Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Osage Traditions
Author: Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Osage Traditions" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Osage Traditions


by J. Owen Dorsey



Edition 1, (October 4, 2006)



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION—BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.



CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION.
TRADITIONS OF THE ELDERS.
   UNŬn’U¢ÁʞE. TSÍOU WACTÁʞE ITÁ*P*E.
   UNŬn’ U¢ÁʞE.  QÜ¢ÁPASAn ITÁ*P*E.
CONCLUDING REMARKS.



ILLUSTRATIONS


FIG. 389. Symbolic chart of the Osage.



OSAGE TRADITIONS.


BY REV. J. OWEN DORSEY.



INTRODUCTION.


When the author visited the Osage, in the Indian Territory, in January,
1883, he learned of the existence of a secret society of seven degrees, in
which, it was alleged, the traditions of the people have been preserved to
the present time. Owing to the shortness of his visit, one month and
eleven days, he was unable to gain more than fragmentary accounts of the
society, including parts of two traditions, from several Osage who had
been initiated.

The version of the first tradition was dictated to the author by
Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse (Red Corn), a halfbreed Osage of the Tsíɔu wactáʞe gens. He
obtained it from Sa*d*eki¢e. Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse was adopted in childhood by a
white man named Matthews, who sent him to a Jesuit college in Missouri(?)
to be educated for the priesthood. But the boy left the institution after
he had been taught to read and write, as he did not wish to become a
priest. He took the name of William P. Matthews, but among his white
associates he is known as Bill Nix. He has tried several occupations and
is now an Indian doctor. The author was inclined at first to underrate Mr.
Matthews’s accomplishments and stock of information, but subsequently
changed his opinion of him, as he obtained much that agreed with what had
been furnished by members of other tribes in former years. Besides, the
author obtained partial accounts of similar traditions from other Osage,
who used the same chant which Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse had sung. None of the younger
Osage men knew about these matters and the author was urged not to speak
to them on this subject. He observed that several of the elder men,
members of the secret order in which these traditions are preserved, had
parts of the accompanying symbolic chart (Fig. 389) tattooed on their
throats and chests. This chart is a fac simile of one that was drawn for
the author by Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse. At the top we see a tree near a river. The
tree is a cedar, called the tree of life. It has six roots, three on each
side. Nothing is said about this tree till the speaker nearly reaches the
end of the tradition. Then follows the "ceremony of the cedar." The tree
is described very minutely. Then follows a similar account of the river
and its branches.

          [Illustration: FIG. 389. Symbolic chart of the Osage.]

                  FIG. 389. Symbolic chart of the Osage.


Just under the river, at the left, we see a large star, the Red or Morning
Star. Next are six stars, Ta¢a*d*¢in. The Omaha know a similar group,
which they call "Minxa si ʇañga," or "Large foot of a goose." Next is the
Evening Star; and last comes the small star, "Mikak’ĕ-ɔiñʞa." Beneath
these four we see the seven stars, or Pleiades (Mikak’ĕ u*d*átse
pé¢ŭn*d*a, the Seven Gentes of Stars), between the Moon (on the left) and
the Sun (on the right). Beneath these are the peace pipe (on the left) and
the hatchet (on the right). A bird is seen hovering over the four upper
worlds. These worlds are represented by four parallel horizontal lines,
each of which, except the lowest one, is supported by two pillars. The
lowest world rests on a red oak tree.

The journey of the people began at a point below the lowest upper world,
on the left side of the chart. Then the people had neither human bodies
nor souls, though they existed in some unknown manner. They ascended from
the lowest upper world, on the left, to the highest. There they obtained
human souls in the bodies of birds, according to Sa*d*eki¢e.
ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa said that there they met a male red bird, to whom they
appealed for aid. (See p. 383, line 18.) This was distinct from the female
Red Bird, who gave them human bodies. They descended to the first world,
and from that they traveled until they alighted on the red oak tree. (See
p. 383, line 30.) The ground was covered with grass and other kinds of
vegetation. Then the paths of the people separated: some marched on the
left, being the peace gentes that could not take life; they subsisted on
roots &c.; while those on the right killed animals. By and by the gentes
exchanged commodities.

The small figures on the left, in going from the tree (on the right when
facing the tree), show the heavenly bodies or beings to whom the Black
Bear went for help, and those on the right, in going from the tree (on the
left when facing the top of the chart), show similar bodies or beings to
whom the Waɔaɔe or war gentes applied for assistance. These are unknown to
the members of the Tsíɔu gentes. After the female red bird gave bodies to
the Tsíɔu people, the Black Bear found seven skins, which were used for
tents. Subsequently the people discovered four kinds of rocks, which were
the In’qĕ sá*d*e, or black rock; In’qĕ tṵhṵ,(1) or blue (green?) rock;
In’qĕ ɔüʇse, or red rock; and In’qĕ skă, or white rock. Therefore, when a
child is named, four stones are heated for the sweat bath. After finding
the rocks, according to ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa, four buffalo bulls approached
the people, as one of the men was returning to the company. When the first
bull arose after rolling on the ground, an ear of red corn and a red
pumpkin fell from his left hind leg. The leader of the Tsíɔu wactáʞe
noticed them, and asked his younger brother to pick them up and taste
them. The leader of the Bald Eagle subgens did so. Then the elder brother
said: "These will be good for the children to eat. Their limbs will
stretch and increase in strength." When the second bull arose after
rolling, an ear of spotted corn and a spotted pumpkin dropped from his
left hind leg. These, too, were tasted and declared good for the children.
When the third bull arose after rolling, an ear of dark corn and a dark
(black?) pumpkin dropped from his left hind leg. From the left hind leg of
the fourth buffalo dropped an ear of white corn and a white pumpkin.
Therefore, when a child is named in the Tsíɔu gens (alone?) the head man
of that gens (ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa himself, according to his statement) takes
a grain of each kind of corn and a slice of each variety of pumpkin, which
he puts into the mouth of the infant. Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse knew that the four
kinds of rocks were found, "but he could not say in what part of the
tradition the account belonged. He said that subsequently the Waɔaɔe and
Tsíɔu gentes came to the village of the Hañ’ʞa-utá¢anʇse, a very war-like
people, who then inhabited earth lodges. They subsisted on animals, and
bodies of all kinds lay around their village, making the air very
offensive. The Tsíɔu succeeded at last in making peace with the
Hañ’ʞa-utá¢anʇse. After this followed the part of the account given to the
author by ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa:

