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Title: The Psychology of Management - The Function of the Mind in Determining, Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste
Author: Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Psychology of Management - The Function of the Mind in Determining, Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste" ***

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                           THE PSYCHOLOGY

                       THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
                NEW YORK * BOSTON * CHICAGO * DALLAS
                      ATLANTA * SAN FRANCISCO

                      MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED
                     LONDON * BOMBAY * CALCUTTA

                 THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD.

                           THE PSYCHOLOGY

             _The Function of the Mind in Determining,
                  Teaching and Installing Methods
                          of Least Waste_

                        L.M. GILBRETH, PH.D.

                              New York
                       THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

                      BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


           Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 1914

                               TO MY
                         FATHER AND MOTHER



                             CHAPTER I                          PAGE

  OF MANAGEMENT .............................................      1

    Definition of Psychology of Management--Importance of
  the Subject--Purpose of this Book--Definition of
  Management--The Three Types of Management--Possible
  Psychological Studies of Management--Plan of Psychological
  Study Here Used--Underlying Ideas or Divisions of
  Scientific Management--Outline of Method of
  Investigation--Conclusions to be Reached.

                             CHAPTER II

INDIVIDUALITY ...............................................     21

    Definition of Individuality--Place of Individuality in
  Psychology--Individuality Under Traditional
  Management--Individuality Under Transitory
  Management--Individuality Under Scientific
  Management--Selection of Workers--Separating
  Output--Recording Output Separately--Individual
  Tasks--Individual Instruction Cards--Individual
  Teaching--Individual Incentives--Individual
  Welfare--Summary: (a) Effect of Individuality upon Work;
  (b) Effect of Individuality upon Worker.

                            CHAPTER III

FUNCTIONALIZATION ...........................................     52

    Definition of Functionalization--Psychological Use of
  Functionalization--Functionalization in Traditional
  Management--Functionalization Under Transitory
  Management--Functionalization Under Scientific
  Management--Separating the Planning From the
  Performing--Functionalized Foremanship--The Function of
  Order of Work and Route Clerk--The Function of Instruction
  Card Clerk--The Function of Time and Cost Clerk--The
  Function of Disciplinarian--The Function of Gang Boss--The
  Function of Speed Boss--The Function of Repair Boss--The
  Function of Inspector--Functionalizing the
  Worker--Functionalizing the Work Itself--Summary: (a)
  Effect of Functionalization upon the Work; (b) Effect of
  Functionalization upon the Worker.

                             CHAPTER IV

MEASUREMENT .................................................     90

    Definition of Measurement--Importance of Measurement in
  Psychology--Relation of Measurement in Psychology to
  Measurement in Management--Importance of Measurement in
  Management--Measurement in Traditional
  Management--Measurement in Transitory
  Management--Measurement in Scientific
  Management--Qualifications of the Observer--Methods of
  Observation--Definitions of Motion Study and Time
  Study--Methods of Motion Study and Time Study--Summary:
  (a) Effect of Measurement on the Work; (b) Effect of
  Measurement on the Worker; (c) Future Results to be
  Expected; (d) First Step Toward Obtaining These Results.

                             CHAPTER V

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS ......................................    123

    Definition of Analysis--Definition of Synthesis--Use of
  Analysis and Synthesis by Psychology--Importance of
  Analysis and Synthesis in Management--Place in Traditional
  Management--Place in Transitory Management--Place in
  Scientific Management--The Work of the
  Analyst--Determining Factor in Amount of Analysis--Field
  of Psychology in Analysis--Qualifications of an
  Analyst--Worker's Interest in Analysis--The Work of the
  Synthesist--Results of Synthesist's Work--The
  Task--Discussion of the Name "Task"--Definition of "Task"
  in Scientific Management--Field of Application of the Task
  Idea--Qualifications of the Synthesist--Summary: (a)
  Effect of Analysis and Synthesis on the Work; (b) Effect
  of Analysis and Synthesis on the Worker.

                             CHAPTER VI

STANDARDIZATION .............................................    139

    Definition of Standardization--Relation of the Standard
  to the Task and the Incentive--Relation of the Standard to
  Psychology--Purpose of Standardization--Standardization
  Under Traditional Management--Standardization Under
  Transitory Management--Value of Systems--Standardization
  Under Scientific Management--Relation of Standard to
  Measurement--Scope of Standardization Under Scientific
  Management--Permanence of Results--Needs of
  Standardization Likened to Needs in Field of
  Spelling--Standard Nomenclature--Advantages of Mnemonic
  Symbols--Standard Phraseology--The Standard Man--Standard
  Means of Conveying Information--Definition of the
  Instruction Card--Detailed Description of the Instruction
  Card--Value of Standard Surroundings--Necessity for Proper
  Placing of the Worker--Standard Equipment--Standard Tools
  and Devices--Standard Clothing--Standard Methods--Rest
  from Fatigue--Standardization of Work with
  Animals--Standard Quality--Standard "Method of
  Attack"--Summary: (a) Effect of Standardization on the
  Work; (b) Effect of Standardization on the Worker; (c)
  Progress of Standardization Assured.

                            CHAPTER VII

RECORDS AND PROGRAMMES ......................................    183

    Definition of Record--Records Under Traditional
  Management--Records Under Transitory Management--Records
  Under Scientific Management--Criterion of Records--Records
  of Work and Workers--Records of Initiative--Records of
  Good Behavior--Records of Achievement--Records of
  "Exceptions"--Posting of Records--Summary of Results of
  Records to Work and Worker--Definition of
  Programme--Programmes Under Traditional
  Management--Programmes Under Transitory
  Management--Programmes Under Scientific
  Management--Programmes and Routing--Possibility of
  Prophecy Under Scientific Management--Summary of Results
  of Programmes to Work and Worker--Relation Between Records
  and Programmes--Types of Records and
  Programmes--Interrelation of Types--Illustrations of
  Complexity of Relations--Possibilities of Eliminating
  Waste--Derivation of the Programme--Summary: (a) Effect of
  Relations Between Records and Programmes on the Work; (b)
  Effect on the Worker.

                            CHAPTER VIII

TEACHING ....................................................    208

    Definition of Teaching--Teaching Under Traditional
  Management--Faults Due to Lack of Standards--Teaching
  Under Transitory Management--Teaching Under Scientific
  Management--Importance of Teaching--Conforming of Teaching
  to Psychological Laws--Conservation of Valuable Elements
  of Traditional and Transitory Management--Scope of
  Teaching--Source of Teaching--Methods of
  Teaching--Instruction Cards as Teachers--Systems as
  Teachers--Drawings, Charts, Plans and
  Photographs--Functional Foremen as Teachers--Object
  Lessons as Teachers--Training the Senses--Forming Good
  Habits--Importance of Teaching Right Motions
  First--Stimulating Attention--Forming
  Associations--Educating the Memory--Cultivating the
  Imagination--Developing the Judgment--Utilizing
  Suggestion--Utilizing Native Reactions--Developing the
  Will--Adaptability of Teaching--Provision of Places for
  Teaching--Measurement of Teaching--Relation of Teaching to
  Academic Training and Vocational Guidance--Summary: (a)
  Result of Teaching in the Work; (b) Result of Teaching to
  the Worker; (c) Results to be Expected in the Future.

                             CHAPTER IX

INCENTIVES ..................................................    271

    Definition of Incentive--Importance of
  Incentives--Direct and Indirect Incentives--Definition of
  Reward--Definition of Punishment--Nature of Direct
  Incentives--The Reward Under Traditional Management--The
  Punishment Under Traditional Management--The Direct
  Incentive Under Traditional Management--Incentives Under
  Transitory Management--Rewards Under Scientific
  Management--Promotion and Pay--Relation of Wages and
  Bonus--Day Work--Piece Work--Task Wage--Gain
  Sharing--Premium Plan--Profit Sharing--Differential Rate
  Piece--Task Work with a Bonus--Differential Bonus--Three
  Rate--Three Rate with Increased Rate--Other
  Rewards--Negative and Positive Punishments--Fines and
  Their Disposal--Assignment to Less Pleasant
  Work--Discharge and Its Elimination--Use of Direct
  Incentives--Summary: (a) Effect of Incentives upon the
  Work; (b) Effect of Incentives upon the Worker.

                             CHAPTER X

WELFARE .....................................................    311

    Definition of Welfare--"Welfare" and "Welfare
  Work"--Welfare Under Traditional Management--Welfare Work
  Under Traditional Management--Welfare Under Transitory
  Management--Welfare Work Under Transitory
  Management--Welfare Under Scientific Management--Physical
  Improvement--Mental Development--Moral
  Development--Interrelation of Physical, Mental and Moral
  Development--Welfare Work Under Scientific
  Management--Summary: (a) Result of Welfare to the Work;
  (b) Result of Welfare to the Worker.

INDEX .......................................................    333


                             CHAPTER I


Management, as here used, means,--the effect of the mind that is
directing work upon that work which is directed, and the effect of
this undirected and directed work upon the mind of the worker.

    IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT.--Before defining the terms that will
be used more in detail, and outlining the method of treatment to be
followed, it is well to consider the importance of the subject
matter of this book, for upon the reader's interest in the subject,
and his desire, from the outset, to follow what is said, and to
respond to it, rests a large part of the value of this book.

    VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY.--First of all, then, what is there in the
subject of psychology to demand the attention of the manager?

