw a thread of a different colour
twice through these back-stitches, so as to form small knots like
shells, and then fill in the ground between the rows of long stitches,
with back-stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 282. SHELL STITCH.]

JACQUARD STITCH (fig. 283).--If you have a large plain surface to
cover, you should choose a stitch that forms a pattern in itself.
Jacquard stitch and others which we shall describe later on, will be
found to produce the effect of brocaded stuff. To work Jacquard stitch,
make six stitches underneath one another, over two double threads, and
six by the side of one another, from left to right, over two double
threads. The second row consists of the same number of stitches,
similarly worked downwards and to the side, but over one double thread
only.

[Illustration: FIG. 283. JACQUARD STITCH.]

BYZANTINE STITCH (fig. 284).--Here, you make the same number of
stitches as in the preceding figure but with this difference, that the
two rows of stitches are made either over two, or four threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 284. BYZANTINE STITCH.]

MILANESE STITCH (fig. 285).--In the first row, the back-stitch is made
alternately, first over four diagonal crosses and then over one; in the
second row, over three and two; in the third, over two and three, in the
fourth, over one and four. The last long stitches should come under the
last short ones and the short ones, in the middle of the last long ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 285. MILANESE STITCH.]

PLUSH STITCH (fig. 286).--This stitch, also called Astrachan stitch,
by means of which a very good imitation of an Oriental rug can be
produced, consists of loops, each secured by a cross stitch; the best
way to ensure these loops being even and regular is to make them over a
narrow wooden ruler, or a piece of whalebone.

The effect can be varied by cutting the loops, which gives the surface
the appearance of velvet.

[Illustration: FIG. 286. PLUSH STITCH.]

The illustration represents the middle loops only, as cut, for the cut
and the uncut stitch can both be introduced into the same piece of
embroidery. For example, the borders in figs. 290, and 291, are worked
in open or cut plush stitch, whilst in the centres, the stitch is left
uncut. Two stitches of a similar kind, called Smyrna and Malta stitch,
suitable for making rugs or carpets, are described in the last chapter
but one in the book.

CHAIN STITCH (fig. 287).--Generally speaking, this stitch is only used
for the adornment of under-linen or small articles of fancy-work but it
can also be employed in copying cross stitch patterns. In old
collections we often meet with very interesting pieces of needlework,
which were used for hangings or screens, where the figure-subjects, are
executed in chain stitch. Patterns in many colours, gain immensely by
being worked in this stitch, the colours blend together better than in
any other, and even the shape of the stitch contributes to soften the
contrasts of colour.

Chain stitch cannot, like other stitches, be worked to and fro, nor can
all the stitches of one row be finished first, as is generally possible
in cross stitch work, each row must be begun separately, and always from
the same side, and a different needle should be used for each colour, as
the material has often to be changed.

[Illustration: FIG. 287. CHAIN STITCH.]

The stitch is worked as follows; after fastening in your thread, insert
the needle at the same hole it came out of, and bring it out two threads
lower down. Keep the loop, formed by the working thread, under the point
of the needle. The thread should not be drawn up tightly but left to
form a rather loose, round loop. For the next stitches, insert the
needle close to the thread that issues from the last loop.

PATTERN FOR BORDERS OR GROUNDING (fig. 288).--This simple but most
effective design, copied from one of the most beautiful of Oriental
carpets, can be executed in, either cross stitch, plush stitch, or chain
stitch. To make a wider border still, the diagonal lines that divide the
figures shaped like an S, have only to be prolonged, and the figures
repeated.

The colours have been chosen with the view of reproducing as nearly as
possible the subdued and faded tones, which time has imparted to the
original.

[Illustration: FIG. 288. PATTERN FOR BORDERS OR GROUNDINGS. MATERIALS:
Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 15,
Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, or Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 25.
EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS PREFIXED TO THE COLOURS: ([symbol])
Rouge-Cardinal 346, ([symbol]) Rouge-Cornouille 449, ([symbol])
Bleu-Indigo 311, and ([symbol]) Bleu-Indigo 322, ([symbol]) Gris-Cendre
414, ([symbol]) Bronze doré 585 and ([symbol]) Vert-Mousse 470.[A]]


PATTERN FOR GROUNDING (fig. 289).--Diagonal lines, intersected by
balls, serve here as a setting for quaintly shaped flowers and leaves.
The outlines are all worked in cross stitch, and the solid parts, in
either tent stitch or Gobelin stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 289. PATTERN FOR GROUNDING. MATERIALS: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 5 to 15 or
Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16.[A] EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS PREFIXED TO THE
COLOURS: ([symbol]) Noir grand Teint 310, ([symbol]) Jaune d'Ocre 676,
([symbol]) Violet-Mauve 315, ([symbol]) Rouge-Géranium 349, ([symbol])
Rouge-Aurore 360, ([symbol]) Bleu-Indigo 312, ([symbol]) Bleu pâle 668,
([symbol]) Rouge-Cornouille 449, ([symbol]) Vert-de-gris 474, ([symbol])
Vert-de-gris 475, ([symbol]) Grounding.[A]]

PART OF A DESIGN, SUITABLE FOR CARPETS (figs. 290 and 291). Our space
will not admit of our reproducing more than a quarter of this design.
Colours of the softest shades should be selected for it. A black line
divides the pattern into four quarters. The upper quarter on the right,
and the lower one, on the left, should be worked in blue, and the upper
one on the left, copied from fig. 290.

[Illustration: FIG. 290. PART OF A DESIGN SUITABLE FOR CARPETS.

MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, Coton à tricoter D.M.C
Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10, or Coton à repriser
D.M.C No. 12.

EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS PREFIXED TO THE COLOURS: ([symbol]) Noir grand
Teint 310, Rouge-Grenat 358, ([symbol]) Rouge-Cornouille 450, ([symbol])
Bleu-Indigo 311 and ([symbol]) Bleu-Indigo 322, ([symbol]) Vert
métallique 465, ([symbol]) Gris-Noisette 424.]

The narrow border, in red, blue and green, is to be repeated after the
broad band, which is represented in fig. 291, has been added to the
grounding. A very good effect is obtained, if in the broad border, fig.
291, you vary the background of the different subjects.

[Illustration: FIG. 291. OUTER BORDER OF THE DESIGN FOR CARPETS FIG.
290. MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 15, or Coton à
repriser D.M.C No. 12.[A] EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS PREFIXED TO THE
COLOURS: ([symbol]) Noir grand Teint 310, ([symbol]) Rouge-Grenat 358,
([symbol]) Bleu-Indigo 311, ([symbol]) Vert métallique 465, ([symbol])
Jaune-vieil-Or 679, ([symbol]) Gris-Noisette 424, ([symbol])
Rouge-Cornouille 450.[A]]

LINEN EMBROIDERY.--The stitches used in linen embroidery are very
similar to those used in canvas work. The ordinary cross stitch, as
represented in fig. 253, is the one most commonly used, but it is not so
effective as the two-sided stitches, which in the beautiful old
needlework of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, have always excited our
wonder and admiration.

STUFFS SUITABLE FOR LINEN EMBROIDERY.--Most embroidery of this kind,
and more especially the Italian, is done on very fine linen. Such fine
work however, requires more time and patience than people, in these
days, are as a rule disposed to bestow on work intended merely for
pleasure and recreation. To meet the requirements of the day, therefore,
in addition to the finer kinds of linen, a great variety of textures,
are now manufactured, the threads of which, being thick and round, can
be easily counted. The cross stitches that are worked on Cuba, Ceylon or
Batavia linen, are large and coarse, those on linen-canvas, Russian
linen, twisted tammy, and Rhodes linen, small and fine.

Linen fabrics are either white, unbleached or cream-coloured. All three
are used for embroidery, but the coloured cottons show up best on the
cream ground; on the white, they look hard and crude, and on the
unbleached, dull and faded.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR LINEN EMBROIDERY--As most linen embroidery is
executed on articles that are subjected to frequent washing, the D.M.C
cottons, which are to be had in every shade and colour, are the best for
the purpose. For coarse stuffs, coarse cotton should be used, such as
knitting cotton, Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14,[A]
which will be found a very good substitute for wool; or six-cord crochet
cotton (Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C) Nos. 3, 4, 5, 10 and 15,[A] which gives
quite as full and brilliant a stitch, as silk-twist. Finer cottons
should be used for the finer stuffs, such as embroidery cotton (Coton à
broder D.M.C) Nos. 6 to 200,[A] and lace thread (Fil à dentelle D.M.C)
Nos. 30 to 150.[A] In many cases, even darning cotton (Coton à repriser
D.M.C) can be used, as like Algerian silk, it can be split or taken
double, to suit the stuff.

PLAIN CROSS STITCH ON AUXILIARY CANVAS (fig. 292).--Plain cross
stitch, commonly called marking stitch, has already been described in
fig. 253. But it may be well to observe, that when an auxiliary material
is used, it should be most carefully tacked upon the stuff following the
thread of the same, and a sufficient margin left to allow of the drawing
out of the canvas threads, when the work is finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 292. PLAIN CROSS STITCH ON AUXILIARY CANVAS.]

TWO-SIDED CROSS STITCH, WORKED IN FOUR ROWS OF STITCHES (figs. 293,
294, 295).--Straight lines of cross stitch, alike on both sides, can be
worked in two journeys to and fro. Working from left to right, begin by
fastening in your thread, never with a knot, but by two or three little
running stitches, which are hidden afterwards by your first cross
stitch. Directing your needle to the right, pass it diagonally over a
double cross of the warp and woof of the canvas, and so on to the end of
the line.

Having reached the last stitch, draw out your thread in the middle of
it, make an auxiliary diagonal stitch downwards to the right, bring the
needle up in the middle of the last stitch, take it thence, upwards to
the left, across two threads, and begin the return journey, from right
to left, crossing and thus completing the first row of stitches. In the
auxiliary stitch with which you begin the backward journey, the thread
lies double on both sides. Fig. 295 shows how to pass down to the next
row.

[Illustration: FIG. 293. FIRST HALF OF THE FIRST JOURNEY AND AUXILIARY
STITCH FOR RETURNING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 294. ONE JOURNEY AND FIRST HALF OF THE SECOND
FINISHED, AND AUXILIARY STITCH LEADING TO THE SECOND RETURN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 295. THE TWO JOURNEYS TO AND FRO, COMPLETING ONE ROW
OF CROSS STITCH, BOTH SIDES ALIKE.]

TWO-SIDED MARKING STITCH (figs. 296 and 297). The above mode of
working two-sided cross stitch cannot be applied to letters, or patterns
in broken lines, which both consist chiefly of isolated stitches. Figs.
296 and 297 explain the course of the stitches in embroidery of this
kind.

The working detail A, Fig. 296, indicates the spot for the thread to
enter the stuff, and the position of the needle for the first and second
stitches; B, the first two stitches completed, with an auxiliary stitch
to the right, the thread drawn out on the right, and the position of the
needle for the fifth stitch that completes the cross; G shows the
completion of the stitch begun at B and the position of the needle for a
second stitch to the right; D, one cross stitch completed and another
begun, immediately beneath A. In fig. 297, E shows how to work stitches
to the left; F, an auxiliary stitch to reach an isolated cross stitch on
the right, G, auxiliary stitches between two isolated cross stitches,
and H, a second and last auxiliary stitch to complete the cross.

It requires both practice and care to do this two-sided marking stitch,
so as not to disfigure the stuff by superfluous stitches.

[Illustration: A B C D FIG. 296. TWO-SIDED MARKING STITCH. DIFFERENT
POSITIONS OF THE NEEDLE.]

[Illustration: E F G H FIG. 297. TWO-SIDED MARKING STITCH. DIFFERENT
POSITIONS OF THE NEEDLE.]

CROSS STITCH FORMING A SQUARE AT THE BACK (figs. 298 and 299).--Many
of the alphabets we so admire in old samplers are worked in cross
stitch, that forms a square at the back. Each stitch has to be finished
off before another is begun; if you carefully examine figs. 298 and 299,
which show severally the right and the wrong sides of the stitch, you
will find no difficulty in mastering it. Letter A, fig. 296, shows the
entrance of the thread, the position of the needle for half the cross
stitch on the right side, and the second side of the square at the back,
as shown in fig. 299, A. Letter B, fig. 298, shows the cross stitch
finished, and the position of the needle for the third side of the
square on the wrong side, indicated by the same letter in fig. 299. C,
in both figures, indicates a stitch which is double on the right side,
and on the wrong side forms the fourth side of the square, whilst letter
D, explains how to continue the stitches.

[Illustration: A B C D FIG. 298. RIGHT SIDE OF THE CROSS STITCH, FORMING
A SQUARE AT THE BACK.]

[Illustration: E F G H FIG. 299. SQUARE STITCH FORMING THE BACK OF THE
CROSS STITCH.]

TWO-SIDED ITALIAN STITCH (figs. 300, 301, 302, 303).--Two-sided
Italian stitch consists of cross stitches, alike on both sides, divided
from each other by horizontal and vertical stitches. The upper and lower
stitches should all slope one way, as in plain cross stitch.

Italian stitch is worked in one journey, to and fro. Fig. 300 shows how
to fasten in the thread, and place the needle for the first stitch, from
right to left; fig. 301, the position of the needle from left to right,
to form the cross at the back, and the vertical stitch to the left, on
the right side; fig. 302, the position of the needle, for a two-sided
horizontal stitch at the bottom of the cross, where upon you proceed as
in fig. 300. Fig. 303 explains the return of the thread, which completes
the double crosses and the lines between.

The horizontal lines, not made on the first journey, are added on the
way back. In conclusion, pass the needle back, horizontally, from left
to right, to make the final stitch over the cross, and then make the
stitch between, as shown in fig. 303. On a thin stuff, this stitch
produces an extremely pretty effect, resembling lattice-work, provided
the thread be tightly drawn in the working.

[Illustration: FIG. 300. TWO-SIDED ITALIAN STITCH. INTRODUCTION OF THE
THREAD AND POSITION OF THE NEEDLE FOR THE FIRST STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 301. TWO-SIDED ITALIAN STITCH. POSITION OF THE
NEEDLE FOR THE 2ND AND 3RD STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 302. TWO-SIDED ITALIAN STITCH. POSITION OF THE
NEEDLE FOR THE 4TH AND 5TH STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 303. TWO-SIDED ITALIAN STITCH. RETURN JOURNEY, WHICH
COMPLETES THE CROSS STITCH.]

MONTENEGRIN CROSS STITCH (figs. 304, 305, 306).--The Slavonic tribes
of the southern districts of E. Europe, especially the Montenegrins,
have a great partiality for this stitch, which has been rarely noticed,
hitherto, in books on needlework. The right side shows cross stitches
with a double thread underneath, and divided by vertical stitches; the
wrong side, regular cross stitches, also divided by vertical stitches.
Coarse cotton should be used for this stitch; it produces a richer
effect and not only covers the stuff better, but also the underneath
stitch which in the Slavonic work, is entirely hidden by the cross
stitches.

Begin, as letter A indicates, with a long, slanting stitch, across 4 and
8 threads, then, bringing your needle back from right to left, under
four threads, draw it out, carry it over the first long stitch, and
insert it again from left to right, under the first four threads of the
canvas. These four stitches finished, proceed to the fifth and sixth,
which as B shows, cross the first four, then repeat the first stitch.

The threads that form the stitches on the wrong side, should always be
opposed to each other, that is, one cross should lean to the right, the
other to the left, as shown in fig. 305. This variation in the
inclination of the stitches, which is regarded as a fault in plain cross
stitch, is indispensable here, and produces a charming effect on the
wrong side.

[Illustration: A B FIG. 304. MONTENEGRIN CROSS STITCH. 1ST, 2ND, 3RD,
4TH AND 5TH STITCH AND TRANSVERSAL STITCH]

[Illustration: A B FIG. 305. MONTENEGRIN CROSS STITCH. POSITION OF THE
STITCHES ON THE WRONG SIDE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 306. MONTENEGRIN CROSS STITCH. A ROW OF STITCHES
FINISHED.]

PLAITED ALGERIAN STITCH (fig. 307).--The distinguishing feature of
this stitch is, that it only advances one thread at a time. It should be
begun on an uneven number of threads, and like the Montenegrin stitch,
should be worked with coarse cotton. The rows may touch, either at the
top or at the bottom of the stitch, so long as you keep to one plan
throughout.

[Illustration: FIG. 307. PLAITED ALGERIAN STITCH.]

TWO-SIDED SPANISH PLAITED STITCH (figs. 308 and 309).--This stitch has
the advantage of being, not only very effective, but also very quickly
executed. It is worked in two rows, forwards and backwards. All cross
stitch patterns can be worked in Spanish stitch. The gaps, which are
occasioned by the long stitches, have to be filled in with short ones.
In itself, the stitch consists of slanting stitches, three threads a
part, alike on both sides, and advances three threads at a time, as
shown in figs. 308 and 309.

[Illustration: FIG. 308. TWO-SIDED PLAITED SPANISH STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 309. TWO-SIDED PLAITED SPANISH STITCH.]

TWO-SIDED LINE STITCH (figs. 310 and 311).--Square stitch, Holbein
stitch, line, or stroke stitch, as it is sometimes called, and setting
stitch, are all worked on one principle. Though all these two-sided
stitches are related to each other, and by no means difficult of
execution, those new to the work will find a little practice necessary,
to make the stitches follow in their proper order. Fig. 310 explains how
the needle has to pass, alternately, step by step, over and under the
threads of the stuff, and fig. 311, how the threads, left blank the
first time, are covered on the way back. The great difficulty is how to
place your first row of stitches so as to ensure an unbroken course
back. It is as well before setting out, to ascertain clearly the most
direct course back, so that you may not come to a stand-still, or be
obliged to make unnecessary stitches on the wrong side. If you have to
pass obliquely across the stuff, as in patterns figs. 326, 327, 328,
329, 331 and 333, proceed in the same way as though you were covering
the straight threads of a fabric.

[Illustration: FIG. 310. TWO-SIDED LINE STITCH. FORWARD ROW.]

[Illustration: FIG. 311. TWO-SIDED LINE STITCH. BACKWARD ROW.]

TWO-SIDED INSERTION (figs. 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318).--We
conclude this series of stitches with a description of a pretty,
two-sided insertion, suitable for joining stripes of work of different
widths together. In pieces of old needlework, we often find handsome,
coloured patterns, joined together by a piece of lace or some quite
different kind of work. The insertion represented in fig. 317, is a very
good substitute for either. Fig. 312 explains the first stitch and the
course of the second, from left to right, under 3 vertical and 3
horizontal threads; the 3rd stitch to the left, over 6 vertical threads,
and the beginning of the 4th stitch. Fig. 313 shows the 4th stitch
completed, and the direction the 5th and 6th stitches have to take;
fig. 314, the 6th completed, and the position of the needle for the 7th
and 8th; fig. 315, the 9th lower, horizontal stitch, over 6 vertical
threads, the 10th backward stitch, and the position of the needle for
the 11th and last stitch. Fig. 317 represents a whole series of
stitches, and fig. 318, the back of the work, which though quite a
different pattern, will combine very well with any two-sided embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 312. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. FIRST DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 313. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. SECOND DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 314. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. THIRD DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 315. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. FOURTH DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 316. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. FIFTH DETAIL.]

These insertions can be worked on any stuff, but the stitches, must be
done, both ways, on a number of threads, divisible by 3. Thus, the first
stitch may cover 6, 9, or 12 threads, but never 8, 10, 12 or 14.
[Transcriber's note: 12, here, appears to be an error in the original.]

[Illustration: FIG. 317. TWO-SIDED INSERTION. ROW OF STITCHES FINISHED.]

[Illustration: FIG. 318. TWO-SIDED INSERTION, SHOWING THE BACK OF FIG.
317.]

GOTHIC BORDERS IN GOBELIN AND CROSS STITCH (figs. 319 and 320).--We
are indebted for both these pretty patterns, which are quite Gothic in
their character, to a visit we paid to the national museum at Munich,
where we discovered them amongst a heap of other old valuables, lying
un-heeded in a remote corner. Their simple graceful outlines render them
peculiarly suitable for the decoration of table-cloths, counterpanes,
curtains, etc. All embroideries of this kind should be finished off with
a deep fringe, made in the stuff itself, or knotted on to it or may be
trimmed with a heavy thread lace, of a wide width, corresponding with
the work in character.

The design may be worked either in one shade, as in fig. 319, or in two,
as in fig. 320, where all the outside stitches are worked in the darker
shade of the given colours.

[Illustration: FIG. 319. GOTHIC BORDER IN CROSS STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton
à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35, or
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 15.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321, or two
shades of Bleu-Indigo, 311 and 334, or two shades of Rouge-Grenat, 358
and 359 or two shades of Brun-Acajou, 300 and 402.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 320. GOTHIC BORDER IN CROSS STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton
à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35. COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 311 and 344, or
Rouge-Cardinal 346 and Rouge-Géranium 335, or Gris-Tilleul 391 and
331.[A]]

POWDERING AND BORDER. ALBANIAN SUBJECTS (figs. 321 and 322).--The
arrangement of colours for these charming patterns, of Albanian origin,
should be as follows; the dark-coloured crosses, red, the lighter ones,
alternately blue and green, the lightest, yellow.

[Illustration: FIG. 321. POWDERING. ALBANIAN SUBJECT. MATERIALS: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 25 or
Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 12, 25 or 50.[A]

COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 347, Bleu-Indigo 322, Vert métallique 465,
Jaune-Orange 444, Gris-Brun 409.[A]]

In fig. 321, most of the stitches in every other diagonal row, are
worked in red, the others in green or blue; in the intermediate rows the
flowers are worked alternately, in green and red, or blue and red, and
throughout, the centre of each figure should consist of 4 stitches in
yellow.

[Illustration: FIG. 322. ALBANIAN SUBJECT. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35 or Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 25.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 347, Bleu-Indigo
312, Jaune-Orange 444, Vert métallique 465, Gris-Brun 409.[A]]

In fig. 321, which serves as a border to the above, only the stalks of
the 4 conventional pinks, which, with the cross in their middle, form a
square, are in brown.

These squares are separated from the bottom border by an insertion, in
Gobelin stitch, worked over 6 threads, in red, blue, green and yellow,
from 20 to 25 stitches of each. This band is edged on both sides with a
row of stem stitches, worked in yellow over 4 threads. The Holbein
stitches that border the band, can be made in whichever colour the
worker prefers, or else in red and gold thread.

BORDERS IN STROKE STITCH (figs. 323, 324, 325).--These three patterns
will give our readers an opportunity of perfecting themselves in
two-sided, square stitch (see figs. 310 and 311), also called stroke, or
line stitch, according as it is worked, in oblique, or straight rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 323. BORDER IN STROKE STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
marquer D.M.C Nos. 5 to 200.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321 or Bleu-Indigo
312.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 324. BORDER IN STROKE STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
repriser D.M.C No. 50.[A] COLOURS: Vert-Pistache 319, or Vert-Mousse
470.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 325. INSERTION IN STROKE STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 60.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321, or Rouge-Grenat
309, or Bleu-Indigo 311.[A]]

We again recommend our readers, to begin by ascertaining the course the
stitches should take, in order to avoid all unnecessary stitches and be
sure of finding their way back according to the prescribed rule.

CORNERS IN STROKE STITCH (figs. 326 and 327).--These pretty little
patterns are suitable for the decoration of ladies' and children's
collars, fine pocket-handkerchiefs and finger napkins, and can be worked
in one or two colours, as preferred. If two colours be used, the darker
should be taken for the interior, the lighter for the narrow outside
edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 326. & FIG. 327. CORNERS IN LINE STITCH. MATERIALS:
Coton à broder D.M.C Nos 35 to 200 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to
70.[A] COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo, or Rouge-Cardinal, or Brun-Caroubier, or
Violet-Lie-de-vin.[A]]

STRIPE IN STROKE STITCH (fig. 328).--This is copied from a piece of
Italian work, though from a resemblance in the different subjects to the
rose, thistle and shamrock, if might have been supposed to be of English
origin. The original work was executed in a most brilliant purple red
which time has toned down to the colour of Jaune-Rouille 308, or
Brun-Cuir 432, one or other of which we recommend, as being the only
colours with which any thing approaching the refined distinguished look
of the old embroidery, can be given to the new.

[Illustration: FIG. 328. STRIPE IN STROKE STITCH. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 50, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35, or Coton à
repriser D.M.C No. 12, 25 or 50.[A] COLOURS: Jaune-Rouille 308, or
Jaune-vieil-Or 680.[A]]

GROUNDING IN DIAGONAL LINES (fig. 329).--This pattern can be worked,
in any of the previous stitches, or in back-stitch. It is only suitable
for large surfaces, on account of the diagonal lines, and should be
worked, all in one colour. It can be varied by adding sprays to the
upper sides of the slanting stalks, like those on the lower sides,
turned either the same way, or upwards. Skilled workers will readily
contrive the middles for themselves, by combining the different subjects
and putting them together in various positions, either diagonally or at
right angles to each other, with the help of the Penelope mirror.[2]

[Illustration: FIG. 329. GROUNDING IN DIAGONAL LINES. MATERIALS: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, or Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 100.
COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 322, or Rouge-Cardinal 347.]

POWDERING IN CROSS, STROKE AND STAR STITCH (fig. 330).--This charming
combination of cross, stroke and star stitches, can be made use of
wherever embroidery is available as a means of decoration.

The cross stitches, in which the solid parts of the pattern are worked,
should be in one colour only, the stroke and star stitches, in Chiné
d'or D.M.C.[A]

[Illustration: FIG. 330. POWDERING IN CROSS, STROKE AND STAR STITCH.
MATERIALS: Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 50 and Chiné d'or D.M.C.[A]
COLOURS--For the Cotton: Rouge-Grenat 326.--For the Chiné: Bleu-Indigo
and gold.[A]]

BORDER IN GREEK STITCH (fig. 331).--All the darker lines here, should
be worked in black, colour 473, the leaves in the form of steps,
alternately in light and dark red up to the stalks, the line of
demarcation being indicated by the different direction of the stitches,
so that two light leaves, and two dark leaves, should always face each
other.

[Illustration: FIG. 331. BORDER IN GREEK STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 25, or Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 12 to 50.
COLOURS: Rouge-Géranium 349 and 351, Jaune-Rouille 364, Bleu de France
341, Bleu pâle 668, Noir-Vert 473, Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie No. 30
and Chiné d'or D.M.C No. 30.]

In the original, the cross bars that unite the leaves, are in yellow,
whilst the detached figures that separate them, are worked, those that
come between the light red leaves, in pale blue, and those between the
dark red ones, in gold thread. The exterior part of the figure is filled
in with the different colours, indicated above; with the exception of
the small squares in Gobelin stitch, which should all be worked in plain
gold, or Chiné d'or D.M.C, green and gold. The SS in the narrow outside
border, should be worked in two shades of blue; the outside stitches in
colour 341 and the solid parts in colour 668. The little figures with
the transverse bars that unite the SS, should be set in black, and
filled in, alternately, in light and dark red, and in yellow.

GROUNDING (fig. 332).--This grounding was copied from a beautiful old
cushion-cover and will be found particularly useful in the confection of
small embroidered articles, because the pattern will always form a
centre point in itself. A light, brilliant red, such as either of the
two colours indicated beneath the figure, will best reproduce the tone
of the original.

[Illustration: FIG. 332. GROUNDING. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C
Nos. 6 to 10, or Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 100.[A] COLOURS:
Rouge-Cardinal 804, or Rouge-Cornouille 450.[A]]

In making the little stars that connect the different squares, the mode
we recommended for working stroke stitch should be adopted, that is,
beginning, by bringing the needle out in the middle, making 7 stitches,
and at the eighth, carrying the needle back under the first, to the spot
whence you started. The stitches will then be alike on both sides.

WALLACHIAN BORDER (fig. 333).--A piece of Wallachian needlework,
executed on rough linen, and uncommon, both in colour and design,
suggested the charming embroidery, here represented. In place of the
somewhat violent colours, which indicate an undeveloped taste, we have
substituted softer and more refined ones. All the stroke stitches of the
middle stripe and of the two border stripes, top and bottom, as well as
the darker portions of the small dice, subdivided into eight, in the
bottom border, and of the small diagonal squares in the top border,
worked in Gobelin stitch, are in red, colour 346. The setting of upright
stroke stitches round the large centre figures, as well as the straight
lines that divide these same figures into four, are worked in yellow,
colour 680.

[Illustration: FIG. 333. WALLACHIAN BORDER. GOBELIN STITCH, STROKE
STITCH AND SPANISH HALF-STITCH. MATERIALS.--For Rhodes linen No. 1:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 15, and Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie No.
30.--For other stuffs: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, or Coton à
repriser D.M.C No. 12, 25 or 50 and Or fin D.M.C.[A]

COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 346, Rouge-Géranium 326, Vert-Pistache 319 and
Jaune-vieil-Or 680.[A]]

The squares and the half-squares are worked in colour 326, green 319,
and gold thread; colour 326 is indicated in the illustration by the
darkest shade, green 319, by the medium shade, and the gold thread by
the lightest shade.

The stitches in the right bottom quarter and top left one, incline
upwards from left to right, in the two other quarters they incline the
contrary way. The Spanish half-stitch as shown in fig. 309, can only be
done over 4 and 2 threads and worked one way, not to and fro.

The general effect is very much heightened by the introduction of one or
two rows of stitches, worked in gold thread, into the straight lines on
either side of the stripes; all the light parts of the design moreover,
should be worked in gold thread.

BORDERS IN SEVERAL SHADES OF ONE COLOUR (figs. 334 and 335). In some
beautifully embroidered Chinese hangings, that latterly came under our
notice, the principal subject was the figure of a mandarin, in a very
richly decorated dress. The pretty pattern, given in fig. 334, was
copied from the collar and cuffs of this dress. We should advise working
it in several shades of pink or red, or in a single one of the colours
indicated above.

[Illustration: FIG. 334. BORDER IN SEVERAL SHADES OF ONE COLOUR.
MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 12 to 20, Coton à broder D.M.C
Nos.. 16 to 35 or Coton à repriser No. 12, 25 or 50. COLOURS: Three
shades of either Bleu-Indigo, Rouge-Grenat, or Violet-Mauve etc. etc.]

[Illustration: FIG. 335. BORDER IN SEVERAL SHADES OF ONE COLOUR.]

The border of these hangings furnished us with pattern 335, which will
be found to look best, worked in three very distinct shades of blue.

The grotesque heads of animals, and the flowers and branches which break
the running pattern, and are a Chinese speciality, distinguish this
design from the more conventional patterns of the present day.

We recommend these two pretty patterns, to our readers notice, as
likewise adaptable by transposition, to centres, or by repetition, to
broad stripes. With very little trouble they can be converted, into a
variety of subjects, such as it is often difficult to find ready made,
and exactly suited to the purpose in hand.

BORDER IN GREEK STITCH WITH A FOOTING, COMPOSED OF BRANCHES (fig.
336).--This design can be worked in Greek, Slavonic, Montenegrin, or
plaited Algerian stitch. Our illustration worked in Greek stitch, shows
how one stitch encroaches upon another, and how the thread is carried
from one isolated stitch, to another.

[Illustration: FIG. 336. BORDER IN GREEK STITCH WITH A FOOTING, COMPOSED
OF BRANCHES.]

It will be found to be an improvement if the stitches are so made as to
follow the direction of the lines. The central subject may be repeated
two or three times, according to the width of border required. The
edging is the same throughout. The use of the 'Penelope mirror' for
repeating patterns is described in the concluding chapter of the book.

TABLE-COVER IN GOBELIN AND STROKE STITCH (figs. 337, 338, 339,
340).--This tasteful little table-cover provides excellent practice in
working two sided, square stitch. The square represented in fig. 339,
forms the middle of the cloth. The Gobelin stitches, set very closely,
unite and form a star in the centre of the principal subject. They begin
in the corners, in red and continue in green, violet and blue,
successively; the little branches in stroke stitch, on each side of the
Gobelin stitches, correspond with them in colour, and the small figures,
that form the border of the square, may be worked, indiscriminately, in
any of the colours used for the Gobelin stitches of the centre. Four
branches run inwards from the corners of the square, and four more
advance to meet, and pass them, from the inner angles of the wide
border. Four figures, copied from the outside border, fig. 339, and
worked in yellow, and the little star, fig. 337, besides the little
subjects, borrowed from the outside border, fig. 338, are strewn lightly
over the foundation, interspersed between the branches. In fig. 340,
nevertheless, which represents the whole table-cover, the edge is formed
of the small subjects contained in the wide border and not of the
little stars. The Gobelin stitches in the centre of fig. 337, are in
dark green, the star stitches and the stroke stitches on the outside in
red. The wide border consists of stars, every other row of which, is
worked in red; the intermediate rows, successively, in blue, green, and
yellow. The corners are composed of four detached stars, framed by a row
of stroke stitches, one red and one blue, alternately. This line skirts
both sides of the border, and forms the base to the quaint figures, that
terminate the design and which can be worked in all the colours used for
the inside.

[Illustration: FIG. 337. SMALL DETACHED SUBJECT OF FIG. 340.]

[Illustration: FIG. 338. OUTER BORDER OF FIG. 340.]

[Illustration: FIG. 339. MIDDLE OF FIG. 340.]

The original of our illustration, which is on fine Rhodes linen, in
Coton à broder D.M.C No. 25, is only a small table-cover; for a larger
one, if you wish strictly to adhere to the pattern, Java or Ceylon linen
will be the best material to select, with Coton à tricoter D.M.C No. 12,
for the stroke stitches and Coton à repriser No. 25 for the Gobelin
stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 340. TABLE-COVER IN GOBELIN AND STROKE STITCH.
MATERIALS.--According to the stuff: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16,
Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35, Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 12, 25,
50, Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3
to 20.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Cornouille 450, Vert-Pistache 319,
Violet-Lie-de-vin 372, Jaune-Rouille 364, Bleu-Indigo 322.[A]]

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: INSERTION--PLAIN STITCHES AND OVERS]



Knitting.


Knitting is one of the earliest forms of needlework, and one, which has
been carried to the highest perfection. It would be difficult to invent
new stitches or patterns and, we shall therefore confine ourselves to
describing the stitches in general use, and reproducing those of the old
patterns we consider the most useful, that our readers may make their
own selection.

In former days, knitting served mainly for the manufacture of stockings,
and even now, in spite of machines, handknit stockings, and numberless
other useful and ornamental articles, such as shawls, counterpanes,
cradle-coverings, gloves, laces etc. are in great request.

Besides its practical use, knitting is an easy and pleasant pastime that
can be taken up at odd minutes and even carried on, whilst talking, or
reading.

Knitting consists of loops, or stitches, as they are generally called,
formed by means of a thread and two needles.

In round knitting, four, or five needles are necessary for the better
handling of the work.

Through the loops formed in knitting, being connected together in
unbroken continuity, a very elastic fabric is produced, which is
specially suitable for making warm, and closely-fitting
wearing-apparel.

MATERIALS.--Threads with a slight twist, such as Coton à tricoter
D.M.C, are the best. With regard to the thickness of the needles,
whether they be of steel, wood, or bone, your choice must be determined
by the quality of the thread used.

The accompanying table is intended to help inexperienced knitters to
match their needles and thread, we advisedly say, help, as it is
impossible exactly to determine the numbers that will correspond,
because every hand knits differently, and a loose knitter has to use
finer needles than a tight knitter.

Other materials are enumerated here, besides, what is properly speaking,
called knitting-cotton, as for caps, lace edgings, insertions and so
forth, finer kinds of thread and threads with a stronger twist which
show up the pattern better, should be used.

[Illustration: TABLE OF THE APPROXIMATE RELATION OF THE D.M.C THREADS
AND COTTONS TO THE NUMBERS OF THE KNITTING NEEDLES[A].]

POSITION OF THE HANDS IN KNITTING (fig. 341.)--Lay the thread over the
fifth finger of the right hand, and twist it round it, then carry it
over the forefinger, which should be kept close to the work, the work
being held between the third finger and the thumb. The left hand remains
more or less inactive, having merely, by a slight movement of the
forefinger to pass the loops, in succession, on to the needle in the
right hand, which forms the stitches. This position of the hands, which
is the one usually adopted in England and France, is the one represented
in our illustration. The Germans on the contrary, lay the thread over
the left hand, and can move the hands much more quickly, in consequence.
There are some ways of casting on, which can only be done in the German
fashion.

To prevent the irregularity in stitches, the needles should never be
allowed to protrude more than 1 or 1½ c/m, from the work. All
exaggerated movement of the arms, which renders knitting a very tiring
occupation, should be avoided.

[Illustration: FIG. 341. POSITION OF THE HANDS IN KNITTING.]

CASTING ON.--Casting, or, setting on, as it is sometimes called, is
the formation of the first row of stitches which are to constitute the
foundation of the work.

There are four methods of casting on: (1) crossed casting on, done in
four different ways; (2) knitting on; (3) slipping on, also done in two
ways; (4) casting on with picots.

(1) CROSSED CASTING ON WITH A SINGLE THREAD (fig. 342). Lay the thread
over your fingers as though you were beginning a chain of plain
stitches, fig. 403, leaving a long end, sufficient to make the number of
stitches required, lying within the palm of the hand. Put the needle in
from below, into the loop on the thumb, and pass it from right to left
under that part of the thread which lies between the forefinger and the
thumb. Then bring the thread through the loop on the thumb, draw the
thumb out, and lay the loop on the needle. In making the next stitches,
lay the thread over the thumb, so that the end lies outside. Put in the
needle under the front thread and complete the stitch as before. This
method of casting on is generally done over two needles, one of them
being drawn out before the knitting-off is begun, to ensure a loose
edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 342. CROSSED CASTING ON WITH A SINGLE THREAD.]

CROSSED CASTING ON WITH A THREEFOLD THREAD.--This method is similar to
the last, only that the thread is taken threefold and is drawn by the
needle through the loop, which is formed at the bend of the thread. Then
you pass the single thread over the left hand, and the triple one over
the thumb, as shown in fig. 342, and make the same stitches, as above.
The threefold thread makes a broad chain at the bottom of the loops.

DOUBLE CROSSED CASTING ON (fig. 343).--This can be done either with a
single or a threefold thread. In our drawing it is done with the latter.
The first stitch is made as we have already described, only that you
have to keep the loop on your thumb, put the needle into it a second
time, lay hold of the thread behind, cast on a second stitch, and then
only, withdraw your thumb. In this manner two loops are made at once,
close together.

[Illustration: FIG. 343. DOUBLE CROSSED CASTING ON.]

CROSSED CASTING ON, FORMING A CHAIN (fig. 344.)--Begin by making one
such stitch, as we have described in fig. 341; for the second and
following stitches, bring the end of the thread to the inside of the
palm of the hand, so that it lies between the thumb and the forefinger.

[Illustration: FIG. 344. CROSSED CASTING ON, FORMING A CHAIN.]

(2) KNITTING ON STITCHES (fig. 345).--Begin with a plain crossed
stitch; then take the thread and the needle in the left hand, a second
needle in the right, and catch it into the stitch on the left needle,
lay the thread under the right needle and draw it through in a loop,
through the loop on the left needle. Then transfer it as a fresh stitch
to the left needle; catch the needle into this second stitch, and draw
the thread through it, to form the third, and so on.

This method of casting on is used for articles, that are to have a
double edge, (see figs, 355, 356), because stitches, made in this way,
are easier to pick up than the tighter ones; but it should not be used,
where it will form the actual edge, as the loops are always too open.

[Illustration: FIG. 345. KNITTING ON STITCHES.]

(3) CASTING ON WITH SLIP LOOPS (fig. 346).--Begin by casting on one
loop in the ordinary way, next, lay the thread, as in German knitting,
over the left hand, twisting it once only round the forefinger, then put
the needle in, upwards from below, under the thread that lies on the
outside of the forefinger; draw out the finger from the loop, put the
loop on the needle to the right, take the thread on the forefinger
again, and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 346. CASTING ON WITH SLIP LOOPS.]

CASTING ON WITH DOUBLE SLIP LOOPS (fig. 347).--Begin by casting on a
stitch in the ordinary way, then lay the thread over the forefinger, the
reverse way, so that it crosses between, not outside the hand and the
body of the knitter. Pass the needle upwards from below, under the
inside thread, and slip this thread as a loop on to the needle. Continue
to cast on, inserting the needle under the front and back threads
alternately. This method is specially suitable for open patterns, where
you have to increase several times, in succession.

[Illustration: FIG. 347. CASTING ON WITH DOUBLE SLIP LOOPS.]

(4) CASTING ON WITH PICOTS (fig. 348).--Cast on two stitches in the
ordinary way and turn the work. Lay the thread over the needle, put the
needle into the first stitch, from right to left, and slip it on to the
right needle, knit off the second stitch plain, and draw the slipped one
over it.

[Illustration: FIG. 348. CASTING ON WITH PICOTS.]

Cast on as many stitches as you want in this manner and then pick up the
picots thus formed, with an auxiliary needle, and knit them off like
ordinary stitches.

This method of casting on may be varied thus in the following manner:
having cast on the stitches as in fig. 348, throw the thread over the
needle and knit two stitches together.

PLAIN STITCH (fig. 349).--This is the easiest stitch and the first
which a knitter has to learn. It is executed as follows: Put the
right-hand needle in, upwards from below, under the front part of the
first stitch on the left-hand needle, lay the thread from right to left
under the needle, draw it through the loop, and drop the loop off the
left needle.

[Illustration: FIG. 349. PLAIN STITCH.]

Plain knitting is employed wherever a perfectly smooth, even surface is
required. It looks quite differently on the wrong side from what it does
on the right where it presents the appearance of vertical rows of
plaiting.

BACK, OR SEAM-STITCH (fig. 350).--You may intentionally knit the wrong
side of plain knitting. This is called purling and is done, in the
following way: lay the thread over the left needle, and put the right
one, downwards from above, behind the thread, into the loop on the left
needle, lay the thread upwards from below, over the right needle, draw
it through the loop, and drop the loop off the left needle. This stitch
is used in knitting patterns, and for marking horizontal lines in
smooth surfaces, such as the seam of a stocking, for instance.

[Illustration: FIG. 350. BACK OR SEAM-STITCH.]

PLAIN STITCH TAKEN FROM BEHIND (fig. 351).--Put the needle in from
right to left, under the back part of the stitch; leave the thread
behind the needle, then pass it from right to left over the needle and
draw it through the stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 351. PLAIN STITCH TAKEN FROM BEHIND.]

BACK, OR SEAM-STITCH TAKEN FROM BEHIND (fig. 352).--Put the needle
into the second part of the stitch, upwards from below, and knit it as a
back or seam-stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 352. BACK OR SEAM-STITCH TAKEN FROM BEHIND.]

In plain stitch, taken from behind, the two threads of the loop are
crossed, instead of lying side by side, as they do in plain knitting.

Back-stitch taken from behind, is only used for certain open-work
patterns.

OVERS (fig. 353).--These form holes in plain knitting, and are used
for open-work patterns and for increasing.

[Illustration: FIG. 353. OVERS.]

To make an over, lay the thread over the needle, and in the next row,
knit this loop like any other stitch.

Each over adds one to the existing number of stitches. In cases,
therefore, where the number is to remain the same, you have to make as
many intakes as overs. Overs can only be used in conjunction with other
stitches.

KNOT STITCH (fig. 354).--This forms a raised spot in plain knitting
and is executed as follows: knit 1, and leave it on the left-hand
needle; put the stitch you have made with the right needle back on the
left, and knit it off. Make 4 or 5 similar stitches, all issuing from
the same stitch on the left needle, so that you have 4 or 5 loops on the
right needle; then drop the stitch off the left needle, and pull the 4
first loops over the last one.

[Illustration: FIG. 354. KNOT STITCH.]

CABLE OR CHAIN STITCH.--Chain stitches are used for strengthening and
equalizing the edges of articles that are made in stripes. They can be
made in two ways; either, you knit off all the stitches on one needle,
turn the work, put the needle into the first stitch, as if you were
going to knit it from the back, and take it off the left needle without
knitting it, the thread to lie behind the needle; or, you knit off all
the stitches on one needle, turn the work, and knit off the first
stitch.

THE NAMES OF THE STITCHES.--Out of the stitches that have been already
described, other stitches are formed, which, as they are frequently
alluded to in knitting directions, we shall here enumerate, explaining
all the terms, usually employed in such directions.

OVER, OR INCREASE.--Explained in fig. 353. Throwing the thread once
over the right needle.

DOUBLE OVER, OR TWO INCREASES.--Throwing the thread twice over the
needle.

PLAIN INTAKE.--Knitting two stitches together plain. This is done when
the intake is to lie from left to right.

PURLED INTAKE.--Purling two stitches together. This is done to make
the stitches, that are knitted together, visible; or in the case of a
piece of work composed of stripes, on the wrong side, when the intake is
to lean to the right, on the right side.

PLAIN DECREASE, TAKEN FROM BEHIND.--Knitting off two stitches
together, plain from behind. This is done when the intake is to lie to
the left.

PURLED DECREASE, TAKEN FROM BEHIND.--Purling two stitches together,
from behind. This is done when, in articles composed of stripes, the
decrease has to be made on the wrong side, and is to lie to the left on
the right side.

PULLING OVER.--Slipping a stitch from the left needle to the right
without knitting it, knitting the next plain, and pulling the slipped
stitch over the knitted one. In this manner two or three stitches can be
pulled over the knitted one.

CASTING OFF.--To prevent the stitches from unravelling they are
finished off in the following manner. Knit off two plain, pull the first
over the second and drop it, so that only one remains on the needle.
Knit the next stitch, and pull the one behind over it, and so on. This
chain of stitches, must neither be too tight, nor too loose, but just as
elastic as the rest of the work.

MATERIALS FOR STOCKINGS.--Stockings can be made of silk, wool or
cotton, entirely according to fancy, but for coloured stockings, we
cannot too highly recommend the D.M.C knitting cottons, as more
durable, in all respects, than either silk or wool. They are
manufactured in 360 different shades, whereas, wool and silk are only to
be had in a very limited assortment of colours. For hand-knit stockings,
Nos. 25, 30, 35[A] are the best, for machine-knit, Nos. 40 and 50.

STOCKING KNITTING.--A stocking consists of five parts: (1) the top,
(2) the knee, (3) the leg, (4) the heel, (5) the foot.

(1). The top may be either ribbed, or knitted in an openwork stitch of
same kind or with a double-toothed edge, fig. 356.

(2) and (3). The knee, and the leg down to the heel, are generally plain
knitted; it is only children's stockings that are fancy knitted.

(4). The heel, is worked as straight knitting backwards and forwards; by
knitting first one row plain and then turning back and knitting it purl.
It is shaped to the foot by the intakes at the top.

(5). The foot is knitted plain, with intakes from the heel onwards, to
get rid of the superfluous stitches. Then knit a plain piece, without a
seam-stitch, till you begin to decrease for the toe, which can be worked
in several different ways.

To ensure the right proportions between the several parts of a stocking,
the following directions should be attended to. An ornamental top must
never be taken into account, in measuring the length of the leg. When
the top part is finished, you make the seam, at the beginning of the
first needle of the round, of one, or two purled stitches, or sometimes,
a narrow pattern of purled stitches. This marks the middle of the
stocking. For ordinary-sized stockings, knit plain from the top-band,
till the knitted piece, forms a square.

For stockings that are to cover the knee, knit half as much again, that
is one and a half times the width of the stocking. This brings you to
the calf of the leg. Pull the third stitch after the seam, over the
second, and knit together the two last but one before the seam. There
should be 12 rounds between each of the first 3 or 4 intakes, and after
that 8, until this part is one and a half times the width of the knee
in length, and a quarter narrower.

For the ankle, knit a plain piece, half the width of the knee in length,
without intakes.

For the heel, count the stitches on the four needles, exclusive of the
seam, and put two stitches more than the quarter of the whole number on
to the needles, to the right and left of the seam.

For a heel to fit well, it should be as long as it is wide. In order
that they should wear better, the heel and the toe are often knitted
with double thread. Coton à feutrer D.M.C[A] is made expressly for that
purpose, and should be wound round the thread of which the whole
stocking is made. For the instep, the part between the heel and toe, you
must go on decreasing from the heel, until you have 2 stitches less on
each needle, than you had at the ankle. Then knit the plain part of the
foot, which should be as wide as the ankle, after which proceed to
decrease for the toe, which should be a quarter the length of the whole
foot. In spite of this careful subdivision, it is always well to count
the stitches, to ensure perfect regularity. The number of stitches cast
on, at the outset, for the same-sized stockings, must depend upon the
size of the wool or cotton; we can only give the numbers approximately.
Our calculation is based on the use of 5 needles; the given number has
therefore to be cast on four times.

______________________________________________________________________________
Coton à tricoter D.M.C    Number of stitches to      Number of stitches to
                          be cast on one needle for  be cast on one needle
 Numbers to be used       stocking ordinary-sized    for stockings that are
                                                     to reach above the knee
______________________________________________________________________________
       25                        32                           36
       30                        34                           38
       35                        36                           42
       40                        40                           46
       50                        42                           50
______________________________________________________________________________

SCALLOPED EDGE (figs. 355 and 356).--This is the simplest and
strongest edge you can have for a stocking, and is called the
cat's-teeth edge.

[Illustration: FIG. 355. SCALLOPED STOCKING EDGE. EDGE OPEN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 356. SCALLOPED STOCKING EDGE. EDGE FOLDED TOGETHER.]

Having cast on the stitches, knit 6 to 10 rounds plain, according to the
size of the cotton, then one round of alternate intakes and overs. Knit
as many plain rounds as before, and with a sixth needle take up as many
of the cast on stitches, as you have stitches on one of the upper
needles. Turn this needle inwards, and place it against the outside
needle and knit off both needles together. See that you knit the
corresponding stitches off together, otherwise the scallops that form
the edge will be crooked.

COMMON HEEL (fig. 357).--This is the simplest form of heel, and can be
knitted either with or without an outside seam. Divide the stitches into
four, and put two more on each of the heel needles than on the others,
then make, according to the size of the cotton, from 15 to 20 seams;
knit off all the stitches on the right needle and a third of those on
the left. Supposing that you have 24 stitches, knit off 8, then slip 1,
knit 1, and pull the slipped stitch over, knit 2 plain, turn the work,
slip the first, and purl the next 8 stitches of the second needle; purl
the 9th and 10th together, purl 2, turn the work to the right side, and
slip the first stitch on to the right needle. By means of these
successive intakes after the 8 stitches, the knitting forms a plait on
both sides of the heel.

[Illustration: FIG. 357. COMMON HEEL.]

In all heels that are made after this pattern, the intakes must begin on
the right side and the last one must be made on the wrong, so that once
the heel is finished and the work turned, you can go on knitting plain.

When you have finished the stitches of the two heel needles up to the
outside seams, take up the stitches on the sides of the heel with a
spare needle and knit them on to the left heel needle, then knit the
stitches reserved for the instep, take up the stitches on the right side
of the heel again and knit them on to the fourth needle.

In the next round, knit all the stitches of the first needle plain,
excepting the 4 last; knit the first and second of these together and
the two last plain. Knit the two first stitches of the fourth needle
plain, slip the third, knit the fourth and pull the slipped stitch over.

HEEL IN STEPS (fig. 358).--After dividing the stitches, make from 12
to 14 seams. Then knit as many stitches of the first needle as you have
seams at the side; turn the work, and begin the needle with the seam you
made first. Knit off as many stitches from the second needle as from the
first. Make the same number of seams, as for the first part of the
heel. When the seams are finished, take up the chain stitches, on both
sides, make a decrease by knitting the last stitch of the small part and
the first of the large, together; knit two; turn the work; slip the
first stitch, knit to the second side, and decrease as in the first
part.

[Illustration: FIG. 358. HEEL IN STEPS.]

When you have decreased all the stitches up to the last, take up the
slipped stitches of the first part, and begin the intakes for the instep
in the ordinary way.

There is not more work in this pattern of heel than in any other; it
fits closely and consequently wears well.

PLAIN HEEL (figs. 359 and 360).--Those who are not fond of purling
will appreciate this and the following pattern for a plain heel.

[Illustration: FIG. 359. PLAIN HEEL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 360. HEEL KNITTED ON THE RIGHT SIDE.]

Knit off the stitches of the first needle after the seam; then on to two
spare needles, cast on, 8 more stitches than you had on one needle after
dividing the stitches; put the stitches of the third and fourth needles
together and knit the first round plain.

2nd round--knit together the 1st and 2nd, and the 9th and 10th of the
first auxiliary needle; and the 10th and 9th and 2nd and 1st of the
second.

3rd round--plain.

4th round--knit together the 1st and 2nd and the 7th and 8th of the
first needle.

5th round--plain.

6th round--knit together the 1st and 2nd and the 5th and 6th of the
first auxiliary needle; and the 6th and 7th and the last but one and the
last, of the second.

7th, 10th, 11th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th rounds all plain.

8th round--knit together the 1st and 2nd, and the 3rd and 4th of the
first auxiliary needle, and the 4th and 3rd, and the last stitch but one
and the last, of the second.

9th round--After the two last intakes, purl together the 4th and 3rd
stitches before the end of the 1st and 3rd needle, and the 3rd and 4th
at the beginning of the 2nd and 4th needles.

12th, 15th, and 18th rounds--Decrease, the same as in the 9th round.

21st round--knit 2 plain, at the beginning of the 1st and 3rd needles;
knit the next 2 together; knit together the 4th and 3rd, before the end
of the 2nd and 4th needles; knit the last stitches plain; go on
decreasing in this way until the purled stitches meet. After the plain
round over the intakes, add four plain rounds, divide the stitches that
remain for the sole, on two needles and cast off on the wrong side.

Now take up the auxiliary stitches, and in the first 3 plain rounds,
knit together the last and the first of the 1st and 2nd needles, and the
last and the first of the 3rd and 4th.

With the rest of the extra stitches make purled intakes, knitting two
plain rounds after each round with an intake.

For the other kind of plain heel also (fig. 360), auxiliary stitches are
required. Supposing that you have 20 stitches on each needle, you must
cast on 28 stitches on to each auxiliary needle; knit together the 4th
and 3rd stitches at the end of the 1st and 3rd needles, and the 3rd and
4th of the 2nd and 3rd needles, so that you may have 4 plain stitches
between both intakes. Go on decreasing, knitting 2 plain rounds after
each round with an intake, until you have 6 stitches left on each
needle. Then knit together the first and last stitches of each needle,
one plain round over it, and finish with a chain on the wrong side of
the heel. Then take up the auxiliary stitches and knit the instep.

ITALIAN STOCKING (fig. 361).--The heel, sole and toe of a stocking
always wear out before the instep. The Italians and Greeks economise
time and material and facilitate the renewal of those parts that wear
out, by knitting the upper part of the foot in two pieces. After
knitting the heel in on or other of the above ways, work the foot as
straight knitting with the two upper needles only, until you have the
necessary length. Then knit the underneath part separately, in the same
way. You must keep a chain along all edges and a narrow seam of one or
two stitches. In the sole, which you make after finishing the upper
part, you intakes must come directly after and before the seam. When you
have got the same number of rounds in each piece, join them together and
begin the toe.

[Illustration: FIG. 361. ITALIAN STOCKING.]

Sew up the slits left open on either side, with a needle and thread
taking care to fit the corresponding stitches together.

In this manner, when one part wears out, you have only to unpick these
side-seams and re-sole or re-heel the stocking as the case may be.

TOE (fig. 362).--To begin as before, with the simplest and most
ordinary way of making this part of the stocking, divide the stitches
equally on to the 4 needles; knit together the 4th and 3rd stitches
before the end of the 1st and 3rd needles, knit the 2 last and 2 first
stitches of the 2nd and 4th needles plain, and make an intake by
slipping the 3rd stitch, knitting the 4th, and pulling the slipped
stitch over. Begin by knitting 2 plain rounds after each of the first 4
rounds with an intake, and afterwards only one. When you have only 4
stitches left on each needle, collect them on two, and knit them
together, two and two, on the wrong side of the stocking.

[Illustration: FIG. 362. TOE.]

TOE (fig. 363).--Here, before beginning to decrease, divide the
stitches by 8, 10, or 12. Supposing that they have been divided by 10,
knit 8 plain; knit the 9th and 10th together, 8 plain, knit two
together, and so on, the whole way round. Then knit as many plain rounds
as there are plain stitches between 2 intakes. In the next rounds with
intakes, you will have one stitch less between each intake, in the
second therefore, there should be 7 plain stitches between each intake,
and you knit 7 plain rounds; and so on to the 7th round, when 2 stitches
will remain, followed by 2 plain rounds; when there are only 4 stitches
left on the needles, turn them in to the wrong side of the stocking,
and finish off with a chain.

[Illustration: FIG. 363. TOE.]

TOE (fig. 364).--Begin the intakes with the two first stitches of each
needle, by the slip and pull over process, knit one plain round after
each round with an intake. In the following rounds, make the intake in
the 2nd round with the 3rd and 4th stitches, in the 3rd, with the 5th
and 6th stitches, in the 4th, with the 7th and 8th stitches, so that
when finished the intakes form a kind of spiral. Finish off in the
ordinary way.

[Illustration: FIG. 364. TOE.]

TOE (fig. 365).--We will describe one other kind of toe, quite as
shapely and easy to make as the others.

[Illustration: FIG. 365. TOE.]

1st round--purl the first 2 stitches on each needle together.

2nd and 3rd, 5th and 6th, 8th and 9th, 11th and 12th, 14th and 15th,
17th and 18th rounds--plain.

4th round--1 plain, 1 intake with the 2nd and 3rd stitches, and with the
last 2 on each needle.

7th round--knit the 2 first plain, make 1 intake with the 3rd and 4th
stitches, and 1 with the 2 last.

In each of the next rounds with intakes, knit 1 plain stitch more.

When the two seams meet, pull the last stitch on each needle over the
first of the next; knit the stitches between the intakes plain. Continue
to decrease in this manner until the last stitches are reached.

MENDING KNITTING.--Knitted articles are repaired by reconstructing
the web with a needle and thread. When the stitches are not actually
broken, they can be strengthened by new ones made over them, by means of
a needle and thread.

MATERIALS FOR DARNING STOCKINGS.--The thread used for darning a
stocking should be a little finer than that of which it is made. Coton à
repriser D.M.C[A] is the best, for as it consists of several strands it
can be subdivided as occasion requires.

STRENGTHENING THE STITCHES (figs. 366 and 367).--This can be done in
two ways. In fig. 366, the thread is brought out between two horizontal
bars, passed upwards over a perpendicular bar, put in by the side of the
same and brought out between the next horizontal bars.

Work the second row of stitches backwards; take up two threads on the
left, pass downwards to the right, over one thread, take up the thread
you passed over, and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 366. STRENGTHENING THE LOOPS. FIRST WAY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 367. STRENGTHENING THE LOOPS. SECOND WAY.]

The other way, fig. 367, is, when you have brought out your needle, to
carry it over one thread to the right and upwards over two, take up the
next two threads on the left, pass downwards over two horizontal
threads, and over one thread to the right, and put in the needle where
it first came out; then working from right to left, take up two threads,
pass over one to the right, and downwards over two horizontal ones, and
so on. In the next row, hold your work, the finished part uppermost,
carry the needle downwards over one horizontal thread, bring it out
between two threads that lie separately and take it downwards again over
two horizontal threads, pick up two threads, working from right to left,
pass upwards over two threads and over one to the right, take up two to
the left, and so on.

REPAIRING PLAIN KNITTING (fig. 368).--When a broken piece of stocking
web requires to be replaced by new, draw the new and the old pieces
together with a needle and thread, using the same thread the stocking is
made of.

[Illustration: FIG. 368. REPAIRING PLAIN KNITTING.]

For this purpose, you must clear the loops, by ravelling them out top
and bottom, and slip them on to knitting needles. The loops that are to
be connected must lie exactly opposite to each other. Enter your
threaded needle upwards from below through the first disengaged upper
loop, and slip it off the knitting needle, then enter the needle,
downwards from above through the first lower loop, and upwards from
below through the next, and draw out just enough thread to make the new
loop the same size as the old ones. Then enter the needle, downwards
from above, through the same upper loop you took up before, taking up
also the one next to it, and passing your needle through it from
underneath; draw out the thread to form the new loop and descend again
to the next, and so on.

REPAIRING PURLED KNITTING (fig. 369).--To repair ribbed surfaces
consisting of alternate rows of plain and purl, proceed as follows: hold
the article so that the row of purled stitches is exactly opposite the
upper part. Enter your needle upwards from below, through the first
loop of the upper part; join the two lower loops together as in fig.
368; carry the needle upwards again, and enter it upwards from below
through the first loop of the upper part and downwards from above,
through the loop next it. Join the lower loops again, as in plain
knitting.

[Illustration: FIG. 369. REPAIRING PURLED KNITTING.]

DISENGAGING THE LOOPS FOR DARNING (fig. 370).--Where the threads are
broken, new loops have to be made, and the broken ones ravelled out and
cut, so that the horizontal loops may stand out clear and distinct. Cut
the threads on the vertical sides so that the loops form an edge and the
hole is square, clear two or four loops in the corners of the hole, fold
them in and fasten them off at the back by a stitch or two. The darns we
are next going to describe should be made upon a ball to prevent drawing
the threads too tightly.

[Illustration: FIG. 370. DISENGAGING THE LOOPS FOR DARNING.]

DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED HORIZONTALLY (figs. 371 and 372).--Carry
a horizontal thread across on the wrong side, in the place of each
broken thread, securing it in the sound part of the stocking, about two
threads from the edge of the hole. When you have made this foundation,
put the needle in on the right side near the stitch that is nearest to
the sound part on the left, fig. 371.

[Illustration: FIG. 371. DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED HORIZONTALLY.
POSITION OF THE HORIZONTAL THREADS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 372. DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED HORIZONTALLY. HOW
TO COVER THE HORIZONTAL THREADS.]

Then descending, pick up the nearest horizontal thread from below, so
that the working thread lies to the right of the needle, and cover all
the horizontal threads you have laid in this manner.

When you have taken up the last thread, pass the needle downwards from
above, through the nearest loop, and bring it back through the one at
which you entered it.

To make, in reascending, the second half of the loop, you must lay your
thread to the right of the needle, fig. 372.

When you have reached the last thread, enter the needle at the loop,
opposite the one it came out of.

DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED OBLIQUELY ACROSS (figs. 373 and 374).--As
the illustration shows, you have to pick up all the cleared loops,
besides two or three on either side of the empty space. The number and
length of the threads which you carry across, must correspond with those
of the threads you have to replace.

[Illustration: FIG. 373. DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED OBLIQUELY ACROSS.
POSITION OF THE THREADS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 374. DARNING ON THREADS STRETCHED OBLIQUELY ACROSS.
HOW TO COVER THE OBLIQUE THREADS.]

Fasten in, from the right side, a rather finer thread than the one the
original web is made of, and make a few stitches over the existing ones,
in the row you are about to complete.

Enter the needle upwards from below, through the first disengaged loop,
pass it under two threads issuing from one loop, and then bring it back
again into the same loop between the two slanting threads, drawing it
out again upwards from below, through the next loop, and so on. The new
loop must be just equal to the old ones in size. Make in the same manner
as at the beginning, two or three stitches at the end of the row, within
the edge of the hole. Work back in a similar way, with this difference
only, that you turn your work round.

PIQUÉ PATTERN (fig. 375).--The following patterns are suitable for
making counterpanes, petticoats, vests and other articles of clothing.
Select a suitable number of Coton à tricoter D.M.C. Cast on a number of
stitches divisible by 7, and begin by 6 rows of 5 plain stitches and 1
purled, taken from behind.

[Illustration: FIG. 375. PIQUÉ PATTERN. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 30.]

7th row--purl from behind the 3rd of the 5 plain, and knit 5 plain more
and so on.

PIQUÉ PATTERN (fig. 376).--Cast on a number of stitches divisible by
14.

[Illustration: FIG. 376. PIQUÉ PATTERN. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 30, or Coton pour crochet 4 fils D.M.C Nos. 4 to 20.[A]]

1st and 2nd row--* purl 7, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl
1, knit 1; repeat from *.

3rd and 4th row--* knit 7, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1, knit
1, purl 1; repeat from *.

Repeat the whole from the 1st row.

PIQUÉ PATTERN (fig. 377).--Cast on a number of stitches divisible by
4.

[Illustration: FIG. 377. PIQUÉ PATTERN. MATERIALS: The same as for fig.
371.]

The 8 first rows--knit 2, purl 2.

9th and 10th row--knit 2 over the 2 purled, purl 2 over the 2 knitted of
the 8th row.

11th and 12th rows--the same as the first 8 rows.

13th and 14th row--the same as the 9th and 10th row.

15th to the 23rd--the same as the first 8 rows.

STRIPES FOR COUNTERPANES (fig. 378).--This pattern is to be worked in
stripes, of two colours; we may here take occasion to mention that in
choosing two colours, one dark and one light, for a piece of work, the
dark cotton should always be one or two numbers finer than the light,
because the dark dyes thicken the cotton more than the light ones do.
The blue, red and dark brown dyes sink into the cotton more and cause
it to swell, whereas the lighter dyes do not affect its thickness.

[Illustration: FIG. 378. STRIPES FOR COUNTERPANES. MATERIALS: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C No. 6, 8, 10 or 12. COLOURS: Rouge-Turc 321 and
Gris-Tilleul 391.[A]]

Hence it comes, that for the stripes, here described, we were obliged to
take No. 8 of the red cotton and No. 6 of the green, in order that the
same number of stitches should make the same length of stripe.

Cast on 28 stitches:

1st needle--slip 1, knit 2, over, knit 1, knit 1 from behind, purl 1
from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit
1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from
behind, knit 1, over, knit 3, 1 chain stitch.

2nd needle--wrong side: slip 1, purl 2, purl 2 together, purl 1 from
behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl
1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 2, purl 5,
knit 2, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, knit 2 together, purl 2,
1 chain stitch.

3rd needle--right side: slip 1, knit 2, over, knit 1, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit
1 from behind, purl 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from
behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl
1 from behind, knit 1, over, knit 2, 1 chain stitch.

4th needle--wrong side: slip 1, purl 2, purl 2 together, purl 1 from
behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl
1 from behind, knit 2, purl 5, knit 2, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit
1 from behind, purl 2 together, purl 2, 1 chain stitch.

5th needle--on the right side: slip 1, knit 2, over, knit 1, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit
1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 2, knit 5,
purl 2, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl
1 from behind, knit 1, over, knit 2, 1 chain stitch.

6th needle--on the wrong side: slip 1, purl 2, purl 2 together, purl 1
from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 2, purl 5,
knit 2, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit
1 from behind, purl 1 from behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 1 from
behind, knit 1 from behind, purl 2 together, purl 2, 1 chain stitch.

7th needle like the 5th, 8th needle like the 4th, 9th needle like the
3rd, 10th needle like the 2nd, 11th needle like the 1st. Five plain
stitches form a zig-zag in the middle of the stripe.

Join the stripes with crochet stitches; of which several kinds are
described in the next chapter.

KNITTED SQUARE (fig. 379).--Cast on 2 stitches on to each of the 4
needles. Repeat always 3 times after the asterisk.

[Illustration: FIG. 379. KNITTED SQUARE. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C No. 8 or Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 20.]

1st row--over, knit 1, over, knit 1 *.

2nd row--knit 1, over, knit 1, over, knit 2 *.

3rd row--knit 1, purl 1, over, knit 1, over, purl 2, knit 2 *.

4th row--knit 1, purl 2, over, knit 1, over, purl 2, knit 2 *.

5th row--knit 1, purl 3, over, knit 1, over, purl 3, knit 2 *.

6th row--knit 1, purl 4, over, knit 1, over, purl 4, knit 2 *.

7th row--knit 1, purl 5, over, knit 1, over, purl 5, knit 2 *.

8th row--knit 1, purl 4, knit 2, over, knit 2, over, knit 1, purl 4,
knit 2 *.

9th row--knit 1, purl 3, knit 4, over, knit 1, over, knit 4, purl 3,
knit 2 *.

10th row--knit 1, purl 2, knit 6, over, knit 1, over, knit 6, purl 2,
knit 2 *.

11th row--knit 1, purl 1, knit 8, over, knit 1, over, knit 8, purl 1,
knit 2 *.

12th row--knit 1, purl 2, knit 5, cross 2 stitches (that is, first knit
off the second stitch plain and then the first), knit 1, over, knit 1,
over, knit 1, cross 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 2 *.

13th row--knit 1, purl 3, knit 8, purl 1, over, knit 1, over, purl 1,
knit 8, purl 3, knit 2 *.

14th row--knit 1, purl 4, knit 4, cross 2, knit 1, purl 2, over, knit 1,
over, purl 2, knit 1, cross 2, knit 4, purl 4, knit 2 *.

15th row--knit 1, purl 5, knit 6, purl 3, over, knit 1, over, purl 3,
knit 6, purl 5, knit 2 *.

16th row--knit 1, purl 4, knit 3, cross 2, knit 1, purl 4, over, knit 1,
over, purl 4, knit 1, cross 2, knit 3, purl 4, knit 2 *.

17th row--knit 1, purl 3, knit 7, purl 5, over, knit 1, over, purl 5,
knit 7, purl 3, knit 2 *.

18th row--knit 1, purl 2, knit 5, cross 2, knit 1, purl 4, knit 2, over,
knit 1, over, knit 2, purl 4, knit 1, cross 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 2 *.

19th row--knit 1, purl 1, knit 9, purl 3, knit 4, over, knit 1, over,
knit 4, purl 3, knit 9, purl 1, knit 2 *.

20th row--knit 1, purl 2, knit 5, cross 2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 6, over,
knit 1, over, knit 6, purl 2, knit 1, cross 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 2 *.