"After the council between the Tsíɔu, Waɔaɔe, and Hañ’ʞa-utá¢anʇse, two
old men were sent off to seek a country in which all might dwell. One of
these was a Tsíɔu wactáʞe and the other a Panɥka-wactáʞe. Each man
received a pipe from the council and was told to go for seven days without
food or drink. He carried a staff to aid him in walking. Three times a day
he wept, in the morning, at noon, and near sunset. They returned to the
people at the end of the seven days, being very thin. The report of the
Tsíɔu man was accepted, so the Tsíɔu gens is superior to the
Panɥka-wactáʞe or Watsetsi. A Waɔaɔe man acted as crier and told all about
the new home of the nation. All the old men decorated their faces with
clay. The next morning the two old men who had gone in search of the new
home led their respective sides of the nation, who marched in parallel
roads. When they reached the land the policemen ran around in a circle,
just as they do previous to starting to war. The Waɔaɔe man ran around
from right to left and the ¢uqe man from left to right. At different
stations the two old leaders addressed the people. Finally the men took
sharp pointed sticks, which they stuck into the ground, each one saying ’I
wish my lodge to be here.’ The next day the Cuka or messenger of the Tsíɔu
old man went to summon the Elk crier. The latter was ordered to make a
proclamation to all the people, as follows: ’They say that you must remove
to-day! Wakanʇa has made good weather! They say that you must remove today
to a good land!’ In those days the Osage used dogs instead of horses. When
the old Tsíɔu man made his speech, he went into details about every part
of a lodge, the fireplace, building materials, implements, &c. Four sticks
were placed in the fireplace, the first pointing to the west. When this
was laid down, the Tsíɔu leader spoke about the West Wind, and also about
a young buffalo bull (Tseʇu’-ɔiñʞa), repeating the name Wani’e-skă. When
the stick at the north was laid down, he spoke of Tsehe quʇse (gray
buffalo horns) or a buffalo bull. When the stick at the east was laid down
he spoke of Tseʇuʞa tañʞa (a large buffalo bull). On laying down the
fourth stick at the south, he spoke of Tse minʞa (a buffalo cow). At the
same time a similar ceremony was performed by the aged Panɥka man on the
right side of the tribe.(2)

"In placing the stick to the east, Taʇse ʞaqpa tsĕ, The East Wind, and
Tahe ca*d*e, Dark-Horned Deer, were mentioned; to the north, Taʇse *P*asan
tsĕ, The North Wind, and The Deer with gray horns were mentioned; to the
west, Taʇse Man’ha tsĕ, The West Wind, and an animal which makes a lodge
and is with the Tahe pasiʞe were mentioned; to the south, T]aʇse Ak’a tsĕ,
The South Wind, and Ta wañka he aʞ¢aɔĭ skutañʞa were mentioned."(3)

ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa gave no further information, as a reported case of
smallpox near the agency led the author to start for the East February 21,
1883. Since then he has learned of the existence of similar societies
among the Kansa and the Ponka, and he suspects that there were formerly
such societies among the Omaha.(4)



TRADITIONS OF THE ELDERS.


In presenting the accompanying traditions, the following abbreviations are
used in the interlinear translations:

an., _animate_.
cv., _curvilinear_.
du., _dual_.
in., _inanimate_.
mv., _moving_.
ob., _object_.
pl., _plural_.
recl., _reclining_.
sing., _singular_.
st., _sitting_.
std., _standing_.
sub., _subject_.



UNŬn’U¢ÁʞE. TSÍOU WACTÁʞE ITÁ*P*E.


(Tradition of the Tsíɔu wactáʞe gens.)(5)

1 | Ɔiñʞa | weháʞi¢e(6): | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!(7)

| Child | last | he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa, | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, |éʞi añká(8): | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he saw saying
that | he really said | O grandfater!

3 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇse tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | we shall seek ours | he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | you shall attend to it | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Máxe úsakí*d*a(9) | win’qtsi | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | one | to it | came and stood | he really said |
O grandfather!

6 | Ĕʇsíqtsi | níkacíʞa-*d*áɔĭ(10): | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Just there | they were not human beings | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Há | wisŭñ’ʞa! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he was saying
that | he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇsé tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | we shall seeks ours | he really said | O grandfather!

9 | Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢ŭn’*d*a | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | two | to it | came and stood | he really said |
O grandfather!

| Ĕʇsíqtsi | níkacíʞa-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Just there | they were not human beings | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú,
Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he was saying
that | he really said | O grandfather!

12 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇsé tatsé: á*d*intaú, Tsiká!

| Child | body | we shall seek ours | he really said | O grandfather!

| Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢a*d*¢in | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | three | there | came and stood | he really said
| O grandfather!

| Ĕʇsíqtsi | níkacíʞa-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Just there | they were not human beings | he really said | O
grandfather!

15 | Há | wisŭñ’ʞa! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he was saying
that | he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇsé tatsé: | ádintaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | we shall seek ours | he really said | O grandfather!

| Máxe úsakí*d*a | ʇú*d*a |  ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!(11)

| Parallel upper worlds | four | there | came and stood | he really said |
O grandfather!

18 | Ĕʇsíqtsi | níkacíʞa é(12): | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Just there | they were human  beings | he really said | O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | ɔiñ’ʞa | cuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e ¢añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | child | body | they were without | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇse | anman’¢in tá*d*etse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | we seek ours | we shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

21 | Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢á*d*¢ni | ĕ’ʇsi tsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | three | there came this way and stood | he
really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa-*d*áɔĭ | é | e¢á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | had no bodies | that | indeed, he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he was saying
that | he really said | O grandfather!

24 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añʞúʞiʇse | anman’¢in tá*d*etse: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body | we seek ours | we shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢ŭn’*d*a | ĕ’ʇsi tsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | two | there came this way and stood | he really
said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | kíi¢a-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | they did not find for | he really said | O grandfather!

27 | Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞe, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother | child | body | they have none | he was saying
that | he really said | O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | examination | we shall make | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Máxe usakí*d*a | win’qtsi | ĕ’ʇsi tsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Parallel upper worlds | one | there came this way and stood | he really
said | O grandfather!

