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Title: El Estudiante de Salamanca and Other Selections
Author: Espronceda, José de, 1808-1842
Language: Spanish
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[Illustration: D. JOSÉ DE ESPRONCEDA]

  ESPRONCEDA

  EL ESTUDIANTE
  DE SALAMANCA
  AND OTHER SELECTIONS

  EDITED BY
  GEORGE TYLER NORTHUP, PH.D.
  PROFESSOR OF SPANISH LITERATURE
  UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO


PREFACE

The selections from Espronceda included in this volume have been edited
for the benefit of advanced Spanish classes in schools and universities.
The study of Espronceda, Spain's greatest Romantic poet, offers the best
possible approach to the whole subject of Romanticism. He is Spain's
"representative man" in that movement. Furthermore, the wealth of meters
he uses is such that no other poet provides so good a text for an
introduction to the study of Spanish versification. The editor has
therefore treated the biography of Espronceda with some degree of
completeness, studying his career as one fully representative of the
historical and literary movements of the period. A treatment of the main
principles of Spanish versification was also considered indispensable.
It is assumed that the text will be used only in classes where the
students are thoroughly familiar with the rudiments of Spanish grammar.
Therefore only the more difficult points of grammar are dealt with in
the notes, and little help, outside of the vocabulary, is given the
student in the translating of difficult passages.

The editor makes no pretense to having established critical texts of
the poems here printed, although he hopes that some improvement will be
noted over previous editions. A critical edition of Espronceda's works
has never been printed. Espronceda himself gave little attention to
their publication. Hartzenbusch and others intervened as editors in some
of the earliest editions. Their arbitrary changes have been repeated in
all subsequent editions. The text of "El Estudiante de Salamanca" has
been based upon the "Poesías de D. José de Espronceda," Madrid, 1840,
the so-called _editio princeps_. This edition, however, cannot be
regarded as wholly authoritative. It was not prepared for the press by
the poet himself, but by his friend José García de Villalta. Though
far more authentic in its readings than later editions, it abounds in
inaccuracies. I have not followed its capricious punctuation, and have
studied it constantly in connection with other editions, notably the
edition of 1884 ("Obras Poéticas y Escritos en Prosa," Madrid, 1884). To
provide a really critical text some future editor must collate the 1840
text with that version of the poem which appeared in _La Alhambra_, an
obscure Granada review, for the year 1839. "El Mendigo" and "El Canto
del Cosaco" I also base upon the 1840 edition, although the former first
appeared in _La Revista Española_, Sept. 6, 1834. I base the "Canción
del Pirata" upon the original version published in _El Artista_, Vol. I,
1835, p. 43. I take the "Soneto" from "El Liceo Artístico y Literario
Español," 1838. For "A Teresa, Descansa en Paz," I follow the Madrid
edition of 1884. The text of this, as for the whole of "El Diablo
Mundo," is more reliable than that of the earlier poems.

I desire to thank Professors Rudolph Schevill, Karl Pietsch, and Milton
A. Buchanan for helpful suggestions, and the latter more particularly
for the loan of rare books. The vocabulary is almost entirely the
work of my wife Emily Cox Northup, whose collaboration is by no means
restricted to this portion of the book. More than to any other one
person I am indebted to Mr. Steven T. Byington of the staff of Ginn
and Company, by whose acute and scholarly observations I have often
profited.

CONTENTS

  INTRODUCTION
    THE LIFE OF ESPRONCEDA
    THE WORKS OF ESPRONCEDA
    "THE STUDENT OF SALAMANCA"
    BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
    NOTES ON ESPRONCEDA'S VERSIFICATION

  EL ESTUDIANTE DE SALAMANCA
  CANCIÓN DEL PIRATA
  EL CANTO DEL COSACO
  EL MENDIGO
  SONETO
  A TERESA

  NOTES
  VOCABULARY



INTRODUCTION


THE LIFE OF ESPRONCEDA

Don José de Espronceda y Lara, Spain's foremost lyric poet of the
nineteenth century, was born on the 25th of March, 1808, the year of his
country's heroic revolt against the tyranny of Napoleon. His parents
were Lieutenant-Colonel Don Juan de Espronceda y Pimentel and Doña María
del Carmen Delgado y Lara. Both were Andalusians of noble stock, and, as
we learn from official documents, were held to be Christians of clean
blood "without taint of Jews, heretics, Moors, or persons punished by
the Holy Inquisition, and who neither were nor had been engaged in mean
or low occupations, but in highly honorable ones." This couple of such
highly satisfactory antecedents had been married four years previously.
In 1804 Don Juan, a mature widower of fifty-three, was still mourning
his first wife when he obtained the hand of Doña María, a young widow
whose first husband, a lieutenant in the same regiment, was recently
deceased. The marriage was satisfactory in a worldly way, for Doña María
brought as a dower four hundred thousand reales to be added to the two
hundred thousand which Don Juan already possessed. By his first marriage
Don Juan had had a son, Don José de Espronceda y Ramos, who became
ensign in his father's regiment, then studied in the Artillery School at
Segovia, and later entered the fashionable Guardia de Corps regiment.
He died in 1793 at the early age of twenty-one, soon after joining this
regiment. By the second marriage there were two other children, both of
whom died in infancy: Francisco, born in 1805, and María, born in 1807.
During the early months of 1808 the Bourbon cavalry regiment in which
Don Juan served was stationed in the little hamlet of Villafranca de los
Barros, Estremadura, and there the future poet was born. We do not know
where the mother and son found refuge during the stormy years which
followed. The father was about to begin the most active period of his
career. We learn from his service record that he won the grade of
colonel on the field of Bailén; that a year later he recaptured the
cannon named Libertad at the battle of Consuegra (a feat which won
him the rank of brigadier), and fought gallantly at Talavera as a
brother-in-arms of the future Duke of Wellington. The mere enumeration
of the skirmishes and battles in which he participated would require
much space. In 1811 he distinguished himself at Medina Sidonia and
Chiclana, and sought promotion to the rank of field-marshal, which was
never granted. After the Peninsular War he seems to have been stationed
in Madrid between 1815 and 1818. His family were probably permanently
established in that city, for we know that mother and son resided
there during the time that the brigadier was doing garrison duty in
Guadalajara (1820-1828), and there is no evidence that they followed him
to Coruña during his term of service in that city (1818-1820). Possibly
the old soldier preferred the freedom of barrack life, where his
authority was unquestioned, to the henpecked existence he led at home.
"Ella era él y él era ella," says Patricio de Escosura in speaking of
this couple; for Doña María was something of a shrew. She was a good
business woman who combined energy with executive ability, as she later
proved by managing successfully a livery-stable business. But, however
formidable she may have been to her hostlers, her son José found her
indulgent. He, the only surviving son of a mature couple, rapidly
developed into a _niño consentido_, the Spanish equivalent of a
spoiled child. Parallels are constantly being drawn between Byron and
Espronceda. It is a curious fact that both poets were reared by mothers
who were alternately indulgent and severe.

In 1820 the Espronceda family occupied an apartment in the Calle del
Lobo. It was there and then that Patricio de Escosura firmed his
intimacy with the future poet. He describes graphically his first
meeting with the youth who was to be his lifelong friend. He first saw
José sliding down from a third-story balcony on a tin waterspout. In the
light of later years Escosura felt that in this boyish prank the child
was father of the man. The boy who preferred waterspouts to stairways,
later in life always scorned the beaten path, and "the illogical road,
no matter how venturesome and hazardous it was, attracted him to it by
virtue of that sort of fascinating charm which the abyss exercises over
certain eminently nervous temperaments." The belief that Espronceda
studied at the Artillery School of Segovia in 1821 appears to rest upon
the statement of Solís alone. Escosura, who studied there afterwards,
never speaks of his friend as having attended the same institution.
Solís may have confused the younger José with his deceased, like-named
brother, who, we know, actually was a cadet in Segovia. On the other
hand, Solís speaks with confidence, though without citing the source of
his information, and nothing would have been more natural than for the
boy to follow in his elder brother's footsteps, as he did later when he
joined the Guardia de Corps. However, the matter is of slight moment,
for if he studied in Segovia at all he cannot have remained there for
more than a few weeks.

What little education Espronceda was able to acquire in the course of
his stormy life was gained mostly in the Colegio de San Mateo between
the years 1820 and 1830. This was a private school patronized by sons of
the nobility and wealthy middle class. Two of the masters, José Gómez
Hermosilla and Alberto Lista, were poets of repute. Lista was the best
teacher of his time in Spain. The wide range of his knowledge astonished
his pupils, and he appeared to them equally competent in the classics,
modern languages, mathematics, philosophy and poetics, all of which
subjects he knew so well that he never had to prepare a lecture
beforehand. Plainly Lista was not a specialist of the modern stamp; but
he was something better, a born teacher. In spite of an unprepossessing
appearance, faulty diction, and a ridiculous Andalusian accent, Lista
was able to inspire his students and win their affection. It is no
coincidence that four of the fellow students of the Colegio de San
Mateo, Espronceda, Felipe Pardo, Ventura de la Vega, and Escosura,
afterwards became famous in literature.

Espronceda's school reports have been preserved. We learn that he
studied sacred history, Castilian grammar, Latin, Greek, French,
English, mythology, history, geography, and fencing, which last he was
later to turn to practical account. He showed most proficiency in
French and English, and least in Greek and mathematics. His talent was
recognized as unusual, his industry slight, his conduct bad. Calleja,
the principal, writes in true schoolmaster's fashion: "He is wasting the
very delicate talent which nature gave him, and is wasting, too, the
opportunity of profiting by the information of his distinguished
professors." It cannot be denied that Espronceda's conduct left much to
be desired. According to Escosura he was "bright and mischievous,
the terror of the whole neighborhood, and the perpetual fever of his
mother." He soon gained the nickname _buscarruidos_, and attracted
the notice of police and night watchmen. "In person he was agreeable,
likable, agile, of clear understanding, sanguine temperament inclined
to violence; of a petulant, merry disposition, of courage rash even
bordering upon temerity, and more inclined to bodily exercise than to
sedentary study." The two friends were much influenced by Calderón at
this time. The height of their ambition was to be like the gallants of
a cape-and-sword play, equally ready for a love passage or a fight.
Lista's influence upon his pupils was not restricted to class exercises.
In order to encourage them to write original verse and cultivate a taste
for literature, he founded in April, 1823, the Academy of the Myrtle,
modeled after the numerous literary academies which throve in Italy and
Spain during the Renaissance period and later. Lista himself presided,
assuming the name Anfriso. Was Delio, the name Espronceda assumed in his
"Serenata" of 1828, his academic designation? The models proposed for
the youthful aspirants were the best poets of antiquity and such modern
classicists as Meléndez, Cienfuegos, Jovellanos, and Quintana. Two of
Espronceda's academic exercises have been preserved. They are as insipid
and jejune as Goethe's productions of the Leipzig period. As an imitator
of Horace he was not a success. What he gained from the Academy was the
habit of writing.

The Academy lasted until 1826, when many of its members had been driven
into exile; but its later meetings must have seemed tame to spirited
boys engrossed in the exciting political events of those times. The year
1823 is famous in Spanish history for the crushing out of liberalism.
This was effected by means of the Holy Alliance, an infamous association
of tyrants whose main object was to restore absolutism. Louis XVIII, the
Bourbon king of France, sent a force of one hundred thousand men under
the Duke of Angoulême who met with little resistance, and in short order
nullified all that had been accomplished by the Spanish liberals. Before
the end of the year Ferdinand VII, who had been virtually deposed, was
restored to his throne, and the constitution of 1820 had been abolished.
Espronceda, the son of a hero of the War of Liberation, felt that the
work of the men of 1808 had been undone. They had exchanged a foreign
for a domestic tyrant. What his feelings were we may gather from his
ode in commemoration of the uprising of the Madrid populace against the
troops of Murat, "Al Dos de Mayo":

    ¡Oh de sangre y valor glorioso día!
  Mis padres cuando niño me contaron
  Sus hechos, ¡ay! y en la memoria mía
  Santos recuerdos de virtud quedaron.

But, as he says later in the poem,

    El trono que erigió vuestra bravura,
  Sobre huesos de héroes cimentado,
  Un rey ingrato, de memoria impura,
  Con eterno baldón dejó manchado.
    ¡Ay! para herir la libertad sagrada,
  El Príncipe, borrón de nuestra historia,
  Llamó en su ayuda la francesa espada,
  Que segase el laurel de vuestra gloria.

These verses were written in later life; but already in 1827 he dates a
poem "fourth year after the sale of Spanish liberty."

It was an age of political conspiracy and secret societies. Many
liberals were members of Masonic lodges, and in addition there were
circles like the Friends of Liberty, the Friends of the Constitution,
the Cross of Malta, the Spanish Patriot, and others. Nothing more
natural than that boys whose age made them ineligible to join these
organizations should form one of their own. The result was La Sociedad
de los Numantinos. The prime movers were Miguel Ortiz Amor and Patricio
de Escosura, who drew up its Draconic constitution. Other founders were
Espronceda, Ventura de la Vega, and Núñez de Arenas. All told, the
society had about a dozen members. Their first meetings were held in a
sand-pit, until the curiosity of the police forced them to seek safer
quarters. One of the members was an apothecary's apprentice, who,
unknown to his master, installed the club in the shop cellar. There
they built an altar bearing all the romantic paraphernalia of skull and
cross-bones, swords, and pistols. The members stood wrapped in black
garments, their faces muffled with their long Spanish capes, wearing
Venetian masks, each one grasping a naked dagger. There they swore
binding oaths and delivered fiery orations. Red paper lanterns cast a
weird light over the scene. How tame the sessions of the Myrtle
must have seemed by comparison! Yet the two organizations throve
simultaneously.

With the return of Ferdinand in September the persecution of the
liberals began. The boys witnessed the judicial murder of Riego, the
hero of the constitutional movement, November 8, 1823. This made the
impression upon them that might have been expected. That night an
extraordinary session of the Numantinos was held at which Espronceda
delivered an impassioned oration. Then all signed a document in which
the king's death was decreed. Some of the members' parents seem to
have learned what was happening. The father of Ortiz, the club's first
president, prudently sent him away to Oñate. Escosura became the second
president, and held office until September of 1824, when his father sent
him to France. Espronceda then became the club's third president, but
his term was brief. The boys had made the mistake of admitting one
member of mature years whose name we do not know; for, in spite of his
treachery, the Numantinos even in their old age chivalrously
refrained from publishing it. This Judas betrayed the secrets of his
fellow-members, and placed incriminating documents, among them the
king's "death warrant," in the hands of the police. The latter, however,
displayed less rigor and more common sense than usual. While all the
youths implicated were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment in
various monasteries scattered throughout Spain, nothing more was
intended than to give the conspirators a salutary scare. They were all
released after a few weeks of nominal servitude. Ortiz and Escosura, the
ringleaders, were sentenced to six years of seclusion, and Espronceda
received a term of five years to be served in the Monastery of San
Francisco de Guadalajara in the city of Guadalajara. His term was
pronounced completed after a very few weeks of confinement. That he had
a father prominent in the government service stood him in good stead,
and this probably accounts for the fact that his place of confinement
was in the city where Don Juan was garrisoned. The latter, as an old
soldier in the wars against Napoleon, sympathized in a general way with
liberal ideas; yet, placed as he was in a very difficult position, he
must have found his son's escapades compromising. His record shows that
he was "purified," that is his loyalty to the crown was certified to, on
August 8, 1824. He seems to have maintained a "correct" attitude toward
his rulers to the end, with all the unquestioning obedience of a
military man.

While undergoing this easy martyrdom Espronceda improved his time by
beginning what was to be a great patriotic epic, his _Pelayo_. Like many
another ambitious project, this was never completed. The few fragments
of it which have been printed date mostly from this time. The style is
still classic, but it is the pseudo-classicism of his model, Tasso. The
poet had taken the first step leading to Romanticism. Hence this work
was not so sterile as his earlier performances. Lista, on seeing the
fragments, did much to encourage the young author. Some of the octaves
included in the published version are said on good authority to have
come from the schoolmaster's pen. Lista's classicism was of the
broadest. He never condemned Romanticism totally, though he deplored
its unrestrained extravagances and the antireligious and antidynastic
tendencies of some of its exponents. He long outlived his brilliant
pupil, and celebrated his fame in critical articles. After his return
from exile Espronceda continued to study in a private school which Lista
had started in the Calle de Valverde. Calleja's Colegio de San Mateo had
been suppressed by a government which was the sworn enemy of every form
of enlightenment. The new seminary, however, continued the work of
the old with little change: While there José carried his mathematical
studies through higher algebra, conic sections, trigonometry, and
surveying, and continued Latin, French, English, and Greek. If we may
judge from later results, a course in rhetoric and poetics must have
been of greatest benefit to him.

Espronceda's schooling ended in 1826, when he began what Escosura terms
"his more or less voluntary exile." Escosura thinks he may have been
implicated in a revolutionary uprising in Estremadura, and this
conjecture is all but confirmed by a recently found report of the
Spanish consul in Lisbon, who suspected him of plotting mischief with
General Mina. If Espronceda was not a revolutionary at this time, he was
capable of enlisting in any enterprise however rash, as his past and
subsequent record proves all too clearly, and the authorities were not
without justification in watching his movements. In a letter dated
Lisbon, August 24, 1827, he writes to his mother: "Calm yourselves and
restore papa to health by taking good care of him, and you yourself stop
thinking so sadly, for now I am not going to leave Portugal." In these
words the boy seems to be informing his parents that he has given up
the idea of making a foray from Portugal into Spain as Mina was then
plotting to do. He had left home without taking leave of his parents,
made his way to Gibraltar, and taken passage thence to Lisbon on a
Sardinian sloop. The discomforts of this journey are graphically
described in one of his prose works, "De Gibraltar a Lisboa: viaje
histórico." The writer describes with cynical humor the overladen little
boat with its twenty-nine passengers, their quarrels and seasickness,
the abominable food, a burial at sea, a tempest. When the ship reached
Lisbon the ill-assorted company were placed in quarantine. The health
inspectors demanded a three-peseta fee of each passenger. Espronceda
paid out a duro and received two pesetas in change. Whereupon he threw
them into the Tagus, "because I did not want to enter so great a capital
with so little money." A very similar story has been told of Camoens,
so that Espronceda was not only a _poseur_ but a very unoriginal one at
that. Some biographers suspect that while parting with his silver he was
prudent enough to retain a purse lined with good gold _onzas_. This is
pure speculation, but it is certain that he knew he could soon expect a
remittance from home.

Portugal was at the time rent with civil war. The infanta Isabel María
was acting as regent, and her weak government hesitated to offend the
king of Spain. The liberal emigrants were kept under surveillance; some
were imprisoned, others forced to leave the kingdom. Espronceda was
forced to Live with the other Spanish emigrants in Santarem. There is no
evidence that he was imprisoned in the Castle of St. George, as has so
frequently been stated. He appears to have been free to go and come
within the limits assigned him by the police; but he was constantly
watched and at last forced to leave the country. It was in Portugal that
the nineteen-year-old boy made the acquaintance of the Mancha family.
Don Epifanio Mancha was a colonel in the Spanish army who, unlike the
elder Espronceda, had been unable to reconcile himself to existing
conditions. He had two daughters, one of whom, Teresa, was to play a
large part in Espronceda's life. He undoubtedly made her acquaintance at
this time. We are told that she embroidered for him an artillery cadet's
hat; but the acquaintance probably did not proceed far. The statement
that vows were exchanged, that the Mancha family preceded Espronceda to
London, that on disembarking he found his Teresa already the bride
of another, all this is pure legend. As a matter of fact, Espronceda
preceded the Manchas to London and his elopement with Teresa did not
take place until 1831, not in England but in France. All this Señor
Cascales y Muñoz has shown in his recent biography.

Espronceda's expulsion from Portugal was determined upon as early as
August 14, 1827; but the execution of it was delayed. He must have
reached England sometime within the last four months of 1827. The first
of his letters written from London that has been preserved is dated
December 27 of that year. What his emotions were on passing "the immense
sea ... which chains me amid the gloomy Britons" may be observed by
reading his poem entitled "La Entrada del Invierno en Londres." In this
poem he gives full vent to his homesickness in his "present abode of
sadness," breathes forth his love for Spain, and bewails the tyrannies
under which that nation is groaning. It is written in his early classic
manner and exists in autograph form, dedicated by the "Citizen" José de
Espronceda to the "Citizen" Balbino Cortés, his companion in exile. The
date, London, January 1, 1827, is plainly erroneous, though this fact
has never before been pointed out. We can only suppose that, like many
another, Espronceda found it difficult to write the date correctly on
the first day of a new year. We should probably read January 1, 1828.
When he assures us in the poem: "Four times have I here seen the fields
robbed of their treasure," he is not to be taken literally. Who will
begrudge an exiled poet the delight of exaggerating his sufferings?

Five letters written from London to his parents have been preserved,
thanks to the diligence of the Madrid police who seized them in his
father's house in their eagerness to follow the movements of this
dangerous revolutionary. They are the typical letters of a schoolboy.
The writer makes excuses for his dilatoriness as a correspondent,
expresses solicitude for the health of his parents, and suggests the
need of a speedy remittance. In fact _la falta de metálico_ is the
burden of his song. Living is excessively dear in London. So much so
that a suit of clothes costs seventeen pounds sterling; but there will
be a reduction of three pounds if the draft is promptly sent. He asks
that the manuscript of his "Pelayo" be sent to him, as he now has
abundant leisure to finish the poem. He asks that the remittances be
sent to a new agent whom he designates. The first agent was a brute who
refused to aid him to get credit. He wonders that his father should
suggest a call upon the Spanish ambassador. Not one word as to his
political plans, a discretion for which Don Juan must have thanked him
when these interesting documents fell into the hands of the police.

We have information that in London Espronceda became a fencing-master,
as many a French _émigré_ had done in the century before. This calling
brought him in very little. He may have profited by the charity
fund which the Duke of Wellington had raised to relieve the Spanish
_emigrados_. His more pressing needs were satisfied by Antonio Hernáiz,
a friend with whom he had made the journey from Lisbon; but the
remittances from home came promptly and regularly, and Espronceda must
have been one of the most favored among the refugees of Somers Town. If
we may take as autobiographical a statement in "Un Recuerdo," he was
entertained for a time at the country seat of Lord Ruthven, an old
companion-in-arms of his father's. Ruthven is not a fictitious name,
as a glance into the peerage will show. During all this time he was
improving his acquaintance with Shakespeare, Milton, Byron, and other
English poets. What is more surprising is that, if we may judge from
his subsequent speeches as a deputy, he gained at least a superficial
acquaintance with English political thought and became interested in
economics. He was a convert to the doctrine of free trade.

Meanwhile the parents, who appear to have formed a bad opinion of a land
where a suit of clothes cost seventeen pounds, were urging the son to
go to France. He himself thought of Holland as a land combining the
advantages of liberty and economy. But before leaving London he required
a remittance of four thousand reales. This bad news was broken to the
family bread-winner, not by José himself, but by his banker Orense. The
debt, it was explained, had been incurred as the result of a slight
illness. The four thousand reales were duly sent in December, but
Espronceda lingered in London a few months longer; first because he was
tempted by the prospect of a good position which he failed to secure,
and second on account of the impossibility of obtaining a passport to
France direct. He finally made his way to Paris via Brussels, from which
city he writes, March 6, 1829. All this effectually dispels the legend
that he eloped from England with Teresa by way of Cherbourg. The arrival
in Paris of the revolutionary fencing-master put the Madrid police in a
flutter. On the seventeenth of that same month the consul in Lisbon had
reported that Espronceda was planning to join General Mina in an attack
upon Navarra; and by the middle of April the ambassador to France had
reported his arrival in Paris. It was then that the brigadier's papers
were seized. Measures were taken to prevent Espronceda's receiving
passports for the southern provinces of France, and for any other
country but England. The friendly offices of Charles X, who had
succeeded Louis XVIII on the throne of France, checked for a time the
efforts of the patriotic filibusters. The latter, therefore, must have
felt that they were aiding their own country as well as France when they
participated in the July revolution of 1830. Espronceda fought bravely
for several days at one of the Paris barricades, and wreaked what
private grudge he may have had against the house of Bourbon. After the
fall of Charles X, Louis Philippe, whom Espronceda was in after years to
term _el rey mercader_, became king of France. As Ferdinand refused to
recognize the new government, the designs of Spanish patriots were
not hindered but even favored. Espronceda was one of a scant hundred
visionaries who followed General Joaquín de Pablo over the pass of
Roncevaux into Navarra. The one hope of success lay in winning over
recruits on Spanish soil. De Pablo, who found himself facing his old
regiment of Volunteers of Navarra, started to make a harangue. The reply
was a salvo of musketry, as a result of which De Pablo fell dead. After
some skirmishing most of his followers found refuge on French soil,
among them Espronceda. De Pablo's rout, if less glorious than that of
Roland on the same battlefield, nevertheless inspired a song. Espronceda
celebrated his fallen leader's death in the verses "A la Muerte de D.
Joaquín de Pablo (Chapalangarra) en los Campos de Vera." This poem,
which purports to have been written on one of the peaks of the French
Pyrenees which commanded a view of Spanish soil, and when the poet was
strongly impressed by the events in which he had just participated,
is nevertheless a weak performance; for Espronceda in 1830 was still
casting his most impassioned utterances in the classic mold. Ferdinand
had now been taught a lesson and lost little time in recognizing the new
régime in France. This bit of diplomacy was so cheap and successful
that Louis Philippe tried it again, this time on Russia. His government
favored a plot, hatched in Paris, for the freeing of Poland. Espronceda,
who had not yet had his fill of crack-brained adventures, enlisted in
this cause also, desiring to do for Poland what Byron had done for
Greece; but the czar, wilier than Ferdinand, immediately recognized
Louis Philippe. The plot was then quietly rendered innocuous. Espronceda
must have felt himself cruelly sold by the "merchant king."

Espronceda's literary activity was slight during these events, but his
transformation into a full-fledged Romanticist begins at this time.
Hugo's "Orientales," which influenced him profoundly, appeared in 1829,
and the first performance of "Hernani" was February 25, 1830. There
is no record that he formed important literary friendships in either
England or France, but, clannish as the _emigrados_ appear to have
been, an impressionable nature like Espronceda's must have been as much
stirred by the literary as by the political revolution of 1830; the more
so as the great love adventure of his life occurred at this time. The
Mancha family followed the other _emigrados_ to London, just when
we cannot say. In course of time Teresa contracted a marriage of
convenience with a Spanish merchant domiciled in London, a certain
Gregorio de Bayo. Churchman has discovered the following advertisement
in _El Emigrado Observador_, London, February,1829: "The daughters of
Colonel Mancha embroider bracelets with the greatest skill, gaining by
this industry the wherewithal to aid their honorable indigence." From
this it is argued that the marriage to Don Gregorio and the consequent
end of the family indigence must have come later than February, 1829.
Espronceda had met the girl in Lisbon, he may later have resumed the
acquaintance in London. She may or may not be the Elisa to whom Delio
sings in the "Serenata." According to Balbino Cortés in an interview
reported by Solís, Teresa and her husband, while on a visit to Paris in
October, 1831, happened to lodge at the hotel frequented by Espronceda.
Shortly afterwards Teresa deserted her husband and an infant son and
eloped with Espronceda. She followed him to Madrid in 1833, where
a daughter, Blanca, was born to them in 1834. Within a year Teresa
abandoned Espronceda and her second child. She sank into the gutter and
died a pauper in 1839. This sordid romance occupied only about three
years of Espronceda's life, a much shorter time than had been supposed.
Churchman was the first to break the long conspiracy of silence which
withheld from the world Teresa's full name. Cascales y Muñoz has since
thrown more light upon this episode. But these gentlemen have done
nothing more than to tell an open secret. Escosura, long ago, all but
betrayed it in the following pun: "Tendamos el velo de olvido sobre
esa lamentable flaqueza de un gran corazón," he says, referring to the
affair with Teresa, "y recordemos, de paso, que el sol mismo, ese astro
de luz soberano, tan sublimemente cantado por nuestro vate, _manchas_
tiene que si una parte de su esplendor anublan, a eclipsarlo no bastan."
Señor Cascales publishes a reproduction of Teresa's portrait. We see
a face of a certain hard beauty. We are struck with the elaborate
coiffure, the high forehead, the long nose, the weak mouth. The
expression is unamiable. It is the face of a termagant ready to abandon
husband and child. Espronceda seems to have returned to England for a
brief period in 1832, as we may infer from the fact that the poem
"A Matilde" is dated London, 1832. Corroboration of this belief was
discovered by Churchman, who found that the paper on which "Blanca de
Borbón" was written shows the water-mark of an English firm of that
date.

In 1833 Ferdinand VII died, and his daughter Isabel II ascended to the
throne under the regency of her mother Cristina. As the conservatives
espoused the cause of the pretender, Don Carlos, the regency was forced
to favor the liberals. The rigid press censorship was abolished, and a
general amnesty was granted all the victims of Ferdinand's tyranny. In
politics the year 1833 marks the beginning of the Carlist war, and
in literature of Spanish Romanticism. Espronceda was one of many
_emigrados_ who returned to Spain, bringing with them new ideas for the
revitalizing of Spanish literature. He did not arrive soon enough to
see his aged father. Brigadier Espronceda's death certificate is dated
January 10, 1833.

Shortly after José's arrival he joined the fashionable Guardia de Corps
or royal guard regiment. This step, apparently so inconsistent with
his revolutionary activities, has puzzled all his biographers. But
Espronceda was only following the family tradition. His elder brother
had done the same. Doubtless he believed, in his first enthusiasm, that
Spain was now completely liberalized. Besides, he was a dandy always
eager for social distinction, and he had to live down the fact that his
mother was proprietress of an _establecimiento de coches_. The conduct
of his fellow-Numantino, Escosura, who had found it possible to accept
a commission under Ferdinand, is far more surprising. Espronceda's
snobbishness, if he had any, cannot have been extreme, for he took up
residence with his mother over the aforementioned livery stable, in the
Calle de San Miguel. Teresa was prudently lodged under another roof.
Doña Carmen was as indulgent as ever, and especially desirous that her
son dress in the most fashionable clothes procurable. What with her
rent from the house, her widow's pension, and the yield of her business
venture, she was comfortably circumstanced. When Teresa abandoned the
child Blanca, Doña Carmen became a mother to her. When Doña Carmen died
in 1840 everything went to her son.

Espronceda's career as a guardsman was brief. As a result of reading a
satirical poem at a public banquet, he was cashiered and banished to the
town of Cuéllar in Old Castile. There he wrote his "Sancho Saldaña o
el Castellano de Cuéllar," a historical novel in the manner of Walter
Scott, describing the quarrels of Sancho el Bravo with his father
Alfonso X. This six-volume work was contracted for in 1834 and completed
and published the same year. For writing it the author received six
thousand reales. Many writers in Spain were striving to rival the Wizard
of the North at this time. Ramón López Soler had set the fashion in
1830 with "Los Bandos de Castilla." Larra's "Doncel de Don Enrique
el Doliente" appeared in the same year with "Sancho Saldaña." But
Espronceda was probably most influenced by his friend Escosura, who had
printed his "Conde de Candespina" in 1832. The latter's best effort in
this genre, "Ni Rey ni Roque," 1835, was written when its author was
undergoing banishment for political reasons in a corner of Andalusia. To
employ the enforced leisure of political exile in writing a historical
novel was quite the proper thing to do. The banishment to Cuéllar must
have taken place in late 1833 or early 1834, for Espronceda's novel is
unquestionably inspired by his enforced visit to that town, and the
contract with his publisher is dated in Madrid, February 5, 1834. On
reading the contract it is apparent that the novel had hardly been begun
then, as it was to be paid for in installments. Whether it was written
mostly in Cuéllar or Madrid we do not know and care little. In January
of that year _El Siglo_ was founded, a radical journal with which
Espronceda was prominently connected. During the brief existence of this
incendiary sheet (January 21 until March 7) Espronceda contributed to it
several political articles. The last issue came out almost wholly blank
as an object lesson of the censor's activity. There follow a few
months of agitation and political intrigue, the upshot of which
was Espronceda's imprisonment for three weeks without trial. After
protesting in the press and appealing to the queen regent, he was
released and banished to Badajoz. How long he was absent from the
capital we do not know, except that this banishment, like the others,
was of short duration. During all this commotion there was produced at
the Teatro de la Cruz, in April, an indifferent play, "Ni el Tío ni el
Sobrino," whose authors were Espronceda and his friend Antonio Ros y
Olano. It is difficult to paint anything but a confused picture of
Espronceda's life during the remaining years of this decade. We catch
glimpses of him debating questions of art and politics at cafés and
literary _tertulias_ like the Parnasillo, where Mesonero Romanos saw him
faultlessly attired and "darting epigrams against everything existing,
past, and future." Córdoba in his memoirs bears witness that he was
still the _buscarruidos_ of old. Espronceda with Larra, Escosura, Ros
De Olano, and Córdoba constituted the "Thunder Band" of the Parnasillo
(_partida del trueno_). After a long literary discussion they would
sally forth into the streets, each armed with a peashooter and on
mischief bent. A favorite prank was to tie a chestnut vender's table to
a waiting cab and then watch the commotion which followed when the cab
started to move. On one occasion, finding the Duke of Alba's coachman
asleep on the box, they painted the yellow coach red, so altering it
that the very owner failed to recognize it when he left the house where
he had been calling. In politics Espronceda is always a leader in
revolt, fighting with pen and sword for his none-too-clearly-defined
principles. Even the Mendizábal ministry, the most advanced that Spain
has ever had, does not satisfy him. His ideal is a republic and the
downfall of "the spurious race of Bourbon." His love affairs are equally
stormy. In literature he is attempting everything, plays, a novel,
polemical articles, lyric poems, and one supreme work which is to be the
very epic of humanity.

In 1835 Espronceda became an officer in the National Militia. In August
of that year the militiamen were defeated in an unsuccessful revolt
against the Toreno ministry. In 1836 he was equally unfortunate in a
revolt against the Istúriz ministry. It was then, when pursued by the
police, that a friend secreted him in the safest possible place, the
home of a high police official. Espronceda employed his leisure hours in
this refuge by writing "El Mendigo" and "El Verdugo." Two years later
he traveled extensively through Andalusia engaged in revolutionary
propaganda. He was probably trying to bring about a republican form of
government. In September, 1838, his play "Amor venga sus agravios,"
written in collaboration with Eugenio Moreno López, was produced at the
Teatro del Príncipe. Its success was moderate. The next year, while in
Granada, he and his friend Santos Álvarez were guests of honor at a
literary soirée. Espronceda's contribution was the reading of "El
Estudiante de Salamanca." This poem was first printed, at least in part,
in _La Alhambra_ for 1839. The great political event of this year was
the ending of the first Carlist war. The victories of the national
troops were celebrated by a huge public demonstration in Madrid on the
national holiday, May 2, 1840. For this occasion Espronceda wrote his
patriotic poem "El Dos de Mayo." Only three days later his volume of
"Poesías" was placed on sale, and, like Byron, he awoke to find himself
famous. His old teacher Lista wrote a favorable review. From then on
Espronceda was a man of note. The Madrid revolution of September 1
forced an unwilling regent to make Espartero, hero of the Carlist war,
prime minister. A radical sheet, _El Huracán_, was accused of attacking
Cristina and of advocating republicanism. Espronceda, though not a
lawyer, was chosen to defend the journal. This he did with complete
success. His speech has not come down to us, but we are told that in it
he appeared in the rôle of an uncompromising republican.

Nevertheless he was soon to compromise. He was now a man of mark, and
the liberal régime in power were not slow to see that it would be
advantageous to enlist his services. In November, 1841, he accepted an
appointment to serve as secretary to the Spanish legation at the Hague.
He served in this capacity exactly five days. Arriving at the Hague
on January 29, 1842, he departed for Madrid on February 3. A certain
Carrasco had been elected deputy of the province of Almería. He was now
urged to resign to make room for Espronceda. This he did, and Espronceda
was elected and served in his stead. Of course all this had been
prearranged. After his return he continued to hold his diplomatic
position and receive pay for it, a not very honorable course on the part
of one who pled so eloquently for the abolition of useless offices
and the reform of the diplomatic service. In this way the Espartero
government conciliated Espronceda with two offices. Henceforth his
republicanism was lukewarm. Escosura tells us that concern for his
daughter Blanca's financial future had rendered him prudent.

I am inclined to think that Espronceda's biographers underrate his
services in the Chamber of Deputies. The trouble is that in his rôle of
deputy their hero failed to justify preconceived notions regarding his
character. Those who looked for revolution in his speeches found only
sound finance. We seek in vain for anything subversive. There is nothing
suggestive of the lyric poet or even of the fiery defender of _El
Huracán_. As a poet he had praised the destructive fury of the Cossacks
who swept away decadent governments. In defending _El Huracán_ he had
used the word Cossack as a term of reproach, applying it to those
self-seeking politicians who were devouring the public funds. By this
time he had himself become a Cossack on a small scale. Yet we must do
him the justice to point out that he had had sufficient firmness of
principle to refuse office under Mendizábal, Istúriz, and the Duque de
Rivas. Fitzmaurice-Kelly is possibly going too far in intimating that
he was degenerating into a hidebound conservative and opportunist.
Something of the old reforming zeal survived. Though many
disillusionments may have rendered him less eager for a republican form
of government, his latest utterances show him zealous as ever for social
and economic reform. Espronceda's parliamentary career lasted less than
three months (March 1 to May 23, 1842). One can only wonder that in so
brief a time a man already stricken with a fatal illness should have
taken so able a part in an assembly in which he was a newcomer. Nor
should we complain that his speeches lack eloquence. It is fairer to
give him credit for not falling into the abuse of _palabrería_, the
besetting sin of most _diputados_.

His views were sober and sound. Travel had given him a wider
outlook than most of his colleagues possessed. He was the enemy of
_españolismo_, wanted his nation to take a prominent part in European
affairs, and no longer to lead the life of a hermit nation. But he is no
jingo. He speaks against the bill to add fifty thousand to the standing
army. Spain had passed through too many upheavals. What she needed to
make her a European power was tranquility and opportunity to develop
financial strength. Give the producing classes their long-awaited
innings. But he is bitter against the magnates of the bourse and those
politicians who legislate to produce an artificial rise in values. The
true policy is to better the condition of the masses, to encourage
agriculture and manufactures: even the construction of railways should
wait until there is first something to haul over them. But manufactures
should not be protected by a tariff. In his speech against the tariff
on cotton he shows himself an out and out free-trader. He praises the
English for their policy of free trade, enlightened self-interest he
deems it, which tends to make the world one large family. As a writer he
had inveighed against commercialism. But he now discerns a future where
commerce shall replace war. He was unable to foresee that in the future
trade was to be a chief cause of war.

That he was a ready debater is shown by his neat rejoinder to Deputy
Fontán. This gentleman had made sneering allusions to men of letters
who dabbled in diplomacy. Far from accepting the remark as a thrust at
himself, as it was intended, Espronceda resented it as an insult to the
then American minister Washington Irving, "novelist of the first
rank, known in Europe through his writings even more than through the
brilliancy of his diplomatic career."

Espronceda's health had been failing for some months. It is said that
chronic throat trouble had so weakened his voice as to make his remarks
in the Cortés scarcely audible. On May 18, 1842, he journeyed on
horseback to Aranjuez to visit Doña Bernarda Beruete, a young lady to
whom he was then engaged. Hastily returning to Madrid on the afternoon
of the same day, so as not to miss a night session of the Cortés, he
contracted a cold which soon turned into a fatal bronchitis. Others say
he was taken ill at a reception given by Espartero. He died May 23,
1842, at the early age of 34. He was honored with a public funeral in
keeping with his position as deputy and distinguished man of letters.
His first place of burial was the cemetery of San Nicolás; but in 1902
his remains, together with those of Larra, were exhumed and reburied in
the Pantheon for Distinguished Men of the Nineteenth Century, situated
in the Patio de Santa Gertrudis in the Cementerio de la Sacramental de
San Justo.

In forming our estimate of the man, we must carefully distinguish
between the Espronceda of legend and the Espronceda of fact; for a
legend sprang up during his own lifetime, largely the result of his own
self-defamation. Like many other Romanticists, Espronceda affected a
reputation for diabolism. He loved to startle the bourgeois, to pose as
atheist, rake, deposer of tyrants. Escosura sums up this aspect of his
character by branding him "a hypocrite of vice." Many have been led
astray by Ferrer del Río's statement that in drawing the character of
the seducer, Don Félix de Montemar, Espronceda was painting his own
portrait. Such criticism would have delighted Espronceda, but the
imputation was indignantly denied by his close friend Escosura. Modern
critics are careful to avoid this extreme; but, in the delight of
supporting a paradox, some are disposed to go too far in the opposite
direction. Señor Cascales, for instance, is unconvincing when he seeks
to exonerate Espronceda from all blame in the Teresa episode. Like the
devil, Espronceda was not so black as he was painted, not so black as
he painted himself; but he was far from being a Joseph. It is easy to
minimize the importance of the part he played in the national militia.
Doubtless much of his plotting was puerile and melodramatic. His
activities as a revolutionist cannot have greatly affected the course of
events. But it is unfair to deny him credit for constant willingness
to risk his life in any cause which seemed noble. That his conduct was
inconsistent merely proves that he followed no calmly reasoned political
system. He reflects in his conduct the heated sentiment of the time,
varying as it did from day to day. He sometimes compromised with his
ideals, his sense of honor was not always of the highest, but he never
seems to have grown lukewarm in his desire to serve the people. He is
a liberal to the last, a liberal with notions of political economy and
English constitutional practice. His quarrel with the church seems to
have been political rather than theological. He hated the friars and the
church's alliance with Carlism. That the last rites were administered to
him shows that he died a professing Catholic. In appearance Espronceda
was handsome, if somewhat too effeminate-looking to suggest the
fire-eater. He never cultivated slovenliness of attire like most
members of the Romantic school; on the contrary, he was the leading
representative in Spain of dandyism. To sum up, Espronceda's was a
tempestuous and very imperfect character. "Siempre fuí el juego de mis
pasiones," is his own self-analysis. The best that can be said of him
is that he was a warm, affectionate nature, generous, charitable to the
poor, a loyal friend, and one actuated by noble, if sometimes mistaken,
ideals. Years afterward, when Escosura passed in review the little
circle of the Colegio de San Mateo, Espronceda was the only one of them
whom he could truly say he loved.


THE WORKS OF ESPRONCEDA

Of all the Spanish poets of the period of Romanticism, Espronceda is the
most commanding figure. Piñeyro, adopting Emerson's phrase, calls him
the Representative Man of that age of literary and political revolt.
More than that, criticism is unanimous in considering him Spain's
greatest lyric poet of the nineteenth century.

First of all he interests as the poet of democracy. The Romantic poets
were no more zealous seekers for political liberalism than the
classic poets of the previous generation had been; but their greater
subjectivity and freedom of expression rendered their appeal more
vigorous. Espronceda's hatred for absolutism was so intense that in
moments of excitement he became almost anti-social. The pirate, the
beggar, the Cossack, were his heroes. The love of this dandy for the
lower classes cannot be dismissed as mere pose. He keenly sympathized
with the oppressed, and felt that wholesale destruction must precede
the work of construction. We look in vain for a reasoned political
philosophy in his volcanic verse. His outpourings were inspired by the
irresponsible ravings of groups of café radicals, and the point of view
constantly changed as public sentiment veered. According to his lights
he is always a patriot. Liberty and democracy are his chief desires.

