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Title: Textiles - For Commercial, Industrial, and Domestic Arts Schools; Also Adapted to Those Engaged in Wholesale and Retail Dry Goods, Wool, Cotton, and Dressmaker's Trades
Author: Dooley, William H. (William Henry), 1880-
Language: English
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TEXTILES

For Commercial, Industrial, and Domestic
Arts Schools; Also Adapted to Those
Engaged in Wholesale and Retail
Dry Goods, Wool, Cotton, and
Dressmaker's Trades


by

WILLIAM H. DOOLEY
Principal Lowell Industrial School
Lowell, Mass.

Revised Edition
With Experiments



D. C. Heath & Company
Boston  New York  Chicago

Copyright, 1910, 1912, and 1914, by
D. C. Heath and Company



[Illustration: COTTON PLANT]



PREFACE


The author established and since its inception has been in charge of
the first industrial school for boys and girls in Massachusetts. At an
early date he recognized the need of special text-books to meet the
demand of young people who are attending vocational schools. There are
plenty of books written on textiles for technical school students and
advanced workers. But the author has failed to find a book explaining
the manufacture and testing of textiles for commercial, industrial,
domestic arts, and continuation schools, and for those who have just
entered the textile or allied trades. This book is written to meet
this educational need. Others may find the book of interest,
particularly the chapters describing cotton, woolen, worsted, and silk
fabrics.

The author is under obligations to Mr. Franklin W. Hobbs, treasurer of
the Arlington Mills, for permission to use illustrations and
information from literature published by the Arlington Mills; to Mr.
S. H. Ditchett, editor of _Dry Goods Economist_, for permission to use
information from his publication, "Dry Goods Encyclopedia"; to the
editor of the _Textile Mercury_; to Frank P. Bennett, of the _American
Wool and Cotton Reporter_, for permission to use information from
"Cotton Fabrics Glossary"; and to the instructors of the Lawrence
Industrial School for valuable information. In addition, information
has been obtained from the great body of textile literature, which the
author desires to acknowledge.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER I

FIBERS
                                                                  PAGE
  Animal Fibers--Wool, Silk, Mohair. Vegetable--Cotton,
  Flax, Jute, Hemp. Mineral--Asbestos, Tinsel, Metallic.
  Remanufactured Material--Noils, Mungo, Shoddy, Extract,
  and Flocks. Artificial Fibers--Spun Glass, Artificial
  Silk, Slag Wool. Structure of Wool. Characteristics of
  Wool. Classification of Wool. Carpet and Knitting Wools.
  Sheep Shearing. Variation in Weight of Fleeces. Shipping
  the Fleeces. Value of Wool Business. Saxony and Silesian
  Wool, Australian Wool, Port Philip Wool, Sydney Wool,
  Adelaide Wool, Van Wool from Tasmania, New Zealand Wool,
  Cape Wools, Wools from South America, Russian Wool, Great
  Britain Wools, Lincoln, Leicester, Southdown, Shropshire;
  Cashmere Wools, Norfolkdown and Suffolkdown Wools, Cheviot
  Wool, Welsh Wools, Shetland Wools, Irish Wools, Mohair,
  Alpaca Wool. How Wool is Marketed                                  1


CHAPTER II

WOOL SORTING

  Sorting. Classing Grades of Wool. Merino Wool. Difference
  between Lamb's and Sheep's Wool. Pulled Wool. Delaine
  Wool. Wool Sorter. Wool Washing, Wool Drying, Oiling.
  Burring and Carbonizing. Bur Picker, Blending                     16


CHAPTER III

WOOL SUBSTITUTES AND WASTE PRODUCTS

  Wool Substitutes and Waste Remanufactured--Noils, Shoddy,
  and Mungo. Methods of Producing Shoddy and Mungo--Dusting,
  Sorting, Seaming, Oiling, Grinding. Extract Wool. Flocks          32


CHAPTER IV

WORSTED YARN

  Carding, Combing. Worsted Tops--Gill Boxes. Different
  methods of Spinning--Bradford or English System, French
  System. Structure of Worsted Yarn. Uses of Worsted Yarn.
  Counts of Worsted Yarn                                            39


CHAPTER V

WOOLEN YARN

  Operations in Producing Woolen Yarn--Washing, Carding,
  Spinning, Mule Spinning. Counts of Woolen Yarn. Uses of
  Woolen Yarn                                                       50


CHAPTER VI

WEAVING

  Preparatory to Weaving--Warp. Weaving--Weaving Processes,
  Classes of Weave--Plain or Homespun Weave, Twill, Satin
  Weaves, Figure Weaving (Jacquard apparatus), Double Cloth,
  Pile Weaving, Gauze Weaving, Lappet Weaving                       53


CHAPTER VII

DYEING AND FINISHING

  Dyeing. Wool Dyeing, Piece Dyed, Cross Dyed, Yarn Dyed.
  Style--Designing, Finishing, Perching, Burling, Mending,
  Fulling, Crabbing, Tentering, Napping, Pressing. Theories
  of Coloring in Textile Design. Various Methods of
  Employing Fancy Shades. Adulteration                              65


CHAPTER VIII

WOOLEN AND WORSTED FABRICS

  Albatross, Alpaca, Corded Alpaca, Angora, Astrakhan,
  Bandanna, Beaver (Fur Beaver), Bedford Cord, Beige,
  Bindings, Bombazine, Bottany, Boucle, Broadcloth, Bunting,
  Caniche, Cashmere, Cashmere Double, Cassimere, Castor,
  Challis, Cheviot (Diagonal or Chevron), Chinchilla,
  Chudah, Corduroy, Côte Cheval, Coupure, Covert, Delaine,
  Doeskin, Drap d'Été, Empress Cloth, Épingline, Etamine,
  Felt, Flannel, Dress Flannel, French Flannel, Shaker
  Flannel, Indigo Blue, Mackinaw, Navy Twilled Flannel, Silk
  Warp, Baby Flannel. Florentine, Foule, Frieze, Gloria,
  Granada, Grenadine, Henrietta Cloth, Homespun, Hop
  Sacking, Jeans, Kersey, Kerseymere, Linsey Woolsey,
  Melrose, Melton, Meltonette, Merino, Mohair Brilliantine,
  Montagnac, Orleans, Panama Cloth, Prunella, Sacking,
  Sanglier, Sebastopol, Serge, Shoddy, Sicilian, Sultane,
  Tamise, Tartans, Thibet, Tricot, Tweed, Veiling, Venetian,
  Vigogne (Vicuña), Vigoureux, Voiles, Whipcord, Worsted
  Diagonals, Zephyr, Zibeline                                       83


CHAPTER IX

COTTON

  Rough Peruvian, East Indian, Egyptian, Sea Island.
  American Crop--Planting, Picking, Ginning--Roller Gins,
  Saw Gins. Cotton Gin. Information on the Leading Growths
  of Cotton. Grades--Full Grades, Half Grades, Quarter
  Grades. Varieties--Sea Island (selected), Sea Island
  (ordinary), Florida Sea Island, Georgia, Egyptian, Peeler,
  Orleans or Gulf Upland, Texas                                    105


CHAPTER X

MANUFACTURE OF COTTON YARN

  Picker Room, Carding Machine, Combing, Drawing. Flyer
  Frames--Intermediate Frame, Roving Frame, Fine or Jack
  Frame Spinning--Mule Spinning, Ring Spinning                     125


CHAPTER XI

THREAD AND COTTON FINISHING

  Manufacturing Processes. Thread Numbers. Sizing. Cotton
  Finishing--Bleaching, Starching, Calendering, Mercerizing.
  Characteristics of fine Cotton Cloth                             139


CHAPTER XII

KNITTING

  Knitting Machines. Stripe Knitting, Knitting Cotton,
  Knitting Silk, Hosiery Manufacture, Finishing Process            153


CHAPTER XIII

LACE

  Needlepoint Lace. Pillow Lace. Lace Terms Defined                164


CHAPTER XIV

COTTON FABRICS

  Albatross, Awning, Batiste, Bourrette, Bedford Cord,
  Buckram, Calico, Cambric, Canvas, Chambray, Cheesecloth,
  Chiné, Chintz, Cotton Flannel, Crash, Crêpe, Crepon,
  Cretonne, Crinoline, Damask, Denim, Diaper, Dimity, Domet,
  Duck, Drill, Eolienne, Etamine, Flannelette, Fustian,
  Galatea Cloth, Gauze, Gingham, Italian Cloth, Jaconet,
  Khaki, Lawn, Lingerie, Linon, Long Cloth, Madras, Moreen,
  Mull, Mummy, Muslin, Nainsook, Organdie, Osnaburg,
  Percale, Percaline, Piqué, Poplin, Plumetis, Rep, Sateen,
  Scrim, Silesia, Souffle, Swiss, Tape, Tarletan, Terry
  Cloth, Zephyr Gingham                                            173


CHAPTER XV

FLAX

  Physical Structure. Uses. Mechanical Processes--Crushing
  or Beating, Breaking, Scutching, Hackling, Bleaching.
  Characteristics of Good Linen, Notes on Table Linen              193


CHAPTER XVI

HEMP

  Bast Fibers, Sisal Hemp, Manila Hemp, Ramie, Jute                199


CHAPTER XVII

SILK

  Cocoons. Raw Silk. Silk-producing Countries--China, Japan,
  Italy, Southern France, Greece, Turkey, Western Asia.
  Throwing. Thrown Silk--Tram, Crêpe Yarn. Embroidery Silk.
  Sewing Silk. Silk Waste, Spun Silk, Floss Silk. Ribbons,
  Silk Thread, Silk Cord. Dyeing Yarns. Silk Dyeing. Logwood
  Black Silk Dyeing--(1) Boiling Off, (2) Mordanting, (3)
  Blue Bottoming, (4) "Weighting" Bath, (5) Mordanting, (6)
  Dyeing. Colored Silks. Mixed Silk Fabrics. Ribbons,
  Velvets, Printing, Finishing, Waterproofing                      203


CHAPTER XVIII

PRINCIPAL SILK FABRICS

  Alma, Barège, Bengaline, Berber, Brocade, Brocatel,
  Bombazine, Chenille, Chiffon, China Silk, Crêpe, Crêpe de
  Chine, Eolienne, Foulard, Glacé, India Silk, Japanese
  Silk, Jersey Cloth, Meteor, Moire, Mozambique, Organzine,
  Panne, Peau de Soie, Plush, Pongee, Popeline, Poplin,
  Figured Poplin, Terry Poplin, Sarsenet, Satin, Soleil,
  Taffeta, Tulle, Velour, Velvet, Velveteen, Tabby Velvet,
  Voile                                                            219


CHAPTER XIX

ARTIFICIAL SILK

  Silk Cotton, Artificial Silk, Tests                              230


CHAPTER XX

SUBSTITUTES FOR COTTON

  Wool Pulp, Ramie, Pineapple Fibers, Spun Glass, Metallic
  Threads, Slag Wool, Asbestos                                     232


APPENDIX

  Determining Style of Weave. Tests for Strength and
  Elasticity. Determining Count of Warp and Filling,
  Shrinkage, Weight. Tests for Constituents of Warp and
  Filling, for Vegetable and Animal Fibers. Acid Test.
  Cotton Distinguished from Linen, Silk from Wool,
  Artificial Silk from Silk. Test for Shoddy. Determination
  of Dressing. Test for Permanence of Dyes                         235

  History of Textiles. History of the Organization of
  Textile Industries. History of Manufacturing. History of
  Lace                                                             245


EXPERIMENTS

  Experiments 1 to 62                                              267

Sources of Supply                                                  319

Index                                                              323



TEXTILES

CHAPTER I

FIBERS


All the materials used in the manufacture of clothing are called
_textiles_ and are made of either long or short fibers. These fibers
can be made into a continuous thread. When two different sets of
threads are interlaced, the resulting product is called cloth.

The value of any fiber for textile purposes depends entirely upon the
possession of such qualities as firmness, length, curl, softness,
elasticity, etc., which adapt it for spinning. The number of fibers
that possess these qualities is small, and may be classified as
follows:

_Animal Fibers:_ Wool, Silk, Mohair.

_Vegetable Fibers:_ Cotton, Flax, Jute, Hemp, etc.

_Mineral Fibers:_ Asbestos, Tinsel, and other metallic fibers.

_Remanufactured Material:_ Noils, Mungo, Shoddy, Extract, and Flocks.

_Artificial Fibers:_ Spun Glass, Artificial Silk, and Slag Wool.

=The Structure of Wool.= A large part of the people of the world have
always used wool for their clothing. Wool is the soft, curly covering
which forms the fleecy coat of the sheep and similar animals, such as
the goat and alpaca. Wool fiber when viewed under the microscope is
seen to consist roughly of three parts:

1st. Epidermis, or outer surface, which is a series of scales lying
one upon the other.

2d. Cortex, or intermediate substance, consisting of angular,
elongated cells, which give strength to the wool.

3d. Medulla, or pith of the fiber.

[Illustration: WOOL FIBER

Highly magnified]

=Difference between Wool and Hair.= Not all animal fibers are alike.
They vary in fineness, softness, length, and strength, from the finest
Merino wool to the rigid bristles of the wild boar. At just what point
it can be said that the animal fiber ceases to be wool and becomes
hair, is difficult to determine, because there is a gradual and
imperceptible gradation from wool to hair.[1] The distinction between
wool and hair lies chiefly in the great fineness, softness, and wavy
delicacy of the woolen fiber, combined with its highly serrated
surface--upon which the luster of the wool depends.

=Characteristics of Wool.= The chief characteristic of wool is its
felting or shrinking power. This felting property from which wool
derives much of its value, and which is its special distinction from
hair, depends in part upon the kinks in the fiber, but mainly upon
the scales with which the fiber is covered. These scales or points
are exceedingly minute, ranging from about 1,100 to the inch to nearly
3,000. The stem of the fiber itself is extremely slender, being less
than one thousandth of an inch in diameter. In good felting wools the
scales are more perfect and numerous, while inferior wools generally
possess fewer serrations, and are less perfect in structure.

In the process of felting the fibers become entangled with one
another, and the little projecting scales hook into one another and
hold the fibers closely interlocked. The deeper these scales fit into
one another the closer becomes the structure of the thread.

=Classification of Wool.= The various kinds of wool used in commerce
are named either from the breed of the sheep or from the country or
locality in which the sheep are reared. Thus we get Merino wool from
Merino sheep, while English, American, and Australian wools are named
from the respective countries. As the result of cross breeding of
different sheep in different parts of the world, under different
climatic conditions, physical surroundings, and soil, there exist a
great many varieties of wool. The wool of commerce is divided into
three great classes: (1) Short wool or clothing wool (also called
carding wool), seldom exceeding a length of two to four inches; (2)
long wool or combing wool, varying from four to ten inches; (3) carpet
and knitting wools, which are long, strong, and very coarse.

The distinction between clothing or carding wools on the one hand, and
combing wools on the other, is an old one. Combing wools are so
called because they are prepared for spinning[2] into yarn by the
process of "combing"--that is, the fibers are made to lie parallel
with one another preparatory to being spun into thread. Carding
wools--made to cross and interlace and interlock with one another--are
shorter than combing wools, and in addition they possess to a much
greater degree the power of felting--that is, of matting together in a
close compact mass. Combing wools, on the other hand, are not only
longer than the carding wools, but they are also harder, more wiry,
and less inclined to be spiral or kinky. It must be understood,
however, that under the present methods of manufacture, short wools
may be combed and spun by the French method of spinning just as the
long wools are combed and spun by the Bradford or English system.

Carpet and knitting wools are the cheapest, coarsest, and harshest
sorts of wools. They come principally from Russia, Turkey, China,
Greece, Peru, Chili, etc., and from the mountain districts of England
and Scotland. Carpet wools approach more nearly to hair than other
wools. The only staple of this class produced in the United States is
grown on the original Mexican sheep of the great Southwest. Few of
these Mexican sheep are left, for they have been improved by cross
breeding, but they constitute the foundation stock of most of our
Western flocks, which now produce superior clothing and combing wool.

=Sheep Shearing.= In order to get an idea of the importance of the
sheep industry in the United States, one must take a glance at its
condition in the big states of the West. Wyoming has more than
4,600,000 sheep within its borders. Montana, which held the record
until 1909, has 4,500,000 sheep. Then comes Idaho with 2,500,000,
Oregon with 2,000,000, and so on down the list until the nation's
total reaches 40,000,000 sheep, four-fifths of which are west of the
Missouri river.

[Illustration: SHEEP SHEARING]

To harvest the wool from such an enormous number of backs is a task
that calls for expert shearers, men who can handle the big shears of
the machine clippers with a skill that comes from long practise. The
shearing must be done at the right time of the year. If the wool is
clipped too early, the sheep suffer from the cold; if the shearing
comes too late, the sheep suffer from intense heat, and in either case
are bound to lose weight and value.

To meet the exacting conditions a class of men has risen expert in the
sheep-shearing business. These shearers begin work in southern and
middle California, Utah, etc. Another month finds them busy in the
great sheep states of Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Oregon, where they
find steady employment until July, when they go to the ranges of
Canada. In this way the shearers keep busy nearly all the year, and at
high wages.

The Mexicans are particularly expert with the hand shears, though this
form of clipping is being done away with, owing to the installation of
power plants for machine shearing. These plants are installed at
various points on the great sheep ranges. Long sheds are erected and
shafting extends down both sides of the shearing place. Twenty or more
shearers will be lined up in one of these sheds, each man operating a
clipping machine connected with the shafting. The sheep are brought in
from the range in bands of 2,500 or more, and are put in the corrals
adjoining the shearing sheds. Then they are driven down chutes to the
shearers.

A shearer reaches into a small corral behind him and pulls out a
sheep. With a dexterous fling the animal is put in a sitting posture
between the shearer's knees, and then the steel clippers begin
clipping off the wool. The machine-shearing saves much wool, as it
gets closer to the skin of the sheep and shears more evenly. In fact,
some sheep owners say that the increased weight of their fleeces at
each shearing is enough to pay the extra expense of running a power
plant.

As fast as the sheep are turned out by the shearers they are run along
a narrow chute and each one is branded. The branding mark is usually a
letter painted on the back of the sheep so that it can be plainly seen
when they are coming through a chute. The mark remains on the fleece
and is always easily distinguished.

=Fleece.= There is a great variation in the weight of fleeces. Some
sheep, such as those on the best ranges in Oregon, Montana, and
Wyoming, will average an eight-pound fleece full of natural oil, while
sheep from the more sterile alkaline ranges of New Mexico will not
average much more than five pounds of wool.

The shearing season on the plains is much like the threshing season in
agricultural communities. With a crew of first-class shearers working
in a shearing shed, it is not long until the floor is a sea of wool.
Boys are kept busy picking up the fleeces, tying them into compact
bundles, and throwing them to the men who have been assigned to the
task of filling the wool sacks. These sacks, which hold about 400
pounds, are suspended from a wooden framework, and as fast as the
fleeces are thrown in, they are tramped down until the sacks will not
hold a pound more. Most of the sacks are shipped to warehouses in such
wool centers as Casper, Wyoming, or Billings, Montana, the latter
place being the greatest wool shipping center in the world. Here they
are sold to Eastern buyers, who examine the clips at their leisure and
make their bids.

=Value of Wool Business.= Some idea of the fortunes at stake in the
wool business can be gathered from the fact that the total wool
product of the country in 1909 was valued at $78,263,165. It is
expected that the returns from the wool clip in a fairly good year
will pay all a sheepman's running expenses, such as hire of herders,
cost of shearing, etc. He then has the sale of his lambs as clear
profit. Enormous fortunes are being made in the sheep business in the
west, owing to the high price of wool and mutton.

=Saxony and Silesian Wool.= Among wools of all classes the Saxony and
Silesian take the first place, and for general good qualities,
fineness, and regularity of fiber, they are unequalled. The fiber is
short in staple, possesses good felting properties, and is strong and
elastic. This wool is used chiefly in the manufacture of cloths where
much milling[3] is required, such as superfines and dress-faced
fabrics.

=Australian Wools.= Australia furnishes wools of a superior character,
and some of the choicest clips rival the Saxony and Silesian wools.
They are used both for worsted[4] and woolen yarns. They are generally
strong and of an elastic character, possess numerous serrations, and
are of good color, with good felting properties. The principal
Australian wools are Port Philip, Sydney, and Adelaide wools. These
are the best brands imported from that country.

=Port Philip Wool.= Port Philip wool is suitable for either worsted or
woolen yarns. The fiber is not quite as fine as Saxony, but it makes a
good thread, is fairly sound in staple, and is of good length and
color. It is very wavy and serrated. The longest and best of this wool
is used for the very finest worsted yarns, and will spin up to 130's
counts.[5] The sheep are descendants of the original Spanish Merino.
Cross bred Port Philip wool is from the same Merino sheep crossed with
Leicesters, which yield a medium quality fleece of sound fiber and
good quality for spinning counts from 40's to 56's. The yarn has a
bright, clear appearance.

=Sydney Wools.= Sydney wools are moderately fine in fiber and of
medium length. They are rather deficient in strength, uneven in color,
and often contain yellow locks which make them undesirable when
required for dyeing light shades. They are used for nearly the same
purpose as Port Philip wools, but do not spin quite as far in worsted
yarns, nor are they equal in milling qualities.

=Adelaide Wool.= Adelaide wool has a reputation for sound Merinos,
the average quality being a little lower than for the Port Philip and
Sydney wools. Its fiber is moderately fine, but not of uniform length;
its color is not so good, and it contains a large amount of yolk.[6]
Adelaide wool is used for worsted dress goods, weft (filling)[7] yarn
up to 60's, and certain worsted warps.[7] It is used for medium
fancy woolens.

=Van Wool from Tasmania.= The climate of this island is well suited to
the growing of wool, and produces excellent qualities, fine in fiber,
of good length, and strong in the staple, which will spin as high
counts as 70's and 80's worsted. This wool is useful for mixing with
other good wools. Its color is very white, which makes it a useful
wool for dyeing light shades. Its milling properties are good, and the
shorter sorts are suitable for woolens.

=New Zealand Wools= are very supple, which make them valuable to the
spinner. These wools are suitable for almost all classes of Merino and
crossbred yarns. They are of good length, sound staple, have good
felting properties, and are of good color. They are useful for
blending with mungo and shoddy, to give to these remanufactured
materials that springy, bulky character which they lack.

=Cape Wools.= Cape Colony and Natal produce merino wool that is
somewhat short in staple, rather tender, and less wavy than some other
wools. The sheep are not so well cared for, and are fed on the leaves
of a small shrub. The absence of grass leaves the ground very sandy,
and this makes the fleece heavy and dirty. Its color is fair, but it
lacks elasticity. It is used chiefly to cheapen blends[8] of 60's
top.[9] The short wool is combed for thick counts for weft and
hosiery, and is also used for shawls and cloths where felting is not
an essential feature.

[Illustration: MERINO SHEEP]

=Wools from South America.= These wools are of the same standard of
excellence as the Australian wools, but they are generally deficient
in strength and elasticity. Buenos Ayres and Montevideo wools are
fairly fine in fiber, but lack strength and elasticity, and are
deficient in milling properties; they are also burry. The climate
suits the sheep well, and the feed is good, but the careless methods
of classing and packing have earned for these wools a poor reputation
that is well deserved.

The best 60's wool is combed in oil, but a large portion of the
shorter is combed and used in thick counts,--20's to 36's worsted for
the hosiery trade.

=Russian Wool.= The staple of this is generally strong, and the fibers
are of a medium thickness; the color is milky white. It is useful to
blend with Australian or other good wools. It produces a good yarn,
and is very often used in the fancy woolen trade and in fabrics that
require to be finished in the natural color.

=Great Britain Wools.= These may be divided into three groups: (1)
long wools, of which the Lincoln and Leicester are typical examples;
(2) short wools, which include Southdown, Shropshire, Suffolk, and
others; and (3) wool from the mountain or hilly breeds of sheep, such
as the Cheviot, Scotch Blackface, Shetland, Irish, and Welsh.

=Lincoln Wool= is a typical wool obtained from the long wool sheep,
and noted for its long, lustrous fiber, which is silky and strong. The
staple varies from ten to eighteen inches in length, and the average
fleece will yield from ten to fourteen pounds in weight.

=Leicester Wool= has a somewhat finer fiber than Lincoln. It is a
valuable wool, of good color, uniform and sound in staple, curly, with
good, bright luster and no dark hairs. While luster wools are grown
extensively in England, they also grow in Indiana and Kentucky, and
are commonly known in the trade as braid wool.

=Southdown= is one of the most valuable of short staple wools. It
possesses a fine hair, is close and wavy, and fairly sound in staple,
but rather deficient in milling qualities. The shorter varieties are
carded and made into flannels and other light fabrics, while the
longer qualities are used in the production of worsted goods. The
weight of a Southdown fleece averages from four to five pounds.

[Illustration: WOOL MARKET AT BUENOS AYRES]

=Shropshiredown= wool is of good quality, with strong, fine, lustrous
fiber, of good length. It resembles Southdown, but is not as lustrous
as mohair, the natural colors being either white, black, brown, or
fawn. It is used chiefly in the manufacture of dress goods.

=Cashmere Wool= is the fine, woolly, extremely soft, white or gray fur
of the Cashmere goat which is bred in Thibet. There are two kinds of
fiber obtained: one, which is really the outer covering, consists of
long tufts of hair; underneath this is the Cashmere wool of commerce,
a soft, downy wool of a brownish-gray tint, with a fine, silky fiber.
It is used for making the costly oriental (Indian) shawls and the
finest wraps.

=The Norfolkdown and Suffolkdown Wools= are fairly fine in fiber and
soft, but slightly deficient in strength and elasticity.

=Cheviot Wool= may be taken as representative of the hilly breeds of
sheep. It is an average wool, with staple of medium length, soft, and
with strong and regular fiber; it is of a good, bright color, and
possesses desirable milling properties, being used for both woolen and
worsted, but chiefly in the fancy woolen trade. The average weight of
the fleece is about 4-1/2 pounds. The black-faced or Highland breed
yields a medium wool, coarser and more shaggy than the Cheviot, and
varying much in quality. It is almost all used in the production of
rugs, carpets, and blankets.

=Welsh Wools= lack waviness and fineness of fiber. They are chiefly
used for flannels.

=Shetland Wools= are similar in character to Welsh wools, but slightly
finer in fiber and softer. They are used in the manufacture of knitted
goods, such as shawls and wraps. They lack felting properties.

=Irish Wools= possess a strong, thick hair of moderate length and fine
color. They are similar in many respects to the Welsh wools, and are
often classed with them. They are used in the production of low and
medium tweeds--fancy woolen cloths not requiring small yarns or
milling qualities.

=Mohair= is a lustrous wool obtained from the Angora goat, which
derives its name from the district of Asia Minor from which it comes.
These animals have also been successfully bred in Spain and France.
The hair is pure white, fine, wavy, and of good length, and possesses
a high luster. It is used in making plushes, velvets, astrakhans, and
curled fabrics, also half silk goods and fine wraps.

=Alpaca Wool= is the fleece of the Peruvian sheep, which is a species
of llama. The staple is of good length and soft, but is not quite as
lustrous as mohair, the natural colors being either white, black,
brown, or fawn. It is used chiefly in the manufacture of dress goods.

=How Wool is Marketed.= The bulk of the wool of commerce comes into
the market in the form of fleece wool, the product of a single year's
growth, and cut from the body of the animal usually in April or May.
The first and finest clip, called lamb's wool, may be taken from the
young sheep at the age of eight to twelve months. All subsequently cut
fleeces are known as wether wool and possess relatively somewhat less
value than the first clip.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] Hair is straight and glossy, stronger and smoother than wool, and
grows sometimes as long as twenty inches.

[2] Spinning is a process by which long or short fibers are twisted
into a continuous thread.

[3] A process of finishing cloth by condensing the fibers so as to
make the cloth stronger and firmer.

[4] See footnote, page 39.

[5] The size of yarn is technically called the "counts" and is based
on the number of 560 yard lengths required to weigh one pound. In this
case 130's count = 130 × 560, or 72,800 yards of yarn to a pound.

[6] An encrusting compound of dirt and grease formed on the fleece.

[7] See page 54.

[8] Mixtures.

[9] After wool fibers are combed they are called top.



CHAPTER II

WOOL SORTING


Fleece wool as it comes to the mill is rolled up in bundles and must
be sorted. This process consists in sorting and classifying the fibers
of the fleece. Not only do the various species of sheep furnish widely
different qualities of wool, but different qualities are obtained from
the same animal, according to the part of the body from which the wool
is taken. This variation in some instances is very marked, and
sometimes is greater than that which separates the wools of the
different breeds of sheep. Hence the sorting and classing of wool
become necessary for the production of good, sound yarn of even
quality.

An attempt to utilize the fleece as a whole would result in the
spinning of uneven, faulty, and unsatisfactory yarns. As many as
twelve or fourteen sorts may be obtained from one fleece (by very fine
sorting), but generally not more than five or seven are made. The
following table shows the relative qualities of wools from the various
parts of a Merino sheep:

1 and 2. _Head_ (_top and sides_): The wools grown on these parts are
remarkable for length of staple, softness, and uniformity of
character. They are usually the choicest wools in the fleece.

3. _Upper part of the back:_ This also is a wool of good, sound
quality, resembling in staples Nos. 1 and 2, but not as soft or as
fine of fiber.

4. _Loin and back:_ The staple here is comparatively short, not as
fine, but generally of unvarying character, sometimes rather tender.

[Illustration: SORTING ROOM]

5. _Upper parts of legs:_ This wool is medium in length but coarse of
fiber, and has a tendency to hang in loose, open locks. It is
generally sound, but likely to contain vegetable matter.

6. _Upper portion of the neck:_ The staple clipped from this part of
the neck is of an inferior quality, frequently faulty and irregular in
growth, and contains twigs, thorns, etc.

7. _Central part of the neck:_ This wool is similar to No. 6 but
rather tender in staple.

8. _Belly:_ This wool is from under the sheep, between the fore and
hind legs. It is short and dirty, poor in quality, and generally
tender.

9. _Root of tail:_ In this wool the fibers are coarse, short, and
glossy.

10. _Lower parts of the legs:_ This wool is generally dirty and
greasy, the staple having no wave and lacking fineness. It is
generally burry and contains much vegetable matter.

11. _Front of Head_; 12. _Throat_; 13. _Chest:_ The wools from these
parts are sometimes classed together, all having the same
characteristics. The fiber is stiff, straight, coarse, and covered
with fodder.

14. _Shins:_ This is another short, thick, straight wool of glossy
fiber, commonly known as shanks.

=Classing.= Classing is a grading of the fleeces, and is usually, but
not always, a process preliminary to sorting. It is an important part
of sorting, and when well done greatly facilitates the making of good,
uniform matchings.

=Grades of Wool.= In the grading of wool no set standard of quality
exists. The same classification may be applied in different years, or
in different localities, to qualities of wool showing much variation,
the best grade obtainable usually setting the standard for the lower
grades. The highest quality of wool in the United States is found on
full-blooded Merino sheep.

=Merino Wool.= The Merino sheep was bred for wool and not mutton. The
fleece of this breed is fine, strong, elastic, and of good color; it
also possesses a high felting power. Though naturally short, it is now
grown to good length and the fleece is dense. The Merino sheep is a
native of Spain, and Spain was for a long period the chief country of
its production. It was also in past centuries extensively bred in
England and English wool owes much to the Merino for the improvement
it has effected in the fleeces of other breeds of English sheep. It
was also introduced into Saxony and was highly bred there, and Saxony
soon came to surpass Spanish wool in fineness, softness, and felting
properties. The Merino was introduced into the United States at the
beginning of the nineteenth century. By 1810, 5,000 Merino sheep had
been imported and these 5,000 sheep formed the basis of most of the
fine wool-producing flocks of our country to-day.

The terms half blood, three-eighths blood, and quarter blood refer to
the full-blooded Merino standard. As the scale descends the wool
becomes coarser, the wool of a quarter blood usually being a
comparatively coarse fiber. The general classifications of fine,
medium, coarse, and low, refer to the relative fineness of Merino
combing wools. These distinctions naturally overlap according to the
opinion of the parties in transactions. Picklock XXX and XX represent
the highest grades of clothing wool, the grade next lower being X, and
then Nos. 1 and 2. These again are used in connection with the
locality from which the wool is grown, as Ohio XX, Michigan X, New
York No. 1, etc.

=Difference Between Lamb's and Sheep's Wool.= One of the first points
to be understood in wool sorting is the difference between the wool of
lambs and one-year-old sheep, and that of sheep two or more years old.
Lamb's wool is naturally pointed at the end, because it has never been
clipped. It is termed hog or hoggett wool, and is more valuable when
longer, of about fourteen months' growth. It is finer in quality and
possesses more waviness, which is a help in the process of spinning.

The wool of sheep two or more years old is known as wether. The ends
of the fiber from such sheep are thick and blunted, on account of
having been previously cut. It is necessary to be able to tell at once
a hog fleece from a wether, and this can be done in two ways: by
examining the ends of the fiber to see if they are pointed; or by
pulling a staple out of the fleece. If it is wether, the staple will
come out clean, without interfering to any extent with those around
it; but if hog, some of the fibers will adhere to the one that is
being pulled. Hog wool is generally more full of dirt, moss, straw,
and other vegetable matter.

=Dead Wool= is wool obtained from the pelts of sheep that have died.

=Pulled Wool.= Pulled wool is wool from the pelts[10] as they come
from the slaughter-houses of large packing plants. These pelts are
thrown into vats of water and left to soak for twenty-four hours to
loosen the dirt which has become matted into the wool. From these
vats the pelts are taken to scrubbing machines from which the wool
issues perfectly clean and white. The pelts are next freed from any
particles of flesh or fat which may have adhered to them, and are then
taken to the "painting" room. Here they are laid flesh side up and
carefully painted with a preparation for loosening the roots of the
wool. This preparation is allowed to remain on the pelts for
twenty-four hours, when it is cleaned off and the pelts taken to the
"pulling" room. Each wool puller stands before a small wooden
framework over which the pelt is thrown, and the wool, being all
thoroughly loosened by the "paint" preparation, is easily and quickly
pulled out by the handful. As it is pulled it is thrown into barrels
conveniently arranged according to grade and length.

When a barrel is filled, it is transferred to a large room across
which are several rows of wire netting, raised about three feet from
the floor. Each sheet of netting is about six feet wide. Here the wool
is piled on the netting to a depth of several inches and hot air is
forced underneath it by means of a blower. Meanwhile it is worked over
by men with rakes, and soon dries. When thoroughly dry, it is raked up
and taken to the storeroom, where it is dumped into bins. Here it
usually remains open for inspection and sampling till it is sold, when
it is bagged. The bags of wool ultimately find their way to the woolen
mill or sampling house. Sometimes the fleece will retain its fleece
form, but usually it breaks up. The wool contains lime and has to be
specially treated by a scouring process to prevent lime from
absorbing the cleansing substances used for scouring the wool.

=Delaine Wool= is a variety of fine, long combing wool.

=Cotty Wool=, or cotts, is wool from sheep that have been exposed to
severe weather and lack of nourishment, and for these reasons have
failed to throw off the yolk necessary to feed the wool. As a result
it becomes matted or felted together, and is hard and brittle and
almost worthless.

=Wool Sorter.= The sorter begins by placing the fleece upon his board
or table, always arranging it so that he faces the north, as this
gives the most constant light and no glare of the sun. The fleece thus
spread out shows a definite dividing line through the center. The
sorter parts the two halves and proceeds to analyze their different
qualities. The number of sorts is determined by the requirements of
the manufacturer who, in purchasing his wool, buys those grades that
will produce the greatest bulk of the qualities for present use, and
that leave in stock the smallest number of sorts and least weight for
which he has no immediate use. The sorter then removes all extraneous
matter adhering to the fleece, such as straw, twigs, and seeds, and
cuts off the hard lumps of earth, tar, or paint, which, if not removed
at this time, will dissolve in the scouring process and stain the
wool. With these preliminaries finished, he proceeds to cast out the
locks, according to quality, into baskets or skeps provided for that
purpose. After skirting or taking off the outside edges of the fleece,
usually known as brokes, and the legs and tail, known as breech, he
separates the other portions from the better qualities.

[Illustration: SORTED WOOL IN PILES READY TO BE TRANSPORTED TO THE
DEGREASING PLANT]

Picklock, prime, choice, super, head, downrights, seconds, breech,
etc., are some of the terms used. Picklock comprises the choicest
qualities; prime is similar to picklock, but slightly inferior; choice
is true staple, but not as fine in fiber; super is similar to choice,
but as a rule not as valuable; head includes the inferior sorts from
this part of the sheep; downrights come from the lower parts of the
sides; seconds consist of the best wool clipped from the throat and
breast; breech, the short, coarse fibers obtained from the skirting
and edgings of the fleece.

In the worsted trade different names are used. The terms generally
adopted are: blue, from the neck; fine, from the shoulders; neat, from
the middle of the sides and back; brown-drawings, from the haunches;
breech, from the tail and hind legs; cowtail, when the breech is very
strong; brokes, from the lower part of the front legs and belly, which
are classed as super, middle, and common.

Fine, short wools are sorted according to the number of counts of yarn
they are expected to spin, as 48's, 60's, 70's, and so on. Thus we see
there are different methods of indicating qualities in different
districts, and also of indicating differences of qualities between the
woolen and worsted branches of the trade.

It may be noted that the quality of the wool varies in the same way as
the quality of the flesh. The shoulder is finest in grain and most
delicate, so the wool is finer in fiber. There is more wear and tear
for the sheep at its haunches than at its shoulders, hence the wool is
longer and stronger; about the neck the wool is short, to prevent the
sheep from being weighted down while eating, etc.; the wool on the
back becomes rough and thin, being most exposed to the rain. From the
foregoing it will be readily seen that there is necessity for careful
sorting, in order to insure obtaining an even running yarn, and
subsequently a uniform quality of fabrics.

=Wool Washing.= Fleece wool as it comes into the market is either in
the "grease," that is, unwashed and with all the dirt which gathers on
the surface of the greasy wool; or it is received as washed wool, the
washing being done as a preliminary step to the sheep shearing. Wool,
unlike cotton, cannot be worked into yarn without being thoroughly
cleansed of its impurities. These impurities consist of greasy and
sweaty secretions, of the nature of a lubricant to the fiber. Combined
with dirt, sand, etc., which adhere to the wool, these secretions form
an encrusting compound, known as yolk, which acts as a natural
preservative to the wool, keeping it soft and supple. This compound,
with other extraneous matter, must be removed before the wool is in a
workable condition. The amount of yolk varies, the greatest amount
being found in fine, short wools from the warm climates. In
long-staple wool the amount of yolk is comparatively small.

[Illustration: WASHING ROOM]

Various methods of removing these impurities have been tried; one is
the use of absorbent substances, such as fossil meal, alumina, etc.,
to withdraw the greasy matter, so that the remaining impurities can be
easily removed by washing. In other methods, naphtha or similar
solvent liquids are used to dissolve the wool fats. This is followed
by washing in tepid water to dissolve the potash salts, leaving the
dirt to fall away when the other substances are no longer present. To
work this method with safety requires a costly and intricate plant
with skilled supervision. The method which is practically in universal
use is washing the wool in alkaline solutions, properties of which
combine with and reduce the impurities to a lathery emulsion which is
easily washed off from the wool.

Great stress is laid upon the necessity of care in the washing
process, as the luster may be destroyed and a brownish-yellow tint
given to the wool, the spinning properties very seriously injured, the
softness destroyed, or the fiber dissolved. Some wools are easy to
wash, requiring little soap and a reasonable temperature; other wools
are cleansed with great difficulty. A note, therefore, should be made
of any particular brand or class of wool requiring special attention,
to serve as a guide in the treatment of future lots. The danger lies
in using unsuitable agents,--hard water, excessive temperatures,
strong reagents, etc.

Caustic alkalies have a most destructive effect on wool as they eat
into it and destroy its vitality. Carbonate alkalies are less severe.
Whatever cleansing substances are used, it is essential that they
should be free from anything that is likely to injure the wool--that
they remove the impurities and still preserve all the qualities in the
wool. If the washing is properly performed the alkaline portion of the
yolk is removed, leaving only the colorless animal oil in the fiber.
If the work is not thoroughly done the wool passes as "unmerchantable
washed." "Tub washed" is the term applied to fleeces which are broken
up and washed more or less by hand. Scoured wool is tub washed with
warm water and soap, and then thoroughly rinsed in cold water until
nothing remains but the clean fiber.

[Illustration: DEGREASING PLANT--REMOVING GREASE FROM WOOL]

An improved method of washing wool by hand is to have a series of
tanks with pressing rollers attached to each tank: the wool is
agitated by means of forks, and then passed to the pressing rollers
and into each tank in succession. The tanks are usually five in
number, and so arranged that the liquor can be run from the upper to
the lower tank. Upon leaving the pressing rollers the excess of water
is driven off in a hydro extractor[11] and the wool is beaten into a
light, fluffy condition by means of a wooden fan or beater.

=Wool Drying.= The process of drying wool is not intended to be
carried to such an extent that the wool will be in an absolutely dry
state, for in such a condition it would be lusterless, brittle, and
discolored. It is the nature of wool to retain a certain amount of
moisture since it is hygroscopic, and to remove it entirely would
result in partial disintegration of the fibers. Buyers and sellers
have a recognized standard of moisture, 16 per cent. If, on the other
hand, it is left too wet, the fibers will not stand the pulling strain
in the succeeding operations, and if not broken, they are so unduly
stretched that they have lost their elasticity.

The theory which underlies the drying process is that dry air is
capable of absorbing moisture, hence by circulating currents of dry
air in and around wet wool, the absorbing power of the air draws off
the moisture. For continuous drying free circulation is a necessity,
as otherwise the air would soon become saturated and incapable of
taking up more moisture. Warming the air increases its capacity to
absorb moisture; thus a higher temperature is capable of drying the
wool much quicker than the same volume of air would at a low
temperature. A free circulation of air at 75 to 100 degrees F., evenly
distributed, and with ample provision for the escape of the saturated
air, is essential for good work.

=Oiling.= After being scoured wool generally has to be oiled before it
is ready for the processes of spinning, blending, etc. As delivered
from the drying apparatus, the wool is bright and clean, but somewhat
harsh and wiry to the touch, owing to the removal of the yolk which is
its natural lubricant. To render it soft and elastic, and to improve
its spinning qualities, the fiber is sprinkled with lard oil or olive
oil. As the oil is a costly item, it is of consequence that it be
equally distributed and used economically. To attain this end various
forms of oiling apparatus have been invented, which sprinkle the oil
in a fine spray over the wool, which is carried under the sprinkler by
an endless cloth.

=Burring and Carbonizing.= After wool has been washed and scoured it
frequently happens that it cannot be advanced to the succeeding
operations of manufacture because it is mixed with burs, seeds,
leaves, slivers, etc., which are picked up by the sheep in the
pasture. These vegetable impurities injure the spinning qualities of
the stock, for if a bur or other foreign substance becomes fastened in
the strand of yarn while it is being spun, it either causes the thread
to break or renders it bunchy and uneven. For removing burs, etc.,
from the wool two methods are pursued: the one purely mechanical, the
other chemical, and known respectively as burring and carbonizing.

=Bur Picker.= For the mechanical removing of burs a machine called the
bur picker is employed. In this machine the wool is first spread out
into a thin lap or sheet; then light wooden blades, rotating rapidly,
beat upon every part of the sheet and break the burs into pieces. The
pieces fall down into the dust box or upon a grating beneath the
machine, and are ejected together with a good deal of the wool
adhering to them. Often the machine fails to beat out fine pieces and
these are scattered through the stock.

=Process of Carbonizing.= For the complete removal of all foreign
vegetable substances from wool the most effective process is
carbonizing, in which the burs, etc., are burned out by means of acid
and a high degree of heat. The method of procedure is as follows: The
wool to be treated is immersed in a solution of sulphuric or
hydrochloric acid for about twelve hours, the acid bath being placed
in cement cisterns or in large lead-lined tubs and not made strong
enough to injure the fiber of the wool. During the immersion the stock
is frequently stirred. Next, the wool is dried and then placed in an
enclosed chamber and subjected to a high temperature (75 degrees C.).
The result of this process is that all the vegetable matter contained
in the wool is "carbonized" or burned to a crisp, and on being
slightly beaten or shaken readily turns to dust. This dust is removed
from the wool by various simple processes. The carbonizing process was
first introduced in 1875, though it made but slight headway against
the old burring method until after 1880.

=Blending.= Pure wool of but one quality is not often used in the
production of woven fabrics, so, before the raw material is ready for
spinning into yarn, or for other processes by which it is worked into
useful forms, it is blended. Wools are blended for many reasons (among
which cheapness figures prominently), the added materials consisting
usually of shoddy, mungo, or extract fibers. Ordinarily, however,
blending has for its object the securing of a desired quality or
weight of cloth. The question of color, as well as quality, also
determines blending operations, natural colored wools being frequently
intermixed to obtain particular shades for dress goods, tweeds,
knitting yarns, etc. Stock dyed wools are also blended for the
production of mixed colors, as browns, grays, Oxfords, etc. There is
practically no limit to the variety of shades and tints obtainable by
mixing two or more colors of wool together. The various quantities of
wool to be blended are spread out in due proportion in the form of
thin layers, one on top of the other, and then passed through a
machine called the teaser. The teaser consists of a combination of
large and small rollers, thickly studded with small pins, which open
the wool, pull it apart, and thoroughly intermix it. A blast of air
constantly plays upon the wool in the teaser and aids the spikes and
pins in opening out the fibers. The material is subjected to this
operation several times and is finally delivered in a soft, fleecy
condition, ready to be spun into yarn.


FOOTNOTES:

[10] Skins.

[11] A wire cage enclosed in a metallic shell which revolves at a high
speed causing sixty or seventy per cent of the moisture to be removed.



CHAPTER III

WOOL SUBSTITUTES AND WASTE PRODUCTS


=Remanufactured= wool substitutes are extensively used in the
manufacture of woolen and worsted goods. There is no need for the
prejudice that is sometimes met regarding these reclaimed materials,
for by their use millions of people are warmly and cheaply clothed. If
the immense quantity of these materials were wasted, countless persons
would be unable to afford proper clothing, as it is difficult to
estimate what the price of wool would be; and it is also doubtful if a
sufficient quantity could be produced to supply the need. In almost
all instances the use of wool substitutes is for the special purpose
of producing cloths at a much lower price.

The cloths made from waste products, such as noils, are not much
inferior in quality to those produced from the wool from which the
noils are obtained; but the great majority of cloths made from other
waste products are much inferior. The following are the most important
substitutes: noils, shoddy, mungo, extract-wool, and flocks.

=Noils= are the rejected fibers from the process of combing the
different wools and hairs; thus, wool noils are from the sheep, mohair
noils from the Angora goat, and alpaca noils from the Peruvian sheep.

Noils are divided into classes, namely, long-wool noils, short or
fine-wool noils, mohair noils, and alpaca noils. They are all obtained
in the process of combing, that is, the process which separates the
long from the short fibers; the former are known as the "top," and are
used in worsted and in the production of mohair and alpaca yarns;
while the latter are used to advantage in the production of many
different kinds of woolen fabrics. With the exception of length, noils
are practically of the same quality as the tops from which they are
taken.

Long-wool noils are from the combings of such wools as Leicester and
similar wools. These noils, like the wool from which they are
obtained, are much coarser in quality and fiber than the short-wool
noils. Occasionally, when strength is required in the fabric, these
noils are used, and they are also mixed with short-wool noils. Many of
the cheviot fabrics are made exclusively of these noils. They are also
mixed with shoddy and cotton in the production of dark-colored
fabrics, and in medium and low-priced goods requiring a fibrous
appearance they are extremely useful.

Short or fine-wool noils are the most valuable, and are obtained from
combing Australian and other fine wools. The number and variety of
uses to which they are put are innumerable. They are used to advantage
in the plain and fancy woolen trade, in the manufacture of shawls and
plain woolens of a soft nature, and are also suitable for mixing with
cotton in the production of twist threads.

Mohair and alpaca noils are obtained by the combing of these
materials. They are lacking in felting properties, but are lustrous
and possess strength, and are most valuable in the manufacture of
fabrics where strength and luster are required. These noils are used
in the production of yarns for Kidderminster carpets, as yarns for
these carpets must possess strength, brightness, and thickness of
fiber. They are also used in combination with shoddy and cotton to
produce weft or filling yarns for a lower quality of goods.

=Shoddy= and =Mungo= are in reality wool products, or wool fiber which
has previously passed through the processes of manufacture whereby its
physical structure has been considerably mutilated. These were first
produced about sixty years ago. Shoddy is higher in value than mungo.
The value and quality of the waste or rags from which it is made
determine the quality or value of the material. Shoddy is derived from
waste or rags of pure unmilled woolens, such as flannels, wraps,
stockings, and all kinds of soft goods.

=Mungo= is made from rags of hard or milled character and is much
shorter in fiber than shoddy. Its length, varying from one-quarter to
three-quarters of an inch, can be regulated by the treatment the rags
receive, and by the proper setting of the rollers in the grinding
machine. Both shoddy and mungo may be divided into classes. Mungo is
divided into two classes, namely, new and old mungo. New mungo is made
from rags chiefly composed of tailor's clippings, unused pattern-room
clippings, etc. Old mungo is made from cast-off garments, etc. By a
careful selection of the rags previous to grinding, it is possible to
make a large number of qualities, and a great variety of colors and
shades without dyeing. Owing to their cheapness shoddy and mungo are
used in cloths of low and medium qualities. Shoddies are utilized in
fabrics of the cheviot class and in the production of backing yarns.
Mungoes of the best quality are used in the low fancy tweed trade, in
both warp and weft, but chiefly in union and backed fabrics.

=Method of Producing Shoddy and Mungo.= Before the fibrous mungo is
obtained, the rags have to pass through the following necessary
preliminary operations:

_A. Dusting._ This is carried on in a shaking machine, which consists
of a cylinder possessing long and strong spikes, which are enclosed,
having underneath a grating to allow the dust to pass through. The
dust is then driven by a fan into a receptacle provided for that
purpose.

_B. Sorting._ All rags, both old and new, must be sorted, and
considerable care must be exercised in this operation, as on this work
alone depends the obtaining of different qualities and shades, as well
as the securing of the production of a regular and uniform product.

_C. Seaming._ This is only necessary with the rags procured from
garments. It is simply removing the cotton threads from the seams, and
any metallic or hard substances from the rags.

_D. Oiling._ The rags are oiled to soften them and make them more
pliable, and thus to facilitate the grinding.