30 | Pü’sühü | win | átsi ánaɔin añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Red oak | one | they came to and stood on | he really said | O
grandfather!

31 | Hŭn’*d*a | ¢áʞ¢inqtsi  | ĕ’ʇsi | tsi’ naɔin’: |  á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Day | very good  |  there |   came and stood   | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san(13) | ¢é-na: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Crow bone white | he who was mv. in the past | he really said | O
grandfather!

33 | ¢útsi naɔin’ | é | e¢á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Came directly to him and stood | he said | indeed, he really said | O
grandfather!

| Há, | wiɔin¢é:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | elder brother! | he really said | O grandfather!

| Cáʞe | ʇsüʇsean’ ¢akcí¢ĕ | manhnin’  tatsé(14): | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Paws | you burn them for me | you shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

36 | Há,  | Káxe-wáhü-san! | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | crow bone white! | he was saying that | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Wátse-ʇúka-na(15) | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’ añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Male animal who touched a foe in the past | there | he arrived and was
standing | he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | éʞi añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he was saying that | he really said | O grandfather!

39 | Ɔiñ’ʞa |  ɔuíʞa |  wa¢iñ’ʞe añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | they have none |  he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa |  ɔuíʞa |  miñkcé | ¢an’tse(16): |  á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | I who sit(?) | apt |   he really said | O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá| ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ(17), | éʞi añʞá: |  á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only | I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said | O grandfather!

42 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it |  he really said | O
grandfather!

| Wátse-min’ʞa-na | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’ añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Female animal who had touched a foe in the past | there | he arrived and
was std. | he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | íɥʞué! | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandmother! | he was saying that | he really said | O grandfather!

45 | Ɔiñ’ʞa |  ɔuíʞa |  wa¢iñ’ʞe añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | they have none |  he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa |  ɔuíʞa |  miñkcé | ¢an’tse: |  á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | I who sit | apt |   he really said | O grandfather!

47 | Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-mácĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaŭ, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | she was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Han’*d*a-ʇan | wákanʇá | ¢iñkcĕ’ʇsi |  hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| During the day | mysterious one | to the ob. | he arrived and stood | he
really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he was saying that | he really said | O grandfather!

51 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfather! | he was saying that | he
really said |O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |I who sit | apt | he really said |O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really said
|O grandfather!

54 | Cŭnŭnckítá | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | han’ | ¢iñkcí | ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | night | the st. ob. | there | he arrived and stood | he
really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

57 | Ɔiñʞa | cuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | eʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfather! | he was saying that | he
really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |I who sit | apt | he really said |O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

60 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Mikák’ĕ | pé¢ún*d*a(18) | ¢iñkcí | ĕ’ʇsi |  tsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Star | seven | the cv. ob. | to it | he came and stood | he really said
| O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

63 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfathers! | she was saying that | he
really said |O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |I who sit | apt | he really said |O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

66 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

67 | Tá | ¢a*d*¢in | ¢iñkcĕ’ʇsi | tsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Deer | three | to the st. an. object | he came and stood | he really
said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

69 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfather | he was saying that | he
really said |O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |I who | apt | he really said |O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

72 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Mikák’ĕ | tañ’ʞa | han’*d*a-ʇan’ | ¢iñkci’ | ĕ’ʇsi |  tsi’ naɔin’: |
á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Star | large | during the day | the st. ob. | there | he came and stood
| he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

75 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká | e: |
á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfather | he was saying that | that|
he really said |O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | I who | apt | he really said |O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

78 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Mikák’ĕ | ɔiñ’ʞa | ¢iñkci’ | ĕ’ʇsi | tsí naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Star | small | the st. an. ob. | there | he came and stood | he really
said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

81 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | wítsiʞué | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | grandfather | he was saying that | he
really said |O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | miñkcé | ¢an’tse: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body | I who | apt | he really said | O grandfather!

| Wákanʇá | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying that | he really
said |O grandfather!

84 | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Waɔiñ’ʞa | ɔü’ʇse | ¢e-ná | tsíhe | uʞíʞ¢in qtsi ¢iñkcé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Bird | red | the one mv. in the past | nest | she was sitting in her own
| he really said | O grandfather!

| Ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’ añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| There | he arrived and was standing | he really said | O grandfather!

87 | Há, | iɥʞú! | é añká:  | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandmother! | he was saying | he really said | O grandfather!

88 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | éʞi añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!(19)

| Child | body | they have none | he was saying that | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa wíʞi¢e | ¢an’tsé, | é ¢iñkcé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | I cause you to have my body | apt | she was saying as she sat |
he really said | O grandfather!

90 | Ahü-sáʞi | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | áhü-sáʞi | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Wing hard | that one | child | wing hard | shall walk | he really said |
O grandfather!

| Áhü-sáʞi | amá ¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | áhü-sáki | tatsé: á*d*intaú, Tsiká!

| Wing hard | the other one | child | wing hard | shall (be) | he really
said | O grandfather!

| Taqpü’ | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | taqpü’ | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Crown of the head | that cv. ob. | child | crown of the head | shall
walk | he really said | O grandfather!

93 | Í¢etsĕ | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | í¢etsĕ | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mouth | that cv. ob. | child | mouth | shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Pé | ¢é¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | pé | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Forehead | this cv. ob. | child | forehead | shall walk | he really said
| O grandfather!

| Táhütse | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | táhütse | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Neck | that cv. ob. | child | neck | shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

96 | Wé¢ahnin | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | wé¢ahnin | man¢in’ tatsé: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Gullet | that cv. ob. | child | gullet | shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Mañ’ʞe | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | mañ’ʞe | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Chest | that cv. ob. | child | chest | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

| ¢ü’we-uq¢úk’a | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | ¢ü’we-uq¢úk’a | tatsé: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Bowels | that cv. ob. | child | bowels | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

99 | Ɔéʞutañ’ʞa | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔéʞutañ’ʞa | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Thighs | that cv. ob. | child | thighs | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Cí¢anʇse | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | cí¢anʇse  | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Knee | that cv. ob. | child | knee | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Náqpü | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | náqpü | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Calf of leg | that cv. ob. | child | calf of leg | shall (be) | he
really said | O grandfather!