Like most Romanticists, Espronceda was intensely subjective. He
interests by his frank display of his inner moods. Bonilla, in his
illuminating article "El Pensamiento de Espronceda," states that the
four essential points in the philosophy of Romanticism were: doubt,
the first principle of thought; sorrow, the positive reality of life;
pleasure, the world's illusion; death, the negation of the will to live.
Espronceda shared all of these ideas. It is often impossible to say how
much of his suffering is a mere Byronic pose, and how much comes from
the reaction of an intensely sensitive nature to the hard facts of
existence. There is evidence that he never lost the zest of living;
but in his writings he appears as one who has been completely
disillusionized by literature, love, politics, and every experience
of life. Truth is the greatest of evils, because truth is always sad;
"mentira," on the other hand, is merciful and kind. He carries doubt so
far that he doubts his very doubts. Such a philosophy should logically
lead to quietism. That pessimism did not in the case of Espronceda
bring inaction makes one suspect that it was largely affected. There is
nothing profound in this very commonplace philosophy of despair. It is
the conventional attitude of hosts of Romanticists who did little
but re-echo the _Vanitas vanitatum_ of the author of Ecclesiastes.
Espronceda's thought is too shallow to entitle him to rank high as a
philosophic poet. In this respect he is inferior even to Campoamor
and Núñez de Arce. Genuine world-weariness is the outgrowth of a more
complex civilization than that of Spain. Far from being a Leopardi,
Espronceda may nevertheless be considered the leading Spanish exponent
of the _taedium vitae_. He has eloquently expressed this commonplace and
conventional attitude of mind.

Like so many other writers of the Latin race, Espronceda is more
admirable for the form in which he clothed his thoughts than for those
thoughts themselves. He wrote little and carefully. He is remarkable for
his virtuosity, his harmonious handling of the most varied meters. He
never, like Zorrilla, produces the effect of careless improvisation. In
the matter of poetic form Espronceda has been the chief inspiration of
Spanish poets down to the advent of Rubén Darío. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, with
his happy knack of hitting off an author's characteristics in a phrase,
says: "He still stirs us with his elemental force, his resonant musical
potency of phrase, his communicative ardor for noble causes."

Much harm has been done Espronceda's reputation for originality by those
critics who fastened upon him the name of "the Spanish Byron." Nothing
could be more unjust than to consider him the slavish imitator of a
single author. In literature, as in love, there is safety in numbers,
and the writer who was influenced by Calderón, Tasso, Milton, Goethe,
Béranger, Hugo, Shakespeare, and Scott was no mere satellite to Byron.
Señor Cascales is so sensitive on the point that he is scarcely willing
to admit that Byron exerted any influence whatsoever upon Espronceda.
The truth is that Byron did influence Espronceda profoundly, as
Churchman has sufficiently proved by citing many instances of borrowings
from the English poet, where resemblance in matters of detail is wholly
conclusive; but it is another matter to assert that Espronceda was
always Byronic or had no originality of his own.

In considering Espronceda's writings in detail, we need concern
ourselves little with his dramatic and prose writings. The quickest road
to literary celebrity was the writing of a successful play. Espronceda
seems never to have completely relinquished the hope of achieving such a
success. His first attempt was a three-act verse comedy, "Ni el Tío ni
el Sobrino" (1834), written in collaboration with Antonio Ros de Olano.
Larra censured it for its insipidity and lack of plan. A more ambitious
effort was "Amor venga sus agravios" (1838), written in collaboration
with Eugenio Moreno López. This was a five-act costume play, in prose,
portraying the life at the court of Philip IV. It was produced without
regard to expense, but with indifferent success. Espronceda's most
ambitious play was never staged, and has only recently become easily
accessible: this was "Blanca de Borbón," a historical drama of the times
of Peter the Cruel in five acts, in verse. The first two acts were
written in Espronceda's early Classic manner; the last three, written
at a later period, are Romantic in tone. The influence of "Macbeth" is
apparent. "Blanca de Borbón" could never be a success on the stage. The
verse, too, is not worthy of the author. Espronceda was too impetuous
a writer to comply with the restrictions of dramatic technique. The
dramatic passages in "El Estudiante de Salamanca" and "El Diablo Mundo"
are his best compositions in dialogue.

"Sancho Saldaña" is Espronceda's most important prose work. It is a
historical novel of the thirteenth century, written frankly in imitation
of Walter Scott's Waverley Novels. The romance contains many tiresome
descriptions of scenery, and drags along tediously as most old-fashioned
novels did. But Espronceda had none of Sir Walter's archaeological
erudition, none of his ability to seize the characteristics of an epoch,
and above all none of his skill as a creator of interesting characters.
The personages in "Sancho Saldaña" fail to interest. The most that can
be said of the work is that among the numerous imitations of Scott's
novels which appeared at the time it is neither the best nor the worst.
Of his shorter prose works only two, "De Gibraltar a Lisboa, viaje
histórico" and "Un Recuerdo," are easily accessible. They are vivid
portrayals of certain episodes of his exile, and may still be read
with interest. His most important polemical work is "El Ministerio
Mendizábal" (Madrid, 1836). In this screed we find the fiery radical
attacking as unsatisfactory the ultra-liberal Mendizábal. This and
shorter political articles interest the historian and the biographer,
but hardly count as literature. His rare attempts at literary criticism
have even less value.

Espronceda shows true greatness only as a lyric poet. For spirit and
perfection of form what could be more perfect than the "Canción del
Pirata"? Like Byron in the "Corsair," he extols the lawless liberty of
the buccaneer. Byron was here his inspiration rather than Hugo. The
"Chanson de Pirates" cannot stand comparison with either work. But
Espronceda's indebtedness to Byron was in this case very slight. He
has made the theme completely his own. "El Mendigo" and "El Canto del
Cosaco," both anarchistic in sentiment, were inspired by Béranger. Once
more Espronceda has improved upon his models, "Les Gueux" and "Le Chant
du Cosaque." Compare Espronceda's refrain in the "Cossack Song" with
Béranger's in the work which suggested it:

      ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto! ¡Hurra!
      La Europa os brinda espléndido botín
      Sangrienta charca sus campiñas sean,
      De los grajos su ejército festín.

      Hennis d'orgueil, o mon coursier fidèle!
      Et foule aux pieds les peuples et les rois.

The "Canto del Cosaco" was a prime favorite with the revolutionary youth
of Spain, who thundered out the "hurras" with telling effect. "El Reo de
Muerte" and "El Verdugo" are in a similar vein, though much inferior.
"Serenata," "A la Noche," "El Pescador" (reminiscent of Goethe), "A una
Estrella," and "A una Rosa, soneto" are lighter works. They make up in
grace what they lack in vigor. "El Himno al Sol" is the most perfect
example of Espronceda's Classic manner, and is rightly considered one of
his masterpieces. It challenges comparison with the Duque de Rivas' very
similar poem. Of the numerous patriotic poems "Al Dos de Mayo" and "A
la Patria" deserve especial mention. He attempted satire in "El Pastor
Clasiquino," recently reprinted by Le Gentil from "El Artista." In
this poem he assails academic poetry like that produced by his old
fellow-academicians of the Myrtle. It betrays the peevishness of a
Romanticist writing when Romanticism was already on the wane.

"El Diablo Mundo," Espronceda's most ambitious work, is commonly
considered his masterpiece; an unfinished masterpiece, however. Even
if death had spared him, it is doubtful if he could have finished so
all-embracing a theme as he proposed:

        Nada menos te ofrezco que un poema
      Con lances raros y revuelto asunto,
      De nuestro mundo y sociedad emblema....
      Fiel traslado ha de ser, cierto trasunto
      De la vida del hombre y la quimera
      Tras de que va la humanidad entera.
        Batallas, tempestades, amoríos,
      Por mar y tierra, lances, descripciones
      De campos y ciudades, desafíos,
      Y el desastre y furor de las pasiones,
      Goces, dichas, aciertos, desvaríos,
      Con algunas morales reflexiones
      Acerca de la vida y de la muerte,
      De mi propia cosecha, que es mi fuerte.

Adam, hero of the epic, is introduced in Canto I as an aged scholar
disillusioned with life, but dreading the proximity of Death, with whom
he converses in a vision. The Goddess of Life grants him the youth of
Faust and the immortality of the Wandering Jew. Unlike either, he has
the physical and mental characteristics of an adult joined to the
naïveté of a child. In Canto III Adam appears in a _casa de huéspedes_,
naked and poor, oblivious of the past, without the use of language, with
longings for liberty and action. Here his disillusionment begins. His
nakedness shocks public morality; and the innocent Adam who is hostile
to nobody, and in whom the brilliant spectacle of nature produces
nothing but rejoicing, receives blows, stonings, and imprisonment from
his neighbors. Childlike he touches the bayonet of one of his captors,
and is wounded. This symbolizes the world's hostility to the innocent.
In Canto IV we find Adam in prison. His teachers are criminals. He was
born for good; society instructs him in evil. In Canto V he experiences
love with the _manola_ Salada, but sees in this passion nothing but
impurity. He longs for higher things. Circumstances abase him to crime.
He joins a band of burglars, and, falling in love with the lady whose
house they are pillaging, protects her against the gang. In Canto VI he
continues along his path of sorrow. He enters a house where a beautiful
girl is dying, while in another room revelers are making merry. This
leads him to speculate on life's mysteries and to reason for himself.
The poem ends where Adam has become thoroughly sophisticated. He is now
like any other man.

Evidently it was the poet's intention to make Adam go through a series
of adventures in various walks of life, everywhere experiencing
disillusionment. In spite of the elaborate prospectus quoted above,
we may agree with Piñeyro that the poet started writing with only the
haziest outline planned beforehand. Espronceda frankly reveals to us his
methods of poetic composition:

      ¡Oh cómo cansa el orden! no hay locura
      Igual a la del lógico severo.

And again:

      Terco escribo en mi loco desvarío
      Sin ton ni són, y para gusto mío....
      Sin regla ni compás canta mi lira:
      Sólo mi ardiente corazón me inspira!

"El Diablo Mundo" is no mere imitation of Byron's "Don Juan" and
Goethe's "Faust," though the influence of each is marked. It has
numerous merits and originalities of its own. Inferior as Espronceda
is to Byron in wit and to Goethe in depth, he can vie with either as a
harmonious versifier.

The philosophy of "El Diablo Mundo" is the commonplace pessimism of
Romanticism. The following excerpt shows how the author's skepticism
leads him to doubt his very doubts; hence his return to a questioning
acceptance of Christianity:

      Las creencias que abandonas,
      Los templos, las religiones
      Que pasaron, y que luego
      Por mentira reconoces,
      ¿Son quizá menos mentira
      Que las que ahora te forges?
      ¿No serán tal vez verdades
      Los que tú juzgas errores?

Canto II of "El Diablo Mundo" consists of the poem "A Teresa. Descansa
en Paz." This has not the slightest connection with the rest of the
poem, and can only be understood as a separate unity. It is included
in the present collection because it is the supreme expression of our
poet's subjective method. As such it stands in excellent contrast to "El
Estudiante de Salamanca," which is purely objective. No reader knows
Espronceda who has read merely his objective poems. For self-revelation
"A Jarifa en una Orgía" alone may be compared with "A Teresa." We may
agree with Escosura that Espronceda is here giving vent to his rancor
rather than to his grief, that it is the _menos hidalgo_ of all his
writings. But for once we may be sure that the poet is writing under the
stress of genuine emotion. For once he is free from posing.


"THE STUDENT OF SALAMANCA"

"El Estudiante de Salamanca" represents the synthesis of two well-known
Spanish legends, the Don Juan Tenorio legend and the Miguel Mañara
legend. The first of these may be briefly stated as follows: Don Juan
Tenorio was a young aristocrat of Seville famous for his dissolute life,
a gambler, blasphemer, duelist, and seducer of women. Among numerous
other victims, he deceives Doña Ana de Ulloa, daughter of the Comendador
de Ulloa. The latter challenges Don Juan to a duel, and falls. Later Don
Juan enters the church where the Commander lies buried and insults his
stone statue, after which he invites the statue to sup with him that
night. At midnight Don Juan and his friends are making merry when a
knock is heard at the door and the stone guest enters. Don Juan, who
does not lose his bravery even in the presence of the supernatural,
plays the host, maintaining his air of insulting banter. At the end of
the evening the guest departs, offering to repay the hospitality the
following night if Don Juan will visit his tomb at midnight. Though
friends try to dissuade him, Don Juan fearlessly accepts the invitation.
At the appointed hour he visits the tomb. Flames emerge from it, and Don
Juan pays the penalty of his misdeeds, dying without confession.

This is the outline of the story as told by Tirso de Molina in "El
Burlador de Sevilla o el Convidado de Piedra." The same theme has been
treated by Molière, Goldoni, Mozart, Byron, and Zorrilla, to mention but
a few of the hundreds of writers who have utilized it. In the hands of
non-Spanish writers the character of Don Juan loses the greater part of
its essential nobility. To them Don Juan is the type of libertine and
little more. He was a prime favorite with those Romanticists who, like
Gautier, felt "Il est indécent et mauvais ton d'être vertueux." But
as conceived in Spain Don Juan's libertinage is wholly subsidiary and
incidental. He is a superman whose soaring ambition mounts so high that
earth cannot satisfy it. The bravest may be permitted to falter in the
presence of the supernatural; but Don Juan fears neither heaven nor
hell. His bravery transcends all known standards, and this one virtue,
though it does not save him from hell, redeems him in popular esteem.

Don Félix de Montemar is the typical Don Juan type, a libertine,
gambler, blasphemer, heartless seducer, but superhumanly brave. Yet the
plot of Espronceda's poem bears closer resemblance to the story told of
Miguel Mañara.

Miguel Mañara (often erroneously spelled Maraña) Vicentelo de Leca
(1626-1679) was an alderman (_veintecuatro_) of Seville and a knight of
Calatrava. As a youth his character resembled that of Don Juan. One day
some hams sent to him from the country were intercepted by the customs.
He started out to punish the offending officers, but on the way repented
and thenceforth led a virtuous life. In 1661, after his wife's death,
he entered the Hermandad de la Caridad, later becoming superior of that
order. In his will he endowed the brotherhood with all his wealth and
requested that he be buried under the threshold of the chapel of San
Jorge. His sole epitaph was to be "Here repose the bones and ashes of
the worst man who ever existed in the world." Don Miguel's biography was
written by his friend the Jesuit Juan de Cardeñas and was added to by
Diego López de Haro, "Breve relación de la muerte, de la vida y virtudes
de Don Miguel de Mañara," Seville, 1680.

There soon sprang up a legend around the name of Mañara. He is said
to have fallen in love with the statue on the Giralda tower. On one
occasion the devil gave him a light for his cigar, reaching across
the Guadalquivir to do so. Again, he pursued a woman into the very
cathedral, forcibly pulled aside her mantilla and discovered a skeleton.
Yet more surprising, he was present, when still alive, at his own
funeral in the Church of Santiago. But these stories associated with the
name of Mañara are much older than he. Antonio de Torquemada, "Jardín de
Flores Curiosas," Salamanca, 1570, tells of an unnamed knight who fell
in love with a nun. He enters her convent with false keys only to find a
funeral in progress. On inquiring the name of the deceased, he is told
that it is himself. He then runs home pursued by two devils in the form
of dogs who tear him to pieces after he has made pious repentance.
Cristóbal Bravo turned this story into verse, Toledo, 1572. One or other
of these versions appears to have been the source of Zorrilla's "El
Capitán Montoya." Gaspar Cristóbal Lozano, "Soledades de la Vida y
Desengaños del Mundo" (Madrid, 1663), tells the same story, and is the
first to name hero and heroine, Lisardo and Teodora. Lozano, too, is the
first to make the male protagonist a Salamanca student. Lozano's version
inspired two ballads entitled "Lisardo el Estudiante de Córdova." These
were reprinted by Durán, _Romancero general_, Vol. I, pp. 264-268, where
they are readily accessible.

This ballad of Lisardo the Student of Cordova was undoubtedly
Espronceda's main source in writing "The Student of Salamanca," and to
it he refers in line 2 with the words _antiguas historias cuentan_. Yet
the indebtedness was small. Espronceda took from the ballad merely the
idea of making the hero of the adventure a Salamanca student, and
the episode of a man witnessing his own funeral. Needless to say
Espronceda's finished versification owed nothing to the halting meter of
the original. Lisardo, a Salamanca student, though a native of Cordova,
falls in love with Teodora, sister of a friend, Claudio. Teodora is
soon to become a nun. One night he makes love to her and is only mildly
rebuked. But a ghostly swordsman warns him that he will be slain if he
does not desist. Nevertheless he continues his wooing in spite of the
fact that Teodora has become a nun. She agrees to elope. While on his
way to the convent to carry out this design, his attention is attracted
by a group of men attacking an individual. This individual proves to be
himself, Lisardo. Lisardo, then, witnesses his own murder and subsequent
funeral obsequies. This warning is too terrible not to heed. He gives
over his attempt at seduction and leads an exemplary life.

There are many other examples in the literature of Spain of the man who
sees his own funeral. Essentially the same story is told by Lope de
Vega, "El Vaso de Elección. San Pablo." Bévotte thinks that Mérimée in
"Les Ames du purgatoire" was the first to combine the Don Juan and the
Miguel de Mañara legends, so closely alike in spirit, into a single
work. But Said Armesto finds this fusion already accomplished in a
seventeenth-century play, "El Niño Diablo." Dumas owed much to Mérimée
in writing his allegorical play "Don Juan de Maraña," first acted April
30, 1836. This became immediately popular in Spain. A mutilated Spanish
version appeared, Tarragona, 1838, Imprenta de Chuliá. It is doubtful
whether Espronceda owes anything to either of these French works,
although both works contain gambling scenes very similar to that in
which Don Félix de Montemar intervened. In the Dumas play Don Juan
stakes his mistress in a game, as Don Félix did his mistress's portrait.
It seems likely that Espronceda derived his whole inspiration for this
scene from Moreto's "San Franco de Sena," which he quotes.

The legend of the man who sees his own funeral belongs to the realm of
folk-lore. Like superstitions are to be found wherever the Celtic race
has settled. In Spain they are especially prevalent in Galicia and
Asturias. There the _estantigua_ or "ancient enemy" appears to those
soon to die. These spirits, or _almas en pena_, appear wearing
winding-sheets, bearing candles, a cross, and a bier on which a corpse
is lying. Don Quijote in attacking the funeral procession probably
thought he had to do with the _estantigua_. Furthermore, Said Armesto in
his illuminating study "La Leyenda de Don Juan" proves that the custom
of saying requiem masses for the living was very ancient in Spain. One
recalls, too, how Charles V in his retirement at Yuste rehearsed his own
funeral, actually entering the coffin while mass was being said.

Of all Espronceda's poems "El Estudiante de Salamanca" is the most
popular. It has a unity and completeness lacking in both the "Pelayo"
and "El Diablo Mundo." Every poet of the time was busy composing
_leyendas_. Espronceda attempted this literary form but once, yet of
all the numerous "legends" written in Spain this is the most fitted
to survive. Nowhere else has the poet shown equal virtuosity in the
handling of unusual meters. Nowhere among his works is there greater
variety or harmony of verse. Though not the most serious, this is the
most pleasing of his poems. Espronceda follows the Horatian precept
of starting his story "in the middle of things." In the first part he
creates the atmosphere of the uncanny, introduces the more important
characters, and presents a striking situation. Part Second, the most
admired, is elegiac in nature. It pleases by its simple melancholy. This
part and the dramatic tableau of Part Three explain the cause of the
duel with which Part One begins. Part Four resumes the thread of the
narration where it was broken off in Part One, and ends with the Dance
of Death which forms the climax of the whole. The character of Don Félix
de Montemar is vigorously drawn. Originality cannot be claimed for it,
as it is the conventional Don Juan Tenorio type. The character of Doña
Elvira hardly merits the high praise of Spanish critics. She is
a composite portrait of Ophelia, Marguerite, and two of Byron's
characters, Doña Julia and Haidée, a shadowy, unreal creation, as
ghostly in life as in death. "The Student of Salamanca" tells a story
vigorously and sweetly. It does not abound in quotable passages like the
"Diablo Mundo." It is neither philosophic nor introspective. It teaches
no lesson. Its merit is its perfection of form.


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

The best biography of Espronceda is that of José Cascales y Muñoz, "D.
José de Espronceda, su época, su vida y sus obras," Madrid, 1914. This
is an expansion of the same author's "Apuntes y Materiales para la
Biografía de Espronceda," _Revue hispanique_, Vol. XXIII, pp. 5-108. See
also a shorter article by the same author in _La España Moderna_, Vol.
CCXXXIV, pp. 27-48. Less critical, but useful, is Antonio Cortón,
"Espronceda," Madrid, 1906. The very uncritical book by E. Rodríguez
Solís, "Espronceda: su tiempo, su vida y sus obras," Madrid, 1883, is
chiefly valuable now as the best source for Espronceda's parliamentary
speeches. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly's "Espronceda," _The Modern Language
Review_, Vol. IV, pp, 20-39, is admirable as a biography and a
criticism, though partially superseded by later works containing the
results of new discoveries. P.H. Churchman, "Byron and Espronceda,"
_Revue hispanique_, Vol. XX, pp. 5-210, gives a short biography, though
the study is in the main a penetrating investigation of Espronceda's
sources. E. Piñeyro has written two articles on Espronceda: "Poetas
Famosos del Siglo XIX," Madrid, 1883, and "El Romanticismo en España,"
Paris, 1904. This last was first printed in the _Bulletin hispanique_
for 1903. The older biography of D.A. Ferrer del Río, "Galería de la
Literatura," Madrid, 1846, still has a certain value; but the most
important source for Espronceda's youthful adventures is "El Discurso
del Excmo. Señor D. Patricio de la Escosura, individuo de número de la
Academia Española, leído ante esta corporación en la sesión pública
inaugural de 1870," Madrid, 1870. This matter is expanded in five
very important articles which appeared in "La Ilustración Española y
Americana" for 1876 (February 8, February 22, June 22, July 8, September
22), partially reproduced in the book of Cascales y Muñoz. See also
López Núñez, "José de Espronceda, Biografía Anecdótica," Madrid, 1917
and A. Donoso, "La Juventud de Espronceda," _Revista Chilena_, July,
1917. The best study of Espronceda's philosophy is Bonilla y San
Martín's, "El Pensamiento de Espronceda," _La España Moderna_, Vol.
CCXXXIV. For a recent short article see Cejador y Frauca, "Historia de
la Lengua y Literatura Castellana," VII, Madrid, 1917, PP. 177-185.

The best bibliography of Espronceda's writings is that of Churchman, "An
Espronceda Bibliography," _Revue hispanique_, XVII, pp. 741-777. This
should be supplemented by reference to Georges Le Gentil, "Les Revues
littéraires de l'Espagne pendant la première moitié du XIXe siècle,"
Paris, 1909. The least bad edition of Espronceda's poems is "Obras
Poéticas y Escritos en Prosa," Madrid, 1884. (The second volume, which
was to contain the prose writings, never appeared.) See also the "Obras
Poéticas de Espronceda," Valladolid, 1900, and "Espronceda," Barcelona,
1906. Also "Páginas Olvidadas de Espronceda," Madrid, 1873. There has
been a recent reprint of "Sancho Saldaña," Madrid, 1914, Repullés.
Churchman has published "Blanca de Borbón," _Revue hispanique_, Vol.
XVII, and also "More Inedita" in the same volume. There is said to be
an English translation of "The Student of Salamanca," London, 1847. An
excellent French version is that of R. Foulché-Delbosc, "L'Étudiant de
Salamanque," Paris, 1893. Mary J. Serrano has made splendid translations
of "The Pirate" and "To Spain: An Elegy," Warner's Library of the
World's Best Literature, Vol. XIV.

For a very full treatment and bibliography of the Don Juan Tenorio
legend see G.G. de Bévotte, "La Légende de Don Juan," Paris, 1911.
Also Farinelli, _Giornale Storico_, XXVII, and "Homenaje a Menéndez
y Pelayo," Vol. I, p. 295; A.L. Stiefel, _Jahresberichte für neuere
deutsche Litteraturgeschichte_, 1898-1899, Vol. I, 7, pp. 74-79.


NOTES ON ESPRONCEDA'S VERSIFICATION


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

To enjoy the work of so musical an artist as Espronceda, the student
must be able to read his verse in the original. This cannot be done
without some knowledge of the rules which govern the writing of Spanish
poetry. It therefore becomes necessary to give some account of the
elementary principles of Spanish prosody. This is not the place for a
complete treatment of the subject: only so much will be attempted as is
necessary for the intelligent comprehension of our author's writings. A
knowledge of English prosody will hinder rather than help the student;
for the Spanish poet obeys very different laws from those which govern
the writer of English verse.

The two essentials of Spanish poetry are (1) a fixed number of syllables
in each verse (by verse we mean a single line of poetry); (2) a
rhythmical arrangement of the syllables within the verse. Rime and
assonance are hardly less important, but are not strictly speaking
essential.

SYLLABLE-COUNTING

FINAL SYLLABLES

When a verse is stressed on the final syllable, it is called a _verso
agudo_ or masculine verse.

When a verse is stressed on the next to the last syllable, it is called
a _verso llano_ or feminine verse.

When a verse is stressed on the second from the last syllable, the
antepenult, it is called a _verso esdrújulo_.

For the sake of convenience, the _verso llano_ is considered the normal
verse. Thus, in an eight-syllable verse of this type the final stress
always falls on the seventh syllable, in a six- syllable verse on the
fifth syllable, etc., always one short of the last. In the case of the
_verso agudo_, where the final stress falls on the final syllable, a
verse having actually seven syllables would nevertheless be counted as
having eight. One syllable is always added in counting the syllables of
a _verso agudo_, and, contrariwise, one is always subtracted from the
total number of actual syllables in a _verso esdrújulo_. These three
kinds of verses are frequently used together in the same strophe
(_copla_ or stanza) and held to be of equal length. Thus:

      Turbios sus ojos,
      Sus graves párpados
      Flojos caer.

Theoretically these are all five-syllable verses. The first is a _verso
llano_, the normal verse. It alone has five syllables. The second is a
_verso esdrújulo_. It actually has six syllables, but theoretically is
held to have five. The third is a _verso agudo_. It actually has but
four syllables, but in theory is designated a five-syllable verse. All
three verses agree in having the final stress fall upon the fourth
syllable.

It would be simpler if, following the French custom, nothing after the
final stress were counted; but Spaniards prefer to consider normal
the verse of average length. It follows from this definition that a
monosyllabic verse is an impossibility in Spanish. Espronceda writes:

      Leve,
      Breve
      Són.

He is not here dropping from dissyllabic to monosyllabic verse, but the
last verse too must be considered a line of two syllables.

Espronceda never uses a measure of more than twelve syllables in the
selections included in this book. Serious poets never attempt anything
longer than a verse of sixteen syllables.

DIPHTHONGIZATION

Spanish vowels are divided into two classes: the strong vowels, _a_,
_o_, _e_, and the weak vowels, _u_, _i_. According to the Academy rules,
followed by most grammarians, there can be no diphthongization of two
strong vowels in the proper pronunciation of prose; only when a strong
unites with a weak or two weaks unite can diphthongization take place.
In verse, on the other hand, diphthongization of two strong vowels is
not only allowable but common. This would probably not be the case if
the same thing did not have considerable justification in colloquial
practice. As a matter of fact we frequently hear _ahora_ pronounced
_áora_ with diphthongization and shift of stress.

Of the three strong vowels, _a_ is "dominant" over _o_ and _e_; _o_ is
dominant over _e_; and any one of the three is dominant over _u_ or _i_.
A dominant vowel is one which has the power of attracting to itself the
stress which, except for diphthongization, would fall on the other
vowel with which it unites. The vowel losing the stress is called the
"absorbed" vowel. This principle, which we find exemplified in the
earliest poetic monuments of the language, must be thoroughly understood
by the student of modern Spanish verse.

SYNERESIS

Syneresis is the uniting of two or three vowels, each of which is
ordinarily possessed of full syllabic value, into a diphthong or a
triphthong, thereby reducing the number of syllables in the word; _h_
does not interfere with syneresis. Thus, _aérea_ is normally a word of
four syllables. In this verse it counts as three.

      Mística y aérea dudosa visión (12)

(The numbers in parentheses indicate the syllables in the verse.
Remember that the figure represents the theoretical number of syllables
in the line, and indicates the actual number only in the case of
the _verso llano_. Furthermore, the figure has been determined by a
comparison with adjacent lines in the same stanzas, verses which offer
no metrical difficulties.) So likewise in:

      Y en aérea fantástica danza (10)

In the following we have double syneresis, and the word has but two
syllables:

      Aerea como dorada mariposa (11)

Examples of syneresis after the tonic stress:

      Rechinan girando las férreas veletas (12)
      Todos atropellándoos en montón (11)
      Palpa en torno de sí, y el impio jura (11)

_Impio_, usually _impío_, is one of a number of words admitting of two
stresses. Such are called words of double accentuation. The principle is
different from that governing the stress-shift explained above. The word
has its ordinary value in the following:

      «Bienvenida la luz,» dijo el impío (11)

Examples of syneresis before the tonic stress:

      Se siente con sus lágrimas ahogar (11)
      Tu pecho de roedor remordimiento (11)
      ¡Ay! El que la triste realidad palpó! (12)
      Toda la sangre coagulada envía (11)
      ¿Quién en su propia sangre los ahogó? (11)
      Tanto delirio a realizar alcanza (11)
      Ahogar me siento en infernal tortura (11)

Examples of syneresis under stress:

      El blanco ropaje que ondeante se ve (12)
      Las piedras con las piedras se golpearon (11)
      Ahora adelante?» Dijo, y en seguida (11)

In the first two examples there is no stress-shift. In the third, the
stress travels from the _o_ of _Ahora_ to the initial _a_. In the
following example _ahora_ has three syllables:

      Será más tarde que ahora (8)

The rule regarding syneresis under stress is that it is allowable, with
or without resulting stress-shift, except when the combinations _éa_,
_éo_, _óa_, are involved. Espronceda violates the rule in this instance:

      Veame en vuestros brazos y máteme luego (12)

This is a peculiarly violent and harsh syneresis. The stress shifts from
the first _e_ to the _a_, giving a pronunciation very different from
that of the usual _véame_. Such a syneresis is more pardonable at the
beginning of a verse than in any other position; but good modern poets
strive to avoid such harshnesses. Espronceda sometimes makes _río_
monosyllabic:

      Los rios su curso natural reprimen (11)

In the poetry of the Middle Ages and Renaissance such pronunciations as
_teniá_ for _tenía_ are common.

DIERESIS

Dieresis is the breaking up of vowel-combinations in such a way as
to form an additional syllable in the word. It is the opposite of
syneresis. Dieresis never occurs in the case of the diphthongs _ie_ and
_ue_ derived from Latin (e), and (o), in words like _tierra_, _bueno_,
etc. _Uá_ and _uó_ are regularly dissyllabic except after _c_, _g_, and
_j_. Examples:

      Y en su blanca luz süave (8)
      En la playa un adüar (8)
      En vez de desafïaros (8)
      Compañero eterno su dolor crüel (12)
      Grandïosa, satánica figura (11)
      El carïado, lívido esqueleto (11)
      La Luna en el mar rïela (8)
      Cólera, impetuoso torbellino (11)
      Horas de confianza y de delicias (11)
      En cárdenos matices cambiaban (11)
      Rüido de pasos de gente que viene (12)

The same word without dieresis:

      Por las losas deslízase sin ruido (11)

In certain words, such as _cruel_, metrical custom preserves a
pronunciation in which the adjacent vowels have separate syllabic value.
Traditional grammar, represented by the Academy, asserts that such is
the correct pronunciation of these words to this day; but the actual
speech of the best speakers diphthongizes these vowels, and their
separation in poetry must rank as a dieresis. In printing poetry it is
customary to print the mark of dieresis on many words in which dieresis
is regular as well as on those in which it is exceptional.

SYNALEPHA

Synalepha is the combining into one syllable of two or more adjacent
vowels or diphthongs of different words. It is the same phenomenon
as syneresis extended beyond the single word. _H_ does not prevent
synalepha. The number of synalephas possible in a single verse is
theoretically limited only by the number of syllables in that verse. A
simple instance:

      De alguna arruinada iglesia (8)

The number of vowels entering into a synalepha is commonly two or three;
rarely four, and, by a _tour de force_, even five:

      Ni envidio a Eudoxia ni codicio a Eulalia (11)

Synalepha is not prevented by any mark of punctuation separating the
two words nor by the caesural pause (see below). In dramatic verse a
synalepha may even be divided between two speakers. In the short lines
of "El Mendigo," Espronceda mingles four- with five-syllable verses.
But as the five-syllable verses begin with vowels and the preceding
four-syllable verses end with vowels, the former sound no longer than
the rest. In very short lines synalepha may occur between one verse
and another following it. See also line 1389 of "El Estudiante de
Salamanca."

1. The simplest case is where both vowels entering into synalepha occur
in unstressed syllables:

      Informes, en que se escuchan (8)

When the two vowels coming together are identical, as here, they fuse
into a single sound (_s'escuchan_), with only a slight gain in the
quantity of the vowel. _Se_ here has no individual accent in the
stress-group. Where the vowels in synalepha are different, each is
sounded, but the stronger or more dominant is the one more distinctly
heard:

      Vagar, y aúllan los perros (8)

2. The second case is where the vowel or diphthong ending the first word
in the synalepha bears the stress, and the initial vowel or diphthong
of the second word is unstressed. Examples which do not involve
stress-shift:

      Del que mató en desafío (8)
      Que no he seguido a una dama (8)

(_He_ is without stress in the group.)

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
      No tardará.

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
                  Envido.

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
                         Quiero. (8)

In the following examples stress-shift occurs, because the unstressed
vowel is dominant while the stressed vowel is absorbed. Such
stress-shifts as these are sanctioned only when they do not coincide
with a strong rhythmic stress (see below) in the verse. They are less
offensive at the beginning than at the end:

      Allí en la triste soledad se hallaron (11)
      Tú el aroma en las flores exhalas (10)
      Al punto aquí castigaré al medroso (11)

The following are disagreeably harsh:

      Que estas torres llegué a ver (8)
      ¿De inciertos pesares por qué hacerla esclava (12)

3. The third case is where the second vowel or diphthong bears the
stress, while the first is unstressed:

      Teñida de ópalo y grana (8)

In cases like these we are dealing with a form of synalepha which,
if not true elision, approaches it closely. According to Benot, the
pronunciation is not quite _d'ópalo_, but "there is an attempt at
elision." In other words, the second vowel or diphthong, if dominant,
so predominates over the first that it is scarcely audible. Under this
case, too, there may arise stress-shift:

      Se hizo el bigote, requirió la espada (11)

This is a very bad verse. But such instances are rare in Espronceda and
good modern poets. They are never sanctioned in connection with a strong
rhythmic stress. In such a case hiatus (see below) is favored as the
lesser of two evils.

4. The fourth case is where each of the two vowels bears the stress:

      Así, ante nosotros pasa en ilusión (12)

What happens here is that one of the two stresses becomes subordinate to
the other, the stress being wholly assumed by the more dominant of the
two.

Where three or more vowels unite in a synalepha, two things must be
borne in mind: (1) Stress-shift is not harsh to the Spanish ear, and
is always permissible, if more than two vowels are involved. This is
Espronceda's justification in the following:

  Si se murió, a lo hecho, pecho (8)
  Necesito ahora dinero (8)
  Su pecho ahogado (5)

(2) The vowels of three words may not combine if the middle word is y,
e, he, o, or u. Examples:

      ¡Pues no ha hecho mal disparate! (8)
      Que conduce a esta mansión (8)
But:  Cuando en sueño | y en silencio (8)
      Si tal vez suena | o está (8)
      Alma fiera | e insolente (8)

There is one case in the text where _he_ as middle word does enter into
synalepha, but this is merely the fusion of three identical vowels:

      Yo me he echado el alma atrás (8)

HIATUS

Hiatus is the breaking up into two syllables of vowel combinations in
adjacent words capable of entering into synalepha. It is an extension to
the word-group of dieresis, which applies only to a single word.

Many authorities on Spanish versification recognize as hiatus various
cases which should not be so classified. In words like _yo, yerro,
hierro, huevo_, etc., the first phonetic element is in each case a
semi-vowel, and these semi-vowels have the value of consonants in the
words cited. To classify the following as examples of hiatus is to be
phonetically unsound:

      Perdida tengo | yo el alma (8)
      Ponzoñoso lago de punzante | hielo (12)
      Me he de quejar de este | yerro (8)
      Levantóse en su cóncavo | hueco (10)
      Cual témpanos de | hielo endurecidos (11)
      Tierno quejido que en el alma | hiere (11)

In none of these cases could there possibly be synalepha. Consequently
by definition there can be no hiatus.

Hiatus most frequently occurs to avoid the greater cacophony which would
arise from stress-shift under case 3 of synalepha:

      Era la hora | en que acaso (8)

Lack of hiatus would here produce a stress-shift resulting in an
unharmonious stressing of two successive syllables.

      Reposaba, y tumba | era (8)

The same principle applies here as in the above, except that the effect
would be even worse, because the stress shift would come under the
rhythmic stress. (See below.)

      Su mejilla; es una | ola (8) (Ditto.)
      ¡Pobres flores de tu | alma! (8)

Probably to give the pronominal adjective greater emphasis.

      Y huyó su | alma a la mansión dichosa (11)

Probably to avoid two successive stresses, though possibly there may be
dieresis in _mansión_.

      Don Félix, a buena | hora (8)

Again to avoid stress-shift under the rhythmic stress.

      ¡El as! ¡el as! aquí está (8)
      Y si Dios aquí os envia (8)

In these two examples instead of hiatus there is synalepha with
stress-shift, but we have to do with case 2 of synalepha, not case 3.

      Que un alma, una vida, | es (8)
      Cuando | hacia él fatídica figura (11)
      Y el otro ¡Dios santo! y el otro era | él! (12)
      ¡Villano! mas esto | es (8)
      En cada | hijo a contemplar un rey (11)

In some instances hiatus seems to occur for no other reason than to
preserve the verse-measure:

      Resonando cual lúgubre | eco (10)
      Y palacios de | oro y de cristal (11)
      ¡Y tú feliz, que | hallaste en la muerte (11)

In general hiatus is most likely to occur before the principal rhythmic
stress in a verse; that is, before the final stress.

RHYTHM, RHYTHMIC STRESS, THE CAESURAL PAUSE

In English poetry the foot, rather than the syllable, is the unit. The
number of feet to a verse is fixed, but the number of syllables varies.
In Spanish poetry the number of syllables to a verse is fixed, subject
only to the laws of syllable-counting given above. But if in this
respect the Spanish poet has less freedom than the English versifier, he
has infinitely greater liberty in the arrangement of his rhythms. The
sing-song monotony of regularly recurring beats is intolerable to Latin
ears. The greater flexibility of Spanish rhythm can best be shown by
illustrations:

      The Assy'rian came do'wn like the wo'lf on the fo'ld,
      And his co'horts were gle'aming in pu'rple and go'ld;
      And the she'en of their spe'ars was like sta'rs on the se'a,
      When the blu'e wave rolls ni'ghtly on de'ep Galile'e.

Having chosen to write this poem in the anapestic tetrameter, Byron
never varies the rhythm except to substitute an occasional iambic at the
beginning of a verse:

      And the're lay the ste'ed with his no'stril all wi'de.

Notice how much more freely Espronceda handles this meter in Spanish:

      Su fo'rma galla'rda dibu'ja en las so'mbras
      El bla'nco ropaj'e que ondea'nte se ve',
      Y cua'l si pisa'ra mulli'das alfo'mbras,
      Deslí'zase le've sin rui'do su pie'.

      Tal vi'mos al ra'yo de la lu'na lle'na
      Fugiti'va ve'la de le'jos cruza'r
      Que ya' la' hinche en po'pa la bri'sa sere'na,
      Que ya' la confu'nde la espu'ma del ma'r.

The first of these stanzas has the true Byronic swing. But note how
freely the rhythm is handled in the second. Spanish rhythm is so
flexible and free that little practical advantage is gained by counting
feet. We distinguish only two sorts of verse-measure, the binary, where
in general there is stress on one syllable out of two--that is there
are trochees (__' __) or iambics (__ __') in the verse, or the two
intermingled--and second the ternary measure, where one of a group of
three syllables receives the stress. Such a verse is made up of dactyls
(__' __ __), anapests (__ __ __'), or amphibrachs (__ __' __), or some
combination of these. Of course, a three-syllable foot is often found in
binary verse, and, _vice versa_ a two-syllable foot in ternary measure.
By binary verse we mean only a form of verse in which the twofold
measure predominates, and by ternary one in which the threefold measure
predominates. The extract last quoted is an example of ternary verse.
The following will serve as a specimen of the binary movement:

      En de'rredo'r de u'na me'sa
      Ha'sta se'is ho'mbres está'n,
      Fi'ja la vi'sta' en los na'ipes,
      Mie'ntras jue'gan a'l para'r;

Every word in Spanish has its individual word-accent: _habí'a,
habla'do_. Now if we join these two words in a phrase, _habí'a
habla'do_, we note that while each of the words still retains its
individual word-accent, _hablado_ is more strongly stressed than
_había_. In addition to its word-accent _hablado_ bears what we term
a phrase-accent. In any line of verse some of the word-stresses are
stronger than others, and these stronger stresses are termed rhythmic
stresses. They correspond to the phrase-stresses of prose. The principal
rhythmic stress is the last stress of the line. In general the rhythmic
stress must coincide with a word-stress. It always does except where
stress-shift comes into play. We have already seen that a stress-shift
coinciding with the rhythmic stress is intolerable, and hiatus is
preferred. It is very unharmonious for two stresses to fall together at
the end of a verse:

      Que estas torres llegué a ver (8)

This is a very bad verse, because _a_ is dominant over _é_ and brings
about stress-shift, and the two consecutive syllables _a_ and _ver_ are
both stressed. The result is unharmonious. A syllable bearing stress and
standing immediately before the final stress is called an obstructing
syllable (_una sílaba obstruccionista_). Every effort is made by a good
poet to avoid such a cacophony. The above is a good example of one. I
have emended llegué to _llegue_ in the text.

A short verse can easily be spoken without pause, but above ten
syllables it becomes necessary for the reader to rest somewhere within
the line. The resting-place is called the caesural pause. The longer the
verse, the greater its importance. It does not prevent synalepha. The
stress immediately before the caesura must be the second most important
rhythmic stress of the verse.

RIME AND ASSONANCE

The regularity of the beats in English verse is of itself sufficient to
indicate when a line of poetry is ended, even though there be no rime to
mark that end. Hence blank verse has been highly developed by English
poets, and many, like Milton, have held it to be the noblest form of
verse. Blank verse is impossible in French, because French with its lack
of verbal stress has no other device than rime to mark the end of a
verse. Without rime French blank verse would be indistinguishable from
rhythmic prose. In Spanish the stress is not so heavy as in the Germanic
languages, but, on the other hand, is much stronger than in French.
Spanish blank verse is not unknown, but has never been cultivated with
great success. It is evident that in this language too, lacking as it
does regular rhythm in its versification, rime is much more necessary
than in English. However, an occasional _verso suelto_, or blank verse,
intermingled with rimed ones, is very common.

