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Title: Magazine, or Animadversions on the English Spelling (1703)
Author: G. W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Magazine, or Animadversions on the English Spelling (1703)" ***

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  [Transcriber’s Note:

  This e-text includes a few Greek and Hebrew letters:

    ayin ע, dalet ד, he ה, shin ש;
    gamma Γ γ, theta Θ θ

  If these letters do not display properly, or if the quotation marks
  in this paragraph appear as garbage, make sure your text reader’s
  “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You
  may also need to change the default font. As a last resort, use the
  latin-1 version of this file instead.

  In the printed text, the author’s special letters were represented
  by ordinary roman letters turned upside-down. They are shown in this
  e-text by single letters in [brackets]. Alternative readings of
  selected passages are given at the end of the text, before the list
  of errata.

  Single italicized letters within a word are shown in {braces}.

  The word “Taurus” (astrological symbol ♉) refers to the “ou” ligature
  (ȣ, or upsilon balanced atop omicron) used in printed Greek.]



         THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY

                     G. W.

                  MAGAZINE, or

             Animadversions on the
               English Spelling

                    (1703)


               Introduction by
               David Abercrombie

             Publication Number 70

                 Los Angeles
     William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
           University of California

                     1958

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL EDITORS

RICHARD C. BOYS, University of Michigan
RALPH COHEN, University of California, Los Angeles
VINTON A. DEARING, University of California, Los Angeles
LAWRENCE CLARK POWELL, Clark Memorial Library

ASSISTANT EDITOR

W. EARL BRITTON, University of Michigan

ADVISORY EDITORS

EMMETT L. AVERY, State College of Washington
BENJAMIN BOYCE, Duke University
LOUIS BREDVOLD, University of Michigan
JOHN BUTT, King’s College, University of Durham
JAMES L. CLIFFORD, Columbia University
ARTHUR FRIEDMAN, University of Chicago
LOUIS A. LANDA, Princeton University
SAMUEL H. MONK, University of Minnesota
ERNEST C. MOSSNER, University of Texas
JAMES SUTHERLAND, University College, London
H. T. SWEDENBERG, JR., University of California, Los Angeles

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY

EDNA C. DAVIS, Clark Memorial Library

           *       *       *       *       *

INTRODUCTION


I first came across what is, as far as I know, the unique copy of
_Magazine_, by G. W., when working in the library formed by the late Sir
Isaac Pitman.[1] It is bound up as the last item in a volume which
contains several nineteenth-century pamphlets on language and spelling,
and also the first numbers of the periodical _The Phonetic Friend_. (The
volume was for a time in the possession of the Bath City Free Library,
to which it was presented by Isaac Pitman; it must subsequently have
been returned to him.) I drew attention to the existence of _Magazine_
in an article published in 1937;[2] to the best of my knowledge it had
not been noticed in print before that, though it is of considerable
interest in a number of respects. I am indebted to Sir Isaac Pitman &
Sons Ltd., London, for permission to reproduce the pamphlet herewith in
the Augustan Reprints.

G. W. was a spelling reformer, one of the many writers who, from early
Elizabethan times onwards, have been critical of traditional English
orthography and have made proposals for improving it. Although nothing
that could be called a spelling-reform “movement” existed until the
nineteenth century, there were earlier periods when the subject was much
in the air, when a number of people were writing about it and reading
and discussing each other's ideas. The publication of _Magazine_ does
not fall at one of these times; it comes, in fact, in the very middle
of a recession of interest in spelling reform which lasted almost
a hundred years. From about 1650 to 1750 there were few critics of
our orthography, and they were usually neither very strong in their
criticisms nor radical in their proposals for amendment. G. W. is thus a
somewhat isolated figure, and his scheme for reform would appear, in its
details at least, to be fairly original.

The greater part of the pamphlet is given over to expounding the
illogicalities and inconsistencies of the established spelling, and here
G. W.'s style of writing, which is colloquial, racy and allusive, is
effective enough. It is not so well suited, however, to orderly and
clear exposition of his proposed amendment--unfortunately, since this
is what is likely to be of most interest to us today (and numerous
misprints increase the difficulties of grasping his proposals). Perhaps
there was, or was to have been, a sequel which would have stated his
reforms more systematically; that this may have been the case appears
from the statement on p. 25 that the alphabet “is preparing,” and
from the mention, on the last page, of “the ensuing Batl-dur” (i.e.
battledore or hornbook). His remedy, briefly, is to replace digraphs by
new symbols: “more Letters would do well in the Alfabet, but fewer in
most words” (p. 25); and, like John Hart before him (whose works perhaps
he knew) and Bernard Shaw after, he draws attention to the economies to
be gained from this: “if fewer Letters will serve the turn, 'twill save
Paper and Ink, and 'tis strange, if not labour too” (p. 5).

On p. 32 is exhibited “a compleat Alfebet” of 34 symbols (it is not
complete, for L has, apparently inadvertently, been omitted). Although
there is no indication there of the value each symbol should have, that
of most of them can be worked out, with some labor, from the rest of the
pamphlet (though a few must probably remain mysteries). I have commented
elsewhere[3] on this scheme of reformed spelling; it appears to us today
to be theoretically quite creditable, at least as far as the consonants
are concerned. The traditional alphabet is enlarged by providing a
separate symbol for the italicized sounds in each of the following
words: {th}in {th}en {ch}urch {j}udge {sh}all mea{s}ure {wh}en si{ng};
these symbols are obtained partly by creating new ones, partly by
redefining existing letters. In two cases existing letters are redefined
in accordance with a rather odd principle--that the traditional _name_
of a letter must decide its value. Hence _h_ is used to spell _church_
(which becomes “hurh”), and _g_ is used to spell _judge_ (which becomes
“gug”). This of course makes it necessary for G. W. to include among his
new symbols one for /h/ and one for /g/. The new symbols as used in the
pamphlet are produced by inverting or reversing existing letters; but
these may possibly be makeshifts, used in place of more ambitious shapes
which were beyond the reach of his printer; he suggests, for instance
(p. 20) “the sign Taurus with a Foot-Ball between his horns” as one
of his vowel symbols. On the whole, we find the vowels much less
systematically tackled than the consonants, and it is proposed that
accents (“cambrils”) should for the most part be used to provide extra
symbols; the pamphlet, however, only exemplifies this sporadically.

_Magazine_ contains a considerable number of words, and a few
consecutive texts, transcribed partly or wholly in the new system of
spelling, and these necessarily will have to be assessed as evidence of
contemporary English pronunciation by students of the subject. It is not
easy to be sure how accurate a phonetic observer and transcriber G. W.
was, but if we make some allowance for misprints, we find a certain
consistency in his transcriptions, and an apparent freedom from any bias
given by the traditional spelling, which make one think he was
moderately reliable. In this connexion it is of some importance to find
out, if possible, where he came from. He shows familiarity both with
northern and western types of speech; but although he seems to imply, on
p. 7, that he is not a North-countryman, E. J. Dobson has found, on the
basis of certain forms which appear in the pamphlet, that there is a
strong suggestion that he spoke a northern dialect.[4]

Until recently I had been able to form no idea of the identity of G. W.
However, it new seems to be very possible that he was John White, a
Devon schoolmaster, and author of _The Country-Man's Conductor in
Reading and Writing True English_, which was published in Exeter in
1701.[5] The name John, in G. W.'s reformed spelling, would of course
begin with G (it is indeed so spelled on p. 15). White was interested in
spelling reform, as we know from various remarks in his book; and if he
was G. W., it would explain the familiarity shown in _Magazine_ with
western dialect. What is particularly striking, moreover, is the
similarity of White's style to G. W.'s, as the following quotations from
_The Country-Man's Conductor_ will show: of certain grammarians, “you
shall seldom hear them speak Latin but in Ale-Houses, or when they are
well oil'd”; of specimens of early English, “some may laugh at it, and
thereby expose their rusty Teeth that will look as old as the English”;
of using an accent to show long vowels, “this would look strange 'till
it come in fashion, but in time would set as tite as Topknots do now.”

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  A more recent candidate for “G. W.” is John Wild. His 1710 broadsheet,
  “Nottingham Printing Perfected,” is in the “images” directory
  associated with the html version of this file.]

One final resemblance must be mentioned. Whether or not White was G. W.,
there can hardly be any doubt that _Magazine_ was printed by Samuel
Farley of Exeter, the printer of White's book. The typographical
similarity between _Magazine_ and _The Country-Man's Conductor_ (and
other works printed by Farley) is too complete to be coincidental. Not
only are the identical fonts used, but there are numerous other points
where the general manner of printing is the same.

Further research may confirm White's authorship, but there is certainly
no other obvious candidate among the writers of the time.

  David Abercrombie

  University of Edinburgh


NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION

[Footnote 1: This library is now housed in the offices of Sir Isaac
Pitman & Sons, Ltd., Parker Street, London, W.C. 2.]