    Psychology, in the popular phrase, is "the study of the mind."
It has for years been included in the training of all teachers, and
has been one of the first steps for the student of philosophy; but
it has not, usually, been included among the studies of the young
scientific or engineering student, or of any students in other lines
than Philosophy and Education. This, not because its value as a
"culture subject" was not understood, but because the course of the
average student is so crowded with technical preparation necessary
to his life work, and because the practical value of psychology has
not been recognized. It is well recognized that the teacher must
understand the working of the mind in order best to impart his
information in that way that will enable the student to grasp it
most readily. It was not recognized that every man going out into
the world needs all the knowledge that he can get as to the working
of the human mind in order not only to give but to receive
information with the least waste and expenditure of energy, nor was
it recognized that in the industrial, as well as the academic world,
almost every man is a teacher.

    VALUE OF MANAGEMENT.--The second question demanding attention
is;--Of what value is the study of management?

    The study of management has been omitted from the student's
training until comparatively recently, for a very different reason
than was psychology. It was never doubted that a knowledge of
management would be of great value to anyone and everyone, and many
were the queer schemes for obtaining that knowledge after
graduation. It was doubted that management could be studied
otherwise than by observation and practice.[1] Few teachers, if any,
believed in the existence, or possibility, of a teaching science of
management. Management was assumed by many to be an art, by even
more it was thought to be a divinely bestowed gift or talent, rather
than an acquired accomplishment. It was common belief that one could
learn to manage only by going out on the work and watching other
managers, or by trying to manage, and not by studying about
management in a class room or in a text book; that watching a good
manager might help one, but no one could hope really to succeed who
had not "the knack born in him."

    With the advent of "Scientific Management," and its
demonstration that the best management is founded on laws that have
been determined, and can be taught, the study of management in the
class room as well as on the work became possible and actual.[2]

    VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT.--Third, we must consider the
value of the study of the psychology of management.[3]

    This question, like the one that precedes it, is answered by
Scientific Management. It has demonstrated that the emphasis in
successful management lies on the _man_, not on the _work_; that
efficiency is best secured by placing the emphasis on the man, and
modifying the equipment, materials and methods to make the most of
the man. It has, further, recognized that the man's mind is a
controlling factor in his efficiency, and has, by teaching, enabled
the man to make the most of his powers.[4] In order to understand
this teaching element that is such a large part of management, a
knowledge of psychology is imperative; and this study of psychology,
as it applies to the work of the manager or the managed, is exactly
what the "psychology of management" is.

    FIVE INDICATIONS OF THIS VALUE.--In order to realize the
importance of the psychology of management it is necessary to
consider the following five points:--

    1. Management is a life study of every man who works with other
men. He must either manage, or be managed, or both; in any case, he
can never work to best advantage until he understands both the
psychological and managerial laws by which he governs or is governed.

    2. A knowledge of the underlying laws of management is the most
important asset that one can carry with him into his life work, even
though he will never manage any but himself. It is useful,
practical, commercially valuable.

    3. This knowledge is to be had _now_. The men who have it are
ready and glad to impart it to all who are interested and who will
pass it on.[5] The text books are at hand now. The opportunities for
practical experience in Scientific Management will meet all demands
as fast as they are made.

    4. The psychology of, that is, the mind's place in management is
only one part, element or variable of management; one of numerous,
almost numberless, variables.

    5. It is a division well fitted to occupy the attention of the
beginner, as well as the more experienced, because it is a most
excellent place to start the study of management. A careful study of
the relations of psychology to management should develop in the
student a method of attack in learning his selected life work that
should help him to grasp quickly the orderly array of facts that the
other variables, as treated by the great managers, bring to him.

    PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK.--It is scarcely necessary to mention that
this book can hope to do little more than arouse an interest in the
subject and point the way to the detailed books where such an
interest can be more deeply aroused and more fully satisfied.

    WHAT THIS BOOK WILL NOT DO.--It is not the purpose of this book
to give an exhaustive treatment of psychology. Neither is it
possible in this book to attempt to give a detailed account of
management in general, or of the Taylor plan of "Scientific
Management" so-called, in particular. All of the literature on the
subject has been carefully studied and reviewed for the purpose of
writing this book,--not only what is in print, but considerable that
is as yet in manuscript. No statement has been made that is not
along the line of the accepted thought and standardized practice of
the authorities. The foot notes have been prepared with great care.
By reading the references there given one can verify statements in
the text, and can also, if he desires, inform himself at length on
any branch of the subject that especially interests him.

    WHAT THIS BOOK WILL DO.--This book aims not so much to
instruct as to arouse an interest in its subject, and to point
the way whence instruction comes. If it can serve as an
introduction to psychology and to management, can suggest the
relation of these two fields of inquiries and can ultimately
enroll its readers as investigators in a resultant great field of
inquiry, it will have accomplished its aim.

    DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT.--To discuss this subject more
in detail--

    First: What is "Management"?

    "Management," as defined by the Century Dictionary, is "the
art of managing by direction or regulation."

    Successful management of the old type was an art based on no
measurement. Scientific Management is an art based upon a
science,--upon laws deducted from measurement. Management continues
to be what it has always been,--the _art_ of directing activity.

    CHANGE IN THE ACCEPTED MEANING.--"Management," until recent
years, and the emphasis placed on Scientific Management was
undoubtedly associated, in the average mind, with the _managing_
part of the organization only, neglecting that vital part--the best
interests of the managed, almost entirely. Since we have come to
realize that management signifies the relationship between the
managing and the managed in doing work, a new realization of its
importance has come about.[6]

    INADEQUACY OF THE TERMS USED.--It is unfortunate that the
English language is so poor in synonyms in this field that the same
word must have two such different and conflicting meanings, for,
though the new definition of management be accepted, the "Fringe" of
associations that belong to the old are apt to remain.[7] The
thoughts of "knack, aptitude, tact, adroitness,"--not to speak of
the less desirable "Brute Force," "shrewdness, subtlety, cunning,
artifice, deceit, duplicity," of the older idea of management remain
in the background of the mind and make it difficult, even when one
is convinced that management is a science, to think and act as if
it were.

    It must be noticed and constantly remembered that one of the
greatest difficulties to overcome in studying management and its
development is the meaning of the terms used. It is most
unfortunate that the new ideas have been forced to content
themselves with old forms as best they may.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL INTEREST OF THE TERMS.--Psychology could ask no
more interesting subject than a study of the mental processes that
lie back of many of these terms. It is most unfortunate for the
obtaining of clearness, that new terms were not invented for the new
ideas. There is, however, an excellent reason for using the old
terms. By their use it is emphasized that the new thought is a
logical outgrowth of the old, and experience has proved that this
close relationship to established ideas is a powerful argument for
the new science; but such terms as "task," "foreman," "speed boss,"
"piece-rate" and "bonus," as used in the science of management,
suffer from misunderstanding caused by old and now false
associations. Furthermore, in order to compare old and new
interpretations of the ideas of management, the older terms of
management should have their traditional meanings only. The two sets
of meanings are a source of endless confusion, unwarranted
prejudice, and worse. This is well recognized by the authorities
on Management.

    THE THREE TYPES OF MANAGEMENT.--We note this inadequacy of
terms again when we discuss the various _types_ of Management.

    We may divide all management into three types--
      (1) Traditional
      (2) Transitory
      (3) Scientific, or measured functional.[8]

    Traditional Management, the first, has been variously called
"Military," "Driver," the "Marquis of Queensberry type," "Initiative
and Incentive Management," as well as "Traditional" management.

    DEFINITION OF THE FIRST TYPE.--In the first type, the power of
managing lies, theoretically at least, in the hands of one man, a
capable "all-around" manager. The line of authority and of
responsibility is clear, fixed and single. Each man comes in direct
contact with but one man above him. A man may or may not manage more
than one man beneath him, but, however this may be, he is managed by
but one man above him.

    PREFERABLE NAME FOR THE FIRST TYPE.--The names "Traditional," or
"Initiative and Incentive," are the preferable titles for this form
of management. It is true they lack in specificness, but the other
names, while aiming to be descriptive, really emphasize one feature
only, and in some cases with unfortunate results.

    THE NAME "MILITARY" INADVISABLE.--The direct line of authority
suggested the name "Military,"[9] and at the time of the adoption of
that name it was probably appropriate as well as complimentary.[10]
Appropriate in the respect referred to only, for the old type of
management varied so widely in its manifestations that the
comparison to the procedure of the Army was most inaccurate.
"Military" has always been a synonym for "systematized", "orderly,"
"definite," while the old type of management was more often quite
the opposite of the meaning of all these terms. The term "Military
Management" though often used in an uncomplimentary sense would,
today, if understood, be more complimentary than ever it was in the
past. The introduction of various features of Scientific Management
into the Army and Navy,--and such features are being incorporated
steadily and constantly,--is raising the standard of management
there to a high degree. This but renders the name "Military"
Management for the old type more inaccurate and misleading.

    It is plain that the stirring associations of the word
"military" make its use for the old type, by advocates of the old
type, a weapon against Scientific Management that only the careful
thinker can turn aside.

UNFORTUNATE.--The name "Driver" suggests an opposition between the
managers and the men, an opposition which the term "Marquis of
Queensberry" emphasizes. This term "Marquis of Queensberry" has been
given to that management which is thought of as a mental and
physical contest, waged "according to the rules of the game." These
two names are most valuable pictorially, or in furnishing oratorical
material. They are constant reminders of the constant desire of the
managers to get all the work that is possible out of the men, but
they are scarcely descriptive in any satisfactory sense, and the
visions they summon, while they are perhaps definite, are certainly,
for the inexperienced in management, inaccurate. In other words,
they usually lead to imagination rather than to perception.