Two words rime with one another when there is identity of sound between
the last stressed vowels and between any letters which may follow these
vowels. Rime is masculine (in Spanish _rima aguda_) when the last
syllables bear the stress: _mal_--_cristal_; or feminine when an
unstressed vowel follows the stressed one (in Spanish _rima llana_):
_hermosura_--_locura_. Inasmuch as _b_ and _v_ represent the same sound,
they rime. The weak vowel of a diphthong is ignored for riming purposes;
thus _vuelo_ rimes with _cielo_. Good poets avoid obvious or easy
rimes such as those yielded by flexional endings and suffixes. It is
permissible to rime two identically-spelled words if they are in fact
different words in meaning: _ven_ (they see) rimes with _vén_ (come).

Assonance is the identity of sound of two or more stressed vowels and
the final following vowels, if there are any. In case consonants stand
after the stressed vowel they are disregarded.

Assonance is of two sorts: single assonance (_asonante agudo_),
_están_--_va_--_parar_--_jamás_, etc.; and double assonance (_asonante
llano_), _cuentan_--_tierra_--_dejan _or _coronada_--_gasa_--_baña_. In
assonanced verse the assonanced words end the even lines. The odd are
usually blank, though sometimes rimed. A _voz aguda_ cannot assonate
with a _voz llana_, but there is no objection to the introduction of
_voces esdrújulas_ into _asonante llano_. In this case only the stressed
and the final vowels of the _esdrújula_ are counted; for example,
_América_ assonances with _crea_. When diphthongs enter into assonance,
the weak vowel is ignored: _pleita_ assonances with _pliega_.

Assonance is not unknown in English, especially in popular or folk
verse; but we generally regard it as a faulty rime. Thus in the British
national anthem we read:

      Send him victorious,
      Happy and glorious,
      Long to reign over us,
        God save the king!

"Over us" plainly assonates, rather than rimes, with "glorious," but
this is dangerously close to doggerel. Assonance is unsuited to the
genius of any language possessed of a rich vowel-system. This is evident
to any one who has read Archbishop Trench's attempt to render Calderon's
verse into English assonance.

STROPHES

I shall not attempt to list the innumerable verse-forms to be found in
Spanish poetry, but shall only indicate the forms used by Espronceda in
the selections contained in this volume. Some of these are fixed and
conventional, and others are of his own contrivance. Spanish uses the
terms _estrofa_ and _copla_ to designate an arrangement of verses in a
stanza. _Copla_ must not be confused with English "couplet." These are
general terms; most verse-forms are designated by special names. The
following verse-forms are found in the selections contained in this
book:



"EL ESTUDIANTE DE SALAMANCA"

Lines 1-40. Ballad meter or _verso de romance_ (8 syllables) with
assonance in _é_-_a_.

Lines 41-48. _Verso de romance_ with assonance in _ó_.

Lines 49-63. Irregular 3-syllable meter with assonance in _ó_ occurring
irregularly; lines 53 and 55 rime, and 59 and 61 assonate in _é-a_.

Lines 64-75. _Verso de romance_ with assonance in _ó_.

Lines 76-99. Quatrains or _cuartetas_ of 12-syllable verse; rime-scheme
_abab_ (this arrangement of the rime is called _rima cruzada_);
alternation of masculine and feminine rime.

Lines 100-139. _Octavillas italianas_ (8-syllable verse); lines 2 and
3, 6 and 7, 4 and 8 rime; lines 1 and 5 either assonate or are blank
(_sueltos_).

Lines 140-179. _Octavas reales_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme
_abababcc_; the rimes must be feminine.

Lines 180-257. _Verso de romance_, printed in the form of _cuartetas_;
assonance in _á-a_.

Lines 258-302. _Quintillas_ (8-syllable verse); the rime-scheme varies;
the rule is that there shall be two rimes to a _quintilla_, and the same
rime must not occur in three consecutive verses.

Lines 303-330. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_;
occasionally assonance replaces rime in the even verses.

Lines 331-338. _Octava real_.

Lines 339-370. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse).

Lines 371-418. _Octavas reales_.

Lines 419-434. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse).

Lines 435-454. _Verso de romance_, printed as _cuartetas_; assonance in
_á_.

Lines 455-558. _Redondillas_ (8-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abba_;
this arrangement of rimes is called _versos pareados en el centro_.

Lines 559-578. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse); _rima cruzada_.

Lines 579-590. _Redondillas_.

Lines 591-600. _Décima_ (8-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abbaaccddc_.

Lines 601-692. _Redondillas_.

Lines 693-792. _Cuartetas_ (12-syllable verse); odd verses rime; the
even either form a masculine rime or are in assonance.

Lines 793-820. _Cuartetas_ (8-syllable verse); the rime-scheme varies:
some _coplas_ are _redondillas_; others have the crossed rime.

Lines 821-884. _Cuartetas_ of 12-syllable verse resumed; same
rime-scheme as above.

Lines 885-894. _Quintillas_ (8-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abaab_.

Lines 895-910. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme either
_abba_ or _abab_.

Lines 911-938. _Cuartetas_ of 12-syllable verse; rime-scheme _abab_;
even verses form either a masculine rime or assonance.

Lines 939-942. _Cuarteta_ (11-syllable verse); even verses in assonance;
the odd verses rime.

Lines 943-961. Irregular meter (6-syllable verse); a mixture of rime,
assonance, and blank verse.

Lines 962-1033. _Verso de romance_; assonance in _á_.

Lines 1034-1063. _Quintillas_.

Lines 1064-1115. _Cuartetas_ (12-syllable verse); rime in the odd
verses; assonance or masculine rime in the even.

Lines 1116-1145. _Quintillas_.

Lines 1146-1149. _Cuarteta_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_.

Lines 1150-1164. _Quintillas_.

Lines 1165-1196. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_;
feminine rime.

Lines 1197-1364. _Octavas reales_.

Lines 1365-1384. _Quintillas_.

Lines 1385-1390. Irregular blending of 2-and 3-syllable meter; assonance
and rime; the _crescendo_ effect begins here.

Lines 1391-1399. Irregular 4-syllable meter; assonance and rime.

Lines 1400-1412. Irregular 5-syllable meter; assonance, rime, and blank
verse.

Lines 1413-1439. Irregular 6-syllable meter; assonance, rime, blank
verse.

Lines 1440-1447. Irregular 7-syllable meter; assonance, rime, blank
verse.

Lines 1448-1469. _Verso de romance_; assonance in _é-o_.

Lines 1470-1485. Irregular 9-syllable meter; assonance in _ó_.

Lines 1486-1501. _Cuartetas_ (10-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_;
even verses assonate or form a masculine rime.

Lines 1502-1521. _Cuartetas_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_;
even verses assonate or form a masculine rime.

Lines 1522-1553. _Cuartetas_ (12-syllable verse); rime-scheme _abab_;
even verses assonate or form a masculine rime; the _crescendo_ is now at
its height.

Lines 1554-1569. _Octavillas italianas_ (11-syllable verse); see above
for description of this verse form.

Lines 1570-1585. _Octavillas italianas_ (10-syllable verse).

Lines 1586-1601. _Octavillas italianas_ (9-syllable verse).

Lines 1602-1617. _Octavillas italianas_ (8-syllable verse).

Lines 1618-1633. _Octavillas italianas_ (7-syllable verse).

Lines 1634-1649. _Octavillas italianas_ (6-syllable verse).

Lines 1650-1661. An irregular 12-verse stanza of 5-syllable verse in
which verses 3 and 4, 8 and 9 rime as couplets; 6 and 12 also rime;
the other verses are blank.

Lines 1662-1669. Variant of the _octavilla italiana_; 4-syllable verse;
verse 6 is blank instead of 5.

Lines 1670-1677. _Octavilla italiana_; 3-syllable verse; rime-scheme
normal.

Lines 1678-1680. Irregular meter of 2-syllable verse; rime and blank;
the _diminuendo_ effect ends here.

Lines 1681-1704. _Octavas reales_.



"CANCIÓN DEL PIRATA"

Lines 1-16. _Octavillas italianas_ (8-syllable verse).

Lines 17-22. _Sextina_ (8-syllable verse, except that verse 2 is a
_verso quebrado_ or "broken verse" of 4 syllables). The _sextina_
admits of the greatest variety of form; those in this poem are all of
the same pattern; rime-scheme _abaccb_.

Lines 23-30. _Octavilla italiana_ (4-syllable verse).

Lines 31-34. _Cuarteta_ (8-syllable verse); verses 1 and 3 are blank;
2 and 4 assonate.

Lines 35-40. _Sextina_.

Lines 41-48. _Octavilla italiana_, same as above.

Lines 50-55. _Sextina_.

Lines 56-63. _Octavilla italiana_.

Lines 65-70. _Sextina_.

Lines 71-78. _Octavilla italiana_.

Lines 80-85. _Sextina_.

Lines 86-93. _Octavilla italiana_.

Lines 94-97. _Cuarteta_.



"EL CANTO DEL COSACO"

This poem is written in _cuartetas_ of 11-syllable verse with _rima
cruzada_. Verses 1 and 3 rime and 2 and 4 assonate, except in the
refrain, where 1 and 3 are blank.



"EL MENDIGO"

Lines 1-4. _Cuarteta_ (11-syllable verse); verses 1 and 3 are blank;
2 and 4 assonate.

Lines 5-10. _Sextina_ (8-syllable verse, except 2, the _verso
quebrado_, which has 4 syllables); rime-scheme _abcaac_; the _verso
quebrado_ is blank.

Lines 11-28. Irregular 4-syllable meter; a wholly irregular
arrangement of rime, assonance, and blank verse.

Lines 29-32. Irregular _cuarteta_ of two 8-syllable verses followed by
two of 11; verses 1 and 3 are blank; 2 and 4 assonate.

Lines 34-39. _Sextina_, same as above.

Lines 40-57. Irregular 4-syllable meter, same as above.

Lines 58-61. _Cuarteta_, same as the irregular one above.

Lines 63-68. _Sextina_, same as above.

Lines 69-88. Irregular 4-syllable meter, same as above.

Lines 89-92. _Cuarteta_, same as the irregular ones above.

Lines 94-99. _Sextina_, same as above.

Lines 100-117. Irregular 4-syllable meter, same as above.

Lines 118-121. _Cuarteta_, same as the irregular ones above.

Lines 122-125. _Cuarteta_, like the normal one above.



"SONETO"

Lines 1-14. Sonnet. 11-syllable verse. Rime-scheme _abba, abba, cde,
cde_.



"A TERESA. DESCANSA EN PAZ"

Written throughout in _octavas reales_ (11-syllable verse); rime-scheme
_abababcc_.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

For a fuller treatment of Spanish prosody the student may profitably
consult the following works:

BENOT. "Prosodía Castellana y Versificación," 3 vols., Madrid, no date.

ROBLES DÉGANO. "Ortología Clásica de la Lengua Castellana," Madrid,
1905.

BELLO. "Ortología y Arte Métrica" (Vol. 4 of "Obras Completas"), Madrid,
1890.

For more or less summary treatments of the subject the American student
may profitably consult:

OLMSTED. "Legends, Tales, and Poems by Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer" (Ginn and
Company).

FORD. "A Spanish Anthology" (Silver, Burdett and Company).

HILLS and MORLEY. "Modern Spanish Lyrics" (Henry Holt and Company).



"EL ESTUDIANTE DE SALAMANCA"
AND OTHER SELECTIONS
FROM ESPRONCEDA



                                   CUENTO.

                         EL ESTUDIANTE DE SALAMANCA


                               PARTE PRIMERA

                              Sus fueros, sus bríos; sus premáticas,
                              su voluntad.--"Quijote," Parte Primera

            Era más de media noche,
          Antiguas historias cuentan,
          Cuando, en sueño y en silencio
          Lóbrego envuelta la tierra,
          Los vivos muertos parecen,                               [5]
          Los muertos la tumba dejan.
          Era la hora en que acaso
          Temerosas voces suenan
          Informes, en que se escuchan
          Tácitas pisadas huecas,                                 [10]
          Y pavorosas fantasmas
          Entre las densas tinieblas
          Vagan, y aúllan los perros
          Amedrentados al verlas;
          En que tal vez la campana                               [15]
          De alguna arruinada iglesia
          Da misteriosos sonidos
          De maldición y anatema,
          Que los sábados convoca
          A las brujas a su fiesta.                               [20]
          El cielo estaba sombrío,
          No vislumbraba una estrella,
          Silbaba lúgubre el viento,
          Y allá en el aire, cual negras
          Fantasmas, se dibujaban                                 [25]
          Las torres de las iglesias,
          Y del gótico castillo
          Las altísimas almenas,
          Donde canta o reza acaso
          Temeroso el centinela                                   [30]
          Todo en fin a media noche
          Reposaba, y tumba era
          De sus dormidos vivientes
          La antigua ciudad que riega
          El Tormes, fecundo río,                                 [35]
          Nombrado de los poetas,
          La famosa Salamanca,
          Insigne en armas y letras,
          Patria de ilustres varones,
          Noble archivo de las ciencias.                          [40]
            Súbito rumor de espadas
          Cruje, y un «¡ay!» se escuchó;
          Un «¡ay!» moribundo, un «¡ay!»
          Que penetra el corazón,
          Que hasta los tuétanos hiela                            [45]
          Y da al que lo oyó temblor;
          Un «¡ay!» de alguno que al mundo
          Pronuncia el último adiós.

                El ruido
                Cesó,                                             [50]
                Un hombre
                Pasó
                Embozado,
                Y el sombrero
                Recatado                                          [55]
                A los ojos
                Se caló.
                Se desliza
                Y atraviesa
                Junto al muro                                     [60]
                De una iglesia,
                Y en la sombra
                Se perdió.

            Una calle estrecha y alta,
          La calle del Ataúd,                                     [65]
          Cual si de negro crespón
          Lóbrego eterno capuz
          La vistiera, siempre oscura
          Y de noche sin más luz
          Que la lámpara que alumbra                              [70]
          Una imagen de Jesús,
          Atraviesa el embozado,
          La espada en la mano aún,
          Que lanzó vivo reflejo
          Al pasar frente a la cruz.                              [75]

      Cual suele la luna tras lóbrega nube
    Con franjas de plata bordarla en redor,
    Y luego si el viento la agita, la sube
    Disuelta a los aires en blanco vapor,

      Así vaga sombra de luz y de nieblas,                        [80]
    Mística y aérea dudosa visión,
    Ya brilla, o la esconden las densas tinieblas,
    Cual dulce esperanza, cual vana ilusión.

     La calle sombría, la noche ya entrada,
    La lámpara triste ya pronta a espirar,                        [85]
    Que a veces alumbra la imagen sagrada,
    Y a veces se esconde la sombra a aumentar,

      El vago fantasma que acaso aparece,
    Y acaso se acerca con rápido pie,
    Y acaso en las sombras tal vez desparece,                     [90]
    Cual ánima en pena del hombre que fué,

      Al más temerario corazón de acero
    Recelo inspirara, pusiera pavor;
    Al más maldiciente feroz bandolero
    El rezo a los labios trajera el temor.                        [95]

      Mas no al embozado, que aun sangre su espada
    Destila, el fantasma terror infundió,
    Y el arma en la mano con fuerza empuñada,
    Osado a su encuentro despacio avanzó.

            Segundo Don Juan Tenorio,                            [100]
          Alma fiera e insolente,
          Irreligioso y valiente,
          Altanero y reñidor:
            Siempre el insulto en los ojos,
          En los labios la ironía,                               [105]
          Nada teme y todo fía
          De su espada y su valor.

            Corazón gastado, mofa
          De la mujer que corteja,
          Y hoy, despreciándola, deja                            [110]
          La que ayer se le rindió.
            Ni el porvenir temió nunca,
          Ni recuerda en lo pasado
          La mujer que ha abandonado,
          Ni el dinero que perdió.                               [115]

            Ni vió el fantasma entre sueños
          Del que mató en desafío,
          Ni turbó jamás su brío
          Recelosa previsión.
            Siempre en lances y en amores,                       [120]
          Siempre en báquicas orgías,
          Mezcla en palabras impías
          Un chiste a una maldición.

            En Salamanca famoso
          Por su vida y buen talante,                            [125]
          Al atrevido estudiante
          Le señalan entre mil;
            Fueros le da su osadía,
          Le disculpa su riqueza,
          Su generosa nobleza,                                   [130]
          Su hermosura varonil.

            Que su arrogancia y sus vicios,
          Caballeresca apostura,
          Agilidad y bravura
          Ninguno alcanza a igualar;                             [135]
            Que hasta en sus crímenes mismos,
          En su impiedad y altiveza,
          Pone un sello de grandeza
          Don Félix de Montemar.

        Bella y más pura que el azul del cielo,                  [140]
      Con dulces ojos lánguidos y hermosos,
      Donde acaso el amor brilló entre el velo
      Del pudor que los cubre candorosos;
      Tímida estrella que refleja al suelo
      Rayos de luz brillantes y dudosos,                         [145]
      Ángel puro de amor que amor inspira,
      Fué la inocente y desdichada Elvira.

        Elvira, amor del estudiante un día,
      Tierna y feliz y de su amante ufana,
      Cuando al placer su corazón se abría,                      [150]
      Como al rayo del sol rosa temprana,
      Del fingido amador que la mentía
      La miel falaz que de sus labios mana
      Bebe en su ardiente sed, el pecho ajeno
      De que oculto en la miel hierve el veneno.                 [155]

        Que no descansa de su madre en brazos
      Más descuidado el candoroso infante
      Que ella en los falsos lisonjeros lazos
      Que teje astuto el seductor amante:
      Dulces caricias, lánguidos abrazos,                        [160]
      Placeres ¡ay! que duran un instante,
      Que habrán de ser eternos imagina
      La triste Elvira en su ilusión divina.

        Que el alma virgen que halagó un encanto
      Con nacarado sueño en su pureza                            [165]
      Todo lo juzga verdadero y santo,
      Presta a todo virtud, presta belleza.
      Del cielo azul al tachonado manto,
      Del sol radiante a la inmortal riqueza,
      Al aire, al campo, a las fragantes flores,                 [170]
      Ella añade esplendor, vida y colores.

        Cifró en Don Félix la infeliz doncella
      Toda su dicha, de su amor perdida;
      Fueron sus ojos a los ojos de ella
      Astros de gloria, manantial de vida.                       [175]
      Cuando sus labios con sus labios sella,
      Cuando su voz escucha embebecida,
      Embriagada del dios que la enamora,
      Dulce le mira, extática le adora.


                                PARTE SEGUNDA

                               No dirge except the hollow sea's
                               Mourns o'er the beauty of the Cyclades.
                                            BYRON, "Don Juan," Canto 4


            Está la noche serena                                [180]
          De luceros coronada,
          Terso el azul de los cielos
          Como trasparente gasa.

            Melancólica la luna
          Va trasmontando la espalda                            [185]
          Del otero, su alba frente
          Tímida apenas levanta,

            Y el horizonte ilumina,
          Pura virgen solitaria,
          Y en su blanca luz süave                              [190]
          El cielo y la tierra baña.

            Deslízase el arroyuelo.
          Fúlgida cinta de plata,
          Al resplandor de la luna,
          Entre franjas de esmeralda.                           [195]

          Argentadas chispas brillan
          Entre las espesas ramas,
          Y en el seno de las flores
          Tal vez aduermen las auras,

            Tal vez despiertas susurran,                        [200]
          Y al desplegarse sus alas
          Mecen el blanco azahar,
          Mueven la aromosa acacia,

            Y agitan ramas y flores,
          Y en perfumes se embalsaman.                          [205]
          Tal era pura esta noche
          Como aquélla en que sus alas

            Los ángeles desplegaron
          Sobre la primera llama
          Que amor encendió en el mundo,                        [210]
          Del Edén en la morada.

           ¡Una mujer! ¿Es acaso
          Blanca silfa solitaria,
          Que entre el rayo de la luna
          Tal vez misteriosa vaga?                              [215]

            Blanco es su vestido, ondea
          Suelto el cabello a la espalda,
          Hoja tras hoja las flores
          Que lleva en su mano arranca.

            Es su paso incierto y tardo,                        [220]
          Inquietas son sus miradas,
          Mágico ensueño parece
          Que halaga engañosa el alma.

            Ora, vedla, mira al cielo,
          Ora suspira, y se pára;                               [225]
          Una lágrima sus ojos
          Brotan acaso y abrasa

            Su mejilla; es una ola
          Del mar que en fiera borrasca
          El viento de las pasiones                             [230]
          Ha alborotado en su alma.

            Tal vez se sienta, tal vez
          Azorada se levanta;
          El jardín recorre ansiosa,
          Tal vez a escuchar se pára.                           [235]

            Es el susurro del viento,
          Es el murmullo del agua,
          No es su voz, no es el sonido
          Melancólico del arpa.

            Son ilusiones que fueron:                           [240]
          Recuerdos ¡ay! que te engañan,
          Sombras del bien que pasó....
          Ya te olvidó el que tú amas.

            Esa noche y esa luna
          Las mismas son que miraran                            [245]
          Indiferentes tu dicha,
          Cual ora ven tu desgracia.

            ¡Ah! llora, sí, ¡pobre Elvira!
          ¡Triste amante abandonada!
          Esas hojas de esas flores                             [250]
          Que distraída tú arrancas,

            ¿Sabes adónde, infeliz,
          El viento las arrebata?
          Donde fueron tus amores,
          Tu ilusión y tu esperanza.                            [255]

            Deshojadas y marchitas,
          ¡Pobres flores de tu alma!
          Blanca nube de la aurora,
          Teñida de ópalo y grana,

            Naciente luz te colora,                             [260]
          Refulgente precursora
          De la cándida mañana.
          Mas ¡ay! que se disipó

            Tu pureza virginal,
          Tu encanto el aire llevó                              [265]
          Cual la ventura ideal
          Que el amor te prometió.

            Hojas del árbol caídas
          Juguete del viento son;
          Las ilusiones perdidas                                [270]
          ¡Ay! son hojas desprendidas
          Del árbol del corazón!

            ¡El corazón sin amor!
          Triste páramo cubierto
          Con la lava del dolor,                                [275]
          Oscuro, inmenso desierto
          Donde no nace una flor!

            Distante un bosque sombrío,
          El sol cayendo en la mar,
          En la playa un adüar,                                 [280]
          Y a lo lejos un navío,
          Viento en popa navegar,

           Óptico vidrio presenta
          En fantástica ilusión,
          Y al ojo encantado ostenta                            [285]
          Gratas visiones que aumenta
          Rica la imaginación.

            Tú eres, mujer, un fanal
          Trasparente de hermosura;
          ¡Ay de ti! si por tu mal                              [290]
          Rompe el hombre en su locura
          Tu misterioso cristal!

           Mas ¡ay! dichosa tú, Elvira,
          En tu misma desventura,
          Que aun deleites te procura,                          [295]
          Cuando tu pecho suspira,
          Tu misteriosa locura:

            Que es la razón un tormento,
          Y vale más delirar
          Sin juicio, que el sentimiento                        [300]
          Cuerdamente analizar,
          Fijo en él el pensamiento.

        Vedla, allí va, que sueña en su locura
      Presente el bien que para siempre huyó;
      Dulces palabras con amor murmura,                         [305]
      Piensa que escucha al pérfido que amó.

        Vedla, postrada su piedad implora
      Cual si presente le mirara allí;
      Vedla, que sola se contempla y llora,
      Miradla delirante sonreír.                                [310]

        Y su frente en revuelto remolino
      Ha enturbiado su loco pensamiento,
      Como nublo que en negro torbellino
      Encubre el cielo y amontona el viento;

        Y vedla cuidadosa escoger flores,                       [315]
      Y las lleva mezcladas en la falda,
      Y, corona nupcial de sus amores,
      Se entretiene en tejer una guirnalda.

        Y en medio de su dulce desvarío
      Triste recuerdo el alma le importuna,                     [320]
      Y al margen va del argentado río,
      Y allí las flores echa de una en una;

        Y las sigue su vista en la corriente
      Una tras otra rápidas pasar,
      Y, confusos sus ojos y su mente,                          [325]
      Se siente con sus lágrimas ahogar;

        Y de amor canta, y en su tierna queja
      Entona melancólica canción,
      Canción que el alma desgarrada deja,
      Lamento ¡ay! que llaga el corazón:                        [330]

        «¿Qué me valen tu calma y tu terneza,
      Tranquila noche, solitaria luna,
      Si no calmáis del hado la crudeza,
      Ni me dais esperanza de fortuna?

        ¿Qué me valen la gracia y la belleza,                   [335]
      Y amar como jamás amó ninguna,
      Si la pasión que el alma me devora,
      La desconoce aquél que me enamora?»

        Lágrimas interrumpen su lamento,
      Inclina sobre el pecho su semblante,                      [340]
      Y de ella en derredor susurra el viento
      Sus últimas palabras, sollozante.

        Murió de amor la desdichada Elvira,
      Cándida rosa que agostó el dolor,
      Süave aroma que el viajero aspira                         [345]
      Y en sus alas el aura arrebató.

        Vaso de bendición, ricos colores
      Reflejó en su cristal la luz del día,
      Mas la tierra empañó sus resplandores,
      Y el hombre lo rompió con mano impía.                     [350]

        Una ilusión acarició su mente,
      Alma celeste para amar nacida,
      Era el amor de su vivir la fuente,
      Estaba junta a su ilusión su vida.

        Amada del Señor, flor venturosa,                        [355]
      Llena de amor murió y de juventud;
      Despertó alegre una alborada hermosa,
      Y a la tarde durmió en el ataúd.

        Mas despertó también de su locura
      Al término postrero de su vida,                           [360]
      Y al abrirse a sus pies la sepultura,
      Volvió a su mente la razón perdida.

        ¡La razón fría! ¡la verdad amarga!
      ¡El bien pasado y el dolor presente!...
      ¡Ella feliz! ¡que de tan dura carga                       [365]
      Sintió el peso al morir únicamente!

        Y conociendo ya su fin cercano,
      Su mejilla una lágrima abrasó;
      Y así al infiel, con temblorosa mano,
      Moribunda su víctima escribió:                            [370]

        «Voy a morir: perdona si mi acento
      Vuela importuno a molestar tu oído;
      Él es, Don Félix, el postrer lamento
      De la mujer que tanto te ha querido.
      La mano helada de la muerte siento....                    [375]
      Adiós: ni amor ni compasión te pido....
      Oye y perdona si al dejar el mundo,
      Arranca un ¡ay! su angustia al moribundo.

        «¡Ah! para siempre adiós. Por ti mi vida
      Dichosa un tiempo resbalar sentí,                         [380]
      Y la palabra de tu boca oída
      Éxtasis celestial fué para mí.
      Mi mente aun goza en la ilusión querida
      Que para siempre ¡mísera! perdí....
      ¡Ya todo huyó, despareció contigo!                        [385]
      ¡Dulces horas de amor, yo las bendigo!

        «Yo las bendigo, sí, felices horas,
      Presentes siempre en la memoria mía,
      Imágenes de amor encantadoras
      Que aun vienen a halagarme en mi agonía.                  [390]
      Mas ¡ay! volad, huíd, engañadoras
      Sombras, por siempre; mi postrero día
      Ha llegado, perdón, perdón, ¡Dios mío!
      Si aun gozo en recordar mi desvarío.

        «Y tú, Don Félix, si te causa enojos                    [395]
      Que te recuerde yo mi desventura,
      Piensa están hartos de llorar mis ojos
      Lágrimas silenciosas de amargura.
      Y hoy, al tragar la tumba mis despojos,
      Concede este consuelo a mi tristura:                      [400]
      Estos renglones compasivo mira,
      Y olvida luego para siempre a Elvira.

        «Y jamás turbe mi infeliz memoria
      Con amargos recuerdos tus placeres;
      Goces te dé el vivir, triunfos la gloria,                 [405]
      Dichas el mundo, amor otras mujeres;
      Y si tal vez mi lamentable historia
      A tu memoria con dolor trajeres,
      Llórame, sí; pero palpite exento
      Tu pecho de roedor remordimiento.                         [410]

        «Adiós, por siempre, adiós: un breve instante
      Siento de vida, y en mi pecho el fuego
      Aun arde de mi amor; mi vista errante
      Vaga desvanecida ... ¡calma luego,
      Oh muerte, mi inquietud!... ¡Sola ... espirante!...       [415]
      Ámame; no, perdona; ¡inútil ruego!
      Adiós, adiós, ¡tu corazón perdí
      --¡Todo acabó en el mundo para mí!»

        Así escribió su triste despedida
      Momentos antes de morir, y al pecho                       [420]
      Se estrechó de su madre dolorida,
      Que en tanto inunda en lágrimas su lecho.

        Y exhaló luego su postrer aliento,
      Y a su madre sus brazos se apretaron
      Con nervioso y convulso movimiento,                       [425]
      Y sus labios un nombre murmuraron.

        Y huyó su alma a la mansión dichosa
      Do los ángeles moran.... Tristes flores
      Brota la tierra en torno de su losa;
      El céfiro lamenta sus amores.                             [430]

        Sobre ella un sauce su ramaje inclina,
     Sombra le presta en lánguido desmayo,
     Y allá en la tarde, cuando el sol declina,
     Baña su tumba en paz su último rayo....


                                PARTE TERCERA

                              CUADRO DRAMÁTICO

                                                     SARGENTO
                                  ¿Tenéis más que parar?
                                                      FRANCO
                                                        Paro los ojos.
                                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                  Los ojos, sí, los ojos: que descreo
                                  Del que los hizo para tal empleo.
                                          MORETO, "San Franco de Sena"


                                  PERSONAS

                            D. FÉLIX DE MONTEMAR
                            D. DIEGO DE PASTRANA
                            SEIS JUGADORES


                En derredor de una mesa                          [435]
              Hasta seis hombres están,
              Fija la vista en los naipes,
              Mientras juegan al parar;

                Y en sus semblantes se pintan
              El despecho y el afán:                             [440]
              Por perder desesperados,
              Avarientos por ganar.

                Reina profundo silencio,
              Sin que lo rompa jamás
              Otro ruido que el del oro,                         [445]
              O una voz para jurar.

                Pálida lámpara alumbra
              Con trémula claridad
              Negras de humo las paredes
              De aquella estancia infernal.                      [450]

                Y el misterioso bramido
              Se escucha del huracán,
              Que azota los vidrios frágiles
              Con sus alas al pasar.


                                  ESCENA I

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              El caballo aun no ha salido.                       [455]

                              JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              ¿Qué carta vino?

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
                               La sota.

                              JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              Pues por poco se alborota.

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Un caudal llevo perdido.
              ¡Voto a Cristo!

                              JUGADOR SEGUNDO
                              No juréis,
              Que aun no estáis en la agonía.                     [460]

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              No hay suerte como la mía.

                              JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              ¿Y como cuánto perdéis?

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Mil escudos y el dinero
              Que Don Félix me entregó.

                              JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              ¿Dónde anda?

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
                          ¡Qué sé yo!                             [465]
              No tardará.

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
                         Envido.

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
                                 Quiero.



                                  ESCENA II

               Galán de talle gentil,
              La mano izquierda apoyada
              En el pomo de la espada,
              Y el aspecto varonil,                               [470]
               Alta el ala del sombrero
              Porque descubra la frente,
              Con airoso continente
              Entró luego un caballero.

                      JUGADOR PRIMERO (_al que entra_)
                Don Félix, a buena hora                           [475]
              Habéis llegado.

                                 D. FÉLIX

                             ¿Perdisteis?

                               JUGADOR PRIMERO
              El dinero que me disteis
              Y esta bolsa pecadora.

                               JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              Don Félix de Montemar
              Debe perder. El amor                                [480]
              Le negara su favor
              Cuando le viera ganar.

                          D. FÉLIX (_con desdén_)
              Necesito ahora dinero,
              Y estoy hastiado de amores.
              (_Al corro con altivez_)
              Dos mil ducados, señores,                           [485]
              Por esta cadena quiero.
                             (_Quítase una cadena que lleva al pecho_.)

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              Alta ponéis la tarifa.

                         D. FÉLIX (_con altivez_)
              La pongo en lo que merece.
              Si otra duda se os ofrece,
              Decid. (_Al corro_)                                 [490]
                     Se vende y se rifa.

                          JUGADOR CUARTO (_aparte_)
              ¿Y hay quien sufra tal afrenta?

                                D. FÉLIX
              Entre cinco están hallados.
              A cuatrocientos ducados
              Os toca, según mi cuenta.
              Al as de oros. Allá va.                             [495]
     (_Va echando cartas que toman los jugadores en silencio_.)
              Una, dos ... (_Al perdidoso_)
                           Con vos no cuento.

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Por el motivo lo siento.

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              ¡El as! ¡el as! aquí está.

                              JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Ya ganó.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                         Suerte tenéis.
              A un solo golpe de dados                            [500]
              Tiro los dos mil ducados.

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              ¿En un golpe?

                     JUGADOR PRIMERO (_a Don Félix_)
                           Los perdéis.

                                 D. FÉLIX
              Perdida tengo yo el alma,
              Y no me importa un ardite.

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              Tirad.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                       Al primer envite.                          [505]

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              Tirad pronto.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                           Tened calma:
              Que os juego más todavía,
              Y en cien onzas hago el trato,
              Y os lleváis este retrato
              Con marco de pedrería.                              [510]

                              JUGADOR TERCERO
              ¿En cien onzas?

                                D. FÉLIX
                              ¿Qué dudáis?

                 JUGADOR PRIMERO (_tomando el retrato_)
              ¡Hermosa mujer!

                              JUGADOR CUARTO
              No es caro.

                                D. FÉLIX
                          ¿Queréis pararlas?

                             JUGADOR TERCERO
                          Las paro.
              Más ganaré.

                                D. FÉLIX
                          Si ganáis,  (_Se registra todo_.)
              No tengo otra joya aquí.                            [515]

                  JUGADOR PRIMERO (_mirando el retrato_)
              Si esta imagen respirara....

                                D. FÉLIX
              A estar aquí, la jugara
              A ella, al retrato y a mí.

                             JUGADOR TERCERO
              Vengan los dados.

                                D. FÉLIX
              Tirad.

                             JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              Por Don Félix cien ducados.                         [520]

                             JUGADOR CUARTO
              En contra van apostados.

                             JUGADOR QUINTO
              Cincuenta más. Esperad,
              No tiréis.

                             JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              Van los cincuenta.

                             JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Yo, sin blanca, a Dios le ruego
              Por Don Félix.

                             JUGADOR QUINTO
              Hecho el juego.                                      [525]

                             JUGADOR TERCERO
              ¿Tiro?

                                D. FÉLIX
                          Tirad con sesenta
              De a caballo.

  _(Todos se agrupan con ansiedad al rededor de la mesa. El tercer
 jugador tira los dados.)_

                             JUGADOR CUARTO
                            ¿Qué ha salido?

                             JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              ¡Mil demonios, que a los dos
              Nos lleven!

                    D. FÉLIX _(con calma al primero)_

                          ¡Bien, vive Dios,
              Vuestros ruegos me han valido!                      [530]
              Encomendadme otra vez,
              Don Juan, al diablo; no sea
              Que si os oye Dios, me vea
              Cautivo y esclavo en Fez.

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
              Don Félix, habéis perdido                           [535]
             Sólo el marco, no el retrato;
              Que entrar la dama en el trato
              Vuestra intención no habrá sido.

                                  D. FÉLIX
              ¿Cuánto dierais por la dama?

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
              Yo, la vida.                                        [540]

                                  D. FÉLIX
                            No la quiero.
              Mirad si me dais dinero,
              Y os la lleváis.

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
                             ¡Buena fama
              Lograréis entre las bellas,
              Cuando descubran altivas
              Que vos las hacéis cautivas                         [545]
              Para en seguida vendellas!

                                 D. FÉLIX
              Eso a vos no importa nada.
              ¿Queréis la dama? Os la vendo.

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
              Yo de pinturas no entiendo.

                            D. FÉLIX _(con cólera)_
              Vos habláis con demasiada                           [550]
              Altivez e irreverencia
              De una mujer ... ¡y si no....!

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
              De la pintura hablé yo.

                                   TODOS
              Vamos, paz; no haya pendencia.

                           D. FÉLIX _(sosegado)_
              Sobre mi palabra os juego                           [555]
              Mil escudos.

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
                          Van tirados.

                                  D. FÉLIX
              A otra suerte de esos dados;
              Y el diablo les prenda fuego.



                                 ESCENA III

                Pálido el rostro, cejijunto el ceño,
              Y torva la mirada, aunque afligida,                 [560]
              Y en ella un firme y decidido empeño
              De dar la muerte o de perder la vida,
                Un hombre entró embozado hasta los ojos,
              Sobre las juntas cejas el sombrero;
              Víbrale al rostro el corazón enojos,                [565]
              El paso firme, el ánimo altanero.
                Encubierta fatídica figura.--
              Sed de sangre su espíritu secó,
              Emponzoñó su alma la amargura,
              La venganza irritó su corazón.                      [570]
                Junto a Don Félix llega, y, desatento,
              No habla a ninguno, ni aun la frente inclina;
              Y en pie y delante de él y el ojo atento,
              Con iracundo rostro le examina.
                Miró también Don Félix al sombrío                 [575]
              Huésped que en él los ojos enclavó,
              Y con sarcasmo desdeñoso y frío,
              Fijos en él los suyos, sonrïó.

                                 D. FÉLIX
              Buen hombre, ¿de qué tapiz
              Se ha escapado--el que se tapa--                    [580]
              Que entre el sombrero y la capa
              Se os ve apenas la nariz?

                                D. DIEGO
              Bien, Don Félix, cuadra en vos
              Esa insolencia importuna.

     D. FÉLIX _(al tercer jugador sin hacer caso de Don Diego)_
              Perdisteis.                                         [585]

                            JUGADOR TERCERO
                          Sí. La fortuna
              Se trocó; tiro y van dos. _(Vuelven a tirar.)_

                              D. FÉLIX
              Gané otra vez. _(Al embozado)_
                             No he entendido
              Qué dijisteis, ni hice aprecio
              De si hablasteis blando o recio
              Cuando me habéis respondido.                        [590]

                              D. DIEGO
              A solas hablar querría.

                              D. FÉLIX
              Podéis, si os place, empezar,
              Que por vos no he de dejar
              Tan honrosa compañía;
              Y si Dios aquí os envía                             [595]
              Para hacer mi conversión,
              No despreciéis la ocasión
              De convertir tanta gente,
              Mientras que yo humildemente
              Aguardo mi absolución.                              [600]

                     D. DIEGO _(desembozándose con ira)_
              Don Félix, ¿no conocéis
              A Don Diego de Pastrana?

                                 D. FÉLIX
              A vos no, mas sí a una hermana
              Que imagino que tenéis.

                                 D. DIEGO
              ¿Y no sabéis que murió?                             [605]

                                 D. FÉLIX
              Téngala Dios en su gloria.

                                 D. DIEGO
              Pienso que sabéis su historia,
              Y quién fué quien la mató.

                        D. FÉLIX (_con sarcasmo_)
              ¡Quizá alguna calentura!

                                 D. DIEGO
              ¡Mentís vos!                                        [610]

                                 D. FÉLIX
                           Calma, Don Diego,
              Que si vos os morís luego,
              Es tanta mi desventura
              Que aun me lo habrán de achacar,
              Y es en vano ese despecho.
              Si se murió, a lo hecho, pecho.                     [615]
              Ya no ha de resucitar.

                                 D. DIEGO
              Os estoy mirando y dudo
              Si habré de manchar mi espada
              Con esa sangre malvada,
              O echaros al cuello un nudo                         [620]
              Con mis manos, y con mengua,
              En vez de desafïaros,
              El corazón arrancaros
              Y patearos la lengua;
              Que un alma, una vida, es                           [625]
              Satisfacción muy ligera,
              Y os diera mil si pudiera
              Y os las quitara después.
              Jugo a mi labio han de dar
              Abiertas todas tus venas,                           [630]
              Que toda tu sangre apenas
              Basta mi sed a calmar.
              ¡Villano!

  (_Tira de la espada; todos los jugadores se interponen_.)


                                  TODOS
                          Fuera de aquí
              A armar quimera.

                  D. FÉLIX _(con calma levantándose)_
                              Tened,
              Don Diego, la espada, y ved                        [635]
              Que estoy yo muy sobre mí,
              Y que me contengo mucho,
              No sé por qué, pues tan frío
              En mi colérico brío
              Vuestras injurias escucho.                         [640]

    D. DIEGO _(con furor reconcentrado y con la espada desnuda)_
              Salid de aquí; que a fe mía,
              Que estoy resuelto a mataros,
              Y no alcanzara a libraros
              La misma Virgen María.
              Y es tan cierta mi intención,                      [645]
              Tan resuelta está mi alma,
              Que hasta mi cólera calma
              Mi firme resolución.
              Venid conmigo.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                             Allá voy;
              Pero si os mato, Don Diego,                        [650]
              Que no me venga otro luego
              A pedirme cuenta. Soy
              Con vos al punto. Esperad
              Cuente el dinero ... _uno_ ... _dos_....
              _(A Don Diego)_
              Son mis ganancias; por vos                         [655]
              Pierdo aquí una cantidad
              Considerable de oro
              Que iba a ganar ... ¿y por qué?
              _Diez_ ... _quince_ ... por no sé qué
              Cuento de amor ... ¡un tesoro                      [660]
              Perdido! ... voy al momento.
              Es un puro disparate
              Empeñarse en que yo os mate:
              Lo digo como lo siento.

                                 D. DIEGO
              Remiso andáis y cobarde                            [665]
              Y hablador en demasía.

                                 D. FÉLIX
              Don Diego, más sangre fría.
              Para reñir nunca es tarde.
              Y si aun fuera otro el asunto,
              Yo os perdonara la prisa.                          [670]
              Pidierais vos una misa
              Por la difunta, y al punto....

                                 D. DIEGO
              ¡Mal caballero!...

                                 D. FÉLIX
                              Don Diego,
              Mi delito no es gran cosa.
              Era vuestra hermana hermosa;                       [675]
              La vi, me amó, creció el juego,
              Se murió, no es culpa mía;
              Y admiro vuestro candor,
              Que no se mueren de amor
              Las mujeres hoy en día.                            [680]

                                 D. DIEGO
              ¿Estáis pronto?

                                 D. FÉLIX
                             Están contados.
              Vamos andando.

                     D. DIEGO _(con voz solemne)_
                              ¿Os reís?
              Pensad que a morir venís.

 D. FÉLIX _(sale tras de él, embolsándose el dinero con indiferencia)_
              Son mil trescientos ducados.



                                  ESCENA IV

                                LOS JUGADORES


                               JUGADOR PRIMERO
              Este Don Diego Pastrana                             [685]
              Es un hombre decidido.
              Desde Flandes ha venido
              Sólo a vengar a su hermana.

                               JUGADOR SEGUNDO
              ¡Pues no ha hecho mal disparate!
              Me da el corazón su muerte.                         [690]

                               JUGADOR TERCERO
              ¿Quién sabe? acaso la suerte....

                               JUGADOR CUARTO
              Me alegraré que lo mate.


                               PARTE CUARTA

                        Salió, en fin, de aquel estado, para caer en
                        el dolor más sombrío, en la más desalentada
                        desesperación y en la mayor amargura y
                        desconsuelo que pueden apoderarse de este pobre
                        corazón humano, que tan positivamente choca y
                        se quebranta con los males, como con vaguedad
                        aspira en algunos momentos, casi siempre sin
                        conseguirlo, a tocar los bienes ligeramente y
                        de pasada.--"La protección de un sastre,"
                        novela original por D. MIGUEL DE LOS SANTOS
                        ÁLVAREZ

                        SPIRITUS QUIDEM PROMPTUS EST; CARO VERO
                        INFIRMA.--S. MARCOS, "Evangelio"


        Vedle, Don Félix es, espada en mano,
      Sereno el rostro, firme el corazón;
      También de Elvira el vengativo hermano                     [695]
      Sin piedad a sus pies muerto cayó.