21st row--knit 1, purl 3, knit 7, purl 1, knit 8, over, knit 1, over,
knit 8, purl 1, knit 7, purl 3, knit 2 *.

22nd row--knit 1, purl 4, knit 3, cross 2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 6, cross
2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 5, cross 2, knit 1, over, knit 1, cross 2, knit
5, purl 2, knit 1, cross 2, knit 3, purl 4, knit 2 *.

23rd row--knit 1, purl 5, knit 3, purl 3, knit 7, purl 1, over, knit 1,
over, purl 1, knit 7, purl 3, knit 5, purl 5, knit 2 *.

24th row--knit 1, purl 4, knit 3, cross 2, knit 1, purl 4, knit 3, cross
2, knit 1, purl 2, over, knit 1, over, purl 2, knit 1, cross 2, knit 3,
purl 4, knit 1, cross 2, knit 3, purl 4, knit 2 *.

25th row--knit 1, purl 3, knit 8, purl 5, knit 5, purl 3, over, knit 1,
over, purl 3, knit 5, purl 5, knit 5, purl 3, knit 2 *.

26th row--knit 1, purl 2, knit 5, cross 2, knit 1, purl 4, knit 3, cross
2, knit 1, purl 4, over, knit 1, over, purl 4, knit 1, cross 2, knit 3,
purl 4, knit 1, cross 2, knit 5, purl 2, knit 2 *.

27th round--knit 1, purl 1, knit 9, purl 3, knit 7, purl 5, over, knit
1, over, purl 5, knit 7, purl 3, knit 9, purl 1, knit 2 *.

Finish the square with several rows of purl and a chain.

PLAIN PATENT KNITTING, OR BRIOCHE PATTERN (fig. 380).--This easy and
extremely elastic stitch is used for all sorts of articles of clothing,
and is worked in two rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 380. PLAIN PATENT KNITTING, OR BRIOCHE PATTERN.]

Cast on a number of stitches that divides by 3, with 4 extra for the
edge.

1st row--slip 1, knit 1, * over, put the needle into the next stitch, as
if to purl it, slip the stitch from the left needle to the right, knit
1, repeat from *, and finish with 2 plain.

2nd row--begin with 1 chain, knit 1, knit the slipped stitch and the
over together, over, slip the single stitch that remains, from the left
needle to the right. When the knitting is round, you purl and knit the
intake alternately.

DOUBLE PATENT KNITTING (fig. 381).--Begin on the wrong side.

[Illustration: FIG. 381. DOUBLE PATENT KNITTING.]

1st row--like the 1st row of fig. 380.

2nd row--knit all the stitches, pass the over by putting the needle into
it from right to left.

3rd row--like the second row of fig. 380. Now, it is only the second and
third row that should alternate.

Patent knitting has a charming effect, done in two colours, by working
them alternately backwards and forwards.

PLAITED STITCH (fig. 382).--This kind of stitch is worked in stripes,
which, for scarves, counterpanes, etc., are generally joined together
with stripes of plain knitting. For counterpanes, the lower numbers of
D.M.C cottons are most suitable, for smaller articles the higher
numbers. Plaited stitch is formed by crossing the stitches, that is, by
knitting the second stitch on the left needle to begin with, and then
the first stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 382. PLAITED STITCH.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 8 to 20, or Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30.]

If you cross two or more stitches in a few successive rows without
slipping them, the stitches will be seen by degrees, to form a plait, as
shown in fig. 382.

1st row--purl 4, cast on 3 stitches on to an auxiliary needle, and leave
it hanging on the inside of the work; knit 3 and then knit the 3
stitches on the extra needle, purl 4.

Then follow 5 rows, in which you purl all the purled stitches and knit
all the plain ones. After which 5 rows you repeat from the beginning.

TURKISH STITCH (fig. 383).--1st row--slip 1, knit 1, over, knit 2
together, over, knit 2 together, and so on to the 2 last stitches, which
you knit plain.

[Illustration: FIG. 383. TURKISH STITCH.]

2nd row--slip the 1st, knit the 2nd and the 3rd plain, the latter having
been formed by the last over on the 1st needle; 1 over, 1 intake with
the stitch and the over, 1 over, 1 intake and so on.

TURKISH STITCH WITH BEADS (fig. 384).--String the beads on the thread
before you begin to knit. When you only use one kind of bead, thread a
needle with your knitting cotton and run it through the thread on which
the beads are strung.

When you use several kinds, you must count and thread them on in the
required order. Beaded knitting is little in request now, excepting for
tobacco pouches and purses; for which you should use Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 35, in any colour, and small beads.

[Illustration: FIG. 384. TURKISH STITCH WITH BEADS.]

For close beaded knitting, plain stitch is the best. Run the beads down
singly at each stitch. The beads will fall on the reverse side of the
work so that in knitting with beads, remember that the reverse side will
be the right side.

To work fig. 384, which represents the same stitch as fig. 383, you run
down 2 or sometimes 3 beads before knitting each stitch.

KNITTING PATTERN WITH TWO KINDS OF COTTON (fig. 385).--A variety of
pretty things, such as open-work stockings, shawls, curtains etc. can be
made in this pattern, worked with two sizes of thread. To give it its
full effect it ought to be knitted with coarse needles, Nos. 10, 11, or
12.

[Illustration: FIG. 385. KNITTING PATTERN WITH TWO KINDS OF COTTON.

MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 20 or 30, and Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
No. 60 or 80, écru.[A]]

Cast on a number of stitches that divides by 8. Take the coarse thread
to begin with.

1st and 2nd row--purl.

3rd row--purl 5, 2 overs, purl 5.

4th row--with the fine thread: over, knit 2 together, slip the next
stitch of the previous row, drop the double over, slip the next stitch,
1 over, knit 2 together.

5th row--over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, and so on.

6th row--like the last. See that the 2 slipped stitches, in the coarse
thread, always come on the right side of the work.

7th row--with the coarse thread: purl 4, purl the 2 slipped stitches of
the 3rd row together, then repeat from the 1st row.

See that in the 3rd row the 2 overs come between the stitches formed by
the 2 stitches that were formed by the 1st over, and the 2 stitches of
the 6th row, that were knitted together.

KNITTING PATTERN WITH TWO KINDS OF THREAD (fig. 386).--Cast on a
number of stitches that divides by 4.

[Illustration: FIG. 386. KNITTING PATTERN WITH TWO KINDS OF THREAD.

MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 25 to 30 and Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
No. 60 or 80.]

1st row--with coarse thread: purl.

2nd row--plain.

3rd row--with fine thread: over, 1 intake, knit 2.

4th row--plain.

5th row--knit 1, over, 1 intake, knit 1.

6th row--plain.

7th row--knit 2, over, 1 intake.

8th row--plain.

9th and 10th row--with the coarse thread: purl.

11th row--plain.

12th row--with the fine thread: over, knit 2 together.

13th row--plain.

14th row--purl. Then repeat from the 1st row.

KNITTING PATTERN WITH DROPPED STITCHES (fig. 387).--Cast on a number
of stitches that divides by 9.

[Illustration: FIG. 387. KNITTING PATTERN WITH DROPPED STITCHES.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 16 to 30, Coton pour crochet
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 30, or Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30.]

1st row--over, slip 3, knit 1, 2 overs, knit 3, 2 overs, knit 1.

2nd row--knit 3, slip the next, drop the 2 overs, knit 4, turn the work,
purl 4, turn the work, knit 4, drop the 2 overs, slip the next stitch.

3rd row--over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, drop the
first of the 4 stitches, knit first the stitch that follows the second
double over, then the 4 others plain, and lastly, take up the dropped
stitch and knit it plain on the right side of the work.

4th row--knit plain.

5th row--over, slip 3, over, knit 6.

6th row--knit plain, and repeat from the 1st row.

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 388).--This pattern may be worked with any one
of the D.M.C cottons recommended for fig. 387, but in the case of
anything that is not wearing apparel, Fil à pointer D.M.C will be found
more suitable. Cast on a number of stitches that divides by 18.

[Illustration: FIG. 388. KNITTING PATTERN.]

1st row--over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2
together, over, knit 4, knit 2 together, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over, over, knit 3.

Each row marked by an even number is to be knitted plain throughout.

3rd row--knit 1, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2,
knit 2 together, over, knit 3, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch
over, knit 1.

5th row--knit 2, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2
together, over, knit 5, over, knit 2 together.

7th row--knit 3, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together,
over, knit 2.

9th row--knit 4, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1,
over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 2.

11th row--knit 5, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 6.

13th row--knit 7, over, knit 2 together, over, purl 2 together, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 5.

Repeat from the beginning.

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 389).--Cast on a number of stitches that
divides by 9.

1st row--2 overs, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 5, knit
2 together.

2nd row--2 overs, slip the first over on to the right needle, knit the
second over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 3, knit 2
together.

3rd row--2 overs, slip the overs of the two first rows on to the right
needle, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2
together.

4th row--drop the overs of the 3 first rows and knit 8 double stitches,
that is, knit 1 stitch on the over, slip it on to the left needle and
knit it again.

These 8 stitches finished, make 2 overs, and slip 3, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over. Repeat from the beginning.

Each time you repeat the 4th row, make double stitches on 4 overs, that
is, on 4 threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 389. KNITTING PATTERN.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, or Fil à pointer D.M.C]

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 390).--This pattern is suitable for children's
braces. For Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 6 to 20, which is the best for
the purpose, you will require fine bone needles.

Cast on a number of stitches that divides by 4.

1st row--over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2.

2nd row--knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1.

3rd row--knit 2, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over.

4th row--slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2, over.

5th row--knit 2 together, over, knit 2.

6th row--knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1.

7th row--knit 2 together, over, knit 2.

8th row--knit 2, knit 2 together, over.

Repeat from the beginning.

[Illustration: FIG. 390. KNITTING PATTERN. MATERIALS: Coton à repriser
D.M.C Nos. 5 to 20.]

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 391).--The patterns shown in figs. 391 and 392,
are more particularly useful for comforters, shawls, hoods and the like.
The needles, which may be either of bone or steel must match the cotton
in size; steel needles are the best for any thing finer than No. 16, of
D.M.C Coton à tricoter.

[Illustration: FIG. 391. KNITTING PATTERN.]

Cast on a number of stitches that divides by 3.

1st row--over, slip 1 stitch on to the right needle, knit the 2 next
stitches, and draw the first stitch over them.

2nd row and 4th row--knit plain.

3rd row--like the first, but note, that the stitch that was the third in
the first row, will be the first here.

Repeat from the beginning.

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 392).--Cast on a number of stitches that
divides by 3.

[Illustration: FIG. 392. KNITTING PATTERN.]

1st row--over, knit the 2 first together, draw the 3rd stitch through
the stitch formed by the intake and knit it off plain, then knit the
stitch that was pulled over it.

2nd and 4th row--knit plain.

3rd row--like the first; the third stitch here is the same that was
drawn through the third stitch in the first row.

KNITTING PATTERN (fig. 393).--Cast on a number of stitches that
divides by 14.

[Illustration: FIG. 393. KNITTING PATTERN.]

1st row--over, knit 1, over, knit 2, purl 3, knit 3 together, purl 3,
knit 2.

2nd row--knit 5, purl 7, knit 2.

3rd row--over, knit 3, over, knit 2, purl 2, knit 3 together, purl 2,
knit 2.

4th row--knit 7, purl 5, knit 2.

5th row--over, knit 5, over, knit 2, purl 1, knit 3 together, purl 1,
knit 2.

6th row--knit 9, purl 3, knit 2.

7th row--over, knit 7, over, knit 2, knit 3 together, knit 2.

8th row--knit 11, purl 1, knit 1.

Repeat from the beginning but in the reverse order, that is, purling the
knitted stitches and knitting the purled.

KNITTED LACE (fig. 394).--Knitted lace looks best, made of a smooth,
silky thread which shows up the pattern better than any other material.
As a knitted edging makes a very pretty finish to almost any kind of
knitted article, we give a selection of some of the easiest and most
effective patterns that we consider suitable for the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 394. KNITTED LACE.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 60, Fil à dentelle D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 70.[A]]

Cast on 8 stitches.

1st needle--1 chain, knit 2, over, knit 2 together, knit 2, 2 overs,
knit 2.

2nd needle--knit 3, purl 1, knit 4, over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

3rd needle--1 chain, knit 2, over, knit 2 together, knit 6.

4th needle--2 chain, knit 5, over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

Repeat from the first needle.

KNITTED LACE (fig. 395).--Cast on 10 stitches.

1st needle--knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 3,
over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

2nd needle--1 chain, knit 2, knit 2 together, knit 2, purl 1, knit 2,
purl 1, knit 1.

3rd needle--knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 4,
over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

4th needle--1 chain, knit 2, knit 2 together, knit 3, purl 1, knit 2,
purl 1, knit 1.

5th needle--knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 5,
over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

6th needle--1 chain, knit 2, knit 2 together, knit 4, purl 1, knit 2,
purl 1, knit 1.

7th needle--knit 10, over, knit 2 together, 1 chain.

8th needle--1 chain, knit 2, knit 2 together, knit 8.

9th needle--4 chain, 2 overs, knit 2 together, 2 overs, knit 3, over,
knit 2 together, 1 chain.

Repeat from the second needle.

KNITTED LACE (fig. 396).--Cast on 13 stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 395. KNITTED LACE.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, Fil à pointer D.M.C
Nos. 10 to 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30.[A]]

1st needle--1 chain, purl 1, purl 2 together, over, knit 8, 1 chain.

2nd needle--1 chain, knit 8, over, knit 2, knit 1 from behind, 1 chain.

3rd needle--1 chain, purl 2, over, purl 2 together, over, knit 8, 1
chain.

4th needle--1 chain, knit 8, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, knit 1
from behind, 1 chain.

5th needle--1 chain, purl 2, over, purl 2 together, over, purl 2
together, over, knit 8, 1 chain.

6th needle--1 chain, knit 8, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2
together, over, knit 2, knit 1 from behind, 1 chain.

7th needle--1 chain, purl 2, over, purl 2 together, over, purl 2
together, over, purl 2 together, over, knit 8, 1 chain.

8th needle--1 chain, knit 8, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2
together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, knit 1 from behind, 1
chain.

9th needle--1 chain, purl 2, over, purl 2 together, over, purl 2
together, over, purl 2 together, over, purl 2 together, over, knit 8, 1
chain.

10th needle--8 chain, knit 10, knit 1 from behind, 1 chain.

Repeat from the first needle.

[Illustration: FIG. 396. KNITTED LACE.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 70, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos.
20 to 80, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 60.[A]]

KNITTED LACE (fig. 397).--Cast on 11 stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 397. KNITTED LACE.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 70, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos.
25 to 70, Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 80.[A]]

1st needle--1 chain, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, 1
chain.

The 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th needle, purled.

3rd needle--1 chain, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 3, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, 1 chain.

5th needle--1 chain, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 5, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1, 1 chain.

7th needle--1 chain, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 7, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, 1 chain.

9th needle--1 chain, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 3, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, knit 2, 1 chain.

11th needle--1 chain, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, 1 chain.

13th needle--1 chain, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over,
knit 3 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over,
knit 2, 1 chain.

15th needle--1 chain, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1,
knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, 1 chain.

Repeat from the first needle.

ROSE FOR KNITTING (fig. 398).--Repeat all the directions, 8 ending
with the sign *, 7 times.

Cast on 8 stitches, on to 4 needles, two on each; close the ring.

2nd round--8 times: over, knit 1.

The 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 21st, 23rd, and
25th round, knit plain.

4th round--over, knit 3, over, knit 1 from behind *.

6th round--over, knit 4, over, knit 1 from behind *.

8th round--over, knit 7, over, knit 1 from behind *.

10th round--over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2
together, over, knit 1 *.

12th round--over, knit 2 together, over, knit 3 *.

14th round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 5 *.

16th round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 7 *.

18th round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 9 *.

20th round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 11 *.

22nd round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 13 *.

24th round--over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 15 *.

26th round--over, knit 3, over, knit 5, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 5 *.

[Illustration: FIG. 398. ROSE FOR KNITTING.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls, No. 60 or 70, Fil à dentelle
D.M.C No. 40, 50 or 60.[A]]

27th round--knit 11, purl 1, knit 6 *.

28th round--over, knit 5, over, knit 4, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 4 *.

29th round--knit 12, purl 1, knit 5 *.

30th round--over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch
over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, knit 3, knit 2
together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 3 *.

31st round--knit 13, purl 1, knit 4 *.

32nd round--over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches
over, over, knit 3, over, knit 2, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1, knit
1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 *.

33rd round--knit 14, purl 1, knit 3.

34th round--over, knit 11, over, knit 1, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip
1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1 *.

35th round--knit 15, purl 1, knit 2.

36th round--over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch
over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, knit 2
together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over *.

37th round--knit 16, purl 1, knit 1.

38th round--over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches
over, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over,
over, knit 3, over, knit 2, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches
over *.

39th, 41st and 43rd round--knit plain.

40th round--over, knit 4, knit 2 together, over, knit 5, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 4, over, knit 1.

42nd round--knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit
1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit
1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 *.

44th round--knit 2, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over,
over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over,
knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3
*.

Finish with three purled rounds.

KNITTED EDGING (fig. 399).--Cast on 43 stitches.

1st needle, make a chain of 2 stitches, over, knit 1 from behind, over,
knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit
1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, knit
1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, knit 2
together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, purl
1, knit 1, knit 2 together, knit 1 from behind, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 1, over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1
from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1 chain.

[Illustration: FIG. 399. KNITTED EDGING.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 40 to 70 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos.
25 to 50, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 60.[A]]

2nd needle--1 chain, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 3, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 3,
purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind, purl 14, purl 1 from
behind, purl 4.

3rd needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped
stitches over, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1,
knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, purl 1, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip
1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, knit 1, over, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1
chain.

4th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 4, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 4,
purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind, purl 15, purl 1 from
behind, purl 4.

5th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over, slip 1, knit
1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together,
over, knit 1, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit
3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, purl 1, slip 2,
knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1
chain.

6th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 6, knit 1, purl 6, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 16, purl 1 from behind, purl 4.

7th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over, slip
1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit
2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1,
knit 1 from behind, over, knit 5, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped
stitches over, over, knit 5, over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1
from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1 chain.

8th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 15, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind,
purl 17, purl 1 from behind, purl 4.

9th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped
stitches over, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit
1, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, knit 2
together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, purl
1, knit 1, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch
over, knit 1, over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1 chain.

10th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 3, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 3,
purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind, purl 18, purl 1 from
behind, purl 4.

11th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over, slip 1, knit
1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together,
over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2 together, over, knit 1 from behind,
purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over, knit 2 together, purl 1,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, purl 1, knit 2 together, purl
1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, knit 1, over, knit 1
from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1,
1 chain.

12th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 4, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 4,
purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind, purl 19, purl 1 from
behind, purl 4.

13th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1,
pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over,
knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1, from behind, over, knit
3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, purl 1, slip 2,
knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1
chain.

14th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 6, knit 1, purl 6, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 18, purl 1 from behind, purl 4.

15th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 2, knit 1,
pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, knit
2 together, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over knit 5, over, slip 2, knit
1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2
together, knit 1, 1 chain.

16th needle--like the 8th.

17th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1,
pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull
slipped stitch over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind,
over, knit 1, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1, purl 1, knit 1, knit 2 together, purl 1, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, over, knit 1 from behind, purl
1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1 chain.

18th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 3, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 2, knit 1, purl 3,
purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind, purl 16, purl 1 from
behind, purl 4.

19th needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1,
pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over, knit 1, over,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 1, knit 2 together, over,
knit 1, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, knit 2
together, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 1, over, purl 1, slip
1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, purl 1, knit 2 together, purl 1,
slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, knit 1, over, knit 1
from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1,
1 chain.

20th needle--like the 4th.

21st needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 2, knit 1,
pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull
slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped
stitch over, knit 1 from behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit
3, over, slip 2, knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, purl 1, slip 2,
knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 3, over, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1
chain.

22nd needle--slip 1; knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 6, knit 1, purl 6, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1
from behind, purl 14, purl 1 from behind, purl 4.

23rd needle--slip 2 stitches over for a chain, over, knit 1 from behind,
over, slip 1, knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, over, slip 1, knit 1,
pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over, slip 1,
knit 1, pull slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, over, knit 2, over,
knit 2 together, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 5, over, slip 2,
knit 1, pull slipped stitches over, over, knit 5, over, knit 1 from
behind, purl 1, knit 1 from behind, over, knit 2 together, knit 1, 1
chain.

24th needle--slip 1, knit 2, purl 1, purl 1 from behind, knit 4, purl 1
from behind, purl 15, purl 1 from behind, knit 1, purl 1 from behind,
purl 13, purl 1 from behind, purl 4.

Repeat from the first needle.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: CROCHET LACE.--CLOSE LEAVES AND BARS WITH PICOTS]



Crochet Work.


Crochet work, so called from the hook, French _croche_ or _croc_, with
which it is done, is not only one of the easiest but in comparison with
the cost and labour, one of the most effective kinds of fancy-work. It
is also one of the most useful, as it can be applied to the domestic
requirements of every-day life, to wearing apparel, house-linen and
upholstery; and we are sure that the patterns contained in this chapter,
which have in addition to their other merits that of novelty, will meet
with a favorable reception.

Hooks, or needles, as they are generally called, made of wood, bone or
tortoise-shell are used for all the heavier kinds of crochet work in
thick wool or cotton, and steel ones for the finer kinds. The Tunisian
crochet is done with a long straight hook, which is made all in one
piece. The points should be well polished inside and not too sharp, the
backs slightly curved, and the handles, whether of bone, steel or wood,
so light as not to tire the hand. Those represented here, we consider
the best, as regards shape. As it is most essential that the needle
should be suited to the cotton in size, we subjoin a comparative table
of the numbers of the D.M.C threads and cottons and of the different
needles.

[Illustration: FIG. 400. CROCHET NEEDLE WITH WOODEN HANDLE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 401. CROCHET NEEDLE WITH STEEL HANDLE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 402. ENGLISH CROCHET NEEDLE WITH WOODEN HANDLE.]

TABLE OF THE APPROXIMATE RELATION OF THE D.M.C THREADS AND COTTONS TO
THE NUMBERS OF THE CROCHET NEEDLES.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Numbers of the     |        |        |     |      |      |     |     |       |
crochet needles    |   9    |  10    | 11  |  12  |  13  | 14  | 16  | 18    |
-------------------+--------+--------+-----+------+------+-----+-----+-------|
Numbers of the     |        |        |     |      |      |     |     |       |
cottons            |   No.  |  No.   | No. |  No. |  No. | No. | No. | No.   |
-------------------+--------+--------+-----+------+------+-----+-----+-------+
Coton pour crochet |  ---   |  6     | 8-10| 12-14| 16-20|24-40| --- | ---   |
Coton à tricoter   |   6    |  8     |10-12| 14-16| 18-25|25-40|  50 | ---   |
Fil à pointer      |  10    | 15     |20-30|  --- |  --- | --- | --- | ---   |
Cordonnet 6 fils   | 1-1½   | 2-2½   | 3-4 | 10-15| 20-30|40-60|70-90|100-150|
Fil d'Alsace       |  ---   | ---    | --- |  --- |   30 |36-50|60-90|100-150|
Fil à dentelle     |  ---   | ---    | --- |  --- |   25 |30-50|60-90|100-150|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS *.--In crochet, as in knitting, you
frequently have to repeat the same series of stitches. Such repetitions
will be indicated, by the signs *, **, ***, etc., as the case may be.

CROCHET STITCHES.--In point of fact, there is only one, because all
crochet work consists of loops made by means of the hook or needle, and
connected together by being drawn the one through the other.

Crochet work may however, be divided into two kinds, German crochet, and
Victoria or Tunisian crochet; the latter is known also under the name of
_tricot-crochet._

In German crochet there are eight different kinds of stitches: (1) chain
stitch, (2) single stitch, (3) plain stitch, (4) treble stitch, (5)
knot stitch, (6) bullion stitch, (7) cluster or scale stitch, (8) double
stitch.

The rows are worked, according to the kind of stitch, either to and fro,
or all from one end. In the former case, the work has to be turned at
the end of each row, and the subsequent row begun with 1, 2 or 3 chain
stitches to prevent the contraction of the outside edge.

When the rows are all worked one way, the thread must be fastened on
afresh each time, which is done by putting the needle into the first
chain stitch of the preceding row, drawing the thread through it so as
to form a loop, and making one or more chain stitches according to the
height required.

At the end of each row, cut the thread and draw the end through the last
loop; in this manner all crochet work is finished off. Some crochet
workers make a few extra chain stitches with the ends of the thread at
the beginning and end of each row, or fasten them off with a few
stitches on the wrong side.

They can also, when the occasion requires, be formed into a fringe or
tassels as a finish to the work.

POSITION OF THE HANDS AND EXPLANATION OF (1) CHAIN STITCH (fig.
403).--Take the thread in the left hand between the finger and thumb,
hold the needle between the thumb and first finger of the right hand,
letting it rest on the second finger, in the same manner in which you
hold your pen, and put it into the loop, which you hold between the
finger and thumb of the left hand. Take up the thread, lying on your
finger, with the needle and make your first stitch as you do in
knitting, tightening the loop just enough to leave an easy passage
through it for the needle. The end of the thread must be held by the
thumb and forefinger. The next stitches are made by taking up the thread
with the needle and drawing it through the loop. The throwing of the
thread round the needle by a jerk of the wrist is called an 'over'.

[Illustration: FIG. 403. POSITION OF THE HANDS AND EXPLANATION OF CHAIN
STITCH.]

(2) SINGLE STITCH (fig. 404).--Put the needle in from the right side
of the work, into the uppermost loop of the preceding row, take up the
thread on the needle and draw it through both loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 404. SINGLE STITCH.]

(3) PLAIN STITCH (fig. 405).--Put the needle through, as in fig. 404,
from the right side to the wrong, under the upper side, either of a
chain, or of a stitch of the preceding row, draw the thread through it
in a loop, turn the thread round the needle and draw it through both
loops on the needle. By making the rows of plain stitches follow each
other in different ways, a great variety of stitches can be produced, as
the illustrations and written instructions here given will show.

[Illustration: FIG. 405. PLAIN STITCH.]

ROSE STITCH (fig. 406).--This consists of rows of plain stitches,
worked backwards and forwards. Insert the needle from the right side,
under both the horizontal loops of the preceding row.

[Illustration: FIG. 406. ROSE STITCH.]

RUSSIAN STITCH (fig. 407).--This is worked like the foregoing, only
that all the rows have to be begun from the same end, and the thread has
to be cut off at the end of each row.

[Illustration: FIG 407. RUSSIAN STITCH.]

RIBBED STITCH (fig. 408).--Worked backwards and forwards, the hook
being passed through the back part only of the stitches of the preceding
row.

[Illustration: FIG 408. RIBBED STITCH.]

CHAIN STITCH.--Worked like fig. 408, but on one side only.

PIQUÉ STITCH.--This stitch also is only worked on one side. Put the
needle in under one of the vertical threads of a stitch and complete the
plain stitch. This is a stitch that looks very well on the wrong side;
the bars of the loop lie quite close together, which makes it
particularly suitable for unlined articles of clothing. It requires a
large-sized needle to do this stitch well, especially if the material be
a heavy one.

SLANTING STITCH (fig. 409).--Worked entirely on the right side. Take
up the back thread of a stitch in the preceding row, take hold of the
crochet thread without turning it round the needle and draw it through
in a loop, and then finish the stitch like a plain stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 409. SLANTING STITCH.]

CROSSED STITCH.--The name which is given to the preceding stitch when
both the threads of the stitches in the row before, are taken up
together, instead of the back one only.

RUSSIAN CROSSED STITCH (fig. 410).--To work this stitch which runs in
slanting lines, put the needle in between the vertical threads of the
stitches and underneath the two horizontal ones.

[Illustration: FIG 410. RUSSIAN CROSSED STITCH.]

COUNTERPANE STITCH (fig. 411).--Counterpanes can be made in a less
close stitch than those just described.

[Illustration: FIG. 411. COUNTERPANE STITCH.]

To produce a soft and elastic fabric turn the thread round the needle
and insert it under both the horizontal threads of a loop, take up the
thread without turning it round the needle, draw it through in a loop,
make an over, and draw the thread through all the three loops, that you
have on the needle.

KNOTTED STITCH (fig. 412).--This stitch likewise is composed of plain
stitches, which, however differ in a slight degree from those we have
described hitherto.

[Illustration: FIG. 412. KNOTTED STITCH.]

Make an over, put the needle through the two horizontal threads of the
stitch below, make another over and draw it back through the two loops
and the first over, make another over, and draw the thread through the
last two loops.

LOOP STITCH (fig. 413).--Worked as follows: when you have put the
needle into the loop of a stitch below, carry the thread, downwards from
above, round a stripe of cardboard or a flat wooden ruler, then finish
the stitch in the usual way. These long loops, each about 2 c/m. in
length, can also be made over the forefinger and held fast by the thumb
as you work, but it is more difficult to make them regular in this way.

Each row of long stitches is followed by a row of plain stitches. The
side, where the long loops lie, becomes the right side. If you wish this
stitch to be very thick and handsome, wind the thread three times round
the ruler, or finger, and secure it with a plain stitch; in this case,
you should make one plain stitch between every two clusters. A loose,
fleecy thread is generally used for this stitch, and for washing
articles more especially, we recommend Coton à repriser D.M.C.

[Illustration: FIG. 413. LOOP STITCH.]

PLAIN STITCHES FOR A CHAIN (fig. 414).--Begin with two chain stitches,
put the needle in between the two threads of the first chain stitch,
turn the thread round the needle and draw it through in a loop, turn it
round again and draw it through the two loops; then, put the needle into
the left part of the stitch that was just made, turn the thread round
the needle, draw it through the two loops and so on, to the end.

[Illustration: FIG. 414. PLAIN STITCHES FOR A CHAIN.]

A chain of this kind makes a very good substitute for _mignardise_ when
that can not be got of the right size and colour for the required
purpose.

(4) TREBLES.--Trebles are little columns, or bars made of loops or
stitches. They can be worked, like all other crochet, either to and fro,
or all one way. There are different kinds of trebles; half or short
trebles, trebles, double trebles, called also 'long stitch', and
quadruple and quintuple trebles, called 'extra long stitch', connected
trebles and crossed trebles.

HALF TREBLES (fig. 415).--Turn the cotton round the needle from
behind, put the needle in between the trebles of the preceding row, or
into one edge of a chain stitch; make an over, bring the needle forward
again with the thread, make another over and draw the needle through all
three loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 415. HALF TREBLES]

TREBLES (figs. 416 and 417).--Begin, as for the half treble, by
turning the thread round the needle, and putting it in under one edge of
the stitch beneath, then take up the thread on the needle and bring it
through two of the loops, take it up again, and draw it through the two
remaining loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 416. TREBLES MADE DIRECTLY ABOVE ONE ANOTHER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 417. TREBLES SET BETWEEN THOSE OF THE PRECEDING
ROW.]

In fig. 417, we have trebles made in the same manner as fig. 416, only
that instead of putting the needle under one edge of the stitch beneath,
you put it under both, and between the trebles of the last row.

[Illustration: FIG. 418. DOUBLE TREBLES OR 'LONG STITCH'.]

DOUBLE TREBLES OR 'LONG STITCH' (fig. 418).--Turn the thread twice
round the needle, put it into a stitch of the work and bring the thread
through in a loop, then take up the thread on the needle and bring it
through two of the loops, three times in succession.

[Illustration: FIG. 419. TRIPLE AND QUADRUPLE TREBLES OR 'EXTRA LONG
STITCH'.]

TRIPLE AND QUADRUPLE TREBLES OR 'EXTRA LONG STITCH' (fig. 419).--For a
triple treble, twist the cotton three times round the needle, for a
quadruple one, four times, then form the treble in the usual way by
bringing the needle through two of the loops at a time. To make a series
of trebles, of gradually increasing length, bring the needle, at every
other treble, through the last three loops, so that before making a
triple treble you will have to make columns, respectively, 1 treble, 1½
treble, 2 trebles and 2½ trebles long. Columns like these, of different
lengths, are often required in crochet work, for leaves and scalloped
edgings.

CONNECTED TREBLES (fig. 420).--Trebles, connected together, can be
worked to and fro, and take the place of plain stitches. Begin with a
chain, then make a treble of the required height, form as many loops as
you made overs for the treble, take up the upper thread of the stitch
nearest the treble, turn the thread round the needle, bring it back to
the right side and draw the needle through the trebles, two at a time.

[Illustration: FIG. 420. CONNECTED TREBLES.]

CROSSED TREBLES (figs. 421 and 422).--Trebles of this sort produce an
open stitch, which is often used for the footing of lace, or for an
insertion. Make a foundation of chain, or other stitches, and proceed as
follows: 3 chain, miss 2 stitches of the row beneath, make 1 treble in
the third stitch, 5 chain, 1 over, put the needle in between the loops
of the connected trebles and finish with a treble. Then make a double
over, put the needle into the next loop of the preceding row, make
another over, draw the needle through the loops, make another over and
join the two next loops. This leaves 3 loops on the needle. Make an
over, put the needle into the third stitch of the row beneath, make an
over, and bring the needle back to the right side.

[Illustration: FIG 421. CROSSED TREBLES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 422. CROSSED TREBLES, SET BETWEEN THOSE OF THE
PRECEDING ROW.]

Join the 5 loops on the needle together, 2 and 2, make 2 chain, 1 over,
put the needle into the upper parts of the connected trebles and finish
with a treble, and so on.

These trebles also can be lengthened if necessary, but in that case, the
width of the crossed treble must correspond with the height. Generally
speaking you make the trebles over the same number of stitches as you
made overs on the needle, which should always be an even number.

TREBLES FOR A CHAIN.--A quicker way of making a wide footing for a
crochet lace is to make the trebles in the following manner.

Make 4 chain stitches, 2 overs, put the needle into the first of the 4
chain, 1 over, draw the thread through the stitch *, 1 over, draw the
thread through the next 2 loops and repeat twice from * = ** 2 overs,
put the needle into the left bottom part of the treble, close the treble
as before and repeat from **.

(5) KNOT STITCH (fig. 423).--This stitch which is composed of several
loops forming a tuft, can only be worked from one side, consequently all
one way. It looks best in a coarse material to show the interlacing of
the threads.

Enter the needle through the two loops of the stitches of the bottom
row, turn the thread round the needle, but away from you towards the
back; bring it forward to the right side, put the needle again through
one of the bottom stitches, make another over like the first and draw
the needle through all the bars at once.

[Illustration: FIG. 423. KNOT STITCH.]

(6) BULLION STITCH (figs. 424 and 425).--For bullion stitch, select a
needle, a little thicker towards the handle, and finer than you would
use for any other crochet stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 424. BULLION STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 425. BULLION STITCH.]

Begin by making a chain of very loose stitches, then wind the thread
several times, very evenly, round the needle. Insert the needle into a
loop of the chain, make a single over, and draw it with the last over
upon it, through all the other overs.

Trebles in bullion stitch, fig. 425, are worked in just the same manner,
only that you have to turn the thread, at least 10 or 12 times round the
needle and draw it through all the overs at once. To facilitate the
passage of the needle, keep the overs in their place with the thumb and
forefinger of the left hand.

Bullion stitch can only be worked with wool or a very fleecy thread,
such as Coton à repriser D.M.C,[A] but trebles in bullion stitch can be
worked in any of the D.M.C threads and cottons.

(7) CLUSTER STITCH (fig. 426).--Generally used as an insertion between
rows of plain crochet.

[Illustration: FIG. 426. CLUSTER STITCH.]

Put the needle under one stitch of the preceding row, make an over, draw
the thread through in a loop, make another over, put the needle in again
under the same stitch, bring it back, make a third over, and pass a
third time under the same stitch; bring the needle back, make a fourth
over and pass the needle through all the loops that are upon it.

Then, after making a chain stitch, begin the same stitch over again,
placing it in the second stitch of the lower row.

Cluster stitch may also be finished off by retaining the two last loops
on the needle, making an over, and ending with a plain stitch.

(8) DOUBLE STITCH (fig. 427).--A rather coarse thread, such as Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10, or Fil
à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30[A] is better for this stitch than a loose
fleecy thread which is apt to render it indistinct. Take up a loop right
and left of a stitch of the preceding row, so that counting the loop of
the last stitch, you have 3 loops on the needle, make an over and draw
it through the 3 loops. Then take up a loop again by the side of the one
you made on the left, and which now lies on the right. Take 2 loops in
the next stitch, make an over and draw it through all the loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 427. DOUBLE STITCH.]

RAISED STITCH (fig. 428).--All the stitches that come under this heading
require a foundation of a few plain rows for the raised trebles. In fig.
428, you will observe that the fourth stitch in the fourth row is a
double treble, connected with a loop of the fourth stitch of the first
row.

[Illustration: FIG. 428. RAISED STITCH.]

Miss the stitch of the preceding row, which is hidden under the treble,
make 3 plain stitches, 1 double treble, and so on.

Having finished this row, turn the work and make a plain row. In the
next row begin with 4 plain stitches, then make 1 double treble between
the 3 stitches that are between the first trebles, 3 plain stitches, 2
double trebles and so on.

In the 8th row of plain stitches, the trebles must be placed in the same
order as in the 4th.

RAISED STITCH WITH CROSSED TREBLES (fig. 429).--Begin, as in fig. 428,
by 3 rows of plain stitches. The 4th row begins with 2 plain stitches
followed by: * 1 double treble joined to the upper part of the 1st
stitch of the 1st row; keep the 2 last loops of this treble on the
needle; make a double over for the next treble, pass the needle through
the fourth stitch of the first row, make an over, turn the thread round
the needle, bring it back, finish the treble all but the last 3 loops,
which you crochet together. Miss the stitch behind the treble, make 3
plain stitches and repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 429. RAISED STITCH, WITH CROSSED TREBLES.]

Then turn the work, make one plain row, and turn the work back to the
right side.

The second row of trebles begins with a plain stitch. The way in which
the trebles are to be crossed is shewn in the illustration.

RAISED STITCH WITH DOTS (fig. 430).--After making 3 plain rows, begin
the 4th with 3 plain stitches, and proceed as follows: * 6 trebles into
the 4th plain stitch of the preceding row, leaving the last loop of each
treble on the needle, so that altogether you have 7 loops upon it; then
you turn the thread once round the needle and draw it through the loops;
miss the stitch that is underneath the dot, make 3 plain stitches and
repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 430. RAISED STITCH WITH DOTS.]

Then make 3 rows of plain stitches; in the 4th row, the 1st dot is made
in the 4th stitch, so that the dots stand out in relief.

RAISED DOTS WITH TREBLES (fig. 431).--Turn the work after making 3
rows of plain stitches, make 3 stitches more in the 4th stitch of the
1st row, * 6 trebles, drop the last stitch of the 6th treble, put the
needle into the stitch between the last plain stitch and the 1st treble,
take the dropped loop of the last treble and draw it through the one on
the needle; miss the stitch under the dot, make 5 plain stitches and
repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 431. RAISED DOTS WITH TREBLES.]

RAISED DOTS IN SLANTING LINES (fig. 432).--On the rows of stitches
that have been previously prepared, make, for the 4th stitch of the 4th
row, a cluster stitch, as in fig. 426, with 1 quadruple over and then 4
plain stitches, 1 cluster stitch and so on. The next row is plain; in
the second you have to make 1 plain stitch more, and fasten the cluster
stitches into the loops to the left of the second of the 3 covered rows.
In this way you have to make each raised stitch, one stitch, in advance
and to the left of the last, so that they run in slanting lines over the
surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 432. RAISED DOTS IN SLANTING LINES.]

CLOSE SHELL STITCH (fig. 433).--This pretty stitch which can only be
worked in rows, all one way, is more especially suitable for children's
jackets and petticoats; it is easy, and has the merit of being quickly
done. On a foundation of chain, or other stitches, make: 2 chain, 7
trebles on the 4th stitch, * 1 chain, 7 trebles on the 5th stitch of the
last row and repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 433. CLOSE SHELL STITCH.]

2nd row--** 7 trebles on the chain stitch of the last row which
connects 7 bars, 1 plain stitch on the 4th of the 7 trebles of the first
row and repeat from **.

PICOTS.--The edges of most crochet work are ornamented with picots, or
small points of different shapes, called severally close picots, chain
picots and lace picots.

Close picots may be subdivided into, large and small, pointed, and
rounded, picots with rounded leaves and picots with pointed leaves.

SMALL ROUNDED PICOTS.--These may either be made separately and then
sewn on, or made at once, on to a crochet border. In the first case,
begin with 3 chain, then coming back, make 1 plain stitch on the second
and on the first chain stitch. In the second case make: 1 chain, take
the needle out of the stitch and put it in from the right side, under
both edges of the last stitch, take up the dropped stitch, bring it to
the right side, * 3 chain; then returning: 1 plain stitch on each chain,
draw the needle out, put it in from the right side into the second
stitch of the row beneath, take up the loop, bring it back to the right
side, and repeat from *.

LARGE ROUNDED PICOTS.--5 chain, miss 3, 1 treble on the 2nd and 1
treble on the 1st chain stitch.

When you want to attach these picots at once to an existing piece of
work, drop the last loop and bring it back again with the needle from
the wrong side to the right and miss 2 stitches, instead of one, as in
the case of the small picots.

POINTED PICOTS.--Cast on 6 chain, then returning, and missing the 6th
stitch: 1 single stitch, 1 plain stitch, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1
double treble.

PICOTS WITH ROUNDED LEAVES.--* 4 chain, and 3 trebles on the first
stitch, and 1 single on the same stitch on which the trebles were, **,
or 6 chain and repeat from * to **.

When these picots serve as a finish to a straight edge, make 2 single
stitches in the preceding row instead of 2 chain.

PICOTS WITH POINTED LEAVES.--6 chain, on the first chain stitch: 3
double trebles, of which you retain the two last loops on the hook, 1
over, draw the thread through the 4 loops, 5 chain, 1 single on the
stitch on which the trebles are.

CHAIN PICOTS.--For the small chain picots, make: 5 chain and 1 plain
stitch on the first of these 5 stitches. For the large ones: 5 chain and
1 treble on the first stitch.

PICOTS IN BULLION STITCH (figs. 424 and 425).--5 chain, 1 treble in
bullion stitch drawn up into a ring, and joined to the 5th chain stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 434. DROOPING PICOTS.]

DROOPING PICOTS (fig. 434).--5 chain, drop the loop, put the needle
into the first of the 5 chain, take up the dropped loop, and draw it
through the stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 435. EMPTY LACE PICOTS, WORKED IN CROCHET.]

[Illustration: FIG. 436. LACE PICOTS ATTACHED TO A ROW OF STITCHES MADE
BEFORE HAND.]

LACE PICOTS (figs. 435 and 436).--Fig. 435 represents picots formed of
chain stitches, as follows: 2 chain, put the needle into the first, 1
over, bring the thread back to the front, 2 chain: * put the needle into
the two loops, and at the same time, into the second loop and the first
chain, draw the thread through in a loop, make 2 chain and repeat from
*.

In order to make the picots more even and regular, it is advisable to
form them over a coarse knitting needle or mesh.

Fig. 436 represents picots attached by plain stitches to the edge of a
finished piece of work; this is done as follows: 1 plain stitch, draw
out the loop to the proper length for a picot, and slip it on a mesh:
put the needle into the horizontal parts of the last stitches, turn the
thread round the needle, draw it through in a loop, and make 1 plain
stitch on the next stitch and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 437. OPEN-WORK CROCHET MADE AFTER A TAPESTRY
PATTERN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 438. PLAIN CROCHET MADE AFTER A TAPESTRY PATTERN.]

METHOD FOR COPYING TAPESTRY PATTERNS IN CROCHET WORK (figs. 437 and
438).--Printed cross stitch and embroidery patterns can very well be
copied in crochet work especially when they are in two colours only, or
rather, are drawn in one colour, on a plain ground.

The way in which such patterns are copied in crochet is by means of
chain stitches and trebles, which, rising one above the other in rows,
form little squares. For each square marked on the pattern, you must
count, in the grounding, 1 treble and 2 chain stitches; in the solid
parts, 3 trebles.

The squares formed by the chain stitches should always begin and end
with a treble.

When, therefore, a solid square comes between empty or foundation
squares, count 4 trebles for the solid square, because the last treble
of the last empty square touches the third treble of the solid one.

Thus for 2 solid squares, side by side, count 7 trebles, and for 3
squares, 10. Embroidery patterns worked in several colours can be
reproduced in crochet either by trebles and rows worked one way only,
cutting off the thread at the end of each row, or by plain stitches,
worked in rows to and fro.

When only three colours are used, pass two threads under the stitches;
when more than two, leave those which are not in use, at the back of the
work and only bring them to the front as they are wanted. The thread,
you lay aside, takes at the back the place of the one in use. Of course,
the threads not in use can only can be disposed of in this way when the
work has a wrong side, otherwise they must be passed underneath the
stitches. The colours should alternate in the order the pattern
prescribes; moreover, the last stitch before you take another colour
cannot be finished with the same thread, you must pass the new thread
through the last loop and draw it up with that.

[Illustration: FIG. 439. CROCHET WITH SOUTACHE OR LACET (BRAID).]

[Illustration: FIG. 440. CROCHET WITH SOUTACHE OR LACET (BRAID).
MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12 or Cordonnet 6 fil D.M.C
Nos. 3 to 10. Soutache D.M.C No. 2 or 3 or Lacets superfins D.M.C Nos. 2
to 5. COLOURS: The cotton, white or écru. The Soutache or Lacet:
Rouge-Cardinal 347, or Rouge-Grenat 326, or Bleu-Indigo 312.[A]]

CROCHET WITH SOUTACHE OR LACET (BRAID) (figs. 439 and 440).--These are
two patterns of crochet, worked with the ordinary crochet cottons and
with Soutache or Lacet D.M.C, a material which has not been used for
crochet work before.

Both patterns are worked entirely with trebles; in fig. 439, the red
braid passes over and under 2 trebles; in fig. 440, it is brought, it
will be observed, from the wrong side to the right after every 2
trebles, and passed between them, in such a manner as to form a slanting
stitch between the rows of stitches.

CROCHET SQUARE (fig. 441).--Begin with 4 chain stitches, and work 1
single on the 1st chain, to make a round. Work, 1 chain and 2 plain on
the next chain, 3 plain on each of the next 3 chain, 1 plain on the
stitch on which the two first plain are worked.

Slip the next stitch, that is, put the needle in between the horizontal
bars of the 1st plain stitch of the previous row, and draw the thread
out without making a stitch.

Then make 1 chain and 2 plain on the slipped stitch.

After which, you make 3 plain on the second of the 3 plain that form the
corner, and 1 plain on all the other stitches of the last row. The
beginning and end of each row, are worked as described above.

Fig. 441 represents a square, worked in consecutive rows. In making a
crochet square, the rows may end in the middle of a side.

[Illustration: FIG. 441. CROCHET SQUARE.]

When you use a stitch that has to be worked to and fro, you turn your
work at the end of every row and work back along the stitches you have
just made.

[Illustration: FIG. 442. CROCHET HEXAGON.]

CROCHET HEXAGON (fig. 442).--Make a foundation chain of 6 stitches,
join the round; 12 plain on the 6 chain; finish the row as indicated for
the previous figure == turn the work == * 1 plain, 3 plain on the second
plain of the last row; repeat 5 times from *. Finish the row with 1
single == turn the work == 2 plain, 3 plain on the second of the first 3
plain; 3 plain and so on. These hexagons can be made of any size.

COLOURED STAR WORKED INTO A LIGHT GROUND (fig. 443).--Begin with 3
chain, join the ring = 2 plain on each of the 3 chain; then for the
foundation, 1 plain with the dark thread, and 1 with the light on each
of the 6 plain.

In each subsequent row, make one dark stitch more, increasing regularly,
that is, making 2 stitches on the last light stitch that comes before
the dark ones.

Proceed in this manner until you have 6 or 8 dark stitches, in all and
then begin to decrease in every row by one, until there is at last only
one dark stitch remaining.

These stars are used in the making of purses, cap-crowns and mats for
lamps, etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 423. COLOURED STAR WORKED INTO A LIGHT GROUND.]

TUNISIAN CROCHET.--Tunisian crochet is also called crochet-knitting
because, you have to cast on all the first row of stitches, as in
knitting.

MATERIALS--Every kind of cotton, as well as wool and silk, can be used
for Tunisian crochet: the stitches look equally well in all these
materials, but for things that require frequent washing or cleaning, a
good washing material should be selected, such as Coton à tricoter D.M.C
and Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C[A], both strong and suitable in all ways.

As we have already said, Tunisian crochet requires to be done with a
long straight needle, with a knob at one end and it can only be worked
on the right side.

[Illustration: FIG. 444. PLAIN TUNISIAN CROCHET.]

PLAIN TUNISIAN CROCHET (fig. 444).--After making a foundation chain of
the required length, begin the first, or loop row as it is called. Put
the needle into the 2nd chain stitch, draw a loop through and so on,
until you have taken up all the chain stitches on the needle. After
having made the last stitch of the loop row, make 1 chain stitch and
then pass to the second row that completes the stitch. Turn the thread
round the needle, draw it through two loops, turn the thread round
again, and again draw it through two loops, and so on to the end.

[Illustration: FIG. 445. STRAIGHT PLAITED TUNISIAN STITCH.]

STRAIGHT PLAITED TUNISIAN STITCH (fig. 445).--Worked thus: miss the
first loop in the 1st row, take up the second, and come back to the
first, so that the 2 loops are crossed. Work the second row in the same
manner as the second row of the preceding figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 446. SLANTING PLAITED TUNISIAN STITCH.]

DIAGONAL PLAITED TUNISIAN STITCH (fig. 446).--Worked like the
preceding, taking up first the second loop and then the first: the
second row also, in the same way as before. In the third row, take up
the first stitch, and draw the third through the second, so as to
produce diagonal lines across the surface of the work.

OPEN TUNISIAN STITCH.--This is an easy kind of Tunisian crochet. The
first row is worked as in fig. 444. In the row of plain stitches, you
alternately join 2 and 3, or 3 and 4 loops of the preceding row
together, and replace them by as many chain stitches.

DECREASING AND INCREASING IN TUNISIAN CROCHET (fig. 447). Our
illustration shows how to decrease on both sides and by that means form
scallops.

[Illustration: FIG. 447. DECREASING IN TUNISIAN CROCHET.]

You miss a stitch alternately on the right and left. On the right you
crochet the first two stitches together, and at the end of the row, the
last two, and so on, to the end. You increase in the same order, first
on the right and then on the left.

HAIRPIN CROCHET (figs. 448, 449, 450).--So called because it is worked
on a kind of large steel hairpin or fork with two or more prongs. Wooden
and nickel varieties of this implement, which are patented by Mme
Besson, of Paris, are also used.

Very pretty laces, fringes, gimp headings and the like can be made in
this kind of crochet work. It is often used in combination with ordinary
crochet and plain and scalloped braids and gimps, or as a heading for
fringes made of tufts and pendant balls. There are a great many stitches
which can be worked in hairpin-crochet. We shall only describe those
here that will best teach our readers how the work is done.

MATERIALS.--For washing laces, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C is the best; for
furniture fringes, the lower numbers of Coton à tricoter D.M.C, and for
producing the appearance of filoselle, the lower numbers of Coton à
repriser D.M.C are to be taken.

[Illustration: FIG. 448. STEEL HAIRPIN FOR CROCHET.]

[Illustration: FIG. 449. WOODEN FORK FOR CROCHET.]

[Illustration: FIG. 450. FORK WITH SEVERAL PRONGS FOR CROCHET.]

STITCHES.--Begin by a chain stitch, made with an ordinary crochet
needle, take the needle out of the loop, and insert the left prong of
the fork upwards from below, holding the fork between the thumb and
finger of the left hand. The thread should always be in front. Then put
the thread over the right prong and the needle into the loop on the left
prong, take up the thread, draw it through the loop, put the thread over
the needle and draw it through the loop that is on the needle, twist the
loop round the left prong, turn the needle round to the right (the
thread will now be wound round the right prong); put the needle into the
loop on the left prong, throw the thread over the needle, draw it
through, tighten the loops and so on.

These stitches may be doubled, or you may make several trebles on each
loop, or arrange the plain stitches in different ways.

[Illustration: FIG. 451. HAIRPIN INSERTION.

MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 20 or 30, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 4 to 15, white or écru.[A]]

HAIRPIN INSERTION (fig. 451).--Begin by making stripes with the fork,
covering each thread with two plain stitches. Then join the stripes
together by the loops, drawing the left loop over the right one and the
right one over the left. When you come to the end of the stripes fasten
off the last loops by a few stitches. To strengthen the edges, join two
loops together by 1 plain, 2 chain, 1 plain and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 452. HAIRPIN LACE

MATERIALS--For the hairpin work: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 20 to 30, or
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10, white or écru. For the edge. Coton
à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 16 to 30.

COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 347, or Jaune-Rouille 364, or Brun-Marron
406.[A]]

HAIRPIN LACE (fig. 452).--When, by making two half trebles in each
loop, you have got the necessary length of hairpin crochet, join the
loops two and two, by means of a coloured thread which makes a good
contrast with the thread of which the hairpin crochet is made. Work 1
plain stitch joining 2 loops on the right, 2 chain, 1 plain joining the
2 loops on the left; then 2 chain and come back to the right, and so on,
until you have taken up all the loops. This forms the zig-zag in the
middle.

1st row--join 3 loops by: 1 plain, 5 chain.

2nd row--on the 5 chain stitches: 1 plain, 1 half-treble, 3 trebles, 1
picot, made with 5 chain (for the chain picots, see p. 237), 1
half-treble, 1 plain. The footing of this lace is made like the one in
fig. 451.

[Illustration: FIG. 453. HAIRPIN FRINGE WITH TASSELS.]

HAIRPIN FRINGES (figs. 453, 454, 455, 456).--Fig. 453 is made with a
fork composed of one branch and 3 or 4 rulers, round which the thread is
wound in succession, so as to form loops of different lengths. You may
use for this, either a single very coarse thread, or else several fine
ones, used together as one.

The heading of the fringe is plain, and heavy tassels are fastened into
the loops. The tassels are made as follows: take a thick skein of the
same thread the fringe is made of, pass it through the loop, leaving
just the length required for the tassel, at one end, thread a needle
with the same thread and twist it round the skein, the right distance
from the top to form the head of the tassel and then cut the ends even,
at the bottom. As the loops are of different lengths, the tassels will
hang in steps and the fuller and heavier they are, the handsomer the
fringe will be.

[Illustration: FIG. 454. HAIRPIN FRINGE WITH TASSELS.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16.[A]

COLOURS: Écru and Jaune-Rouille 363, 368, or Gris-Tilleul 331 and
Rouge-Cornouille 449 and 450, or three other shades.[A]]

Fig. 454 represents another pattern of fringe, the first part of which
is made with the same fork as the preceding one. Instead however of
winding the thread round the several prongs in succession, you pass it
alternately round the two first and the fourth, thus making loops of two
lengths only. Tassels of a length, suited to the purpose the fringe is
intended for, depend from these loops and may be varied in the second
row by balls made to issue from the middle, or by long meshes, which are
made over the whole width of the fork and affixed to the loops.

Figs. 455 and 456 represent two pretty patterns of fringes made of écru
cotton with a strong twist. These are very suitable for washing
articles, as the cotton balls wash perfectly.

[Illustration: FIG. 455. HAIRPIN FRINGE WITH ONE LINE OF BALLS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 456. HAIRPIN FRINGE WITH TWO LINES OF BALLS, ONE
ABOVE THE OTHER.

MATERIALS--For the crochet-work: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10, or
Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30. For the balls: Coton à repriser D.M.C
Nos. 8 to 16.]

The loops in fig. 455 are all of one length and a ball hangs from every
third. In the last chapter but one, a minute description is given of the
way in which these balls are made. The heading of the loops is formed by
a row of chain stitches, varying in number from four to six, according
to the size of the cotton. The edge is ornamented with little picots.
The fringe, in fig. 456, consists of three long and three short loops
alternately, which causes, the balls that are made to depend from them,
to form two parallel lines.

If you join the loops of the heading together, three and three, you will
have to make enough chain stitches to cover the space that is to be
filled.

The picots are made with 6 chain stitches, you put the needle back into
the fifth stitch after closing the picot, make 1 chain, 2 plain, in the
preceding row, 1 picot and so on.

FRINGE MADE WITH LACET OR BRAID (fig. 457).--This is an easy fringe to
make and a very effective trimming for table-cloths, curtains etc.,
which are embroidered on coarse stuffs.

Begin with a foundation chain, in coarse écru twist, the light stitch
in the middle of the heading of the fringe being also made of the same
material.

In the next row, you use the twist and the braid together, as
follows--with the twist = 1 chain stitch, put the needle into the first
stitch of the foundation chain, take up the braid, draw it through, turn
the twist round the needle, draw it through the braid and the chain
stitch. To make the braid loops longer, they may be made over a wooden
ruler. To the two rows of braid stitches, represented in the pattern,
you may add as many other rows as you please. On the fringed side make:
4 plain, 3 chain, draw out one very long loop and fasten into it a
cluster of lengths of braid from 10 to 12 c/m. long, and draw the loop
tightly round it to secure the tassel; 3 plain on the chain stitches.
Repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 457. FRINGE MADE WITH LACET OR SOUTACHE (BRAID).

MATERIALS: Lacet D.M.C No. 4 or Soutache D.M.C NO. 2½ in red. Cordonnet
6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10. Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, écru.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 458. LACE MADE ON POINT LACE BRAID.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 50, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
No. 80, white[A] and Point Lace braid.]

LACE MADE ON POINT LACE BRAID (fig. 458).--For the rounds: 1 plain on
the braid, 10 chain, then coming back, 1 single on the 4th chain.

In this first round you make: 1 chain, 1 half-treble, 12 trebles *, 1
half-treble, 1 chain, 1 single on the 4th chain; 3 chain, 1 single on
the braid, far enough from the 1st chain for the rounds not to overlap
each other. Then 10 chain, 1 single on the 4th chain, 1 single, 1
half-treble, 4 trebles, join to the first round between the 8th and 9th
trebles, 8 trebles and repeat from *. For the footing: 1 treble, 1
chain, miss a few threads of the edge of the braid, 1 treble.

[Illustration: FIG. 459. CROCHET GUIPURE LACE.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 70 to 90. Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos.
80 to 120, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 40 to 70.]

CROCHET GUIPURE LACE (fig. 459).--This charming little lace makes a
very good substitute for real guipure. It can be made on a row of
trebles, just as well as on point lace braid, or on a mignardise, after
you have raised the picots of it by single and chain stitches.

6 plain *, 9 chain, leave an interval equalling in length 6 bars of the
point lace braid used in our pattern; in the braid: 6 plain stitches,
very close together, 8 chain, 1 single on the 7th of the 9 chain, 10
chain, 1 single on the 3d of the 9 chain, 8 chain, 1 plain close to the
first of the first 6 plain.

1st scallop--7 plain, 5 chain, join to the 4th chain; on the 5th chain:
6 plain; on the 8th chain: 3 plain.

2nd scallop--on the 10 chain: 7 plain, 5 chain, join to the 4th chain =
on the 5 chain: 6 plain = on the 10 chain, 5 plain, 5 chain, join to the
4th chain, 6 plain, 5 chain, join to the 4th chain, 6 chain, 1 plain on
the 10th chain.

3rd scallop--like the first, then repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 460. LACE MADE ON POINT LACE BRAID.

MATERIALS: The same as for 458.]

LACE MADE ON POINT LACE BRAID (fig. 460).--On the braid, work a row of
trebles, 1 or 2 chain stitches apart, according to the size of the braid
and on this row of trebles, make two other rows as follows:

1st row--5 chain, 1 treble on the treble of the preceding row, 5 chain,
1 treble, on the same stitch to which the first treble is joined, 5
chain, miss 3 trebles, 1 treble on the 4th treble of the row beneath.

2nd row--1 plain on the 3rd of the 5 first chain, 3 plain, 1 treble on
the 3rd of the chain stitches between the two trebles of the first row
that come close together; 3 chain, 1 treble on the same stitch, 3
chain, 1 treble on the same stitch, 3 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd of the
next 5 chain.

[Illustration: FIG. 461. CROCHET LACE.

MATERIALS: Lacet superfin D.M.C No. 14 and Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to
70.[A]]

CROCHET LACE (fig. 461).--1st row--3 plain close together, in the
braid; * 13 chain, join to the 1st plain. On each of the first 6 chain;
1 plain; = on the 7th chain: 3 plain, then on the other chain stitches:
6 plain. In the braid: 7 plain and repeat from *.

2nd row--* miss 2 plain of the first row, 5 plain to reach the 2nd
stitch added in the first row, 4 plain on the 2nd added stitch, 4 plain
on the next stitches. Repeat from *.

For an insertion, drop the thread after the 2nd of the 4 stitches that
are to be made at the point, then put the needle into the stitch of the
finished stripe, take up the thread again, draw it through the stitch
and proceed to the second side of the scallop.

[Illustration: FIG. 462. CROCHET LACE WITH MIGNARDISE.

MATERIALS--According to the mignardise used. Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30
to 70, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70.[A]]

CROCHET LACE WITH MIGNARDISE (fig. 462).--This and all the patterns
that follow, up to fig. 473, make very useful trimmings for all kinds of
underclothing. Begin by raising the picots on both sides of the
mignardise by: 1 plain stitch and 1 chain.

The rows of crochet work between, consist of: 1 treble on 1 chain, 4
chain, miss 2 picots of the mignardise, 1 treble between the 3rd and 4th
picot.

Work the edge in two rows.

1st row--1 treble between 2 picots, 3 chain, miss 2 picots, 1 treble.

2nd row--1 treble on 3 chain, 3 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 3 trebles, 7
chain, turn back and join to the 1st of the 3 trebles, 2 chain, join
them to the 2nd treble, 2 trebles on the 7 chain; keep the last loops of
the last treble on the needle and join them to those of the next treble.

[Illustration: FIG. 463. LACE WITH TWO ROWS OF LEAVES.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 20 to 100, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 80 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 100.]

LACE WITH TWO ROWS OF LEAVES (fig. 463).--This is one of the
pleasantest crochet patterns to work that we know. The leaves are made
separately and fastened into a foundation with thread, at least two
numbers finer than that of which the leaves are made.

Leaf with 5 petals: 8 chain, make a ring = 2 plain on the ring = 1st
petal * 11 chain, miss 3 chain, 1 half-treble on the 8th chain, 1 chain,
miss the 7th chain, 1 treble on the 6th chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the
4th chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain, 2 chain, 2 plain on the
ring.

2nd petal: 15 chain, miss 3 chain, 1 half-treble *, 1 chain, miss 1
chain, 1 treble *. Repeat 4 times from * to *; add: 1 chain, 2 trebles
on the ring.

3rd petal: 21 chain, miss 3 chain, 1 half-treble *, 1 chain, miss 1, 1
treble *. Repeat 7 times from * to *; add: 1 chain, miss 1, 2 trebles in
the ring.

The 4th petal to be worked like the 3rd; the 5th like the 1st.

When the 5 petals are finished, make 2 plain stitches on the ring; then
on the chain stitches of the 1st petal: 2 plain, 7 trebles, 2 trebles on
the 10th stitch; then descending again: 7 trebles, 2 plain and 3 single
on the 3 plain stitches of the ring.

On the 2nd petal work: 3 plain, 10 trebles, 2 trebles on the 14th chain,
10 trebles, 3 plain, 2 single, on the 2 trebles on the ring.

3rd petal: 2 single, 3 plain, 14 trebles, 2 trebles on the 20th chain,
14 trebles, 3 plain, a single.

The 4th petal is worked like the 2nd; the 5th like the 1st, to be
followed by 1 single on the 1st of the 3 chain stitches of the ring.

For the stalk: 14 chain; miss 1, 9 plain on the 9 chain; 6 chain, miss
1, 5 plain on the 5 chain, 4 plain on the chain stitches that are still
disengaged, 2 single on the ring and then fasten the thread off with a
few stitches.

When you have enough leaves, join them together by a row of picots,
working from left to right as follows: * take the second petal on the
right side of a leaf, put the thread into the 12th stitch; make 2 plain,
1 picot, 1 plain on the stitch on which the picot was made = in all the
leaves, the 3rd plain before the picot and the first after, meet in the
same stitch beneath = 2 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 2 chain = on the 8th
stitch of the 3rd petal: 1 plain, 2 plain more on the next stitches **,
1 picot, 3 plain. Repeat 6 times from ** and finish with 2 chain.

On the 7th stitch of the 4th petal: 1 plain, 2 plain on the next
stitches ***, 1 picot, 3 plain. Repeat 4 times from ***.

On the 5th stitch of the 5th petal: 1 plain, and on the 4 next, 4 plain
****. Repeat from * to ** round each leaf, then instead of a picot, make
4 chain, join between the 1st and 2nd picot, 4 chain, close the picot.
From this point the preceding series of stitches takes the place of the
picot that immediately follows the sign **; proceed to ****.

Foundation for the footing of the lace, with a single row of
leaves.--When all the leaves are joined together, take the finer number
of cotton and fasten your thread to the last stitch of the small stalk;
then make: * 2 chain, 1 plain on the 9th stitch of the 5th petal; 6
chain, miss 2, 1 plain on the 3rd stitch; 6 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd
stitch, 1 chain, 1 plain on the 5th stitch of the 4th petal; 6 chain, 1
plain on the 3rd chain; 2 chain, 1 plain on the 4th stitch (counting
from the bottom) of the 5th petal of the next leaf; 3 chain, 1 single on
the last stitch of the long stalk; 3 chain, join to the 3rd chain
stitch, 3 chain, draw the thread again in coming back through the 3rd of
the second set of 6 chain stitches in the 1st petal; 1 single; turning
back and from left to right: 1 single on the plain stitch between the
chain stitches, 6 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd of the last 3 chain, 6
chain, 1 plain on the stalk, 6 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd stitch of the
stalk; 6 chain, 1 plain on the 4th stitch of the stalk; 7 chain, 1 plain
at the top of the little stalk, then repeat from *. The network in the
next rows, which may be of any width, is composed of: 6 chain stitches
and, 1 plain on the loop of the last row.

For the last row but one of the network, make: 4 chain, 1 plain over
each loop, and complete the lace by a row of plain stitches.

To make the leaves stand out from the foundation, use two shades of
thread, white and écru, white and Jaune-Rouille 365, or white and
Gris-Cendre 415.

The following is the way to join two rows of leaves together, that have
previously been edged with picots.

Fasten the thread on to the little stalk, * 3 chain, 1 plain on the 8th
stitch of the leaf, 2 chain, join to the middle picot of the 3rd petal
of the top leaf; 2 chain, 3 plain on the 5th petal of the bottom row, 1
picot, 3 plain.

For the 2nd petal of the bottom leaf: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain.

For the 5th petal of the next leaf below: 3 plain, 4 chain, 1 single on
the long stalk, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd picot of the 1st petal of
the preceding leaf, 5 chain, 1 single on the 2nd picot of the 4th petal
of the top leaf, 4 chain, 1 plain on the 4th single of the stalk, 3
chain, 1 single on the 7th picot of the 3rd petal of the top leaf, 3
chain, miss 1 stitch of the stalk, 1 plain on the stalk, 3 chain, 1
plain on the 6th picot of the top leaf, 3 chain, 1 plain on the little
stalk. Repeat from *.

Three and even four rows of leaves may be joined together in this manner
and make a very handsome lace, particularly suitable for church linen.

INSERTION WITH WAVED BRAID (fig. 464).--1 plain stitch at the point of
the braid, 7 chain, 1 single on the 2nd chain. On the next chain
stitches: 1 half-treble, 1 treble, 1 double treble, 1 triple treble, 1
plain on the next point of the braid.

Repeat the same stitches on the second side, only that after the 6th
chain stitch, you draw the thread through the 7th of the 1st finished
row.

Little wheels, set between the crochet pyramids, and described in the
chapters on filet-guipure and Irish lace, complete the insertion.

[Illustration: FIG. 464. INSERTION WITH WAVED BRAID.
MATERIALS.--According to the size of the braid: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos.
20 to 70, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 40 to 70.[A]]

CROCHET LACE, MADE WITH LEAF BRAID (fig. 465).--Introduce the thread
into one of the leaves of the braid and working from right to left, make
for the outer border: * 1 plain, 2 chain, 1 picot in bullion stitch,
with 5 twists of the thread, 2 chain, 1 treble near the end of the leaf.
Leave the last 2 loops of the treble on the needle **.

Take 2 leaves of the braid, fold them one upon the other: 1 treble near
the stalk of these folded leaves, tighten the loops of the 2 trebles;
chain ***, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 plain, 2 chain. Repeat 5 times from ***.

Proceed with 1 picot, 2 chain,--there will be 7 picots round the folded
leaves--1 treble on the folded leaves and repeat from ** to *, therefore
the inverse way, and begin again from *.

For the footing of the lace, 4 rows are required.

1st row--* 1 double treble close to the stalk of the leaf, 5 chain, 1
treble, at the third of the leaf, 1 double treble at the 2nd third of
the leaf, 5 chain, 2 double trebles, one on the right leaf, one on the
left, draw the last loops of the 2 trebles up together and repeat from
*.

2nd row--On each of the little loops formed by the 5 chain of the last
row: 1 plain, 3 chain, 1 picot in bullion stitch, 7 chain, 1 picot, 3
chain; 1 plain on the next loop and so on.

3rd row--1 plain on the 4th of the 7 chain, 5 chain, 1 plain and so on.

4th row--1 plain on each loop of the last row.