102| Sí¢eʇse | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | sí¢eʇse | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Heel | that cv. ob. | child | heel | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Sipá | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | sipá | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Toe | that cv. ob. | child | toe | shall (be) | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Sípu-itáxe | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | sípu-itáxe | tatsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Tip of toe | that cv. ob. | child | tip of toe toe | shall (be) | he
really said | O grandfather!

105 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | its’é | ¢iñʞĕ’qtsi | manhnin’ tá*d*etsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | cause of death | without any at all | ye shall walk | he really
said | O grandfather!

106 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ¢aníkacíʞa |manhnin’ tá*d*etsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Children | you are human beings |you shall walk | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | únian | ʞá¢iñkcé | ɔiñ’ʞa | únian’wíkci¢ĕ: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | speech (?) | that |  child | I cause you to speak (?) | he
really said | O grandfather!

The rest of this tradition was not obtained.

                              _Translation_.

The following translation is arranged in lines to correspond to the lines
in the original text:

1 The first of the race
Was saying, "Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies.
3 "We shall seek bodies for our children.
"Ho, younger brother! you shall attend to it."
They reached one upper world and stood.
6 There they were not human beings.
"Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies," he was saying.
"We must seek bodies for our children."
9 They reached the second upper world and stood.
There they were not human beings.
"Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies," he was saying.
12 "We must seek bodies for our children."
They reached the third upper world and stood.
There they were not human beings.
15 "Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies," he was saying.
"We must seek bodies for our children."
They reached the fourth upper world and stood.
18 There they became human beings.
Still, the children were without (human) bodies.
"We must continue to seek bodies for our children."
21 They returned to the third upper world and stood.
The children were really without bodies.
"Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies," he was saying.
24 "We must continue to seek bodies for our children."
They returned to the second upper world and stood.
The children did not find bodies for themselves.
27 "Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies," he was saying.
"We must make an examination awhile longer."
They returned to the first upper world and stood.
30 They came to a red oak and were standing on it.
On a very fine day they came hither and stood.
Kaxe-wahü-san (the Black Bear), who was then moving,
33 Came directly to them and stood.
"Ho, elder brother!" (said the Black Bear.)
"You shall continue to burn my feet for me."
36 "Ho, Kaxe-wahü-san!" was he (the Tsiɔu) saying.
Kaxe-wahü-san went to the star Watse-ʇuʞa.
"Ho, grandfather!" he was saying.
39 "The children have no bodies."
Watse-ʇuʞa replied, "Can I give the children bodies?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
42 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then Kaxe-wahü-san went to the star Watse-minʞa.
44 "Ho, grandmother!" he said;
"The children have no bodies."
She replied, "Can I give bodies to the children?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
48 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the mysterious one of day.
"Ho, grandfather!" said he;
51 "The children have no bodies."
Said he, "Can I give the children bodies?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
54 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the mysterious one of night.
"Ho, grandfather!" said he;
57 "The children have no bodies, grandfather!"
The Moon replied, "Can I give bodies to the children?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
60 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the Pleiades, saying,
"Ho, grandfathers!
63 "The children have no bodies."
One of these replied, "Can I give bodies to the children?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
66 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the constellation called Three Deer.
"Ho, grandfather," said he;
69 "The children have no bodies."
The latter replied, "Can I give the children bodies?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
72 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the Morning Star, saying,
"Ho, grandfather!
75 "The children have no bodies."
The star replied, "Can I give bodies to the children?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
78 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
Then he went to the Small Star, saying,
"Ho, grandfather!
81 "The children have no bodies."
The star replied, "Can I give bodies to the children?
"I am not the only mysterious one;
84 "You shall attend to it awhile longer."
The female Red Bird, who had been moving, was sitting on her nest.
To her he came, saying,
87 "Ho, grandmother!
"The children have no bodies."
She replied, "I can cause your children to have (human) bodies from my
own,
90 "My left wing shall be a left arm for the children.
"My right wing shall be a right arm for them.
"My head shall be a head for them.
93 "My mouth shall be a mouth for them.
"My forehead shall be a forehead for them.
"My neck shall be a neck for them.
96 "My throat shall be a throat for them.
"My chest shall be a chest for them.
98 "My bowels shall be bowels for them.
"My thighs shall be thighs for them.
"My knees shall be knees for them.
"The calves of my legs shall be calves of their legs.
102 "My heels shall be their heels.
"My toes shall be their toes.
"My claws shall be their toenails.
105 "You shall continue to exist without any cause of destruction for your
race.
"Your children shall live as human beings.
"The speech (or breath) of children will I bestow on your children."



UNŬn’ U¢ÁʞE.  QÜ¢ÁPASAn ITÁ*P*E.


(Tradition of the Bald Eagle subgens.)(20)

1 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | níɥk’ăcíʞa | tá*d*eʇan | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tatsé, | wísŭñʞá:

| Child | human beings | in order that (pl.) | attention | we shall make |
younger brother

| á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| he really said | O grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san | tsi’ nacin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Káxe-wáhü-san | came and stood | he really said | 0 grandfather!

3 | Káxe-wáhü-san’ | han’*d*ʇan | wakan’ʇa | ¢iñkcéʇsi | hi’naɔin’: |
á*d*intaú,

| Káxe-wáhü-san | during the day | mysterious one | to the st. an, ob. |
came and stood | he really said

| Tsiká!

| O grandfather!

4 | Há, | wítsiʞué! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñʞa*d*e, | éʞi añka: |
á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! |child | body |they have none | he was saying that |
he really said |O grandfather!

| Wakan’ʇa | uɔañ’ʞe | ts’é | watséqi | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | road | to die | difficult | I am | indeed | he really
said | O grandfather!

6 | Wakan’ʇa | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔi, | éʞiʞíe añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| O mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying to him what
precedes | he really said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢acé tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san’, | cŭnta, | wisŭñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etsé:
|á*d*intaú,

| Káxe-wáhü-san’ | awhile longer | my younger brother | attention | we
must make | he really said

| Tsiká!

| O grandfather!

9 | Watsé-ʇúʞa | ¢iñcí ĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Male animal that touched a foe | the std. to it an. ob. | arrived and
stood | he really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | ɔiñʞa | ɔuíʞa |  wa¢iñʞa*d*e, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! | child | body | they have none | he was saying that |
he really said | O grandfather!

| Wakan’ʇa | uɔañ’ʞe | ts’é | watséqi | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | road | to die | difficult | I am | indeed | he really
said | O grandfather!