        Y con tranquila audacia se adelanta
      Por la calle fatal del Ataúd;
      Y ni medrosa aparición le espanta,
      Ni le turba la imagen de Jesús.                            [700]

        La moribunda lámpara que ardía
      Trémula lanza su postrer fulgor,
      Y, en honda oscuridad, noche sombría
      La misteriosa calle encapotó.

        Mueve los pies el Montemar osado                         [705]
      En las tinieblas con incierto giro,
      Cuando, ya un trecho de la calle andado,
      Súbito junto a él oye un suspiro.

        Resbalar por su faz sintió el aliento,
      Y a su pesar sus nervios se crisparon;                     [710]
      Mas, pasado el primero movimiento,
      A su primera rigidez tornaron.

        «¿Quién va?» pregunta con la voz serena.
      Que ni finge valor, ni muestra miedo,
      El alma de invencible vigor llena,                         [715]
      Fïado en su tajante de Toledo.

        Palpa en torno de sí, y el impio jura,
      Y a mover vuelve la atrevida planta,
      Cuando hacia él fatídica figura
      Envuelta en blancas ropas se adelanta.                     [720]

        Flotante y vaga, las espesas nieblas
      Ya disipa, y se anima, y va creciendo
      Con apagada luz, ya en las tinieblas
      Su argentino blancor va apareciendo.

            Ya leve punto de luciente plata,                     [725]
      Astro de clara lumbre sin mancilla,
      El horizonte lóbrego dilata
      Y allá en la sombra en lontananza brilla.

        Los ojos, Montemar, fijos en ella,
      Con más asombro que temor la mira;                         [730]
      Tal vez la juzga vagorosa estrella
      Que en el espacio de los cielos gira;

        Tal vez engaño de sus propios ojos,
      Forma falaz que en su ilusión creó,
      O del vino ridículos antojos                               [735]
      Que al fin su juicio a alborotar subió.

        Mas el vapor del néctar jerezano
      Nunca su mente a trastornar bastara,
      Que ya mil veces embriagarse en vano
      En frenéticas orgias intentara.                            [740]

        «Dios presume asustarme; ¡ojalá fuera»,
      Dijo entre sí riendo, «el diablo mismo!
      Que entonces ¡víve Dios! quién soy supiera
      El cornudo monarca del abismo.»

        Al pronunciar tan insolente ultraje                      [745]
      La lámpara del Cristo se encendió,
      Y una mujer, velada en blanco traje,
      Ante la imagen de rodillas vió.

        «Bienvenida la luz,» dijo el impío,
      «Gracias a Dios o al diablo;» y, con osada,                [750]
      Firme intención y temerario brío,
      El paso vuelve a la mujer tapada.

        Mientras él anda, al parecer se alejan
      La luz, la imagen, la devota dama;
      Mas si él se pára, de moverse dejan;                       [755]
      Y lágrima tras lágrima derrama

        De sus ojos inmóviles la imagen.
      Mas sin que el miedo ni el dolor que inspira
      Su planta audaz, ni su impiedad atajen,
      Rostro a rostro a Jesús Montemar mira.                     [760]

        --La calle parece se mueve y camina,
      Faltarle la tierra sintió bajo el pie;
      Sus ojos la muerta mirada fascina
      Del Cristo, que intensa clavada está en él.

        Y en medio el delirio que embarga su mente,              [765]
      Y achaca él al vino que al fin le embriagó,
      La lámpara alcanza con mano insolente
      Del ara do alumbra la imagen de Dios;

        Y al rostro la acerca, que el cándido lino
      Encubre, con ánimo asaz descortés;                         [770]
      Mas la luz apaga viento repentino,
      Y la blanca dama se puso de pie.

        Empero un momento creyó que veía
      Un rostro que vagos recuerdos quizá
      Y alegres memorias confusas traía                          [775]
      De tiempos mejores que pasaron ya,

        Un rostro de un ángel que vió en un ensueño,
      Como un sentimiento que el alma halagó,
      Que anubla la frente con rígido ceño,
      Sin que lo comprenda jamás la razón.                       [780]

        Su forma gallarda dibuja en las sombras
      El blanco ropaje que ondeante se ve,
      Y cual si pisara mullidas alfombras,
      Deslízase leve sin ruido su pie.

        Tal vimos al rayo de la luna llena                       [785]
      Fugitiva vela de lejos cruzar,
      Que ya la hinche en popa la brisa serena,
      Que ya la confunde la espuma del mar.

        También la esperanza blanca y vaporosa
      Así ante nosotros pasa en ilusión,                         [790]
      Y el alma conmueve con ansia medrosa
      Mientras la rechaza la adusta razón.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                «¡Qué! ¿sin respuesta me deja?
              ¿No admitís mi compañía?
              ¿Será quizá alguna vieja                           [795]
              Devota?... ¡Chasco sería!

                En vano, dueña, es callar,
              Ni hacerme señas que no;
              He resuelto que sí yo,
              Y os tengo de acompañar.                           [800]

                Y he de saber dónde vais
              Y si sois hermosa o fea,
              Quién sois y cómo os llamáis,
              Y aun cuando imposible sea,

                Y fuerais vos Satanás                            [805]
              Con sus llamas y sus cuernos,
              Hasta en los mismos infiernos,
              Vos delante y yo detrás,

                Hemos de entrar; ¡vive Dios!
              Y aunque lo estorbara el cielo,                    [810]
              Que yo he de cumplir mi anhelo
              Aun a despecho de vos;

                Y perdonadme, señora,
              Si hay en mi empeño osadía,
              Mas fuera descortesía                              [815]
              Dejaros sola a esta hora;

                Y me va en ello mi fama,
              Que juro a Dios no quisiera
              Que por temor se creyera
              Que no he seguido a una dama.»                     [820]

           Del hondo del pecho profundo gemido,
         Crujido del vaso que estalla al dolor,
         Que apenas medroso lastima el oído,
         Pero que punzante rasga el corazón,

           Gemido de amargo recuerdo pasado,                     [825]
         De pena presente, de incierto pesar,
         Mortífero aliento, veneno exhalado
         Del que encubre el alma ponzoñoso mar,

           Gemido de muerte lanzó, y silenciosa
         La blanca figura su pie resbaló,                        [830]
         Cual mueve sus alas sílfide amorosa
         Que apenas las aguas del lago rizó.

           ¡Ay! el que vió acaso perdida en un día
         La dicha que eterna creyó el corazón,
         Y en noche de nieblas y en honda agonía                 [835]
         En un mar sin playas muriendo quedó!...

           Y solo y llevando consigo en su pecho,
         Compañero eterno su dolor crüel,
         El mágico encanto del alma deshecho,
         Su pena, su amigo y su amante más fiel;                 [840]

           ¡Miró sus suspiros llevarlos el viento,
         Sus lágrimas tristes perderse en el mar,
         Sin nadie que acuda ni entienda su acento,
         Insensible el cielo y el mundo a su mal!

           Y ha visto la luna brillar en el cielo                [845]
         Serena y en calma mientras él lloró,
         Y ha visto los hombres pasar en el suelo
         Y nadie a sus quejas los ojos volvió!

           Y él mismo, la befa del mundo temblando,
         Su pena en su pecho profunda escondió,                  [850]
         Y dentro en su alma su llanto tragando
         Con falsa sonrisa su labio vistió!!...

           ¡Ay! quien ha contado las horas que fueron,
         Horas otro tiempo que abrevió el placer,
         Y hoy solo y llorando piensa como huyeron               [855]
         Con ellas por siempre las dichas de ayer;

           Y aquellos placeres, que el triste ha perdido,
         No huyeron del mundo, que en el mundo están;
         Y él vive en el mundo do siempre ha vivido,
         Y aquellos placeres para él no son ya!                  [860]

           ¡Ay del que descubre por fin la mentira!
         ¡Ay del que la triste realidad palpó!
         Del que el esqueleto de este mundo mira,
         Y sus falsas galas loco le arrancó!...

           ¡Ay de aquel que vive sólo en lo pasado!              [865]
         ¡Ay del que su alma nutre en su pesar!
         Las horas que huyeron llamará angustiado,
         Las horas que huyeron jamás tornarán!...

           Quien haya sufrido tan bárbaro duelo,
         Quien noches enteras contó sin dormir                   [870]
         En lecho de espinas, maldiciendo al cielo,
         Horas sempiternas de ansiedad sin fin....

           Quien haya sentido quererse del pecho
         Saltar a pedazos roto el corazón,
         Crecer su delirio, crecer su despecho,                  [875]
         Al cuello cien nudos echarle el dolor,

           Ponzoñoso lago de punzante hielo,
         Sus lágrimas tristes que cuajó el pesar,
         Reventando ahogarle, sin hallar consuelo,
         Ni esperanza nunca, ni tregua en su afán.               [880]

           Aquél, de la blanca fantasma el gemido,
         Única respuesta que a Don Félix dió,
         Hubiera, y su inmenso dolor, comprendido,
         Hubiera pesado su inmenso valor.

                                 D. FÉLIX
                «Si buscáis algún ingrato,                       [885]
                Yo me ofrezco agradecido;
                Pero o miente ese recato,
                O vos sufrís el mal trato
                De algún celoso marido.

                  ¿Acerté? ¡Necia manía!                         [890]
                Es para volverme loco,
                Si insistís en tal porfía;
                Con los mudos, reina mía,
                Yo hago mucho y hablo poco.»

                  Segunda vez importunada en tanto,              [895]
                Una voz de süave melodía
                El estudiante oyó que parecía
                Eco lejano de armonioso canto,

                  De amante pecho lánguido latido,
                Sentimiento inefable de ternura,                 [900]
                Suspiro fiel de amor correspondido,
                El primer sí de la mujer aun pura.

                  «Para mí los amores acabaron;
                Todo en el mundo para mí acabó;
                Los lazos que a la tierra me ligaron             [905]
                El cielo para siempre desató,»

                  Dijo su acento misterioso y tierno,
                Que de otros mundos la ilusión traía,
                Eco de los que ya reposo eterno
                Gozan en paz bajo la tumba fría.                 [910]

      Montemar, atento sólo a su aventura,
    Que es bella la dama y aun fácil juzgó,
    Y la hora, la calle y la noche oscura
    Nuevos incentivos a su pecho son.

      «--Hay riesgo en seguirme.--Mirad ¡qué reparo!             [915]
    --Quizá luego os pese.--Puede que por vos.
    --Ofendéis al cielo.--Del diablo me amparo.
    --Idos, caballero, no tentéis a Dios.

      --Siento me enamora más vuestro despego,
    Y si Dios se enoja, pardiez que hará mal;                    [920]
    Veame en vuestros brazos y máteme luego.
    --¡Vuestra última hora quizá ésta será!...

      Dejad ya, Don Félix, delirios mundanos.
    --¡Hola, me conoce!--¡Ay! ¡temblad por vos!
    ¡Temblad no se truequen deleites livianos                    [925]
    En penas eternas!--Basta de sermón,

      Que yo para oírlos la cuaresma espero;
    Y hablemos de amores, que es más dulce hablar;
    Dejad ese tono solemne y severo,
    Que os juro, señora, que os sienta muy mal.                  [930]

      La vida es la vida: cuando ella se acaba,
    Acaba con ella también el placer.
    ¿De inciertos pesares por qué hacerla esclava?
    Para mí no hay nunca mañana ni ayer.

      Si mañana muero, que sea en mal hora                       [935]
    O en buena, cual dicen, ¿qué me importa a mí?
    Goce yo el presente, disfrute yo ahora,
    Y el diablo me lleve siquiera al morir.

              --¡Cúmplase en fin tu voluntad, Dios mío!--»
            La figura fatídica exclamó;                          [940]
            Y en tanto al pecho redoblar su brío
            Siente Don Félix y camina en pos.

                  Cruzan tristes calles,
                Plazas solitarias,
                Arruinados muros,                                [945]
                Donde sus plegarias
                Y falsos conjuros,
                En la misteriosa
                Noche borrascosa,
                Maldecida bruja                                  [950]

                  Con ronca voz canta,
                Y de los sepulcros
                Los muertos levanta,
                Y suenan los ecos
                De sus pasos huecos                              [955]
                En la soledad;
                Mientras en silencio
                Yace la ciudad,
                Y en lúgubre són
                Arrulla su sueño                                 [960]
                Bramando Aquilón.

              Y una calle y otra cruzan,
            Y más allá y más allá;
            Ni tiene término el viaje,
            Ni nunca dejan de andar.                             [965]
            Y atraviesan, pasan, vuelven,
            Cien calles quedando atrás,
            Y paso tras paso siguen,
            Y siempre adelante van;
            Y a confundirse ya empieza                           [970]
            Y a perderse Montemar,
            Que ni sabe a dó camina,
            Ni acierta ya dónde está;
            Y otras calles, otras plazas
            Recorre, y otra ciudad,                              [975]
            Y ve fantásticas torres
            De su eterno pedestal
            Arrancarse, y sus macizas,
            Negras masas caminar,
            Apoyándose en sus ángulos,                           [980]
            Que en la tierra en desigual,
            Perezoso tranco fijan;
            Y a su monótono andar,
            Las campanas sacudidas
            Misteriosos dobles dan,                              [985]
            Mientras en danzas grotescas,
            Y al estruendo funeral,
            En derredor cien espectros
            Danzan con torpe compás;
            Y las veletas sus frentes                            [990]
            Bajan ante él al pasar,
            Los espectros le saludan,
            Y en cien lenguas de metal,
            Oye su nombre en los ecos
            De las campanas sonar.                               [995]
            Mas luego cesa el estrépito,
            Y en silencio, en muda paz
            Todo queda, y desparece
            De súbito la ciudad:
            Palacios, templos, se cambian                       [1000]
            En campos de soledad,
            Y en un yermo y silencioso,
            Melancólico arenal,
            Sin luz, sin aire, sin cielo,
            Perdido en la inmensidad.                           [1005]
            Tal vez piensa que camina,
            Sin poder parar jamás,
            De extraño empuje llevado
            Con precipitado afán;
            Entretanto que su guía,                             [1010]
            Delante de él sin hablar,
            Sigue misteriosa, y sigue
            Con paso rápido, y ya
            Se remonta ante sus ojos
            En alas del huracán,                                [1015]
            Visión sublime, y su frente
            Ve fosfórica brillar
            Entre lívidos relámpagos
            En la densa oscuridad,
            Sierpes de luz, luminosos                           [1020]
            Engendros del vendaval;
            Y cuando duda si duerme,
            Si tal vez sueña o está
            Loco, si es tanto prodigio,
            Tanto delirio verdad,                               [1025]
            Otra vez en Salamanca
            Súbito vuélvese a hallar,
            Distingue los edificios,
            Reconoce en dónde está,
            Y en su delirante vértigo                           [1030]
            Al vino vuelve a culpar,
            Y jura, y siguen andando,
            Ella delante, él detrás.

              «¡Vive Dios! dice entre sí,
            O Satanás se chancea,                               [1035]
            O no debo estar en mí,
            O el Málaga que bebí
            En mi cabeza aun humea.

              «Sombras, fantasmas, visiones....
            Dale con tocar a muerto,                            [1040]
            Y en revueltas confusiones,
            Danzando estos torreones
            Al compás de tal concierto.

              «Y el juicio voy a perder
            Entre tantas maravillas.                            [1045]
            ¡Que estas torres llegue a ver,
            Como mulas de alquiler,
            Andando con campanillas!

              «¿Y esta mujer quién será?
            Mas si es el diablo en persona,                     [1050]
            ¿A mí qué diantre me da?
            Y más que el traje en que va
            En esta ocasión le abona.

              «Noble señora, imagino
            Que sois nueva en el lugar:                         [1055]
            Andar así es desatino;
            O habéis perdido el camino,
            O esto es andar por andar.

              «Ha dado en no responder,
            Que es la más rara locura                           [1060]
            Que puede hallarse en mujer,
            Y en que yo la he de querer
            Por su paso de andadura.»

      En tanto Don Félix a tientas seguía,
    Delante camina la blanca visión,                            [1065]
    Triplica su espanto la noche sombría,
    Sus hórridos gritos redobla Aquilón.

      Rechinan girando las férreas veletas,
    Crujir de cadenas se escucha sonar,
    Las altas campanas, por el viento inquietas,                [1070]
    Pausados sonidos en las torres dan.

      Rüido de pasos de gente que viene
    A compás marchando con sordo rumor,
    Y de tiempo en tiempo su marcha detiene,
    Y rezar parece en confuso són,                              [1075]

      Llegó de Don Félix luego a los oídos,
    Y luego cien luces a lo lejos vió,
    Y luego en hileras largas divididos,
    Vió que murmurando con lúgubre voz

      Enlutados bultos andando venían;                          [1080]
    Y luego más cerca con asombro ve
    Que un féretro en medio y en hombros traían
    Y dos cuerpos muertos tendidos en él.

      Las luces, la hora, la noche, profundo,
    Infernal arcano parece encubrir.                            [1085]
    Cuando en hondo sueño yace muerto el mundo,
    Cuando todo anuncia que habrá de morir

      Al hombre que loco la recia tormenta
    Corrió de la vida, del viento a merced,
    Cuando una voz triste las horas le cuenta,                  [1090]
    Y en lodo sus pompas convertidas ve,

      Forzoso es que tenga de diamante el alma
    Quien no sienta el pecho de horror palpitar,
    Quien como Don Félix, con serena calma,
    Ni en Dios ni en el diablo se ponga a pensar.               [1095]

      Así en tardos pasos, todos murmurando,
    El lúgubre entierro ya cerca llegó,
    Y la blanca dama, devota rezando,
    Entrambas rodillas en tierra dobló.

      Calado el sombrero y en pie, indiferente                  [1100]
    El féretro mira Don Félix pasar,
    Y al paso pregunta con su aire insolente
    Los nombres de aquellos que al sepulcro van.

      Mas ¡cuál su sorpresa, su asombro cuál fuera,
    Cuando horrorizado con espanto ve                           [1105]
    Que el uno Don Diego de Pastrana era,
    Y el otro ¡Dios santo! y el otro era él!...

      Él mismo, su imagen, su misma figura,
    Su mismo semblante, que él mismo era en fin;
    Y duda, y se palpa, y fría pavura                           [1110]
    Un punto en sus venas sintió discurrir.

      Al fin era hombre, y un punto temblaron
    Los nervios del hombre, y un punto temió;
    Mas pronto su antiguo vigor recobraron,
    Pronto su fiereza volvió al corazón.                        [1115]

        «Lo que es, dijo, por Pastrana,
      Bien pensado está el entierro;
      Mas es diligencia vana
      Enterrarme a mí, y mañana
      Me he de quejar de este yerro.                            [1120]

      «Diga, señor enlutado,
      ¿A quién llevan a enterrar?»
      «--Al estudiante endiablado
      Don Félix de Montemar,»
      Respondió el encapuchado.                                 [1125]

      «--Mientes, truhán.--No por cierto.
    --Pues decidme a mí quién soy,
    Si gustáis, porque no acierto
    Cómo a un mismo tiempo estoy
    Aquí vivo y allí muerto.                                    [1130]

      «--Yo no os conozco.--Pardiez,
    Que si me llego a enojar,
    Tus burlas te haga llorar
    De tal modo que otra vez
    Conozcas ya a Montemar.                                     [1135]

      «¡Villano!... mas esto es
    Ilusión de los sentidos,
    El mundo que anda al revés,
    Los diablos entretenidos
    En hacerme dar traspiés.                                    [1140]

      «¡El fanfarrón de Don Diego!
    De sus mentiras reniego,
    Que cuando muerto cayó,
    Al infierno se fué luego
    Contando que me mató.»                                      [1145]

      Diciendo así, soltó una carcajada,
    Y las espaldas con desdén volvió;
    Se hizo el bigote, requirió la espada,
    Y a la devota dama se acercó.

      «Conque, en fin, ¿dónde vivís?                            [1150]
    Que se hace tarde, señora.
    --Tarde, aun no; de aquí a una hora
    Lo será.--Verdad decís,
    Será más tarde que ahora.

      «Esa voz con que hacéis miedo                             [1155]
    De vos me enamora más.
    Yo me he echado el alma atrás;
    Juzgad si me dará un bledo
    De Dios ni de Satanás.

      «--Cada paso que avanzáis                                 [1160]
    Lo adelantáis a la muerte,
    Don Félix. ¿Y no tembláis
    Y el corazón no os advierte
    Que a la muerte camináis?»

        Con eco melancólico y sombrío                           [1165]
      Dijo así la mujer, y el sordo acento,
      Sonando en torno del mancebo impío,
      Rugió en la voz del proceloso viento.

      Las piedras con las piedras se golpearon,
    Bajo sus pies la tierra retembló,                           [1170]
    Las aves de la noche se juntaron,
    Y sus alas crujir sobre él sintió;

      Y en la sombra unos ojos fulgurantes
    Vió en el aire vagar que espanto inspiran,
    Siempre sobre él saltándose anhelantes,                     [1175]
    Ojos de horror que sin cesar le miran.

      Y los vió y no tembló; mano a la espada
    Puso y la sombra intrépido embistió;
    Y ni sombra encontró ni encontró nada,
    Sólo fijos en él los ojos vió.                              [1180]

      Y alzó los suyos impaciente al cielo,
    Y rechinó los dientes y maldijo,
    Y, en él creciendo el infernal anhelo,
    Con voz de enojo blasfemando dijo:

      «Seguid, señora, y adelante vamos:                        [1185]
    Tanto mejor si sois el diablo mismo,
    Y Dios y el diablo y yo nos conozcamos,
    Y acábese por fin tanto embolismo.

      «Que de tanto sermón, de farsa tanta,
    Juro, pardiez, que fatigado estoy;                          [1190]
    Nada mi firme voluntad quebranta:
    Sabed, en fin, que, donde vayáis, voy.

    «Un término no más tiene la vida:
    Término fijo; un paradero el alma:
    Ahora adelante.» Dijo, y en seguida                         [1195]
    Camina en pos con decidida calma.

      Y la dama a una puerta se paró,
    Y era una puerta altísima, y se abrieron
    Sus hojas en el punto en que llamó,
    Que a un misterioso impulso obedecieron;                    [1200]
    Y tras la dama el estudiante entró;
    Ni pajes ni doncellas acudieron;
    Y cruzan a la luz de unas bujías
    Fantásticas, desiertas galerías.

      Y la visión, como engañoso encanto,                       [1205]
    Por las losas deslízase sin ruido,
    Toda encubierta bajo el blanco manto
    Que barre el suelo en pliegues desprendido;
    Y por el largo corredor en tanto
    Sigue adelante, y síguela atrevido,                         [1210]
    Y su temeridad raya en locura,
    Resuelto Montemar a su aventura.

      Las luces, como antorchas funerales,
    Lánguida luz y cárdena esparcían,
    Y en torno, en movimientos desiguales,                      [1215]
    Las sombras se alejaban o venían
    Arcos aquí ruinosos, sepulcrales,
    Urnas allí y estatuas se veían,
    Rotas columnas, patios mal seguros,
    Yerbosos, tristes, húmedos y oscuros.                       [1220]

      Todo vago, quimérico y sombrío,
    Edificio sin base ni cimiento,
    Ondula cual fantástico navío
    Que anclado mueve borrascoso viento.
    En un silencio aterrador y frío                             [1225]
    Yace allí todo: ni rumor, ni aliento
    Humano nunca se escuchó: callado,
    Corre allí el tiempo, en sueño sepultado.

      Las muertas horas a las muertas horas
    Siguen en el reloj de aquella vida,                         [1230]
    Sombras de horror girando aterradoras,
    Que allá aparecen en medrosa huída;
    Ellas solas y tristes moradoras
    De aquella negra, funeral guarida,
    Cual soñada fantástica quimera,                             [1235]
    Vienen a ver al que su paz altera.

      Y en él enclavan los hundidos ojos
    Del fondo de la larga galería,
    Que brillan lejos cual carbones rojos,
    Y espantaran la misma valentía;                             [1240]
    Y muestran en su rostro sus enojos
    Al ver hollada su mansión sombría;
    Y ora en grupos delante se aparecen,
    Ora en la sombra allá se desvanecen.

      Grandïosa, satánica figura,                               [1245]
    Alta la frente, Montemar camina,
    Espíritu sublime en su locura,
    Provocando la cólera divina:
    Fábrica frágil de materia impura,
    El alma que la alienta y la ilumina                         [1250]
    Con Dios le iguala, y con osado vuelo
    Se alza a su trono y le provoca a duelo.

      Segundo Lucifer que se levanta
    Del rayo vengador la frente herida,
    Alma rebelde que el temor no espanta,                       [1255]
    Hollada sí, pero jamás vencida:
    El hombre, en fin, que en su ansiedad quebranta
    Su límite a la cárcel de la vida,
    Y a Dios llama ante él a darle cuenta,
    Y descubrir su inmensidad intenta.                          [1260]

      Y un báquico cantar tarareando,
    Cruza aquella quimérica morada,
    Con atrevida indiferencia andando,
    Mofa en los labios, y la vista osada;
    Y el rumor que sus pasos van formando,                      [1265]
    Y el golpe que al andar le da la espada,
    Tristes ecos, siguiéndole detrás,
    Repiten con monótono compás.

      Y aquel extraño y único rüido
    Que de aquella mansión los ecos llena,                      [1270]
    En el suelo y los techos repetido,
    En su profunda soledad resuena;
    Y espira allá cual funeral gemido
    Que lanza en su dolor la ánima en pena,
    Que al fin del corredor largo y oscuro                      [1275]
    Salir parece de entre el roto muro.

      Y en aquel otro mundo y otra vida,
    Mundo de sombras, vida que es un sueño,
    Vida que, con la muerte confundida,
    Ciñe sus sienes con letal beleño;                           [1280]
    Mundo, vaga ilusión descolorida
    De nuestro mundo y vaporoso ensueño,
    Son aquel ruido y su locura insana
    La sola imagen de la vida humana.

      Que allá su blanca, misteriosa guía,                      [1285]
    De la alma dicha la ilusión parece,
    Que ora acaricia la esperanza impía,
    Ora al tocarla ya se desvanece;
    Blanca, flotante nube que en la umbría
    Noche en alas del céfiro se mece                            [1290]
    Su airosa ropa, desplegada al viento,
    Semeja en su callado movimiento;

      Humo süave de quemado aroma
    Que al aire en ondas a perderse asciende;
    Rayo de luna que en la parda loma                           [1295]
    Cual un broche su cima al éter prende;
    Silfa que con el alba envuelta asoma
    Y al nebuloso azul sus alas tiende,
    De negras sombras y de luz teñidas,
    Entre el alba y la noche confundidas.                       [1300]

      Y ágil, veloz, aérea y vaporosa,
    Que apenas toca con los pies al suelo,
    Cruza aquella morada tenebrosa
    La mágica visión del blanco velo:
    Imagen fiel de la ilusión dichosa                           [1305]
    Que acaso el hombre encontrará en el cielo,
    Pensamiento sin fórmula y sin nombre
    Que hace rezar y blasfemar al hombre.

      Y al fin del largo corredor llegando,
    Montemar sigue su callada guía,                             [1310]
    Y una de mármol negro va bajando
    De caracol torcida gradería,
    Larga, estrecha y revuelta, y que girando
    En torno de él y sin cesar veía
    Suspendida en el aire y con violento,                       [1315]
    Veloz, vertiginoso movimiento.

      Y en eterna espiral y en remolino
    Infinito prolóngase y se extiende,
    Y el juicio pone en loco desatino
    A Montemar que en tumbos mil desciende,                     [1320]
    Y, envuelto en el violento torbellino,
    Al aire se imagina, y se desprende,
    Y sin que el raudo movimiento ceda,
    Mil vueltas dando, a los abismos rueda;

      Y de escalón en escalón cayendo,                          [1325]
    Blasfema y jura con lenguaje inmundo,
    Y su furioso vértigo creciendo,
    Y despeñado rápido al profundo,
    Los silbos ya del huracán oyendo,
    Ya ante él pasando en confusión el mundo,                   [1330]
    Ya oyendo gritos, voces y palmadas,
    Y aplausos y brutales carcajadas,

      Llantos y ayes, quejas y gemidos,
    Mofas, sarcasmos, risas y denuestos;
    Y en mil grupos acá y allá reunidos,                        [1335]
    Viendo debajo de él, sobre él enhiestos,
    Hombres, mujeres, todos confundidos,
    Con sandia pena, con alegres gestos,
    Que con asombro estúpido le miran
    Y en el perpetuo remolino giran.                            [1340]

      Siente por fin que de repente pára,
    Y un punto sin sentido se quedó;
    Mas luego valeroso se repara,
    Abrió los ojos y de pie se alzó;
    Y fué el primer objeto en que pensara                       [1345]
    La blanca dama, y alredor miró,
    Y al pie de un triste monumento hallóla
    Sentada en medio de la estancia, sola.

      Era un negro solemne monumento
    Que en medio de la estancia se elevaba,                     [1350]
    Y, a un tiempo a Montemar ¡raro portento!
    Una tumba y un lecho semejaba:
    Ya imaginó su loco pensamiento
    Que abierta aquella tumba le aguardaba;
    Ya imaginó también que el lecho era                         [1355]
    Tálamo blando que al esposo espera.

      Y pronto, recobrada su osadía,
    Y a terminar resuelto su aventura,
    Al cielo y al infierno desafía
    Con firme pecho y decisión segura:                          [1360]
    A la blanca visión su planta guía,
    Y a descubrirse el rostro la conjura,
    Y a sus pies Montemar tomando asiento
    Así la habló con animoso acento:

              «Diablo, mujer o visión,                          [1365]
            Que, a juzgar por el camino
            Que conduce a esta mansión,
            Eres puro desatino
            O diabólica invención,

              «Siquier de parte de Dios,                        [1370]
            Siquier de parte del diablo,
            ¿Quién nos trajo aquí a los dos?
            Decidme, en fin, ¿quién sois vos?
            Y sepa yo con quién hablo:

              «Que más que nunca palpita                        [1375]
            Resuelto mi corazón,
            Cuando en tanta confusión,
            Y en tanto arcano que irrita,
            Me descubre mi razón

              «Que un poder aquí supremo,                       [1380]
            Invisible se ha mezclado,
            Poder que siento y no temo,
            A llevar determinado
            Esta aventura al extremo.»

                      Fúnebre                                   [1385]
                    Llanto
                    De amor
                    Óyese
                    En tanto
                    En son                                      [1390]

                   Flébil, blando
                 Cual quejido
                 Dolorido
                 Que del alma
                 Se arrancó:                                    [1395]
                 Cual profundo
                 ¡Ay! que exhala
                 Moribundo
                 Corazón.

               Música triste                                    [1400]
             Lánguida y vaga,
             Que a par lastima
             Y el alma halaga;
             Dulce armonía
             Que inspira al pecho                               [1405]
             Melancolía,
             Como el murmullo
             De algún recuerdo
             De antiguo amor,
             A un tiempo arrullo                                [1410]
             Y amarga pena
             Del corazón.

             Mágico embeleso,
           Cántico ideal,
           Que en los aires vaga                                [1415]
           Y en sonoras ráfagas
           Aumentado va;
           Sublime y oscuro,
           Rumor prodigioso,
           Sordo acento lúgubre,                                [1420]
           Eco sepulcral,
           Músicas lejanas,
           De enlutado parche
           Redoble monótono,
           Cercano huracán,                                     [1425]
           Que apenas la copa
           Del árbol menea
           Y bramando está;
           Olas alteradas
           De la mar bravía                                     [1430]
           En noche sombría,
           Los vientos en paz,
           Y cuyo rugido
           Se mezcla al gemido
           Del muro que trémulo                                 [1435]
           Las siente llegar;
           Pavoroso estrépito,
           Infalible présago
           De la tempestad.

      Y, en rápido _crescendo_,                                 [1440]
    Los lúgubres sonidos
    Más cerca vanse oyendo
    Y en ronco rebramar;
    Cual trueno en las montañas
    Que retumbando va,                                          [1445]
    Cual rugen las entrañas
    De horrísono volcán.

           Y algazara y gritería,
         Crujir de afilados huesos,
         Rechinamiento de dientes                               [1450]
         Y retemblar los cimientos,
         Y en pavoroso estallido
         Las losas del pavimento
         Separando sus junturas
         Irse poco a poco abriendo,                             [1455]
         Siente Montemar; y el ruido
         Más cerca crece, y a un tiempo
         Escucha chocarse cráneos,
         Ya descarnados y secos,
         Temblar en torno la tierra,                            [1460]
         Bramar combatidos vientos,
         Rugir las airadas olas,
         Estallar el ronco trueno,
         Exhalar tristes quejidos
         Y prorrumpir en lamentos:                              [1465]
         Todo en furiosa armonía,
         Todo en frenético estruendo,
         Todo en confuso trastorno,
         Todo mezclado y diverso.

      Y luego el estrépito crece                                [1470]
    Confuso y mezclado en un són,
    Que ronco en las bóvedas hondas
    Tronando furioso zumbó;
    Y un eco que agudo parece
    Del ángel del juicio la voz,                                [1475]
    En tiple, punzante alarido
    Medroso y sonoro se alzó;
    Sintió, removidas las tumbas,
    Crujir a sus pies con fragor,

           Chocar en las piedras los cráneos                    [1480]
         Con rabia y ahinco feroz,
         Romper intentando la losa,
         Y huir de su eterna mansión,
         Los muertos, de súbito oyendo
         El alto mandato de Dios.                               [1485]

         Y de pronto en horrendo estampido
       Desquiciarse la estancia sintió,
       Y al tremendo tartáreo ruido
       Cien espectros alzarse miró:

         De sus ojos los huecos fijaron                         [1490]
       Y sus dedos enjutos en él;
       Y después entre sí se miraron,
       Y a mostrarle tornaron después;

         Y, enlazadas las manos siniestras,
       Con dudoso, espantado ademán                             [1495]
       Contemplando, y, tendidas sus diestras,
       Con asombro al osado mortal,

         Se acercaron despacio, y la seca
       Calavera, mostrando temor,
       Con inmóvil, irónica mueca                               [1500]
       Inclinaron, formando en redor.

         Y entonces la visión del blanco velo
       Al fiero Montemar tendió una mano,
       Y era su tacto de crispante hielo,
       Y resistirlo audaz intentó en vano:                      [1505]

         Galvánica, crüel, nerviosa y fría,
       Histérica y horrible sensación,
       Toda la sangre coagulada envía
       Agolpada y helada al corazón....

         Y a su despecho y maldiciendo al cielo,                [1510]
       De ella apartó su mano Montemar,
       Y temerario alzándola a su velo,
       Tirando de él la descubrió la faz.

         _¡Es su esposo!!_ los ecos retumbaron,
       _¡La esposa al fin que su consorte halló!!_              [1515]
       Los espectros con júbilo gritaron:
       _¡Es el esposo de su eterno amor!!_

         Y ella entonces gritó: _¡Mi esposo!!_ ¡Y era
       (¡Desengaño fatal! ¡triste verdad!)
       Una sórdida, horrible calavera,                          [1520]
       La blanca dama del gallardo andar!...

      Luego un caballero de espuela dorada,
    Airoso, aunque el rostro con mortal color,
    Traspasado el pecho de fiera estocada,
    Aun brotando sangre de su corazón,                          [1525]

      Se acerca y le dice, su diestra tendida,
    Que impávido estrecha también Montemar:
    «--Al fin, la palabra, que disteis, cumplida,
    Doña Elvira, vedla, vuestra esposa es ya;

      «Mi muerte os perdono.--Por cierto, Don Diego,            [1530]
    Repuso Don Félix tranquilo a su vez,
    Me alegro de veros con tanto sosiego,
    Que a fe no esperaba volveros a ver.

      «En cuanto a ese espectro que decís mi esposa,
    Raro casamiento venísme a ofrecer:                          [1535]
    Su faz no es por cierto ni amable ni hermosa;
    Mas no se os figure que os quiera ofender.

      «Por mujer la tomo, porque es cosa cierta,
    Y espero no salga fallido mi plan,
    Que, en caso tan raro y mi esposa muerta,                   [1540]
    Tanto como viva no me cansará.

      «Mas antes decidme si Dios o el demonio
    Me trajo a este sitio, que quisiera ver
    Al uno u al otro, y en mi matrimonio
    Tener por padrino siquiera a Luzbel:                        [1545]

      «Cualquiera o entrambos con su corte toda,
    Estando estos nobles espectros aquí,
    No perdiera mucho viniendo a mi boda....
    Hermano Don Diego, ¿no pensáis así?»

      Tal dijo Don Félix con fruncido ceño,                     [1550]
    En torno arrojando con fiero ademán
    Miradas audaces de altivo desdeño,
    Al Dios por quien jura capaz de arrostrar.

      El carïado, lívido esqueleto,
    Los fríos, largos y asquerosos brazos,                      [1555]
    Le enreda en tanto en apretados lazos,
    Y ávido le acaricia en su ansiedad;
    Y con su boca cavernosa busca
    La boca a Montemar, y a su mejilla
    La árida, descarnada y amarilla                             [1560]
    Junta y refriega repugnante faz.

      Y él, envuelto en sus secas coyunturas,
    Aun más sus nudos que se aprietan siente,
    Baña un mar de sudor su ardida frente,
    Y crece en su impotencia su furor.                          [1565]
    Pugna con ansia a desasirse en vano,
    Y cuanto más airado forcejea,
    Tanto más se le junta y le desea
    El rudo espectro que le inspira horror.

      Y en furioso, veloz remolino,                             [1570]
    Y en aérea fantástica danza,
    Que la mente del hombre no alcanza
    En su rápido curso a seguir,
    Los espectros su ronda empezaron,
    Cual en círculos raudos el viento                           [1575]
    Remolinos de polvo violento
    Y hojas secas agita sin fin.

      Y elevando sus áridas manos,
    Resonando cual lúgubre eco,
    Levantóse en su cóncavo hueco                               [1580]
    Semejante a un aullido una voz
    Pavorosa, monótona, informe,
    Que pronuncia sin lengua su boca,
    Cual la voz que del áspera roca
    En los senos el viento formó.                               [1585]

        «Cantemos, dijeron sus gritos,
      La gloria, el amor de la esposa,
      Que enlaza en sus brazos dichosa
      Por siempre al esposo que amó;
      Su boca a su boca se junte,                               [1590]
      Y selle su eterna delicia,
      Süave, amorosa caricia
      Y lánguido beso de amor.

        «Y en mútuos abrazos unidos,
      Y en blando y eterno reposo,                              [1595]
      La esposa enlazada al esposo,
      Por siempre descansen en paz;
      Y en fúnebre luz ilumine
      Sus bodas fatídica tea,
      Les brinde deleites, y sea                                [1600]
      La tumba su lecho nupcial.»

        Mientras, la ronda frenética,
      Que en raudo giro se agita,
      Más cada vez precipita
      Su vértigo sin ceder;                                     [1605]
      Más cada vez se atropella,
      Más cada vez se arrebata,
      Y en círculos se desata
      Violentos más cada vez;

        Y escapa en rueda quimérica;                            [1610]
      Y negro punto parece
      Que en torno se desvanece
      A la fantástica luz,
      Y sus lúgubres aullidos
      Que pavorosos se extienden                                [1615]
      Los aires rápidos hienden
      Más prolongados aún.

            Y a tan continuo vértigo,
          A tan funesto encanto,
          A tan horrible canto,                                 [1620]
          A tan tremenda lid,
          Entre los brazos lúbricos
          Que aprémianle sujeto
          Del hórrido esqueleto,
          Entre caricias mil,                                   [1625]

          Jamás vencido el ánimo,
          Su cuerpo ya rendido
          Sintió desfallecido
          Faltarle Montemar;
          Y a par que más su espíritu                           [1630]
          Desmiente su miseria,
          La flaca, vil materia
          Comienza a desmayar.

              Y siente un confuso,
            Loco devaneo,                                       [1635]
            Languidez, mareo
            Y angustioso afán;
            Y sombras y luces,
            La estancia que gira,
            Y espíritus mira                                    [1640]
            Que vienen y van.

              Y luego a lo lejos,
            Flébil en su oído,
            Eco dolorido
            Lánguido sonó,                                      [1645]
            Cual la melodía
            Que el aura amorosa
            Y el agua armoniosa
            De noche formó;

                Y siente luego                                  [1650]
              Su pecho ahogado
              Y desmayado,
              Turbios sus ojos,
              Sus graves párpados,
              Flojos caer;                                      [1655]
              La frente inclina
              Sobre su pecho,
              Y, a su despecho,
              Siente sus brazos
              Lánguidos, débiles                                [1660]
              Desfallecer.

                  Y vió luego
                Una llama
                Que se inflama
                Y murió;                                        [1665]
                Y perdido
                Oyó el eco
                De un gemido
                Que espiró.

                    Tal, dulce                                  [1670]
                  Suspira
                  La lira
                  Que hirió
                  En blando
                  Concento                                      [1675]
                  Del viento
                  La voz,

                      Leve,
                    Breve
                    Són.                                        [1680]

      En tanto en nubes de carmín y grana
    Su luz el alba arrebolada envía,
    Y alegre regocija y engalana
    Las altas torres el naciente día:
    Sereno el cielo, calma la mañana,                           [1685]
    Blanda la brisa, trasparente y fría,
    Vierte a la tierra el sol con su hermosura
    Rayos de paz y celestial ventura.

    Y huyó la noche y con la noche huían
    Sus sombras y quiméricas mujeres,                           [1690]
    Y a su silencio y calma sucedían
    El bullicio y rumor de los talleres;
    Y a su trabajo y a su afán volvían
    Los hombres y a sus frívolos placeres,
    Algunos hoy volviendo a su faena.                           [1695]
    De zozobra y temor el alma llena;

      ¡Que era pública voz, que llanto arranca
    Del pecho pecador y empedernido,
    Que en forma de mujer y en una blanca
    Túnica misteriosa revestido,                                [1700]
    Aquella noche el diablo a Salamanca
    Había, en fin, por Montemar venido!...
    _Y si, lector, dijerdes ser comento,
    Como me lo contaron, te lo cuento._



                        CANCIÓN DEL PIRATA

    Con diez cañones por banda,
  Viento en popa, a toda vela,
  No corta el mar sino vuela
  Un velero bergantín:
    Bajel pirata que llaman                                        [5]
  Por su bravura el _Temido_,
  En todo mar conocido
  Del uno al otro confín.

    La luna en el mar rïela,
  En la lona gime el viento,                                      [10]
  Y alza en blando movimiento
  Olas de plata y azul;
    Y ve el capitán pirata,
  Cantando alegre en la popa,
  Asia a un lado, al otro Europa,                                 [15]
  Y allá a su frente Stambul.[1]

[Nota 1: Nombre que dan los Turcos a Constantinopla]

    «Navega, velero mío,
        Sin temor,
  Que ni enemigo navío,
  Ni tormenta, ni bonanza                                         [20]
  Tu rumbo a torcer alcanza,
  Ni a sujetar tu valor.

      «Veinte presas
    Hemos hecho
    A despecho                                                    [25]
    Del Inglés,
    Y han rendido
    Sus pendones
    Cien naciones
    A mis pies.                                                   [30]

    «Que es mi barco mi tesoro,
  Que es mi Dios la libertad,
  Mi ley la fuerza y el viento,
  Mi única patria la mar.