"Initiative and Incentive" is used by Dr. Taylor, and is fully
described by him.[11] The words themselves suggest, truly, that he
gives the old form of management its due. He does more than this. He
points out in his definition of the terms the likenesses between the
old and new forms.

for the term "Traditional," since Dr. Taylor's term is available,
are its brevity and its descriptiveness. The fact that it is
indefinite is really no fault in it, as the subject it describes is
equally indefinite. The "fringe"[12] of this word is especially
good. It calls up ideas of information handed down from generation
to generation orally, the only way of teaching under the old type of
management. It recalls the idea of the inaccurate perpetuation of
unthinking custom, and the "myth" element always present in
tradition,--again undeniable accusations against the old type of
management. The fundamental idea of the tradition, that it is
_oral_, is the essence of the difference of the old type of
management from science, or even system, which must be written.

    It is not necessary to make more definite here the content of
this oldest type of management, rather being satisfied with the
extent, and accepting for working use the name "Traditional" with
the generally accepted definition of that name.

management is called "Interim" or "Transitory" management. It
includes all management that is consciously passing into Scientific
Management and embraces all stages, from management that has
incorporated one scientifically derived principle, to management
that has adopted all but one such principle.

"Transitory" is slightly preferable in that, though the element of
temporariness is present in both words, it is more strongly
emphasized in the latter. The usual habit of associating with it the
ideas of "fleeting, evanescent, ephemeral, momentary, short-lived,"
may have an influence on hastening the completion of the installing
of Scientific Management.

management is called "Ultimate," "measured Functional," or
"Scientific," management, and might also be called,--but for the
objection of Dr. Taylor, the "Taylor Plan of Management." This
differs from the first two types mentioned in that it is a definite
plan of management synthesized from scientific analysis of the data
of management. In other words, Scientific Management is that
management which is a science, i.e., which operates according to
known, formulated, and applied laws.[13]

"Ultimate" has, especially to the person operating under the
transitory stage, all the charm and inspiration of a goal. It has
all the incentives to accomplishment of a clearly circumscribed
task. Its very definiteness makes it seem possible of attainment. It
is a great satisfaction to one who, during a lifetime of managing
effort, has tried one offered improvement after another to be
convinced that he has found the right road at last. The name is,
perhaps, of greatest value in attracting the attention of the
uninformed and, as the possibilities of the subject can fulfill the
most exacting demands, the attention once secured can be held.

    The name "measured functional" is the most descriptive, but
demands the most explanation. The principle of functionalization is
one of the underlying, fundamental principles of Scientific
Management. It is not as necessary to stop to define it here, as it
is necessary to discuss the definition, the principle, and the
underlying psychology, at length later.

    The name "scientific" while in some respects not as appropriate
as are any of the other names, has already received the stamp of
popular approval. In derivation it is beyond criticism. It also
describes exactly, as has been said, the difference between the
older forms of management and the new. Even its "fringe" of
association is, or at least was when first used, all that could be
desired; but the name is, unfortunately, occasionally used
indiscriminately for any sort of system and for schemes of operation
that are not based on time study. It has gradually become identified
more or less closely with

    1. the Taylor Plan of Management
    2. what we have defined as the "Transitory" plan of
    3. management which not only is not striving to be
       scientific, but which confounds "science" with "system."
       Both its advocates and opponents have been guilty of
       misuse of the word. Still, in spite of this, the very fact
       that the word has had a wide use, that it has become
       habitual to think of the new type of management as
       "Scientific," makes its choice advisable. We shall use it,
       but restrict its content. With us "Scientific Management"
       is used to mean the complete Taylor plan of management,
       with no modifications and no deviations.

    We may summarize by saying that:

    1. the popular name is Scientific Management,
    2. the inspiring name is Ultimate management,
    3. the descriptive name is measured Functional management,
    4. the distinctive name is the Taylor Plan of Management.

    For the purpose of this book, Scientific Management is, then,
the most appropriate name. Through its use, the reader is enabled to
utilize all his associations, and through his study he is able to
restrict and order the content of the term.

foregoing definitions and descriptions it will be clear that the
three types of management are closely related. Three of the names
given bring out this relationship most clearly. These are
Traditional (i.e., Primitive), Interim, and Ultimate. These show,
also, that the relationship is genetic, i.e., that the second form
grows out of the first, but passes through to the third. The growth
is evolutional.

    Under the first type, or in the first stage of management, the
laws or principles underlying right management are usually unknown,
hence disregarded.

    In the second stage, the laws are known and installed as fast as
functional foremen can be taught their new duties and the
resistances of human nature can be overcome.[14]

    In the third stage the managing is operated in accordance with
the recognized laws of management.

of the knowledge and of the desire for it can scarcely be
overestimated. This again makes plain the value of the psychological
study of management.

psychological study of management, it would be possible to take up
the three types as defined above, separately and in order, and to
discuss the place of the mind in each, at length; but such a
method would not only result in needless repetition, but also in
most difficult comparisons when final results were to be deduced
and formulated.

    It would, again, be possible to take up the various elements or
divisions of psychological study as determined by a consensus of
psychologists, and to illustrate each in turn from the three types
of management; but the results from any such method would be apt
to seem unrelated and impractical, i.e., it would be a lengthy
process to get results that would be of immediate, practical use
in managing.

seemed best to base the discussion that is to follow upon arbitrary
divisions of scientific management, that is--

    1. To enumerate the underlying principles on which scientific
       management rests.
    2. To show in how far the other two types of management vary
       from Scientific Management.
    3. To discuss the psychological aspect of each principle.

    ADVANTAGES OF THIS PLAN OF STUDY.--In this way the reader can
gain an idea of

    1. The relation of Scientific Management to the other types
       of management.
    2. The structure of Scientific Management.
    3. The relation between the various elements of Scientific
    4. The psychology of management in general, and of the three
       types of management in particular.

underlying ideas are grouped under nine divisions, as follows:--

    1. Individuality.
    2. Functionalization.
    3. Measurement.
    4. Analysis and Synthesis.
    5. Standardization.
    6. Records and Programmes.
    7. Teaching.
    8. Incentives.
    9. Welfare.

    It is here only necessary to enumerate these divisions. Each
will be made the subject of a chapter.

    DERIVATION OF THESE DIVISIONS.--These divisions lay no claim to
being anything but underlying ideas of Scientific Management, that
embrace varying numbers of established elements that can easily be
subjected to the scrutiny of psychological investigation.

    The discussion will be as little technical as is possible, will
take nothing for granted and will cite references at every step.
This is a new field of investigation, and the utmost care is
necessary to avoid generalizing from insufficient data.

speculation as to the age and origin of Scientific Management. The
results of this are interesting, but are not of enough practical
value to be repeated here. Many ideas of Scientific Management can
be traced back, more or less clearly and directly, to thinkers of
the past; but the Science of Management, as such, was discovered,
and the deduction of its laws, or "principles," made possible when
Dr. Frederick W. Taylor discovered and applied Time Study. Having
discovered this, he constructed from it and the other fundamental
principles a complete whole.

    Mr. George Iles in that most interesting and instructive of
books, "Inventors at Work,"[15] has pointed out the importance, to
development in any line of progress or science, of measuring devices
and methods. Contemporaneous with, or previous to, the discovery of
the device or method, must come the discovery or determination of
the most profitable unit of measurement which will, of itself, best
show the variations in efficiency from class. When Dr. Taylor
discovered units of measurement for determining, _prior to
performance_, the amount of any kind of work that a worker could do
and the amount of rest he must have during the performance of that
work, then, and not until then, did management become a science. On
this hangs the science of management.[16]

    OUTLINE OF METHOD OF INVESTIGATION.--In the discussion of each
of the nine divisions of Scientific Management, the following topics
must be treated:

    1. Definition of the division and its underlying idea.
    2. Appearance and importance of the idea in Traditional and
       Transitory Management.
    3. Appearance and importance of the idea in Scientific
    4. Elements of Scientific Management which show the effects
       of the idea.
    5. Results of the idea upon work and workers.

    These topics will be discussed in such order as the particular
division investigated demands. The psychological significance of the
appearance or non-appearance of the idea, and of the effect of the
idea, will be noted. The results will be summarized at the close of
each chapter, in order to furnish data for drawing conclusions at
the close of the discussion.

    CONCLUSIONS TO BE REACHED.--These conclusions will include
the following:--

    1. "Scientific Management" is a science.
    2. It alone, of the Three Types of Management, is a science.
    3. Contrary to a widespread belief that Scientific Management
       kills individuality, it is built on the basic principle of
       recognition of the individual, not only as an economic
       unit but also as a personality, with all the
       idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person.
    4. Scientific Management fosters individuality by
       functionalizing work.
    5. Measurement, in Scientific Management, is of ultimate
       units of subdivision.
    6. These measured ultimate units are combined into methods of
       least waste.
    7. Standardization under Scientific Management applies to all
    8. The accurate records of Scientific Management make
       accurate programmes possible of fulfillment.
    9. Through the teaching of Scientific Management the
       management is unified and made self-perpetuating.
   10. The method of teaching of Scientific Management is a
       distinct and valuable contribution to Education.
   11. Incentives under Scientific Management not only stimulate
       but benefit the worker.
   12. It is for the ultimate as well as immediate welfare of
       the worker to work under Scientific Management.
   13. Scientific Management is applicable to all fields of
       activity, and to mental as well as physical work.
   14. Scientific Management is applicable to self-management as
       well as to managing others.
   15. It teaches men to coöperate with the management as well
       as to manage.
   16. It is a device capable of use by all.
   17. The psychological element of Scientific Management is the
       most important element.
   18. Because Scientific Management is psychologically right it
       is the ultimate form of management.
   19. This psychological study of Scientific Management
       emphasizes especially the teaching features.
   20. Scientific Management simultaneously

       a. increases output and wages and lowers costs.
       b. eliminates waste.
       c. turns unskilled labor into skilled.
       d. provides a system of self-perpetuating welfare.
       e. reduces the cost of living.
       f. bridges the gap between the college trained and
          the apprenticeship trained worker.
       g. forces capital and labor to coöperate and to
          promote industrial peace.

CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES: ===============================================

 1. Charles Babbage, _Economy of Manufacturers._ Preface, p. v.
 2. Halbert P. Gillette, Paper No. 1, American Society of
    Engineering Contractors.
 3. Gillette and Dana, _Cost Keeping and Management_, p. 5.
 4. F.B. Gilbreth, _Motion Study_, p. 98.
 5. F.W. Taylor, _Principles of Scientific Management_, p. 144.
 6. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 16, Am. Soc. M.E., Paper
    No. 1003.
 7. William James, _Psychology_, Vol. I, p. 258.
 8. F.B. Gilbreth, _Cost Reducing System_, Chap. 1.
 9. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, _Bulletin No. 5 of the Carnegie
    Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching_, p. 17.
10. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 234, Am. Soc. M.E., Paper
    No. 1003.
11. F.W. Taylor, _Principles of Scientific Management_, pp. 33-38.
12. The idea called to mind by the use of a given word.--_Ed._
13. Henry R. Towne, Introduction to _Shop Management_. (Harper &
14. F.W. Taylor, _Principles of Scientific Management_, p. 123.
    (Harper & Bros.)
15. Doubleday, Page & Co.
16. F.W. Taylor, _Principles of Scientific Management_, p. 137.
    (Harper & Bros.)


                               CHAPTER II


    DEFINITION OF INDIVIDUALITY.--"An individual is a single thing,
a being that is, or is regarded as, a unit. An individual is opposed
to a crowd. Individual action is opposed to associate action.
Individual interests are opposed to common or community interests."
These definitions give us some idea of the extent of individuality.
Individuality is a particular or distinctive characteristic of an
individual; "that quality or aggregate of qualities which
distinguishes one person or thing from another, idiosyncrasy." This
indicates the content.

    For our purpose, we may define the study of individuality
as a consideration of the individual as a unit with special
characteristics. That it is a _unit_ signifies that it is one of
many and that it has likeness to the many. That it has _special
characteristics_ shows that it is one of many, but different from
the many. This consideration of individuality emphasizes both the
common element and the diverging characteristics.

individuality is the subject of this chapter. The utilization of
this individuality in its deviation from class, is the subject of
the chapter that follows, Functionalization.

always emphasized the importance of the individual as a unit for
study. Prof. Ladd's definition of psychology, quoted and endorsed by
Prof. James, is "the description and explanation of states of
consciousness, as such."[1] "By states of consciousness," says
James, "are meant such things as sensation, desires, emotions,
cognitions, reasonings, decisions, volitions, and the like." This
puts the emphasis on such divisions of consciousness as,
"attention," "interest," and "will."

    With the day of experimental psychology has come the importance
of the individual self as a subject of study,[2] and psychology has
come to be defined, as Calkins defines it, as a "science of the self
as conscious."[3]

    We hear much in the talk of today of the "psychology of the
crowd," the "psychology of the mob," and the "psychology of the
type," etc., but the mind that is being measured, and from whose
measurements the laws are being deduced and formulated is, at the
present the _individual_ mind.[4]

    The psychology which interested itself particularly in studying
such divisions of mental activity as attention, will, habit, etc.,
emphasizes more particularly the likenesses of minds. It is
necessary to understand thoroughly all of these likenesses before
one can be sure what the differences, or idiosyncrasies, are, and
how important they are, because, while the likenesses furnish the
background, it is the differences that are most often actually
utilized by management. These must be determined in order to compute
and set the proper individual task for the given man from standard
data of the standard, or first-class man.

    In any study of the individual, the following facts must
be noted:--

    1. The importance of the study of the individual, and the
       comparatively small amount of work that has as yet been
       done in that field.
    2. The difficulty of the study, and the necessity for great
       care, not only in the study itself, but in deducing laws
       from it.
    3. The necessity of considering any one individual trait as
       modified by all the other traits of the individual.
    4. The importance of the individual as distinct from the

    Many students are so interested in studying types and deducing
laws which apply to types in general, that they lose sight of the
fact that the individual is the basis of the study,--that
individuality is that for which they must seek and for which they
must constantly account. As Sully says, we must not emphasize
"_typical developments_ in a new individual," at the expense of
"typical development _in a new individual_."[5] It is the fact that
the development occurs in an individual, and not that the
development is typical, that we should emphasize.

MANAGEMENT.--Under Traditional Management there was little or no
systematized method for the recognition of individuality or
individual fitness.[6] The worker usually was, in the mind of the
manager, one of a crowd, his only distinguishing mark being the
amount of work which he was capable of performing.

men to do work, there was little or no attempt to study the
individuals who applied for work. The matter of selection was more
of a process of "guess work" than of exact measurement, and the
highest form of test was considered to be that of having the man
actually tried out by being given a chance at the work itself. There
was not only a great waste of time on the work, because men unfitted
to it could not turn it out so successfully, but there also was a
waste of the worker, and many times a positive injury to the worker,
by his being put at work which he was unfitted either to perform, to
work at continuously, or both.

    In the most progressive type of Traditional Management there was
usually a feeling, however, that if the labor market offered even
temporarily a greater supply than the work in hand demanded, it was
wise to choose those men to do the work who were best fitted for it,
or who were willing to work for less wages. It is surprising to find
in the traditional type, even up to the present day, how often men
were selected for their strength and physique, rather than for any
special capabilities fitting them for working in, or at, the
particular line of work to be done.

Traditional Management especially on day work the output of the men
was not usually separated, nor was the output recorded separately,
as can be done even with the work of gangs.

ever, was an individual task set for a worker on day work, or piece
work, and even if one were set, it was not scientifically
determined. The men were simply set to work alone or in gangs, _as
the work demanded_, and if the foreman was overworked or lazy,
allowed to take practically their own time to do the work. If, on
the other hand, the foreman was a "good driver," the men might be
pushed to their utmost limit of their individual undirected speed,
regardless of their welfare.

having a clear idea either of the present fitness and the future
possibilities of the worker, or the requirements of the work, no
intelligent attempt could be made at efficient individual teaching.
What teaching was done was in the form of directions for all,
concerning the work in general, the directions being given by an
overworked foreman, the holding of whose position often depended
more upon whether his employer made money than upon the way his men
were taught, or worked.

typical example of disregard of individuality, the worker in the
household may be cited, and especially the "general housework girl."
Selected with no knowledge of her capabilities, and with little or
no scientific or even systematized knowledge of the work that she is
expected to do, there is little or no thought of a prescribed and
definite task, no teaching specially adapted to the individual needs
of the taught, and no reward in proportion to efficiency.

lies not in any desire of the managers to do poor or wasteful work,
or to treat their workers unfairly,--but in a lack of knowledge and
of accurate methods for obtaining, conserving and transmitting
knowledge. Under Traditional Management no one individual knows
precisely what is to be done. Such management seldom knows how work
could best be done;--never knows how much work each individual can
do.[7] Understanding neither work nor workers, it can not adjust the
one to the other so as to obtain least waste. Having no conception
of the importance of accurate measurement, it has no thought of the
individual as a unit.

Recognition of individuality is one of the principles first apparent
under Transitory Management.

    This is apt to demonstrate itself first of all in causing the
outputs of the workers to "show up" separately, rewarding these
separated outputs, and rewarding each worker for his individual

    BENEFITS OF THIS RECOGNITION.--The benefits of introducing these
features first are that the worker, (1) seeing his individual
output, is stimulated to measure it, and (2) receiving compensation
in accordance with his output, is satisfied; and (3) observing that
records are necessary to determine the amount of output and pay, is
glad to have accurate measurement and the other features of
Scientific Management introduced.

MANAGEMENT.--Under Scientific Management the individual is the unit
to be measured. Functionalization is based upon utilizing the
particular powers and special abilities of each man. Measurement is
of the individual man and his work. Analysis and synthesis build up
methods by which the individual can best do his work. Standards are
of the work of an individual, a standard man, and the task is always
for an individual, being that percentage of the standard man's task
that the particular individual can do. Records are of individuals,
and are made in order to show and reward individual effort. Specific
individuals are taught those things that they, individually,
require. Incentives are individual both in the cases of rewards and
punishments, and, finally, it is the welfare of the individual
worker that is considered, without the sacrifice of any for the good
of the whole.