12 | Wakan’ʇa | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞiʞíe añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying to him what
precedes | he really said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢acé tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san’, | cŭnta, | wisuñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etsé:
|á*d*intaú,

| Káxe-wáhü-san’ | awhile longer | my younger brother | attention | we
must make | he really said

| Tsiká!

| O grandfather!

15 | Wá*d*aha | ¢iñkcĕ’ʇsi|  hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Bier | to the st. an. ob. | arrived and stood | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñʞa*d*e, | éʞi añka: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! |child | body |they have none | he was saying that |
he really said |O grandfather!

| Wakan’ʇa | uɔañ’ʞe | ts’é | watséqi | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | road | to die | difficult | I am | indeed | he really
said | O grandfather!

18 | Wakan’ʇa | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞiʞíe añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying to him what
precedes | he really said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢acé tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

20 | Káxe-wáhü-san’, | cŭnta, | wisuñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etsé:
|á*d*intaú,

| Káxe-wáhü-san’ | awhile longer | my younger brother | attention | we
must make | he really said

| Tsiká!

| O grandfather!

| ʇaɥ’pa | ¢iñcĕ’ʇsi | hi’ nacin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Circle | to the st. an. ob. | arrived and stood | he really said |O
grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | éʞi añka: |
á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! |child | body |they have none | he was saying that |
he really said |O grandfather!

| Wakan’ʇa | uɔañ’ʞe | ts’é | watséqi | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | road | to die | difficult | I am | indeed | he really
said | O grandfather!

24 | Wakan’ʇa | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞiʞíe añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying to him what
precedes | he really said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san’, | cŭnta, | wisuñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etsé:

| Káxe-wáhü-san’ | awhile longer | my younger brother | attention | we
must make

| á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| he really said | O grandfather!

27 | Mikák’ĕ | han’*d*a-ʇan | ¢iñkcí | é’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Star | by day | the st. an. ob. | at it | arrived and stood | he really
said |O grandfather!

| Há, | wítsiʞué! | ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñʞa*d*e, | éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Ho | grandfather! |child | body |they have none | he was saying that |
he really said |O grandfather!

| Wakan’ʇa | uɔañ’ʞe | ts’é | watséqi | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Mysterious one | road | to die | difficult | I am | indeed | he really
said | O grandfather!

30 | Wakan’ʇa | ʞána | *d*¢in-máɔĭ, | éʞiʞíe añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| O mysterious one | that only |I am I-not | he was saying to him what
precedes | he really said |O grandfather!

| Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e¢a¢é tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Awhile longer | you shall attend to it | he really said | O grandfather!

| Káxe-wáhü-san’, | cŭnta, | wisŭñ’ʞa, | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tá*d*etsé:
|á*d*intaú,

| Káxe-wáhü-san’ | awhile longer | my younger brother | attention | we
must make | he really said

| Tsiká!

| O grandfather!

33 | Waɔiñʞa | cü’ʇse | ¢iñkcĕ’ʇsi | hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Bird | red| | to the st. an. ob. | arrived and stood | he really said |O
grandfather!

| Há, | iɥʞú! | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | grandmother! | he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñʞa*d*e, | éʞi añka: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | body |they have none | he was saying that | he really said |O
grandfather!

(Here some lines are wanting. See the other version for the appeal to the
Red Bird and her reply. )

36 | Han’*d*a | maɔan’ | u¢áʞ¢in | ¢iñkcĕ’ʇsi |  hi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Day | land | good | at the st. an. ob. | arrived and stood | he really
said | O grandfather!

| Máxe | úʞawin’xe | ʇú*d*a } ¢iñkcé ĕ’ʇsi | anníɥk‘ăcin’ʞa: | á*d*intaú,
| Tsiká!

| Upper world | gyration | four | the cv. in. ob. | there | we were people
| he really said | O grandfather!

38 | Anníɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | añkíi¢a-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| We were people | body | we did not find for ourselves | he really said |
O grandfather!

| Máxe | úʞawin’xe | wé¢ún*d*a | ĕ’ʇsi | antsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Upper world | gyration | the second | there | they arrived and stood |
he really said | O grandfather!

| Ĕ’ʇsi | anníɥk‘ăcinʞa-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| There | we were not human beings | he really said | O grandfather!

| Máxe | úʞawin’xe | wé¢a*d*¢in | ĕ’ʇsi | antsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Upper world | gyration | the third | there | they arrived and stood | he
really said | O grandfather!

42 | Ĕ’ʇsi | anníɥk‘ăcin’ʞa-*d*áɔĭ: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| There | we were not human beings | he really said | O grandfather!

| Máxe | úʞawin’xe | wéʇu*d*a | ĕ’ʇsi | antsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Upper world | gyration | the fourth | there | they arrived and stood |
he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔansan’ | antsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Sycamore | they came and stood (on) | he really said | O grandfather!

45 | Maɔan’ | utañ’ʞa | ¢iñkcé | ĕ’ʇsi | antsi’ naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Harvest time | the | there | they arrived and stood | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Há, | wísŭñʞaé! | níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | win’ | siʞ¢á*d*e tsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother! | person | one | has left a trail | he really said
| O grandfather!

| Há, | wíɔin¢é! | níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | siʞ¢á*d*e tsé: | éca*d*i’-na, |
níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa

| Ho | elder brother! | person | has left a trail | you have said | person

|¢íakqá | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| this is he | he really said | O grandfather!

48 | Há, | wíɔin¢é!(21) | Hañ’ʞa | ɔiñ’ʞa | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Ho | elder brother! | Hañ’ʞa | young | I am | indeed | he really said |
O grandfather!

| Há, | wísŭñʞaé! | níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | win’ | siʞ¢á*d*e tsé: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Ho | younger brother! | person | one | has left a trail | he really said
| O grandfather!

| Há, | wíɔin¢é! | níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | siʞ¢á*d*e tsé: | éca*d*i’-na, |
níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa

| Ho | elder brother! | person | has left a trail | you have said | person

|¢íakqá | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| this is he | he really said | O grandfather!