_E. Grinding._ This is the principal operation, and the rags are made
fibrous in this process. The machine by which this is effected is made
up of the following parts: feed apron, fluted rollers, swift, and a
funnel for conveying the material out of the machine. The principal
features of the machine are the swift and its speed. The swift is
enclosed in a framework, and is about forty-two inches in diameter and
eighteen inches wide, thus possessing a surface area of 2,376 square
inches, containing from 12,000 to 14,000 fine strong iron spikes. The
speed of the swift may be from 600 to 800 revolutions per minute. The
rags are fed by placing them on the traveling feed apron, and are thus
conveyed to the fluted rollers. As they emerge from the rollers they
are presented to the swift, and by strong iron teeth, moving with
exceedingly high surface velocity, they are torn thread from thread
and fiber from fiber. The fluted rollers run very slowly, and the rags
are held while the swift carries out this operation. By means of the
strong current of air created by the high speed of the swift, the
mungo is expelled from the machine through the funnel into a specially
arranged receptacle. If by any chance the machine should be
overcharged, that is, if too many rags are passing through the
rollers, the top fluted roller is raised up, and the rags are simply
carried, or thrown by the swift, over into a box on the opposite side
of the machine without being subjected to the tearing process. The top
roller is weighted by levers with weights attached to keep it in
position, thus bringing downward pressure to bear upon it, as it is
driven simply by friction. By the adjustment of the feed rollers in
relation to the swift, the length of the fiber may be varied to a
small degree.

=Extract Wool.= This is obtained from union cloths, that is, from
cloths having a wool weft and warp of cotton, etc., also from cloths
having the same material for warp, but possessing a woolen or mungo
warp or filling, etc. It is the wool fiber that is required. Therefore
the vegetable matter (cotton) must be extracted from it by the process
of carbonizing. To effect this, the tissue or rags are steeped in a
solution of sulphuric acid and water and then subjected to heat in an
enclosed room. The water is evaporated, leaving the acid in a
concentrated form, which acts upon the cotton, converting it into
powder. The powder readily becomes separated, and thus the cotton is
eliminated. The material that is left is well washed to remove all
acid, dried, and then passed through a miniature carder, to impart to
it the appearance of a woolly and a softer fabric.

=Flocks.= These are of three kinds, and are waste products of the
milling, cropping, and raising operations. The most valuable are those
derived from the fulling mill, being clean and of a bright color. They
are chiefly used by sail spinners, and in the manufacture of low grade
cloths of a cheviot class. White flocks are suitable for blending with
wool, and as a rule command a fair price. Raising flocks are those
obtained from the dressing or raising gigs, and are applied to
purposes similar to those for which fulling flocks are used. Cutting
or cropping flocks are the short fibers which are removed from the
cloths in this operation. They are practically of no value to the
textile manufacturer, being unfit for yarn production, but are used
chiefly by wall-paper manufacturers in producing "flock-papers," which
are papers with raised figures resembling cloth, made of poor wool,
and attached with a gluey varnish.

[Illustration: CARD ROOM

  1. Automatic Feed.
  2. Bur Guards.
  3. Bur Tray.
  4. 1st Top Divider.
  5. 2d Top Divider.
  6. Workers.
  7. Strippers.
  8. Doffer Cylinder.
  9. Main Cylinders.
 10. Main Card Drive on 2d Main Cylinder Shaft.
 11. 1st Lickerin.
 12. 2d Lickerin.
 13. 3d Lickerin.
 14. 4th Lickerin.
 15. Fancy Hood.]



CHAPTER IV

WORSTED YARNS


=Carding.= After the wool is washed it undergoes a number of
operations before it is finished into worsted or woolen yarn.[12] The
first step in the manufacturing of worsted yarn is to pass the washed
wool through a worsted card which consists of a number of cylinders
covered with fine wire teeth mounted on a frame. The effect of these
cylinders on the wool is to disengage the wool fibers, make them
straight, and form a "sliver" or strand. It is now ready for the
combing machine.

=Combing.= The process of combing consists of subjecting the card
sliver to the operations of the automatic wool comber, which
straightens the fibers and removes all short and tufted pieces of
wool. Combing is a guarantee that every fiber of the wool lies
perfectly straight, and that all fibers follow one after the other in
regular order.

=Comb.= A comb is a complicated machine. The principal feature is a
large metal ring with rows of fine steel pins (pin circles), which is
made to revolve horizontally within the machine. By various devices
the wool is fed into the teeth of the ring in the form of tufts. The
fibers of the tufts by an intricate process are separated into long
and short lengths, and a set of rollers draws each out separately and
winds it into a continuous strand called "tops." On leaving the
comber, the wool is free from short fibers, specks, and foreign
substances, and presents a fine, flowing, and lustrous appearance. The
short combed-out wool is called noils, and is used in making carpet
yarns, ground up into shoddy stock, or utilized in spinning fancy
yarns.

=Worsted Tops.= American textile manufacturers are finding it
advantageous to have their combing done by those who make the work a
specialty rather than to do it themselves. In the manufacture of tops
all varieties of combing wools are used: Australian, Merino, and
Crossbred wools, South American Merino and Crossbred wools, Cape
Merino wools, Merino and Crossbred wools grown in the United States,
the lustrous wools of pure English blood, Mohair from Asiatic Turkey,
and Alpaca from the Andes. Tops are sold to worsted spinneries.[13]
Many mills or worsted spinneries send their wools, either sorted or
unsorted as they may desire, to a combing mill, where the wool is put
into top at a lower price than that at which most spinneries can do
their own combing. By means of the naphtha process a larger amount of
top from a given amount of wool can be secured than by any other
process, and in addition, a top in better condition for drawing and
spinning.

[Illustration: COMB ROOM

  1. Driving pulley on horizontal shaft (2).
  3. Boxes containing bevel gears.
  4. Pillars.
  5. Driving pulley for dabbing motion.
  6. Boxes containing dabbing-brush mechanism.
  7. Dabbing brushes.
  8. Star or stroker wheels.
  9. Large circle containing rows of pins.
 10. Drawing-off apron and rollers for large circle.
 11. Brass boxes or conductors.
 12. Guides for comb ball ends.
 13. Comb balls (4 ends each).
 14. Fluted wooden rollers on which comb balls rest.
 15. Comb leg (4 in number).
 16. Foundation plate.]

In a strand of combed wool, called top, no single fiber lies across
the strand; all lie in the direction of the length. This order is
preserved until the fibers have been converted into yarn, which is
accomplished by passing through "gill boxes." These gill boxes are
machines with bars of iron having upon their surface two rows of
minute steel pins, by this means kept perfectly straight. The bars on
which they are placed are worked on screws between two sets of
rollers. The wool enters between the first set of rollers, and, as it
passes through, is caught by one of these gills that is raised up for
the purpose, being succeeded by others as the rollers revolve. These
gills are moved forward on screws in the direction of the other set of
rollers, and the pins in the gills always keep the fiber perfectly
straight. The second set of rollers is termed the draught rollers,
since by them the wool, after passing through the front rollers, is
drawn out and reduced in thickness. This is accomplished because the
second rollers revolve at a higher rate of speed than the first
rollers, the speed being regulated according to the length of the
wool, and the thickness of the yarn to be produced. These gills are
used in the production of worsted yarn until the size of the rope of
wool has been so reduced and twisted that there is no chance of any
fiber getting crossed or out of the order of straightness. A worsted
yarn is, consequently, a straight yarn, or a yarn produced from
perfectly straight fibers.

[Illustration: GILLING

  1. Cans containing Comb Ends or Sliver.
  2. Balling Head.
  3. Stock from Balling Head No. 2.
  4. Screws for applying pressure to Back Rollers.
  5. Screws for applying pressure to Front Rollers.
  6. Faller Screws situated between No. 4 and No. 5.
  7. Guard for covering gears which drive Back Rollers.
  8. Guard covering gears which drive Balling Head.
  9. Balling Head.]

The combing of wool may be dispensed with in some cases, although
such a yarn is not in common use. When combing is dispensed with, the
gills, in connection with the draught of the rollers, make the fibers
straight, and produce a worsted yarn, although such a yarn has a
tendency to be uneven and knotty.

Before the wool can be spun it must be made into roving of a suitable
thickness. This is done by passing it, after being combed, through a
series of operations termed drawing, whose functions are to produce a
gradual reduction in thickness at each stage. Although the number of
machines varies according to the kind of wool to be treated, still the
same principle applies to all.

=Spinning.= The process of spinning is the last in the formation of
yarn or thread, the subsequent operations having for their object the
strengthening of the yarn by combining two or more strands and
afterward arranging them for weaving or for the purpose for which the
yarn is required. It is also the last time that the fibers are
mechanically drawn over each other or drafted, and this is invariably
done from a single roving. The humidity and temperature of the
spinning room must be adjusted to conditions. Each spinner is provided
with a wet and dry thermometer so that the best temperature can be
ascertained. The most suitable heat and humidity can only be obtained
by comparison and observation. A dry and warm atmosphere causes the
wool to become charged with electricity and then the fibers repel each
other.

[Illustration: WORSTED SPINNING. "BRADFORD SYSTEM"

  1. Bobbins containing Worsted Yarn.
  2. Conical shape caps placed on top of spindles.
  3. Tin Wings fastened to Eyeboard.
  4. Eyeboard containing pot eyes, through which yarn passes to the bobbin.
  5. Scratch fluted front rollers.
  6. Leather covered Pressing Rollers for No. 5 Rollers.
  7. Smooth metal Pressing Rollers for Back Rollers.
  8. Large Front Roller Gear.
  9. Pulley for driving Twist gear.
 10. Spools of Roving held by a series of pegs.
 11. Spindle bands.
 12. Sifter plate or rail.]

Worsted yarn is spun by two different methods known respectively as
the Bradford or English system and the French system. The difference
in these systems of spinning worsteds lies principally in the drawing
and spinning processes, a radically different class of machinery being
used for each. The combing process is practically the same in both
cases, but the wool is combed dry for the French system, and by the
English method the stock is thoroughly oiled before being combed. The
result of the English method is the production of a smooth level yarn
in which the fibers lie nearly parallel to each other. The yarn made
according to the French system is somewhat fuzzier and more woolly. On
account of the absence of oil, the shrinkage of French spun worsted is
considerably less than that made by the Bradford system.

=Characteristics of Worsted Yarn.= The unique structure of worsted
yarn makes it invaluable in the production of textile fabrics in which
luster and uniformity of surface are the chief characteristics. The
methods by which worsted is formed render it capable of sustaining
more tension in proportion to its size than the pure woolen yarn. This
feature, combined with its lustrous quality, gives it a pre-eminent
position in the manufacture of fine coatings, dress goods, etc. The
method of arranging the fibers in the formation of a woolen yarn is
such as to produce a strand with a somewhat indefinite and fibrous
surface, which destroys to a large degree the clearness of the pattern
effect in the woven piece. In the construction of worsted yarn the
fibers are arranged in a parallel relationship to each other,
resulting in the production of a smooth, hard yarn having a
well-defined surface; hence weave-ornamentation of a decided or marked
type is possible by its use. There is, in a word, more scope for
pattern effects, since the level and regular structure of the yarn
imparts a distinction to every part of a woven design. From this
peculiarity arises the great variety of effects seen in the worsted
dress fabrics, coatings, trouserings, etc., both in colored patterns
and in fabrics of one shade throughout.

[Illustration: SPOOL ROOM

  1. Jack Spooler frame.
  2. Drum upon which Jack Spool rests.
  3. Jack Spool.
  4. Guides for spool ends.
  5. Spools containing yarn.
  6. Pressers which rest on spools to prevent slack ends.
  7. Spool creel.]

[Illustration: FRENCH SPINNING

  1. Balling heads.
  2. Bobbins upon which stock is wound.
  3. Rub or condenser aprons.
  4. Gearing for driving rub motion.
  5. Shipper rod and handles.
  6. Bobbins held in place in creel by skewers.
  7. Weights with system of levers for applying pressure to rollers.]

Worsted yarn can be made of pure wool; and as a rule, the wool used in
the English system is of fairly good length and uniform staple, for if
otherwise it is only with difficulty that the yarn can be spun
straight. Shorter wool can be combed and spun under the French
system, and this is the reason why the French system of spinning is
being introduced. On the other hand, in the spinning of woolen yarns
great length of staple is not essential, for the machinery employed
will work the small fibers.

=Uses of Worsted Yarn.= Worsted yarn may be used in any of the
following fabrics:

1. Combed wool yarn for ornamental needlework and knitting, as Berlin,
Zephyr, and Saxony wools.

2. Cloth made from combed wool not classified according to material.

    _a._ Fabrics of all wool--serge, bunting, rep, dress
    goods, with weave effects.

    _b._ Wool and Cotton--union goods, serge linings,
    lathing.

    _c._ Wool and Silk--rich poplin, pongee, henrietta,
    bombazine.

    _d._ Alpaca and Mohair--alpaca, mohair dress goods,
    lusters, braids, laces.

=Counts.= Yarn is measured by a system of "counts"--the number of
yards of yarn to the pound. The counts of worsted yarn are based on
the number of hanks in one pound, each hank containing 560 yards. Thus
No. 30 worsted yarn consists of 30 hanks of 560 yards each, or 16,800
yards to the pound.


FOOTNOTES:

[12] The distinct difference between worsted and woolen yarns is that
worsted yarn is made of fibers that are parallel, while the fibers of
woolen yarn run in all directions. The worsted yarn is stronger.

[13] Mills that manufacture worsted yarn.



CHAPTER V

WOOLEN YARN


In manufacturing worsted yarn every necessary operation is performed
to arrange the wool fibers so that they will lie smoothly and parallel
to each other. In the case of woolen yarn every operation is performed
so as to have the fibers lie in every direction and to cross and
overlap each other.

To produce yarn of the woolen type a set of machinery entirely
different from that used in worsted manufacture is necessary. The wool
is carded, but no attempt is made to get the fibers parallel. The
reduction in thickness of the sliver is not brought about upon the
so-called drawing frame, but by a mule frame where the drawing and
twisting are done at the same operation. As neither combs nor gills
are employed, there is not the same smooth, level yarn, but one which
possesses a fringe-like covering or fuzzy appearance that makes the
woolen yarn so valuable.

The operation is as follows:

=Carding.= After washing the material for woolen yarn, it is passed
through three carding processes, and from the last of them is taken
direct to the spinning frame to be made into yarn. The object of
woolen carding is different from carding in any other textile
manufacture.

In most processes of carding the fibers are subjected to a "combing"
principle, and the aim is to lay the fibers parallel. Woolen carding
aims to open the raw wool fiber, and put it in a perfectly loose
condition, without leaning toward any definite arrangement.

The carding machines are called, respectively, first, second, and
third breaker. Each machine consists of a complicated series of
card-covered cylinders of different sizes, running at different rates
of speed--sometimes in the same and sometimes in an opposite
direction. These rollers take the wool from one another in regular
order until it is finally delivered from the third breaker in a soft,
fluffy rope or roll called a sliver. This sliver is wound on a bobbin,
and taken from the card to the mule spinning frame.

The sliver on the bobbins from the card is taken to the mule spinning
frame where it is passed through rolls, and the sliver attenuated by
means of a traveling carriage.

=Count.= In the case of woolen yarn there are numerous systems for
denoting the count, varying with the locality in which it is spun and
the character of the product. In the United States there are two
systems employed, but the one in most general use is known as
"American run counts." This is based on the number of "runs," each
containing 1,600 yards to the pound. Thus, a yarn running 8,000 yards
to the pound is called a 5 "run" yarn, a yarn with 5,200 yards to the
pound is equal to a 3-1/4 "run."

In the vicinity of Philadelphia woolen yarn is based on the "cut,"
each cut consisting of 300 yards, and the count is the number of cuts
in a pound. Thus, No. 30 cut yarn consists of 9,000 yards to the
pound. No. 15 contains 4,500 yards to the pound.

Woolen yarn is suitable for cloths in which the colorings are blended
and the fibers napped, as exemplified in tweed, cheviot, doeskin,
broadcloth, beaver, frieze, chinchilla, blanket, and flannel.



CHAPTER VI

WEAVING


=Preparatory to Weaving.= Yarn is wound on bobbins on the ring or mule
spinning frame. These bobbins are transferred to a machine called a
spooler where the yarn is re-wound on a spool preparatory to making
the warp.

A warp is formed by obtaining a definite number of threads (called
ends), usually in a precisely designed order of given length, and
allowing the ends to wind over a cylinder called a beam. In order to
do this it is necessary to have spools placed in a definite position
in a frame called a creel.

Before the warp can be placed in the loom so as to weave or interlace
it with filling it must be sized. This is necessary for all single
twist warp yarns. Its primary object is to increase the strength and
smoothness of the thread, thus enabling it to withstand the strain and
friction due to the weaving operation. Other objects of sizing are the
increase of weight and bulk of the thread and the improvement and feel
of the cloth. The warp is usually sized by passing it over a roller
and through a bath of a starch mixture. The machine for sizing is
called a slasher. The warp is now ready to have the ends drawn in and
placed in the loom.

=Weaving.= Every woven piece of cloth is made up of two distinct
systems of threads, known as the warp and filling (weft), which are
interlaced with each other to form a fabric. The warp threads run
lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the filling runs across from
side to side. The manner in which the warp and filling threads
interlace with each other is known as the weave. When the word "end"
is used in connection with weaving it always signifies the warp
thread, while each filling thread is called a pick. The fineness of
the cloth is always expressed as so many picks and ends to the inch.
The fabrics produced by weaving are named by the manufacturers or
merchants who introduce them. Old fabrics are constantly appearing
under new names, usually with some slight modification to suit the
public taste.

=Weaving Processes.= In order to understand the different kinds of
weaves it is necessary to know, or at least to understand, the process
of forming cloth, called weaving. This is done in a machine called a
loom. The principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam, the
cloth-roll, the heddles, and their mounting, the reed. The warp-beam
is a wooden cylinder back of the loom on which the warp is wound. The
threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the
front of the loom, and are attached to the cloth-roll. Each thread or
group of threads of the warp passes through an opening (eye) of a
heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more
groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the
motion of the heddles. In the case of small patterns the movement of
the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means
of a frame called a harness; in larger patterns the heddles are
controlled by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine. Every time
the harness (the heddles) moves up or down, an opening (shed) is made
between the threads of warp, through which the shuttle is thrown.

[Illustration: A SIMPLE HAND-LOOM

Showing frame, warp beam, cloth-roll, heddles, and reed]

The filling thread is wound on a bobbin which is fastened in the
shuttle and which permits the yarn to unwind as it passes to and fro.
As fast as each filling thread is interlaced with warp it is pressed
close to the previous one by means of a reed which advances toward and
recedes from the cloth after each passage of the shuttle. This is done
to make the cloth firm. There are various movements on the loom for
controlling the tension of the warp, for drawing forward or taking up
the cloth as it is produced, and for stopping the loom in the case of
breakage of the warp thread or the running out of the filling thread.

Weaving may be performed by hand in hand-looms or by steam-power in
power-looms, but the arrangements for both are to a certain extent the
same. A great number of different kinds of power-looms are
manufactured for producing the various classes of textiles in use at
the present time. These looms are distinguished by the name of the
material which they are designed to weave, as the ribbon-loom,
blanket-loom, burlaps- and sacking-loom, plush-loom, double-cloth
loom, rug-loom, fancy cotton-loom, silk-loom, worsted-loom, etc.

Weaving is distinct from knitting, netting, looping, and braiding,
which are operations depending on the interlacing of a single thread,
or single set of threads, while weaving is done with two distinct and
separate sets of threads.

[Illustration: MAIN WEAVE ROOM

  1. Warp beam containing warp.
  2. Lease Rods.
  3. Harnesses.
  4. Dobby Head motion to lift harnesses.
  5. Jacquard Head motion.
  6. Cards containing design--working in connection with Jacquard Head
     motion.
  7. Whip Roll.]

=Classes of Weave.= The character of the weave offers the best basis
for classification of woven goods. Nearly all the varieties of cloth
may be classified from the following weaves:

  (1) Plain-weaving,
  (2) Twill-weaving,
  (3) Satin-weaving,
  (4) Figure-weaving,
  (5) Double-cloth-weaving,
  (6) Pile-weaving,
  (7) Gauze-weaving,
  (8) Lappet-weaving.

=Plain or Homespun Weave.= Plain cloth is the simplest cloth that can
be woven. In this weave one series of threads (filling) crosses
another series (warp) at right angles, passing over one and under one
in regular order, thus forming a simple interlacement of the threads.
This combination makes a strong and firm cloth, but does not give a
close or a heavy fabric, as the threads do not lie as close and
compact as they do in other weaves. In plain cloth, if not fulled or
shrunk in the finish, the result is a fabric perforated with large or
small openings according to the size or twist of yarn used. If heavy
or coarse threads are used the perforations will be large; if finer
threads, the perforations will be smaller.

This weave is used in the production of sheeting, muslin, lawn,
gingham, broadcloth, taffeta, etc. In plain weaving it is possible to
produce stripes by the use of bands of colored warp, and checks where
both warp and weft are parti-colored. This weave is commonly used when
the cloth is intended to be ornamented with printed patterns. In
weaving cloth of only one color but one shuttle is used, while for the
production of checks, plaids, etc., two or more shuttles are required.

[Illustration: GIRL DRAWING EACH THREAD OF WARP THROUGH THE REED AND
HARNESS READY TO BE PLACED ON LOOM

  A, warp beam. B, warp. C, harness frame]

=Twill Weave.= A twill weave has diagonal lines across the cloth. In
this class of weaves the filling yarn or threads pass over 1 and under
2, or over 1 and under 3, 4, 5, or 6, or over 2 or 3 and under 1, 2,
3, or 4, or over 4 and under 4, 3, 6, etc. Each filling thread does
not pass under and over the same set of warp threads, as this would
not give the desired interlacings. Instead the order of interlacing
moves one thread to the right or left with each filling thread that is
woven. If there are the same number of threads to an inch in warp and
filling, twill lines will form an angle of 45 degrees; if the warps
are closer together than the filling, the angle will be steeper; if
the filling threads are closer together the lines will approach more
nearly the horizontal. Different effects are obtained in patterns by
variation in the sizes of the yarn and twist, by the use of heavy
threads to form cords, ribs, etc., and by the mixture of vari-colored
materials in the yarn. Often one form of twill-weave is combined with
another to produce a fancy twill-weave. The object of the
twill-weaving is to increase the bulk and strength of a fabric, or to
ornament it. The disposition of the threads permits the introduction
of more material into the cloth, and hence renders it heavier, and of
closer construction than in the case of plain-weaving.

=Satin Weaves.= The object of a satin weave is to distribute the
interlacings of the warp and filling in such a manner that no trace of
the diagonal (twill) line will be seen on the face of the cloth. In
weaving a satin design the filling thread is made to pass under 1 and
over 4, 7, 9, 11, or more if a larger plush satin is required. The
raising of the warp end to allow the filling to pass under is done in
such a way as to prevent twill lines from showing in the cloth. The
result is that practically all of the filling is on the face of the
cloth. This is called a filling-face satin weave. A warp-face satin
weave may be produced by reversing the order; in this case practically
all of the warp is brought to the face of the cloth. In this way a
worsted warp and a cotton filling might be woven so that practically
all of the warp would show on the cloth, and give it the appearance of
a worsted fabric. A number of classes of silk goods are made in this
way, with a silk filling covering a cotton warp.

This weave produces an even, close, smooth surface, capable of
reflecting the light to the best advantage, and having a lustrous
appearance which makes it resemble satin cloth. Satin cloth is made of
silk using a satin weave.

Satin weaves are used very largely in producing different styles of
cotton and silk fabrics, and are also frequently found in woolen
goods. They are more extensively used in the manufacture of damask and
table-covers than for any other class of goods. Satin stripes are
frequent in madras, shirtings, and fancy dress goods in connection
with plain and figured weaves.

=Figure Weaving.= To produce complicated and irregular patterns in the
loom a large number of different openings (sheds) must be made in the
warp, and to secure such a large number an attachment is placed on top
of the loom called a Jacquard apparatus. The Jacquard is merely an
apparatus for automatically selecting warp threads, by which each
separate one can be made to move independently of any of the others.
It is provided with weighted strings attached to each of the warp
threads. The weighted strings are controlled by wire needles which are
in turn controlled by perforated cards. Each motion of the loom
changes their position and allows some needles to go through the holes
in the cards, thus drawing up the warp, while others strike the card
and leave the warp down. In this way the perforations of the cards
determine the figure of the patterns. The Jacquard is chiefly used to
produce patterns of great width in which all or most of the threads
in the pattern move independently. For the weaving of elaborate
effects and flowing lines it is practically indispensable. All
elaborate designs are classed under the name of Jacquards.

=Double Cloth.= Double cloth is a descriptive term applied in weaving
to fabrics produced by combining two single cloths into one. Each one
of these single cloths is constructed with its own systems of warp and
filling, the combination being effected in the loom by interlacing
some of the warp or filling threads of one cloth into the other cloth
at certain intervals, thus fastening them securely together. The
reasons for making double-cloths are many. Sometimes it is done to
reduce the cost of heavy weight fabrics by using cheaper materials for
the cloth forming the back; again it may be to produce double-face
fabric; it allows great freedom for the formation of colored patterns
which may or may not correspond in pattern on both sides; it is the
basis of tubular weaving such as is practised for making pillow cases,
pockets, seamless grain bags, etc.; more frequently, the object is to
increase the bulk or strength of certain kinds of fabrics, such as
heavy overcoatings, cloakings, pile-fabrics, golf-cloth, rich silk,
etc.

=Pile Weave.= A pile weave is a general term under which are classed
numerous varieties of cloth woven with a pile surface, as plush,
velvet, velveteen, and carpeting of various kinds. Turkish towels are
an excellent illustration of pile weaving. A pile surface is a closely
set, elastic face covering various kinds of woolen, silk, and cotton
fabrics, and consists of threads standing close together, either in
the form of loops or as erect thread-ends sheared off smooth so as to
form a uniform and even surface. In the production of a pile fabric a
third thread is introduced into the weaving and formed into loops
usually by carrying it over the wires laid across the breadth of the
cloth. The wires are afterward drawn out, leaving the loops standing;
the loops may then be cut so as to form a cut pile, as in velvet and
plush, or they may be left in their original form as in Brussels
carpet and Turkish towels.

=Gauze Weaving.= In gauze weaving all the warp threads are not
parallel to each other, but are made to intertwist more or less among
themselves, thereby favoring the production of light, open fabrics, in
which many ornamental lace-like combinations can be obtained. Two sets
of warp threads are used, one being the ground warp and the other the
"douping," the latter performing the entwining process. Gauze is
especially characterized by its openness and yields the lightest and
strongest fabric with the least material. When gauze is combined with
plain weaving it is styled "leno." Gauze fabrics are designed for
women's summer gowns, flounces, window-curtains, etc.

=Lappet Weaving.= Lappet weaving, really a form of embroidery, is used
for producing small designs on cloth by means of needles placed in a
sliding-frame, the figures being stitched into the warp. Elaborate
figures are beyond the range of lappet weaving, but there are many
small effects that can be economically produced in this manner, such
as the detached spots in dotted swiss, and narrow and continuous
figures running more or less into stripes. This form of weaving
imitates embroidery and is used mainly on plain and gauze fabrics.



CHAPTER VII

DYEING AND FINISHING


=Dyeing.= When a fabric or fiber is impregnated with a uniform color
over its whole surface, it is said to be "simply dyed." On the other
hand, if distinct patterns or designs in one or more colors have been
impressed upon a fabric, it is called printing.

Vegetable dyes were formerly used, but since the coal tar dyes have
been discovered the latter are used entirely. Over fourteen thousand
colors have been produced from coal tar. Different fibers and fabrics
attract dyestuffs with varying degrees of force. Wool and silk attract
better than cotton and linen.

=Wool Dyeing.= The methods of dyeing wool differ considerably from
those employed for cotton and other vegetable fibers. They may be
divided into three parts: piece dyed, cross dyed, and yarn dyed.

Piece goods are those woven with yarns in their gray or natural state,
and then cleansed and dyed in the piece to such colors as are
required. They are woven in plain weaves and in a great variety of
twills--in fact, in all styles of weaves--and are also made on the
Jacquard loom. The principal fabrics in this classification are all
wool serges, cheviots, hopsackings, suitings, satines, prunellas,
whipcords, melroses, Venetian broadcloths, zibelines, rainproof
cloths; nun's veiling, canvases, grenadines, albatrosses, crêpes, and
French flannels; silk warp Henriettas, voiles, and sublimes. Whenever
it is possible, it is better to dye textile fabrics in the form of
woven pieces than in the yarn. During the process of weaving it is
impossible to avoid getting yarn dirty and somewhat greasy, and the
scouring necessary to remove this dirt impairs the color used in
weaving. Piece dyeing is the cheapest method of applying color to
textiles. The chief fault of piece dyeing is the danger of cloud
spots, stains, etc., which do not appear in the other two methods.
Then again in the case of thick, closely woven goods the dyestuff does
not penetrate into the fabric, and the interior remains nearly white.

The cloth is dyed by means of passing over a roller into a dye vat.
Small pieces or "swatches" are taken from the ends of the fabric, and
compared with the pattern. For it must be remembered that no two lots
of crude dyes are of equal strength, and the wools and cottons of
different growths and seasons vary greatly, so that the use of a fixed
quantity of dye to a given amount of goods will not always give the
exact shade. In comparing a sample with the pattern the two are placed
side by side below the eyes (reflected light), and then held up to the
light and the eye directed along the surface. A judgment must be
formed quickly, as a prolonged gaze fatigues the eye and renders it
unable to perceive fine shades of difference.

[Illustration: DYE ROOM

  1. Dye tub or vat containing dyestuffs.
  2. Rolls or cylinders upon which cloth is wound.
  3. Cloth leaving dye tub--being wound upon No. 2 cylinder.]

=Cross Dyed.= Cross-dyed goods may be described as fabrics woven with
black or colored cotton warps and wool or worsted filling and
afterwards dyed in the piece. Since cotton has not the same attraction
for dyestuffs as wool it is a difficult task to dye a fabric woven
with cotton and wool so that both fibers will be identical in depth of
color, tone, and brightness. In some cases it is possible to dye a
mixed fabric at a single operation, but the usual process is to dye
the wool in yarn state and then dye the warp a color as near the color
of the wool as possible. In the weaving operation the wool is thrown
to the surface. In another method the warp is dyed and woven with a
white wool or worsted filling, and dyed in the piece with a dyestuff
that will not affect the cotton. In this way the cotton does not take
the wool dye, but retains its original color. This class of work is
generally used in mohair, alpaca, and luster fabrics, because the
natural brilliancy of the luster wool, alpaca, or mohair in the
filling is not impaired as would be the case if the cotton in the
goods were subjected to a cotton-dye bath after being woven. The
principal cloths in this classification are cotton, warp figured
melroses, Florentines, glacés, brilliantines, lusters, alpacas, and
mohairs; rainproof cloths, and fancy waistings, and in these may be
found the same great variety of weaves and patterns that is to be
found in the piece-dyed goods already described.

=Yarn Dyed.= Yarn-dyed goods differ from those previously described in
that they are made of yarns that are dyed before being woven, or yarns
spun from dyed wool. Wool may be dyed in the raw state (fleece),
slubbing, or yarn. Fleece dyeing is preferable for goods intended to
stand friction, and that in spite of wear and tear must preserve their
color. It is preferred for dark colored goods where much friction is
to be encountered, but is seldom used for light colors, since these
would be soiled during subsequent processes of manufacture. In this
case every fiber is colored uniformly all over. The yarn from this
wool and the cloth woven from it are dyed through and through and do
not become grayish or whitish by wear and tear.

Slubbing dyeing is preferred to yarn dyeing, for the dyestuff
penetrates the loosely twisted roving, and if unevenly dyed, the
subsequent operations equalize most thoroughly the irregularities in
color.

Yarn dyeing is especially applicable to checks, plaids, and suitings,
and in their manufacture the drop box loom (a loom with two or more
shuttles) is used. Goods manufactured under this classification
include cotton warp checks and mixtures; all wool homespuns, mixture
coatings and suitings, storm skirtings, rainproof cloths. These goods
are made in a great variety of weaves, the effect in each being
secured by the color and the weave.

Piece-dyed fabrics may be distinguished from yarn-dyed fabrics by
unraveling threads of each kind. In the case of yarn-dyed fabrics the
dyestuff has penetrated through the yarn, while in the case of
piece-dyed fabrics the dyestuff has no chance to penetrate as
completely as the yarn-dyed fabric.

=Textile Printing.= Printed fabrics such as print cloths can generally
be distinguished by observing the back side of the cloth. If the
figure or pattern on the face of the cloth does not penetrate through
to the back but only shows the outline, the fabric has been printed.
Fabrics are printed by coming into contact with rotating rollers on
which the pattern is engraved.

The attraction of cotton for coloring is generally feebler than that
of wool or silk. Few of the natural dyestuffs attach themselves
permanently without use of a mordant. A mordant is a substance which
has an affinity for, or which can penetrate, the fiber to be colored,
and which possesses the power of combining with the dyestuff and thus
forming an insoluble compound upon the fiber. Cotton is dyed in an
unspun state, and also as yarn or spun thread, either in the hank or
skein. Silk is dyed in unspun skeins, although to a considerable
extent it is also dyed in the piece.

=Styles.= Since styles and designs are constantly changing it is
necessary for the mills to meet this demand by producing new styles.
Some of the patterns which are at this time considered to be in the
best style would have appeared much out of date two or three years
ago, while perhaps a few years hence, the patterns which are now
almost obsolete will, with some changes, become the most popular
sellers of the season. As the mill officials or designers are not out
among the trade, they are not in a position to judge what lines or
patterns would most likely appeal to the market. This information is
obtained by the "styler" of the selling house. The styler receives all
the latest foreign samples and fashion papers from abroad, and often
goes or sends his representative to Europe to ascertain what goods,
designs, and colors are taking well over there. The selling agent or
styler then supplies the designing department of the mill with all the
samples, information, and suggestions necessary in getting out the
samples.

=Construction of Cloth.= In reproducing a sample of cloth in the mill
it is necessary that the construction of the cloth be first known,
that is, there must be ascertained the width, warp ends, and picks per
inch, the number or size of the yarn used for the warp, the number
that is used for the filling, and the number of ounces per yard or
yards per pound. Then the interlacings of the threads in the sample
must be picked out in order to get the design or weave on the design
paper, from which the data are obtained for regulating the movement of
the harness or heddles. Design paper is paper ruled by lines into a
number of squares. An imitation of the cloth can be produced on this
paper by showing the interlacings of the warp and filling. This is
done by filling in certain squares with paint, or pencil marks, while
the others are left empty. In practical work it is the general custom
to make a cross with a pencil to indicate the squares that are to be
filled in, thus showing that the warp thread is over the filling
thread at this point. When a square is left blank it shows that the
warp thread is under the filling at this point. When a warp thread is
up on a certain pick, the harness which controls this thread must be
raised on this pick.

=Finishing.= The fabric as it comes from the loom is in an imperfect
condition for use. When worsted fabrics leave the loom they require
but few and simple finishing operations, and in this respect differ
much from woolen cloths, which require elaborate finishing operations.
The finishing processes of woolen and worsted cloths are similar. The
following description of processes and machines gives a clear idea of
the necessary finishing processes for a standard woolen or worsted
cloth; for particular styles of finish the processes must be varied in
accordance with the particular requirements of the style of fabric in
hand.

=Perching.= The fabric as it comes from the loom receives a perching
and measuring inspection at the weave room before leaving for the
finishing room. This examination is to detect quickly such
imperfections as require prompt attention at the loom.

=Burling.= Every knot that has been tied in the threads during
winding, dressing, beaming, and weaving, must be looked for and felt
for during burling, carefully drawn to the surface of the cloth, and
then clipped off with the scissors, leaving the ends long enough so
that no space without a thread will occur. Threads which are found
loose on the face or back of cloth, caused by the weaver having tied
in a broken end, should be cut off and not pulled off. All places
where threads are not woven in are marked so that the sewing-in girl
(mender) can adjust such places. The cloth is subjected to perching
again. It is examined for imperfections, and when these are found,
they are marked with chalk to call the attention of the menders to
such places.

=Mending.= The object of darning or mending is to make all repairs in
the structure of the cloth before the process of fulling. The mender
must have a good eye for colors necessary to produce various effects
and for the interlacing of the threads. More exact work is required
for threadbare fabrics that require little if any finishing afterward,
than in dealing with a face finish fabric, where the nap is to be
raised and will cover many imperfections so that they will never be
noticed in the finished cloth.

=Fulling.= The object of fulling is to render woolen and worsted
goods stronger and firmer in body. Fulling is similar to felting, the
principal object of each being to condense the fibers, thereby
increasing the firmness. Certain varieties of woolens are fulled
nearly one-half their original width and length. The process of
fulling includes three steps: cleansing, scouring, and condensing the
fibers of the cloth. The object of scouring is to get rid of oil used
preparatory to spinning, and to remove from the cloth stains and the
sizing used in dressing the warp. The cloth is first saturated with
hot water and soap, and is then scoured and rubbed between the
slow-revolving rollers of the machine from two to eighteen hours,
according to the character of goods and the amount of shrinkage
desired. The more prolonged the operation, the more the material
shrinks. When sufficiently fulled, the length of cloth is scoured to
free it from soap. This is done with water, warmed at first, but
gradually cooled, until at the end the cloth is worked in cold water.
Next the cloth is stretched uniformly in all directions, so that it
may dry evenly without wrinkles or curls. Sometimes the cloth is
placed in a hot-air chamber to hasten the drying. The fulling or
shrinking is effected by the application of moisture, heat, and
pressure. Every one is familiar with the fact that woolen blankets,
flannels, and hosiery tend to contract with frequent washings, gaining
in thickness and solidity what they lose in elasticity. Such shrinkage
is greatly hastened when they are rubbed vigorously in hot water and
then allowed to cool suddenly. This change is due to the physical
properties of the wool fiber.

Such goods as beavers, kerseys, meltons, and fancy cassimeres are
seldom fulled more than one-sixth of their woven width, while worsted
goods are shrunk but a small fraction of their woven width. The amount
of fulling received is the distinguishing feature of many varieties of
cloth. In the treatment of broadcloth, doeskin, and all nap finished
woolens, the fulling is carried to a point where the fibers become
densely matted, obliterating all traces of the weave and giving the
cloth the appearance of felt.

=Crabbing.= After the cloth has been dried in the hydro extractor,
where it throws off superfluous moisture, it must be stretched full
width for the future finishing processes, and "set" at this width.

Crabbing consists of two operations, first the loosening process, then
the setting process. Goods are run on a cylinder, then passed over
several rolls, and are kept tight so as to avoid wrinkles. The
cylinders are immersed in hot water and the goods are allowed to
rotate in this water for about twenty minutes, after which they are
taken out for one or two hours. They are then returned to the machine
for about twenty-five minutes and are subjected to boiling and also to
additional pressure. The boiling water sets the fabric and the
additional pressure gives the desired finish.

=Tentering.= The object of tentering[14] is to straighten and level
the fabric. After the cloth leaves the tentering machine it has lost
its natural moisture, and is not at all fitted, as far as fiber
condition is concerned, for the napping. To bring it into a fit state
for this operation it is passed through a trough containing a brush
which gives it the desired moisture. It is then ready for napping.

=Napping.= Most cloths at this stage of finishing are more or less
unsightly on account of long and irregular fibers on the surface. A
nap may be raised on the surface of a fabric for various reasons: in
order to render the material warmer, softer, or more pleasant to the
touch, as in the case of blankets and flannels intended to be worn
next to the body; or for the purposes of increasing the durability of
the fabric, as in the case of melton, kersey, broadcloth, and similar
goods; or a nap may be raised with a view to removing all the fiber
from the underlying structure in order to leave the pattern of the
cloth well defined and free from hairiness. The covering of nap over
the surface of the fabric tends to conceal many defects caused by
imperfect yarns and faulty weaving. Coarse, inferior yarns at best
produce an unsightly fabric, but when the cloth constructed of such
threads is finished with a fine, delicate nap the surface takes on a
softer and richer appearance. Not only are the defects in the
structure concealed, but the material is rendered more sightly and
desirable and appears to be more expensive than it really is.

The operation of napping is performed by passing the cloth in a
tightly stretched condition over a revolving cylinder covered with
teasels or steel hooks. These thousands of little hooks scratch the
entire surface of the cloth, opening up the short fibers and covering
the whole with a nap. Since the fibers are of different lengths it is
necessary to brush the fabric vigorously and then pass it through the
shearing machine in order to make an even and uniform length. The
shearing machine acts on the principle of the lawn mower and either
cuts the nap completely or leaves a pile surface. The cloth is cleaned
by passing through a brushing machine.

=Pressing Machine.= The fabric now requires consolidating and lustering,
or "smarting up" in appearance--practically pressing--before it is
forwarded to the warehouse. This is done by passing the cloth over a
pressing roll heated to a high temperature. Having obtained a
satisfactory luster, it is necessary to fix this by winding the cloth on
rollers and allowing dry steam to pass through the piece. This fixes a
permanent luster and finish on the piece and sets it so as to prevent
shrinkage. The cloth is now packed and sent to the jobbers or tailors to
be cut up into suits.

=Theories of Coloring in Textile Design.= The three primary elements
of textile design are weave, combination of form, and blend of colors.
They enter either separately or in connection with each other into
every species of loom effect. Weave relates specifically to the build
or structure of the cloth and is an indispensable factor in any type
of cloth. Schemes of weaves will produce in one operation an even and
firm cloth, decorated with a type of pattern that usually consists of
minute parts but which is pronounced and decided in combination.
Combination of forms is a surface decoration obtained by uniting
straight and curved lines. Color brightens and improves the qualities
of the design. In fact, the discarding of color shades would diminish
the elegance of the design and impoverish its appearance and would
practically destroy the woolen industry. Whether the pattern be
stripe, check, figure, or intermingled effect, it obtains its outline
and detail from methods of coloring adopted. In worsted there is a
larger diversity of weave design than in woolen; but still colors are
very extensively employed to develop effects due to weave and form,
and also to impart a cheerful and lustrous appearance to cloth.

Patterns in dress fabrics, shirtings, and other articles made entirely
of cotton are frequently mere combinations of fancy shades, while
fabrics composed of silk and jute materials, including silk ties,
handkerchiefs, etc.--in fact the cloths in which fancy shades are
used--show that coloring and its combinations in all woven product
embellished with design, are elements which give tone and character to
the styles. Though the cloth may be soft to the touch, substantially
made, of uniform structure, and skilfully finished, yet a lack of
brightness and elegance in coloring so powerfully detracts from the
appearance of the pattern that these qualities alone are not
sufficient.

On subjecting cotton, silk, wool, and worsted goods to inspection,
color is found to have a different tone or cast in each fabric. Fancy
colors in cotton, while decidedly firm and clear in effect, are
non-lustrous, raw, and dull in toning. Silk colorings, on the
contrary, possess both compactness and brilliancy; woolen colorings
have a unique depth and saturation of hue characteristic of the
material employed in the manufacture of woolen goods; while worsted
colorings are bright, definite, and smart in appearance.

These differences are due to the physical properties of the several
fibers. Thus a filament of silk is transparent and shines like smooth
glass when light falls upon it; that of wool is solid and opaque in
the center, but its exterior consists of a multitude of
semi-transparent scales which, when of large dimensions and uniformly
arranged--as in the best qualities of wool--reflect light with a small
amount of dispersion and impart to the woven material a lustrous
aspect. Cotton has no such partially transparent sheath. What light is
reflected is so broken up that the color is poor. Compare three plain
woven crimson textures made of silk, wool, and cotton respectively.
The first literally shines; luster, brilliance, and richness are the
elements of its coloring. Though bright, it lacks that fulness and
depth of color which belongs to the wool product, whose millions of
filaments, closely compounded, all tinted alike, possess a peculiar
bloom and weight of color not to be found either in the silk or cotton
article. Lastly, take the crimson calico. How deficient in warmth and
richness it seems to be, after examining the woolen and silk texture!
It is dull and has a raw and deficient character.

The various methods of employing fancy shades in patterns obtained in
the loom may be briefly summarized:

I. In mixture cloths, for suitings, coatings, etc.

    _a._ By combining or blending various colors of
    materials.

    _b._ By combining several classes of twist threads.

II. In plain, twilled, mat, and fancy weave designs for trouserings,
coatings, suitings, jackets, dresses, costumes, flannels, shirtings,
etc.

    _a._ By introducing colors into the warp, forming
    stripes.

    _b._ By introducing colors into the filling, producing
    spotted patterns.

    _c._ By introducing colors into both warp and filling,
    giving checks, broken styles, etc.

III. In figured designs for dresses, vestings, etc.

    _a._ By using one or several series of extra warp yarn.

    _b._ By using one or several series of extra filling.

Dress goods fall naturally into two distinct classes when regarded
from the standpoint of fashion--staples and fancies. Staples are those
fabrics which are made of the same construction year in and year out.
They vary only in coloring to meet the changes of fashion.

The Staples are:

  Brilliantines,
  Sicilians,
  Mohairs,
  Imperial Serges,
  Storm Serge,
  Cheviots,
  Panamas,
  Batistes,
  Taffetas,
  Voile,
  Nun's Veiling,
  Cashmere,
  Shepherd Checks.

The Fancies are:

  Produced through
  Variation of weave,
  Variation of color,
  Variation of color and weave:
    Brocades,
    Cuspettes,
    Meliores,
    Hopsacking, etc.
  Coloring includes:
    Stripes,
    Checks,
    Plaids,
    Malenges,
    Mixtures.

Prior to the factory era our fathers and mothers made homespun clothes
and wore them till they had passed their period of usefulness. The
average consumption of wool at that time averaged not more than three
pounds per capita. As wealth increased the home loom and
spinning-wheel were slowly supplanted by the mill and factory. The
different textile manufacturers at length found that competition was
so keen that it was necessary to adulterate, particularly any fabric
that was popular. The classes of goods that are most adulterated are
the expensive fabrics, those of wool and silk. There are such changes
of fashion in dress at the present day that garments composed of
materials formerly considered good enough are often thrown aside as
old-fashioned when only half worn. Manufacturers cater to the whims
and fancies of people and import to this country foreign styles. The
rapidly changing styles cause people to throw upon the market a great
amount of cast-off clothing only partially worn.

[Illustration: SALES DEPARTMENT OF THE SELLING AGENT OF A LARGE MILL]

The result is that there is not wool enough to provide the public
with clothing made of new wool. The requirement per capita has risen
to six pounds. The immense amount of fiber in cast-off clothing does
not find its way into the paper mills, but rather into the shoddy
mill, where it is remanufactured into cloth again, or where part of
the fiber is mixed with good wool to make "pure wool" cloth. In other
words, the rapidly changing styles of to-day and the limited supply of
wool are responsible for the wholesale adulteration which is being
practised in modern cloth manufacture. This adulteration furthermore
is becoming more and more difficult to detect by reason of the rapid
improvements made in the finishing processes of cloth manufacture.
Hence the necessity for people to know how and why adulteration
occurs, how it affects prices, and what are the means of detecting it.
Shoddy is considered a legitimate adulteration in woolen and worsted
goods. The following adulterations are not legitimate unless sold as
such:

1. Cotton combed with wool.

2. Thin cotton threads twisted in with worsted during the process of
drawing.

3. Cotton threads of the same color as the wool or worsted used as
filling or warp.

4. Cotton veneered with wool.

5. Cotton threads of the same color as wool used in weaving.


FOOTNOTE:

[14] Tentering is carried on in the English mills.



CHAPTER VIII

WOOLEN AND WORSTED FABRICS[15]


=Albatross.= A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted filling; of
open texture and fancy weaves.

=Alpaca.= A thin fabric of close texture made from the fibers of an
animal of the llama species; mixed with silk or with cotton. It is
usually woven with cotton warp and mohair filling. Imitations of all
cotton are manufactured and sold under this name.

=Corded Alpaca.= Corded weave, lengthwise of the piece, cotton warp
alpaca filling; one of the first products of the American loom.

=Angora.= The fiber of this goat is commercially known as mohair. The
skins are largely used in the making of children's muffs, for the
scalps of dolls, and for trimming coats and capes. Carriage robes also
claim a good share of the skins; the hair, being nearly one foot in
length, makes them beautiful and serviceable. The fiber enters largely
into that class of goods known as Astrakhan, Crepons, Plushes,
Brilliantines, Zibelines, fine Cashmeres, and many other fabrics
usually sold as all wool or worsted, according to the mode of
preparing the stock before spinning into yarn. It is found in the
finest of silk and worsted fabrics for ladies' wear, also in linings,
mittens, and fine cloaking and overcoating. It is noted especially for
its water repelling qualities, its beauty, and high luster; and not so
much for its warmth-retaining properties, for which wool stands
unequalled.

=Astrakhan.= A fabric manufactured from Astrakhan fiber; of a curly,
wavy surface applied to a curly faced cloth resembling Astrakhan
fleece.

=Bandanna.= From the Indian _bandanna_, to bind or tie. In dyeing, the
cloth is tied in knots when dipped, and thus has a clouded effect.

=Beaver.= A heavy cloth manufactured of fine wool, with a finish on
the surface to resemble the fur of the animal by that name.

=Fur Beaver.= Similar in many respects to Beaver, but having on its
surface a long, dense nap, in imitation of the fur of the Beaver. Used
for overcoats, cloaks, and capes.

=Bedford Cord.= A fine woolen fabric, with fine recesses running with
the piece, and extensively used for ladies' dress goods. An all wool
cloth of close texture for gentlemen's clothing. The recesses may also
be made with fine cotton yarn hidden in the wool filling.

=Beige.= Cloth of undyed or natural wool. The name is the French word
for "natural."

=Bindings.= A species of narrow fabric of silk, worsted or cotton, for
binding the edges of garments, the bottom of dress skirts, etc.

=Bombazine.= A twilled fabric of which the warp is silk and the
filling is worsted.

=Bottany.= A term applied to worsted yarns made from bottany wool. It
is considered the finest of all worsted yarns, and is used for fine
fabrics of close texture.

=Boucle.= Curled hair or wool woven in any cloth in such a way as to
show the curl makes boucle. The word is French for curl.

=Broadcloth.= Broadcloth is a soft, closely woven material with a
satin finish. The best qualities are called satin broadcloth.

The origin of broadcloth dates back to early times, the first
historical mention of it being made in 1641. In America, among the
first products manufactured by the colonial woolen mills were black
and colored broadcloths, and these (with satinets) formed the
distinctive character of American woolen fabrics at that time. They
were honestly made of pure, fine-fibered Saxony wool, and sold as high
as $6.50 per yard.