[Footnote 2: _Le Maitre Phonetique_, No. 59, p. 34. Some of the verses
on p. 22 of the pamphlet are reproduced there.]

[Footnote 3: In the _Transactions of the Philological Society_, 1948,
pp. 11 ff.; _Lingua_, Vol. 2, 1949, p. 60.]

[Footnote 4: _English Pronunciation 1500-1700_, Vol. 1, p. 267. In Vol.
II, p. 977, Dobson says “G. W. was certainly a Northerner.”]

[Footnote 5: A “second edition” called _The Conductor in Spelling,
Reading & Writing, True English_, dated 1712, is identical with the
first except for the title-page.]

       *       *       *       *       *

                   MAGAZINE,

                      or,

                Animadversions

                     on the

               English Spelling;

OBSERVING

The Contradictions of the English Letters Warring themselves against
themselves, and one with another, by Intrusions and Usurpations; with
Amendment offer’d.

For the Benefit of all Teachers and Learners, Writers and Readers,
Composers and Scriveners, whether Strangers or Natives, who are
concern’d with our English Tongue.

  _Nunquam sera est ad bonos mores via._ Syntax.

By G. W.

  _LONDON_: Printed for the Author. 1703.
    Price Sixpence.



_Magazine, that is low Learning, too high for the Capacity of the
Vulgar; Or the Schooler School’d. _viz_, _Babel_ pull’d down, and
Confusion Confounded. The latter Survey of the English Letters, and ways
of Amendment, where things are too much amiss to be excus’d, only
referring all to the good will of those that are willing to amend their
perceiv’d mistakes and unwilling to fall into their former Errors
again._

Q. Horatij Flacci, Epistolarum Liber secundus. Ad Augustum Epist. I.
Paulo post initium.

  Si meliora dies, ut vina poemata reddit
  Scire velim: Pretium chartis quotus arrogat annus.
  Scriptor abhinc annos centum qui decidit, inter
  Perfectos veteresque, referri debet, an inter
  Viles atque novos? Excludat jurgia finis.
  Est vetus atque probus centum qui perficit annos.
  Quid? Qui deperiit minor uno mense vel anno.
  Inter quos referendvs erit veteresne poetas.
  An quos & præsens & postera respuat ætas?
  Iste quidem veteres, inter ponetur honeste.
  Qui vel mense brevi vel toto est junior anno.
  Utor permisso; caudaque pilos ut equina
  Paulatim vello, & demo unum, demo etiam unum.
  Dum cadat.----


_The Second Book of Epistles of _Quintus, Horatius, Flaccus_. The First
Epistle unto the Emperour _Augustus Cæsar_, in whose days our Saviour
Christ was Born._

Thus English’d.

  There is a thing I fain would know,
    As Age doth make Wines better;
  Whether to Papers it doth so,
    And what’s Writ on’t with Letter,
  And what Age gives a Reverence
    To Papers, I would know:
  If Authors Credits got by Tense
    Of Hundred Years or mo?
  An Ancient currant Author then,
    And Hundred Years is Old?
  Or is he of the Slight Gown men,
    That Writ then as ’tis told?
  Set down the time that strife may cease:
    And hundred Years is good,
  If one Month short, or Year he bears,
    Doth he slick in the Mud?
  No, for one Month or Year, we grant,
    And very honestly too;
  He shall be counted Ancient
    Without so much ado.
  What you do grant, I’m very free
    To use now at my pleasure:
  Another Month, or Year, d’ ye see
    I’ll bate, as I have leasure;
  So Hair by Hair, from the Mare’s Tail
    I’ll pull, as well I may.
  So what is good, is quickly stale,
    Though Writ but t’ other day.

That we make something to discourse upon further, I’ll take an Example
or two from the two Tables, wherein one Sound is Spell’d diverse ways,
and again the same Letters make diverse Sounds.


First then, âz, dayes, praise, phrase, gaze.

A. Asia, day, fair, wear, heir.

E. Phebe, key, the, sea, yea, weigh, either, holy.

I. Why, I, high, try, tie, buy.

O. Who, know, bow, toe, tow, dough.

U. True, dew, Hugh, neuter, give, you, gaol, jaylor, goal, John, gives
_dat_; gives _compedes_, gill of fishes, gill of water, ague, plague,
anger, and danger, guard, reguard, spring, a well, spring of steele,
jet, and ginger, and finger, ghost, god, and Ghurmes, and age, ages,
cares.

Our Children are not Witches, that they should guess to Read right by
the Letter, such stuff as this, and the Masters are no very great
Conjurers, to perceive nothing; what contradictions they make ’em
swallow.

First then dayes, that is da--yes, why should not yes spell yes at the
end, as well as at the beginning of a word: Again, why might we not
spell dayes thus, daise as well as praise, and spell praises, prayes,
da--i--se: I see day, why not se, see, as well as he, h--? And why not
dase, dayes, and phrayes, phrase, or phraise, phrase, and daze, dayes;
and why not daze, or dase, daisey, or daisy, hei, daisy: how can Ladies
be blam’d for Writing bad English, when Scholars spell no better?

A, as Asia, why not da; fare and ware; how can one Vowel have another,
at command to make it long; a circumflex might do it. But you answer it
is our custom, and Books would not be read if we change the spelling;
but is there not a right spelling as Ancient as wrong? Is not the as
ancient as weigh, yea, sea, holy, key. Then ’tis wit to use the proper
spelling, and leave off impertinencies; and if fewer Letters will serve
the turn, ’twill save Paper and Ink, and ’tis strange, if not labour
too, for Writers; no doubt for Teachers it will.

And how many ways do we pronounce you? yo, yau, yeu, yiu, you, yuu, yet
every dialect praise their own Speech, nay in Towns near together, nay
in the same Town, nay in the same House, persons born in other places,
differ in pronounciation, and many delight to hear different dialects
(as the Grecians did) so they did but understand one another, though
some precise Females do condemn all but their own finical pronunciation.

But why should phrase be spell’d with ph and s, and not f and z? Because
you say its Original is a Greek word: But it hath been long enough
freely us’d amongst us, that it may claim prescription for a Licence to
put on the English garb, and suits pretty well with the Original φραζω
and hath it not a single f in Greek? So might be frâz, and take with it
the Greek Precispomene, its right.

But if we spell praise thus, prayes we alter the sense. Why the Eyes are
as much in the dark to distinguish sound, as the Ears are put to silence
at the shape of Letters, and which of these is the fitter judge in this
Controversy, to bring knowledge to the Understanding? That is to be
observ’d well: But what’s Learnt in Childhood is uncontroulable, as good
as prescription of an hundred years, and a School-Dames authority is
irrefragable, as the Proverb says, _Early crookes the Tree, that will
good Cambrill be_: That to unlearn a Youthful Error, is more than to
serve an Apprentiseship, or take the Degree of a Doctor or Serjeant. For
these are deaf and dumb to Learn the contrary, as the dead Letters they
have Learn’d, though I am loath to compare them to the English Doctor
_Burnet_’s _Antidiluvian People_ pettrify’d in the Alps, which he saw in
his Travails:

But in some parts they speak as we spell: Though the Countryman of the
_North_ in Apron and Iron, pronounce o after r, and we before it: Why
should we keep their spelling, having lost their speech, and why should
they not still keep their spelling of old, who still keep the speech?
’Tis this thought by some of the Learned, that English is the hardest
Language in the World; for that Foreigners coming over, being past
Children, never have our speech right, but may be discern’d to be no
English born, whereas we after a short abode in out-Lands, speak their
Tongue as well as Natives: Our folk being a mixture of many Nations, is
so of Languages: But ’tis a wonder, so free as we are to take in their
words, we take not in their Letters also. The Latines have but Twelve
Consonants, and Five Vowels, and h, but the Greek and Hebrew may furnish
us with Letters. The Neighbouring Countries are at a loss for them as
well as we. If our credit be good, we want to borrow Two letters of the
Greek, _Gama_, and _Theta_, and Four of the Hebrew, _Thaleth_, _He_,
_Aim_, and _Shin_, and we should be set up, and with what shift we can
make of our own.

In the first place what is the English of _Quotus_? But now my Pen is
silenc’d, except I borrow the Two Greek Letters, and _Thaleth_ of the
Hebrew, and the _Acute_, and Greek _Circumflex_, to tell how Gótham,
Gotherd, or gather, is to be red, and which is ment of the 24.

Gôtham, [G]ôtham, Gótham, [G]ótham, Gô[t]am, [G]ó[t]am, Gó[t]am,
[G]ó[t]am, Gô[c]am, [G]ô[c]am, Gó[c]am, [G]ó[c]am, Gothâm, [G]othâm,
Gothâm, [G]othâm, Go[t]âm, [G]o[t]âm, Go[t]ám, [G]o[t]ám, Go[c]âm,
[G]o[c]âm, Gothâm, Go[c]âm.