[Illustration: FIG. 465. CROCHET LACE MADE WITH LEAF BRAID. MATERIALS:
Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 50 to 100 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 50 to
80.[A]]

CROCHET LACE MADE WITH LEAF BRAID (fig. 466).--Begin with the outside
edge:

1st row:--At the end of a leaf: 1 treble, 6 chain, 1 picot in bullion
stitch, 6 chain, 1 treble = at the beginning of a 2nd leaf: 6 chain, 1
picot, 6 chain, 1 treble at the end of the leaf = 7 chain, 1 picot, 7
chain, 1 treble on the 3rd leaf = 6 chain, 1 picot, 6 chain, 1 treble at
the end of the 3rd leaf = 6 chain, 1 treble, 6 chain, 1 treble on the
4th leaf = 1 double treble joined to the 4th and 1st leaf of the next
scallop = 1 treble at the end of the 1st leaf, join and draw the last
loops of these 3 trebles together.

2nd row--over each treble and picot: * 1 plain, 3 chain, 1 picot, 7
chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 1 plain = repeat 6 times from *.

At the indent and before the last picot: 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain = 1
plain before the 1st picot of the next scallop.

3rd row--1 treble, 8 chain, repeat 6 times. In the indent join the 4th
of the 7 chain stitches right and left together by 1 treble.

4th row--15 single on each loop of 8 chain.

Inside junction.--Begin at the edge of the first leaf, fasten on the
thread and make 10 chain and, 1 double treble at the end of the leaf, 1
triple treble, and draw up both together, 5 chain, 2 triple trebles on
the leaves to the right and left = 5 chain, 2 triple trebles, one at the
end and the other at the beginning of the 3rd and 4th leaf = 2 chain, 1
picot in bullion stitch, 2 chain, 1 plain on the last stitch of the
first trebles, 10 chain, 1 plain on the last stitch of the last trebles;
5 chain, 1 triple treble at the end of the 4th leaf.

[Illustration: FIG. 466. CROCHET LACE MADE WITH LEAF BRAID. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 40 to 80 or Fil à dentelle Nos. 50 to
80.[A]]

Going back to the beginning: 5 chain, 1 single on the 10 chain above the
picot = 5 chain, 1 single on the 5th of the first 10 chain = 12 chain, 1
plain on the loop of the last triple treble, 7 chain, 1 picot in bullion
stitch, 6 chain = 1 plain on the stalk between the 2 leaves; 6 chain, 1
picot, 7 chain, 1 triple treble on the leaf, 5 chain, repeat from *.

2nd row--5 chain, 1 treble on the lower loops. Distribute the chain
stitches equally.

3rd row--1 plain in the braid that forms the footing of the lace, 2
chain, 1 plain on the last chain stitches, 2 chain, 1 plain in the
braid, continuing in this manner to join the crochet work and the braid
together.

IRISH LACE (fig. 467).--Begin with the semicircles in the middle of
the pattern, which arch over two scallops, and cast on 117 chain. Then
lay a double or threefold thread of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 2, over
the chain stitches, and make one plain stitch on each; then cut the
padding thread short off.

[Illustration: FIG. 467. IRISH LACE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 100, Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 30 or Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30
to 100.[A]]

On the other side of the chain make 2 plain, * 2 chain, 1 picot, 7
chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, miss 7; 1 plain on each of the 2 next stitches
**.

Repeat 11 times from * to **; the 11th time making only 6 chain.

2nd and 3rd row--On the upper side, over a double thread of twist: 1
plain on each stitch of the last row; cut off the padding thread = 2
chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 plain on the 4th of the 7
chain stitches after the first picot of the preceding row = 3 chain, 1
picot, 3 chain, 1 plain on the 4th of the next 7 chain stitches **.
Repeat 11 times from * to ** and then make: 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1
picot, 2 chain, 1 plain.

On the upper side and without a padding thread: 3 plain, 1 picot, * 5
plain, 1 picot, **. Repeat 20 times from * to **. Continue with: 3
plain, 10 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain on the 4th of the first 7
chain of the 2nd row on the inside of the semicircle = 2 chain, 1 picot,
7 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 plain on the plain stitch of the previous
row = 1 plain on the 1st of the 3 chain = 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1
picot, 2 chain, 2 plain as before, = 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot,
2 plain = 2 chain, 1 picot, 9 chain, 1 plain, return and make on the 9
chain: 7 plain, 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain = make 4 more
scallops like the previous one = 2 chain, 1 picot, 9 chain, 1 plain =
return and make on the 9 chain: 7 plain, 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2
plain = make 2 more scallops, and then a 3rd joined to the scallop that
terminates the semicircle on the right by the 2 plain stitches = 2
chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain on the point of the
crescent = 22 scallops consisting of: 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1
picot, 2 chain, 2 plain.

9 plain on the scallop that terminates the semicircle on the left, 7
chain, 2 plain on the next scallop, 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain
on the next scallop = make 2 bars more of the same kind = 7 chain, 2
plain = 3 bars like the previous ones = 7 chain, 2 plain = 3 bars as
before = 2 plain, 7 chain, 7 plain on the next scallop = 1 bar
consisting of 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain over all the scallops
of the preceding row (24 scallops in all).

4th row--3 chain *, 8 trebles on the 7 chain that follow the 7 plain =
turn the work = 1 single on the last treble, 3 chain, 1 treble on the
7th and 1 on the 6th of the 8 trebles, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 5th and
1 on the 4th of the 8 trebles, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd and 1 on the
2nd of the 8 trebles, 3 chain, 1 single on the 1st of the 8 trebles =
turn the work = ** on the 3 chain: 1 plain, 1 half-treble, 1 treble, 1
half-treble, 1 plain = 1 plain between the 2 trebles below = on the 2
chain, 1 plain, 1 half-treble, 1 treble, 1 half-treble, 1 plain *** = 1
plain between the 2 trebles beneath, repeat from *** to **, therefore
the reverse way.

Go on with 2 scallops consisting of 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot,
2 chain, 2 plain = after the 2nd scallop: 2 chain, 1 picot, 5 chain = 8
trebles on the 7 chain over the 7 plain and finish the little flowers
consisting of 4 scallops each, like the first from * to *** and from ***
to ** = 2 plain to get back to the scallop = 1 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain,
2 plain, 3 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain, 3 chain,
1 picot, 3 chain, and make a 3rd flower of 4 scallops like the 2 others
= 2 single to come back to the scallop, 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2
plain = 2 more scallops like the previous ones, then make the 4th flower
of 4 scallops, which must come before the 7 plain stitches of the
previous row = 20 scallops consisting of: 2 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1
picot, 2 chain, 2 plain = the last scallop is to be joined to the 1st
scallop of the 1st flower, under the left point of the semicircle = 3
single along the small scallop, 3 trebles, 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2
plain on the point of the scallop = 3 bars like the previous ones to be
joined to the 2 next scallops = 3 similar bars between the small
scallops = 1 single on the scallop between the 2 flowers and 1 single on
the 2nd set of chain stitches in the scallop that precedes the 3rd
flower = 1 single on the point of the 1st scallop of the 3rd flower =
continue the little bars along the 2nd side until past the 4th flower =
after the 4th flower make 2 bars consisting of 2 chain, 1 picot, 2
chain, 2 plain = 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain on the next scallop
**** 7 chain, 2 plain on the next scallop, 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2
plain on the next scallop, 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain on the
next scallop, 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain on the next scallop
***** repeat five times from **** to *****. At the 2nd repetition make 1
bar with 1 picot more, so that you have 4 bars instead of 3. At the 5th
repetition you decrease by 1 bar, so that you have 2 instead of 3.

1 plain on the point of the scallop of the flower, 3 chain, 1 picot, 7
chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 3 plain, one of which is made on the 2nd plain
of the previous row, and the 2nd on the bar of chain stitches = 3
plain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain = 2 more similar
scallops = then 3 chain, 1 picot, 9 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd plain of
the previous row = join and on the 9 chain make 7 plain = 3 chain, 1
picot, 3 chain, 2 plain.

Over the 1st little flower inside the semicircles, make 1 scallop like
the previous ones = then 3 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 2 plain on the 3rd
point of the first flower = 2 chain, 2 plain on the 2nd point of the
second flower = 6 plain on the scallop and joined to the 3rd point of
the first flower = 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain = 2 plain = 1 scallop like
the previous ones, 2 plain on the 4th point of the small flower, 3
chain, 1 picot, 9 chain, 1 plain = 7 plain over the 9 chain = 3 chain, 1
picot, 3 chain, 2 plain.

Make 7 scallops of: 3 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2
plain, after the 7th scallop make 1 chain only, which must come just
before the 7th chain to the left without a picot and above the point of
the semicircle.

Over the 7 chain make a flower like the first with 4 scallops = then 3
scallops, 3 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain. Make one
more flower with 4 scallops, 3 scallops like the previous ones = a third
flower with 4 scallops, 2 chain, 2 plain, one of them above the point of
the row beneath, 12 chain, 1 plain over the next scallop = turn the work
and coming back over the row just made, make: 7 plain on the first 7 of
the 12 chain, 1 plain on the point of the scallop, 4 chain, 1 picot, 4
chain, 1 plain on the next scallop, carry on the bars over the flowers
and scallops, making 1 plain on the scallops of the flower and 2 plain
on the other scallops, up to the 5 plain stitches between the 2 flowers
underneath the semicircle.

After the plain stitch that joins the last bar, turn the work and make
23 scallops consisting of: 4 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 4 chain,
2 plain.

Cut off the thread and fasten it on above the semicircle and at the
plain stitch which precedes the 7 chain without picot and make the
second side like the first = having reached the middle, close to the 5
plain, turn the work = make the half round of bars and fasten off at
the 4th scallop of the flower above the semicircle.

Fasten on at the point under the flowers where the work was turned and
on the wrong side, and from right to left, work: 21 scallops consisting
of 4 chain, 1 picot, 7 chain, 1 picot, 4 chain, 2 plain = then add: 4
chain, 1 picot, 10 chain, 1 plain above the point of the scallop of the
small flower = turn the work: 7 plain over the 10 chain.

22 bars of 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 2 plain = after the 22nd bar, 10
chain = come back and join to the picot of the 21st bar = 2 chain, 8
trebles over the 10 chain and complete the flower as before. After the
4th scallop of the flower: 2 chain, 1 single, quite close to the 8
trebles, 3 chain, 2 plain on the next bar, 3 chain, 1 picot, join to the
2nd stitch of the 4th scallop of the flower, 3 chain, carry on the bars
the same distance as on the first side.

Footing of the lace--On the chain stitches that follow the 3rd plain
stitch and above the last little figure: 1 triple treble, 6 chain, join
to the middle plain stitch = miss 1 scallop, 1 treble, 6 chain = miss 1
scallop, 1 double treble, 6 chain, = miss 1 scallop, 1 triple treble, 6
chain, = miss 1 scallop of the figure on the left, 1 double treble, 6
chain = miss 1 scallop, 1 treble, 6 chain = miss 1 scallop, 1 double
treble, 6 chain = miss 1 scallop, 1 treble, 6 chain = miss 1 scallop, 1
treble, 6 chain = miss 1 scallop, 1 double treble, 6 chain, 1 triple
treble, 6 chain, 1 quadruple treble on the next plain stitch. Repeat the
whole, reversed, and finish off the footing with a row of plain
stitches.

Edge of the lace.--Fasten on, where the semicircles join: 1 double
treble on the first 3 chain stitches of the empty scallop, 5 chain, 1
double treble on the next disengaged chain stitches of the half scallop;
continue the same on all the chain scallops and distribute the trebles
so that there may be in all, 13 times 5 chain stitches.

Add 2 triple trebles, the last loops of them, connected by a plain
stitch; the 1st triple treble on the 3 last chain stitches of the last
scallop, the 2nd on the plain stitch, that follows the 1st scallop of
the middle figure = 4 chain, 1 treble on the plain stitch of the 2nd
point. Repeat the same, reversed.

2nd row--On the first 5 chain of the last row: 5 plain = on the next 5
chain: 5 plain = on the 3 chain, leave a space: 5 plain, 12 chain, come
back and join to the 8th chain stitch by a single stitch = on the
scallop: 4 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain = and so on, until
you have 8 points altogether.

The plain stitches must be distributed as follows:

For the 2nd point: in the 4th space 4 plain, in the 5th space 3 plain =
for the 3rd point: in the 5th space, 2 plain, in the 6th space, 5 plain
= for the 4th point: in the 6th space 1 plain, in the 7th space 6 plain
= for the 5th point: in the 8th space 4 plain, in the 9th space 3 plain
= for the 6th point: in the 9th space 3 plain, in the 10th space 4 plain
= for the 7th point: in the 11th space 7 plain = for the 8th point: in
the 12th space 7 plain = 5 plain in each of the 2 remaining spaces.

CROCHET LACE (fig. 468).--This is always an effective pattern, in any
number of thread. It is not new, however, and is probably already known
to many of our readers as a pillow lace. Those who are not fond of
making pillow lace, will be glad to learn how to reproduce it in
crochet, as it makes a pretty trimming, both for wearing apparel and
furniture. For furniture, it should be made in unbleached cotton, for
articles of dress, in any of the of the finer numbers, referred to
above.

For the separate squares, cast on 10 chain stitches, and close the ring.

1st row--* 5 chain, 1 plain on the ring. Repeat 3 times from *.

2nd row--1 chain, 1 plain on the first 5 chain: * 5 chain, 1 plain = on
the first 5 chain of the 1st row: 2 chain, 1 plain on the second 5 chain
of the 1st row. Repeat 3 times from *.

3rd row--1 plain on the first 5 of the 2nd row: * 5 chain, 1 plain, 2
chain, 1 plain, 2 chain, 1 plain. Repeat 3 times from *.

In the 4th and following rows, go on increasing, as in the 3rd row,
until, on all 4 sides, you have 11 plain stitches between every 5 chain.

12th row--1 plain, 5 chain, 1 plain, * 1 picot made of 4 chain, 1 plain
between the 1st and the 2nd plain of the last row, 2 chain, 1 plain
between the next 2 plain. Repeat 3 times from *, and fasten off.

Crochet the squares together, as you finish them. After the 12th and
last plain stitch, make: 2 chain, drop the loop, put the hook into the
3rd of the 5 chain stitches that form one corner of the square, draw the
dropped loop through, 2 chain, close the picot, finish the square.

[Illustration: FIG. 468. CROCHET LACE. MATERIALS.--For trimming curtains
and coarse linen table covers: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 25 or 30, or
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 25 écru. For articles of dress: Fil
d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 70, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70, or
Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70 écru.[A]]

For the star that connects the squares--10 chain, close the ring; * 4
chain, 1 picot, 4 chain, 1 over, join the 2 picots right and left of the
squares that are to be joined together, by 1 treble; 4 chain, 1 picot, 3
chain, drop the loop, put the needle into the first of the first 4 chain
stitches, draw the thread through, 2 plain on the ring, 8 chain, 1
treble on the 3rd picot and 1 treble on the 4th picot of the square =
coming back: 1 plain on each of the 8 chain; 2 plain on the ring, and
repeat 3 times from *.

For the half-star, that fills the space under the footing of the lace:
10 chain, close the ring = 9 chain, 1 treble on the 1st picot of the
square; 4 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain; draw the thread through the 1st of
the 9 chain = 2 plain, 8 chain, join the 3rd and 4th picots of the
square by 1 treble bar on each picot = 8 single stitches on the 8 chain,
2 plain on the ring; 4 chain, 1 picot, 4 chain = on the 1st and last
picot of the 2 opposite squares: 1 treble, 4 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain,
drop the loop, draw it through the 1st of the 4 chain stitches = 2
plain, 8 chain, join 2 picots by 2 trebles = 8 single, 2 plain on the
ring, 4 chain, 1 picot, 4 chain, 1 treble on the last picot = 8 chain,
draw the thread through the 1st of the 4 chain.

The footing is made as follows--* 1 plain on the 5 upper chain stitches
of the square; 17 chain up to the ring, 3 plain, 17 chain and repeat
from *. A row of plain stitches completes the footing.

Outer edge--* 2 treble on the 1st picot, 4 chain, and repeat 5 times
from *.

On the 5 chain stitches, in the corner, make: 1 treble = 4 chain, 1
treble on the 5 chain and finish the second side of the square like the
first. Omit the chain stitches, between the 1st and last trebles of the
squares.

The next and last row consists of: 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain every 4
chain. On the last 4 chain, at the point where 2 scallops join, make 4
plain stitches, without picots.

LACE WITH STARS (fig. 469).--Begin with the stars, make a chain of 18
stitches, close the ring, mount it on a mould, wind a soft thread, such
as Coton à repriser D.M.C No 60, seven or eight times round it, and make
30 plain stitches upon it, joining the last to the first by a single
stitch.

Then: * 13 chain, and returning, miss the 1st chain = on the 12 chain: 1
single, 2 plain, 2 half-trebles, 2 trebles, 2 double trebles, 1 double
treble and a half, 2 triple trebles; keep the two last loops of the last
treble but one, on the needle, and join them, to those of the last
treble. Repeat 5 times from *.

2nd row--1 plain, on the upper stitch that was missed in the 1st row; *
17 chain, 1 plain on the next point. Repeat 5 times from *.

3rd row--* 6 plain, 3 chain, miss 2 stitches of the lower row. Repeat
from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 469. LACE WITH STARS. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
Nos. 30 to 70, Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 25 or 30, Coton pour crochet
D.M.C Nos. 8 to 12.[A]]

4th row--All round the last row, on each of the bottom stitches 1 plain;
after every 6 stitches, 1 picot. This will give you 19 picots in all,
separated from each other by 6 stitches.

Inner connection--Fasten on the thread at the 5th treble, counting from
the ring: 1 single, 8 chain. Draw out the thread, from the back, through
the 9th of the 17 chain round the star = 8 chain * join with 1 chain to
the 5th treble, passing the thread through to the back = work on the
wrong side: 3 chain, bring the thread back between the 5th treble to the
right side, and repeat 5 times from *. In joining the stars, place them
so that 9 picots are turned to the edge, and 8 to the footing. The 10th
and the 19th picots serve to join the stars.

1st row--2 trebles between the 19th and the 9th of the * 9 picots, 7
chain, 1 treble; repeat 9 times from *.

After the 10th treble, make no more chain stitches, but 1 treble
immediately between the 19th and the 1st picot of the next row.

2nd row--On the 7 first chain stitches of the last row: 3 plain, 4
half-trebles, 3 trebles, 1 picot, 3 trebles, 1 picot, and so on, until
in the semicircle over the picots, you have 7 times 7 chain stitches and
16 picots = on the ninth set of 7 chain: 3 trebles, 4 half trebles, 3
plain.

The scallops are joined by smaller ones, formed of: 3 plain, 4 half
trebles, 3 trebles, 1 picot, 2 trebles, 7 chain, drop the loop, put the
needle into the same treble of the last scallop; draw the loop through
and make on the 7 chain: 1 plain, 1 half-treble, 5 trebles, 1 picot, 5
trebles, 1 half-treble, 1 plain; continue the large scallop, as
described above.

The footing is composed of rings and trebles.--Begin with a ring, like
those in the middle of the stars, worked as follows: 18 chain, with 28
plain upon them = miss 1 plain stitch of the ring, 3 plain, 10 chain =
miss 1 plain, 3 plain, 10 chain = miss 1 plain, 3 plain, 5 chain, 1
single on the 7th picot of the 1st star, 5 chain = miss 1 plain, 3
plain, 5 chain, 1 single on the 8th picot, 5 chain = miss 1 plain, 3
plain, 5 chain, 1 single on the 2nd picot, 5 chain, finish off.

Straight edge--Worked from right to left = 1 chain * turn the thread 7
times round the needle, join to the plain stitch between the 7th and 6th
picot, complete the long treble, 7 chain, join 1 treble, consisting of
six overs to the 1st treble; 1 quintuple treble between the 6th and the
5th picot; 7 chain, 1 quadruple treble joined to the previous treble =
in all, 10 trebles, the 1st made with 7 overs, the 2nd with 6, the 3rd
with 5, the 4th with 4, the 5th and 6th with 3, the 7th with 4, the 8th
with 5, the 9th with 6, the 10th with 7; and between every 2 trebles, 7
chain.

The 3 long trebles of the ring are taken up with 1 plain and 7 chain
between.

GUIPURE LACE (fig. 470).--We advise our readers to work this charming
pattern, in unbleached Fil à dentelle D.M.C No 50, because it imitates
the appearance of old lace better than any other material.

Lozenge-shaped figures in the centre--5 chain, close the ring.

[Illustration: FIG. 470. GUIPURE LACE. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
Nos. 30 to 100, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 100, or Fil à dentelle
D.M.C Nos. 25 to 100.[A]]

1st row--5 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 treble on the ring = 5 chain, 1
treble on the ring = 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 treble on the ring = 5
chain on the 3rd of the first 5 chain.

2nd row--12 chain, * 1 treble on the 1st treble of the 1st row = 4
chain, 1 treble on the 3rd of the next 5 chain = 5 chain, 1 treble on
the same stitch as the last treble = 4 chain, ** 1 treble on the 2nd
treble of the 1st row, 9 chain. Repeat from * to **; join the last 4
chain, to the 3rd of the first 12 chain, by a single stitch.

3rd row--1 chain, 4 plain, 3 plain on the 5th of the 9 chain of the last
row = 12 plain, 5 plain on the 3rd of the 5 chain, between the 2
trebles, 12 plain, 3 plain on the 5th of the lower 9 chain = 12 plain, 5
plain on the 3rd of the 5 chain, 7 plain; finish the row with a single
stitch.

4th row--3 chain, 1 treble on each of the next 5 plain; 3 trebles on the
6th plain; 1 treble on each of the next 15 plain, 5 trebles on the 16th
stitch; 15 trebles on the 2nd side; and again 3 trebles on the 16th
stitch; 15 trebles on the 3rd side; 5 trebles on the 16th stitch, 9
trebles and join to the 3rd of the 3 chain.

5th row--1 chain, 6 plain, 3 plain on the 7th stitch beneath, * 18
plain, 3 plain on the 19th stitch. Repeat twice from *.

6th row--1 chain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 1 picot = towards
the point: 3 plain, 1 picot = on the 2nd side of the square: 3 plain, 1
picot, and 5 times 2 plain, 1 picot = towards the point: 4 plain, 1
picot.

On the 3rd side as on the 2nd, only reversed, first 4 plain, and at the
point 3 plain; on the 4th side as on the 2nd; on the 1st side must still
be added 3 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain;
draw the thread through the loop and fasten off.

The oblong squares, that connect the lozenges, take 7 rows of plain
stitches. Make a chain of 14 = turn the work = 13 plain; add 5 rows of
the same number of stitches. On the short side, and at the edge of the
square: 1 picot, 3 plain, * 9 chain, miss 1 chain = returning: 1 plain
on the 8th chain = on the next 7 chain: 1 half treble, 3 trebles, 1 half
treble, 2 plain on the last chain stitches = on the 2nd half of the
short side: 3 plain, 1 picot = on the long side: 3 plain **, 1 picot, 3
plain ***. Repeat the whole twice from * to ***, and then once from * to
** only.

The row of bars, that encircles the small leaves, begins with 2 single
stitches on the first picot, then add: **** 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 1
treble on the 9th chain of the small leaf; on the short side: 1 chain, 1
picot, 1 chain, 1 triple treble on the 9th chain of the leaf; drop the
thread, bring it out from the back, by the side of the picot that forms
the corner on the long side of the lozenge = 1 chain, 1 picot, 1 chain,
1 treble on the small leaf = 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 chain, 1 treble on the
picot, forming the corner of the oblong square = 3 chain, 1 picot, 3
chain, 1 treble on the leaf on the long side of the square = 3 chain, 1
treble on the same stitch as the 1st treble is on = 3 chain, 1 treble on
the same stitch as the 2 first trebles are on; 3 chain, 1 picot, 3
chain, 1 treble on the picot at the corner. Repeat once from ****.

Upper and lower edge--6 chain, 1 sextuple treble on the 2nd picot of the
lozenge = 6 chain, 1 triple treble on the 4th picot of the lozenge.
Coming back over the 2 trebles of 6 chain, work in 3 journeys to and
fro, 13 plain stitches.

After the 2nd row of plain stitches, 1 quintuple treble on the 6th
treble of the lozenge, and then 4 rows of plain stitches.

After the 6th row, pass at once to the leaves above the lozenge: *****
15 chain, 1 plain on the picot that forms the point of the lozenge =
turn the work to the wrong side = on the chain stitches work: ****** 3
plain, 1 half treble, 4 trebles, 1 half treble, 3 plain = turn the work
to the right side = returning and starting from the point of the leaf: 1
chain and 1 plain on each of the lower stitches.

For the 2nd leaf: 12 chain = turn the work and repeat, as for the former
leaf, from ***** to ******.

This leaf, being finished like the first, with this difference that it
ends at the upper point, you pass to the 2nd little square: 6 chain, 1
sextuple treble on the picot next to the leaves; 3 chain, 1 triple
treble on the 3rd picot, counted from the leaves = 6 chain, 1 sextuple
treble on the 5th picot of the lozenge; keep the 2 last loops of the
treble on the needle, 1 sextuple treble on the picot between every 3
chain of the small square with leaves; draw up the 2 last loops together
with those already on the needle = 6 chain, 1 triple treble on the picot
on the long side of the small square = 3 rows of 13 plain each.

With the last stitch of each of these rows, take 1 of the chain stitches
between the long trebles.

After the 3rd row: 1 sextuple treble on the first treble on the small
leaf of the small middle square = 3 rows of plain stitches to finish the
square, and repeat from *****.

The upper row is similar to this but should be worked from right to
left.

Scalloped edge.--In the right corner of the 1st oblong figure of the
outside corner: 1 double treble, 2 chain, 1 double treble on the 4th
plain stitch = 2 chain, 1 double treble on the stitch that forms the
corner stitch of the square = 2 chain, 1 plain at the extremity of the
first long leaf, 9 chain = 1 quadruple treble on the stitch between the
2 leaves = 2 chain, 1 quadruple treble on the same stitch and on the
1st treble = 2 chain, 1 quadruple treble on the same stitch = 9 chain, 1
plain on the last stitch of the 2nd long leaf = turn the work: 1 chain,
1 plain on each of the chain stitches, and on each treble, 27 plain
stitches in all = turn the work: 1 chain, 1 plain, 2 chain, 1 plain on
the 2nd plain; repeat the last 12 times. Take in 1 stitch on each side
in every row, turn the work after each row, and at the end of the last
fasten off. Fasten on at the foot of the scallop, not at the point, and
work plain stitches all round it; 20 plain to the upper point, 40 in
all.

The open-work edge of the scallops consists entirely of double
trebles.--After the 40 plain stitches of the edge: 2 chain, 1 treble on
the 1st plain stitch of the small square = turn the work: * 2 chain, 1
treble on the 2nd of the plain stitches, forming the edge of the scallop
**; repeat 7 times from * to ** = *** 2 chain, 1 treble on the next
plain stitch = 2 chain, 1 treble on the next plain = repeat 4 times from
***; and then 7 times from * to ** = 2 chain, 1 plain on the 4th treble
of the square; 2 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd treble.

Work on, on the right side = **** 2 chain and 1 treble on the preceding
treble as far as the 8th treble; after the 8th: ***** 10 chain, back to
the 7th, and returning, join to the 7th treble = on the 10 chain: 16
plain, after the 16th draw the loop through the upper loop of the 8th
treble = ****** 2 chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, 1 treble, 10 chain, return,
and fasten the chain stitches to the last treble but one = 6 plain, 1
picot, 2 plain, 1 picot, 6 plain and join as before ******* = Repeat
once from ***** to *******, then twice, from ***** to ******, then from
**** to *****, as on the first side, only 1 treble less = then 1 treble
on the 4th plain stitch of the small square, 2 chain, 1 treble on the
7th plain stitch of the square, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 10th plain
stitch, 1 treble on the outside stitch, at the corner of the square, 2
chain, 1 plain on the last stitch of the leaf; 9 chain and so on, as
above described.

Having reached the second scallop, on the 2nd row of trebles, at the
sign ***, work: 2 chain, 1 treble to the left on the scallop just
finished, keeping the last loops of the treble on the needle, 1 double
treble to the right of the scallop and join it to the 2nd treble; draw
the 4 loops together = 2 chain, 1 treble to the left, 1 quadruple treble
to the right = 11 chain, drop the loop, bring it to the right side
through the 4th treble of the right scallop = on these 11 chain
stitches: 1 single, 1 plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 half treble, 1
plain, 1 single = 1 double treble on the open-work edge, then 2 chain, 1
treble, 2 chain, 1 treble, 12 chain; join to the 6th treble of the right
scallop = working back: 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1
picot, 4 plain, join to the treble, thrice 2 chain, 1 treble. Go back to
***** and repeat twice to *******.

The footing of the lace is worked in 5 rows from right to left.

1st row--1 single, * 1 double treble on the 6th plain stitch of the
square = 1 chain, 1 double treble on the 2nd plain stitch of the square
= 3 chain, 1 picot downwards, 3 chain, 1 plain on the stitch at the
extremity of the long leaf = 3 chain, 1 picot downwards, 3 chain, 2
quadruple trebles between the two leaves = 3 chain, 1 picot downwards, 3
chain, 1 plain on the last stitch of the 2nd leaf, 3 chain; repeat from
*.

2nd row--1 plain on each stitch of the previous row.

3rd row--count 2 stitches before and above the 2 trebles on the squares
and make: * 1 treble, miss 1 stitch, 1 treble, miss 1 stitch, 1 treble,
miss 1 stitch, 1 treble = turn the work: 1 plain on each of the 4
trebles = turn the work, come back and make 4 plain on the first 4 = 5
chain, miss 2 stitches of the 2nd row, 1 treble on the 3rd plain, and
continue from *.

4th row--1 treble on each of the 4 plain, 1 chain between each treble, 2
chain and so on.

5th row--1 plain stitch on each of the stitches of the 4th row.

CROCHET RETICELLA LACE (fig. 471).--This pattern, copied in crochet
from an old piece of Reticella lace, only looks well, worked in very
fine cotton, as indicated in our illustration, namely, in unbleached Fil
à dentelle D.M.C No 150. To make it resemble the original more closely,
the method adopted in Venetian point, of making all the stitches over a
padding thread, has, in the case of the outside edge, been followed
here.

At the end of each row of plain stitches, draw out a sufficiently long
loop to lay it back over the stitches just made, and to work the next
row of stitches over this double foundation. These loops must be long
enough, not to pucker or tighten the scallops.

For the inner squares = 4 chain, close the ring.

1st row--8 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 1 treble,
3 chain, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 1 double treble, 3
chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 1 single stitch on the 5th of the 8 chain.

2nd row--* 1 chain, 5 plain on the first 3 chain, 5 plain on the next 3
chain. On these 10 plain stitches, working to and fro, 9 rows of plain
stitches, decreasing by 1 in each row; after the last stitch, come back
along the side of the little triangle, and make 1 single stitch in every
row, 1 plain on the treble of the 1st row **; repeat 3 times from * to
**.

[Illustration: FIG. 471. CROCHET RETICELLA LACE. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C Nos. 30 to 100, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 150.]

These small triangles must be worked over 1 single treble and between 2
double trebles.

When the 4th triangle is finished, make directly, starting from the last
stitch at the point, and along the side: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1
picot, 3 plain; 1 single stitch on the treble; all the triangles must be
edged, in this same manner on both sides; on the stitch that forms the
point: 3 plain stitches.

3rd row--* 17 chain, drop the loop = bring it to the front, through the
plain stitch that lies between 2 triangles; returning, make 10 single
stitches backwards on the 10 chain. You make stitches like this,
backwards, in all the trebles that follow, that is, the loop is dropped
after each stitch, and brought forward from the wrong side to the right
= 13 chain, join to the 5th single, counting upwards from below = 7
single on the chain stitches; 13 chain, join to the other trebles; 6
chain, 1 single on the stitch at the point of the triangle **; repeat 3
times from * to **. = The chain stitches for the trebles, must be drawn
up very tight.

4th row--1 plain on each of the stitches of the preceding row, 3 plain
on the corner stitch. On each side there must be 29 plain stitches, not
counting the corner ones.

5th row = 6 chain, miss 2 stitches of the row beneath, * 1 double
treble, 2 chain; repeat 3 times from * = 2 chain, 1 double treble, 2
chain, 1 double treble on the same stitch as the 1st treble = 2 chain, 1
double treble on the same stitch as the 1st treble = 2 chain, 1 double
treble on the same stitch as the two first trebles = 10 times to the
next corner: 2 chain, 1 double treble, 3 double trebles, each of them
with 2 chain stitches at the corner; repeat the same on each of the 4
sides.

6th row--1 plain on each of the stitches of the last row, 3 plain on the
corner stitch = cut off the thread. Join the next squares together at
once by the last corner stitch.

Lower edge--You begin by making the large scallop at the point of the
square, and pass the double thread over the 3rd treble that comes before
the 3 trebles at the point of the square and make: 1 plain stitch on
each stitch of the square, up to the 3rd treble on the opposite side;
then draw out a long loop which you carry back to the beginning. In the
2nd row increase by 2 stitches, right and left of the middle stitches,
for the rounding of the scallop, and decrease by 1 on each side. Make 10
rows in all, and in each row, decrease by 4 stitches and increase by 2.
Fasten off after the 10th row.

The two little scallops, right and left of the big one, are worked in 5
rows, over 5 trebles and 4 intervals of chain stitches, taking off 2
stitches in every row. For the small triangle between, worked in 4 rows,
you must increase on both sides by 2 stitches.

When all the scallops are finished, edge them with 3 plain stitches, 1
picot and 3 plain and work in all the ends of thread from the preceding
rows at the same time.

For the footing and the small triangles, that fill up the spaces between
the squares: 22 chain, miss 1, 10 rows of plain stitches, worked to and
fro, decreasing by 1 in every row.

When the triangle is finished, make on one side, 1 single in every row;
then, on the 11 remaining chain stitches, a second triangle, like the
first, which you then join to the plain stitches, above the 5th treble;
then returning along the side of the triangle, add 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain, 1 picot, 3 plain; 1 single on each of the 22 chain stitches.

Edge the next side of the 2nd triangle like the first, join the corner
stitch to the 5th treble; edge the two inner sides 3 times with 3 plain
stitches and 2 picots.

Then from right to left on the plain stitches: 6 plain, 15 chain, join
them to the middle of the 2 triangles = 1 single on each chain, 5 plain
on the square; 11 chain, 1 single on the 9th of the first 15 chain; 1
single stitch on each of the chain stitches; 1 plain on each stitch of
the square, to the point where the squares join, 8 chain, 1 single on
the 6th of the 11 chain, 1 single on each of the 8 chain.

On the 2nd side: 7 plain, 5 chain, 1 single on the 6th of the 11 chain,
1 single on each of the 5 chain, 5 plain, 9 chain, 1 single on the 9th
of the 15 chain, 1 single on each of the 9 chain, 6 plain on the square;
fasten off.

Fasten on, at the 2nd of the 3 corner stitches = 17 chain, 1 plain on
the corner stitch of the triangle; 8 chain, 1 plain on the next corner
stitch, 17 chain, and so on.

A row of plain stitches, or trebles, completes the lace.

LACE WITH CORNER, FORMED BY INCREASING ON THE OUTSIDE (fig. 472).--1st
row--On a row of chain stitches or trebles, work alternately: 1 chain, 1
treble = on the corner: 1 chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, so that the last 3
trebles come on one stitch.

2nd row--1 plain on each stitch of the 1st row, 3 plain on the 2nd of
the 3 corner trebles.

3rd row--Counting from the 2nd of the 3 corner stitches, and towards the
left, make 1 plain on the 53rd, 52nd, 51st and 50th plain stitches; 8
chain, miss 1 chain, 1 plain on each of the 7 chain stitches = on the
other side of the 8 chain, also 1 plain on each stitch, 3 plain on the
8th chain, 1 plain on each of the first 7 plain.

[Illustration: FIG. 472. LACE WITH CORNER, FORMED BY INCREASING ON THE
OUTSIDE.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C No. 30, Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 20 to 30,
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to
50.[A]]

On the next 11 stitches of the 2nd row: 1 plain = 4 chain, miss 4, 1
triple treble on the 5th of the 2nd row, 4 chain, 1 triple treble on the
same stitch, 4 chain, 1 triple treble on the same stitch, 4 chain, miss
4, 1 single on the 5th = turn the work = on each treble of 4 chain: 7
plain; 28 in all; 1 single on the 10th of the 11 plain = turn the work =
miss the 28th plain, and on the 27 others make: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain = 11 chain, miss the 11th, 10 plain on the others = on the 2nd
side of the chain: 4 plain, 10 chain, join them to the 6th of the first
11 plain of this row = on the 10 chain: 5 plain, 3 chain, join them to
the 5th plain of the 1st leaf, made in this row = on the 3 chain: 3
plain = on those of the 10 remaining chain stitches: 6 plain = along the
leaf: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain = on the stitch at the point of the
leaf: 3 plain = then down the 2nd side: 3 plain, 1 picot, 7 plain = over
the next of the 28 plain: 3 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain = * 11 chain, miss
the 11th, 10 plain = on the second side of the chain: 4 plain, 6 chain,
join them to the 4th of the last 7 plain of the 2nd leaf = on the 6
chain: 9 plain. Continue on the 3rd leaf of this row: 3 plain, 1 picot,
3 plain and 3 plain on the stitch at the point of the leaf = on each of
the next 3 stitches: 1 plain, then 1 picot, 7 plain = on the 28
stitches: 4 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain **. Repeat from * to **, and here
follow: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain.

On the 2nd row: *** 5 plain, 10 chain, join them to the 4th of the last
7 plain of the 3rd leaf; 11 plain over the 10 chain = on the 2nd row: 5
plain, 8 chain, miss 1 chain, 1 plain on each chain = on the second
side: 4 plain, 3 chain, join them to the 6th of the last 11 plain = 3
plain on the leaf, 3 plain on the stitch at the point, 7 plain, and
repeat from *.

On the 2nd row and for the corner: 9 plain, **** 4 chain, 1 triple
treble on the 2nd of the 3 corner stitches and repeat 4 times from ****
= 4 chain, miss 4 of the preceding row, 1 plain on the 5th = turn the
work, on each bar of 4 chain, 6 plain, 36 in all, join the last to the
8th of the 9 plain = going back over the 36 plain: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain, 11 chain, miss the 11th, 1 plain on each of the 10 chain = on the
2nd side of the chain: 4 plain, 10 chain, join them to the 4th of the 9
plain = over the 10 chain: 5 plain, 3 chain, join them to the 4th plain
of the last leaf, 3 plain = on the remainder of the 10 chain: 6 plain.

Proceeding along the leaf: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 3 plain on the
stitch at the point, 3 plain, 1 picot, 7 plain *****. Again on the 36
plain, make: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 11 chain, miss the 11th, 10
plain = on the 2nd side of the chain: 4 plain, 6 chain, join them to the
4th of the last 7 plain of the last leaf, 9 plain over the chain
stitches = on the leaf: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 3 plain on the stitch
at the point, 3 plain, 1 picot, 7 plain ******. Repeat 3 times from
***** to ****** and add 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain. Continue along the
2nd row: 4 plain, 10 chain and on these 11 plain = 4 plain, 8 chain,
returning, miss the 8th, 7 plain on the others = on the 2nd side of the
chain: 4 plain, 3 chain, join them to the 6th of the last 11 plain = on
the 3 chain: 3 plain = on the leaf: 3 plain, 3 plain on the stitch at
the point of the leaf, 7 plain.

4th row--1 plain on the 1st leaf of the 3rd row: * 7 chain, 1 plain on
the 2nd leaf = 7 chain, 1 triple treble on the 5th of the 9 plain
between 2 leaves = 7 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd leaf = 7 chain, 1 triple
treble, 7 chain, 1 plain on the 4th leaf = 7 chain, 1 plain on the 5th
leaf; 5 chain, 1 plain on the 1st leaf of the corner scallop. Repeat
from *, with this difference, that, in the corner scallop you must have
4 triple trebles.

5th row--on the first 7 chain of the 4th row: 7 plain, * on the next
chain stitches: 12 plain = turn the work, and crochet to and fro,
decreasing by 1 stitch in each row, until you have only 2 stitches left
= along the leaf: 10 plain and repeat 3 times from * = 7 plain on the
next 7 chain, 6 plain on the 5 chain, 7 plain on the 7 chain.

The corner scallop has 7 points = the 12 first stitches must be divided
as follows: * 1st point: 12 plain in the first interval = 2nd point: 10
plain in the 2nd interval and 2 plain in the 3rd interval = 3rd point: 7
plain in the 3rd interval and 5 plain in the 4th **. Repeat once from **
to *.

6th row--* 1 plain in the 1st leaf, 5 chain, 1 crossed quadruple treble,
the branches of which are joined by 5 chain; repeat twice from * = 1
plain, 4 chain, 1 plain in the 1st leaf of the next scallop = 5 chain, 1
crossed quadruple treble, the branches of which are joined by 5 chain
and joined to the 6th stitch of the 2 next points = 5 chain and so on.

7th row--6 plain on the first 5 chain of the 6th row, 6 plain on the
next chain = 8 chain; carry the chain back to the right, and join it on,
between the 6th and 7th plain = 4 plain on the 8 chain, then 8 chain,
take it back, and join to the 1st plain = 12 plain on the 8 chain =
continue on the small scallop: 3 plain, 1 picot, 8 plain = on the other
5 chain: 6 plain = 8 chain, join them again to the 4th of the 8 plain on
the scallop = on the last 8 chain: 3 plain, 1 picot, 8 plain = on the 2
next bars of 5 chain: 12 plain = 8 chain, join them to the 7th of the
last 12 plain = on the 8 chain: 5 plain = 8 chain, join them to the 1st
of the last 12 plain = on the 8 chain: 5 plain, 3 chain, join them to
the 4th plain of the 3rd finished scallop = over the 3 chain: 2 plain, 1
picot, 2 plain = on the next scallop: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain = in the
half finished scallop: 6 plain = 8 chain, take it back and join it to
the 1st of the last 6 plain = on the 8 chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain,
1 picot, 5 plain to finish the scallop below: 5 plain = on the 6th row:
6 plain, 8 chain, join them to the first of the last 5 plain of the last
scallop = on the 8 chain: 3 plain, 1 picot, 8 plain.

The little scallops must be carried on round the corner point, as they
were on the 3rd, 4th and 5th trebles of the other points.

LACE WITH CORNER, FORMED BY DECREASING ON THE INSIDE (fig. 473).--For
the stars--8 chain, close the ring; 3 chain, 15 trebles in the ring;
close = 3 chain, miss 1 treble of the last row, 1 treble, 5 chain, 1
treble on the upper part of the last treble = alternate 7 times: 1
chain, 1 crossed treble divided by 2 chain, lastly 1 chain, close the
ring, fasten off.

Make 11 stars, and join them together as follows, counting the third
from the left, in the engraving, as the first.--When you have joined the
1st star to the 2nd by the 6th and 7th cross trebles, join the next
stars so that when the 3rd is fastened on, there should be 2 crossed
trebles on the inside and outside of the 2nd star. The 3rd star will
have: 1 crossed treble on the outside, 3 on the inside = the 4th: 2
crossed trebles inside, 2 outside = the 5th, the 6th, and the 7th: 1
inside, 3 outside = the 8th: 2 on the inside and outside = the 9th: 3
inside, 1 outside = the 10th: 2 outside, 2 inside = the 11th: 3 outside,
1 inside. For the next scallops, repeat from the 2nd to the 5th star.

2nd row--* over the 2 chain stitches of the 3rd crossed treble of the
11th star: 1 treble, 3 chain = over the 1st chain stitch between the 3rd
and 4th crossed trebles: 1 treble, 3 chain = over the next 2 chain
stitches: 1 double treble, 3 chain = 3 overs, in the next space: 1
double treble and 1 double treble in the 1st space of the 10th star;
connect the two trebles together, 3 chain, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 1
treble, 3 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 1 connected treble as before, 3
chain ** 1 plain over the 2 chain stitches of the last crossed treble of
the 9th star. Repeat from ** to *, therefore backwards.

[Illustration: FIG. 473. LACE WITH CORNERS FORMED BY DECREASING ON THE
INSIDE.

MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 70, Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 20
or 30, Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 10 to 18, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 4 to 60.[A]

COLOURS: White, Écru naturel or any other colour of the 450 shades of
the D.M.C colour card.]

Each of the next trebles comes, either over 2 chain stitches of the
crossed treble, or over the chain stitch between the crossed trebles ***
3 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 1 triple connected
treble, 3 chain, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 1 treble, 3 chain **** 1
single; repeat, in the reverse order, therefore, from **** to ***.

When the outside row is finished, make a similar row on the inside of
the stars; at the corner 3 trebles are to be made 3 times over each of
the middle stars.

3rd row--1 treble above and below, on each stitch of the second row.

4th row--consists entirely of crossed trebles = * miss on the upper
edge: 3 times 1 treble, and 5 times 2 trebles = on the next trebles of
the preceding row: 1 double treble, miss 2 stitches, 1 double treble,
miss 2 stitches, 1 double treble = draw up the last loops of the 3
trebles together = repeat the same thing backwards = here follow: 8
crossed trebles separated each by 1 treble of the preceding row **; the
8th and the 9th crossed trebles are together in the corner treble of the
preceding row. Repeat from ** to * = here follows 1 row with 1 treble on
every stitch below.

The row on the side of the footing is worked as above described = at the
corner, and after having made the 3rd connected treble, * miss 5 times 2
stitches, 6 times 1 stitch, 3 times 2 stitches, 3 times 3 stitches, ** 3
triple trebles connected together above, miss 3 stitches underneath;
repeat from ** to *, followed on both sides by a row of trebles.

In the corner of the inside row of trebles connect the loops of 5 pairs
of trebles, in the centre connect the loops of 3 trebles, and again the
loops of 5 pairs of trebles.

For the 1st star of the footing: 8 chain, close the ring; 3 chain in the
ring, 15 trebles, close = 3 chain, miss 1 treble, 1 treble, * 3 chain, 1
treble on the stitch of the 1st treble, miss 1, 1 treble in the 2nd
stitch, draw the loops of the 2 trebles together **. Repeat 6 times from
* to **; add 3 chain and close = 5 chain, join them to the 15th treble
of the last row; 5 chain, 1 plain on the first chain stitches between 2
trebles; 4 chain, join them to the 7th treble; 4 chain, 1 plain on the
next chain stitches, 3 chain, join to the treble over the 3 connected
triple trebles, 3 chain, 1 plain on the next chain stitches, 4 chain,
join them to the 8th treble, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 5th treble, cut off
the thread.

The corner star is made like the one just described, and is joined on,
as follows: 3 chain, join them to the 17th treble on the left of the
last row (counting from the triple treble) = 3 chain, 1 plain on the
first chain stitches between 2 trebles = 3 chain, miss 4 trebles, join
them to the 5th = 3 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd set of chain stitches
between = 6 chain, miss 5 trebles, join them to the 6th = 3 chain, 1
plain on the 3rd of the 6 last chain = 3 chain, join them to the corner
stitch, 3 chain, 1 plain on the last 3 chain = towards the right: 3
chain, join to the 5th treble = 3 chain, 1 plain on the preceding, 3
chain, 1 plain on the 3rd set of stitches between, 3 chain, miss 4
trebles, join to the 5th treble = 3 chain, 1 plain on the 4th set of
stitches between, 3 chain, miss 4 stitches and join = 3 chain, 1 plain
on the 5th double treble, fasten off.

On the 3 first trebles of the preceding row of the inside edge, counting
from the outermost stitches which are to be seen to the right in the
illustration, 1 plain, 3 chain, miss 4 trebles, 1 treble = 3 chain, miss
3 trebles, 1 double treble, 3 chain, 3 overs, pass the needle over the
double treble, crochet off one over = miss 3 stitches, 1 double treble,
crochet off the 2 remaining loops = 3 chain, 4 overs, crochet off 2
loops, 1 double treble over the chain treble of the star, crochet off
the remaining loops = 3 chain, 3 overs over the treble made on the 5
chain, crochet off 2 loops = 1 treble on the 5th set of stitches
between, crochet off the remaining loops = 3 chain, 1 treble on the 6th
set of stitches between = 3 chain, 1 treble on the 7th set of stitches
between = 3 chain, 3 overs, 1 treble on the 8th set of stitches between;
crochet off 1 over, 1 double treble on the 5 first chain stitches of the
star, crochet off the remaining loops = 3 chain, 3 overs, 1 treble over
the 2nd double treble, 1 double treble, miss 2 trebles of the preceding
row, complete the treble = 3 chain, 3 overs, crochet off 1 over, joining
it to the last double treble; crochet off the overs = 1 treble on the
5th treble of the preceding row, crochet off the loops = 3 chain, 1
treble on the 4th treble = 3 chain, miss 4 stitches = on each of the 6
following trebles: 1 plain = 3 chain, miss 3 trebles, 1 treble, 3 chain,
miss 3 trebles, 1 double treble; 3 chain, 3 overs, over the double
treble crochet off 1 loop, 1 double treble on the 4th treble after the
plain stitches, crochet off the last overs = 3 chain, 3 overs, over the
last double treble crochet off 1 loop, 1 double treble on the 5th
intervening space of the corner star, crochet off the loops = 3 chain, 1
plain on the 7th double treble of the star = 3 chain, 1 double treble on
the 8th intervening space = 3 chain, 3 overs, over the last double
treble crochet off 2 loops, 1 double treble on the 3rd treble of the
preceding row, complete the treble = 3 chain, 3 overs, over the double
treble crochet off 2 loops, 1 treble on the 4th treble, complete the
treble = 3 chain, 1 treble on the 4th treble, 3 chain, miss 3, 3 plain.

One row of trebles to finish with; draw the 5 corner trebles together
and add: 1 row of crossed trebles and 1 row of plain trebles, each time
drawing the 5 corner loops together into one.

1st row of the outside border--1 plain on every one of the 7 next
trebles of the row beneath, 5 chain; turn back, join them to the 7th
plain and so on.

2nd row--1 plain on the 4th of the 7 plain, 9 trebles on the 5 chain.

3rd row--1 plain on each of the first 2 trebles of the 2nd row, 1 picot,
2 plain, 1 picot, miss 1 stitch, 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 474. SQUARE WITH COLOURED TUFTS.

MATERIALS: Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 10, or Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12.[A]

COLOURS. White and Rouge-Turc 321, or écru and Bleu-Indigo 321,
Rouge-Géranium 353 and Brun-Caroubier 356, Bleu d'Azur 3325 and
Brun-Rouille 3312, Vert-Bouteille 494 and Bleu-Prunelle 489.[A]]

SQUARE WITH COLOURED TUFTS (fig. 474).--The following are different
counterpane patterns which should be worked in coarse cotton; our
engraving represents a single square, worked in two colours, in raised
crochet. By joining a number of such squares together, 4 or 6 colours
can be introduced into one covering with very good effect.

Cast on 13 chain and close the ring.

1st row--1 plain on the 1st of the 13 chain, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 4th
chain, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 7th chain, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 10th
chain, 5 chain, 1 plain on the 13th chain.

2nd row--1 plain on the 1st plain of the 1st row * 1 plain on the 1st of
the 5 chain; 5 chain, 1 plain on the 5th chain. Repeat 3 times from *.

3rd row--5 plain on the 5 chain, 5 chain, 5 plain and so on.

4th and 5th rows--continue to increase, as in the 3rd row.

6th row--after the 3rd plain, 1 tuft in the contrasting colour (see fig.
431).

The contrasting colour is to be introduced into the work at the first
tuft, and cut off when the last is finished.

The ends of the coloured threads must be worked in under the stitches of
the next row. The square may be of any size; it is bordered by small
picot scallops by means of which the different squares are joined
together.

[Illustration: FIG. 475. STRIPES FOR COUNTERPANES.

MATERIALS: Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 8, or Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12 and Lacets surfins D.M.C No. 4, or Soutache D.M.C No.
2½.[A]

COLOURS: Gris-Lin 716 and Rouge-Bordeaux 497, Gris-Tilleul 393 and
Bleu-Faience 484 or Brun-Caroubier 356 and Jaune-Rouille 308 etc.[A]]

STRIPES FOR COUNTERPANES (fig. 475).--We recommend the use of Soutache
D.M.C or Lacets superfins D.M.C (braids) for the coloured stitches, in
the place of cotton. The dark stitches standing, so to speak, on another
ground of stitches the pattern will look brighter, if it be worked in a
flat material that will spread out more than cotton does.

The stripe, worked in its entire length and always on the right side,
must be begun by a chain of stitches of the length the stripe is to be.

1st row--1 plain stitch on each chain stitch.

2nd row--1 plain stitch with white or unbleached cotton, on each second
stitch of the preceding row; 1 long plain stitch with the coloured
cotton or the braid, in each second loop of the chain stitch.

When red and white cotton are used, only one thread must be drawn
through the 1st loop, and the other through the two last loops.

3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th rows--plain stitches of the colour of the
grounding = 4th row--between every 5 coloured stitches 3 white = 6th
row--between every 4 red, 5 white = 8th row--between every 3 red, 7
white = 10th row--between every 2 red, 9 white = 12th row--between the
single red stitches, 11 white plain.

In the second half of the pattern the red stitches must increase in the
same proportion as that in which they decreased before.

PATTERN OF A COUNTERPANE IN TUNISIAN CROCHET (fig. 476). This pattern,
on a reduced scale, of a counterpane in Tunisian crochet, though it is
worked here in several colours, can be done all in one. The numbers of
the stitches, as they are here given, refer of course to the pattern
represented in our figure; if worked on a larger scale, the number of
stitches would have to be increased every way in the proper proportion.

For the inner square, which is worked in a light material, make 20 chain
stitches, on which you make 17 rows of plaited Tunisian crochet, fig.
445, then fasten off.

[Illustration: FIG. 476. PATTERN OF A COUNTERPANE IN TUNISIAN CROCHET.

MATERIALS: Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 8, or Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12.[A]

COLOURS: Gris-Amadou 385 and Rouge-Cardinal 346, Vert-Bouteille 492 and
Violet-Mauve 316, or Bleu-Gentiane 479 and Gris-Écru 706.]

For the first coloured border, which immediately surrounds the centre
square, take a coloured thread and make 2 chain stitches and upon these
the common Tunisian stitch, fig. 444. Increase to the right in every row
by one stitch, to the number of 6 = then put the needle into the first
stitch on one side of the square, turn the thread round and draw it
through. Here you must be careful to observe, in the first instance,
that the second part which is now to be joined to the square, should
always remain on the left side of the square and secondly, that the
thread with which you join the two parts together, should lie to the
left and be drawn through, from the wrong side to the right. Having now
got 7 Tunisian stitches on the needle, make 18 double rows, and join
the last stitch of each row to a stitch of the square.

When these rows are finished, you proceed to decrease on the right till
you have only 2 stitches left; and then again to increase as at the
beginning of the stripe. At each increase, after each double row you
must pass the thread through the corresponding stitch opposite of the
same row. When you have again got 7 stitches on the needle, join them as
before to the square. Work round the 4 sides of the square in this
manner and when you come to the last decrease, join the stitches to
those of the first increase, and fasten off. The next stripes are to be
worked in the same way; they may be made either wider or narrower,
plain, or ornamented with a cross stitch pattern which you work upon
them.

[Illustration: FIG. 477. PATTERN OF COUNTERPANE WORKED IN STRIPES.

MATERIALS: Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Coton à tricoter D.M.C
Nos. 6 to 14, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 15.[A]]

PATTERN OF COUNTERPANE WORKED IN STRIPES (fig. 477).--This is intended
for a child's coverlet and is worked in pale blue, Bleu-Indigo 334, and
white; the stripes and the lace border, in white, the setting, partly in
white, partly in blue.

For the first stripe, make a foundation chain of 26 stitches; then
counting back, draw the needle through the 6th and 7th chain stitches,
drawing up all the three loops together = 2 chain, then put the needle
again through 2 chain stitches, draw up the 3 loops together = 2 chain
and so on.

Coming back, make the loop of the first stitch and that of the second on
the chain stitches of the preceding row = begin every row with 3 chain,
which form picots along the edge of the stripe; when the stripes are
finished, take a blue thread and make 1 plain stitch on each picot and 3
chain.

This blue row is followed by a white one, worked in cluster stitch, fig.
426, with 2 chain stitches between every 2 clusters.

Then follows another blue row of one plain stitch on each chain stitch
of the previous row. The second blue row consists entirely of plain
stitches worked along the long sides of the stripes, which are joined
together afterwards, but not along the short sides until the counterpane
is finished; then the stitches should border all the 4 sides. The second
stripe, which should be of the same width as the first, is worked in
Tunisian crochet; for the edge make one row of plain stitches in blue,
one of cluster stitches in white, and then again a row of plain in blue.

Join the stripes together on the wrong side with plain stitches, taking
up one loop on the right and one on the left, alternately.

When you have joined the stripes, make the outer border, which consists
of 7 straight rows and a scalloped lace edging.

1st row--in blue: 3 chain and 1 plain on each picot, 1 plain, and so on,
down the long sides of the stripes = along the short sides, the side of
the chain stitches or that of the previous row: 1 plain, 3 chain, miss
2, 1 plain.

2nd row--in white or unbleached: 1 cluster stitch, fig. 426, on each
picot formed by the 3 chain stitches of the 1st row; on the corner
picots, you must make 3 cluster stitches.

3rd, 4th, 5th rows--in blue: similar to the first. Increase at the
corners by making: 1 plain, 3 chain, 1 plain on the same stitch.

6th row--in white or unbleached: similar to the 2nd row.

7th row--in blue: 1 treble on each of the stitches of the previous row.

Lace edging.--The scallops extend over 22 stitches of the previous row
and on that account it is better to make the corners first, to count the
stitches both ways so as to distribute the stitches that are left over,
between the scallops.

Corner scallop.--Fasten on the thread to the left of the second of the
stitches that were added to make the turn, make 6 chain, 1 single on the
4th treble to the right = 1 single on the next treble = turn the work =
* 2 chain, 1 treble on the 6th chain, repeat 7 times from *, in all
therefore 8 trebles = after the 8th treble: 2 chain, miss 1 treble, 1
single on the 2 next trebles = turn the work = 2 chain, 1 cluster stitch
between each treble, in all 9 cluster stitches, then 2 chain, miss 2
trebles, 1 single stitch on the next 2 trebles = turn the work = 2
chain, 1 cluster stitch over the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th pairs of chain
stitches in the preceding row, and 2 cluster stitches and 2 chain over
the 5th, 6th and 7th chain stitches; over the other chain stitches
again: 1 cluster stitch; then 2 chain, miss 2 trebles, join to the 3rd
treble = fasten off.

For the scallops on the right side, divide the stitches between the
corner scallops into equal portions. Supposing that they are divisible
by 22, count 9 stitches to the right, fasten on the thread at the 9th; *
7 chain, miss 2 trebles of the row beneath, 1 plain on the 3rd, 1 single
stitch on the next = turn the work = 2 chain, 1 treble on the 7 chain,
repeat 5 times from * and finish with 2 chain, 1 single on the 2nd lower
treble, 1 single on the next treble = turn the work = 2 chain and 1
cluster stitch between each treble of the preceding row, 2 cluster
stitches between the 3rd and 2nd trebles = after the 8th stitch: 2
chain, miss 1 treble, 1 single on each of the 2 next stitches = repeat 3
times over 2 chain stitches of the previous row: 2 chain, 1 cluster
stitch = on the 4th, 5th and 6th chain stitches: 2 cluster and 2 chain;
on the 3 last chain the same stitches as on the 3 first = then 1 single
over each of the next 18 and repeat from *.

The final row consists of open picots, formed of 5 chain stitches and 1
plain, between each cluster stitch; after the last of these stitches and
in the indent of the scallops on the straight line, only 2 chain
stitches and 1 plain on the 3rd stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 478. PATTERN IN SQUARES FOR COUNTERPANES.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 1 to 5, or Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 12.

COLOURS: Gris-Coutil 323 and Brun-Caroubier 303 or Bleu-cendré 448 and
Rouge-Cornouille 449, Vert-Mousse 470 and Bleu d'Azur 3325.[A]]

PATTERN IN SQUARES FOR COUNTERPANES (fig. 478).--This pattern may be
worked in the same stitch as the previous one, either in Tunisian
crochet or in any other of the stitches already described.

Make a foundation chain of 18 stitches on which you work 10 rows to and
fro in the dark colour. The 11th and following rows up to the 21st are
worked in the light colour, then take up the dark colour again. Each
stripe should be 3 squares long.

The 2nd stripe is begun in the light colour, and the stitches, made at
the beginning of each row, are joined to those of the first stripe, as
the stitches of the 3rd are to those of the 2nd and so on.

When you have made sufficient big squares, each consisting of 9 small
ones, border them with seven rows of plain stitches, worked to and fro.

The 4 squares that form the corners are only to be bordered in this
manner on two sides; the squares along the straight edges, on 3 sides,
and only those that are intended for the centre of the counterpane, on
all 4 sides. The separate parts are then either sewn or crocheted
together on the wrong side. The dark squares are ornamented with small
stars worked in the light colour, the light ones with scallops in the
dark colour.

For the small stars--4 chain, close the ring; 2 plain on each stitch of
the chain; 8 plain in all = after the 8th stitch: 8 chain, 1 plain on
the 1st plain of the 8 plain stitches. Repeat the 8 chain 7 times and
fasten off, then sew the star on in the centre of the dark square,
taking care to spread out the little points formed of chain stitches at
regular distances from each other. The scallops are worked from left to
right; fasten the thread on at the point where 4 squares touch, then
make a chain of 18 stitches and secure it at the opposite point. On the
chain stitches: 6 plain, 1 picot, 7 plain, 1 picot, 7 plain, 1 picot, 6
plain = fasten off.

Repeat the same scallop over the second half of the square; when you
come to the 2nd picot of the first scallop join the two picots. When
both scallops are completed, fasten them on to the foundation by a few
stitches on the wrong side.

The outside border of the counterpane is made separately, and is worked
inwards from without and from left to right.

1st row--begin with the dark colour and make * 10 chain stitches, drop
the loop, put the needle into the 1st of the 10 chain, take up the loop
and draw it through the stitch; 2 chain and on the 10 stitches: 6
trebles quite close together. Repeat from * and go on repeating the
sequence until the lace is long enough to trim the counterpane
handsomely.

2nd row--in the light colour and similar to the 1st = only that in
joining the chain stitches together, you make the single stitch on the
chain stitches of the 1st row.

3rd row--in the dark colour and similar to the 2nd.

4th, 5th and 6th rows--in the light colour and from right to left: 7
chain, 2 plain on each loop of chain stitches of the previous row.

7th row--in the light colour and from left to right: * 2 plain on the
treble of the lace, 11 chain, 2 plain on the next loop of chain stitches
= these 2 stitches are made on the wrong side of the work = drop the
loop, turn the work to the right, 3 plain on the last 3 chain, 8 chain
**, and repeat always from * to **.

One row of plain made on each chain stitch and a 2nd row of trebles on
the plain stitches completes the lace edging, which is afterwards sewn
on to the counterpane.

COUNTERPANE WITH FRINGED BORDER (fig. 479).--This pattern requires
three colours; we suggest the following as making a very effective
combination: Rouge-Turc 321, Bleu-Indigo 311 and white.

The stripes, one red, the other blue, may be worked in any stitch. They
are edged with 8 plain stitches of 3 different lengths worked in red. *
The first stitch passes only under the loops of the stitches; the 2nd
over 2 stitches; the 3rd over 1, the 4th inwards, over 3. Repeat from *.

These stitches must be worked parallel to each other along the two edges
that are to be joined together.

The stripes are fastened together on the wrong side by single or plain
stitches.

The outside edge consists of 15 rows: 1st row--in red: 1 row of plain
stitches on the right side of the work.

2nd row--in red, and on the wrong side of the work: plain stitches.

3rd and 4th rows--in red, and on the right side of the work: plain
stitches.

5th row--in dark blue and on the right side: 1 treble, 1 chain, miss 1
plain of the row beneath, 1 treble and so on.

6th row--in white, and similar to the 5th.

7th row--in blue, and similar to the 5th.

8th row--in red: 1 plain on each stitch of the preceding row.

[Illustration: FIG. 479. COUNTERPANE WITH FRINGED BORDER. MATERIALS:
Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 10, or Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6
to 14. COLOURS: White, Gris-Tilleul 331 and Rouge-Cornouille 449.[A]]

9th row--in red and on the wrong side: 1 plain on each stitch of the
preceding row.

10th and 11th rows--in red: and both on the right side, 2 rows of plain
stitches.

12th row--in white: 5 chain, miss 3, 1 plain on the 4th stitch.

13th row--in dark blue and similar to the 12th.

14th row--in white: * 1 plain on the 5th stitch of the blue row; 10
chain, drop the loop, lay the chain stitches from left to right, put the
needle into the 3rd chain stitch, counting from the beginning, take up
the loop and draw it through the 3rd chain stitch, 2 chain and repeat
from *.

15th row--in white: 1 plain on the picot formed by the chain stitches; 5
chain, 1 plain.

Into this last row you draw clusters of lengths of red cotton to form
the fringe, and knot them together with blue, or if you prefer it, you
may finish off the coverlet with a hairpin fringe.

COUNTERPANE COMPOSED OF SQUARES AND OLIVE SHAPED FIGURES (fig.
480).--There are many who shrink from undertaking a large piece of work
because it becomes inconvenient to handle and carry about. The
counterpane here represented has the advantage of being made up of a
number of quite little pieces, which are worked separately and joined
together afterwards.

Two colours, which can be clearly distinguished from each other in the
engraving, should be chosen from among the various combinations
suggested; one of them should be very light, say, cream or white for the
olive shaped figures and squares, and the other of some soft shade only
darker, for the connecting rows and the knotted fringe, described in the
chapter on Macramé.

The olive shaped figures begin with 9 chain stitches, on which you make
8 plain stitches and on the 9th: 3 plain for the corner.

On the second side of the chain: 8 plain and 3 besides on the corner
stitch, and so on for 3 rows; in the last row there should be 28
stitches.

These 3 rows are to be considered as one only.

2nd row--3 chain, 1 treble on the plain stitch that follows * 1 chain, 1
treble and repeat 11 times from *; 1 chain, 3 trebles with 1 chain
between them on the corner stitch, ** 1 chain, 1 treble, repeat 12 times
from **.

On the last stitch at the corner, again 3 trebles with 1 chain; close
the round with 1 single stitch.

3rd row--1 chain, 1 single on the chain stitch that follows the 1st
treble of the last row; 3 chain, 1 double treble between the lower
trebles, 1 chain and so on, until you have 35 trebles, counting the two
sets of 3 trebles at the corner.

4th row--here you can change the colour: 1 plain on each of the stitches
of the last row; 3 plain at the corners.

5th row--similar to the 4th.

[Illustration: FIG. 480. COUNTERPANE COMPOSED OF SQUARES AND OLIVE
SHAPED FIGURES. MATERIALS: Coton pour crochet D.M.C Nos. 6 to 10, or
Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 10. COLOURS: White and Rouge-Turc 321,
or Écru and Rouge-Cerise 3318, Gris-Coutil 323 and Bleu-Gentiane
478.[A]]

6th row--2 plain, 1 cluster of 2 double trebles on the same stitch of
the 4th row as the 5th stitch of the last row is on; miss 1 plain.

Continue in this manner along the whole row, taking care that the 9th
and 22nd cluster come just at the corner.

7th and 8th rows--these two last rows should be worked in the same
colour as the inside of the figure.

Be careful always to make the increase at the point; a 9th row in the
dark colour may further be added, to connect the figures, by passing the
thread from the wrong side to the right, between the 13 last stitches of
two of the points of the figures. The space between these olive shaped
figures is filled by a pointed square of chain stitches.

In the 1st and following rows you miss 5 stitches at the point where the
figures meet, and continue to decrease in this manner until the space is
filled up. The fringe is made in the dark colour, either directly on to
the plain crochet, or after a few rows of open-work.

SQUARES FOR CHAIR-BACKS (fig. 481).--This is a design for cut-work,
out of an old collection by Sibmacher, which we have adapted to crochet.
It will be found most effective, worked in any of the given materials;
we have worked it with admirable result, both in Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
No. 15 and Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 150.

1st row--4 chain, close the ring.

2nd row--1 chain, 2 plain on each chain, 8 in all; draw the loop of the
last stitch through the 1st chain.

3rd row--6 chain, 1 treble *, 3 chain, 1 treble, repeat 6 times from *.
In all, with the 3 chain, 8 trebles.

4th row--4 plain, over each treble of 3 chain.

5th row--6 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd of the plain stitches beneath, * 3
chain, 1 treble, over the treble beneath, 3 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd
stitch of the row beneath. Repeat 6 times from *, then add 3 chain, 1
plain on the 3rd of the 6 chain.

6th row--7 chain, 1 plain over the treble of the last row; repeat the
same series 7 times.

7th row--3 chain, 1 treble over the treble beneath; 1 treble on each
chain stitch, 2 trebles on each plain stitch of the row beneath; in all,
72 trebles, including the 3 chain.

8th row--* 8 chain, 1 plain between the 2 trebles that were added,
therefore between the 8th and the 9th = turn the work = make 12 plain
on the wrong side = turn the work back to the right side = take up 1
loop of each of the 12 stitches for the Tunisian stitch that is made on
10 rows, and decreasing by one stitch in each row, alternately on the
right and left = draw up the 3 last loops together and make, descending
on the right side: 1 single stitch on each row of the pyramid you have
just made, finish with 1 plain on the stitch that follows the 8 chain.
Repeat 7 times from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 481. SQUARES FOR CHAIR-BACKS. MATERIALS: Fil
d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 100, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 20 to 50, or
Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70 in white or écru.[A]]

9th row--all along the pyramid: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 2 plain at the point. Repeat the same number
of stitches on the 2nd side, and down the sides of all the pyramids =
after the 9th row, fasten off.