51 | Há, | wíɔin¢é! | Waɔáɔe | *d*¢in’ | e¢aú | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | elder brother! | Osage | I am | indeed | he really said | O
grandfather!

| Hañ’ʞa | anníɥk‘ăcin’ʞa tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Hañ’ʞa | we shall be people | he really said O grandfather!

| Níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | ʇ‘u*d*a | siʞ¢á*d*e tsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| People | some | left a trail | he really said | O grandfather!

54 | Hañ’ʞa | utá¢anʇse tsí | iɥtá*d*e, | é | e¢aú: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Hañ’ʞa | apart from the rest | lodge | theirs | that | indeed |  he
really said | O grandfather!

| Há, | níɥk‘ăcin’ʞa | ʇ‘ú*d*a | tsi’ añká | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Ho | persons | some | have come | he really said | O grandfather!

| Tsíɔu | Wátsetsi | iʇá*d*e | tsi’ añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Tsíɔu | Wátsetsi | also | have come | he really said | O grandfather!

57 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | uwáqta | e¢éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | what is good for them | they decided (?) | he really said | O
grandfather!

58 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ʞíwatañ’ʞa | man¢in tatsé, | e¢éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | being chiefs over them | they two shall walk | they decided (?)
| he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | íts’e ¢iñʞé | man¢in tatsé, | e¢éʞi añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | without cause of death | they two shall walk | they decided (?)
| he really said | O grandfather!

60 | Ɔiñ’ʞa | uʞístu | ĕ’ʇsí ¢iñʞcé tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Child | assembly | there it shall be | he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | uníɥk‘ăcn’ʞa | tá*d*e | maɔan’ | u¢áʞiʇse tatsé, | á*d*intaú, |
Tsiká!

| Child | to become men in | in order that | land | you two shall seek you
| he really said | O grandfather!

| Ɔiñ’ʞa | uníɥk‘ăcn’ʞa | tá*d*e-ʇan’ | maɔan’ | ĕʇsi ¢iñkcé | ʞáxe añká:

| Child | to become men in | in order that | land | it is there | they
have made

| á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| he really said | O grandfather!

63 | Ɔá*d*e(22) | min’ʞa | ¢é-na | ĕ’ʇsi | kan’ha | hí ʞ¢in añká: |
á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

| Beaver | female animal | the mv. an. obs. in the past | there | border |
reached and was sitting | he really said | O grandfather!

| Tsíhe | ɔiñ’ʞa

| Lodge | small

                              _Translation._

1 "O younger brother! we must see what can be done to make human beings
of the children."
The Black Bear came to them and stood.
3 He went to the mysterious one of day, saying,
"Ho, grandfather! the children have no bodies."
He replied, "I have an everlasting road (in which I must keep);
6 I am not the only mysterious one;
You must still seek for help."
(On reporting to the leader, the latter said,)
"O Kaxe-wahü-san, my younger brother! we must still see what can be
done."
9 So the Black Bear went to the star "Watse-ʇuʞa, saying,
"Ho, grandfather! the children have no bodies."
He replied, "I have an everlasting road (in which I must keep);
12 "I am not the only mysterious one;
"You must still seek for help."
(On reporting to the leader, the latter said),
"O Kaxe-wahü-san, my younger brother! we must still see what can be
done."
15 So the Black Bear went to the Bowl of the Great Dipper, saying,
"O grandfather! the children have no bodies!"
He replied, "I have an everlasting road (in which I must keep);
18 "I am not the only mysterious one;
"You must still seek for help."
(On reporting to the leader, the latter said),
"O Kaxe-wahü-san, my younger brother! we must still see what can be
done."
21 Then he went to the Seven Stars, saying,
"Ho, grandfather! the children have no bodies."
He replied, "I have an everlasting road (in which I must keep);
24 "I am not the only mysterious one;
"You must still seek for help."
(On reporting this to the leader, the latter said),
26 "O Kaxe-wahü-san, my younger brother! we must still see what can be
done."
So he went to the Morning Star, saying,
"Ho, grandfather! the children have no bodies."
He replied, "I have an everlasting road (in which I must keep);
30 "I am not the only mysterious one;
"You must still seek for help."
(On reporting this to the leader, the latter said),
" O Kaxe-wahü-san, my younger brother! we must still see what can be
done."
33 So he went to the Red Bird, who was sitting (on her nest), saying,
"Ho, grandmother!
The children have no bodies."
*       *       *       *       *
36 They went to the good land of day.
In four revolutions or gyrations of the upper worlds, we became human
beings.
Though we were human beings, we did not find bodies.
39 They arrived at the second revolution of the upper worlds.
There we were not (complete) human beings.
They arrived at the third revolution of the upper worlds.
42 There we were not (complete) human beings.
They arrived at the fourth revolution of the upper worlds
They stood on a sycamore tree.
45 They stood there at harvest time.
"Ho, younger brother! a man has left a trail."
"Ho, elder brother!" said the Black Bear; "you have said that a man has
left a trail.
"This is the man."
48 "Ho, elder brother!" (said the stranger) "I am Young Hañʞa."
[Tsiɔu.] "Ho, younger brother! a man has left a trail."
[Black Bear.] "Ho, elder brother! you have said that a man has left a
trail.
"This is the man."
51 "Ho, elder brother!" (said the stranger) "I am Osage.
"We shall be Hañʞa people."
Some people left a trail.
54 Those were the lodges of the Hañʞa uta¢anʇse.
(The Hañʞa uta¢anʇse leader said)
"Ho! some persons have come.
"Tsiɔu and Watsetsi have come."
57 They thought of what was good for the children.
They decided that the two should continue as chiefs for the children.
They decided that the two should continue without anything that would be
fatal to the children. (And they said)
60 "There shall be an assembly of the children.
"You two shall seek a land in which the children may become men."
They two arranged for the location of a land in order that the children
might become men in it.
63 The Female Beaver, who had been traveling, came to the confines of the
village (of the Hañʞa uta¢anʇse?)
(She made?) a small lodge (for herself?).

Good Voice, of the Mink’in gens, knew the history of the Female Beaver,
but he failed to keep his promise to dictate it to the author.



CONCLUDING REMARKS.