    «Allá muevan feroz guerra                                     [35]
        Ciegos reyes
  Por un palmo más de tierra;
  Que yo tengo aquí por mío
  Cuanto abarca el mar bravío,
  A quien nadie impuso leyes.                                     [40]

      «Y no hay playa,
    Sea cualquiera,
    Ni bandera
    De esplendor,
    Que no sienta                                                 [45]
    Mi derecho
    Y dé pecho
    A mi valor.

  «Que es mi barco mi tesoro....

  «A la voz de '¡barco viene!'                                    [50]
        Es de ver
  Cómo vira y se previene
  A todo trapo a escapar;
  Que yo soy el rey del mar,
  Y mi furia es de temer.                                         [55]

      «En las presas
    Yo divido
    Lo cogido
    Por igual:
    Sólo quiero                                                   [60]
    Por riqueza
    La belleza
    Sin rival.

  «Que es mi barco mi tesoro....

    «¡Sentenciado estoy a muerte!                                 [65]
        Yo me río.
  No me abandone la suerte,
  Y al mismo que me condena
  Colgaré de alguna entena,
  Quizá en su propio navío.                                       [70]

      «Y si caigo,
    ¿Qué es la vida?
    Por perdida
    Ya la di,
    Cuando el yugo                                                [75]
    Del esclavo,
    Como un bravo,
    Sacudí.

  «Que es mi barco mi tesoro....

    «Son mi música mejor                                          [80]
        Aquilones;
  El estrépito y temblor
  De los cables sacudidos;
  Del negro mar los bramidos
  Y el rugir de mis cañones.                                      [85]

      «Y del trueno
    Al són violento,
    Y del viento
    Al rebramar,
    Yo me duermo                                                  [90]
    Sosegado,
    Arrullado
    Por el mar.

    «Que es mi barco mi tesoro,
  Que es mi Dios la libertad,                                     [95]
  Mi ley la fuerza y el viento,
  Mi única patria la mar.»



                       EL CANTO DEL COSACO

                          Donde sienta mi caballo los pies no vuelve
                          a nacer yerba.--Palabras de Átila


  CORO
    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto! ¡Hurra!
  La Europa os brinda espléndido botín:
  Sangrienta charca sus campiñas sean,
  De los grajos su ejército festín.

    ¡Hurra! a caballo, hijos de la niebla!                          [5]
  Suelta la rienda, a combatir volad.
  ¿Veis esas tierras fértiles? las puebla
  Gente opulenta, afeminada ya.
  Casas, palacios, campos y jardines,
  Todo es hermoso y refulgente allí;                               [10]
  Son sus hembras celestes serafines,
  Su sol alumbra un cielo de zafir.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

    Nuestros sean su oro y sus placeres,
  Gocemos de ese campo y de ese sol;                               [15]
  Son sus soldados menos que mujeres,
  Sus reyes viles mercaderes son.
    Vedlos huír para esconder su oro,
  Vedlos cobardes lágrimas verter....
  ¡Hurra! volad: sus cuerpos, su tesoro                            [20]
  Huellen nuestros caballos con sus pies.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

    Dictará allí nuestro capricho leyes,
  Nuestras casas alcázares serán,
  Los cetros y coronas de los reyes                                [25]
  Cual juguetes de niños rodarán.
    ¡Hurra! volad a hartar nuestros deseos;
  Las más hermosas nos darán su amor,
  Y no hallarán nuestros semblantes feos,
  Que siempre brilla hermoso el vencedor.                          [30]

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

    Desgarraremos la vencida Europa
  Cual tigres que devoran su ración;
  En sangre empaparemos nuestra ropa
  Cual rojo manto de imperial señor.                               [35]
    Nuestros nobles caballos relinchando
  Regias habitaciones morarán;
  Cien esclavos, sus frentes inclinando,
  Al mover nuestros ojos temblarán.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....                               [40]

    Venid, volad, guerreros del desierto,
  Como nubes en negra confusión,
  Todos suelto el bridón, el ojo incierto,
  Todos atropellándoos en montón.
    Id, en la espesa niebla confundidos,                           [45]
  Cual tromba que arrebata el huracán,
  Cual témpanos de hielo endurecidos
  Por entre rocas despeñados van.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

  Nuestros padres un tiempo caminaron                              [50]
  Hasta llegar a una imperial ciudad;
  Un sol más puro es fama que encontraron,
  Y palacios de oro y de cristal.
    Vadearon el Tibre sus bridones,
  Yerta a sus pies la tierra enmudeció;                            [55]
  Su sueño con fantásticas canciones
  La fada de los triunfos arrulló.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

  ¡Qué! ¿No sentís la lanza estremecerse,
  Hambrienta en vuestras manos de matar?                           [60]
  ¿No veis entre la niebla aparecerse
  Visiones mil que el parabién nos dan?
    Escudo de esas míseras naciones
  Era ese muro que abatido fué;
  La gloria de Polonia y sus blasones                              [65]
  En humo y sangre convertidos ved.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

    ¿Quién en dolor trocó sus alegrías?
  ¿Quién sus hijos triunfante encadenó?
  ¿Quién puso fin a sus gloriosos días?                            [70]
  ¿Quién en su propia sangre los ahogó?
    ¡Hurra, Cosacos! ¡Gloria al más valiente!
  Esos hombres de Europa nos verán.
  ¡Hurra! nuestros caballos en su frente
  Hondas sus herraduras marcarán.                                  [75]

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....

    A cada bote de la lanza ruda,
  A cada escape en la abrasada lid,
  La sangrienta ración de carne cruda
  Bajo la silla sentiréis hervir.                                  [80]
    Y allá después en templos suntüosos,
  Sirviéndonos de mesa algún altar,
  Nuestra sed calmarán vinos sabrosos,
  Hartará nuestra hambre blanco pan.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto....                               [85]

    Y nuestras madres nos verán triunfantes,
  Y a esa caduca Europa a nuestros pies,
  Y acudirán de gozo palpitantes,
  En cada hijo a contemplar un rey.
    Nuestros hijos sabrán nuestras acciones,                       [90]
  Las coronas de Europa heredarán,
  Y a conquistar también otras regiones
  El caballo y la lanza aprestarán.

    ¡Hurra, Cosacos del desierto! ¡Hurra!
  La Europa os brinda espléndido botín.                            [95]
  Sangrienta charca sus campiñas sean,
  De los grajos su ejército festín.



                            EL MENDIGO

    Mío es el mundo: como el aire libre,
  Otros trabajan porque coma yo;
  Todos se ablandan si doliente pido
  Una limosna por amor de Dios.

        El palacio, la cabaña                                      [5]
            Son mi asilo,
      Si del ábrego el furor
      Troncha el roble en la montaña,
      O que inunda la campaña
      El torrente asolador.                                       [10]

          Y a la hoguera
        Me hacen lado
        Los pastores
        Con amor,
        Y sin pena                                                [15]
        Y descuidado
        De su cena
        Ceno yo;
        O en la rica
        Chimenea,                                                 [20]
        Que recrea
        Con su olor,
        Me regalo
        Codicioso
        Del banquete                                              [25]
        Suntüoso
        Con las sobras
        De un señor.

      Y me digo: el viento brama,
    Caiga furioso turbión;                                        [30]
  Que al són que cruje de la seca leña,
  Libre me duermo sin rencor ni amor.

    Mío es el mundo: como el aire libre....

      Todos son mis bienhechores,
        Y por todos                                               [35]
    A Dios ruego con fervor;
    De villanos y señores
    Yo recibo los favores
    Sin estima y sin amor.

           Ni pregunto                                            [40]
         Quiénes sean,
         Ni me obligo
         A agradecer;
         Que mis rezos
         Si desean,                                               [45]
         Dar limosna
         Es un deber.
         Y es pecado
         La riqueza,
         La pobreza                                               [50]
         Santidad;
         Dios a veces
         Es mendigo,
         Y al avaro
         Da castigo,                                              [55]
         Que le niegue
         Caridad.

      Yo soy pobre y se lastiman
    Todos al verme plañir,
  Sin ver son mías sus riquezas todas,                            [60]
  Que mina inagotable es el pedir.

    Mío es el mundo: como el aire libre....

             Mal revuelto y andrajoso,
               Entre harapos
       Del lujo sátira soy;                                       [65]
       Y con mi aspecto asqueroso
       Me vengo del poderoso,
       Y adonde va, tras él voy.

           Y a la hermosa
         Que respira                                              [70]
         Cien perfumes,
         Gala, amor,
         La persigo
         Hasta que mira,
         Y me gozo                                                [75]
         Cuando aspira
         Mi punzante
         Mal olor.
         Y las fiestas
         Y el contento                                            [80]
         Con mi acento
         Turbo yo,
         Y en la bulla
         Y la alegría
         Interrumpen                                              [85]
         La armonía
         Mis harapos
         Y mi voz,

      Mostrando cuán cerca habitan
    El gozo y el padecer,                                         [90]
  Que no hay placer sin lágrimas, ni pena
  Que no transpire en medio del placer.

    Mío es el mundo: como el aire libre....

        Y para mí no hay _mañana_,
          Ni hay _ayer_;                                          [95]
      Olvido el bien como el mal,
      Nada me aflije ni afana;
      Me es igual para mañana
      Un palacio, un hospital.

             Vivo ajeno                                          [100]
           De memorias,
           De cuidados
           Libre estoy;
           Busquen otros
           Oro y glorias,                                        [105]
           Yo no pienso
           Sino en hoy.
           Y doquiera
           Vayan leyes,
           Quiten reyes,                                         [110]
           Reyes den;
           Yo soy pobre,
           Y al mendigo,
           Por el miedo
           Del castigo,                                          [115]
           Todos hacen
           Siempre bien.

      Y un asilo dondequiera
    Y un lecho en el hospital
  Siempre hallaré, y un hoyo donde caiga                         [120]
  Mi cuerpo miserable al espirar.

    Mío es el mundo: como el aire libre,
  Otros trabajan porque coma yo;
  Todos se ablandan, si doliente pido
  Una limosna por amor de Dios.                                  [125]



                  SONETO

    Fresca, lozana, pura y olorosa,
  Gala y adorno del pensil florido,
  Gallarda puesta sobre el ramo erguido,
  Fragrancia esparce la naciente rosa.

    Mas si el ardiente sol lumbre enojosa                           [5]
  Vibra del can en llamas encendido,
  El dulce aroma y el color perdido,
  Sus hojas lleva el aura presurosa.

    Así brilló un momento mi ventura
  En alas del amor, y hermosa nube                                 [10]
  Fingí tal vez de gloria y de alegría.

    Mas ¡ay! que el bien trocóse en amargura,
  Y deshojada por los aires sube
  La dulce flor de la esperanza mía.



                               A TERESA
                           DESCANSA EN PAZ

                             Bueno es el mundo, ¡bueno! ¡bueno! ¡bueno!
                           Como de Dios al fin obra maestra,
                           Por todas partes de delicias lleno,
                           De que Dios ama al hombre hermosa muestra;
                           Salga la voz alegre de su seno
                           A celebrar esta vivienda nuestra;
                          ¡Paz a los hombres! ¡gloria en las alturas!
                          ¡Cantad en vuestra jaula, crïaturas!
                          DON MIGUEL DE LOS SANTOS ÁLVAREZ, "María"


    ¿Por qué volvéis a la memoria mía,
  Tristes recuerdos del placer perdido,
  A aumentar la ansiedad y la agonía
  De este desierto corazón herido?
  ¡Ay! que de aquellas horas de alegría,                            [5]
  Le quedó al corazón sólo un gemido,
  Y el llanto que al dolor los ojos niegan
  Lágrimas son de hiel que el alma anegan!

    ¿Dónde volaron ¡ay! aquellas horas
  De juventud, de amor y de ventura,                               [10]
  Regaladas de músicas sonoras,
  Adornadas de luz y de hermosura?
  Imágenes de oro bullidoras,
  Sus alas de carmín y nieve pura,
  Al sol de mi esperanza desplegando,                              [15]
  Pasaban ¡ay! a mi alredor cantando.

    Gorjeaban los dulces ruiseñores,
  El sol iluminaba mi alegría,
  El aura susurraba entre las flores,
  El bosque mansamente respondía,                                  [20]
  Las fuentes murmuraban sus amores....
  ¡Ilusiones que llora el alma mía!
  ¡Oh! ¡cuán süave resonó en mi oído
  El bullicio del mundo y su ruïdo!

    Mi vida entonces cual guerrera nave                            [25]
  Que el puerto deja por la vez primera,
  Y al soplo de los céfiros süave,
  Orgullosa despliega su bandera,
  Y al mar dejando que a sus pies alabe
  Su triunfo en roncos cantos, va velera                           [30]
  Una ola tras otra bramadora
  Hollando y dividiendo vencedora;

    ¡Ay! en el mar del mundo, en ansia ardiente
  De amor volaba, el sol de la mañana
  Llevaba yo sobre mi tersa frente,                                [35]
  Y el alma pura de su dicha ufana.
  Dentro de ella el amor cual rica fuente,
  Que entre frescura y arboledas mana,
  Brotaba entonces abundante río
  De ilusiones y dulce desvarío.                                   [40]

    Yo amaba todo: un noble sentimiento
  Exaltaba mi ánimo, y sentía
  En mi pecho un secreto movimiento,
  De grandes hechos generoso guía:
  La libertad con su inmortal aliento,                             [45]
  Santa diosa, mi espíritu encendía,
  Contino imaginando en mi fe pura
  Sueños de gloria al mundo y de ventura:

    El puñal de Catón, la adusta frente
  Del noble Bruto, la constancia fiera                             [50]
  Y el arrojo de Scévola valiente,
  La doctrina de Sócrates severa,
  La voz atronadora y elocuente
  Del orador de Atenas, la bandera
  Contra el tirano macedonio alzando,                              [55]
  Y al espantado pueblo arrebatando;

    El valor y la fe del caballero,
  Del trovador el arpa y los cantares,
  Del gótico castillo el altanero,
  Antiguo torreón, do sus pesares                                  [60]
  Cantó tal vez con eco lastimero
  ¡Ay! arrancada de sus patrios lares,
  Joven cautiva, al rayo de la luna,
  Lamentando su ausencia y su fortuna;

    El dulce anhelo del amor que aguarda,                          [65]
  Tal vez inquieto y con mortal recelo,
  La forma bella que cruzó gallarda,
  Allá en la noche entre el medroso velo,
  La ansiada cita que en llegar se tarda
  Al impaciente y amoroso anhelo,                                  [70]
  La mujer y la voz de su dulzura,
  Que inspira al alma celestial ternura,

    A un tiempo mismo en rápida tormenta
  Mi alma alborotaban de contino,
  Cual las olas que azota con violenta                             [75]
  Cólera, impetüoso torbellino;
  Soñaba al héroe ya, la plebe atenta
  En mi voz escuchaba su destino;
  Ya al caballero, al trovador soñaba,
  Y de gloria y de amores suspiraba.                               [80]

    Hay una voz secreta, un dulce canto,
  Que el alma sólo recogida entiende,
  Un sentimiento misterioso y santo,
  Que del barro al espíritu desprende,
  Agreste, vago y solitario encanto,                               [85]
  Que en inefable amor el alma enciende,
  Volando tras la imagen peregrina
  El corazón de su ilusión divina.

    Yo, desterrado en extranjera playa,
  Con los ojos, extático seguía                                    [90]
  La nave audaz que argentada raya
  Volaba al puerto de la patria mía;
  Yo cuando en Occidente el sol desmaya,
  Solo y perdido en la arboleda umbría,
  Oír pensaba el armonioso acento                                  [95]
  De una mujer, al suspirar del viento.

    ¡Una mujer! En el templado rayo
  De la mágica luna se colora,
  Del sol poniente al lánguido desmayo
  Lejos entre las nubes se evapora;                               [100]
  Sobre las cumbres que florece el mayo
  Brilla fugaz al despuntar la aurora,
  Cruza tal vez por entre el bosque umbrío,
  Juega en las aguas del sereno río.

    ¡Una mujer! Deslízase en el cielo                             [105]
  Allá en la noche desprendida estrella;
  Si aroma el aire recogió en el suelo,
  Es el aroma que le presta ella.
  Blanca es la nube que en callado vuelo
  Cruza la esfera y que su planta huella,                         [110]
  Y en la tarde la mar olas la ofrece
  De plata y de zafir donde se mece.

    Mujer que amor en su ilusión figura,
  Mujer que nada dice a los sentidos,
  Ensueño de suavísima ternura,                                   [115]
  Eco que regaló nuestros oídos;
  De amor la llama generosa y pura,
  Los goces dulces del placer cumplidos,
  Que engalana la rica fantasía,
  Goces que avaro el corazón ansía;                               [120]

    ¡Ay! aquella mujer, tan sólo aquella
  Tanto delirio a realizar alcanza,
  Y esa mujer, tan cándida y tan bella,
  Es mentida ilusión de la esperanza;
  Es el alma que vívida destella                                  [125]
  Su luz al mundo cuando en él se lanza,
  Y el mundo con su magia y galanura
  Es espejo no más de su hermosura;

    Es el amor que al mismo amor adora,
  El que creó las sílfides y ondinas,                             [130]
  La sacra ninfa que bordando mora
  Debajo de las aguas cristalinas;
  Es el amor que recordando llora
  Las arboledas del Edén divinas,
  Amor de allí arrancado, allí nacido,                            [135]
  Que busca en vano aquí su bien perdido.

    ¡Oh llama santa! ¡celestial anhelo!
  ¡Sentimiento purísimo! ¡memoria
  Acaso triste de un perdido cielo,
  Quizá esperanza de futura gloria!                               [140]
  ¡Huyes y dejas llanto y desconsuelo!
  ¡Oh mujer! que en imagen ilusoria
  Tan pura, tan feliz, tan placentera,
  Brindó el amor a mi ilusión primera...!

    ¡Oh Teresa! ¡Oh dolor! Lágrimas mías,                         [145]
  ¡Ah! ¿dónde estáis que no corréis a mares?
  ¿Por qué, por qué como en mejores días
  No consoláis vosotras mis pesares?
  ¡Oh! los que no sabéis las agonías
  De un corazón, que penas a millares                             [150]
  ¡Ay! desgarraron, y que ya no llora,
  ¡Piedad tened de mi tormento ahora!

    ¡Oh! ¡dichosos mil veces! sí, dichosos,
  Los que podéis llorar y ¡ay! sin ventura
  De mí, que, entre suspiros angustiosos,                         [155]
  Ahogar me siento en infernal tortura!
  Retuércese entre nudos dolorosos
  Mi corazón, gimiendo de amargura!...
  También tu corazón, hecho pavesa,
  ¡Ay! llegó a no llorar, ¡pobre Teresa!                          [160]

    ¿Quién pensara jamás, Teresa mía,
  Que fuera eterno manantial de llanto
  Tanto inocente amor, tanta alegría,
  Tantas delicias y delirio tanto?
  ¿Quién pensara jamás llegase un día,                            [165]
  En que, perdido el celestial encanto,
  Y caída la venda de los ojos,
  Cuanto diera placer causara enojos?

    Aun parece, Teresa, que te veo
  Aerea como dorada mariposa,                                     [170]
  Ensueño delicioso del deseo,
  Sobre tallo gentil temprana rosa,
  Del amor venturoso devaneo,
  Angélica, purísima y dichosa,
  Y oigo tu voz dulcísima, y respiro                              [175]
  Tu aliento perfumado en tu suspiro.

    Y aun miro aquellos ojos que robaron
  A los cielos su azul, y las rosadas
  Tintas sobre la nieve, que envidiaron
  Las de mayo serenas alboradas;                                  [180]
  Y aquellas horas dulces que pasaron
  Tan breves ¡ay! como después lloradas,
  Horas de confïanza y de delicias,
  De abandono, y de amor y de caricias.

    Que así las horas rápidas pasaban,                            [185]
  Y pasaba a la par nuestra ventura;
  Y nunca nuestras ansias las contaban,
  Tú embriagada en mi amor, yo en tu hermosura;
  Las horas ¡ay! huyendo nos miraban,
  Llanto tal vez vertiendo de ternura,                            [190]
  Que nuestro amor y juventud veían,
  Y temblaban las horas que vendrían.

    Y llegaron en fin.... ¡Oh! ¿quién impío
  ¡Ay! agostó la flor de tu pureza?
  Tú fuiste un tiempo cristalino río,                             [195]
  Manantial de purísima limpieza;
  Después torrente de color sombrío,
  Rompiendo entre peñascos y maleza,
  Y estanque, en fin, de aguas corrompidas,
  Entre fétido fango detenidas.                                   [200]

    ¿Cómo caíste despeñado al suelo,
  Astro de la mañana luminoso?
  Ángel de luz, ¿quién te arrojó del cielo
  A este valle de lágrimas odioso?
  Aun cercaba tu frente el blanco velo                            [205]
  Del serafín, y, en ondas fulgoroso,
  Rayos al mundo tu esplendor vertía,
  Y otro cielo el amor te prometía.

    Mas ¡ay! que es la mujer ángel caído
  O mujer nada más y lodo inmundo,                                [210]
  Hermoso ser para llorar nacido,
  O vivir como autómata en el mundo.
  Sí, que el demonio en el Edén perdido
  Abrasara con fuego del profundo
  La primera mujer, y ¡ay! aquel fuego                            [215]
  La herencia ha sido de sus hijos luego.

    Brota en el cielo del amor la fuente
  Que a fecundar el universo mana,
  Y en la tierra su límpida corriente
  Sus márgenes con flores engalana;                               [220]
  Mas ¡ay! huíd: el corazón ardiente
  Que el agua clara por beber se afana
  Lágrimas verterá de duelo eterno,
  Que su raudal lo envenenó el infierno.

    Huíd, si no queréis que llegue un día,                        [225]
  En que, enredado en retorcidos lazos
  El corazón, con bárbara porfía
  Luchéis por arrancároslo a pedazos:
  En que al cielo en histérica agonía
  Frenéticos alcéis entrambos brazos,                             [230]
  Para en vuestra impotencia maldecirle,
  Y escupiros, tal vez, al escupirle.

    Los años ¡ay! de la ilusión pasaron;
  Las dulces esperanzas que trajeron
  Con sus blancos ensueños se llevaron,                           [235]
  Y el porvenir de oscuridad vistieron:
  Las rosas de amor se marchitaron,
  Las flores en abrojos convirtieron,
  Y de afán tanto y tan soñada gloria
  Sólo quedó una tumba, una memoria.                              [240]

    ¡Pobre Teresa! al recordarte siento
  Un pesar tan intenso...! embarga impío
  Mi quebrantada voz mi sentimiento,
  Y suspira tu nombre el labio mío:
  Pára allí su carrera el pensamiento,                            [245]
  Hiela mi corazón punzante frío,
  Ante mis ojos la funesta losa,
  Donde vil polvo tu beldad reposa.

    ¡Y tú feliz, que hallaste en la muerte
  Sombra a que descansar en tu camino,                            [250]
  Cuando llegabas, mísera, a perderte,
  Y era llorar tu único destino:
  Cuando en tu frente la implacable suerte
  Grababa de los réprobos el sino...!
  ¡Feliz! la muerte te arrancó del suelo,                         [255]
  Y otra vez ángel te volviste al cielo.

    Roída de recuerdos de amargura,
  Árido el corazón sin ilusiones,
  La delicada flor de tu hermosura
  Ajaron del dolor los Aquilones:                                 [260]
  Sola, y envilecida y sin ventura,
  Tu corazón secaron las pasiones,
  Tus hijos, ¡ay! de ti se avergonzaran,
  Y hasta el nombre de madre te negaran.

    Los ojos escaldados de tu llanto,                             [265]
  Tu rostro cadavérico y hundido,
  Único desahogo en tu quebranto,
  El histérico ¡ay! de tu gemido:
  ¿Quién, quién pudiera, en infortunio tanto,
  Envolver tu desdicha en el olvido,                              [270]
  Disipar tu dolor y recogerte
  En su seno de paz? ¡Sólo la muerte!

    ¡Y tan joven, y ya tan desgraciada!
  Espíritu indomable, alma violenta,
  En ti, mezquina sociedad, lanzada                               [275]
  A romper tus barreras turbulenta.
  Nave contra las rocas quebrantada,
  Allá vaga, a merced de la tormenta,
  En las olas tal vez náufraga tabla,
  Que sólo ya de sus grandezas habla.                             [280]

    Un recuerdo de amor que nunca muere
  Y está en mi corazón; un lastimero
  Tierno quejido que en el alma hiere,
  Eco süave de su amor primero:
  ¡Ay! de tu luz en tanto yo viviere                              [285]
  Quedará un rayo en mí, blanco lucero,
  Que iluminaste con tu luz querida
  La dorada mañana de mi vida.

    Que yo como una flor que en la mañana
  Abre su cáliz al naciente día,                                  [290]
  ¡Ay! al amor abrí tu alma temprana,
  Y exalté tu inocente fantasía:
  Yo inocente también: ¡oh! ¡cuán ufana
  Al porvenir mi mente sonreía,
  Y en alas de mi amor con cuánto anhelo                          [295]
  Pensé contigo remontarme al cielo!

    Y alegre, audaz, ansioso, enamorado,
  En tus brazos en lánguido abandono,
  De glorias y deleites rodeado,
  Levantar para ti soñé yo un trono:                              [300]
  Y allí, tú venturosa y yo a tu lado,
  Vencer del mundo el implacable encono,
  Y en un tiempo sin horas y medida
  Ver como un sueño resbalar la vida.

    ¡Pobre Teresa! Cuando ya tus ojos                             [305]
  Áridos ni una lágrima brotaban,
  Cuando ya su color tus labios rojos
  En cárdenos matices cambïaban,
  Cuando de tu dolor tristes despojos
  La vida y su ilusión te abandonaban,                            [310]
  Y consumía lenta calentura
  Tu corazón al par de tu amargura,

    Si en tu penosa y última agonía
  Volviste a lo pasado el pensamiento,
  Si comparaste a tu existencia un día                            [315]
  Tu triste soledad y tu aislamiento;
  Si arrojó a tu dolor tu fantasía
  Tus hijos ¡ay! en tu postrer momento,
  A otra mujer tal vez acariciando,
  Madre tal vez a otra mujer llamando,                            [320]

    Si el cuadro de tus breves glorias viste
  Pasar como fantástica quimera,
  Y si la voz de tu conciencia oíste
  Dentro de ti gritándote severa,
  Si, en fin, entonces tú llorar quisiste,                        [325]
  Y no brotó una lágrima siquiera
  Tu seco corazón, y a Dios llamaste,
  Y no te escuchó Dios, y blasfemaste,

    ¡Oh! ¡crüel! ¡muy crüel! ¡martirio horrendo!
  ¡Espantosa expiación de tu pecado!                              [330]
  ¡Sobre un lecho de espinas maldiciendo,
  Morir el corazón desesperado!
  ¡Tus mismas manos de dolor mordiendo,
  Presente a tu conciencia lo pasado,
  Buscando en vano con los ojos fijos,                            [335]
  Y extendiendo tus brazos a tus hijos!!

    ¡Oh! ¡crüel! ¡muy crüel!... ¡Ah! yo entre tanto,
  Dentro del pecho mi dolor oculto,
  Enjugo de mis párpados el llanto
  Y doy al mundo el exigido culto:                                [340]
  Yo escondo con vergüenza mi quebranto,
  Mi propia pena con mi risa insulto,
  Y me divierto en arrancar del pecho
  Mi mismo corazón pedazos hecho.

    Gocemos, sí; la cristalina esfera                             [345]
  Gira bañada en luz: ¡bella es la vida!
  ¿Quién a parar alcanza la carrera
  Del mundo hermoso que al placer convida?
  Brilla radiante el sol, la primavera
  Los campos pinta en la estación florida:     [350]
  Truéquese en risa mi dolor profundo....
  ¡Que haya un cadáver más! ¿Qué importa al mundo?



                            NOTES



EL ESTUDIANTE DE SALAMANCA


PARTE PRIMERA

Instead of =Cuento=, later editions read =Leyendas=.

The introductory quotation is taken from the "Don Quijote," Part I,
chap. 45. The words were addressed by Don Quijote to members of the
rural police who were arresting him for depredations committed on the
highway. The full sentence in Ormsby's translation reads: "Who was
he that did not know that knights-errant are independent of all
jurisdictions, that their law is their sword, their charter their
prowess, and their edicts their will?" This Spanish declaration of
independence was frequently used as a slogan by the Romanticists.
Espronceda is here making the quotation apply more particularly to his
lawless hero.

=1. Era más de media noche=: the poet begins with a characteristic
Romantic landscape, gloomy, medieval, fantastic, uncanny. He is trying
to create a mood of horror. He follows the Horatian precept of beginning
the plot in the middle (_in medias res_). The situation here introduced
is not resumed until Part Four is reached. Parts Two and Three supply
the events leading up to the duel. The Duque de Rivas's "Candil" begins
in similar fashion:

    Más ha de quinientos años
  En una torcida calle,
  Que de Sevilla en el centro
  Da paso a otras principales;
    Cerca de la media noche,
  Cuando la ciudad más grande
  Es de un grande cementerio
  En silencio y paz imagen;
    De dos desnudas espadas
  Que trababan un combate
  Turbó el repentino encuentro
  Las tinieblas impalpables.
    El crujir de los aceros
  Sonó por breves instantes
  Lanzando azules centellas,
  Meteoro de desastres.
    Y al gemido _¡Dios me valga!
  ¡Muerto soy!_ y al golpe grave
  De un cuerpo que a tierra vino
  El silencio y paz renacen, etc.

This was first published in "El Liceo," 1838. The Duque de Rivas may
have been influenced by our text, but such introductions were a Romantic
commonplace. See M. Fernández y González, "Crónicas romanescas de
España. Don Miguel de Mañara, memorias del tiempo de Carlos V," Paris,
1868. The story begins "Era la media noche"; and, later, "Hacía mucho
tiempo que Sevilla estaba entregada al sueño y al silencio." Espronceda
is here following his sources closely.

=2. antiguas historias=: not a mere rhetorical statement. These old
stories actually existed. See the study of sources in the Introduction.

=4. lóbrego=: I follow the reading of the 1840 edition. Later editions
changed to =lóbrega=, making the adjective agree with =tierra= instead
of =silencio=. Either reading makes good sense, but in cases of doubt I
follow the Editio Princeps.

=11. fantasmas=: this noun is usually masculine, but is often feminine
in popular speech. The distinction between the masculine and feminine
meanings given in most dictionaries does not apply in Espronceda. He
uses both genders indifferently.

=19. sábados=: Saturday was the usual day when, according to popular
belief, witches attended their yearly =aquelarre= or sabbath. The
favorite meeting-place for Spanish witches was said to be the plain
around Barahona (Soria).

=27. gótico=: admiration for the Gothic was a characteristic of
Romanticism.

=37. Salamanca=: the famous university city of Spain. Its founding
antedates the Carthaginians and the Romans. The university of Palencia
was transferred to Salamanca by Fernando III in 1239. Neither the
university nor the city retains much of its ancient importance. See
Gustave Reynier, "La Vie universitaire dans l'ancienne Espagne," Paris,
1902.

=38. armas y letras=: these words summarize the Renaissance ideal of
culture. The perfect gentleman must combine literature and arms. Letters
were not considered to be apart from active life. Cervantes, Lope de
Vega, Quevedo, and many others of Spain's great writers of the classic
period exemplify this ideal.

=53. embozado=: to avoid breathing the cool mountain air of his country,
a Spaniard frequently draws the corner of his cape over his face,
concealing it. He is then =embozado=, 'muffled.' When a woman is heavily
veiled she is =tapada=. This national custom has been effectively used
by Spanish poets, novelists, and dramatists. It offered a plausible
excuse for the concealment or confusion of identity.

=64. calle=: this word is the object of =atraviesa=, l. 72.

=65. la calle del Ataúd=: this dismal name does not seem to be of
Espronceda's own invention. It is found in José Gutiérrez de la Vega's
"Don Miguel de Mañara," 1851. Espronceda probably used some earlier
edition of the prose romance of Don Miguel de Mañara.

=96. que=: a relative adverb used with the force of a genitive Translate
'whose.'

=100. Segundo Don Juan Tenorio=: see the Introduction.


PARTE SEGUNDA

The quotation is taken from Byron's "Don Juan," Canto IV, stanza 72, the
description of Haidée's tomb. I restore the first two words, omitted in
all previous editions, without which the passage is devoid of meaning.
The way in which this passage has been garbled was pointed out by
Piñeyro, "El Romanticismo en España," Paris, 1904.

=181. de luceros coronada=: this verse occurs also in Meléndez Valdés'
"Rosana en los fuegos." See Foulché-Delbosc, "Quelques Réminiscences
dans Espronceda," _Revue Hispanique_, XXI, p. 667.

=218. hoja tras hoja=, etc.: in the first part of "Faust," Margarete
pulls out one by one the petals of a daisy to determine whether or
not Faust loves her. Is this a reminiscence of Margarete's _Er liebt
mich--liebt mich nicht?_

=242. pasó=: translate by the English perfect tense. There are many
other cases in these poems where the preterit had best be rendered by
the perfect.

=245. miraran=: here and elsewhere the second (=-ra=) tense of the
imperfect subjunctive is equivalent to a simple past. This use of the
tense is frequent. At other times this tense is better rendered by a
pluperfect indicative, when the common subjunctive meaning does not
serve.

=268.= These verses are the most frequently quoted of the whole poem.

=268. juguete=: I retain, though with some doubt, the reading of the
original. Later editions have changed to juguetes.

=278.= The thought of these verses is that mean objects may present a
beautiful appearance when viewed through a telescope. "Distance lends
enchantment." So woman when viewed through the illusion of fancy is
better than the woman of reality. This thought is developed farther in
"A Teresa."

=298.= A frequently recurring thought in Espronceda, typical of Romantic
pessimism. Truth is man's greatest enemy, he holds. Illusion is
friendly.

=318.= In this and what follows, Elvira is plainly a copy of Ophelia.
The influence of Hamlet cannot be doubted. Churchman has pointed out
that Elvira is a composite of Goethe's Margarete, Shakespeare's Ophelia,
and the Haidée and Doña Julia of Lord Byron. See "Byron and Espronceda,"
_Revue Hispanique_, Vol. XX, p. 164.

=324. otra=: I retain the original reading. Later editions erroneously
read _otras_.

=347. Vaso de bendición=: `blessed vessel,' i.e. an individual
peculiarly favored with the divine blessing. The phrase _vaso de
elección_ is commoner, meaning one chosen for a particular mission or
appointed task. The latter term is frequently applied to the Apostle
Paul (Acts ix, 15).

=359. Mas despertó también de su locura=, etc.: Ophelia did not recover
her reason before dying. Likewise she was drowned, while Elvira dies of
love.

=364. El bien pasado y el dolor presente=: an obvious reminiscence of
Dante's:

    Nessun maggior dolore
  Che ricordarsi del tempo felice
  Nella miseria.--"Inferno," Canto V, ll. 121-123.

There is no greater sorrow than to recall the happy time in the midst of
misery.

=371.= The letter which follows represents Espronceda's most important
borrowing from Byron. It is based upon Doña Julia's letter of adieu to
Don Juan: see "Don Juan," Canto I, stanzas 192-197. The circumstances
attending the writing of the two letters are entirely different. The
tone of Doña Julia's letter is cynical; she is a married woman whose sin
has been discovered and whose husband is forcing her to enter a convent.
Doña Elvira's letter, written with death in view, is tender and
pathetic. For details see Churchman, "Byron and Espronceda," _Revue
Hispanique_, Vol. XX, p. 161.


PARTE TERCERA

In giving this quotation from the second act of Moreto's "El Lego del
Carmen o San Franco de Sena," Espronceda is either quoting erroneously
or following some edition not known to me. In the Rivadeneyra edition
the passage is as follows:

  SARGENTO
  ¿Tiene más que parar?

  FRANCO
                        Tengo los ojos,
  Y los juego en lo mismo; que descreo
  De quien los hizo para tal empleo.

As this play influenced Espronceda, it is well to give a synopsis of it.
Like the "Rufián dichoso" of Cervantes, the "San Franco de Sena" deals
with the sinful life and conversion of one who was destined to be a
saint. Franco of Siena, a youth noted for his wild conduct, falls in
love with the inappropriately named Lucrecia. He kills her lover Aurelio
in a duel, and, passing himself off for Aurelio, elopes with her and
gets possession of her jewels. A cross with a lighted lamp before it is
placed on a wall to mark the spot where Aurelio fell. One night, as he
is passing, Franco sacrilegiously attempts to extinguish the light. A
hand issues from the wall and seizes him by the wrist. Words of warning
accompany this action. Franco shows neither fear nor compunction. He
kills all the officers of justice who try to arrest him. Again passing
the wall, he hears a ghostly voice urge him to try his hand at play,
for by losing he will win. Franco hopes to win in a material way, and
decides to follow this advice. He loses all and then stakes his eyes,
making the blasphemous remark quoted above. He loses and is stricken
blind. His conversion follows immediately. In the weak third act he
becomes a Carmelite monk, and his companions in sin experience a like
change of heart.

The legend of the saint of Siena has many points of similarity with
the legends of Don Juan Tenorio, Don Miguel de Mañara, and Lisardo the
Student; but Espronceda has been only slightly influenced by Moreto's
play. If he gained from it, rather than from Dumas or Mérimée, the idea
of his gambling scene, he does not follow his model closely. In each
case a chain is played for, but in Moreto the game is =pintas=, not
=parar= or dice, and the other details are different. Moreto (1618-1659)
was one of the most graceful but least original of the dramatists of the
classic period.

=438.= The game of =parar=, =carteta=, or =andaboba=, as it was
variously called, was played as follows: The dealer, who also serves as
banker, places two cards face up at his left. The third card he places
in front of himself. The fourth card, called the réjouissance card in
the French form of the game, he places in the middle of the table. The
players stake on this card whatever bets they desire to make, and these
the banker is obliged to cover. He then deals a fifth. If this matches
his own card, he wins all the money staked. If, on the contrary, it
matches the réjouissance card, those who have staked money upon it win
from the bank. If it matches neither, it is laid face up on the table,
and money may be staked upon it precisely as upon the réjouissance card.
So with all successive cards. The deal ends as soon as the banker's card
is matched. He then surrenders the bank to the winner, unless the two
cards laid to his left are matched before the third card dealt, his own,
is duplicated. In this latter case he is privileged to keep the bank for
another deal. This game, by reason of its swift action and the large
number of players who could engage in it, was called =el juego alegre=.
As results depended upon the turn of a single card, it lent itself
readily to cheating. It is mentioned in a _pragmática_ of Philip II,
1575, among a list of games to be prohibited. The modern games of monte
and baccarat have points of similarity. In France and England the game
is known as _lansquenet_, and is supposed to have been invented by the
German _Landsknechte_, mercenary foot-soldiers of the sixteenth
century. For further information see Hazañas y la Rúa, "Los Rufianes
de Cervantes," Sevilla, 1906, p. 44, and Monreal, "Cuadros Antiguos,"
Sevilla, 1906, p. 342. For a similar gambling scene see Tirso de Molina,
"Tanto es lo de más como lo de menos," Act II, sc. vii.

=455. El Caballo=: to understand what follows some knowledge of Spanish
playing-cards is necessary. In Spain the =baraja=, or deck, consists,
according to the game played, of 48 or 40 cards (=cartas, naipes,
cartones=), and not of 52 as with us. The ten spot is unknown, and when
the deck consists of but 40 the eight and nine spots are also wanting.
The =palos=, or suits, are four: =oros= (gold coins, corresponding to
our diamonds), =copas= (cups, corresponding to our hearts), =espadas=
(swords, corresponding to our spades), and =bastones= (clubs). These
figures are not conventionalized. The face cards are three: =el rey=
(the king), =el caballo= (representing a mounted cavalryman, and
corresponding in value to our queen), and =la sota= (a standing
infantryman, sometimes called also =el infante=, and corresponding in
value to our knave). These figures are unreversible. The First Gambler
is dealer and banker, as is shown by the fact that he covers the bets
(line 466). He is losing in spite of the fact that the banker had an
advantage. The =caballo= is clearly the card that has turned up in front
of the dealer. The turning up of a second =caballo= would end the deal.

=457. Pues por poco=, etc.: the Second Gambler is mocking the First.
"You want the =caballo=, and the =sota=, the card next under it in the
suit, has turned up. This is so close that you should be satisfied." All
this is implied in his remark.

=459.= The Second Gambler strikes an irreligious note by pretending to
believe that the First Gambler's oath is a pious remark. He suggests
that prayer and repentance should be deferred until one is dying.
Gentlemen of equal rank formerly addressed each other in the second
person plural.

=466.= The Third Gambler stakes upon the =sota=. Each new card, not
matching previous ones, was the occasion for new bets.

=480.= An allusion to the world-wide superstition that he who is lucky
at love is unlucky at cards and vice versa.

=490. Se vende y se rifa=: Don Félix, who has no ready cash, raffles off
his chain. He places on it a value of 2000 ducats, and announces that
each of the five gamblers who are in funds must contribute 400 ducats
to the raffle. The First Gambler, a heavy loser, does not engage in the
play; and Don Félix, too, enters into this first transaction merely as
a seller. The chain is to go to the player to whom he deals the ace of
=oros=, and he himself will get the 2000 ducats. After this he will
begin to gamble on his own account. The game of =parar= ceased upon the
entrance of Don Félix.

=491. afrenta=: the affront lies in Don Félix's insolent manner and
the masterful way in which he forces them to accept his terms without
question. Indignant as the Fourth Gambler is, he dares not offer open
objection.

=496=. I restore =una= from the 1840 edition instead of =uno=, found in
the later prints. The agreement is with =carta=, understood, not with
=naipe=. So likewise when the cards are dealt out in Moreto's "San
Franco de Sena," the first numeral is =una=.

=498.= Three is the lucky number. The third card falls to the Third
Gambler, who wins. The grief of the First Gambler is increased by the
fact that the winning card would have fallen to him, if he had been in
the game. Line 496 indicates that D. Félix passes him in dealing.

=500.= Having now come into possession of his 2000 ducats, Don Félix,
always a reckless gambler, proposes to stake them all upon a single
throw of the dice.

=516. Si esta imagen respirara=: the First Gambler is so unlucky at
cards that he may be supposed to be lucky in love. Hence sentimental
remarks are placed in his mouth.

=520.= The Second Gambler makes a side bet with the Fourth and then a
second one with the Fifth. These bets will be decided by the same throw
that decides the bet between Don Félix and the Third Gambler.

=526. Tirad con sesenta=, etc.: "Throw in the name of sixty horsemen."
Some word like =hombres= or =demonios= needs to be supplied.

=529.= Don Félix, who has again lost, speaks with ironic blasphemy. He
blames the First Gambler for addressing his prayer to God rather than to
the devil.

=546. vendellas=: for =venderlas=. In Old Spanish the final =r= of the
infinitive frequently assimilates to the initial =l= of the enclitic
pronoun.

=550.= Don Félix's perverted sense of honor will not brook the most
trivial verbal slight to Elvira on the part of another, although he has
cruelly wronged her himself by his deeds.

=558.= The First Gambler is not sufficiently blasphemous to invoke the
devil, and Don Félix does so himself. This invocation changes his luck.

=567. Encubierta fatídica figura=: one of those threadbare phrases
abused by Spain's romantic poets. Valera in his "Del Romanticismo en
España y de Espronceda" instances some of these, such as =negro capuz,
lúgubre són, fúnebre ciprés=, etc. Mesonero Romanos in his "Románticos y
Romanticismo" ridicules the abuse of the word =fatídica=. Espronceda was
less frequently guilty of this sort of unoriginality than other less
gifted poets were.