[G] is _Gama_, [T] is _Theta_, [D] _Thaleth_; ’tis strange my Tongue
should be longer than my Arms, without eking. ’Tis hard for Dunces to
understand this as all willful Fools are. Humble humility is better than
the miserable wisdom of the merciless knowledge of error. Cunning
fooleries and vanities unlock’d for, to spell the same sound diverse
ways, and when you have all done, you are but where you was, as prayes,
praise, prasy. For why may not y stand for nothing after s, as well as
after a, as may: But where no reason there is for custom, custom is no
reason. Dasye, and dayes is all one. As the fool thinks, so the Bell
chinks, for our Letters are like _Wimondes-woles_ Bells. Sure if we have
these tricks, we have more. Why if y doth no good, it doth nothing. But
I have a mind it shall stand an out-side there out of the way, as daisy,
is dayes. Doth (GO{D}) spell the Creator, it spells an Hebrew Letter as
well. If you hold your book the wrong end upward. I’ve nothing to say
against it, for ’tis your own, and you may hold it as you please.

But to go on according to Prescript.

2. Whether or no are our 24 Letters sufficient to spell all the words of
our English Tongue.

3. Whether or no if they be sufficient to spell all words us’d for
English in our books, they be not sufficient to spell all Languages; if
_England_ be like _Rome_, Conquering all Nations, took in the Idola[t]ry
of all Laws, so _England_ being Conquer’d by all, hath not got the
rubish of all Languages.

4. Whether or no we make good and proper use of those Letters we have.

5. Whether the old use and custom of the Letters for an hundred Years or
more, be sufficient for justifying the mispelling most words, us’d to
this day, or whether we had not better mend late than never.

Hereupon we argue. First, It is granted that we have not yet proper
English for all words in other Languages, nor Letters sufficient to
express our own; as Authors from time to time do justifie, who have bin
so little taken notice of by the publick (though there is some small
amendment made, that can scarce be perceiv’d). The latter Authors
mentioning the former, all Men of no small Note.

Secondly, There was as good reason for amendment an Hundred Years ago,
as there is now, and will be as good reason an Hundred years hence to
delay the amendment, as their is now; not altering a tittle of the known
Pronounciation of the words, but only of the spelling. That the Letters
may be of good use, and we need not to Read all by authority, as the
very Learned Men are forc’d to do in yet unknown words still; so little
assistance do the Letters yield them, that they the more might pitty
young beginners. Which thing hath made a many Foreigners (and no marvel
at all) of all the Neighbouring Nations to throw away their Books and
Study of English, as their English Grammars, as well as our own, do
sufficiently declare.

Thus to maintain a thing always unreasonable, will always be (as it hath
bin) a thing unreasonable and after this rate an error everlasting.

But it is answer’d, that many words be thus Spell’d to shew their
derivations. That need not be objected, when Scholars can find out the
Etymologyes, when scarce one Letter remains of their Original, more than
James from Jacob, Thaddæus and Lebbæus, from Jude the honest, or Judas,
not Iscareat, and Didymus from Thomas, Giles, Ægidius. As for changing
the Letters, I shall hope they will put the devines in; I fear not that
they can put the Lawyers out.

What advantage or disadvantage it may be to Booksellers or Printers, as
none of my business, I leave to their consideration.

But now to strike at the root of so many errors begotten by false
Letters, besides a false finical speech according to the Letters, being
illeterately litterate, as calf, haut, goust.



_The Second Part of low Learning high._


The Order.

1. Vowels, 2. Diphthongs, 3. Consonants.

  A is us’d 7 ways, and other Vowels so;
  When thus, or so, it doth amaze, we have no mark to know.

First, A long in Chamber changed danger commanded. Secondly, Short in
Amber hang’d Anger, Understanding.

Now suppose Rennard the Fox, or the like old book, was Reprinted, and â
long Cambril’d, (which the Greeks call _Perispomene_) and a short not,
would not that be a good guide for reading old Rennard unreprinted, with
a right pronounciation, though there be no difference in a long or
short.

Next, if it would please the wisdom of foolish custom (in whose errors
of this kind (though in nothing else) all Religions meet) being long
enough advis’d in time, to think fit to amend in the Copy, or at least
in the Margin, where words are far otherwise spell’d, than they are
pronounc’d (which the Hebrews call Kery and Kethiu; the Copy as written,
but Kery the Margin as read, mark’d with Asterisk, one to the other) I
believe our Printers could as easily Cambril our English Vowels, as
Circumflex the Latin, which would be a sure guide for reading.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The Hebrew terms are usually written קרי (Keri) and כתיב (Kethiv).]

3dly and 4thly, A short without either rule or reason before a Consonant
or two, with e after, as ace, acre, able, unstable, father, with A long,
and solace, massacre, constable, gather, with A short.

5thly, A put for A Cambril to make e or o long, as bear, greater, broad,
board. 6thly, Put like a Cambril, and is not a Cambril, neither, as
Beatrice, create, creatour: So is i a false Cambril to a, as foraigners.
When a person is in Commission, he should wear the livery of his Office;
but when he signifies nothing, he should not put it on, nay rather, he
had better keep at home.

7thly, A standing for just nothing, but as the shadow of a Cambril, as
heaven, earth, bread, head, realm, meadow, read in the Preterperfect
Tense.

In a Rail of Pales, if one be out to let in one Hog, ’tis enough to let
in the whole Herd into the Close, is an observation applicable to the
premisses.

E long and short, and we can see no cause for’t in equally and equity,
in cement, regard, torment, rebell, register, long and short in the same
words being Acute when Verbs, and penacute when Nounes. But any Child or
Foreigner, that never heard the words spoken, might uneasily guess at
the true pronunciation by the sense, That an Acute would be a great ease
and comfort to the Reader and Teacher, and no great trouble to the
Printer.

3dly, and 4thly, E long and short before 2 Cambrils to bear up its
train, _viz._ e before, and e after a Consonant, also g and e, or i and
gh, 3 Cambrils, as eare, beare, with a and e; but here with but one
Cambril; weigh with 2 or 3: In east, bread, stead, it makes no use of
the Cambrils, only for state A must dance attendance, as in many
hundreds more.

5thly, and 6thly, e long and short before a consonant or 2, and another
e, as steple, people, treble and indeleble.

7thly, Syllables are long without e for a Cambril, as dost, most, ghost,
bright, right, sign, design, and short, notwithstanding e Cambril as
hence, since, prince, possible, facile, but Prince and Simple proper
Names be spoken, with i long, that an unknown Reader mistake not the
persons names.

But how nonsensically e is us’d in the end of syllables short in live,
love, gives, but long, alive, and gives (fetters) and is pronounc’d and
unpronounc’d before s, as rages, wages, cages, horses, asses, churches,
and porches, and not in cares, fears, hopes, robes, bones, and making i
long and not, as writer, fighter, mitre, hither and thither: In whether,
e short, and weather, in neither e long; likewise e is pronounc’d and
unpronounc’d in the middle, as commandements, righteous, covetous,
stupefie, not in careful, careless, grateful, feareful; not in
wednesday, and is pronounc’d after a diphthong or double consonant, very
needlesly, as in inne, Anne, asse, poore, roome, joye, cause, laws,
coife, choice, juice, and as badly after syllables made long by a or i,
as feares, roads, theire, veine, veile, either. In Beresford the latter
e is mispronounced by Scholarship, mistaken to make it trissylable.

8thly, E is pronounc’d sometimes singly in the end of words, as in
Phebe, Cyrene, Penelope, Euterpe. But these be Greek words, but so is
not the and be. But what an Husteron proteran is this to teach the Greek
Grammar before the Battledore.

9thly, E put for a in they, their, and for i in ever, never, evil,
wevil, devil.

10th, E put for ee, as Peter, Steven, even, he, she, me, we. And
sometimes ie for the same, as yield, believe, friend, and otherwise in
fiend, friend, diet, quiet, but not alike neither, but let that run upon
th’ tongue, made long in people by o, also infeoffe, heofness. _viz._
Heavens, (f pronounc’d as v) left out in George, biere, friend, leave
out i, sieve, e; diet; and quiet, take in both.

11th, EE for e long, as beere, drink, deere, venison.

12th, Sometimes ee for twice, e, as Beersheba, overseer.

13th, Y and e, both for one Cambril, because one was perhaps to weak.
Though one Cambril seems enough for one small veile, as dayes, wayes;
also i and e, as haires, praise, and w and e, as showes, knows, crowes,
not in lose. But why may not w serve after a and e, and y after o, I
know not. Methinks the dead Letters should not be coye on what Cambril
they’re hang’d on; but I must ask the Butchers, and what doth e after
Ile, for I will.

14th, E defective in seest, fleeth, freeest, agreed; that prodigal as e
is of its company, should ever be wanting is a wonder; where there ought
to be 3 ease, or ez, or thrice e, two for a diphthong, if it may be one
for the syllable, that the distiction may seeme not heard between seeth,
beholdeth, and see the boile, e is added.