The warp and filling are made of carded wool so that the web (cloth)
will shrink or full evenly. The stock is generally dyed in the raw
state when used for men's wear. When taken from the loom it does not
have the smooth, lustrous appearance which is its distinctive feature.
It is rough and dull colored, with the threads showing plainly. To
improve its appearance it is first subjected to the action of the
fulling mill, with the result that the fibers of the warp and weft
become entangled to such an extent that the cloth never unravels. Then
the cloth is slightly napped and sheared down close, in order to
produce a smooth, even surface. Next it is successively wetted,
steamed, calendered, and hot pressed for the purpose of bringing out
the luster. It is commonly twill woven, but is sometimes plain,
finished with a slightly napped and lustrous face. It must have a
bright, beaver finish, and be close and felty in the weave.

The broadcloth used for women's clothing is of a lighter weight and is
generally piece dyed. It is used for ladies' suits, coats, and
gentlemen's evening dress suits, frock coats, and tuxedos. It is
expensive; prices range from $1.75 to $3.50 per yard in ladies'
broadcloth, and higher for men. The price depends on the quality of
wool used, and uniformity of the nap and perfection of the finish.

=Bunting.= A plain even thread weave of mohair, wool, or worsted, used
mostly for making flags. The name is from German, _bunt_, meaning
variegated or gay colored.

=Caniche.= A name given to curled wool fabric showing the effect of
the coat of the caniche, a French dog.

=Cashmere.= A cloth made from the hair of the Cashmere goat. The face
of the fabric is twilled, the twills being uneven and irregular
because of the unevenness of the yarn. Cashmere yarn was first hand
spun. The goats are grown for their wool in the vale of Cashmere in
the Himalaya Mountains.

=All Wool Cashmere.= As no material by this name exists there can be
no definition. When the term is used in defining a fabric, it is a
delusion and a snare.

=Cashmere Double.= A cloth having Cashmere twill on one side or face
and poplin cord on the reverse.

=Cassimere.= The name is a variation of Cashmere. Cassimere, when
properly made, is of Cashmere wool. Usually a twill weave.

=Castor.= Same as beaver, of a light weight.

=Challis.= (Also spelled _challie_.) A name given to a superior dress
fabric of silk and wool first manufactured at Norwich, England, in
1832. In texture the original material was soft, thin, fine, and
finished without gloss. When first introduced it ranked among the best
and most elegant silk and wool textures manufactured. It was composed
of fine materials, and instead of giving it a glossy surface, such as
is usually produced from silk and fine wool, the object was to make it
without luster. The name is now applied to an extremely light weight
summer dress fabric, composed of either cotton or wool, or a mixture
of these fabrics. In structure it is both plain woven and figured, the
ornamental patterns being produced either in the loom or yarn, dyed or
printed. It is not sized. All wool challis does not differ essentially
from the old-fashioned muslin delaine. Most challis patterns are
copied from the French silks, and this accounts in part for their
tasteful designs and artistic effects. French challis is a material
similar to the above, though usually characterized by a more glossy
finish.

=Cheviot.= A descriptive term of somewhat loose application, being
used indiscriminately of late years to denote almost any sort of stout
woolen cloth finished with a rough and shaggy surface. Originally the
fabric known as cheviot was woven in England, from the strong, coarse
wool of the Cheviot sheep, whence the name.

It is at present a worsted or woolen fabric made of cheviot or "pulled
wool," slightly felted, with a short even nap on the surface and a
supple feel. Worsted cheviots, in plain colorings or of fancy effects,
are manufactured from combed yarn. Woolen cheviots are made from
carded yarn. The greater portion of this class of goods in carded
yarns contains little or no new wool in its make-up. Shoddy, mungo,
and a liberal mixture of cotton to hold it together, blended in the
many colorings, help to cover the deception. Prices range from 50
cents to $3.00. The material is plain or twill woven, and has many of
the qualities of serge.

The distinguishing feature of cheviot, whatever the grade of cloth, is
the finish, of which there are two kinds. One is known as the "rough"
finish, and the other as the "close" finish. Real cheviot is a
rough-finished fabric, composed of a strong, coarse wool and fulled to
a considerable degree. The process of finishing cheviot is simple, and
practically the same methods are followed for both the "rough" and the
"close" styles. On leaving the loom the cloth is first washed in soap
and water to remove any dirt or other foreign matter it may contain.
It is then fulled, which consists in shrinking the cloth both in
length and breadth, thus rendering the texture heavier and denser.
Next it is "gigged" or napped. This is accomplished by passing the
face of the matted cloth against a cylinder covered with sharp
pointed teasels which draw out the fibers from the yarn. This
operation is continued until a nap more or less dense is raised over
the entire surface.

From the gig the cloth is taken to the shearing machine, the revolving
blades of which cut the long, irregular nap down to a uniform level.
Sometimes the style of finish called for is that approaching a
threadbare cassimere, and in this case great care is necessary to
prevent the blades from cutting the yarn. In the rough finish the nap,
although sparingly raised, is comparatively long. Having been napped
and sheared, the cloth is pressed and carefully examined for defects,
then brushed, pressed, and highly steamed. When measured, rolled, and
steamed, it is ready for market, and is used mostly for ladies' and
gentlemen's suitings. The pattern and design are light stripes and
checks of small dimensions. Cheviot is a name given to many materials
used for suiting.

=Chinchilla.= Heavy coating with rough wavy face. The name is Spanish
for a fur-bearing animal of the mink species.

=Chudah.= Applied to billiard cloth; relates to color. Chudah is the
Hindoo name of a bright green cloth.

=Corduroy.= Heavy corded cotton material used for servants' livery.
The name is from the French _Corde du Roi_--king's cords.

=Côte Cheval.= In France corded cloth for riding costumes, such as
Bedford cord, is called côte cheval, the application being through
_cheval_, horse; _côte_, ribbed or lined.

=Coupure.= Coupure is French for cut through. Coupure or cut cashmere
is a cashmere weave showing lines cut through the twills lengthwise of
the piece.

=Covert.= Heavy twilled cloth in natural undyed shades, used in
England for men's overcoats worn while riding to covert in fox
hunting.

=Delaine.= From the French "of wool"; applies to the most primitive
weave of plain wool yarn. Thirty years ago delaine was the staple
dress goods stock. It was made in solid colors.

=Diagonal Cheviot.= Same as cheviot, only in the weaving the pattern
is marked by zigzag lines or stripes.

=Doeskin.= Of the broadcloth range, made with shiny napped face, soft
finish, as the pelt of a doe.

=Drap d'Été.= A heavy cashmere or double warp merino, with the back
teasled or scratched, used mostly for clergymen's clothing and in
lighter weights for women's dresses. The name is French for "cloth of
summer."

=Empress Cloth.= Similar to poplin; made of hard twisted worsted
filling and cotton warp. Was made a success in the early seventies of
the last century by the Empress Eugenie of France. Empress cloth was a
staple in all well-regulated dress goods lines.

=Épingline.= A fine corded fabric of wool or silk, showing the cords
woven close together and appearing as if lined with a pin point. This
application is from _épingle_, French for pin.

=Etamine.= French name for bolting or sifting cloth, made of silk for
sifting flour; applied to mesh or net weaves in America.

=Felt.= Fabric made by rolling or pressing a pulpy mass or mixture of
wool into a flat mat. The name is from the process. To felt is to mix
and press into shape.

=Flannel.= Wales appears to have been the original home of flannel,
and history informs us that this was the only textile produced in that
country for hundreds of years. It is constructed either of cotton or
wool, or of an intermixture of these fibers, and is a coarse-threaded,
loosely woven, light-weight fabric, more or less spongy and elastic,
with an unfinished, lusterless surface. Generally speaking all grades
of plain colored flannel are piece dyed, the soft open texture of the
goods permitting the fibers to absorb the dye as readily in the web as
in the yarn. Flannels are subjected to several finishing operations,
such as fulling, teaseling, pressing, and stretching. Flannels do not
require a great deal of fulling. All that is necessary is enough to
give a degree of stability and body to the goods.

=Dress Flannel.= All wool fabric used chiefly for women's winter
dresses; also called flannel suiting. It has a diversity of qualities,
colors, and styles of finish. It is commonly put up in double fold,
width from twenty-six to fifty inches.

=French Flannel.= A fine, soft twill, woven variety dyed in solid
shades, and also printed with patterns after the manner of calico;
used for morning gowns, dressing sacques, waists, etc.

=Shaker Flannel.= A variety of white flannel finished with
considerable nap, composed of cotton warp and woolen weft.

=Indigo Blue.= A superior all wool grade used in the manufacture
of men's suits and particularly for the uniform of members of the
G. A. R.

=Mackinaw.= The name applied to an extra heavy blanket-like material
used in cold climates by miners and lumbermen for shirts and
underwear.

=Navy Twilled Flannel.= A heavy all wool variety commonly dyed indigo
blue, commonly used in the manufacture of overshirts for out-door
laborers, firemen, sailors, and miners.

=Silk Warp Flannel.= A high grade, pure variety of flannel woven with
a silk warp and a fine woolen weft. It is a very soft, light-weight,
loosely woven flannel and runs only in narrow widths, twenty-seven
inches. If the finishing process is carried beyond fulling the texture
is rendered hard and firm, the cloth thus losing its softness and
elasticity. In the teaseling process it is necessary for the nap to be
raised only slightly, and this is commonly done in the direction of
the grain or twist of the warp. The perfection of a flannel finish
lies not in the smooth appearance of the cloth, but in its full, rich
softness. Sometimes the nap is sheared, but more often it is pressed
down flat upon the face of the cloth. After a thorough drying, and
careful examination for defects, the goods are rolled on boards, and
are ready for market. It is used for infants' wear and shawls, for
undergarments, bed coverings, and also to some extent for outer
garments in weights and styles adapted for that purpose.

=Baby Flannel.= A very light-weight variety woven of fine, soft wool,
smooth finish, bleached pure white.

=Florentine.= A heavy twilled mohair fabric for men's wear which is
sold largely to Italy and Spain. The name is from Florence, Italy.

=Foule.= A twilled, unsheared cloth; that is, the face appears to be
unsinged, and shows the woolly roughness in a slight degree. The cloth
when woven in the gray is fulled or shrunken in width by soaking in
soapsuds and passing it while wet through holes of different sizes in
a steel plate. The name is from _fouler_, French, to full or shrink.

=Frieze.= Frieze is a coarse, heavy cloth with a curly surface and
made at first of lamb's wool. It is now made from coarse grades of
wool. It is thick and heavily napped, and is used in the manufacture
of warm outer garments, particularly for men's wear. It was named
after the people of Friesland in Holland in the 13th century, and is
famous to-day as an Irish fabric. Irish frieze has extraordinary
durability, and the fibers are the longest and strongest made. The
weave is plain, small twill, or herring bone. When not of a solid
color it is usually a mixture, the colors being mixed in the raw
state. The wool is dyed in the raw state in mass, then doubled after
spinning.

=Gloria.= Plain weave of silk and wool, and silk and cotton; first
made for umbrella covering. Name means bright.

=Granada.= Popular weave of mohair, made in coating weight for
Spanish trade. Granada is a city in Spain.

=Grenadine.= Originally a plain, openwork, net-like fabric of silk,
mohair, cotton, or wool. We have grenadines in Jacquards and in set
patterns. The name is an adaptation of Granada.

=Henrietta Cloth.= A twilled cashmere of light weight and high finish,
originally made with silk warp and wool filling in Yorkshire, England.
The name was given in honor of Henrietta Maria of England, Queen of
Charles I. The silk warp, hand-woven fabric was first produced about
the year 1660.

=Homespun.= A rough, loosely woven material made from coarse yarn. It
is soft but rather clumsy. A general term used to designate cloth spun
or wrought at home. The homespun of the present day is a woolen fabric
in imitation of those fabrics made by hand before the introduction of
textile machinery. It is made of a coarse, rough, and uneven thread;
usually of plain weave and no felting. It was woven by the early
settlers of the Eastern and Southern States. It is now used as woolen
suiting for men's wear and in various kinds of coarse, spongy, shaggy
cloth for women's gowns.

=Hop Sacking.= A coarse bagging made commonly of a combination of hemp
and jute, used for holding hops during transportation. The name hop
sacking is also applied to a variety of woolen dress goods made from
different classes of yarn. It is made of carded woolen fabric of the
plainest kind. The cloth is characterized by an open weave, and a
square check-like mesh, the structure being designed to imitate that
of the coarse jute bagging. It has very little finish, is usually dyed
in solid colors, and is used for women's and children's dresses.

=Jeans.= Cotton or woolen coarse twilled fabric. In cotton used for
linings, in wool for men's cheap clothing. The name is from a Genoese
coin, relating to the price of the cloth; so much for one jean.

=Kersey.= A very heavy, felted, satin finish woolen cloth made with
the cotton weave or cross twill for face, and cotton weave or four
harness satin for back. It was originally made with fine Merino lamb's
wool for face, and somewhat coarser grade for back. The cheaper grades
are manufactured from a fine-fibered wool and shoddy, with low grades
of shoddy and mungo for back. It is named from an English town,
Kersey, where from the eleventh to the fifteenth century a large
woolen trade was carried on. The Kersey of early history was a coarse
cloth, known under different names, and before knitting was used for
stockings. In the construction of Kersey the cloth is woven a few
inches wider in the loom (and correspondingly longer) than it is to
appear in the finished state. This is done in order that the meshes
may be closed up in the fulling mill to insure a covering of threads.
Previous to fulling, however, the face of the cloth is gigged to
produce a good covering for the threads by forming a light nap, which
is fitted in. In the fulling operation, which comes next, the cloth is
shrunk to its proper width and density, usually to a degree rendering
it difficult to see the individual warp and filling threads, so
closely are they matted together. Fulling is followed by gigging, and
in this process a nap more or less heavy is raised on the face of the
goods by means of teasels. The cloth is run through the gig several
times and then sheared in order to render the fibers forming the nap
short, even, and of uniform length. Great care is exercised in the
shearing, as the nap must be cropped quite close and yet not expose
the threads or cut the face. The next operation is scouring or
steaming, in which live steam is forced through every part of the
goods for the purpose of developing the natural luster of the wool. In
case the goods are to be piece dyed, the dyeing follows scouring.
After steaming, the cloth is thoroughly matted and gigged again, care
being taken to avoid stirring up the ground nap. It is then dried and
the nap briskly brushed in a steam brusher and laid evenly in one
direction. Again the cloth is slightly steamed and primed, face up.
The result of this treatment is the production of a texture firm, yet
pliable, with a highly lustrous face and one not liable to wear rough
or threadbare. Kersey is used for overcoats.

=Kerseymere.= Light weight twilled worsted; same derivative of name as
Kersey.

=Linsey Woolsey.= Coarse cloth of linen and wool used as skirtings by
the British peasantry. The name is from the components of the cloth.

=Melrose.= Double twilled silk and wool fabric; named for Melrose, a
town on the Tweed, in Scotland.

=Melton.= A thick, heavy woolen fabric with short nap, feeling
somewhat rough. Meltons are made firm in the loom. The weaves for
single cloth meltons are usually plain, and three or four harness
twill. For double cloths the plain weave is used, or a weave with a
plain face and a one-third weave on the back. All trace of the weave
is destroyed in the finishing. The colors usually black or dark blue.

=Meltonette.= A cloth of the same general appearance as melton, of
light weight, for women's wear.

=Merino.= A fabric woven of the wool of the Merino sheep, twilled on
both sides, the twill being uneven. Merino resembles cashmere.

=Mohair Brilliantine.= A dress fabric resembling alpaca, of superior
quality, and sometimes finished on both sides. The name is from the
Arabic _mukayyan_, cloth of goat's hair. It is made from the long,
silky hair of the Angora goat of Asia Minor, a species which is being
introduced into the United States. The fabric has a hard, wiry feel,
and if made from the pure material has a high luster. It has cotton
warp and luster worsted filling. The weave is plain ground, or with a
small Jacquard figure, and when a very lustrous fabric is wanted, the
warp yarn is of finer counts than the filling yarn. The warp and
filling yarns are dyed previous to weaving. They may be of the same
color or different colors. The contrast of colors in connection with
the weave gives the fabric a pretty effect. Fabrics made with dyed
yarns are usually given a dry finish, that is, simply run through the
press and cylinder heated, after which they are rolled and then
packed. Those made with undyed filling are first scoured, then dyed,
after which they are run through a rotary press with fifty or sixty
pounds of steam heat. Mohair brilliantine is used for dress goods.

=Montagnac= is heavy overcoating. The French _montagne_, for mountain,
is the origin of the name, being for mountain wear.

=Orleans.= Cloth of cotton warp and bright wool fulling, made in
Orleans, France. Many of the so-called alpacas and mohairs of to-day
are Orleans. These fabrics are mostly cross-dyed, that is, fabrics
with warp and filling of different shades. After weaving they are
cross-dyed or redyed to give solid colors and glacé effects.

=Panama Cloth= is a plain weave worsted fabric of no uniform
construction or finish. Fabrics sold under this name vary
considerably. They are of solid colors, usually piece dyed, and are
used for suitings.

=Prunella.= From the French _prunelle_, which means plum, a stout
worsted material named from its color, which is a purplish shade
similar to that of a ripe plum. The name was originally applied to a
kind of lasting of which clergymen's gowns were made. It is now used
to denote a variety of rich, satin-faced worsted cloth employed for
women's dresses. The fibers are worsted. Prunella is dyed either in
piece or yarn state and is hand finished.

=Sacking.= Plain solid color flannel in special shades for women's
dressing sacks, also applied to a fabric made of hemp for grain sacks.

=Sanglier.= A plain fabric of wiry worsted or mohair yarn, closely
woven, with a rough finished surface. Sanglier is French for wild
boar, the hairy, wiry cloth resembling the coat of the animal.

=Sebastopol.= A twill-faced cloth named from Sebastopol, the Russian
fortified town captured by the English and French in 1855.

=Serge.= Under this name are classed a large number of fabrics of
twill construction. In weight and texture a modern serge resembles
flannel, except that it is twill woven and composed of fine yarn
finished with a smoother surface. Serge comes from the Italian word
_sergea_, meaning cloth of wool mixed with silk. Serges are woven of
worsted, of silk, or of cotton yarn, and variously dyed, finished, and
ornamented, as silk serge, serge suiting, storm serge, mohair serge,
etc. Worsted serges of various kinds and degrees have been known since
the twelfth century. Worsted serge appears to have come into general
use as a material for men's wear in the sixteenth century. Modern
serges vary but little from those made two centuries ago. They are
dyed in a great variety of colors. On leaving the loom the cloth is
washed and scoured with soap and water to remove the dirt and oil (if
these remain the cloth will not take the dye properly). After dyeing,
it is passed through a pair of metal rollers under pressure, which
renders the surface more regular and even and of a better luster. This
process accomplishes more than is required, for it produces a bloom on
the surface which will show rain specks when in the garment, if it is
allowed to remain. This is ordinary serge. In order to make storm
serge it is necessary to remove part of the bloom, and to accomplish
this the cloth is steamed sufficiently to neutralize the effect of
pressing. Steaming deadens the bloom and prevents the effects of rain
showing on the cloth. The wearing qualities of serge are good, but it
gets a shine easily. It is used for dress goods and suitings. Serge
suiting used for men's clothing is a variety of light, wiry, worsted
yarn woven with a flat twill, and dyed black or in shades of blue,
fifty-four inches in width. Mohair serge is woven with a cotton warp
and a mohair filling, thirty-two inches in width. This is dyed in a
variety of colors and largely used as lining material for women's
clothes, men's coats, and overcoats. Storm serge, designed to
withstand exposure to stormy weather, is a coarse variety of worsted
dress goods produced in a wide range of colors and qualities. The
twill is wider, the texture stouter, and the surface rougher and
cleaner than that of ordinary serge. Iridescent serge is a variety of
worsted dress goods woven with warp and filling of different colors,
causing a shimmering or iridescent effect. Cravenette serge is a fine
twilled variety having a firm, closely woven texture, dyed black and
in colors, and is used for women's gowns, men's summer suits, etc.
Serge de Barry is a high-grade dress goods of fine texture, with fine
twill, and wiry feel.

=Shoddy= is made from old woolen stockings or rags, shredded or picked
by hand or machine, to render the yarn suitable for spinning a second
time, or to give a fiber that can be woven or felted with a wool or
cotton warp. The name has come to mean cheap, make-believe.

=Sicilian.= Heavy weight cotton warp, mohair filled cloth. Sicilienne,
the proper name, was made in the Island of Sicily as a heavy ribbed,
all silk fabric.

=Sultane.= Twilled cloth of silk and wool; finished in the rough, not
singed or sheared. The name is from Sultana, the first wife of the
Sultan.

=Tamise.= Similar to etamine, with a very close mesh, made first of
silk and wool. _Tamis_ is French for sieve.

=Tartans.= Plaids of the Scottish clans worn by men in the Highlands
of Scotland as a diagonal scarf, fastened on one shoulder and crossing
the body. Each clan had a distinctive tartan or plaid. The name was
adapted from the French _tiretaine_, a thin woolen checked cloth.

=Thibet.= Heavy, coarse weave of goat's hair, made by the Thibetans in
Asia for men's wear.

=Tricot.= A heavy, compound fabric characterized by a line effect
running warp way or filling way of the piece, usually produced with
either woolen or worsted yarn. Tricot was originally a name given to
fabrics made of woolen yarn or thread by hand knitting, and is the
French word meaning knitting. The term was later applied to materials
made on a knitting frame and now known as jersey cloth. Since 1840 the
name tricot has been applied to finely woven woolen cloth, the weave
of which is intended to imitate the face effect of a knitted fabric.
The fabric is composed of woolen and worsted fibers, sometimes with
cotton warp woven so as to hide the cotton in finishing. The tricot
line is similar to the rib line in a ribbed cloth except that it is
not so pronounced. All tricots are constructed with two sets of warp
thread and are characterized by a texture which, while dense, is
singularly elastic, in this respect being somewhat similar to heavy
jersey cloth. Tricots are commonly dyed in plain colors, and are
finished clear so as to show the filling. When intended for trousers
they are ornamented with small, neat patterns.

=Tweed.= A rough unfinished fabric of soft, open, and flexible
texture, of wool or cotton and wool, usually of yarn of two or more
shades; originally the product of the weavers on the bank of the river
Tweed in Scotland. The face of the cloth presents an unfinished
appearance rather than a sharp and clearly defined pattern.

=Veiling= includes light weight, usually plain weave fabrics of
various constructions; generally made with singed or polished yarns.
They are in solid colors. The use is designated by the name.

=Venetian.= Venetian cloth has a worsted or cotton warp and worsted
filling; named from Venetia, a country around Venice. The warp yarns
are firmly twisted, the twist being in the opposite direction to the
twist in the filling yarn. Venetian is a trade term of wide
application, in use since early times as a descriptive title for
various fabrics, textures, and garments. One of the many varieties is
a species of twill weaving in which the lines or twills are of a
rounded form and arranged in a more or less upright position, hence a
closely woven worsted cloth. The name is also applied to other
fabrics, as a twilled lining fabric woven with a cotton warp and a
worsted filling known as Italian cloth. It is dyed in plain colors and
is piece or yarn dyed for men. For women's wear it has light weight
and plain colors with mixed effects and closely sheared nap. It is
finished smooth so as to show the yarns prominently. Venetian cloth
has not so much felting as broadcloth; it shows the weave more, but
has the same lustrous finish.

=Vigogne= or =Vicuña=. A soft wool cloth of the cheviot order, with
teasled face, made from the wool of the vicuña, a South American
animal. Vigogne is the French name for the animal.

=Vigoureux.= A name applied to a plain or twill mixture, woven of
undyed natural wool yarns. The French spinners found that the
strongest yarns were those of the undyed wool. Sometimes two or more
shades or tones are spun into one thread. The name is French for
strong.

=Voiles.= Voiles are plain weave worsted fabrics made with hard
twisted yarns. As clear a face as possible is secured in finishing,
the cloth being singed or sheared closely if the yarns are not made
comparatively free from loose fibers before being woven. Voiles are
dyed in solid colors, and are used principally for dress goods.

=Whipcord.= Hard twisted worsted twills, either solid or mixed colors.
The name is from the hard twisted lash of a whip.

=Worsted Diagonals= are characterized by prominent weave effects
running diagonally across the cloth. The goods are usually of a solid
color, and are given a finish which brings the weave into prominence.
Diagonals are used for suitings.

=Unfinished worsted= is a fabric woven with yarn with very little
twist in it, and finished so as to make it appear covered with loose
fibers, concealing the twill effect. After leaving the loom the cloth
is placed in a fulling machine which condenses the fibers, thus
increasing the density. It is then passed over hot presses after a
slight shearing.

=Finished Worsted= is woven with yarn with a considerable twist, and
finished in such a way as to show the construction of the cloth
clearly. The finishing consists simply of scouring the cloth and not
fulling it and then passing it through hot water baths between heavy
rolls to remove all the soap. It is then sheared and pressed.

=Zephyr.= Light worsted yarn, also light weight cotton gingham. Zephyr
is Greek for the light west wind.

=Zibeline.= A cloth manufactured with Merino lamb's wool for warp, and
a light wool mixed with camel's hair for filling; or, worsted warp and
camel's hair for filling; or either of the foregoing warps and a
mixture of wool, camel's hair, and fine cashmere for filling. The long
cashmere hair spreads over the surface. Used for ladies' tailor-made
coats or suits, according to weight. The name is derived from the
Latin word _sabellum_, meaning sable, and was applied originally to a
variety of long-haired fur generally thought to be the same as sable.
Zibeline has long hairs on its right side, some grades being almost
like fur.


FOOTNOTE:

[15] SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS. In connection with the study of fabrics
the author has found it advisable to have the pupils insert in a blank
book a sample of the fabric they are studying. In this way the pupil
can examine both the filling (weft) and warp threads.



CHAPTER IX

COTTON


=Cotton.= Cotton is the most important vegetable fiber used in
spinning. The cotton fiber is a soft, downy substance which grows
around the cotton seed. When examined under the microscope it appears
as a long twisted cell. Owing to the fact that the cotton-plant yields
so readily to the varying conditions of soil and climate, there is a
large variety of cottons, each having some peculiarity which is
considered enough to place it in a distinct class. An idea of the
number of species of the cotton-plant can be obtained from the fact
that the United States Department of Agriculture has recorded about
one hundred and thirty varieties. The most important varieties are:
_Gossypium herbaceum_, _G. arboreum_, _G. hirsutum_, _G. barbadense_,
and _G. peruvianum_. The botanical name of a plant is divided into two
parts: first the family name, followed by the species name.

The _Gossypium herbaceum_ grows from four to six feet in height and
bears a yellow flower. The seeds are covered with a short gray down.
The fiber it bears is classed as short. It is found in Egypt, Asia
Minor, Arabia, India, and China. The short-stapled variety of Egyptian
cotton is from this species.

The _G. arboreum_ when full grown attains a height from fifteen to
twenty feet. The seed is covered with a greenish fur and is enveloped
in a fine, silky down, yellowish white in color. It is found in Egypt,
Arabia, and China.

The _G. hirsutum_ is a shrubby plant, its maximum height being about
six feet. The young pods are hairy, and the seeds are numerous and
covered with a firmly adhering green down. It is probable that this is
the original of the green-seeded cotton which is now cultivated so
extensively in the Southern States of America, and which forms the
bulk of the supply from that source.

The _G. peruvianum_ is similar to the _G. barbadense_. The Brazilian
and Peru cottons are from this species.

The _G. barbadense_ grows from six to fifteen feet high; its flowers
are yellow and its seeds black and smooth, being quite destitute of
the hair that distinguishes other members of the species. It is a
native of Barbadoes or has been cultivated there for a long time.
Cottons of the finest texture belong to this species--Sea Island and
Florida cottons--from which our finest yarns are spun, and it is used
chiefly in the manufacture of fine lace. The long-stapled Egyptian and
several other varieties are said to be from this stock.

=Cotton Growing Countries.= The most suitable situation for growing
cotton is between 35 degrees north and 40 degrees south of the
equator. The chief cotton growing countries of the world in order of
importance are: United States, India, Egypt, and Brazil. Cotton is
also grown in the following countries, but in no quantity or quality
comparable with the four named above--West Indies, west coast of
Africa, Asia Minor, China, and Queensland.

The best soil for growing cotton is a light loam or sandy soil, which
receives and retains the heat, and at the same time preserves a good
supply of moisture. Cold, damp days are not suitable for its growth,
while deep rich soils develop too much leaf and stalk. The best
climate for the cultivation of cotton is where frost and snow are of
short duration, dews are heavy, and the sun bright, warm, and regular.
New soils generally produce the best cotton. The character of the
cotton fiber is dependent upon three things, the species of the plant,
the nature of the soil, and the locality in which it is grown.

=Rough Peruvian.= The nature of this cotton is harsh and wiry and
resembles wool so nearly that it is almost exclusively used to mix
with woolen fabrics. The staple is rough and generally strong, and is
of a springy tendency, _i.e._, it does not lie close like American.

=East Indian.= India depends upon the monsoon for its moisture, and
the success or failure of the crop is decided by that phenomenon of
nature. Indian cottons as a rule are coarser and shorter than American
cottons. The land is prepared before the breaking of the monsoon, and
the planting begins after it. There is not the same care bestowed upon
the cultivation of the Indian cotton, nor are such improved methods
practised as in America. The ancient routine of past generations
still persists, and as a consequence the yield per acre is less than
one-half that of America. Moreover the acreage planted is only about
two-thirds that of America. The better growths of East Indian cotton
were once largely used in this country for filling, owing to their
good color and cleanliness; but of late years the consumption has
steadily decreased, owing chiefly to the increased takings by the
Indian mills, also to the exports to China and Japan, and to the
preference shown by English spinners for American cotton.

=Egyptian Cotton.= Egyptian cotton, on account of its long staple and
silky gloss, is imported in considerable quantities. Egyptian is
largely used in the manufacture of hosiery, and also for mixing with
worsted yarn. Owing to its gloss it is used for mixing with silk, and
on account of its strength it is made into the finer sewing threads.
Egyptian cotton is sometimes so charged with grease that it has a
greasy smell; and to make it workable it is necessary to sprinkle it
with whitening. It has been observed that velvets woven (or piled)
with Egyptian filling do not finish as well as when picked with yarns
made from American cotton, the reason for this being that the greasy
nature of the Egyptian cotton fiber often varies in strength, causing
different shades in the finished goods. This greasy nature is said to
be due to two things: (1) the fertility of the soil; (2) the extent to
which the cell walls of the fibers are developed.

In addition to cotton, other crops are grown in Egypt--rice, sugar,
beans, barley, onions, etc.--and the acreage devoted to cotton is
regulated to some extent by the prospects as to which crops are likely
to pay best. It is calculated that not more than one-third of the area
is usually devoted to cotton.

=Sea Island Cotton.= This is the finest growth of cotton, and it
commands the highest price. The staple, which is long and silky,
varies in length from one and a half to two and a half inches. It is
used for making fine muslins, laces, spool cotton, and other fabrics,
and is also largely mixed with silk. It is said that this cotton was
first introduced into America in 1786 from the Bahama Islands, whither
it had been brought from the West Indies. It was first cultivated in
Georgia, where it was found that the small islands running along the
coast were best adapted for its growth, hence the name "Sea Island."
It was also grown on the uplands of Georgia, but although remaining
good, the quality deteriorated. Counts as high as four hundred are
occasionally spun in Sea Island cotton.

=Other Varieties.= Cotton grown in the Southern States under widely
varying conditions of the soil, climate, and care in cultivation,
naturally varies in length, strength, and other qualities of staple.
Cotton known as "Uplands" or "Boweds" varies in length from
three-fourths to one and one-sixteenth inches and is used for filling;
this is grown in North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
and Tennessee. Cotton used for twist is grown in Texas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, and Arkansas, and the length of the staple varies from
one to one and three-sixteenths inches. In the swampy and bottom
lands in some of the states (notably Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi,
and Arkansas), cotton is grown with staple ranging from one and
one-eighth to one and one-fourth inches. In addition to these, there
are especially long stapled growths, known as "Extras," "Allen Seed,"
and "Peelers," which measure one and three-eighths to one and
five-eighths inches. Of late there has been an extensive demand for
long-stapled American cotton (one and three-sixteenths to one and
one-half inches), owing to the development of fine spinning.

=Cotton Raising.= Cotton is planted with a machine, which puts it
under the ground about one and one-half to two inches. It is not
planted as corn is, that is, dropped so far apart, but is planted in a
continuous stream. After the cotton comes up out of the ground, when
it is about three inches high, it is hoed by ordinary labor with a
hoe, and is cut out or, rather, thinned. This is called "chopping out"
and is for the purpose of removing the inferior or weak plants until
only one strong plant is left. The distance between the plants depends
on the nature of the plant, frequently about twelve inches being left
between them.

=The American Crop.= The first step taken is the preparation of the
ground for planting. This begins in the southern part of Texas as
early as the middle of January, in Florida about the third week; in
Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana, about the beginning of
February; in Arkansas, Tennessee, and South Carolina from about the
middle of February to the beginning of March. Actual planting begins
according to latitude, principally from the middle of March to the
middle of April, and ends in the first half of May. These dates,
however, are dependent upon the state of the weather. When the weather
is unusually wet the start is late. The plant suffers from the rank
growth of grass and weeds, and extra labor is required to keep the
fields clean. In abnormally hot weather, especially after rains, the
plant sheds its leaves, thus exposing the bolls, which fall off,
whereupon replanting becomes necessary. In addition to injuries by the
weather the cotton-plant is subject to depredations by insects. Of
late years the greatest pest has been the Mexican boll weevil.

The cotton-plant blooms ten or eleven weeks after planting. An early
bloom is taken as a sign of good crops. When the crop is an early one,
picking may commence in the districts in which it ripens first in the
latter half of July; but the usual date is the beginning of August,
following on in the various districts in succession until the early
part of September. The plant goes on fruiting as long as the weather
is mild and open. It finishes in the early regions about the beginning
of December, the others following through December and closing in the
later regions about the middle of January. Frosts play an important
part in the ultimate yield. An early killing frost over the entire
belt would curtail the size of the crop by 500,000 bales in a season,
as was the case in 1909 when about 32,000,000 acres were planted.
Light frosts and late frosts do little harm to the cotton-plant; in
fact it is contended that the late frosts do much good under certain
conditions of the crop, by opening the bolls that otherwise would not
open, and thus adding to the quantity of the late pickings. The effect
of frost upon the lint so picked is to produce tinged and stained
cotton. Early killing frosts occur in some seasons in the early part
of November, when much of the yield may be curtailed. When killing
frosts occur late in the season, when the fruiting is practically
over, it has little or no effect upon the yield except as regards the
color.

The ripening of the crop proceeds in three stages, the bolls nearest
the ground maturing first, then those around the middle of the plant,
and lastly the top crop. Pods half ripe are often forced open and the
fiber sent on with good cotton. East Indian is more highly charged
with unripe cotton than American. The work of picking is not heavy,
but becomes tedious from its sameness. Each hand as he goes to the
field is supplied with a large basket and a bag. The basket is left at
the head of the cotton row, the bag being suspended from the picker's
shoulder by a strap, and used to hold the cotton as it is plucked from
the boll. When the bag is full it is emptied into the basket, and this
routine continued throughout the day. Each hand picks from 140 to 180
pounds of cotton per day. The average yield in the South varies from
500 to 600 pounds per acre. Every boll of cotton contains seeds
resembling unground coffee; when these have been removed by the gin,
there remains about one-third the weight of the boll in clean cotton.

[Illustration: PICKING COTTON]

=Ginning.= The next operation to which cotton is subjected is that of
ginning, or separating the seeds from the fiber. This work was
formerly accomplished by hand, and so great was the quantity of seeds
that frequently an entire day was occupied by a workman in separating
them from one pound of cotton. At the present day the devices for
separating the lint from the seed are of two classes: roller gins and
saw gins. The former device is the more ancient, having been used from
the earliest times by the Hindoos. In its simplest form it consists of
two rollers made of metal or hard wood, fixed in rude frames, through
which the cotton is drawn and the seeds forced out in the process. An
improved form of the roller gin is at present used for cleaning the
long-staple Sea Island cotton. The saw gin, which works on an entirely
different principle, is the machine which, with its improvements and
modifications, has separated the seed from fiber almost exclusively
for one hundred years of American cotton growing. In this machine the
seed cotton is fed into a box, one side of which is formed of a
grating of metal strips set close together, leaving a narrow opening
from one-eighth to a quarter of an inch wide. Into these openings a
row or "gang" of thin circular saws project mounted upon a revolving
mandrel. The long, protruding teeth of the saws, whirling rapidly,
catch the fibers, and pull them away from the seeds. The latter, being
too large to pass through the openings of the grating, roll downward
and out of the machine. The lint, removed from the row of saws by a
revolving brush, passes between rollers and is delivered from the
machine in the form of a lap or bat.

This machine is responsible for much of the "nep" (or knots) found in
American cotton, which is caused when the machine is overcharged. The
Whitney gin will turn through more cotton than any other type of
machine, and will clean from 200 to 300 pounds per hour. When the
machine is running at high speed the tendency is to string and knot
the cotton.

[Illustration: COTTON GIN

The upper figure shows Whitney's invention. The lower figure shows a
later form.]

The working of the ordinary gin is as follows: The wagon loaded with
cotton is driven under a galvanized spout called the sucker, through
which there is a suction of air which draws the cotton into the gins.
In each of the gins there are seventy circular saws revolving on one
shaft. These saws are about one inch apart, and the teeth go through
the gin breast, much as if one were to put the teeth of one comb into
the teeth of another comb. This process takes the lint cotton off the
seed, and by the use of brushes the cotton goes into the lint flute,
into the condenser, and into the box, where it is revolved and made
into a bale. While the lint is going through this process, the seeds,
being heavier and smaller, draw to the bottom of the gins, fall into
an auger which is operated by a belt, and then are dropped into a
conveyor and carried to the seed pile or houses. The lint goes in one
direction and the seed in another.

When the seed is taken from the cotton at the gin, it is covered with
a lint of cotton. In order to remove this the seeds are put through a
delinter, which takes off the small, short fiber from the seeds,
leaving them clean. This seed is then put through a huller which takes
off the outside hull or thick skin. The kernel is then put through a
hydraulic press, which squeezes the cotton-seed oil from it and leaves
the "meal." Cotton-seed oil is used for many purposes, such as making
olive oil, butter or oleomargarine, lard, etc. Of late an experiment
has been made with the meal for use in the place of flour, and has
been pronounced a success. Seed crushing has now become an important
industry, with the cotton crop each year amounting to between
12,000,000 and 13,000,000 bales of 450 pounds each.

=The Cotton Gin.= The cotton gin was invented in 1792 by Eli Whitney,
a citizen of Georgia, but a native of Massachusetts. The importance of
this invention to the cotton industry of the world cannot be
overestimated. It was the one thing needed to insure a sufficient
supply of raw material to meet the requirements of newly invented
machinery for spinning and weaving. The result of Whitney's invention
was the rapid extension of the culture of cotton in the United
States, and its permanent establishment as one of the leading staples
of the country.

=Cotton Bales.= After the cotton is ginned and baled it is shipped to
the mill. The standard size of a cotton bale in the United States is
54 × 27 × 27 inches, and contains nearly 500 pounds. To produce this
bale over 1,600 pounds of seed cotton are required. The bales are
wrapped in jute bagging and strapped with sheet-iron bands, this
covering adding about twenty-five pounds to the weight of the bale.

The Bessonette cylindrical bale is turned out by a self-feeding press,
which receives the lap of lint from the gin between two heavy rollers.
The fiber is rolled upon a long wooden spool so tightly as to press
out nearly all the air, and forms a package of uniform shape and size
throughout, having a diameter of fourteen to sixteen inches. The bales
are covered with cotton cloth, held in place by small wire hoops. It
is claimed that the cotton is rolled so tightly by this process that
the bales are practically fireproof and waterproof.

Egyptian bales are compressed into a shape similar to the American
bale, but the average weight is over 700 pounds.

The Indian bales, which are more closely compressed than the American,
usually weigh 400 pounds.

Cotton is purchased by the mill authorities in the shape of a bale.
The method is to purchase from cotton brokers, samples being furnished
to the buyer from which to make selection.

[Illustration: STOREHOUSES]

The commercial value of cotton is determined by its length, fineness,
strength, pliability, smoothness, regularity, color, and cleanliness.
As a rule, the cotton that is the longest is also the finest, but by
no means the strongest. Thus, Sea Island cotton has the longest staple
with the least diameter, and Hinganghat (an Indian cotton) is much
inferior to it in both respects. The strength of the latter, however,
is 50 per cent greater than the strength of Sea Island cotton. In
every other respect Sea Island cotton is in advance over Hinganghat
cotton. It is the most valuable, especially for the production of fine
yarns.

The most regular cotton is Orleans, in which the length of the staple
varies only a small fraction of an inch. In consequence of this there
is less loss in working Orleans than is the case with the other
cottons, owing to the fact that their fibers vary in length.

=The Leading Growths of Cotton.= In order to purchase the raw material
of the cotton manufacture, to arrange the "mixing" or have much to do
with the raw material in any other capacity, one should know as much
as possible of its characteristics; for ignorance may cause much
trouble and no little loss to those who have to spin the cotton. Each
crop differs from the previous one to a greater or less degree, as it
depends entirely upon the weather. Thus, in a very dry season there is
a "droughty crop" which, while it may be (and generally is) clean and
well up in class, will be weak, short, and of irregular fiber. In
order to obtain the desired length and strength of staple the buyer
will have to pay a relatively higher price than in what may be termed
a normal season.

[Illustration: FANCY COTTON LOOM]

Again, in a crop that is poor in class, a defect that may have been
caused by too much rain in the early or middle stages of its growth,
or by unfavorable weather for the production of cotton of good grade,
the staple will probably be all that could be desired, leafy and
small, but the buyer will have to pay more to obtain his usual grade,
especially if he requires it for good filling. Then there are seasons
when the crop turns out fairly well in class and staple, but the
cotton is wasty, dirty, or abnormally leafy; and in this case the
buyer has to exercise great care and judgment in calculating the extra
loss that will ensue.

The terms of purchase of cotton include an allowance of 4 per cent for
tares. That is, a bale of cotton weighing 400 pounds would be paid for
as 384 pounds, or should the buyer have reason to believe that the
tares are unusually heavy, he has the option of claiming the actual
tare. This is ascertained by stripping ten bales and weighing the
covering and the hoops, which means considerable work, and although it
is at the option of the buyer, it is an exception rather than the
rule.

As a result of these causes we find cotton divided into the following
grades:

=Full Grades of Cotton.= Egyptian cotton is graded as follows: extra
fine, fine, good, fully good fair, good fair, fair, middling fair,
middling.

Indian cotton is graded as follows: superfine, fine, fully good, good,
fully good fair, good fair, fully fair.

Brazilian cotton may be classed: fine, good, good fair, fair, middling
fair, middling.

American cotton has seven grades: fair, middling fair, good middling,
middling, low middling, good ordinary, and ordinary.

In addition to the full grades there are half and quarter grades. The
American cottons are graded as follows:

 _Full Grades._       _Half Grades._            _Quarter Grades._

 Fair,                Strict middling fair,     Barely fair,
 Middling fair,       Strict good middling,     Fully middling fair,
 Good middling,       Strict middling,          Barely middling fair,
 Middling,            Strict low middling,      Fully good middling,
 Low middling,        Strict good ordinary,     Barely good middling,
 Good ordinary,       Strict ordinary.          Fully middling,
 Ordinary.                                      Barely middling,
                                                Fully low middling,
                                                Barely low middling,
                                                Fully good ordinary,
                                                Barely good ordinary.

The following are a few of the leading varieties of cotton, with the
numbers of yarn they will make:

 _Cotton._                   _Length._         _Warp._       _Filling._

 Sea Island (selected)       1-3/4  to 2-1/4   up to 200     250 to 300
 Sea Island (ordinary)       1-3/4  to 2             150         220
 Florida Sea Island          1-3/4  to 2             150         220
 Georgia                     1-1/2  to 1-7/8         120         180
 Egyptian                    1-1/4  to 1-1/2          70         120
 Peeler                      1-1/4  to 1-3/8          50          70
 Orleans or Gulf             1-1/16 to 1-1/4          40          60
 Upland                      1      to 1-1/8          30          45
 Texas                         7/8  to 1-1/16         25          35

During the last few years considerable discussion has taken place
among mill men, both in this country and abroad, bearing upon the
subject of moisture contained in baled cotton. Of course the natural
moisture in the cotton fiber varies, as might be expected, from year
to year, according to the character of the season during the picking.
The standard of moisture is based upon what is known as regain, that
is, if 100 parts of absolutely dry cotton are exposed to the air, they
will absorb about 8-1/2 per cent of moisture, although a much higher
per cent is sometimes found.

In some of the small Southern mills located in the cotton raising
section, the cotton is delivered by team direct from the gin, without
going through the compress. In this way they save the greater part of
transportation expense. They also save in the strength of the cotton
fiber itself, since the process of compression injures the fiber. They
get better cotton, being nearer the source of supply and having better
opportunities for selection.

When the cotton arrives in the shape of a bale, it is necessary to cut
ties and loosen up the cotton before use. This may be done in two
ways. One method being to pull the bale apart by hand, and the other
to pass it through a bale breaker or similar machine, which loosens up
the cotton by means of beaters. It now starts on a continuous journey
through successive machines until it is made into yarn. The yarn is
made into a warp, and the warp interlaced with the filling yarn to
make cloth, and the cloth finished for the market.

Not every country is adapted for making cotton yarn, for certain
conditions are necessary to manufacture good yarn. If the atmosphere
is too warm or too dry, the fibers will become brittle and will not
twist well; if too wet they collapse and stick. Lancashire County,
England, seems to have been fitted by nature for cotton spinning. It
has just the right climate, a moist temperature, and copious water
supply. There are hills on the east of the valley, forming a water
shed, and the town lies in a basin covered with a bed of stiff clay,
that holds the water, allowing it to evaporate just fast enough to
keep the air in the moist condition needed to fit the fibers for
weaving. Countries that have not these conditions are obliged to
produce them by artificial means--humidifying, etc.

[Illustration: PICKER ROOM

  1. Hopper where the cotton from the bale is fed into Picker.
  2. "Lap" showing how the cotton is prepared for the card.
  3. Picker Machine (complete).]



CHAPTER X

MANUFACTURE OF COTTON YARN


[Illustration: PICKER ROOM--SHOWING END VIEW OF PICKER

  1. Lap of Cotton.]

=Picker Room.= The first step in the conversion of the bale of cotton
into yarn consists in giving the cotton fibers a thorough cleaning.
This is accomplished by feeding the cotton to a series of picker
machines called in order, bale breaker, cotton opener and automatic
feeder, breaker picker, intermediate picker, and finisher picker.
These machines pull to shreds the matted locks and wads of cotton (as
we find them in the bale), beat out the dirt, stones, and seeds, and
finally leave the cotton in the form of batting upon the cylinders;
this batting passes from one machine to another until it issues from
the finisher picker as a downy roll or lap.

(Sometimes the bale breaker is not used in the mill.)

[Illustration: CARD ROOM

  1. Roving Can--receptacle to hold the sliver. After it is filled it
     is transferred to either ribbon lap machine or drawing frame.
  2. Cylinder of the card. The cotton is on this cylinder in the form
     of a web.]

=Carding Machine.= When the lap of cotton leaves the picker it goes to
the carding machine, where it is combed into parallel fibers by means
of a revolving cylinder covered with wire teeth called card clothing.
As the cotton is fed to the card in the form of a sheet or lap from
the picker, it is supposed to have been freed from a considerable
quantity of sand, seed, etc., but there still remain nep, fine leaf,
and short fibers, which are removed during carding.

On leaving the card cylinder the lap has become a gossamer-like web
thirty-nine inches broad. This web next passes through small "eyes,"
which condense it into a narrow band about an inch in width, known as
card sliver.

When a lap is delivered from the finisher picker, it should weigh a
given number of ounces per yard. The method of ascertaining the weight
is to make each lap a standard number of yards in length and weigh
each lap. The machine can be regulated so as to give the desired
weight per yard.

=Combing.= When an extremely fine and strong yarn is required, in
addition to carding, the fibers are also subjected to the process of
"combing." This may be said to be merely a continuation of the carding
process to a more perfect degree. The chief object is to extract all
fibers below a certain required length, and cast them aside as
"waste." This is done in order to secure the very best fibers
calculated to give the strongest and best results in the spun yarn.

The process of combing follows carding. The card delivers the cotton
in the form of a sliver or strand, while the combing machine requires
the fibers to be delivered to it in the form of sheets, nine to twelve
inches wide. This is done by taking a number of card slivers and
forming a lap of them by passing the sliver through a sliver lap
machine. The laps are passed through the comber. This machine consists
essentially of a series of rollers, nippers, and rows of metal teeth.
By the action of these, the short fibers are separated and combed out,
and the long ones arranged in parallel order in the form of a thin,
silky strand, in which condition it is sent to the drawing frames to
be drawn out. Of course it must be understood that a combing machine
is used by only a small percentage of cotton spinners. For ordinary
purposes a sufficiently good quality can be made without a comber. As
there is from 15 to 35 per cent waste to this operation it may be
readily seen that it is costly, and limited entirely to the production
of the very best and finest yarns, such as those intended for sewing
or machine thread, fine hosiery, lace curtains, underwear, imitation
silks, and fine grades of white goods. There are combing machines that
comb short staple cotton.

=Drawing.= The cans containing the slivers are taken from the card or
combing machine (as the case may be) to the drawing frame. The object
of this machine is mainly to equalize the slivers, combining a number
of them together so as to distribute the fibers uniformly. The
condition of the fibers on leaving the card or comb is such that a
slight pull will lay them perfectly straight or parallel, and this
pull is given by the drawing frame rollers. Of course the fibers
coming from the comb are parallel, but it is necessary to alternate
them by the drawing. The drawing frame is a machine consisting of a
number of sets of rollers, the front roller having a greater speed
than the rear ones.

[Illustration: COTTON COMB ROOM

  1. The cotton in the form of a "lap" ready to pass through the comb.]

The slivers, which are as nearly as possible the same weight per
yard, are combined together in the drawing and emerge from the pair of
front rollers as one sliver weighing the same number of grains per
yard as a single sliver fed up at the back. This process is repeated
two or three times, according to requirements, the material then being
referred to as having passed through so many "heads" of drawing. It is
not unusual to pass Indian and American cotton through three
deliveries.