=610. Mentís vos=: the usual formula for picking a quarrel.

=625, 631. Que=: equivalent to =porque=.

=653. vos=: antiquated for =vosotros=. Don Diego alone is addressed.
After =Esperad, que= may be understood; such omissions of the
conjunction are common in poetry. Punctuating differently, we might
place a period after =Esperad=, in which case =Cuente= might be taken as
a first person imperative.

=676. juego=: such is the reading of the 1840 edition. Some later editor
emended to =fuego=. Though this emendation is plausible, the change
seems to me both unnecessary and unhappy. It is characteristic of Don
Félix's cool insolence that he should refer to his affair with Elvira as
a "game" rather than as a "passion."

=692.= The Fourth Gambler's remark is somewhat ambiguous, but the sense
demands that we take =lo= as referring to Don Félix. Remember that it
was the Fourth Gambler who had resented Don Félix's overbearing conduct.
He acted the coward and now talks like a coward. The Third Gambler is
the most skeptical regarding changes of luck, because he himself has
experienced the greatest ups and downs of fortune in the game just
finished.


PARTE CUARTA

Miguel de los Santos Álvarez (1818-1892) was a friend and imitator of
Espronceda and the last surviving member of his school. He was one of
several who attempted the vain task of completing the "Diablo Mundo."
He was a guest of honor with Espronceda at the first reading of "El
Estudiante de Salamanca" at Granada in 1837. His verse is mediocre,
and he is best known for the _Cuento en prosa_ here quoted. This
Fitzmaurice-Kelly terms "a charming tale," and Piñeyro praises it
for the grace and naturalness of its irony. Rubén Darío gives some
interesting reminiscences of Santos Álvarez in his old age, "La vida
de Rubén Darío escrita por él mismo", Barcelona, n.d., chap. xxvii.
Apparently Santos Álvarez never outgrew the bohemianism of his youth.

The second quotation is from Mark xiv, 38: "The spirit truly is ready,
but the flesh is weak."

=693.= The narrative begun in Part First is now resumed at the point
where it was interrupted. We now know that it was Don Diego Pastrana who
lost his life in the duel described in the opening lines.

=717.= The omission of the usual accent of =impio= is intentional and
indicates how the word should be stressed in this verse. =Impío= is a
"word of double accentuation". See Introduction.

=729.= Notice how the absolute phrase =Los ojos fijos= is broken by the
insertion of the proper name. Poets depart from the usual word-order
with the utmost freedom.

=737. néctar jerezano:= sherry wine.

=738, 740. bastara, intentara=: to be translated as pluperfects.

=766.= It is necessary to supply a =que= to serve as the object of
=achaca=. This is readily to be inferred from the =que= in the verse
before, which is, however, used as a subject.

=793.= In this speech of Don Felix's there is rapid alternation between
direct address, in the second person, and side remarks in the third
person about the person addressed.

=800. tengo de=: we would have he de in modern prose.

=811.= The =que= in this verse is the =que= regularly following oaths
and asseverations. Cf. Tobler, "Vermischte Beiträge zur französischen
Grammatik," Leipzig, 1912, Article 17, pp. 57 f. Tobler gives the
following example from Calderón: =¡Vive Dios! que no he salido.= ("El
Mágico Prodigioso," Act III, v. 387.) In these examples, the =¡vive
dios!= is hardly more than an emphatic =digo=, and is followed by =que=
just as =digo= would be. Verse 810 is parenthetical.

=828. del=: construe with =mar=.

=833.= For the conclusion of the sentence here begun it is necessary to
turn to line 883. We have to do with a sentence of 54 lines.

=840.= The 1840 edition lacks the third =su=.

=853. fueron=: 'are past and gone.'

=861. del=: the later editions read =el=. Ditto in lines 862, 863, 866.
=De= is also omitted in 865.

=868. jamás=: I restore the 1840 reading. Later editions read =y no=.

=916. que=: a conjunction introducing a clause, the verb of which
(=pese=) has to be supplied.

=921.= The usual accent is intentionally omitted from =veame=. To read
this verse correctly the second syllable, and not the first, must
bear the stress. The bad prosody of this verse is discussed in the
Introduction.

=943.= The Dance of Death begins.

=1012. misteriosa=: late editors wrongly change to =misterioso=.
Espronceda is using =guía= as a feminine.

=1040. Dale=, etc.: 'plague take the tolling of the passing bell and
these towers dancing in tangled confusion to the measure of such a
concert.'

=1046. llegue=: I have emended =llegué= (which I believe Espronceda
did not intend on account of the "obstructing syllable" which that
accentuation would give to the verse) to =llegue=. I take =llegue= to be
the subjunctive of emphatic asseveration. See Bello-Cuervo, "Gramática
Castellana," paragraph 463. Other editors are perhaps right in
interpreting the passage differently. They suppress the period after
=maravillas=, the exclamation point before =Que=, and write =llegué=.
This makes equally good sense and is just as grammatical, but the verse
is less harmonious. This last point, however, is not a vital objection.
The two ways of editing this passage seem to me to offer little choice.

=1062.= Construe =en que= with =ha dado=, above.

=1112.= The quotation from Mark xiv, 38 applies especially to this
passage. Also to ll. 1626-1633.

=1121.= The three forms of address used by Don Félix in addressing _el
enlutado_ indicate his change of manner from politeness to insolence. He
begins with the polite third person singular form. Then, enraged by the
answer, he is intentionally insulting in verse 1126, wishing to provoke
a duel. As the other puts up a brave front, he next addresses him as an
equal (verse 1127) by using the second person plural. This was the
usual form of address between gentlemen of equal standing during the
Renaissance period. But, again losing his temper, he relapses into the
insulting second person singular (verse 1133 and following).

=1133. haga=: an instance of the use of the subjunctive after oaths and
asseverations. See Bello-Cuervo, "Gramática Castellana," paragraph 463.

=1311. una=: goes with =gradería= in the following verse.

=1385.= Beginning with this verse and ending with l. 1680, the poet
attempts to indicate the gathering and abating fury of the ghostly revel
by the successive lengthening and shortening of the verses. The final
verses also express Don Félix's waning strength. This device is an
attempt to imitate the _crescendo_ and _diminuendo_ effect of music.
This whole passage is an obvious imitation of Victor Hugo's "Les
Djinns," a poem included in "Les Orientales." Nowhere has Espronceda
shown greater virtuosity in the handling of meter.

=1448.= The nouns and infinitives in this and the following lines are
objects of =siente=, l. 1456.

=1703. Y si, lector=, etc.: 'And if, reader, you say it is a
fabrication, I tell it to you as they told it to me.' León Medina,
"Frases literarias afortunadas," _Revue hispanique_, Vol. XVIII, p. 226,
states that these two verses are a quotation from Juan de Castellanos,
an obscure poet of the sixteenth century, author of _Elegías de Varones
Ilustres de Indias_. (The first three parts of this work may be found
in Vol. IV of the _Biblioteca de Autores Españoles_; Part IV has been
edited by Paz y Melia for the _Colección de Escritores Castellanos_,
Vols. XLIV and XLIX. The passage in question may be found in Canto II,
octave 8.) Churchman, "Byron and Espronceda," _Revue hispanique_, Vol.
XX, p. 210, adds the information that Espronceda probably took the lines
directly from Villalta, who had quoted them in his historical novel _El
Golpe en Vago_, Madrid, 1835. This is made probable by the fact that
whereas Castellanos had written correctly =os lo cuento=, Villalta wrote
=te lo cuento=, Espronceda following him in this grammatical error.

The form =dijerdes=, an old form for the second plural of the future
subjunctive (modern =dijereis=), represents the syncopation of a still
older =dijéredes=. Grammatically the pronoun =os= should have been used.
Evidently both Villalta and Espronceda considered =dijerdes= to be a
second singular form. A modern editor cannot undertake to correct a
mistake made by the author. In Old Spanish infinitives could be very
loosely used. It was not necessary that the subject of a dependent
infinitive should be the same as that of the verb on which it depended.

The word =comento= here has the meaning "fiction," "fabrication." I find
this meaning given in none of the dictionaries, but it can readily be
inferred from the word =comentador=, which had as one of its meanings
"an inventor of false reports." =Comento=, like Latin _commentum_, has
as one of its meanings "fiction," "fabrication."

The writers of =leyendas= were fond of stressing the traditional nature
of their poems. Thus Zorrilla concludes his "Capitán Montoya":

  El pueblo me lo contó
  Sin notas ni aclaraciones,
  Con sus mismas espresiones
  Se lo cuento al pueblo yo.



CANCIÓN DEL PIRATA

=7. en todo mar conocido=: I follow the reading of the text as it
originally appeared in _El Artista_. The later version of 1840 is
peculiar in the reading =en todo el mar conocido=. We cannot be certain
that this is a change made by Espronceda himself.

=84.= Instead of =negro= the 1840 edition reads =ronco=.



EL CANTO DEL COSACO

Attila, king of the Huns, reigned from 433 until his death 453 A.D. He
is noted for the barbaric ferocity of his campaigns against the Eastern
and Western Roman Empires and the Germanic kingdoms of the West. In 447
he ravaged seventy cities in Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece, and all but
captured Constantinople. In 451 he crossed the Rhine and sacked the
cities of Belgic Gaul. He was decisively defeated at Troyes by the
Gothic leader Theodoric in league with the Roman general Aëtius. He then
entered northern Italy, where he continued his depredations and advanced
upon Rome. The Emperor Valentinianus II saved the city by paying
tribute. Legend has it that while in Gaul a hermit called Attila to his
face the "scourge of God." Attila accepted the designation and replied
with the remark quoted in the text. This story is not found in Jordanes,
Priscus, or any of the contemporary historians. Gibbon says: "It is a
saying worthy of the ferocious pride of Attila that the grass never grew
on the spot where his horse had trod" ("Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire," London, 1897, III, p. 469). This poem is a magnificent
expression of barbaric battle-lust. Espronceda felt as a youth that
wholesale destruction must precede the new order of things in Spain and
Europe.

=50.= The poet hopelessly confuses the exploits of the Huns, the Goths,
and the Cossacks. Neither the Cossacks nor the Huns ever captured Rome.
Alaric the Goth took Rome in 410 A.D.

=65.= The principal Cossack invasion of Poland was in the first half of
the seventeenth century, when Chmielnicki, hetman of the Cossacks, with
the aid of his Tartar allies ruthlessly devastated the Polish provinces.
This war has been vividly described by Sienkiewicz in his novel "With
Fire and Sword."

=79.= The Huns are said to have carried raw meat beneath their saddles
as they rode. At the end of the day's ride they would eat it.



EL MENDIGO

=108.= The poet has paraphrased the proverb =Allá van leyes do quieren
reyes=, the idea of which is that a tyrant can twist the law to serve
the purposes of his tyranny.



A TERESA. DESCANSA EN PAZ

For an account of Teresa, see the Introduction. For Miguel de los Santos
Álvarez, see the note to "El Estudiante de Salamanca," Part IV.

=41.= The poet describes his three youthful passions: liberty, romantic
literature, and love.

=49. Catón=: Caius Porcius Cato (95-46 B.C.), commonly called Cato of
Utica, was a stalwart defender of Roman republicanism against Caesar
and his party. His suicide after the defeat of the republican cause at
Thapsus was regarded as an act of stoic heroism.

=50. Bruto=: it is not clear whether the poet refers to Lucius Junius
Brutus, who drove from power Tarquinius Superbus, founded the Roman
republic, and displayed his rigid justice by condemning to death his own
sons, or Marcus Junius Brutus, who assassinated Cæsar in the name of
liberty.

=51. Scévola=: a hero of early Rome who was captured by the enemy
and threatened with death by fire if he refused to give important
information. He replied by deliberately holding his hand in a flame.

=52. Sócrates= (469-400 B.C.): the celebrated Grecian philosopher. He
believed in the immortality of the soul.

=54. Del orador de Atenas=: Demosthenes (385-322 B.C.), especially
famous for his Philippics, a series of twelve orations directed against
Philip of Macedon, the _tirano macedonio_ here alluded to. All these
classical allusions seem to show that Espronceda, like most of the
leaders of the French Revolution, was influenced by Plutarch.

=57.= In this octave the poet voices his enthusiasm for the Middle Ages
and romantic literature in general. In his desire to embrace in his own
life the careers of knight and troubadour, Espronceda is harking back to
the "arms and letters" ideal of many of Spain's greatest writers.

=77. Soñaba al héroe=: =con= is the usual complement of =soñar= in
prose.

=89.= Espronceda's first meeting with Teresa took place in Portugal in
the beautiful region around Cintra.

=131. La sacra ninfa que bordando=, etc.: according to Menéndez y
Pelayo, these two verses are taken from the "Fábula de Genil" of
Pedro Espinosa, an author whom he says Espronceda knew by heart. (See
"Discursos leídos ante la Real Academia Española en la recepción del
excmo. señor D. Francisco Rodríguez Marín, el día 27 de octubre de
1907," Madrid, 1907, p. 86). The verses in question are:

  Corta las aguas con los blancos brazos
  La ninfa, que con otras ninfas mora
  Debajo de las aguas cristalinas
  En aposentos de esmeraldas finas.

And farther down,

  El despreciado dios su dulce amante
  Con las náyades vido estar bordando.

This in turn, it seems to me, may be reminiscent of Garcilaso de la
Vega's _Égloga Tercera_. Apparently P. Henríquez Ureña has made this
discovery independently. See _Revista de Filología Española_, IV, 3, p.
292.

=170.= The usual accent has been intentionally omitted from =aerea=.

=201.= "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning."
Isaiah xiv, 12.

=232.= The story of the man who spits upon himself while trying to spit
upon the sky is as old as Berceo in Spanish literature.

=238.= One has to supply a =se= with =convirtieron=. This may readily be
inferred from the preceding verse.

=352.= Foulché-Delbosc thinks that this last verse was suggested by
Hugo, "Les Feuilles d'automne, XXXV, Soleils couchants." See _Revue
hispanique_, XXI, p. 667.



VOCABULARY

The sign "-" means the word which stands in black type at the head of
the paragraph; thus, =-se= under =abrir= means =abrirse=.



  _acc._ = accusative.
  _adj._ = adjective.
  _adv._ = adverb.
  _art._ = article.
  _card._ = cardinal numeral.
  _cf._ = compare.
  _conj._ = conjunction.
  _dat._ = dative.
  _dem._ = demonstrative.
  _f._ = feminine.
  _impers._ = impersonal.
  _inf._ = infinitive.
  _interj._ = interjection.
  _interrog._ = interrogation, interrogative.
  _Ital._ = Italian.
  _m._ = masculine.
  _neut._ = neuter.
  _p.p._ = past participle.
  _pers._ = person, personal.
  _pl._ = plural.
  _poss._ = possessive.
  _pr. n._ = proper noun.
  _prep._ = preposition.
  _pron._ = pronoun.
  _refl._ = reflexive.
  _rel._ = relative.
  _sc._ = to wit.
  _sing._ = singular.
  _viz._ = namely.



  =a= _prep._ to, at, on, upon, over, in, towards, with, from, for,
     around, by, of, when, as; _as sign of the accusative, not to be
     translated_; =----= + _inf._ if (=---- estar aquí= if she were
     here); =al= + _inf._ upon, on, at, when.
  =abandonar= abandon, forsake, leave.
  =abandono= _m._ abandonment, surrender, yielding.
  =abarcar= embrace, contain.
  =abatir= overthrow, lay low.
  =abierto, -a= open.
  =abismo= _m._ abyss, hell, bottomless pit.
  =ablandarse= soften, relent, give.
  =abonar= improve, warrant, favor, become.
  =abrasado, -a= burning, hot.
  =abrasar= burn.
  =abrazo= _m._ embrace.
  =ábrego= _m._ southwest wind.
  =abreviar= shorten.
  =abrir= open, expand, cut; =--se= open, yawn, unfold, split.
  =abrojo= _m._ thistle, thorn.
  =absolución= _f._ absolution.
  =abundante= _adj._ abundant, abounding, teeming.
  =acá= _adv._ here, hither.
  =acabar= end, cease; =--se= come to an end.
  =acacia= _f._ acacia.
  =acariciar= cherish, soothe, caress.
  =acaso= _adv._ perchance, perhaps.
  =acción= _f._ action, feat.
  =acento= _m._ accent, voice, words, tone.
  =acercar= approach, bring near; =--se= approach.
  =acero= _m._ steel.
  =acertar= guess aright, tell certainly, ascertain, divine.
  =acompañar= accompany, follow.
  =acudir= assist, hasten to assistance, come, appear.
  =achacar= blame, impute, attribute.
  =adelantar(se)= advance, proceed, hasten.
  =adelante= _adv._ onward, on, farther, forward.
  =ademán= _m._ gesture, attitude, look, manner.
  =adiós= _m._ adieu, farewell.
  =admirar= wonder at, admire.
  =admitir= admit, accept, permit.
  =adónde= _adv._ where? whither.
  =adorar= adore.
  =adormir= drop to sleep.
  =adornar= adorn.
  =adorno= _m._ ornament, adornment.
  =aduar= _m._ camp, camp of gypsies, horde of gypsies.
  =adusto, -a= austere, sullen, gloomy, solemn.
  =advertir= warn.
  =aéreo, -a= ethereal, aerial, airy.
  =afán= _m._ eager desire, longing, anxiety, effort, toil, difficulty,
     bustle.
  =afanar= distress; =--se= desire eagerly, struggle for.
  =afeminado, -a= effeminate.
  =afilado, -a= sharp, slender, thin, tapering.
  =afligido, -a= troubled, distressed.
  =afligir= pain, grieve.
  =afrenta= _f._ insult, affront.
  =ágil= _adj._ nimble, light.
  =agilidad= _f._ quickness, nimbleness, activity.
  =agitar= agitate, move, stir, stir up, sway, shake, disturb.
  =agolpado, -a= curdled.
  =agolpar= rush, gather.
  =agonía= _f._ agony, death struggle, pangs of death.
  =agostar= parch, wither.
  =agradecer= be grateful, render thanks, be grateful for.
  =agradecido, -a= thankful, grateful.
  =agreste= _adj._ wild, rude, rough.
  =agrupar(se)= cluster.
  =agua= _f._ water.
  =aguardar= await, expect.
  =agudo, -a= sharp, keen.
  =¡ah!= _interj._ ah!
  =ahínco= _m._ energy, determination.
  =ahogar= stifle, smother, drown.
  =ahora= _adv._ now, at present.
  =airado, -a= angry.
  =aire= _m._ air, atmosphere, wind, breeze, manner.
  =airoso, -a= airy, lively, easy, genteel, elegant, graceful.
  =aislamiento= _m._ isolation.
  =ajar= spoil, crumple, fade.
  =ajeno, -a= of another, ignorant, unaware; =---- de= free from.
  =ala= _f._ wing, brim.
  =alabar= praise, extol.
  =alarido= _m._ cry, shout, shriek.
  =alba= _f._ dawn.
  =albo, -a= white.
  =alborada= _f._ dawn.
  =alborotar= stir up, agitate, arouse, excite, disturb, confuse;
     =--se= get excited.
  =alcanzar= attain, succeed, achieve, reach, obtain, take; =---- a
     hacer= succeed in doing, be capable of doing.
  =alcázar= _m._ castle, fortress.
  =alegrarse= rejoice, be glad.
  =alegre= _adj._ happy, joyful, merry, beautiful, fair, clear.
  =alegría= _f._ joy, merriment.
  =alejarse= move away, recede.
  =alentar= animate, foster, cherish.
  =alfombra= _f._ carpet.
  =algazara= _f._ shout, shouting, hubbub.
  =alguno, -a= _adj. pron._ some, some one.
  =aliento= _m._ breath, spirit, exhalation.
  =alma= _f._ soul, heart, person.
  =almena= _f._ battlement.
  =almo, -a= holy.
  =alquiler= _m._ hire; =de ----= hired, let for hire.
  =alrededor= _adv._ around; =a mi ----= around me.
  =altanero, -a= soaring, haughty, arrogant, overbearing, proud.
  =altar= _m._ altar.
  =alterar= change, disturb, stir up.
  =altísimo, -a= very high, lofty.
  =altivez= _f._ arrogance, presumption.
  =altiveza= _f._ arrogance, haughtiness.
  =altivo, -a= haughty, proud, lofty.
  =alto, -a= high, steep, tall, raised, lofty, erect, loud.
  =altura= _f._ height; =----s= heavens, on high.
  =alumbrar= light, shed light, illumine.
  =Álvarez= _pr. n._ Álvarez.
  =alzar= raise, lift, hoist; =--se= rise; =--se de pie= rise to one's
     feet.
  =allá= _adv._ there, yonder, thither; =---- va= here goes; =---- voy=
     I am coming; =más ----= farther on, beyond.
  =allí= _adv._ there.
  =amable= _adj._ pleasing, lovely, kind.
  =amado, -a= beloved, loved (one).
  =amador= _m._ lover.
  =amante= _adj._ loving.
  =amante= _m. f._ lover, sweetheart.
  =amar= love.
  =amargo, -a= bitter.
  =amargura= _f._ bitterness, sorrow.
  =amarillo, -a= yellow.
  =amedrentar= frighten, terrify.
  =amigo= _m._ friend.
  =amontonar= gather, pile up.
  =amor= _m._ love, lady-love, sweetheart; =----es= love affairs,
     amours, intrigues.
  =amoroso, -a= loving, amorous, gentle.
  =amparar= protect; =--se= be protected, enjoy protection.
  =analizar= analyze.
  =anatema= _m. f._ anathema.
  =anclar= anchor.
  =andado, -a= traversed.
  =andadura= _f._ amble; =paso de ----= ambling gait.
  =andar= go, move, walk, be; =vamos andando= let us be off.
  =andar= _m._ gait, walk.
  =andrajoso, -a= tattered.
  =anegar= drown.
  =ángel= _m._ angel.
  =angélico, -a= angelic, heaven-born.
  =ángulo= _m._ corner.
  =angustia= _f._ anguish.
  =angustiado, -a= anguished, distressed.
  =angustioso, -a= full of anguish, miserable, painful.
  =anhelante= _adj._ covetous, longing.
  =anhelo= _m._ desire, longing, yearning.
  =ánima= _f._ soul.
  =animarse= take courage, become animated.
  =ánimo= _m._ spirit, courage, mind, intention.
  =animoso, -a= spirited, gallant, brave.
  =ansia= _f._ longing, eagerness, anxiety, anguish.
  =ansiar= desire, yearn for, long for, crave.
  =ansiedad= _f._ anxiety, eagerness, longing, anguish.
  =ansioso, -a= anxious.
  =ante= _prep._ before.
  =antes= _adv._ before; =---- de= _prep._ before.
  =antiguo, -a= old, ancient, former.
  =antojo= _m._ fancy, caprice.
  =antorcha= _f._ torch, taper.
  =anublar= becloud, darken.
  =anunciar= announce, proclaim.
  =añadir= add.
  =año= _m._ year.
  =apagado, -a= extinguished, softened.
  =apagar= extinguish.
  =aparecer(se)= appear.
  =aparición= _f._ apparition, ghost.
  =apartar= remove, withdraw.
  =aparte= _adv._ aside.
  =apenas= _adv._ hardly, barely.
  =aplauso= _m._ applause.
  =apoderarse de= take possession of.
  =apostar= bet, wager, stake.
  =apostura= _f._ neatness, spruceness, appearance.
  =apoyar= rest, support.
  =aprecio= _m._ regard; =hacer ---- de= note.
  =apremiar= press.
  =aprestar= make ready, prepare.
  =apretado, -a= tight, close.
  =apretar= press, clutch, tighten.
  =aquel, -la= _adj. dem._ that.
  =aquél, -la, aquello= _pron. dem._ that one.
  =aquí= _adv._ here, now; =de ---- a una hora= an hour hence.
  =Aquilón= _m._ north wind.
  =ara= _f._ altar.
  =árbol= _m._ tree.
  =arboleda= _f._ grove.
  =arcano= _m._ secret, mystery.
  =arco= _m._ arch.
  =archivo= _m._ archive, repository.
  =arder= burn, glow.
  =ardido, -a= burning.
  =ardiente= _adj._ ardent, burning.
  =ardite= _m._ ardite (an ancient coin); farthing.
  =arenal= _m._ sandy place.
  =argentado, -a= silvery, silvered.
  =argentino, -a= silvery.
  =árido, -a= dry, dried up, barren.
  =arma= _f._ arms, weapon.
  =armar= arm, start.
  =armonía= _f._ harmony, music, rhythm, concord, peace.
  =armonioso, -a= harmonious, melodious.
  =aroma= _m._ aroma, fragrance, scent, perfume.
  =aromoso, -a= aromatic, fragrant.
  =arpa= _f._ harp.
  =arrancar= tear out, pluck out, wring, wrest, tear away, take away.
  =arrebatar= bear away, catch, snatch up, attract, captivate, charm;
  =--se= grow furious, rush headlong, give way to passion.
  =arrebolar= redden.
  =arrogancia= _f._ arrogance.
  =arrojar= throw, cast, cast off.
  =arrojo= _m._ daring, fearlessness.
  =arrostrar= face, fight, encounter.
  =arroyuelo= _m._ little brook, brooklet.
  =arruinado, -a= ruinous, crumbling.
  =arrullar= lull.
  =arrullo= _m._ lullaby.
  =as= _m._ ace.
  =asaz= _adv._ enough, sufficiently, very.
  =ascender= ascend, rise.
  =así= _adv._ so, thus.
  =Asia= _f._ Asia.
  =asiento= _m._ seat.
  =asilo= _m._ refuge, protection, shelter, haven, asylum.
  =asolador, -a= destroying, devastating.
  =asomar= appear.
  =asombro= _m._ amazement, wonder.
  =aspecto= _m._ aspect, appearance, sight.
  =áspero, -a= rough, rugged.
  =aspirar= breathe, inhale, aspire.
  =asqueroso, -a= loathsome, filthy.
  =astro= _m._ heavenly body, orb, star.
  =astuto, -a= cunning, crafty.
  =asunto= _m._ affair, business.
  =asustar= frighten.
  =atajar= head off, stop, check, confound.
  =ataúd= _m._ coffin.
  =Atenas= _pr. n. f._ Athens.
  =atento, -a= attentive, watchful, heedful, intent.
  =aterrador, -a= frightening, terrible.
  =Átila= _pr. n. m._ Attila.
  =atrás= _adv._ behind, backward.
  =atravesar= pass through, cross.
  =atrevido, -a= bold, daring.
  =atronador, -a= thundering.
  =atropellar= trample under foot, strike down; =--se= hasten, crowd.
  =audacia= _f._ audacity.
  =audaz= _adj._ bold, fearless.
  =aullar= howl.
  =aullido= _m._ howl, cry of horror.
  =aumentar= increase, enlarge, magnify.
  =aún, aun= _adv._ yet, still, even, nevertheless.
  =aunque= _conj._ although.
  =aura= _f._ breeze, zephyr.
  =aurora= _f._ dawn, break of day, aurora.
  =ausencia= _f._ absence.
  =autómata= _m._ automaton, mere machine, puppet.
  =avanzar= advance, go forward.
  =avariento, -a= avaricious.
  =avaro, -a= avaricious, covetous.
  =avaro= _m._ miser.
  =ave= _f._ bird.
  =aventura= _f._ adventure, affair.
  =avergonzarse de= be ashamed of, blush for.
  =ávido, -a= eager, covetous.
  =ay= _interj._ alas, oh; =---- de= alas for.
  =ay= _m._ groan.
  =ayer= _adv._ yesterday, lately.
  =azahar= _m._ orange blossom.
  =azorar= terrify.
  =azotar= lash, flog, whip.
  =azul= _adj._ blue, azure.


  =bajar= lower, descend, bow, hang down.
  =bajel= _m._ ship.
  =bajo= _prep._ under, beneath.
  =baldón= _m._ reproach, insult.
  =banda= _f._ side of a ship.
  =bandera= _f._ banner, flag.
  =bandolero= _m._ bandit.
  =banquete= _m._ banquet.
  =bañar= bathe.
  =báquico, -a= Bacchanalian.
  =bárbaro, -a= barbarous, cruel, fierce.
  =barco= _m._ vessel, ship; =---- viene a= sail!
  =barrer= sweep.
  =barrera= _f._ barrier.
  =barro= _m._ clay, mud.
  =base= _f._ base, foundation.
  =bastar= suffice, be enough.
  =beber= drink, imbibe.
  =befa= _f._ scoff, ridicule, taunt.
  =beldad= _f._ beauty.
  =beleño= _m._ henbane, poison.
  =belleza= _f._ beauty.
  =bello, -a= beautiful, fair.
  =bendecir= bless, praise.
  =bendición= _f._ blessing.
  =bergantín= _m._ brigantine.
  =beso= _m._ kiss.
  =bien= _adv._ well, indeed, all right.
  =bien= _m._ good, good thing, treasure, beloved one, blessing; =hacer
     ----= give alms, aid.
  =bienhechor, -a= _m. f._ benefactor.
  =bienvenido, -a= welcome.
  =bigote= _m._ mustache; =hacerse el ----= curl one's mustache.
  =blanca= _f._ blanca (old copper coin).
  =blanco, -a= white, fair.
  =blancor= _m._ whiteness.
  =blando, -a= soft, tender, gentle, pleasing.
  =blasfemar= blaspheme, curse.
  =blasón= _m._ blazon, armorial bearings, honor, glory.
  =bledo= _m._ blite, pigweed; =dar un ---- de= care a straw for.
  =boca= _f._ mouth, lips.
  =boda= _f._ marriage, wedding.
  =bolsa= _f._ purse, money.
  =bonanza= _f._ fair weather.
  =bordar= embroider, embellish.
  =borrasca= _f._ storm, tempest.
  =borrascoso, -a= tempestuous, stormy.
  =borrón= _m._ blot, stigma.
  =bosque= _m._ forest, wood, bosk.
  =bote= _m._ thrust.
  =botín= _m._ booty, spoils.
  =bóveda= _f._ arch, vault, cavern.
  =bramador, -a= roaring, bellowing, raging.
  =bramar= roar, rage, bluster, bellow.
  =bramido= _m._ howling, roaring.
  =bravío, -a= wild, fierce.
  =bravo, -a= brave.
  =bravura= _f._. bravado, fierceness, ferocity, boasting.
  =brazo= _m._ arm, embrace.
  =breve= _adj._ brief, short.
  =bridón= _m._ steed, bridle.
  =brillante= _adj._ brilliant, bright.
  =brillar= glisten, shine.
  =brindar= drink to one's health, offer, pledge.
  =brío= _m._ strength, courage, mettle, spirit, resolution.
  =brisa= _f._ breeze.
  =broche= _m._ clasp, brooch.
  =brotar= bud, bring forth, put forth, gush forth, shed.
  =bruja= _f._ witch.
  =brutal= _adj._ brutal.
  =Bruto= _pr. n. m._ Brutus.
  =bueno, -a= good, fine, pleasant.
  =bujía= _f._ candle, taper.
  =bulto= _m._ dim form.
  =bulla= _f._ bustle, throng, noise.
  =bullicio= _m._ tumult, bustle.
  =bullidor, -a= restless, merry.
  =burla= _f._ joke.
  =buscar= seek, hunt, look for.
  =buscarruidos= _m._ quarrelsome fellow.
  =caballeresco, -a= gentlemanly.
  =caballero= _m._ knight, gentleman, nobleman, sir; =¡mal ----!=
     scoundrel!
  =caballo= _m._ horse, steed, figure on horseback in Spanish pack of
     cards, equivalent to the queen; =a ----= on horseback; =¡a ----!=
     to horse!
  =cabaña= _f._ cottage, hut, hovel.
  =cabello= _m._ hair, locks.
  =cabeza= _f._ head.
  =cable= _m._ cable.
  =cada= _adj._ every, each.
  =cadáver= _m._ corpse, dead body.
  =cadavérico, -a= cadaverous.
  =cadena= _f._ chain.
  =caduco, -a= worn out, decrepit, broken down.
  =caer(se)= fall, set, sink, droop.
  =calar= penetrate; =--se= pull down; =--se el sombrero= pull down
     one's hat.
  =calavera= _f._ skull.
  =calentura= _f._ fever.
  =caliz= _m._ chalice, calyx.
  =calma= _f._ calm, quiet, calmness, coolness; =en ----= calm.
  =calmar= calm, mitigate, soften, still, quiet, slake, cool.
  =calmo, -a= calm, still.
  =callado, -a= silent, quiet.
  =callar= be silent.
  =calle= _f._ street.
  =cambiar(se)= change, turn.
  =caminar= move, walk, go, go on, travel, march.
  =camino= _m._ road, way, path, journey.
  =campana= _f._ bell.
  =campanilla= _f._ little bell.
  =campaña= _f._ country.
  =campiña= _f._ field.
  =campo= _m._ field, country.
  =can= _m._ dog, dog-star.
  =canción= _f._ song.
  =cándido, -a= white, bright, pure.
  =candor= _m._ ingenuousness.
  =candoroso, -a= candid, pure, innocent.
  =cansar= weary, bore.
  =cantar= sing, chant, sing of.
  =cantar= _m._ song.
  =cántico= _m._ canticle, song of praise.
  =cantidad= _f._ amount, sum.
  =canto= _m._ singing, song.
  =cañón= _m._ cannon.
  =capa= _f._ cape, cloak.
  =capaz= _adj._ capable.
  =capitán= _m._ captain.
  =capricho= _m._ caprice, whim, fancy.
  =capuz= _m._ cloak, hood, cape.
  =caracol= _m._ snail, winding staircase; =gradería de ---- torcida=
     spiral staircase.
  =carbón= _m._ coal.
  =carcajada= _f._ burst of laughter; =soltar una ----= burst out
     laughing.
  =cárcel= _f._ prison.
  =cárdeno, -a= livid.
  =carga= _f._ burden.
  =cariado, -a= rotten, putrid.
  =caricia= _f._ caress.
  =caridad= _f._ charity, alms.
  =carmín= _m._ carmine.
  =carne= _f._ flesh.
  =caro, -a= dear, expensive.
  =carrera= _f._ course.
  =carta= _f._ card.
  =casa= _f._ house, home, building; =---- de huéspedes= lodging-house.
  =casamiento= _m._ marriage, wedding.
  =casi= _adv._ almost.
  =caso= _m._ case, matter, event; =hacer ---- de= take notice of, heed.
  =castigo= _m._ punishment; =dar ----=punish.
  =castillo= _m._ castle.
  =Catón= _pr. n. m._ Cato.
  =caudal= _m._ fortune, abundance.
  =causar= cause.
  =cautivo, -a= _m. f._ captive.
  =cavernoso, -a= cavernous.
  =ceder= decrease, slacken, abate, diminish.
  =céfiro= _m._ zephyr, breeze.
  =ceja= _f._ eyebrow.
  =cejijunto, -a= close-knit.
  =celebrar= celebrate, praise.
  =celeste= _adj._ celestial, heavenly.
  =celestial= _adj._ celestial, heavenly.
  =celoso, -a= jealous.
  =cena= _f._ supper.
  =cenar= sup.
  =centinela= _m. f._ sentinel.
  =ceñir= gird.
  =ceño= _m._ frown.
  =cerca= _adv._ near, close.
  =cercano, -a= close by, near, approaching.
  =cercar= encircle, surround.
  =cesar= cease; =sin ----= incessantly, constantly.
  =cetro= _m._ scepter.
  =ciego, -a= blind.
  =cielo= _m._ sky, heaven.
  =ciencia= _f._ science, knowledge.
  =ciento, cien=, _card._ hundred.
  =cierto, -a= certain, sure, assured; =por ----= certainly, indeed.
  =cifrar en= place in, fix upon.
  =cima= _f._ crest, summit, top.
  =cimiento= _m._ foundation.
  =cinco= _card._ five.
  =cincuenta= _card._ fifty.
  =cinta= _f._ ribbon, band, belt, girdle.
  =círculo= _m._ circle, circling.
  =cita= _f._ appointment, meeting, rendezvous.
  =ciudad= _f._ city.
  =claridad= _f._ light.
  =claro, -a= bright, clear, pure.
  =clavar= nail, fasten, fix.
  =coagular= coagulate, curdle.
  =cobarde= _adj._ cowardly.
  =cobarde= _m._ coward.
  =codicioso, -a= greedy, eager.
  =coger= seize, take, catch.
  =cogido (lo)= booty, plunder.
  =cólera= _f._ anger, wrath.
  =colérico, -a= choleric, angry.
  =colgar= hang.
  =color= _m._ color, hue, complexion.
  =colorar= color, tinge; =--se= become colored, color.
  =columna= _f._ column, pillar.
  =combatido, -a= contending, struggling.
  =combatir= combat, attack, contend, fight.
  =comento= _m._ comment, fiction, fabrication.
  =comenzar= commence.
  =comer= eat, dine.
  =como= _adv._ like, as, how, about; =tan ... ----= as ... as;
      =---- cuánto= about how much.
  =cómo= _interrog._ how.
  =compañero= _m._ companion.
  =compañía= _f._ company, companionship.
  =comparar= compare.
  =compás= _m._ measure, time; =a ----= in time; =al ---- de= in the
     time of.
  =compasión= _f._ pity.
  =compasivo, -a= compassionate, sympathetic.
  =comprender= comprehend, understand.
  =con= _prep._ with, in, against, on.
  =cóncavo, -a= concave, hollow.
  =cóncavo= _m._ concavity.
  =conceder= grant, give.
  =contento= _m._ harmony.
  =conciencia= _f._ conscience, consciousness.
  =concierto= _m._ harmony.
  =condenar= condemn, sentence.
  =conducir= lead.
  =confianza= _f._ confidence, intimacy.
  =confín= _m._ confine, limit, border.
  =confundir= overwhelm, engulf, confuse, confound, mingle, heap up;
     =--se= be bewildered, be perplexed.
  =confusión= _f._ confusion, disorder.
  =confuso, -a= confused, dim, indistinct, bewildering.
  =conjurar= conjure, implore.
  =conjuro= _m._ conjuration, incantation.
  =conmigo= _pron. pers._ with me.
  =conmover= stir, affect.
  =conocer= know, be acquainted with, recognize; =--se= know each other.
  =conque= _conj._ so then, and so.
  =conquistar= conquer, subdue.
  =conseguir= attain, obtain, gain.
  =consentido, -a= spoiled.
  =considerable= _adj._ considerable.
  =consigo= _pron. pers._ with one's self, with himself, _etc._.
  =consolar= console, comfort.
  =consorte= _m. f._ husband, wife.
  =constancia= _f._ constancy, firmness, determination.
  =Constantinopla= _pr. n. f._ Constantinople.
  =consuelo= _m._ consolation.
  =consumir= consume, burn out.
  =contar= recount, relate, tell, tell off, count, consider, look upon;
      =---- con= count upon, reckon with; =con vos no cuento= I pass you
      by.
  =contemplar= contemplate, behold, gaze at, look at, meditate.
  =contenerse= restrain one's self, keep one's temper.
  =contento= _m._ contentment, joy, mirth.
  =contigo= _pron. pers._ with thee.
  =continente= _m._ manner, mien, gait.
  =contino= _adv._ constantly, continually; =de ----= continually.
  =continuo, -a= continual, constant.
  =contra= _prep._ against; =en ----= against.
  =conversión= _f._ conversion, reform.
  =convertir= convert, reform, change; =--se en= change to, become.
  =convidar= invite, entice, allure.
  =convocar= convoke, summon.
  =convulso, -a= convulsive.
  =copa= _f._ foliage, branches.
  =corazón= _m._ heart, breast, love, courage, spirit.
  =cornudo, -a= horned.
  =coro= _m._ chorus.
  =corona= _f._ crown.
  =coronar= crown.
  =corredor= _m._ corridor, gallery.
  =correr= run, meet with, pass, pass away, flow.
  =corresponder= return, requite, reciprocate.
  =corriente= _f._ current, stream.
  =corro= _m._ group, circle.
  =corromper= pollute.
  =corrompido, -a= polluted, foul.
  =cortar= cut.
  =corte= _f._ court, retinue.
  =cortejar= court, woo.
  =cosa= _f._ thing, matter; =gran ----= much.
  =Cosaco= _m._ Cossack.
  =cosecha= _f._ harvest; =de mi ----= of my invention.
  =coyuntura= _f._ joint.
  =cráneo= _m._ skull.
  =crear= create.
  =crecer= grow, rage, increase.
  =creer= believe, think.
  =crescendo= _Ital._ crescendo.
  =crespón= _m._ crape.
  =criatura= _f._ creature, being, man.
  =crimen= _m._ crime.
  =crispante= _adj._ shivery.
  =crisparse= twitch.
  =cristal= _m._ crystal, glass.
  =cristalino, -a= crystalline, transparent, bright.
  =Cristo= _pr. n. m._ Christ, image of Christ.
  =crudeza= _f._ severity, cruelty.
  =crudo, -a= raw.
  =cruel= _adj._ cruel, intolerable.
  =crujido= _m._ crackling.
  =crujir= clash, click, clank, crack, crackle, creak, rustle.
  =cruz= _f._ cross.
  =cruzar= cross, pass, pass through, cruise.
  =cuadrar= befit, suit.
  =cuadro= _m._ picture, scene.
  =cuajar= coagulate, coat over.
  =cual= _adv._ like, as.
  =cuál= _pron. interrog._ which, which one, what, what one.
  =cualquier, -a= any whatever; =---- ... que= whoever, whichever,
     whatever.
  =cualquiera= _pron._ any one, either one.
  =cuán= _adv._ how.
  =cuando= _conj._ when, if, in case; =---- ... ----= now ... now, at
     one time ... at another.
  =cuanto= _adv._ as much as, all that; =en ---- a= with regard to, as
     to;  =---- más ... tanto más= the more ... the more.
  =cuánto, -a= _prop. interrog._ how much; =como ----= about how much.
  =cuaresma= _f._ Lent.
  =cuarto, -a= fourth.
  =cuatrocientos, -as= four hundred.
  =cubrir= cover, veil, shroud.
  =cuello= _m._ neck, throat.
  =cuenta= _f._ count, reckoning, account; =dar ----= explain, report,
     give account; =pedir ----= bring to account, demand account of.
  =cuento= _m._ tale, story.
  =cuerdamente= _adv._ sensibly.
  =cuerno= _m._ horn.
  =cuerpo= _m._ body; =---- muerto= corpse.
  =cuidado= _m._ care, anxiety.
  =cuidadoso, -a= careful.
  =culpa= _f._ fault.
  =culpar= blame, accuse.
  =culto= _m._ worship, homage, veneration, respect.
  =cumbre= _f._ summit, crest, peak.
  =cumplir= fulfill, accomplish, satisfy, keep; =cúmplase tu voluntad=
      thy will be done.
  =curso= _m._ course.
  =cuyo, -a= _pron. rel._ whose.


  =chancearse= joke, jest.
  =charca= _f._ pool.
  =chasco= _m._ joke, fiasco, disappointment.
  =chimenea= _f._ fireplace, hearth, stove.
  =chispa= _f._ spark, flash.
  =chiste= _m._ jest.
  =chocar= strike, combat, clash, encounter, collide.