But alas it is objected lately within this Seven years by _G. B._ that
Compositors leav out E in days and ways, and such like; Garamercy for
that! But why do they not leav out y also, which signifies not more, but
les than e: And why is not i and e cast out of praise and raise, and e
from wife and strife, which adorn the words no more than Beauty-spots do
a Whore’s Face: And why is not w for a black Patch, cast awa from know
and blow, as well as da, and wa hav cast awa their Pock arr-y; and why
is not w to do, where there’s need; that ’ton need no mock ’tuthr wi’
the los, and wi’ the load of w: Now indeed we have cast awa ugh from
though, and although, when som sound is of them, and not left gh out in
bright, light, thought, where they signify no more than a chip, or herb
Gohn in poredg: Ha! Ha! He! Yet in floweth and knoweth w sounds well,
having an influence in the following vowel.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The “herb Gohn” is probably St. John’s Wort, which can be made into a
  mash or “porridge”.]

15th, Other verieties to make a syllable long without e, as a in boast,
board, coasts, coales, not holes.

Also Short i, as veil, either, neither, and somtimes ’tis a diphthong,
as neighbour, eight. Also o, as people, enfeoff, heofness. And u, as
foure, foul, not in honour, neighbour, where o, and u, stand for as good
as nothing.

And all Vowels be us’d supervacaneously before l, n, or r; as in
brethren, coffen, children, open, navill, wevill; not in cavill, Sybill,
and civill; apron, button, mutton, iron, reason, bacon, treason; and in
proper names, as Gackson, Gohnson, Wilson, Tomson, Rependon, Repton,
Donnington; not in God-Son, Common, but in Cousin.

All vowels be us’d in vain before r, as pillar, cellar, winter, summer,
dinner, curfir, (as it were cover, fire,) honour, donour, neighbour,
pleasure, measure, nature, feature, scripture, martyr. I is us’d
severally.

1st and 2dly, I Long and short in the same circumstances, as blind,
find, mind, with i long, kindred, limb, shrimp, pinch, with i short; gh
makes i long, as bright, might, plight, &c. and i is long without ’em,
as bite, kite, write.

3dly and 4thly, I short with a consonant, and e after it, as lives,
gives, nouns and verbs: Bible, possible, triple, tribled, idle fidle,
Prince, prince. 5thly, and 6thly, makeing e long, and not as before.

7thly, Used in vain, as gainful, _&c._ as before; also e and a put
for i, as borage, savage, knowledge, colledge, not in hedge and nonage;
also y was us’d formerly for i.

But most abominably i is us’d for g, which is unpardonable, when g being
a letter of a double meaning can do without, as gaol, or goal; why
should it infect i with its own distemper, to be double minded.

Lastly, W[h]y g[h] ma not make all vowels long as well as i, and w[h]y
ma not ye and we make vowels long, as well as a, e, and o; we must ask
t[h]e natural P[h]ilosop[h]ers w[h]at sympat[h]y or antipat[h]y is in
t[h]e Lettrz; and w[h]et[h]er an occult quality; or t[h]e divines, if
t[h]ere be not a mystery in it above nature before we adventure to teah
and cong the batl-dur; and w[h]y I ma not supply t[h]e place of y
rat[h]er t[h]an g, as in yate, yell, yule, younger, (as Italians).

T[h]is [h]ad bin very excuseable, and not wit[h]out antient president.
As likewise w[h]y some consonants take exception at some vowels; or some
vowels at t[h]em, t[h]at t[h]ey change t[h]eir meaning? as c and g,
sometimes before e and i, and t before ion sometimes.

8thly, W[h]y not always wit[h]out exeption: If t[h]ere be a supernatural
cause (for we are sure t[h]eir is no natural one) for t[h]ese t[h]ings,
t[h]ey will declare it, if not; t[h]ere must needs be a preternatural
won.

O, is us’d accordingly, as most, dost, lost, tost.

3dly and 4thly, As some, come, [h]ome, done, gone; short a in Joan,
Joanne, Joakim, a and o part.

Also l makes o long, as roll, poll, not extoll, and w[h]y not ot[h]er
vowels too.

O, for oe, as mot[h]er, among, from.

O, for u, as brot[h]er, come, some, word, world, wont, t[h]e verb;
anot[h]er, good, blood, not yonder.

O, for a, nort[h]erly, as paredg, [h]arses, carn, amang.

U is us’d promiscuously, as appears in the vowels afore going, but not
so frequently as the rest, as [h]ugh long, hug short; [h]uge, voluble,
superfluous after b and g, as build, guard, not regard, q being call’d
cu, needs it not; guide, not gilbert.

But v consonant not call’d ev, with a different caracter, is no less
absur’d than j consonant, not call’d ij, with a different figure, as
mejer for measure, as the French also use it, as je vou remercy. So
osier, [h]osier, easier, azure, _&c._

F us’d for v anciently, as d for th, as fader; but spokn as we do now:
ev is us’d for f in the _West_, as vire, vield, for fire, field, and we
put p for v in upper: The Hebrews put veth for it, beth for b, the
Spaniards make v, b, but to let other Languages alone, we pass to

The Diphthongs.

Whereof 3 be very absurd, ee for which the Latins us’d ij, as ijdem
oculi lucent, eadem feritatis imago est, _Ov._ met. The Greeks made Eta
a doble e, as also oo OMEGA.

2. Oo, for which the Latins us’d uu, as uva, uuula, and the British and
Hebrews double u.

3. Aw, all, au, as augre, maugre, awe, law, all, calf, (se the rest
in l.) and ao properly, as graot, gaol, gaot.

Ai, as straight, again, not, wait, ei as eight, not neither.

Oi, as boile, not the noun.

Uu is serv’d by oo, and so forth. No thanks for it.

Ui, as juice. Ou, as ought, not, out.

Au is put for ao, ou for au, as sauce, souce.

Eu or ew, ewe, neuter, is right.

Iu, as view, might be mended thus, viu.

Ou is common, as could, cow, but there is difference between o long and
short.

O is often us’d for a triphthong (y in British). O u u, as hone, stone,
doore, through, wo, whore, fore, more.

In ou o is oft left out, as double, trouble.

L is us’d for o, as Ralph, [h]alf, calf, malt, [h]alt, salt and scalp,
not in [h]ealth and wealth, and dealt: L is so us’d after e, as elf, not
self, whelm, Gulielm, not elme.

Lastly, L is for u, as old, cold, gold, fold, bold, colt, bolt, not in
dolt.

If ae, eo, ie, and ea be diphthongs, and lawfully marry’d by Banes, or
Licens, I’m sure it is but an [h]alf char-marriage, for they (for a just
impediment) never bed together.


_Amendment offer’d._

Make a Cambril over the vowels to make ’em long; and this will cure
innumerabl errors, and there will be no more mistakes or abuse of the
vowels, and this will save a world of truble.

But because the titl of i stands in the way, give a dash for I long, and
let a low Apostrophe, as high as the bodies of he letters, stand for i
short, and i with a tittle for double i or ee. So

  Mal, mel, mil, mol, mul.
  Mâl, mêl, mıl, môl, mûl.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Text shown as printed, although preceding paragraph implies “m'l” or
  “mıl” (dotless i, or i without “tittle”) in first line, “m--l” in
  second.]

Then ask the Printer whether a Cambril set over the vowels, be not as
good, and cheap as an e, a, o, or gh at the end.

But w[h]at difference can we make in figures, between ou, long o, and
short o? Thus like the sign Taurus after the Greek fashion is short ou,
or (speak Tongue) ou at lengt[h], is long o wit[h] u; and again the sign
Taurus wit[h] a Foot-Ball between [h]is [h]orns, is t[h]e Trift[h]ong;
t[h]e reason belongs to Grammar.

For to lay sound upon sound wit[h]out sig[h]t, is as field upon field,
false Heraldry.

But as for suc[h] as [h]ave t[h]eir for[h]eads no broader t[h]an t[h]eir
Battledore, they must stic in the old nooke at q in the corner, not
seven years, but seventy times seven.

’Tis not a sin sait[h] a P[h]ilosop[h]er t[h]at I cannot spel wel, but
t[h]at I cannot live well. If we [h]ave t[h]is error from the Lawyers we
[h]ope ’tis lawful; for to put in letters in a word or words in a deed,
more t[h]an enoug[h] often. But the Lawyers English may be no better
t[h]an [h]is Latin, t[h]e one as [h]ard to be spell’d, as t[h]e ot[h]er
to be parsd.

Next we come to the Consonants.



_Third Part of Babling _Babel_ undermin’d; the Eyes submitting to the
Ears._


  Consonants do sometimes stand for noug[h]t,
    Sometimes for one anot[h]er;
  But w[h]en stands eah one as it oug[h]t?
    W[h]en stands it for its brot[h]er?