10th row--fasten on the thread at a stitch at the point of a pyramid, *
7 chain, 5 overs, join the loop to the 2nd picot on the side of the
pyramid where you are working, draw the needle back through 2 overs,
make 2 overs more, and put the needle into the middle picot opposite and
draw the needle twice through 2 loops, thirdly through 3 and each time
after that, through 2 loops = 6 chain, 1 double treble, join to the 3rd
over, 7 chain, 1 plain = on the next pyramid 7 chain, 1 septuple treble,
join it to the next middle picot = draw the needle thrice through 2
loops, 1 triple treble to join to the middle picot opposite, draw the
needle back through the loops, and at the 4th over, through 3 loops, and
each time after that, through 2 loops, 7 chain, 1 quadruple treble, join
it to the 4th over, 7 chain, 1 triple treble, 7 chain, 1 plain on the
next pyramid. Repeat 3 times from *.

11th row--1 chain, 1 plain on each of the stitches of the previous row
and 2 plain on those forming the corner; fasten off.

12th row--1 single on the first plain, 5 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd
plain, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd plain and so on to the corner and
until you have 14 trebles = on the corner stitch: 2 chain and 1 treble
more; then proceed as you did on the first side. There should be 18
trebles and 19 times 2 chain between the corner trebles; all four sides
should be alike.

13th row--1 plain on each stitch of the last row, not counting the 3
which are to be made at the corner.

14th row--14 single over the preceding stitches *, 1 chain, 24 plain;
miss 4 plain of the last row, not counting the 2 increased stitches
which must be left empty = after the 24th stitch turn the work, miss 2,
21 plain, passing the needle under the 2 loops of the row beneath = turn
the work = 1 chain, 20 plain = turn the work = 19 plain = continue to
decrease in the same proportion, until you have 3 stitches left and
fasten off. In all the intakes miss the last stitch but one, coming
back, and the 1st going, and always begin on the right side with 1
chain.

For the second half of these triangular figures which are worked from
right to left, fasten on the thread to the 5th stitch after the increase
and make 24 plain = 7 plain should remain between the two triangular
figures formed of plain stitches = turn the work = 21 plain, miss the 2
last stitches, 1 plain on the stitch the thread is fastened to = turn
the work = miss 1 stitch, 19 plain, 5 overs, put the needle through the
4th of the 7 stitches between, bring it back twice, each time through 2
loops, make 2 overs more, put the needle through the last stitch of the
3rd row opposite, bring it back twice through 2 loops, then once through
3 loops and twice through 2 loops = turn the work = 18 plain and so on,
until you have made 10 transverse trebles = fasten off, then repeat the
same series of rows on the other sides.

15th row--do not cut off the thread on the 4th side but work backwards:
3 single over the chain, 5 chain * 1 treble on the stitch whence the 5
chain proceeded, 2 chain, 1 treble on the last plain of the first half
of the close parts of the pattern; 2 chain, 1 treble in the middle of
the first part of the 10th transverse treble; 2 chain, 1 treble on the
second half of the preceding treble, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 1st plain
of the second half of the close parts; 2 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd and
last upper stitch of the close part; 2 chain, 1 treble on the same
stitch as the last treble. Then along the edge, 10 trebles, joined by 2
chain, one of which trebles should always be on a row of plain stitches
= after the 10th treble: 3 chain, 1 plain on the 5th plain of the 13th
row, 3 chain, again 11 trebles connected by 2 chain = after the 11
trebles: 2 chain ** and repeat 3 times from * to **.

16th row--on every 2 chain stitches: 3 plain.

17th row--7 chain, 1 plain on the 6th plain of the last row; repeat 7
times = for the 9th and 10th scallops only: * 5 chain. The plain stitch
that follows the 9th scallop should come exactly over the corner stitch
of the 13th row = after the 10th scallop: 1 plain; then 13 scallops with
7 chain, 1 plain on the 6th 5 stitch of the row beneath. Repeat twice
from * = after the 4th scallop 2 smaller scallops, and up to the end of
the row, 5 scallops more of 7 chain each.

18th row--make 7 plain over 7 chain, 5 chain, drop the treble, bring the
needle back with the loop through the 3rd plain = on the 5 chain: 3
plain, 1 picot, 3 plain = on the 7 remaining stitches: 2 plain--on the
9th scallop of 5 chain, only: 5 plain = on the 10th scallop of 5 chain,
only: 3 plain = then 7 chain, bring them back and join them to the 3rd
plain of the 9th scallop and finish the picot.

When these squares are made use of in any number and have to be joined
together, you must join 13 picots and leave the 14th free. The four
empty picots in the centre are connected by a small star.

CROCHET STAR (fig. 482).--This is one of the most graceful and
delicate crochet patterns we know. For the purpose of reproduction here,
we have had it worked in all the different sizes of D.M.C cotton but it
looks best in a fine material; in Fil à dentelle No. 150, it can bear
comparison with the finest needle-made lace.

1st row--6 chain, close the ring.

2nd row--9 chain, 1 double treble, * 4 chain, 1 double treble; repeat 6
times from * = after the 7th treble: 4 chain, 1 single on the 5th of the
9 chain.

3rd row--1 chain, 4 plain, * 1 picot, 4 plain; repeat 7 times from * =
carry the thread to the last stitch through the 1st plain.

4th row--12 chain, 1 treble on the stitch over the treble beneath, * 9
chain, 1 treble; repeat 6 times from * = after the 7th treble and the 9
chain: 1 single on the 3rd of the 12 chain.

5th row--3 chain, 1 treble on each stitch of the row beneath; including
the 3 chain, 80 trebles in the whole circumference = after the last
treble: 1 single on the 3 chain.

6th row--11 chain, 1 quadruple treble on the 2nd treble of the last row;
4 chain, 1 quadruple treble on the 3rd treble and so on, in all 32
trebles including the 7 chain.

7th row--1 chain, 5 plain on 4 chain.

8th row--3 plain on the 3 first chain, * 16 chain, miss 1, ** 1 single,
1 plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 treble 1½ long, 2 double trebles, 1
triple treble, 1 treble 3½ trebles long, 1 quadruple-treble ***, 3
chain, miss 4 plain of the 7th row, 5 plain, 16 chain, join them,
counting upwards from below, to the 5th treble of the first pyramid = on
7 chain: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain;
join the last loop of the last plain and the loop of the 7th chain; 8
chain. Repeat from ** to *** = on the middle of the last quadruple
treble: 1 double treble towards the bottom, finish the treble, 3 chain,
miss 4, 5 plain ****. Repeat 7 times from * to ****.

[Illustration: FIG. 482. CROCHET STAR. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C No.
30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 80, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos.
25 to 150.[A]]

Coming back to the 1st point make along it: 8 single stitches, then 7
chain, join them to the 5th treble of the 16th point = over the chain: 3
plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain and finish
with 9 single to carry the thread to the top of the point.

9th row--1 chain, 1 plain, * 15 chain, 1 plain at the top of the point
and repeat 15 times from *.

10th row--3 chain; 1 treble on each stitch of the 9th row; 256 trebles
in all, including the 3 chain.

11th row--The star is bordered by small and large scallops, surmounted
by points similar to those inside.

You begin by the small scallop and make on the 10th row: 5 single, * 8
chain, bring them back and join them to the 1st of the 5 single; 1
plain, 8 chain, miss 4 trebles, join them to the 5th; 14 plain on the 8
chain, 6 plain on the first 8 chain = turn the work = 5 chain, 1 treble
on the plain stitch between two scallops; 5 chain, 1 plain on the 7th
plain of the 1st scallop; 2 plain in the 5th chain, 2 chain, 1 picot, 10
chain, miss 1, and make on the following ones: 1 single, 1 plain, 1 half
treble, 2 trebles, 1 treble 1½ treble long, 1 picot, 2 chain, 2 plain on
the 5 chain; 8 plain on the 8 chain.

To pass to the large scallop make: 16 single, 8 chain, bring them back,
1 plain on the 5th single, 8 chain, bring them back again to the 5th =
turn the work = on the second set of 8 chain: 6 plain, 1 picot, 9 plain
= on the first 8: 6 plain, then 8 chain, bring them back and join them
to the 4th plain behind the picot of the finished scallop = on the 8
chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain = on the remaining
chain below: 3 plain, 1 picot, 6 plain; add 4 single on the trebles and
pass to the outer scallop = 18 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd of the 5 plain
of the small upper scallop; 18 chain, 1 plain on the 4th of the 16
single = turn the work = 25 plain on the last chain stitches, and 25 on
the first; 1 single on the 3rd single = turn the work = 1 plain on each
of the preceding 50 plain stitches; join the last to the under row with
a single stitch = turn the work = 10 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 2 chain, 1 picot, 10 chain, miss 1, 1 single, 1
plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 treble 1½ treble long, 1 double
treble, 1 treble 2½ trebles long, 1 triple treble, 1 picot, 2 chain and
join them to the 6th plain stitch, counting from the middle.

Then 4 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 10 plain, 11
single on the trebles. Repeat 7 times from *.

STAR WITH LITTLE SQUARES (fig. 483).--Begin with 4 chain stitches,
close the ring.

1st row--5 chain, * 1 treble, 2 chain. Repeat 6 times from *, to number
altogether 8 trebles including the 5 chain; 1 single on the 3rd chain.

2nd row--6 chain, * 1 triple treble on the 1st chain stitch, 2 chain.
Repeat 23 times from * and join to the 4th chain.

[Illustration: FIG. 483. STAR WITH LITTLE SQUARES. MATERIALS: The same
as for fig. 482.]

3rd row--6 chain, * 1 double treble on the treble beneath, 3 chain.
Repeat from * through the row; join to the 4th chain.

4th row--1 plain on the treble = on the 3 chain: 5 plain, 1 plain on the
treble; work 5 times to and fro over these stitches, put the needle
through the 2 threads of the last stitch = after the 5th row: 10 chain,
then 5 plain on the 3 next chain.

In turning the work and going from the 2nd to the 3rd, from the 4th to
the 5th row, carry the thread behind the chain stitches, so that they
may blend with the plain stitches; make in all 12 little squares with 11
spaces between; after the 12th, square: 5 chain, 1 single on the 5th row
of the first square.

5th row--on each of the 6 plain of the 1st square: 1 single = on the
7th: 1 plain = 7 plain on the 5 chain = 1 plain on the 1st stitch of the
2nd square = 6 rows of plain, 14 chain, 1 plain on the 5th stitch of the
next square = then make 6 rows of plain and wind the thread round the
chain stitches.

6th row--1 single on every stitch of the last square, 1 plain on the
last stitch above the 7 chain = on the 7 chain: 9 plain, 1 plain on the
1st stitch of the next square below = 9 rows to and fro.

7th row--after the 12th square: 9 chain, 1 single on the 1st plain, * 14
chain, 1 plain on the last plain = on the 9 chain: ** 1 chain, 1 plain,
1 treble 1½ treble long, 2 double trebles 2½ trebles long ***, 5 triple
trebles ****. Repeat from *** to **, then proceed from * to ****.

8th row--19 plain over the 14 chain, 1 single on each treble; stop them
at the 12th square and at the 3rd triple treble.

9th row--12 chain, 1 plain on the 10th of the 19 plain; 12 chain, 1
plain on the triple treble, and proceed in the same way throughout the
whole length of the row.

10th row--on the first 12 chain stitches: * 5 plain, 1 picot, 12 plain =
on the second 12 chain: 7 plain, 10 chain, bring them back to the 5th of
the 12 plain of the first scallop = on the 10 chain: 4 plain, 1 picot, 4
plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, = on the 12 chain: 5 plain, 1
picot, 7 plain. Repeat 12 times from *.

CROCHET COLLAR (fig. 484).--We have avoided as far as possible
describing articles in this book that are subject to the changes of
fashion, the present collar composed of squares, stars, lozenge-shaped
figures and a lace edge, is of a shape that will never be out of date.
Fine and delicate work like this can only be executed in a very fine
material, and we recommend unbleached thread as being more effective
than white. The soft tone and the gloss of unbleached thread give the
work an antique look, unobtainable in a white material. Fil à dentelle
D.M.C No. 120 is the best for the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 484. CROCHET COLLAR. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
No. 100, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 120 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 120,
écru.]

Begin with the straight-edged figures, and then make the connecting
pieces between. The four squares with half stars at both ends of the
collar and on the right and left of the centre square, have their four
sides all alike, whereas the 3 figures within the scalloped edge are
rather narrower on the outer than on the inner side where they join to
the foundation.

Inner squares: 1st row--4 chain, close the ring; 5 chain, * 1 treble on
the ring, 2 chain; repeat 6 times from * and fasten the thread to the
3rd chain stitch.

2nd row--1 chain, 3 plain over 2 chain; 1 plain over each treble.

3rd row--8 chain, * 1 treble on each treble of the 1st row, 6 chain.
Repeat 6 times from * = 8 trebles in all, including the first chain
stitches.

4th row--* 10 chain; returning over the chain stitches: 1 plain, 1 half
treble, 4 trebles, 1 half treble, 1 plain, join to the 1st chain stitch
= on the 6 chain of the 3rd row: ** 1 plain, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 3
double trebles, 1 treble, 1 half treble, 1 plain ***. Repeat once more
from ** to ***, then 3 times from * to *** = along the first leaf to the
10th stitch: 10 single.

5th row--starting from the point: * 7 chain, 1 triple treble on the 5th
stitch of the small scallop of the 4th row: 7 chain, 1 triple treble on
the next scallop, 7 chain, 1 plain on the 10th stitch of the 2nd leaf.
Repeat 3 times from *.

6th row--1 chain, * 3 plain on the stitch that forms the point of the
leaf; 1 plain on each chain stitch and each treble of the last row = 16
stitches in all, up to the 2nd treble = turn the work = coming back: 1
chain, 1 double treble on the 4th plain, 1 chain, 1 double treble, 1
chain, 1 double treble, 1 chain, 1 double treble, 1 chain, 1 double
treble, 1 chain, miss 3 plain, join to the 4th plain = turn the work =
make on each chain stitch, 2 plain and on each treble 1 plain and 1
picot over the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th treble; 8 plain **. Repeat 3 times
from * to **.

7th row--1 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd of the 3 stitches at the point, * 9
chain, 1 double treble between the two first picots of the semicircle
formed in the last row; 8 chain, 1 triple treble on the 3rd treble of
the semicircle, 8 chain, 1 double treble between the 3rd and 4th picots
of the semicircle, 9 chain, 1 plain on the stitch at the corner.

8th row--19 single on the chain stitches of the 7th row, 1 chain, 3
plain on the corner stitch, 24 plain on the chain stitches and trebles
= turn the work = coming back: 2 chain, 1 double treble on the 20th
plain; on the same stitch add: 2 double trebles with 2 chain; finish
with: 2 chain, join them to the 5th plain = turn the work = on the chain
stitches: 1 plain, 1 picot, 1 plain, 1 plain on the treble. Repeat this
series 4 times = add: 4 plain on the chain stitches of the 7th row =
turn the work = 5 chain, 1 double treble on the 1st treble of the small
semicircle; then again 3 times, 3 chain, and twice 1 double treble on
each of the trebles beneath = after the last 5 chain: join to the 4th
plain.

The points in this row are made with: * 1 plain on the chain stitches, 8
chain, miss 1 stitch = coming back: 1 single, 1 plain, 1 half treble, 1
treble 1½ treble long, 3 double trebles, 1 plain on the 5 chain
stitches. The 2nd point must be placed one half of it, before, and the
other half behind the picot; make altogether 7 points = after the 7th: 8
plain on the chain stitches of the 7th row = then work backwards,
without however turning the work: 7 chain, 1 chain on the stitch at the
top of the point and repeat 7 times from * = after the 8th set of 7
chain stitches: 1 chain; 1 plain on the 9th plain, bringing the thread
forwards from the right side to the wrong = 2 chain; take the thread
back to the 3rd plain from the wrong side to the right = 1 treble on
each chain stitch, 1 picot above each point, add 4 trebles and 14 chain,
join them to the 4th treble that comes after the 1st picot.

On the 14 chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 5
plain, 4 trebles to the next picot, 1 picot, 4 trebles; 14 plain, join
them to the treble nearest the 1st scallop and so on = make 7 scallops
in all; after the 7th add 2 trebles on the 2 chain stitches = after the
2nd treble make 2 plain, followed by the 3 stitches at the corner = in
the next scallop, you fasten by 1 single, the 1st picot of the 1st
scallop to the 3rd picot of the last scallop. When you have finished the
four sides of the figure above-described, fasten off your thread.

The edging of these squares should be begun on the narrower of the inner
sides and at the 3rd little scallop: * 1 plain on the middle picot of
the 3rd little scallop, 7 chain, 1 double treble on the 1st picot of the
4th scallop; 7 chain, 1 triple treble on the 2nd picot of the same
scallop, 6 chain, 1 double treble on the 3rd picot of the same scallop,
6 chain, 1 plain on the middle picot of the 5th scallop; 10 chain, 1
treble on the middle picot of the 6th scallop, 11 chain **, 1 quadruple
treble on the middle picot of the 7th and 1 quadruple treble on the
middle picot of the 1st scallop following and draw the last loops of the
2 trebles up together. Repeat once from * to **. Carry the trebles all
round the figure on the picots just referred to.

For the second half of the edging which becomes a little wider: *** 10
chain, 1 treble on the 6th scallop, 11 chain, 2 quadruple trebles, the
last loops of which you join to the middle picots of the 7th and 1st
scallop; 11 chain, 1 treble in the next scallop; 10 chain, 1 treble in
the 3rd scallop; 7 chain, 1 treble 2½ long, 8 chain, 1 treble 3½ long, 8
chain; 1 double treble, 8 chain, 1 plain, 12 chain, 1 treble, 14 chain,
**** 2 quadruple trebles, the last loops of which are joined together.
Repeat from **** to ***, that is the reverse way = finally add 1 more
whole row of plain and 3 plain stitches at the corners = on the wider
side you should have 99 stitches, not counting the increases at the
corner.

To make the same figure, forming a part of the large outside scallops,
repeat the same rows you have in the inner square up to the 7th row, the
first half of which you make exactly the same as before. In the second
half of the row of chain there should be 1 chain stitch less in each
intervening space than there were in the first half.

8th row--make the first half of this row like the 8th row of the inner
square = over the 2nd half, one quarter of which is 4 chain stitches
narrower, the little wheels are made like the others with 7 picots. The
number of chain stitches and the trebles of the setting are also the
same, but instead of 7 points you have to make 5 and over these, 5 small
scallops instead of 7.

The setting, towards the top is made exactly in the same manner as the
wide part of the upper square, that is, as from the 3rd scallop of the
first semicircle to the 5th scallop of the 2nd. From this point, the
series of stitches changes, so as to form a rounded edge: * 7 chain, 1
plain on the 6th scallop; 15 chain, 2 triple trebles joined by the last
loops to the 7th and 1st scallop; 14 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd of the 5
scallops; 15 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd scallop; 15 chain, 1 plain on the
4th scallop, 15 chain **, 2 triple trebles joined by the last loops in
the 5th and 1st scallop. Repeat once again from ** to * = add 1 row of
plain on each stitch of the preceding row; 3 plain on the two top corner
stitches. You will thus have 3 figures with a rounded edge on one side.

The second kind of square consists of 8 leaves inside and is begun in
the same way by 6 chain formed into a ring.

1st row--5 chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, * 1 treble, 2 chain. Repeat 6 times
from * and join to the 3rd of the 5 chain.

2nd row--1 chain, 3 plain over 2 chain, 1 plain on each treble.

3rd row--9 chain, * miss 1 stitch = coming back: 1 single, 1 plain, 1
half treble, 1 treble, 1 double treble, 1 triple treble, 1 treble over
the treble of the 2nd row; 7 chain. Repeat 7 times from * = after the
8th point: 7 single along the 1st.

4th row--* 1 plain on the stitch you missed at the point, 5 chain, 1
triple treble on the treble of the 3rd row, 5 chain. Repeat 7 times from
*.

5th row--3 chain, 1 treble on each stitch of the 4th row; join to the
3rd of the 3 chain.

6th row--10 chain, 1 plain on the treble over the triple treble of the
4th row: 10 chain, 1 plain on the treble above the little point.

7th row--15 plain on the 10 chain = on the 3rd scallop only: * 7 plain,
10 chain, come back to the second scallop, bring the thread back from
the wrong side to the right between the 7th and 8th plain stitches, 15
plain on the 3rd scallop, 8 plain on the next scallop, 15 plain and
repeat 6 times from *.

When the 16th scallop is finished, pass to the point of the 1st scallop
by means of 7 single, then add the 10 chain to pass to the 8th scallop
above; when that is finished, fasten off, and fasten on again to one of
the 8 scallops.

8th row--* 21 chain, miss 1 stitch, 1 plain, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1
treble 1½ treble long, 1 double treble, 1 treble 2½ trebles long, 1
triple treble, 1 treble 3½ trebles long, 1 quadruple treble, 1 treble 4½
trebles long, 1 quintuple treble. After passing through the 3rd loop,
make 1 quadruple treble, between the 2 plain scallops; then finish the
quintuple treble, 7 chain, 1 plain on the 2nd scallop and repeat 7 times
from *.

9th row--* 7 plain on the 7 chain; 1 plain on each stitch of the
pyramid, 3 plain on the stitch at the point; 4 plain on the 7 chain on
the opposite side = turn the work = ** 1 chain, miss 1 plain, 1 treble
on the 2nd stitch = after the 5th treble, leave out no more stitches
between the trebles ***; place the 8th, 9th and 10th trebles on the 2nd
of the increased stitches. Repeat on the opposite side from *** to **
and join to the 4th of the plain stitches = make 17 trebles in all, then
one plain over each chain, 1 plain on each treble and 1 picot after
every 3rd plain = after the 4th and up to the 8th picot, leave only 2
plain between: 11 picots in all = in conclusion: 3 plain more on the 7
chain and repeat the whole 7 times from *.

The little wheel at the top of the square is begun with 10 chain for the
ring = 16 plain on the ring, 4 chain, * 1 treble, 1 chain = repeat 14
times from *; 16 trebles in all, including the chain stitches = then on
each treble and each chain stitch: 1 plain; after 4 plain: 1 picot;
connect the wheel first on the right.

The 2nd picot is to be fastened to the 9th picot of the large scallop =
proceed with: 3 times 4 plain with 1 picot = after the 3rd plain, fasten
the picot to the 3rd picot of the next large scallop and complete the
small wheel. The left wheel is made and inserted in the same manner as
the right one. The wheels at the bottom of the square require for the
foundation ring: 14 chain, on which you make 21 plain = on these: 4
chain, * 1 treble, 1 chain = repeat 19 times from *; 21 trebles in all,
including the chain stitches = 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3
plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 4 chain, join to the 8th picot of the 2nd
scallop; 4 chain, finish the picot, 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 8 chain,
join to the 10th picot of the scallop, 8 chain, complete the picot; 3
plain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 8 chain, join to the 2nd picot of the 3rd
scallop, 8 chain, close the picot, 3 chain, 1 picot, 3 plain, 4 chain,
join to the 4th picot of the 3rd scallop; 4 chain, complete the picot,
3 plain, 1 picot and so on, until you have 14 picots round the wheel.
Repeat the same wheel to the left between the 4th and 5th scallop.

The edging of this second kind of square is also slightly different;
fasten the thread to the 6th picot of the 1st scallop before the small
wheel, then working from right to left, count: * 10 chain, 1 treble on
the 2nd empty picot of the small wheel; 8 chain, 1 triple treble on the
4th picot of the wheel = upwards: 9 chain, 1 double treble on the 6th
picot of the wheel; 9 chain, 1 plain on the 6th picot of the 8th
scallop, 12 chain, 1 plain on the 7th picot of the scallop, 11 chain **,
1 quadruple treble on the 9th picot of the 8th scallop and on the 3rd
picot of the 7th; draw the last loops of the two trebles up together.
Repeat once more from ** to *, then: 1 plain on the 6th picot of the 6th
scallop; *** 12 chain, 1 sextuple treble on the 9th picot of the 6th
scallop, retain 2 loops of the treble on the needle, make 4 more overs,
join the treble to the 3rd picot of the 5th scallop; finish the bars, 12
chain, 1 plain in the 6th picot of the next scallop = 12 chain, 1 double
treble on the 2nd picot of the 7 empty picots of the bottom wheel; 9
chain, 1 quadruple treble on the 4th picot; 12 chain, 1 double treble on
the 6th picot, 14 chain, 1 plain on the 6th picot of the 4th scallop, 14
chain ***, 1 septuple treble, in the 9th and 3rd picots of the 4th and
3rd scallops ****. For the preceding treble, you pass first through 4
loops only, then make 4 more overs for the other half of the treble, and
finish the last loops one by one. Repeat from **** to ***. One row of
plain stitches completes the square.

After having made the square similar to that of the upper one, you have
merely to add the large wheels at the top.

The setting of chain stitches and trebles is begun at the first scallop
between 2 wheels = 1 plain on the 6th picot of the 1st scallop; 14
chain, 2 quintuple trebles, of which the last loops only are joined
together, on the 9th and 3rd picot of the 1st and 2nd scallop, = 14
chain, 1 plain on the 6th picot of the next scallop; * 14 chain, 1
treble on the 2nd empty picot of the wheel; 10 chain, 1 quadruple treble
on the 4th picot, 10 chain, 1 treble on the 6th picot; 14 chain, 1 plain
on the 6th picot of the 3rd scallop; 14 chain, 2 sextuple trebles on
the 10th and 2nd picot of the 3rd and 4th scallop; 15 chain, 1 plain on
the 6th picot of the 4th scallop; 16 chain, 2 sextuple trebles on the
10th and 2nd picot of the 4th and 5th scallop; 16 chain, 1 plain on the
6th picot of the 5th scallop; 15 chain ** 3 septuple trebles on the 10th
and 2nd picot of the 5th and 6th scallop. Repeat from ** to *; and make
4 figures with rounded edges. When all the figures are finished, join
them together by trebles of a suitable length.

Introduce the thread at the corner stitch on the widest side of the 2nd
8 pointed star and make: 1 plain, 6 chain, miss 3 stitches, 1 plain on
the 3 next stitches, 4 chain, miss 2, 1 plain on the next 3 plain
stitches.

Make 11 loops in this manner, each consisting of 4 chain and 3 plain,
then 2 loops of 3 chain and 2 plain = then miss as many stitches of the
square at the edge of the collar as were left empty in the second
square; 2 plain and draw the loop each time through the 2 last stitches
of the opposite square = 1 chain, 1 single on the 2nd chain stitch of
the opposite side; 1 chain, 3 plain on the edge of the first square, 1
chain, 1 single, 1 chain, miss 3 stitches, 3 plain, 5 chain, bring the
loop from the wrong side to the right = on the chain stitches: 4 plain,
2 chain, miss 3, 3 plain.

From this point onwards, fasten all the bars of chain stitches to the
loops produced by the same stitches in the 2nd square. Thus, the 1st bar
consisting of 5 chain, the 2nd will consist of 7 chain on which make 7
plain, and then add 2 more chain. Nowhere must the two first chain
stitches be uncovered.

The 3rd bar must consist of 9 chain, 9 plain and 2 chain = the 4th of 11
chain, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 2 chain = the 5th of 13 chain, 4
plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 2 chain = the 6th of 16
chain, 6 plain, 1 picot, 6 plain, 1 picot, 6 plain, 2 chain = the 7th of
18 chain, 5 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain,
2 chain = the 8th of 21 chain, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5
plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 2 chain = the 9th of 24 chain, 5 plain, 1
picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 2
chain = the 10th of 26 chain, 6 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5
plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 6 plain, 2 chain = the 11th and last
of 28 chain, 32 plain, 2 chain, fasten off.

As the square with the semicircles in it, has more plain stitches in the
edge than the one with the eight-pointed star in it, the stitches must
be divided so that you miss 3 from time to time, instead of two. When
the 7 top figures are finished, join the 7 bottom ones to them, each
separately, by a row of plain stitches, made on the wrong side of the
work. Below the first square with the semicircles, comes the
eight-pointed star, below the next eight-pointed star, the square with
the semicircles, and so on.

A narrow edging forms the outside border, the foundation of which is a
row of plain stitches running all along the squares. At the middle of
the square you decrease by 2 stitches, and at the point where two
squares meet, by 3. When you reach the left side and the end of the row,
make 3 plain on the corner stitch, then: * 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 14
chain, join them to the first of the 5 first plain (drop the thread at
each scallop and bring it forward from the wrong side to the right) = on
the 14 chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 11 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain = along the
square: 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, then 14 chain, join them to the first
plain = over the 14 chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 14 chain, join
them in turning back between the 5th and 6th of the 10 plain of the 1st
scallop; 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain;
on the half-finished scallop: 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain ** = on the
plain stitches of the edge: 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 12 chain, come
back, join to the 1st of the 4 plain = on the 12 chain: 4 plain, 1
picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain *** = repeat on the
same figure once from * to *** and once from * to **.

This makes 77 stitches, the number there ought to be on the wide side of
the straight-edged figures.

The scallops vary a little on the rounded sides. There, you should have
110 stitches, counting from the corner to the treble that marks the
middle at the bottom. The single scallops, between the triple scallops
of the border, are also all made over 8 stitches; the first triple
scallop is made over 20 stitches, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th triple scallop
over 16 stitches.

Make no single scallop after the 4th triple one; which is immediately
succeeded by the 5th triple scallop, over 16 stitches.

Altogether, round each star, there are 9 triple and 8 single scallops.
After the 8th single one, make 3 plain stitches on the 2 chain stitches
of the connecting bar.

On the 32 plain stitches of the last bar: 8 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 12
chain, bring them back and join to the 5th of the 8 plain = on the 12
chain: 5 plain, 2 chain, draw the loop through the picot in the middle
of the last single scallop, 2 chain, close the picot, 8 plain, 1 picot,
5 plain = in the bar: 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 12 chain, bring them
back and fasten them to the 1st plain = 5 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain, 12
chain, join them to the 4th plain of the 1st scallop; 5 plain, 1 picot,
8 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain = in the half-finished scallop: 4 plain, 1
picot, 4 plain = in the bar: 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain = 12 chain, bring
them back and fasten them to the 1st plain. 4 plain, 1 picot, 4 plain,
12 chain, join them close to the scallop above = 5 plain, 1 picot, 4
plain, 12 chain, bring them back and join them to the 4th plain of the
2nd scallop; 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5
plain = in each of the 2 half-finished scallops: 4 plain, 1 picot, 5
plain = finish with 4 plain, 3 plain on the 2 chain and repeat from *
round all the rounded parts.

The lozenges that fill the empty spaces between the large figures are
made in 7 rows, on a ring formed of 4 chain.

1st row--5 chain, 1 treble on the ring, 2 chain, 8 trebles in all,
including the bar of chain stitches.

2nd row--3 plain over 2 chain, 1 plain over each treble.

3rd row--7 chain, 1 treble over the treble beneath, 5 chain, 1 treble; 8
trebles in all.

4th row--* 1 plain, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1 double treble, 1 treble
2½ trebles long; ** repeat the reverse way to * = 1 plain on the
treble, 7 chain, miss 1 stitch, 1 plain, 1 treble, 1 double treble, 1
treble, 1 plain. Repeat twice from * to **, followed by: 9 chain, miss
1, 1 single, 1 plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 half treble, 1 plain,
1 single ***. Repeat once from * to ***, then again from * to **, and
add 5 single all along the scallop.

5th row--9 chain * 1 plain on the top stitch of the small leaf, 7 chain,
1 treble on the middle stitch of the scallop, 7 chain, 1 treble on the
next scallop = 9 chain, 1 plain on the leaf, 9 chain, 1 treble on the
scallop, 7 chain, 1 treble on the next scallop, 7 chain and repeat once
from *.

6th row--1 plain on each stitch of the row before, 3 plain on the
points.

7th row--on each side of the lozenge 3 little scallops on 8 chain, with
3 picots and 1 picot below the scallops and between every 4 plain; the
scallops at the points extend over 4 stitches only, so that the picot
below is left out.

These lozenges are fastened on two sides to the middle picot of the
triple scallop; then, starting from the 3rd scallop of the lozenge you
make, 8 chain, join them to the middle picot of the 1st triple scallop;
coming back over the 8 chain: 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain and finish the
scallop. The next scallop, at the point of the lozenge, is fastened by a
picot of 6 chain, to the middle picot of the 6th scallop underneath the
connecting bar. Repeat the same on the 2nd side and make 6 lozenges in
all.

The lace that finishes off the collar at the neck must be made to stand
up, and is begun by a row of trebles on the plain stitches.

From the corner as far as the 2nd treble of the 4th scallop, make triple
trebles, from the 4th scallop to the 6th chain stitch after the 5th
scallop, make double trebles, from this point to the 2nd scallop of the
next semicircle, only single trebles, then again double trebles and
finish with triple trebles as at the beginning. Decrease by 2 or 3
stitches in each square.

When this row of trebles is finished, fasten off, and fasten on again on
the right and on the base of the 1st treble which you border with 4
chain, then follow: * 15 plain on the row of trebles, put the needle in
under the 2 loops of the trebles = turn the work = 2 chain, 1 double
treble, miss 4 plain, 1 double treble on the 5th stitch, 2 chain, 1
double treble, 2 chain, 1 double treble, 2 chain, miss 4 plain = turn
the work = bring the loop to the front; ** 1 plain, 1 picot, 1 plain, 1
plain on the treble; repeat 3 times again from ** and add 4 plain on
the trebles = turn the work = 6 chain, 1 double treble over the treble
beneath; again 3 times 6 chain stitches and 1 double treble; join the
4th set of 6 chain to the 4th plain = bring the thread back to the
front: 1 plain on the 6 chain = 8 chain, miss 1, and make on the others:
1 plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 treble 1½ treble long, 2 double
trebles, 1 plain stitch on the 6 chain. The next point comes above a
treble; you make 7 points in all. After the 7th: 5 plain, then 7 chain,
1 plain on each point between the points and join.

Join the 8th set of 7 chain on to the 4th plain of the first treble =
then add: 2 chain, draw the loop from the wrong side to the right
through the 1st plain stitch; 8 trebles, 1 picot, 4 trebles, 12 chain,
bring them back over the picot, join it between the 4th and 5th trebles;
5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain, 1 picot, 5 plain.

Over each point: 1 picot and over the picot 1 scallop, like the one made
in the square. On the 7th point only 1 picot = after the last treble on
the last chain: 2 chain; then go on with the plain stitches until you
have 27 and repeat from *.

In the semicircles that follow you leave out the first and last little
scallops, the first and the last scallop must be joined together by the
first and the last picot; in the last semicircle, make 6 little
scallops, the same as you did in the first.

CROCHET CHAIR-BACK (fig. 485).--The close leaves in plain stitch of
the large centre star, the 4 corner figures forming a cross and the
diagonal figures, all have to be made separately and sewn on afterwards
in their proper place. To join the separate parts neatly together, draw
a square the size of the work on a piece of thick paper or waxcloth,
divide it into 8 parts by means of straight and diagonal lines, sew the
separate pieces of crochet upon it, face downwards, in their proper
places and make the trebles on the wrong side of the work.

Begin by the centre star and make: 12 chain, close the ring.

1st row--23 plain on the 12 chain.

2nd row--9 chain, 1 double treble on the 2nd plain, 4 chain, 1 treble
and so on until you have 12 trebles, including the 5 chain.

3rd row--1 plain on each chain stitch and each treble; 60 plain in all.

4th row--3 plain, 1 picot, altogether 20 picots in the row, then fasten
off.

[Illustration: FIG. 485. CROCHET CHAIR-BACK. MATERIALS: Fil à dentelle
D.M.C No. 50 for the close figures and No. 120 for the connecting
bars.[A]]

The leaves round the ring have 3 petals, 1 large and 2 small; you begin
by the large one, and make the small ones afterwards. The petals should
be begun from the point and not from the bottom as is generally done--30
chain; coming back: 4 single, 4 plain, 5 half trebles, 8 trebles, 4 half
trebles, 4 plain stitches, 3 plain on the 1st chain = on the second side
of the chain make the same number of stitches but in the reverse order.

Small petal on the left--21 chain, miss 1, 5 plain, 3 half trebles, 5
trebles, 3 half trebles, 3 plain, 3 plain on the top. Repeat the same
series of stitches in the reverse order on the second side = at the 10th
stitch of the large petal and counting upwards from below, draw the
thread through the 10th stitch of the small petal, and do the same
through the 9 next stitches = for this purpose drop the loop each time
and draw it back through the opposite stitch, from the wrong side to the
right. After making the same petal on the right, fasten off; fasten on
again at the outer edge and edge the 3 petals with 1 plain on each
stitch and 3 plain on the stitch at the point; make 4 leaves with 3
petals each.

Between the pointed leaves, which are afterwards placed on the diagonal
line of the square, come some very long leaves which are rounded towards
the top--29 chain, miss 1, 5 plain, 2 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd of the
chain stitches; carry on the trebles until you have, on coming to the
last chain, 7 trebles = turn the work and make 1 plain on each stitch of
the row = turn the work = 1 plain on every stitch all round = turn the
work = * 9 plain, 4 half trebles, 3 trebles, 2 double trebles, join the
last loops of the 2 last trebles together; set the 20th and 21st double
treble on the same stitch = the 20th treble 2½ trebles long; the 21st a
triple treble = on the next plain stitch; 1 treble 3½ trebles long and 1
quadruple treble = again on the next stitch: 2 trebles, the first of
them 4½ trebles long, the 2nd a quintuple one = on the 3rd plain: 2
quintuple trebles, 4 chain, 1 plain on the plain stitch of the 2nd row
and next to the last quintuple treble, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 2 double
trebles on one stitch, 2 triple trebles on one stitch **, 1 quadruple
treble on the 2 next stitches. Repeat from ** to *, therefore in the
reverse order.

To make the large star which is the first of the figures placed on the
diagonal line, make: 4 chain, close the ring.

1st row--10 chain,* 1 double treble on the 4 chain, 5 chain. Repeat 4
times from *, 6 trebles in all.

2nd row--over 5 chain: 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1 treble 1½ treble long,
1 double treble, 1 treble 2½ trebles long **, 1 triple treble. Repeat
once from ** to * and 5 times from * to **.

3rd row--1 plain on each stitch of the 2nd row.

4th row--3 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, * 2 chain, 1 picot, 5 chain, miss 1
= coming back: 4 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain = on the plain stitches of the
3rd row: 2 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain. Repeat from *, with this difference
that the trebles that are placed over the half trebles of the 2nd row
must begin with 3 chain. Make, altogether, 12 long bars, 6 of them
beginning with 2 chain and 6 with 3; these bars remain empty; after the
12th you fasten off.

5th row--fasten on the thread to the top stitch of a treble, 11 chain, 1
plain. Repeat this series 11 times.

6th and 7th row--1 plain on each stitch of the 5th row, then 1 plain on
each stitch of the 6th row.

8th row--over 9 bars and 8 spaces: 3 plain, 1 picot, 3 plain and so on.
Add nothing further to the 2 rows of plain stitches of the 10th, 11th
and 12th picots.

For the second star of the corner figure 4 chain, close.

1st row--8 chain, 1 treble, * 5 chain, 1 treble. Repeat 3 times from *;
5 trebles in all, including the chain stitches.

2nd row--* 1 chain, 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1 treble 1½ treble long, 1
double treble, 1 triple treble **. Repeat from ** to *, and the whole
series 4 times.

3rd row--* 1 chain, 3 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 2 chain, 1 picot, 4 chain
= coming back, 4 plain on the 4 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain = on the
stitches of the 2nd row: 2 plain, 1 picot, 2 plain, 3 chain, 1 picot, 5
chain, miss 1, 4 plain = coming back: 1 picot, 3 plain. Repeat 4 times
from *, fasten off.

4th row--fasten on at the point of one of the bars and make from one bar
to the other: 9 chain, 1 plain on each bar.

5th row--1 plain on each stitch of the last row.

6th row--1 plain on each stitch of the last row and join the 4 last
stitches to the 4 that are under the 11th treble of the 1st star, taking
care to put the trebles one above the other.

The 3rd star also begins with 4 chain formed into a ring.

1st row--8 chain, 1 treble, 5 chain, 1 treble, 5 chain, 1 treble, 5
chain, join them to the 4th of the 8 chain.

2nd row--2 chain, * 1 half treble, 1 treble, 1 treble, 1½ treble long, 1
double treble **. Repeat from ** to * and then, 3 times from * to **.

3rd row--1 plain on each stitch of the 2nd row.

4th row--1 chain, 2 plain, * 1 picot, 3 chain, 1 picot, 5 chain. Repeat
3 times from *; after the 8th picot: 3 chain.

5th row--15 chain, 1 triple treble on the 5th and on the 2nd plain
stitch between 2 picots, 9 chain, 1 triple treble and so on. Altogether,
including the chain stitches, 8 trebles and 8 times 9 chain; join to the
7th chain.

6th and 7th row--1 plain on each stitch of the previous row; join the 4
last stitches again to the 4th stitch of the 2nd star and fasten off.

The open work border is made from the 1st large star, beginning near the
9th treble at the point where the picots leave off. After fastening on
the thread: 5 chain, miss 2 plain, 1 plain on the 3rd = at the point
where the circles meet, miss 3 or 4 stitches on each side and carry the
treble over the indent of the scallop.

After finishing the picots of chain stitches on the two sides and as far
as the 3rd treble of the large star, fasten off; fasten on again on the
right of the large star: 4 chain, 1 plain on the 3rd chain; put the
needle only through the 2 upper loops of the chain stitch; in the
indent, connect 3 picots by 1 chain stitch; 2 chain and 1 plain between
the next plain stitches. Fasten off. The 2 next rows both begin on the
right and consist of plain stitches only; in the indent of the rings
join 3 stitches of the preceding row together by 1 plain.

The 5 leaves over the circles--Begin with the middle and largest one--25
chain, miss 1, 3 plain, 2 chain, miss 2, 1 treble, 2 chain and so on, 7
trebles in all = turn the work = 1 plain on each stitch, passing under
only 1 loop of the stitches = on the stitch you missed: 3 plain; on the
second side: 1 plain on each stitch = turn the work = do as in the last
row = turn the work = do as in the 2 last rows, excepting as regards the
5 last stitches which you leave untouched = turn the work = 15 plain, *
1 chain = turn the work = 12 plain = turn the work = 12 plain on the 12
plain and on all those you missed **. Fasten off the thread. On the 2nd
side of the leaf: draw the thread through the 6th stitch, counting
upwards from below and on the side that is not indented, 15 plain and
repeat from * to ** = then make: 1 row of plain, putting the needle
through both the loops of the lower stitches = at the points of the
leaves: 3 plain, in the indents of the leaves miss 1 stitch.

First leaf on the right of the large leaf--25 chain, miss 1, 3 plain, 1
chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain; 7 trebles in all = turn the work = 1
plain on each stitch, 18 stitches altogether, to the corner stitch; 3
plain on the corner stitch. The 2nd side is worked like the 1st.

Add 3 more rows of plain stitches and increase 3 plain on the stitch at
the point = in the 3rd row leave the 5 last stitches empty = turn the
work = 11 plain, 1 chain = turn the work = 11 plain and 5 plain on the 5
stitches that were passed over; fasten off.

On the opposite side fasten on the thread on the wrong side at the 8th
stitch counting from the point: 12 plain, 1 chain = turn the work = 12
plain = turn the work = make plain stitches up to the end of the leaf
and border it, like the large leaf, with plain stitches = join the 8
first stitches to the corresponding ones in the large leaf = make 4
leaves all alike.

2nd leaf on the left--19 chain, miss 1, 3 plain, 2 chain, 1 treble on
the 2nd chain; 7 trebles in all = turn the work = 1 plain on each of the
preceding stitches, 3 plain on the stitch at the point = turn the work =
1 row of plain stitches = turn the work = 1 row of plain = turn the work
= 1 row of plain, excepting on the last 7 stitches = turn the work = 14
plain, 1 chain = 3 more rows to and fro with 11 plain; fasten off, and
fasten on again on the 2nd side at the 6th stitch counting from below: 2
rows of 11 plain and 1 row to the end of the leaf = then encircle this
leaf, like the others with plain stitches, join the 8 last stitches to
the last 8 of the large leaf = make 4 leaves all alike.

3rd leaf on the right--18 chain, miss 1, 2 plain, 1 chain, 1 treble on
the 3rd chain, 5 trebles in all = turn the work = 4 rows of plain
worked to and fro; on the stitch at the point: 3 plain = after the 4th
row: 4 trebles, 8 plain, 1 chain, 4 plain, 1 chain, 4 plain, 1 chain,
then plain stitches to the end = fasten off. On the second side, fasten
on to the 6th stitch counting downwards from the top: 9 plain = coming
back: 3 plain, 1 chain, 7 plain = coming back: 7 plain, 1 chain = then
to the end of the leaf, 1 plain on each stitch.

3rd leaf on the left--14 chain, miss 1, 2 plain, 2 chain, 1 treble, 2
chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, 1 treble; 4 rows of plain
all round, 3 plain on the stitch at the point, and 3 plain on the added
stitch. After the 4th row: 14 plain = turn the work = 10 plain = turn
the work = 3 single, 7 plain = coming back: 7 plain = coming back again:
7 plain; after the last plain, 1 single on each plain up to the top =
fasten off.

On the second side of the leaf: 9 plain = turn the work = 5 plain = turn
the work = 5 plain, 1 single on each of the remaining stitches = turn
the work = surround the whole leaf with plain stitches; 3 plain on each
stitch at the point; join the 8 last stitches to the 8 last of the 2nd
leaf.

Branch on the right and 1st leaf--28 chain, miss 1, 4 plain, 1 chain, 1
treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1
treble 1½ treble long on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 treble 1½ treble long
on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 half
treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, miss 2 stitches, 5 plain = on the
second side of the chain: * 1 plain on each stitch, 3 plain on the 2nd
of the missed stitches. Repeat 3 times from *. After the 4th row of
plain: 6 chain = turn the work = 1 row of plain on both sides and plain
stitches on the 6 chain; fasten off the thread. Counting back the last
stitches, fasten on the thread at the 18th stitch, make one more row of
plain, fasten off.

2nd leaf of the branch--22 chain, miss 1, 3 plain, 1 chain, 1 half
treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1
treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 half treble on the 3rd chain, 1
chain, 1 plain on the 3rd chain, 1 plain on each of the remaining
stitches; 4 rows of plain, to and fro, in each of the stitches of the
last row. The rows touch, and therefore encircle the leaf.

3rd leaf--16 chain, miss 1, 2 plain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain,
1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain, 1 chain, 1 treble on the 3rd chain,
1 plain on each of the remaining stitches, 4 rows of plain, to and fro
round the leaf; 3 plain on the stitch at the top of the leaf and 3 on
the one at the bottom.

When these 3 leaves are finished, join them together on the wrong side
so that the end of the 2nd leaf is parallel with the last treble of the
1st leaf, and the end of the 3rd leaf parallel with the 1st of the last
plain stitches of the 2nd leaf. Having sewn these 3 leaves together,
carry on the plain stitches with the thread of the 3rd little leaf over
the two others. Fasten off the thread, join it on again at the 10th
plain stitch of the 3rd little leaf, counting the stitches downwards
from the top = 40 chain, 1 single on the 34th chain = on the ring: 10
plain, 1 plain each chain and 1 plain on each stitch of the leaves =
then, make 3 more rows of plain and 2 plain on every second stitch of
the 10 stitches in the ring.

Having reached the chain stitches, fasten on the thread, turn the work
and continue the other rows. When the rows of plain stitches are
finished, draw a thread through the chain stitches and pull them gently
together.

Branch on the left and 1st leaf--22 chain, miss 1, 3 plain, 2 chain, 1
treble on the 2nd chain, 2 chain, 1 treble 1½ treble long, 2 chain, miss
1, 1 treble, 1½ treble long, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1,
1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 plain on each of the remaining stitches.
The remainder the same as for the right leaf.

2nd leaf--16 chain, miss 1, 2 plain, 2 chain, 1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1,
1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain,
miss 1, 1 plain on each of the remaining stitches. The rest the same as
for the right leaf.

3rd leaf--12 chain, miss 1, 2 plain, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain,
miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 treble, 2 chain, miss 1, 1 plain on
each of the remaining stitches. The remainder, as well as the little
ring, the same as for the right leaf. Make altogether 4 leaves for the
right side and 4 for the left.

Calyx of the small flowers.--11 chain = turn the work = 1 plain on the
first 5 chain, 3 plain on the 6th chain, 1 plain on the 5 other chain =
turn the work = * 2 chain, 1 treble on the 1st plain, 1 chain, 1 treble,
1 chain, 1 treble, 1 chain, ** 3 trebles on the second of the 3 plain,
on the 6th chain, repeat once from ** to * = turn the work = 1 plain on
each of the preceding stitches, 3 single on the added stitch = turn the
work = 1 single on the first 2 plain; plain stitches as far as the
middle stitch; 13 chain, miss 1, 1 plain on each chain stitch, 6 plain,
2 single. Fasten off. Make 8 calices in all.

Small flowers of three different sizes--Make altogether, 24 large, 12 of
medium size, and 16 small.

For the large flowers--18 chain, close the ring, 24 plain on the 18
chain; 1 plain on every stitch of the preceding row and 1 picot after
every second plain stitch. Join the first and the last picots of 2 large
flowers to the calyx, the 2nd and the 3rd picots of one large flower to
the 10th and 11th picots of the other. Join the 1st and 11th picots of
the 3rd flower to the 8th picot of the first and to the 5th of the
second flower.

For the medium-sized flowers--14 chain, close the ring = 20 plain on the
ring, then a second row of plain with 1 picot after every second plain
stitch.

These flowers connect the centre figure with the corner one.

For the small flowers--10 chain, close the ring = 16 plain on the ring,
then a second row of plain stitches with a picot after every second
stitch. Sew the medium-sized flowers and the small ones to the big ones
with overcasting stitches.

As regards the bars of chain stitches that complete the pattern they can
easily be copied from the illustration.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: TATTED INSERTION.--DOUBLE KNOTS, SINGLE PICOTS AND
JOSEPHINE PICOTS.]



Tatting.


On account of a similarity in their construction, a chapter on tatting
seems to form a natural sequence to the one on crochet and is in some
ways a preparation for that on macramé which succeeds it.

The English name of tatting is said to be derived from «tatters» and to
denote the frail disconnected character of the fabric. By the Italians
it was formerly called «occhi», whilst in the East it still bears the
name of «makouk», from the shuttle used in making it.

In the eighteenth century, when tatting was in great vogue, much larger
shuttles than our present ones were used, because of the voluminous
materials they had to carry, silk cord being one.

SHUTTLES.--The tatting shuttle consists of two oval blades of either
bone, ivory, mother of pearl or tortoise-shell, pointed at both ends,
and joined together in the middle. A good shuttle contributes materially
to the rapid and perfect execution of the work and attention should be
paid in its selection to the following particulars: that it be not more
than 7 c/m. long and 2 or 3 c/m. wide: that the two ends be close enough
to prevent the thread from protruding; this is more especially important
in tatting with two shuttles and lastly, that the centre piece that
joins the two oval blades together should have a hole bored in it, large
enough for the thread to pass through.

In filling the shuttle, be careful not to wind on too much thread at
once, or the blades will gape open at the ends and the thread get soiled
by constant contact with the worker's hands.

MATERIALS.--A strongly twisted thread such as Fil d'Alsace D.M.C, Fil
à dentelle D.M.C, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, is best for tatting. We
particularly recommend Fil d'Alsace, as forming the best shaped knots
and picots. A soft material such as Coton à tricoter D.M.C, can also be
used where it suits the purpose better.

[Illustration: FIG. 486. FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS (fig. 486).--The construction of the knots
or stitches, appears at first sight to present great difficulties but
will be easily mastered by attention to the indications here given. One
thing, to be constantly borne in mind is, that when the right hand has
passed the shuttle through the loop, it must stop with a sudden jerk and
hold the thread tightly extended until the left hand has drawn up the
knot. After filling the shuttle, take the end of the thread between the
thumb and forefinger of the left hand, and the shuttle in the right,
pass the thread over the third and fourth fingers of the left hand,
bring it back towards the thumb and cross the two threads under the
fingers, as indicated in fig. 486. Pass the thread that comes from the
shuttle round the little finger of the right hand, and give the shuttle
the direction shown in the engraving.

SECOND AND THIRD POSITION OF THE HANDS (figs. 487 and 488).--Make the
shuttle pass between the first and third fingers, in the direction
indicated by the arrow in fig. 487, and bring it out behind the loop.

[Illustration: FIG. 487. SECOND POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 488. THIRD POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

Here the first difficulties for beginners arise and until they have
sufficiently mastered the movements of both hands not to confuse them,
we advise them to pay careful attention to the following instructions.
As soon as you have put the shuttle through the loop, place the right
hand on the table with the thread tightly extended, leaving the left
hand perfectly passive.

Then, raising the third and fourth fingers of the left hand with the
loop upon them, pull up the loop, stretching the thread tightly in so
doing by extending the fingers. By this movement a knot is formed, the
first part of the «double knot», which is the most common one in
tatting.

Remember that the right hand must be kept perfectly still as long as the
left is in motion and that the knot must be formed of the loop thread
that is in the left hand.

The right hand, or shuttle thread, must always be free to run through
the knots; if it were itself formed into knots it would not have the
free play, needed for loosening and tightening the loop on the left
hand, as required.

[Illustration: FIG. 489. FOURTH POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

FOURTH POSITION OF THE HANDS (fig. 489).--The second part of a knot is
formed by the following movements: pass the shuttle, as indicated in
fig. 489, from left to right, between the first and third fingers
through the extended loop; the right hand seizes the shuttle in front of
the empty loop and extends the thread; the left hand pulls up this
second part of the knot as it did the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 490. SINGLE OR HALF KNOTS. SMALL JOSEPHINE PICOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 491. SINGLE OR HALF KNOTS. LARGE JOSEPHINE PICOT.]

SINGLE OR HALF KNOTS. JOSEPHINE PICOTS (figs. 490 and 491).--The
Josephine picot or purl, as it is also called in tatting, consists of a
series of single or half knots formed of the first knot only. These
picots may be made of 4 or 5 knots, as in fig. 490, or of 10 or 12
knots, as in fig. 491.

FIFTH POSITION OF THE HANDS (fig. 492).--When the second knot forming
the double knot has been made, the two hands resume the position shown
in fig. 487. Fig. 492 reproduces the same and shows us a few finished
knots as well.

[Illustration: FIG. 492. FIFTH POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 493. POSITION OF THE HANDS FOR MAKING A PICOT.]

POSITION OF THE HANDS FOR MAKING A PICOT (fig. 493).--Picots are
introduced into tatting patterns as they are into knitting and crochet.
They also serve to connect the different parts of a pattern together and
render a great many pretty combinations feasible.

OPEN AND CLOSE PICOT (figs. 494 and 495).--These are formed of single
knots, leaving a loop on the extended thread, as shown in fig. 494, and
a short length of thread between the knots; finish the second half knot
and when you have pulled it up, join it to the preceding knot. In this
manner the picot represented in fig. 496 is formed quite naturally.

[Illustration: FIG. 494. OPEN PICOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 495. CLOSE PICOT.]

In every kind of tatting the knot that comes after the picot is
independent of the loop.

Thus if the directions say: 2 knots, 1 picot, 3 knots, 1 picot, 2 knots,
etc., you must count the knot that served to form the loop and not make:
2 knots, 1 picot, 4 knots, etc. To join the different rings, ovals,
etc., together by means of picots, take up the thread that runs over the
left hand with a crochet needle, inserting it into the picot downwards
from above, draw the thread through and pull it up like any other knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 496. TATTING WITH TWO SHUTTLES.]

TATTING WITH TWO SHUTTLES (fig. 496).--Two shuttles are used in
tatting when the little rings are not to be connected together at the
bottom by a thread, when you want to hide the passage of the thread to
another group of knots and when threads of several colours are used.

When you work with two shuttles, tie the two threads together. Pass one
thread over the third finger of the left hand, wind it twice round the
fourth finger and leave the shuttle hanging down.

Pass the second shuttle into the right hand and make the same movements
with it as you do in working with one shuttle only.

DETACHED SCALLOPS (fig. 497).--Make 12 double knots with one shuttle,
then tighten the thread so as to draw them together into a half ring;
the next knot must touch the last knot of the scallop before it.

[Illustration: FIG. 497. DETACHED SCALLOPS. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C in balls Nos 30 to 70 or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A]]

SCALLOPS JOINED TOGETHER AT THE TOP (fig. 498). With one shuttle make
4 double, 1 picot, * 8 double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the half ring, 4
double, draw the thread through the picot and repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 498. SCALLOPS JOINED TOGETHER AT THE TOP. MATERIALS:
Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 30 to 70, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 40,
or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 60[A]]

SCALLOPS WITH PICOTS (fig. 499).--Make with one shuttle: 4 double, 1
picot, * 3 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 3
double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the ring.

[Illustration: FIG. 499. SCALLOPS WITH PICOTS. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C in balls Nos. 30 to 70, écru or white.[A]]

Leave sufficient length of thread before beginning the next ring, for
the rings not to overlap each other = make 4 double, draw the left hand
thread through the 5th picot of the preceding ring and repeat from *.

TATTED INSERTION (fig. 500).--Make with one shuttle a ring like the
ones in fig. 499, then leaving a length of, from 5 to 10 m/m. of thread,
make a second ring = turn the work = leave the same length of thread
again, begin a third ring which you join after the 4th double, to the
5th picot of the 1st ring = turn the work after each ring is made, so
that all the upper rings represent the right side of the work and all
the lower ones the wrong.

[Illustration: FIG. 500. TATTED INSERTION. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
in balls Nos. 30 to 70, écru or white.]

[Illustration: FIG. 501. TATTED INSERTION. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
Nos. 30 to 70, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 20.]

[Illustration: FIG. 502. EDGING OF TATTING AND CROCHET. MATERIALS--For
the tatting: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls No. 30. For the crochet:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 60.]

TATTED INSERTION (fig. 501).--To be worked with two shuttles. Begin
with one thread and one shuttle and make a ring, as in figs. 499 and
500; and a second close to it; then pass the thread over the left hand,
take the second shuttle in the right hand and make 6 double on the 2nd
thread, after which you again make a ring above and one below with one
shuttle only.

EDGING OF TATTING AND CROCHET (fig. 502).--Make with one shuttle: 1
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot
twice as long as the others, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 long picot, 1 double = close the ring =
fasten off the two threads on the wrong side with two or three stitches.

After the first knot join the next ring to the preceding one by the long
picot, and work the remainder as has been already described.

When you have a sufficient number of rings, pick up the picots by
crochet trebles with 3 chain stitches between them. On this first row,
crochet a second, consisting of: 2 chain, 1 picot, 2 chain, 1 single in
the treble of the 1st row. To finish the bottom part of the work, make 1
plain in the 1st picot, 3 chain; 1 plain in the 2nd picot, 3 chain, 1
plain in the 3rd picot, 1 chain, 1 plain in the 1st picot of the next
ring.

One row of single crochet serves as a footing to the edging.

[Illustration: FIG. 503. TATTED EDGING IN THREE ROWS. MATERIALS: Fil
d'Alsace D.M.C in balls Nos. 30 to 70, or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 20
to 60.]

TATTED EDGING IN THREE ROWS (fig. 503).--Worked with two shuttles. The
first row is worked like fig. 495, with one shuttle. The second and
third are worked with two.

Fasten the thread of the right hand shuttle into the first picot; then
work on this thread the same number of double knots and picots as in the
1st row and join each half ring to the picot of the row before. In the
3rd row, insert 3 picots between the 8 double knots of the row above.
Here the Josephine picot may be substituted for the plain picot.

[Illustration: FIG. 504. TATTED EDGING. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in
balls Nos. 30 to 70, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50. COLOURS:
Écru and Bleu-Indigo 334, or Jaune d'Ocre 667 and Rouge-Cornouille 450,
Gris-Tilleul 331 and Brun-Caroubier 356.]

TATTED EDGING (fig. 504).--Worked with two shuttles and two colours.
After making a string of rings like those in fig. 502, with Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C No. 30 écru, fasten the blue and unbleached threads of the
respective shuttles to the middle picot. Holding the light thread in the
right hand, and the dark one laid over the left hand, work: 3 double, 1
picot, 3 double = then put the right hand thread separately through the
2 picots of the rings and continue to make: 3 double, 1 picot, 3 double.

The next row also is made with two shuttles. Hold the light thread in
the right hand; with the dark thread, laid across the left hand, make: *
4 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double = turn the work = with
the right hand shuttle make: 6 double, put the thread through the little
picot formed above the middle picot of the rings, 6 double, close the
ring = turn the work = make with two shuttles: 2 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 4 double, put the light thread through the 2 blue
picots and repeat from *. The first row of crochet for the footing
consists of chain and plain stitches only, the second, of chain stitches
and trebles.

MEDALLION (fig. 505).--Take two colours of thread and fill two
shuttles with the light colour and two with the dark. Make with one
shuttle: 24 double and 12 picots, 6 of them short and 6 long; close the
ring, break off the thread and fasten off the ends by a stitch or two on
the wrong side.--For the next 4 rows take two shuttles.

[Illustration: FIG. 505. MEDALLION. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in
balls Nos. 30 to 50.[A] COLOURS: White and Rouge-Géranium 352, or écru
and Vert-Mousse 471, Bleu pâle 668 and Jaune d'Or 676.]

1st row--with the shuttles containing the light colour = fasten the ends
on to a short picot and make: * 3 double, 1 short picot, 2 double, 1
long picot, 2 double, 1 long picot, 2 double, 1 long picot, 2 double, 1
short picot, 3 double; pass the right hand thread through one of the
short picots of the first ring, repeat the series 5 times from *.

When you reach the 6th half ring, instead of making the second picot,
put the left hand thread through the short picot of the first half ring,
then complete the last double knots, cut the threads off, pass them
through the picot of the ring and fasten them off on the wrong side.

2nd row--with the shuttles filled with the light colour = fasten the
ends on to a long picot, then make: * 4 double, 1 picot, 4 double, pass
the right hand thread through the picot of the first row and repeat the
series 17 times from *.

3rd row--with the shuttles filled with the dark colour = fasten the ends
on to one of the picots of the last row and make: * 4 double, pass the
right hand thread through the picot of the 2nd row, make a long picot, 4
double and repeat this series all round the medallion, until you have 18
scallops.

4th row--with the shuttles filled with the dark colour = * 2 double, 1
picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, pass the right
hand thread, from the wrong side, through the picot of the 2nd row and
begin again from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 506. INSERTION OF TATTING AND CROCHET. MATERIALS:
Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls Nos. 30 to 70, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos.
25 to 50. COLOURS: Bleu de France 344 and Jaune-Rouille 365.]

INSERTION OF TATTING AND CROCHET (fig. 506).--Fill two shuttles, one
with a light colour, say, Bleu de France 344, the other with a darker,
such as Jaune-Rouille 365, and two numbers coarser than the thread you
intend to use for the crochet. Begin with the dark colour and make: * 4
double, 1 picot, 8 double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the ring. With both
shuttles, the light colour in the left hand: 4 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 4 double, put the right hand thread
through the picot of the first circle; then add: 4 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 4 double.

With the shuttle, filled with the dark colour: 5 double, pass the thread
through the picot of the first ring, make 8 double, 1 picot, 5 double,
close the ring. Then, leaving a short length of thread between, make: 4
double, put the thread through the picot of the preceding ring, 8
double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the ring **; then repeat from * to **.

When you have thus made two equal lengths, join them together with
crochet, using a thread two numbers finer than the tatting thread; if
the latter for instance was Fil d'Alsace No. 30, you would take No. 50
of the same material for the crochet--1 plain in the 1st picot, 5 chain,
1 plain in the middle picot, 5 chain, 1 plain in the 3rd and 1st picot =
then, over 5 chain: 1 sextuple cluster stitch (fig. 426), 5 chain.

In the row on the opposite side of the tatting, take out the crochet
needle at the 3rd chain stitch and put it in from beneath into the
corresponding stitch of the opposite row; in this manner join the two
insertions together so as to complete the pattern.

[Illustration: FIG. 507. INSERTION OF TATTING AND CROCHET.
MATERIALS--For the tatting: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls Nos. 30 to 70,
or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, écru or white.[A] For the
crochet: The same materials, but two numbers finer.]

[Illustration: FIG. 508. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 507.]

INSERTION OF TATTING AND CROCHET (figs. 507 and 508).--Worked with one
shuttle. The tatting thread should be two numbers coarser than the
crochet thread. Begin with 2 strings of half rings consisting of: 4
short picots and 3 long. Leave a length of thread between, equal to the
diameter of the ring.

When the two strings of half rings are finished, crochet with the fine
thread: 6 plain over each length of thread between, and at the base of
the scallops.

2nd row--5 chain, 1 plain in the 4th plain of the 1st row.

In the row that connects the two rows of tatting, put the 3rd chain
stitch into the corresponding stitch of the opposite row.

For the outside edge make: 1 plain in the 1st short picot, 8 chain *, 1
treble in the 2nd short picot, 7 chain, 1 treble in the 3rd short picot,
8 chain, 1 plain in the 4th short picot, 1 plain in the short picot
opposite, 3 chain, pass the thread through the 4th of the 8 chain
stitches, 4 chain and repeat from *.

For the last row make: 3 plain in each of the 3 last of 8 chain, * 1
picot of 5 chain above the treble, 4 plain in the 4 next chain, 1 picot,
1 single in the same stitch as the plain before the picot, 3 plain, 1
picot, 3 plain, miss the 1st and the last stitch, then make 3 plain on
the next scallop and repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 509. EDGING OF TATTING AND CROCHET. MATERIALS--For
the tatting: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls No. 30 in two shades of one
colour. For the crochet: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls No. 50 in one
colour only.]

EDGING OF TATTING AND CROCHET (fig. 509).--Worked with two shuttles
and in two shades. With the light shade: 2 double, 1 short picot, 2
double, 1 long picot, * 2 double, 1 picot of the ordinary size, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 long picot, 2 double, 1
short picot, 2 double, close the ring = with 2 shuttles: 3 double, pass
the thread through the 1st picot, make 3 double, 1 long picot, 2 double
= with the light shade: 4 double, pass the thread through the 9th picot
of the 1st ring, make 3 double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the ring = with
2 shuttles: 2 double, 1 picot, 3 double, 1 short picot, 3 double = with
one shuttle: 2 double, pass the thread through the empty picot of the
small ring, make 2 double, pass the thread through the long picot of the
big ring, then repeat from *.

To complete the edge, crochet first one row, consisting of: * 1 plain in
the 1st of the 5 picots of the big ring, 4 chain, 1 plain in the 2nd
picot, 4 chain, 1 plain in the 3rd picot, 4 chain, 1 plain in the 4th
picot, 4 chain, 1 plain in the 5th picot and repeat from *.

2nd row--2 plain on the 3rd and 4th of the first chain stitches = over
the 2nd and 3rd chain: 1 plain, 1 half treble, 2 trebles, 1 half treble,
1 plain; on the 4 last chain: 2 plain.

For the footing make: 1 plain in the long picot, 5 chain, 1 plain in
the next picot, 5 chain, 1 double treble in the short picot, leave the 2
last loops of the treble on the needle = 3 trebles in the first lower
loop of the double treble, keep the last loops of these 3 trebles on the
needle, after the 4th treble, draw the needle through the 4 trebles. The
last row consists of: 3 chain, 1 treble over 5 chain.

TATTED MEDALLION (fig. 510).--Worked with two shuttles and two
colours.

1st row--with one shuttle: 12 double and 6 picots, close the ring.

2nd row--with two shuttles and the dark coloured thread laid across the
left hand = knot the threads into one of the picots of the 1st ring: 1
double, 1 long picot, 2 double, pass the right hand thread through one
of the picots of the ring, 1 picot, 2 double and so on. After the 12th
picot fasten off the threads on the wrong side by two or three stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 510. TATTED MEDALLION. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C
Nos. 30 to 50.[A] COLOURS: Gris-Tilleul 330 and Rouge-Cardinal 304.[A]]

3rd row--with one shuttle: * 3 double, pass the thread through one of
the picots of the 2nd row, make 3 double, close the ring = leave 5 m/m.
of thread = turn the work = 4 double, 1 picot, 4 double, close the ring
= leave 5 m/m. of thread again and repeat 11 times from *.

4th row--with two shuttles; fasten the ends to one of the picots of one
of the 12 rings of the 3rd row: * 3 double, 1 picot, 3 double = with one
shuttle: 3 double, pass the thread through the picot, 3 double, 1 picot,
2 double, 1 picot, 3 double, close the ring = close to this: 3 double,
pass the thread through the 2nd picot of the 1st ring, 3 double, 1
picot, 3 double, close the ring = again, close to the last ring: 3
double, pass the thread through the picot of the 2nd ring, 2 double, 1
picot, 3 double, close the ring = with 2 shuttles: 3 double, pass the
thread through the 2nd picot of the 3rd ring, 3 double, fasten the
thread to the picot of the ring of the 3rd row and repeat 11 times from
*.

5th row--with two shuttles and the dark colour across the left hand: 6
double and 2 picots over the lower rings and 10 double and 4 picots over
the upper rings.