An Osage said to the author: "We do not believe that our ancestors were
really animals, birds, &c., as told in the traditions. These things are
only wa-wi’-ku-ska’-ye [symbols] of something higher." On saying this he
pointed to the sky.

Apart from such traditions or myths, it is found that even the taboos and
the names of the gentes, subgentes, phratries, and persons are objects of
mysterious reverence among many, if not all, of the Siouan tribes. Such
names are never used in ordinary conversation. This is especially the case
in tribes where the secret society continues in all its power, as among
the Osage, the Ponka, and the Kansa. When the author was questioning these
Indians he was obliged to proceed very cautiously in order to obtain
information of this character, which was not communicated till they
learned about his acquaintance with some of the myths. When several Dakota
delegations visited Washington he called on them and had little trouble in
learning the names of their gentes, their order in the camping circle,
&c., provided the interpreters were absent. During his visit to the Omaha,
from 1878 to 1880, he did not find them very reticent in furnishing him
with such information, though he was generally referred to the principal
chief of each gens as the best authority for the names in his own
division. But he found it very difficult to induce any of them to admit
that the gentes had subdivisions, which were probably the original gentes.
It was not till 1880, and after questioning many, that by the merest
accident he obtained the clew from the keeper of a sacred pipe.

The Iowa, who have these social divisions and personal names of mythic
significance, also have sacred songs, but these are in the Winnebago
language. It is probable that they are the property of a secret order, as
they, too, show how some of the gentes descended as birds from the upper
world. The names of the Winnebago gentes and of some members of the tribe
have been recorded by the author, who has also learned parts of their
traditions. He infers that their secret society has not been abolished.

When a man of the Kansa tribe observed that the author had an inkling of
the matter he related part of the tradition of that tribe, explaining the
origin of the names and the taboos of several Kansa gentes. The ancestors
of these gentes were spoken of as birds which descended from an upper
world. The phratries in that tribe, the "Wa-yŭn min-’dŭn," or "(Those who)
sing together," refer to mystic songs and strengthen the view that the
secret society exists among these Indians. Several members of the tribe
have positively stated its existence.

As one phratry is composed of the two gentes, Large and Small Hañka, that
have the sole right to sing the war songs, time may show that these songs,
which, with their chart of pictographs(23), are used by the Osage, are
substantially those of the seventh degree in the Osage society. This is
rendered the more probable by the fact that the Kansa have grouped their
gentes in seven phratries, just the number of the degrees in the society.
And this arrangement by sevens is the rule among Osage, Kansa, Ponka,
Omaha, and Dakota, though there are apparent exceptions.

Further investigation may tend to confirm the supposition that in any
tribe which has mythic names for its members and its social divisions (as
among the Osage, Kansa, Quapaw, Omaha, Ponka, Iowa, Oto, Missouri, Tutelo,
and Winnebago), or in one which has mythic names only for its members and
local or other names for its social divisions (as among the Dakota,
Assiniboin, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Crow), there are now or there have been
secret societies or "The Mysteries."



FOOTNOTES


    1 The sound of this inverted ṵ, between o and u, as well as the sounds
      of other letters used in this article, except that of the inverted ɥ
      (which is a sound approximating ch in the German word ich), is to be
      found on page 206, Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology.

    2 It is probable, however, that the Panɥka (Ponka) man began with the
      stick at the east, as he must use the right hand and foot first.

    3 Meaning uncertain; it may refer to the female or doe.

    4 See "Omaha Sociology," §§ 14-16, 19, 28, 33, 34, 36, 56, 143,
      248-258, and passim, in Third Annual Report of the Director of the
      Bureau of Ethnology.

    5 The literal rendering of the title is "Growth told. Tsíɔu Peacemaker
      theirs." This may be translated freely by "Revelations of the elders
      of the Red Eagle gens."

    6 Ɔiñ’ʞa weháʞi¢e, "The first end of the children" or "The beginning
      of the race." This reckoning was backward. The Ponka have a similar
      usage: uhañge, _an end_; uhañge pahañga tĕ, _the first end_ or
      _beginning_. Ádintaú, formed by crasis from a*d*e and intau, may
      refer to the words of the old men who have handed down these
      traditions. Tsiká is unintelligible to the younger Osage of the
      present day. One man told the author that he thought it meant, "O
      grandfather," being addressed to the principal Wakanʇa. He said that
      it was substituted for another name of that being.

    7 The chorus or refrain at the end of each line is omitted in the free
      translation, as it would make confusion. If retained, the first four
      lines would read thus:

      The first of the race: he really said, O grandfather!

      He was saying, "Ho, younger brother! the children have no bodies":
      he really said, O grandfather!

      "We shall seek bodies for our children": he really said, O
      grandfather!

      "Ho, younger brother! you shall attend to it": he really said, O
      grandfather!

    8 Éʞi añká refers to the preceding words, which were those of one of
      the mythic speakers. He was an ancestor of the Tsíɔu gens. Here he
      addressed his younger brother. At this time the brothers were
      destitute of human souls and bodies, though they possessed conscious
      existence and could talk, as well as move about from place to place.

    9 See the lowest horizontal line on the left side of the chart.

   10 Nikacíʞa-dáɔĭ. Another reading is níkacíʞaqtsi-dáɔĭ: _they were not
      complete human beings_.

   11 A different reading of lines 17 to 25 is as follows:

      Máxe úsakí*d*a | ʇú*d*a | níkacíʞa¢á*d*e: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      Parallel upper worlds | four | they were made human beings | he
      really said | O grandfather!

      Cŭn’ŭnckíta | é | e¢á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      Awhile | he said | indeed, he really said | O grandfather!

      Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa | wa¢iñ’ʞa*d*e, | é añká: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      Child | body | they have none | he was saying | he really said | O
      grandfather!

      Há, | wisŭñ’ʞa! | é | e¢á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      Ho | younger brother! | he said | indeed, he really said | O
      grandfather!

      Úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tatsé: á*d*intaú, Tsiká!

      Attention | we shall make | he really said | O grandfather!

      Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢a*d*¢in | ĕ’ʇsi | antsí naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
      Tsiká!