B is a Consonant [h]at[h] no name-sake, as none oug[h]t to have. For put
a vowel before or after it, its all one for the name and value, for
every value of a letter is according to its name, or oug[h]t to be, for
the name is proper to the figure as call, de or ed, ’tis all one, as
r o ed, rod. Call b be, or eb; but use custom, ’tis [h]elpful w[h]en
proper; [h]urtful w[h]en improper. B is overplus in Lamb, t[h]umb, debt,
doubt; and w[h]at need is t[h]ere of t[h]ese unnecessary bees; scarce
one in a Parish besides the Parson t[h]inks t[h]e two last come of Latin
words, debitum and dubito, w[h]ere t[h]ey are pronounc’d.

B is a letter of t[h]e lips, shutting t[h]e lips before t[h]e vowel,
w[h]en it begins a syllable, and after a vowel when it ends: So do the
rest in BUMaF _viz._ ev, we, m, f, p.


_A Rule useful for School-Teachers, for short Tongu’d Children, for easy
Utterance use the upper Letters for the neather._

B  [G]  D   V   G   J   Z  [C] [Y] [R]

  For

P   C  [T]  F   H  [J]  S  [T]  K   R

_Probatum est._

By one I had a Scholar, could speak none of the neather Letters, till he
[h]ad learn’d (after the _West_ [G]untry fashion, and the Rules of the
Learn’d Grammars) to pronounce the upper first.

We are not awar [h]au muh our deseitful lettrz [h]indr uthr Learning,
and refining Inglish, and [h]au tru letrz would furthr it.

  Mad C w’[c] s spelz sound [c]e sàm, _Stilo novo_.
    Betráz q h and k.
  Desetfule deniz its nam,
    And s do[c] it betra.
  Dissembli[v] C wi[c] nidles vot,
    Ov ridi[v] brex [c]e nec.
  Unles it [h]av a proper nam,
    And spelli[v] suits wi[c] C.
  C [g]ivz an il exampl,
    And iz a tripl tnav: CCC ERAS. Ad.
  On gustis it do[c] trampl,
    Scab’d for aol [h]er aolz brav.
  Ov sierz [c]e blind ledr iz:
    [D]e ded [c]e livi[v] rul. ARISTOF.
  And [wot] a tirsum tasc iz [c]is
    To wat upon a Fuul?
  Larg [h]ausn [h]av wi in larg taunz,
    And largr hevnle buux:
  Larg Cots and Tlox [h]av wi and [G]aunz,
    Aur fit in letr stox.
  It nivr iz tuu lat to [t]riv,
    Nor to inven[j]onz ad:
  For Silvr auns wi ra[c]r striv,
    [D]un mane paundz ov Led.
  Nau [c]at I ma u trule si,
    Sertante to mi sa:
  If lic u sim and no frend be,
    Non ledz mi wursr wa.
  In cruuced waz [c]is aol iz il,
     Men tno not [c]at [c]a er.
  And [c]at men luv darcnes stil,
    No faot in endless fir.

As c t and h do fuul our erz ovr and ovr in hatch and catch, _&c._ so
dodh D (non without desert) in Wednesday, Hedg, Judg, spring, grudg,
badg, where g may do well without its false [h]elp or cumber-place.

F is unpronounc’d in mastiff and t is spoken instead of f, in handful,
armful, sackful. But it hath manifest wrong done it, by his convertible
p, and its unconvertible h, against their own names too, as Philip.
Whereas ph help no more for spelling Filip, than it doth Alexander. Now
if you had said HURH spells Church, and GUG spells Judge, I could easily
believe it.

But heap, God, thy, thigh, hang, shame, which are none of the seven
spell’d by the Letters we intend should spell them: neither can any
Englishman for his ears, eyes and wits, spell any of these words, and
MILLIONS more like ’em, more by his 24 English Letters, make what shift
he can, while _Ingland_ is _Ingland_, and have both Universities,
_CAMBRIGE_ and _Oxford_ to help him, and all the Universities beyond the
Seas to help them.

_Viz._ [Y]èp, [G]od, [C]i, [T]i, [Y]a[v], [J]à[v], [W]ih; also [F]aun,
[R]ûm; and Hif, Ked, Plejr. For

  Turpe est doctore cum culpa redarguit ipsum.

According to _Cato_:

  Unto the Teacher its a shame,
  In others his own Faults to blame.

Thus you percieve the whole World is but in the Battle-dore, and Lerning
is in the Cradle, and the sayings of this Book, as Macroons to invite
her to the taking her Letters to keep up old custom. As _Horas_ [h]ath
it in his first Sermon.

  ----Pueris dant crustula blandi
  Doctores elementa velint ut discere prima.

  Kind Teachers give Boys Bun and Cake,
  Their Letters for to Learn them make.

G is deaf in sign, not signifie, and g[h] in boug[h]t, broug[h]t, not in
coug[h], throug[h], enoug[h], w[h]ih is strangly spoken, stuff,
enoug[h], boug[h]s, enoug[h], (corn enoug[h]) and sig[h]ed, and g[h]ed
spells [h]ead, if ec be not cast away; let k be g[h]a, else k (unless
for g[h]) as in back, stack, crack, would be a vain impertinent Letter,
and deserves (as suh) in an orderly Family to be cic’d out o’ th’ doors.
For our Battle-dore is a well-[g]overn’d SITY, w[h]ih shuts out all idle
impertinent persnz, as vagrants wit[h] t[h]eir extravagancies out o’
t[h]’ Gates.

H is vain, in Ghost, Sc[h]olar, not in Churh, but c is, t[h]erefore it
deserves to be turn’d out of doors, for loosing its good name, [h]aving
work enoug[h] to live of its trade, and is an Interlooper, sounding one
t[h]ing by its self, anot[h]er in word-spelling, that she ma not be
[h]onest by [h]er self, and a knave in company.

L in will, bell, mall, full, and t[h]ousands more.

M in gemm, stem, _&c_.

N in Henry and proper names, as Normanton, Rependon, Donington. T[h]e
former n is un[h]eard.

P in receipt, not except, and mig[h]t as well be left out, as in deceit,
conceit, of t[h]e same sin, so empty temptation.

S in isle, island, ass, as is uz, s single is as

T in whitsunday, and watch, catch, clutch.

U is turn’d into EV, Coventry, Daventry, Oven for Couentry, Dauntry,
Ouen, an eut; see Mr. _Dugdal_.

So our Letters rat[h]er marr than mend our Language, w[h]en wrong
spell’d: but more Letters would do well in the Alfabet, (w[h]ih is
preparing) but fewer in most words to spell properly.

We is us’d t[h]ree ways, as a vowel, as now, [h]ow, as a consonant in
we, went, as nothing, in know, show, and bo.

Ye is us’d four ways, as a consonant, as yea, yes, as a long and short
vowel, as w[h]y, [h]oly and doubtful, as my, t[h]y, and as not[h]ing in
may day.

W[h]en each Letter [h]at[h] but one meaning 1; the Reading is certain as
two and twenty one, one wants w, and two ma spare it.

Z is scarce us’d in vain, but as many consonants are double to make a
short vowel, as Buzze, but is most us’d for s after all Letters but p,
c, t, for plurals and t[h]e like, s and z seem to cross one another, as
raze and raise, and x for z, as beaux.

Since renoun’d Aut[h]ors of late [h]ave left out ugh, as t[h]oug[h] and
the like, writing t[h]o’, if they [h]ad left out w and y superfluous, as
know, row, da, t[h]are, and put out all vain letters, and cambril the
vowels, the idle Letters would never [h]ave come in again.

Now if Books were begun to be all printed by t[h]ese directions, t[h]ey
would make all other old books easier read, and more truly pronounced,
t[h]e false spelling being discover’d and amended.

But Letters are neither here nor there, for all this, in every circuit
there is something of a particular dialect, differing from the common
English, though the Western and Northern differ most.

Now when we speak of altering the Letters, we alter not, but establish
and settle the known speech, which is no more but to alter or remove the
sign when it directedh to the wrong [h]ouse, but the Inn all the while
is the same. If one be in the North or West, he had best speak as they
do, that he may be readily understood, which is the end of speech.

We have corruptions enough in our Letters to corrupt all Languages writ
with them.

If our Letters were thus Corrected, a stranger, or home-bred, might
learn as much English in a day, as otherwise in a month or more.

Put nature in arts Cradle, and its fet in the stox.

There have been many changes of [G]overnment this hundred years, yet the
same errors rule, that we are, and no body for promisiz better.

But what ails you to be so bitter against the Letters? Why I look at
them as the dark-house to lodge all our errors in, and a feather-bed,
where all, both errors and unknown sins may be lodg’d, therefore I pull
out the Straws out of your bolster, that I may let light into the house,
that you ma see you lodge in a thorn-bush instead of a feather-bed. But
I find, (God [h]elp us both) that at all final errors are friends of the
greater, that neither am I able by these letters to speak, nor you to
understand me by Writing. Nay no man is by old Letters able so much as
to hint what he would have the new ones call’d, but the old will
insinuate their sufficiency.