Management individuality is considered in selecting workers as it
could not be under either of the other two forms of management. This
for several reasons:

    1. The work is more specialized, hence requires more
       carefully selected men.
    2. With standardized methods comes a knowledge to the
       managers of the qualifications of the "standard men" who
       can best do the work and continuously thrive.
    3. Motion study, in its investigation of the worker, supplies
       a list of variations in workers that can be utilized in
       selecting men.[8]

    VARIABLES OF THE WORKER.--This list now includes at least 50 or
60 variables, and shows the possible elements which may demand
consideration. When it is remembered that the individual selected
may need a large or small proportion of most of the variables in
order to do his particular work most successfully, and that every
single one of these variables, as related to the others, may, in
some way affect his output and his welfare in doing his assigned
work, the importance of taking account of individuality in selection
is apparent.

best of management is by no means at its ultimate stage in practice
in this field. This, not because of a lack in the laws of
management, but because, so far, Scientific Management has not
received proper support from other lines of activity.

who apply to the Industries for positions have no scientifically
determined idea of their own capabilities, neither has there been
any effort in the training or experience of most of those who apply
for work for the first time to show them how fit they really are to
do the work which they wish to do.

worker can be scientifically selected so that his individuality can
be appreciated, Scientific Management must be supplemented in
two ways:--

    1. By psychological and physiological study of workers under
       it. By such study of the effect of various kinds of
       standardized work upon the mind and body, standard
       requirements for men who desire to do the work can be
    2. By scientific study of the worker made before he comes
       into the Industries, the results of which shall show his
       capabilities and possibilities.[9]

    WHENCE THIS HELP MUST COME.--This study must be made

       a. In the Vocational Guidance Work.
       b. In the Academic Work,

and in both fields psychological and physiological
investigations are called for.

Bureaus are, at present, doing a wonderful work in their line. This
work divides itself into two parts:

    1. Determining the capabilities of the boy, that is, seeing
       what he is, by nature and training, best fitted to do.
    2. Determining the possibilities of his securing work in the
       line where he is best fitted to work, that is, studying
       the industrial opportunities that offer, and the "welfare"
       of the worker under each, using the word welfare in the
       broadest sense, of general wellbeing, mental, physical,
       moral and financial.

    WORK OF ACADEMIC WORLD.--The Academic World is also, wherever it
is progressive, attempting to study the student, and to develop him
so that he can be the most efficient individual. Progressive
educators realize that schools and colleges must stand or fall, as
efficient, as the men they train become successful or unsuccessful
in their vocations, as well as in their personal culture.

complementary lines of activity, as in Scientific Management itself,
the need for psychological study is evident.[10] Through it, only,
can scientific progress come. Here is emphasized again the
importance of measurement. Through accurate measurement of the mind
and the body only can individuality be recognized, conserved and
developed as it should be.

psychology has instruments of precision with which to measure and
test the minds and bodies brought to it, and its leading exponents
are so broadening the scope of its activities that it is ready and
glad to plan for investigations.

Management, the minds of the workers,--and of the managers
too,--will have been studied, and the results recorded from earliest
childhood. This record, made by trained investigators, will enable
vocational guidance directors to tell the child what he is fitted to
be, and thus to help the schools and colleges to know how best to
train him, that is to say, to provide what he will need to know to
do his life work, and also those cultural studies that his
vocational work may lack, and that may be required to build out his
best development as an individual.

    It is not always recognized that even the student who can afford
to postpone his technical training until he has completed a general
culture course, requires that his culture course be carefully
planned. Not only must he choose those general courses that will
serve as a foundation for his special study, and that will broaden
and enrich his study, but also he must be provided with a
counter-balance,--with interests that his special work might never
arouse in him. Thus the field of Scientific Management can be
narrowed to determining and preparing standard plans for standard
specialized men, and selecting men to fill these places from
competent applicants.

    What part of the specialized training needed by the special work
shall be given in schools and what in the industries themselves can
be determined later. The "twin apprentice" plan offers one solution
of the problem that has proved satisfactory in many places. The
psychological study should determine through which agency knowledge
can best come at any particular stage of mental growth.

greater length under "Incentives," Scientific Management aims in
every way to encourage initiative. The outline here given as to how
men must, ultimately, under Scientific Management, be selected
serves to show that, far from being "made machines of," men are
selected to reach that special place where their individuality can
be recognized and rewarded to the greatest extent.

day, the most that Scientific Management can do, in the average
case, is to determine the type of men needed for any particular kind
of work, and then to select that man who seems, from such
observations as can be made, best to conform to the type. The
accurate knowledge of the requirements of the work, and the
knowledge of variables of the worker make even a cursory observation
more rich in results than it would otherwise be. Even such an
apparently obvious observation, as that the very fact that a man
claims that he can do the work implies desire and will on his part
to do it that may overcome many natural lacks,--even this is an
advance in recognizing individuality.

    EFFECT OF THIS SELECTION.--The result of this scientific
selection of the workman is not only better work, but also, and more
important from the psychological side, the development of his
individuality. It is not always recognized that the work itself is a
great educator, and that acute cleverness in the line of work to
which he is fitted comes to the worker.

Management the work of each man is arranged either so that his
output shows up separately and on the individual records, or, if the
Work is such that it seems best to do it in gangs, the output can
often be so recorded that the individual's output can be computed
from the records.

    PURPOSE OF SEPARATING OUTPUTS.--The primary purpose of
separating the output is to see what the man can do, to record this,
and to reward the man according to his work, but this separating of
output has also an individual result, which is even more important
than the result aimed at, and that is the development of

    Under Traditional Management and the usual "day work," much of
the work is done by gangs and is observed or recorded as of gangs.
Only now and then, when the work of some particular individual shows
up decidedly better or worse than that of his fellows, and when the
foreman or superintendent, or other onlooker, happens to observe
this is the individual appreciated, and then only in the most
inexact, unsystematic manner.

    Under Scientific Management, making individual output show up
separately allows of individual recording, tasks, teaching and

    EFFECT ON ATHLETIC CONTESTS.--Also, with this separation of the
work of the individual under Scientific Management comes the
possibility of a real, scientific, "athletic contest." This athletic
contest, which proves itself so successful in Traditional
Management, even when the men are grouped as gangs and their work is
not recorded or thought of separately, proves itself quite as
efficient or more efficient under Scientific Management, when the
work of the man shows up separately. It might be objected that the
old gang spirit, or it might be called "team" spirit, would
disappear with the separation of the work. This is not so, as will
be noted by a comparison to a baseball team, where each man has his
separate place and his separate work and where his work shows up
separately with separate records, such as "batting average" and
"fielding average." Team spirit is the result of being grouped
together against a common opponent, and it will be the same in any
sort of work when the men are so grouped, or given to understand
that they belong on the same side.

    The following twelve rules for an Athletic Contest under
Transitory System are quoted as exemplifying the benefits which
accrue to Individuality.

    1. Men must have square deal.
    2. Conditions must be similar.
    3. Men must be properly spaced and placed.
    4. Output must show up separately.
    5. Men must be properly started.
    6. Causes for delay must be eliminated.
    7. Pace maker must be provided.
    8. Time for rest must be provided.
    9. Individual scores must be kept and posted.
   10. "Audience" must be provided.
   11. Rewards must be prompt and provided for all
       good scores--not for winners only.
   12. Appreciation must be shown.[11]

    This list shows the effects of many fundamental principles of
Scientific Management,--but we note particularly here that over half
the rules demand that outputs be separated as a prerequisite.

    None of the benefits of the Athletic Contest are lost under
Scientific Management. The only restrictions placed are that the men
shall not be grouped according to any distinction that would cause
hatred or ill feeling, that the results shall be ultimately
beneficial to the workers themselves, and that all high scores shall
win high prizes.

    As will be brought out later under "Incentives," no competition
is approved under Scientific Management which speeds up the men
uselessly, or which brings any ill feeling between the men or any
feeling that the weaker ones have not a fair chance. All of these
things are contrary to Scientific Management, as well as contrary to
common sense, for it goes without saying that no man is capable of
doing his best work permanently if he is worried by the idea that he
will not receive the square deal, that someone stronger than he will
be allowed to cheat or to domineer over him, or that he will be
speeded up to such an extent that while his work will increase for
one day, the next day his work will fall down because of the effect
of the fatigue of the day before.

    The field of the contests is widened, as separating of the work
of the individual not only allows for competition between
individuals, but for the competition of the individual with his own
records. This competition is not only a great, constant and helpful
incentive to every worker, but it is also an excellent means of
developing individuality.

the managers of separating the work are that there is a chance to
know exactly who is making the high output, and that the spirit of
competition which prevails when men compare their outputs to their
own former records or others, leads to increased effort.

to the men:

    By separation of the individual work, not only is the man's work
itself shown, but at the same time the work of all other people is
separated, cut away and put aside, and he can locate the man who is
delaying him by, for example, not keeping him supplied with
materials. The man has not only an opportunity to concentrate, but
every possible incentive to exercise his will and his desire to do
things. His attention is concentrated on the fact that he as an
individual is expected to do his very best. He has the moral
stimulus of responsibility. He has the emotional stimulus of
competition. He has the mental stimulus of definiteness. He has,
most valuable of all, a chance to be an entity rather than one of an
undiscriminated gang. This chance to be an individual, or
personality, is in great contradistinction to the popular opinion of
Scientific Management, which thinks it turns men into machines. A
very simple example of the effect of the worker's seeing his output
show up separately in response to and in proportion to his effort
and skill is that of boys in the lumber producing districts chopping
edgings for fire wood. Here the chopping is so comparatively light
that the output increased very rapidly, and the boy delights to "see
his pile of fire wood grow."

    With the separation of the work comes not only the opportunity
for the men to see their own work, but also to see that of others,
and there comes with this the spirit of imitation, or the spirit of
friendly opposition, either of which, while valuable in itself is
even more valuable as the by-product of being a life-giving thought,
and of putting life into the work such as there never could be when
the men were working together, more or less objectless, because they
could not see plainly either what they were doing themselves, or
what others were doing.