      Parallel upper worlds | three | there | they (?) came and stood | he
      really said | O grandfather!

      | Ɔiñ’ʞa | ɔuíʞa-*d*ácĭ | é | e¢á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      | Child | had no bodies | he said | indeed, he really said | O
      grandfather!

      | Cŭn’ŭnckíta | úʇan*d*e | añʞáxe tatsé: | á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      | Awhile longer | attention | we shall make | he really said | O
      grandfather!

      | Máxe úsakí*d*a | ¢ŭn’*d*a | ĕ’ʇsi | antsí naɔin’: | á*d*intaú, |
      Tsiká!

      | Parallel upper worlds | two | there | they (?) came this way and
      stood | he really said | O grandfather!

                                 _Translation._

      At the fourth upper world they were made human beings.

      "Still," said he (the elder brother?), indeed he really said,

      "The children have no bodies.

      "Ho, younger brother!

      "We must give this matter our attention."

      They came to the third upper world.

      "The children have no bodies."

      "Still must we give this our attention," said one.

      They came to the second upper world. (From this line on there is no
      variation from what has been given above.)

   12 Here they obtained human souls, though they were in the bodies of
      birds. See the bird hovering above the four upper worlds in the
      chart. Then began the descent to this earth.

   13 Why the Black Bear was called Káxe-wáhü-san was not explained to the
      author.

   14 Cáʞe | ʇsüʇsean’ ¢akcí¢ĕ &c. _You shall take me for your servant_;
      literally, _You shall walk, causing me to burn my feet_; that is,
      _You shall make me go through fire and water for you_.

   15 Wátse-ʇúʞa-na.  ʇuʞa shows that the star was regarded as a male
      _animal_, just as min’ʞa, in line 43, denotes that the next star was
      a female _animal_, not a female of the human race. As they were
      called "grandfather" and "grandmother," they were looked upon as
      supernatural beings or gods. So were all of the heavenly bodies to
      whom the Black Bear applied.

   16 Ɔiñ’ʞa ɔuíʞa miñkcé ¢an’tse, a phrase that puzzles the writer, who
      suspects that an auxiliary verb has been omitted and that the whole
      should read: "Ɔiñʞa ɔuiʞa-wikci¢e miñkcé ¢an’tse? ( _Can I give you
      bodies for the children_?) No! You must still make attempts to
      obtain them elsewhere."

   17 Wákanʇá ʞána *d*¢in-máɔĭ, _I am not the only mysterious one_ (apply
      to some one of the rest).

   18 Mikák’ĕ pé¢ŭ*d*a, sometimes called "Mikák’ĕ u*d*átse pé¢ŭn*d*a," the
      Seven Gentes of Stars. Could this have any connection with the use
      of the number 7 as the number of the Tsiɔu, Waɔaɔe, and Hañʞa
      gentes?

   19 ʞahiʞe-waʇayiñʞa, of this gens, gave the following as another
      reading:

      Ɔiñ’ʞa | níkacíʞa | ¢iñʞé-eʇan’, | cu*d*¢é | e¢aú, | wítsiʞué! |
      á*d*intaú, | Tsiká!

      Child | human beings | none as | I go to you | indeed | O
      grandfather! | he really said | O grandfather!

                                 _Translation_.

      As the children are not human beings, I go to you, O grandfather!

   20 This fragment of the tradition of the Bald Eagle subgens of the
      Tsiɔu wactaʞe gens was told by Pahü-skă, the chief, to Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse,
      who related it to the writer on the following day.

      Ha*d*a-ɔüʇse, told some of the tradition first in English, but on
      chanting it in Osage he did not give all; so the former account is
      now given in these notes: "When the ancestors of the Bald Eagle
      people came to this earth they alighted on a sycamore tree, as all
      of the surrounding country was under water. This water was dried up
      by the ancestors of the Elk people, according to the tradition of
      the Ṵpqan or Elk gens; but this is disputed by the members of the
      I*d*ats’ĕ gens, who are Kansa or Wind people. They say that their
      ancestors blew on the water, drying it up and causing the growth of
      vegetation. As soon as the water was gone the Bald Eagle people
      alighted on the ground. Then they met the Black Bear, who offered to
      become the servant of the Tsiɔu wactaʞe people. So he was sent to
      "Watse-ʇuʞa, who was a red star; then to Watse-minʞa, a star near
      the Morning Star; then to the Sun, Moon, and Seven Stars. As the
      people journeyed, the Black Bear said to the Tsiɔu leader, ’Brother,
      I see a man’s trail. Here is the man.’ The stranger said, ’I am a
      young Hañʞa. I am fit for work.’ So they took him with them. Then
      they saw another trail, of which the Black Bear spoke to the Tsíɔu
      leader. They overtook the man, who was Hañʞaqtsi or Real Hañʞa. By
      and by they reached the village of the Hañʞa uta¢anʇse. They entered
      the village and made peace with the inhabitants. Then the leader of
      the Hañʞa uta¢anʇse said, ’We have some people come to us, and we
      will make them our chiefs.’ So the two wactaʞe were made chiefs. The
      wactaʞe were then sent to search for a land where they might dwell,
      as the village of the Hañʞa uta¢anʇse was filthy and offensive on
      account of the dead bodies in and around it. This council was the
      first one of the whole nation. The two wactaʞe went out as mourners
      for seven days. The Hañʞa wactaʞe (Panɥka = Ponka) came back first,
      saying, ’I have found a place.’ Afterwards the Tsiɔu wactaʞe
      returned and reported. The council was held again to decide to which
      place they would go. They agreed to settle at the place visited by
      the Tsiɔu wactaʞe. Then four standards were made by members of the
      Waɔaɔe (wanŭn gens, two for each side of the tribe. These were the
      standards made of minxa ha (swan or goose skins), and they were
      carried on the hunting road as well as on the war path. But the
      otter skin standards were always retained by the Waɔaɔe gens."

      On comparing this version with that of Sa*d*eki¢e we notice that in
      one or the other a transposition of some parts has been made. In
      this latter tradition the appeals to the heavenly bodies and to the
      Red Bird were made before the journey to the four revolutions of the
      upper worlds.

   21 Here is where the two roads begin.

   22 At this point begins the account of the Female Beaver. She was an
      ancestor of the Osage, according to a statement published in Long’s
      Expedition to the Rocky Mountains.

   23 See the author’s paper in the American Naturalist for 1885, entitled
      "Kansas mourning and war customs," with which was published part of
      the chart mentioned above.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Osage Traditions" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home