_The Fourth Part, of Instructions Instructed, or Light out of Darkness._

_The first Table, wherein the self-same sounds are Spell’d by different
Letters, first Right, and then Wrong._


A as a, Manna, Joshua, Asia, Judah, Hannah; why ma we not cast awa the
Hebrew He out of words, as well as the Latins and Greeks have done? Day,
say, their, they, fair. These Letters that be, not pronounc’d are very
wellcome to be gone, the door stands wide open.

E, as be, the, Phebe, yea, weigh, key, holy. If propagating Error be
lawful, ’tis lawful to teach wrong.

I, as Ivi; lie, lye, thy, why, thigh, buy, for the first might as
lawfully be spell’d like the last, as UYe I, as the last is wrong
spell’d, but more lawfully ma the last be spell’d as your first.

O, do, no, so, to, right, tow, dough, Bowes, beau, sloe, slow. (If u be
pronounc’d in flow, ’tis a diphthong, let u take its place) wrong.

U, as tru, blue, Hugh, new, a singl u might stand for you (if it please
u) but not for your, beauty.

Ao, gaol, gaot, graot, goal, law, sauce, calf, scalp, caug[h]t,
taug[h]t.

Al, as ale, fail, but, fayl in old Books.

El, as kele, meale, seale, veil, and veal.

Il, mile, isle, island, boile, pyle.

Ol, mole, soul, coal, roll, poll.

Ul, deul, the straig[h]test road, the shortest rule.

  _Sore against shins it goes to go about,
  Where you’ve but one road, you cannot go out._

So âm, em, im, om, um, and an, en, in, on, un, as claim, p[h]legm,
rooms, [h]olmes, tombs, soveraign, foreigners, sign, groan, hewn.

  Hav two strait lines from point to point you shall,
  * Pseudografy ageometrical. * Bz.

So a, e, and sofort[h], before, before, r, s, t, z, bier, [h]ig[h]er,
bore, soar, four, lower, case, ace, raze, bass, peace, cease, rise,
price, justice, prose, sloce, prize, wise, eyes, lies, rise verb, sighs,
use, noun, truce, nose, foes, blows, use verb; suit, an event: but s is
us’d for z too oft, the more intollerable; but z should be us’d when it
makes a distinction between noun and verb, as use, rise, abuse:

Conceit wit[h]out receit, is mere deceit.

Jams, gaol, Jo[h]n, goal, magistrate, majesty, geese, fleece, sig[h]ed,
[h]ead, sadled, glad, titled, clad, battled, know, frenh, wensh, good,
blood, wort[h], [h]unt, gentl, jear, rih, wit[h], city, sit, scituate,
year, be[h]aviour, Joshua, wa, now, noug[h]t.

S, as factious, precious, anctious, conscience, sho, fashion,
Je[h]oschua, these wi the help ov the Frenh, as quelque hose, and old
Authors ma be quadrupled all wrong.

So x for ckes, as flax, stackes, sex, necks, six, stickes, fox, rokes,
flux, bucks.

What spells g u g, q i c, [w] i h, R e p n, s c o l r; if wrong (w [h]as
no business there) be plesant, rite, (gh [h]at[h] not[h]ing to do
t[h]ere) is plezantr, unless to please t[h]ose t[h]at [h]ave t[h]eir
wits wit[h]out ’em, will [h]ave t[h]e ears misled by t[h]e eys, and
t[h]e soul by t[h]e body, t[h]erefore (suppose t[h]at t[h]ere are
fashions for t[h]e soul as well as the body) in t[h]e old Church
Bible ov _K. J._ its [h]ye, now [h]ig[h]; so formerly forainers, now
foreigners, Rawley, Rawleigh, [h]ere’s wit with a witness: But these
are no more besides their wits, t[h]an t[h]ey are wit[h]out their wits,
t[h]at [h]ave t[h]eir wits wit[h]in t[h]em. These that can, paint the
vois, can limb out souls too. No doubt very Learn’d men!

You t[h]at understand t[h]e frets on t[h]e great Fidle, and wit[h]out
Gammut, can pric down proper sounds to words in visible shapes,
according to t[h]e nu fashion; pra take not awa the falals the old
Fat[h]ers put to t[h]eir words, lest posterity serve you no better, as
Hierom, Hierusalem, ripe, snite, knight, as haucer.

  _The time shall come that Doctors and Knights
      Shall be as common as Woodcox and Snites,
  With Crambo’s or Books ful many a score,
      As good as these you find, I’ll ad no more._

  Fpsti. _Difficilia quæ pulchra._
    _Hard to be dun, a dute iz sur dhe gratest bute._



_A Table of the self-same Leters, Spelling words ov a far different
sound._


As with, with, bath, bathe, sith, sithe, both, both, loath, loath, oath,
oathes, smith, smithy, breath, of, off, then, yet, liveth or liveth,
joth or joth, mouth, mouth, path or path, wrath, wreath, faith or faith,
thy, thigh, this, thistle, thou, thousand, thank, they, them, theame,
thus, thunder, thine, thin, goal or goal, as afore, motion, crimson,
action, Acteon, singed, hanged, changed, shepherd, Shaphat, dishonour,
asham’d, bishop, mishap, character, charity, duckherd, blockhead,
Dutchess, gather, success, suggest, or suggest, or suggest, or suggest,
haov, rij, [w]heg and who, come, on, you know what I mean, as well as
[h]orses. War rod: scepter, sceptic, syllables, bless, access, axes,
oxen, Christ-cross, beaux, beauty, ancre, kernel, acres, craz’d,
threatned, knead, bootes, Bootes, winged, gnaw’d: th is cut of from
with, _cum_, after another of the same, at wi’ them.

To Read English after the names ov the Letters, which is blameless, max
English as strang as to read after the French fashion; what would become
of Gire-eagle, wither, league, thing, Jehosaphat.

Put an Apostrophe (call’d Swa in Hebru) between every two consonants
(_viz._ a short i) the spelling is discern’d as well as with a
touch-stone, that you may perseve easily that falsehood is not in good
earnest.

So george, gorge, Gomorrha, Esau, Hus or uz, Nubes, Ragau, Joshua, where
([V] [v]) is the first letter in the four first, middlemost in fist, a
in the last all wrong. That no wonder if the Bible Translators took up
the blanket, and left the Child behind ’em, when St. Hierom says, the
Hebrew Letters are not to be exprest by the Western figures (I think
truly) And for want of axents Church-Readers wickedly miscall
Bible-words, as Theobulus, Jericho, Goliah, Cæsarea, a Decapolis,
Penacutes or Prepenacutes, also Haggi four ways.

A duble Letter in Hebrew of the same sort, being dageshed, prevents all
mistakes, as הגּי. So ’[G]od”es” for the Goddesses.

But for example sake, as far as any thing can really be exprest by
English Letters, without bodging patching, or bungling balderdash or
barbarous gallimofry of our Romantic Letters, obscurer than the Egiptian
Hieroglifix. I will subscribe an old saing in English, as easy as any
thing, if custom and fashion tnu it:

  _An As an Mul carrid Runlets ov Wine,
      But d’ Ass did gron undr er burdn gret:
  Qo’d’ Mul, Modr, wat al u dus to win?
      And under your lijt lod so sor to swet?
  Ist dubl ber if I tac won ov din.
      Wijst ber a lic if dau tac won ov min.
    Pride cind Gometer do us dis fet._

_Doctrina non habet inimicum præter ignorantem._

  _Of erudition dher’s no sircumstans
  Hadh ani enimi but ignorans._


  _But ’premisses rightly understood desier the exhibition of a
  compleat Alfebet, to read English as easily as [G]reek; therefore I
  shall end this Book wi’ the first Letter ov the ensuing Batl-dur._

  [A] [a]  A a  B b  [D] d  D [c]  E e  F f  G g  [G] [g]  H h
  [Y] [h]  I i J j  C c  K k  [F] [f]  M m  N n  [V] [v]  O o  P p
  Q q  R r  S s  [J] [j]   T t  [T] [t]  U u  V v  W w  [W] [w]  X x
  Y y  z &. †


FINIS.


           *       *       *       *       *

William Andrews Clark Memorial Library: University of California

THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY

_General Editors_

R. C. BOYS
University of Michigan

RALPH COHEN
University of California, Los Angeles

VINTON A. DEARING
University of California, Los Angeles

LAWRENCE CLARK POWELL
Wm. Andrews Clark Memorial Library

_Corresponding Secretary_

Mrs. EDNA C. DAVIS, Wm. Andrews Clark Memorial Library

The Society exists to make available inexpensive reprints (usually
facsimile reproductions) of rare seventeenth and eighteenth century
works. The editorial policy of the Society remains unchanged. As in the
past, the editors welcome suggestions concerning publications. All
income of the Society is devoted to defraying cost of publication and
mailing.

All correspondence concerning subscriptions in the United States and
Canada should be addressed to the William Andrews Clark Memorial
Library, 2205 West Adams Boulevard, Los Angeles 18, California.
Correspondence concerning editorial matters may be addressed to any of
the general editors. The membership fee is $3.00 a year for subscribers
in the United States and Canada and 15/- for subscribers in Great
Britain and Europe. British and European subscribers should address
B. H. Blackwell, Broad Street, Oxford, England.