[Illustration: FIG. 511. TATTED EDGING. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in
balls Nos. 30 to 70, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 40 to 50, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 40. COLOURS: Gris-Tilleul 330 and Rouge-Grenat
326.]

TATTED EDGING (fig. 511).--With two shuttles and with the two colours
indicated, or in any other combination of colours.

Begin with two shuttles, the red thread across the left hand = 10
double, 1 picot, 6 double = with one shuttle: 6 double, 1 picot, 6
double, close the ring = turn the work = make a second ring like the
first and close to it = turn the work = with two shuttles: 6 double, 1
picot, 6 double = with one shuttle: 6 double, pass the thread through
the picot of the ring opposite, 6 double, close the ring = 6 double, 1
picot, 6 double, close the ring = turn the work to make the next half
ring.

Make 3 rows of half rings connected by rings. In the 2nd row, you pass
the thread from the ring through the picot to which the 2nd ring was
fastened in the 1st row.

For the outside scallops, make with one shuttle: * 5 double, pass the
thread through the picot that connects 2 rings, 5 double, close the ring
= with two shuttles: 4 double = with one shuttle: 2 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, pass the thread through the picot of the half
ring of the 3rd row, 2 double; then 8 picots more with 2 double between
each, close the ring = with two shuttles: 4 double, 1 long picot, 2
double, 1 short picot, 2 double, 1 short picot, 3 double = with one
shuttle: 5 double, pass the thread through the 3rd picot of the big
ring, 5 double, close the ring = with two shuttles: 2 double, 6 picots
with 2 double after each picot = with one shuttle: 5 double, pass the
thread through the 3rd picot of the big ring, 5 double, close the ring =
with two shuttles: 3 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1
picot, 4 double, pass the right hand thread through the 6th picot of the
big ring = with two shuttles: 4 double, then repeat from *.

The footing is worked in crochet and consists of one row of chain
stitches and one of trebles.

SQUARE OF TATTING (fig. 512).--Worked with two shuttles and two
colours. With the light colour: 2 double, 1 picot, 4 double, 1 picot, 4
double, 1 picot, 4 double, 1 picot, 2 double, close the ring.

1st row--with two shuttles, the dark coloured thread across the left
hand = fasten the thread to a picot and make: * 2 double, 1 picot, 2
double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double, pass the right hand thread
through the picot of the ring; 1 picot over the connecting thread, then
repeat 3 times from *. The last picot over the picot of the small ring
is made at the end.

2nd row--with two shuttles, the light thread over the left hand = fasten
the thread to the picot over the light picot: * 2 double, pass the right
hand thread through the picot of the 1st row, 1 long picot over the
lower picot, 3 double, pass the thread through the next picot of the 1st
row = in the corner, 1 rather longer picot than the one before, 3
double, pass the right hand thread through a picot, 1 long picot, 2
double, pass the thread through a picot; repeat 3 times from *. To form
the last picot, fasten off the thread on the wrong side by two or three
stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 512. SQUARE OF TATTING. MATERIALS: Fil d'Alsace
D.M.C in balls Nos. 30 to 100, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 60, or
Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70.[A] COLOURS: Jaune-Rouille 366 and
Brun-Caroubier 359.[A]]

3rd row--with one shuttle and the dark colour: * 4 double, pass the
thread through the picot above the picot of the small ring, 4 double,
close the ring = leave 10 m/m. of thread, make a second ring like the
1st = leave 10 m/m. of thread, make 6 double, pass the thread through
the long picot, 6 double, close the ring = leave 10 m/m. of thread, make
another ring of 12 knots, fasten it to the same picot, the preceding
knot is fastened to; then make a ring of 8 double knots and repeat 3
times from *.

4th row--with one shuttle and the light colour and worked like the 3rd
row, leaving a rather longer length of thread between; then make: 16
instead of 12 double for the corner rings.

5th row--with one shuttle and the light colour = 8 double, fasten the
thread to one of the corner loops and between 2 rings of the 4th ring: 8
double, close the ring = turn the work = leave a length of thread, 3
double, 1 picot, then 4 times 2 double knots and 1 picot, 3 double,
close the ring. Make the second ring as close as possible to the first,
beginning and finishing the second with 5 double knots = make a 3rd ring
like the 1st, join it to the 2nd ring by the 4th picot = turn the work =
make another ring of 16 knots and join it to the same loop of the 4th
row, to which the two other rings are already joined = turn the work = 1
ring above, with 4 picots, like the first one we described, then a ring
of 12 double knots below.

At the top, 6 detached half rings, placed between 3 connected rings,
which form the corners. The top rings are to be joined after the 3rd
double knot, to the 4th picot of the preceding ring.

6th row--with two shuttles and the dark colour only = fasten the threads
to a picot that serves as a connecting link, take the dark thread over
the left hand and make: 3 double, 1 picot, 2 double, 1 picot, 2 double,
1 picot, 3 double = fasten the thread to the connecting picot and carry
the half rings all round the square.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: MACRAMÉ STRIPE--ARABIC SUBJECT.]



Macramé.


Macramé is an Arabic word, signifying an ornamental fringe or trimming,
which has been adopted as the term for a certain kind of hand-work,
known also as «knotted fringe» or «Mexican lace» and produced by the
knotting, interweaving and tying together of threads.

We have given the preference to the Arabic name because of its less
definite meaning, seeing that not only fringe and lace, but trimmings of
all kinds, in the shape of bands and stripes and headings, can be worked
in macramé.

Until its revival about ten years ago, when it was regarded by many as a
new invention, the art of macramé making had for centuries become almost
extinct and save here and there in the convents, was quite unknown.

The multitude of uses to which it can be turned as a trimming, the
infinite variety it admits of and its great durability and strength,
make macramé well worth a study; the difficulties that repel many at
first sight are only on the surface and any one who carefully follows
the instructions given in the following pages, will soon overcome them
and be able without pains to copy the charming designs that accompany
them, which remind us of the wooden lattices in the windows of Eastern
houses, doubtless familiar to many of our readers, under the name of
_moucharabieh_.

MATERIALS.--These may be of almost any kind; silk, gold thread, cord,
wool or cotton, can all be employed with good effect. Almost any of the
D.M.C cottons can be used for macramé; but the ones especially to be
recommended are: Fil à dentelle D.M.C[A], Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C[A]
and Coton à broder D.M.C[A] for the finer kinds of work, and for the
coarser, Fil à pointer D.M.C[A], Coton à tricoter D.M.C[A] and Ganse
turque D.M.C[A]. The twist in all these is so regular as to admit of a
high degree of perfection being attained with them: they are moreover
very agreeable to the touch, a great recommendation considering how much
they have to be handled by the worker.

[Illustration: FIG. 513. MACRAMÉ CUSHION.]

MACRAMÉ CUSHION AND OTHER ACCESSORIES (figs. 513 and 514).--The only
really important requisite for macramé work is the cushion, which should
be well stuffed, and weighted with lead (fig. 513). It is convenient to
have it made to screw on to a table like the Swiss tambour frames. There
are other kinds of macramé cushions but none, in our opinion, as
practical as these because any pattern can be worked upon them and
patterns that have a heading or a border of picots can not be worked on
any others. The pegs at the ends of the cushion are for fixing and
winding the long threads upon, which carry the knots, and which we shall
in future call «cords».

For making long lengths of macramé fringe, metal clamps, with
round-headed pegs attached to them top and bottom, to fasten the cords
to, as represented in fig. 514, will be found far better than a cushion,
as any number of threads can be knotted on to them at a time by pushing
them more or less closely together on the cord.

[Illustration: FIG. 514. CLAMPS FOR MACRAMÉ FRINGE.]

Besides the cushion and clamps, you will require, some big glass-headed
pins, made expressly for the purpose, a crochet needle for pulling the
threads through the stuff when they have to be knotted on to an edge,
and a French mètre or yard measure to measure the threads with; to these
implements may further be added, scissors and a metal comb and ruler for
cutting and straightening the ends of the threads.

The length of the threads must depend on their substance and size; that
is to say, that a knot will take up more of a coarse stiff thread than
of a fine pliable one, on which account, to avoid the necessity of
preliminary trials, the right length of thread, for the quality and size
of material, is given with each pattern. If, for any reason, our workers
should not follow the directions given, they must bear in mind that the
thicker and stiffer the material, the more they will have to allow for
the knots and vice versa.

FORMATION OF THE KNOTS.--Beginners must be careful, in macramé as in
tatting, not to move or slacken the cord, or horizontal thread that
carries the knots. The knots made by the «knotting-thread», as it will
be called in future, consist of loops formed over the cord and then
tightened. The knotting-thread and the cord are constantly changing
places, as you work, loops having to be made now with the one and now
with the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 515. KNOTTING ON THE THREADS.]

KNOTTING ON THE THREADS (fig. 515).--Excepting when you work with the
threads of a material obtained by unravelling and drawing out the cross
threads, you must knot on lengths of thread on to a cord; cut them
double the length the fringe is to be and fold them in half, so as to
form a loop by means of which you attach them to the cord, in the
following manner. Put the loop over the cord from the front and bring it
back underneath, put the ends down through the loop, detail _a_, and
tighten it, detail _b_, as shown in the engraving.

[Illustration: FIG. 516. KNOTTING ON THE THREADS ON TO A STUFF EDGE AND
FORMATION OF A FLAT DOUBLE KNOT.]

KNOTTING ON THE THREADS ON TO A STUFF EDGE AND FORMATION OF A FLAT
DOUBLE KNOT (fig. 516).--Push your crochet needle through the edge of
the stuff from the right to the wrong side and catch hold of the loop,
formed by the folding in half of the thread that is to be knotted on;
pull it out to the right side, put the ends through, and tighten the
loop, detail _a_. Detail _b_ shows two double threads, knotted on near
to each other in this way, and the first tying together of the two outer
threads for the flat knot which is formed as follows: you take the two
outer of the four threads hanging down and cross the right hand one
under, and the left hand one over the two centre threads. Whilst doing
this, hold the inner ones tightly stretched out on the 3rd and 4th
fingers of the left hand, detail _b_. The manner in which the two
threads are brought back and tied together again is shown in detail _c_;
the drawing up of the threads completes the so-called flat double knot,
detail _d_. Detail _e_, of the same figure, shows two flat double knots,
side by side, and the first step towards the formation of a third,
connecting together the two right threads of the one with the two left
threads of the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 517. KNOTTING ON THREADS ONTO A KNOTTED HEADING.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS ON TO A KNOTTED HEADING (fig. 517).--Make flat
double knots as in fig. 516, detail _d_, on a double cord and then knot
on your threads on to the loops of the double knots, putting the loop
through from the right side, so that it may lie at the back. Use double
threads so that the work beneath the heading may not be too open.

[Illustration: FIG. 518. KNOTTING ON THREADS ON TO A PICOT HEADING.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS ON TO A PICOT HEADING (fig. 518).--First, crochet
a row of chain stitches, then make flat double knots on the chain, far
enough apart for the thread between to form picots on the chain, then a
second chain of crochet drawn through the picots on one side, on to
which tie triple or quadruple lengths of thread, as shown in the
engraving.

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH ROUND PICOTS (fig. 519).--Fasten the lengths
of thread to the cushion with pins, about half a c/m. apart, fix the
cord to one of the pegs at the left end of the cushion, hold it tightly
extended in a horizontal line with the right hand. With the left hand
knot the threads that are pinned down on to the cord, looping each end
twice round it, upwards from below and then drawing it through between
the two loops or knots thus formed, pulling each knot to the left as you
tighten it round the cord. Make the second row of knots in the same way,
taking care to lay the second cord as close to the first as possible
that the vertical threads may not be visible between. One series of
knots forms a bar; there are both horizontal and slanting bars as will
be seen later on.

[Illustration: FIG. 519. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH ROUND PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 520. KNOTTING ON WITH A FRINGE HEADING.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH A FRINGE HEADING (fig. 520).--Knot the
threads on with a picot heading, as explained in the preceding figure,
then cut the picots through and unravel and comb out the threads.

For this way of knotting on threads, a very strongly twisted material is
better than a loose one, as when it is cut and untwisted, it makes a
much richer and fuller fringe.

KNOTTING ON WITH PICOTS AND FLAT DOUBLE KNOTS (fig. 521).--Take two
threads, pin them on close together, make a flat double knot, fig. 516,
tying the outer threads over the inner ones, and loop the ends over a
cord to make a horizontal bar of knots.

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH PICOTS AND TWO FLAT DOUBLE KNOTS (figs. 522
and 523).--Pin the two threads on as before and make two flat double
knots, one below the other; detail _a_ shows the first knot begun,
detail _b_ the two knots completed. Fig. 523 shows the picots secured by
a horizontal bar of knots beneath them.

[Illustration: FIG. 521. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH PICOTS AND TWO FLAT
DOUBLE KNOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 522. & FIG. 523. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH PICOT AND
TWO FLAT DOUBLE KNOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 524. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH SCALLOPS.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH SCALLOPS (fig. 524).--The threads for the
scallops must be cut much longer than those that are to be knotted on
below them. The buttonhole loops must be so made that they turn upwards;
and there must be 12 of them, all made with the left hand thread over
the right hand thread, detail _a_. Then, knot on two double threads
underneath the scallop and besides, make knots with the threads that
come from the scallops, detail _b_.

[Illustration: FIG. 525. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH LOOPS.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH LOOPS (fig. 525).--Pin on two threads folded
in half, a little distance apart, detail _a_, and bind them together
with a flat double knot. Pin on more lengths close to them, the inner
threads of which are held by a "collecting knot", as the flat double
knot is called when it is made over more than two threads (see also fig.
530). The ends of the threads can then be looped over one or two cords,
so as to form a single or double bar of knots, as required.

[Illustration: FIG. 526. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH TRIPLE SCALLOPS.]

KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH TRIPLE SCALLOPS (fig. 526).--Knot on three
single threads in succession; first, the middle one, then the second,
with the knot right and left and the loop long enough to form the
scallop, then the third in the same manner.

KNOTTING ON THREADS FOR RIBBED PICOTS (fig. 527).--Take a double
thread and make two slanting bars of knots, see details _a_ and _b_,
then secure them, like the preceding scallops by a horizontal bar of
knots, see detail _c_.

KNOTTING ON THREADS FOR A GIMP HEADING (fig. 528).--This mode of
knotting on forms a broad gimp, consisting of vertical bars of knots,
made over a single cord. On the one side, that which is afterwards
turned downwards, the cord, the ribs are made on, forms loops, held with
pins, into which meshes of threads can be knotted when the gimp is
finished, for making either a fringe or a grounding.

Patterns in several colours may likewise be knotted into gimp headings
of this kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 527. KNOTTING ON THREADS WITH RIBBED PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 528. KNOTTING ON THREADS FOR A GIMP HEADING.]

FLAT DOUBLE KNOTS WITH HALF KNOTS (fig. 529).--These are double knots
followed by a third knot, or more correctly speaking, a half one of the
first flat knots.

COLLECTING KNOTS (fig. 530).--As explained in fig. 525, these are flat
double knots, made over more than two threads. The engraving shows, in
the first place on the left, a flat double knot made over two threads,
completed, and the first crossing of the thread for the collecting knot;
secondly, the second crossing of the threads; thirdly how the collecting
knot can, if necessary, be continued over 4 threads, and fourthly, how
the collecting knot should be made to finish with a flat double knot.

PLAITED AND WAVED KNOTS (fig. 531).--Plaited knots are formed by a
continuous repetition of the first crossing of the threads for making a
flat knot, detail _a_; waved knots by a slight twist given to the
plaited knots from left to right, detail _b_. These plaits of waved
knots are secured by joining together the threads of opposite meshes,
two and two, by a flat double knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 529. FLAT DOUBLE KNOTS WITH HALF KNOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 530. COLLECTING KNOTS.]

SINGLE CROSSED KNOTS AND DOUBLE CROSSED KNOTS (figs. 532 and
533).--Two plain crossings of the threads, detail _a_, to begin with;
after which you rapidly reverse the threads, turning the knot to the
wrong side, drawing it up tightly at the same time; this forms the first
knot, detail _b_. The second knot, fig. 533, is formed by 3 crossings,
detail _a_; reverse the threads rapidly, to form the double crossed
knot, detail _b_. For the following knots tie the threads together, as
for the flat double knot, detail _c_.

LOOPED PICOT AND KNOTTED PICOTS (figs. 534 and 535).--Looped picots
are made along a row of knots by setting the knots, far enough apart for
the loop between, to form a picot when the knots are drawn up close
together. In fig. 534, the detail _a_ represents the picot, in its first
open stage, detail _b_ the same picot when it is finished.

Knotted picots, fig. 535, are formed after one or more flat double
knots, by a knot made in the outer thread; to get this knot into the
right place, make it on a big pin and draw it up close to the flat knot
before you take out the pin.

[Illustration: FIG. 531. PLAITED AND WAVED KNOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 532. SINGLE CROSSED KNOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 533. DOUBLE CROSSED KNOT.]

These picots are always made on both sides and can be repeated several
times along a row of knots. Detail _a_ shows the crossing of the threads
for the picots, detail _b_ the picots completed and followed by a flat
knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 534. LOOPED PICOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 535. KNOTTED PICOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 536. BEAD KNOTS.]

BEAD KNOTS (fig. 536).--A bead knot is made by turning back the
threads after a row of flat double knots. Detail _a_ shows three flat
double knots finished, detail _b_ the inner threads turned back over the
flat double knots, detail _c_ the two knotting threads, brought between
the two threads coming from the left to the right, and detail _d_ the
bead knot finished and followed by a flat double knot.

BARS OF KNOTS TO THE RIGHT AND LEFT (figs. 537, 538, 539, 540, 541,
542, 543, 544).--After knotting on the requisite number of threads on to
a double cord, make two buttonhole loops with the right thread round the
left one, fig. 537, then knot each thread twice over the second cord,
fig. 538. These knots must be as close together as possible. This done,
begin to make the slanting bars, inclining from left to right, with 4
threads.

The first thread on the left, marked 1 in fig. 540, serves as cord to
the threads 2, 3, 4, which are looped in succession over thread 1.

Fig. 541 represents threads 2, 3 and 4, knotted thread 1 and in the
second bar, thread 2 becoming in its turn the cord, and having threads
3, 4 and 1 knotted over it, whilst it is being held, tightly stretched
in the right hand. The knotting should be done with the left hand.

In fig. 542, which represents a bar inclining from right to left,
threads 3, 2 and 1 are knotted over thread 4; and in fig. 543, in the
second row, threads 2, 1, 4 over thread 3. Here, it has to be the left
hand that holds the thread extended from right to left, whilst the right
hand does the knotting.

[Illustration: FIG. 537. BUTTONHOLE LOOP TO THE RIGHT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 538. FASTENING THE THREADS TO THE CORD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 539. BAR SLANTING TO THE RIGHT. THE KNOT OPEN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 540. BAR SLANTING TO THE RIGHT. THREAD 2 KNOTTED
OVER THREAD 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 541. BAR SLANTING TO THE RIGHT. THREADS 3, 4, 1 TO
BE KNOTTED OVER THREAD 2.]

Fig. 544 explains how the double bars are bound together by an ordinary
double knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 542. BAR SLANTING TO THE LEFT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 543. BAR SLANTING TO THE LEFT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 544. BARS JOINED TOGETHER.]

SINGLE CHAIN (fig. 545).--This is made with two single threads, by
knotting them alternately over each other, that is, each in turns
serving as cord to the other.

DOUBLE CHAIN (fig. 546).--The double chain is made in the same manner
as the single, only with a double thread.

Both the double and single chain are generally used in macramé gimps and
borders as a means of conducting threads of different colours, from one
part of a pattern to another, which could be done in no other way; also,
as a continuation to the Chinese knot, fig. 607, as described at the end
of this chapter.

[Illustration: FIG. 545. SINGLE CHAIN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 546. DOUBLE CHAIN.]

RIBBED BORDER (fig. 547).--Here, the same cord runs to and fro; the 4
threads that hang down, form little ribbed bars running right and left.
To distinguish from the knotting threads, the thread that runs to and
fro it, is represented in a darker colour.

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (figs. 548, 549, 550).--Entire length of the threads
for No. 8 of Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 80 c/m.

[Illustration: FIG. 547. RIBBED BORDER.]

1st row--knot on the threads, as in fig. 515, and in the following
order: 1 double white thread, 2 double red, 1 double blue and so on.

2nd row--make a horizontal bar of knots, see figs. 519, 520 and 521,
over a second cord.

3rd row--3 buttonhole knots, fig. 524, each with 2 threads.

4th row--like the 2nd.

5th row--make slanting bars of double knots right and left, counting 6
threads for each bar, consequently 12 for 2. The 1st and 12th thread
serving as the cords for the knots. In the 2nd series of knots which
forms the double slanting bar, make another double knot over the cord
with the thread that served as cord in the preceding row.

When the slanting bars are finished, bring them as close together as
possible, tighten the last thread on the right and make another double
knot with the left thread; the position of all the threads is clearly
described in fig. 549. Then continue the bars in the opposite direction,
so that the 2nd thread on the left is stretched over the right hand
group of threads, and the 11th thread on the right over the left hand
group.

[Illustration: FIG. 548. MACRAMÉ FRINGE. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 5 to 25, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70. COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 311, Rouge-Turc 321
and white, or Bleu tendre 710, Rouge-Maroquin 3327 and Vert-Fauve 691.]

Make 3 rows of double bars and then take always 3 threads of a left hand
group and 3 of a right hand one, tie them loosely together in a plain
knot, put in, above the knot, a bunch of 8 threads, 15 c/m. long, fig.
550 detail _a_, draw up the knot close to the bars and wind thread of a
different colour several times round it, detail _b_, to form the tassel.

The other bunches of threads which are hung on between two bars of knots
must be tied on the same level with the first, but do not, nevertheless,
come into close contact with the bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 549. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 548.]

[Illustration: FIG. 550. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 548.]

INSERTION OR FRINGE (figs. 551 and 552).--Entire length of the threads
for No. 8 of Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 50 c/m., including the fringe.

1st row--knot on the threads as in fig. 515.

2nd row--1 double horizontal bar of knots, as in figs. 519 or 520, over
double cords.

3rd row--Take 8 threads for a group of bars; 2 light and 2 dark ones on
each side; the two sets of threads are numbered in fig. 552, a working
detail of fig. 551, from 1 to 4.

Begin by making all the knots over threads 1 and 2 of the left set, so
that threads 3 and 4 on the left will be outside and threads 1 and 2
inside the group. Make the same knots over the 3rd and 4th thread on the
right, then repeat the left group again and so on.

[Illustration: FIG. 551. INSERTION OR FRINGE. MATERIALS: Coton à
tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 13, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 1 to 20, Fil à
pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.
COLOURS: Bleu-indigo 311 and Brun-Chamois 418, or Brun-Rouille 3312 and
Bleu-Gris 3303.]

Repeat from the beginning, and make 2 double knots over thread 3 on the
right, fig. 552, with threads 1 and 2 on the left, then again 2 knots
over thread 4 on the right. When this series of knots is finished, make:
3 double knots over thread 1 (dark-coloured in the engraving) with the
left thread 2 and the right threads 1 and 2; make on the left: 3 knots
over thread 4 with the right thread 3 and the left threads 2 and 1, and
so on.

When this pattern is worked for a gimp and not a fringe, the threads are
made to end in knots, as explained in fig. 558.

[Illustration: FIG. 552. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 551]

GIMP MADE WITH MACRAMÉ SHUTTLES (figs. 553, 554, 555).--Cut 8 double
threads of the length the gimp is to be.

In order not to have to add on threads in the middle of the work, or
have long ends hanging down, which are very much in the way, we
recommend the employment of a new macramé shuttle, a kind of spool, such
as are used in the making of pillow lace. These shuttles simplify the
work enormously and are made hollow so that they can be mounted and
filled on the spindle of any sewing machine.

Knot on the threads, as in fig. 515, and make a single bar of knots.
Then leaving 2 threads on the right and 2 on the left disengaged, make 3
flat double knots with every set of 4 threads between. Make a slanting
bar of double knots over the 16th right thread, with the 15th, 14th,
13th, 12th, 11th, 10th and 9th thread; then make knots with the same
threads and with the 16th over the 15th thread. Make a similar bar on
the left, over the 1st thread, with the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and
8th thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 553. GIMP MADE WITH MACRAMÉ SHUTTLES.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 1 to 10, Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 50.[A]

COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 311 and Brun-Marron 406.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 554. MACRAMÉ SHUTTLE.]

On both sides, and with the 4 outer threads: 4 flat double knots, fig.
516, detail _d_; 2 more bars on the right and left, but in the opposite
direction, and knotting all the threads even to the last one, fig. 555.
Take the 4 middle threads and make 6 flat double knots and then turn the
bars of knots inwards; the return of the cord is indicated as before in
fig. 555.

MACRAMÉ BORDERS (figs. 556, 557, 558, 559).--Length of the single
threads for No. 6 of Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 50 c/m.

Knot the threads on for both these borders in the ordinary way, followed
by a single horizontal bar of knots. For fig. 556, make a triple
slanting bar of knots, with 4 threads, slanting one from right to left
and one from left to right; then make a single horizontal bar and add
another series of triple bars slanting the opposite way; complete the
pattern by a vertical bar, lay another cord and make a horizontal bar
upon it on the wrong side of the work and finish by tying the threads
together, two and two, as shown in fig. 558, detail _a_, cut them,
detail _b_, and push the knot upwards, detail _c_.

[Illustration: FIG. 555. SLANTING BAR AND THE RETURN OF THE CORD.
WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 553.]

[Illustration: FIG. 556. MACRAMÉ BORDER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 557. MACRAMÉ BORDER.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 10, Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos.
10 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70.[A]

COLOURS--For fig. 556: Bleu-Lapis 342 or Bleu-Gentiane 480--For fig.
557: Rouge-Turc 321 or Rouge-Cerise 3318.[A]]

For fig. 557 take 8 threads for a group of knots. Make all the bars
slanting from right to left first, fig. 559, then take the 5th thread,
counting from left to right, for the cord, fig. 559 again, and begin the
second series of bars of knots, slanting from left to right. Fasten off
the threads as already explained in fig. 558.

The same pattern can also be used as an insertion: bags for instance,
look very well made of alternate stripes of this insertion and stripes
made of flat knots. The openwork stripes must be wider than the close
ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 558. WORKING DETAIL OF FIGS. 556 AND 557.]

[Illustration: FIG. 559. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 557.]

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (figs. 560 and 561).--Entire length of the threads,
including the fringe, for No. 5 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 120 c/m.

[Illustration: FIG. 560. MACRAMÉ FRINGE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 3 to 25 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50. COLOURS:
Brun-Cuir 431 and 432, Bleu-Indigo 31]

1st row--knot on the threads, as in fig. 520, in the following order: 4
double blue threads, 3 single dark brown, 1 double light brown, 3 single
dark brown; then again 4 double blue, and so on.

2nd row--divide the threads into groups, so that the brown threads come
in the middle with 4 blue ones on either side. Begin on the left = cover
the 4th blue thread, which comes nearest to the first brown one, with
flat double knots, made over the 1st, 2nd and 3rd brown thread and the
light brown one = cover the 3rd blue thread with the 4 brown threads and
the 4th blue, which served as the cord in the 1st row of knots = cover
the 2nd blue thread with the 4 brown and the 4th and 3rd blue = cover
the 1st blue with the 4 brown and the 4th, 3rd and 2nd blue.

[Illustration: FIG. 561. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 560]

In the working detail, fig. 561, the dark lines represent the blue
threads, the light ones, the brown.

When the quadruple bar, slanting from left to right, is finished, make a
similar one, from right to left, then connect the 1st and 16th thread by
a double knot and pass the first blue thread on the left over to the
right group.

2nd row--make similar groups, reversed, so that the brown knots come
next to the last blue ones and the blue knots again terminate the groups
of bars; the brown threads will be stretched flat between the preceding
group and the next.

3rd and 5th row--like the first.

4th row--like the 2nd.

[Illustration: FIG. 562. MACRAMÉ FRINGE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 3 to 15 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A] COLOURS:
Écru, or any light shade mentioned in the D.M.C colour card.[A]]

After the 5th row of groups, take 4 brown threads on either side of the
blue knots, and make them into a double chain, fig. 546, consisting of
12 knots, and make 6 flat double knots with the last threads.

Lastly, unite all the threads of one group of bars, and make them into a
handsome tassel by the addition of other threads.

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (fig. 562).--Entire length of the threads for No. 3 of
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 75 c/m.

1st row--Knot on the threads as in fig. 527, succeeded by a double
horizontal bar of knots.

2nd row--twisted or waved knots with 4 knots, fig. 531.

3rd row--double horizontal bar of knots.

4th row--with 6 threads: 1 double bar, slanting from left to right, and
1 bar, from right to left, joined together by the last threads.

5th row--with the 4 threads coming from the groups of bars: 1 single
chain, fig. 545, with 4 crossings of the threads, quite close to the
point where the groups meet, and 1 single chain with 7 crossings, made
with the outside threads.

6th row--similar groups of bars to those of the 4th row, but set the
reverse way and terminating in a horizontal bar. For the tassels, add a
thick bunch of threads to each group of 6 threads that issues from the
work.

[Illustration: FIG. 563. FRINGE WITH MOSAIC BORDER.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 8 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 50.

COLOURS: Écru, Brun-Acajou 401 and Rouge-Cardinal 347.]

[Illustration: FIG. 564. KNOT OPEN.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 563.]

[Illustration: FIG. 565. KNOT SHUT.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 563.]

FRINGE WITH MOSAIC BORDER (figs. 563, 564, 565).--Entire length of the
threads for No. 8 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 75 c/m.

1st row--knot the threads on, as in fig. 515, one écru and one brown
alternately, succeeded by a single horizontal bar of double knots.

2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th row--4 rows of knots, such as are seen in fig.
564, in process of being made, and in fig. 565, finished, and succeeded
by a flat knot. The colours alternate in the knots; in the 2nd and 4th
row the knot is set in the light colour, in the 3rd and 5th, in the
dark.

6th row--1 horizontal bar of double knots over a fresh cord.

7th row--lay down another cord, make another horizontal bar of knots and
between every second of the light double knots, loop on 1 red thread;
the loop, that fastens it to the cord, taking the place of the knot.

8th row--lay down a third cord, and make 2 double knots with the red
threads between the knots of écru thread.

9th row--lay down a fourth cord, make a half knot with every red thread.

10th row--lay down a fifth cord, then make a horizontal bar of double
knots, as in the 6th row; the red threads are taken to the wrong side
and passed over. Knot the ends of the threads together in clusters of 6,
about 15 m/m. below the last cord of knots.

[Illustration: FIG. 566. MACRAMÉ GROUND. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A] COLOURS:
Écru and Bleu-Indigo 322, or Vert-Perroquet 697 and Rouge-Écarlate
498.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 567. SHELL BAR. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 566.]

[Illustration: FIG. 568. OPENWORK PART OF FIG. 566.]

MACRAMÉ GROUND (figs. 566, 567, 568).--Fill the shuttles with the
length of thread that you think will be required for the work.

1st row--knot the threads on, as in fig. 515, 4 blue and 4 écru
alternately, and make a double horizontal bar.

2nd row--beginning in the middle, make 2 flat double knots with 8 blue
threads; with the 4 blue threads on the left, make a quadruple group of
bars over the 4 blue threads on the right. These quadruple groups of
bars, called «shell bars» are illustrated in detail in fig. 567. Unite
the blue threads at the sides by flat double knots.

The beginning and continuation of the openwork parts of the pattern are
explained in fig. 568.

The threads that issue from the last group of knots are used for making
the second shell bar, the two inner bars of which are made in écru
cotton, and the two outer in blue. When this striped shell bar is
finished, the blue threads are again united for the openwork figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 569.

FRINGE WITH FOUNDATION WORKED ON THE WRONG SIDE.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 8 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 5 to 25, Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 6 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C
Nos. 25 to 50.[A]

COLOURS: White, Bleu-Indigo 311 and 312 or Gris-Amadou 385,
Brun-Caroubier 356, 357.[A]]

FRINGE WITH FOUNDATION WORKED ON THE WRONG SIDE (figs. 569, 570, 571,
572).--Entire length of the threads for No. 8 of Coton à tricoter D.M.C:
80 c/m.

Knot the threads on, as in fig. 515 and after finishing the horizontal
bar, make from left to right, over the 1st thread, 1 double knot made
with the 2nd and with the 3rd thread.

Then, over the 2nd thread, which has now become the 1st, make double
knots with the 3rd, 1st, 4th and 5th thread; then, over the 3rd thread,
counting now from right to left, which in the knotting on figured as the
4th: 1 double knot with the 5th and 2nd thread.

Make the same group from right to left, only at the 3rd change of thread
make 5 double knots instead of 2, and let the last knots count for the
new group of bars, turned the opposite way.

[Illustration: FIG. 570.

OPPOSING BARS.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 569.]

[Illustration: FIG. 571.

FORMATION OF THE KNOTS ON THE WRONG SIDE.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 569.]

[Illustration: FIG. 572.

APPEARANCE OF THE KNOTS ON THE RIGHT SIDE.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 569.]

In the middle of two opposing groups of bars, make a flat double knot
with 2 of the right threads and 2 of the left.

When the second horizontal bar is finished, turn the work round, and go
on working on the wrong side, making plain double knots, as in fig. 571,
turned in one row, all from right to left, and in the next, from left to
right.

When you have worked 10 such rows of knots, begin to make one knot less
on either side of a group, so as to form pointed scallops of knots which
you finish off with a plain bar.

Tassels are then made with the threads that issue from each scallop, and
when these are sewn up, turn the work round to the right side, where the
knots, made on the wrong side, will present the appearance indicated in
fig. 572.

[Illustration: FIG. 573. MACRAMÉ FRINGE.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C No. 6, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3
to 25, or Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30.[A]

COLOURS: Écru, Rouge-Turc 321 and Rouge-Grenat 358 or Violet-Mauve 315
and 316, and Vert-Bouteille 494.[A]]

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (fig. 573).--Entire length of the threads for No. 6 of
Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 65 c/m.

Knot on double threads, as in figs. 517 and 524, to count as single in
the working directions = * 1 thread of red, colour 358, 3 of écru, 1 of
red, colour 358, 1 of red, colour 321, 3 of écru, 1 of red, colour 321,
and repeat from *.

1st row--6 chain knots made with every 4 threads.

2nd row--a single horizontal bar of knots.

3rd row--collecting knots, fig. 530, made with the écru threads over the
4 dark and the 4 light red ones, and flat double knots over the 4 écru
threads.

4th row--collecting knots over 4 écru threads with 4 red and 2 écru
threads.

5th row--collecting knots in the centre of the groups, with the écru
threads.

6th row--similar to the 4th.

7th row--similar to the 5th.

Then take the red threads on the right and left and twist them, each
cluster separately, from left to right between the thumb and forefinger,
as you do in making a cord, then unite them together, twisting them from
left to right. Fasten off the cord by a knot, beneath which the ends of
thread form a little tassel. Collect all the écru threads together and
make them into a heavy tassel with the aid of supplementary threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 574.

BORDER WITH SHELL KNOTS.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 5 to 25.[A]

COLOURS: Vert-Mousse 471 and Rouge-Cornouille 450, or Rouge-Framboise
686 and Gris-Coutil 323.[A]]

BORDER WITH SHELL KNOTS (figs. 574, 575, 576, 577).--Fill the macramé
shuttles with the requisite length of thread. Knot the threads on, as in
fig. 520, in the following order; 1 double thread of colour 471, 6
double threads of colour 450, 2 of colour 471, 6 of colour 450, 1 of
colour 471.

From left to right and over the 1st thread: 1 double knot with the 2nd
thread; over the 4th thread of colour 450, and from right to left,
double knots with the 3rd, 2nd and 1st thread of the same colour = from
left to right: 1 double knot with the 6th thread of colour 450 over the
5th, and with the 3rd thread over the 2nd = from right to left: 5 double
knots over the 8th thread of colour 450 = from left to right: 1 double
knot over the 10th thread, 1 double knot over the 5th thread, 1 double
knot over the 1st thread = from right to left: 7 double knots over the
12th thread = from left to right: 3 detached double knots.

Then, from left to right, and subsequently from right to left = with 6
green threads: 2 double bars slanting over the 2 red threads (see the
top of fig. 577); unite the 4 red threads in the middle and make a shell
knot with them, fig. 575, consisting of 6 flat knots, fig. 576; take 2
threads on the right and 2 on the left, turn them down to the left and
right, and then from the wrong side to the right, over the threads that
come from the bars and close with a flat knot. On the sides, make
double bars and between each bar, 2 single chain knots.

[Illustration: FIG. 575. LARGE SHELL KNOT, OPEN.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 574.]

[Illustration: FIG. 576. LARGE SHELL KNOT, SHUT.

WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 574.]

[Illustration: FIG. 577. OPENWORK PART OF FIG. 574.]

Fill the empty spaces under the outside shell knots, with 9 flat double
knots; under the middle knot make bars of inter-crossed knots, of which
a clear explanation will be found in fig. 577.

To join two borders of the kind together, pass the thread of the second
border over the thread on which the bar in the middle of the outer
scallop is knotted.

FRINGE WITH SHELL KNOTS (fig. 578).--Entire length of the single
threads for No. 12 of Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 90 c/m.

[Illustration: FIG. 578. FRINGE WITH SHELL KNOTS.

MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 6 to 15.

COLOURS: Écru and Rouge-Turc 321.]

The threads must be taken double, counting as one. Knot them on, as in
fig. 524. This exceedingly effective pattern is a very simple one to
work and can easily be copied from the engraving by following, for the
bars, figs. 537 to 544; for the collecting knots fig. 530, for the
large shell knots figs. 575 and 576, and for the chain of flat double
knots, fig. 536 detail _a_.

The tassels that complete the fringe must depend from the last
collecting knot and hang between the triple bars of knots and beneath
the collecting knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 579. MACRAMÉ BORDER OR FRINGE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet
6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 20, Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, or Fil à
pointer D.M.C No. 30.[A] COLOURS: Écru, Rouge-Turc 321 and Bleu-Indigo
312.[A]]

MACRAMÉ BORDER OR FRINGE (fig. 579).--Entire length of the threads for
No. 10 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 170 c/m.

1st row--knot on the threads with double round picots, and one
horizontal double bar. The colours should succeed each other as follows:
* 4 blue scallops, 4 écru, 5 red, 4 écru, repeat from *.

2nd row--begin working from right to left: 1 single chain with 2 single
threads, fig. 545, and 7 changes of the threads; after the 3rd change of
the threads, connect the 2nd chain with the 3rd, the 4th with the 5th.
Finish off every 2 chains with a flat double knot.

Make, over the first blue threads; 1 waved plait, fig. 531 detail _b_, =
over the 14th écru thread: 1 bar of double knots, 3 going and 4
returning = over the last 2 red threads: waved knots, and repeat from *
= then lay down 2 fresh cords, to make a double horizontal bar of knots.

3rd row--with the blue threads: 5 large shell knots, fig. 576, 1 triple
bar of double knots to the left and right = between the bars 9 large
shell knots = 1 triple bar of double knots to the right and left and
finish with 5 large shell knots, as above.

With the écru threads: 3 flat double knots, 1 double horizontal bar of
knots = over the last écru thread: 3 waved knots with 12 changes of the
threads = 1 more double bar of knots = join the cord to the outside
thread of the blue triple bar. With the red threads: 1 shell knot, figs.
576 and 577, over 12 threads; 1 double bar on both sides of the shell
knot with the outside threads, 1 single chain, consisting of 7 changes
of the threads, made with the outside red threads; join the red thread
and the light one that comes from the double bar together, on the left.

The light thread is afterwards looped into the blue thread on the right
= 4 collecting knots over 6 red threads on the right and left, 1
collecting knot over all the red threads and one, on both sides, over 6
red threads.

After joining the threads on both sides, carry on the single chain with
3 changes of the threads = over the first red thread of the left chain,
make 1 double horizontal bar with all the disengaged threads = below the
bar, 4 flat double knots = 1 single horizontal bar = 8 double knots,
each over a single thread = 1 double bar of knots.

From this point, continue with the écru threads: 1 row of double knots,
1 double horizontal bar and 1 waved plait; then join: 2 blue threads and
2 écru, and 2 écru and 2 red, together, to make flat double knots; the
double knots between remain of one colour.

The bottom border is like the top one with the exception of the picots.

When this pattern is to be used for an insertion or a gimp, the threads
should be fastened off, as indicated in fig. 558.

[Illustration: FIG. 580. MACRAMÉ BORDER. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50 and Chiné d'or D.M.C[A] COLOURS: Noir grand
teint 310, Gris-Tilleul 392 and 330, Brun-Cuir 430 and 432, Bleu-Indigo
334 or Chiné d'or D.M.C, Bleu et Or.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 581. CROSSED BAR SLANTING TO THE LEFT. WORKING
DETAIL OF FIG. 580.]

[Illustration: FIG. 582. CROSSED BAR SLANTING TO THE RIGHT. WORKING
DETAIL OF FIG. 580.]

MACRAMÉ BORDER (figs. 580, 581, 582).--Wind the threads on shuttles
and knot them on, as in fig. 515, in the following order: 2 threads of,
either colour 334 or Chiné d'or (blue and gold), 2 of colour 330, 2 of
colour 392, 1 of colour 432, 1 of colour 310, 2 of colour 430, 1 of
colour 310, 1 of colour 432, 2 of colour 392, 2 of colour 330, 2 of
colour 334, or of Chiné d'or blue and gold.

Begin with the open work on either side of the crossed bars, figs. 581
and 582, with 4 blue threads and by 4 changes of the threads outwards
and 3 inwards = the same with 4 light green threads with 3 changes
outwards and 2 inwards = then with the dark green threads, with 2
changes outwards and 3 inwards = over the 4th dark green thread, 1
double knot with the 1st dark green thread with the 4th light green one
and with the 4 blue.

Over the 3 next, dark green threads, knot the 4 light green threads and
the 4 blue, from right to left, and from left to right, thus forming
altogether 8 bars across the first bar = then knot the 8 first threads
over the last dark green one = add a crossed bar with 7 changes of the
threads outwards and 5 inwards.

Middle group, left side: 1 double knot with the first light brown thread
over the second thread; 3 double knots with the black threads (the only
ones that are to be taken double) and 2 light brown threads over the 1st
and 2nd dark brown ones.

In the 2nd bar, knot the 1st dark brown thread, and in the 3rd, the 4
dark brown ones, over the black thread. On the right, a similar group,
slanting towards the one on the left.

On the left--over the 1st light brown thread coming from the right, 1
double knot, made with 2 light and 2 dark brown threads, and the black
one, all coming from the left.

On the right--over the 1st light brown thread coming from the left, 1
double knot with 1 light and 2 dark brown threads and the black one
(used double).

On the left--over the light brown thread coming from the right, 1 double
knot with one light and 2 dark brown threads and the black one.

On the right--over the light brown thread, 1 double knot with 2 dark
brown threads and the black one.

On the left--the same knots as on the right.

On the right--over the 1 dark brown thread 1 knot with 1 brown thread
and the black one.

On the left--the same knots as on the right.

On the right--over the 1st dark brown thread, 1 knot with a brown thread
and the black one.

On the left--the same knots over the last thread.

On the right--over the last brown thread one knot with the black one.

On the left--over the 4 light green threads and the 4 blue ones, double
knots with the 4 brown threads and the black one = 1 double knot with
the 1st light brown thread over the 2nd, 3 double knots over the 2nd
dark brown thread, with 2 light threads and 1 dark brown = 4 double
knots with the 2 light and the 2 dark brown threads over the black one;
after which you make 5 other bars, taking the last thread turned inwards
for the cord. Make similar groups, slanting from right to left, then,
beginning again on the left, make the knots with the 4 light green
threads over the 1st thread of the same colour running from right to
left.

[Illustration: FIG. 583. MACRAMÉ FRINGE.

MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30, Fil à pointer D.M.C
Nos. 10 to 30, or Fil à dentelle Nos. 25 to 50.

COLOURS: Écru and Brun-Havane 455, or Gris-Tilleul 391 and 331.]

On the right--knot 3 light green threads over the 1st thread coming from
the left and repeat the same group twice, on both sides.

The third bar forms, at the same time, the first scallop of a triple
crossed bar, which has also to be made on the right.

The two crossed bars finish with a triple group of bars; the last bar of
which, on the right, consists of only one double knot.

There remain to be made, on both sides, crossed bars with three whole
scallops inside, one outside, and one half one, top and bottom.

[Illustration: FIG. 584. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 583.]

Knot all the other threads over the 4 blue and the 4 light green ones =
in the middle, knot the right and the left threads, alternately, till
the black threads meet at the point.

Turn the group of bars, edged with blue and light green, inwards, and
finish it off by a crossed bar, with 3 scallops inside.

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (figs. 583 and 584).--Entire length of the threads for
No. 15 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 120 c/m.

1st row--knot the threads on with picots, fig. 519, 6 écru and 6 brown.

2nd row--double and slanting bars made with 6 single threads, succeeded
by a double horizontal bar.

3rd row--begin with the light threads and make bars with double knots
between, as in fig. 577, and finish at the sides with 2 bars made with
the brown threads; for the dark brown bars, see also figs. 555, 561,
568, for the crossed bars, fig. 584.

This pattern should always end in such a manner that the light openwork
figure form the scallop and be framed with the brown knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 585. MACRAMÉ FRINGE. MATERIALS: Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 6 to 16, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 8 to 20, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A] COLOURS: Brun-Cuir 325 and Brun-Marron
403, 405, 407.[A]]

MACRAMÉ FRINGE (fig. 585).--Entire length of the threads for No. 12 of
Coton à tricoter D.M.C: 96 c/m.

This pattern is so easy that we refer our readers to figs. 544 and 561
for the working of it, merely remarking, that the bars are made
alternately from right to left, and from left to right, and that 3
threads are knotted over the cord that runs from the left and 4, over
the one from the right.

This fringe will always be found most effective in appearance if it be
made in four shades of one colour, knotted on in succession.

[Illustration: FIG. 586. MACRAMÉ FRINGE. MATERIALS: The same as for fig.
585. COLOURS: Gris-Tilleul 331 and Violet-Mauve 315 or, Bleu cendré 448
and Rouge-Cornouille 450, Bleu-Canard 3309 and Rouge-Maroquin 3328,
etc.]

[Illustration: FIG. 587. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 586.]

MACRAMÉ FRINGE OR GROUND (figs. 586 and 587).--Entire length of the
threads for No. 8 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 150 c/m.

This effective pattern is not difficult, save in appearance, so that it
is unnecessary to describe it in detail; for the knotting on, see fig.
525; for the plain bars, figs. 539 to 544; for the collecting knots,
fig. 530. The only difficult point is where the threads cross each other
inside the bars and form a check and by carefully following the course
of the knots in fig. 587, that will be easily overcome.

FRINGE OR GROUND WITH PICOTS (fig. 588).--Wind the threads on shuttles
and do the knotting on, as in fig. 521, followed by a double horizontal
bar.

Leave a small space between the double bar and the 3rd bar, which is a
single one, in which you cross the threads without knotting them.

Beginning on the left--over the 2nd and 3rd thread: 2 buttonhole knots,
1 picot, 2 button hole knots = over the 1st, 2nd and 3rd thread: 1
double knot with each of the 3 next threads = over the 6th and 7th with
the 5th thread: 4 buttonhole knots with 1 picot after the 2nd knot.

With each of the 4 next threads, that is the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th: 1
flat double knot followed by: 1 bar of double knots over the 12th thread
as the cord, made with the 11th, 10th and 9th thread = add 1 bar with
the 11th thread as the cord, and the 7 next ones as the knotting threads
= add 1 bar with the 10th thread as the cord, and the 7 next ones as the
knotting threads. Leave 3 threads free on the right = with the 8 threads
on the left: 1 bar over the thread before these 3 threads = leave 3 free
again on the right = 1 quintuple bar with the remaining threads.

* 1 flat double knot with the 15th, 16th and 17th thread = with the 20th
thread, over the 19th, 18th and 17th thread: 4 buttonhole knots with 1
picot after 2 knots = knot 4 threads over the 13th thread and from left
to right = from left to right, 2 bars with all the threads **.

[Illustration: FIG. 588. FRINGE OR GROUND WITH PICOTS. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 40 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to
50.[A] COLOURS: White, écru, or any light shade mentioned in the D.M.C
colour card.[A]]

Over the 2 threads on the left and with the 3rd thread: 4 buttonhole
knots and 1 picot = with the 6 threads from the left: 2 bars consisting
of buttonhole knots and picots = a 3rd bar with 6 double knots = join it
to the last bar.

Leave 2 threads of the bar of buttonhole knots free = with the outer
thread make: 4 buttonhole knots and 1 picot over the 2nd thread and the
cord of the bar.

Repeat from * to ** along the bar, also from right to left.

Left group--knot the 3 last threads over the 4th thread and from left to
right.

Right group--make, from right to left, 1 bar consisting of 6 double
knots, over the 4th thread counting from right to left. After these last
changes of the threads no difficulty will be found in copying the rest
of the pattern.

[Illustration: FIG. 589. DOUBLE FRINGE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30 and Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 16 to 35. COLOURS:
White for the Cordonnet, Rouge-Grenat 335 for the Coton à broder.]

[Illustration: FIG. 590. KNOTTED BERRY FOR FIG. 589.]

[Illustration: FIG. 591. LARGE SHELL KNOT, OPEN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 592. LARGE SHELL KNOT, SHUT.]

DOUBLE FRINGE (figs. 589, 590, 591, 592).--Entire length of the
threads for No. 10 of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 100 c/m., and entire
length for No. 16 of Coton à broder D.M.C: 40 c/m. Knot on, as in fig.
515, 1 thread of Cordonnet, 4 of Coton à broder (these are to be taken
double) 2 of Cordonnet, 4 of Coton à broder, and so on.

In the second horizontal bar, you only use the red threads of Coton à
broder for knotting, not the white Cordonnet ones. To supply their
place, knot on two threads of red Coton à broder under the white
threads.

With the red threads (4 count as one) make 3 rows of collecting knots,
followed by a single horizontal bar. Divide the white threads into twos
and make single chains with them, the whole length of the fringe; the
thread must be changed 8 times for each chain; then pass the right chain
under the left one and join them by a flat double knot.

You then, with the threads turned outwards, right and left, make the
single chain with 5 changes of the threads and join them together again
by a flat knot.

The other single chains are made with 6 and 8 changes of the threads and
crossed under the double knots. The tassels, which the red threads serve
as a foundation to, are begun by: 1 waved plait with two knots, then 4
single chains, again a waved plait and 1 berry composed of knots.

This berry is made over the 8 threads that come from the chains, with a
long auxiliary thread, knotted as shown in fig. 590.

[Illustration: FIG. 593. MACRAMÉ BORDER. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 10 to 20 and Or fin D.M.C No. 30. COLOUR--For the cotton:
Vert métallique 465[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 594. BEADED GROUND. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 25 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50 and gold beads.[A]]

Large shell knots, as described in figs. 591 and 592 may be substituted
in the place of the berry, fig. 590.

MACRAMÉ BORDER (fig. 593).--Fill 24 shuttles, knotted together, that
is, 2 and 2, and knot on 3 green threads, 6 gold and 3 green. The
changing of the threads and the course of the knots can be so easily
copied from the pattern that a description in detail is not necessary,
it is sufficient to observe that all the dark parts in the engraving
should be worked in green and the light ones in gold.

[Illustration: FIG. 595. SQUARE OF MOSAIC MACRAMÉ. MATERIALS: Fil à
pointer D.M.C No. 30, Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16 and Or fin D.M.C pour
la broderie No. 20[A]. COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 346, Rouge-Grenat 326 and
309, Bleu-Indigo 312 and 334, Gris-Tilleul 391 and 393[A].]

BEADED GROUND (fig. 594).--Knot on 4 threads for every group of knots,
and secure them by a knot and a picot, as shown in the engraving. Work
the groups of knots, as indicated in fig. 568, and after each group is
finished, thread a gold bead on to every 2 threads. Our model is worked
in écru thread and gold beads; the latter go very well with any colour
and especially with the more subdued shades of green, such as the
Vert-Mousse, Vert Bouteille and Gris-Tilleul of the D.M.C colour card.

SQUARE OF MOSAIC MACRAMÉ (figs. 595 and 596).--This little pattern
illustrates the way in which tapestry and cross-stitch patterns can be
utilised for macramé.

All patterns that are drawn on checked paper can be copied in macramé
and even in several colours. For every square, you count either one
single or one double thread, according to the scale on which the work is
to be.

In the case of a single thread, you count one double knot per square, in
that of a double one, 4 double knots, two in the first and two in the
second row.

After knotting the threads together, two and two, and pinning them to
the cushion, see letter _a_, make 2 single chains with 2 changes of the
thread, letters _b_ and _c_, then take a very long cord, letter _d_, and
knot on the threads. The cord forms picots along two sides of the
square; into which you fasten threads, letters _e_ and _f_, for the
single chain formed, on the two other sides by the knotting threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 596. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 595.]

The coloured threads for the flowers are knotted on as the pattern
requires it, taking the place for the time being, of those with which
the foundation is made, which are left hanging on the wrong side until
they are wanted again.

The top leaves of the iris shaped flower, are worked in two shades of
blue; the bottom ones, in three shades of red, the stalk and the leaves
in green, and the little stars, with which the ground is powdered, in
real gold thread.

When the ground is finished, you make the same openwork border at the
sides and along the bottom, as at the top and finish off with very full
tassels, hung on over 3 double threads and made of all the colours used
in the square, tied up with gold thread, fig. 596 letter _g_.

FRINGE WITH THREE ROWS OF TASSELS (fig. 597).--As this kind of fringe
is chiefly used for trimming carpets, curtains and furniture, it is best
to make it in the coarsest numbers of the materials indicated at the
foot of the engraving.

[Illustration: FIG. 597. FRINGE WITH THREE ROWS OF TASSELS. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 30, or Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to
30[A]. COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 312 and écru.]

The pattern is so simple in its construction that it is sufficient to
refer our readers to fig. 528, for the knotting on of the threads and to
fig. 531, for the waved plait.

The little tassels between the knots, are made separately from the rest
of the work and fastened on by the thread with which you sew them
together at the top.

[Illustration: FIG. 598. MACRAMÉ GROUND. MATERIALS: Ganse turque D.M.C
No. 12 and Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16. COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 347, or
Rouge-Cerise 3318.]

MACRAMÉ GROUND (fig. 598).--The work represented in the engraving was
made for a purse and copied from a beautiful piece of Arabian stuff.
Ganse turque D.M.C was used for the light background and Coton à broder
D.M.C for the design. It is very easy to copy this pattern from the
illustration by paying scrupulous attention to the number of knots; we
do not therefore enter into any detailed description of the same, merely
referring the worker to figs. 528 and 596 and the accompanying
directions, for the adding on and the taking off of threads.

MACRAMÉ SQUARE (figs. 599 and 600).--Length of the single threads of
both kinds: 200 c/m.

Knot upon a ring consisting of one thread: * 1 thread of white
Cordonnet, 1 of Coton à broder colour 309, 1 of colour 358, 1 of colour
309 and repeat three times from *. (The embroidery cotton is to be taken
double.)

Begin with the light red thread and make: 1 single chain with 3 changes
of the threads, 1 single chain with the dark red thread with 4 changes
of the threads. Add, or rather thread, 8 supplementary threads in
succession on to the white thread, which in fig. 600, comes in the
middle of the group of knots, and over each of these supplementary
threads, make 2 double knots with the light red thread and 2 with the
dark.

[Illustration: FIG. 599. MACRAMÉ SQUARE. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 15 and Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C No.
25 and Coton à broder D.M.C No. 30.[A] COLOURS: White, Rouge-Grenat 309
and 358, or Gris-Lin 716 and Rouge-Maroquin 3327 and 3329.[A]]

When all the red threads are knotted over the white ones, make crossed
bars with the red threads by themselves, thus producing a point at the
bottom of the leaf.

Then, over the first white thread coming from the right, knot all the
white threads on the left of it and in the last place, the cord itself,
over the 3 red threads.

Make the same series of threads on the left. This is succeeded by a
second bar of white knots, the last thread of which is left unknotted.
Make 4 double knots with the 8 white threads and close the square by a
double bar. Add a supplementary thread to the first bar, so that you may
have 10 threads coming from each side of the second bar and over these
you knot the red threads, which form a dark setting to the leaves.

[Illustration: FIG. 600. GRADUAL INCREASE OF THE THREADS. WORKING DETAIL
OF FIG. 599.]

When this is done on both sides, make 10 flat double knots with a
supplementary knot, taking 4 single threads for each knot, and
decreasing the number of knots successively to 2. At the point of the
inside square, knot the white threads over the red ones and turn back
the second white thread to serve as a cord to the first of the outside
bars. Join the first thread on the left and the first on the right, to
form a flat knot with them in the middle, the threads of which are then
passed over the red threads; the last white threads become the cords for
the second outer bar. Make a group of bars with the red threads and
cross them 3 times, then finish with a handsome tassel and join the
white threads together all round the square with tassels. In the case of
your wishing to use these squares for making a larger piece of work,
through joining several of them together, you can knot the ends of the
threads into short double chains, finishing off these again with ring
knots, fig. 608, and loops; through these loops, when you come to join
on the next square, the knotting thread is drawn, forming them thus into
connecting picots, like those which you make in tatting.

FRINGE WITH CORNER (figs. 601, 602, 603).--Macramé fringes are not
capable of being drawn up, as knitted, crochet, and netted fringes are,
on the inside, so as to turn the corners. Consequently, according to the
pattern, a greater or less number of supplementary threads have to be
knotted in so as to form the corners.

[Illustration: FIG. 601. FRINGE WITH CORNER. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A] COLOURS:
White and Rouge-Cardinal 348.[A]]

The working detail, fig. 602, shows us how the 5 first supplementary
threads, are looped on to the 4th row of knots. A group of crossed bars
requires 16 threads, which answer to 4 groups of little squares, placed
between the lozenges. The 6th supplementary thread is put into the
double connecting knot at the corner, fig. 603, and on this, the bar of
knots which runs right and left is subsequently made. (In order to make
it clearer, the supplementary threads are represented in the engraving
in a darker shade).

On the two middle threads, which are a continuation of the connecting
knot, 7 supplementary threads have next to be knotted, thread 7 singly,
threads 8 and 9 together, threads 10, 11, 12 and 13, all singly.

In this manner the supplementary threads 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13 connect
the two cords, whilst threads 8 and 9 only, are mounted separately on
both sides.

[Illustration: FIG. 602. ADDITION OF THE FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY THREADS.
WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 601.]

The bars, formed by the knots which are made with the supplementary
threads, must be drawn tight, like any other double bar. The space left
between the cords in the engraving is intentional, to distinguish the
supplementary threads from the others.

A long, coloured thread is looped on to the topmost thread, between the
two bars, and with this, knots are made over all the 14 threads that
come from the bars and run inwards.

In the middle of the square there must be 9 flat double knots; when
these are made, you continue knotting the red thread from the right and
left, down to the bottom point of the square, and complete the figure by
a single bar of knots, made of the white thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 603. ADDITION OF THE SECOND SUPPLEMENTARY THREADS.
WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 601.]

Knotted tassels, hanging from the points of the scallops, and others
ornamented with flat double knots made of 10 threads, suspended between
the scallops, form the outside finish to this fringe.

FRINGE WITH POINTED SCALLOPS AND LARGE TASSELS (figs. 604, 605, 606,
607, 608, 609, 610).--Entire length of the threads for No. 15 of
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C: 200 c/m.

[Illustration: FIG. 604. FRINGE WITH POINTED SCALLOPS AND LARGE TASSELS.

MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 10 to 50, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A]]

The present pattern, which concludes our chapter on macramé work, is one
of the most difficult of all, requiring great accuracy in every
particular, but more especially, extremely careful attention to the
direction of the cords, that the groups of double knots and the bars may
be drawn up very tightly together, so as to make the pattern very
distinct and give each figure its proper value.

[Illustration: FIG. 605. ADDITION OF THE FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY THREADS.
WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 604.]

For each repetition of the subject 16 threads are wanted. You begin the
half stars, on each side of the lozenges, with the 15th and 16th double
thread of the first figure and make 3 double knots with 3 threads over a
4th thread, fig. 606.

Over 2 cords on the left and 2 on the right, consequently over 4
threads: 5 buttonhole knots, with the 4 threads and the disengaged
threads, 1 flat double knot over each of the 4 threads. This forms a
shell knot, on either side of which, make 3 buttonhole knots over 3
threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 606. ADDITION OF THE OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY THREADS.
WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 604.]

For the groups of bars on either side of the shell, take the 11th,
12th, 13th and 14th double thread on the left, and the 3rd, 4th, 5th and
6th on the right. These groups are joined by buttonhole knots.

Knot the 4 threads of the left group over the cord on the right; and
over them again the 2 next threads on the right; knot the 4 threads on
the left over the 4th thread on the right; make 2 buttonhole knots with
the 4th thread over the 3 threads at the bottom and on the side.

Over the 4 threads, that come from the left and right, make quadruple
bars; cross the upper threads after the second row of bars, make 2
buttonhole bars with the next thread over the 4th thread, then finish
the 3rd and 4th bar of knots.

[Illustration: FIG. 607. CHINESE KNOT AND DOUBLE CHAIN FOR A RING KNOT.]

To make the olive-shaped group of knots on both sides, take the threads,
that come out from the shells, as cords. Fig. 605 shows the adding on of
the first supplementary thread, fig. 606, that of 12 more which, knotted
on to the first, form with it, the group of bars on the diagonal corner
line. The knots, of which the next large shell is composed, are made
with 2 more supplementary threads and one thread from the preceding
figure. Add on 2 more supplementary threads to the disengaged threads,
which 4 then serve as cords for the groups of bars, left and right.

The 4th group of bars which forms the corner of the fringe, is made on
the 4 threads that come from the large shell, on to which the fourth set
of 12 supplementary threads is knotted.

[Illustration: FIG. 608. RING KNOT FORMED OF A SINGLE CHAIN.]

The pattern ends at the bottom with a half star, and a double bar;
beneath these, large scallops are added, consisting of 2 half stars, 4
ovals, 1 whole star and 2 ovals.

All the threads that come from the groups are then collected at the top
of the scallops and overcast with strong thread, so as to form a thick
round cord along the edges of the scallops, widening towards the point,
as more and more threads are taken in. At the point, these threads are
knotted into a big tassel with another bunch of supplementary threads
added to them. The other small tassels, represented in fig. 604, are
made separately and then fastened on.

The fringe is further ornamented by large knotted tassels, introduced
between the scallops, for which, a large knotted berry, fig. 590, over
21 cords, has first to be made.

Collect the 21 threads all together, to begin with; then make: 2 rows of
knots over 12 threads, 1 over 15, 3 over 21, 1 over 15 and 2 over 12;
then cut the ends of the 21 threads to the same length, and turn them
inwards, to fill up the hollow space inside the berry, stuffing it
besides, if necessary, with wadding to make it perfectly firm and hard
and sewing it together at the ends.

To this you attach 5 large and 6 small pendants; the smaller ones are
begun with a Chinese knot, figs. 607 and 609, which terminates in a
double chain, formed into a ring knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 609. SMALL PENDANT OF THE TASSELS IN FIG. 604.]

[Illustration: FIG. 610. LARGE PENDANT OF THE TASSELS IN FIG. 604.]

These ring knots take the place, in macramé, of bead drops, in gimp
trimmings; when they are made of a double chain, you cut away 3
threads, when of a single, 1 thread, conceal the ends carefully inside
the knot, make a loop with the 4th or 2nd thread, fig. 608, and lastly,
fasten off all the ends with two or three invisible stitches.

Into the loop formed by the 4th thread, you hang 3 small ring knots,
made of a single chain, with a loop, top and bottom, formed of the ends
of the thread.

Fig. 609 represents the small pendant, of which six are required for a
tassel; fig. 610, the large one, of which there should be five. The
berry, or head of the tassel, is attached to a crochet, or knotted cord,
of which a description will be found in the last chapter but one of this
work.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: INSERTION IN EMBROIDERED NETTING.--ORNAMENT WITH VARIOUS
STITCHES.]



Netting.


Netting is a handicraft, so ancient that it would be difficult to trace
it to its origin, or determine the date of its invention. There is
evidence to show that the making of nets for fishing and game catching
was as familiar to the earlier races of mankind as it is to us.

Practised in the first instance for the wants of life, it by degrees
developed into an art, in conjunction with embroidery, to which it was
made to serve as a foundation. The netting of every country, almost, has
a distinctive character of its own: that of Persia is known by its fine
silken meshes and rich gold and silver embroidery; that of Italy, by the
varied size and shape of its meshes and a resemblance in the style of
its embroidery to the Punto tagliato; whilst the netting of France,
known by the name of Cluny guipure, consists of a groundwork of fine
meshes with stiff close designs embroidered upon it, outlined in coarse
glazed thread.

Netting, which divides itself under two headings, netting proper, or
plain netting and net embroidery, has never yet gone out of fashion and
places are still to be found where the entire population is engaged in
this industry.

PLAIN NETTING AND THE IMPLEMENTS USED IN NETTING (figs. 611, 612,
613).--Plain netting consists of loops, secured and rendered independent
of one another by knots. For forming and tightening these loops and
knots the following implements are necessary; in the first place, a
netting needle; these are generally made of steel, split and flattened
at both ends, with a hole bored through them below the fork at the one
end, in which the thread, fig. 611, is secured, before it is wound on
lengthwise between the forks. They are numbered as to size like knitting
needles. There are netting needles likewise of bone, ivory, wood and
tortoise-shell for twine and thick materials; these are without hole,
fig. 612.

[Illustration: FIG. 611. NETTING NEEDLE OF STEEL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 612. NETTING NEEDLE OF IVORY.]

The thread must be wound on very tightly, and not too much of it at a
time, that the needle may slip easily through the loops. The mesh, or
spool, fig. 613, whether of ivory, bone, steel or wood, should be smooth
and round and of the same thickness throughout, so that the loops, made
upon it, may be all of one size and easily slipped off.

[Illustration: FIG. 613. MESH OR SPOOL OF IVORY.]

For long loops a flat mesh is best, and in all cases, the needle and
mesh should be selected with a view, both to the material employed, and
the size of loop required.

In addition to these two implements, a cushion, weighted with lead will
be required, to pin the foundation loop to, on which the first row of
netting is worked.

MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR NETTING.--These, of course depend on the
purpose of the netting: silk, twine, wool and cotton, can all be used
and each possesses its advantages and disadvantages. Silk has the finest
gloss but when it is strongly twisted it is very apt to knot, and when
loosely twisted, does not make firm knots. It is difficult to get linen
thread with a smooth uniform twist and moreover it soon frays in the
working; wool is too elastic a fibre and is unsuitable for washing
purposes, cotton remains therefore, in every respect the most desirable
material, being both smooth and uniformly twisted; as qualities, more
especially adapted for netting we may mention the following: Fil à
pointer D.M.C, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C (crochet cotton), Fil à dentelle
D.M.C (lace thread), and even Coton à tricoter D.M.C[A] (knitting
cotton).

NETTING STITCHES.--The loops are always the same--four-cornered
whether they be square or oblong--and connected together, though secured
and rendered independent of one another by knots. By different ways of
passing the thread over the mesh and connecting the loops together, the
following stitches are produced: 1° plain loop, 2° double loop, 3°
oblong loop, 4° honeycomb loop, 5° twisted loop.

[Illustration: FIG. 614. FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

1° PLAIN LOOP. FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS (fig. 614).--Every kind of
netting requires a foundation loop, from 10 to 20 c/m. long, made either
of Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 10, or Fil à pointer D.M.C No.
10[A], which is pinned to the cushion. Fasten the working thread to the
foundation loop; then take the mesh in the left hand, holding it between
the thumb and forefinger, with the other fingers extended beneath. Take
the needle filled with thread in the right hand and pass the thread
downwards over the mesh and over the second, third and fourth fingers,
inside, carry it up behind the third finger and lay it to the left under
the thumb by which it has to be held fast.

[Illustration: FIG. 615. SECOND POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

SECOND AND THIRD POSITION OF THE HANDS (figs. 615 and 616).--Carry the
thread down behind the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers, and put
the needle through the loop on the fingers and behind the mesh, through
the foundation loop, thus forming a second loop, which you hold back
with the little finger of the left hand. Then gradually drawing up the
thread that runs from the mesh, let go the loop held down by the thumb;
then by degrees let go also, the loop which lies over the second, third
and fourth fingers, still holding the last loop fast with the little
finger; finally you release this too and pull up the knot thus formed
close to the mesh with the right hand. This completes the stitch. The
next stitches are made in the same way; whether they are to serve for
casting on or for a netted foundation. The mesh is drawn out at the end
of each row, the work turned and the mesh held beneath the last row, in
readiness for the next, in making which you pass your needle through
each loop. These diamond-shaped loops form a diagonal net.

[Illustration: FIG. 616. THIRD POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

2° DOUBLE LOOP.--To make a double loop put the thread two or three
times round the mesh.

3° OBLONG LOOP.--For oblong loops, the knots must be made a little
distance from the mesh.

4° HONEYCOMB LOOP.--Make an oblong loop, pass the thread round the
fingers, but not over the mesh as in plain netting, put the needle, not
into the loop of the previous row, but between the loop, just made. The
knot which is made in the same way as in plain netting, must be drawn
close up to the mesh; the two threads of the loop should lie side by
side on the mesh. The loops in honeycomb netting are six-sided.

5° TWISTED LOOPS.--Pass the thread, as in plain netting, over the mesh
and fingers, but before letting the thread which is under the thumb go,
pass the needle from right to left under the loop you are making and the
thread, and only then draw up the knot.