The object of all the processes thus far described has been that of
cleaning (in the picker), arranging the fibers in a parallel position
to each other, making uniform, and drawing out the stock. In every
case the stock delivered from a machine is lighter than when fed into
it, and contains just twist enough to hold it together and prevent its
being stretched or strained when unwound from the bobbin, and fed into
the next machine. The minimum amount of twist in roving is desirable
for the reason that it permits the stock to be drawn out more easily
and uniformly, the little twist that is put in the roving by the
slubber being practically eliminated when it is passed through the
rolls of the intermediate. The same applies in the case of the roving
passing from the roving to the spinning frame.

=Fly Frames.= The process in the manufacture of yarn after the cotton
has passed through the drawing frame consists of further attenuation
of the sliver, but as the cotton sliver has been drawn out as much as
is possible without breakage, a small amount of "twist" is introduced
to allow of the continued drawing out of the sliver.

From the drawing frame, the drawing passes through two, three, or four
fly frames, according to the number of yarn to be made. All these
machines are identical in principle and construction, and differ only
in the size of some of the working parts. They are the slubber,
intermediate, roving,--and fine or jack frame-fine, and the function
of each is to draw and twist.

[Illustration: ROVING DEPARTMENT

  1. Slubber machine, showing sliver of cotton passing through the
     rolls and then given a twist while it is wound on the bobbin.]

=Intermediate Frame.= The function of the intermediate frame is to
receive the slightly twisted rove from the slubber and add thereto a
little more twist and draft. The rove is taken from two bobbins to
one spindle in the machine, an arrangement which tends to insure
strength and uniformity. The principle of the machine is in other
respects the same as that of the slubbing frame.

=Roving Frame.= The function of the roving frame is to receive the
twisted rove from the intermediate and add more twist and draft,
thereby further attenuating the rove. As in the intermediate frame the
rove is generally taken from two bobbins for one spindle.

=Fine or Jack Frame.= This machine is used when fine yarns have to be
made. It is built on the same principle as the preceding frames, the
only difference being that a finer rove is made from which finer
numbers of yarn can be spun. As in the slubber, intermediate, and
roving frames, the rove is taken from two bobbins for one spindle.

=Spinning.= In the manufacture of single ply yarn the final process is
that of spinning, which consists in drawing out the cotton roving to
the required size, and giving it the proper amount of twist necessary
to make the yarn of the required strength. While the spinning frame is
built on entirely different principles from the roving, intermediate,
or slubber frame, the object of each machine is the same as that of
the spinning frame. The principal point of difference is the amount of
twist imparted to the cotton roving.

[Illustration: ROVING ROOM

  1. A drawing frame showing the sliver of cotton passing through the
     machine.
  2. A slubber showing the sliver passing through and wound on bobbins.
  3. Roving machine showing the cotton passing from one bobbin through
     the roller to another.]

The objects of the spinning process are:

1. Completion of the drawing out of the cotton roving to the required
size.

2. Insertion of the proper amount of twist to give the thread
produced strength.

Excessive speed causes defects in the yarn and undue wear and tear on
the machine.

There are two methods of spinning: ring spinning and mule spinning.
The mule spinning is the older form. There are but few mule frames in
operation in this country.

=Mule Spinning.= The function of mule spinning is to spin on the bare
spindle, or upon the short paper tubes, when such are required to form
a base for the cop bottom. The mule will spin any counts of yarn
required, and is especially adapted for yarn in which elasticity and
"cover" are essentials. Hosiery yarns are produced on the ordinary
cotton mule and are very soft spun.

The bobbins of roving are placed in a creel at the back of the
machine, the stands of roving being passed through the rolls and drawn
out in the same manner as at the roving frame. The spindles are
mounted on a carriage which moves backward and forward in its relation
to the rolls, the distance roved being about five feet. When the
spindles are moving away from the frame the stock is being delivered
by the rolls, the speed at which the spindles move away from the rolls
being just enough to keep the ends at a slight tension. The twist is
put in the yarn at the same time.

[Illustration: SPINNING ROOM. COTTON DEPARTMENT

  1. Humidifier--an apparatus to give off moisture.
  2. Spinning frames--showing the cotton as it comes from the roving
     frame and passes through the spinning frame.]

When the spindles reach their greatest distance from the rolls, the
latter are automatically stopped and the direction of the motion of
the spindle carriage reversed. The yarn is wound on the spindle while
the carriage is being moved back toward the rolls, the motion of the
rolls being stopped in the meanwhile, the spindles revolving only fast
enough to wind up the thread that has been spun during the outward
move of the carriage.

The mule is a much more complicated machine than the ring frame, its
floor space is much greater, and more skilled help is required for its
operation. Under ordinary conditions it is not practical to spin finer
yarn than No. 60s on a ring, while as high as No. 500s is said to have
been spun on a mule. The same number of yarn can be spun on a mule
with less twist than on the ring. This is important in hosiery yarn.

Ring spinning is used for coarse numbers, and has greater production
and requires less labor than mule spinning. Ring-spinning yarn is used
for warp purposes.

=Ring Spinning.= The function of ring spinning is to draw out the rove
and spin it into yarn on a continuous system. The yarn made is spun
upon bobbins.

The ring spinning differs from mule spinning in having the carriage
replaced by a ring, from which the machine takes its name. The ring is
from one and one-half to three inches in diameter, grooved inside and
out, and is connected with a flat steel wire shaped like the letter D,
called the "traveller." Its office is to constitute a drag upon the
yarn, by means of which the latter is wound upon a bobbin. Its size
and weight depend on the counts of yarns to be spun; coarse yarns
demand the largest ring and heaviest traveller.

[Illustration: MULE ROOM

  1. Stocks from Finisher ready to be spun upon the mule.
  2. Front Rollers with weight levers.
  3. Clearers for Front Rollers.
  4. Faller shafts containing Sickles.
  5. Spindles.
  6. Spun Yarn wound on cops.
  7. Covers for carriage.
  8. Body of carriage.
  9. Drawing out band.
 10. One of the wheels for the carriage.]



CHAPTER XI

THREAD AND COTTON FINISHING


=Thread.= In general a twisted strand of cotton, flax, wool, silk,
etc., spun out to considerable length, is called thread. In a specific
sense, thread is a compound cord consisting of two or more yarns
firmly united by twisting. Thread is used in some kinds of weaving,
but its principal use is for sewing, for which purpose it is composed
of either silk, cotton, or flax. Thread made of silk is technically
known as sewing silk; that made of flax is known as linen thread;
while cotton thread intended for sewing is commonly called spool
cotton. These distinctions, while generally observed by trade, are not
always maintained by the public.

The spool cotton of to-day is of a different grade from that made
before the sewing machine came into general use. The early thread was
but three cord, and contained such a large number of knots, thin
places, etc., that it could not be worked satisfactorily on the
machines, so manufacturers were called upon to produce a thread that
would be of the same thickness in every twist. This was effected by
making the thread of six cords instead of three, thereby producing a
smoother and more uniform strand.

=Manufacturing Processes.= The raw cotton for the manufacture of
thread must be of long staple. If the fiber is short the thread made
of it will be weak, and hence unsuited for the purposes required of
it. Ordinary cotton is not adapted to the manufacture of the better
grades of spool cotton on account of the shortness of its fiber.
Egyptian and Sea Island cotton are used because they have a much
longer fiber and are softer in texture. The raw cotton comes to the
factory packed in great bales, and is usually stored away for some
months before it is used. The first step in the conversion of the bale
of cotton into thread consists in giving the fiber a thorough
cleaning. This is accomplished by feeding it to a series of pickers
which pull the matted locks and wads to shreds, beat out the dirt and
seeds, and roll the cotton in the form of batting upon cylinders until
it issues from the finisher lap machines as a downy roll or lap.

The lap of cotton then goes to the carding rooms, where it is combed
into parallel fibers by means of a revolving cylinder covered with
fine wire teeth, sometimes 90,000 of them to the square foot. On
leaving the carding machines the lap has become a gossamer-like web
thirty-nine inches broad. This web is next passed through a small
"eye" which condenses it into a narrow band about an inch in width,
known as the sliver. By this time the fiber has been so drawn out that
one yard of the original lap has become 360 yards of the sliver. The
sliver now looks almost perfect, but if it were spun it would not make
good thread. It is necessary to lay every fiber as nearly parallel as
possible, so that there will be an equal number of fibers in the
strand per inch. Besides this, the remaining dirt and short fibers
must be removed and the knots and kinks in the fibers straightened
out. To accomplish these objects the cotton must be "combed." First,
the slivers are passed through several sets of rollers, each set
moving faster than the preceding, so that the strands are drawn out
fine and thin. In this condition the cotton passes to a doubling
frame, and from thence to the lapping frame, a device combining six
laps into one and drawing the whole out into one fine, delicate, ropy
lap.

[Illustration: WARP ROOM

  1. Beam on which the warp is wound.
  2. Warp.
  3. Creel.
  4. Spools in the creel.]

The comber now takes the lap and combs out all the impurities and
short fibers, at a sacrifice of about one-fifth of the material; next,
it combines six of these fluffy combed rolls of fiber into one. A
number of these rolls are then drawn out by another machine twelve
times as long as they were before and twisted together on a slubbing
frame. This last drawing reduces the roll to about the thickness of
zephyr yarn. After being further doubled and twisted, the yarn, or
roll, is ready for the mule spinner, which accomplishes by means of
hundreds of spindles and wheels what the housewife once did with her
spinning wheel. The mule, however, does the work of more than 1,000
hand spinners and takes up much less space. On this machine 900
spindles take the yarn from 1,800 bobbins, and by means of
accelerating rollers and a carriage draw out and twist it to the
proper fineness for the size of thread wanted. Having passed through
the complex processes of cleansing, combing, drawing, and spinning,
the cotton is now in the form of yarn of various sizes, and the real
work of thread making, which is a distinct art from yarn making,
begins.

The thread-making process is briefly as follows: The yarn is doubled
and twisted; then three of such yarns are twisted together, which give
the six-fold combination for six-cord thread. For a three-cord thread
three yarns are twisted together. After the twisting is completed the
thread is reeled into skeins having a continuous length of 4,000 to
12,000 yards, according to the size, and is then sent to the
examining department where it is rigidly inspected. Every strand is
looked over, and any found to be defective are laid aside, so that
when the thread is put on the market it shall be as perfect as care
and skill can make it.

At this stage of the work the skeins of thread are of the pale cream
color common to all unbleached cotton goods, and are technically known
as "in the gray." They therefore have to be bleached pure white or
dyed in fast colors. The skeins, whether intended for white or colored
thread, are first placed in large, steam-tight iron tanks and boiled.
Here the thread remains subjected to a furious boiling for six or
seven hours; when removed it is perfectly clean, but still retains the
brownish gray color of unbleached cotton. It then goes into a bath of
chloride of lime and is bleached as white as snow. The skeins are next
drawn through an acid solution to neutralize the chloride. Another
boiling, another bleaching, a bath of soapsuds, and the final rinsing,
complete the cleansing and whitening process. Those skeins intended
for colored threads are taken to the dyeing room and placed in tanks
filled with suitably prepared dyeing solutions.

[Illustration: TWISTING ROOM

  1. Humidifier.
  2. Twister machine.
  3. Boxes containing spools of cotton, ready to be put in creel and
     form warp.]

From the bleaching and dyeing departments the skeins of thread go
back to the mill to be wound on the bobbins, and from the bobbins
finally on the small wooden spools. The automatic winding machines can
be regulated to wind any given number of yards. The small spools are
fastened on pivots, the thread from the bobbins fastened on the
spools, and the machines set in motion. At the required number of
yards the spools stop revolving. The ordinary spool of cotton thread
contains 200 yards, and when this has been wound on, the thread is cut
with a knife by an attendant, who also cuts the little nick in the rim
of the spool and fastens therein the end of the thread. Thread mills
commonly print their own labels, and these are affixed to the spools
by special machinery with remarkable rapidity. From the labeling
machine the spools go to an inspector, who examines each one for
imperfections, and any that are found faulty are discarded. When
packed in pasteboard boxes or in cabinets the thread is ready for
market.

=Thread Numbers.= Spool cotton for ordinary use is made in sizes
ranging from No. 8 coarse to No. 200 fine. In cotton yarn numbering,
the fineness of the spun strand is denoted by the number of hanks,
each containing 840 yards, which are required to weigh one pound, as
illustrated in the following table:

 When   1 hank of cotton yarn (   840 yds.) weigh 1 lb. it is No.   1
  "    10   "   "    "     "  ( 8,400 yds.)   "    "      "    "   10
  "    16   "   "    "     "  (13,440 yds.)   "    "      "    "   16
  "    30   "   "    "     "  (25,200 yds.)   "    "      "    "   30
  "    50   "   "    "     "  (42,000 yds.)   "    "      "    "   50
  "   100   "   "    "     "  (84,000 yds.)   "    "      "    "  100

The early manufactured thread was three cord, and took its number from
the size of the yarn from which it was made. No. 60 yarn made No. 60
thread, though in point of fact the actual caliber of No. 60 thread
would equal No. 20 yarn, being three No. 60 strands combined
together. When the sewing machine came into the market as the great
consumer of thread, spool cotton had to be made a smoother and more
even product than had previously been necessary for hand needles. This
was accomplished by using six strands instead of three, the yarns
being twice as fine. As thread numbers were already established, they
were not altered for the new article, and consequently at the present
time No. 60 six-cord, for example, and No. 60 three-cord are identical
in size, though in reality No. 60 six-cord is formed of No. 120 yarns.
It is relatively smoother, more even, and stronger than the three-cord
grade. All sizes of six-cord threads are made of six strands, each of
the latter being twice as fine as the number of the thread as
designated by the label. Three-cord spool cotton is made of three
strands of yarn, each of the same number as the thread.

=Sizing.= In textile manufacturing, sizing is the process of
strengthening warp yarns by coating them with a preparation of starch,
flour, etc., in order that they may withstand the weaving process
without chafing or breaking. The operation of sizing is also often
resorted to in finishing certain classes of cotton and linen fabrics,
which are sized or dressed with various mixtures in order to create an
appearance of weight and strength where these qualities do not exist,
or, if present, only in a small degree. The object in sizing warp yarn
before weaving is to enable that process to be performed with the
minimum of threads breaking. Judicious sizing adds to the strength of
the yarn by filling up the spaces between the fibers, and by binding
the loose ends on the outside of the thread to the main part. In order
to accomplish this a number of ingredients are used in the size
preparation, as no single material used alone gives satisfactory
results. The filling up of the minute spaces in the yarns and the
adhesion of the fibers produce a smooth thread with sufficient
hardness to resist the continual chafing of the shuttles, reeds, and
harnesses during the process of weaving. Flour and starch in a liquid
state are used for this purpose, but owing to the liability to mildew,
flour is not so much used as starch. Both of these materials, however,
make the yarn brittle, and other ingredients are combined with them to
overcome the brittleness. For a softener on heavy weight goods nothing
has been found superior to good beef tallow. On light-weight goods the
softener giving the most general satisfaction is paraffin.

When properly made the size preparation is a smooth mass of uniform
consistence, free from lumps of any kind, and from all sediment and
odor. Starch--the principal material which gives body to any
size--requires the most careful treatment. It is first mixed with cold
water into a smooth, creamy milk, which is slowly poured into the
necessary quantity of boiling water until a clear, uniform paste is
formed. Then the softeners are added, such as soaps, oils, and animal
fats; next a small amount of gelatine or glue is stirred in and some
form of preservative, usually chloride of zinc or salicylic acid. The
mass is then thoroughly stirred in tilted jacketed kettles with
mechanical stirrers. The size may be applied to the yarn either hot or
cold. When applied hot it penetrates into the interior, filling up
every space between the fibers, binding all together, and forming a
hard coating on the surface of the thread. A thorough washing or
steaming serves to remove all the size from the woven fabric.

[Illustration: FINISHING ROOM]

=Cotton Finishing.= Cotton fabrics, like other textiles, after leaving
the loom must be subjected to various finishing processes so as to
bring them into commercial condition. On piece-dyed goods part of the
finishing is done before and part after the dyeing process. Each class
of fabrics has definite finishing processes. In some cases weighting
materials are added to the fabric so as to hide more or less its
actual construction. Cotton fabrics just from the loom present a soft
and open structure, more so than other textiles. Therefore it is
necessary to use proper finishing materials and processes which will
fill up the openings or interstices as produced in the fabric by the
interlacing of warp and filling, and at the same time give to the
fabric a certain amount of stiffness. Of course this finish will
disappear during wear or washing, it having been imparted to the
fabric to bring the latter into a salable condition.

Cotton fabrics after weaving may be subjected to the following
sub-processes of finishing:

Inspecting, Burling and Trimming, Bleaching, Washing, Scutching,
Drying.

After the cloth leaves the loom it is brushed; then it passes over to
the inspection table in an upward receding direction, so that the eye
of the operator can readily detect imperfections. The ends of two or
more pieces as coming from the loom are sewed into a string for
convenient handling in the bleaching.

=Bleaching.= The object of bleaching is to free the cotton from its
natural color. The ancient method of bleaching by exposure to the
action of the sun's rays and frequent wetting has been superseded by a
more complicated process involving the use of various chemicals.
Pieces of cloth are tacked together (sewed) to form one continuous
piece of from three to one thousand yards in length. The cloth is next
passed over hot cylinders or a row of small gas jets to remove all
the fine, loose down from the surface. The goods are then washed and
allowed to remain in a wet condition for a few hours, after which they
are passed through milk of lime under heavy pressure, followed by
rinsing in clear water. The goods are next "scoured" in water
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and boiled in a solution of soda,
then washed as before in clear water. Next they are chlorined by being
laid in a stone cistern containing a solution of chloride of lime and
allowed to remain a few hours. This operation requires great care in
the preparation of the chloride of lime, for if the smallest particle
of undissolved bleaching powder is allowed to come in contact with and
remain upon the cloth it is liable to produce holes. The goods are
then boiled for four or five hours in a solution of carbonate of soda,
after which they are washed. They are again chlorined as before and
washed. The long strips are finally scoured in hydrochloric acid,
washed, and well squeezed between metal rollers covered with cloth.
After squeezing and drying, the cloth, if required for printing, needs
no further operation, but if intended to be marketed in a white state,
it must be finished, that is, starched or calendered.

=Starching.= The starch is applied to the cloth by means of rollers
which dip into a vat containing the solution, while other rollers
remove the excess. Sometimes the cloth is artificially weighted with
fine clay or gypsum, the object being to render the cloth solid in
appearance.

=Calendering.= The cloth is now put through the calendering machine,
the object of which is to give a perfectly smooth and even surface,
and sometimes a superficial glaze; the common domestic smoothing iron
may be regarded as a form of a calendering utensil. The cloth is first
passed between the cylinders of a machine two, three, or four times,
according to the finish desired. The calender finishes may be classed
as dull, luster, glazed, watered or moire, and embossed. The calender
always flattens and imparts a luster to the cloth passed through it.
With considerable pressure between smooth rollers a soft, silky luster
is given by equal flattening of all the threads. By passing two folds
of the cloth at the same time between the rollers the threads of one
make an impression upon the other, and give a wiry appearance. The
iron rollers are sometimes made hollow for the purpose of admitting
steam or gas in order to give a glaze finish. Embossing is produced by
passing the cloth under heated metal rollers upon which are engraved
suitable patterns, the effect of which is the reproduction of the
pattern upon the surface of the cloth.

=Mercerizing.= This is a process of treating cotton yarn or fabrics
with caustic soda and sulphuric acid whereby they are made stronger
and heavier, and given a silky luster and feel. The luster produced
upon cotton is due to two causes, the change in the structure of the
fiber, and the removing of the outer skin of the fiber. The swelling
of the fiber makes it rounder, so that the rays of light as they fall
upon the surface are reflected instead of being absorbed. The quality
and degree of luster of mercerized cotton fabrics depends largely
upon the grade of cotton used. The long-staple Egyptian and Sea Island
cotton, so twisted as to leave the fibers as nearly loose and parallel
as possible, show the best results. If the yarn is singed the result
is a further improvement. Yarns and fabrics constructed of the
ordinary grades of cotton cannot be mercerized to advantage. The cost
of producing high-grade mercerized yarn is about three times that of
an unmercerized yarn of the same count, spun from the commoner
qualities of cotton.

Mercerized yarn is employed in almost every conceivable manner, not
only in the manufacture of half-silk and half-wool fabrics, and in
lustrous all-cotton tissues, but also in the production of figures and
stripes of cotton goods having non-lustrous grounds. Mercerized yarn
used in connection with silk is difficult to detect except by an
expert eye.

=Characteristics of a good piece of Cotton Cloth.= A perfect cotton
fiber has little convolutions in it which give the strong twist and
spring to a good thread. In this respect the Sea Island cotton is the
best. There are five things requisite for cotton cloth to be good,
viz.:

1. The cloth must be made of good fiber, that is ripe and long.

2. The fiber must be carefully prepared. All the processes must be
well performed--for the very fine thread fiber must be combed to
remove poor fiber. The combing, however, is not always done.

3. The warp and woof threads must be in good proportion.

4. The cloth must be soft, so that it will not crease easily.

5. It must be carefully bleached--the chemicals used must not be
strong.



CHAPTER XII

KNITTING


The art and process of forming fabrics by looping a single thread,
either by hand with slender wires or by means of a machine provided
with hooked needles, is called knitting. Crocheting is an analogous
art, but differs from knitting in the fact that the separate loops are
thrown off and finished by hand successively, whereas in knitting the
whole series of loops which go to form one length or round are
retained on one or more needles, while a new series is being formed on
a separate needle. Netting is performed by knotting threads into
meshes that cannot be unraveled, while knitting can be unraveled and
the same thread applied to any other use. Knitting is really carried
on without making knots; thus, the destruction of one loop threatens
the destruction of the whole web, unless the meshes are reunited.

The principle of knitting is quite distinct from that of weaving. In
the weaving of cloth the yarns of one system cross those of another
system at right angles, thus producing a solid, firm texture. The
great elasticity of any kind of texture produced by knitting is the
chief feature that distinguishes hosiery from woven stuffs. The nature
of the loop formed by the knitting needle favors elongation and
contraction without marring in the least the general structure of the
goods. Builders of weavers' looms have at times endeavored to secure
this elastic effect by certain manipulations of the mechanism of the
loom, but as yet nothing approaching the product of the knitter has
been made. The elastic feature of a knitted texture renders it
peculiarly adapted for all classes and kinds of undergarments, for it
not only fits the body snugly, but expands more readily than any other
fabric of similar weight.

=Knitting Machines.= There are various machines for knitting. The
circular knitting machine produces a circular web of various degrees
of fineness, and in sizes ranging from a child's stocking to a man's
No. 50 undershirt. The circular fabric made in this manner has to be
cut up and joined together by some method to make a complete garment.
The knitting frame for producing fashioned goods makes a flat strip,
narrowing and widening it at certain places so as to conform to the
shape of the foot, leg, or body. These strips then have to be joined
by sewing or knitting to form a garment. Fashioning machines are
indispensable for knitting the Niantic and French foot, and also for
the production of stripes, fancy openwork, and lace hosiery.

[Illustration: KNITTING MACHINE FOR HOSIERY]

All plain machines of any class produce only plain knitted fabrics,
while ribbed machines make only ribbed fabrics. Still, many garments
in their make-up include both kinds of knitting; therefore, many
machines produce only certain parts of particular garments. In the
case of half-hose there is frequently a ribbed top, or in underwear a
ribbed cuff, and these may be made either of circular web or full
fashioned. In each case the ribbed portion is first knit and then
transferred to a plain machine, and being placed upon the needles is
worked on to the rest of the garment. In some instances the heel is
made by the machine working the leg, though there are numerous
knitters specially designed for turning out only this particular part.

Among other knitting machines in modern use are the drawers machine;
machines for hose and half-hose with apparatus for making the instep,
finishing off the toe, splicing or thickening the heels, etc.;
machines for producing the bottoms or soles of hose separately, and
also the instep separately; circular stocking machines for producing a
tubular web afterwards cut into suitable lengths for all varieties of
hose; circular sleeve machines, circular body machines, as well as
circular web machines for making both body and sleeves of undershirts,
jerseys, sweaters, etc. Special machines are also made for knitting
both plain and ribbed plaited goods, that is, with both sides wool
while the center is of cotton, or with a silk or worsted face on one
side and the back of an inferior yarn. In the form of auxiliary
appliances are produced many kinds of stitching machines; circular
latch-needle machines for plain ribbed, mock seam, and striped goods;
steam presses; hose rolling machines; hose cutting and welting
machines, and many other accessories to hosiery manufacture.

[Illustration: KNITTING MACHINE FOR UNDERWEAR]

At present fully one-third of the knit underwear used in this country
is of the ribbed description. It is made in all the materials that
the older flat goods are composed of, including silk, silk mixtures,
linen, wool, lisle, and cotton. Rib work is ordinarily stronger and
more lasting than plain. It is also invaluable for many purposes on
account of its tendency to contract and expand in the direction of the
circumference without altering its length. This feature makes it
indispensable for tops to socks and wrist work for shirts, mittens,
gloves, etc., and for the production of heavy garments such as
cardigans and sweaters. The expense of knitting rib work is higher
than plain knitting, owing to the fact that the machines cannot turn
out so great a quantity within a given time.

The formation of the rib in knitted goods is unique in its principle.
The effect is produced by reversing the stitch. In place of making the
stitch work appear entirely upon one side of the fabric, as in plain
work, the needles are so arranged that every alternate row, or two
rows alternately, are reversed, thus making both sides alike. Plain
work is done with a single bank of needles, while rib work requires
two banks, the function of the second one being to pull and loop the
yarn in an opposite direction, thus producing a thicker and more
elastic web.

Double work in knitting consists merely in running two threads where
one is commonly used. The work is done readily and with but little
extra cost for labor. Coarser and heavier needles are required, also a
wider gauge for the needle cylinder. Fancy effects in double work are
produced by running two colors instead of one. The tendency is for one
thread to twine about the other, thus making attractive
double-and-twist work. Lumbermen's socks and like goods are often
knitted on this plan, though for the most part double work is for the
heels, toes, and soles of ordinary hose.

=Stripe Knitting.= The process of striping knitted fabrics is
accomplished automatically by a system of changing the yarns when
delivered by the feeds. Circular machines knitting a tubular web
cannot be utilized for this purpose, hence the work is done on
fashioning or stocking frames. It has only been within recent years
that makers of knitting machinery have been able to offer machines on
which more than one kind of yarn could be knit at one time. There are
now in use, however, machines that will readily knit several colors of
yarn at the same time.

=Knitting Cotton.= A variety of loosely twisted, four-ply cotton yarn,
dyed in various plain and mixed colors, employed for knitting hosiery,
tidies, mats, etc., by hand. It is numbered from 8, coarse, to 20,
fine, and commonly put up sixteen balls in a box, each box containing
two pounds, manufacturer's weight.

=Knitting Silk.= A loosely twisted silk thread of domestic manufacture
employed for knitting mittens, stockings, and other articles by hand.
It is also much used for crochet work. Knitting silk is put up in the
form of balls, each containing one-half ounce of thread. It is made in
but two sizes, No. 300, coarse, and No. 500, fine; each ball of the
former number contains 150 yards of silk; of the latter 250 yards. No.
500 is manufactured only in white, cream, and black; the No. 300 is
fast dyed in a great variety of colors.

=Hosiery Manufacture.= According to the particular method by which
socks and stockings are made, of whatever kind, quality, or material,
they are classed as cut goods, seamless, or full fashioned. Of the
three methods of manufacturing the first named is the least expensive.
Cut goods are made of round webbing knitted on what is called a
circular knitting machine. The web has the appearance of a long roll
of cloth about the width of a sock or stocking when pressed flat. The
first operation consists in cutting off pieces the length of the
stocking desired, these lengths, of course, being the same (unshaped)
from end to end. The shaping of the leg is effected either by cutting
out enough of the stocking from the calf to the heel to allow part to
be sewn up and shaped to fit the ankle, or by shrinking. In the
heeling room where the pieces next go, the cutters are furnished with
gauges or patterns that indicate just where to make a slit for the
insertion of the heel, generally of a different color. When the heel
is sewn in, the stocking begins to assume its rightful shape. The toe
is now put on and the stocking is practically finished. In the case of
socks the final operation consists in attaching the ribbed top, which
tends to draw the upper part of the leg together, thus causing it to
assume a better shape. The final work includes scouring, dyeing, and
shaping. The cost of making cut goods is less by a few cents per dozen
than when knit seamless. While some very creditable hose are produced
in this way, yet the existence of the heavy seam is an objection which
confines them to the poorest class of trade. Cut goods are made in
all sizes and kinds for men, women, and children.

Seamless hose are made on a specially constructed machine which
produces the entire stocking, but leaves the toe piece to be joined
together by a looping attachment. On half-hose the leg is made the
same size down to the ankle, but on ladies' hose the stocking is
shaped somewhat in the machine. Seamless hose are not, strictly
speaking, entirely seamless, inasmuch as all stockings made on a
circular knitting machine must have a seam somewhere. There must be a
beginning and an ending. In the case of the stocking the ending is at
the toe, and the opening left can only be closed with a seam. In some
mills this opening is automatically stitched together on special
machines; in others, girls do it by hand with needle and thread.
Neither by machine nor handwork can the opening be closed with exactly
the same stitch as that made by the needles of the power knitter.
However, the seam is of small proportions, and when the goods are
scoured, pressed, and finished the presence of the seam is a minor
item, as it neither incommodes the wearer nor mars the appearance of
the stocking. Seamless goods are made in a great variety of qualities,
ranging from cotton half-hose at fifty cents per dozen to the fine
worsted stockings at $6.00 per dozen. A notable and very commendable
feature of seamless hose is the socket-like shape of the heel, which
fits that portion of the foot as though really fitted to it. As far as
comfort and fit are concerned, the manufacture of seamless hosiery has
now reached such a degree of perfection as to bring it second only to
the full-fashioned variety.

Full-fashioned hose are produced by means of complicated and expensive
knitting frames, which automatically drop the requisite number of
stitches at the ankle so as gradually to narrow the web down and give
the stocking the natural shape of the leg. The toe is produced in the
same way, and the shaping of heel and gusset is brought about in like
manner. Hence, the goods are called full-fashioned, because so
fashioned as to conform to the proportions of the leg and foot. Hose
and underwear made by this method are knit in flat strips and then
seamed either by hand or machine. Generally special machines are used,
which take up and complete the selvedges, thus avoiding objectionable
seams with raw edges.

The knitting frames used for making full-fashioned goods are large,
intricate, expensive, and slow in operation; they are difficult to
keep in order and require skilful operators. The largest ones knit
from fourteen to eighteen stockings at once, using as many as four
threads of different colors in the production of patterns. The first
operation consists in knitting the leg down to the foot; then the legs
are transferred by expert workmen to another frame which knits the
foot. Next they go to another department where, with the aid of a
special looping machine, the heels and toes are stitched together.
Then the stockings or socks are handed over to expert women operators,
who seam up the legs on a machine especially adapted for the purpose.
After being sorted they are taken to be dyed, boarded, stitched,
dried, and finally subjected to heat and pressure to give them a
finished appearance. It usually requires two weeks from the time the
manufacturing operations begin, for a stocking to emerge from the
factory in a finished form. Full-fashioned hose are made in all shades
and grades of silk and cotton, in lisle thread, and in all kinds of
cashmere, merino, and woolen goods. They are likewise knitted plain,
ribbed, and with fancy stripes and embroidery effects. In the United
States there are numerous important plants engaged in the production
of full-fashioned goods, while large quantities are annually imported
from Germany and France.

=Finishing Process.= When socks and stockings are taken off of the
knitting machines they present an unfinished appearance, being loose,
puckered, dirty, and generally shapeless. Scouring, dyeing, shaping,
and pressing serve to improve their looks, and these finishing
operations constitute a distinct branch of the industry. While still
in a moist state the hose are shaped. This is effected by the use of
forming-boards made of wood and about one-half of an inch in
thickness. The sock or stocking is carefully stretched over the "form"
while damp, and then placed in a heated chamber and allowed to dry.
The goods assume the shape of the wooden "form," and will always hold
it if the work has been carefully and thoroughly done. After they have
been taken from the drying chamber and the boards removed the hose are
pressed between heavy metal plates or rollers, looked over for
defects, and when boxed or bundled are ready for market.



CHAPTER XIII

LACE


=Lace.= Lace is the name applied to an ornamental open work of threads
of flax, cotton, silk, gold, or silver, and occasionally of mohair or
aloe fiber. The latter are used by the peasants of Italy and Spain.

Lace consists of two parts, the ground and the flower. The threads may
be looped, plaited, or twisted in one of three ways. First, with a
needle, when the work is known as "needlepoint lace." Second, when
bobbins, pins, and a pillow or cushion are used; this is called
"pillow lace." Third, by machinery, when imitations of both point and
pillow lace patterns are produced.

Special patterns for these laces date from the beginning of the
sixteenth century. The early productions of the art had some analogy
to weaving; the patterns were stiff and geometrical, sometimes cut out
of linen or separately sewed and applied to the meshed surface, but
more frequently they were darned in, the stitches being counted in, as
in tapestry. This kind was known as darned netting. With the
development of the renaissance of art, free flowing patterns and
figure subjects were introduced and worked in.

Whether of needlepoint or pillow make, both the ornament and the
ground are produced by the lace maker. Needlepoint is made by first
stitching the net with thread along the outline of a pattern drawn on
paper or parchment, thus producing a skeleton thread pattern. This
threadwork serves as a foundation for the different figures which are
formed in the lace.

Bobbin or pillow lace more nearly resembles weaving. The threads are
fixed upon a circular or square pillow, placed variously to suit the
methods of manufacture in vogue in different countries. The object of
using the pillow is to prevent too much handling of the lace. One end
of each thread is fastened to the cushion with a pin, the main supply
of thread being twined around a small bobbin of wood, bone, or ivory.
The threads are twisted and plaited together by the lace maker, who
throws the bobbins over and under each other. The operation is fairly
simple, since children of eight or nine years of age can be trained to
it successfully. It demands, however, considerable dexterity with the
fingers.

The design for pillow lace must of course be adapted to the technical
requirements of the process, and cannot therefore be the same as one
for needlepoint, which has a better appearance and greater strength
than pillow lace. For this reason it was in former times generally
preferred for wear on occasions of state. On the other hand, pillow
lace has the quality of charming suppleness, and for use in mantillas,
veils, and fichus it is better than needlepoint, lending itself with
delicate softness and graceful flexibility as a covering to the head
and shoulders of women.


LACE TERMS DEFINED

    _Alençon (Point d')._--Fine needlepoint lace with the
    ground of double-twist thread in a semi-net effect. Is
    usually worked with horsehair on the edges to give
    firmness to the cordonnet. Called after the city in
    France where it is made.

    _Allover._--Name for all wide laces used for flouncing,
    yokes, and entire waists. Usually the lace is over
    eighteen inches in width.

    _American Laces._--A general term formerly used to
    distinguish lace made in this country, the development
    of the industry having now rendered the term nearly
    obsolete.

    _Angleterre (Point d')._--Fine Brussels pillow lace,
    distinguished by a rib of raised and plaited threads
    worked in the lace. Shown in floral, ornithological, and
    geometrical designs.

    _Antique._--Hand-made pillow lace of heavy linen thread
    in a large, open, rectangular knotted mesh. Used for
    curtains, bed sets, draperies.

    _Antwerp._--Bobbin lace, resembling early Alençon. Shows
    a "pot"--that is, a vase or basket effect--in the
    design.

    _Appliqué._--Any lace in which the body and the design
    are made separately. The body is usually silk and the
    design cotton or linen.

    _Appliqué Brussels._--Name sometimes given to Brussels
    appliqué laces.

    _Arabe (Point d')._--Coarse bobbin lace made in Belgium
    and France as well as Arabia. Shows a large, bold
    pattern, cable edged, and is almost invariably in a deep
    écru tone. Used for curtains and draperies.

    _Arabian._--Same as above.

    _Argentine._--Similar to Alençon, the mesh being a
    trifle larger.

    _Arras._--Very strong, inexpensive, white bobbin lace,
    of simple pattern, somewhat resembling Mechlin.
    Distinguished by its light, single thread ground. Named
    after the city in France where it is made.

    _Aurillac._--Somewhat resembles Angleterre. Bobbin lace
    made in Aurillac, France.

    _Auvergne._--Any kind of bobbin lace made in Auvergne,
    France. Different makes and patterns.

    _Ave Maria._--A narrow edging lace.

    _Baby Lace._--Light and simple edging lace made in
    England.

    _Battenberg._--Same as Renaissance. Designs confined to
    flower patterns.

    _Bayeux._--Bobbin lace, usually an imitation of Spanish
    point. Also a black, rich lace made in large pieces for
    shawls, head scarfs, etc.

    _Binche._--Fine pillow lace, without cordonnet. Ground
    resembles a spider-web with small dots. Made in Binche,
    Belgium.

    _Bisette._--Coarse, narrow French peasant lace in simple
    designs. Name often applied to cheap bordering laces.

    _Blonde._--So called, being originally a bobbin lace
    made of unbleached silk, though now shown in black,
    white, and colors. Made with two different sizes of
    thread; fine thread for the ground, coarse for the
    design. Usually takes some floral form. Very lustrous.

    _Bobbin Lace._--Imitation of pillow lace. Made in
    England and France.

    _Bobbinet._--The same.

    _Bone Lace._--An obsolete term once given to Honiton
    bobbin lace.

    _Bone Point Lace._--Applied to laces having no regular
    ground or mesh, such as Renaissance.

    _Border Lace._--Practically synonymous with edging.

    _Bourdon._--A machine lace made of both silk and cotton.
    Show scroll-like patterns cable-edged on a regular mesh.
    Usually dyed black, but sometimes bleached. The outline
    is of a heavy lustrous thread. Used chiefly for dress
    trimming and millinery.

    _Brettone._--Cheap narrow edging.

    _Bride Lace._--Lace with the pattern connected with
    brides. Same as bone point lace.

    _Brides._--Slender threads connecting different parts of
    a pattern.

    _Brussels Net._--Plain net made originally in Brussels,
    but now produced in all lace manufacturing countries.

    _Brussels Pillow._--Fine pillow lace with the patterns
    joined together by little loops on their edges.

    _Brussels Point._--Shows an open pattern, made partly in
    open, partly in closed, stitch, giving the appearance of
    shading.

    _Carrickmacross._--Tiny Irish cambric drawn work,
    appliqué on net.

    _Cartisane._--Guipure or passementerie made with thin
    silk or gilt-covered strips of parchment.

    _Chantilly._--Pillow lace very similar to blonde. Comes
    from Chantilly, France. Made in both silk and cotton and
    usually seen in black. Non-lustrous, and looks as if
    made from black linen thread.

    _Chiffon Lace._--Chiffon embroidered in twist silk.

    _Cluny._--Coarse-thread bobbin lace, made in both linen
    and cotton. Shows a close-stitch pattern darned on an
    open ground. Used for dress trimmings and the
    manufacture of curtains.

    _Cork Lace._--A sweeping term used to designate all
    laces of Irish make.

    _Cotton Lace._--All lace made of cotton.

    _Craponne._--Cheap, stout thread furniture guipure.

    _Crochet Lace._--Any point lace made with the crochet
    hook.

    _Darned Lace._--A comprehensive term taking in all net
    effects with the pattern applied in needlework.

    _Devonshire Lace._--Lace made in this part of England,
    and especially Honiton imitation.

    _Dieppe._--Fine needlepoint lace made in Dieppe, France.
    Resembles Valenciennes. Made with a regular ground of
    squares of small meshes alternating with open squares
    upon which the pattern is applied in close stitch.

    _Duchesse._--Pillow lace with fine net ground with the
    patterns in raised work, volants, and the like.

    _Dutch Lace._--Practically a coarse Valenciennes.

    _English Point._--See Angleterre.

    _Escurial._--Heavy silk lace made in imitation of Rose
    point. Patterns outlined with cable edge.

    _Esprit (Point d')._--Dotted bobbinet with the dots
    either singly or in clusters.

    _Filet Lace._--Any lace made with a square mesh net.

    _Flemish Point._--Needlepoint lace made in Flanders.

    _Footing._--Simple insertion of Brussels net from one to
    three inches in width.

    _Galloon._--Irregular band with a fancy edge. Entire
    piece often in zigzag or scallop form.

    _Gaze (Point de)._--Flemish point lace resembling point
    d'Alençon, though much softer, being without horsehair.

    _Gêne (Point de)._--Openwork embroidery made on a wool
    ground which is afterwards eaten away by acid.

    _Genoa._--Heavy lace made of aloe fiber. Another name
    for macramé.

    _Gimp._--See Guipure.

    _Gold Lace._--Gimp or braid covered with gold or
    imitation gold thread.

    _Grammont._--White pillow lace used for shawls and the
    like. Black silk lace nearly resembling blonde.

    _Guipure._--Fancy trimming of wire cord whipped round
    with silk or cotton threads, and the small patterns
    stitched together.

    _Guipure d'Art._--Linen net upon which raised
    intersecting patterns are worked.

    _Guipure de Flanders._--A pillow lace made separately,
    having flowers connected by bars and brides.

    _Hand Embroidered._--Heavy point lace, usually of Plauen
    manufacture, with fancy floral or other figures
    embroidered on the design.

    _Honiton._--English bobbin lace, famed for the beauty of
    its designs. Named for the city where it was first
    manufactured. Now made in Belgium, Holland, and France.
    Sprays sometimes made separately, and then worked on a
    net--Honiton appliqué.

    _Honiton Braid._--Narrow machine-made braid of
    ornamental oval figures connected by narrow bars. Used
    for collars, handkerchiefs, and tidies.

    _Honiton Guipure._--Large flower-pattern lace on very
    open ground, the sprays held together with brides or
    bars.

    _Imitation Lace._--A term used to designate any
    machine-made lace in contrast with hand-made.

    _Insertion._--Any narrow lace with a plain edge on
    either side that admits of its being inserted in a
    fabric.

    _Irish Crochet._--Heavy hand-made lace, remarkable for
    the beauty and distinctness of its patterns, and the
    startling whiteness of the linen thread used in its
    manufacture.

    _Irish Lace._--A general term used to designate all lace
    made by the Irish peasantry.

    _Irish Point._--Hybrid combination of appliqué, cut
    work, and embroidery on net with elaborate needle
    stitching in the higher grades.

    _Irish Trimming._--Simple, woven lace, used on white
    wear.

    _Knotted Lace._--Frequently referred to as knotting. A
    fancy weave of twisted and knotted threads in close
    imitation of some old hand laces.

    _Lille (Also Lile)._--French lace named after the town
    where it is made. Somewhat resembles Mechlin. Shows a
    very clear, light ground and is the most beautiful of
    all simple thread laces.

    _Limerick Lace._--A form of embroidery on net or muslin.

    _Luxeuil._--A general term for hand-made laces of
    Luxeuil, France. More specifically those of a stout,
    heavy nature. Used for tidies, curtains, draperies.

    _Macramé._--Knotted hand-made lace, made of a very heavy
    cord. Shown principally in geometrical designs. Very
    popular in deep écru.

    _Maline._--Fine silk net. Sometimes also applied to
    Mechlin lace with a diamond mesh.

    _Maltese._--Coarse machine-made cotton lace, resembling
    torchon. Has no regular ground, the patterns being
    usually connected with heavy stitch work.

    _Mechlin._--Light pillow lace with the pattern outlined
    by a fine but very distinct thread or cord. Real Mechlin
    generally has the ground pattern woven together, the
    latter running largely to flowers, buds, etc.

    _Medallion._--Single, detached pattern.

    _Medici._--Special kind of torchon edging, with one edge
    scalloped.

    _Mélange._--Hand-made silk pillow lace, showing a
    combination of conventional Chantilly with Spanish
    designs.

    _Mignonette._--Light bobbin lace, made in narrow strips.
    Resembles tulle.

    _Miracourt._--Sprig effects of bobbin-lace applied on
    net ground.

    _Mexican Drawnwork._--Little round medallions either
    single or in strips, the threads drawn to form a
    cartwheel. Mexican and Teneriffe drawnwork are
    practically the same. Machine imitations made in
    Nottingham, Calais, and St. Gall.

    _Motif._--See Medallion.

    _Nanduly._--South American fiber-lace, made by needle in
    small squares, which are afterward joined together.
    Design very beautiful and of remarkable durability.

    _Needlepoint Lace._--See Point Lace.

    _Normandy Lace._--See Valenciennes.

    _Nottingham._--A general term including all the
    machine-made laces turned out in that great
    lace-producing center of England.

    _Oriental Lace._--Really an embroidery, being produced
    on the Schiffli machine, the pattern being then either
    cut or eaten out. Also applied to point d'Arabe and
    certain filet effects.

    _Oyah Lace._--A crocheted guipure shown in ornate
    patterns.

    _Passementerie._--A decorative edging or trimming,
    especially gimp or braid.

    _Picots._--Infinitesimal loops on brides and other
    strands.

    _Pillow Lace (Bobbin Lace)._--Made on a pillow with
    bobbins and pins. Machine-made imitations retain the
    name.

    _Plauen._--Applied to all laces emanating from that
    section of Saxony and including imitations of nearly all
    point laces, which are embroidered on a wool ground,
    this being afterward dissolved in acid and the cotton or
    silk design left intact.

    _Point de Gaze._--Fine gauze-like needle-lace.

    _Point d'Irelande._--Coarse machine lace, made in
    imitation of real Venetian point.

    _Point de Milan._--A variety of guipure, having a ground
    of small meshes, and a pattern consisting of bold,
    flowing scroll devices.

    _Point de Paris._--A variety of cheap machine lace,
    cotton, of simple design.

    _Point Kant._--Flemish pillow lace, with a net ground
    and the design running largely to "pot" effects--pot
    lace.

    _Point Lace._--Lace made by hand with needle and single
    thread. Needlepoint the same. Point d'Alençon, point de
    Venise, etc., are all variations of point lace and will
    be found classified under their initials.

    _Point Plat._--Point lace without raised design.

    _Renaissance._--Modern lace, made of narrow tape or
    braid formed into patterns, held together by brides, the
    brides forming subsidiary designs. Battenberg is the
    same thing.

    _Repoussé._--Applied to the design, being a pattern that
    has the effect of being stamped in.

    _Rococo._--Italian lace, bearing the rococo design.

    _Rose Point._--See Venetian point.

    _Seaming Lace._--Narrow, openwork insertion.

    _Seville._--Variety of torchon.

    _Spanish Lace._--A comprehensive term. Convent-made,
    needlepoint lace. Cut drawnwork effects, also
    convent-made. Needlepoint lace in large squares. Black
    silk lace in floral designs.

    _Spanish Point._--Ancient embroidery of gold, silver,
    and silk passementerie.

    _Swiss Lace._--Swiss embroidered net in imitation of
    Brussels.

    _Tambour._--Variety of Limerick.

    _Tape Lace._--Hand-made needle lace, similar to
    Renaissance.

    _Thread Lace._--Made of linen thread, as distinguished
    from cotton and silk laces.

    _Torchon._--Coarse, open bobbin lace of stout but
    loosely twisted thread in very simple patterns. Much
    seen in imitations, usually in narrow widths.

    _Van Dyke Points._--Applied to laces with a border made
    in large points.

    _Valenciennes._--Commonly called Val. Bobbin lace, seen
    mostly in cheap insertions and in the form of narrow
    edgings.

    _Venetian Point._--Point de Venise. Needlepoint lace in
    floral pattern with the designs very close together and
    connected by brides ornamented with picots.

    _Wood Fiber._--Applied to all laces made of wood silk.

    _Yak._--Machine-made worsted lace. Used for trimming for
    shawls, petticoats, and undergarments.

    _Youghal._--Needlepoint lace of coarse thread, made
    exclusively in Ireland.

    _Ypres._--Bobbin lace, somewhat coarser than Val.



CHAPTER XIV

COTTON FABRICS[16]


=Albatross.= Cotton albatross cloth is a fabric made in imitation of a
worsted fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy surface. The name is
taken from the bird whose downy breast the finish of the fabric
resembles. The warp is usually 28s cotton, the filling 36s cotton. It
is a plain weave. Filling and warp count 48 picks per inch. The goods
are finished by being burled, sheared, washed, singed, dyed, rinsed,
dried, and pressed, care being taken not to press too hard. Sometimes
singeing is omitted. Albatross cloth is generally in white, black, or
solid colors. It is not often printed. It is light in weight, and is
used for dress goods.

=Awning.= A cotton cloth used as a cover to shelter from sun rays.

=Batiste.= Batiste is of French origin, and is a light, transparent
cloth, made from a fine quality of combed cotton yarn. There is a
gradual variation in quality ranging from a comparatively coarse to a
very fine fabric. The variety of qualities will suggest some idea of
the utility of the fabric. Its uses are even more varied than are the
qualities. The finer grades are used for dress goods and all kinds of
lingerie for summer wear, etc., while the cheaper grades are used for
linings in washable and unwashable shirt waists. Batiste is woven in
the gray, that is, with yarn direct from the spinning frame, with the
exception that the warp yarn is well sized, in order to stand better
the strain to which it is subjected during the weaving process.

=Bourrette.= A light weight, single cloth fabric, with two-ply cotton
warp and wool or a combination of cotton and shoddy filling, made with
the plain weave and in appearance a semi-rough-faced woolen fabric
with fancy effects in twist scattered about it. It is used principally
for ladies' fall suitings.

=Bedford Cord.= This is one of the most popular types of fabrics, the
distinguishing effect being a line or cord running lengthwise of the
cloth, the cord being more or less prominent. The cloth is made of
cotton, or sometimes of worsted. The face effect of the Bedford cord
is generally plain. Occasionally twill-faced cords are used. The cords
vary in width from about one twentieth to one quarter of an inch. To
get extra weight without altering the appearance of the face, extra
warp yarns, termed wadding ends, are inserted between the face weave
and the filling, floating at the back of the rib. When these wadding
ends are coarse, they give a pronounced rounded appearance to the
cord. They run from 88 to 156 picks to an inch.

=Buckram.= Buckram is derived from Bokhara. It may be described as a
coarse, glue-sized fabric, and is made of cotton, hemp, linen, or
cotton and hair (coarse) yarns, usually from 10s to 25s. Made of a
double cloth warp, 22s cotton, 34 picks to the inch, for the face or
top fabric 1/12's[17]; weight from loom 2.22 ozs. per yard. Bottom
fabric 1/12's cotton; filling 1/16's cotton; 12 picks to the inch.
Weight per yard, 1.8 ounces. These fabrics depend a great deal on the
finishing. The men's wear requires less sizing on account of the hair
it contains. The goods are piece dyed. Buckram is used principally for
stiffening garments, and to give them shape or form. It is placed
between the lining and the surface cloth of the garment in particular
parts, such as the lapels, etc. It is used in the millinery trade, and
is made into hats. Millinery buckram is sized two or three times.