Publications for the twelfth year [1957-58]

(At least six items, most of them from the following list, will be
reprinted.)

Henry Fielding, _The Voyages of Mr. Job Vinegar_ (1740).
  Introduction by Sam Sackett.

William Herbert, Third Earl of Pembroke, _Poems_ (1660).
  Introduction by Gaby Onderwyzer.

_An Historical View of the Political Writers of Great Britain_ (1740).
  Introduction by Robert L. Haig.

Francis Hutcheson, _Essays on Laughter_ (1729).

Samuel Johnson, _Notes to Shakespeare, Vol. III, Tragedies_.
  Edited by Arthur Sherbo.

Richard Savage, _An Author to be Let_ (1732).
  Introduction by James Sutherland.

Elkanah Settle, _The Notorious Impostor_ (1692).
  Introduction by Spiro Peterson.

_Seventeenth Century Tales of the Supernatural_.
  Selected, with an Introduction, by Isabel M. Westcott.


Publications for the first eleven years (with the exception of Nos. 1-6,
which are out of print) are available at the rate of $3.00 a year.
Prices for individual numbers may be obtained by writing to the Society.


THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY
_WILLIAM ANDREWS CLARK MEMORIAL LIBRARY_
2205 West Adams Boulevard, Los Angeles 18, California
Make check or money order payable to
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.


PUBLICATIONS OF THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Many of the listed titles are available from Doctrine Publishing Corporation. Their
  e-text numbers are given at the end of each entry. Publications listed
  in the original text as “Out of Print” are shown in brackets.]

*First Year (1946-1947)*

Numbers 1-6 out of print.

  [List of titles added by transcriber:

  1. Richard Blackmore’s _Essay upon Wit_ (1716), and Addison’s
     _Freeholder_ No. 45 (1716).  #13484

  2. Anon., _Essay on Wit_ (1748), together with Characters by Flecknoe,
     and Joseph Warton’s _Adventurer_ Nos. 127 and 133.  #14973

  3. Anon., _Letter to A. H. Esq.; concerning the Stage_ (1698), and
     Richard Willis’ _Occasional Paper_ No. IX (1698).  #14047

  4. Samuel Cobb’s _Of Poetry_ and _Discourse on Criticism_ (1707).
     #14528

  5. Samuel Wesley’s _Epistle to a Friend Concerning Poetry_ (1700)
     and _Essay on Heroic Poetry_ (1693).  #16506

  6. _Representation of the Impiety and Immorality of the Stage_ (1704)
     and _Some Thoughts Concerning the Stage_ (1704).  #15656]


*Second Year (1947-1948)*

 7. John Gay’s _The Present State of Wit_ (1711); and a section on Wit
    from _The English Theophrastus_ (1702).  #14800

 8. Rapin’s _De Carmine Pastorali_, translated by Creech(1684).  #14495

 9. T. Hanmer’s(?) _Some Remarks on the Tragedy of Hamlet_ (1736).
     #14899

10. Corbyn Morris’ _Essay towards Fixing the True Standards of Wit,
    etc._ (1744).  #16233

11. Thomas Purney’s _Discourse on the Pastoral_ (1717).  #15313

12. Essays on the Stage, selected, with an Introduction by Joseph Wood
    Krutch.  #16335


*Third Year (1948-1949)*

13. Sir John Falstaff (pseud.), _The Theatre_ (1720).  #15999

14. Edward Moore’s _The Gamester_(1753).  #16267

15. John Oldmixon’s _Reflections on Dr. Swift’s Letter to Harley_
    (1712); and Arthur Mainwaring’s _The British Academy_ (1712).

16. Nevil Payne’s _Fatal Jealousy_ (1673).  #16916

17. Nicholas Rowe’s _Some Account of the Life of Mr. William
    Shakespeare_ (1709).  #16275

18. “Of Genius,” in _The Occasional Paper_, Vol. III, No. 10 (1719);
    and Aaron Hill’s Preface to _The Creation_ (1720).  #15870


*Fourth Year (1949-1950)*

19. Susanna Centlivre’s _The Busie Body_ (1709).  #16740

20. Lewis Theobold’s _Preface to The Works of Shakespeare_ (1734).
     #16346

21. _Critical Remarks on Sir Charles Grandison, Clarissa, and Pamela_
    (1754).

22. Samuel Johnson’s _The Vanity of Human Wishes_ (1749) and Two
    _Rambler_ papers (1750).  #13350

23. John Dryden’s _His Majesties Declaration Defended_ (1681).  #15074

24. Pierre Nicole’s _An Essay on True and Apparent Beauty in Which
    from Settled Principles is Rendered the Grounds for Choosing and
    Rejecting Epigrams_, translated by J. V. Cunningham.


*Fifth Year (1950-1951)*

25. Thomas Baker’s _The Fine Lady’s Airs_ (1709).  #14467

26. Charles Macklin’s _The Man of the World_ (1792).  #14463

27. Out of print.

  [Title added by transcriber:
  Frances Reynolds’ _An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Taste, and
    of the Origin of Our Ideas of Beauty, etc._ (1785).  #13485]

28. John Evelyn’s _An Apologie for the Royal Party_ (1659); and
    _A Panegyric to Charles the Second_ (1661).  #17833

29. Daniel Defoe’s _A Vindication of the Press_ (1718).  #14084

30. Essays on Taste from John Gilbert Cooper’s _Letters Concerning
    Taste_, 3rd edition (1757), & John Armstrong’s _Miscellanies_
    (1770).  #13464


*Sixth Year*

31. Thomas Gray, _Elegy in a Country Church Yard_ (1751);
    and _The Eton College Manuscript_.  #15409

32. Prefaces to Fiction; Georges de Scudéry’s Preface to _Ibrahim_
    (1674), etc.  #14525

33. Henry Gally’s _A Critical Essay_ on Characteristic-Writings (1725).
    #16299

34. Thomas Tyers’ A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1785).

35. James Boswell, Andrew Erskine, and George Dempster. _Critical
    Strictures on the New Tragedy of Elvira, Written by Mr. David
    Malloch (1763)._  #15857

36. Joseph Harris’s _The City Bride_ (1696).


*Seventh Year (1952-1953)*

37. Thomas Morrison’s _A Pindarick Ode on Painting_ (1767).

38. John Phillips’ _A Satyr Against Hypocrites_ (1655).

39. Thomas Warton’s _A History of English Poetry_.

40. Edward Bysshe’s _The Art of English Poetry_ (1708).

41. Bernard Mandeville’s “A Letter to Dion” (1732).

42. Prefaces to Four Seventeenth-Century Romances.


*Eighth Year (1953-1954)*

43. John Baillie’s _An Essay on the Sublime_ (1747).

44. Mathias Casimire Sarbiewski’s _The Odes of Casimire_, Translated by
    G. Hils (1646).

45. John Robert Scott’s _Dissertation on the Progress of the Fine Arts_.

46. Selections from Seventeenth Century Songbooks.

47. Contemporaries of the _Tatler_ and _Spectator_.

48. Samuel Richardson’s Introduction to _Pamela_.


*Ninth Year (1954-1955)*

49. Two St. Cecilia’s Day Sermons (1696-1697).

50. Hervey Aston’s _A Sermon Before the Sons of the Clergy_ (1745).

51. Lewis Maidwell’s _An Essay upon the Necessity and Excellency of
    Education_ (1705).

52. Pappity Stampoy’s _A Collection of Scotch Proverbs_ (1663).

53. Urian Oakes’ _The Soveraign Efficacy of Divine Providence_ (1682).

54. Mary Davys’ _Familiar Letters Betwixt a Gentlemen and a Lady_
    (1725).


*Tenth Year (1955-1956)*

55. Samuel Say’s _An Essay on the Harmony, Variety, and Power of
    Numbers_ (1745).

56. _Theologia Ruris, sive Schola & Scala Naturae_ (1686).

57. Henry Fielding’s _Shamela_ (1741).

58. Eighteenth Century Book Illustrations.

59. Samuel Johnson’s _Notes to Shakespeare_. Vol. I, Comedies, Part I.

60. Samuel Johnson’s _Notes to Shakespeare_. Vol. I, Comedies, Part II.


*Eleventh Year (1956-1957)*

61. Elizabeth Elstob’s _An Apology for the Study of Northern
    Antiquities_ (1715)  #15329

62. _Two Funeral Sermons_ (1635)

63. _Parodies of Ballad Criticism_ (1711-1787)

64. _Prefaces to Three Eighteenth Century Novels_ (1708, 1751, 1797)

65. Samuel Johnson’s _Notes to Shakespeare_. Vol. II, Histories,
    Part I.

66. Samuel Johnson’s _Notes to Shakespeare_. Vol. II, Histories,
    Part II.

      *      *      *      *      *
         *      *      *      *
      *      *      *      *      *

Letter Substitutions [section added by transcriber]

On page 8 the author writes:

  ... we want to borrow Two letters of the Greek, _Gama_, and _Theta_,
  and Four of the Hebrew, _Thaleth_, _He_, _Aim_, and _Shin_ ...