Although in netting the loops cannot be formed in as many different ways
as in knitting or crochet, they admit of a certain variety, as the
following explanations will show.

PATTERNS PRODUCED IN NETTING BY USING MESHES OF DIFFERENT
WIDTHS.--Plain netting can be varied by making one row of loops over a
large mesh and one over a small one, or several rows over the large and
several over the small, alternately, changing the meshes at regular
intervals.

[Illustration: FIG. 617. PATTERNS PRODUCED IN NETTING BY INCREASING AND
DECREASING.]

PATTERNS PRODUCED IN NETTING BY INCREASING AND DECREASING (fig.
617).--Patterns of this kind are made by netting the meshes together in
regular sequence and taking up as many meshes as you have netted
together, or vice versa. You may increase and decrease in the same rows,
or at an interval of so many rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 618. LOOSE LOOPS IN CLUSTERS.]

Two sizes of thread should be used for this patterns. To show the
relation they should bear to one another, we instance: Fil à pointer
D.M.C No. 30 with Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 50[A], or Coton à tricoter
D.M.C Nos. 14 and 30[A], with Coton à tricoter D.M.C No. 50[A], or
Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 25 with No. 100.[A]

Begin by 3 rows of plain netting with the finer thread over the small
mesh, followed by one row with the coarser thread over the large mesh;
then, with the coarse thread over the large mesh, one row, in which you
net every two loops together and one row, with two loops in every one,
so that the number of loops remains the same. These are followed by 3
rows of plain netting with the fine thread on the small mesh.

[Illustration: FIG. 619. LOOSE LOOPS IN CLUSTERS. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG.
618.]

LOOSE LOOPS IN CLUSTERS (figs. 618 and 619).--These clusters of loose
loops are made in the following manner:

1st row--one loop, the knot of which must be a little distance from the
mesh; put the thread over the mesh and the needle through the loop where
the knot is; repeat this three or four times, making the loops all of
the same length. Then unite all the loops with one knot, carrying the
needle from right to left, round the loops, instead of putting it
through the loop of the previous row.

2nd row--make one loop over each loop of the first row, leaving out the
loops that form the cluster.

As may be gathered from the drawing, many different patterns can be
worked upon the netting in this manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 620. NETTING COMPOSED OF PLAIN, DOUBLE AND OBLONG
LOOPS.]

NETTING COMPOSED OF PLAIN, DOUBLE AND OBLONG LOOPS (fig.
620).--Netting composed of large and small loops is the kind generally
used as a groundwork for embroidery. The loops of it are straight;
diamond netting will serve the same purpose, but as it is less commonly
used we have given the preference to the straight.

The whole first row consists of a double and a plain loop alternately;
the second, entirely of oblong loops, which are made by passing the
thread only once over the mesh, and so, that in netting on the double
loop, the knot is brought close to the needle, where as, in netting the
plain loop, it hangs free; so that, as shown in fig. 620, all the loops
of the 2nd row are of the same length. In the 3rd row, which is like the
first, the plain loops should come between the small holes and the
double ones between the large holes.

[Illustration: FIG. 621. CIRCULAR NETTING COMPOSED OF LONG AND SHORT
LOOPS.]

CIRCULAR NETTING COMPOSED OF LONG AND SHORT LOOPS (fig. 621).--Make
thirty or thirty one loops over a large mesh with a very stout material,
such as Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 20, or a double thread of Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C No. 30, then draw up the thread on which the loops are
strung, as tightly as possible, so as to form quite a small ring for the
centre, and fasten off.

For the next row, also made in coarse thread, fasten the thread on to a
long loop and make one loop into each loop of the first row, over a
small mesh. Use the same mesh for all the subsequent rows, which should
be worked in a finer thread, such as Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 50 or
60.

If you want to avoid fastening on the thread afresh for each row, make a
loop over the thumb.

MAKING LOOPS OVER THE THUMB.--Put the thread, as for a plain loop over
the mesh and fingers, and put the needle through the loop, likewise as
for a plain loop, but before tightening the knot, draw the mesh out of
the loop just made and make it exactly as long as the loop above.

[Illustration: FIG. 622. CIRCULAR NETTING FORMED BY INCREASES.]

CIRCULAR NETTING FORMED BY INCREASES (fig. 622).--Make 10 loops on the
foundation loop, close the ring, then go on, making a row with one knot
in the first loop and two knots in the second, until the net attains the
right circumference; in the subsequent rows, increase by one loop, that
is to say, make two knots in each of the previous increases.

[Illustration: FIG. 623. SQUARE OF NETTING. BEGUN.]

SQUARE OF NETTING (figs. 623 and 624).--To make squares of netting
with straight loops, begin by making two loops or three knots. Make two
knots in each of the following rows so that each row is increased by one
loop. Continue to increase until you have one loop more than the square
should number.

[Illustration: FIG. 624. SQUARE OF NETTING. COMPLETED.]

Following this row with the extra stitch, make a row without either
increase or intake and begin the intakes in the next row, joining the
two last loops of each row together by a knot. Finish the two last loops
over the thumb.

[Illustration: FIG. 625. SQUARE OF NETTING BEGUN FROM THE MIDDLE.
BEGUN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 626. SQUARE OF NETTING BEGUN FROM THE MIDDLE.
COMPLETED.]

SQUARE OF NETTING BEGUN FROM THE MIDDLE (figs. 625 and 626).--Instead
of beginning a square from the corner, in the manner just described, it
may be begun from the middle.

[Illustration: FIG. 627. STRIPE OF STRAIGHT NETTING EDGED WITH EMPTY
LOOPS.]

Cast on the required number of loops, make an intake in each row, by
omitting to take up the last loop of a row. In coming back, your first
knot will thus be made over the last loop but one of the previous row,
fig. 625. To complete the square, fasten the thread on again, to the end
of the thread of the last row, then make a similar to it, and repeat the
same rows you made at the beginning (see fig. 626).

[Illustration: FIG. 628. STRIPE OF STRAIGHT NETTING.]

STRIPES OF STRAIGHT NETTING (figs. 627 and 628).--These can be begun
and finished in two ways. The simplest way, more especially when they
are to be embroidered afterwards, is to cast on the necessary number of
loops, to decrease on one side by dropping a loop, fig. 627, or by
joining two loops together with a knot, fig. 628, and to increase on the
other side, by making two knots over one loop.

Great care must be taken not to change the order of the intakes and
increases, as any mistake of the kind would break the lines of squares,
and interfere with the subsequent embroidery, unless there happened to
be more loops in the stripe than stitches in the pattern, in which case
the superfluous loops might be cut away when the embroidery is finished.

STRAIGHT NETTING WITH A SCALLOPED EDGE (fig. 629).--The second way of
making stripes of straight netting is to begin by a square. After making
two loops on the foundation loop, make rows with increases, until you
have the required number of loops. Then make an increase in every row to
the left and leave the last loop empty in every row to the right.
Continuing the increases on the left, you net 4 rows, without
increasing or decreasing on the right, whilst in the next 4, you again
leave the outside loop empty.

[Illustration: FIG. 629. STRAIGHT NETTING WITH A SCALLOPED EDGE.]

SQUARE FRAME OF NETTING (fig. 630).--Handkerchief, counterpane and
chair-back borders can be netted in one piece, leaving an empty square
in the centre. After casting on the loops as for an ordinary square of
netting, letter _a_, increase them to double the number required for the
border. Thus, for example, if the border is to consist of 3 squares, you
make 6 loops, then leave 3 loops empty on the left and continue to work
to the right and decrease to the left, up to the dotted line from _c_ to
_c_. After this you begin to decrease on the right and increase on the
left, up to the dotted line from _e_ to _e_.

[Illustration: FIG. 630. SQUARE FRAME OF NETTING.]

Leaving the right side of the net, you now fasten on the thread at _c_,
where the 3 empty loops are, and here you make your increases on the
right side and your intakes on the left, till you come to the corner,
from whence you decrease on the right and increase on the left, up to
letter _g_. Stop on the left side and then work from left to right,
passing over the row that is marked _e_. The fourth corner, letter _b_,
is worked like any other piece of straight netting, with an intake in
each row, until there are only two loops left.

[Illustration: FIG. 631. DIAGONAL NETTING WITH CROSSED LOOPS. ORIGINAL
SIZE. MATERIALS--For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30,
or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 40.[A] For the darning stitches:
Coton à tricoter D.M.C Nos. 12 to 20, or Coton à repriser D.M.C Nos. 12
to 50.[A]]

DIAGONAL NETTING WITH CROSSED LOOPS (figs. 631 and 632). To work this
simple and effective pattern, begin by making a stripe of plain netting,
14 loops in width, for the middle. When it is long enough for your
purpose, take up all the loops on one side on a strong thread; fasten
the work to the cushion again and work 3 rows, along the other edge in
the following manner.

1st row--long loops, to be made by the thread being passed thrice over
the mesh.

2nd row--here, 3 loops are so made as to cross each other, that is, you
begin by putting your netting-needle at first into the 3rd loop,
counting from left to right, then into the 1st, and lastly into the
middle one of the three, so that the right loop leans to the left and
the left one to the right.

3rd row--one plain loop in each of the loops of the previous row. You
now, draw out the thread, run in on the other side, and run it in
through the loops last made, in order to make 3 rows again, as above
described, on the bottom side.

[Illustration: FIG. 632. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 631.]

When this is done, you begin the scallops, composed of 12 knots or 11
loops, or 14 loops and 15 knots = net 5 rows, leaving the outside loops
empty, fig. 632, stop on the left and proceed with: 6 knots or 5 plain
loops, 2 or 3 long loops with 3 overs, 3 plain loops = turn the work = 3
plain loops, 3 knots = turn the work = 2 loops with 3 overs, 3 knots =
turn the work = 2 plain loops, 2 knots = turn the work = cross 2 or 3
loops, according to the number you crossed in the middle, then carry the
working thread to the middle of the long loops, and connect them by 2
knots = pass the needle under the knot of the last long loop, then, on
the right side net: 3 plain loops = turn the work = 3 plain loops, 3
knots = turn the work = 2 plain loops, 2 knots = turn the work and
continue the rows of plain netting until you have only 2 loops left.

To reach the next scallop, pass the netting-needle through each hole of
the net and round each thread.

Finish off the scallops with a row of plain netting, made with a coarser
thread than the foundation.

[Illustration: FIG. 633. NETTED FRINGE.

MATERIALS--For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30 or Fil
à pointer D.M.C No. 30.[A]

For the fringes: Soutache D.M.C No. 3 or Lacets superfins D.M.C No.
4.[A]]

These netted edgings are generally made in unbleached cotton, because
the patterns afterwards embroidered upon them in coarse, white knitting
or darning cotton, show best upon it. The thread for this purpose should
be used double, and the pattern worked in darning stitches, made over 8
squares of the netting; the 8th knot is then encircled by a loop and the
thread carried down over 8 squares and a loop again made round the 8th
knot. After making 4 rows of stitches on the netting, cut 3 bars between
the rows of white stitches.

The row of openwork produced in this way has a very good effect and
greatly improves the look of the lace.

NETTED FRINGE (fig. 633).--Plain netting, pretty as it is, looks
rather poor, unless ornamented with embroidery of some kind. The double
netting, illustrated in fig. 633, will prove a welcome novelty. The
footing is worked in crochet, with braid, secured on both sides by chain
stitches.

Into every fourth of these chain stitches, net one loop, missing the 3
between. At the end of the row, turn the work and make the knot in the
middle of the 3 chain stitches, so that the 2 loops of netting cross
each other.

In the second, or rather the third row, the knots are again made first
into the front loops, into those of the first row that is; in the fourth
row, into those of the second row.

When the stripe is sufficiently wide, finish it off with tassels, made
of Soutache D.M.C No. 3. Instead of tying up the lengths of braid with a
thread, twisted round them and fastened off with a stitch, make 2 looped
knots round them with an end of the braid, where the neck of the tassel
should come.

[Illustration: FIG. 634. WIRE FRAME FOR EMBROIDERED NETTING.]

EMBROIDERED NETTING.--Embroidered netting, also known as Filet
Guipure, Cluny Guipure, and Richelieu Guipure, is a netted ground, with
patterns of one kind or another, worked upon it in a variety of
stitches.

IMPLEMENTS REQUIRED FOR EMBROIDERED NETTING.--Besides scissors,
needles and thread, a light steel frame is the only thing required, and
this renders embroidered netting very popular.

The needles should be long, and blunt; those called saddlers needles are
the best.

WIRE FRAME FOR EMBROIDERED NETTING (fig. 634).--The frame on which the
net is stretched should be made of strong iron wire, that will not bend
in the using. In shape, it may be square or oblong, according to whether
squares or edgings are to be made upon it, but the sides must be
straight, so that the net can be evenly stretched.

[Illustration: FIG. 635. MOUNTING THE NETTING ON THE FRAME.]

This wire frame must be covered, first with wadding or tow, as shown in
fig. 634, and then with silk ribbon, which must be wound tightly round
it, and more particularly at the corners, very closely, so that it may
be quite firm and not twist about when the netting is sewn in. The ends
of the ribbon should be secured by two or three stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 636. MOUNTING THE NETTING ON THE FRAME WITH AN
AUXILIARY TAPE.]

MOUNTING THE NETTING ON THE FRAME (fig. 635).--When the netting is
exactly the size of the inside of the frame, it need only be secured to
it with overcasting stitches, set very closely at the corners.

MOUNTING THE NETTING ON THE FRAME WITH AN AUXILIARY TAPE (fig.
636).--When the netting, is smaller, the space between it and the frame,
must be filled up with strong very evenly woven, linen tape, sewn on all
round the netting.

The tape must be very tightly held in the sewing, so that it even forms
little gathers all round; this will help you to stretch the netting in
mounting it without injuring it, and is especially necessary when the
netting is not quite evenly made. Fig. 636 shows how the tape is sewn
on, the fold that has to be made at the corners, and the way to fix the
netting into the frame.

Long stripes or large pieces of work, can be mounted on waxcloth, but we
cannot recommend shortening the preparatory work in this manner, as the
squares of netting are never so regular as when they are made in a
frame.

MATERIALS FOR EMBROIDERED NETTING.--Thick threads with a strong twist
are the best for darned, or embroidered netting, such as Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C[A] (crochet cotton), or Fil à dentelle D.M.C[A] (lace
thread).

There are however certain old kinds of embroidered netting made in soft
loose silk, for imitating which it is best to use, Coton à repriser
D.M.C[A] that being quite the best substitute for the original material.

THE STITCHES USED FOR EMBROIDERED NETTING.--These are so multifarious
and admit of so many different combinations, that not a few of them
seeing that be quite new to our readers, willsome we have never yet come
across in any book on the subject that has come under our notice.

ORDINARY DARNING STITCH (fig. 637).--The simplest stitch of all for
covering a netted ground is the ordinary darning stitch; drawing the
thread, that is to say, in and out of the number of squares, prescribed
by the pattern, and backwards and forwards as many times as is necessary
to fill them up.

[Illustration: FIG. 637. ORDINARY DARNING STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 638. LINEN STITCH. FIRST STITCHES.]

The number of stitches depends, to a certain extent, on the material
employed; with Coton à broder D.M.C for example, you will have to make
more stitches than with one of the coarser numbers of Coton à repriser
D.M.C.

This is the stitch generally used for reproducing a cross stitch pattern
on a netted ground and is especially to be recommended for covering
large surfaces, curtains, counterpanes and so forth, as it is quickly
done and shows up the pattern well.

[Illustration: FIG. 639. LINEN STITCH. SECOND STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 640. LINEN STITCH. FORMATION OF THE CORNERS.]

LINEN STITCH (figs. 638 and 639).--This is the stitch most often met
with in the old embroideries, it being the one the solid parts of the
leaves and flowers, and the borders are generally worked in.

Fasten on the thread to a knot of the netting and carry it twice to and
fro, over and under the threads of the netting, so that at the end of
the row, every second thread passes under and over the thread of the
netting, as it is carried upwards again.

This constitutes the first layer of threads, the second completes the
linen stitch and is made in the same way, only across the first,
alternately taking up and missing a thread as is done, in darning. The
thread may also be carried both ways over the threads of the squares. In
this case you must draw an uneven number of threads through the squares,
otherwise the crossing of the threads will be irregular in the last
square.

LINEN STITCH. FORMATION OF THE CORNERS (fig. 640).--When linen stitch
is used for the border of a pattern, and a corner has to be formed, you
begin by carrying the threads over a given number of squares. This first
layer, especially in the case of long stripes, must be kept very slack,
and to ensure the threads being all of the same length, lay a fine mesh
or a thick knitting needle at one end and stretch the threads over it.
After carrying the second layer across a few squares, take away the mesh
or needle. The threads of the first layer become gradually shorter, from
the passage of the cross threads in and out between them, and end by
being just long enough to prevent the last embroidered squares from
being too tightly stretched.

On reaching the corner, you cross the threads of the next row, as shown
in fig. 640. The first threads of the second side form the foundation of
the corner square; from the second corner square you pass to the third;
from the third to the fourth, carrying your thread alternately over and
under the threads that were stretched for the first corner.

LOOP STITCH (POINT D'ESPRIT) (figs. 641 and 642).--This is a light
open stitch, chiefly used for making a less transparent foundation than
plain netting. Fasten the thread to the middle of one bar of the
netting, then make a loose loop to the middle of the top bar of the same
square, fig. 641, by carrying the thread, from left to right, over one
vertical and one horizontal bar of the net and inserting the needle
downwards from above under the bar and in front of the working thread.
For the second row back, also represented in fig. 641, you draw the
needle through, underneath the bar above the loop stitch and make the
loop upwards from below; in doing this the working thread must lie to
the left, in front of the needle. Fig. 642 shows how to join the rows
and pass the needle through the stitches of the preceding row.

[Illustration: FIG. 641. LOOP STITCH. 1ST AND 2ND COURSE OF THE THREAD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 642. LOOP STITCH. SEVERAL ROWS COMPLETED.]

[Illustration: FIG. 643. STAR FORMED OF LOOSE THREADS LAYING THE
UNDERNEATH THREADS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 644. STAR FORMED OF LOOSE THREADS. LAYING THE UPPER
THREADS.]

STAR COMPOSED OF LOOSE THREADS (figs. 643, 644, 645).--This star
covers 16 squares of netting. Fasten the thread to the middle knot of
the 16 squares, then carry it diagonally over 4 squares, three times
from left to right under a knot of the foundation and three times from
right to left. In this way, the bottom rays of the star are formed. For
the stitches that complete the figure, you start from the middle and
following the direction of the little arrow in the illustration, you
cover the netting with 3 horizontal and 3 vertical threads, carried
over 4 squares. When you have laid the vertical threads, slip the needle
4 or 5 times round in a circle, under the diagonal and over the straight
threads, but always over the bars of the netting. This completes the
star, as it is represented in fig. 645. Care must be taken to make the
stitches lie quite flat side by side, and not one on the top of the
other.

[Illustration: FIG. 645. STAR FORMED OF LOOSE THREADS. FINISHED.]

DARNING STITCH (POINT DE REPRISE) (figs. 646 and 647).--Little flowers
and leaves are generally executed in this stitch; the first course of
the thread is shown in fig. 646. Leaves can be made with one, two or
three veins. Carry the needle, invariably from the middle, first to the
right and then to the left, under the threads of the foundation and push
the stitches close together, as they are made, with the point of your
needle. This you will be able to do most easily by holding the work so
as to make the stitches towards you.

[Illustration: FIG. 646. LEAVES WORKED IN DARNING STITCH. BEGUN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 647. LEAVES WORKED IN DARNING STITCH. COMPLETED.]

For a leaf with only one division or vein, like the left leaf in fig.
646, merely run the needle through the middle of the threads, whereas
for a leaf with two or three veins, you must run it, over and under,
either one, or two threads (see the right leaf in fig. 646).

In working leaves of this kind in darning stitch, you must draw your
stitches at the top and bottom of the leaf rather tighter than in the
middle, so as to give them the proper shape. If you wish to make them
very slender at the bottom, you can finish them off with a few
overcasting stitches.

Fig. 647 represents two leaves completed, one with one vein and the
other, with two.

POINTED SCALLOPS IN DARNING STITCH (fig. 648).--The simplest way to
work these scallops is to carry a thread, as shown in the illustration,
to and fro over the square, from the knot in one corner to the middle of
the bar above and downwards to the opposite knot, round which the thread
is carried and passed upwards again to the middle. As the scallop must
always be begun from the top, you will have, two foundation threads on
one side and three on the other. Here likewise, you must push the
threads as closely together as possible with the needle.

[Illustration: FIG. 648. POINTED SCALLOPS IN DARNING STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 649. POINTED SCALLOPS IN BUTTONHOLE STITCH.]

POINTED SCALLOPS IN BUTTONHOLE STITCH (fig. 649).--Another quite as
pretty and easy way of working pointed scallops on a netted foundation
is by making two buttonhole stitches before crossing to the opposite
side. As shown in the foregoing illustration, you begin by stretching
single or double foundation threads across; then beginning at the point,
you make, alternately right and left, 2 buttonhole stitches over the
foundation threads, so that the working thread is only carried across to
the opposite side after every second stitch.

VEINED POINTED SCALLOPS (fig. 650).--A third way of making pointed
scallops is by first stretching a thread to and fro across the middle of
the square, after which you slip the needle from left to right under the
middle thread, and underneath the left bar from above. Then you carry
the needle, from right to left, over the foundation thread and under the
right bar and so on. The one thread must be drawn tightly round the
other, in order that the stitches may form close and evenly shaped
veins, like small cords, on the wrong side of the scallop. There must be
enough stitches to completely cover the foundation thread that crosses
the middle of the square.

[Illustration: FIG. 650. VEINED POINTED SCALLOPS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 651. POINTED SCALLOPS IN VENETIAN STITCH.]

POINTED SCALLOPS IN VENETIAN STITCH (fig. 651).--The prettiest
scallops of all are those worked in Venetian stitch. You begin, by
making from 8 to 10 buttonhole stitches over one bar of the netting,
then you work on with the same stitch backwards and forwards, making one
stitch less in each row, until you come to the one which forms the point
of the scallop and is fastened to the bar above; you carry the working
thread back on the wrong side to the lower bar, and then under the
buttonhole stitches to the next square of the netting. Scallops worked
in this manner, can be overcast round the edges in the way described
further on, in fig. 660.

WHEELS EMBROIDERED ON NETTING (figs. 652 and 653).--To make wheels or
spiders, as they are also called, you have first to fasten the thread to
the middle knot of four squares, thence you carry it diagonally right
and left, fig. 652, right detail, across the empty squares of netting
and the knot, and return to the middle, overcasting your first thread
by the way, so as to form a closely twisted cord. This is called cording
a thread.

Having reached the centre, carry the working thread round and round,
under and over the corded threads and under the bars of the netting till
the wheel covers half the bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 652. LAYING THE THREADS FOR A WHEEL AND BEGINNING OF
THE WHEEL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 653. WHEELS WORKED IN TWO WAYS.]

Fig. 653 shows, on the right, a finished wheel, and on the left, another
way in which it can be made, and indicates the course of the thread over
and under the lines, as in a darn. These details show also how, when the
foundation thread of the wheel starts from a corner, it is left single
in the first square until the wheel is finished; then the needle is
slipped back along the little spoke, opposite to the single thread, and
through the wheel, and the single thread is corded like the others.

[Illustration: FIG. 654. RIBBED WHEELS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 655. RIBBED SQUARES OR LOZENGES.]

RIBBED WHEELS (fig. 654).--Make the foundation of the wheels as
before, over 8 threads. To form the ribs at the back of the wheels, see
fig. 654; make a back stitch, on the right side, over a bar of the
netting, and carry on the needle under one bar, so that the thread that
lies outside always crosses 2 bars of the netting.

In this case you must make circles of thread enough, to cover the bars
completely, not half, as before.

The same stitches, as fig. 654 shows, can be made on either side of the
embroidery, and so as to form, either a square or a lozenge (see fig.
655).

[Illustration: FIG. 656. WHEELS SET WITH BUTTONHOLING.]

WHEELS SET WITH BUTTONHOLING (fig. 656).--A very pretty lace-like
effect is produced by encircling the wheels in large squares of netting
with a double setting of stitches. The left detail of fig. 656 shows how
the thread, having been passed under the wheel and twisted once round
the single thread, is carried all round the square and forms 8 loops.

The arrow shows the way in which the loops are taken up, and the first
ring of stitches round the wheel is finished.

The second detail of the same figure explains the course the thread,
that forms the second ring, has to take through the loops and between
the bars; whilst the white line shows the passage of the thread over the
second ring. The third detail represents a wheel, completed.

[Illustration: FIG. 657. STAR WITH ONE-SIDED BUTTONHOLE STITCHES.]

STAR WITH ONE-SIDED BUTTONHOLE STITCHES (fig. 657).--The pattern
represented in fig. 657, is the quickest to work that we know of. Two
buttonhole stitches made upon the outside bar of a square and a simple
crossing of the thread at the bottom, produce elongated triangles which
should always be begun from the knot. Two triangles stand exactly
opposite to each other in one square, and the square that comes in the
middle of the four thus filled, is ornamented with a small wheel.

[Illustration: FIG. 658. ROUNDED CORNERS ON NETTING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 659. LINEN STITCH SET WITH DARNING STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 660. LINEN STITCH SET WITH CORD STITCH.]

ROUNDED CORNERS OF NETTING (fig. 658).--Darning stitches, made over a
thread carried diagonally across one square and the adjacent corners of
that and two other squares, produce the figure illustrated in fig. 658.
The accompanying detail shows the mode of working.

The number of stitches depends on the material you use; there should be
no more than can lie quite flat, side by side, on the diagonal thread.

LINEN STITCH, SET WITH DARNING STITCH (fig. 659).--There are some
patterns it would hardly be possible to work on netting unless you could
soften the outlines by darning stitches, as shown in the foregoing
figure.

When employed as a setting to linen stitch, there should be fewer than
in fig. 658; you may also, instead of interrupting them at every corner,
carry them all round a square, (see the right detail of the figure).

LINEN STITCH SET WITH CORD STITCH (fig. 660).--Many figures are also
either corded or edged with twisted thread; both ways are represented
in the illustration. In the latter case you can use the same thread as
for the linen stitch, or if you wish the setting to be very pronounced,
a thicker one. For instance, if the netting be made of Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 25[A] we recommend Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 15 or 20[A] for
the setting. This difference of material is especially noticeable in the
old Cluny Guipure, where the figures worked in linen stitch are edged
with a thread like a cord. But if the linen stitch be bound with cord
stitch, the same thread must be used for it, as for the foundation. A
soft material, like Coton à repriser, makes the best padding for the
overcasting stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 661. FLOWER IN DOT STITCH ON A FOUNDATION OF LINEN
STITCH.]

FLOWER IN DOT STITCH ON A FOUNDATION OF LINEN STITCH (fig. 661).--With
the help of this stitch, which is described in the chapter on white
embroidery and represented in fig. 179, a great variety of little
supplementary ornaments can be made, on every description of netted
ground.

[Illustration: FIG. 662. BORDERING IN BUTTONHOLE STITCH.]

BORDERING IN BUTTONHOLE STITCH (fig. 662).--Scalloped edges in netting
should be buttonholed; 2 or 3 padding threads should be run in first,
following the bars of the netting, over which the buttonholing is done;
the bars of the netting must not be cut away until the edge be finished.

CUT WORK IN EMBROIDERED NETTING (fig. 663).--Cut work here means half
covering the bars of the netting with button-hole stitches and half
cutting them away with scissors. The inner bars are frequently
ornamented with a double buttonhole edging and knotted picots, see figs.
698 and 699 in the next chapter. You slightly separate the stitches of
the first row of buttonholing so as to be able to introduce the thread
of the second row between them.

[Illustration: FIG. 663. CUT WORK IN EMBROIDERED NETTING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 664. STRAIGHT LOOP STITCH.]

STRAIGHT LOOP STITCH (fig. 664).--In the first row you carry the
thread over one bar and slip it through behind a knot; in the second you
do the same thing, only that above, your needle will pass under 3
threads, two of them the threads of the loop of the first row and the
third a bar of the net. In every square 4 threads cross each other.

[Illustration: FIG. 665. WAVED STITCH.]

WAVED STITCH (fig. 665).--This stitch, which forms a close waved
ground, is produced by passing the thread in each row of the netting
over a square and behind a knot. When the pattern admits of it, as it
mostly does, a considerably thicker thread is used for this stitch and
for the stitches represented in figs. 667, 668, 669 and 670, than that
in which the netting is made. When the netted ground is of Fil à
dentelle D.M.C No. 50,[A] the embroidery upon it may very well be done
in Cordonnet 6 fils. D.M.C No. 10[A], or Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 30.[A]

INTERSECTED LOOP STITCH (fig. 666).--Begin by covering the whole
surface to be embroidered with plain loop stitches, then stretch threads
diagonally across the squares of the netting and the loop stitches; one
set of threads running over the stitches and under the knots of the
netting, the other under the first and second threads of the loop
stitches and over the first crossed threads and the knots.

The laying and stretching of these threads must, it is hardly necessary
to say, be systematically and regularly done.

[Illustration: FIG. 666. INTERSECTED LOOP STITCH.]

GROUND WORKED IN HORIZONTAL LINES (fig. 667).--Make half cross
stitches over 4 squares of netting, by passing the thread alternately
over and under 3 knots, and under 3 squares of the netting. In the
second row, cross the threads over those of the first row, as is shown
in our engraving.

GROUND WORKED IN STITCHES PLACED ONE ABOVE THE OTHER (fig.
668).--Cover a whole row of squares with cross stitches and leave 3 rows
of squares empty. When you have a sufficient number of rows of cross
stitches, take a long needle and pass it upwards from below, and from
right to left, under the two bars of the third upper square; then pass
downwards to the first square of the 3 bottom rows and under the bars
from right to left, so as again to leave 3 squares between the fresh
stitches. The next row of stitches is made in the same manner, so that
the stitches are not only set contrary ways but reciprocally cover each
other.

LATTICED GROUND (fig. 669).--Begin by running the thread, to and fro,
under two vertical bars and over three horizontal ones. When the ground
is entirely covered, carry your thread from right to left, under the
bars over which the first rows of threads are crossed; then take it over
the long crosses, that correspond to 5 squares of netting, and pass it
in the same line under the bars of the netting. In coming back, the long
stitches cross each other over the stitches of the first rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 667. GROUND WORKED IN HORIZONTAL LINES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 668. GROUND WORKED IN STITCHES PLACED ONE ABOVE THE
OTHER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 669. LATTICED GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 670. GROUND WORKED IN RUSSIAN STITCH.]

GROUND WORKED IN RUSSIAN STITCH (fig. 670).--Pass the thread from left
to right, under a bar of the netting, carry it downwards over 4 squares
and pass it again, from left to right, under the bar, then upwards,
again over 4 squares of netting and so on. The stitches of the next rows
are made in the same manner; you have only to see that the loops formed
by the stitches all come on the same line of knots.

GROUND WORKED IN TWO SIZES OF THREAD (fig. 671).--Herewith begins the
series of stitches, referred to at the beginning of the chapter, copied
in part from one of the oldest and most curious pieces of embroidered
netting we have ever met with. The copies were worked with Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C No. 25 and écru Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 70[A]; the former
being used for the darning and the almond-shaped stitches between; the
latter for the buttonhole stitches. Wherever two sizes of thread are
used for one pattern, all the stitches in the coarse thread should be
put in first and those in the fine, last.

[Illustration: FIG. 671. GROUND WORKED IN TWO SIZES OF THREAD.]

GROUND WITH WHEELS AND LOOP STITCH (fig. 672).--You begin with the
coarse thread and finish all the wheels first, making them each over 4
threads of the netting; then with the fine thread, you make loop
stitches between them, in rows, as shown in figs. 641 and 642.

GROUND WORKED IN DARNING AND LOOP STITCH (fig. 673).--The darning
stitches are made in the coarse thread, over 4 squares of the netting,
in a horizontal direction, with loop stitches, in the fine thread, made
between them, over the same number of squares.

[Illustration: FIG. 672. GROUND WITH WHEELS AND LOOP STITCH.]

GROUND WORKED IN TWO SIZES OF THREAD (fig. 674).--Carry the coarse
thread, from right to left, under the first knot of the netting, and
then under the next, from left to right. This has to be done twice, to
and fro, so that the squares of the netting are edged on both sides with
a double layer of threads.

When the whole foundation has been thus covered, take the fine thread
and make loop stitches in the squares between the other rows of
stitches, passing the needle for that purpose over the double stitch.
Lastly, intersect the loop stitches with straight threads and pass the
needle each time through the knot of the netting.

[Illustration: FIG. 673. GROUND WORKED IN DARNING AND LOOP STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 674. GROUND WORKED IN TWO SIZES OF THREAD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 675. GROUND WORKED WITH CROSS STITCHES IN ONE SIZE
OF THREAD.]

GROUND WORKED WITH CROSS STITCHES IN ONE SIZE OF THREAD (fig.
675).--This pattern, very like the foregoing one, consists of 3 diagonal
rows of stitches, worked to and fro, with cross stitches made over them.

You may also begin with the cross stitches, in the fine thread, and work
the triple stitches over them, in the coarse.

GROUND WORKED WITH DARNING AND CORD STITCHES (fig. 676).--Patterns,
executed chiefly in darning stitches, in a comparatively coarse thread,
present a closer and heavier appearance than those we have been
describing. Here, every other square of the netting is filled, as
closely as possible, with stitches; the empty squares between are
intersected diagonally with corded threads.

[Illustration: FIG. 676. GROUND WORKED WITH DARNING AND CORD STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 677. GROUND WORKED WITH SQUARES AND WHEELS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 678. GROUND WORKED WITH SQUARES AND WHEELS.]

GROUND WORKED WITH SQUARES AND WHEELS (figs. 677, 678, 679).--A ground
very often met with in old embroidered netting, consists of diagonal
lines of squares, closely filled with darning stitches, alternating with
diagonal lines of squares, each with a small wheel in the middle.

In fig. 678, the darning stitches, and the wheels, which are both worked
with the same material, cover 4 squares of the netting.

Larger expanses of netting may also be entirely filled with wheels, fig.
679. To make a really satisfactory grounding of this kind, you should be
careful always to carry your thread over the bars of the netting and
under the threads that are stretched diagonally across.

GROUND WORKED IN CROSS AND DARNING STITCH (fig. 680).--You begin, as
before, by making the close darning stitches, and then proceed to the
cross stitches. To give them the right shape, finish all the rows of
stitches one way first; in the subsequent rows, that cross the first
ones, you introduce the thread between the stitches that were first
crossed.

[Illustration: FIG. 679. GROUND WITH LARGE WHEELS.]

GROUND OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES (fig. 681).--This pattern, quite
different from all the others, consists of simple geometrical lines.
Fasten the thread to a knot of the netting, then carry it, always
diagonally, under 3 other knots and repeat this 3 times, after which,
carry it once round the bar of the netting, to fasten it, and back again
to the knot which it already encircles, and from thence begin a new
square. Owing to your having always to bring the thread back to the knot
whence the next square is to begin, you will have 4 threads on two of
the sides and 6 on the two others.

[Illustration: FIG. 680. GROUND WORKED IN CROSS AND DARNING STITCH.]

In the second and subsequent rows, the needle has to pass twice under
the angles that were first formed, in order that, over the whole
surface, all the corners may be equally covered and connected.

NETTED INSERTION WORKED IN PLAIN DARNING STITCH (fig. 682).--The taste
for ornamenting not only curtains but bed and table linen also, with
lace and insertion of all kinds, to break the monotony of the large
white surfaces, is becoming more and more general and the insertion here
described will be welcome to such of our readers as have neither time
nor patience for work of a more elaborate nature.

The way to make straight netting has already been fully described in
figs. 625, 626, 627, 628, 629 and 630, and darning stitch in fig. 637.

To those who wish to be saved the trouble of making the netting
themselves, we can strongly recommend various fabrics, intended to take
its place, more especially Filet Canevas, which is an exact imitation of
the finest hand-made netting. The centre part of the pattern in fig.
682, is worked in rows of horizontal darning stitches, the narrow border
in vertical ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 681. GROUND OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 682. NETTED INSERTION WORKED IN PLAIN DARNING
STITCH. MATERIALS--For the netting: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 25.--For
the darning stitch: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 25, or Coton à repriser
D.M.C Nos. 12 to 50, white or écru.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 683. EMBROIDERED GROUND OF NETTING. MATERIALS--For
the netting: Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50. For the darning stitch:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 15, or Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 30.--For the
loop stitch: Fil à dentelle D.M.C or Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C according to
the size of the netting thread.]

GROUND OF NETTING EMBROIDERED (fig. 683).--We have already had
occasion, in the foregoing explanations, to point out the advantage of
embroidering with two sizes of thread, but it is only in a piece of work
of a certain size that it is possible really to judge of the excellent
effect produced by the use of two threads of different sizes.

The principal lines of the pattern, which are in darning stitch, are
worked in a very coarse thread with a strong twist, Fil à pointer D.M.C,
whilst the loop stitches are in Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C.

Our model was worked in écru thread but there is nothing to prevent
several colours being introduced, for instance écru, black or
Gris-Ficelle 462 for the netted foundation; Rouge-Cardinal 346, for the
darning stitches, and Chiné d'or D.M.C green and gold or blue and gold,
for the loop stitches and the threads that are carried across inside.

[Illustration: FIG. 684. EMBROIDERED SQUARE OF NETTING. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 15 to
40, white or écru.[A]]

EMBROIDERED SQUARE OF NETTING WITH TWO KINDS OF LACE SUITABLE FOR THE
BORDER (figs. 684, 685, 686).--Large pieces of embroidered netting are
generally made up of squares and stripes, joined together with ribbon
and fine linen insertions. It is easier and less cumbrous to make the
netting in separate pieces. Squares of different patterns can also be
combined with crochet and pillow lace, in this case of course the
squares have to be arranged with some system.

Fig. 685 represents a lace edging intended for the square fig. 684,
which shows how even in such a simple pattern as this, several colours
may be successfully introduced.

Fig. 686 is a handsomer and more elaborate pattern for the same kind of
purpose. The loop stitches and the linen stitches should be worked in a
very light shade; instead of the colour indicated at the foot of the
engraving, Rouge-Géranium 353, Violet-Mauve 377 or Jaune-Rouille 365 may
be used; for the netting and the loop stitches you may combine, with the
first shade, two shades of Brun-Caroubier 303 and 357, with the second,
two shades of Jaune-vieil Or 678 and 680 and with the third, two shades
of Rouge-Cardinal 346 and 348.

[Illustration: FIG. 685. LACE EDGING FOR THE SQUARE, FIG. 684.
MATERIALS: The same as for fig. 684, and Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie
No. 30. COLOURS--For the netting and the loop stitch: White or
écru.--For the darning stitch: Brun-Caroubier 303 and Rouge-Grenat
335.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 686. LACE EDGING. MATERIALS: The same as for 684.
COLOURS--For the netting: écru.--For the ground in loop and linen
stitch: Bleu pâle 668.--For the bars in darning stitch: Gris-Tilleul 391
and 393.[A]]

PATTERN FOR GROUND (fig. 687).--The peculiar charm of this most
unpretending pattern is chiefly due to the variety of material and
colour introduced into it. The netted ground is made of dark brown
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 25, worked over, in the first instance, with
loop stitches in a pale grey, which are afterwards connected by darning
stitches in Coton à repriser Gris-Tilleul 392.

[Illustration: FIG. 687. PATTERN FOR GROUND. MATERIALS--For the netting:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30. For the embroidery: Coton à
repriser D.M.C No. 25. COLOURS: Brun-Havane 455, Gris-Noisette 423,
Jaune-vieil-Or 680, Gris-Tilleul 391 and Rouge-Géranium 352.[A]]

The same material in Rouge-Géranium, is used for the little centre
squares and the pink crosses, and isolated darned squares are framed
with loose cord stitches in Coton à repriser colour Jaune-vieil-Or 680.


We can also recommend, for the same pattern, the following combination
of colours, all to be found on the D.M.C colour card; namely, Bleu pâle
668 for the netting; Chiné d'or, gold with dark blue for the loop
stitches; Ganse turque D.M.C No. 12 (Turkish gold cord) for the darning
stitches, between the loop stitches; Coton à broder or Cordonnet 6 fils
in Rouge-Cornouille 450, for the detached darned squares and Coton à
repriser, in Jaune-d'Or 667 for the setting of all the different parts
of the pattern.

[Illustration: FIG. 688. EMBROIDERY ON NETTING WITH DIFFERENT-SIZED
LOOPS. MATERIALS--For the netting: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 40. For the
embroidery: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 16, white or écru.[A]]

EMBROIDERY ON NETTING WITH DIFFERENT-SIZED LOOPS (fig. 688).--The
netting, described and represented in fig. 620, with plain, oblong and
double loops, here forms the ground for the embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 689. SQUARE IN CUT NETTING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 690. LACE EDGING IN CUT NETTING. MATERIALS: Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, in three shades of one colour.]

In order to make the isolated loop stitches, the thread which forms the
cross in the middle must be carried to the middle of the bar, the loops
that form the stitches must be finished and the thread carried back to
the knot whence it started. It must then be taken three times backwards
and forwards over the foundation thread and the two bars of the
netting, when the stitches, into and over 3 squares of the netting,
should be made. The last row in the engraving shows the pattern in the
successive stages of its development.

[Illustration: FIG. 691. NETTING INSERTION MATERIALS--For the netting:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 40 white or écru.--For the embroidery: Ganse
turque D.M.C Nos. 6 and 12.]

SQUARE AND EDGING IN CUT NETTING (figs. 689 and 690).--Few patterns
admit of such a successful application of all the stitches hitherto
described, as the square and edging presented to our readers in the two
subjoined figures. On a netted ground of rather fine thread, we have in
the first place, linen stitch, in the border, worked in rather a coarser
thread than the ground; then raised wheels, buttonholed bars with picots
in the centre, plain wheels very close together, and long ribbed bars
worked in darning stitch.

The edging, to match the square, is worked in the original in pale
shades, in contrast to the square which is executed entirely in écru
thread. The squares in the netted footing of the lace are loosely
overcast with pale Violet-Mauve 316, the same colour is also used for
the wheels in the outside edge, each of which fills a square, and for
the loop stitches round them; whilst the middle one of the three upper
ribbed wheels and the star are worked in dark Violet-Mauve 315. The
crosses in linen stitch, the three lower ribbed wheels and the long
ribbed bars in darning stitch, are in Gris-Tilleul 392.

NETTED INSERTION (fig. 691).--This is a copy of a beautiful piece of
embroidered netting, to all appearance, several centuries old, and in a
state that rendered, even the most delicate handling almost impossible.

After several experiments, the best result has been arrived at, and the
Turkish cord in which the original is made, has now been manufactured
for netting purposes, as well as for other kinds of decorative work,
already alluded to, and referred to again later on.

The first foundation, that is, the actual netting, for a thing of this
kind, should be made in white or écru thread, with very small meshes;
the pattern itself is embroidered on the netting with Ganse turque D.M.C
No. 12; this material, écru and gold mixed, gives the work a glittering
and peculiarly elegant appearance, unobtainable in any other.

The execution is extremely easy, it being worked entirely in darning
stitch; but the drawing should be copied with great accuracy and the
wide braid very carefully sewn on with close stitches round the squares,
which are filled in with darning stitches made in Ganse turque No. 12.

Any netting pattern can be copied in this braid, and the simplest piece
of work of the kind is worth mounting on a rich foundation of silk,
brocade, velvet or plush. To give a single example, the insertion here
described and illustrated, was mounted on slate-blue plush and has been
universally admired.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: INSERTION.--IRISH LACE WITH RAISED ORNAMENTS.]



IRISH LACE.


Irish lace, also known under the name of Renaissance lace, from its
having been first made in the sixteenth century, is an imitation of the
earliest pillow laces; it ought, properly speaking, to be called French
lace, having been invented in France and thence introduced into England
and Ireland.

It is composed of braid or tape, formed into figures, joined together by
needlemade, corded or buttonhole bars and fillings of different kinds,
or by bars alone.

The lace stitches and bars are almost the same as those used in fine
Venetian point, but they are executed in a coarser material so that this
section of our work may be considered as a preparation for the different
kinds of lace, to be described in the next chapter.

MATERIALS (fig. 692).--The braids used for making Irish lace are an
English speciality and manufactured exclusively in England; they are
very various in shade, width and thickness, and are to be had white,
unbleached, grey and pale yellow, narrow and wide, coarse and fine in
texture, with and without holes, open edge and picots, with large
medallions and small.

Fig. 692 represents the kinds most commonly used, in their original
size, together with a specimen picot, or purl, as they are called in
England, for the outside edge, also to be had ready made, for those who
do not care for the trouble of making them themselves.

For the stitches and bars by which the braids are joined together, the
best material is Fil à dentelle D.M.C,[A] (lace thread) a smooth even
thread, now made in every colour to match the braids.

[Illustration: FIG. 692. PATTERNS OF THE DIFFERENT TAPES AND BRAIDS USED
FOR IRISH LACE.]

TRANSFERRING DESIGNS FOR IRISH LACE.--The best way is to trace them on
oiled tracing linen with a watery ink, free from greasy matter. This
tracing linen, which is of English make, is white, glazed on one side
only; the unglazed surface should be turned uppermost, as it takes the
ink better.

As this tracing linen is quite transparent, the pattern can be
transferred to it at once without recourse to any other process.

It will be found less trying for the eyes to lay a piece of transparent
coloured paper, or stuff, under the pattern whilst you are copying it.
The Irish lace designs are almost all drawn with double lines, between
which the braid is tacked on with small back stitches. We may mention at
once that it is advisable to make the stitches longer on the right side
than on the other, or at any rate to make them of the same length.

TACKING DOWN AND GATHERING IN THE BRAIDS (fig. 693).--Where the lines
of the pattern describe a curve or a circle, the outside edge of the
braid, as shown in fig. 693, must be sewn down firmly, so as to form
little folds or gathers on the inside edge, which are first tacked down
and then gathered in with small overcasting stitches in fine thread, so
as to fit exactly to the pattern.

[Illustration: FIG. 693. TACKING DOWN AND DRAWING IN THE BRAIDS.]

The stitches, made for the bars and the fillings, must never be drawn so
tightly as to drag out the edges of the braids and thus spoil the
outlines of the pattern. Nor should the stitches be caught into the
tracing cloth, but only rest upon it.

When the embroidery is finished, turn the work the wrong side up, cut
every second or third tacking stitch and pull the threads carefully out,
from the wrong side, when the lace will separate itself from the backing
without difficulty; it has then to be damped and ironed also on the
wrong side. (See the concluding chapter on the different processes for
finishing off needlework).

It is of no consequence which are made first, the bars or the fillings;
we however incline to the former, more especially in the case of
buttonhole bars, as they are easier to do than the fillings and once
done, there is less risk of puckering or drawing the edges together, in
making the fillings.

THE STITCHES.--We shall now proceed to describe a series of bars and
stitches, which, if carefully studied, will serve as a preparation for
making all the finer kinds of laces described in the ensuing chapter.

Without pretending to have exhausted the infinite variety of lace
stitches that exists, we hope to have brought before our readers' notice
a sufficiently numerous selection to satisfy all tastes and capacities.

With regard to the names, the same stitches are known by so many
different ones, that excepting in the case of those universally
accepted, we have disregarded them altogether and merely numbered the
stitches in their order.

[Illustration: FIG. 694. PLAIN TWISTED BAR.]

PLAIN TWISTED BAR (fig. 694).--Secure the thread to the braid and
throw it across from one braid edge to the other, put the needle in
downwards from above, and overcast the first thread, so as to form the
two into a cord. If you do not make enough overcasting stitches to
tighten the two threads, the bars will be loose and untidy and spoil the
general appearance of the work.

[Illustration: FIG. 695. DOUBLE TWISTED BAR.]

DOUBLE TWISTED BAR (fig. 695).--Throw three foundation threads across
the space to be filled and overcast them loosely, so that they remain
visible between the stitches.

PLAIN BUTTONHOLE BAR (fig. 696).--Throw three threads across and cover
them with buttonhole stitches, made from right to left.

In making this and the subsequent bars, we recommend turning the needle
round and holding it as it were the reverse way, so that the eye not the
point passes first under the threads; strange as it may seem, it is
easier in this manner to avoid splitting the threads. The working thread
should always issue from the edge of the braid, one or two threads
before the foundation threads of the bar, to prevent the bars being of
unequal width, or getting twisted at the beginning.

BUTTONHOLE BARS WITH PINNED PICOTS (figs. 697 and 698). After covering
half, or a third of the bar with buttonhole stitches, pass the thread
without making a loop, under the foundation threads, and fasten the loop
with a pin, fig. 697, then slip the needle, horizontally from right to
left, under the 3 threads and tighten the knot close to the last
buttonhole stitch.

[Illustration: FIG, 696. PLAIN BUTTONHOLE BAR.]

[Illustration: FIG. 697. BUTTONHOLE BAR WITH PINNED PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 698. BUTTONHOLE BAR WITH PINNED PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 699. BAR WITH LACE PICOT.]

Fig. 698 shows a picot made in the same manner, but with several
buttonhole stitches inserted between the loop and the buttonholed bar.

BAR WITH LACE PICOT (fig. 699).--Here the picot is made by bringing
the thread out through the loop and beginning the buttonhole stitches, 4
or 5 in number, according to the size of the thread, quite close to the
pin, so that they entirely cover the loop. The pin must be stuck in the
width of 4 stitches, distant from the bar, and the foundation threads
should be completely hidden under the bar.

BAR WITH PICOT MADE IN BULLION STITCH (fig. 700).--Put the needle
halfway into the last buttonhole stitch, twist the thread ten or twelve
times round it from left to right, draw it through and tighten the
thread, so that the spiral on the thread form a semicircle, then
continue the bar (see also for the bullion stitch figs. 179 and 661).

BAR WITH BUTTONHOLE PICOT (fig. 701).--Cover rather more than half the
bar with buttonhole stitches, carry the thread three times to the 6th
stitch and back, then buttonhole these threads that are attached to the
bar in the same way as the bar itself and finish the bar in the usual
way.

These buttonhole picots are generally used for edging lace; they may in
their turn be adorned with small pinned picots to produce a richer
effect.

[Illustration: FIG. 700. BAR WITH PICOT MADE IN BULLION STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 701. BAR WITH BUTTONHOLE PICOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 702. BAR WITH TWO ROWS OF KNOTS.]

BAR WITH TWO ROWS OF KNOTS (fig. 702).--Over two foundation threads,
make double knots, far enough apart to leave room for the knots of the
next row between.

These double knots consist, in the first place, of one plain buttonhole
stitch and then one reversed, that is, made by bringing the needle out
in front of the thread and passing it under the loop; the result being
that the thread will lie behind the thread and not before it, as in an
ordinary buttonhole stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 703. BRANCHED BARS.]

BRANCHED BARS (fig. 703).--Where you have a larger surface to cover
with bars, you are generally obliged to make them with branches. For
this purpose you prepare the threads as for an ordinary bar and cover
them halfway with buttonhole stitches; then you carry on the foundation
thread to the next bar, buttonhole it also halfway, lay the next
foundation thread, and finally buttonhole all the half-covered bars till
you reach the dotted line, from whence you lay the last foundation
threads.

The last bar is worked over 2 or 4 threads, so that the working thread
can be taken back to the edge of the braid by means of the last
buttonhole stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 704. PLAIN RUSSIAN STITCH.]

PLAIN RUSSIAN STITCH (fig. 704).--Stitches of all kinds can be used,
as well as bars, for joining braids together that run parallel to each
other, and for filling up the spaces between. These stitches, which
serve as an insertion, are some of them very elementary, whilst others
require great skill and patience to execute.

The simplest of all is the Russian stitch, which bears a great
resemblance to the crossed stitch, shown in fig. 39, and the crossed
back-stitch, fig. 176.

You pass the needle from left to right, under the edge of the braid,
then again from right to left under the opposite edge, taking care
always to leave the thread in front of the needle.

[Illustration: FIG. 705. TWISTED RUSSIAN STITCH.]

TWISTED RUSSIAN STITCH (fig. 705).--Instead of passing the needle
behind the thread, pass it before it and round it, so that the needle
always comes out again beneath the thread, which will then be twice
twisted.

[Illustration: FIG. 706. COLUMN STITCH.]

COLUMN STITCH (fig. 706).--At the bottom, the stitch is made like the
plain Russian stitch, and at the top, like the one in fig. 705, with the
difference that the second thread is passed three times round the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 707. INSERTION OF SINGLE BUTTONHOLE STITCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 708. INSERTION OF PLAIN BUTTONHOLE STITCHES.]

INSERTION OF SINGLE BUTTONHOLE STITCHES (figs. 707 and 708).--Make
very loose buttonhole stitches along both edges of the braid, all the
same size and the same distance apart, and vertically, opposite to each
other.

When these two rows are finished, pick up each loop with Russian stitch,
either single, fig. 704, or twisted, fig. 705. Fig. 708 shows the double
Russian stitch made in each loop; it may be trebled or quadrupled,
according to whether you wish your insertion to be very transparent or
not.

[Illustration: FIG. 709. INSERTION WITH BEAD STITCHES.]

INSERTION WITH BEAD STITCHES (fig. 709).--Join the opposite rows of
loops together by four stitches. The threads of these stitches must lie
quite flat, side by side, and not one on the top of the other. After the
fourth stitch, you wind the thread round the bottom loop and then carry
it on to the next, whence you repeat the four stitches as above.

CLUSTER INSERTION (fig. 710).--Over the middle of two finished plain
bars and one half-finished one, a short distance apart, you make five
buttonhole stitches and overcast the remainder of the third bar. The
first bar of the next cluster must be set quite close to the last.

INSERTION WITH BRANCHES (figs. 711 and 712).--Throw the thread across
the middle of the space between two edges of braid, and lengthways,
from one end to the other, pass the needle horizontally under four or
five threads of the braid, across the insertion; then carry it in a
similar manner, first to the left and then to the right, take up the
same number of threads of the braid and connect the three loops together
by a knot, as is clearly shown in fig. 711.

[Illustration: FIG. 710. CLUSTER INSERTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 711. INSERTION WITH PLAIN BRANCHES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 712. INSERTION WITH BRANCHES AND WHEELS.]

Fig. 712 represents a similar beginning, and a similar interlacing of
the threads, but ornamented this time with a wheel, added after the knot
has been made over the loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 713. INSERTION WITH LEAVES WORKED IN DARNING
STITCH.]

INSERTION WITH LEAVES IN DARNING STITCH (fig. 713).--Fasten on the
thread where, according to the illustration, the first leaf in the
insertion ought to come, carry it across to the opposite side, draw it
through the edge of the braid and bring it back to the point whence it
started, lay threads across to both sides, like in figs. 711 and 712,
unite them by a knot, such as described in fig. 711, lay the thread once
more round the middle leaf, and finish the leaf in darning stitch,
working downwards from the top, as described in the preceding chapter in
figs. 646 and 647. As may be seen from the second middle leaf, your
darning stitches have to be made over five threads, subdivided into two
and three.

[Illustration: Fig. 714. INSERTION WITH SMALL WHEELS.]

INSERTION WITH SMALL WHEELS (fig. 714).--Here, you have to make two
rows of Russian stitches opposite each other and carry the thread to the
point of intersection, then, you make a wheel over five threads and pass
the needle under the completed wheel to reach the next point of
intersection. Half wheels may also be added at the edge of the braid, as
in figs. 658 and 659.

[Illustration: Fig. 715. INSERTION WITH BIG WHEELS.]

INSERTION WITH BIG WHEELS (fig. 715).--Carry the thread horizontally
across the middle of the space intended for the insertion, to the
opposite side, and then conduct it by means of overcasting stitches into
the corner; thence make a loose loop over to the opposite corner, pass
the needle under six or eight threads of the braid edge, slip it under
the horizontal thread first laid and behind the loop, and finish the
stitch on the other side in the edge of the braid.

Throw the thread again across the empty space and over the first thread,
bring your needle back to the middle, make a big wheel over four
threads, passing each time under the same threads, then overcast the
single thread, come back to the edge of the braid and make the second
loop, bringing out the thread at the same place where the other stitches
came out.

INSERTION WITH CONES (figs. 716 and 717).--Over plain but very
distended Russian stitch, make darning stitches backwards and forwards,
beginning at the point and reaching to the middle, so as to form small
cone-shaped figures.

To reach the point of the next cone you overcast the thread of the
Russian stitch several times.

You may also, as in fig. 717, double the Russian stitch and make the
darning stitches in such a manner that the points of the cones touch
each other and their bases meet the edge of the braid. The same thing,
worked the reverse way, that is, with the points turned outwards to the
edge, produces a not less pretty effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 716. INSERTION WITH CONES.]

[Illustration: Fig. 717. INSERTION WITH CONES.]

[Illustration: Fig. 718. INSERTION WITH EMBROIDERED SQUARES.]

INSERTION WITH EMBROIDERED SQUARES (fig. 718).--After making rows of
loose buttonhole stitches along the braid edges, as in figs. 707, 708,
709, run a thread through the buttonhole stitches; this thread serves as
the foundation to the Russian stitches by which the two edges are joined
together. The empty square space left between the Russian stitches is
then filled up with buttonhole stitches, like those in fig. 651, in the
foregoing chapter.

[Illustration: Fig. 719. INSERTION WITH HALF BARS.]

INSERTION WITH HALF BARS (fig. 719).--Fasten on the thread in one of
the corners of the braid and conduct it by means of overcasting stitches
to the middle of the insertion, draw it through the edge of the braid on
the right and make buttonhole stitches over it, to the middle of the
space to be filled, then carry the thread to the left, draw it through
the left edge, a little higher up than on the other side, and make the
same number of stitches over it as over the first. You can vary this
insertion with very good result by making more stitches on one side than
on the other, but it should never be more than 10 or 12 stitches wide.

[Illustration: FIG. 720. PLAIN NET STITCH. FIRST LACE STITCH.]

PLAIN NET STITCH. FIRST LACE STITCH (fig. 720).--Make rows of
buttonhole stitches to and fro, loose enough to form loops into which
the stitches of each subsequent row are set. You must be careful to make
the same number of stitches in all the spaces that are of the same size,
and also, when you begin a row with a whole stitch, to begin the return
row with a half, and so on, in regular rotation.

The number of stitches should vary with the width of the pattern and the
decreasing and increasing should always be done at the edge.

The loops must be as many threads of the braid edge long, as they are
wide.

[Illustration: FIG. 721. DOUBLE NET STITCH. SECOND LACE STITCH.]

DOUBLE NET STITCH. SECOND LACE STITCH (fig. 721).--You leave the same
distance between the stitches here as in the preceding figure, but in
each of the loops of the first row, you must make two buttonhole
stitches close together. It is as well to round the loop a little less
than is usually done in net stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 722. THIRD LACE STITCH.]

THIRD LACE STITCH (fig. 722).--Here, you make three buttonhole
stitches close together, joined to the next three by a loop of thread,
just long enough to hold the three buttonhole stitches of the subsequent
row.

[Illustration: FIG. 723. FOURTH LACE STITCH.]

FOURTH LACE STITCH (fig. 723).--Working from left to right, make two
buttonhole stitches rather near together, and leave twice as long a loop
between them and the next two stitches as between the two first.

In the next row, which is worked from right to left, make one stitch in
the loop between the two stitches that are close together and three or
four in the long loop.

[Illustration: FIG. 724. FIFTH LACE STITCH.]

FIFTH LACE STITCH (fig. 724).--As in fig. 723, you begin this stitch
from left to right, but making three stitches very close together with
an intermediate loop as long as the three stitches in one.

In the second row, you make one buttonhole stitch in each of the loops
between the three stitches and six or eight in the long intermediate
loop.

[Illustration: FIG. 725. SIXTH LACE STITCH.]

SIXTH LACE STITCH (fig. 725).--Over wide loops, made from left to
right in the first row, make in the second, enough buttonhole stitches
entirely to cover the thread.

In the third row of stitches, put the needle into the small loop between
two sets of buttonhole stitches, so that the close stitches shall form
vertical lines across the surface they cover.

This stitch admits of every sort of modification, such as, for instance,
making the third row of stitches on the buttonhole stitches, in the
middle of the ones on the small loop; or making one row of close
stitches first, and then three open rows; in the former case you should
always make an uneven number of buttonhole stitches, so that you have
the same number on both sides of the needle, which you must put in
between the two threads that form the middle buttonhole stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 726. SEVENTH LACE STITCH.]

SEVENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 726).--Begin, working from right to left, by
making one row of pairs of buttonhole stitches, a very short distance
apart; in the second row you make one buttonhole stitch between each of
these pairs, and in the third row, two buttonhole stitches in every long
loop. Here, the stitches must not be crowded together but have a small
gap left between them.

[Illustration: FIG. 727. EIGHTH LACE STITCH.]

EIGHTH LACE STITCH (fig. 727).--This stitch is generally known as the
"pea-stitch" on account of the holes occasioned by the different
distribution of the stitches.

The first row consists of stitches, set rather closely together, and all
the same distance apart. In the second row, you make one buttonhole
stitch in the last stitch of the first row, then, missing two loops and
three buttonhole stitches, you make two stitches in the next loops and
so on. In the third row, you make three stitches in the big loop, and
one in the loop between the stitches of the second row.

[Illustration: FIG. 728. NINTH LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 729. TENTH LACE STITCH.]

NINTH, AND TENTH LACE STITCH (figs. 728 and 729).--Both, the small and
the big pointed groups of stitches, begin with a row of close buttonhole
stitches.

Fig. 728 requires three rows; in the second you miss two stitches and
make two in the next loops; in the third, only one stitch is introduced
between the two loops of the lower row.

Fig. 729 requires five rows. The stitches of the first must be set as
closely together as possible; in the second row you make four stitches
and miss two of the first row, in the third row you make three stitches,
in the fourth, two and in the fifth, one only. The long loops of the
last row must not be too slack so that the first stitches of the next
scallop may quite cover them.

[Illustration: FIG. 730. ELEVENTH LACE STITCH.]

ELEVENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 730).--This stitch is not really more
difficult to work than those we have been describing, but requires
rather more attention to learn.

The first row consists of plain net stitches; in the second, you have
three buttonhole stitches in the middle net stitch; in the third, three
buttonhole stitches in the whole loops on either side of the three
buttonhole stitches of the second row, and one stitch in the half loops
that precede and immediately follow them; the fourth row is similar to
the second.

In the fifth row the close stitches are changed. The three buttonhole
stitches are made in the third whole loop, before and after those of the
fourth row, so that between two groups of three stitches you have six
single buttonhole stitches and seven loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 731. TWELFTH LACE STITCH.]

TWELFTH LACE STITCH (fig. 731).--Fasten on your thread, take it by
overcasting stitches over the braid edge, half a c/m. from the corner,
and make three buttonhole stitches downwards, quite close together. The
next loops, over four or six threads of the braid, must be left long
enough to be on a level with the first stitch reaching downwards from
the edge.

In the second row, you cover the long loops with three buttonhole
stitches and draw the intervening thread quite tight.

The third row is like the first, with the difference, that you put the
needle in between the two threads of the buttonhole stitch, instead of
through the loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 732. THIRTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 732).--The stitch here represented, as
well as the two next ones are looped from left to right and then again
from right to left.

As it is more unusual to make the loops from left to right than the
reverse way, the proper position of the needle and the course of the
thread are shown in the illustrations.

Fig. 732 requires, in the first place, two buttonhole stitches very
close together in the edge of the braid, then a third stitch covering
the two first stitches and set quite close to them; the connecting
thread between these stitches must be tightly stretched so as to lie
almost vertically, that the stitches may form straight lines.

[Illustration: FIG. 733. FOURTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

FOURTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 733).--This begins, likewise, with two
buttonhole stitches, above which you make two buttonhole stitches
instead of one, as in fig. 732, producing an open ground with vertical
bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 734. FIFTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

FIFTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 734).--This resembles the two foregoing
stitches and consists of three buttonhole stitches, made over the edge
of the braid or the intermediate bars, and joined together afterwards
under one transverse stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 735. SIXTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

SIXTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 735).--You begin this by a row of net
stitches worked from right to left, or as the engraving shows, by a row
of stitches called «seed stitches».

[Illustration: FIG. 736. SEVENTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

The second row, worked from left to right, consists of short bars, set
slanting and shaped like a seed, and made the same way as the picot in
fig. 699. The first stitch is carried through the loop of the row below,
the second over both threads and far enough from the loop to leave room
for three other stitches. The first of the four buttonhole stitches of
the next group must be set quite close to the last.

SEVENTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 786).--Here we have the same pattern as
the preceding one without the row of net stitches; the engraving shows
us at the same time, the proper direction of the needle and thread for
the row that is worked from right to left.

[Illustration: FIG. 737. EIGHTEENTH LACE STITCH.]

EIGHTEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 737).--This is the first of a series of
lace stitches, often met with in old Venetian lace, and which can
therefore with perfect right be called, Venetian stitches.

Owing to the manner and order in which the rows of stitches are
connected and placed above one another, they form less transparent
grounds than those we have hitherto described.

In these grounds you begin by making the row of loops, then you throw a
thread across on the same level and in coming back, pass the needle
through the row of loops under the thread stretched across, and under
the stitch of the previous row.

[Illustration: FIG. 738. NINETEENTH LACE STITCH.]

NINETEENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 738).--The close stitch here represented
is more common in Venetian lace than the loose stitch given in fig.
737.

[Illustration: FIG. 739. TWENTIETH LACE STITCH.]

TWENTIETH LACE STITCH (fig. 739).--By missing some loops of the close
ground in one row and replacing them by the same number in the next,
small gaps are formed, and by a regular and systematic missing and
taking up of stitches, in this way, extremely pretty grounds can be
produced.

[Illustration: FIG. 740. TWENTY-FIRST LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-FIRST LACE STITCH (fig. 740).--These close lace stitches, can
be varied in all sorts of other ways by embroidering the needle-made
grounds.

In fig. 740, you have little tufts in darning stitch, and in a less
twisted material than the close stitches of the ground, worked upon the
ground.

If you use Fil à dentelle D.M.C (lace thread) for the ground, you should
take either Coton à repriser D.M.C (darning cotton), or better still,
Coton surfin D.M.C[A] for the tufts. The ground can also be ornamented
with little rings of buttonholing, stars or flowerets in bullion or some
other fancy stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 741. TWENTY-SECOND LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-SECOND LACE STITCH (fig. 741).--For the above three stitches
and the three that follow, the work has to be held, so that the
finished rows are turned to the worker and the needle points to the
outside of the hand. In the first row, from left to right, take hold of
the thread near the end that is in the braid, lay it from left to right
under the point of the needle, and bring it back again to the right,
over the same. Whilst twisting the thread in this way round the needle
with the right hand, you must hold the eye of the needle under the left
thumb.

When you have laid the thread round draw the needle through the loops;
the bars must stand straight and be of uniform length. Were they to
slant or be at all uneven, we should consider the work badly done.

In the row that is worked from left to right, the thread must be twisted
round the needle, likewise from left to right.

[Illustration: FIG. 742. TWENTY-THIRD LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-THIRD LACE STITCH (fig. 742).--This is begun with the same
stitches as fig. 741, worked from right to left. You then take up every
loop that comes between the vertical bars with an overcasting stitch,
drawing the thread quite out, and tightening it as much as is necessary
after each stitch. You cannot take several stitches on the needle at the
same time and draw out the thread for them all at once, as this pulls
the bars out of their place.

[Illustration: FIG. 743. TWENTY-FOURTH LACE STITCH]

TWENTY-FOURTH LACE STITCH (fig. 743).--This is often called the
Sorrento stitch.

Every group of three bars of stitches is separated from the next by a
long loop, round which the thread is twisted in its backward course. In
each of the succeeding rows you place the first bar between the first
and second of the preceding row, and the third one in the long loop, so
that the pattern advances, as it were in steps.

[Illustration: FIG. 744. TWENTY-FIFTH LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 745. TWENTY-SIXTH LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-FIFTH AND TWENTY-SIXTH LACE STITCHES (figs. 744 and
745).--These two figures show how the relative position of the groups
of bars may be varied.

Both consist of the same stitches as those described in fig. 741. The
thread that connects the groups should be tightly stretched, so that the
rows may form straight horizontal lines.

[Illustration: FIG. 746. TWENTY-SEVENTH LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-SEVENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 746).--Begin by making two rows of
net stitches, fig. 720, then two of close ones, fig. 738, and one row
like those of fig. 741.

If you want to lengthen the bars, twist the thread once or twice more
round the needle. You can also make one row of bars surmounted by
wheels, as shown in fig. 765, then one more row of bars and continue
with close stitches.

TWENTY-EIGHTH LACE STITCH (fig. 747).--Between every group of three
bars, set close together, leave a space of a corresponding width; then
bring the thread back over the bars, as in figs. 737, 738 and 739,
without going through the loops. In the second row, you make three bars
in the empty space, two over the three bars of the first row and again
three in the next empty space. The third row is like the first.

[Illustration: FIG. 747. TWENTY-EIGHTH LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 748. TWENTY-NINTH LACE STITCH.]

TWENTY-NINTH LACE STITCH (fig. 748).--This stitch, known as Greek net
stitch, can be used instead of buttonhole bars for filling in large
surfaces.

Make bars from left to right, a little distance apart as in fig. 741,
leaving the loops between rather slack, so that when they have been
twice overcast by the returning thread, they may still be slightly
rounded. In the next row, you make the bar in the middle of the loop and
lift it up sufficiently with the needle, for the threads to form a
hexagon like a net mesh.