=Calico= takes its name from Calicut, a city in India, where cloth was
first printed. The majority of inexpensive cotton fabrics are
constructed on the one up, one down system, or plain weave. Calico is
no exception to this rule. The printed designs on calicoes may be
somewhat elaborate or they may be simple geometrical figures. In
order, however, to comply with the true principles of art, such
fabrics as calicoes should have but simple geometrical figures for
their ornamental features. New styles and combinations of colors are
produced every month and faster and lighter color printed each season.
Most of the designs for calicoes and cotton cloth printing are made in
Paris. At present the steam styles are most prominent; they are the
fastest and lightest to be obtained. Calico is a printed cloth, the
printing being done by a printing machine which has a rotating
impression cylinder on which the design has been stamped or cut out.
The cloth in passing through the machine comes in contact with the
impression cylinder. The cylinder revolving in a color trough takes up
the color and leaves the impression of the design on the cloth.
Calicoes may be seen in almost any color. The printing machine is
capable of printing several colors in one design. Calicoes, however,
are usually in two colors, that is, one color for ground and the other
for figure. The ground color in most cases is effected by dyeing the
cloth in some solid color. After the cloth is dyed the design is
printed on it. The cloth, after it comes from the loom, is singed and
bleached, then sheared and brushed to take away all the lint, and then
sent to the dye house. The first process there is to boil it, after
which it is immersed in the dye tub. Calicoes are usually given what
may be termed a "cheap cotton dye." By "cheap cotton dye" is meant
that the colors are not fast, but will run or fade when subjected to
water. After the fabric is dyed, it is given to the printer, who
ornaments the face of the cloth with some geometrical design; then it
is practically ready for the merchant. After printing, the cloth is
dried and steamed to fix the color, afterwards soaped, washed,
finished, and folded. The printing machine turns out about 400 to 800
fifty-yard pieces a day. Calico is used for inexpensive dresses,
shirtwaists, wrappers, etc.

=Cambric.= Cambric is a heavy, glazed cotton fabric with a smooth
finish. It was first made in Cambrai, France. It has a plain weave
and a width of thirty-six inches. Cambrics are dyed in a jig machine.
After dyeing they are run through a mangle containing the sizing
substance, then dried, dampened, and run through a calender machine.
The glossy effect is obtained in this last finishing process. Cambric
is used for shirtwaists, dress goods, etc. The finer grades are made
from hard twisted cotton of good quality.

=Canvas.= This is a term applied to heavy, plain weave cloths made
with ply cotton yarn. They are used for mail bags, covering for boats,
etc.

=Chambray.= Chambray is a staple fabric of many years standing, being
next in rank among cotton goods after the better grade of gingham.
Chambray is a light-weight single cloth fabric that is always woven
with a plain weave, and always has a white selvedge. In effect it is a
cloth having but one color in the warp, and woven with a white
filling, this combination producing a solid color effect, the white
filling reducing any harshness of warp color in the cloth. It is
composed of one warp and one filling, either all cotton, cotton and
silk, or all silk. It is twenty-seven to thirty inches in width and
single 30s cotton warp to single 60s silk, the count of yarn being
governed by the weight per yard desired. The weight per finished yard
is two to three and one-half ounces. Good colors for the warp are navy
blue, dark brown, lavender, black, nile green, etc. When made of
cotton warp and filling the fabric receives a regular gingham finish.
The loom width can be restored by tentering or running the goods over
a machine fitted underneath with a series of coils of steam pipe. The
top of this machine is fitted with an endless chain with a row of
steel needles standing erect upon its face. Chains are adjusted to the
width desired, and as the machine runs, both selvedges are caught by
the needles and the cloth stretched to the required width.

=Cheese Cloth.= This is a thin cotton fabric of light weight and low
counts of yarn, which ranks among the cheapest in cotton goods. It is
used for innumerable purposes. The bleached fabric is used for
wrapping cheese and butter after they are pressed. It is also much in
demand for bunting for festival occasions, light curtains, masquerade
dresses, etc. When used for bunting, draperies, and the like it is
usually in colors, red, blue, cream, and yellow seeming to have the
greatest demand. The weave is one and one or plain weave.

=Chiné.= Sometimes applied to glacé silk, or cotton two-toned effects.
The name is French, meaning woven so as to have a mottled effect.

=Chintz.= Printed cotton cloth, with large, many-colored designs, used
for furniture covering. The Hindoo wears it as a body covering. Chintz
is the Hindoo word meaning variegated.

=Cotton Flannel.= Napped cotton flannel. Made first for trade in
Canton, China.

=Crash.= A plain fabric for outing suits, towels, etc.

=Crêpe.= A fine, thin fabric of open texture made of cotton.

=Crepon.= Large designs in figured crêpe. The name applies to the
crispiness of the finish and is from the French word _crêper_, to make
crisp.

=Cretonne.= Heavy cotton cloth printed in large designs, for drapery
and furniture use. Cretonne was a Frenchman who first made the cloth.

=Crinoline.= Crinoline is a fabric composed of cotton warp, horsehair
filling, or all cotton yarns. It is sold in varying widths, and is
used by tailors and dress-makers in stiffening clothing. It is a cheap
cloth of low texture and simple construction, the distinguishing
feature being the stiff finish with either a dull or highly glazed
face on the cloth.

=Damask.= A cloth of silk and cotton, silk and linen, silk and wool,
or all linen in flowered or geometrical designs for drapery or table
covering. The weaves used are mostly twills and sateens. It takes its
name from Damascus, where it was first made.

=Denim.= This is a strong fabric usually made with a two up and one
down twill. It is used for overalls, furniture covering, and floor
covering.

=Diaper.= A figured cotton or linen fabric, which gets its name from
the Greek _diapron_, meaning figured. It is generally of good quality
as it is subject to excessive washing.

=Dimity.= A light-weight cotton fabric, the distinguishing feature of
which is the cords or ribs running warpwise through the cloth, and
produced by doubling the warp threads in either heddle or reed in
sufficient quantity to form the rib desired. The name is from a Greek
word meaning two-threaded. Dimity is a ladies' summer dress fabric,
and is made of regular cotton yarn, from 1/60's to the finest counts
in both warp and filling. It is made in both white and colors, solid
white being used in the most expensive grades. Colors are often
printed upon the face of the fabric after it has been woven in the
white.

=Domet.= This cloth is napped similar to a cotton flannel. It is used
for shirts, pajamas, etc., and made with bright colored stripes and
check patterns. The name is from domestic, home made.

=Duck.= Duck is a heavy single cloth fabric made of coarse two-ply
yarn and of a plain weave. It derives its name from its resemblance to
a duck's skin. It is of a lighter weight than canvas. In finishing
duck is taken from the loom and washed and sized, then dried and
pressed. If a fancy solid color is desired the goods are dyed in the
piece after the first washing. Duck is used in the manufacture of
sails, tents, car curtains, and for any purpose requiring a good
water-tight fabric, which will withstand rough usage. Duck has a stiff
hard feel, and excellent wearing qualities. The lighter weights are
used for ladies' shirtwaist suits, men's white trousers, etc.

=Drill.= A cotton fabric of medium weight generally made with the two
up and one down twill. It is extensively used for shoe linings.

=Eolienne= is the name applied to a fine dress fabric characterized by
having the filling of a much coarser count than the warp, thus
producing a corded effect across the breadth of the goods. This class
of goods is made up of a raw silk warp and either cotton or worsted
filling, with the warp ends per inch greatly in excess of picks per
inch. The goods are made up in gray, then dyed in the piece in any
color the trade desires. The darker shades find most favor for fall
and winter use, while the lighter shades are preferred for summer
wear. The width is from twenty-seven to fifty inches, and the price
per yard varies from 85 cents to $1.25.

=Etamine.= An etamine is a thin, glossy fabric used principally for
women's dress goods. Being a common and popular material for summer
wear, it is usually made as a piece-dyed fabric. A good reason for
making it piece-dyed is that this method is much cheaper than if the
yarn is dyed previous to the weaving. Etamines were originally made
with worsted yarns, which of course are more expensive; however, if a
good quality of cotton is used, there is little difference in
appearance between worsted and cotton etamine. The difference is
chiefly in the wearing quality, worsted being more durable. The
principal characteristic of an etamine is a crisp, glossy, and open
structure.

=Flannelette= is a narrow, light-weight fabric composed of all cotton
yarn, the filling being soft spun to permit of the raising of a very
slight nap on the back of the goods. The cloth is woven with bleached
yarn (warp and filling), the color effects being afterwards printed
upon the face of the goods by the printing machine. Flannelette is
made with simple one or two colored stripe patterns, either black and
white or indigo blue and white, and in imitation of a Jacquard
pattern. The finished fabrics are sold by the retailer at from eight
cents to twelve and one-half cents per yard, are twenty-seven inches
wide, and are used very extensively in the manufacture of ladies'
wrappers, kimonos, etc., for house wear.

=Fustian.= A corded fabric made on the order of corduroy and used in
England for trouserings, etc. First made at Fustat, a town on the
Nile, near Cairo. Velveteen and cordings in the lower, coarser grades
were sometimes called Fustian.

=Galatea Cloth.= Galatea cloth has been somewhat in demand in recent
years by women requiring serviceable and neat-appearing cotton fabrics
at a medium price. It is usually finished twenty-seven inches wide and
retails at fourteen cents to twenty cents per yard. It is shown in
plain colors as well as in figures, and in dotted and striped designs
on white and colored grounds. The patterns are obtained by printing.
Some manufacturers have found that they can take a standard type of
fabric and extend its use by varying the process of finishing. The
base of the cloth--that is, the fabric previous to dyeing or printing
or bleaching--is nothing more than an ordinary 5-end warp sateen of
fair quality.

=Gauze.= A veiling net, made in Gaza in Palestine.

=Gingham.= Gingham is a single cloth composed entirely of cotton, and
always woven with a plain weave. It is yarn-dyed in stripes or checks
and was originally of Indian make. It is the most widely known fabric
on the market and is made in various grades, having from fifty to
seventy-six ends per inch in the reed, and of 1/26's to 1/40's cotton
yarns in both warp and filling. It is a wash fabric, made in both
check and plaid patterns into which an almost unlimited variety of
color combinations are introduced. Ginghams are made with from two
colors, warp and filling, to eight colors in warp and six in filling.
Ginghams are used most commonly in the manufacture of ladies' and
children's summer dresses and aprons.

=Italian Cloth= is a light, glossy fabric made from cotton and
worsted, cotton and wool, cotton and mohair, and all cotton. It is
used for linings for the heavier styles of ladies' dresses, also for
underskirts, fancy pillow backs, etc. The cloth is woven in the gray
undyed yarns. In the finer grades the warp is sized so as to
facilitate the weaving process.

=Jaconet.= A thin cotton fabric, heavier than cambric. If properly
made one side is glazed. Derived from the French word _jaconas_.

=Khaki.= Twilled cotton cloth of a brown dust color, first used for
men's clothing in India. The word _khaki_ is Indian for earth, or
dust-colored.

=Lawn.= Lawn is a light-weight single cloth wash fabric, weighing from
one and one fourth to two and one fourth ounces per yard, and in
widths from thirty-six to forty inches finished. It is composed of all
cotton yarns (bleached) from 1/40's to 1/100's, and is always woven
with a plain weave, one up, one down. The name is from Laon, a place
near Rheims, France, where lawn was extensively made. Plain lawn is
made of solid white or bleached yarn in both warp and filling. The
fancier grades, or those having color effects, are produced by
printing vines, floral stripes, small flowers, etc., in bright colors
in scattered effects on the face of the goods. The patterns are always
printed, never woven. Lawn, when finished, should have a soft, smooth
feel. Therefore the finishing process includes brushing, very light
starching or sizing, then calendering or pressing. Lawns have to be
handled carefully in the bleaching process, starched with an ordinary
starch mangle (the sizing containing a little blueing), finished on
the Stenter machine, and dried with hot air. Lawns are often tinted
light shades of blue, pink, cream, pearl, green, and other light
tints, with the direct colors added to the starch. It is used
principally in the manufacture of ladies' and children's summer
dresses, sash curtains, etc.

=Lingerie.= This relates to all sorts of ladies' and children's
undergarments, such as skirts, underskirts, infants' short dresses,
chemises, night robes, drawers, corset covers, etc.

=Linon= is a fine, closely woven plain fabric, well known for its
excellent wearing and washing qualities. It is made from combed cotton
yarns of long-stapled stocks to resemble as closely as possible fine
linen fabrics. The cloth structure is firmly made in the loom.

=Long Cloth= is a fine cotton fabric of superior quality, made with a
fine grade of cotton yarn of medium twist. Originally the fabric was
manufactured in England, and subsequently imitated in the United
States. The fabric is used for infants' long dresses, from which it
derives its name, and for lingerie. Long cloth to some extent
resembles batiste, fine muslins, India linen, and cambric. It is
distinguished from these fabrics by the closeness of its weave, and
when finished the fabric possesses a whiter appearance, due to the
closeness of the weave and the soft twist of the yarn. It is not used
as a dress fabric, chiefly because of its finished appearance, which
is similar in all respects to fabrics which we have been accustomed to
see used solely for lingerie, nightgowns, etc.

=Madras= is a light-weight single cloth fabric, composed of all cotton
or cotton and silk, and has excellent wearing qualities. It was at
first a light-colored checked or striped plain-faced cotton-silk
fabric, made in Madras, India, for sailors' head-dress. It is
twenty-seven inches wide, and is made of varying grades, weighing from
two to three ounces per yard, and is used at all seasons of the year.
It is used by ladies for summer skirts, shirtwaists, suits, etc., and
by men in shirts. It is known by the white and colored narrow-stripe
warp effects, and is made of cotton yarns ranging from 1/26 to 1/80
warp and filling, and from 50 to 100 or more ends per inch. The
utility of madras for nearly all classes of people permits the
greatest scope in creating both harmonious and contrasting color and
weave combinations.

The colors most in demand in this fabric are rich and delicate shades
of blue, rose, green, linen, tan, lavender, and bright red; for
prominent hair-line effects black, navy blue, dark green, royal blue,
and cherry red. Good fast color is necessary as it is a wash fabric.
If inferior colors are used, they will surely spread during the
finishing processes, and will cause a clouded stripe where a distinct
one was intended.

=Moreen.= Heavy mohair, cotton, or silk and cotton cloth, with worsted
or moire face. The making of moreen is interesting. The undyed cloth
is placed in a trough in as many layers as will take the finish. This
finish is imparted to the cloth by placing between the layers sheets
of manila paper; the contents of the trough are then saturated with
water; a heavy weighted roller is then passed over the wetted paper
and cloth, the movement of the roller giving the cloth a watered face.
It can then be dyed and refinished. The design or marking of moreen is
different on every piece. Moreen was at first made for upholstery and
drapery use. It was found to give a rustling sound similar to silk, so
was taken up for underskirts. The name is from the French _moire_,
meaning watering.

=Mull.= A soft cotton muslin of fine quality, made first in India,
later in Switzerland. The name in Hindoo is _mal_, meaning soft,
pliable.

=Mummy.= A plain weave of flax or linen yarn. Originally the winding
cloth of the Egyptian mummified dead.

=Muslin.= A fine cotton cloth of plain weave originally made in Mosul,
a city on the banks of the Tigris, in Asia.

=Nainsook.= Nainsook is a light cotton fabric utilized for various
purposes, such as infants' clothes, women's dress goods, lingerie,
half curtains, etc. The striped and plaid nainsook are used for the
same purposes. When the fabric is required for lingerie and infants'
clothes the English fabric is selected because of its softness. When
intended for dress or curtain fabric, the French-finished fabric is
chosen. The latter finish consists of slightly stiffening and
calendering the cloth. The fabric may be distinguished from fine
lawns, fine batiste, and fine cambric by the fact that it has not as
firm construction or as much body, and the finish is not as smooth or
as stiff, but inclines to softness, as the fabric has not the body to
retain the finishing material.

=Organdie.= An organdie may be defined as a fine, translucent muslin
used exclusively for dress goods. The fabric is made in a variety of
qualities as regards the counts of yarn used, and in a variety of
widths ranging from eighteen to sixty inches. The plain organdie is
popular in pure white, although considerable quantities are dyed in
the solid colors, pale blue, pink, etc., while the figured organdies
are usually bleached pure white, then printed with small floral
designs. The printed design is in from two to four colors, and in
delicate shades in conformity with the material. Organdie considered
in relation to cost as wearing material is rather expensive. The
reason for this is that it has a finish peculiar to itself, so that
when washed it does not have the same appearance as before. It loses
its crisp feeling altogether.

=Osnaburg.= A coarse cloth of flax and tow, made in America of cotton,
in checks or plaids, and used for furniture covering and mattress
making. The town of Osnaburg, in Germany, made the fabric first.

=Percale.= Percale is a closely woven fabric made with a good quality
of cotton yarn. The finer qualities are used for handkerchiefs,
aprons, etc., and when used for these purposes are not printed, but
bleached after the fabric comes from the loom. Percale is chiefly used
for dress fabrics, and when used for this purpose is generally printed
on one side with geometrical figures, generally black, although other
colors may be seen. The fabric is bleached before it is subjected to
the printing operations.

=Percaline.= Percaline is a highly finished and dressed percale. The
first process to which the cloth is subjected is to boil it off, that
is, to soak it in boiling water so as to relieve it from foreign
matter that it may have gathered during the weaving, and at the same
time to prepare it for dyeing. After dyeing it is sized to stiffen it,
and also to increase the gloss on the cloth. After sizing it is ready
for the calender. In order to give it the highest gloss the cloth is
doubled lengthwise or the pieces are put together back to back, and as
it passes through the rolls it is wet by steam, the rolls being well
heated and tightly set together. Percaline is used chiefly for
feminine wearing apparel, principally for linings, petticoats, etc.
These purposes require that the cloth shall be solid color, the darker
colors being preferred, as blue, green, and black. Sometimes it is
seen in lighter shades of brown and tan. The most attention is given
to the finishing process.

=Piqué.= Piqué is a heavy cotton material woven in corded or figured
effects. The goods are used for such purposes as ladies' tailor-made
suits, vestings, shirt fronts, cravats, bedspreads, and the like. It
was originally woven in diamond-shaped designs to imitate quilting.
The name is French for quilting. The plainest and most common fabrics
of piqué are those in which the pattern consists of straight cords
extending across the cloth in the direction of the weft. In the
construction of these fabrics, both a face and back warp are required,
and the cords are produced by all the back warp threads being raised
at intervals of six, eight, or more picks over two or more picks of
the face cloth, which has a tendency to draw down on the surface of
the fabric. The goods are always woven white and no colors are ever
used. The face warp threads are generally finer than the back warp
threads, and are in the proportion of two threads for the face and one
thread for the back. On the heavier and better grades of piqué coarse
picks called wadding are used to increase the weight, and also to give
more prominence to the cord effect. They are introduced between the
face and back cloths. In the lightest and cheapest grades neither any
wadding nor back picks are used. In this case the back warp threads
float on the back of the fabric except when raising over the face
picks to form the cord. In the figured piqué the binding of the back
warp threads into the face cloth is not done in straight lines as in
plain piqué, but the binding points are introduced so as to form
figures. These fabrics are woven in the white, and the figures are
purely the result of binding the face and back cloths together.

=Poplin.= Poplin or popeline is a name given to a class of goods
distinguished by a rib or cord effect running width way of the piece.
It referred originally to a fabric having a silk warp and a figure of
wool filling heavier than the warp. At the present time it refers more
to a ribbed fabric than to one made from any particular combination of
materials. Cotton poplin is usually made with a plain weave, the rep
effect being obtained either by using a fine warp as compared with the
filling, or a large number of ends as compared with picks per inch on
both. Irish poplin is a light-weight variety of poplin, sometimes
called single poplin, and is celebrated for its uniformly fine and
excellent wearing qualities. It is principally made in Dublin.

=Plumetis.= Sheer cotton or woolen cloth having raised dots or figures
in relief on plain ground. The design shows a feathery effect, as in
embroidery tambour. The name is French for this kind of embroidery,
and is derived from _plume_, French for feather.

=Rep.= A fabric having a surface of a cord-like appearance. The name
is probably corrupted from rib. It is used in making shirtwaists and
skirts.

=Sateen.= Twilled cotton cloth of light weight, finished to imitate
silk satin. There are two kinds, viz., warp sateen and filling sateen.

=Scrim.= Open mesh weave of cotton or linen for curtains and linings.
The name is from scrimp, referring to economy in weaving.

=Silesia= is a light-weight single cloth fabric, having a rather high
texture, and weighing about three ounces per yard. It is composed of
all cotton yarn, and is used principally as a lining for ladies' and
men's clothing. Silesia is woven of yarn in the gray state, and is
dyed in the piece in such colors as black, dark blue, brown, drab,
slate, steel, etc. An important feature is the highly glazed or
polished face of the goods, which is due to the action of the heated
roller in the calendering machine upon the sizing.

=Souffle.= The largest designs of crepon show a raised or puffed
appearance. Souffle is from the French and means puffed.

=Swiss.= From Switzerland, where the plain Swiss net and figured
cambric is a specialty in the St. Gall district.

=Tape.= Tape is a narrow fabric composed either of cotton or linen
yarns in warp and filling, and usually made with a point or broken
twill weave, the break in the weave occurring in the center of the
tape, and the twill lines running in a right- and left-hand direction.
It is used as a trimming in the manufacture of clothing, also as a
binding in innumerable cases, and is sold by the roll, each roll
containing a certain number of yards. It is made of all bleached and
of regular yarns about 1/26's to 1/30's and 1/40's cotton.

=Tarletan.= An open mesh of coarse cotton, used mostly in fruit
packing, sometimes for dress and drapery. The name is from
_tarlantanna_, Milanese for coarse weave of linen and wool.

=Terry Cloth or Turkish Toweling= is a cotton pile fabric. It is woven
in such a way as to permit the forming of a series of loops on each
side of the cloth in regular order. After leaving the loom each piece
is laid separately in the bleaching kier. Then the goods are dried on
a tenter frame, given a light starching to add weight, run through a
rubber rolled mangle and again dried on a tenter frame. This cloth is
used in the manufacture of towels, Turkish bath robes, etc. Turkish
toweling is the original terry. The name is from the French _tirer_,
to draw or pull.

=Zephyr Gingham= is the finest grade of gingham made and is a
light-weight cotton fabric, composed of 1/40's to 1/60's cotton warp
and filling yarns. It is woven with either the plain weave or a small
all-over dobby effect. It is made in attractive patterns by using good
fast colors in warp and filling, and as a cloth has excellent wearing
qualities.


FOOTNOTES:

[16] This information is from the leading authority, "The Cotton
Fabrics Glossary," published by the _American Wool and Cotton
Reporter_, Boston, Mass., and is reprinted here through the kindness
of Mr. Frank P. Bennett.

[17] 1/12's cotton signifies single cotton yarn of 12's. 2/12's cotton
signifies two sets of single cotton yarn of 12's twisted together.



CHAPTER XV

FLAX


=Flax.= Flax or linen occupies the first position in the group of stem
fibers,[18] being not only the oldest, but next to cotton the most
important vegetable spinning material known. Its value is increased by
the fact that the flax plant readily adapts itself to various
conditions of soil and climate, and in consequence has gained access
to northerly districts and cool highlands. Although flax has lost some
of its importance from the successful competition of cotton,
nevertheless it still forms one of the chief articles of an industry
which merits all the care bestowed on its cultivation and proves
highly profitable.

=The Physical Structure of Flax.= Flax, when seen under the
microscope, looks like a long, cylindrical tube of uniform thickness,
with lumina so small as to be visible only as straight black lines
lengthwise of the fiber, and frequently exhibits small transverse
cracks. It is never twisted like cotton fiber. Its color varies from
pale yellow to steel gray or greenish tints. The difference in color
is due chiefly to the process of "retting." Its average length is
about twenty inches, and its tensile strength is superior to that of
cotton. It will absorb moisture, 12 per cent being the standard
allowance made.

Flax is used for making linen thread and cloth, yarn, twist, string
fabric, and lace. In its composition it is almost purely an
unlignified cellulose, and its specific gravity is 1.5.

Flax is a better conductor of heat than cotton, hence linen goods
always feel colder than cotton goods.

Russia produces more than one-half the world's supply of flax, but
that from Belgium and Ireland is of the best quality. Italy, France,
Holland, and Egypt are other important producers. The plant is an
annual, of delicate structure, and is gathered just before it is ripe,
the proper time being indicated by the changing of the color from
green to brown. At the time of gathering the whole plant is uprooted,
dried on the ground, and finally rippled with iron combs, to separate
the stalks from the leaves, lateral shoots, and seeds.

The best fiber amounts to about 75 per cent of the stalk. To separate
this valuable commercial product from the woody matter the stalks are
first subjected to a process termed retting, which is steeping them in
water until they are quite soft. Then follow the mechanical processes
to further the production of the fiber and free it from all useless
matter.

These are as follows:

1. Crushing or Beating. This consists of breaking the woody matter
with the aid of mallets or in stamping mills.

2. Breaking. This is passing the stalks through a series of horizontal
rollers to break further the woody matter and at the same time
separate the greater part of it from the fiber.

3. Scutching. The object of this process is to remove completely the
woody matter, and it is done by means of rapidly revolving wooden arms
or blades, which beat the firmly held flax until it is sufficiently
cleaned and separated.

4. Hackling. The scutched flax is drawn through iron combs which still
further open the fiber. Fineness of fiber depends upon the number of
times it is hackled, each time with a finer and finer instrument,
which secures the different degrees of subdivision. Then the fibers
are sorted and classified as to length and quality and laid in
parallel forms ready for spinning and manufacture into linen.

[Illustration: PULLING FLAX IN MINNESOTA]

=Bleaching.= Linen is bleached in the form of yarn, thread, and
cloth. This is a difficult and long process owing to the large amount
of natural impurities present in flax fiber, and the difficulty of
removing or dissolving them. Bleaching is now done as a rule by
chemical processes, and when chemicals are used great care must be
taken about their strength and about the time the cloth is allowed to
remain in them. In olden times sour buttermilk was applied to linen
and rubbed in, and then bleaching was finished out of doors by sun and
rain. "Unbleached" linen is treated in the same way as bleached, only
the process is not carried to such an extent. In Ireland, famous for
its bleaching, chemicals are used in the earlier stages of this
process, and then fine linens are spread out on the grass to improve
their color, and to purge them completely of any chemicals used. After
bleaching, linen is washed, dried, starched, and put through heavy
machines to give it a glossy finish, and it is then made up in pieces
for sale.

=Characteristics of Good Linen.= Linen is noted for its smoothness of
texture, its brilliancy--which laundering increases--its wearing
qualities, and its exquisite freshness. The celebrated Irish linen is
the most valuable staple in the market, and on account of its fineness
and strength, and particularly its bright color, it attains an
unapproachable excellence because the best processes are used
throughout the entire manufacture. Linen is less elastic and pliable
than cotton and bleaches and dyes readily.

Flax from all countries is woven into table linen, though very fine
linen must have carefully prepared fiber. Linen should be soft,
yielding, and elastic, with almost a leathery feel. Fineness of linen
does not always determine good wearing qualities.

Good linen ranges in price from 75 cents to $3.00. Irish linen has a
good bleach. French and Belgian linens, while fine in thread, are not
as serviceable as Irish linen. Germany makes a good wearing linen, but
not a large variety of patterns. Scotch linens are now used more than
other kinds.

[Illustration: STACKS OF FLAX IN BELGIUM

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.]


_Sources of Flax_

  Russia,
  Holland,
  Belgium,
  Germany,
  Ireland,
  Canada,
  U. S. (for seed only).


_Sources of Manufactured Linens_

  Scotland,
  Ireland,
  Germany,
  Austria,
  Belgium,
  France,
  Russia,
  United States.


MANUFACTURED LINENS

  _Damasks and Napkins_
    Scotland,
    Ireland,
    Germany,
    Belgium.

  _Towelings_
    Scotland,
    Ireland,
    Germany,
    United States,
    Russia.

  _Glass Checks_
    Ireland.

  _Canvas_
    Scotland,
    Ireland.

  _Handkerchief Lawns, Cambrics, and Laces_
    Ireland,
    Germany,
    France.

  _Towels_
    Germany,
    Scotland,
    Ireland,
    Austria,
    U. S. (union).

  _Linen Sheetings_
    Ireland,
    Belgium,
    France,
    Scotland.

  _Blouse or Dress Linens_
    Ireland,
    Scotland.

  _Bleached Waist Linens_
    Ireland,
    France,
    Belgium.

  _Fancy Linens, Doylies, etc._
    Germany,
    France,
    Japan,
    Madeira Islands,
    Island of Teneriffe.


FOOTNOTE:

[18] The stem fibers such as flax, jute, ramie are called bast fibers,
and before any of them can be utilized industrially, steps have to be
taken to render them free from gum. When the stems of these plants are
severed, the juice tends to oxidize through contact with the air and
forms a gum of a peculiarly tenacious character.



CHAPTER XVI

HEMP


[Illustration: LOADING HEMP IN MANILA]

=Hemp= is a fiber that is obtained from the hemp plant. It grows
principally in Russia, Poland, France, Italy, Asia, India, the
Philippines, Japan, and some parts of the United States--Kentucky,
Missouri, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, and New York. The original country
of the hemp plant was doubtless Asia, probably that part near the
Caspian Sea. The preparatory treatment is similar to that for the flax
plant, except that most of the work is done by machinery. Considered
chemically, in addition to cellulose, hemp fiber contains a
considerable amount of woody matter, differing in this respect from
cotton. Its properties are color (pearl gray, with green or yellow
tints), fineness (which depends upon the quality of the hemp; it is
usually bought as fine as flax), and tensile strength (which is
considerable and greater than that of flax). Its best qualities are
its slight luster and its ability to resist to a great extent the
tendency to rot under water. Owing to the fact that it is difficult to
bleach, it is used chiefly in making string, cord, ropes, etc.

=Sisal Hemp.= Sisal hemp is a variety that grows extensively in
Central America and the West Indies. The plant, the _agava rigida_, is
similar to what is known in this country as the century plant. The
fiber is found in the leaves which closely surround the stalks. The
common hemp on the other hand is found closely surrounding the woody
part of the stem. The fiber of Sisal hemp is obtained by scraping away
the fleshy part of the leaves with large wooden knives or by machines.

=Manila Hemp.= Manila hemp is obtained in the Philippines. The plant
belongs to the banana family and grows as large as a small tree. The
hemp is obtained from the leaf stalks which appear to form the trunk
of the tree. The fiber is larger, not so stiff, but stronger than
Sisal hemp. The fiber of Russian hemp is the strongest; that of
Italian hemp the finest.

[Illustration: FIELD OF SISAL HEMP]

=Jute.= Jute is the name given to the fibers found in certain plants
which grow principally in India, and the East Indian Islands. The
common jute comes principally from the province of Bengal, India,
where it was first known to science in 1725. The term jute was first
applied to the fiber by Dr. Rosburgh in 1795. The plant is cut just
about the time when it appears in full flower. The stalks are then
bundled and retted by steeping in pools of stagnant water.

Jute occupies third position in importance of vegetable fibers in the
manufacturing scale, being inferior to cotton and flax. Hemp is
stronger than jute. Jute becomes weak when exposed to dampness.

It is extensively used for mixing with silk, cotton, flax, hemp, and
woolen fabrics. The coarse varieties are made into coarse
fabrics--sacks, packing cloth, etc., while the finer varieties, in
which the undesirable quality of growing darker with age is less
apparent, are used for making carpets, curtains, and heavy plushes,
for which they are very suitable.



CHAPTER XVII

SILK


=Silk.= The silk of commerce is obtained from the cocoons of several
species of insects. These insects resemble strongly the ordinary
caterpillars. At a certain period of its existence the silkworm gives
off a secretion of jelly-like substance. This hardens on exposure to
the air as the worm forces it out and winds it about its body.

[Illustration: MOTH, SILKWORM, AND COCOONS]

It takes about three days for the worm to form the cocoon. After the
cocoon has been formed the silkworm passes from the form of a
caterpillar into a moth which cuts an opening through the cocoon and
flies away. It is very important that the moth should not be allowed
to escape from the cocoon; the mere breaking of the cocoon greatly
decreases the value of the thread. The cocoon is preserved by killing
the chrysalis by heat.

There are a great many varieties of caterpillars, but few of them
secrete a sufficient quantity of silk to render them of commercial
value. The principal species is the mulberry silkworm which produces
most of the silk in commerce. It is cultivated and fed on mulberry
leaves. There are other varieties of silkworms that are not capable of
being cultivated and are called wild silkworms. The silk produced by
the wild worms of China and India is called "tussah" (or "tussur").
The silk is inferior to that produced by the cultivated worms and is
used for making pile fabrics, such as velvet, plush, etc.

The color of the cocoons varies greatly. Most of the European cocoons
are bright yellow, though some are white. The Eastern cocoons, on the
other hand, are mostly white, while a few are yellow. The wild silks
are for the most part écru color, though some are pale green. The
color, except in the wild silks, is derived from the gum which is
secreted by the worm, and with which the fibers are stuck together.
This gum comprises from 15 to 30 per cent of the weight and is removed
by boiling in soap and water before the silk is dyed. All silks except
the wild silks, after the gum is removed, are from white to cream in
color. The tussah, or wild silks, remain an écru color.

[Illustration: REELING RAW SILK]

The greatest care has to be exercised throughout in the care of the
moths, eggs, worms, and cocoons--this being the succession of
changes. That is, the moth lays eggs which are collected and kept cool
till the proper season for incubation. They are then kept warm during
the time occupied in hatching, sometimes about the person of the
raiser. After a time these eggs hatch out worms, tiny things hardly
larger than the head of a pin. After the worms are hatched they
require constant care and feeding with chopped mulberry leaves till
they reach maturity. They are then about three inches in length, and
spin their cocoons from a fiber and gum which they secrete. When the
cocoons are spun the worms become chrysalises inside of them. The
cocoons are then collected and the chrysalises killed, generally by
heat, before they can again become moths.

=Raw Silk.= The cocoons are next sent to the reelers or filatures. A
number of cocoons, greater or less, according to the size of thread
desired, are placed in a basin of hot water, which softens the gum.
After the outside fibers are removed so that the ends run free, the
ends are collected through a guide and are wound upon a reel. As the
silk cools and dries, the gum hardens, sticking the fibers from the
different cocoons together in one smooth thread varying in size
according to the number of cocoons used. After the silk has been
reeled and dried it is twisted into hanks and sent to America and
other countries as raw silk.

Most of the raw silk of commerce is produced in China, Japan, and
Italy. It is also produced to a large extent in Italy, Turkey, and
Greece, also France and Portugal. The cultivation of silk is not only
carried on by private firms, but is encouraged by the government to
the extent of granting money to the manufacturers.

Various attempts have been made to raise silkworms in the United
States. All have failed on account of the high price of labor
necessary to feed the worms.

=Throwing.= The manufacture in the United States begins with raw silk.
We import our raw silk chiefly from Italy, China, and Japan. It is
handled here first by the "throwster," who winds it from the skein and
makes various kinds of thread for different purposes.

Raw silk wound on spools in a single thread, and called singles is
often used to make warps (that is, the threads running lengthwise of a
piece of cloth) for piece-dyed goods, or cloth which is woven with the
gum in the silk, and afterward boiled out and dyed. Singles are also
sometimes used for filling (that is, cross threads) in very thin
fabrics.

Silk yarn that is used for weaving is divided into two kinds, "tram"
and "organzine." Tram silk is made by twisting two or more loosely
twisted threads. It is heavier than organzine and is used for filling.
Organzine silk is produced by uniting a number of strongly twisted
threads. It is used for warp. Crêpe yarn is used in making crêpe,
chiffon, and for other purposes. It is very hard twisted thread,
generally tram, from forty to eighty turns per inch.

Embroidery silk is made by winding the raw silk, putting a large
number of ends together, giving them a slack twist, then doubling and
twisting in the reverse direction with a slack twist.

Sewing silk is made by winding and doubling the raw product, then
twisting into tram, giving it a slack twist, doubling and twisting in
the reverse direction under tension. Machine twist is similar, but
three ply.

The principal fabrics made of silk are: silk, satin, plush, chenille,
crêpe, crepon, gauze, damask, brocade, pongee, and ribbons. Silk
thread and cord are also extensively used. The United States is among
the leaders in the manufacture of silk fabrics.

=Silk Waste.= When the cocoons are softened for reeling a certain
portion of the silk is found to consist of waste and broken threads.
The tangled silk on the outside of the cocoon is called floss. The
residue after reeling, and other wastes in reeling, are known as
frisonnets. Floss silk is not used for weaving. It is a slack twisted
tram, generally composed of a large number of threads of singles.

=Spun Silk.= There is another class of threads made from waste silk by
spinning and known as spun silk. Waste silks include the pierced
cocoons, that is, those from which the moth has come out by making the
hole and breaking the fibers in one end of the cocoon; the waste made
in the filatures in producing raw or reeled silk, chiefly the outside
fiber of the cocoon and the inside next the chrysalis; and also the
waste made in manufacture. The waste silk is ungummed; that is, the
gum is removed from the fibers by boiling with soap, by macerating or
retting, or by chemical reagents.

After the gum is removed from the cocoons, they are opened and combed,
most of the chrysalis shell being removed. The remainder, with other
foreign matter, is picked out by hand from the combed silk. The silk
is put through a number of drawing frames to get the fibers even on
the roving frames, where it first takes the form of thread, then on
the spinning frames, where it is twisted. If it is to be used as
singles, the manufacture ends here. In two- or three-ply yarns, the
singles are doubled, twisted again, singed by running through a gas
flame, cleaned by friction, controlled, that is, the knots and lumps
taken out, and then reeled into skeins for dyeing or put on spools.

=Spun Numbers.= There are two methods in general use for numbering
spun silk. In the French system, the number is based on the singles,
by the meters per kilogram; two and three cord yarns have one-half,
one-third, etc., the length the numbers indicate. Thus--

  No. 100 singles has 100,000 meters per kilogram.
  No. 2-100 has 50,000 meters per kilogram.
  No. 3-100 has 33,333 meters per kilogram.

The other system which is more generally used in this country, is the
English system. The hank is 840 yards, and the number of hanks in one
pound avoirdupois is the count of the yarn. It is based on the
finished yarn, and singles, two or three cord yarns of the same number
all have the same yards per pound. Thus--

  No. 50 singles has 42,000 yards per pound.
  No. 50-2 has 42,000 yards per pound.
  No. 50-3 has 42,000 yards per pound.

=Dyeing Yarns.= Generally speaking there are two large classes into
which silk goods may be divided, those in which the threads are
colored before weaving and called yarn-dyed goods, and those dyed or
printed after weaving and called piece-dyed or printed goods. In
dyeing yarns, the silk is first ungummed and cleaned by boiling in
soap and water, then washed in cold water. If the thread is to be
weighted, as is frequently done, tin salts, iron, or other heavy
material is deposited on the fiber. If carried far, this is injurious,
making the silk tender and weak. Sometimes there is more weighting
than silk. Yarns are usually dyed in hot liquors, aniline colors
being the ones in most common use to-day, though other dyes are used
for special purposes. Some yarns are dyed in the gum, and some with a
part of the gum left in. After dyeing, they are washed in cold water,
dried, and wound on spools.

=Silk Dyeing.= Silk occupies in several respects an intermediate
position between the animal and vegetable fibers. Like wool, it is a
highly nitrogenous body, but contains no sulphur. It readily takes up
many of the colors which can be worked upon vegetable fiber by the aid
of the mordants. This is particularly the case with reference to a
large number of aniline colors, which require merely to be dissolved
and mixed with perfectly clear water in the dye vessel. The great
attraction of silk for these colors simplifies silk dyeing
exceedingly. The sad colors, on the other hand, and especially black,
are in many cases exceedingly complex, the main object of the dyer
being not so much to color the silk as to increase its weight.

Dyeing black on silk is unquestionably the most important branch of
silk dyeing, and it has probably received more attention than any
other branch, in consequence of which it has been brought to a high
degree of perfection. Blacks on silks are produced both from natural
and artificial coloring matters, the former having, so far, retained
their pre-eminence despite the recent discoveries of chemists. For
various reasons coal-tar colors have never proved successful in dyeing
black on silk. Since the discovery of America, logwood blacks have
formed the staple of the black-silk dyer, who has carried their
production to a high degree of excellence. But unfortunately, besides
aiming at a high state of perfection in the actual dyeing operation,
the black-silk dyer has also aimed at increasing the weight of the
dyed silk, so that nowadays it is possible for him to receive ten
pounds of raw silk and to send out fifty pounds of black silk, the
extra forty pounds being additions made in the process of dyeing.

[Illustration: WINDING SILK ON SWIFTS]

Logwood black-silk dyeing consists essentially of alternate dippings
in separate baths with the mordant and dyestuffs suitable for
producing the required color and weight. The number of dippings and
the length of time taken in each operation depend on the intensity of
the black wanted and the amount of weighting which is desired. The
chief substances used for weighting are lead salts, catechu, iron, and
nut-galls, with soap and oil to soften in some degree the harshness of
the fabric which these minerals cause. As the details of the
operations are practically the same for all kinds of logwood blacks
(raven, jet, crape, dead black, etc.), the method for producing one
will suffice for all. The process involves several distinct
operations, as follows:

1. =The Boiling Off.= This is the removal of the gum and natural
coloring matter in the silk. It is accomplished by boiling the skeins
of silk in water and good olive oil soap for about one hour. This
dissolves the gum and leaves the fiber clean and glossy.

2. =Mordanting.= This is done in a bath of nitrate of iron, in which
the skeins of silk are allowed to remain one hour. The silk gains some
in weight in this operation by absorbing a quantity of the iron in the
bath. After having been dipped in the first bath three or four times,
it is ready for the soap and iron bath, in which it is repeatedly
immersed, the operation causing a deposit of iron-soap on the fiber
which adds to its weight, but at the same time does not lessen its
flexibility and softness. Eight dippings in the iron and soap bath
increase the weight of the silk about 100 per cent.

3. =Blue Bottoming.= The next operation is to dye the silk blue, which
is done by immersing it in a solution of potash. In this it is worked
for half an hour, when it acquires a deep blue color. It is then
taken out, and after rinsing is ready for the "weighting" operations.

4. ="Weighting" Bath.= A catechu bath is now prepared, in which the
silk is entered and worked for an hour, and then allowed to steep over
night. The result is that the blue on the silk is decomposed, and the
goods by absorbing the tannin in the catechu increase in weight from
35 to 40 per cent. This bath is the most important one in the dyeing
of "weighted" black silks, as the dyer can regulate the strength of
the bath by the addition of tin crystals so as to increase the weight
of the silk to an astonishing degree. The proportion of tin crystals
used is regulated by the number of iron baths that have previously
been given the silk; if two baths of iron have been given, 5 per cent
of tin crystals are used; if four baths, 10 per cent, and so on. The
action of these chemicals is somewhat complex. All that is known is
that by reason of some peculiar quality possessed by silk it is
enabled to combine with iron and tin, and that exposure to the air
after the baths fixes these chemicals permanently upon the fibers,
thus increasing their weight to almost any desired extent. Silk,
according to its quality and weight, will take up of these substances
from 50 to 200 per cent without creating much suspicion. Instances
have been known in which silk has been increased nine times its own
weight. All the operations thus far have had for their object the
weighting of the silk, although the blueing and the catechu baths have
some influence on the finished result. After these come the dyeing
operations proper, two in number, mordanting and dyeing.

5. =Mordanting.= A bath of iron liquor heated to 130 degrees F. is
provided. The silk is entered, worked well for one hour, then wrung
out and hung up to "age" for two hours, after which it is ready for
the logwood dye.

6. =Dyeing.= A bath of logwood liquor is prepared to which is added 10
per cent of fustic, and the solution is brought to a temperature of
150 degrees F. In this the silk is entered and worked for an hour,
then taken out and wrung dry. Sometimes the black does not come up
full enough, and in such cases the bath is repeated.

7. The final operation has for its object the restoration of the
luster and suppleness of the silk, which has to some extent
deteriorated from the many operations through which it has passed. The
brightening and softening of the fiber are effected by immersing the
silk in a bath of olive oil in the form of an emulsion. In this the
silk is worked until it is thoroughly impregnated with the oil, when
it is taken out and wrung dry, after which it is ready for the loom.
Practically the same process is followed in piece dyeing, though only
inferior grades of silk are dyed in the web.

=Colored Silks.= This class of silks is generally purer than black and
sad-colored silks. It is not nearly so easy to weight the former as
the latter, for the reason that there are but few substances capable
of giving weight which do not interfere with the effect of light
colored dyes. The weighting agents most generally used are sugar and
acetate of lead. The weighting by sugar is done after the silk is
dyed. A solution is made of pure lump sugar by placing it in a large
copper pan with water and heating until dissolved. In this bath the
silk is thoroughly saturated, and then dried and finished; or, the
dipping process may be repeated several times if desired. One dipping
will weight the silk about 12 per cent, two about 20 per cent, and
three about 30 per cent. In a solution of acetate of lead, each
dipping will weight the silk about 8 per cent, and these may be
repeated as often as it is wished. In this case the weighting is
generally done on the undyed, boiled-off silk, although it may be done
on the dyed silk if the color is such as will stand the acid.

=Mixed Silk Fabrics.= Until lately silk was invariably dyed in the
state of yarn. When the silk was to be woven into mixed fabrics, such
as satin, gloria, etc., it was impossible to dye both fibers exactly
the same shade. Formerly such fabrics were woven with the cotton and
silk yarns dyed separately, care being taken to match them as closely
as possible. The weaving of dyed yarns of different fibers is open to
the objection that when the fabric comes to be finished there is a
wide difference in the color, no matter how closely they may have
matched in the beginning.

=Ribbons.= Ribbons are woven several pieces in one loom, with a
separate shuttle for each piece. The shuttle is carried through the
shed or warp by a rack and pinion, instead of being thrown through as
in broad goods; otherwise the weaving is the same.

=Velvets.= Velvets and other pile fabrics are woven in two pieces,
one over the other, with the pile threads woven back and forth between
them. A knife travels between the two pieces cutting the pile threads
so as to leave the ends standing up straight. Velvets used to be woven
over wires and cut by hand, but this method is practically obsolete.

=Piece Dyeing.= If the goods are woven with the gum still in the silk,
it must be taken out afterward, and the goods either dyed in the piece
or prepared for printing.

=Printing.= The most primitive method of printing is by the use of
stencils. It is the method employed by the Japanese and Chinese. Next
came block printing, which is still extensively used in Europe. The
pattern is raised in felt on wooden blocks, the color taken up from
pads, one block for each color. The results are good, but the work is
very slow. Most silk goods are to-day machine printed. The design is
engraved or etched on copper cylinders, one cylinder for each color;
the color thickened with gum is supplied by rolls running against the
cylinders, and the surplus is scraped off by a knife blade, leaving
only that in the engraving which is taken up by the cloth. After
printing, the cloth is steamed to set the colors, and then washed in
order to remove the gum used to thicken the colors for printing.

[Illustration: JACQUARD SILK LOOM]

=Finishing.= All silk goods, whether yarn dyed or piece dyed or
printed, are given some kind of finish; sometimes it is no more than
is necessary to smooth out the wrinkles. There are many finishing
processes by which goods may be treated. They are run through gas
flames to singe off loose fiber, and over steam cylinders to dry and
straighten them, over a great variety of sizing machines to stiffen
them with starch or glue. There are calenders or heavy rolls to smooth
and iron them, steam presses of great power to press them out,
breaking and rubbing machines to soften them, and tentering machines
to stretch them to uniform width. There are also moireing or watering,
embossing, and various other machines for special purposes.

=Waterproofing.= One of the worst difficulties with which the
manufacturer of piece-dyed and printed silk goods has to contend is
the ease with which they become spotted with water, and for a number
of years many people have tried to prevent this by various processes.
There are no less than two hundred such processes patented. None of
them have met with much success, as they injured the feel or strength
of the goods. After goods are finished they are carefully inspected
for imperfections, measured, and wrapped in paper and packed in cases
for shipment. The complexity and number of processes for treating silk
goods may be realized when we know that a piece-dyed or printed fabric
is handled its entire length between fifty and one hundred times after
it comes from the loom, sometimes even more.



CHAPTER XVIII

PRINCIPAL SILK FABRICS


=Alma.= Cloth, double twilled from left to right diagonally, first
made in black only as a mourning fabric. The name is from the
Egyptian, as applied to a mourner or a singer at a funeral.

=Barège.= Sheer stuff of silk and wool for veiling, named from the
town of Barèges, in France.

=Bengaline.= An imitation of an old silk fabric made for many
centuries in Bengal, India, whence the name. The weave is similar to
that of ordinary rep or poplin, being a simple round-corded effect.
The cord is produced by using a heavy soft-spun woolen weft which is
so closely covered by the silk warp threads that it is not exposed
when examined from the wrong side. The same weave is also found in
all-silk goods, under the designation of all-silk bengaline. When
cheapened by the use of a cotton weft in place of wool the fabric is
known as cotton bengaline, although the cotton is in the filling only.

=Berber.= Satin-faced fabric of light-weight cloth. It came into favor
about the time of the defeat of the Berbers by General Gordon in his
campaign against the Mahdi in North Africa.

=Brocade.= Raised figures on a plain ground.

=Brocatel.= A kind of brocade used for draperies and upholstery;
usually raised wool figures on a silk ground.

=Bombazine.= Silk warp, wool weft, fine twilled cloth; originally made
in black only for mourning. It is used largely for mourning hat bands.
The root of the name is _bombyx_, the Latin for silkworm.

=Chenille.= Cloth of a fuzzy or fluffy face; woven of cotton, silk, or
wool; used sometimes for dress goods; more generally for curtains and
table covers. _Chenille_ is the French word for caterpillar, which the
single thread of the cloth resembles.

=Chiffon.= A thin, transparent silk muslin. Although one of the
thinnest and gauziest of modern silk fabrics, it is relatively strong
considering its lightness. To convey an idea of the fineness of the
thread used in its manufacture, it is stated that one pound of it will
extend a distance of eight miles. In the process of finishing the
fabric receives a dressing of pure "size." There are two styles of
finish, called respectively the demi- or half size and the full size.
Chiffon finished by full sizing is comparatively stiff; while the
demi-finish produces a softer and lighter texture. It is dyed in a
great variety of colors, and sometimes is printed in delicate
patterns. It is especially adapted for home and evening wear, and is
used for neck and sleeve trimming, drapery over silk foundations,
fancy work, and millinery.