    Separation of the output of the men gives them the greatest
opportunity to develop. It gives them a chance to concentrate their
attention at the work on which they are, because it is not necessary
for them to waste any time to find out what that work is. Their work
stands out by itself; they can put their whole minds to that work;
they can become interested in that work and its outcome, and they
can be positive that what they have done will be appreciated and
recognized, and that it will have a good effect, with no possibility
of evil effect, upon their chance for work and their chance for pay
and promotion in the future. Definiteness of the boundaries, then,
is not only good management in that it shows up the work and that it
allows each man to see, and each man over him, or observing him to
see exactly what has been done,--it has also an excellent effect
upon the worker's mind.

spirit of individuality is brought out still more clearly by the
fact that under Scientific Management, output is recorded
separately. This recording of the outputs separately is, usually,
and very successfully, one of the first features installed in
Transitory Management, and a feature very seldom introduced, even
unconscious of its worth, in day work under Traditional Management.
It is one of the great disadvantages of many kinds of work,
especially in this day, that the worker does only a small part of
the finished article and that he has a feeling that what he does is
not identified permanently with the success of the completed whole.
We may note that one of the great unsatisfying features to such arts
as acting and music, is that no matter how wonderful the performer's
efforts, there was no permanent record of them; that the work of the
day dies with the day. He can expect to live only in the minds and
hearts of the hearers, in the accounts of spectators, or in
histories of the stage.

    It is, therefore, not strange that the world's best actors and
singers are now grasping the opportunity to make their best efforts
permanent through the instrumentality of the motion picture films
and the talking machine records. This same feeling, minus the glow
of enthusiasm that at least attends the actor during the work, is
present in more or less degree in the mind of the worker.

    RECORDS MAKE WORK SEEM WORTH WHILE.--With the feeling that his
work is recorded comes the feeling that the work is really worth
while, for even if the work itself does not last, the records of it
are such as can go on.

individual output comes also the feeling of permanence, of credit
for good performance. This desire for permanence shows itself all
through the work of men in Traditional Management, for example--in
the stone cutter's art where the man who had successfully dressed
the stone from the rough block was delighted to put his own
individual mark on it, even though he knew that that mark probably
would seldom, if ever, be noticed again by anyone after the stone
was set in the wall. It is an underlying trait of the human mind
to desire this permanence of record of successful effort, and
fulfilling and utilizing this desire is a great gain of Scientific

for his satisfaction that the worker should see his records and
realize that his work has permanence, but also for comparison of his
work not only with his own record, but with the work of others. The
value of these comparisons, not only to the management but to the
worker himself, must not be underestimated. The worker gains mental
development and physical skill by studying these comparisons.

possibilities of mental development are still further increased when
the man makes his own records. This leads to closer attention, to
more interest in the work, and to a realization of the man as to
what the record really means, and what value it represents. Though
even a record that is made for him and is posted where he can see it
will probably result in a difference in his pay envelope, no such
progress is likely to occur as when the man makes his own record,
and must be conscious every moment of the time exactly where he

individual efficiency are comparatively easy to make when output is
separated. But even when work must be done by gangs or teams of men,
there is provision made in Scientific Management for recording this
gang work in such a way that either the output or the efficiency, or
both, of each man shows up separately. This may be done in several
ways, such as, for example, by recording the total time of delays
avoidable and unavoidable, caused by each man, and from this
computing individual records. This method of recording is
psychologically right, because the recording of the delay will serve
as a warning to the man, and as a spur to him not to cause delay to
others again.

    The forcefulness of the "don't" and the "never" have been
investigated by education. Undoubtedly the "do" is far stronger, but
in this particular case the command deduced from the records of
delay to others is, necessarily, in the negative form, and a study
of the psychological results proves most instructive.

training to the foremen, to the superintendents and to the managers
higher up, who study these records, as well as to the timekeepers,
recorders and clerks in the Time and Cost Department who make the
records, is obvious. There is not only the possibility of
appreciating and rewarding the worker, and thus stimulating him to
further activity, there is also, especially in the Transitory stage,
when men are to be chosen on whom to make Time Study observations,
an excellent chance to compare various methods of doing work and
their results.

recorded outputs is in the appreciation of the work of the
individual that becomes possible. First of all, appreciation by the
management, which to the worker must be the most important of all,
as it means to him a greater chance for promotion and for more pay.
This promotion and additional pay are amply provided for by
Scientific Management, as will be shown later in discussing
Incentives and Welfare.

    Not only is the work appreciated by the management and by the
man himself, but also the work becomes possible of appreciation by
others. The form of the record as used in Scientific Management, and
as introduced early in the transitory stage, makes it possible for
many beside those working on the job, if they take the pains to
consult the records, which are best posted in a conspicuous place on
the work, to know and appreciate what the worker is doing. This can
be best illustrated, perhaps, by various methods of recording output
on contracting work,--out-of-door work.

    The flag flown by the successful contestants in the athletic
contests, showing which gang or which individual has made the
largest output during the day previous, allows everyone who passes
to appreciate the attainment of that particular worker, or that
group of workers. The photographs of the "high priced men," copies
of which may be given to the workers themselves, allow the worker to
carry home a record and thus impress his family with what he has
done. Too often the family is unable by themselves to understand the
value of the worker's work, or to appreciate the effect of his home
life, food, and rest conditions upon his life work, and this entire
strong element of interest of the worker's family in his work is
often lost.

GENERAL.--Any study of Records of an individual's work again makes
clear that no one topic of Scientific Management can be properly
noted without a consideration of all other elements. The fact that
under Scientific Management the record with which the man most
surely and constantly competes is his own, as provided for by the
individual instruction card and the individual task; the fact that
under Scientific Management the man need be in no fear of losing his
job if he does his best; the fact that Scientific Management is
founded on the "square deal";--all of these facts must be kept
constantly in mind when considering the advantages of recording
individual output, for they all have a strong psychological effect
on the man's mind. It is important to remember that not only does
Scientific Management provide for certain directions and thoughts
entering the man's mind, but that it also eliminates other thoughts
which would surely have a tendency to retard his work. The result is
output far exceeding what is usually possible under Traditional
Management, because drawbacks are removed and impetuses added.

    The outcome of the records, and their related elements in other
branches of Scientific Management, is to arouse interest. Interest
arouses abnormally concentrated attention, and this in turn is the
cause of genius. This again answers the argument of those who claim
that Scientific Management kills individuality and turns the worker
into a machine.

also taken into consideration when preparing the task. This task
would always be for an individual, even in the case of the gang
instruction card. It usually recognizes individuality, in that,--

    1. It is prepared for one individual only, when possible.
    2. It is prepared for the particular individual who is
       to do it.

    The working time, as will be shown later, is based upon time
study observations on a standard man, but when a task is assigned
for a certain individual, that proportion of the work of the
standard or first class man is assigned to that particular given man
who is actually to do it, which he is able to do. It is fundamental
that the task must be such that the man who is actually put at it,
when he obeys orders and works steadily, can do it; that is, the
task must be achievable, and achievable without such effort as would
do mental or physical injury to the worker. This not only gives the
individual the proper amount of work to do, recognizes his
particular capabilities and is particularly adapted to him, but it
also eliminates all dread on the score of his not being appreciated,
in that the worker knows that if he achieves or exceeds his task he
will not only receive the wage for it, but will continue to receive
that wage, or more, for like achievement. The rate is not cut. Under
the "three-rate with increased rate system," which experience has
shown to be a most advanced plan for compensating workmen, the
worker receives one bonus for exactness as to methods, that is, he
receives one bonus if he does the task exactly as he is instructed
to do it as to methods; and a second bonus, or extra bonus, if he
completes his task in the allotted time. This not only assures
adequate pay to the man who is slow, but a good imitator, but also
to the man who, perhaps, is not such a good imitator, and must put
attention on the quality rather than the quantity of his performance.

task is embodied in an individual instruction card.

    In all work where it is possible to do so, the worker is given
an individual instruction card, even though his operations and rest
periods are also determined by a gang instruction card. This card
not only tells the man what he is to do, how he can best do it, and
the time that it is supposed to take him to do it,--but it bears
also the signature of the man who made it. This in order that if the
worker cannot fulfill the requirements of the card he may lose no
time in determining who is to give him the necessary instructions or
help that will result in his earning his large wages. More than
this, he must call for help from his assigned teachers, as is stated
in large type on a typical Instruction Card as follows: "When
instructions cannot be carried out, foreman must at once report to
man who signed this card."

    The signature of the man who made the card not only develops his
sense of individuality and responsibility, but helps create a
feeling of inter-responsibility between the workers in various parts
of the organization.

    THE GANG INSTRUCTION CARD.--A gang instruction card is used for
such work only as must be done by a group of men all engaged at the
work at once, or who are working at a dependent sequence of
operations, or both. This card contains but those portions of the
instructions for each man which refer to those elements which must
be completed before a following element, to be done by the next man
in the sequence, can be completed. Because of the nature of the
work, the gang instruction card must be put in the hands of a
leader, or foreman, whether or not it is also in the hands of each
of the individuals. The amount of work which can be required as a
set task for each individual member of the gang, the allowance for
rest for overcoming fatigue, the time that the rest periods must
occur, and the proper pay, are fully stated on the Individual
Instruction Cards.

length in the Chapter on Teaching, under Scientific Management
teaching is not only general, by "Systems," "Standing Orders," or
"Standard Practice," but also specific. Specialized teachers,
called, unfortunately for the emphasis desired to be put on
teaching, "functional foremen," help the individual worker to
overcome his peculiar difficulties.

    This teaching not only allows every worker to supplement his
deficiencies of disposition or experience, but the teachers' places
give opportunities for those who have a talent for imparting
knowledge to utilize and develop it.

    INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE AND WELFARE.--Finally, individual incentive
and individual welfare are not only both present, but interdependent.
Desire for individual success, which might lead a worker to respond
to the incentive till he held back perhaps the work of others,
is held in balance by interdependence of bonuses. This will be
explained in full in the Chapters on Incentives and Welfare.


Under Traditional Management, because of its frequent neglect of the
idea of individuality, work is often unsystematized, and high output
is usually the result of "speeding up" only, with constant danger of
a falling off in quality overbalancing men and injury to men and

    Under Transitory Management, as outputs are separated,
separately recorded, and as the idea of Individuality is embodied in
selecting men, setting tasks, the instruction cards, periods of
rest, teaching, incentives and welfare, output increases without
undue pressure on the worker.

    Under Scientific Management--with various elements which embody
individuality fully developed, output increases, to the welfare
of worker, manager, employer and consumer and with no falling off
in quality.

    EFFECT UPON THE WORKER.--The question of the effect upon the
worker of emphasis laid upon individuality, can perhaps best be
answered by asking and answering the following questions:--

    1. When, where, how, and how much is individuality
    2. What consideration is given to the relation of the mind to
       the body of the individual?
    3. What is the relative emphasis on consideration of
       individual and class?
    4. In how far is the individual the unit?
    5. What consideration is given to idiosyncrasies?
    6. What is the effect toward causing or bringing about
       development, that is, broadening, deepening and making
       the individual more progressive?

Management consideration of individuality is seldom present, but
those best forms of Traditional Management that are successful are
so because it is present. This is not usually recognized, but
investigation shows that the successful manager, or foreman, or
boss, or superintendent succeeds either because of his own
individuality or because he brings out to good advantage the
individual possibilities of his men. The most successful workers
under Traditional Management are those who are allowed to be
individuals and to follow out their individual bents of greatest
efficiency, instead of being crowded down to become mere members of
gangs, with no chance to think, to do, or to be anything but parts
of the gang.

    Under Transitory Management, and most fully under Scientific
Management, the spirit of individuality, far from being crowded out,
is a basic principle, and everything possible is done to encourage
the desire to be a personality.

    RELATION OF MIND TO BODY.--Under Traditional Management, where
men worked in the same employ for a long time, much consideration
was given to the relation of the mind to the body. It was realized
that men must not be speeded up beyond what they could do
healthfully; they must have good sleeping quarters and good, savory
and appetizing food to eat and not be fatigued unnecessarily, if
they were to become successful workers. More than this,
philanthropic employers often attempted to supply many kinds of
comfort and amusement.

    Under Transitory Management the physical and mental welfare are
provided for more systematically.

    Under Scientific Management consideration of the mind and body
of the workman, and his health, and all that that includes, is a
subject for scientific study and for scientific administration. As
shown later, it eliminates all discussion and troubles of so-called
"welfare work," because the interests of the employer and the worker
become identical and everything that is done becomes the concern
of both.

    Scientific Management realizes that the condition of the body
effects every possible mental process. It is one of the great
advantages of a study of the psychology of management that the
subject absolutely demands from the start, and insists in every
stage of the work, on this relationship of the body to the mind, and
of the surroundings, equipment, etc., of the worker to his work.

    It is almost impossible, in management, to separate the subject
of the worker from that of his work, or to think of the worker as
not working except in such a sense as "ceasing-from-work,"
"about-to-work," "resting to overcome fatigue of work," or "resting
during periods of unavoidable delays." The relation of the worker to
his work is constantly in the mind of the manager. It is for this
reason that not only does management owe much to psychology, but
that psychology, as applied to any line of study, will, ultimately,
be recognized as owing much to the science of management.

Management the gang, or the class, usually receives the chief
emphasis. If the individual developed, as he undoubtedly did, in
many kinds of mechanical work, especially in small organizations, it
was more or less because it was not possible for the managers to
organize the various individuals into classes or gangs. In the
transitory stage the emphasis is shifting. Under Scientific
Management the emphasis is most decidedly and emphatically upon the
individual as the unit to be managed, as has been shown.

    INDIVIDUAL AS THE UNIT.--Under Traditional Management the
individual was seldom the unit. Under Transitory Management the
individual is the unit, but there is not much emphasis in the early
stages placed upon his peculiarities and personalities. Under
Scientific Management the unit is always the individual, and the
utilizing and strengthening of his personal traits, special ability
and skill is a dominating feature.

    EMPHASIS ON IDIOSYNCRASIES.--Under Traditional Management there
is either no consideration given to idiosyncrasies, or too wide a
latitude is allowed. In cases where no consideration is given, there
is often either a pride in the managers in "treating all men alike,"
though they might respond better to different handling, or else the
individual is undirected and his personality manifests itself in all
sorts of unguided directions, many of which must necessarily be
wasteful, unproductive, or incomplete in development. Under
Scientific Management, functionalization, as will be shown, provides
for the utilization of all idiosyncrasies and efficient deviations
from class, and promotion is so planned that a man may develop along
the line of his chief ability. Thus initiative is encouraged and
developed constantly.

    DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALITY.--The development of individuality
is more sure under Scientific Management than it is under either of
the other two forms of management, (a) because this development is
recognized to be a benefit to the worker and to the employer and (b)
because this development as a part of a definite plan is provided
for and perfected scientifically.

CHAPTER II FOOTNOTES: ==============================================

 1. William James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 1.
 2. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems_, p. 34.
 3. Mary Whiton Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, p. 1.
 4. James Sully, _Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, p. 14.
 5. James Sully, _Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, p. 577.
 6. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 52.
 7. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, p. 25. (Harper & Bros.)
 8. F.B. Gilbreth, _Motion Study_, p. 7.
 9. L.B. Blan, _A Special Study of the Incidence of Retardation_,
    p. 89.
10. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems_, pp. 38-39.
11. F.B. Gilbreth, _Cost Reducing System_, Chap. III.


                            CHAPTER III


    DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION.--A function, says the Century
Dictionary, is--"The fulfilment or discharge of a set duty or
requirement, exercise of a faculty or office, or power of acting,
faculty,--that power of acting in a specific way which appertains to
a thing by virtue of its special constitution; that mode of action
or operation which is proper to any organ, faculty, office
structure, etc. (This is the most usual signification of the term)."

    "Functionalization" is not given in the Century Dictionary. The
nearest to it to be found there is "Functionality," which is defined
as--"The state of having or being a function." Functionalization as
here used means--the state of being divided into functions, or being
functionalized. "Functionalize" is given in the Century Dictionary,
defined as "to assign some office or function to"--the note being
made that it is rare. "Functionalize" may not be the best word that
could be used in this connection, but there seems to be no other
word in the English language which contains its full meaning,
therefore we will use the word here in the sense of assigning work
according to capacity or faculty. A faculty means--"A specific
power, mental or physical; a special capacity for any particular
kind of action or affection; natural capability."

in constant use by modern psychologists, especially by those who
believe that--"Psychology is the science of the self in relation to
environment,"[1] or that "Psychology is a scientific account of our
mental processes."[2] Sully defines a function as "a psychologically
simple process,"[3] and compares its elementariness to a muscular
contraction as an element of a step in walking.

    In investigating the principle of Functionalization as embodied
in various forms of Management, we must note that, while Management
can, and does under Scientific Management, attempt to functionalize
_work_ as far as possible, it will be impossible to come to ultimate
results until a psychological study of the requirement of the
work _from_ the worker, and results of the work _on_ the worker
is made.[4]

consists, to quote Dr. Taylor, "in so directing the work of
management that each man from the assistant superintendent down
shall have as few functions as possible to perform. If practicable,
the work of each man in the management should be confined to the
performance of a single leading function."[5]

    A study of functionalization as applied to management must
answer the following questions:

    1. How is the work divided?
    2. How are the workers assigned to the work?
    3. What are the results to the work?
    4. What are the results to the worker?

Management the principle of Functionalization was seldom applied or
understood. Even when the manager tried to separate planning from
performing, or so to divide the work that each worker could utilize
his special ability, there were no permanently beneficial results,
because there was no standard method of division.

foreman was not divided, but the well rounded man, as Dr. Taylor
says,[6] was supposed to have

    1. Brain
    2. Education
    3. Special or technical knowledge, manual dexterity or strength
    4. Tact
    5. Energy
    6. Grit
    7. Honesty
    8. Judgment, or common sense
    9. Good health.

    Dr. Taylor says--"Plenty of men who possess only three of the
above qualities can be hired at any time for laborer's wages. Add
four of these qualities together, and you get a higher priced man.
The man combining five of these qualities begins to be hard to find,
and those with 6, 7 and 8 are almost impossible to get."

    Yet, under Traditional Management these general qualities and
many points of specific training were demanded of the foreman. Dr.
Taylor has enumerated the qualifications or the duties of a gang
boss in charge of lathes or planers.[7] Careful reading of this
enumeration will show most plainly that the demands made were almost
impossible of fulfillment.[8]

    Another list which is interesting is found in "Cost Reducing
System," a long list of the duties of the Ideal Superintendent or
foreman in construction work.[9]

                        FIRST CLASS FOREMAN

    A first class foreman must have:
      common sense
      good health
      good judgment
      manual dexterity
      special knowledge
      technical knowledge.

    He must be:
      able to concentrate his mind upon small things
      able to read drawings readily
      able to visualize the work at every stage of its progress,
        and even before it begins
      a master of detail
      master of at least one trade.