[Illustration: FIG. 749. THIRTIETH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTIETH LACE STITCH (fig. 749). After a row of pairs of buttonhole
stitches set closely together, with long loops between, as long as the
space between the pairs, throw the thread across in a line with the
extremities of the loops, fasten it to the edge of the braid and make
pairs of buttonhole stitches, as in the first row above it.

The loops must be perfectly regular, to facilitate which, guide lines
may be traced across the pattern, and pins stuck in as shown in the
figure, round which to carry the thread.

[Illustration: FIG. 750. THIRTY-FIRST LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-FIRST LACE STITCH (fig. 750).--At first sight this stitch looks
very much like the preceding one, but it differs entirely from it in the
way in which the threads are knotted. You pass the needle under the loop
and the laid thread, then stick in the pin at the right distance for
making the long loop, bring the thread round behind the pin, make a loop
round the point of the needle, as shows in the engraving, and pull up
the knot.

[Illustration: FIG. 751. THIRTY-SECOND LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-SECOND LACE STITCH (fig. 751).--To introduce a greater variety
into lace stitches, netting can also be imitated with the needle. You
begin with a loop in the corner of a square and work in diagonal lines.
The loops are secured by means of the same stitch shown in fig. 750, and
the regularity of the loops ensured, as it is there, by making them
round a pin, stuck in at the proper distance. The squares or meshes must
be made with the greatest accuracy; that being the case, most of the
stitches described in the preceding chapter can be worked upon them, and
the smallest spaces can be filled with delicate embroidery.

THIRTY-THIRD LACE STITCH (fig. 752).--This stitch is frequently met
with in the oldest Irish lace, especially in the kind where the braids
are joined together by fillings not bars. At first sight, it looks
merely like a close net stitch, the ground and filling all alike, so
uniform is it in appearance, but on a closer observation it will be
found to be quite a different stitch from any of those we have been
describing.

The first stitch is made like a plain net stitch, the second consists of
a knot that ties up the loop of the first stitch. Fillings of this kind
must be worked as compactly as possible, so that hardly any spaces are
visible between the individual rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 752. THIRTY-THIRD LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 753. THIRTY-FOURTH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-FOURTH LACE STITCH (fig. 753).--To fill in a surface with this
stitch, known as the wheel or spider stitch, begin by laying double
diagonal threads to and fro, at regular distances apart, so that they
lie side by side and are not twisted. When the whole surface is covered
with these double threads, throw a second similar series across them,
the opposite way. The return thread, in making this second layer, must
be conducted under the double threads of the first layer and over the
single thread just laid, and wound two or three times round them,
thereby forming little wheels or spiders, like those already described
in the preceding chapter in figs. 653 and 654.

THIRTY-FIFTH LACE STITCH (fig. 754).--Begin by making a very regular
netted foundation, but without knots, where the two layers of threads
intersect each other.

Then, make a third layer of diagonal threads across the two first
layers, so that all meet at the same points of intersection, thus
forming six rays divergent from one centre. With the fourth and last
thread, which forms the seventh and eighth ray, you make the wheel over
seven threads, then slip the needle under it and carry it on to the
point for the next wheel.

[Illustration: FIG. 754. THIRTY-FIFTH LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 755. THIRTY-SIXTH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-SIXTH LACE STITCH (fig. 755).--After covering all the surface
to be embroidered, with threads stretched in horizontal lines, you cover
them with loops going from one to the other and joining themselves in
the subsequent row to the preceding loops.

The needle will thus have to pass underneath two threads. Then cover
this needle-made canvas with cones worked in close darning stitches, as
in figs. 648, 716 and 717.

[Illustration: FIG. 756. THIRTY-SEVENTH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-SEVENTH LACE STITCH (fig. 756).--Here, by means of the first
threads that you lay, you make an imitation of the Penelope canvas used
for tapestry work, covering the surface with double threads, a very
little distance apart, stretched both ways. The second layer of threads
must pass alternately under and over the first, where they cross each
other, and the small squares thus left between, must be encircled
several times with thread and then buttonholed; the thicker the
foundation and the more raised and compact the buttonholing upon it is,
the better the effect will be. Each of these little buttonholed rings
should be begun and finished off independently of the others.

THIRTY-EIGHTH LACE STITCH (fig. 757).--Plain net stitch being quicker
to do than any other, one is tempted to use it more frequently; but as
it is a little monotonous some openwork ornament upon it is a great
improvement; such for instance as small buttonholed rings, worked all
over the ground at regular intervals. Here again, as in the preceding
figure the rings must be made independently of each other.

[Illustration: FIG. 757. THIRTY-EIGHTH LACE STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 758. THIRTY-NINTH LACE STITCH.]

THIRTY-NINTH LACE STITCH (fig. 758).--Corded bars, branching out into
other bars, worked in overcasting stitches, may also serve as a lace
ground.

You lay five or six threads, according to the course the bars are to
take; you overcast the branches up to the point of their junction with
the principal line, thence you throw across the foundation threads for
another branch, so that having reached a given point and coming back to
finish the threads left uncovered in going, you will often have from six
to eight short lengths of thread to overcast.

Overcasting stitches are always worked from right to left.

FORTIETH LACE STITCH (fig. 759).--Of all the different kinds of
stitches here given, this, which terminates the series, is perhaps the
one requiring the most patience. It was copied from a piece of very old
and valuable Brabant lace, of which it formed the entire ground. Our
figure of course represents it on a very magnified scale, the original
being worked in the finest imaginable material, over a single foundation
thread.

In the first row, after the three usual foundation threads are laid, you
make the buttonhole stitches to the number of eight or ten, up to the
point from which the next branch issues, from the edge of the braid,
that is, upwards.

Then you bring the needle down again and buttonhole the second part of
the bar, working from right to left.

[Illustration: FIG. 759. FORTIETH LACE STITCH.]

A picot, like the one described in fig. 701, marks the point where the
bars join. More picots of the same kind may be added at discretion.

[Illustration: FIG. 760. WHEEL COMPOSED OF BUTTONHOLE BARS. MAKING AND
TAKING UP THE LOOPS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 761. WHEEL COMPOSED OF BUTTONHOLE BARS. THE
BUTTONHOLING BEGUN.]

WHEEL COMPOSED OF BUTTONHOLE BARS (figs. 760, 761, 762, 763).--As we
have already more than once given directions for making wheels, not only
in the present chapter, but also in the one on netting, there is no need
to enlarge on the kind of stitches to be used here, but we will explain
the course of the thread in making wheels, composed of buttonhole bars
in a square opening.

Fig. 760 shows how the first eight loops which form the foundation of
the bars are made.

[Illustration: FIG. 762. WHEEL COMPOSED OF BUTTONHOLE BARS. PASSING FROM
ONE BAR TO THE OTHER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 763. WHEEL COMPOSED OF BUTTONHOLE BARS. BARS AND
RING FINISHED.]

In fig. 761 you will see that a thread has been passed through the
loops, for the purpose of drawing them in and making a ring in addition
to which, two threads added to the loop serve as padding for the
buttonhole stitches; the latter should always be begun on the braid
side. Fig. 762 represents the bar begun in fig. 761 completed, and the
passage of the thread to the next bar, and fig. 763 the ring buttonholed
after the completion of all the bars.

[Illustration: FIG. 764. FILLING IN A ROUND SPACE WITH NET STITCH.]

FILLING IN ROUND SPACES (figs. 764, 765, 766).--The stitches best
adapted for filling in round spaces are those that can be drawn in and
tightened to the required circumference, or those that admit of the
number being reduced, regularly, in each round.

In tacking braids on to circular patterns, the inside edges, as we
pointed out at the beginning of this chapter, have to be drawn in with
overcasting stitches in very fine thread.

Fig. 764 shows how to fill in a round space with net stitches. It will
be observed that the loop which begins the row, has the thread of the
loop with which it terminates, wound round it, which thread then passes
on to the second series of stitches. In the same manner you pass to the
third row after which you pick up all the loops and fasten off the
thread by working back to the braid edge over all the rows of loops,
following the course indicated by the dotted line.

[Illustration: FIG. 765. FILLING IN ROUND SPACES. FIRST CIRCLE OF WHEELS
BEGUN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 766. FILLING IN ROUND SPACES. THE TWO CIRCLES OF
WHEELS FINISHED.]

Fig. 765 shows how to finish a row of loops with wheels worked upon
three threads only. In the first row, you make a wheel over each bar; in
the second, you make a bar between every two wheels; in the third, the
wheels are only made over every second bar; a fourth row of bars which
you pick up with a thread completes the interior of the circle, then you
work along the bars with overcasting stitches, fig. 766, to carry the
thread back to the edge of the braid where you fasten it off.

NEEDLE-MADE PICOTS (figs. 767, 768, 769).--The edges and outlines of
Irish lace are generally bordered with picots, which as we have already
said can be bought ready-made (see fig. 692). They are not however very
strong and we cannot recommend them for lace that any one has taken the
pains to make by hand.

[Illustration: FIG. 767. CONNECTED NEEDLE-MADE PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 768. ISOLATED NEEDLE-MADE PICOTS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 769. BUTTONHOLE PICOTS WITH PICOTS IN BULLION
STITCH.]

In fig. 767, the way to make picots all joined together is described.
You begin, as in fig. 762, by a knot, over which the thread is twisted
as indicated in the engraving.

It is needless to repeat that the loops should all be knotted in a line,
all be of the same length and all the same distance apart.

Fig. 768 represents the kind of needle-made picots which most resemble
the machine-made ones, and fig. 769 show us the use of little scallops
surmounted by picots, made in bullion stitch.

One or two rows of lace stitch fig. 736, or the first rows of figs. 749,
750, can also be used in the place of picots.

IRISH LACE (fig. 770).--English braids or those braids which are
indicated at the foot of the engraving must be tacked down on to the
pattern and gathered on the inside edge, wherever the lines are curved,
as explained in fig. 693; in cases however where only Lacet superfin
D.M.C[A] is used, the needle should be slipped in underneath the outside
threads, so that the thread with which you draw in the braid be hidden.

The braids are joined together where they meet with a few overcasting
stitches, as shown in the illustration.

Here, we find one of the lace stitches used instead of picots; the first
row of fig. 736 always makes a nice border for Irish lace.

IRISH LACE (fig. 771).--This pattern, which is more complicated and
takes more time and stitches than the preceding one, can also be
executed with one or other of the braids mentioned at the beginning of
the chapter; but it looks best made with a close braid.

[Illustration: FIG. 770. IRISH LACE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 771. IRISH LACE. MATERIALS: Lacet surfin D.M.C No.
5, white or écru and Fil d'Alsace D.M.C Nos. 40 to 150, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 50 to 150.]

The bars, which in the illustration are simply buttonholed may also be
ornamented with picots of one kind or another; the interior spaces of
the figure on the left can be filled, instead of with corded bars, with
one of the lace stitches we have described, either fig. 720, 721, or
732, any one of which is suitable for filling in small spaces like
these.

In the figure on the right, the ring of braid may be replaced by close
buttonhole stitches, made over several foundation threads or over one
thick thread, such as Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 10 or 20[A] to make them
full and round.

You begin the ring on the inside and increase the number of stitches as
the circumference increases.

[Illustration: FIG. 772. IRISH LACE. MATERIALS: English braid with open
edge.--For the lattice work: Fil d'Alsace D.M.C in balls Nos. 50 to 100
or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 50 to 100, white. For the cord: Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C No. 15, écru.[A]]

Any of the stitches, from fig. 720 to fig. 743, can be introduced here.

IRISH LACE (fig. 772).--Here we find one of the fillings above alluded
to, fig. 751, used as a ground for the flowers and leaves. For the
design itself some of the closer stitches described in this chapter,
should be selected. When the actual lace, is finished you sew upon the
braid a thin cord, made of écru Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, as described in
the chapter on different kinds of fancy work. Cords of this kind can be
had ready made, but the hand-made ones are much to be preferred, being
far softer and more supple than the machine-made.

[Illustration: FIG. 773. IRISH LACE. MATERIALS--For the cord: Cordonnet
6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 25. For the bars and lace stitches: Fil à
dentelle D.M.C No. 200.[A]]

IRISH LACE (fig. 773).--This lace, more troublesome than the preceding
ones to make, is also much more valuable and effective. The ground is
composed entirely of bars, like the ones described in fig. 761, the
branches, true to the character of the work are worked in the close
stitch represented in fig. 755, and the flowers in double net stitch,
fig. 721.

In working the above fillings, the thread must not, as in lace made with
braid, be carried on from one point to the other by overcasting stitches
along the braid edges, but should be drawn out horizontally through the
cord and back again the same way, giving the needle in so doing a
slightly slanting direction.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: VENETIAN LACE OF THE XVI CENTURY.]



Laces of different kinds.


In general, to the uninitiated, the word «lace» signifies exclusively
the delicate and elaborate fabrics that owe their origin to Venice and
the Netherlands and were thence imported into other countries. But
besides Venetian, French, English, Chantilly, Brussels, Sedan point,
names familiar to every one, there are all kinds of other laces,
likewise of great antiquity, and named as the above are, after the
country they belong to.

As it would be impossible in these pages to give a comprehensive account
of them all, we have restricted ourselves to such as seem more
especially suited to the amateur, to whom needlework is a mere
recreation and pastime.

Worked like the above-named entirely with the needle, but much less
elaborate and minute in character and workmanship, they are quicker and
easier to make and we are sure that by the help of the directions that
accompany the illustrations, any careful worker will be able to imitate
them without difficulty.

MATERIALS.--It will be observed that we do not bind ourselves in the
following directions to one size of cotton, that as in point of fact,
one and the same piece of work can be executed in either fine or coarse
cotton, we have only indicated the most suitable kind of material to
use: as for instance for Armenian lace, Fil à pointer D.M.C[A] or
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C[A], for Smyrna or knotted lace, Fil à pointer
D.M.C, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C and Fil à dentelle D.M.C[A], for Reticella
and Venetian lace, Fil d'Alsace D.M.C[A], for Brussels lace, the finest
numbers of Fil à dentelle and for pillow lace, any one of those
enumerated, excepting Coton à broder surfin.

PILLOW LACE AND THE NECESSARY ARTICLES FOR ITS MANUFACTURE.--Pillow
lace derives its name from the cushion or pillow on which all bobbin
lace is made, which distinguishes it from point lace, so-called because
it consists of «points» or stitches made with a needle and thread.

Various articles are required for the making of pillow lace; in the
first place a cushion or pillow, then bobbins and a winder, parchment
patterns, pins and a pricker.

THE LACE PILLOW (figs. 774, 775, 776).--The pillows used for pillow
lace are of different kinds and vary in shape with where the country,
and the manner in which the lace is made.

[Illustration: FIG. 774. THE LACE PILLOW.]

Fig. 774 represents the shape in use in the mountains of Bohemia and
Saxony, where pillow lace has always been one of the chief industries of
the inhabitants. Any one can make a cushion of this kind themselves with
a piece of stuff, 60 c/m. long and 40 wide. The long sides are firmly
sewn together and the short ones turned in with a narrow hem through
which you run a cord to draw them up. A disc of stout cardboard is put
inside the case after you have gathered up the one end; you then stuff
the case as full as possible with bran, sawdust or horsehair, lay a
second disc of cardboard in at the top and draw up the other end.

These pillows are then put into cardboard boxes with rather high sides,
or into a kind of basket, weighted at the bottom, to keep it firm and
steady. Pillows of this most primitive kind have the great advantage of
being perfectly easy to make.

[Illustration: FIG. 775. PILLOW WITH MOVABLE CYLINDER FOR MAKING LACE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 776. POSITION OF THE BOBBINS AND THE WORK ON THE
CUSHION FIG. 775.]

Fig. 775 represents a pillow of a more complicated kind, which can be
stood upon the table or mounted on a stand. The cylinder is movable so
that you can go on working without interruption.

The whole apparatus consists of a board or stand, 50 c/m. long and 40
wide, resting upon two transverse pieces of wood, 3½ c/m. high behind
and 1 c/m. in front.

The board should be covered, first with a very thick flannel or Bath
coating and then with a fine dark green flannel or cloth.

Two small supports are fixed on to the outside edge of the stand to hold
the cylinder, which consists of two discs that revolve on a rod about 22
c/m. long.

This rod should be covered, in the first place with a thick layer of tow
and then with flannel or cloth.

On the left side of the cylinder is a cog-wheel and a metal spring is
attached to the board, by means of which the wheel is prevented from
turning the wrong way.

Fig. 776 shows how the bobbins are placed upon the pillow. In Normandy a
kind of stuffed box is used instead of a pillow. The board is 3 c/m.
higher behind than in front and is deeply grooved to hold the cylinder,
which is stuffed and shaped like the one represented in fig. 775.

This cylinder scarcely projects above the stand, a second groove in the
back edge receives the lace as it is worked off the cylinder.

The pillows used for Valenciennes lace are of again a different
construction, but as it is not our intention in the present work to
describe the finer kinds of lace it appeared superfluous to give any
illustration of the pillows on which they are made.

[Illustration: FIG. 777. THE BOBBIN (Jamnig's patent).]

THE BOBBINS (fig. 777).--A bobbin is a sort of little wooden spool
with a handle to it; there are several varieties of them but we have
confined ourselves to a representation of the kind considered best for
beginners.

As a considerable number are wanted for every pattern and they are apt
to slip about and get entangled in inexperienced hands, they are now to
be had with the handles weighted with lead to steady them and counteract
any independent motion of their own. We cannot help again laying great
stress on the importance of seeing that the size of the bobbins and the
number of the cotton be well assorted to the kind of lace.

THE WINDER (fig. 778).--Every one who means to take the work seriously
should provide themselves with a winder, as here represented, which is
affixed to a polished wooden stand.

This stand has to be firmly screwed to the table and the bobbin is
squeezed in between the two little rods fitted into the supports at the
left end of the stand; one of these rods serves as the axle to the
little wheel, the other can be drawn in and out and fitted to the length
of the bobbin.

[Illustration: FIG. 778. THE WINDER (Jamnig's patent).]

When the bobbin is fixed in its place, you take the thread in the left
hand and wind it round it, turning the wheel with the right hand from
right to left in the direction indicated by the arrow.

The thread is wound round the handles of the bobbins that are used for
making very fine lace, and a wooden shield that is so contrived that you
can slip it over the handle prevents the thread from getting soiled.

[Illustration: FIG. 779. STOPPAGE OF THE THREAD AT THE END OF THE
BOBBIN.]

STOPPAGE OF THE THREAD AT THE END OF THE BOBBIN (fig. 779).--After
cutting off the thread, you make a loop close to the top of the bobbin
to prevent it from unwinding too easily. This loop is formed by taking
the bobbin in the right hand, the thread between the fourth and fifth
fingers of the left hand and laying it away from you round the left
thumb; then lifting up the bottom thread with the second finger of the
left hand you pass the bobbin upwards from below through the loop on the
left hand.

MACHINE FOR CROSSING THE THREADS (fig. 780).--This ingenious little
machine is of great assistance in making straight running patterns and
Irish lace braids, and is particularly useful for Russian lace and braid
lace of all kinds.

It renders the even crossing of the threads in those parts of a pattern
that imitate linen in texture comparatively easy.

Two implements like combs, fitting into one another, and movable, are
mounted at two thirds of their length on a steel axle. The long teeth
have holes bored through the ends, from the sides to the middle of the
points and through these holes the threads from the bobbins are passed.

[Illustration: FIG. 780. MACHINE FOR CROSSING THE THREADS (Jamnig's
patent).]

The short teeth also are pierced with transverse holes, through which a
needle with the threads threaded in the long teeth resting upon it, is
passed. The points of the short teeth are covered with a hollow metal
cylinder, split through from end to end, which can be removed when new
threads have to be added.

When the threads are all on, a small spring is fixed to the two ends of
the axle, which is independent of the machine, and the two ends of the
spring are introduced into the hollow of the cylinder.

By the pressure you exercise on the teeth in the cylinder, the long
teeth change their position, the lower ones rise and the upper ones fall
and the threads cross each other, as in a loom. After each movement of
the machine, the bobbin that makes the woof must be passed between the
crossed threads; the edges are made like those of any other kind of
lace.

Fig. 781 explains how the bobbins are passed between the threads that
are held between the teeth of the machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 781. PASSAGE OF THE BOBBINS THROUGH THE MACHINE.]

THE PATTERN.--The pattern is one of the most important things in
making pillow lace.

The outlines must be clear and exact, as upon that in great measure the
perfection of the lace depends.

The drawing transferred to parchment, paper or cardboard, usually of a
yellowish tint, should be lined with a very thin stuff such as muslin to
prevent its tearing.

[Illustration: FIG. 782. PRICKER AND HOLDER.]

A stripe of quadrille, or point paper as it is called, should be laid
upon the pattern and then holes pricked with a medium-sized needle at
every intersection of the lines.

All the curved long lines of the pattern must first be traced upon the
point paper with ink and then pricked.

The pattern should be adapted to the thickness of the thread the lace is
to be made of; for a coarse lace large point paper should be used and
small, for the finer kinds of lace. The pricking of the pattern
beforehand is particularly important in the case of the common torchon
lace, where the real beauty of the design consists in its regularity; in
the case of fine close patterns the pricking can only be done as you
proceed.

Prickers and holders of the kind represented in fig. 782 or very much
resembling it, are to be had at every stationer's shop.

[Illustration: FIG. 783. POSITION AND MOVEMENTS OF THE HANDS.]

The holes made by the prickers are to receive the pins, stuck in as you
go along, round which you form and by which these are kept in their
place.

The pins must be long, with round heads and of a size suited to the
thread. When your pattern is ready fasten it to the pillow or cylinder
as the case may be, stretching it as smoothly as possible and being
careful in so doing to fit the lines of the pattern together. If it be
too long it must be cut to the required length or you may make the
cylinder bigger by wrapping several folds of flannel round it.

The value of lace depends not only on the work but on the thread it is
made of; all the D.M.C cottons[A] can be recommended for lace-making and
coloured laces of all kinds are greatly improved by the addition of a
little Chiné d'or D.M.C or Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie.[A]

POSITION AND MOVEMENTS OF THE HANDS (fig. 783).--Pillow lace is always
made with two pairs of bobbins at once and the «stitches» are formed by
the different ways of passing, plaiting, crossing and twisting the
threads.

To begin with the simplest operation, making a plait, hang 2 pairs of
bobbins to a pin, take 2 bobbins in each hand and lay the right bobbin
of each pair over its left fellow and draw up the threads slightly. Then
take the bobbins in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the right hand and
with the same fingers of the left, lay the 2nd bobbin over the 3rd with
the 2nd and 3rd fingers of the left, so that the two middle bobbins are
crossed, then take the 4th bobbin in the 2nd and 3rd fingers of the
right hand and the bobbin that is now the 2nd, in the 3rd and 4th
fingers of the left hand and lay the former over the 3rd, the latter
over the 1st. This constitutes a «half passing».

The plait, fig. 784, is formed by the repetition of the half passing.
Two half passings make a whole or «double passing».

On the kind of lace you are making, depends how many pairs of bobbins
you will have to use. But as one part of the lace is often made before
the other, or you have to put on supernumerary bobbins, you fasten up
those not in use on one side with pins, as shown in fig. 783.

[Illustration: FIG. 784. PASSING WITH TWO PAIRS OF BOBBINS.]

NET PATTERN OR GROUND (figs. 785 and 786).--This consists of half
passings, worked in rows to and fro; the pins are stuck in at the end of
each row.

The pattern, fig. 785, is fastened upon the pillow and 6 pins are stuck
in at the top, at regular intervals from each other; hang one pair of
bobbins on every pin and lay the second bobbin of each pair over its
fellow, so that the threads cross each other.

[Illustration: FIG, 785. PATTERN FOR NET PASSINGS.]

1 half passing with the 1st and 2nd pair = lay the 1st pair aside = 1
half passing with the 2nd and 3rd pair = lay the 2nd pair aside = 1 half
passing with the 3rd and 4th pair = lay the 3rd pair aside = 1 half
passing with the 4th and 5th pair = lay the 4th pair aside = 1 half
passing with the 5th and 6th pair = stick in a pin at point 2, then work
back from right to left = surround the pin with a half passing made with
the 5th and 6th pair = lay the 6th pair aside = 1 half passing with the
5th and 4th pair = lay the 5th pair aside = 1 half passing with the 4th
and 3rd pairs = lay the 4th pair aside = 1 half passing with the 3rd and
2nd pair = lay the 3rd pair aside = 1 half passing with the 2nd and 1st
pair = stick in a pin at point 3 and repeat from the beginning.

Fig. 786 shows the net ground completed; the thread that runs to and
fro, to make it more clear, is represented in a darker shade than the
others.

Before proceeding further, it is as well to prepare our readers for the
many trials they will have to make, even with the help of the most
minute explanations, before they succeed in carrying out the directions;
for the whole art of making pillow lace lies in a manual dexterity, only
attainable by practice.

[Illustration: FIG. 786. NET GROUND. COMPLETED.]

Even copying the patterns from description is only possible at first in
a qualified sense; the surest way of attaining a satisfactory result is
by constantly comparing the drawing and the work in progress and
wherever the latter does not correspond with the former, trying at once
to rectify the difference.

LINEN OR CLOTH GROUND.--The pattern used for net passing can also be
used for linen passing or ground but 7 pins, instead of 6, have to be
stuck in at the top first. As in net passing, you work first from left
to right, running 2 threads to and fro in perfectly horizontal lines, so
as to produce a ground resembling linen in its texture.

The threads that run to and fro are held at the edge with pins and
changed by a half passing, so that the one that was first in going, is
first also in returning.

[Illustration: FIG. 787. PATTERN FOR PLAIN HOLE GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 788. PLAIN HOLE GROUND.]

The use of the machine for crossing the threads is especially to be
recommended in working linen ground; by pressing the short branches of
the machine, the position of the threads is changed and the bobbin is
pushed through; by a second pressure the second bobbin is driven
through, the pin is stuck in for the picot or the cord, when the
bobbins are taken back again, four movements being thus all that is
required.

[Illustration: FIG. 789. WHEEL BEGUN IN HOLE GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 790. WHEEL IN HOLE GROUND COMPLETED.]

PLAIN HOLE GROUND (figs. 787 and 788).--Hole ground can be worked in
various ways; we will begin by describing the plain hole ground, which
as a rule forms the ground of all torchon laces. After fixing the
pattern, as represented in fig. 787, upon the pillow, stick in 5 pins,
hang 2 pairs of bobbins on to each and throw the 2nd bobbin of each pair
over its fellow = 1 half passing with the 2nd and 3rd pairs = put up a
pin at point 1 = 1 half passing with the same pair = this encloses the
pin = lay the 3rd pair aside = 1 half passing with the 2nd and 1st pair
= put up a pin at point 2 = enclose it with the same pairs = 1 half
passing with the 5th and 4th pair = put up a pin at point 3 = enclose it
with the same pairs = lay the 5th pair aside = 1 half passing the 4th
and 3rd pair = put up the pin at point 4 = enclose the same = lay the
4th pair aside = work on in the same way over points 5 and 6 = 1 half
passing with the 6th and 7th pair = put up the pin at point 7 = enclose
the same = work on in the same way over points 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 = 1
half passing with the 8th and 9th pair = put up the pin at point 31 =
enclose the same = work on over points 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 = 1
half passing with the 9th and 10th pair = put up the pin at point 21 =
enclose the same and proceed as in the preceding rows, from point 22 to
29.

[Illustration: FIG. 791. PATTERN FOR ROSE GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 792. ROSE GROUND.]

Hole ground with twisted thread is made in the same way we have just
been describing, only that after every half passing enclosing the pin,
each pair of bobbins is twisted once. A ground which is worked in this
way is stronger than the other. Twisted hole ground is seen again in
figs. 792 and 794.

WHEELS IN HOLE GROUND (figs. 789 and 790).--For the wheels, which are
often worked on pillow-made grounds, 4, 6, 8 pairs of bobbins, sometimes
even more are used (see likewise fig. 801).

In fig. 789, the wheel is worked with the 4 middle pairs of bobbins.
Each pair has first to be twisted once = 1 linen passing with the 3rd
and 2nd pair = lay aside the 3rd pair = 1 linen passing with the 2nd
and 4th pair = lay both pairs aside = 1 linen passing with the 4th and
3rd pair = lay aside the 4th pair = 1 linen passing with the 3rd and 2nd
pair = put up the pin at the next point and between the 2nd and 3rd pair
= 1 linen passing with the 3rd and 2nd pair = lay aside the 3rd pair = 1
linen passing with the 2nd and 1st pair = lay both pairs aside = 1 linen
passing with the 4th and 3rd pair = lay the 4th pair aside = 1 linen
passing with the 3rd and 2nd pair = the last passing completes the
wheel, such as it is represented in fig. 790.

Twist the pairs of bobbins again as you did before beginning the wheel
and then proceed with the plain ground.

ROSE GROUND (figs. 791 and 792).--After preparing the pattern, as in
fig. 791, put up pins at _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, _f_, _g_, _h_ and _i_
and hang on 2 pairs of bobbins to the first pin, and one pair to each of
the other 8 = 1 half passing with the 1st and 2nd pair = twist each pair
once = take out the pin at point _a_ and put it up again at the same
point between the pairs = enclose the pin with 1 half passing = twist
the pair once = lay the 1st pair aside = 1 half passing with the 2nd and
3rd pair = twist the pair again = take out the pin at _b_, put it in
again at the same point between the pair = enclose the pin = twist the
pairs again = lay the 2nd pair aside = 1 half passing with the 3rd and
4th pair = twist the pair again = take out the needle at _c_ and put it
in again at the same point between the pairs = enclose the pin = twist
the pair again = 1 half passing with the 3rd and 2nd pair = twist the
pair again = put up a pin at point 1 = enclose the pin = twist the pair
again = 1 half passing with the 2nd and 1st pair = twist the pair again
= put up a pin at point 2 = enclose the pin = work point 2 and 1 with
the 3rd and 2nd pair = 1 half passing with the 4th and 5th pair = twist
the pairs again = take out the pin at _d_ and put it in again at the
same point between the pair = work point _e_ exactly like point _d_ with
the 5th and 6th pair = work point 4 like point 3 with the 4th and 5th
pair = work points 5, 6 and 7 in a slanting direction from right to left
= carry out point 8 with the 5th and 4th pair = lay both pairs aside =
work point 9 with the 3rd and 2nd pair = work point _f_ like point _e_
with the 6th and 7th pair = work point _g_ like point _f_ with the 7th
and 8th pair = then work points 10 to 15 with the 6th and 7th pair =
point 16 with the 7th and 6th pair = point 17 with the 5th and 4th pair
= point 18 with the 3rd and 2nd pair = point _h_ like point _g_ with the
8th and 9th pair = point _i_ with the 9th and 10th pair = points 19 to
26 with the 9th and 10th pair = point 27 with the 9th and 8th pair =
point 28 with the 7th and 6th pair = point 29 with the 5th and 4th pair
= point 30 with the 3rd and 2nd pair. Proceed in this manner until the
whole ground be finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 793. PATTERN FOR FIG. 794]

[Illustration: FIG. 794. DOUBLE OR ORNAMENTAL GROUND.]

DOUBLE OR ORNAMENTAL GROUND (figs. 793 and 794).--This ground should be
worked in a comparatively fine material; we should recommend Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 30 to 100. Put up pins at points _a_ and _g_ in the
pattern and hang on a pair of bobbins = put up pins likewise at _b_,
_c_, _d_, _e_ and _f_ and hang on a pair of bobbins to each = 1 half
passing with the 2nd and 3rd pair = take out the pin at point _b_ and
put it in again between the pair at the same place = enclose the pin
with a half passing = 1 half passing with the 2nd and 1st pair = put up
a pin at point 1 = enclose the pin = 1 half passing with the 4th and 5th
pair = take out the pin at point _l_ and put it in again between the
pairs at the same place = enclose the needle = 1 half passing with the
4th and 3rd pair = put up a pin at point 2 = enclose the needle = 1 half
passing with the 3rd and 2nd pair = put up a pin at point 3 = enclose
the needle = 1 half passing with the 3rd and 4th pair = 1 half passing
with the 2nd and 1st pair = put up a needle at point 4 = enclose the
needle = work point _d_ like point _c_ with the 6th and 7th pair = 1
half passing with the 6th and 5th pair = put up a pin at point 5 =
enclose the pin = work over point _e_ like point _d_ with the 7th and
8th pair = 1 half passing with the 7th and 6th pair = put up a pin at
point 6 = enclose the pin = 1 half passing with the 6th and 5th pair =
put up a pin at point 7 = enclose the pin = 1 half passing with the 6th
and 7th pair = lay the 2 pairs aside = 1 half passing with the 5th and
4th pair, by which the threads are made to cross each other in the
square = work over point _f_ as over point _e_ with the 10th and 11th
pair = work over points 17 to 19 as over points 5 to 7 = when the square
is finished 1 half passing with the 10th and 11th pair = half passings
between all the squares.

[Illustration: FIG. 795. TULLE GROUND.]

TULLE GROUND (fig. 795).--Prepare your pattern for the ground
represented here on a magnified scale, by pricking holes at regular
distances so as to form diagonal lines intersecting each other, as shown
in the engraving, and set more or less closely together, according to
the thickness of the thread you use.

1 half passing = put up the pin at the next point, twist both pairs
twice, but without enclosing the pin, and pass the inner left thread
over the inner left one = twist the two pairs again = cross as before
and so on.

VALENCIENNES GROUND (fig. 796).--The Valenciennes ground is formed of
little plaits for which 2 pairs of bobbins are used. These plaits are
often used in other kinds of lace as well, as may be seen for instance
in figs. 801, 802 and 806 which are not Valenciennes patterns.

[Illustration: FIG. 796. VALENCIENNES GROUND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 797. BRUSSELS GROUND.]

According to the size of the squares the plaits are made with either 4, 6
or 8 half passings, 2 pairs of bobbins being invariably used. The plaits
are joined by a half passing, made with the last pair of the left plait
and the first of the right = stick the pin into the hole = enclose the
pin by a half passing and work the next plait on the left with the two
left pairs and the next plait on the right with the two right pairs.

BRUSSELS GROUND (fig. 797).--For the sake of greater clearness, this
ground too has been worked and reproduced here on a magnified scale.

It is worked in diagonal lines, as follows: 1 double passing with 2
pairs of bobbins = put up a pin at the next point = enclose the pin with
a double passing, twist both pairs each time once and so on. This
ground, when it is worked by the hand in very fine thread, takes a long
time to do and is therefore often made by machinery.

[Illustration: FIG. 798. ETERNELLE WITH TWO ROWS OF HOLES.]

ETERNELLE WITH TWO ROWS OF HOLES (fig. 798).--The so-called
«eternelle» laces have no definite pattern; they can be made of any
width, in the form of insertions or edgings.

For a single row of holes, you want 6 pairs of bobbins; for two rows, 7;
for three, 9, adding two pairs of bobbins for every additional row of
holes. The upper part of fig. 798 shows how the points are distributed;
here 7 pairs of bobbins are used.

Put up a pin at the topmost point = hang on 2 pairs of bobbins = 1
double passing = take out the pin and put it in again between the two
pairs = tighten the pair = hang on 1 pair of bobbins again on the left =
1 double passing with the 1st pair of the bobbins you hung on first and
with the new pair = push the double passing close to the pin = twist the
first pair once and then lay it aside = 1 double passing with the 2nd
and 3rd pair that enclose the pin = hang on 2 pairs of bobbins in the
middle = 1 double passing with both pairs = lay the 5th pair aside = 1
double passing with the 4th and 3rd pair = lay the 4th pair aside = 1
double passing with the 2nd and 1st pair = twist the 1st pair once and
lay it aside = 1 double passing with the 2nd and 3rd pair that enclose
the pin = put up 1 pin at the 3rd lower point, hang on 2 pairs of
bobbins = 1 double passing with these bobbins = lay the 7th pair aside =
* 1 double passing with the 6th and 5th pair = lay the 6th pair aside =
1 double passing with the 5th and 4th pair = lay the 5th pair aside = 1
double passing with the 4th and 3rd pair = lay the 4th pair aside = 1
double passing with the 3rd and 2nd pair = put up a pin at the next
point = 1 double passing with the 2nd and 1st pair = twist the 1st pair
once = 1 double passing with the 2nd and 3rd pair, to enclose the pin =
lay the 3 first pairs aside = 1 double stitch with the 4th and 5th pair
= lay the last two pairs aside = 1 double passing with the 6th and 7th
pair = put up a pin at the next point = enclose the pin with the last
pairs = repeat from *.

[Illustration: FIG. 799. LACE WITH TORCHON GROUND AND EDGE IN NET
GROUND. MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 30. Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 20 to 100, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 150, white or
écru.[A]]

LACE WITH TORCHON GROUND AND EDGE IN NET GROUND (fig. 799).--Worked
with 10 pairs of bobbins.

Put up a pin at * = make net passings, fig. 786, to point 1 = put up a
pin at point 1 = enclose the pin with the two last pairs on the right =
net passings to point 2 = put up a pin at point 2 = lay one pair of
bobbins aside = net passings to point 3 = put up a pin at point 3 =
enclose the pin = net passings to point 4 = put up a pin at point 4 =
lay one pair of bobbins aside = net passings to point 5 = put up a pin
at point 5 = net passings, back to point 6 = put up a pin at point 6 =
take up the bobbins on the left again = 1 half passing with the 1st pair
on the left = put up a pin at point 7 = work the torchon ground, at the
top of the lace, as in fig. 788, with the 2nd and 3rd pair = 1 half
passing with the 3rd and 4th pair = put up a pin at point 8 = twist the
1st and 2nd pair = 1 double passing with the 1st and 2nd pair = put up a
pin at point 9 = 1 double passing with the 2nd and 3rd pair = lay the
2nd pair aside = make hole or torchon stitch, fig. 788, with the 3rd and
4th pair = put up a pin at point 10 = work on to point 11 in hole ground
= put up a pin at point 11 = cross the 1st and 2nd pair on the left =
put up a pin at point 12 = enclose the pin = lay 5 pairs of bobbins
aside on the left = take up 5 pairs on the right = put up a pin at point
13 = net passings with the 5 pairs on the right = take up, in addition,
the 6th pair on the left = hole ground with the 5th and 6th pair = put
up a pin at point 14 = net passings to point 15 with 5 pairs of bobbins
= put up a pin at point 15 = net passings with 6 pairs of bobbins = take
up a 7th pair of bobbins in addition = hole ground with the 6th and 7th
pair = put up a pin at point 16 = net passings with 6 pairs of bobbins =
put up a pin at point 17 = net passings with 6 pairs of bobbins = put up
a pin at point 18 and then repeat from the first point * on the left.

PILLOW LACE (figs. 800, 801, 802).--We here give as an example the
same pattern of lace worked in two thicknesses of thread; fig. 801 in
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 25[A], fig. 802 in Fil à pointer D.M.C No.
30[A], which is of course much thicker. As this pattern is especially
suitable for trimming household articles, made of unbleached linen, such
for instance as table-covers, curtains and hangings of all kinds, we
prefer it made in the thicker thread; even then it looks very well as a
trimming for articles of dress.

It is worked with 40 pairs of bobbins = hang them on one after the other
in a row = put up a pin at point 1 = twisted linen passing = work all
the pairs to point 2 with linen passing = put up the pin at the last
pair = go back through 3 pairs with linen passing = twist 2 pairs once =
go back with linen passing through all the pairs to point 3 = twist each
pair separately = at point 4 twist the 2 pairs and put up the pin =
twist the last pair twice and so on and coming back to point 5 = put up
the pin = come back again to point 6 = return to point 7 = put up the
pins at the two points.

[Illustration: FIG. 800. PATTERN FOR THE PILLOW LACE FIGS. 801 AND 802.]

Divide the 30 other pairs into twos = put up a pin between every set of
two pairs = linen passing. The ground is all worked alike: twist the
pairs twice = linen passing = put up the pins = linen passing to points
6 and 7 = twist the threads in taking them through = make a plait, fig.
796, for the scallop point 8 = put up a pin at the point marked for the
picot = pass the thread of the outside bobbin from right to left, round
the pin, to form the picot = continue the plait to the next picot = put
up a pin = form the picot = continue the plait to point 9 = connect the
plait with the bobbins of points 9 and 7 = make 4 linen passings with 3
pairs = continue the plait = carry the last pair to point 10 = twist the
threads = make 1 linen passing = put up a pin and enclose it = go on in
this manner to point 12 = make the wheel, as in figs. 789 and 790, with
6 pairs of bobbins, hanging on 4 new pairs at point 12 = work with
twisted linen passing = twist the 4 pairs once and cross with linen
passing = take the last pair out from the middle to point 13, join it to
the first pair of the scallop = make all the wheels before continuing
the ground = then go back from point 13 to 14 = cross the pairs again =
at point 12 twist 4 pairs = 2 twisted linen passings right and left with
the bobbins of points 14 and 15 = 1 twisted linen passing = put up the
pins and work all the spiders alike.

[Illustration: FIG. 801. PILLOW LACE.

MATERIAL: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 30.[A]]

PILLOW LACE INSERTION (figs. 803 and 804).--Hang on 12 pairs of
bobbins.

Divide the bobbins and put 2 pairs at point 1 = put up a pin = twist
once = 2 linen passings = from point 2 to point 8 = 5 twisted linen
passings = add one pair of bobbins = put up a pin = add one pair of
bobbins = put up a pin = lay one pair of bobbins aside = twist = 2
linen passings = 5 twisted linen passings to point 10 = 2 linen passings
= twist the 2 last pairs = go back with linen passing through 2 pairs =
join together with the two pairs and the first pair by means of a
twisted stitch = put up the pin = lozenge stitch (for lozenge stitch in
which the lozenges or close leaves are made, you take 4 or 6 threads; in
the execution it resembles the darning stitch represented in figs. 646
and 647) to point 11 = twist at point 12 = take 2 pairs from point 10 =
plait to point 13 = twist with the bobbins of point 1 = double passing =
plait on the right, twist on the left = put up the pin = tie up as
described.

[Illustration: FIG. 802. PILLOW LACE.

MATERIAL: Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 30.[A]]

Take the second pair at points 13 and 15 = put up the pin = 2 twisted
double passings on the right = 2 linen passings = twist the 2 latter =
put up the pin = at point 16 lay one pair of bobbins aside = with simple
passing go back through 2 linen passings = join the latter and the
former with linen passing = put up the pin at point 17 = lozenge stitch
with the bobbins of points 15 and 17 to point 18 = connect the same at
point 11 = carry on the lozenge stitch to points 19, 20 and 21 = put up
a pin at each number and enclose with a linen passing = with the first
pair of bobbins of point 21, 2 linen passings to the left and 2 twisted
linen passings, that is to say, crossing the threads = put up the pin at
point 22.

[Illustration: FIG. 803. PATTERN FOR PILLOW LACE INSERTION FIG. 804.]

[Illustration: FIG. 804. PILLOW LACE INSERTION. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 100.[A]]

Twist the threads from point 16 to point 23 = make a plait from point 15
to point 23 = then join the two parts together by half passings = put up
a pin = twist the threads and make plaits to point 24 = join the threads
as at point 23.

On the left and with the first pair of point 19, 2 linen passings = with
the 2 latter 1 twisted passing = put up the pin at point 25 = returning,
2 linen passings to point 26 = 2 linen passings to the left = with the 2
latter pairs 2 double passings and put up the pin.

PILLOW LACE (figs. 805 and 806).--Hang on 14 pairs of bobbins.

[Illustration: FIG. 805. PATTERN FOR PILLOW LACE FIG. 806.]

[Illustration: FIG. 806. PILLOW LACE.

MATERIAL: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 25.[A]]

These are divided into 3 groups = 3 pairs at point 1 = put up a pin =
twisted linen passing = twist both pairs once = put up the pin at point
3 = add on 5 pairs at point 2 = put up the pin = go back through 3 pairs
= twist the 2 last pairs = linen passing = put up the pin at point 3 =
twist both pairs = linen passings, as seen in the illustration, to the
right and left as far as point 11 = at point 13 intervert 6 pairs by a
twisted linen passing = make a plait at point 14 = put up a pin in the
middle of the same = pass through 2 pairs of bobbins with twisted linen
passing = put 1 pair of bobbins aside at point 22 = put up a pin at the
2 first pairs at point 15 = work the leaf in lozenge stitch = put up a
pin at point 16 near the first pair = twist both pairs once = linen
passing = put up the pin at point 17 = go back in the same manner = work
on in the same way to point 21 = put up the pin at point 22 = twisted
linen passing to point 11 = tie up the first pair of the scallop with
the bobbins of point 11 = bring the last pair back and work as at point
1 = then repeat and proceed in the same way to point 27 = twist the 2
pairs up to point 26 = put up the pin = make one lozenge stitch and join
the plait, stitch to point 28 = continue the lozenge stitch to point 29
= join the bobbins of point 29 to those of point 21 by a plait = put up
the pin = linen passing = twist the two last pairs once = put up the pin
= linen passing = put up the pin at point 31 = twist both pairs once = 2
linen passings = put up the pin at point 82 = 2 linen passings = tie up
the bobbins of point 33 with those of point 29 = plait stitch = put up
the pin = join to point 34 with lozenge stitch = with the bobbins at
point 28 make lozenge stitch to point 27 = put up a pin = twist 3 pairs
once = make 2 linen passings = join with linen passing = continue the
scallop according to the preceding description, from point 27 to point
35.

At point 34 make a leaf in lozenge stitch = put up the pin = continue
from point 33 to point 36 with twisted linen passings = carry the first
pair of bobbins of the lozenge to point 35 by means of 2 twisted linen
passings = put up a pin in the middle of the 2 pairs = make a plait to
point 37 = cross the pairs again as at point 13, in the beginning.

PILLOW LACE (figs. 807 and 808).--Worked with 30 pairs of
bobbins.--These are divided: 14 pairs at point 1 = put up a pin on the
left and right = with the last pairs make plaits to point 12 = add 2
pairs = make a double passing as for a plait = put up a pin in the
middle of the pairs = plait with 2 pairs of bobbins to point 3 = add 2
pairs of bobbins = make a double passing as for the plait = put up a pin
in the middle of the pairs = then go on in the same manner to point 4 =
add 4 pairs of bobbins = put up the pin = at point 5, add 2 pairs of
bobbins = make a plait = put up a pin and join to point 4 by a double
passing.

[Illustration: FIG. 807. PATTERN FOR PILLOW LACE FIG. 808.]

[Illustration: FIG. 808. PILLOW LACE.

MATERIAL: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 50.[A]]

At point 1, lay the two last pairs to the right = put up a pin = make a
plait to point 6 = add 2 pairs of bobbins = 1 double passing = put up a
pin = make a plait to point 7 with a pairs of bobbins = add 2 pairs of
bobbins = 1 double passing = put up the pin = make a plait to point 8 =
add 4 pairs of bobbins = 5 linen passings = put up a pin at the last
passing = at point 9 add 2 pairs of bobbins = make a plait = put up a
pin = join to point 8 with linen passing = make plaits from point 9 to
point 10 = put up a pin = leave the pairs hanging = 5 linen passings
with the bobbins of point 10 = put up the pin at point 11 = go back to
point 10 with 5 passings = put up the pin = make a plait and tie up the
bobbins at point 6 = leave these bobbins hanging down.

With the two first pairs at point 11, make a plait to point 12 = 1 linen
passing at point 7 and join to point 12 by a plait = plait stitch = put
up a pin = then plait stitch to point 13 and make the same connection as
at points 12 and 7 = continue to plait to point 14 = put up the pin at
the first pair = 7 linen passings = leave these bobbins hanging down =
tie up the plait of point 5 with the 1st pair of point 4 = make a plait
on the left = put up a pin at point 15 = make 5 linen passings on the
right and put up the pin at point 16 = make a plait to point 17 = make
the same connection as at point 7 and 12 = the same connection also at
point 18 = make a plait to point 19 = put up the pin = make a plaited
lozenge with one pair = leave 2 pairs hanging at point 20, left and
right = continue to point 21 = leave 2 pairs hanging, left and right =
make a plait to point 22 = begin again at point 17 and make a leaf in
lozenge stitch to point 23 = make a second leaf from point 16 to point
23 = join the leaves at point 23 = make a plait with the first pair of
point 16 to point 24 = put up a pin = enclose it with a double passing
and make a plait = tie up the bobbins at point 15 = continue the edge to
point 26 = make a leaf in lozenge stitch from point 32 to point 26 = tie
up the bobbins at point 26 and make linen passings with the united
bobbins to point 27 = with the bobbins of point 18 and point 20,
therefore with 4 pairs, make a square in lozenge stitch = join the 3
leaves at point 23 = from point 23 to point 28 make a plait with the two
first pairs of bobbins = put up a pin at point 28 = make a plait with
picots to point 29 = lozenge stitch from point 32 to point 22 and point
33 = join to point 30 by a plait = plait to point 22 = work from point
34 to 35 in the same way as from point 1 to point 33 = at point 22 and
point 35 the pairs cross each other.

PILLOW LACE (figs. 809 and 810).--Hang on 28 pairs of bobbins. Begin
at point 1 with a plait, fig. 790 = put up a pin = * hang on 5 pairs at
point 2 and put up a pin at the last pair = with the last pair make a
plait to point 3 * = hang on a pair of bobbins = 1 linen passing = hang
on a pair of bobbins = 1 linen passing = hang on 3 pairs of bobbins = 1
linen passing = 3 linen passings = put up a pin = 1 leaf in lozenge
stitch to point 4 = hang on 2 pairs of bobbins = 2 plait stitches = put
up a pin = make a leaf to point 5 = hang on 2 pairs of bobbins = 1 plait
stitch = put up a pin = repeat in the reverse order to point 3.

[Illustration: FIG. 809. PATTERN FOR THE LACE FIG. 810.]

[Illustration: FIG. 810. PILLOW LACE. MATERIAL: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No.
50. ([A])]

Put up a pin at point 9 = hang on a pair of bobbins = 1 linen passing =
hang on a pair of bobbins = 1 linen passing = hang on a pair of bobbins
= make a plait to point 11 = put up a pin = hang on 2 pairs of bobbins
at point 12 = make a plait and tie the threads together with those of
point 11 = on the left with 2 pairs, on the right with 3 pairs to point
13 for the edge = put up 2 pins and continue the edge with linen
passings to point 14.

Return to point 15 and make a plait = put up a pin = divide the bobbins
and put one pair on the right, the other on the left = take the bobbins
at point 5 and 7 and make plaits to points 16 and 17 = make linen
passings with the two pairs to point 18 = put up a pin and make a plait
to point 21.

Make leaves in lozenge stitch from points 4 and 8 to points 19 and 20 =
one leaf from point 16 to point 19 = make another leaf to point 22 and
one to point 21 = make the same leaves on the left to points 20, 21 and
23 = cross the bobbins at point 21 = make leaves from point 21 to points
24, 26 and 26.

Make lozenge stitch with picots, with 3 pairs of bobbins from points 9
and 10 to point 22 = join the bobbins to leaf 22 = carry on the braid to
point 26 = join 2 pairs of bobbins to the leaf = leave the 2 pairs at
point 28 hanging down = carry on the braid to point 25.

Make a leaf at point 27 to point 14 = tie the threads together as at
point 10 = carry on the edge to point 29 = put up a pin = make a plait
with picots to point 30 = tie up the threads with those of leaf 28 =
make a leaf to point 31 = introduce the threads into the edge = put up a
pin = tie the threads together.

Make a plait on the left = leave 4 pairs of bobbins hanging down on the
right, 2 pairs for the plait and 2 for the leaf = carry on the edge to
point 32 = leave 2 pairs hanging for another leaf = continue the edge to
point 33. Make a plait from point 21 to point 34.

Begin again on the left at points 1 and 2 and work, as on the right, to
point 35 = cross the threads at point 25 = linen passing = distribute
the pairs to point 36 = 2 pairs at point 37 = 2 at point 38 = 3 pairs
at point 34 = plait to point 37 = join to point 38 = continue the plait
and join to points 36, 35, 39 = at points 35, 36, 37 lozenge stitch with
every 2 pairs of bobbins to point 40 = then join the next 6 pairs
together = and work on with lozenge stitch to point 41 = work exactly in
the same manner at points 31, 32, 34, 35, 39, 42 as at points 36, 37,
38, 40 to 41 = at point 41, all the threads are interwoven, and then
divided into 3 sets = continue the leaves to points 45, 46 and 47. Then
repeat in the reverse order from points 31, 38, 25, 32 and 39.

[Illustration: FIG. 811. ARMENIAN LACE. MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C
Nos. 10 to 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 40 or Fil à dentelle
D.M.C Nos. 25 to 70. COLOURS: Écru and Brun-Caroubier 303.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 812. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 811.]

ARMENIAN LACE (figs. 811 and 812).--The dresses of the Turkish women
are often ornamented with flowers and leaves, executed in needlework
which take the place of fringe and braid trimmings and are often even
employed as adornments for the neck and arms instead of necklets and
bracelets in metal work; though, as such, they do not always accord with
our Western notions of good taste, the Armenian work is in itself, both
sufficiently interesting and easy of execution, to deserve description
here amongst other kinds of needlework that are adaptable to use. It may
be imitated with capital effect in strong stiff washing materials, such
as those indicated in our illustration, either upon a linen or cotton
foundation or upon plush or silk.

The thread is first drawn into the edge of the stuff; you then carry it
from right to left, determine the length of the squares, and working
from left to right make on this first thread as many knots as you have
room for.

Fig. 812 shows the formation of the knot, the manner in which the
thread, passing from left to right, forms a loop, and how to pass your
needle under the straightly extended thread and through the loop. You
leave a space of one or two m/m. between the knots, according to the
thickness of the thread you are using. Having covered the first thread
with knots, you return to the edge for the next row of knots, but
passing your needle this time under three threads.

The number of knots should be the same in each row, and the four sides
of the square should be all equal.

When the squares are finished they are edged with picots on the two
lower sides, as shown in fig. 812.

Thread of two colours was used for fig. 811, the squares being worked
alternately in Écru and Brun-Caroubier and the picots, all in the latter
colour.

LACE AND INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH (fig. 813).--Excepting in the
case of the returning thread, the same stitches are used for the pretty
border and insertion given in fig. 813, as for the Armenian lace.

The stitches that form the insertion are attached, on both sides, to an
English braid, something of the nature of Rhodes linen, which is
open-worked before the knotted work upon it is begun.

As in the preceding figure, two colours are used alternately, the change
from one to the other is distinctly marked in the engraving.

The outside edge consists of light scallops, formed by the regular
increase and decrease of the stitches. The original piece of work from
which our drawing was taken, forms the border of a dark blue plush
carpet; the red and écru hues of the lace harmonize exceedingly well
with the soft colour of the plush.

[Illustration: FIG. 813. LACE AND INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH.
MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C
Nos. 10 to 25, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50. COLOURS: Écru and
Rouge-Cardinal 46.[A]]

INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH (figs. 814 and 815).--This kind of work,
similarly composed of knotted stitches, can be used instead of crochet
insertion or single and cut openwork in linen. It looks exceedingly well
as a trimming for bed and table linen and is executed on foundation
threads or cords, which connect the different figures together, with
closely connected rows of knots between.

[Illustration: FIG. 814. INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH. MATERIALS: Fil à
pointer D.M.C No. 30, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 15 to 30, or Fil à
dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 815. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 814.]

INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH (figs. 816 and 817).--The mode of making
the insertion in knotted stitch, which is represented in the two
accompanying engravings, is supposed to be of Italian origin, but we
have met with quite as perfect specimens of work done in the same way,
which were the products of Persia and Asia Minor. We have called it by
the same name as the preceding patterns, for even the way in which the
stitch is worked is almost the same. Through some slight difference
however in the interlacing of the threads, shown by the open loops in
fig. 817, the stitches lie closer together and are alike on both sides
of the work.

[Illustration: FIG. 816. INSERTION IN KNOTTED STITCH. MATERIALS: The
same as for fig. 814.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 817. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 816.]

No difficulty will be found in making out the course of the rows; it is
best to begin by the two rows of stitches that form the perpendicular
bars and make the stitches, that compose the 4 staves between the bars
next. For the little picots see fig. 700.

[Illustration: FIG. 818. LACE IN KNOTTED STITCH. MATERIALS: Cordonnet 6
fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 25 or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25 to 50.[A]]

[Illustration: FIG. 819. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 818.]

[Illustration: FIG. 820. RETICELLA LACE. MATERIALS--For the open-work:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 10 to 100, or Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 25
to 150, white or écru. For the bars: Lacets superfins D.M.C Nos. 3 to
8.[A]]

LACE IN KNOTTED STITCH (figs. 818 and 819).--This charming little
lace, which is of Italian origin, was taken from a cushion cover, used
for church purposes. The stitches, made in the order indicated in the
working detail, fig. 819, are overcast at the last with a fleecy thread,
such as Coton à repriser D.M.C, of a rather sober colour, such for
instance as Bleu-Indigo 334, Rouge-Géranium 352, or Jaune-Rouille 363.

You overcast the slanting bars and pass over the stitches that connect
the two picots.

[Illustration: FIG. 821. WORKING DETAIL OF FIG. 820.]

RETICELLA LACE (figs. 820 and 821).--The Reticella laces are generally
made on a design traced upon parchment, similar to those required for
the laces described later on. But as the manner of working has been
modified in the lace represented here, we thought it as well to adopt
the same simplification, often used in beautiful pieces of old
needlework, which consists in substituting a braid made upon a pillow,
for the bars made with the needle.

[Illustration: FIG. 822. VENETIAN LACE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 823. VENETIAN LACE.]

You begin by laying and fastening down the braid by means of very small
stitches upon the lines of the pattern, which should be traced upon
black paper; you next proceed to make the centre bars, covered with
plain buttonhole stitches, on which you mount a row of stitches, like
those of fig. 755; these are followed by another bar, to make which, you
pick up the loop of the stitches of the preceding row and by another row
like the second, finished off with picots, like those illustrated in
fig. 700. The bases of the pyramids likewise consist of bars,
buttonholed on both sides and edged on the inside with picots.

The stitches of the first row should not be too close together, that
there may be room for those of the second row between, as we have
already explained in fig. 702, in the chapter on Irish lace.

The inside of the pyramids is worked in the stitch represented in fig.
755, the picots round them are like the ones in fig. 599.

[Illustration: FIG. 824. VENETIAN LACE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 825. VENETIAN LACE.]

The lace, represented in fig. 820 in its original size, was worked in
Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 80, whilst the second engraving, representing
the same subject, shows us how perfectly well it can also be made in
heavier and coarser materials, these being in this instance, Lacets
superfins D.M.C No. 4 and Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No. 20.

VENETIAN LACES (figs. 822, 823, 824, 825, 826, 827, 828).--Under the
name of «Venetian point» are comprised, not only certain kinds of pillow
lace, but even more generally, the beautiful needle-made lace, the
outlines of which are bordered with handsome scallops in high relief.

We shall confine our attention in the present instance to the
needle-made Venetian lace as the other can be learnt without any great
difficulty by following the instructions already given for the making of
pillow lace.

[Illustration: FIG. 826. VENETIAN LACE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 827. VENETIAN LACE.]

The preparation of the pattern, in most kinds of needlework, is a most
important matter and one requiring the greatest care, but in the case of
needlemade lace and pillow lace the processes are different.

The paper on which the design is traced must first be backed or lined
with unglazed black paper (made specially for this purpose). Prick holes
all along the lines of the pattern, at exactly the same distance from
each other, remove the tracing and tack the black paper upon rather
coarse linen.

This done, you take from three to five lengths of the thread of which
the lace is to be made, lay them down together upon the lines marked by
the prickings and secure them at each hole by a stitch made over the
threads.

Fig. 822, with the others of the same series in their natural size, show
the proper distance that should be left between the prickings, and the
laying down of the threads begun; whilst in fig. 823, we have the
threads laid down throughout, even for the little eyelet holes, which
are to be openworked afterwards.

[Illustration: Fig. 828. VENETIAN LACE. MATERIALS--For the open
stitches: Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 100 to 200. For the outlining and
for the padding: Coton surfin D.M.C Nos. 120 to 150.[A]]

When all this preliminary work is finished, the pattern is ready for the
lace stitches that are to form the filling in, between the raised
outlines. In order to keep your work perfectly clean and preserve it
from unnecessary contact with your fingers, cover all those parts of the
pattern you are not immediately engaged on, with a piece of blue paper
with a hole, about the size of a pea, cut in it. This you move along as
you go, working only at the part of the pattern which is visible through
the hole, keeping all the rest carefully covered up and sewing paper
over each part as soon as it is finished; this should not be removed
until you are ready to join all the separate parts together with bars or
latticed ground and work the buttonhole edges.

All the different lace stitches that are used as fillings must be begun
and fastened off at the outline threads, which you must be careful not
to drag out of their place.

We again remark, for the benefit of those of our readers who may not
have read the preceding chapter attentively, that in working all the
finer lace stitches, the needle should be held with the eye towards the
worker and the point turned outwards. All the inside portions of the
pattern have to be worked in separately; (for a choice of stitches to
serve as fillings see figs. 720 to 762) until all the spaces are filled,
as represented in figs. 825 and 826. The stitches should be selected as
far as possible, to suit the style of the design. Flowers look best
worked in an open or lattice stitch, leaves on the other hand in a thick
close stitch.

When all the insides are done, the edges and outlines have to be closely
buttonholed.

The old Venetian laces are bordered with scallops in high relief, worked
over a thick pad of laid threads, as described on p. 83, fig. 191,
relating to Venetian embroidery.

[Illustration: Fig. 829. VENETIAN LACE WITH NET GROUND.

MATERIALS--For the open stitches: Fil à dentelle D.M.C Nos. 100 to
200.--For the outlining: Coton surfin D.M.C Nos. 120 to 150.]

VENETIAN LACE WITH NET GROUND (fig. 829).--The outlining of the
figures with several strands of Coton surfin D.M.C, should, in the case
of detached pieces of lace, be done at once, but where the figures are
connected by bars or by a net ground as in fig. 825, the buttonholed
outlines should be done last. Thus in making the lace, fig. 829, you
should begin by working all the insides of the flowers and foliage, then
the net ground which may be replaced by bars with picots and then only
proceed to the outside buttonholing and the scallops.

As all this kind of lace-work is very laborious and takes a long time to
do, we advise our readers to use thread that is slightly tinted; in the
first place it does not turn yellow as white thread is liable to do and
secondly, being softer and less twisted it takes every bend and turn
more readily than the stiffer white material does.

Of all the different kinds of thread, so frequently alluded to in these
pages, the higher numbers of Fil d'Alsace D.M.C and Fil à dentelle D.M.C
are the best for the finer kinds of lace, and they all have the soft
ivory tint, we so admire in the old needlework.

[Illustration: FIG. 830. SPRAY IN NEEDLE-POINT. MATERIALS--For the open
stitches: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 200.--For the outlining: Coton surfin
D.M.C Nos. 120 to 150.[A]]

SPRAY IN NEEDLE-POINT (fig. 830).--Needle-point lace, also called
Brussels lace, requires the same preparatory work as Venetian lace; but
it seldom contains such a variety of stitches and openwork as the
latter.

The flowers are generally worked in one of the stitches, represented in
figs. 720 and 740; the outlines are less thickly buttonholed and the
stitches, set everywhere less closely.

Here also, the finished parts should be carefully covered with paper to
keep them from getting soiled.

The needle-point lace designs are ordinarily speaking more realistic and
as regards the composition, less artistic and severe than the Venetian
point ones.

The spray, represented in our engraving, is a specimen of an ordinary
Brussels lace pattern and of the stitches it is worked in.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: APPLIQUÉ WORK ON SATIN SET WITH FINE CORD.]



Miscellaneous fancy work.


As the plan on which this book was constructed rendered a systematic
classification of the different subjects it treats of necessary, a
certain amount of miscellaneous fancy work, which does not come under
any of the previous headings remains to be dealt with in the present
chapter. In most cases the illustrations and the accompanying directions
are but an application to a practical use of the different kinds of
stitches already described in previous chapters and those who are
familiar with all these various branches of needlework will have no
difficulty in understanding what follows.

KNOTTED CORD (figs. 831, 832, 833, 834, 835).--The knotted cord
referred to in the letter press belonging to figs. 772 and 773 in the
chapter on Irish lace, comes under the present heading: in making it,
the fingers take the place of a crochet needle.

You tie two ends of thread or braid together, take one thread in the
left hand fig. 831, and with the forefinger of the right, pull out a
loop long enough for the left forefinger to pass through and hold the
end of the thread tight with the little finger of the right hand.

Then draw the left forefinger backwards through the loop and behind the
thread that is round the loop and lies in the left hand, fig. 832. As
you lay the thread round the left forefinger, you must pass the knot
and the ends of thread as well, over into the left hand, and with the
right hand pull the thread that lies on the right and draw up the loop,
fig. 833.

[Illustration: FIG. 831. KNOTTED CORD. FIRST POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 832. KNOTTED CORD. SECOND POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 833. KNOTTED CORD. THIRD POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

In fig. 834, representing the fourth position of the hands, you are
shown how the forefinger of the right hand lifts up the thread and
passes through the loop on the left hand; the end will consequently also
pass immediately into the right hand and the left hand will tighten the
knot.

It is by thus drawing up first a loop on the right and then one on the
left that this pretty cord is produced.

Skilful hands will soon learn to make a cord of the same kind with four
threads, as follows: knot the four ends of thread together, make a few
knots, using two threads as one, then dropping the loop on your
forefinger, put the next one upon it and draw up the knot, passing
however the threads over those that you dropped. Then drop the loop you
have on your finger again and take up the first loops.

[Illustration: FIG. 834. KNOTTED CORD. FOURTH POSITION OF THE HANDS.]

For the cord made with double threads, represented in fig. 835 on a
magnified scale, use Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C or one of the other
materials mentioned at the foot of the illustration. Soutache D.M.C will
always be found to be very suitable for this purpose.

BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS (figs. 836, 837, 838, 839, 840, 841).--Amongst the
crochet patterns are two that are finished off with balls; to make
these, begin by cutting a number of rounds of cardboard, two for every
ball, with holes in the middle, fig. 836.

[Illustration: FIG. 835. KNOTTED CORD.
MATERIALS: Fil à pointer D.M.C Nos. 10 to 30, Coton à tricoter D.M.C
Nos. 6 to 12, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 3 to 25 or Soutache D.M.C Nos.
1 to 3.[A]]

If you have a great many balls to make it is well worth your while
providing yourself with a metal die of the proper size, to cut the
rounds with.

[Illustration: FIG. 836. BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS. CIRCLE OF CARDBOARD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 837. BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS. OVERCASTING THE CIRCLE OF
CARDBOARD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 838. BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS. CUTTING THE STITCHES ROUND
THE EDGE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 839. BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS. PUTTING IN THE LOOP.]

[Illustration: FIG. 840. BALLS FOR TRIMMINGS. CUTTING OUT THE
CARDBOARD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 841. BALL COMPLETED WITH LOOP ATTACHED.]

Lay two of these rounds together and cover them closely with stitches,
fig. 837, using for this purpose Coton à tricoter D.M.C (knitting
cotton) or Coton à repriser D.M.C (darning cotton).[A]

When the round is entirely covered, put the scissors in between the two
circles of cardboard and cut open the stitches all round the outer edge,
fig. 838; then draw a piece of thread between the two circles and knot
it firmly round the stitches that meet in the centre hole, fig. 839;
leave sufficiently long ends of thread hanging to form a loop by which
the ball can afterwards be fastened to the heading of the fringe; when
the stitches are knotted together you cut and pull out the cardboard,
fig. 840, and snip the thread with your scissors until it becomes quite
fluffy and the ball is perfectly round, as shown in fig. 841.

TAMBOUR WORK (figs. 842, 843, 844, 845).--Since the introduction of
the sewing machine, by means of which this charming kind of embroidery
can be so quickly and easily executed, it has somewhat gone out of
favour. As however, the fine patterns with a good deal of shading in
them, can be far more accurately worked by hand than by machine,
tambouring, which is in point of fact merely a form of crochet, has
lately been revived. The piece of stuff on which the tambour work is to
be done must be mounted on a frame.

[Illustration: FIG. 842. THIMBLE FOR TAMBOURING.]

[Illustration: FIG. 843. TAMBOUR NEEDLE.]

The loops which are made with a small hook, called a tambour needle,
form a fine chain stitch and must be regular and even; to facilitate
this a sort of thimble, fig. 842, is worn on the forefinger of the right
hand, formed of a small plate of sheet brass, rolled up but not joined,
so as to fit any finger; it is open at the top like a tailor's thimble
and has a little notch on the side which is placed above the nail, and
in which you lay the tambour needle whilst you work. From the thimble
being cut slightly slanting at the top, it follows that the inside where
the two ends meet is a little shorter than the outside.

The thread is drawn through in a loop to the front of the work by means
of the hook, whilst it is held at the back in the left hand, and when
the needle is put downwards through the stuff, laid round it. The needle
in its downward and upward passage, should be kept in the notch in the
thimble and the stuff pressed down with the thimble, as the needle is
drawn up to the surface of the work, fig. 844.

[Illustration: FIG. 844. POSITION OF THE HANDS IN TAMBOURING.]

A little practice is necessary to acquire the right action of the hands,
there being always a tendency, the same as in tatting and macramé, to
confuse the movements of the two. As soon as you realize that the upward
drawing of the needle and the downward pressure of the stuff with the
thimble must be simultaneous, you will find that you can work with
great rapidity and with admirable results. Thread with a very strong
twist, which the hook will not split, is the only suitable kind for
tambouring. Of the D.M.C materials, Fil d'Alsace[A] and Fil à
dentelle[A] are the most to be recommended.

Numbers of patterns, originally intended for other kinds of embroidery
can be executed in tambour work; amongst those contained in this
Encyclopedia, figs. 192, 210, 216, 219, and 227 are the ones that are
best adapted to the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 845. DRAWING OUT THE THREAD WITH THE NEEDLE.]