=China Silk.= A term applied to plain woven silks manufactured in
China. The term China silk has been adopted in the United States in
recent years for a class of machine-woven silks made in imitation of
the hand-loom product. These imitations are narrow in width and lack
the soft, lustrous quality of Eastern fabrics, and are also free from
the uneven threads. China silks are distinguished by their irregular
threads, caused by some of the threads being heavier than others, and
their extreme softness.

The warp and filling are identical in size and color, and being woven
evenly produce a beautiful natural luster. It is generally plain
color, although the figured goods are printed in much the same manner
as calico. It is used for gowns, waists, underclothing, etc. It
launders as well as white cotton.

=Crêpe.= A thin, gauzy fabric, woven in loose even threads of silk,
heavily sized or gummed, crimped or crêped in the dyeing. Crêpe was
first used in black only as a badge of mourning. It is now an accepted
dress fabric, made in colors and white and of many materials. The name
signifies to crimp or crêpe with a hot iron.

=Crêpe de Chine.= A soft, lustrous silk crêpe, the surface of which is
smoother than that of the ordinary varieties. It is woven as a plain
weave with part of the warp threads right twisted and the rest left
twisted. It is dyed almost any color and figured or printed.

=Eolienne.= Sheer cloth of silk, silk and wool, or silk and cotton,
woven in fine card effect. The name comes from the Greek Æolus, god of
the winds.

=Foulard.= Plain silk cloth, sold as dress goods; originally made for
handkerchiefs only. The name is French for silk handkerchief.

=Glacé.= Plain, lustrous silk, yarn dyed, with warp of one color, and
weft of another. The name is applied to all fabrics having two tones.
Glacé is French for icy, having an icy appearance.

=India Silk.= A name applied to the plain woven silks manufactured in
India on the primitive hand looms. The warp and weft are woven evenly
and produce a beautiful natural luster. It is similar to China and
Japanese silk. In fact most of these fabrics come from China and
Japan, India silk being almost unknown in this country as so little of
it is exported. The durability of these silks is about the same, and
there is little difference in the prices.

=Japanese Silk.= A term applied to the plain woven silk manufactured
in Japan. The warp and filling of this fabric are identical in size
and color, and being woven evenly produce a beautiful natural luster.
The weave is smooth and soft in quality. It is dyed in plain colors.
The figured goods are printed in much the same way as calico. It is
used for waists, gowns, and fancy underwear.

=Jersey Cloth.= Silk jersey cloth is popular at present. It is a
knitted silk fabric, not woven, and is generally dyed in plain colors.
It is expensive and is used for women's dresses, wraps, and silk
gloves.

=Meteor.= Crêpe de meteor was originally a trade name for crêpe de
chine, but now applied to a fabric which is distinguishable from crêpe
de chine.

=Moire.= Moire is a waved or watered effect produced upon the surface
of various kinds of textile fabrics, especially on grosgrain silk and
woolen moreen. This watered effect is produced by the use of engraved
rollers and high pressure on carded material. The object of developing
upon woven textiles the effect known as moire is the production of a
peculiar luster resulting from the divergent reflection of the light
rays on the material, a divergence brought about by compressing and
flattening the warp and filling threads in places, and so producing a
surface the different parts of which reflect the light differently.
The moire effect may be obtained on silk, worsted, or cotton fabrics,
though it is impossible to develop it on other than a grained or fine
corded weave. The pressure applied to the material being uneven, the
grained surface is flattened in the parts desired. In the Middle Ages
moire was held in high esteem, and continues to enjoy that distinction
down to the present day. It is used for women's dresses, capes, and
for facings, trimmings, etc.

=Mozambique.= Grenadines, with large colored flower designs in relief.

=Organzine.= Silk fabric, made with warp and filling of the same size.
Organzine is the name given the twisted silk thread in Italy, where it
is made.

=Panne.= This name is applied to a range of satin-faced velvet or silk
fabrics which show a high luster produced by pressure. The word
_panne_ is the French for plush.

=Peau de Soie.= Literally, skin of silk. A variety of heavy,
soft-finished, plain-colored dress silk, woven with a pattern of fine
close ribs extending weftwise of the fabric. An eight-shaft satin with
one point added to the original spots on the right or left, imparting
to the fabric a somewhat grainy appearance. The best grades of peau de
soie present the same appearance on both sides, being reversible. The
lower grades are finished on one side only.

=Plush.= Long piled fabric of the velvet order. _Peluché_, the origin
of the name, is French for shaggy.

=Pongee.= Said to be a corruption of Chinese _punchi_, signifying home
made or home woven. Another suggestion is that the word is a
corruption of _pun-shih_, a native or wild silk. A soft, unbleached,
washable silk, woven from the cocoons of the wild silkworm, which
feeds on the leaves of the scrub oak. Immense quantities in a raw
state are annually shipped from China to this country and Europe,
where they are bleached, dyed, and ornamented with various styles of
designs. The name is also applied to a variety of dress goods woven
with a wild silk warp and a fine worsted weft.

=Popeline.= A French name. The French fabric is said to have been
first introduced during the early part of the sixteenth century at
Avignon, then a papal diocese, and to have been so called in
compliment to the reigning pope. A fabric constructed with a silk warp
and a filling of wool heavier than the silk which gives it a corded
surface. Poplin manufacture was introduced into Ireland in 1693 by a
colony of fugitive French Huguenots. The industry concentrated at
Dublin, where it has since remained. The Irish product has been
celebrated for its uniformly fine quality. It is always woven on hand
looms, which accounts for the high price it commands in English and
American markets. The wool used is a fine grade of Cape or Australian,
which is the most suitable in texture and length of fiber. The silk is
unweighted Chinese organzine. The result is a rich, handsome fabric
resembling whole silk goods in appearance, but inferior to them in
durability and produced at a much less cost. It is used for ladies'
waists, wraps, and gowns.

=Figured Poplin.= A stout variety, ornamented in the loom with
figures. The ground is composed of clear, sharp cords extending across
the web. It is sometimes woven entirely of silk, but oftener of silk
and wool. Used for high-class upholstery purposes, and for curtains
and hangings.

=Terry Poplin.= A silk and wool dress fabric in the construction of
which the alternate warps are thrown upon the surface in the form of
minute loops.

=Sarsenet.= A thin, soft-finished silk fabric of a veiling kind, now
used as millinery lining. The name comes from the Arab Saracens, who
wore it in their head-dress.

=Satin.= When satin first appeared in trade in Southern Europe it was
called _aceytuin_. The term slipped through early Italian lips into
_zetain_, and coming westward the _i_ was dropped, and smoothed itself
into satin. There is evidence that the material was known as early as
the fourteenth century in England, and probably in France and Spain
previous to that time, though under other names.

In the weaving of most silk fabrics the warp and filling intersect
each other every alternate time (as in plain weaving), or every third
or fourth time (as in ordinary twill weaving) in regular order; but in
weaving satin the fine silk warp only appears upon the surface, the
filling being effectually covered up and hidden. Instead of making the
warp pass under and over the filling every alternate time, or over two
or three filling threads in regular order, it is made to pass over
eight, ten, twelve or more filling threads; then under one and over
eight more, and so on. In passing over the filling, however, the warps
do not interweave at regular intervals, which would produce a twill,
but at irregular intervals, thus producing an even, close, smooth
surface, and one capable of reflecting the light to the best
advantage. The filling of low grade satin is generally cotton, while
in the better goods it is silk. Common satin is what is technically
known as an eight-leaf twill, the order in which the filling thread
rises being once in eight times. Rich satins may consist of
sixteen-leaf to twenty-leaf twills. The cheap qualities of cotton-back
satin, particularly those that sell at wholesale for fifty cents and
under, are not made to any extent in this country, our manufacturers
being unable to compete with foreign mills in these lines.

Satins are woven with the face downward, because in weaving, say a
sixteen-leaf satin, it would be necessary, were the surface upward, to
keep fifteen heddles raised and one down, whereas with the face of
the cloth under, only one heddle has to be raised at a time. When
first taken from the loom the face of satin is somewhat flossy and
rough, and hence requires to be dressed. This operation consists of
passing the pieces over heated metal cylinders which remove the minute
fibrous ends, and also increase the natural brilliance of the silk.
Cotton-back satins are used by coffin manufacturers, fancy box makers,
fan makers, and by the cutting-up trade. Rich satins are used in
making ladies' gowns and waists.

=Soleil.= Satin-faced cloth, woven with a fine line, a stripe running
lengthwise of the piece. It is usually made in solid colors and piece
dyed. _Soleil_ is French for sun, and applies to the brightness of the
finished cloth.

=Taffeta.= Derived from Persian _taftah_. Taffeta is one of the oldest
weaves known, silk under this name having been in constant use since
the fourteenth century. During this long period the term has been
applied at different times to different materials. It is a thin,
glossy silk of plain texture or woven in lines so fine as to appear
plain woven. The weave is capable of many effects in the way of shot
and changeable arrangements, which are produced by threads of
different colors rather than by any special disposition of warp and
filling. Taffeta has the same appearance on both sides. It is piece
dyed in numberless plain colors, and also produced in a great variety
of ornamental patterns, such as fancy plaids, cords, and stripes (both
printed and woven). The following considerations contribute chiefly
to the perfection of taffetas, viz.: the silk, the water, and the
fire. The silk must not only be of the finest kind, but it must be
worked a long time before it is used. The watering, which is given
lightly by any acidulous fluid, is intended to produce the fine
luster, and lastly, the fire and pressure which have a particular
manner of application. Its wearing qualities are not of the best. The
cloth cracks or breaks, especially if plaited. It is used for gowns,
shirtwaists, linings, petticoats, etc.

=Tulle.= Openwork silk net; made on the pillow as lace by young women
of Tulle, France.

=Velour.= French for velvet. A trade term of somewhat loose
application, being used indiscriminately to describe a great variety
of textures so constructed or finished as to present a velvet-like
surface. It is usually a velvety fabric made of coarse wool yarn and
silk. Velour is woven with a coarse stiff pile after the manner of
plush; while at present it is made of jute, cotton, and worsted, it
was originally constructed of linen. It is produced in numberless
forms, both plain and in fancy effects.

=Velvet.= From the Italian _velluto_, feeling woolly to the touch, as
a woolly pelt or hide. Fine velvet is made wholly of silk.

=Velveteen.= An imitation velvet, made of cotton, usually with plain
back, not twilled, as silk velvet.

=Tabby Velvet.= The lowest grade of cotton velvet, used for covering
cheap coffin lining cases, sold by the inch in widths which range from
sixteen to thirty-two inches. Originally made in Bagdad for wall
covering, its name being derived from a section of that city.

=Voile.= From the French _voile_, meaning a veil, a light fabric
usually more or less transparent, intended to conceal the features in
whole or in part or to serve as a screen against sunlight, dust,
insects, etc., or to emphasize or preserve the beauty. The custom of
wearing veils had its origin in the early ages in the desire of
semi-savage man to hide away the woman of his choice, and is a
survival of the ancient custom of hiding women that is found even down
to the present day in Eastern countries. Voile is a transparent, wiry
material with a square mesh.



CHAPTER XIX

ARTIFICIAL SILK


=Silk Cotton.= On account of the high price of silk various attempts
have been made to find satisfactory substitutes for it. There are
certain seed coverings of plants that contain very fine hair-like
fibers with a luster almost equal to silk, but the staples are short,
and the texture weak. The Kapok plant furnishes most of the commercial
silk cotton on the market. The fibers of Kapok are thin and
transparent. They are extremely light, and the length is less than
half an inch. Silk cotton has a smooth surface and therefore cannot be
spun like true cotton which has corded edges.

=Artificial Silk.= Since seed hairs are composed, like all vegetable
fibers, of cellulose, attempts have been made to prepare an artificial
silk product from waste paper--that is, by treating waste paper or
wood or cotton fibers with various chemicals in order to obtain pure
cellulose. This artificial silk is perhaps the most interesting of
artificial fibers, but its manufacture is dangerous, owing to the ease
with which it catches fire and explodes. Cellulose, chemically
treated, can be transformed into a fluid solution known as collodion.
The collodion is placed in steel cylinders and expelled by pressure
through capillary tubes. After drying, denitration, and washing, it
may be spun and dyed like natural silk. Colored threads may be
produced by the addition of certain dyes.

Artificial silk bears a deceptive resemblance to the natural article,
and has nearly the same luster. It lacks the tensile strength and
elasticity, and is of higher specific gravity than true silk.

=Tests.= A simple way of recognizing artificial silk is by testing the
threads under moisture, as follows: First, unravel a few threads of
the suspected fabric, place them in the mouth and masticate them
vigorously. Artificial silk readily softens under this operation and
breaks up into minute particles, and when pulled between the fingers
shows no thread, but merely a mass of cellulose or pulp. Natural silk,
no matter how thoroughly masticated, will retain its fibrous strength.
The artificial silk offers no resistance to the teeth, which readily
go through it; whereas natural silk resists the action of the teeth.



CHAPTER XX

SUBSTITUTES FOR COTTON


On account of the high price of cotton various experiments have been
made in an effort to replace it with fiber from wood pulp, grasses,
leaves, and other plants.

=Wood Pulp.= A Frenchman has discovered a process, _la soyeuse_, of
making spruce wood pulp into a substitute for cotton. Although it is
called a substitute, the samples show that it takes dye, bleaching,
and finishing more brilliantly than the cotton fiber. It resists
boiling in water or caustic potash solution for some minutes, and does
not burn more quickly than cotton. The fiber can be made of any
length, as is also the case with artificial silk. The strength of the
yarn apparently exceeds cotton, and the cost of manufacture is much
lower. Arrangements are being made in Europe for the extensive
production of this fiber.

=Ramie.= Ramie or China grass is a soft, silky, and extremely strong
fiber. It grows in southwestern Asia, is cultivated commercially in
China, Formosa, and Japan, and is a fiber of increasing importance.
Ramie is a member of the nettle family and attains a height of from
four to eight feet. After the stalks are cleaned of a gummy substance,
insoluble in water, it is known as China grass, and is used in China
for summer clothing. In Europe and America by the use of modern
machinery and chemical processes the fiber is cleaned effectively and
cheaply. After it is bleached and combed it makes a fine silky fiber,
one-half the weight of linen, and three times stronger than hemp. It
is used in Europe to make fabrics that resemble silk, and is also used
in making underwear and velvets. With other fabrics it is employed as
a filling for woolen warps. It will probably be used widely in the
United States as soon as cheaper methods of cleaning are devised.

=Pineapple and Other Fibers.= Other fibers, of which that from the
pineapple is the most important, are used for textile purposes in
China, South America, parts of Africa, Mexico, and Central America.
Their use has not been extensive on account of high cost of
production. The silk from the pineapple is very light and of excellent
quality.

=Spun Glass.= When a glass rod is heated in a flame until perfectly
soft it can be drawn out in the form of very fine threads which may be
used in the production of handsome silky fabrics. Spun glass can be
produced in colors; but on account of the low elasticity of these
products, their practical value is small, though the threads are
exceedingly uniform and have beautiful luster. Spun glass is used by
chemists for filtering strong acid solutions.

A kind of glass wool is produced by drawing out to a capillary thread
two glass rods of different degrees of hardness. On cooling they curl
up, in consequence of the different construction of the two
constituent threads.

=Metallic Threads.= Metallic threads have always been used for
decorating, particularly in rich fabrics. Fine golden threads, as well
as silver gilt threads, and silver threads and copper wire, have been
used in many of the so-called Cyprian gold thread fabrics, so renowned
for their beauty and permanence in the Middle Ages. These threads are
now produced by covering flax or hemp threads with a gilt of fine
texture.

=Slag Wool.= Slag wool is obtained by allowing molten slag (generally
from iron) to run into a pan fitted with a steam injector which blows
the slag into fibers. The fibers are cooled by running them through
water, and the finished product is used as a packing material.

=Asbestos.= Asbestos is a silicate of magnesium and lime, containing
in addition iron and aluminum. It is found in Savoy, the Pyrenees,
Northern Italy, Canada, and some parts of the United States. Asbestos
usually occurs in white or greenish glassy fibers, sometimes combined
in a compact mass, and sometimes easily separable, elastic, and
flexible. Canadian asbestos is almost pure white, and has long fibers.
Asbestos can be spun into fine thread and woven into rope or yarn, but
as it is difficult to spin these fibers alone, they are generally
mixed with a little cotton, which is afterwards disposed of by heating
the finished fabric to incandescence. Because of its incombustible
nature asbestos is used where high temperatures are necessary, as in
the packing of steam joints, steam cylinders, hot parts of machines,
and for fire curtains in theatres, hotels, etc. It is difficult to
dye.



APPENDIX


=Testing Textile Fabrics.= This is an age of adulteration, and next to
food there is probably no commodity that is adulterated as much as the
clothing we wear. Large purchasers of textile fabrics and various
administrative bodies, such as army clothing departments, railway
companies, etc., have adopted definite specifications to ensure having
good material and workmanship. Before the fabrics are accepted they
are examined carefully by certain tests to see if they meet the
requirements. Wholesale and retail merchants insist on various
conditions when purchasing fabrics in order to conform to the
increasing needs of the public. Hence every manufacturer, buyer, or
dealer in fabrics should be familiar with the tests used to determine
the quality of goods he is about to buy.

The tests used are as follows:

1. Identification of the style of weaving.

2. Testing the breaking strength and the elasticity by the dynamometer.

3. Determining the "count" of warp and filling.

4. Determining the shrinkage.

5. Testing the constituents of warp and of filling.

6. Testing the finish and dressing materials.

7. Testing the fastness of the dye.

=Directions for Determining the Style of Weave.= In examining a
fabric for the weave it is first necessary to determine the direction
of the warp and filling threads. This is a very simple matter in a
great many fabrics that have a selvedge--the warp must be parallel to
the selvedge.

In fabrics that have been fulled, raised, and cropped, as buckskin,
flannel, etc., the direction of the nap will indicate the direction of
the warp, since the nap runs in this direction.

In the case of fabrics with doubled and single threads, the doubled
threads are always found in the warp.

In fabrics composed of cotton and woolen threads running in different
directions, the cotton yarn usually forms the warp and the woolen yarn
the filling. Then again the warp threads of all fabrics are more
tightly twisted than the filling threads, and are separated at more
regular intervals.

Sometimes in stiffened or starched goods threads running in only one
direction can be seen. In this case they are the warp threads.

If one set of threads appears stiffer and straighter than the other,
the former may be regarded as warp, while the rough and crooked
threads are the filling. The yarn also gives one a hint, since the
better, longer, and higher number material constitutes the warp, while
the thicker yarn the filling.

The direction of the twist of the thread is conclusive; if one set has
a strong right twist and the other a left twist the first is the warp.

After determining the direction of the warp and filling, the next
point is to determine the interlacing of the warp and filling
threads--the weave. This may be done by inspection or by means of a
pick-glass and needle. The weave may be plotted on design paper
(plotting paper), the projecting warp threads being indicated by
filling up the corresponding square, and leaving those referring to
the filling threads blank. In this way the weaving pattern of the
sample is obtained, and serves as a guide to the weaver in making the
fabric, as well as for the preparation of the pattern cards for the
Jacquard loom.

=Testing the Strength and Elasticity of a Fabric.= The old-fashioned
plan of testing cloth by tearing it by the hand is unreliable, because
tearing frequently requires only a certain skilled knack whereby the
best material can be pulled in two. In this way an experienced man may
tell good from bad cloth, but he cannot determine slight differences
in quality, because he has exerted his strength so often that his
capacity to distinguish the actual force has disappeared.

The best means of determining the strength of a fabric is by means of
a mechanical dynamometer,[19] which expresses the tensile strength of
the fabric in terms of weight. The machine is very useful to the
manufacturer because it enables him to compare accurately his various
products with those of his competitors. The value of these tests is
sufficiently proved by the fact that all army clothing departments,
etc., require their supplies of cloth, etc., to pass a definite test
for strength.

Breaking tests also afford the most certain proof to bleachers of
cotton and linen goods as to whether the bleaching has burned or
weakened the goods. The same test will quickly determine whether a
fabric has been improperly treated in the laundry.

=Determining the Count of Warp and Filling Threads.= Every fabric must
contain a certain count of warp and filling threads--a definite number
within a certain space for each strength of yarn employed. A fabric is
not up to the standard of density when less than the requisite number
of warp or filling threads per inch is found. For example, if a buyer
was told that a fabric is 80 square, that is, eighty warp threads and
eighty filling threads to the inch, and on examination found only 72
square, he would immediately reject the goods.

The count of warp and filling is determined by means of a
pick-glass--a small mounted magnifying glass--the base of which
contains an opening of one-half inch by one quarter inch, or one
quarter inch by one quarter inch. If the pick-glass is placed on the
fabric the number of warp and filling threads may be counted, and the
result multiplied by either two or four, so as to give the number of
threads to the inch. For example, if I count twenty picks and twenty
threads on a one quarter-inch edge, there are eighty picks and eighty
threads to the inch. A more accurate result can be obtained by using a
pick-glass with a one-inch opening.

=Determination of Shrinkage.= A very important factor in the value of
a fabric is the shrinkage. The extent of this may be determined by
pouring hot water over a sample of about twelve by twenty inches, and
leaving the fabric immersed over night, then drying it at a moderate
temperature without stretching. The difference in length gives the
shrinkage, which is usually expressed in percentage.

=Determination of Weight.= Buyers and sellers of dry goods, when
traveling, are anxious to determine the weight of fabrics they
examine. This may be done by means of small pocket balances so
constructed as to give the number of ounces to the yard of a fabric.

=Testing the Constituents of the Warp and Filling.= Take a sample
piece of the cloth to be examined--the piece must be large enough to
contain specimens of all the different kinds of yarn present in the
material--and separate all the filling and warp threads. Be sure that
all double threads are untwisted.

=Combustion Test; Test for Vegetable and Animal Fibers.= Burn
separately a sample of the untwisted warp and filling threads. If one
or both burn quickly without a greasy odor, they are vegetable fibers,
cotton or linen. If one or both burn slowly and give off a greasy
odor, they are animal fibers, wool or silk. This test is not
conclusive, and further chemical examination--acid test--must be made
to ascertain whether wool is pure or mixed with cotton.

=Acid Test.= The vegetable fibers, cotton and linen, are distinguished
from those of animal origin by their behavior in the presence of
acids and alkalies. The vegetable are insoluble when boiled with a 4
per cent sodium hydrate solution, but readily clear or carbonize when
saturated with a 3 per cent sulphuric acid solution and allowed to dry
at a high temperature in a hot closet. Wool on the other hand is not
affected by the action of weak sulphuric acid.

=Cotton Distinguished from Linen.= If the fibers are vegetable, cotton
may be distinguished from linen by staining the fibers with fuchsine.
If the fibers turn red, and this coloration disappears on the addition
of ammonia, they are cotton, if the red color remains the fibers are
linen. Whenever cotton yarn is used to adulterate other fabrics, it
wears shabby and loses its brightness. When it is used to adulterate
linen, it becomes fuzzy through wear. One may detect it in linen by
rolling the goods between thumb and finger. Linen is a heavier fabric,
and wrinkles much more readily than cotton. It wears better, and has
an exquisite freshness that is not noticed in cotton fabrics.

=Silk Distinguished from Wool.= Place the fabric or threads containing
animal fibers in cold, concentrated hydrochloric acid. If silk is
present it will dissolve, while wool merely swells.

=Artificial Silk from Silk.= On account of the low value of the
artificial and the high value of genuine silk, there is a tendency to
offer the artificial instead of the pure article. Test: When
artificial silk is boiled in 4 per cent potassium hydrate solution it
produces a yellow solution, while pure silk gives a colorless
solution.

A common test is to put the artificial silk in water, where it will
pull apart as though rotten; or to take out one strand of the silk,
hold it between the finger and thumb of each hand and wet the middle
of the strand with the tongue, when it will pull apart as though
rotten.

Artificial silk is inferior in strength and elasticity to pure silk.
Then again it is lacking in the crackling feeling noticed in handling
the genuine article.

=Test for Shoddy.= It is no easy matter to detect shoddy in woolen
fabrics; the color of the shoddy threads is the best evidence. Many
parcels of rags are of one single color, but for the most part they
are made of various colored wools; therefore, if on examination of a
fabric with a magnifying glass a yarn of any particular color is found
to contain a number of individual fibers of glaring colors, the
presence of shoddy can be assumed with certainty.

Woolen goods containing cotton are seldom made from natural wool.
Shoddy yarns, especially in winter goods, are found in the
under-filling at the reverse side of the cloth, as thick, tightly
twisted yarns, curlier than those from the pure wool.

=Determination of the Dressing.= During the various operations of
washing, bleaching, etc., the goods lose in weight, and to make up
this deficit a moderate amount of dressing or loading is employed.
Dressing is not regarded as an adulteration, but as an embellishment.

Various dressing materials are used, such as starch, flour, mineral
matters, to give the goods stiffness and feel on one hand, and on the
other to conceal defects in the cloth, and to give a solid appearance
to goods of open texture. The mineral substances used serve chiefly
for filling and weighting, and necessitate the employment of a certain
quantity of starch, etc. In order that the latter may not render the
cloth too stiff and hard, further additions of some emollient, such as
glycerine, oils, etc., are necessary.

When a fabric filled in this manner is placed in water and rubbed
between the hands, the dressing is removed, and the quantity employed
can be easily determined.

By holding fabrics before the light dressing will be recognized, and
such goods, if rubbed between the fingers, will lose their stiffness.
Loading is revealed by the production of dust on rubbing, and by the
aid of the magnifying glass it can be easily ascertained whether the
covering or dressing is merely superficial or penetrates into the
substance of the fabric.

=The tests of permanence of dyes on fabrics are as follows:=

=Washing Fastness.= Fabrics should stand mechanical friction as well
as the action of soap liquor and the temperature of the washing
operation. In order to test the fabric for fastness a piece should be
placed in a soap solution similar to that used in the ordinary
household, and heated to 131 degrees F. The treatment should be
repeated several times. If the color fails to run it is fast to
washing.

=Fastness Under Friction.= Stockings, hosiery yarns, corset stuffs,
and all fabrics intended to be worn next to the skin must be
permanent under friction, and must not rub off, stain, or run, that
is, the dyed materials must not give off their color when worn next to
the human epidermis (skin), or in close contact with colored articles
of clothing, as in the case of underwear.

The simplest test is to rub the fabric or yarn on white unstarched
cotton fabric. In comparing the fastness of two fabrics it is
necessary to have the rubbing equal in all cases.

=Resistance to Perspiration.= With fabrics coming in contact with the
human skin it is necessary in addition to fastness under friction that
they should withstand the excretions of the body. The acids of
perspiration (acetic, formic, and butyric) often become so
concentrated that they act on the fiber of the fabric.

In order to test the fabric for resistance, place the sample in a bath
of 30 per cent dilute acetic acid (one teaspoonful to a quart of
water) warmed to the temperature of the body, 98.6 degrees F. The
sample should be dipped a number of times, and then dried without
rinsing between parchment paper.

=Fastness against Rain.= Silk and woolen materials for umbrella
making, raincoats, etc., are expected to be rainproof. These fabrics
are tested by plaiting with undyed yarns and left to stand all night
in cold water.

=Resistance to Street Mud and Dust.= Ladies' dress goods are expected
to withstand the action of mud and dust. In order to test a fabric for
this resistance the sample should be moistened with lime and water
(10 per cent solution), dried, and brushed. Or sprinkle with a 10 per
cent solution of soda, drying, brushing, and noting any changes in
color.

=Fastness to Weather, Light, and Air.= Various people have attempted
to set up standard degrees of fastness--for every shade of color is
affected by the action of sun, light, and air--and as a result fabrics
that remain without appreciable alteration for a month of exposure to
direct summer sunlight are classified as "fast," and those undergoing
slight appreciable change under the same conditions as "fairly fast."
"Moderately fast" colors are those altering considerably in fourteen
days; and those more or less completely faded in the same time
(fourteen days) are designated as "fleeting."

=Directions for testing fastness of Color in Sunlight.= Cover one end
of the sample of cloth with a piece of cardboard. Expose the fabric to
the sunlight for a number of days and examine the cloth each day in
the dark and notice whether the part exposed has changed in color when
compared with the part covered. Count the number of days it has taken
the sunlight to change the color.

    Brown in woolen materials is likely to fade. Brown holds
    its color in all gingham materials.

    Dark blue is an excellent color for woolens and
    ginghams. Light blues on the other hand usually change.

    Black, gray, and black with white. These colors are very
    satisfactory for woolen materials.

    Black is not a color which wears very well with cotton
    fabrics, as it shows the starch (sizing) and often
    fades.

    Red is an excellent color for all woolen materials. It
    looks attractive and wears well.

    Red is a very poor color for cotton. It loses its
    brilliancy and frequent washing spoils it.

    A deep pink is an excellent color for all ginghams for
    it fades evenly and leaves a pretty shade.

    Green is a poor color for both cotton and woolen
    materials unless it is high priced.

    Lavender fades more than any other color in textiles.


HISTORY OF TEXTILES

The three fundamental industries that have developed from necessity
are the feeding, sheltering, and clothing of the human race. These
primary wants were first gratified before such conveniences as
transportation and various lines of manufacture were even considered.
Next to furnishing our food supply, the industry of supplying clothing
is the oldest and the most widely diffused. It is in the manufacture
of textiles--including all materials used in the manufacturing of
clothing--that human ingenuity is best illustrated.

The magnitude of the textile industry in the United States is evident
when we consider that it gives employment to a round million of
people, paying them nearly five hundred million dollars annually in
wages and salaries, producing nearly one and three-quarters billion
dollars in gross value each year, and giving a livelihood to at least
three millions of our population.

Wool, cotton, flax, and silk have been used since early times. Even in
the earlier days these fibers were woven with great skill. It is not
known which fiber was the first to be used in weaving. It is probable,
however, that the possession of flocks and herds led to the spinning
and weaving of wool before cotton, flax, or silk fibers were thus
used.

=Wool.= The date at which prehistoric man discarded the pelt of skins
for the woven fabric of wool marks the origin of the textile industry.
Primitive sheep were covered with hair and the wool which now
characterizes them was then a downy under-coat. As time went on and
the art of spinning and weaving developed, the food value of sheep
decreased, while the wool value increased. The hairy flocks were bred
out, and the sheep with true wool, like the merino, survived. Sheep
were bred principally for the wool and not for the mutton. Woolen
fabrics were worn by the early inhabitants of Persia and Palestine.
The Persians were noted for the excellent fabrics they wove from wool.
Even the Hebrews of an early date were very skilful in weaving
woolens.

The early Romans were a race of shepherds and the women of the higher
classes wove the cloth in their own homes. When Caesar invaded
England, he found in the southern part of the island people acquainted
with the spinning and weaving of wool and linen. With the downfall of
Rome, the art of weaving cloth in Europe was almost lost, and people
again wore furs and skins.

By the end of the eleventh century English cloth manufacturing had
begun to revive. In the northern part of Italy certain Italians had
flocks of sheep and obtained very fine wool, and the people of
Flanders continued to develop skill in weaving during the Dark Ages.

In the twelfth century the woolen manufacturers of Flanders had grown
to be of great importance, and some of the finest goods were shipped
from there to many countries.

In England, up to the time of Edward III, in the fourteenth century,
the wool produced was exported to the Netherlands, there to be woven
into cloth. Edward III invited many of the Flemish weavers to come to
England to teach the English people how to make their own clothes.
Edward was called the "Royal Wool Merchant" and also the "Father of
English Commerce." During Elizabeth's reign in the sixteenth century
the chief article of export was woolen cloth. In 1685 the Huguenots,
who were driven from France, went to England to settle. These people
were noted for their skill in weaving.

Patient effort in care and breeding of sheep showed a steady increase
in the quantity and quality of wool until 1810, and the proportion of
sheep to the population was then greater than at the present time.

Our own climate is highly favorable for sheep breeding, and it is
certain that the American sheep has no superior in any wool growing
country, in constitutional vigor and strength of wool-fiber, and no
wools make more durable or more valuable clothing.

The obstacles to sheep husbandry in certain parts of the United
States, like New England, are mainly climatic. The natural home of the
only races of sheep which can be herded in large flocks is an elevated
tableland, like the steppes of Russia and the great plains of Asia,
Argentina, Montana, Wyoming, and others of our western states where
an open air range is possible for nearly twelve months in the year. In
these elevated lands there are grasses which are more nutritious in
winter than in summer. The climate of New England does not permit the
growth of such grasses. Every grass which will grow in New England
becomes in the cold months frozen wood fiber. Then again there is the
frigid and penetrating atmosphere which necessitates housing the sheep
in winter, and these animals cannot be closely housed without
engendering a variety of parasitic diseases.

=Cotton.= Long before history was written, cotton was used in making
fabrics in India and China. Cotton has been for thousands of years the
leading fabric of the East. The Hindoos have for centuries maintained
almost unapproachable perfection in their cotton fabrics. It was the
Arabian caravans that brought Indian calicoes and muslins into Europe.

Cotton was first cultivated in Europe by the Moors in Spain in the
ninth century. In 1430 it was imported into England in large
quantities. The section of England about Manchester became in time the
seat of the great cotton industry; this was due to the settlement of
spinners and weavers from Flanders.

During the reign of Elizabeth, the East Indies Trading Company was
established. Not only was cotton imported, but also India muslins.
This caused trouble because of the decrease in the demand for woolen
goods manufactured in England. A law was passed prohibiting the
importing of cotton goods and later the manufacturing of them, but
this law was repealed on account of the great demand for cotton
materials.

Columbus found cotton garments worn by the natives of the West Indies.
Later Cortez found that cotton was used in Mexico; hence, cotton is
indigenous to America. In 1519 Cortez made the first recorded export
of cotton from America to Europe.

In 1734 cotton was planted in Georgia. Bales of cotton were sent to
England, and the manufacturing of cloth was soon under way. While the
colonies were trying to gain independence, England imposed a fine on
anyone sending cotton machinery to America, and restrictions were put
on manufacturing and imports of any kind. After the War of
Independence many of the southern states began to raise cotton in
larger quantities.

The invention of the cotton-gin by Eli Whitney was one of the great
inventions of the age. While only two pounds of cotton could be seeded
by hand by one person in a day, the gin made it possible to do several
hundred pounds. At the time of the Civil War the greater part of the
cotton used by English manufacturers was imported from the southern
states. The closing of the southern ports during the war affected the
cotton industry throughout the world. Large mills in England were
closed, and thousands of people were out of employment. Steps were
then taken to encourage people of India, Egypt, Central and South
America to increase their production of cotton, and from that time on,
cotton from these countries has been found in the general market.
Cotton is now cultivated in nearly all countries within the limits 45°
north and 35° south of the equator.

At the present time the United States ranks first in the production
and export of cotton. Of all the states, Texas and Georgia produce the
largest amount. About one-third of the entire crop is used in our own
mills; $250,000,000 worth of cotton is annually exported, principally
through New Orleans, New York, Savannah, and Galveston. Three-fifths
of this quantity goes to mills in England; Germany, France, and
Switzerland take a large part of the remainder.

The value of cotton is shown by the fact that about one-half the
people of the earth wear clothing made entirely of cotton, and the
other half (with the exception of some savage tribes) use it in part
of the dress.

=Linen.= Linen has always been held in great esteem. The garments of
the Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, and Roman priests were made of the finest
linen.

During the Middle Ages, Italy, Spain, and France were celebrated for
their linen fabrics. Religious intolerance in France drove 300,000 of
her best textile workers into England, Ireland, and Scotland. Irish
linen weaving began as early as the eleventh century.

Linen has never been largely woven in America except in the coarser
forms of crash and toweling, although linen weaving was one of the
Puritan domestic industries. The reason America has not been able to
equal Europe in its production of fine linens is because the process
for separating the fiber from the stalk requires the cheapest form of
labor to make it profitable, hence most of the American-grown flax is
raised only for seed.

=Silk.= Silk was used in the East as a fabric for the nobility. It was
first used in China and later in India. It was brought into Europe
about the sixth century. Up to that time the Chinese had a monopoly of
the industry. By the tenth and eleventh centuries silk fabrics were
made in Spain and Italy. At the close of the sixteenth century silk
was being produced at Lyons, France. It was afterwards introduced into
England, and the English silk for a long time replaced the French in
the European market.


HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

The development of the textile industry may be divided into four
stages or periods: first, the family system; second, the guild system;
third, the domestic system; and fourth, the factory system.

=The Family System.= Under the family system the work of spinning and
weaving was carried on by members of a household for the purpose of
supplying the family with clothing. There were no sales of the
product. Each class in society, from the peasant class to that of the
nobleman, had its own devices for making clothing. This was the system
that existed up to about the tenth century.

=The Guild System.= As communities became larger and cities sprang up,
the textile industry became more than a family concern. There was a
demand for better fabrics, and to meet this demand it became
necessary to have a large supply of different parts of looms. The
small weaver who owned and constructed his own loom was not able to
have all these parts, so he began to work for a more prosperous
weaver. The same conditions applied to spinning, and as early as 1740
spinning was carried on by a class distinct from the weavers. As a
result the small weaver was driven out by the growth of organized
capital, and a more perfect organization, called the guild system,
arose. By this system the textile industry was carried on by a small
group of men called masters, employing two, three or more men
(distinguished later as journeymen and apprentices). The masters
organized associations called guilds and dominated all the conditions
of the manufacture to a far greater extent than is possible under
present conditions.

It was the family system that existed in the American colonies at the
beginning of the settlement, and for many years after. The guild
system was not adopted in America because it was going out of
existence on the Continent.

=The Domestic Period.= By the middle of the eighteenth century the
textile industry began to break away from the guilds and spread from
cities to the rural districts. The work was still carried on in the
master's house, although he had lost the economic independence that he
had under the old guild system where he acted both as merchant and
manufacturer. He now received his raw material from the merchant and
disposed of the finished goods to a middleman, who looked after the
demands of the market.

=The Factory System.= The domestic period was in turn crowded out of
existence by the factory system. A factory is a place where goods are
produced by power for commercial use. The factory system first came
into prominence after the invention of the steam engine. No record has
been found showing its existence prior to this invention.

English weavers and spinners became very skilful and invented
different mechanical aids for the production of yarn and cloth. These
mechanical aids not only enabled one man to do twenty men's work, but
further utilization was made of water and steam power in place of
manual labor. Then began the organization of the industry on a truly
gigantic scale, combining capital and machinery and resulting in what
is known as the factory system.

Previous to the development of the factory system there was no reason
why any industry should be centered in one particular district. Upon
the utilization of steam power the textile industry became subdivided
into a number of industries, each one becoming to a great extent
localized in convenient and suitable portions of the country. Thus in
Bradford the wool of Yorkshire (England) meets the coal of Yorkshire
and makes Bradford the great woolen and worsted center of the world.
The same thing took place in Manchester, where the cotton of America
meets the coal of England under satisfactory climatic conditions, and
around Manchester is the greatest cotton manufacturing of the world.

The same is true in America. Lawrence became a large worsted center on
account of the great fall of water and the use of the river to deposit
wool washings. Lowell, Fall River, and New Bedford became large cotton
centers for similar reasons.


HISTORY OF MANUFACTURING

[Illustration: SPINNING WHORL

One of the earliest devices used for spinning]

=Spinning.= Spinning and weaving are two of the earliest arts
practised by man. Yarn for the making of cloth was spun in the
earliest times by the use of the distaff and spindle. The spindle was
a round stick of wood a foot or less in length, tapering at each end.
A ring of stone or clay was placed on the spindle to give it
steadiness and momentum when it revolved. At the top of the spindle
was a slit or notch in which the yarn was caught. The distaff was a
larger, stouter stick, around one end of which the material to be spun
was wound in a loose ball. The spinner fixed the end of the distaff
under her left arm so that the coil of material was in a convenient
position for drawing out to form the yarn. The end of the yarn, after
being prepared, was inserted in the notch, and the spindle was set in
motion by rolling it with the right hand against the leg. Then the
spinner drew from the distaff an additional amount of fiber, which
was formed by the right hand into uniform strands. After the yarn was
twisted, it was released from the notch and wound around the lower
part of the spindle.

In order to spin yarn by the primitive spinner, it was necessary for
the fiber to have sufficient length to enable it to be manipulated,
drawn over, and twisted by the fingers. It is noted that the yarns for
the gossamer-like Dacca muslins of India were so fine that one pound
of cotton was spun into a thread 253 miles long. This was accomplished
with the aid of a bamboo spindle not much bigger than a darning
needle, which was lightly weighted with a pellet of clay. Since such a
slender thread could not support even the weight of so slight a
spindle, the apparatus was rotated upon a piece of hollow shell. It
thus appears that the primitive spinners with distaff and spindle had
nothing to learn in point of fineness from even the most advanced
methods of spinning by machinery.

[Illustration: HAND SPINNING

From a Fourteenth Century MS. in the British Museum]

Certain rude forms of the spinning wheel seem to have been known from
time immemorial. The use of the wheel in Europe cannot, however, be
dated back earlier than the fifteenth century. In the primitive wheel
the spindle, having a groove worked in its whorl, was mounted
horizontally in a framework fixed to the end of a bench. A band
passed around the whorl and was carried around a large wheel fixed
farther back on the bench, and this wheel, being turned by the hand of
the spinner, gave a rapid rotation to the spindle.

[Illustration: AN ANCIENT LOOM

From an Egyptian Monument]

The fibers to be spun were first combed out by means of carding
boards--an implement of unknown antiquity, consisting of two boards
with wire teeth set in them at a uniform angle. The fiber to be carded
was thinly spread upon one of the boards, and then the other was
pushed backward and forward across it, the teeth of the two
overlapping at opposite angles, until the fibers were combed out and
laid straight in parallel lines. The fibers were then scraped off the
boards in rollers or "cardings" about twelve inches long and
three-quarters of an inch in diameter. An end of the carding was then
attached to the spindle and the wheel set in motion. The carding
itself was held in the hand of the spinner and gradually drawn out and
twisted by the rotation of the spindle. As soon as a sufficient length
had been attenuated and twisted to the required fineness, the thread
so produced was held at right angles to the spindle and allowed to
wind up on it. But for fine spinning two operations of the wheel were
generally necessary. By the first spinning the fibers were drawn out
and slightly attenuated into what was called a roving, and by the
second spinning the roving itself passed through a similar cycle of
operations to bring it to the required degree of attenuation and
twist.

Many improvements in the primitive wheel were introduced from time to
time. In its later developments two spindles were employed, the
spinner being thus enabled to manipulate two threads at once, one in
each hand. This was the latest form of the spinning-wheel, and it
survived until it was superseded in the eighteenth century by the
great series of inventions which inaugurated the industrial revolution
and led in the nineteenth century to the introduction of the factory
system.

[Illustration: EARLIER SPINNING AND WEAVING

From a Fifteenth Century MS. in the British Museum]

=Weaving.= When or where man first began to weave cloth is not known,
nor is it known whether this art sprang from one common center or was
invented by many who dwelt in different parts of the world. There is
such a sameness in the early devices for spinning and weaving that
among some men of science it is thought that the art must have come
from a common center.

Fabrics were made on the farms two or three hundred years ago in the
following manner: the men of the household raised the flocks, while
the women spun the yarn and wove the fabrics. In this way the industry
prospered, giving occupation and income to thousands of the
agricultural class. You might say that in England fabrics were a
by-product of agriculture. As time went on, farmers of certain
sections of England became more expert in the art, and the weaving
became separated from the spinning. The weavers became clustered in
certain towns on account of the higher skill required for the finer
fabrics. The rough work of farming made the hands of the weaver less
skilful. This, coupled with the fact that the looms became more
complicated with improvements, called for a more experienced man.
Great inventions brought about a more rapid development of the
factory.

Richard Arkwright, who has been called the "father of the factory
system," built the first cotton mill in the world in Nottingham in
1769. The wheels were turned by horses. In 1771 Arkwright erected at
Crawford a new mill which was turned by water power and supplied with
machinery to accomplish the whole operation of cotton spinning in one
mill, the first machine receiving the cotton as it came from the bale
and the last winding the cotton yarn upon the bobbins. Children were
employed in this mill, as they were found to be more dexterous in
tying the broken ends. As the result of this great invention,
factories sprang up everywhere in England, changing the country scene
into a collection of factories, with tall chimneys, brick buildings,
and streets.

From 1730 to the middle of the nineteenth century the development of
inventions was rapid:

    1730--First cotton yarn spun in England by machinery by
    Wyatt.

    1733--English patent granted John Kay for the invention
    of the fly shuttle.

    1738--Patent granted Lewis Paul for the spinning
    machinery supposed to have been invented by Wyatt.

    1742--First mill for spinning cotton built at
    Birmingham; moved by asses; but not successful.

    1748--Patent on a cylinder card as first used by hand,
    granted Lewis Paul.

    1750--Fly shuttle in general use in England.

    1756--Cotton velvets and quiltings first made in
    England.

    1760--Stock cards first used for cotton by J. Hargreave.
    Drop box invented by Kay.

    1762-67--Spinning-jenny invented by Hargreave.

    1769--Arkwright obtains his first patent on spinning.

    1774--Bill passed in England to prevent the export of
    cotton machinery.

    1775--Second patent of Arkwright on carding, drawing,
    and spinning.

    1779--Mule spinning invented by Crompton. Peele's patent
    on carding, roving, and spinning.

    1782--Date of Watt's patent for the steam-engine.

    1783--Bounty granted in England for the export of
    certain cotton goods.

    1785--Power loom invented by Cartwright. Cylinder
    printing invented by Bell. A warp stop-motion described
    in Cartwright's patent.

    1788--First cotton factory built in the United States,
    at Beverly.

    1789--Sea Island cotton first planted in the United
    States. Samuel Slater starts cotton machinery in New
    York.

    1790--First cotton factory built in Rhode Island by
    Slater.

    1792--First American loom patent granted to Kirk and
    Leslie.

    1794--Cotton-gin patented by Eli Whitney.

    1801--Date given for invention of the Jacquard machine
    in France.

    1803--Dressing machine and warper invented in England by
    Radcliffe, Ross, and Johnson.

    1804--First cotton mill built in New Hampshire, at New
    Ipswich.

    1805--Power loom successfully introduced in England
    after many failures.

    1806--First cotton mill built in Connecticut, at
    Pomfret.

    1809--First cotton mill built in Maine, at Brunswick.

    1812--First cotton mill built at Fall River.

    1814--Cotton opener with lap attachment invented in
    England by Creighton.

    1815--Power loom introduced into the United States at
    Waltham.

    1816--First loom temple of Ira Draper patented in the
    United States.

    1818--Machinery for preparing sewing cotton invented in
    England by Holt.

    1822--First cotton factory erected at Lowell.

    1823--Differential motion for roving frames patented by
    Arnold. First export of raw cotton from Egypt to
    England.

    1824--Tube frame or speeder patented by Danforth.

    1825--Self-acting mule patented in England by Roberts.

    1828--Ring spinning patented by John Thorpe. Cap
    spinning patented by Danforth.

    1829--Revolving loom temple improvements patented by Ira
    Draper.

    1832--Stop-motion for drawing frames invented by
    Bachelder.

    1833--Ring spinning frames first built by William
    Mason.

    1834--Weft fork patented in England by Ramsbottom and
    Hope. Shuttle-changing loom by Reid and Johnson.

    1840--Automatic loom led off. Important temple
    improvement.

    1849--First cotton mill erected in Lawrence.

Through this great change from hand to power work, thousands were
thrown out of employment in the great textile centers, and much
suffering occurred, which led to the smashing of machinery.

=Knitting Machinery.= Like many other industries, the hosiery trade
owes its first and most important impetus to the genius of one who was
not connected with the business in a practical way. This event took
place when the Rev. William Lee invented the hand frame. He was
married early in life, and his wife was obliged, on account of the
slender family finances, to knit continuously at home. Struck with the
monotony and toil involved in knitting with the hand pins, Mr. Lee
evolved a means of knitting by machinery and brought out the hand
stocking-frame, which to-day preserves its chief features very much as
Lee invented them. When knitting by hand, one must form each loop
separately, and loop follows loop laboriously until the width of
fabric has been worked. Lee contrived to make the whole row of loops
across the width simultaneously by arranging a needle for each loop
and placing in connection with each needle a sinker and other
apparatus for completing the formation of the loop. First of all, the
yarn is laid over the needles, which are arranged horizontally, and
the sinkers come down on the yarn and cause it to form partial loops
between the needles. The old loops of the previous course are now
brought forward and the new yarn is drawn through them in the same way
as is done on the hand pins. Thus the new yarn of one course is drawn
through the loops of the preceding one, and so the whole fabric is
built up. This frame of Lee's held its own in the great centers until
some thirty years ago.

Lee's hand frame gave way to what is termed the jack and sinker rotary
frame, which was like the hand frame in its chief features, but with
the advantage that all the motions were brought about by power. The
various operations were put under the control of a set of cams[20] and
made to perform their movements in exactly the same way as in the case
of the hand frame. In the first power machine for knitting, the
machine builder used the cam mechanism, and in examining the latest
machines we find that he has persisted in this course throughout. The
cam movement is characterized by great smoothness of working and
absence of vibration, which is very necessary in a machine of the
delicate adjustment of the knitting frame. It is usual to connect some
of the parts with two of these cams, one of which controls the
up-and-down motion and the other the out-and-in movement. When these
two cams work in conjunction, we obtain all the possible degrees of
harmonic motion.

From the jack and sinker frame the next really important step was
taken when William Cotton brought out his famous Cotton's patent
frame. In his machine the frame was in a sense turned on its back, for
the parts, such as the needles, which had been horizontal, were made
vertical and _vice versa_. He also reduced the number of the moving
parts and perfected the cam arrangement. Another very important
development of the machine was when it was built in a number of
divisions so as to work a number of articles side by side at one time.
At present there are knitting frames which can make twelve full-sized
garments at one and the same time.

Another important improvement was effected when the fashioning
apparatus was supplied to the machine, by means of which the garments
could be shaped according to the human form by increasing or
decreasing the width as desired.


HISTORY OF LACE

Lace, like porcelain, stained glass, and other artistic things, has
always been an object of interest to all classes. Special patterns of
laces date from the sixteenth century. The church and court have
always encouraged its production. While the early lace work was
similar to weaving, in that the patterns were stiff and geometrical,
sometimes the patterns were cut out of linen, but with the development
of the renaissance of art, free flowing patterns and figures were
introduced and worked in.