  =dado= _m._ die.
  =dale= _interj._ (_expressive of displeasure_) hang it, come, again;
     =---- con tocar a muerto= plague take this funeral tolling.
  =dama= _f._ lady.
  =danza= _f._ dance.
  =danzar= dance.
  =dar= give, give out, strike, cause, tell, make, grant, pay, render,
     forebode; =---- en= persist in; =---- por perdida= consider lost;
     =qué diantre me da= what the deuce do I care.
  =de= _prep._ of, than, from, by, with, at, to, in, on account of,
     for, about, on, as; =más ----= past.
  =debajo de= _prep._ under, underneath.
  =deber= have to, must, ought, can.
  =deber= _m._ duty.
  =débil= _adj._ feeble, weak.
  =decidido, -a= decided, devoted, determined.
  =decir= say, speak, tell, call.
  =decisión= _f._ decision, determination, resolution.
  =declinar= decline, sink.
  =dedo= _m._ finger.
  =dejar= leave, quit, abandon, forsake; =---- de= stop, cease.
  =delante= _adv._ before, in front, ahead; =---- de= _prep._ in front
     of, before.
  =deleite= _m._ pleasure, delight.
  =delicado, -a= delicate, sweet.
  =delicia= _f._ delight.
  =delicioso, -a= delicious, delightful.
  =delirante= _adj._ delirious, raving.
  =delirar= rave, dote.
  =delirio= _m._ delirium, madness, rapture, rant, idle talk.
  =delito= _m._ crime.
  =demasía= _f._ excess.
  =demasiado, -a= too much, too great.
  =demonio= _m._ devil, demon.
  =denso, -a= dense, thick.
  =dentro= _adv._ within; =---- de= _prep._ within.
  =denuesto= _m._ insult, abuse.
  =derecho= _m._ right.
  =derramar= shed.
  =derredor= _m._ circuit; =en ---- de= round about, around.
  =desafiar= challenge, defy.
  =desafío= _m._ duel, combat.
  =desahogo= _m._ relief, alleviation, comfort.
  =desalentado, -a= discouraged, abject.
  =desasirse= disengage one's self, break loose, extricate one's self.
  =desatar= untie, undo, loosen, let loose; =--se= break loose, break
     out.
  =desatento, -a= unmindful, heedless, rude.
  =desatino= _m._ folly, wildness, reeling.
  =descansar= rest, repose, sleep.
  =descarnado, -a= emaciated, fleshless, bare.
  =descender= descend, go down, sink.
  =descolorido, -a= colorless, pale.
  =desconocer= not know, be ignorant of, ignore.
  =desconsuelo= _m._ trouble, affliction.
  =descortés= _adj._ discourteous, ill-bred, impudent.
  =descortesía= _f._ discourtesy.
  =descreer= disbelieve, deny, discredit, disown.
  =descubrir= discover, reveal, expose, uncover, make known.
  =descuidado, -a= care-free.
  =desde= _prep._ from.
  =desdén= _m._ disdain, scorn, contempt.
  =desdeño= _m._ disdain, scorn.
  =desdeñoso, -a= scornful, contemptuous.
  =desdicha= _f._ unhappiness, wretchedness, misery.
  =desdichado, -a= unhappy, unfortunate, wretched.
  =desear= desire, covet.
  =desembozar= unmuffle.
  =desengaño= _m._ disillusion.
  =deseo= _m._ desire, longing.
  =desesperación= _f._ despair.
  =desesperado, -a= desperate, despairing, hopeless.
  =desfallecer= weaken, swoon, fail, give way.
  =desgarrar= rend.
  =desgracia= _f._ misfortune, sorrow, unhappiness.
  =desgraciado, -a= unfortunate, hapless, miserable.
  =deshacer= undo, break.
  =deshojado, -a= leafless, petalless, blighted.
  =desierto, -a= deserted, lonely.
  =desierto= _m._ desert.
  =desigual= _adj._ uneven, dissimilar.
  =deslizarse= glide along, slip along.
  =desmayado, -a= faint, swooning.
  =desmayar= be discouraged, be faint, swoon.
  =desmayo= _m._ drooping, swooning, faltering.
  =desmentir= belie, deny, dissemble.
  =desnudo, -a= naked, unsheathed, drawn.
  =despacio= _adv._ slowly.
  =desparecer= disappear, vanish.
  =despecho= _m._ spite, insolence, anger, despair, dismay; =a ---- de=
     in spite of; =a su ----= in spite of himself.
  =despedida= _f._ farewell.
  =despego= _m._ indifference, coldness, coyness.
  =despeñado, -a= headlong.
  =despeñar= precipitate, fling down.
  =despertar= awaken, arouse, break, dawn.
  =despierto, -a= awake, brisk.
  =desplegado, -a= flowing.
  =desplegar= unfold, unfurl, hoist; =--se= unfold, spread.
  =despojos= _m. pl._ remains.
  =despreciar= spurn, neglect, reject.
  =desprender(se)= fall, tear, separate, issue from, arise, relax one's
     hold, let go.
  =desprendido, -a= loosened, falling, torn, broken.
  =después= _adv._ afterward, then.
  =despuntar= begin to dawn.
  =desquiciarse= be unhinged, shake.
  =destellar= flash, twinkle.
  =desterrar= banish, exile.
  =destilar= drip.
  =destino= _m._ destiny, fate, lot.
  =desvanecerse= vanish, disappear, fade away.
  =desvanecido, -a= dizzy, vague, faint.
  =desvarío= _m._ delirium, raving.
  =desventura= _f._ misfortune, misery.
  =detener= detain, stop, halt.
  =detenido, -a= stagnant.
  =determinado, -a= determined, resolute, resolved.
  =detrás= _adv._ behind, after.
  =devaneo= _m._ giddiness, frenzy, mad passion.
  =devorar= devour, consume.
  =devoto, -a= devout, pious.
  =día= _m._ day; =----s= life; =hoy en ----= nowadays; =un ----= some
     day, once.
  =diablo= _m._ devil.
  =diabólico, -a= diabolical.
  =diamante= _m._ diamond, adamant.
  =diantre= _m._ deuce.
  =dibujar= outline, delineate; =--se= be outlined, throw a shadow, be
     visible.
  =dictar= dictate, prescribe.
  =dicha= _f._ happiness, delight.
  =dichoso, -a= happy, fortunate, precious, blessed.
  =Diego= _pr. n. m._ James.
  =diente= _m._ tooth.
  =diestra= _f._ right hand.
  =diez= _card._ ten.
  =difunto, -a= deceased (one), dead (one).
  =dilatar= overspread, suffuse, expand.
  =diligencia= _f._ assiduity, effort, haste, business, affair.
  =dinero= _m._ money.
  =Dios= _m._ God.
  =diosa= _f._ goddess.
  =disculpar= excuse, exonerate.
  =discurrir= flow, course.
  =disfrutar= enjoy, profit, reap the benefit.
  =disipar= dissipate, scatter, put to flight, drive away; =--se= be
     dissipated, be scattered.
  =disolver= dissolve, dissipate, scatter, disperse.
  =disparate= _m._ folly, piece of folly, blunder.
  =distante= _adj._ distant, afar.
  =distinguir= distinguish, see clearly.
  =distraído, -a= distracted, absentminded.
  =diverso, -a= various, dissimilar, different.
  =divertir= amuse.
  =dividir= divide, separate, cut, cleave.
  =divino, -a= divine, heavenly.
  =do= _adv._ where; =a ----= whither, where.
  =dó= _adv. interrog._ where.
  =doblar= bend.
  =doble= _m._ tolling; =dar ----s= toll.
  =doctrina= _f._ doctrine, wisdom, teaching.
  =doliente= _adj._ suffering, sorrowful.
  =dolor= _m._ grief, sorrow, pain, anguish.
  =dolorido, -a= afflicted, grief-stricken, painful, doleful, heart-sick.
  =doloroso, -a= painful.
  =don= _m._ Don, sir.
  =doncella= _f._ maiden.
  =donde= _adv._ where.
  =dónde= _adv. interrog._ where, whither; =en ----= where.
  =dondequiera= _adv._ everywhere, anywhere.
  =doquiera= _adv._ wherever, everywhere.
  =dorado, -a= golden.
  =dormido, -a= sleeping, slumbering.
  =dormir= sleep; =--se= go to sleep.
  =dos= _card._ two; =los ----= both.
  =dramático, -a= dramatic.
  =ducado= _m._ ducat (former coin worth about $3).
  =duda= _f._ doubt.
  =dudar= doubt, hesitate.
  =dudoso, -a= doubtful, uncertain, indistinct, nebulous, hesitating.
  =duelo= _m._ sorrow, grief, duel, combat.
  =dueña= _f._ duenna.
  =dulce= _adj._ sweet, soft, gentle, pleasant.
  =dulcísimo, -a= very sweet.
  =dulzura= _f._ sweetness.
  =durar= last, endure.
  =duro, -a= hard, cruel, unbearable, heavy.


  =e= _conj._ and.
  =eco= _m._ echo.
  =echar= throw, cast, cast away, deal, put.
  =Edén= _pr. n. m._ Eden.
  =edificio= _m._ building, edifice.
  =ejército= _m._ army.
  =el, la, lo, los, las=, _art._ the; =---- que=, _etc., pron. rel._ he
     who(m), the one who(m), who, that which.
  =él, ella, ello=, _pron. pers._ he, him; she, her; it.
  =elevar= raise; =--se= rise.
  =elocuente= _adj._ eloquent.
  =Elvira= _pr. n. f._ Elvira.
  =ella= _pron. pers._ she, her, it.
  =ellas= _pron. pers._ they, them.
  =embalsamarse= be perfumed.
  =embargar= overwhelm, seize, overcome, impede.
  =embebecido, -a= absorbed, enraptured.
  =embeleso= _m._ rapture.
  =embestir= assail, attack.
  =embolismo= _m._ confusion, maze, embarrassment, falsehood.
  =embolsarse= pocket.
  =embozado= _m._ muffled one.
  =embozar= cloak, muffle.
  =embriagar= intoxicate, transport, enrapture; =--se= get intoxicated.
  =empañar= dim, tarnish.
  =empapar= soak, steep.
  =empedernido, -a= hard-hearted.
  =empeñarse= persist, insist.
  =empeño= _m._ determination, desire.
  =empero= _adv._ however, notwithstanding.
  =empezar= begin.
  =empleo= _m._ employment, use.
  =emponzoñar= poison, taint.
  =empuje= _m._ impulse.
  =empuñar= grasp, grip.
  =en= _prep._ in, into, at, for, among, on, upon, with, of, to, against,
     by, over, like; =---- que= when.
  =enamorado, -a= enamored, loving, in love.
  =enamorar= inspire love, woo; =--se de= fall in love with.
  =encadenar= enchain, shackle.
  =encantador, -a= enchanting, delightful.
  =encantar= charm, delight, fascinate.
  =encanto= _m._ charm, fascination, enchantment, spell.
  =encapotar= cloak, cover.
  =encapuchado, -a= hooded one.
  =encender= light, kindle, enkindle; =--se= glow.
  =enclavar= nail, fasten.
  =encomendar= commend.
  =encono= _m._ rancor, ill-will, malevolence.
  =encontrar= meet, meet with, find.
  =encubrir= cover, conceal, hide.
  =encuentro= _m._ meeting, encounter; =a su ----= to meet him.
  =endiablado, -a= diabolical, bedeviled.
  =endurecer= harden, cake.
  =enemigo, -a= hostile, unfriendly.
  =engalanar= adorn.
  =engañador, -a= deceiving.
  =engañar= deceive, beguile.
  =engaño= _m._ deception, illusion.
  =engañoso, -a= deceptive, false.
  =engendro= _m._ abortion, monster, progeny.
  =enhiesto, -a= upright, erect.
  =enjugar= wipe.
  =enjuto, -a= lean, wasted, dried up.
  =enlazar= join, clasp.
  =enlutado, -a= in mourning, veiled, muffled.
  =enmudecer= grow dumb, grow silent.
  =enojarse= be angry, be displeased, get angry.
  =enojo= _m._ anger, vexation, displeasure, annoyance.
  =enojoso, -a= troublesome.
  =enredar= entangle, ensnare.
  =ensueño= _m._ dream, fantasy, illusion.
  =entena= _f._ yard, spar.
  =entender= understand, know, hear; =---- de= be familiar with, be
     interested in.
  =entero, -a= entire, whole.
  =enterrar= bury.
  =entierro= _m._ funeral, burial, funeral procession.
  =entonar= sing.
  =entonces= _adv._ then.
  =entrada= _f._ entrance, coming, beginning.
  =entrambos, -as= both.
  =entrañas= _f. pl._ entrails, bowels, recesses.
  =entrar= enter, come in, advance, begin.
  =entre= _prep._ between, among, in, amid, within, to; =---- sí=
     to himself; =---- tanto= meanwhile; =de ----= out of; =por ----=
     through, between, among.
  =entregar= hand over, give, pay.
  =entretanto= _adv._ meanwhile; =---- que= _conj._ while.
  =entretener= entertain, divert, amuse, occupy.
  =enturbiar= disturb, derange, cloud.
  =envenenar= poison.
  =enviar= send.
  =envidar= stake, open a game of cards by staking a sum.
  =envidiar= envy.
  =envilecido, -a= degraded, disgraced.
  =envite= _m._ stake, bet.
  =envolver= envelop, enwrap, enfold.
  =erguido, -a= erect, straight.
  =errante= _adj._ wandering.
  =escaldar= scald.
  =escalón= _m._ step.
  =escapar(se)= escape, flee.
  =escape= _m._ escape, flight.
  =escena= _f._ scene.
  =esclavo, -a= _m. f._ slave.
  =escoger= choose, select, cull.
  =esconder= conceal, veil, hide.
  =escribir= write.
  =escuchar= hear, listen to, listen; =--se= be heard.
  =escudo= _m._ escudo (a coin); shield, protection.
  =escupir= spit upon.
  =ese, -a= _adj. dem._ that.
  =ése, -a, eso=, _pron. dem._ that one, that.
  =esfera= _f._ sphere, heaven, orb.
  =esmeralda= _f._ emerald.
  =espacio= _m._ space.
  =espada= _f._ sword.
  =espalda= _f._ back, shoulder; =----s= back.
  =espantado, -a= frightened, astonished.
  =espantar= frighten, terrify, intimidate.
  =espanto= _m._ fright, consternation, fear.
  =espantoso, -a= frightful, horrible.
  =esparcir= scatter, shed, spread.
  =espectro= _m._ specter, ghost.
  =espejo= _m._ mirror.
  =esperanza= _f._ hope.
  =esperar= await, wait for, expect, hope.
  =espeso, -a= thick, dense.
  =espina= _f._ thorn.
  =espiral= _f._ spiral line.
  =espirante= _adj._ dying.
  =espirar= expire.
  =espíritu= _m._ spirit, mind, soul, courage; =----s= spirits, demons.
  =espléndido, -a= splendid.
  =esplendor= _m._ splendor, magnificence, glory; =de ----= glorious.
  =esposa= _f._ wife, spouse, betrothed.
  =esposo= _m._ husband, spouse, betrothed.
  =espuela= _f._ spur.
  =espuma= _f._ foam, froth.
  =esqueleto= _m._ skeleton, framework.
  =estación= _f._ season.
  =estado= _m._ state, condition.
  =estallar= burst, crack, detonate.
  =estallido= _m._ crackling.
  =estampido= _m._ report, crash.
  =estancia= _f._ room, mansion, abode.
  =estanque= _m._ pond, pool.
  =estar= be; =---- en sí= be in one's senses.
  =estatua= _f._ statue.
  =este, -a= _adj. dem._ this.
  =éste, -a, esto=, _pron. dem._ this one, this.
  =estima= _f._ esteem, respect.
  =estocada= _f._ stab.
  =estorbar= forbid, hinder.
  =estrechar= press, clasp.
  =estrecho, -a= narrow.
  =estrella= _f._ star.
  =estremecerse= shake, tremble.
  =estrépito= _m._ din, clamor, noise.
  =estruendo= _m._ din, pomp, turmoil, clatter.
  =estudiante= _m._ student.
  =estúpido, -a= stupid, dull.
  =éter= _m._ ether, sky.
  =eterno, -a= eternal, everlasting.
  =Europa= _f._ Europe.
  =evangelio= _m._ gospel.
  =evaporarse= evaporate, pass away, vanish.
  =exaltar= exalt, praise.
  =examinar= examine, scrutinize.
  =exclamar= exclaim.
  =exento, -a= free.
  =exhalar= breathe forth, exhale, emit, utter.
  =exigir= demand, exact, require.
  =existencia= _f._ existence, life.
  =expiación= _f._ expiation, atonement.
  =éxtasis= _m._ ecstasy.
  =extático, -a= ecstatic.
  =extender(se)= extend, stretch out, spread, prolong.
  =extranjero, -a= foreign.
  =extraño, -a= strange.
  =extremo= _m._ end; =llevar al ----= terminate.


  =fábrica= _f._ structure.
  =fácil= _adj._ easy, easily persuaded.
  =fada= _f._ fairy, sprite.
  =faena= _f._ task, work, labor, toil.
  =falaz= _adj._ deceitful, deceptive, fallacious.
  =falda= _f._ skirt, lap.
  =falso, -a= false, treacherous, feigned, simulated, mock.
  =faltar= fail, be missing, be lacking, give way.
  =fallido, -a= frustrated, amiss.
  =fama= _f._ reputation, report, rumor; =es ----= it is said.
  =famoso, -a= famous, renowned, notorious.
  =fanal= _m._ lantern, light, beacon.
  =fanfarrón= _m._ boaster, bully.
  =fango= _m._ mud, mire, slime.
  =fantasía= _f._ fancy, imagination, caprice, whim.
  =fantasma= _m. f._ phantom, ghost, specter, scarecrow.
  =fantástico, -a= fantastic, imaginary.
  =farsa= _f._ farce, humbug.
  =fascinar= fascinate.
  =fatal= _adj._ fatal, ominous, unfortunate.
  =fatídico, -a= baleful, sinister.
  =fatigado, -a= weary.
  =favor= _m._ favor, protection, help.
  =faz= _f._ face, aspect.
  =fe= _f._ faith, honor, trust; =a -----= in truth; =a ---- mía= upon
     my word.
  =fecundar= fertilize, make fruitful.
  =fecundo, -a= fecund, teeming.
  =Félix= _pr. n. m._ Felix.
  =feliz= _adj._ happy, blessed, fortunate.
  =feo, -a= ugly, homely.
  =féretro= _m._ bier.
  =feroz= _adj._ fierce, cruel.
  =férreo, -a= iron.
  =fértil= _adj._ fertile.
  =fervor= _m._ fervor, ardor, zeal.
  =festín= _m._ feast, banquet.
  =fétido, -a= fetid, stinking, foul.
  =Fez= _pr. n. f._ Fez.
  =fiado, -a= trusting.
  =fiar= trust; =---- de= trust in.
  =fiel= _adj._ faithful, true.
  =fiereza= _f._ fierceness, hardness.
  =fiero, -a= fierce, cruel, savage, furious, terrible, rude.
  =fiesta= _f._ festival, feast, celebration, rejoicing, merriment.
  =figura= _f._ figure, face, form.
  =figurar= fashion, sketch, represent; =--se= imagine, fancy.
  =fijar= fix, fasten, determine.
  =fijo, -a= fixed, fastened, determined.
  =fin= _m._ end; =al ----= at last, finally, after all; =en ----= at
     last, finally, in short, after all; =por ----= at last; =sin ----=
     endless, endlessly.
  =fingido, -a= feigned, false.
  =fingir= feign, imagine.
  =firme= _adj._ firm, unswerving, unshaken, resolute, stout, stanch.
  =flaco, -a= frail, weak.
  =Flandes= _pr. n. f._ Flanders.
  =flébil= _adj._ mournful.
  =flojo, -a= feeble, weak.
  =flor= _f._ flower, blossom.
  =florecer= blossom, bud, cover with flowers.
  =florido, -a= blooming, flower-filled, flowery.
  =flotante= _adj._ floating.
  =fondo= _m._ depth, farthest end.
  =forcejear= struggle.
  =forma= _f._ form, shape, figure.
  =formar= form, make, engender.
  =fórmula= _f._ formula, form.
  =fortuna= _f._ fortune, fate, good fortune.
  =forzoso, -a= necessary.
  =fosfórico, -a= phosphorescent.
  =fragante= _adj._ fragrant.
  =frágil= _adj._ fragile, frail, weak.
  =fragor= _m._ crash, noise.
  =fragrancia= _f._ fragrance.
  =Franco= _pr. n. m._ Franco.
  =franja= _f._ fringe, band, border.
  =frenético, -a= frenzied, mad, furious, frantic.
  =frente= _f._ brow, face, head, forehead, intellect; =---- a=
      opposite, in front of, before; =a su ----= straight ahead.
  =fresco, -a= fresh.
  =frescura= _f._ coolness, luxuriant verdure, freshness.
  =frío, -a= cold, indifferent, unsympathetic, unruffled; =sangre fría=
      sang-froid, coolness, calmness.
  =frío= _m._ cold.
  =frívolo, -a= frivolous.
  =fruncir= knit (the brow).
  =fuego= _m._ fire, ardor, flame, passion; =prender ----= set fire.
  =fuente= _f._ spring, fountain, source.
  =fuera= _adv._ outside; =---- de= _prep._ out of.
  =fuero= _m._ privilege, statute law.
  =fuerza= _f._ force, strength, might.
  =fugaz= _adj._ fleeting.
  =fugitivo, -a= fugitive, fleeting, fleeing, flying.
  =fúlgido, -a= bright, resplendent.
  =fulgor= _m._ gleam.
  =fulguroso, -a= shining, flashing.
  =fulgurante= _adj._ shining.
  =fúnebre= _adj._ funereal, lugubrious, mournful.
  =funeral= _adj._ funeral, funereal, lugubrious.
  =funesto, -a= doleful, dismal, sinister, fatal.
  =furia= _f._ rage.
  =furioso, -a= furious, mad, raging, violent.
  =furor= _m._ rage, fury.
  =futuro, -a= future.


  =gala= _f._ grace, gem, choicest part (of a thing); =----s= finery.
  =galán= _m._ gallant, dandy.
  =galanura= _f._ elegance, showiness, gorgeousness.
  =galería= _f._ gallery.
  =galvánico, -a= galvanic.
  =gallardo, -a= graceful, bold.
  =ganancia= _f._ winning.
  =ganar= win.
  =gasa= _f._ gauze.
  =gastar= waste, fling away, wear out.
  =gemido= _m._ groan, moan, sigh.
  =gemir= moan, howl, whistle.
  =generoso, -a= noble, illustrious, excellent, generous.
  =gente= _f._ people, race, nation.
  =gentil= _adj._ elegant, handsome, graceful.
  =gesto= _m._ face, expression, gesture.
  =girar= revolve, hover, whirl.
  =giro= _m._ turn, motion, roll, circling.
  =gloria= _f._ glory, fame, pleasure, bliss, honor, heaven.
  =glorioso -a= glorious.
  =goce= _m._ joy.
  =golpe= _m._ stroke, blow, knock, striking, clash, throw, cast.
  =golpear(se)= strike, hit, beat.
  =gorjear= warble, trill.
  =gótico, -a= Gothic.
  =gozar= rejoice, take delight, enjoy; =---- de= enjoy; =--se= rejoice.
  =gozo= _m._ joy, pleasure, delight.
  =grabar= engrave.
  =gracia= _f._ grace, charm, gracefulness; =----s= thanks.
  =gradería= _f._ steps; =---- de caracol torcida= spiral staircase.
  =grajo= _m._ jackdaw, crow.
  =grana= _f._ scarlet.
  =grande= _adj._ great, important.
  =grandeza= _f._ greatness, grandeur.
  =grandioso, -a= great, impressive.
  =grato, -a= pleasing.
  =grave= _adj._ heavy.
  =gritar= cry, shout, cry out.
  =gritería= _f._ outcry, shouting, screaming.
  =grito= _m._ cry, howl.
  =grotesco, -a= grotesque.
  =grupo= _m._ group.
  =guarida= _f._ den, lurking-place.
  =guerra= _f._ war; =mover ----= wage war.
  =guerrero, -a= warlike, of war.
  =guerrero= _m._ warrior, soldier.
  =guía= _m. f._ guide, leader.
  =guiar= guide, direct.
  =guirnalda= _f._ garland, wreath.
  =gustar= please.


  =haber= have; _impers._ be; =---- de= have to, be to, be going
       to, must, can; =hay= there is; =no haya= let there not be.
  =habitación= _f._ dwelling, residence, room, suite.
  =habitar= live, reside, lie.
  =hablador, -a= talking, prattling.
  =hablador, -a= _m. f._ talker, prattler.
  =hablar= talk, speak, address.
  =hacer= do, make, effect, bring about, cause, commit; =---- aprecio de=
       note; =---- bien= give alms, aid; =---- caso de= take notice of,
       heed; =---- juego= make the bets; =hecho el juego= bets closed;
       =---- pedazos= break to pieces, tear; =--se= become, turn to, get;
       =--se el bigote= curl one's mustache; _impers._ =se hace tarde=
       it is growing late.
  =hacia= _prep._ toward.
  =hado= _m._ fate.
  =halagar= flatter, allure, soothe.
  =hallar= find; =-se= be.
  =hambre= _f._ hunger.
  =hambriento, -a= hungry, eager.
  =harapo= _m._ rag, tatter.
  =hartar= satisfy, gratify.
  =harto, -a= sated.
  =hasta= _adv._ even; _prep._ to, up to, down to, until, as many as;
      =---- que= _conj._ until.
  =hastiar= bore, weary, disgust.
  =hecho, -a= made, done; =a lo ----, pecho= make the best of it.
  =hecho= _m._ deed.
  =helado, -a= icy, cold, frozen.
  =helar= freeze, congeal.
  =hembra= _f._ female, woman.
  =henchir= fill.
  =hender= cleave.
  =heredar= inherit.
  =herencia= _f._ inheritance, heritage.
  =herir= strike, smite, wound, affect.
  =hermana= _f._ sister.
  =hermano= _m._ brother.
  =hermoso, -a= beautiful, fair.
  =hermosura= _f._ beauty.
  =héroe= _m._ hero.
  =herradura= _f._ horseshoe, hoof-print.
  =hervir= boil, seethe, swarm.
  =hidalgo, -a= noble.
  =hiel= _f._ gall, bitterness.
  =hielo= _m._ ice.
  =hijo= _m._ son; =----s= children.
  =hilera= _f._ file.
  =hinchar= swell.
  =histérico, -a= hysterical.
  =historia= _f._ history, tale, story.
  =hoguera= _f._ bonfire.
  =hoja= _f._ leaf, petal, wing of a door.
  =hola= _interj._ hello.
  =hollar= tread upon, trample upon, ride over, humble.
  =hombre= _m._ man; =buen ----= my good fellow.
  =hombro= _m._ shoulder.
  =hondo, -a= deep, profound.
  =hondo= _m._ bottom, depth.
  =honroso, -a= honorable.
  =hora= _f._ hour, time; =a buena ----= opportunely; =en mal ---- o
      en buena= well and good; =----s muertas= idle hours.
  =horizonte= _m._ horizon.
  =horrendo, -a= horrible, dreadful.
  =horrible= _adj._ horrible.
  =hórrido, -a= hideous, horrible.
  =horrísono, -a= horrisonous.
  =horror= _m._ horror, fright.
  =horrorizado, -a= stricken with horror.
  =hospital= _m._ hospital, poorhouse.
  =hoy= _adv._ to-day, now, the present time; =---- en día= nowadays.
  =hoyo= _m._ hole, grave, pit.
  =hueco, -a= hollow, resounding, empty.
  =hueco= _m._ hollow, hole, gap, concavity.
  =hueso= _m._ bone.
  =huésped= _m._ guest, stranger; =casa de ----es= lodging-house.
  =huida= _f._ flight.
  =huir= flee, escape, disappear.
  =humano, -a= human.
  =humear= emit fumes, reek, smoke.
  =húmedo, -a= damp, wet.
  =humildemente= _adv._ humbly.
  =humo= _m._ smoke, fumes.
  =hundido, -a= sunken, hollow.
  =hundir= sink.
  =huracán= _m._ hurricane, storm.
  =hurra= _interj._ hurrah.


  =ideal= _adj._ ideal, imaginary.
  =iglesia= _f._ church.
  =igual= _adj._ equal; =me es ----= it is all the same to me;
     =por ----= equally.
  =igualar= equal, consider equal.
  =iluminar= illumine, enlighten, illuminate, light.
  =ilusión= _f._ illusion, fancy, self-deception, mockery.
  =ilusorio, -a= illusory, delusive, deceptive.
  =ilustre= _adj._ illustrious, noble, celebrated, distinguished.
  =imagen= _f._ image, statue, likeness, picture, conception, fancy,
      appearance.
  =imaginación= _f._ imagination, fancy, mind.
  =imaginar= imagine, fancy, believe, conceive.
  =impaciente= _adj._ impatient.
  =impávid, -a= undaunted.
  =imperial= _adj._ imperial.
  =impetuoso, -a= violent, fierce.
  =impiedad= _f._ impiety, impiousness.
  =impío, -a= impious, profane, wicked, godless.
  =implacable= _adj._ implacable, relentless.
  =implorar= implore.
  =imponer= impose.
  =importar= _impers._ matter, concern.
  =importunar= disturb, harass.
  =importuno, -a= troublesome, ill-timed, vexatious, importunate,
      unreasonable.
  =imposible= _adj._ impossible.
  =impotencia= _f._ helplessness.
  =impulso= _m._ impulse, force.
  =impuro, -a= impure, foul.
  =inagotable= _adj._ never-failing, inexhaustible.
  =incentivo= _m._ incentive.
  =incierto, -a= uncertain, unknown, doubtful, unsteady, wandering,
      restless.
  =inclinar= incline, bend, bow, droop, nod.
  =indiferencia= _f._ indifference.
  =indiferente= _adj._ indifferent.
  =indomable= _adj._ indomitable.
  =inefable= _adj._ ineffable, unutterable.
  =infalible= _adj._ infallible.
  =infante= _m._ child.
  =infeliz= _adj._ unhappy, wretched.
  =infernal= _adj._ infernal.
  =infiel= _adj._ faithless (one).
  =infierno= _m._ hell, infernal region.
  =infinito, -a= infinite, endless.
  =inflamarse= blaze.
  =informe= _adj._ ill-shapen, uncanny, inarticulate.
  =infortunio= _m._ misfortune, misery, calamity.
  =infundir= infuse, instill, inspire.
  =inglés, -a= English.
  =Inglés= _m._ Englishman.
  =ingrato, -a= ungrateful (one), ingrate.
  =injuria= _f._ insult.
  =inmensidad= _f._ immensity, vastness, infinity, unbounded greatness.
  =inmenso, -a= immense, infinite, vast.
  =inmortal= _adj._ immortal.
  =inmóvil= _adj._ motionless, fixed, set, unaffected.
  =inmundo, -a= dirty, obscene, unclean.
  =inocente= _adj._ innocent, young.
  =inquieto, -a= restless, uneasy, anxious, disturbed, agitated.
  =inquietud= _f._ uneasiness, anxiety, disquietude, restlessness.
  =insano, -a= insane, mad.
  =insensible= _adj._ indifferent, without feeling.
  =insigne= _adj._ renowned, famed, distinguished.
  =insistir= insist, persist.
  =insolencia= _f._ insolence.
  =insolente= _adj._ insolent.
  =inspirar= inspire, impart.
  =instante= _m._ instant, moment.
  =insultar= insult.
  =insulto= _m._ insult.
  =intención= _f._ intention, purpose, mind.
  =intenso, -a= intense, intent, keen.
  =intentar= attempt, endeavor, try.
  =interponerse= interpose, intervene.
  =interrumpir= interrupt.
  =intrépido, -a= courageous, dauntless.
  =inundar= flood, deluge.
  =inútil= _adj._ useless.
  =invencible= _adj._ invincible.
  =invención= _f._ invention.
  =invisible= _adj._ invisible, unseen.
  =ir= go, be, be at stake; =----= + _gerund_ go on, keep;
      =---- a= be about to, be going to; =--se= go away, go; =allá voy=
      I am coming; =me va en ello mi fama= my reputation is at stake in
      it;   =quién va= who goes there; =vamos= come now, well; =vamos
      andando= let us be off; =van los cincuenta= I bet fifty.
  =ira= _f._ anger, ire.
  =iracundo, -a= wrathful.
  =ironía= _f._ irony.
  =irónico, -a= ironical.
  =irreligioso, -a= irreligious.
  =irreverencia= _f._ irreverence, disrespect.
  =irritar= anger, excite, arouse, provoke, nettle, exasperate.
  =izquierdo, -a= left.


  =jamás= _adv._ never, ever.
  =jardín= _m._ garden.
  =jaula= _f._ cage.
  =jerezano, -a= of Jerez.
  =Jesús= _pr. n. m._ Jesus.
  =joven= _adj._ young, youthful.
  =joya= _f._ jewel.
  =Juan= _pr. n. m._ John.
  =júbilo= _m._ glee, joy.
  =juego= _m._ game, sport, play, playing; =hacer ----= make the bets;
     =hecho el ----= bets closed.
  =jugador= _m._ player, gambler.
  =jugar= play, sport, frolic, gamble.
  =jugo= _m._ juice.
  =juguete= _m._ plaything, toy, sport.
  =juicio= _m._ judgment, sense, reason, mind.
  =juntar= join, unite, touch, knit; =--se= gather, assemble, join,
     meet, approach.
  =junto, -a= joined, united, connected.
  =junto= _adv._ near, close; =---- a= _prep._ near, close to.
  =juntura= _f._ joint, seam.
  =jurar= swear.
  =juventud= _f._ youth.
  =juzgar= judge, think.


  =la= _art. f._ the; _pron. pers. acc._ her, it; _pl._
      them; _pron. pers. dat._ to her, to it; =---- que= _pron. dem.
      and rel._ she who, the one who, who.
  =labio= _m._ lip.
  =lado= _m._ side, place.
  =lago= _m._ lake.
  =lágrima= _f._ tear.
  =lamentable= _adj._ deplorable.
  =lamentar= lament, bewail, bemoan.
  =lamento= _m._ lament, lamentation, wail, wailing cry.
  =lámpara= _f._ lamp, light.
  =lance= _m._ incident, love-affair, affair of honor.
  =languidez= _f._ languor, weakness, faintness.
  =lánguido, -a= languid, gentle, apathetic, faint, weak, feeble.
  =lanza= _f._ lance, spear.
  =lanzar= throw, fling, cast, let loose, emit, utter; =--se= dart, rush.
  =lares= _m. pl._ lares, home.
  =largo, -a= long; _pl._ many.
  =lastimar= hurt, wound, move to pity; =--se= grieve, be sorry, be
     moved to pity.
  =lastimero, -a= sad, mournful.
  =latido= _m._ throbbing.
  =lava= _f._ lava.
  =lazo= _m._ bond, tie, knot; toils, web, snare.
  =le= _pron. pers. dat. acc._ him, her, it.
  =lector= _m._ reader.
  =lecho= _m._ bed, couch.
  =lejano, -a= distant.
  =lejos= _adv._ far, far away, afar; =a lo ----= in the distance;
     =de ----= from afar, at a great distance.
  =lengua= _f._ tongue.
  =lenguaje= _m._ language, speech, tongue.
  =lento, -a= slow.
  =leña= _f._ wood, firewood.
  =les= _pron. pers. dat. acc._ them.
  =letal= _adj._ deadly.
  =letra= _f._ letter; =----s= letters, literature, lore.
  =levantar= raise, lift up, erect, set up; =--se= rise, get up, stand
      up.
  =leve= _adj._ light, slight, delicate.
  =ley= _f._ law, religion.
  =libertad= _f._ liberty, freedom.
  =librar= free, preserve, save.
  =libre= _adj._ free, open, innocent, alone.
  =lid= _f._ contest, conflict, fight.
  =ligar= bind.
  =ligeramente= _adv._ slightly, lightly.
  =ligero, -a= slight.
  =límite= _m._ limit, bound.
  =limosna= _f._ alms, charity.
  =límpido, -a= limpid, pure, clear.
  =limpieza= _f._ limpidity, purity, clearness.
  =lino= _m._ linen.
  =lira= _f._ lyre.
  =lisonjero, -a= flattering, pleasing, cajoling.
  =liviano, -a= frivolous, lewd.
  =lívido, -a= livid.
  =lo= _art. neut._ the; _pron. pers. acc._ it, him; =---- que=
      _pron. dem. and rel._ what, that which; =---- que es por= as for,
      when it comes to.
  =lóbrego, -a= lugubrious, mournful, gloomy, obscure, dismal, dark, sad.
  =loco, -a= mad, wild, crazy.
  =locura= _f._ madness, folly.
  =lodo= _m._ mire.
  =lograr= attain, gain.
  =loma= _f._ hillock, ridge.
  =lona= _f._ canvas.
  =lontananza= _f._ distance.
  =los= _art. pl. m._ the; _pron. pers. acc._ them; =---- que=
      _pron. dem. and rel._ those who, the ones who.
  =losa= _f._ slab, stone.
  =lozano, -a= luxuriant, sprightly.
  =lúbrico, -a= slippery, lewd.
  =lucero= _m._ bright star, morning star, star.
  =luciente= _adj._ shining.
  =Lucifer= _pr. n. m._ Lucifer.
  =luchar= struggle.
  =luego= _adv._ then, at once, presently, soon, next, subsequently.
  =lugar= _m._ place, town.
  =lúgubre= _adj._ sad, mournful, dismal.
  =lujo= _m._ luxury, finery.
  =lumbre= _f._ light.
  =luminoso, -a= luminous, shining, bright.
  =luna= _f._ moon.
  =luz= _f._ light, illumination, flame, taper, lamp.
  =Luzbel= _pr. n. m._ Lucifer, Satan.


  =llagar= wound.
  =llama= _f._ flame, light.
  =llamar= call, summon, knock, name, call upon, invoke; =--se= be
      named; =cómo os llamáis= what is your name.
  =llanto= _m._ weeping, tears.
  =llegar= arrive, come; =---- a= come to, succeed in, happen to,
      reach; _or simply takes the signification of the verb to which it
      is joined:_ =llegó a ver= he saw.
  =llenar= fill, pervade.
  =lleno, -a= full, filled.
  =llevar= carry, bear, bring, wear, take, carry away; =----= + _p.p._
      have; =---- al extremo= terminate; =--se algo= take something
      away.
  =llorar= weep, mourn, weep for, mourn for.


  =macedonio, -a= Macedonian.
  =macizo, -a= solid, massive.
  =madre= _f._ mother.
  =maestro, -a= masterly, principal, main; =obra ----a= masterpiece.
  =magia= _f._ magic, charm.
  =mágico, -a= magic, magical, wonderful.
  =mal= _adv._ badly, ill, hardly, poorly.
  =mal= _m._ evil, wrong, harm, injury, sorrow, misfortune.
  =Málaga= _m._ Malaga wine.
  =maldecido, -a= accursed, wicked.
  =maldecir= curse.
  =maldiciente= _adj._ cursing, profane.
  =maldición= _f._ malediction, curse.
  =maleza= _f._ underbrush, thicket.
  =malo, a= bad, wicked, evil, obnoxious, poor; =¡mal caballero!=
     scoundrel!
  =malvado, -a= criminal, wicked, insolent.
  =manantial= _m._ spring, source.
  =manar= flow, trickle.
  =mancebo= _m._ young man, youth.
  =mancilla= _f._ spot, blemish.
  =mancha= _f._ spot, stain.
  =manchar= stain.
  =mandato= _m._ command.
  =manía= _f._ madness, whim.
  =mano= _f._ hand.
  =mansamente= _adv._ gently.
  =mansión= _f._ mansion, abode.
  =manto= _m._ mantle, cloak.
  =mañana= _adv._ to-morrow.
  =mañana= _f._ morning, morrow.
  =mar= _m._ (_"Pirata" l. 39_), _f._ (_l. 34_), sea, deep; =a ----es=
     abundantly.
  =maravilla= _f._ wonder, marvel, miracle.
  =marcar= mark, stamp.
  =marco= _m._ frame.
  =Marcos= _pr. n. m._ Mark.
  =marcha= _f._ march.
  =marchar= walk, march.
  =marchitado, -a= faded, withered.
  =marchitarse= wither, fade, die.
  =mareo= _m._ nausea, dizziness.
  =margen= _m. f._  edge, brink, bank, border.
  =María= _pr. n. f._ Mary.
  =marido= _m._ husband, spouse.
  =mariposa= _f._ butterfly.
  =mármol= _m._ marble.
  =martirio= _m._ martyrdom, torture, grief.
  =mas= _conj._ but.
  =más= _adv._ more, most, rather; =---- de= past; =---- que=
      especially as; =el, la ----= the most; =no ----= only, no longer.
  =masa= _f._ mass.
  =matar= kill, slay.
  =materia= _f._ material, matter.
  =matiz= _m._ tint, hue.
  =matrimonio= _m._ marriage.
  =mayo= _m._ May.
  =mayor= _adj._ greater; =el, la ----= the greatest.
  =me= _pron. pers. dat. acc._ me, myself.
  =mecer= rock, sway; =--se= be rocked, rock.
  =medida= _f._ measure; =sin ----= unmeasured.
  =medio, -a= half, middle; =media noche= midnight.
  =medio= _m._ middle, midst; =en ----= in the midst, nevertheless;
      =en ---- de= in the midst of.
  =medroso, -a= terrible, terrifying, timid.
  =mejilla= _f._ cheek.
  =mejor= _adj._ better; =el -----= the best.
  =melancolía= _f._ melancholy.
  =melancólico, -a= melancholy.
  =melodía= _f._ melody.
  =memoria= _f._ memory, mind, remembrance.
  =mendigo= _m._ beggar, mendicant.
  =menear= stir, shake.
  =mengua= _f._ shame, disgrace.
  =menos= _adv._ less, least; =----- que= less than.
  =mente= _f._ mind, thought, intellect.
  =mentido, -a= false.
  =mentir= lie, deceive.
  =mentira= _f._ lie, falsehood, falsity.
  =mercader= _m._ trader, merchant.
  =merced= _f._ mercy; =a ---- de= at the mercy of.
  =merecer= merit, deserve, be worth.
  =mesa= _f._ table.
  =metal= _m._ metal.
  =metálico= _m._ cash, money.
  =mezclar= mix, mingle, unite, jumble; =--se= be mingled, take part,
     meddle.
  =mezquino, -a= miserable, wretched, petty.
  =mi= _adj. poss._ my.
  =mí= _pron. pers._ me, myself.
  =miedo= _m._ fear; =hacer ---- de= make afraid of.
  =miel= _f._ honey.
  =mientras= _adv._ meanwhile; _conj._ while; =---- que= while.
  =Miguel= _pr. n. m._ Michael.
  =mil= _card._ thousand.
  =millar= _m._ thousand.
  =mina= _f._ mine, source of supply.
  =mío, -a= _pron. poss._ my, mine.
  =mirada= _f._ glance, look, gaze.
  =mirar= look at, contemplate, regard, see, behold, watch, notice;
      =--se entre sí= look at each other.
  =misa= _f._ mass.
  =miserable= _adj._ miserable, wretched.
  =miseria= _f._ misery, wretchedness.
  =mísero, -a= miserable, wretched.
  =mismo, -a= same, very, self, own.
  =misterioso, -a= mysterious.
  =místico, -a= mystical.
  =modo= _m._ way, manner; =de tal ----= in such a way.
  =mofa= _f._ sneer, jeer.
  =mofar de= scoff at, flout.
  =molestar= trouble, disturb, grate upon.
  =momento= _m._ moment, instant; =al ----= in a moment, immediately.
  =monarca= _m._ monarch.
  =monótono, -a= monotonous, slow, dull.
  =montaña= _f._ mountain.
  =Montemar= _pr. n._ Montemar.
  =montón= _m._ heap.
  =monumento= _m._ monument.
  =morada= _f._ abode.
  =morador, -a= inhabitant.
  =morar= dwell, abide, inhabit, lodge in.
  =morder= bite.
  =Moreto= _pr. n._ Moreto.
  =moribundo, -a= dying.
  =morir(se)= die, expire, go out.
  =mortal= _adj._ mortal, deadly, fatal.
  =mortal= _m._ mortal, being, man.
  =mortífero, -a= deadly, noxious.
  =mostrar= show, point out, indicate.
  =motivo= _m._ motive, reason, cause.
  =mover= move, stir, sway, drive; =---- guerra= wage war; =---- la
      planta= walk; =---- los ojos= roll one's eyes; =---- los pies=
      walk; =--se= move, walk.
  =movimiento= _m._ movement, motion, startled movement, agitation,
      thrill, stirring.
  =mucho= _adv._ much.
  =mudo, -a= dumb, silent, still, mute.
  =mueca= _f._ grimace.
  =muerte= _f._ death.
  =muerto, -a= dead, lifeless, dying.
  =muerto, -a= _m. f._ dead person, corpse.
  =muestra= _f._ indication, token, proof.
  =mujer= _f._ woman, wife.
  =mula= _f._ mule.
  =mullido, -a= soft.
  =mundano, -a= worldly, of the world.
  =mundo= _m._ world, earth, society.
  =murmullo= _m._ murmuring, rippling.
  =murmurar= murmur.
  =muro= _m._ wall.
  =música= _f._ music, melody.
  =mutuo, -a= mutual.
  =muy= _adv._ very, very much.