It is not clear whether he intended to use the actual Greek and Hebrew
letters where the printed text shows upside-down Roman letters.

The substitutions would be (note that [c] is used for [d] and [Y]
for [H]):

  [D] [c] “thaleth” ד
  [G] [g] “gama” Γ
  [Y] [h] he ה
  [J] [j] shin ש
  [V] [v] “aim” (ayin) ע
  [T] [t] theta Θ
  [w] [f] [a] [r] _author’s intention unclear_

Page 8, “Gothám” paragraph, with letter-substitutions and silent
correction of apparent typographic errors:

  Gôtham, Γôtham, Gótham, Γótham, Gôθam, Γôθam, Góθam, Γóθam,
  Gôדam, Γôדam, Góדam, Γóדam, Gothâm, Γothâm, Gothám, Γothám,
  Goθâm, Γoθâm, Goθám, Γoθám, Goדâm, Γoדâm, Goדám, Γoדám.

Page 21, “A Rule useful for School-Teachers,” with substitutions and
conjectural corrections (see Errata) as above:

  B  Γ  D  V  G  J  Z  ה  ד [R]
    For
  P  C  T  F  H  ש  S  Θ  K  R

Page 22, entire poem. Line-initial Dalet ד is shown as Delta Δ to avoid
script-direction confusion in some computers. The letter-sequences _tn_
and _tl_ may represent _kn_ (knave, know) and _kl/cl_.

  Mad C w’ד s spelz sound דe sàm, _Stilo novo_.
    Betráz q h and k.
  Desetfule deniz its nam,
    And s doד it betra.
  Dissembliע C wiד nidles vot,
    Ov ridiע brex דe nec.
  Unles it הav a proper nam,
    And spelliע suits wiד C.
  C γivz an il exampl,
    And iz a tripl tnav: CCC ERAS. Ad.
  On gustis it doד trampl,
    Scab’d for aol הer aolz brav.
  Ov sierz דe blind ledr iz:
    Δe ded דe liviע rul. ARISTOF.
  And wot a tirsum tasc iz דis
    To wat upon a Fuul?
  Larg הausn הav wi in larg taunz,
    And largr hevnle buux:
  Larg Cots and Tlox הav wi and Γaunz,
    Aur fit in leθr stox.
  It nivr iz tuu lat to θriv,
    Nor to invenשonz ad:
  For Silvr auns wi raדr striv,
    Δun mane paundz ov Led.
  Nau דat I ma u trule si,
    Sertante to mi sa:
  If lic u sim and no frend be,
    Non ledz mi wursr wa.
  In cruuced waz דis aol iz il,
     Men tno not דat דa er.
  And דat men luv darcnes stil,
    No faot in endless fir.

Page 32, full alphabet:

  [A] [a] A a B b D d ד E e F f G g Γ γ H h ה I i J j C c
  K k [F] [f] M m N n ע O o P p Q q R r S s ש T t Θ θ U u
  V v W w [W] [w] X x Y y z &. †

[a] [f] and [w] are not explained in the text. [F] occurs in place
of L, which seems to have been omitted by mistake, as noted in the
Introduction. Capital Z is missing.

      *      *      *      *      *

Errors and Anomalies noted by transcriber:

[Footnote 4: ... Vol. 1, p. 267. In Vol. II ...]
  Inconsistency between “1” and “II” in original.

Inter quos referendvs erit veteresne poetas.
  _v for u in original_
Utor permisso; caudaque pilos ut equina
  _text reads “uquina”_
Paulatim vello, & demo unum, demo etiam unum.
  _text reads “itiam”_
_The Second Book of Epistles of _Quintus, Horatius, Flaccus_.
  _commas in original_
That we make something to discourse upon further
  _text reads “discoure”_
U. True, dew, Hugh, neuter, give, you, gaol, jaylor, goal, John ...
  _text unchanged: erroneous comma after “give” and missing line break
  after “you”?_

Gôtham, [G]ôtham, Gótham, [G]ótham, Gô[t]am, [G]ó[t]am,
  _error for “[G]ô[t]am”?_
Gó[t]am, [G]ó[t]am, / Gô[c]am, [G]ô[c]am, Gó[c]am, [G]ó[c]am, Gothâm,
[G]othâm, / Gothâm, [G]othâm,
  _errors for “Gothám, [G]othám”?_
Go[t]âm, [G]o[t]âm, Go[t]ám, [G]o[t]ám, Go[c]âm, / [G]o[c]âm, Gothâm,
Go[c]âm.
  _errors for “Go[c]ám, [G]o[c]ám”?_

2. Whether or no are our 24 Letters sufficient ...
  _The printed text uses 26 ordinary English letters, distinguishing
  between i and j and between u and v. It also uses ſ (long s)._
took in the Idola[t]ry of all Laws
  _error for “Idolatry”?_
Hereupon we argue. First, It is granted
  _text reads “Is is granted”_
Secondly, There was as good reason for amendment
  _text reads “Thers was”_
1. Vowels, 2. Diphthongs, 3. Consonants.
  _text reads “Consonats”_
First, A long in Chamber changed danger commanded
  _text reads “Along”_
But what an Husteron proteran
  _text unchanged: usual form is “Husteron proteron” (ὕστερον πρότερον)_
or herb Gohn in poredg: Ha! Ha! He!
  _end of line unclear: possible letter after “poredg”_
Yet in floweth
  _text reads “it floweth”_
as borage, savage
  _text reads “us”_
(for we are sure t[h]eir is no natural one)
  _text reads “te[h]ir is no naural”_
ev is us’d for f
  _text reads “e v is us’d”_
a low Apostrophe, as high as the bodies of the letters
  _text reads “Apostorphe ... he letters”_
be not as / good, and cheap as an e, a, o, or gh at the end
  _text has “and  heap” with extra space_
t[h]at I cannot live well
  _text has “t[h] t” with space_

B  [G]  D   V  G  J   Z  [C]  [Y]  [R]
  For
P   C  [T]  F  H [J]  S  [T]   K    R
  _text unchanged: [C] in first line probable error for [D]; first [T]
  in second line (below D) probable error for T_

Mad C w’[c] s spelz sound [c]e sàm, _Stilo novo_.
  _text reads “Mad C w’’[c] s” or “Mad C w”[c] s”_
C [g]ivz an il exampl,
  _text reads “[g]i[v]z”_
And iz a tripl tnav: CCC ERAS. Ad.
  _text reads “tna[v]” (tn for kn: “knave”?)_
Scab’d for aol [h]er aolz brav.
  _text reads “bra[v]”_
[D]e ded [c]e livi[v] rul.
  _text reads “De ded”_
And [w]ot a tirsum tasc iz [c]is
  _text unchanged: error for “wot”?_
Larg Cots and Tlox [h]av wi and [G]aunz,
  _text unchanged_
Aur fit in letr stox.
  _text unchanged: error for “le[t]r”?_
[D]un mane paundz ov Led.
  _text reads “Dun mane”_
Men tno not [c]at [c]a er.
  _text reads “[c]rt [c]a er”_

dodh D (non without desert)
  _text reads “deset”; “dodh” may be error for “do[c]”_
and Hif, Ked, Plejr.
  _text unchanged: error for “Ple[j]r” (Pleasure)?_
enoug[h], (corn enoug[h])
  _no open parenthesis in text_
So our Letters rat[h]er marr than mend our Language
  _text reads “Letaers”_
as nothing, in know, show, and bo.
  _text unchanged: error for “bow”?_
Put nature in arts Cradle, and its fet in the stox.
  _text reads “its set in the ftox” with apparent f:long-s exchange_
Bowes, beau, sloe, slow. (If u be
pronounc’d in flow, ’tis a diphthong, let u take its place) wrong.
  _“sloe, slow” and “flow” unchanged: either f or s may be an error_
* Pseudografy ageometrical. * Bz.
  _asterisks in original text_
suit, an event:
  _text reads “evet”_
t[h]erefore (suppose t[h]at t[h]ere are
fashions for t[h]e soul as well as the body)
  _no open parenthesis in text_
Fpsti. _Difficilia quæ pulchra._
  _text unclear: may be “Epsti.”_
So ’[G]od”es” for the Goddesses.
  _text unchanged: intended punctuation unclear_
if custom and fashion tnu it:
  _text unclear_
_Doctrina non habet inimicum præter ignorantem._
  _text reads “_Doctrida”_

[A] [a] A a B b [D] d D [c] ...
  _text unchanged: error for “D d [D] [c]” or “[D] [c] D d”?_
  _letters L l and capital Z missing in original_

ARS Material:

34. Thomas Tyers’ A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1785).
  _text reads “Johson”_
35. ... _... Malloch (1763)._
  _date included in italics_





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