The lace industry first took root in Flanders and Venice, where it
became an important branch of industry. Active intercourse was
maintained between the two countries, so that intense rivalry existed.
France and England were not behind Venice and Flanders in making lace.
The king of France, Henry III, encouraged lace work by appointing a
Venetian to be pattern maker for varieties of linen needlework and
lace for his court. Later, official aid and patronage were given to
this art by Louis V. Through the influence of these two men the demand
for lace was increased to such an extent that it became very popular.

Under the impulse of fashion and luxury, lace has received the stamp
of the special style of each country. Italy furnishes its Point of
Venice; Belgium its Brussels and Mechlin; France its Valenciennes,
etc.

Very little is known of the early lace manufacturers of Holland. The
laces of Holland were overshadowed by the richer products of their
Flemish neighbors. The Dutch, however, had one advantage over other
nations in their Haarlem thread, once considered the best thread in
the world for lace.

In Switzerland, the center of the lace trade, the work was carried on
to such a degree of perfection as to rival the laces of Flanders, not
alone in beauty, but also in quality.

Attempts have been made at various times, both during this century and
the last, to assist the peasantry of Ireland by instruction in
lace-making. The finest patterns of old lace were procured, and the
Irish girls showed great skill in copying them. Later a better style
of work, needlepoint, was modeled after old Venetian lace--the
exquisite productions for which Americans pay fabulous prices at the
present day.

The lace manufacturers of Europe experienced a serious set-back in
1818 when bobbinet was first made in France. Fashion, always fleeting,
adopted the new material. Manufacturers were forced to lower prices,
but happily a new channel for export was opened in the United States.

The machine-made productions of the Nottingham looms, as triumphs of
mechanical ingenuity, deserve great praise.

The first idea of the lace-making machine is attributed to a common
factory hand, Hammond Lindy, who, when examining the lace on his
wife's cap, conceived a plan by which he could copy it on his loom.
Improvements followed, and in 1810 a fairly good net was produced.

Perhaps the most delicate textile machine known, in its sensitiveness
to heat and cold, is a lace machine. A machine can be made to run in
any climate, provided it is so installed as to be protected from
either extreme of temperature.

The various substitutes for hand-made lace are legion; for what the
inventor cannot achieve in one way he can in another. There remains
however the fact that the productions of machinery can never possess
the charm of the real hand-made work. Machine-made lace is stiffer
than hand-made lace.


FOOTNOTES:

[19] The testing apparatus may be obtained from any textile
manufacturing company, such as Alfred Suter, 487 Broadway, New York.

[20] A cam is a device consisting of a special shaped wheel attached
to a machine to give a special kind of motion or movement.



EXPERIMENTS


=Experiment 1--Construction of Cloth=

    Apparatus: Pick glass, dissecting pin,[21] foot-rule.
    Materials: 4 square inches of burlap.
    References: _Textiles._ See page 54, Weaving; page 1, Fibers.


_Directions_

1. Look at the cloth under the pick glass and describe the appearance
and structure of its interlacing threads, called weave.

2. With a pin separate the interlacing threads of the cloth which are
called _warp_ and _filling_. _Warp_ is composed of yarn running in the
direction of the length of the cloth. _Filling_ is composed of yarn
running at right angles to the warp.

    _a._ What are the interlacing threads of cloth called?

    _b._ Of what is warp composed and in what direction do
    the warp threads extend? filling?

3. Notice the appearance of the individual threads (called _yarn_) of
the warp and filling. Test the strength of the yarn by trying to break
it.

4. Untwist one of the warp threads and one of the filling threads.
Notice whether the yarn becomes stronger or weaker as it is untwisted.
What effect has twist on the yarn?

5. After untwisting one of the threads what remains? Measure the
length of several of these ends called _fibers_. Describe the
appearance of the fiber as to curl, feel, fineness, etc.


_Questions_

1. Of what does yarn consist?

2. What causes the fibers to cling together?

3. What is the process called by which two sets of threads interlace?

4. When two sets of threads interlace or are woven what is produced?


=Experiment 2--Plain or Homespun Weave=

    Apparatus: Hand loom,[22] two pencils, scissors.
    Material: Yarn of two colors.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 58.


_Directions_

1. Make a warp on the hand loom with green yarn by having parallel
threads running the longest way of the loom to the notches.

2. A _harness_ is a framework on a loom used for raising certain warp
threads. Use a pencil as a harness and raise the 1st, 3d, and 5th warp
threads. A _shed_ will in this way be formed through which the shuttle
carrying the filling thread will pass. Use the red yarn for filling
and attach it at one end before passing it through the shed.

3. With a second pencil to act as a second harness raise the 2d, 4th,
and 6th warp threads. Pass the filling through the shed thus formed.

4. Repeat twice Directions 2 and 3.

5. Tie all ends, cut the woven sample away from the loom, and mount in
note-book.


_Questions_

1. What part of a loom is the harness?

2. What is meant by a shed?

3. What carries the filling thread through the shed on a loom?

4. What is the principle of plain weaving?

5. Name some fabrics produced by plain weaving? See _Textiles_, page
58.


=Experiment 3--Twill Weave=

    Apparatus: Hand loom, four pencils, scissors.
    Materials: White cotton warp, colored yarn filling.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 58.


_Directions_

1. On the hand loom make a warp by threading four white warp threads
to a notch until there are six sets of warp threads.

2. Using a pencil as a harness (See Exp. 2) raise the first thread of
each set of warp threads and pass the filling thread through the shed
thus formed.

3. With another pencil as a second harness raise the second thread of
each set of warp threads and pass the filling.

4. With a third pencil raise the third thread of each set of warp
threads and pass the filling.

5. With still another pencil to act as a fourth harness raise the
fourth thread of each set and again pass the filling.

6. Repeat the above directions (2 to 5) several times. Notice that the
moving of the filling thread, one warp thread to the left, each time
it is woven is causing a diagonal line or rib to form, called _twill_.

7. Cut the woven sample away from the loom and mount.


_Questions_

1. Why is this weave called a twill weave?

2. How is the diagonal line or twill formed?

3. Why would this kind of weaving be spoken of as 4-harness weave?

4. What popular dress fabric is of twill weave?


=Experiment 4--Comparison of Plain and Twill Weave=

    Apparatus: Pick glass, dissecting pin, foot-rule.
    Material: 4 sq. in. of burlap, 4 sq. in. of serge.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 58, 59, 60.


_Directions_

1. Examine the burlap under the pick glass, noting the structure and
number of threads to the inch in the warp (called _ends_) and the
number of threads to the inch in the filling (called _picks_). Verify
with foot-rule.

2. Repeat the above, using serge.


_Questions_

1. What is meant by a number of "ends to the inch"? a number of "picks
to the inch"?

2. How many ends to the inch in the burlap? How many picks to the
inch?

3. How many ends to the inch in the serge? How many picks?

4. Note several differences between cloth produced by plain weaving
and cloth produced by twill weaving.


=Experiment 5--Pile Weave=

    Apparatus: Hand loom, two pencils, scissors.
    Materials: White cotton warp, filling yarn of two colors.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 62.


_Directions_

1. Thread the loom two warp threads to a notch until there are 20 ends
(warp threads).

2. Use a pencil as a harness. Raise the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th, and 9th
sets of warp threads.

3. Fasten securely the green filling yarn at one end and pass it
through the shed formed by carrying out Direction 2. Draw the filling
thread tight and wind once or twice around the outside warp end.

4. Use a second pencil as a harness and raise the sets of warp threads
that are now down, forming a new shed.

5. Fasten the red filling yarn at one end and pass it through the
shed. Wind once or twice about the outside warp end.

6. Raise the red filling to form a loop in each place where it (the
red filling) has passed over a warp end.

7. Form a shed by raising the first harness and pass through the green
filling thread, drawing it tight to hold the red filling above it in
place. Wind about the outside warp end.

8. Repeat Directions 2-7 several times, each time raising the red
filling to form loops and each time drawing the green filling tight to
hold the red in place.

9. Cut with scissors the loops formed by raising the red filling.

10. As well as you can with scissors, shear the pile (the soft, thick
covering on the face) to make a fairly even surface.

11. Cut the sample away from the loom and mount.


_Questions_

1. What are some varieties of cloth that are woven with a pile
surface?

2. Sometimes the loops of the pile are cut and sometimes left as
loops. What fabrics are examples of cut pile? uncut pile?

3. What is meant by the _pile_ of velvet or carpet?


=Experiment 6--Other Classes of Weave=

    Apparatus: Pick glass, dissecting needle.
    Materials: Samples of satin, voile, lace curtaining, double cloth,
               carpeting.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 58-64.


_Satin Weave_

1. Examine the sample of satin under the pick glass. Notice that the
warp and filling interlace in such a way that there is no trace of the
diagonal on the face of the cloth.

    _a._ Is satin of a close or loose weave?

    _b._ What can you say of the surface of satin?

    _c._ What effect has this smooth surface on light?

    _d._ This is called a satin weave. Why?

    _e._ What is the most extensive use of the satin weave?
    (See _Textiles_, page 1.)

NOTE.--Sometimes fabrics of other weaves will have a satin stripe.


_Gauze Weave_

2. Examine the sample of voile under the pick glass. This is a type of
what is known as gauze weave.

    _a._ What is the chief characteristic of the gauze
    weave?

    _b._ Name several gauze fabrics.


_Lappet Weave_

3. Examine a piece of lace curtaining under the pick glass.

    _a._ If the fancy figures were not present, of what
    weave would this sample be?

    Simple figures are stitched into plainly woven or gauze
    fabrics by machinery to imitate embroidery. This style
    of weave is known as lappet weave.

    _b._ On fabrics of what two weaves is lappet weaving
    used?

    _c._ What is lappet weaving?


_Jacquard Weave_

4. Examine a piece of carpet. Notice the elaborate designs or patterns
and the number of colors used. When the figures are elaborate they
cannot be stitched in by simple lappet weaving. A special attachment
called the _Jacquard_ apparatus is placed on top of the loom. This
apparatus controls the warp threads so that a great many sheds may be
formed and elaborate figures woven into fabrics. This is called
Jacquard weaving.

    _a._ What must be added to a loom for Jacquard weaving?

    _b._ What is the use of the Jacquard apparatus?

    _c._ When is the Jacquard weave used instead of lappet
    weave?

5. Read _Textiles_, page 61.


_Double Cloth Weave_

6. Examine the sample of double cloth. Notice that there are two
single cloths. They are combined into one by here and there lacing the
warp and filling of one cloth into the warp and filling of the other.
In this way they are fastened together securely.

    _a._ What color is the sample on one side? the other?

    _b._ Of what is double cloth composed?

    _c._ How are the single cloths combined into one?

    _d._ Read _Textiles_, page 62. What are some of the uses
    of double cloth?


_Classes of Weave_

7. How many classes of weave have been studied?

8. Name the classes of weave.

9. Name a fabric to illustrate each weave.


=Experiment 7--Fibers=

    Apparatus: Pick glass, dissecting needle.

    Materials: Samples of broadcloth, mohair, silk, cotton cloth,
    linen.

    References: _Textiles_, pages 1; 97, Mohair; 203, Silk; 105,
    Cotton; 193, Linen; 199, Hemp; 201, Jute; 232, Ramie; 233,
    Pineapple.


_Directions_

1. Read _Textiles_, page 1, paragraph 1. What are textiles?

2. Cloth is composed of yarn. Yarn in its turn is composed of many
small ends called fibers.

3. Look at the sample of broadcloth. If you did not know this to be
broadcloth you would speak of it as woolen goods. Detach from the
sample a filling thread and separate it into fibers. These are woolen
fibers.

4. Examine the sample of mohair and separate a filling thread into
fibers. This takes the name mohair from the fibers which compose it.
Mohair is obtained from the Angora goat.

5. Examine a sample of silk, also a detached filling thread. The silk
fiber consists of a thread spun by the silk worm.

6. Wool, mohair, and silk fibers are obtained from the animals, the
sheep, goat, and silk worm, hence they are called animal fibers.

7. Detach from the sample of cotton cloth a filling thread and
separate it into fibers. These are cotton fibers and are obtained from
the cotton plant.

8. Examine the sample of linen, a filling thread and its fibers. Linen
is composed of fibers obtained from the flax plant.

9. Cotton and linen fibers are obtained from plants, and are called
vegetable fibers. There are other vegetable fibers such as jute, hemp,
ramie, pineapple, etc., but cotton and linen are the most important.

10. Name the most valuable fibers for textile use.


_Questions_

1. Of what is cloth composed?

2. Of what does yarn consist?

3. How are the fibers made to join in one long thread? (See
Experiment 1.)

4. Of what fibers are woolen and worsted goods composed?

5. Of what animal is wool the covering?

6. Of what fibers is mohair composed?

7. From what animal is mohair obtained?

8. Of what does the silk fiber consist?

9. What are the animal fibers?

10. Why are they called animal fibers?

11. Of what fibers is cotton cloth composed?

12. From what plant are cotton fibers obtained?

13. From what plant is the linen fiber obtained?

14. What are the most important vegetable fibers?

15. Name four other vegetable fibers.

16. Why are these fibers called vegetable fibers?


=Experiment 8--Wool Fiber=

    Apparatus: Pick glass, microscope, 2 pine cones, foot-rule.
    Materials: Raw wool, woolen yarn.
    Reference: _Textiles_, chapter i.


_Directions_

1. Separate a strand of woolen yarn into fibers. Examine both these
fibers and fibers pulled from the raw wool. Would you describe these
fibers as coarse or fine?

2. How do the fibers feel to touch?

3. Test the strength of the wool fibers by trying to break them.

4. Measure the length of several fibers.

5. Why was it difficult to straighten the fibers to measure them?

6. Extend the fiber to its full length, then release. How does this
prove the fiber to be elastic?

7. Examine the fibers under the microscope. Describe. Notice that the
wool fiber is cylindrical in shape. Notice that it is covered with
scales which overlap much as do the tiles of a roof or the spines of a
pine cone.

8. Hold one pine cone with the spines pointing upward. With the spines
of the other pointing downward press the second cone down on the
first. What happens? Just so the scales or points of the wool fibers
hook into one another and interlock. These scales or serrations give
to the wool fiber its chief characteristic which is the power of
interlocking known as _felting_ or _shrinking_.

9. See _Textiles_, page 2, the drawing of a magnified wool fiber. Make
a drawing of a wool fiber.

10. Examine under the microscope a hair from your head. Wool is only a
variety of hair. Notice that the scales on the hair lie close to the
stem and do not project as in the woolen fiber, hence hair fibers
cannot interlock as wool fibers do. The scales lying close to the hair
give a smooth surface to the fiber and make luster a characteristic.

11. Compare the wool fiber with hair, noting two differences.


_Questions_

1. With what is the wool fiber covered?

2. Of what advantage are these scales or points?

3. What is the chief characteristic of wool?

4. What is meant by the shrinking or felting power?

5. Name five characteristics of the wool fiber.


=Experiment 9--Mohair Fiber=

    Apparatus: Microscope, foot-rule.
    Materials: Wool fibers, mohair fibers, sample of mohair brilliantine.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 1, 37, 97.


_Directions_

1. Pull a mohair fiber from the fleece. Hold it up to the light.
Describe the fiber as you see it.

2. Hold a mohair fiber and a wool fiber side by side to the light.
Note the differences.

3. Measure several mohair fibers.

4. Examine the mohair fiber under the microscope. The fiber is covered
with scales, but they lie close to the fiber and do not project in
points as do the scales on the wool fiber, hence mohair will not felt
to any degree.

5. The Angora goat of Asia Minor furnishes the mohair. This goat is
being raised in the western states of the United States now.

6. Detach from the sample of mohair brilliantine a warp thread; a
filling thread. Which is mohair? Which is cotton?

7. What word would describe the feel of mohair brilliantine? the
appearance?

8. What are the characteristics of the mohair fiber?

9. What are the uses of mohair? Mohair is used in the manufacture of
plushes, dress fabrics, and imitation furs.


_Questions_

1. Why will mohair not felt as wool does?

2. The scales lying close to the stem will have what effect on the
surface of the fiber?

3. What effect will a smooth surface have on light?

4. What characteristic is given to mohair from the fact that the
smooth surface reflects light?

5. From what animal is mohair obtained in greatest quantity?

6. Where is mohair being grown in the United States?


=Experiment 10--Cotton Fiber=

    Apparatus: Microscope, foot-rule.
    Materials: Tuft of cotton fibers, cotton ball, seeds.
    Reference: _Textiles_, chapter ix, page 105.


_Directions_

1. Hold a tuft of cotton fibers tightly between the fingers and thumb
of each hand and pull apart with a jerk. What is your judgment of the
strength of the _staple_ (fiber)?

2. Loosen gently the fibers of one of the tufts you have pulled apart.
What is the feel of cotton? the appearance as you hold it to the
light?

3. Detach several fibers one by one. How does the length compare with
that of the wool and mohair? Measure and record the length of three
fibers.

4. How do cotton fibers compare in fineness with wool fibers?

5. Compare the elasticity of cotton with that of wool.

6. Examine the cotton fibers under the microscope. Observe that the
enlarged fiber looks like a twisted ribbon. When the fiber was growing
it was cylindrical in shape. When ripe the plant drew back its
life-giving fluid from the fiber and it collapsed and twisted like a
corkscrew. The twist is peculiar to the cotton, being present in no
other fiber. The twist makes the cotton fiber suitable for spinning,
helping to hold the short fibers together.

7. Read of the cotton plant from _Textiles_, chapter ix.

8. The four chief cotton producing countries are the United States,
Egypt, India, Brazil.

9. There are several classifications of cotton. The most common are
Sea Island (in the lead); Egyptian (a close second); Uplands (that of
the United States, southern part); and Peruvian.

10. Uplands is the most common cotton of our South.


_Questions_

1. What characteristic causes the cotton fiber to be easily recognized
under the microscope?

2. Why does the twist render the cotton fiber suitable for spinning?

3. What are the characteristics of the cotton fiber?

4. Why is cotton known as a vegetable fiber?

5. Name the chief cotton producing countries.

6. What are the most common classifications of cotton?

7. What is the finest growth of cotton? (Sea Island commands at the
present time $1.00 a lb., while Middling Uplands brings 15 cents.)

8. Where is cotton known as Upland Cotton grown?


=Experiment 11--Silk Fiber=

    Apparatus: Tripod, alcohol lamp, small pan of water, lead pencil.
    Material: Silk cocoon.
    Reference: _Textiles_, chapter xvii, page 203.


_Directions_

1. Place the cocoon in a small pan of water. Apply heat to the pan
until the water boils. The cocoon is placed in hot water to soften the
glue which holds the fibers together.

2. Remove the outside loose fibers which cannot be reeled. This
tangled silk on the outside of the cocoon is called _floss_.

3. Brush the finger over the cocoon to find the loose ends. Unwind
carefully until you find a continuous end. Wind or _reel_ the silk
fiber over a lead pencil.

4. The silk fiber is the most beautiful and perfect of all fibers.

5. Hold the cocoon to the light as you reel. How does the silk fiber
compare in fineness with the wool and cotton fibers?

6. The silk fiber is from 1000 to 4000 feet long. Unlike the other
fibers the silk fiber is already a thread.

7. How does light effect the silk fiber? When the gum is thoroughly
washed off the silk takes on its luster which is its chief
characteristic.

8. Break the fiber after you have reeled a small quantity. Notice how
the fiber springs back. Extend and release again. What characteristic
does this illustrate?

9. Examine the silk fiber under the microscope. Notice that it is
round and smooth and resembles a glass rod. It shows what appear to be
two fibers united by the gum secreted at the same time that the fiber
was formed. Describe the silk fiber as it appears under the
microscope.

10. Silk is taken from the reel and twisted into a skein of raw silk
and thus exported.

11. The manufacture in the United States begins with raw silk. It is
handled here first by the _throwster_ who winds it from the skein and
makes different varieties of thread.


_Questions_

1. Why is the silk cocoon first placed in hot water?

2. What is known as floss?

3. What is meant by silk reeling?

4. What can you say of the length of the silk fiber?

5. In what way does the silk fiber differ from the other fibers?

6. What is the chief characteristic of the silk fiber?

7. What are other characteristics of the silk fiber?

8. In what form is silk exported?

9. In what countries is most of the raw silk produced? (See
_Textiles_, page 206.)

10. With what does the silk manufacture in the United States begin?

11. Who is the _throwster_ and what is his work?


=Experiment 12--Linen Fiber=

    Apparatus: Microscope.
    Material: Flax fibers.
    Reference: _Textiles_, chapter xv, page 193.


_Directions_

1. The linen fiber is obtained from the flax plant. Certain fibers,
such as flax, jute, and ramie, are obtained from the stem of the
plant, hence are known as _bast_ fibers, and flax is the most
important bast fiber.

2. It is difficult to separate the flax or linen fiber from the woody
part of the stem. The process is called _retting_, which is really
rotting by soaking the stem in water.

3. Before the fibers are entirely free from the woody part of the
plant they undergo the processes of beating, breaking, scutching,
hackling, etc.

4. Read the account of each process. See _Textiles_, pages 194, 195.

5. Measure and record the length of two linen fibers.

6. Test the strength by trying to break the fiber.

7. Test for elasticity.

8. What is the appearance of the linen fiber when held to the light?

9. What is the color of the fiber? What is the process called by which
linen is whitened? (Bleaching.)

10. Examine the flax fibers under the microscope. Observe that the
fibers look like long cylindrical tubes. Describe the appearance of
linen fibers under the microscope.

11. The best flax is grown in Belgium and Ireland.


_Questions_

1. From what part of the plant are bast fibers obtained?

2. Name some bast fibers.

3. What is the most important bast fiber?

4. What is retting?

5. For what purpose is linen subjected to retting?

6. Through what five processes does the flax fiber pass before it is
free?

7. Where is the best flax grown?


=Experiment 13--Carding=

    Apparatus: A pair of hand cards.
    Material: Small quantity of scoured wool.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 39 and 50.


_Directions_

1. Examine the hand cards. Notice that there is a foundation of
several layers of leather. Notice that this foundation is covered with
staples of steel wire. Notice that the staples are shaped like the
letter U with the points turned one way. The covering of the hand
cards is called _card clothing_.

2. Hold one hand card in the left hand, face up, wires pointing to the
left. Spread the wool over the pointed wires of this card.

3. Hold the other card in the right hand, face down, with the wires
pointing to the right. Bring the pointed wires of this card down on
the wool and drag it lightly through the wires of the other card.
Repeat several times.

4. You have been _carding_ wool. The sharp points have been tearing
the wool apart or disentangling the fibers. Carding brushes the fibers
out smooth and makes them somewhat parallel. It forms them into a thin
sheet.

5. The wool must be carded many times before it is sufficiently
disentangled for drawing and spinning. In order to card again the hand
card must be _stripped_ of the wool so that it may be dragged again
through the staples.

6. Hold the hand card, which is in your right hand, erect. Notice that
the wires point downward. Move the other hand downward over the
wires. Notice that the surface is smooth. The points do not prick as
they will if you try to brush the hand upwards over the wires.

7. Hold the card in the left hand in a similar position. Raise and
bring the sharp wires of this card down on the smooth surface of the
other card and strip it of its wool.

8. Card again, then strip again. Repeat several times until the fibers
are thoroughly disentangled.

9. This carding and stripping, once done by hand, is now done in the
mill by a power machine called the _card_. (See picture, _Textiles_,
page 38.) Notice that instead of cards this machine consists of
rollers or cylinders. Some are carding cylinders and some are
stripping cylinders. The principle is the same as that of the hand
cards. The wool is carded and stripped again and again and is finally
delivered in a soft, fluffy rope called a _sliver_ ready for drawing
and spinning.


_Questions_

1. What is the covering of the hand card called?

2. Describe card clothing.

3. What does carding do to the wool?

4. When the sharp wires of one cylinder meet the sharp pointed wires
of another cylinder what is the action on the wool?

5. If the sharp points of one cylinder meet the smooth surface of
another cylinder what happens to the wool on that cylinder?

6. In what form does the wool finally leave the machine? What name is
given to this fluffy rope?

7. How was carding done in the early days? How is it done now?

8. In what way is the principle of the hand cards the same as that of
the card of the mill?


=Experiment 14--Drawing and Spinning=

    Apparatus: Foot-rule, elastic band.
    Material: Small quantity of scoured wool.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 4, 44, 134; Sections: Spinning: Mule
                Spinning.


_Directions_

1. Observe the mass of wool fibers. The wool was clipped from the
sheep, _washed_, and _oiled_ to make it smooth and pliable.

2. With the fingers gently open up or loosen the mass of wool fibers.
In the mill this is done by a machine called the _card_. (See picture,
_Textiles_, page 38.) And the process itself is called _carding_.

3. Gently _draw_ out the mass of fibers until you have drawn it into
one long strand.

4. Draw it again and again until to draw it would cause it to break.

5. This process in the mill is known as _drawing_. The wool passes
through machine after machine, which gradually reduces the thickness
of the strand.

6. You have now a strand called _roving_, but not a thread with which
you could weave. What is called the strand? Why could you not weave
with it as it is? If you pulled the roving apart it would separate
into a number of small ends. What name is given to these ends?

7. It is necessary to hold these fibers together in a thread. Hold the
roving in the left hand and with the right hand draw the fibers out
several inches. As you draw, twist the roving between the fingers and
thumb. The _twisting_ is called _spinning_.

8. When you have twisted sufficient yarn to attach to the end of a
foot-rule, do so. Give a whirl to the ruler, which is taking the place
of the old-time _spindle_, and let it drop. Continue to whirl the
ruler and notice that as it revolves the yarn is twisting. When well
twisted, wind the yarn on the ruler. There was a hook on the old-time
spindle. Instead of the hook, hold the wound yarn in place by an
elastic band. Draw out several inches again and repeat.

9. With the spindle a _distaff_ was used. It held the roving which you
now hold in your left hand. (See picture of distaff and spindle.)

10. Define spinning; see _Textiles_, page 4, footnote. The early use
of the spindle was the same as its use of to-day. In what two ways is
the spindle of use?

11. The improvement on the distaff and spindle was the spinning wheel.
Now the spinning frame in the mill has replaced both.


_Questions_

1. After shearing, through what two processes does wool pass?

2. Why is it necessary to oil wool?

3. What is the work of the _card_?

4. Explain the process called _drawing_. Why is it necessary to repeat
the operation several times?

5. What followed the distaff and spindle in the development of
spinning?

6. On what is the spinning done now in the mill? See _Textiles_,
picture, pages 135, 137.


=Experiment 15--Gilling and Combing=

    Apparatus: Coarse comb, fine comb.
    Material: Small quantity of scoured wool.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 39-44.


_Directions_

1. Open up the wool a little with the fingers. Do this in place of
carding, as you need but a small quantity.

2. You comb your hair to make the hairs lie parallel, side by side, in
place. Combs are used on wool for just the same purpose, but the first
process of combing is not known as such. It is called _gilling_, and
the combs themselves are called _fallers_. The machines are known as
_gill boxes_. See _Textiles_, page 43.

3. Hold the carded wool in the left hand in the middle of the strand.
With the coarse comb in the right hand, comb and thus straighten the
fibers first at one end then at the other. This is _gilling_. The
principle of gilling is to comb the fibers more and more nearly
parallel and to draw them out into more even strands.

4. The coarse comb causes the hairs to lie parallel. A fine comb will
further straighten the hairs, but it will also remove the snarled,
tangled, short hairs. Again wool is to be treated like hair. Hold the
strand in the middle as before. Comb each end with the fine comb.
Notice that the fine comb is removing the short fibers and leaving the
long fibers between the fingers. This is the second process of
combing, and is called _combing_.

5. The long fibers are called _tops_ and the short fibers are known
as _noils_.[23] Combing is the process which separates the long fibers
known as _tops_ from the short fibers known as _noils_.

6. The combing machine in the mill is a very complicated one. See
picture, _Textiles_, page 41.

7. Gill and comb several strands of wool.

8. Top is too delicate, as it comes from the comb, to be handled. The
next process is to combine several strands into one. Combine the
several strands you have gilled and combed. Comb this one end with the
coarse comb again to be sure that the fibers are perfectly parallel.

9. You gilled, combed, and gilled again. So it is in the mill. After
combing, the wool is gilled again by machines known as _finisher gill
boxes_, and wound into a ball called _a top_.

10. _A top_ differs from _top_. _Top_ is the strand of long fibers
which comes from the comb. _A top_ is the ball of combed wool as it
comes from the finisher gill boxes. It weighs from 7 to 12 lbs. and
contains 200 to 250 yds.

11. The wool is now ready for the next processes--those of drawing and
spinning.


_Questions_

1. Why is the hair combed? Why is wool combed?

2. What is the first process of combing called? What name is given to
the combs used in gilling? What are the machines called?

3. What is the principle of gilling?

4. How does a fine comb act on the hair?

5. When you combed the wool with the fine comb what happened?

6. What are the long fibers called? the short? Of which are there
more?

7. What is the second process of combing called?

8. Why is it necessary to combine several strands of top into one end?

9. Why is it necessary to gill again after combing?

10. In what form does the wool finally leave the finisher gill boxes?

11. What is a top?

12. What two processes follow carding?

13. For what two processes is wool now ready?


=Experiment 16--Raw Wool to Yarn=

    Apparatus: Hand cards, coarse and fine combs, pencil.
    Material: Scoured wool.
    Reference: The preceding experiments.


_Directions_

1. This wool has already been subjected to the three operations of
shearing, scouring, and oiling.

2. Card the wool. What does carding do to the wool?

3. Strip the cards. Rub the sheet of fibers between the palms of the
hands into the form of a strand. It is in this form that it leaves the
card of the mill, and it is known as a _sliver_ of wool.

4. Pull about three inches of wool from the sliver and perform upon it
the operation of gilling by combing it with the coarse comb.

5. Follow the gilling by the operation of _combing_, which you will do
by combing again, this time with a fine comb.

6. Pull about three inches again from the sliver. Continue to gill and
comb by section until the entire sliver has been gilled and combed.

7. Combine several strands into one and subject the one strand to a
second process of gilling to make sure that all fibers are side by
side.

8. Gently draw out this strand of combed long fibers known as top. As
you draw, spin. As you spin, wind on a lead pencil. The fineness of
the yarn depends on the amount of drawing and twisting.

9. What is the source of wool? You began with wool, covering of the
sheep's body, and after subjecting it to a series of operations you
have converted it into yarn which is ready for weaving.

10. Name the operations in order, through which raw wool passes before
it finally becomes yarn.


_Questions_

1. What are the first three processes through which wool passes? What
is shearing? scouring?

2. Why is wool oiled?

3. What is meant by a sliver of wool?

4. What does gilling do to the wool?

5. What does combing do to the wool?

6. Why is there another operation of gilling after combing?

7. What is meant by _drawing_? _spinning_?

8. What name is given to the wool wound on the pencil?

9. On what does the fineness of the yarn depend?


=Experiment 17--Difference between Woolen and Worsted Yarn=

    Apparatus: Pick glass.
    Materials: Sample of woolen cloth and worsted cloth.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 50 and 51.


_Directions_

Take a piece of worsted fabric and separate a piece of yarn from
either the warp or filling. Do the same with a piece of woolen fabric.
Notice the appearance of each piece of yarn. Which is smoother? What
effect would friction have on the worsted yarn? the woolen yarn? Which
sample of yarn would shine and reflect the light?


=Experiment 18--Burling and Mending=

    Apparatus: Chalk, scissors, dissecting pin, needle, pick glass.
    Material: 4 square inches of cloth from the loom.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 71.


_Directions_

1. Cloth from the loom is far from being a finished product. It must
pass through several processes before it is finished. These processes
are known as _finishing_.

2. What is the feel of this cloth?

3. Hold the cloth to the light and look through it. Note the
imperfections and chalk them. What defects did you notice?

4. Place the cloth on the desk, face down. Rub the fingers over the
back of the cloth. When the fingers locate a knot, raise it with the
dissecting needle to be cut off later.

5. Reverse the cloth. Rub the fingers over the face. When a knot is
found, force it through to the back with the dissecting needle. All
the knots are on one side now. Clip them off with the scissors. This
is called _burling_ and is the first process of finishing.

6. Hold the cloth to the light. Notice where an entire filling thread
is missing. This is known as a _full miss pick_. When part of a
filling thread is missing it is spoken of as a _half miss pick_. In
general what does a miss pick mean?

7. Unravel a filling thread from the lower edge of the cloth. With it
thread a needle and replace the missing pick. Follow the weave
closely, using a pick glass as an aid. You are performing the second
process of finishing, that of mending.

8. If a warp end is missing replace it.


_Questions_

1. What is meant by _finishing_?

2. What is the first process of finishing? What is burling?

3. What is a full miss pick? a half miss pick?

4. What is the second process of finishing? What is mending? Of what
must the mender be careful?


=Experiment 19--Removal of Stains=

    Material: Stained fabrics.

Textiles are easily stained, therefore it is necessary to know
something about the character of stains and the methods of removal.
Stains may be roughly divided into the following classes:

    _a._ Stains from foods, such as grease and fruit acids.

    _b._ Stains from machinery, as wheel grease and oils.

    _c._ Blood stains.

    _d._ Inks.

    _e._ Chemicals, such as acids, alkalies.

Food stains are usually due either to grease contained in soup, meat,
milk, etc., or to sugar contained in candies or preserves, or to fruit
acids contained in fresh fruits or sauces.

Wheel grease and lubricant stains are obtained from various parts of
machines, like elevators, street cars, etc. After the cloth leaves the
loom it often contains spots of grease, oil, or dirt stains due to
drippings from the loom or overhead machinery. These are removed by
means of liquids called solvents that dissolve the stain. Ether is the
principal solvent used in the mill to remove small stains.

Very few people realize that vapors of cooked food and fat, unless
carried out of a house, will condense and settle on fabrics in the
form of a film which collects a great deal of dust. (A bad grease spot
usually has a neglected grease spot for a foundation.) In order to
break up this film it is necessary to separate the entangled dust.
This is performed by some mechanical means, such as shaking and
brushing.

The most effective method of removing a stain is to place a circle of
absorbent material[24] around the spot to take up the excess of
liquid. A white cloth should be placed under the fabric to absorb the
solvent and show when the goods are clean. Then apply the solvent with
a cloth of the same color and texture (satin is excellent as it does
not grow linty) and rub from outside the spot to the center to prevent
spreading. It is necessary to rub very carefully as excessive rubbing
will remove the nap and change the color. One of the great dangers in
removing a stain is that you may spoil the fabric. Therefore great
care must be exercised.

The principal solvents are ether, chloroform, alcohol, turpentine,
benzene, and naphtha. Each solvent may be used to best advantage on
certain fabrics.

The commercial grades of the solvents often contain impurities that
leave a brown ring after evaporation. This brown ring is very
objectionable. Turpentine is used only in removing stains from coarse
fabrics. Chloroform, benzene, and naphtha are used on ordinary silks
and linens. Ether and chloroform are used to best advantage in
removing stains from delicate silk, as they seldom affect colors and
evaporate very quickly. Of course it must be borne in mind that when a
stain is removed from a fabric that portion that contained the stain
loses some coloring matter and feels rougher than the other part.


_Grease Spots on Heavy Goods that cannot be Laundered_

It is usually desirable to use the following method in removing grease
from a heavy fabric, such as carpets or colored fabrics. In case the
grease is fresh, place over the stain a piece of clean blotting paper
or a piece of butcher's brown wrapping paper and underneath absorbent
paper or oil cloth, and then press the spot with a warm iron. As heat
often affects the shades of certain colors such as blues, greens, and
reds, it is best to hold a hot iron over the fabric and see if the
grease is melted.

Remove a stain from a piece of carpet.


_Removal of Grease and Blood_

_Ordinary Fabrics (wash goods)._ Wash the fabric containing grease or
blood stain with tepid water and soap.

_Delicate Fabrics._ As strong soap will spoil some colors and textures
it is necessary to apply a solvent when a delicate fabric is stained.

Remove stains from a washable fabric and a delicate fabric.


_Removal of Wheel Grease and Lubricants on Fine Fabrics_

Wheel grease is a mixture of oils and graphite. Apply benzene to the
wheel grease spot. This will dissolve the oil, leaving the coloring
matter (graphite) on the cloth, and this may be collected on the white
cloth on the other side.

Remove a wheel grease stain from a dress fabric.


_Removal of Acids_

Fruit acids and all others, except nitric acid may be removed by
putting ammonia on the spot. This will neutralize the acid, forming a
salt which may be either brushed or washed off. In the case of nitric
acid the fibers of the cloth are actually destroyed and no amount of
ammonia will restore the original condition of the fabric.

Remove a stain of orange juice from a dress or shirt waist.


_Removal of Blood_

Blood stains may be removed from a fabric by washing with cold or
tepid water. Never use hot water, as hot water coagulates the albumen
of the blood. After removing the blood soap and warm water may be
used. In case the fabric is a thick cloth, the blood may be removed by
applications of moist starch.

Take different samples of fabrics and soil them with fruit acids,
soup, wheel grease, ink, and blood and remove them. Exercise great
care so as not to leave a mark or remove the coloring.

Remove blood from a fabric.


_Questions_

1. What is a solvent? an absorbent?

2. What is the best solvent to be used in removing stains from silks,
coarse goods, and linens? from delicate silks?

3. Why is a brown ring often left after removing a stain?

4. How may grease and blood stain be removed from wash goods?

5. What is wheel grease? How may it be removed?

6. How will ammonia remove acid stains?

7. Does it remove all? Why not?

8. Explain the method of removing blood stain from cloth.


=Experiment 20--Dyeing Wool=

    Apparatus: Large porcelain dish or casserole, filter.
    Materials: Undyed piece of woolen and worsted fabric, undyed yarn,
               and undyed raw cloth.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 65.


_Directions_

1. Prepare a solution of coloring matter by dissolving a half ounce of
diamond dye (green or red) in a quart of water. Filter the solution.
Place a piece of white woolen cloth in the liquid and boil ten
minutes. Then wash the dyed fabric and notice whether the dyestuff
washes off or not.

2. Repeat the experiment, using the same weight of undyed woolen yarn.
Repeat with worsted yarn.

3. Repeat the experiment using the same weight of wool sliver.

4. Notice which has the deeper color. The degree of color depends on
the amount of twist in yarn. Which sample has absorbed the greatest
amount of dyestuff from the liquid?

    _a._ Why is a yarn-dyed fabric faster than a piece-dyed?

    _b._ Why is a raw stock dyed fabric better than piece or
    yarn dyed?


=Experiment 21--Dyeing Cotton=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish, filter stand, etc.
    Material: Piece of cotton cloth.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 67.


_Directions_

1. Prepare a solution of coloring matter by dissolving a half ounce of
logwood in a quart of water. Filter the solution. Place a piece of
cotton cloth in the liquid and boil ten minutes. Then wash the dyed
fabric and notice whether the dyestuff washes off or not.

2. Repeat the same experiment and use a piece of cotton cloth that has
been previously washed in common alum.[25] Note the effect. Which has
the greater attraction for dyestuffs, cotton or wool? Why is alum
used?

3. Repeat the same experiment, using first the same weight of cotton
yarn and then the same weight of cotton sliver. Notice the results.

Which piece of cotton holds the dye best, that which was dipped in
alum or the one that was simply boiled in the solution?


=Experiment 22--Weighting Silk.--Affinity of Metallic Salts for Silk=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dishes.
    Material: Silk yarn.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 212-214.


_Directions_

1. Weigh separately two skeins of dry silk and distinguish skein No. 1
by looping some cotton thread into it. Prepare a tepid bath containing
10 gm. strong sumach extract in 400 cc. water. Enter the skeins of
silk and work for 15 to 20 minutes, meanwhile slowly raising the
temperature to about 150° F. Remove, squeeze, rinse with water,
squeeze, and dry skein No. 1 for weighing.

2. Meanwhile prepare another bath containing 4 gm. of copperas
(ferrous sulphate) in 400 cc. cold water. Work skein No. 2 in bath for
10 minutes cold. Remove, and rinse well; save the iron bath. Repeat
the treatment in the sumach and iron baths several times more, finally
wash the sumach iron skein in 1 per cent hot soap solution; rinse,
squeeze, and dry. Weigh each dried and cooled skein and note the
increase in weight of each. Save sample for Experiment 23 and note the
effect of weighting on the yarn.


=Experiment 23--Dyeing Silk=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish, filter stand, etc.
    Material: Piece of silk yarn.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 210.


_Directions_

1. Prepare a solution of coloring matter by dissolving a half ounce of
logwood in a quart of water. Filter the solution. Place a piece of
silk skein, from Experiment 22, in the liquid and boil ten minutes.
Then wash the dyed silk and notice whether the dyestuff washes off or
not.

2. Repeat the same experiment using the same weight of silk yarn
without weighing it. Compare the results.


=Experiment 24--Test to Distinguish Piece-Dyed from Yarn-Dyed Fabric=

    Apparatus: Pen knife.
    Materials: Woolen and cotton fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 66-68.


_Directions_

Unravel threads of the suspected sample, and with a blade of pen knife
note whether the dyestuff has penetrated through the yarn as noted by
the depth of color in the interior of the yarn. In case there is the
same depth of color in the interior as on the surface, the fabric is
yarn-dyed. If on the other hand, the interior of the yarn is not so
highly colored as the exterior, it is piece-dyed.


_Questions_

1. What is meant by yarn-dyed fabric?

2. What is meant by piece-dyed fabric?

3. How may the two be distinguished?


=Experiment 25--Test to Distinguish Dyed from Printed Fabrics=

    Apparatus: Knife-blade.
    Materials: Cotton fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 65.

Printed fabrics may be distinguished from dyed by observing the back
side of the cloth, and noting whether or not the pattern on the face
of the cloth penetrates through to the back, or only the outline
shows. In case the figure or pattern is on both sides of the fabric,
it may be distinguished from the dyed by taking one thread of the
suspected sample, and by the means of a knife-blade attempting to
scrape off the coloring on the surface of the thread. If the dyestuff
has penetrated into the interior of the thread, it is _not_ printed.

Generally speaking, printed fabrics are known from dyed fabrics by the
fact that the former have the design printed on the face of the cloth.
This is called _direct printing_. The best dyed fabrics are obtained
by dyeing in what is called a _jig_, and the whole fabric is saturated
with color. Most, if not all the cloths which you see in the retail
dry goods stores which are in plain colors are dyed in the jig. Some
of the cheaper qualities of dyed fabrics are padded in a mangle, but
there has been a very small quantity of these goods on the market for
many years.

Printed fabrics may be made as fast as dyed fabrics; it all depends
upon the process by which the goods are converted. Within the past few
years great headway has been made in dyeing with what are termed _vat_
colors. Indanthrene is a vat color and a great many mills have used
this class of dye successfully in dyeing plain shades. This is what
would be termed a _fast_ color in every sense of the word. There are a
number of dyestuff makers in Europe who put vat colors on the market,
but they all call them by different names. Vat colors have been used
with success in printing during the past year or two, especially on
shirting fabrics, and these colors are fast to both light and washing.
Most direct colors used for printing or dyeing are equally fast to
light and washing, but of course they will not stand the test as well
as the vat colors mentioned above.

The essential qualities of a good printed fabric are its ability to
withstand exposure to light and washing. In printing, of course, a
greater variety of desirable styles can be obtained than by dyeing, in
fact there are certain popular lines of goods now on the market the
effect of the designs of which cannot be obtained in any other way
than by printing. At the same time, although the field in designing
for dyed fabrics is limited, some very handsome effects can be
obtained.

It will not be many years before a large proportion of the printed and
dyed fabrics put on the market, both foreign and domestic, will be in
the vat colors which, as stated above, are very fast. Even at the
present time there are many mills that are using this class of colors
entirely, especially the mills which manufacture woven fabrics.


_Questions_

1. In printed fabrics is the pattern clearly discernible on the back
of the cloth?

2. If the fabric is printed on both sides, how may this fact be
proved?

3. What is the difference between printed and dyed fabrics?


=Experiment 26--Bleaching by Sulphur Dioxide=

    Apparatus: A quart bottle.
    Material: Sulphur, worsted or silk fabric.

Bleaching powder cannot be used in bleaching animal fibers such as
woolen and silk fabrics. It injures the fibers and at the same time
leaves them yellow.

Animal fibers are best bleached by immersing in an aqueous solution of
sulphurous acid or exposing them to fumes of burning sulphur.

Wet a piece of dyed worsted or silk fabric and hang it in a quart
bottle containing fumes of burning sulphur.[26] The fumes of burning
sulphur have an affinity for coloring matter--dyestuff. The fumes
(called sulphur dioxide) do not in most cases destroy the coloring
matter as chlorine does, but simply combine with it to form colorless
compounds which can be destroyed. The color can be restored by
exposing the bleached fabric to dilute sulphuric acid.


_Questions_

1. Why is it necessary that the fabric be moist in order to be
bleached by sulphur dioxide fumes?

2. What becomes of the coloring matter?


=Experiment 27--Bleaching by Bleaching Powder=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish.
    Material: Piece of calico.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 148.


_Directions_

Place a quarter of an ounce of bleaching powder in a quart bottle
containing a pint of water.[27] Then place a piece of calico in the
water containing the bleaching powder. What is the effect on the
calico? Then remove cloth to another bottle filled with dilute
hydrochloric or dilute sulphuric acid. What is the effect on the
color? Then wash the whitened cloth thoroughly in water.

Why is it necessary in practice to pass cotton fabrics through two
baths in bleaching? What is contained in the first bath? in the second
bath?


=Experiment 30--Determining Style of Weave=

    Apparatus: Pick glass.
    Materials: Different fabrics.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 56-58, etc.

Examine different samples of cloth and classify them according to the
seven standards given on pages 56-58, etc.


=Experiment 31--Determining the Size of Yarn=

    Apparatus: Yard stick.
    Materials: Sample of cotton, woolen, and worsted yarns.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 49, 51, 52.

As yarns used in the manufacture of fabrics are of all degrees of
thickness, it became necessary to adopt some method of measuring this
thickness. For this purpose yarns are numbered, so that when the
number is known an idea of the size of the yarn may be gained. It
would seem advisable to number yarns of all kinds according to one
fixed standard, yet unfortunately this is not done. The methods of
counting yarns are many and varied. The usual method is to estimate
the yarn number by taking the number of hands of a definite length
which make up some given weight. Thus in the worsted yarn, No. 1 is a
yarn that has 560 yards to a pound. No. 2 worsted yarn has two times
560 yards to a pound. How many yards in No. 12 worsted yarn? How many
yards in No. 20 cotton yarn?


=Experiment 32--Test for Twist in Yarn=

    Apparatus: Test dial.
    Material: Piece of yarn.
    References: _Textiles_, pages 131-132.

As the amount of twist in yarn determines its strength, it is
necessary to know the amount of twist per inch in given yarn. The
strength increases up to a certain limit. When this limit is reached,
increased twist does not make the thread any stronger. We may also
have twist and strength at the expense of bulk. The test consists in
finding out the number of turns per inch, and this is done by an
arrangement where a certain length of yarn is stretched between two
points on a twisting machine and the twist taken out. The number of
turns required to take the twist completely out are registered on a
dial at the side of the apparatus.

Poor cotton that goes into coarse goods cannot be spun as fine as the
finer cotton. The shorter the cotton the more twist is required to
spin it, and the more twist that is put into the yarn, the less will
be the yardage. Whereas on the finer and longer cotton there will be
less twist put into it, and the yarn will be much stronger. Find the
twist in different kinds of yarn.


=Experiment 33--Determining the Direction of Warp and Filling=

    Apparatus: Microscope.
    Materials: Silk, cotton, and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 238.

When one examines a fabric the first thing to do is to determine the
direction of the warp and direction of the filling.

Fabrics with Selvedge.--Examine any fabric with a selvedge and notice
that the warp threads run in the same direction as the length (longest
side) of the selvedge. What direction will the filling threads bear to
the selvedge?

Fabrics with a Nap.--Examine a piece of flannel and notice the
direction of the nap. Why will the direction of the nap be the same as
the direction of the warp? Remember the way in which the fabric enters
the napping machine.

Fabrics Containing Double Threads.--Examine a fabric containing double
and single threads and notice that the warp contains the double
threads. Why?

Fabrics Containing Cotton and Woolen Yarn.--Examine a fabric
containing cotton and woolen threads running in different directions
and notice that the cotton threads form the warp. Why?

Another way to tell the warp threads in a fabric is to examine warp
and filling threads very closely and notice which set contains the
greater twist? Why? See if they are separated at more regular
intervals. Why?

Stiffened or Starched Fabrics.--Examine stiffened or starched goods
very closely and notice the threads. If only one set can be seen they
are the warp threads. The stiffer and straighter threads are found in
the warp. Why? The rough and crooked threads are seen in the filling.


=Experiment 34--Determining the Density of a Fabric=

    Apparatus: Pick glass.
    Materials: Samples of cloth.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 238.


_Directions_

1. Examine different samples of cloth and determine the number of
filling threads and warp threads by means of a pick glass.

2. Then examine different priced fabrics of the same kind and see
whether the low or high priced fabric has the greater density.


=Experiment 35--Determining Weight=

    Apparatus: Balances, die.
    Materials: 4 square inches of cloth.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 239.


_Directions_

1. Fabrics are bought and sold by the yard. In order to express the
amount of wool or cotton in a fabric the weight in ounces per yard is
usually given.

2. In order to find the number of ounces per yard a piece of cloth of
definite size, usually about 4 sq. in., is stamped out by means of a
die, or cut by means of a tin plate exactly 4 sq. in. (2 in. on the
side). This is then weighed on very accurate balances and expressed in
grains. Find the weight per yard. Remember 7000 grains equal 1 lb.; 16
oz. equal 1 lb.


=Experiment 36--Determining Shrinkage=

    Apparatus: Hot water.
    Material: Sample of woolen fabric.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 239.


_Directions_

1. Take a sample of a woolen fabric 12 in. by 20 in. and pour hot
water over it and leave it immersed over night. Then dry it in the
morning at a moderate temperature without stretching. Then measure its
length and divide the difference in lengths by the original length.
The quotient multiplied by 100 will give the per cent of shrinkage.

2. Repeat the same experiment with a worsted fabric, and with a cotton
fabric.

3. Why does the woolen fabric shrink more than the worsted?


=Experiment 37--Test of Fastness[28] of Color under Washing=

Apparatus: Porcelain dish, soap solution. Materials: Cotton and woolen
fabrics. Reference: _Textiles_, page 242.