  =nacarado, -a= pearly, nacreous.
  =nacer= be born, spring up.
  =naciente= _adj._ nascent, growing, budding, dawning.
  =nación= _f._ nation.
  =nada= _pron._ nothing, not anything.
  =nada= _adv._ not at all, not.
  =nadie= _pron._ no one, any one.
  =naipe= _m._ card.
  =nariz= _f._ nose, nostril.
  =náufrago, -a= wrecked, coming from a wreck.
  =nave= _f._ ship, vessel.
  =navegar= sail.
  =navío= _m._ ship.
  =nebuloso, -a= nebulous, hazy.
  =necesitar= need.
  =necio, -a= foolish.
  =néctar= _m._ nectar.
  =negar= deny, refuse.
  =negro, -a= black, dark.
  =nervio= _m._ nerve.
  =nervioso, -a= nervous.
  =ni= _conj._ neither, nor, or; =---- ... ----= neither ... nor.
  =niebla= _f._ mist, haze, fog.
  =nieve= _f._ snow, extreme whiteness.
  =ninfa= _f._ nymph.
  =ninguno, -a= _adj. pron._ no, no one, none, not any.
  =niño= _m._ child, boy.
  =no= _adv._ not, no; =que -----= no.
  =noble= _adj._ noble, eminent, worthy, honorable.
  =nobleza= _f._ nobility.
  =noche= _f._ night; =de ----= by night, at night;
  =media ----= midnight.
  =nombrar= name, mention.
  =nombre= _m._ name.
  =nos= _pron. pers. dat. acc._ us.
  =nosotros, -as= _pron. pers._ we, us.
  =novela= _f._ novel.
  =nube= _f._ cloud.
  =nublo= _m._ storm cloud.
  =nudo= _m._ knot, noose.
  =nuestro, -a= _adj. pron._ our, ours, of ours.
  =nuevo, -a= new, unfamiliar, newly arrived, fresh, additional.
  =nunca= _adv._ never, ever.
  =nupcial= _adj._ nuptial.
  =nutrir= nourish.


  =o= _interj._ oh.
  =o= _conj._ or, either; =---- ... ----= either ... or.
  =obedecer= obey.
  =objeto= _m._ object, thing.
  =obligarse= bind one's self, be obliged.
  =obra= _f._ work; =---- maestra= masterpiece.
  =ocasión= _f._ occasion, time, opportunity.
  =occidente= _m._ west, occident.
  =oculto, -a= concealed, hidden, secret.
  =odioso, -a= odious, hateful.
  =ofender= offend, make angry, insult.
  =ofrecer= offer, present; =--se= offer, occur, present itself.
  =oh= _interj._ oh.
  =oído= _m._ ear, hearing.
  =oír= hear, listen, listen to; =--se= be heard.
  =ojalá= _interj._ would to God.
  =ojo= _m._ eye, sight.
  =ola= _f._ wave, billow.
  =olor= _m._ odor.
  =oloroso, -a= fragrant.
  =olvidar= forget.
  =olvido= _m._ oblivion, forgetfulness, neglect.
  =onda= _f._ wave.
  =ondeante= _adj._ waving, flowing.
  =ondear= wave.
  =ondina= _f._ undine, water-sprite.
  =ondular= undulate, rise and fall.
  =onza= _f._ doubloon (former gold coin, = about $16).
  =ópalo= _m._ opal.
  =óptico, -a= optical; =---- vidrio= telescope.
  =opulento, -a= rich, wealthy.
  =ora= _conj._ now; =---- ... ----= now ... again, at one time ... at
     another.
  =orador= _m._ orator.
  =orgía= _f._ orgy.
  =orgulloso, -a= proud, haughty.
  =original= _adj._ original, curious.
  =oro= _m._ gold, gold coin, wealth, riches; =----s= diamonds (as a
     suit of playing-cards).
  =os= _pron. pers. dat. acc._ you, yourself.
  =osadía= _f._ boldness, audacity, effrontery.
  =osado, -a= daring, bold, defiant.
  =oscuridad= _f._ darkness, obscurity, gloom.
  =oscuro, -a= dark, gloomy, confused.
  =ostentar= show, display.
  =otero= _m._ hill.
  =otro, -a= _adj. pron._ other, another.


  =padecer= _m._ suffering, pain.
  =padre= _m._ father; =----s= fathers, parents, ancestors.
  =padrino= _m._ sponsor.
  =paje= _m._ page.
  =palabra= _f._ word, promise.
  =palabrería= _f._ wordiness.
  =palacio= _m._ palace, mansion.
  =pálido, -a= pallid, pale, faint.
  =palmada= _f._ slap, applause, clapping.
  =palmo= _m._ span (8 inches).
  =palpar= feel, grope, know; =--se= feel, grope.
  =palpitante= _adj._ quivering, throbbing.
  =palpitar= beat, quiver, flutter.
  =pan= _m._ bread.
  =par= _adj._ equal; =a ----= alike; =a ---- que= just as,
      while; =a la ----= at the same time, equally; =al ---- de= like,
      as well as.
  =para= _prep._ for, to, in order to; =ser ----= be enough to.
  =parabién= _m._ congratulation; =dar el ----= congratulate.
  =paradero= _m._ halting-place, end.
  =páramo= _m._ paramo, desert, wilderness.
  =parar= stop, halt, stake; =--se= stop, halt.
  =parar= _m._ lansquenet (a game of cards).
  =parche= _m._ drum.
  =pardiez= _interj._ by God.
  =pardo, -a= dark gray, brown, dark.
  =parecer= appear, seem, resemble, look like; =al ----= seemingly,
     apparently.
  =pared= _f._ wall.
  =párpado= _m._ eyelid.
  =parte= _f._ part; =de ---- de= from, by command of; =por todas
     ----s= everywhere.
  =pasada= _f._ passing; =de ----= in passing.
  =pasado= _m._ past.
  =pasar= pass, go by, end.
  =pasión= _f._ passion.
  =paso= _m._ step, gait, footstep, tread, passing; =---- de andadura=
      ambling gait; =al ----, de ----,= in passing.
  =pastor= _m._ shepherd.
  =Pastrana= _pr. n._ Pastrana.
  =patear= stamp upon.
  =patio= _m._ court, courtyard.
  =patria= _f._ native country, fatherland, home.
  =patrio, -a= paternal, native.
  =pausado, -a= deliberate, leisurely.
  =pavesa= _f._ embers.
  =pavimiento= _m._ pavement, floor.
  =pavor= _m._ fear, terror.
  =pavoroso, -a= frightful, exciting fear, terrifying, terrible.
  =pavura= _f._ fear, terror.
  =paz= _f._ peace, quiet.
  =pecado= _m._ sin.
  =pecador, -a= sinful, wicked, wretched.
  =pecho= _m._ breast, chest, bosom, heart, courage; =a lo hecho, ----=
     make the best of it.
  =pecho= _m._ tribute; =dar ----= pay tribute. =pedazo= _m._ piece;
     =a ----s= to pieces, in pieces; =hacer ----s= break to pieces, tear.
  =pedestal= _m._ pedestal, foundation.
  =pedir= ask, ask for, beg, demand; =---- cuenta= bring to account,
      demand account of.
  =pedrería= _f._ precious stones.
  =pena= _f._ punishment, penalty, agony, trouble, anxiety, sorrow,
      pain; =ánima en ----= soul in purgatory.
  =pendencia= _f._ quarrel, dispute, row.
  =pendón= _m._ banner, flag.
  =penetrar= penetrate, pierce.
  =penoso, -a= painful.
  =pensamiento= _m._ thought, mind.
  =pensar= think, consider, plan, mean, intend; =---- en= think of.
  =pensil= _m._ beautiful garden.
  =peñasco= _m._ large rock.
  =perder= lose, squander, ruin, undo; =--se= be lost, go astray,
      disappear, vanish; =dar por perdido= consider lost.
  =perdido, -a= lost, ruined, done for, beside one's self, vanished,
      defeated, wandering.
  =perdidoso, -a= losing, loser.
  =perdón= _m._ pardon, forgiveness.
  =perdonar= pardon, forgive.
  =peregrino, -a= strange, wonderful.
  =perezoso, -a= sluggish.
  =pérfido, -a= perfidious, treacherous.
  =perfumado, -a= sweet-scented, perfumed.
  =perfume= _m._ perfume, fragrance, sweet odor.
  =pero= _conj._ but, however.
  =perpetuo, -a= perpetual, continual.
  =perro= _m._ dog.
  =perseguir= pursue, importune, beset.
  =persona= _f._ person; =----s= dramatis personae.
  =pesar= weigh, consider, be valuable, repent.
  =pesar= _m._ sorrow, trouble, repentance; =a su ----= in spite of
      himself.
  =peso= _m._ weight.
  =pie= _m._ foot; =alzarse de ----= rise to one's feet; =en ----=
      standing; =mover los ----s= walk; =ponerse de ----= arise, stand up.
  =piedad= _f._ pity, mercy.
  =piedra= _f._ stone.
  =pintar= paint, depict, describe; =--se= be painted, be depicted.
  =pintura= _f._ picture, painting.
  =pirata= _m._ pirate.
  =pisada= _f._ footstep.
  =pisar= tread upon.
  =placentero, -a= pleasant, pleasing.
  =placer= please.
  =placer= _m._ pleasure, rejoicing.
  =plan= _m._ plan.
  =planta= _f._ sole of foot, foot, project, design; =mover la ----= walk.
  =plañir= sob, whimper, lament.
  =plata= _f._ silver.
  =playa= _f._ shore, beach, strand; =sin ----= boundless.
  =plaza= _f._ square.
  =plebe= _f._ populace, common people.
  =plegaria= _f._ prayer.
  =pliegue= _m._ fold.
  =poblar= inhabit.
  =pobre= _adj._ poor.
  =pobreza= _f._ poverty.
  =poco= _adv._ little; =---- a ----= little by little, gradually;
  =por ----= for a trifle.
  =poder= be able, may, can; _impers._ be possible; =puede que= perhaps,
     maybe.
  =poder= _m._ power.
  =poderoso, -a= powerful, mighty, wealthy.
  =poeta= _m._ poet.
  =Polonia= _f._ Poland.
  =polvo= _m._ dust.
  =pomo= _m._ pommel, hilt.
  =pompa= _f._ pomp, splendor.
  =poner= put, place, instill, fix, set, make, turn, offer, give; =----
      pavor a uno= make one afraid; =--se a= begin to; =--se de pie=
      arise, stand up.
  =poniente= _adj._ setting.
  =ponzoñoso, -a= poisonous.
  =popa= _f._ poop, stern; =en ----= astern, aft; =viento en ----=
      before the wind, with a wind from astern.
  =por= _prep._ for, on account of, by, to, through, over, across,
      for the sake of, on, at; _conj._ =---- qué= why.
  =porfía= _f._ obstinacy, persistence.
  =porque= _conj._ because, in order that.
  =portento= _m._ prodigy, miracle, portent.
  =porvenir= _m._ future.
  =pos= _adv. prep._: =en ----= behind, after.
  =positivamente= _adv._ positively, certainly.
  =postrado, -a= prostrate, kneeling.
  =postrero, -a= last.
  =precipitado, -a= precipitate, headlong, rash, abrupt.
  =precipitar(se)= precipitate, hasten, rush headlong, hurry.
  =precursor, -a= _m. f._ precursor, herald, harbinger.
  =preguntar= ask, inquire, question.
  =premática= _f._ pragmatic (a law).
  =prender= catch, take, bind, fasten; =---- fuego= set fire.
  =presa= _f._ capture, prize.
  =présago, -a= presaging, ominous.
  =présago= _m._ presage, omen.
  =presentar= present, offer, show.
  =presente= _adj._ present.
  =presente= _m._ present.
  =prestar= lend, give, add, ascribe.
  =presumir= presume, imagine, dare.
  =presuroso, -a= prompt, quick, light.
  =prevenirse= prepare.
  =previsión= _f._ foresight, foreboding, presentiment.
  =primavera= _f._ spring.
  =primero, -a= first, former.
  =príncipe= _m._ prince.
  =prisa= _f._ haste.
  =proceloso, -a= tempestuous.
  =procurar= procure, obtain, secure.
  =prodigio= _m._ prodigy, marvel.
  =prodigioso, -a= extraordinary, exquisite.
  =profundo, -a= deep, low, profound, great.
  =profundo= _m._ abyss, hell.
  =prolongar(se)= prolong, continue, extend.
  =prometer= promise.
  =pronto, -a= ready.
  =pronto= _adv._ quickly, soon; =de ----= suddenly.
  =pronunciar= pronounce, utter, say.
  =propio, -a= own.
  =prorrumpir= break out, burst forth.
  =protección= _f._ protection.
  =provocar= provoke, rouse, incite.
  =público, -a= public, general, common.
  =pudor= _m._ modesty.
  =pueblo= _m._ people, town, nation.
  =puerta= _f._ door, gateway, entrance.
  =puerto= _m._ harbor, port.
  =pues= _adv._ then, well; _conj._ for, since.
  =puesta= _f._ setting.
  =pugnar= struggle.
  =punto= _m._ spot, speck, point, moment; =al ----= immediately, at once.
  =punzante= _adj._ sharp, piercing, pricking, stinging, acrid.
  =puñal= _m._ dagger.
  =pureza= _f._ purity, chastity, innocence.
  =purísimo, -a= very pure, most pure.
  =puro, -a= pure, chaste, holy, clear, unsullied, unblemished, mere,
      sheer, absolute.


  =que= _conj._ than, for, as, since, that, so that, let; =de ----= that.
  =que= _pron. rel._ which, that, who, whom; =en ----= when.
  =qué= _interj._ what, how.
  =qué= _interrog._ what, why; =por ----= why.
  =quebrantar= break, transgress, shatter, split, weaken.
  =quebranto= _m._ affliction, grief, sorrow.
  =quedar(se)= stay, remain, be left.
  =queja= _f._ complaint, lamentation, plaintive cry, moan.
  =quejarse= complain, lament.
  =quejido= _m._ moan, complaint.
  =quemado, -a= burning.
  =quemar= burn.
  =querer= love, like, desire, want, seek, wish, accept, cover, accept a
      challenge _or_ bet, be on the point of.
  =querido, -a= dear, beloved.
  =quien= _pron. rel._ who, which, whom, one who.
  =quién= _pron. interrog._ who.
  =Quijote= _pr. n. m._ Quixote.
  =quimera= _f._ chimera, fancy, quarrel, row.
  =quimérico, -a= chimerical, fantastic.
  =quince= _card._ fifteen.
  =quinto, -a= fifth.
  =quitar(se)= take away, remove, take off.
  =quizá= _adv._ perhaps.


  =rabia= _f._ rage, fury.
  =ración= _f._ ration, allowance of food.
  =radiante= _adj._ radiant.
  =ráfaga= _f._ gust, blast, burst.
  =rama= _f._ branch, bough.
  =ramaje= _m._ branches.
  =ramo= _m._ branch.
  =rápido, -a= rapid, quick, swift, nimble, fleeting.
  =raro, -a= strange, unusual.
  =rasgar= tear, rend.
  =raudal= _m._ torrent, stream.
  =raudo, -a= rapid, swift, precipitate..
  =raya= _f._ stripe, streak.
  =rayar= border upon.
  =rayo= _m._ ray, thunderbolt, beam, light.
  =razón= _f._ reason, reasoning.
  =realidad= _f._ reality.
  =realizar= realize, make real, bring about.
  =rebelde= _adj._ rebellious.
  =rebramar= bellow.
  =recatado, -a= cautious, careful, prudent.
  =recato= _m._ modesty, prudence, coyness.
  =recelo= _m._ misgiving, apprehension, fear.
  =receloso, -a= distrustful, terrifying, fearsome.
  =recibir= receive, take, accept.
  =recio, -a= strong, loud, severe, rigorous.
  =recobrar= recover.
  =recoger= gather, collect, take in, receive, shelter.
  =recogido, -a= retired, absorbed, secluded.
  =reconcentrado, -a= concentrated, intense.
  =reconocer= recognize, know.
  =recordar= remember, recall.
  =recorrer= pass through, examine.
  =recrear= delight, gladden.
  =recuerdo= _m._ recollection, memory.
  =rechazar= repel, reject.
  =rechinamiento= _m._ gnashing.
  =rechinar= creak, gnash.
  =rededor= _m._ environs; =al ---- de= around.
  =redoblar= redouble.
  =redoble= _m._ roll.
  =redor= _cf._ =rededor=; =en ----= round about.
  =reflejar= reflect.
  =reflejo= _m._ light, gleam, glimmer.
  =refregar= rub.
  =refulgente= _adj._ resplendent, brilliant.
  =regalar= make merry, cheer, entertain, delight; =--se= feast, make
     merry, fare sumptuously.
  =regar= lave, water.
  =regio, -a= royal, regal, magnificent.
  =región= _f._ region, realm.
  =registrar= examine, scan.
  =regocijar= gladden, brighten.
  =reina= _f._ queen.
  =reinar= reign.
  =reír= laugh; =--se= laugh; =---se de= laugh at.
  =relámpago= _m._ lightning flash.
  =relinchar= whinny, neigh.
  =reloj= _m._ clock, timepiece.
  =remiso, -a= slow.
  =remolino= _m._ whirl, whirling, vortex, eddy, whirlwind.
  =remontarse= rise, soar, tower.
  =remordimiento= _m._ remorse.
  =remover= remove, move, take away.
  =rencor= _m._ grudge, hatred.
  =rendido, -a= worn out, overcome.
  =rendir= surrender, give up, overcome, yield.
  =renegar de= deny, abhor, denounce, curse, protest against.
  =renglón= _m._ line.
  =reñidor, -a= quarrelsome.
  =reñir= quarrel, fight.
  =reparar= defend, recover.
  =reparo= _m._ advice, warning, remark, objection.
  =repente= _m._ sudden movement; =de ---- suddenly.
  =repentino, -a= sudden.
  =repetir= repeat.
  =reponer= reply.
  =reposar= repose, rest.
  =reposo= _m._ rest, sleep.
  =réprobo, -a= reprobate, wicked one.
  =repugnante= _adj._ repulsive, loathsome.
  =requerir= examine, lay hold of.
  =resbalar= slip away, glide, pass over, touch.
  =resistir= resist, endure, withstand.
  =resolución= _f._ resolution, determination.
  =resolver= resolve, determine.
  =resonar= resound, ring out, echo.
  =respirar= breathe, exhale, inhale.
  =resplandor= _m._ light, radiance, brightness, glow.
  =responder= respond, reply, answer.
  =respuesta= _f._ reply, answer.
  =resucitar= return to life.
  =resuelto, -a= resolved, determined.
  =retumbar= tremble.
  =retorcer= twist; =--se= writhe, be wrung.
  =retrato= _m._ portrait, picture.
  =retumbar= resound, reëcho.
  =reunir= unite, gather.
  =reventar= burst forth.
  =revés= _m._ reverse; =al ----= contrariwise.
  =revestir= clothe, robe.
  =revuelto, -a= agitated, restless, disordered, topsy-turvy, winding,
      wrapped, clad.
  =rey= _m._ king, monarch.
  =rezar= pray, recite.
  =rezo= _m._ prayer, devotions.
  =rico, -a= rich, abundant, plentiful, fine.
  =ridículo, -a= ridiculous, strange, absurd.
  =rielar= shimmer, glisten.
  =rienda= _f._ rein; =a ---- suelta= at full gallop.
  =riesgo= _m._ danger.
  =rifar= raffle, bid.
  =rigidez= _f._ rigidity.
  =rígido, -a= rigid, severe, rigorous.
  =río= _m._ river, stream.
  =riqueza= _f._ richness, riches, wealth.
  =risa= _f._ laughter.
  =rival= _m._ rival.
  =rizar= ripple.
  =robar= rob; =---- a= steal from.
  =roble= _m._ oak tree.
  =roca= _f._ rock, cliff.
  =rodar= roll, be tossed about, abound.
  =rodear= surround.
  =rodilla= _f._ knee; =de -----s= kneeling.
  =roedor, -a= gnawing.
  =roer= gnaw, consume, harass.
  =rogar= pray.
  =rojo, -a= red, crimson, ruby.
  =romper= break, break down, destroy, shatter, dash.
  =ronco, -a= hoarse, raucous, harsh.
  =ronda= _f._ rounds, circular dance, dance.
  =ropa= _f._ garment, raiment, clothing.
  =ropaje= _m._ apparel, gown, robe.
  =rosa= _f._ rose.
  =rosado, -a= rosy, roseate.
  =rostro= _m._ face, countenance.
  =roto, -a= broken, destroyed, shattered.
  =rudo, -a= rude, rough, hard.
  =rueda= _f._ wheel, circle, turn.
  =ruego= _m._ request, entreaty.
  =rugido= _m._ roaring.
  =rugir= roar, bellow.
  =ruido= _m._ noise, din, sound.
  =ruinoso, -a= ruinous, crumbling.
  =ruiseñor= _m._ nightingale.
  =rumbo= _m._ course.
  =rumor= _m._ noise, sound.


  =sábado= _m._ Saturday, Sabbath.
  =saber= know, learn, find out.
  =sabroso, -a= tasty, delicious, palatable.
  =sacro, -a= holy, sacred.
  =sacudido, -a= harsh, jerky.
  =sacudir= shake, shake off, strike.
  =sagrado, -a= sacred, holy.
  =Salamanca= _pr. n. f._ Salamanca.
  =salir= come out, go out, get out, emerge, issue, turn out, appear,
      show up; =---- de= leave, get out.
  =saltar(se)= jump, spring, flash.
  =saludar= salute, greet.
  =san (santo)= saint.
  =sandio, -a= foolish, stupid, silly.
  =sangre= _f._ blood, gore; =---- fría= sangfroid, coolness, calmness.
  =sangriento, -a= bloody, gory.
  =santidad= _f._ holiness, godliness.
  =santo, -a= holy, saint, blessed.
  =sarcasmo= _m._ sarcasm.
  =sargento= _m._ sergeant.
  =sastre= _m._ tailor.
  =Satanás= _m._ Satan.
  =satánico, -a= Satanic.
  =sátira= _f._ satire.
  =satisfacción= _f._ satisfaction.
  =sauce= _m._ willow.
  =Scévola= _pr. n. m._ Scaevola.
  =se= _pron. refl. 3d pers. dat. acc. m. f. sing. pl._ him, himself,
      herself, itself, themselves; one another, each other; _dat. of 3d
      pers. pron._ to you.
  =secar= parch, consume, dry up, wither.
  =seco, -a= dry, dried up, barren, withered, lean, bony.
  =secreto, -a= secret, hidden.
  =sed= _f._ thirst.
  =seductor, -a= seducing.
  =seductor= _m._ seducer.
  =segar= mow, reap.
  =seguida= _f._ continuation; =en ----= forthwith, immediately.
  =seguir= follow, succeed, pursue, go on, continue.
  =según= _prep._ according to.
  =segundo, -a= second.
  =seguro, -a= secure, safe, confident, certain, unfailing, stanch;
      =mal ----= unsafe, insecure.
  =seis= _card._ six.
  =sellar= seal, cover.
  =sello= _m._ seal, stamp, mark.
  =semblante= _m._ countenance, face.
  =semejante= _adj._ similar, like, resembling.
  =semejar= resemble, be like.
  =sempiterno, -a= eternal.
  =Sena= _pr. n. f._ Siena.
  =seno= _m._ bosom, breast, depths.
  =sensación= _f._ sensation, feeling.
  =sentar= suit, place, plant, become, set; =--se= sit down.
  =sentenciar= condemn.
  =sentido= _m._ sense; =sin ----= senseless, unconscious.
  =sentimiento= _m._ sentiment, feeling, emotion, regret, grief.
  =sentir(se)= feel, regret, be sorry, hear, perceive, foresee.
  =seña= _f._ sign.
  =señalar= point out, mark out, make known, name.
  =señor= _m._ lord, señor, gentleman, sir, Mr..
  =señora= _f._ lady, madam.
  =separar= separate, part.
  =sepulcral= _adj._ sepulchral.
  =sepulcro= _m._ grave, tomb.
  =sepultar= bury, entomb.
  =sepultura= _f._ grave, tomb.
  =ser= be; =---- para= be enough to; =es de temer= it is to be feared;
      =es de ver= you should see; =no sea que= lest, for fear that;
      =sea ... sea= whether ... or.
  =ser= _m._ being.
  =serafín= _m._ seraph, angel.
  =sereno, -a= serene, quiet, calm, placid, fair, peaceful.
  =sermón= _m._ sermon, talk, advice.
  =servir= serve; =---- de= serve as; =--se de= make use of.
  =sesenta= _card._ sixty.
  =severo, -a= severe, stern, serious, rigorous, strict.
  =si= _conj._ if, when, whether; =---- no= otherwise, unless;
      =---- ... ----= whether ... or; =y ---- no= unless, otherwise.
  =sí= _pron. refl. sing. pl. m. f._ himself, herself, etc..
  =sí= _adv._ yes, ay, indeed, certainly; =que ----= yes.
  =sí= _m._ assent, consent.
  =siempre= _adv._ always, ever.
  =sien= _f._ temple.
  =sierpe= _f._ serpent.
  =silbar= whistle.
  =silbo= _m._ whistling.
  =silencio= _m._ silence, quiet, repose.
  =silencioso, -a= silent.
  =silfa= _f._ sylph.
  =sílfide= _f._ sylph.
  =silla= _f._ saddle.
  =sin= _prep._ without; =---- que= _conj._ without.
  =siniestro, -a= left.
  =sino= _adv. conj._ but, only, except.
  =sino (signo)= _m._ fate, mark.
  =siquier, siquiera,= _conj._ whether, although, at least; =no ----=
     not even; =---- ... ----= whether ... or.
  =sitio= _m._ place, spot, site.
  =soberano, -a= sovereign, supreme.
  =sobra= _f._ surplus; =----s= leavings.
  =sobre= _prep._ over, above, on, upon; =estar ---- sí= be self-
     possessed.
  =sociedad= _f._ society.
  =Sócrates= _pr. n. m._ Socrates.
  =sol= _m._ sun.
  =soldado= _m._ soldier.
  =soledad= _f._ solitude, loneliness; =de ----= deserted.
  =solemne= _adj._ solemn, impressive, grave.
  =soler= be accustomed, be wont.
  =solitario, -a= solitary, lonely, isolated.
  =solo, -a= alone, single, solitary, only; =a solas= alone, privately.
  =sólo= _adv._ only; =tan ----= only.
  =soltar= let go, loosen, utter; =---- una carcajada= burst out laughing.
  =sollozante= _adj._ sobbing.
  =sombra= _f._ shadow, shade, darkness, trace, vestige, wraith, spirit.
  =sombrero= _m._ hat.
  =sombrío, -a= somber, dark, overcast, cloudy, gloomy, melancholy,
     sullen.
  =són= _m._ sound, noise, manner.
  =sonar= sound, resound.
  =soneto= _m._ sonnet.
  =sonido= _m._ sound, peal.
  =sonoro, -a= sonorous, resounding, loud, harmonious.
  =sonreír= smile.
  =sonrisa= _f._ smile.
  =soñar= dream, imagine, dream of.
  =soplo= _m._ gust, breath.
  =sórdido, -a= dirty, nasty.
  =sordo, -a= dull, stifled, muffled, quiet.
  =sorpresa= _f._ surprise.
  =sosegado, -a= calm, calmed, peaceful.
  =sosiego= _m._ calmness, peace, quiet.
  =sota= _f._ jack, knave.
  =Stambul= _pr. n._ Stamboul.
  =su= _adj. poss._ his, her, its, their, your.
  =suave= _adj._ soft, mellow, delicate, gentle.
  =suavísimo, -a= very soft, very gentle, very sweet.
  =subir= raise, mount, ascend, climb; =--se= mount, rise.
  =súbito, -a= sudden.
  =súbito= _adv._ suddenly; =de ----= suddenly.
  =sublime= _adj._ sublime, majestic, heroic.
  =suceder a= succeed, follow.
  =sudor= _m._ sweat.
  =suelo= _m._ ground, earth, floor.
  =suelto, -a= loose, flowing, swift; =a rienda suelta= at full gallop.
  =sueño= _m._ sleep, slumber, dream, vision, fancy.
  =suerte= _f._ luck, fortune, fate, lot; =a otra ---- de esos dados=
     another cast of those dice.
  =sufrir= suffer, permit, tolerate.
  =sujetar= subdue, overcome.
  =sujeto, -a= held fast, conquered.
  =suntuoso, -a= sumptuous, luxurious.
  =supremo, -a= supreme.
  =suspender= suspend, hang.
  =suspirar= sigh; =---- de= long for.
  =suspiro= _m._ sigh.
  =susurrar= whisper, murmur.
  =susurro= _m._ whispering, murmuring.
  =suyo, -a= _adj. poss._ his; =el ----= _pron. poss._ his.


  =tabla= _f._ board, plank.
  =tácito, -a= silent, quiet, stealthy.
  =tacto= _m._ touch.
  =tachonado, -a= betrimmed.
  =tajante= _adj._ keen-cutting (_sc._ sword).
  =tal= _adj. pron._ such, so, thus; =---- vez= perhaps, occasionally,
     now and then.
  =tálamo= _m._ bridal couch.
  =talante= _m._ appearance, disposition.
  =talle= _m._ figure, appearance.
  =taller= _m._ factory, workshop.
  =tallo= _m._ stalk, stem.
  =también= _adv._ too, moreover, likewise.
  =tan= _adv._ so, such; =---- ... como= as ... as; =---- sólo= only.
  =tanto, -a= _adj._ so much, so great; _pl._ so many.
  =tanto= _adv._ so much, so, such; =cuanto más ... ---- más=
      the more ... the more; =en ----= while, meanwhile; =entre ----=
      meanwhile; =---- como= as long as; =---- más= the more.
  =tapar= cover, veil, muffle.
  =tapiz= _m._ tapestry.
  =tararear= hum.
  =tardar(se)= delay, take long, be long in coming, tarry.
  =tarde= _adv._ late, too late; =se hace ----= it is growing late.
  =tarde= _f._ afternoon, evening.
  =tardo, -a= slow, tardy, sluggish.
  =tarifa= _f._ tariff, price.
  =tartáreo, -a= Tartarean, infernal.
  =te= _pron. pers._ thee, thyself.
  =tea= _f._ torch.
  =techo= _m._ roof, ceiling.
  =tejer= weave, contrive.
  =temblar= tremble at, fear, quiver, twitch, tremble.
  =temblor= _m._ trembling, tremor, shiver.
  =tembloroso, -a= trembling.
  =temer= fear.
  =temerario, -a= rash, impetuous, reckless, daring.
  =temeridad= _f._ rashness.
  =temeroso, -a= timid, fearful.
  =temor= _m._ fear.
  =témpano= _m._ sheet (of ice etc.).
  =tempestad= _f._ tempest, storm.
  =templado, -a= softened.
  =templo= _m._ temple, church.
  =temprano, -a= early, premature.
  =tender= stretch out, extend, spread.
  =tenebroso, -a= shadowy, gloomy.
  =tener= have, keep, take, grasp; =---- de= + _inf._ be going to, must.
  =Tenorio= _pr. n. m._ Tenorio.
  =tentar= tempt.
  =teñir= tinge, color.
  =tercero, -a= third.
  =terco, -a= obstinate.
  =Teresa= _pr. n. f._ Theresa.
  =terminar= end, consummate.
  =término= _m._ term, end.
  =terneza= _f._ softness.
  =ternura= _f._ tenderness, affection.
  =terror= _m._ terror.
  =terso, -a= smooth, glossy, unwrinkled.
  =tertulia= _f._ assembly, club.
  =tesoro= _m._ treasure, wealth, riches.
  =ti= _pron. pers._ thee.
  =Tibre= _pr. n. m._ Tiber.
  =tiempo= _m._ time, period, season; =a un ----= at once, at
  the same time; =a un ---- mismo= at the very same time; =de ---- en
  ----= from time to time; =un ----= once, formerly.
  =tienta= _f._ probe; =a ----s= gropingly, feeling his way.
  =tierno, -a= tender, soft, affectionate, young.
  =tierra= _f._ land, country, earth, ground.
  =tigre= _m._ tiger.
  =tímido, -a= timid, shy.
  =tiniebla= _f._ darkness, shadow.
  =tinta= _f._ tint, hue, color.
  =tiple= _m._ treble.
  =tirano= _m._ tyrant.
  =tirar= throw, throw away, cast, draw, pull, win; =---- de= pull, draw.
  =tocar= touch, fall to one's share, hit; =---- a muerto= toll a
      funeral bell; =dale con ---- a muerto= plague take this funeral
      tolling.
  =todavía= _adv._ nevertheless, still, yet.
  =todo, -a= all, every.
  =todo= _pron._ everything, all; =----s= everybody, all.
  =todo= _adv._ entirely.
  =Toledo= _f._ Toledo.
  =tomar= take, take up.
  =tono= _m._ tone, manner.
  =torbellino= _m._ whirlwind.
  =torcer= twist, wind, bend, turn, divert.
  =torcido, -a= winding, twisting.
  =tormenta= _f._ storm, tempest, hurricane, misfortune.
  =tormento= _m._ torment, torture, anguish.
  =Tormes= _m._ Tormes.
  =tornar= return; =---- a= + _inf._ do again, repeat (an act).
  =torno= _m._ turn; =en ----= round about; =en ---- de= around, about.
  =torpe= _adj._ slow, dull, awkward.
  =torre= _f._ tower, spire.
  =torrente= _m._ torrent, avalanche.
  =torreón= _m._ strong tower.
  =tortura= _f._ torture.
  =torvo, -a= stern, severe, grim.
  =trabajar= work, toil.
  =trabajo= _m._ work, task, toil, labor.
  =traer= bring, bear.
  =tragar= swallow.
  =traje= _m._ garb, apparel.
  =tranco= _m._ stride.
  =tranquilo, -a= tranquil, calm, peaceful, quiet.
  =transpirar= transpire, appear.
  =trapo= _m._ rag, sails; =a todo ----= all sails set.
  =tras= _prep._ behind, after; =---- de= behind.
  =traslado= _m._ likeness, imitation.
  =trasmontar= sink beyond, set.
  =trasparente= _adj._ transparent, clear.
  =traspasar= pierce.
  =traspié= _m._ slip, stumble; =dar ----s= stumble, reel.
  =trastornar= disorder, confuse, upset.
  =trastorno= _m._ disorder, confusion, disturbance.
  =trasunto= _m._ likeness, copy.
  =trato= _m._ agreement, bargain, treatment.
  =trecho= _m._ distance.
  =tregua= _f._ truce, respite.
  =tremendo, -a= awful, terrible.
  =trémulo, -a= trembling, flickering.
  =trescientos, -as= three hundred.
  =triplicar= triple.
  =triste= _adj._ sad, sorrowful, dismal, gloomy, cheerless, wretched,
     sorry.
  =tristura= _f._ sadness, sorrow.
  =triunfante= _adj._ triumphant.
  =triunfo= _m._ triumph, victory, success.
  =trocar= change; =--se= be changed, change.
  =tromba= _f._ waterspout.
  =tronar= thunder.
  =tronchar= break off a trunk.
  =trono= _m._ throne.
  =trovador= _m._ troubadour.
  =trueno= _m._ thunder.
  =truhán, -a= scoundrel.
  =tu= _adj. poss._ thy.
  =tú= _pron. pers._ thou.
  =tuétano= _m._ marrow.
  =tumba= _f._ tomb, grave.
  =tumbo= _m._ fall, tumble, somersault.
  =túnica= _f._ tunic, robe.
  =turbar= disturb, daunt, shake, upset.
  =turbio, -a= troubled, confused, dim, heavy.
  =turbión= _m._ squall, heavy shower, hurricane.
  =turbulento, -a= turbulent, tumultuous, disorderly.
  =Turco, -a= _m. f._ Turk.


  =u= _conj._ (_before_ =o= _or_ =ho=) or.
  =ufano, -a= proud, content.
  =último, -a= last, final.
  =ultraje= _m._ outrage, insult.
  =umbrío, -a= dark, shady.
  =un, una= _art._ a, an.
  =únicamente= _adv._ only.
  =único, -a= only, sole, singular.
  =unir= unite, join, bind.
  =universo= _m._ universe, world.
  =uno, -a= _adj. pron._ one; =----s= some; =de ----a en ---a=   one by
     one.
  =urna= _f._ urn.


  =vadear= ford.
  =vagar= wander, roam, flit, drift, hover.
  =vago, -a= wandering, wavering, vague, indistinct, hazy.
  =vagoroso, -a= wandering, errant.
  =vaguedad= _f._ vagueness; =con ----= vaguely, uncertainly.
  =valentía= _f._ valor, courage.
  =valer= be worth, help, avail; =más vale= it is better.
  =valeroso, -a= valiant, brave.
  =valiente= _adj._ valiant, brave, arrogant, blustering.
  =valor= _m._ valor, courage, strength, force, might, amount, value.
  =valle= _m._ vale.
  =vano, -a= vain, idle, useless, presumptuous; =en ----= in vain,
     useless.
  =vapor= _m._ vapor, mist, fumes.
  =vaporoso, -a= ethereal, airy, shadowy, misty.
  =varón= _m._ man.
  =varonil= _adj._ manly, masculine.
  =vaso= _m._ glass, vessel, vase.
  =vate= _m._ bard.
  =veinte= _card._ twenty.
  =vela= _f._ sail, ship; =a toda ----= full sail.
  =velar= veil.
  =velero, -a= swift-sailing (ship).
  =veleta= _f._ weathercock, vane.
  =velo= _m._ veil.
  =veloz= _adj._ swift.
  =vena= _f._ vein.
  =vencedor, -a= conquering, victorious.
  =vencedor, -a= _m. f._ conqueror, victor.
  =vencer= conquer, vanquish, overcome, subdue.
  =vencido, -a= conquered, submissive, subdued.
  =venda= _f._ bandage.
  =vendaval= _m._ strong wind from the sea.
  =vender= sell, set up for sale.
  =veneno= _m._ poison, venom.
  =vengador, -a= avenging.
  =venganza= _f._ vengeance, revenge.
  =vengar= avenge; =--be revenged.
  =vengativo, -a= avenging.
  =venir= come, advance, approach, go; =---- a= succeed in; =vengan
      los dados= let's have the dice.
  =ventura= _f._ happiness, fortune; =sin ----= wretched, hapless;
      =sin ---- de mí= unfortunate me, woe is me.
  =venturoso, -a= fortunate, happy.
  =ver= see, behold, realize; =--se= be seen, can be seen, find one's
      self.
  =verdad= _f._ truth.
  =verdadero, -a= true, real, genuine.
  =vergüenza= _f._ shame.
  =verter= shed, cast.
  =vertiginoso, -a= giddy, vertiginous.
  =vértigo= _m._ vertigo, dizziness, confusion, dizzy course.
  =vestido= _m._ dress, raiment, robe.
  =vestir= dress, clothe, garb, enwrap.
  =vez= _f._ time, turn; =a veces= at times; =cada ---- más=
      more and more; =en ---- de= instead of; =otra ----= again, once
      more; =tal ----= perhaps, occasionally, now and then.
  =viaje= _m._ journey, passage, way, road.
  =viajero= _m._ traveler.
  =vibrar= vibrate, dart, cast, throw, flicker.
  =vicio= _m._ vice.
  =víctima= _f._ victim.
  =vida= _f._ life.
  =vidrio= _m._ glass, window-pane; =óptico ----= telescope.
  =viejo, -a= _adj._ old.
  =viejo, -a= _m. f._ old man, old woman.
  =viento= _m._ wind, breeze; =---- en popa= before the wind,
      with a wind from astern.
  =vigor= _m._ vigor, strength, force.
  =vil= _adj._ vile, base, despicable, mean, paltry.
  =villano= _m._ low-born one, rustic, villain.
  =vino= _m._ wine.
  =violento, -a= violent, impetuous, furious.
  =virar= tack, put about.
  =virgen= _adj._ virgin, chaste.
  =virgen= _f._ virgin.
  =virginal= _adj._ virginal.
  =virtud= _f._ power, virtue.
  =visión= _f._ vision, sight, apparition, phantom.
  =vislumbrar= descry, glimpse.
  =vista= _f._ sight, glance, eye, appearance, look.
  =vívido, -a= vivid, bright.
  =vivienda= _f._ abode.
  =viviente= _adj._ living.
  =viviente= _m._ living being.
  =vivir= live; =vive Dios= as God lives.
  =vivir= _m._ life, existence.
  =vivo, -a= living, alive, bright, quick.
  =volar= fly, take flight, hasten, vanish, sail.
  =volcán= _m._ volcano.
  =voluntad= _f._ will, determination, desire.
  =volver= return, come back, turn, direct, drive, restore; =---- a=
      + _inf._ do again; repeat (an act); =--se= return, turn, become.
  =vos= _pron. pers._ you; yourself.
  =vosotros, -as= _pron. pers._ you, ye.
  =votar= vow; =voto a Cristo= by Christ.
  =voto= _m._ vow, curse.
  =voz= _f._ voice, word, shout, rumor, opinion.
  =vuelo= _m._ flight, soaring.
  =vuelta= _f._ turn; =dar mil ----s= turn a thousand times, whirl a
     thousand times, revolve a thousand times.
  =vuestro -a= your.


  =y= _conj._ and; =---- ... ----= both ... and.
  =ya= _adv._ now, already, indeed, then, finally; =no ... ----= no
     longer; =---- ... ----= now ... now, at one time ... at another.
  =yacer= lie.
  =yerba= _f._ grass, weed.
  =yerboso, -a= grassy, weed-grown.
  =yermo, -a= waste, desert.
  =yermo= _m._ wilderness, desert.
  =yerro= _m._ mistake.
  =yerto, -a= rigid, motionless, petrified.
  =yo= _pron. pers._ I.
  =yugo= _m._ yoke.


  =zafir= _m._ sapphire.
  =zozobra= _f._ worry, anguish, anxiety.
  =zumbar= resound





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