SMYRNA STITCH WORKED WITH A CROCHET-NEEDLE (figs. 846, 847, 848,
849).--In the chapter on tapestry, p. 137 we remarked that Oriental
carpets and mats could be worked in different other ways, to be
subsequently alluded to at greater length.

[Illustration: FIG. 846. SMYRNA STITCH WORKED WITH A CROCHET NEEDLE.
FIRST DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 847. SMYRNA STITCH WORKED WITH A CROCHET NEEDLE.
SECOND DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 848. SMYRNA STITCH WORKED WITH A CROCHET NEEDLE.
APPEARANCE OF THE KNOTS UNDERNEATH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 849. SMYRNA STITCH WORKED WITH A CROCHET NEEDLE.
APPEARANCE OF THE WORK WHEN FINISHED.]

Smyrna stitch requires only a crochet needle and is worked on very
coarse canvas or Java linen. You take a coarse mesh of cotton, such as
Nos. 6, 8 or 10 of Colon à tricoter D.M.C (knitting cotton), cut it into
lengths of 8 c/m., fold two lengths together in half, stick in the
crochet needle from above, under two threads of the canvas, take hold of
the loop with the hook, fig. 846, and draw it in; then push out the
hook to seize the ends of the cotton and draw them through the loop
which is on the needle, as indicated by the little arrow in fig. 847.
The stitches or tassels should be two or three double threads of the
canvas apart. As you finish each row, comb the ends of the tassels out
carefully with a fine metal comb. When the whole piece of work is
finished shear the entire surface, quite even, with a pair of sharp
scissors. Fig. 849 shows a square of the work completed, presenting that
warm velvety appearance which distinguishes the Smyrna carpets.

[Illustration: FIG. 850. MALTA STITCH. FIRST DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 851. MALTA STITCH. SECOND DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 852. MALTA STITCH. THIRD DETAIL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 853. MALTA STITCH. FOURTH DETAIL.]

MALTA STITCH (figs. 850, 851, 852, 853, 854).--This stitch is much
used by the Maltese; it is the same as the «point tricot» excepting that
in the latter, the loops formed by the return of the thread are open and
the stitches packed very closely together, whereas in the Maltese work
there is always one close loop and two open tassels.

[Illustration: FIG. 854. MALTA EMBROIDERY. MATERIALS: Coton à repriser
D.M.C No. 25.[A] COLOURS: Jaune-vieil-Or 680, Vert-Mousse 469,
Bleu-Indigo 311 and Rouge-Cornouille 449.[A]]

It is worked as follows: take a thick bunch of lengths of Coton à
repriser D.M.C, pass it under two vertical threads of the stuff, from
right to left, fig. 850, leaving an end, 1 or 2 c/m. long, lying on the
surface of the work; put the needle in again under the two threads that
are in front of the first stitch and leave the tassel, formed by the
first stitch, above the one by which you bring the needle back between
the two stitches.

The needle must now follow the same course it took for the first stitch
and the thread must be drawn out far enough to form a loop as long as
the tassel; you then repeat the second stitch, carrying back the working
thread however this time above the loop, after which you cut the two
open ends the same length as the loop. In the Maltese work, three times
as many threads have to be left between the tassels as are covered by
the stitch.

Thus if your stitch cover 4 threads of the foundation, you should leave
12 threads between the tassels, and if it cover 6, you should leave an
interval of 18 threads, that the stuff may always be visible between the
little tassels or balls.

Fig. 854 represents a portion of a curtain, embroidered on Flemish linen
in the colours indicated at the foot of the engraving; these may be
arranged according to the taste of the worker.

Malta embroidery is mostly done on coarse coloured linen fabrics or on
single thread canvas.

TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH (figs. 855, 856, 857, 858, 859). Amongst the
many pretty stitches for which Turkish embroideries are distinguished,
there is one in particular, which though apparently very difficult, is
in reality quite the reverse; it resembles line stitch upon straight
threads, only that in the East it is generally worked in diagonal lines,
each row requiring two journeys to and fro.

In the first, fig. 855, the needle must always be carried, first over,
then under two threads in a diagonal line and so on to the end of the
row.

Coming back, you pass the needle under the stuff and the stitch on the
right side, and bring it out at the bottom of the stitch; then you make
a back stitch over two horizontal and two vertical threads, pass the
needle over two straight threads, put it in behind the same, bring it
out again near the upper stitch and then insert it near the bottom
vertical stitch; after this you carry it to the second stitch lower down
and pass it over the same. Four threads should meet in every hole which
the needle makes. The third and fourth row should be worked in a colour
that forms a sharp contrast with the one in which the two first rows are
worked and constitute with these one complete row of stitches, fig. 856.

Figs. 857, 858 and 859 show how the same stitch can be worked in
straight, instead of in diagonal rows.

[Illustration: FIG. 855. TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH WORKED DIAGONALLY.
FIRST JOURNEY COMPLETED AND SECOND BACK, BEGUN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 856. TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH WORKED DIAGONALLY.
TWO JOURNEYS TO AND FRO FORMING THE COMPLETE ROW.]

The dark shade in fig. 859 shows the first row of stitches, the light,
the second, or rather the third and fourth, as four rows of stitches are
required to make one complete row of triangular Turkish stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 857. TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH WORKED HORIZONTALLY.
FIRST JOURNEY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 858. TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH WORKED HORIZONTALLY.
FIRST JOURNEY BACK.]

PATTERN WORKED IN TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH AND GOBELIN STITCH (fig.
860).--The diagonal lines are all worked with Chiné gold and blue, and
gold and red. The stitch we have just described is most effective in
conjunction with other kinds of embroidery, as illustrated in fig. 860,
where it is combined with Gobelin stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 859. TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH WORKED HORIZONTALLY.
SECOND JOURNEY BACK.]

The running foundation is divided into slanting squares; the diagonal
lines are all worked in gold and red. The squares number 9 stitches
inside, these are followed by a tenth which is covered by the first
stitch of the next square. Where two kinds of coloured gold thread are
used, one square will be framed on all sides by one kind, say, gold and
blue for instance, the next by the other, gold and red.

[Illustration: FIG. 860. PATTERN WORKED IN TRIANGULAR TURKISH STITCH.
MATERIALS: Chiné d'or D.M.C. COLOURS: Gold and red, gold and dark blue,
gold and light blue, gold and green.]

The stalk that divides the two little leaves and has a small lozenge at
the top, is begun above the fifth of the 9 stitches; you make 5
stitches, but in such a manner as to end at the top of these 5 with the
stitch that runs in a diagonal direction over the threads, turned to the
inside of the stalk, so that the last stitch of the first row may form
with the first stitch of the second row, a triangle at the top of the
stalk, which is surmounted by the aforesaid lozenge.

The lozenges in Chiné gold and light blue, of which there are three in
each of the half squares, besides those that terminate the stalk,
consist of 9 stitches, the first, extending over 3 threads, the second
over 5, the third over 7, the fourth over 9 and the fifth over 11; the
four next decreasing in a similar manner. The leaves in Chiné gold and
green, on either side of the stalk, also begin with a stitch over 3
threads of the stuff, followed by 8, each increasing in length by one
thread on the side of the stalk, but all equal on the other, the last
extending over 12 threads of the stuff. After these 9, the subsequent 8
must decrease in the same manner by one thread on the opposite side;
then you make 4 more extending over only 3 threads and set the contrary
way to the others.

The zig-zag border and the small squares of 5 stitches within it are
worked entirely in Chiné gold and red.

[Illustration: FIG. 861. TURKISH EMBROIDERY. MATERIALS: Chiné d'or D.M.C
No. 30 and Coton à broder D.M.C No. 40.[A] COLOURS--For the Chiné: Gold
and red, gold and dark blue and gold and green. For the Coton à broder:
Noir grand-teint 310.[A]]

TURKISH EMBROIDERY (fig. 861).--The powdering of flowers and also the
border are worked like the preceding pattern in two-sided Gobelin
stitch. Embroidery of this kind looks best on Algerian linen, which is
exactly like the Turkish stuff. It is not absolutely necessary to count
the threads for the little flowers and stalks, but it is as well to do
so for the border, that you may be sure to get the zig-zags perfectly
regular.

The petals of the flowers are worked alternately in Chiné gold and red,
and gold and blue, the centre in Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie and the
leaves and stalks in Chiné gold and green. The petals are set with stem
stitch in fine black Coton à broder and if the embroidery is to be the
same on both sides this setting must be repeated at the back.

The distribution of colours in the border is left to the taste of the
worker, but we should recommend for the zig-zags Chiné gold and red, as
being the most effective.

APPLIQUÉ WORK (fig. 862).--Appliqué work means the laying on of pieces
of one kind of stuff on to a foundation of a different kind, so as to
form a pattern--these pieces of stuff of various shapes and sizes,
taking the place of solid needlemade embroidery.

Appliqué work may be done on linen, silk, velvet, plush and leather. The
stuff out of which the pattern is cut has, in most cases, to be backed
first with very fine tissue paper.

This is done in the following manner with starch paste, which dries
quicker than any other. Spread the paste on the paper with a brush,
carefully removing all the little lumps; it should only be just liquid
enough to make the stuff and the paper adhere perfectly together and
above all must never penetrate to the right side of the stuff. When the
paper has been evenly spread with the paste, lay your stuff upon it and
smooth and press it down with a clean cloth, stroking it out carefully
in the line of the thread to prevent its becoming in the least dragged
or puckered, or any air remaining between it and the paper.

You next lay several sheets of paper without a mark or a fold in them,
on a perfectly smooth flat board, and upon these, your paper-lined
stuff, covered in its turn with several loose sheets of paper, all being
kept in their place by another board with several stones or heavy
weights laid upon it to act as a press. Leave the stuff in the press
until it be quite dry. You will find that any kind of fabric, even the
slightest, can be rendered available in this manner for appliqué work,
not even plush or velvet being in the least injured by the process.

You then transfer the whole pattern on to the foundation, whatever it
happen to be, but only the detached figures on to the paper-lined stuff,
carefully cutting out the latter with a very sharp pair of scissors so
as to avoid unravelling the threads along the edges.

The foundation, stretched in a frame, as described on page 115, fig.
236, is to be placed on a board or table in such a manner that only the
stuff rests upon it, whilst the frame projects on all four sides.

Then cover the cut-out figures with paste on the wrong side and fit them
into their proper places upon the foundation. In larger pieces of work
especially, this should be done as quickly as possible so that a board
with weights upon it, to serve as a press, may be laid over them all at
once.

The board must not be removed until the paste be dry; then you can begin
the needlework, fastening down the appliqué figures and finishing them
off round the edges by laying down a fine round, cord, or by flat
stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 862. APPLIQUÉ WORK.]

You either sew on the cord with invisible stitches, opening it a little
at each stitch so as to slip the needle and thread in between the twist,
or else with ordinary overcasting stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 863. MOROCCO EMBROIDERY. MATERIALS--According to the
stuff: Fil à pointer D.M.C, Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, Coton à broder D.M.C
or Coton à repriser D.M.C[A]. COLOUR: Rouge-Cardinal 346[A].]

In either case it must be so laid on as completely to hide the cut edges
and keep them from fraying.

Should you wish to frame the appliqué figures with flat embroidery, you
must bring your needle out close to the cut edge and enter it, 1 or 2
m/m. within the edge from above.

Both, cord and flat stitch setting, should be of a subdued shade and if
possible, of a colour to match the foundation.

MOROCCO EMBROIDERY (figs. 863, 864, 865, 866).--This work named after
the country where it was originated, belongs both to the class of darned
and damask embroidery.

[Illustration: FIG. 864. MOROCCO EMBROIDERY. QUARTER OF THE SUBJECTS OF
FIG. 863.]

In fig. 864, the stitches are formed by passing over 5 threads and
taking up the sixth. Coming back you take up the third of the 5 threads
first missed and proceed in the same manner over the whole surface of
the work, unless the lines of the pattern require you to depart from
this rule; as, for instance, in certain parts of fig. 864, where you
will notice stitches, carried over 7 or 8 threads; also in the borders,
fig. 865 and 866, where the stitches are arranged in a rather arbitrary
manner, in order to bring out the pattern more clearly.

Fig. 864 represents the fourth part of one of the subjects that make up
the design fig. 863; that is, four such, joined together, form one of
the squares of fig. 863.

[Illustration: FIG. 865. MOROCCO EMBROIDERY. SMALL OUTER BORDER OF FIG.
863.]

Figs. 865 and 866 are patterns of two little borders and an insertion,
suitable as a finish to fig. 863, which can be enlarged to any size by
the addition of other squares to those that are represented here.

[Illustration: FIG. 866. MOROCCO EMBROIDERY. BORDER AND INSERTION
SUITABLE FOR FIG. 863.]

Most of the stuffs, already so frequently alluded to in this work, can
be used as a foundation for this kind of embroidery, provided the right
working materials to go with it are chosen; Coton à tricoter or Fil à
pointer should only be used for the coarser stuffs, such as Rhodes linen
No. 1, or Russian linen and the different kinds of tammy cloth, whereas
the other kinds of D.M.C threads and cottons and especially the finer
numbers, are best adapted for embroidery on fine stuffs, such as Rhodes
linen No. 2, and Spanish or Algerian linen.

SPANISH EMBROIDERY (figs. 867 and 868).--Spanish embroidery consists
almost exclusively of buttonhole stitch, fig. 171, and flat stitch, fig.
221.

[Illustration: FIG. 867. SQUARE OF SPANISH EMBROIDERY. MATERIALS: Or fin
D.M.C pour la broderie No. 40, Coton à broder D.M.C Nos. 50 and 100, or
Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 80.[A] COLOURS: Bleu-Indigo 312, 322, 334 and
Bleu pâle 668.[A]]

The buttonhole stitches, for which the more subdued shade of the colours
indicated should always be taken, or else yellow, dark or pale, to match
the gold thread, are made over two threads of gold and follow the
outlines of the pattern, which should be more or less appropriate to
this style of embroidery. One of the gold threads always keeps the
inside of the line and follows it throughout in an unbroken course,
whilst with the second, the outside one, you form picots, folding the
gold thread over from right to left and catching down the loop by a
buttonhole stitch, which is introduced into the loop itself and carried
over the combined gold threads, as shown in the left corner of fig. 868,
representing one quarter of the whole design, where the position of the
needle and the way in which the picot is secured are plainly indicated.

For the scallops, a round material with rather a strong twist should be
used, such as Soie de coton D.M.C No. 100[A] or Fil à dentelle D.M.C
Nos. 70 to 100[A], wound on reels.

[Illustration: FIG. 868. QUARTER OF THE PATTERN FOR FIG. 867, IN THE
NATURAL SIZE.]

Where the picots have to fill up empty spaces of a larger size, you can
join several together by connecting them each in turn with the first.

When you have bordered all the outlines with buttonhole stitches and
picots, fill up the spaces enclosed within the lines, which properly
speaking form the pattern, with flat stitch embroidery, worked in Coton
à broder or Coton à repriser; after which the whole surface is sewn over
with fine little spangles which give the sparkling look that constitutes
the peculiar charm of this kind of embroidery. The flowers are covered
with a fancy stitch that forms regular little lozenges, and every second
row of stitches is hidden under a spangle.

With regard to the colours indicated at the foot of fig. 867, this is
how they were distributed in the original, from which our engraving was
taken; all the outlines in buttonhole stitch, in Bleu pâle 668; the tops
of the flowers in Bleu-Indigo 334; the bottom parts in Bleu-Indigo 332,
and all three shades of blue so blended together in the solid parts of
the design as to be undistinguishable from each other. It is not
absolutely necessary to keep to the colours here indicated; there is no
reason whatever why a greater variety should not be introduced, but in
every case the more subdued shades should be selected; a pale red, for
instance, for the flowers, a green and a brown for the arabesques, will
always be found to produce a very pretty and harmonious effect.

When all the needlework is finished, you cut away the stuff underneath
the network formed by the picots, with a pair of sharp scissors.

A word remains to be said with regard to the copying of fig. 868.

Our readers will notice that in fig. 867 the flowers and arabesques
succeed and grow out of each other; that whilst the four quarters are
symmetrical, yet at the same time, the curves in each quarter take a
different inclination.

You cannot therefore simply repeat the subject four times; when you have
copied the one quarter, given in fig. 868, you must lay this first
quarter on again at the cross + on the left side; when the second
quarter is finished, you again turn the copy to the left and tack it on
at the +; when you come to the fourth quarter the lines of the first
quarter must exactly meet those of the last. We beg here to draw
attention to the directions, relative to the copying of patterns, given
in the subsequent chapter.

BASKET STITCH ON LINEN (fig. 869).--This stitch has some resemblance
with the Greek stitch, fig. 278, and the Montenegrin, fig. 306, only
that it is not crossed like the latter.

[Illustration: FIG. 869. BASKET STITCH ON LINEN.]

Basket stitch can be worked on all kinds of stuffs, on counted threads
or on a wide or narrow tracing, with fine or coarse thread, and more or
less closely, according to the taste of the worker.

You insert the needle from right, and pass it under, from 3 to 6 threads
of the foundation, according to the stuff and the material you are
using, then downwards from left to right, and over, from 6 to 8 threads,
into the stuff again from right to left; then you push it under the
stuff in an upward direction and bring it out on the left in the middle
of the space left between the last stitch and the top of the second. The
dotted line in the engraving indicates the course of the stitches.

[Illustration: FIG. 870. OLD GERMAN KNOTTED STITCH.]

OLD GERMAN KNOTTED STITCH (fig. 870).--This is a stitch often met with
in old church and house linen embroidery. A beautiful design worked in
this way is given further on.

Contrary to most stitches, this is worked upwards; the needle is put in
horizontally under the stuff, the thread tightly drawn, then laid from
left to right and drawn through underneath the first stitch and a tight
knot made. We find the same stitch, worked in a variety of ways,
according to the taste and skill of the worker; for instance the knots
may be set slanting, as in fig. 870, or else straight and very close
together, as in fig. 873, where they present the appearance of a close
string of beads, or again wide apart, as they are in fig. 876.

All these ways are admissible but care should be taken in each case, to
make the stitches perfectly regular; it is the direction which is given
to the stitch and the number of threads taken up with the needle that
changes the appearance of the stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 871. RAISED STEM STITCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 872. ANOTHER KIND OF RAISED STEM STITCH.]

RAISED STEM STITCH (figs. 871, 872).--Take a very thick thread, such
as Fil à pointer D.M.C No. 10 or 20, or one of the coarser numbers of
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C, lay it as a foundation thread along the line of
your pattern and work over it wide stem stitches, as represented in
figs. 172 and 173, either in the same number of thread used for the
foundation thread, or a finer, according to the stuff you are
embroidering upon.

You may overcast the same stitch in the manner indicated in fig. 872,
using a different colour for the second layer of stitches to produce an
agreeable variety.

BORDER IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF STITCHES (fig. 873).--The straight lines
of this border are all worked in old German knotted stitch in écru
thread, forming a thick round cord which stands out from the surface in
high relief; the flatter outlining of the outside figures is done in
basket stitch in soft blue knitting cotton. The little oblong figures
within the two inner lines of the border are worked in Gobelin stitch,
in red embroidery cotton, and the filling of the figures, outlined in
basket stitch, in one or other of the Irish lace stitches, worked in
white lace thread, either so that all the stitches enter the stuff, or
form a network over it.

The work may be simplified by sewing Soutache D.M.C or Lacet superfin
D.M.C along the straight lines instead of embroidering them in basket
stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 873. BORDER IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF STITCHES.
MATERIALS--For the old German knotted stitch: Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C No.
2, écru--For the basket stitch: Coton à tricoter D.M.C No. 16,
Bleu-Indigo 312--For the Gobelin stitches: Coton à broder D.M.C No. 20,
Rouge-Turc 321--For the lace stitches: Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 40,
white.]

ROUMANIAN STITCH (figs. 874, 875).--This consists of stitches that are
worked in the width of the stuff, intersected by back-stitches set
slightly slanting.

Though the engraving is so clear as to render it hardly necessary, we
subjoin an exact description of the way the stitches run.

Bring out the needle on the left, 2 or 6 threads beyond the line your
embroidery is to follow; with regard to the number of threads you take
up, you must be guided by the quality of the stuff and the material you
have selected: put the needle in on the right, the same distance in
advance of the line as before and bring it out in the middle of the
stitch; then passing the needle over the first stitch, put it in again
one or two threads in advance of the point where it came out, and draw
it out close to where the first stitch began.

The border, represented in fig. 875, is worked in great part in
Roumanian stitch.

[Illustration: FIG. 874. ROUMANIAN STITCH.]

The original, still very well preserved, notwithstanding its age, is
worked in silk of a brilliant red on a stiff stuff which has been
coloured by time and use.

Willems satin, Rhodes linen No. 2 and Algerian linen, make very suitable
foundations for this kind of embroidery and have that soft tint which is
almost indispensable to a satisfactory imitation of old needlework.

Any one of the shades of red named at the foot of the illustration, will
be found to be a good match for the original colours.

Roumanian stitch is used wherever the lines of the pattern are widest;
there where they narrow, in the indentures of the leaves and the twists
of the stalks, flat stitch is used instead.

By the repetition of the detached subject, this pattern may be made to
serve either for a stripe or for a grounding; if you use it for a
stripe, the centre flower of the principal subject with the stalks
lengthened, will look very well worked as a separate subject between the
large bouquets. Worked in a double row, base to base, on any stuff and
in any material, these large figures form a very handsome border which
makes an effective trimming for furniture and curtains.

PATTERN FOR PIQUÉ EMBROIDERY (fig. 876).--The stuff, called piqué,
such as it is now manufactured, is simply an imitation of an old kind of
needlework, almost unknown in these days, but very popular in the
fifteenth and sixteenth century in Italy, for making coverlets and more
especially curtains and blinds; the latter being highly esteemed,
because without intercepting the light altogether, they tempered it
agreeably.

A similar kind of work was common in Bohemia until a recent date for the
making of caps. It is done on two layers of stuff, of different kinds,
the upper one fine and transparent, the lower, more substantial.

The pattern is drawn upon the fine stuff, because on that side the
different kinds of stitches are made.

[Illustration: FIG. 875. BORDER IN ROUMANIAN STITCH. MATERIALS: Coton à
broder D.M.C No. 16, Coton à repriser D.M.C No. 50, or Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 20.[A] COLOURS: Rouge-Cardinal 346, Rouge-Grenat 358,
Brun-Caroubier 355, Rouge Maroquin 3327 et 3328, or Rouge-Cerise 3317 et
3318.[A]]

You then tack the two stuffs together and work all the outlines of the
pattern in Old German knotted stitch with écru Fil à pointer D.M.C No.
20; that done, thread a tapestry needle with white Cordonnet 6 fils
D.M.C No. 1 or 2, slip it in between the two layers of stuff and secure
the end by two or three stitches; then push the twist quite close to
the knotted stitch and fasten it in between the two layers of stuff,
with small and very regular running stitches, in a fine pliable
material, such as Fil d'Alsace D.M.C on reels.

[Illustration: FIG. 876. PATTERN FOR PIQUÉ EMBROIDERY. MATERIALS:
Cordonnet 6 fils D.M.C Nos. 1 and 25, Fil d'Alsace D.M.C No. 100, Fil à
pointer D.M.C No. 30 and Fil à dentelle D.M.C No. 30.[A]]

Fill up in this manner all the ground of the pattern, leaving the
arabesques and the ornaments plain, or embellishing them with some kind
of lace or embroidery stitch.

When these stripes are intended for blinds, you can produce pretty
transparent effects in them by cutting away the underneath stuff, in
places.

ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE (braid) (figs. 877, 878, 879, 880, 881,
882).--This alphabet, which is one of the best of its kind, was taken
from a work published in Venice in 1662, by Giovan' Antonio Tagliente,
secretary and calligraphist to the Republic.

The letters lend themselves, better than any we know, to being executed
in Soutache D.M.C.

[Illustration: FIG. 877. LETTER T OF THE SOUTACHE ALPHABET. MODE OF
INTERLACING THE SOUTACHE.]

The sewing on of the braid is done with very small running stitches and
the interlacing with a tapestry needle, into which the braid is
threaded; both operations are shown in figs. 877 and 880. The embroidery
of the connecting bars, and the small leaves and tendrils that complete
the letter are explained in fig. 881, whilst fig. 882 represents the
letter A in its finished state.

For sewing on the braid, a fine soft material is the best, such as Soie
de coton D.M.C[A] and for embroidering the small accessories, Coton à
broder D.M.C No. 50[A].

[Illustration: FIG. 878. ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE. LETTERS A TO N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 879. ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE. LETTERS O TO Z.]

For the ears of corn in fig. 883, use either Soutache écru, or
Jaune-d'Ocre 677 No. 2; for the marguerites, white Soutache No. 2½ and
for the corn flowers, Soutache Bleu-Indigo 322 No. 2. Nothing could be
simpler than the mode of working these flowers.

[Illustration: FIG. 880. LETTER M OF THE ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE. MODE OF
SEWING ON THE SOUTACHE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 881. LETTER W OF THE ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE. MODE OF
PLACING THE BARS AND EMBROIDERING THE LEAVES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 882. LETTER A OF THE ALPHABET IN SOUTACHE IN ITS
FINISHED STATE.]

FLOWERS EXECUTED IN SOUTACHE AND EMBROIDERY (fig. 883). Flowers and
sprays, such as here represented, make a charming trimming for summer
dresses, sunshades, aprons etc. and can be executed with admirable
effect in the D.M.C Soutache, now to be had in all the colours of the
D.M.C colour card. A very pretty running pattern can be formed out of
the spray, fig. 883, by turning the flowers first to the right and then
to the left and making the stalks come out underneath the ears of corn.
In order to reverse the position of the flowers thus, you will have to
make two tracings of the spray, one negative and one positive.

Thread a tapestry needle with the Soutache and draw it into the stuff,
and then pass it through from the right side to the wrong at the bottom
of one of the petals of the flowers, secure it on the wrong side by two
or three stitches and then bring the working thread, which should be of
the same colour as the Soutache, out again at the point of the petal,
then carry the Soutache back to the bottom of the petal and fasten it
down, like the gold threads in fig. 242, by a stitch rather wider than
the Soutache, fold the Soutache over again to the starting point, and
secure it by a stitch, and so on. In order to give a different character
to the flowers, use Soutache of different widths, fold it over more or
less closely and lay it down in shorter or longer lengths, as required.
The natural irregularity of the petals of a flower can be very
faithfully imitated in this manner. Fig. 883 shows the way in which, for
the ears of corn, the braid is folded back upon itself and fastened
down, whilst in the white flowers the two layers of the braid that form
each petal are separated at the bottom.

The stamens of the marguerites are worked in knot stitch with yellow
cotton and those of the cornflowers with dark blue.

The other little details are executed in flat and stem stitch in the
colours indicated at the foot of the engraving. With the pattern to go
by, the distribution of the colours for the different parts can present
no possible difficulty.

[Illustration: FIG. 883. FLOWERS EXECUTED IN SOUTACHE AND EMBROIDERY.
MATERIALS: Soutache D.M.C Nos. 1 to 3 and Coton à broder D.M.C No.
35.[A] COLOURS--For the Soutache: White, écru or Jaune d'Ocre 677, and
Bleu-Indigo 322.--For the Coton à broder: Écru, Jaune-Orange 444,
Bleu-Indigo 311, Gris-Tilleul 391 and 330, Vert-Pistache 319, 320 and
369, Rouge-Cardinal 348.[A]]

We need only point out that Rouge-Cardinal 348 is intended for the
little knot that connects the stalks of the flowers.

CHINESE SUBJECT (fig. 884).--This quaint and graceful composition,
copied from an interesting piece of Chinese embroidery, gives our
readers the opportunity of turning the different damask stitches,
already described in these pages, to quite a new use.

The kind of gauze which forms the foundation of the original work can be
replaced either by Spanish or Rhodes linen No. 2, by any stuff, in fact,
the threads of which can be counted.

The drawing has to be transferred to the stuff, and the different parts
are filled in with the stitches, clearly indicated in the illustration.

[Illustration: FIG. 884. CHINESE SUBJECT. MATERIALS: Coton à repriser
D.M.C No. 50, Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie No. 40 and Chiné d'or
D.M.C[A].]

By the introduction of several colours, this pattern is capable of being
infinitely varied.

Thus, in the model before us, the neck and bulb of the flask, the
leaves it stands upon and those attached to the flowers in it, are
worked in Vert-Pistache 367, the handles, the ornament on the bottle,
and the triangular figure in the centre are in white; the little flower
on the left, the second on the right, the straight staff, the upper
wings of the butterfly, as well as the three leaves underneath the
triangle are in Bleu-Indigo 334; the first flower on the right of the
flask, the knot above the triangle, the lower wings of the butterfly and
the middle part of the bottom subject on the right of the engraving are
in Gris-Amadou 383; and Violet-lie-de-vin and Brun-Caroubier 357
alternate in the pointed leaves that support the flask; the former
colour recurs in the ornaments of the staff, and Rouge-Cardinal 347,
black and Gris-Tilleul alternate in the other details of the drawing.

For the setting it will be best to take Or fin D.M.C pour la broderie or
else Chiné d'or D.M.C, used either double or single, according to
whichever the drawing seems to require.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] See at the end of the concluding chapter, the table of numbers and
sizes and the list of colours of the D.M.C threads and cottons.



[Illustration: ORNAMENT AFTER HOLBEIN.]



Practical directions.


Hitherto we have been chiefly occupied with descriptions and
explanations of the different kinds of needlework; to render these
complete, it remains for us to give a few practical directions with
regard to the copying, adjustment and transposition of the patterns, as
well as to the different processes, often so essential to the ultimate
success of a piece of needlework. For this success will soon be found
not to depend on the stitches only but very largely on the proper
adaptation of the design to the space it is intended to fill.

Then, in the case of new lace, it is necessary to know the amount of
dressing it will require to give it the right stiffness and when this
dressing has worn off how to renew it; whilst in the case of appliqué
work more especially, it is indispensable to know exactly what the
ingredients are, of which the paste should be composed and how to make
and lay it on in the proper manner.

TRACING PATTERNS AGAINST A WINDOW PANE.--In order to copy a pattern in
this way, the first step is to tack or pin the piece of stuff or paper
on which the copy is to be made upon the pattern. In the case of a small
pattern, the tacking or pinning may be dispensed with and the two
sheets held firmly pressed against the window pane with the left hand,
whilst the right hand does the tracing, but even then it is safer to pin
or gum the four corners of the two sheets together, in case of
interruption, as it is difficult to fit them together again exactly.

The tracing may be done with a pencil, or better still, with a brush
dipped in Indian ink or water-colour paint.

The process of tracing is easy enough, so long as the hand does not get
tired but as this generally comes to pass very soon it is best, if the
pattern be a large and complicated one, to stick the sheets to the pane
with strong gum or suspend them on a string, fastened across the pane by
pins stuck into the window frame on either side.

TO TAKE OFF A PATTERN BY RUBBING.--If you want to take a pattern of a
piece of embroidery direct from the work itself, lay it, the right side
up, flat upon a board or table and cover it with letter or tissue paper.

The paper should be of a good medium thickness, if it be too thick it
will not take a clear impression of the pattern, and if very thin it is
apt to tear.

Fasten the paper down upon the embroidery with drawing-pins and rub off
the pattern with drawing-wax. In default of the right kind of wax, the
bowl or handle of a spoon, or a large silver coin will serve the purpose
equally well, as will also some powdered graphite or charcoal. The
outlines will not of course, in any case, be very clearly defined upon
the paper and will have to be gone over and carefully supplemented
afterwards with a pencil.

Taking off the pattern with charcoal or graphite is less injurious to
the embroidery than rubbing it off with wax or metal, as the pressure
required in the latter case flattens the needle-work very considerably.
As soon as you have fixed the lines of the pattern by drawing them over
with ink, it is ready for use.

TO TRANSFER A PATTERN DIRECT ON TO THE STUFF.--Patterns cannot be
copied by either of the above methods direct on to the stuff and can
only be used when the stuff on which the embroidery is to be executed
is transparent; in the case of thick close fabrics the drawing must be
made on the stuff itself. The following is the simplest way of
transferring a pattern on to a transparent stuff; begin by going over
all the lines of the drawing with Indian ink so as to make them quite
thick and distinct, and tacking the paper with large stitches on to the
back of the stuff. Then, mix some very dark powdered indigo diluted with
water, in a glass with a small pinch of sugar and powdered gum arabic,
and using this as ink and a fine pen very slightly split, trace the
pattern that shines through on the stuff.

The tracing must be very slight, for if the embroidery be not done till
some time afterwards the lines get so firmly fixed in the stuff that one
washing will not obliterate them; the tracing ink moreover makes the
work unpleasantly sticky.

TO COPY WITH OILED PAPER.--Another rather expeditious mode of
transferring patterns on to thin and more especially smooth glossy
stuffs, is by means of a special kind of tinted paper, called
autographic paper, which is impregnated with a coloured oily substance
and is to be had at any stationer's shop. This you place between the
pattern and the stuff, having previously fastened the stuff, perfectly
straight by the line of the thread, to a board, with drawing-pins. When
you have fitted the two papers likewise exactly together, you go over
all the lines of the pattern with a blunt pencil, or with, what is
better still, the point of a bone crochet needle or the edge of a
folder. You must be careful not to press so heavily upon the pattern
paper as to tear it; by the pressure exercised on the two sheets of
paper, the oily substance of the blue paper discharges itself on to the
stuff, so that when it is removed all the lines you have traced are
imprinted upon the stuff.

This blue tracing paper is however only available for the reproduction
of patterns on washing stuffs, as satin and all other silky textures are
discoloured by it.

TO POUNCE PATTERNS UPON STUFFS.--The modes of copying, hitherto
described, cannot be indiscriminately used for all kinds of stuff; for
cloth, velvet and plush, for instance, they are not available and
pouncing is the only way that answers.

The patterns, after having been transferred to straw or parchment paper,
have to be pricked through. To do this you lay the paper upon cloth or
felt and prick out all the lines of the drawing, making the holes, which
should be clear and round, all exactly the same distance apart.

The closer and more complicated the pattern is, the finer and closer the
holes should be. Every line of the outline must be carefully pricked
out.

If the paper be sufficiently thin, several pouncings can be pricked at
the same time, and a symmetrical design can be folded together into four
and all pricked at once.

The pricked pattern has next to be tacked upon the material, the side
from which the pricking was done next to the stuff and the little
funnel-shaped holes uppermost. Paper and stuff must be firmly fastened
down and kept in position by drawing pins, so that neither of them may
move during the process, otherwise you will have double lines on the
stuff which you will find very confusing afterwards.

For the pouncing, use either powdered chalk or charcoal, according to
whether the stuff be dark or light in colour. Dip the pouncing
implement, a thing like a small drum-stick, stuffed and covered with
cloth, into the powder and rub it lightly over the whole surface of the
pricked pattern, so that the powder penetrates through the pin-holes to
the stuff. In default of a proper pouncing implement take a small stripe
of cloth, roll it up round a stick and wind a string round, and dip this
into the powder.

When the powder has penetrated to the stuff, remove the paper and if the
pattern is to be repeated, lay it on again further on, taking care to
make the lines meet exactly so that the join may not be seen.

When you have finished the pouncing and taken off the paper, you proceed
to draw or rather paint in the pattern with water-colour paints:
Ackermann's are the best for the purpose; no others, as far as our
experience has proved, adhere so well to even the roughest fabrics or so
little affect the brilliancy of the embroidery thread. Four paints,
blue, black, yellow and white are sufficient for all purposes, whatever
the colour of the stuff may be.

On a smooth surface the tracing may be done with a pen but a small
sable-hair brush is preferable under all circumstances.

The rougher and more hairy the surface, the finer the brush ought to be,
in order that the colour may sink well in between the fibres.

Before beginning to paint in the pattern, gently blow away all the
superfluous powder from the surface. This process may be objected to as
being an old one which has been superseded by new inventions; a resinous
powder for instance, by the use of which patterns can be fixed, as soon
as they have been pounced, by passing a hot iron over the stuff, a sheet
of paper having first been laid upon it to protect it; or else a mixture
of gum and powder which can be dissolved on the stuff itself by the
steam of spirits-of-wine, and various other processes needless to
mention here, as some are only useful in tracing patterns on a large
scale, whilst others require a variety of appliances, not as a rule,
within the reach of those to whom needle-work is a simple recreation.

THE PREPARATION OF THE STUFFS AND THE SUBDIVISION OF THE
PATTERNS.--Long years of experience and practice have brought us in
contact with a good many designers, many of them artists in their way,
so long as it was only a question of putting their own compositions on
paper but who yet found themselves confronted by real difficulties the
moment they were called upon to transfer them to stuff.

We shall, as far as possible, point out to our readers the precautions
to be taken in tracing patterns and must for that purpose go back to one
of the first operations, namely that of pricking.

To begin with, the paper on which the pattern is should always be large
enough for there to be a clear margin of from 4 to 5 c/m. all round the
pattern, so that the pouncing instrument may never come in contact with
the stuff beneath.

In transferring patterns to stuff, no lines of division should ever be
made directly upon it either with lead, chalk or charcoal, as it is
hardly ever possible entirely to obliterate them and they often become
very confusing afterwards.

Before beginning the tracing, divide your stuff into four, then decide
what the width of the border outside the pattern is to be; it is quite
an exceptional thing to carry a pattern right up to the edge. Stuffs
that will take a bend, such as all linen and cotton textures, can be
folded in four, like the paper, the folds ought then to be pinched and
pressed down so that the lines may remain clear and distinct until the
tracing be finished.

After dividing it into four, mark out the diagonal lines; these are
absolutely necessary in order to get the corner figures rightly placed.

Though most of our readers know how to make these lines on paper with a
pencil and ruler, few, easy as it is, know how to make them upon stuff.
You have only to fold over the corner of your piece of stuff so that the
outside thread of the warp or cut edge run parallel with the woof edge
which marks the angle of the fold-over.

This double folding over divides the ground into 8 parts. To arrange for
the outside border or margin, is easy enough if the stuff and the kind
of work you are going to do upon it admit of the drawing out of threads,
as then a thread drawn out each way serves as a guide for tracing the
pattern, straight to the line of the stuff. It is often better however,
not to draw out the threads for an open-work border till the pattern be
traced. If you do not wish or are not able to draw out threads to mark
the pattern and you are working on a stuff of which the threads can be
counted, follow the directions given on page 128, and explained in fig.
252.

You cannot mark cloth, silk stuffs or plush by folding them in the above
way, cloth and some kinds of silken textures will not take a bend and
others that will would be spoiled by it.

All such stuffs should be mounted in a frame, before the pattern be
traced and the ground be then divided out in the following way: take a
strong thread, make a knot at one end, stick a pin into it and tighten
the knot round it; with a pair of compasses, divide one of the sides
into two equal parts, stick the pin with the knot round it in at the
middle and the same on the opposite side, putting in a second pin by
means of which you stretch the thread; carry other threads across in a
similar way, in the width of the stuff and from corner to corner and you
will have your ground correctly marked out, in such a manner as to leave
no marks when, after pouncing in the pattern, you remove the threads.
Before finishing the pouncing of a pattern, see that it is the right
size for the purpose it is intended for.

Supposing that you are tracing a border with a corner, you should
measure the length it will occupy and then by a very light pouncing, you
can mark the points from which the pattern will have to be repeated. It
may be that a gap will be left in the middle, which, if not too large,
can be got rid of without altering the pattern by pushing the whole
thing a little further in and so shortening the distance between the two
corners.

Should the gap however be too large for this, you will have to make a
supplementary design to fill up the place. The same thing would be
necessary in the case of your having to shorten a pattern.

TO TRANSPOSE AND REPEAT PATTERNS BY MEANS OF LOOKING-GLASSES (fig.
885).--We have referred to the necessity that often occurs of adapting
patterns to certain given proportions; this can in most cases be done
easily enough without the help of a draughtsman, especially in the case
of cross stitch embroideries, by means of two unframed looking-glasses
(Penelope mirrors, as they are called) used in the following manner.

If you want to utilize a piece only of a straight border, or after
repeating it several times, to form a corner with it, you place the
mirror in the first instance across it at right angles, at the place
from which the pattern is to be repeated, and then exactly diagonally
inwards.

To make a square out of a straight pattern, you take two mirrors and so
place them that they touch at the point where the diagonal lines meet,
as represented in fig. 885, and you have your square at once.

This is all easy enough, but before beginning any large piece of work it
is necessary to consider carefully which parts of the drawing will best
fill the centre and which are best suited to form the corners, as it is
not every part of a straight pattern that is adapted for repetition.

A few preliminary trials with the help of the mirrors will better show
the importance of these explanations than anything further we can say on
the subject.

[Illustration: FIG. 885. TO TRANSPOSE AND REPEAT A STRAIGHT PATTERN BY
MEANS OF LOOKING GLASSES.]

TO ALTER THE PROPORTIONS OF A PATTERN BY DIVIDING THE GROUND INTO
SQUARES (figs. 886 and 887).--Cases will occur where it will be found
necessary to subject the pattern to greater modifications still than
those we have hitherto been dealing with.

You want, for example, to embroider a rather large running ground
pattern on a piece of stuff, that is relatively too small for the
subject; or a small and rather minute pattern on a large surface on
which it is likely to look, either too insignificant, or too crowded and
confused and the chances are, if you do not know how to draw, you will
either think it necessary to get a draughtsman to help you or you will
give up the piece of work altogether, deterred by the difficulties that
confront you. You need not do either if you will follow the directions
here given.

Take a sheet of large-sized quadrille paper which if necessary you can
prepare for yourself; trace your pattern upon it, or rule the squares
direct upon the drawing, as shown in fig. 886.

[Illustration: FIG. 886. DIVIDING THE GROUND INTO SQUARES BEFORE
COPYING.]

On a second sheet of vegetable paper, rule squares, a fourth, a third or
half as small again as those on the first sheet. Thus, if the sides of
the first squares be 15 m/m. long and you want to reduce your pattern by
one fifth, the sides of your new squares should measure only 12 m/m.

If, on the contrary, you want to enlarge the pattern by one fifth, make
the sides of your squares 18 m/m. long.

Then you follow, square by square, the lines of the drawing, extending
or contracting them, according to whether the pattern is to be enlarged
or diminished.

To copy a pattern directly from a piece of embroidery and enlarge or
diminish it at the same time, proceed as follows: fix the embroidery on
a board, stretching it equally in every direction; then measure the
length of the drawing, divide the centimetres by the number of units
corresponding to whatever the proportions of your copy are to be, and if
there be any fractions of centimetres over, subdivide them into
millimetres, if necessary, into half millimetres and make your division
by whatever measure you have adopted; take a pair of compasses with dry
points, open them sufficiently for the opening to correspond to the
number and the distance obtained by the division; plant a pin with a
thread fastened to it, at the point indicated by the point of the
compasses and repeat the last operation all along one side of the
embroidery and, if possible a little beyond it, so that it may not be
defaced by the marks of the pins. All you now have to do is to pull the
threads in perfectly straight lines to the opposite side and carry other
threads across them in a similar manner so that the whole surface be
divided into squares.

[Illustration: FIG. 887. PATTERN REDUCED BY MARKING OUT THE GROUND IN
SMALL SQUARES.]

It is needless to say that if you have to trace a pattern from a mounted
piece of work you cannot stretch it on a board; with a little invention
however some way can always be found of planting the pins so as not to
injure the work.

[Illustration: FIG. 888. PATTERN IN SOUTACHE. Original size.]

[Illustration: FIG. 889. PATTERN IN FIG. 888 DRAWN OUT IN THE WIDTH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 890. PATTERN IN FIG. 888 COMPRESSED IN THE WIDTH.]

TO ALTER THE WIDTH OF A PATTERN RETAINING THE ORIGINAL HEIGHT (figs.
888, 889, 890).--Sometimes it is necessary to lengthen out a pattern
without however altering its height. In this case you modify the shape
of the square and make long or narrow squares, according to the general
shape of the design you wish to reproduce. Fig. 888 represents a
pattern in Soutache D.M.C, marked out in squares; in fig. 889 the
squares are lengthened out a third beyond their original size and the
pattern is expanded; in fig. 890, the squares are compressed to a third
less than their original size.

This method of subdividing patterns greatly facilitates the alterations
they have so often to undergo and we are sure that there are few amongst
those who have any real aptitude for needlework, who cannot draw enough
to be able to copy the contents of a square.

TO PREPARE THE PASTE FOR APPLIQUÉ WORK.--It may seem strange to devote
a separate paragraph to such an apparently simple operation; but in
appliqué work it is a most important one, as not only the stuff on which
the work is done but all the expensive accessories are liable to be
spoilt by paste that has been badly prepared.

Put some wheaten (not rice) starch into a vessel with a rounded bottom,
pour on just enough water to dissolve the starch and stir it with a
wooden spoon till it becomes perfectly smooth.

In the meantime put about 1/4 of a pint of clean water on the fire to
boil and when it boils add to it a little powdered pitch or carpenter's
glue, in quantity about the size of a pea and pour in the starch,
stirring it the whole time. When the mixture has boiled up several times
take it off the fire and go on stirring it till it gets cold, otherwise
lumps will form in it, which as we specially pointed out in the
preceding chapter, must never be allowed to get in between the stuff and
the paper.

This kind of paste makes no spots and does not injure even the most
delicate colours as it contains no acid. In winter it will keep for
several days, but in hot weather it very soon begins to ferment and
should then on no account be used.

Gum arabic ought never to be used for appliqué work, as it becomes so
hard that it is impossible to get the needle through, whilst the
saccharine it contains almost always causes ugly spots to appear in the
stuff when it dries.

When the work is finished it is a good plan to spread a very thin layer
of paste over the entire back of it with a fine brush made of hog's
bristles, and not to take it out of the frame until it is perfectly dry.

TO STIFFEN NEW NEEDLEWORK.--In the chapter on Irish lace, page 441,
we said that new needlework of that kind had to be ironed; this should
be done in the following manner: when the lace has been taken off its
foundation, lay it, face downwards, on a piece of fine white flannel;
then dip a piece of very stiff new organdie muslin into water, take it
out again almost immediately and wring it slightly, so that no drops may
fall from it, and then dab the wrong side of the lace all over with this
pad of damp muslin and iron it with a hot iron which should be moved
slowly forwards so that the moisture which the organdie has imparted to
the lace may evaporate slowly. Not until you are quite sure that the
lace is dry should it be taken off the board.

There is no better way than this of giving new lace that almost
imperceptible degree of stiffness by which alone it is often to be
distinguished from old. Water only does not stiffen the thread
sufficiently and it is difficult with starch to hit upon exactly the
right consistency, whereas the organdie muslin supplies just the needful
quantity.

Embroidered network can be stiffened in the same manner and should be
damped in the frame on the wrong side and not taken off until it is
quite dry.

We even recommend embroidery on linen being treated in the same way but
when the linen is very creased, cover it with a damp cloth and iron upon
that first, then take the cloth away and iron the embroidery itself so
as to dry it completely.

TO WASH ORDINARY LACE.--Wind it round a bottle the same width top and
bottom and cover it entirely with muslin, fastened to the lace by a few
stitches. Fill the bottle half full of sand, so that it may not get
knocked about too violently when the water boils.

Immerse the bottle in a saucepan of cold water with a piece of soap the
size of a nut in it, and if the lace be very dirty, a small pinch of
salt, and let it boil for about an hour pouring off the water as it gets
dirty and adding clean.

When all the dirt has been boiled out of the lace, which you will know
to be the case when the water remains perfectly clear, rinse out the
soap before you take the lace off the bottle, by plunging it into cold
water.

TO WASH REAL LACE.--The process is the same as the above, but as real
lace is so seldom washed and is generally very yellow and fragile,
particularly if it has been roughly used, it is rather difficult to
clean.

If stained or greasy, it should be left to soak for some hours or even
days, in good olive oil. This restores to the thread that softness and
smoothness which use and bad washing had impaired. After the oil bath it
should be washed on a bottle in the manner already described.

TO STIFFEN LACE.--Dip the lace when perfectly dry in thin starch
prepared as follows.

Take as much fine wheaten starch, as you think you will require, divide
it into two portions and dissolve both in cold water. Boil the one
portion and when it has so far cooled as to have ceased to steam, stir
the cold starch into it and dilute the whole with cold water to the
consistency of thick cream. If the lace is to be slightly coloured, add
a few drops of black coffee, or dilute the starch with weak tea or
guimauve water; the coffee will give it a dark cream colour, either of
the latter a pale greenish hue.

Dip the lace in the mixture and squeeze it out gently without wringing
it to get rid of all the superfluous liquid, then lay it flat on the
left hand and beat it for a few minutes with the right to work the
starch well in; repeat the whole process twice, then roll the lace in
fine linen and leave it there till you are ready to iron or pin it out,
as the case may be.

TO IRON LACE.--After the lace has lain for an hour or two in the
cloth, iron it if it be machine-made and if it be Irish Guipure or real
point lace of any sort, pin it out.

Before you begin to iron, hold the lace tight in your left hand by the
footing and with the right hand pull out all the picots, along the edge
of the lace, to an equal length, then lay it out flat upon a board
covered with white flannel and iron it with a moderately hot iron,
passing the iron backwards and forwards over it until it be quite dry.

If creases should come in the ironing where they ought not to be, dab
them over lightly with a sponge moistened with water and a few drops of
starch and pass the iron over them again.

After ironing the whole length of lace, pull it out crossways from left
to right, and from right to left and iron it all over once more. This
does away with the artificial stiffness and gives it the agreeable
softness and pliancy of new lace.

TO PIN OUT LACE.--In order to pin out lace in a thoroughly
satisfactory manner, you should provide yourself with a wooden drum,
about 30 c/m. high and from 50 to 60 c/m. in diameter, large enough to
rest upon the knees.

The outside circumference of the wood should be padded and covered with
grey or white ticking.

The pins must be exactly the size of the picots they are to pin down;
you will require extremely fine ones for Valenciennes and coarser for
other kinds of lace: steel pins are of no use whatever, because of their
liability to rust. Cover the cylinder with blue paper (less trying for
the eyes than any other) and take only just as much lace out of the damp
cloth as you are likely to be able to pin out before it gets dry,
keeping the remainder covered up.

Lay the lace upon the drum and pin the footing down first in a straight
line, sticking the pins in pretty closely and at regular distances
apart; then pin down each picot separately, taking care not to open them
if they have kept their original shape and to shut them up by twisting
them if they have got untwisted.

If you find the pinning out troublesome and cannot get it all done
before the lace dries, damp the picots with a sponge as you proceed.

Lace should never be pinned out when it is dry as the threads of the
picots are then very apt to break and torn picots destroy the value of
even the choicest lace.

Raised lace has to be stamped out from the wrong side with a lace awl or
kind of pricker of bone made for the purpose. Some professional
lace-cleaners use this implement even for Valenciennes lace but we
cannot recommend it, seeing that it is a lace that is by nature
perfectly flat.

Let the length of lace you have pinned out remain on the drum till it be
quite dry; if you have several yards to pin out, wind it round and round
the cylinder. Cover up the lace as you proceed and put each length away
as soon as it is ready in a blue paper bag, so as to keep the whole
perfectly clean.

In conclusion we may remark that the cleaning of lace should only be
undertaken when you are fairly sure of not being interrupted, as more
especially the pinning requires to be finished off as quickly as
possible.

TO WASH COLOURED COTTONS AND WORK DONE WITH THE SAME.--In order to
test the fastness of the dyes, untie the skeins and pour boiling water
upon them, leave them to soak for about a quarter of an hour, soap and
rub them lightly with the hand from end to end and rinse them out
thoroughly in as many changes of cold water as may be found necessary,
until the water remain perfectly colourless.

Squeeze out all the water you can and let them dry quickly without
exposing them to the sun.

Coloured cottons are often washed in vinegar, because it is supposed to
affect the colour less than water does. We have come to the conclusion
after several trials that this is a delusion, for the good dyes keep
their colour without the aid of vinegar and the bad ones wash out in
spite of it.

The fast colours lose none of their beauty in the process nor does it
affect the quality of the cotton; any excess of colouring matter which
the fibres of the cotton may have absorbed in the process of dyeing is
got rid of by this means.

If a piece of work has been done with unwashed cottons and the colours
run in the first washing, you have only to rinse it out in several
changes of tepid water to restore it to its original freshness and if
you want to give it a yellowish tinge, it should be dipped it in weak
tea or coffee.

MATERIALS.--It was stated in the preface that our readers would find
the choice of colours and material rendered comparatively easy to them
by the notes affixed to the illustrations, but these notes, in spite of
all the care bestowed upon them must still have remained very incomplete
had it not been for the following tables which we were fortunately
enabled to append to our work and which will help every one to choose
their own materials without having them actually before them. The
strokes that are affixed to each number indicate the exact size of the
thread, so that to find out the number you want to buy you have but to
lay your pattern thread, stretching it slightly, on the strokes, in
succession, till you come to the one that matches it in size.

With regard to the colours, the names and shades of which have been
classed in the second table with the greatest care, and of which our
workers have no less than 460 to choose from ([3]), all those referred
to in connection with our illustrations are quite fast dyes ([4]), save
in a few instances in which we were forced to make an exception in
favour of a doubtful colour to secure a harmonious effect.

A complete table of colours must of necessity include certain more or
less staring shades, which though they may not be to every one's taste
cannot on that account be left out.

We conclude our work with the well-meant and by no means useless
recommendation to our readers, never to begin a piece of work of any
considerable size without first making sure that the colours they intend
to use are fast and providing themselves with a larger supply of
materials than even on a close calculation they think they are likely to
require, lest they should find themselves under the disagreeable
necessity of having either to leave their work unfinished or finish it
with materials that do not match. There is generally a slight difference
in tone between cottons that have been bought at different times, and
there is also a reasonable likelihood, considering their great variety,
of some mistake being made in the number by either buyer or seller in
ordering a fresh supply.

[Illustration: All of the above articles, excepting those marked with an
asterisk, are contained in the D.M.C colour card.]

[Illustration: Made in all numbers in écru, white, black and the 450
shades names of the colours, see next page.]



|-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|   Alphabetical list of the names and the numbers of the 450 shades    |
|          D.M.C Alsace Thread, Sewing and Embroidery Cottons,          |
|    contained in the D.M.C colour-card, in any of which shades the     |
|       knitting Cotton, Soutaches and Braids etc. are to be had.       |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+
| Couleurs           | Très-foncé | Foncé | Moyen  | Clair | Très-clair |
| Colours            | Very dark  | Dark  | Medium | Light | Very light |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+
| Bleu d'Azur        |            |       |        | 3325  |            |
| Bleu-Canard        | 3395       | 3306  | 3307   | 3308  | 3309       |
| Bleu cendré        |            |       |  448   |       |            |
| Bleu de Ciel       |  515       |  516  |  517   |  518  |  519       |
| Bleu-Fayence       |  481       |  482  |  483   |  484  |  485       |
| Bleu de France     |  337       |  338  |  339   |  340  |  341       |
| Bleu-Gentiane      |  476       |  477  |  478   |  479  |  480       |
| Bleu-Gris          | 3300       | 3301  | 3302   | 3303  | 3304       |
| Bleu-Indigo        |  336       |  311  |  312   |  322  |  334       |
| Bleu-Lapis         |  342       |  333  |  343   |  344  |  345       |
| Bleu-Marin         |  505       |  506  |  507   |  508  |  509       |
| Bleu-Outremer      |            |  682  |  683   |       |            |
| Bleu pâle          |            |       |        |  668  |            |
| Bleu-Prunelle      |  486       |  487  |  488   |  489  |  490       |
| Bleu tendre        |            |       |        |       |  709       |
| Bleu vert          |  525       |  526  |  527   |  528  |  529       |
| Bleu violacé       |            |  674  |  675   |       |            |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Bronze doré        |  585       |  586  |  587   |  588  |  589       |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Brun-Acajou        |  300       |  400  |  301   |  401  |  402       |
| Brun-Cachou        |  433       |  434  |  435   |  436  |  437       |
| Brun-Cannelle      |  660       |  661  |  662   |  663  |  664       |
| Brun-Caroubier     |  354       |  355  |  303   |  356  |  357       |
| Brun-Chamois       |  416       |  417  |  324   |  418  |  419       |
| Brun-Cuir          |  430       |  431  |  302   |  432  |  325       |
| Brun-Feuille-morte |  615       |  616  |  617   |  618  |  619       |
| Brun-Havane        |  454       |  455  |  456   |  457  |  458       |
| Brun-Loutre        |  438       |  439  |  440   |  441  |  442       |
| Brun-Marron        |  403       |  404  |  405   |  406  |  407       |
| Brun-Myrthe        |            |       |  463   |       |            |
| Brun-Puce          |  459       |       |        |       |            |
| Brun-Rouille       | 3310       | 3311  | 3312   | 3313  | 3314       |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Gris-Acier         |  650       |  651  |  652   |  653  |  654       |
| Gris-Amadou        |  329       |  383  |  384   |  385  |  386       |
| Gris d'Argent      |            |       |  719   |       |            |
| Gris-Bleu          |  590       |  591  |  592   |  593  |  594       |
| Gris-Bois          |  610       |  611  |  612   |  613  |  614       |
| Gris-Brun          |  408       |  409  |  410   |  411  |  412       |
| Gris-Castor        |  645       |  646  |  647   |  648  |  649       |
| Gris-Cendre        |  413       |  317  |  414   |  318  |  415       |
| Gris-Coutil        |  387       |  388  |  323   |  389  |  390       |
| Gris-Deuil         |  655       |  656  |  657   |  658  |  659       |
| Gris-Écru          |            |  704  |  705   |  706  |            |
| Gris-Etoupe        |            |  707  |  708   |       |            |
| Gris de Fer        |  600       |  601  |  602   |  603  |  604       |
| Gris-Feutre        |  635       |  636  |  637   |  638  |  639       |
| Gris-Ficelle       |            |  460  |  461   |  462  |            |
| Gris-Foin          |  520       |  521  |  522   |  523  |  524       |
| Gris-Fumée         |  640       |  641  |  642   |  643  |  644       |
| Gris-Lin           |            |       |  716   |  717  |            |
| Gris-Mastic        |            |       |  718   |       |            |
| Gris neutre        |  620       |  621  |  622   |  623  |  624       |
| Gris-Noisette      |  420       |  421  |  422   |  423  |  424       |
| Gris-Perle         |  625       |  626  |  627   |  628  |  629       |
| Gris de Plomb      |  378       |  379  |  380   |  381  |  382       |
| Gris-Poussière     |  630       |  631  |  632   |  633  |  634       |
| Gris-Souris        |  425       |  426  |  427   |  428  |  429       |
| Gris-Tilleul       |  391       |  392  |  393   |  330  |  331       |
| Gris verdâtre      |  595       |  596  |  597   |  598  |  599       |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+
| Couleurs           | Très-foncé | Foncé | Moyen  | Clair | Très-clair |
| Colours            | Very dark  | Dark  | Medium | Light | Very light |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+
| Jaune-Citron       |            |  307  |  445   |  446  |            |
| Jaune-Crême        |            |       |  711   |  712  |            |
| Jaune-Maïs         |  575       |  576  |  577   |  678  |  579       |
| Jaune d'Ocre       |            |       |  676   |  677  |            |
| Jaune-Orange       |            |       |  443   |  444  |            |
| Jaune-Rouille      |  363       |  364  |  308   |  365  |  366       |
| Jaune d'Or         |            |       |  667   |       |            |
| Jaune-vieil-Or     |  678       |  679  |  680   |       |            |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Lilas gris         |  313       |  398  |  314   |  328  |  399       |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Noir grand-teint   |  310       |       |        |       |            |
| Noir-Jais          |  681       |       |        |       |            |
| Noir vert          |  473       |       |        |       |            |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Rose-Eglantine     |  570       |  571  |  572   |  573  |  574       |
| Rose tendre        |            |       |        |       |  3326      |
| Rose vif           |  565       |  566  |  567   |  568  |  569       |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Rouge-Aurore       |  360       |  306  |  361   |  332  |  362       |
| Rouge-Bordeaux     |  496       |  497  |        |       |            |
| Rouge-Cardinal     |  346       |  347  |  304   |  305  |  348       |
| Rouge-Cerise       | 3315       | 3316  | 3317   | 3318  | 3319       |
| Rouge-Corinthe     |            |       |  447   |       |            |
| Rouge-Cornouille   |            |  449  |  450   |       |            |
| Rouge-Ecarlate     |            |  498  |  464   |       |            |
| Rouge-Framboise    |  684       |  685  |  686   |  687  |  688       |
| Rouge-Géranium     |  349       |  350  |  351   |  352  |  353       |
| Rouge-Grenat       |  358       |  359  |  326   |  309  |  335       |
| Rouge-Groseille    |  605       |  606  |  607   |  608  |  609       |
| Rouge-Maroquin     |            |       | 3327   | 3328  | 3329       |
| Rouge-Turc         |            |       |  321   |       |            |
| Rouge-Vermillon    |            |       |  666   |       |            |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Vert-Bouteille     |  491       |  492  |  493   |  494  |  495       |
| Vert-Bronze        |  669       |  670  |  671   |  672  |  673       |
| Vert-Canard        |  545       |  546  |  547   |  548  |  549       |
| Vert-Corbeau       |  665       |       |        |       |            |
| Vert doré          |  580       |  581  |  582   |  583  |  584       |
| Vert d'Eau         |            |       |  713   |  714  |  715       |
| Vert-de-gris       |            |  474  |  475   |       |            |
| Vert-Emeraude      |  555       |  556  |  557   |  558  |  559       |
| Vert-Fauve         |  689       |  690  |  691   |  692  |  693       |
| Vert-Lierre        |  500       |  501  |  502   |  503  |  504       |
| Vert-Madeira       |            |       |        |  710  |            |
| Vert-Malachite     |  560       |  561  |  562   |  563  |  564       |
| Vert métallique    |  465       |  466  |  467   |       |            |
| Vert-Mousse        |  468       |  469  |  470   |  471  |  472       |
| Vert-Myrthe        |  535       |  536  |  537   |  538  |  539       |
| Vert-Olive         |  510       |  511  |  512   |  513  |  514       |
| Vert-Perroquet     |  694       |  695  |  696   |  697  |  698       |
| Vert-Pistache      |  319       |  367  |  320   |  368  |  369       |
| Vert-Pré           |  699       |  700  |  701   |  702  |  703       |
| Vert russe         |            |  499  |        |       |            |
| -----              |            |       |        |       |            |
| Violet-Améthyste   | 3320       | 3321  | 3322   | 3323  | 3324       |
| Violet-Evêque      |  451       |  452  |  453   |       |            |
| Violet-Lie-de-vin  |  370       |  371  |  372   |  373  |  374       |
| Violet-Mauve       |  375       |  315  |  376   |  316  |  377       |
| Violet-de-Parme    |  540       |  541  |  542   |  543  |  544       |
| Violet-Pensée      |  530       |  531  |  532   |  533  |  534       |
| Violet-Prune       |  550       |  551  |  552   |  553  |  554       |
| Violet-Scabieuse   |  394       |  327  |  395   |  396  |  397       |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+
| Couleurs           | Très-foncé | Foncé | Moyen  | Clair | Très-clair |
| Colours            | Very dark  | Dark  | Medium | Light | Very light |
|--------------------+------------+-------+--------+-------+------------+

To avoid mistakes the public is urgently requested to designate the
colours by the number, never by name.

The colours whose numbers begin with 3 or 4 are the fastest.


       *       *       *       *       *


Further information respecting mode of execution, materials and so forth
may be had by applying to the firm of

TH. DE DILLMONT, DORNACH (ALSACE).

FOOTNOTES:

[3] The D.M.C colour-card consists of 450 shades about half of which are
fast dyes. See the list of names on pp. 572 and 573.

[4] By fast (bon-teint) colours are meant those which will bear ordinary
and repeated washing. There are only very few which are really fast, or
grand-teint, that is to say, which will resist the action of chemical
agents, amongst of these, the black, Noir 310, is quite indestructible.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PREFACE.                                                            Page

PLAIN SEWING
  Stitches
  Seams
  Gathering
  Sewing on cord and flaps                                            10
  Button-holes                                                        11
  Sewing on buttons                                                   12
  Binding slits                                                       13
  Sewing on piping                                                    13
  Fixing whale-bones--Herring-boning                                  14

MENDING                                                               15
  Linen darning                                                       16
  Satin or twill darning                                              17
  Damask darning                                                      18
  Fine-drawing                                                        20
  Patching                                                            20

SINGLE AND CUT OPEN-WORK                                              23
  Hem-stitching                                                       24
  Open-work patterns                                                  27
  Cutting out threads at the corners                                  39
  Cut open-work                                                       40
  Patterns for cut open-work                                          42

NET AND DAMASK STITCHES                                               51
  Net embroidery                                                      51
  Net patterns                                                        52
  Net darning                                                         62
  Damask stitches                                                     63

WHITE EMBROIDERY                                                      76
  Stitches                                                            77
  Different kinds of scallops                                         79
  Eyelet holes                                                        80
  Six ways of making dots                                             81
  Venetian embroidery                                                 82
  Patterns and alphabets                                              83

FLAT STITCH AND GOLD EMBROIDERY                                      105
  Encroaching satin stitch                                           105
  Oriental stitch                                                    106
  Plaited stitch and mosaic stitch                                   108
  Persian stitch                                                     109
  Straight and encroaching flat stitch patterns                      110
  Chinese embroidery                                                 111
  Raised embroidery                                                  113
  Turkish embroidery                                                 113
  Implements and materials for gold embroidery                       115
  Stitches used in gold embroidery                                   119
  Patterns for gold embroidery                                       120

TAPESTRY AND LINEN EMBROIDERY                                        127
  Marking out the embroidery ground                                  128
  Tapestry stitches                                                  129
  Tapestry patterns                                                  138
  Stitches for linen embroidery                                      143
  Patterns for linen embroidery                                      152

KNITTING                                                             171
  Position of the hands                                              172
  Casting on                                                         173
  Stitches                                                           178
  Stocking knitting                                                  182
  Scalloped edge                                                     183
  Heels                                                              184
  Toes                                                               189
  Mending knitting                                                   190
  Piqué patterns                                                     195
  Patent knitting                                                    201
  Turkish stitch                                                     201
  Knitting patterns                                                  203

CROCHET WORK                                                         221
  Position of the hands                                              223
  Stitches                                                           223
  Method for copying tapestry patterns in crochet                    238
  Crochet with soutache or lacet                                     239
  Crochet square, hexagon and star                                   240
  Tunisian crochet                                                   241
  Hairpin crochet                                                    243
  Patterns for hairpin crochet                                       245
  Crochet lace patterns                                              249
  Crochet counterpanes                                               284
  Crochet stars                                                      300
  Crochet collar                                                     304
  Crochet chair-back                                                 316

TATTING                                                              325
  Position of the hands                                              326
  Knots                                                              328
  Patterns of scallops and medallions                                331

MACRAMÉ                                                              343
  Materials and implements                                           344
  Formation of the knots                                             345
  Macramé shuttles                                                   360
  Macramé patterns                                                   361

NETTING                                                              395
  Implements and materials                                           395
  Stitches                                                           397
  Patterns produced in netting                                       400
  Mounting the netting on the frame                                  410
  Stars and wheels                                                   414
  Grounds and lace                                                   423
  Embroidery on netting                                              434
  Netted insertion                                                   438

IRISH LACE                                                           439
  Materials                                                          439
  Tacking down the braids                                            440
  Bars of different kinds                                            442
  Insertion stitches                                                 445
  Lace stitches                                                      450
  Needle-made picots                                                 467
  Irish lace patterns                                                468

LACES OF DIFFERENT KINDS                                             473
  Pillow lace and the implements for its manufacture                 474
  «Stitches» or passings                                             481
  Patterns or grounds                                                481
  Armenian lace                                                      503
  Laces in knotted stitch                                            505
  Reticella-lace                                                     508
  Venetian-lace                                                      510
  Brussels-lace                                                      515

MISCELLANEOUS FANCY WORK                                             517
  Knotted cord                                                       518
  Balls for trimmings                                                519
  Tambour work                                                       521
  Smyrna stitch                                                      523
  Malta stitch                                                       525
  Triangular Turkish stitch                                          526
  Turkish embroidery                                                 530
  Appliqué-work                                                      531
  Morocco embroidery                                                 535

Spanish embroidery                                                   536
  Different kinds of linen stitches                                  540
  Pattern for linen stitches                                         541
  Pattern for Roumanian stitch                                       544
  Pattern for Piqué embroidery                                       546
  Embroideries with Soutache                                         546
  Chinese subject                                                    551

PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS                                                 553
  Tracing and drawing the designs                                    553
  The preparation of the stuffs and the subdivision of the patterns  557
  To transpose and repeat patterns by means of looking glasses       559
  To alter the proportions of a pattern by dividing the ground into
  squares                                                            560
  To prepare the paste for appliqué work                             564
  To stiffen new needlework                                          565
  To wash ordinary lace                                              565
  To wash real lace                                                  566
  To stiffen lace                                                    566
  To iron lace                                                       566
  To pin out lace                                                    567
  To wash coloured cottons and work done with the same               568
  Materials                                                          569



By the same Author

ALBUM DE BRODERIES

AU POINT DE CROIX.

(Album of cross-stitch embroidery)

BY TH. DE DILLMONT

32 Plates with 278 Designs, and a complete treatise on the embroidery
itself.

Quarto; artistic boards, price 1_s._ 6_d._

[Illustration: FIG. 153.]

_To be had by applying to the Author and Editor TH. DE DILLMONT,
DORNACH, Alsace, and at all the leading booksellers and Embroidery
shops._



[Illustration]

PRINTED BY BRUSTLEIN & Co.,

MULHOUSE (Alsace)





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