_Directions_

1. Colored goods and printed fabrics should withstand the action of
washing. They require more care than white goods and should be soaked
in cold water containing very little soap and no soda. They should be
dried in the shade as a very hot sun will fade them. If it is
necessary to dry them in the sun be sure that they are dried wrong
side out, as direct sunlight fades them about five times as much as
reflected light.

2. All colored fabrics should stand mechanical friction as well as the
action of soap liquor and the temperature of the washing operation. In
order to test the fabric for fastness a piece should be placed in a
soap solution similar to that used in the ordinary household, and
heated to 131° F. The treatment should be repeated several times.

3. If the color fails to run it is fast to washing.


_Questions_

1. Why should more care be exercised in washing colored goods than
white?

2. How may colored fabrics be tested to show that they stand the
action of soap solution?

3. Does a moderately warm temperature (131° F.) affect the fastness of
colored fabric?


=Experiment 38--Test of Fastness of Color under Friction=

    Apparatus: Yarn, white unstarched cotton fabric.
    Materials: Fabrics worn near the skin.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 242.


_Directions_

Stockings, hosiery yarns, corset stuffs, and all fabrics intended to
be worn next to the skin must be closely knitted to withstand friction
and must not rub off, stain, or run, that is, the dyed materials must
not give off their color when worn next to the human epidermis (skin),
or in close contact with other articles of clothing, as in the case of
underwear.

In order to test two fabrics to see which is the better, it is
necessary to rub the fabric or yarn on white unstarched cotton fabric.

In comparing the fastness of color of two fabrics it is necessary to
have the rubbing equal in all cases.


_Questions_

1. What is meant by friction?

2. What is meant by the expression "fastness of color of two fabrics"?

3. How may the fastness of a colored material be tested to withstand
friction?


=Experiment 39--Test of Fastness of Color against Rain=

    Apparatus: Water, undyed yarn.
    Materials: Silk and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 243.


_Directions_

Silk and woolen materials for umbrella making, raincoats, etc., are
expected to be rainproof. These fabrics are tested by plaiting with
undyed yarns and left to stand all night in water. Notice whether the
color of the fabric has run into the undyed yarns.

Take a sample of the fabric and shake some drops of water on it.
Notice whether it loses its luster when the drops have dried. Spotting
may be prevented by placing a damp cloth on the wrong side of the
material; roll the two together, and when evenly damp, unroll and
press through the damp cloth with a fairly hot iron.

Place a piece of the fabric in the sun so that the sun and rain may
come in contact with it. Notice whether it loses its color and becomes
gray and dull.


=Experiment 40--Test of Fastness of Color in Sunlight=

    Apparatus: Cardboard.
    Materials: Silk, woolen, and cotton fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 244.


_Directions_

Cover one end of the sample of cloth with a piece of cardboard. Expose
the fabric to the sunlight for a number of days and examine the cloth
each day and notice whether the part exposed has changed in color when
compared with the part covered. Count the number of days it has taken
the sunlight to change the color. Does direct sunlight have any effect
upon colored fabrics? Which is the most affected by the sun, silk,
woolen, or cotton fabrics, dyed with same dyestuff, in the same length
of time? Are fabrics changed any sooner by the sun than by the
weather?


=Experiment 41--Test of Fastness of Color to Weather, Light, and Air=

    Materials: Cotton, silk, and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 244.


_Directions_

Examine various fabrics for fastness to weather, light, and air by
placing samples outside of a window so that they will be exposed to
the weather, light, and air. Have duplicate samples of the above away
from the weather and light. Compare the samples exposed to the weather
with those in the house and note the number of days it takes to
change. Classify the fabrics. Which of the fabrics are most easily
affected by the weather, light, and air?


=Experiment 42--Test of Fastness of Color against Street Mud and Dust=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish, lime, and water.
    Materials: Cotton, silk, and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 243.

Ladies' dress goods are expected to withstand the action of mud and
dust. In order to test a fabric for the resistance, the sample should
be moistened with lime and water (10 per cent solution), dried, and
brushed. Or sprinkle with a 10 per cent solution of soda, drying,
brushing, and noting any change in the color.

    _a._ Is there any change in color after the lime water
    has been removed from the cloth?

    _b._ With what may the action of the lime water or soda
    be compared?


=Experiment 43--Testing Rubberized Fabrics=

    Materials: Rubberized fabrics.

A great many rubberized fabrics are used for hospitals, domestic
purposes and for clothing. On account of the high price of excellent
rubberized fabrics a great many substitutes are placed on the market
that are satisfactory to the eye, but have not the wearing qualities
for the service they are intended to render.

Strength and Resistance to Scratching.--In order to test a rubberized
fabric to see if it has the necessary strength to stand everyday use,
see if it is possible to scratch it with the finger nail. Then crease
it and crumple it between the hands. Then spread it out very carefully
and notice whether there are any broken places. If there are it should
be rejected.

Waterproof Qualities.--A rubberized fabric should be waterproof. A
sample may be tested by forming a bag with it and filling it with
water. Crumple the bag while it is filled with water. Notice whether
it cracks or leaks.

Examine various rubberized fabrics and notice whether they are
substantial.


=Experiment 44--Test for Vegetable and Animal Fiber=

    Apparatus: Acid, fire.
    Materials: Warp and filling threads of cotton and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 239.


_Directions_

One of the most useful tests is to see whether an article is made of
wool, cotton, or silk, and if a composition of two or more materials,
to estimate the percentage of each. Practical experience can teach one
much in this respect, and in many cases inspection is quite
insufficient. A more reliable test is to burn a piece of material and
notice how it burns.

Take a sample of a woolen and cotton fabric; separate the warp and
filling and untwist one piece of warp and one piece of filling yarn.
Burn a piece of untwisted yarn and notice whether it burns slowly and
curls up into a black crisp cinder leaving a disagreeable smell, or
burns with a flash leaving a light ash behind.


_Questions_

1. Describe the burning process.

2. What is the burning test for vegetable fiber?

3. What is the burning test for animal fiber?

Repeat the same experiment, placing the untwisted yarn in sulphuric
acid. Apply heat and note the effect.

What is the acid test for vegetable fiber?

What is the acid test for animal fiber?

Examine different fabrics to see whether they contain vegetable or
animal fibers.


=Experiment 45--Difference between Cotton and Linen Fabrics=

Examine a real linen towel and a cotton towel. Wet your hands and use
both towels to dry them. Notice which of the fabrics absorbs the
moisture quicker, or which towel dries the hands better.

Compare a cotton table-cloth and a linen table-cloth. Notice that the
linen fabric has a natural gloss, a cool, smooth feel, and launders
much better than cotton. The cotton fabric on the other hand gives off
a fuzz, and irons dull and shapeless.[29]

Linen is tough and strong, cool feeling, and has a long fiber. Linen
cannot be given a cotton fabric finish.[30]

Cotton on the other hand has a weak, short fiber, dull, warm, and
non-absorbent. After washing, cotton resembles a limp rag while linen
retains firmness and stiffness.

Which fabric absorbs the moisture more readily?

What is the difference in appearance between the two fabrics? Between
the fibers of the fabrics?


=Experiment 46--Test to Distinguish Artificial Silk from Silk=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish, potassium hydrate.
    Material: Piece of silk fabric.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 240.

Since silk fabrics, particularly hosiery, are becoming popular,
various attempts have been made to produce substitutes for real silk.
To test a silk fabric, boil the sample in 4 per cent potassium hydrate
solution and note the effect. If it produces a yellow solution it is
artificial silk, if colorless it is pure silk.

Another simple way used by some workmen, although unhygienic, is to
unravel a few threads of the suspected fabric, place them in the
mouth, and masticate them vigorously. Artificial silk will soften
under the operation and break up into a mass of pulp. Natural silk
will retain its fibrous strength.

Test various samples of cheap "silk" hosiery.


=Experiment 47--Test to Distinguish Silk from Wool=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish, hydrochloric acid.
    Material: Silk or woolen fabric.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 240.

Silk may be distinguished from wool by putting the suspected thread
or fabric into cold concentrated hydrochloric acid. If silk is present
it will dissolve, while wool merely swells.

Test various samples of silk and wool.


=Experiment 48--Test to Distinguish Cotton from Linen=

    Apparatus: Fuchsine, ammonia.
    Materials: Cotton and linen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 240.


_Directions_

1. On account of the high price of linen various attempts are made to
pass cotton off for linen. While it is possible sometimes to detect
cotton by rolling the suspected fabric between the thumb and finger,
the better way is to stain the fabric with fuchsine. If the fibers of
the fabric turn red, and this coloration disappears upon the addition
of ammonia, they are cotton; if the red color remains, the fibers are
linen. The most reliable test is to examine the fiber under the
microscope and note the difference in structure.

2. Test a cheap _linen_ fabric for cotton.

3. When cotton yarn is used to adulterate linen it becomes fuzzy
through wear, and when used to adulterate other fabrics, it wears
shabby and loses its brightness. Linen is a heavier fabric, and
wrinkles much more readily than cotton. It wears better, and has an
exquisite freshness that is not found in cotton fabrics.

4. Describe a chemical test for linen.

5. What is the difference in appearance and wearing qualities of
cotton and linen?


=Experiment 49--Test of Fabric to Withstand Ironing and Pressing=

    Apparatus: Hot iron.
    Materials: Silk, cotton, and woolen fabrics.


_Directions_

Place the sample over an ironing board and iron it with hot iron
(about 200° F.). Compare the sample immediately with one not ironed.
Remember that many colors, particularly colored silks, change while
they are hot. If the original shade returns when the fabric has
cooled, then the fabric is fast to ironing and pressing.


_Questions_

1. What is the object of ironing and pressing clothes?

2. Is it a good plan to press clothes often?

3. Is there any difference in the effect of the hot iron on the three
kinds of fabrics?


=Experiment 50--Test of Fabric to Withstand Perspiration=

    Apparatus: Porcelain dish.
    Materials: Silk, cotton, and woolen fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 243.


_Directions_

1. In addition to withstanding the action of coming in contact with
the human skin, fabrics like hosiery, etc., should withstand the
excretions of the body.

2. To test a fabric for resistance, place the sample in a bath of
dilute acid made by adding one teaspoonful of acetic acid to a quart
of water warmed to the temperature of the body, 98.6° F. The fabric
should be dipped a number of times, and then dried, without rinsing,
between parchment paper.


_Questions_

1. What is the effect of the acid solution upon the fabrics?

2. Would they necessarily withstand the effect of perspiration, even
if they did withstand the acetic acid solution? Why?


=Experiment 51--Test for Determining Dressing=

    Apparatus: Magnifying glass, porcelain dish.
    Materials: Various fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 242.


_Directions_

1. A great many cotton fabrics such as muslin often contain
considerable sizing or dressing. In order to examine a fabric and
determine whether too much dressing has been used, take a small sample
of the fabric and crush it in the hand and rub it together, so that
the dressing is removed and the quantity employed may be determined.
If much dressing has been used, dust will be produced in rubbing.
Prick the surface with your finger nail. Notice whether the starch
comes off. Then wet your finger and rub it on the cloth and allow it
to dry. Does the gloss disappear?

2. Another method is to hold the sample before the light and notice
whether you can recognize the dressing. Examine the sample with a
magnifying glass (or pick glass) and notice whether the dressing is
superficial or penetrates the substance of the fabric.

3. Would you buy low priced cotton goods with a thick gloss and pasty
look?

4. Notice the effect (lusterless) of fabrics containing much dressing
after washing.

5. A very simple way for telling the amount of loading or weighting in
a cotton fabric is to weigh a given sample, then "boil the fabric out
in hot water,"--boiling for several hours and then drying it. The
difference in weight after drying and before boiling gives the weight
of sizing material per sample piece.

6. If mineral loading has been used to a great extent, a large residue
is left after burning.


=Experiment 52--Testing the Strength of Cloth=

    Apparatus: Dynamometer.
    Materials: Various fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 237.


_Directions_

1. An excellent way to test the strength of a fabric is to place the
two thumbs together and press them down on the sample, holding it
tight underneath. Then try to break the threads, first in one
direction and then in the other. Do they break easily? Notice whether
one set is very much stronger than the other.

2. Manufacturers usually test yarn and fabrics by means of an
instrument called a dynamometer. In this way one can find out whether
a yarn or fabric comes up to the necessary strength, and whether it
has the required yield or stretch. Both these points are of importance
in practical work, for it is essential that the yarn as shown should
at least be strong enough to bear the strain of manufacture. The test
is made by stretching a hank of yarn between the two hooks of a cloth
testing machine. The handle at the side is now turned, so that the
lower hook descends and puts a strain on the hank. This strain is
increased, and at the same time the pointer moves around the dial,
which indicates in pounds the amount of strain. When the threads of
the hank begin to break, the strain is released, and the catch at the
side keeps the pointer in position until the amount of strain is read
on the dial. The distance stretched by the yarn before breakage occurs
is shown in inches and fractions of an inch, in the small indicator
arranged near the upper hook.

Test different fabrics and yarns.


=Experiment 53--Characteristics of a Knitted Fabric=

    Apparatus: Pick glass.
    Materials: Knitted fabric, woven fabric.
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 153.


_Directions_

1. Examine a piece of knitted fabric under the pick glass and notice
the construction. How does it differ from weaving? The single thread
is formed into rows of loops which hang upon each other, thus giving
the knitted fabric its characteristic springiness. Why is hosiery
suitable for underwear? Try to obtain the thread of the knitted fabric
and reduce the whole to a heap of yarn by cutting it. Is the yarn
intact?

2. A knitted fabric may be told from a woven fabric by studying the
following sketch. (See page 310.)

Note that the element of stretch or elasticity is wholly lacking in
the woven cloth except what lengthwise elasticity may be in the
threads themselves. On the other hand, referring to the printed
diagram of the knitted fabric it will just as readily be seen that its
very structure implies such a corrugation of its individual loops that
if distended by force in any direction its tendency is to return to
the normal.

The essential characteristics of good hose are:

1. That they should be without seams.

2. That they should be so knit as to conform to the foot of the
wearer.

3. That they should be thickened or reinforced where the greatest wear
comes.

[Illustration: ORDINARY WEAVING

  _a._ Weft. _b._ Warp.]

[Illustration: PLAIN STOCKING FABRIC]

The essential characteristics of good underwear are:

1. It should be made from elastic cloth, which implies a knitted
cloth.

2. It should be porous in a high degree--whether in winter weight or
summer weight.

3. The seams should be made upon the most modern sewing machines, with
as little bulk as possible.


=Experiment 54--Experiment to Illustrate Imperfections in Hosiery=

    Apparatus: Magnifying glass.
    Materials: Hosiery (seconds).
    Reference: _Textiles_, page 159.

Examine a piece of hosiery called a _second_, obtained from a hosiery
mill, and notice whether any of the following defects are present:

    _a._ Yarn contains thick bits and buns.

    _b._ Knots are badly tied.

    _c._ Discolored yarn.

    _d._ Lacks solidity and firmness, due to the gauge being
    too coarse for the yarn.

    _e._ Full work-yarn too thick for gauge.


=Experiment 55--Characteristics of a Crochet Fabric=

    Apparatus: Crochet needle.
    Material: Thread.


_Directions_

1. Crocheting is another method, like knitting, of making a fabric.
Examine the operation of crocheting. Notice that only one thread is
made use of, and is formed into loops by means of a large needle with
a hook at the end. The chief point is that the loops are not formed in
uniform rows, but one loop at a time, and with the greatest liberty to
choose any part of the article already made to form a new loop. For
this reason, crocheting adapts itself to the production of fancy
patterns useful for ornamenting.

2. A knitted fabric can be told from a crocheted fabric by noting that
a knitted fabric is composed of rows or ranks of loops of a single
yarn which interlock successively with similar rows or ranks of loops,
while a crocheted fabric consists of a structure the basis of which is
a thread crocheted or knitted into a chain which is attached at
intervals to itself.


=Experiment 56--Characteristics of a Good Piece of Cotton Cloth=

    Materials: Different samples of cotton fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 151-152.


_Directions_

1. Examine different kinds of cotton fabrics. Compare the lowest,
medium, and highest priced varieties of the same fabric. Notice how
quickly the finish of a low priced cotton fabric with a _thick_ gloss
loses its luster after washing.

2. Examine the different grades of the following fabrics: white lawn,
Indian Head cotton suiting, muslin, lawn, and cambric. Wash the
samples several times.

Does it pay to buy cheap cotton fabrics for underwear, etc.?

What are the characteristics of a good piece of cotton cloth?


=Experiment 57--Characteristics of a Good Piece of Woolen Cloth=

    Materials: Different samples of woolens.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 71-82.


_Directions_

1. Woolens differ from worsteds in having a more or less covered face,
with the result that the weave rarely is noticeable, and the general
color effects are much smoother and softer than those of worsteds.

2. Examine different grades of woolen fabrics, such as serges.

Defects.--If a piece of woolen is not constructed right from the start
or if the work is not properly finished, that is, enough fulled in
width or length, it is liable to be raggy or slazy. As a great many
fabrics are more or less teaseled, there is a possibility of such
pieces becoming too woolly and too hairy.


=Experiment 58--Characteristics of a Good Piece of Worsted Cloth=

    Materials: Different kinds of worsted fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 71-82.


_Directions_

1. A good piece of worsted fabric should have a clear outline of the
pattern, perfection of weave lines, and when the fabric is exposed to
light should show a luster without polish.

2. Examine different types of worsted fabrics, and notice how many
conform to the above requirements.

3. The most essential point of worsted is that it should have a clean
and even looking face. By clean is meant well sheared. By even is
meant that the individual ends and picks used should be _even_ and not
full of knots, or of any foreign matter. Of course, there are some
exceptions, for instance, in an unfinished worsted which has more or
less nap on the face, it could not be sheared absolutely clear, but at
the same time, the face should be very evenly cropped.

Defects.--A serious defect would be if the cloth was not well sheared
or if it contained many uneven cords and picks, or ends and picks
missing, or coarse ends and slubs.

Examine different worsteds and notice any defects.

WORSTEDS.--Speaking generally, worsteds may be divided into two
classes, distinguishable according to the _luster_ of their surface,
or to the softness of their feel. They are used both for ladies' and
men's wear. Worsted coatings may also be classed as worsteds. The
coatings are woven in both single and double cloths in fancy weave
effects for piece dyes, marketed in variety of finish, according to
fashion.

Under this heading may be classified staple cloths, such as serges,
clays, and fancy weave effects without any illumination. They can be
finished in three ways:--Clear, undressed, and cheviot, used for
ladies' dress goods or men's wear, according to weight.

The finish of the cloth varies according to the fashion, but there is
always a certain demand for clear and undressed worsteds, for men's
wear.

Examine a number of worsted fabrics and classify them.

SUITINGS.--The term suitings covers various manipulations of
manufactured goods.

1. Tennis suitings, composed of all wool, or all worsted, white or
cream ground, decorated with solid color, silk and weave stripe
effects.

2. Piece-dyed worsteds, such as a blue ground with white silk line,
cable cord, and fancy weave stripe effects, or any other ground shade
color with its complementary decoration applied.

3. Mixture wool or mixture worsted yarns made into fabrics,
decorations applied in color; cable, silk, and weave effects in
stripes or overline color checks, suitable for men's wear, or
decorated suitable for woman's wear. The darker shades for fall and
the lighter shades for spring.

General weight of fabric for men's wear, 12 to 14 oz. per yd., 56
in.; general weight of fabric for ladies' wear, 8 to 12 oz. per yd.,
54 in.

4. As a rule, when one speaks of a suiting, you expect to see a fancy
effect, in the form of a fancy stripe, check, or a colored mixture, in
loud or quiet tones of decoration. Long naps in fancy effects are
sometimes fashionable, and at other times the cloth finish is popular.

This class may be subdivided into

  1. Light weight for spring or fall.

  2. Heavy weight for winter.

The light weight class generally consists of covert cloths in lighter
colors for spring, and cloths usually of the undressed finish from
worsted or woolen stock for fall.

The heavy weight class generally consists of heavily fulled goods,
such as meltons, beavers, naps, etc., which give a heavier and warmer
coat for winter use only, and where an exceptionally heavy coat is
required, double and treble cloths are occasionally employed.

Examine different kinds of suitings and classify them.

TROUSERINGS.--Trouserings are more firmly woven than suitings and are
heavier. They invariably have a stripe. The ground shade of the better
grade of men's wear fabrics is generally composed of twist warp yarns,
ranging from dark slate gray to light lavender gray. An endless
variety of broad and narrow fine line effects is produced by expert
manipulation and combination of weave and silk decorations, producing
the pleasing effect required for this class of goods. The filling is
nearly always black; but sometimes a dark slate is used.

The cheaper grades are generally made of wool and cotton mixtures and
twists, down to all cotton, in imitation of the better grades.

OVERCOATINGS.--Overcoatings are heavy woolen or worsted fabrics and
heavily teaseled or gigged, giving a rough, hairy appearance. Whether
thick or thin, coarse or fine, they should always be elastic fabrics,
that is, as much so as well fulled woolen goods can be. When hard or
stiff they never make a graceful garment. The special goods made for
overcoats are nearly all soft goods.

Examine different fabrics and classify them into either suitings,
overcoatings, trouserings, etc.


=Experiment 59--Characteristics of a Good Silk Fabric=

    Materials: Samples of different cheap silk fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 203-218.

There are cheap and expensive silk fabrics on the market. The consumer
is often tempted to buy the cheaper fabric and wonders why there is
such a difference in price. The difference in price is due to the cost
of raw material and additional cost is due to the care in
manufacturing. For example, raw silk costs from $1.35 to $5 a pound
according to its nature, quality, and the country from which it comes.
The cost of throwing silks preparatory to dyeing also varies, the
average being 55 cents a pound for organzine or warp, and 33 cents a
pound for tram and filling. The prices here also vary according to the
nature of the twist imparted to the silk, which is regulated by the
kind of cloth it is to enter into. The cost of dyeing varies from 55
cents a pound upwards to perhaps $1.50 a pound, according to the dye
and the treatment which the silk is to receive in the process of
dyeing. The cost of winding, quilling, and sundry labor items
necessary with soft silk prior to its being woven, will perhaps
average about a cent per yard of woven goods for the cheapest cloths
and range upwards according to the grade of the fabric. The cost of
weaving also varies with the cloth, and may be 9 cents for one fabric
and 25 cents or more per yard for the more expensive.

Weavers are paid from 2 cents to 60 cents per yard for weaving the
different fabrics, and other operations vary greatly in cost; for
instance, the cost of printing is entirely dependent upon the work and
the number of colors used, whether it is blotch printing, discharge
work, or block printing. Different processes in finishing have widely
varied costs. At the present time moire work is done which costs as
high as 25 cents per yard. There are also other materials which can be
finished for as little as 1/2 cent per yard. Some goods have to be
finished over and over again in the dyeing and finishing while others
are very simply done. Many printed goods are handled 150 times after
they come from the loom.

When it comes to relative values of similar goods produced by
different manufacturers there are a few general principles by which
good construction can easily be determined. Most pure dye fabrics when
burned will rather shrivel and boil than burn, while those which are
weighted heavily with metallic salts will simply char and turn white
without losing the structure of the fabric.

A fabric in which the quantity of warp and filling are of equal weight
gives the maximum strength for the amount of material used. For the
same weight and material, that having the most bindings of warp and
filling will give the greater service. Fabrics with an insufficient
number of warp or filling threads slide easily and do not give good
service, though sometimes fashionable. A fabric having a twist in the
warp and filling will last longer than one using the same amount of
silk and the same binding with less twist.

All of these things may be taught to women many times over, but if the
fashion demands an article which breaks all of the above laws and is
everything that it should not be, they will buy it in preference to a
serviceable fabric. As a general rule, the consumer will be safest in
buying goods produced by houses of good reputation and whose products
are well known.

A large part of the retail value of silk goods is their fashion demand
and is quite independent of their cost of production. For instance, at
the present time crêpe fabrics, brocades, and prints are commanding a
premium while such goods as plain taffetas could not be sold for the
cost of production.

The advantages of the better kinds of silks over the cheap ones are
pure dye, long wear, and more expensive manufacturing.


=Experiment 60--How to Determine the Count of Yarn in Cloth=

    Apparatus: Scales, ruler.
    Material: Samples of fabrics.
    Reference: _Textiles_, pages 144-146.

The United States Government imposes a tax on certain imported fabrics
and yarn. In the case of cotton, the rates of duty are to be
ascertained according to the average number of the yarns in the
condition in which it is imported.

The length of the yarn is to be counted as equal to the distance
covered by it in the cloth, all clipped threads to be measured as if
continuous and all ply yarns to be separated into singles and the
count taken of the total singles; any excessive sizing is to be
removed by boiling or other suitable processes. The number of the yarn
is the English number of 840 yd. to a lb. for a No. 1 yarn.

The average number of yarn may be found without unraveling the fabric,
and is the quotient of the total thread length, by the weight in the
proportion of 840 yd. of yarn equaling 8-1/3 grains, which is
equivalent to a No. 1 yarn.

The following simple formula may be used:

Multiply the count of threads per square inch by the number of square
inches in the sample used, this product to be multiplied by 100; then
divide the product thus obtained by the weight of the sample in grains
multiplied by 432. The quotient will give the number of the yarn.

For example, take a sample of cotton cloth 4 in. square, which equals
16 sq. in., having 28 warp and 28 woof threads, a total of 56 threads
to the square inch, and weighing 8.6 grains. The formula applied would
be as follows:

    56 × 16 × 100 ÷ 8.6 × 432 = 24, the number of the yarn.

The formula may be further simplified by weighing a square yard of the
cloth and dividing the number of threads per square inch by 1/300 of
the weight per square yard in grains.

Find the number of yarn in several cotton fabrics.


=Experiment 61--Study of Fabrics=

A great deal of time should be devoted to the study of standard
fabrics so that pupils may be able to recognize them by inspection and
know how to test them for adulterants.

This may be done by having the pupils study the fabrics one by one,
placing a sample of each in a note-book. Underneath the sample should
be written the use of the fabric, the width, the different grades,
with prices, wearing qualities, and how the fabric is made. In
connection with this work special effort should be made to develop a
textile vocabulary so as to be able to discriminate between the
different fabrics, to know the types of weaves, and the different
kinds of finish, etc. In this way develop the ability to know what
materials and colors weave best, the prices which should be paid for
strong materials, the amount of material necessary, and the trade
names of fabrics which can be depended upon for substantial goods.

Occasional tests in recognizing fabrics should be given by the teacher
by placing before the pupils unlabeled fabrics that they have
previously studied and have them give the name, approximate price or
grade, weave, qualities, etc.

Remnants or small pieces of standard fabrics may be obtained from the
leading dry goods stores of the country. Teachers should have on
exhibition in cabinets a large display of standard fabrics with a card
attached giving the name and use of each.


=Experiment 62--How to Examine a Fabric=

The first thing a buyer of cloth notices in examining the fabrics is
the finish. The finish is tested by feeling and seeing. To illustrate:
broadcloth should have a smooth face and a nap evenly laid. If the
finish is in keeping with the character of the cloth, he next examines
the fiber of the yarn to see whether it is composed of pure wool or
two or more fibers in combination.

Then test the strength of the cloth to see if it will meet the
requirements.

A test should be made to tell whether it is poorly dyed or well dyed.
There is no test that can be applied to all colors to ascertain this,
neither is it possible to judge by the eye. The best way is to take a
small sample of the goods and submit it to the washing and light test.


FOOTNOTES:

[21] Dissecting pin may be made by placing head of pin or needle in a
pen holder.

[22] A hand loom consisting of simply a square frame, may be obtained
from Hammett & Co., Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass.

[23] In the case of linen the short fibers separated by combing are
called _tow_, and the long fibers _line_.

[24] Absorbents are substances that will absorb readily excess of
liquids; they include varieties of chalk, paste of chalk, or fullers'
earth, rough surface of a visiting card, buckwheat flour, crumbs of
bread, powdered soapstone, pumice, whiting. These substances are used
to great advantage in assisting to remove stains from delicate
fabrics. They absorb the excess of solvent and thus prevent it from
spreading.

[25] Alum in this case is called a mordant, which is a substance that
will impregnate the cloth with something which will hold the coloring
matter. Other mordants are oxides, hydroxides, and basic salts of
aluminum, iron, tin, and chromium.

[26] Place a piece of sulphur on a deflagrating spoon and light it by
placing it in the flame and allow it to burn. Cover the bottle by
means of a glass plate.

[27] Bleaching powder is prepared by passing chlorine gas over layers
of slaked lime (lime to which a slight amount of water has been
added). Bleaching powder bleaches by having its hypochlorous acid set
free, which in turn gives up oxygen, being converted into hydrochloric
acid. The French use solutions containing chloride and hypochlorite of
soda. They are called Labarraque's disinfecting fluid. A similar
solution of a mixture of chloride and hypochlorite is called Eau de
Javelle.

[28] A description of shoe and hand clothing may be obtained from
_Shoemaking_, published by Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

[29] In Ireland the cost of producing a pound of bleached linen cloth
4 sq. yd. is 16_d._ or 32 cts.; cost of hackling a pound of flax is
1/2_d._ or 1 ct. per lb.; cost of preparing and spinning a pound of
flax is 6_d._ or 12 cts. per lb.; cost of winding and weaving a pound
of flax is 2-1/2_d._ or 5 cts. per lb.; cost of bleaching and
finishing a pound of flax is 7_d._ or 14 cts. per lb.; $75 is spent in
turning $100 worth of flax into yarn; $75 is spent in turning $100
worth of yarn into brown linen; $50 is spent in turning $100 worth of
brown linen into linen for market.

[30] A linen fabric can be best told from cotton by holding it up to
the light and examining the evenness of the threads. Cotton can be
more easily spun level than flax, therefore threads that present
considerable irregularities may be taken to be flax. In a union fabric
the nap is usually cotton and the threads more regular than the
filling (flax). The best linen is made from fine and fairly regular
threads; common linen from coarse and irregular tow yarns. Linen is no
more subject to weak places in weaving than cotton, although it is
harder to bleach and may be weakened in this process. If each
operation is not perfect the linen will become yellow in storage.



SOURCES OF SUPPLY


The author has found that very nearly all manufacturers are willing to
supply schools with samples of their products. But the demand for
samples has been so great that it is necessary in most cases to pay a
small sum to cover the cost.

The following prominent firms dealing in textile supplies are named
here to assist the teachers in writing for supplies.

The names of the leading textile papers are given so that teachers may
obtain them. They contain a large number of names of dealers in
textiles so that they may be used as reference books for supplies.


_Catalogues of Cotton Machinery_

Kitson Machine Shop, Lowell, Mass.--Cotton pickers.

Howard and Bullough, Pawtucket, R. I.--Cotton machinery.

Saco-Pettee Machine Shop, Saco, Me.--Cotton machinery.

Lowell Machine Shop, Lowell, Mass.--Cotton machinery.

Whitin Machine Works, Whitinsville, Mass.--Cotton machinery.

Mason Machine Works, Taunton, Mass.--Cotton machinery.

Draper Co., Hopedale, Mass.--Cotton machinery.

Woonsocket Machine Works, Woonsocket, R. I.--Cotton machinery.

Faler & Jencks, Pawtucket, R. I.--Cotton machinery.

Potter & Johnson, Pawtucket, R. I.--Cotton machinery.

C. E. Riley, 65 Franklin St., Boston, Mass.--Cotton machinery.

Cohoes Iron Foundry Co., Cohoes, N. Y.--Cotton machinery.

American Moistening Co., 120 Franklin St., Boston, Mass.--Humidifiers
and textile machinery.


_Standard Textile Papers_

American Wool and Cotton Reporter, Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass.

American Silk Journal, East 28th St., New York City, N. Y.

Textile World Record, Congress St., Boston, Mass.

Technical Education Bulletin on Illustrative and Laboratory Supplies,
published by Teachers College, Columbia University, West 120th St.,
New York.

Fibre and Fabric, 127 Federal St., Boston, Mass.

Textile Manufacturers Journal, Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass.


_Wool, Cotton, and Silk Samples_

American Woolen Co., Boston, Mass.--Booklets on _From Wool to Cloth_;
samples of fabrics.

Arlington Mills, Chauncey St., Boston, Mass.--Samples of cotton and
wool in different stages of manufacture; fabrics.

S. Blaisdell, Jr., Chicopee, Mass.--Egyptian and Peruvian cotton, etc.

Frank A. Tierney, 260 Broadway, New York--Ramie.

Geo. Carter, 246 Broadway, New York--Linen yarns and thread.

Boston Yarn Co., 50 State St., Boston, Mass.--Cotton yarn.

Wonalancit Co., Nashua, N. H.--Samples of cotton.

Botany Worsted Mills, Passaic, N. J.--French spun worsted yarn.

C. E. Riley, 65 Franklin St., Boston, Mass.--Yarns and fabrics.

Adirondack Wool Co., Little Falls, N. Y.--Wools and shoddies.

Sutcliffe, Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass.--Foreign wools.

Francis Willey & Co., 556 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass.--Top, foreign
wools.

John L. Farrell, 210 Summer St., Boston, Mass.--Mohair, noils, and
carpet wools.

The J. R. Montgomery Co., Windsor Locks, Conn.--Novelty yarns.

Catlin & Co., 67 Chauncey St., Boston, Mass.--Cotton yarns.

Norfolk Woolen Co., Franklin, Mass.--Shoddies.

Parker & Wilder Co., Boston, Mass.--Samples of fabrics.

Lawrence & Co., Franklin St., Boston, Mass.--Samples of fabrics.

Joy, Langdon, & Co., Boston, Mass.--Samples of fabrics.

Clark Thread Co., Newark, N. J.--Exhibit.

George A. Clark & Bro., 400 Broadway, New York--Cabinet and booklet.

Cheney Bro., So. Manchester, Conn.--Silk samples, silk fabrics.

Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, N. J.--Wall chart of cotton field.

Scordill, 902 Canal St., New Orleans, La.--Cotton postal cards.

Storey Cotton Co., The Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa.--Booklet, _All about
Cotton_.

White Oak Cotton Mills, Greensboro, N. C.--Stereoscopic views.

Willimantic Thread Co., Willimantic, Conn.

Flax Spinning Co., York St., Belfast, Ireland.--Prints illustrating
linen manufacture and samples.

Jas. McCutcheon & Co., 5th Ave. and 34th St., New York.--Flax cabinet.

The Linen Thread Co., 96 Franklin St., New York.--Flax cabinet.

Belding Bro. & Co., 526 Broadway, New York.--School exhibits of silk.

Brainerd & Armstrong, 100 Union St., New London, Conn.--Book and
cabinet of silk.

Champlain Silk Mills, Whitehall, N. Y.--Spun silk and exhibits.

M. Heminway & Sons, Silk Co., Watertown, Conn.--Booklets on silk.

Nonatuck Silk Co., Florence, Mass.--Sealed cabinets and books on silk.

William Skinner & Sons, 47 East 17th St., New York City.--Silks and
satins.

S. Miller, 304 Second Ave., New York.--Wool fiber.

Milton, Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass.--Sheep chart.

A. H. Post, Quaker Hill, New York.--Raw wool by the pound.

Schermerhorn & Co., 12 West 33d St., New York City, N. Y.--Wall chart
illustration of sheep.

L. S. Watson Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass.--Hand cards.

Howard Bros., Worcester, Mass.--Hand cards.

Prin. Columbus Industrial School, Columbus, Ga.--Samples of cotton
plant or bolls.


_Woolen Yarns_

Horstman Co., 5th and Cherry St., Philadelphia, Pa.

Lion Yarn Co., 408 Broadway, New York.


_Catalogue of Woolen and Worsted Machinery_

C. G. Sargent's Sons, Graniteville, Mass.--Wool machinery.

Davis & Ferber Co., No. Andover, Mass.--Woolen and worsted machinery.

Lowell Machine Shop, Lowell, Mass.--Worsted machinery.

Crompton & Knowles, Worcester, Mass.--Worsted silk machinery.

Speed & Stephenson, 170 Summer St., Boston, Mass.--Textile machinery.

George Gerry & Co., Athol, Mass.--Shoddy machinery.

Tolhoust Machine Works, Troy, N. Y.--Hydro extractor.

Parks & Woolson Machine Co., Springfield, Vt.--Machinery.

Curtis, Marble Co., Worcester, Mass.--Finishing machinery.

General Electric Co., 84 State St., Boston, Mass.--Pictures, showing
textile machinery in operation by motors.

Hopkins Machine Works, Budgeton, R. I.--Finishing machinery.


_Knitting Machinery_

Scott & Williams, 88 Pearl St., Boston, Mass.

Nye & Tudick Co., Philadelphia, Pa.


_Chemicals, Dyestuffs, and Sizing Materials_

The Arabol Mfg. Co., 100 Williams St., New York.--Sizing materials.

Cassella Color Co., 182 Front St., New York.--Coal tar products,
dyestuffs, and literature.

Arnold Hoffman & Co., Providence, R. I.--Sizing materials.

H. A. Metz & Co., 122 Hudson St., New York.--Dyestuffs and literature.

Badische Co., 128 Duane St., New York.--Dyestuffs and literature.



INDEX


    Acid test, 239

    Adelaide wool, 10

    Adulterations of wool, 80, 82

    Albatross, 83, 173

    Alma, 219

    Alpaca, 1, 15, 34, 83

    American cotton, 110

    American wool, 3

    Angora, 32, 83

    Animal fibers, 1

    Artificial fibers, 1

    Artificial silk, 1, 230

    Asbestos, 1, 234

    Astrakhans, 15, 84

    Australian wool, 3, 8, 9

    Awning, 173


    Baling cotton, 117

    Bandanna, 84

    Barège, 219

    Bast fibers, 193

    Batiste, 173

    Beam, 53

    Beaver cloth, 52, 84

    Bedford cord, 84, 174

    Beige, 85

    Bengaline, 219

    Berber, 219

    Bindings, 84

    Bleaching cotton, 148
      flax, 196
      thread, 141

    Blending, 11, 31

    Bombazine, 84, 220

    Bottany, 84

    Boucle, 85

    Bourrette, 174

    Bradford system of spinning, 44

    Branding sheep, 7

    Broadcloth, 52, 85

    Brocade, 219

    Brocatel, 220

    Buckram, 174

    Bunting, 85

    Bur picker, 30

    Burling, 72

    Burring, 29, 30


    Calendering, 149, 150

    Calico, 175

    Caniche, 86

    Canvas, 177

    Cape wools, 10

    Carbonizing, 29, 30

    Carding cotton, 126
      wool, 3, 4

    Carpet wools, 3, 4

    Cashmere, 85, 86
      goat, 13
      wool, 13, 87

    Castor, 87

    Challis, 87

    Chambray, 177

    Characteristics of cotton cloth, 152
      of linen cloth, 196
      of woolen cloth, 50
      of worsted cloth, 46

    Cheese cloth, 178

    Chenille, 220

    Cheviot, 33, 35, 52, 87
      wool, 14

    Chiffon, 220

    China grass, 232

    China silks, 220

    Chinchilla, 52, 98

    Chintz, 178

    Chudah, 89

    Cloth-rolls, 54

    Clothing wool, 3

    Cocoons, 203

    Combing cotton, 127

    Combing wool, 4, 39

    Combustion test, 239

    Construction of cloth, 70, 71

    Corduroy, 89

    Côte cheval, 89

    Cotton, 1, 105
      carding, 126
      combing, 127
      drawing, 128
      finishing, 147
      flannel, 178
      growing countries, 106
      picker, 125
      substitutes, 232
      varieties of, 105, 106, 111, 112
      yarns, 125, 134

    Cotton-gin, 114-116

    Counts of yarn, 9, 49, 51

    Coupure, 90

    Covert cloth, 90

    Crabbing, 74

    Crash, 178

    Creel, 52

    Crêpe, 179, 221

    Crêpe de Chine, 221

    Crepon, 179

    Cretonne, 90

    Crinoline, 179

    Crocheting, 56, 253

    Cross-dyed, 65, 67, 68

    Cyprian gold, 234


    Damask, 179

    Dark colored fibers, 33

    Dead wool, 20

    Delaine wool, 22, 90

    Denim, 179

    Diaper cloth, 179

    Difference between lamb's wool and sheep's wool, 20

    Difference between wool and hair, 2

    Difference between woolen and worsted yarns, 39

    Dimity, 179

    Doeskin, 52, 90

    Domet, 180

    Double-cloth, 58, 62

    Drap d'Été, 90

    Dress faced fabrics, 8

    Drill, 180

    Duck, 180

    Dusting operation, 35

    Dyeing, 66
      black silks, 210
      colored silks, 210
      cotton, 67
      wools, 65
      yarns, 68, 209


    East Indian cotton, 107

    Egyptian cotton, 108

    Elasticity of knitted textures, 253

    Embroidery silk, 207

    Empress cloth, 90

    Ends, 53, 54

    English system of spinning, 4, 40

    English wools, 3

    Eolienne, 181, 221

    Épingline, 90

    Etamine, 91, 181

    Extract-wool, 1, 32, 37


    Fancy goods, 79

    Felt, 91

    Felting, 2, 4

    Fibers, 1

    Figure weaving, 58, 61, 62

    Figured poplins, 225

    Finishing, 71, 151

    Finishing hosiery, 163

    Flannel, 52, 91-93

    Flannelette, 181

    Flax, 1, 123
      preparation, 193-195
      sources, 194, 198

    Fleece, 7

    Flocks, 1, 32, 37

    Florentine, 93

    Fly frames, 130

    Foulard, 221

    Foule, 93

    Frame, 54

    French system of spinning, 4, 44

    Frieze, 52, 93

    Full blood, 19

    Full grade cotton, 121

    Fulling, 73

    Fustian, 180


    Galatea cloth, 182

    Gauge weaving, 63

    Gauze, 182

    Gill boxes, 42

    Gingham, 182

    Ginning cotton, 114

    Glacé, 222

    Gloria, 94

    Goat, 1

    Grades of wool, 18

    Granada, 94

    Great Britain wools, 12

    Grenadine, 94

    Grinding rags, 36

    Ground lace, 164


    Hackling, 195

    Hair, 2

    Half blood, 19

    Half-grades of cotton, 121, 122

    Hand-loom, 56

    Harness, 55

    Heddles, 54

    Hemp, 1, 199

    Henrietta cloth, 94

    Hoggett wool, 20

    Homespun, 58, 94

    Hop sacking, 94

    Hosiery, 159

    Hosiery manufacture, 159-163

    Humidifying cotton, 124

    Hydro extractor, 28


    India silk, 204, 222

    Indigo blue flannel, 92

    Inspection of cloth, 123, 124

    Intermediate frame, 130

    Irish wools, 14

    Italian cloth, 183


    Jaconet, 183

    Jacquard machine, 55

    Japanese silk, 222

    Jeans, 95

    Jersey cloth, 222

    Jute, 1
      uses of, 201


    Kapok, 230

    Kersey, 95

    Kerseymere, 96

    Khaki, 183

    Knitting, 253
      cotton, 159
      finishing, 163
      frames, 154
      rib, 158
      silk, 159
      stripe, 159
      wool, 3


    Lace, 164, 165
      terms, 166-172

    Lamb's wool, 15, 20

    Lappet-weaving, 63, 64

    Lawn, 183

    Leicester wool, 12

    Leno weaving, 63

    Lincoln wool, 12

    Linen, 196

    Lingerie, 184

    Linon, 184

    Linsey woolsey, 96

    Long cloth, 184
      manufacture of, 194, 195

    Long or clothing wool, 3

    Loom, 54

    Luster of wool, 26


    Mackinaw, 92

    Madras, 185

    Manila hemp, 200

    Melrose, 97

    Melton, 97

    Meltonette, 97

    Mending, 72

    Mercerizing, 151

    Merino, 2, 3, 18, 19, 97

    Metallic threads, 1, 234

    Meteor, 222

    Mexican Sheep, 4

    Milling, 8

    Mineral fibers, 1

    Mohair, 1, 18, 34, 97

    Moire, 223

    Moisture contained in cotton, 123

    Montagnac, 98

    Montevideo, 11

    Mordant, 69

    Moreen, 186

    Mozambique, 223

    Mule spinning, 134

    Mull, 186

    Mummery, 186

    Mungo, 1, 10, 32, 34
      method of making, 32

    Muslin, 186


    Nainsook, 186

    Naphtha, 26

    Napping, 75

    Navy twill flannel, 92

    Netting, 253

    New Zealand wool, 10

    Noils, 1, 32, 40

    Norfolkdown wool, 14


    Oiling rags, 35

    Olive oil, 29

    Organdie, 186

    Organzine, 223

    Orleans, 98

    Osnaburg, 186


    Panama cloth, 98

    Panne velvet, 223

    Peau de soie, 223

    Pelts, 20

    Percale, 188

    Percaline, 188

    Perching, 72

    Peruvian sheep, 15, 32

    Pick, 54

    Piece-dyeing, 65

    Pile-weave, 62, 63

    Pillow-lace, 165

    Pineapple fiber, 233

    Piqué, 188

    Plain weave, 58

    Planting cotton, 110

    Plumetis, 190

    Plushes, 15, 224

    Pongee, 224

    Popeline, 224

    Poplin, 190

    Port Philip wool, 9

    Pressing machine, 76

    Printing textiles, 65

    Prunella, 98

    Pulled wool, 20


    Quarter blood, 19


    Ramie, 232

    Raw silk, 206

    Reeling silk, 205

    Remanufactured material, 1, 32

    Rep, 190

    Rib work in knitting, 158

    Ribbons, 215

    Ring spinning, 134

    Russian hemp, 199

    Russian wool, 12


    Sacking, 99

    Sanglier, 99

    Sarsenet, 225

    Satin, 225
      weaving, 58

    Satine, 190

    Saxony wool, 8

    Scour, 27

    Scrim, 190

    Scutching, 195

    Sea Island cotton, 109

    Seaming rags, 35

    Seamless hosiery, 161

    Sebastopol, 99

    Serges, 99

    Sewing silk, 207

    Shaker flannel, 93

    Shawls, 33

    Sheep shearing, 5, 6, 7

    Shetland wool, 14

    Shoddy, 1, 10, 32, 34, 101

    Short wools, 3

    Shrinking of wool, 2, 3

    Shropshiredown wool, 13

    Shuttle, 55

    Sicilian, 101

    Silesia, 190

    Silesian wool, 8

    Silk, 1
      cotton, 230
      dyeing, 210
      finishing, 218
      varieties of, 207
      warp flannel, 92
      waste, 207

    Sisal hemp, 200

    Size of yarn, 9, 49, 51

    Sizing, 53

    Slag wool, 1, 234

    Slasher, 53

    Sliver, 39

    Slubber, 130, 131

    Soleil, 227

    Souffle, 191

    South American wool, 11

    Southdown wools, 13

    Spinning, 4, 40, 44, 50, 134

    Spooler, 53

    Spun glass, 233
      fibers, 233

    Spun numbers, 209

    Spun silk, 208

    Staple goods, 79

    Starching cotton, 149

    Stripe knitting, 159

    Structure of wool, 1, 2

    Styles, 70

    Suffolkdown wool, 14

    Sultane, 101

    Superfines, 8

    Swiss muslin, 191

    Sydney wools, 9


    Tabby velvet, 228

    Taffeta, 227

    Tamise, 101

    Tape, 191

    Tarletan, 191

    Tartans, 101

    Teaser, 31

    Tentering, 74

    Terry cloth, 191

    Terry poplin, 225

    Test for animal fiber, 239
      artificial silk from silk, 231
      cotton from linen, 240
      density of a fabric, 239
      dressing, 241
      fastness against rain, 243
      fastness under friction, 242
      fastness to weather, light, and air, 244
      linen, 240
      permanence of dyes, 242
      resistance to perspiration, 243
      resistance to street mud and dust, 243
      shoddy, 241
      silk from wool, 240
      wasting fastness, 242

    Testing constituents of filling, 239
      constituents of warp, 239
      count of warp, 238
      count of warp and filling threads, 238
      elasticity of fabric, 237
      for shrinkage, 239
      piece-dyed fabric, 69
      strength of fabric, 237
      style of weave, 236
      yarn-dyed fabric, 69

    Textile printing, 69, 70, 216

    Theories of coloring in textile designs, 76-79

    Thibet, 101

    Thread, 138
      bleaching, 143
      combing, 141
      dyeing, 143
      numbers, 144
      sizing, 145

    Throwing, 206

    Thrown silk, 207

    Tinsel, 1

    Top, 11, 33, 40

    Tricot, 101

    Tulle, 228

    Tussah silk, 204

    Tweed, 15, 31, 35, 102

    Twill weaving, 58, 59


    Union cloth, 37


    Van wool from Tasmania, 10

    Vegetable fibers, 1

    Veiling, 102

    Velour, 228

    Velvet, 15, 216, 228

    Velveteen, 228

    Venetian cloth, 102

    Vigogne (Vienna), 103

    Vigoureux, 103

    Voiles, 103, 229


    Warp, 53, 54

    Warp-beam, 54

    Waterproofing, 218

    Weaving, 53, 54, 56
      processes, 54-56

    Weft, 54

    Welsh wool, 14

    Wether-wool, 15, 20

    Whipcord, 104

    Wood-pulp, 232

    Wool, 1, 2
      carding, 50
      classing, 3, 16, 18
      drying, 28
      dyeing, 76
      fibers, 2
      grease in, 24
      marketing, 7, 8, 15
      oiling, 29
      sorting, 16-18, 22-24
      varieties of, 3, 4
      washing, 24-28

    Woolen yarn, 33, 50

    Worsted carding, 39
      combing, 39
      diagonal, 104

    Worsted spinning, 44
      tops, 40
      unfinished, 104
      yarn, 33, 46


    Yarn, 33, 39, 46
      dyed, 65, 68

    Yolk, 10, 25


    Zephyr gingham, 192
      wool, 49

    Zibeline, 104



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      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's Note

Minor typographic errors and hyphenation and accent inconsistencies
have been corrected without note.

The footnote marker on page 267 was originally located next to the
EXPERIMENTS heading, but the footnote itself referred to a dissecting
pin. The marker has been moved next to the reference to a dissecting
pin in the text.

The experiments are consecutively numbered, and Experiment Nos. 28 and
29 are missing. There do not appear to be any missing pages--the page
numbering has no gaps, and Experiment No. 27 runs across a page
boundary, and is then followed immediately by Experiment 30. It is
possible that the two missing experiments were deliberately omitted
from this edition by the author.

The index entry for Berber originally read Beiber. The entry has been
corrected, and moved to the correct place in the index.

The page number in the index entry for Silk, finishing has been amended
from 217 to 218.

The index entry for Zephyr wool had no printed page number; from the
text content, the best match appears to be a reference on page 49,
which has been added to the index entry.





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