    His duties consist of:
      considering broad policies.
      considering new applicants for important positions.
      considering the character and fitness of the men.
      determining a proper day's work.
      determining costs.
      determining the method of compensation.
      determining the sequence of events for the best results.
      disciplining the men.
      dividing the men into gangs for speed contests.
      fixing piece and day rates.
      getting rid of inferior men.
      handling relations with the unions.
      hiring good men.
      installing such methods and devices as will detect dishonesty.
      instructing the workman.
      keeping the time and disciplining those who are late or absent.
      laying out work.
      looking ahead to see that there are men enough for future work.
      looking ahead to see that there is enough future work for the men.
      making profits.
      measuring each man's effort fairly.
      obtaining good results in quality.
      paying the men on days when they are discharged.
      paying the men on pay day.
      preventing soldiering.
      readjusting wages.
      retaining good men.
      seeing that all men are honest.
      seeing that men are shifted promptly when breakdowns occur.
      seeing that repairs are made promptly before breakdowns occur,
      seeing that repairs are made promptly after breakdowns occur.
      seeing that the most suitable man is allotted to each part
        of the work.
      seeing that the work is not slighted.
      setting piece work prices.
      setting rates.
      setting tasks.
      supervising timekeeping.
      teaching the apprentices.
      teaching the improvers.
      teaching the learners.

    In studying these lists we note--

    1. That the position will be best filled by a very high and
       rare type of man.
    2. That the man is forced to use every atom of all of his
       powers and at the same time to waste his energies in doing much
       unimportant pay reducing routine work, some of which could be
       done by clerks.
    3. That in many cases the work assigned for him to do calls
       for qualifications which are diametrically opposed to each other.
    4. That psychology tells us that a man fitted to perform some
       of these duties would probably be mentally ill fitted for
       performing others in the best possible way that they could be

    WORK NOT WELL DONE.--Not only does the foreman under Traditional
Management do a great deal of work which can be done by cheaper men,
but he also wastes his time on clerical work in which he is not a
specialist, and, therefore, which he does not do as well as the work
can be done by a cheaper man, and this takes more of his time than
he ought to devote to it. The result is that the work is not done as
well as it can and should be done.

    A most perfect illustration of a common form of Traditional
Management is the old story of the foreman, who, in making his
rounds of the various parts of the work, comes to the deep hole
being excavated for a foundation pier and says hurriedly--"How many
of yez is there in the hole?" "Seven." "The half of yez come up."

    The theoretical defects of the old type of management often seen
before the advent of the trained engineer on the work include:--

     1. lack of planning ahead.
     2. an overworked foreman.
     3. no functionalizing of the work.
     4. no standards of individual efficiency.
     5. unmeasured individual outputs.
     6. no standard methods.
     7. no attempt at teaching.
     8. inaccurate directions.
     9. lack of athletic contests.
    10. no high pay for extra efficiency.
    11. poor investigation of workers' special capabilities.

    In spite of the fact that under unfunctionalized management the
foreman has far more to do than he can expect to do well, the
average foreman thinks that he belongs to a class above his
position. This is partly because the position is so unstandardized
that it arouses a sense of unrest, and partly because he has to
spend much of his time at low priced functions.

    Under the feeling of enmity, or at least, of opposition, which
often exists, openly or secretly, between the average Traditional
Management and men, the foreman must ally himself with one side or
the other. If he joins with the men, he must countenance the
soldiering, which they find necessary in order to maintain their
rates of wages. Thus the output of the shop will seldom increase and
his chance for appreciation and promotion by the management will
probably be slight and slow. His position as boss, combined with
that of ally of the men, is awkward.

    If he allies himself to the management, he must usually become a
driver of the men, if he wishes to increase output. This condition
will never be agreeable to him unless he has an oversupply of brute

    THE WORKERS NOT BEST UTILIZED.--Under the best types of
Traditional Management we do find more or less spasmodic attempts at
the functionalization of the worker. When there was any particular
kind of work to be done, the worker who seemed to the manager to be
the best fitted, was set at that kind of work. For example--if there
was a particularly heavy piece of work he might say--"Let A do it
because he is strong." If there was a particularly fine piece of
work to be done he might say--"Let B do it because he is specially
skilled." If there was a piece of work to be done which required
originality, he might say--"Let C do it for the reason that he is
inventive and resourceful;" but, in most cases, when the particular
job on hand was finished, the worker selected to do it returned to
other classes of work, and such special fitness or capability as he
had, was seldom systematically utilized, or automatically assigned
to his special function, neither was such experience as he had
gained systematically conserved. Moreover, no such study of the work
to be done had been made as would prove that the assignment of that
particular worker to the work was right. The psychology of this was
entirely wrong,--not only had no such study of the general and
particular characteristics, traits, faculties, and talents of the
man been made as would prove that he was the right man to be
assigned, but the mere fact that he possessed one quality necessary
for the work, if he really did possess it, was no sign that the
other qualities which he possessed might not make him the wrong man
to be chosen. Even if the man did happen to be assigned to work for
which he was particularly suited, unless provision were made to keep
him at such work only, to keep him well supplied with work, to allow
time for rest, and to provide proper pay, he could not utilize his
capabilities to the fullest extent.

Management, management becomes gradually more and more functionalized.
With separated outputs and separate records, the worker's
capabilities become apparent, and he can be assigned to the
standardized positions which gradually evolve. Every recognition of
individuality carries with it a corresponding functionalization of
men and work.

Scientific Management comes the realization that with close study
and with functionalization only, can that provision and assignment
of the work which is best for both work and worker be obtained. The
principle is applied to every part of management, and results in

    1. separating the planning from the performing.
    2. functionalizing foremen.
    3. functionalizing workers.
    4. assigning competent workers to fitting work.

separating the planning from the performing in Scientific Management
cannot be over-estimated. It is a part of Dr. Taylor's fourth
principle of Scientific Management, "Almost equal division of the
work and the responsibility between the management and the
workmen."[10] The greatest outputs can be achieved to the greatest
benefit to managers and men when the work is divided, the management
undertaking that part of the work that it is best fitted to do, the
workmen performing that part which they are best fitted to do.

    THE WORK OF THE PLANNING DEPARTMENT.--It has been determined by
actual experience that the line of division most agreeable to the
managers and the workmen and most productive of coöperation by both,
as well as most efficient in producing low costs, is that which
separates the planning from the performing. Under Scientific
Management the Planning Department relieves the man of determining--

    1. what work is to be done.
    2. sequence in which it is to be done.
    3. method by which it shall be done.
    4. where it shall be done.
    5. which men shall do it.
    6. time that it shall take.
    7. exact quality of product.
    8. quantity of additional pay that shall be given for doing it.

    WORK OF THE WORKERS.--The men are simply given standard tasks to
do, with teachers to help them, and a standard wage according to
performance as a reward. There are but three things expected
of them:--

    1. coöperation with the management in obtaining the prescribed
       work, method and quality.
    2. the exercise of their ingenuity in making improvements
       after they have learned the standard prescribed practice.
    3. the fitting of themselves for higher pay and promotion.

    FUNCTIONALIZED FOREMANSHIP.--The work that, under Scientific
Management, is usually done by one man, the Foreman, is subdivided
into eight or more functions. These functions are assigned to the
following functional foremen:[11]

    Planning Department
    1. Order of work and route man
    2. Instruction card man
    3. Cost and time clerk
    4. Disciplinarian

    Performing Department
    5. Gang boss
    6. Speed boss
    7. Repair boss
    8. Inspector

    Each of the above functions may be in charge of a separate man,
or one man may be in charge of several functions, or several men may
do the work of one function; the work being divided between them in
some cases by further functionalizing it,--and in others by
separating it into similar parts. Which of these conditions is most
effective depends on the size of the job, or the nature of the job
to be done. The important question is, not the number of men doing
the planning, but the fact that every foreman, so far as is
possible, is assigned to the special kind of work that he is best
fitted to do with the greatest elimination of unnecessary waste.

Scientific Management, must have three qualifications. He must be

    1. a specialist at the work that he is to do.
    2. a good observer, able to note minute variations of method,
       work, and efficiency.
    3. a good teacher.

    A comparison of these qualifications with those of the foreman
under Traditional Management, will show as important changes,--

    1. the particular place in the field of knowledge in which
       the foreman must specialize.
    2. the change in the type of criticism expected from the
    3. the far greater emphasis placed on duties as a teacher.

The teaching feature of management,--the most important feature of
Scientific Management,--will be discussed in the Chapter on
Teaching. Only so much is included here as shows its derivation from
the principle of functionalization, and its underlying importance.

    Functionalization means specialization. This results in
coöperation between foremen, between foremen and workers, and
between workers. By "co-operate" is here meant not only "to work
together," but also "to work together to promote the object." This
coöperation persists not only because it is demanded by the work,
but also because it is insured by the inter-dependent bonuses.

    Functionalization under Scientific Management separates planning
from performing. This means that the specialists who plan must teach
the specialist who performs, this being the way in which they
co-operate to the greatest personal advantage to all.

    BASIS OF DIVISION INTO FUNCTIONS.--Under Scientific Management
divisions are made on the basis of underlying ideas. Functions are
not classified as they are embodied in particular men, but men are
classified as they embody particular functions. This allows of
standardization, through which alone can progress and evolution come
quickest. It is comparatively easy and simple to standardize a
function. Being a "set duty," it can be fixed, studied and
simplified. It is extremely difficult and complex to standardize an
individual. This standardizing of the function, however, in no wise
stunts individuality. On the contrary, it gives each individual a
chance to utilize his particular faculty for obtaining the greatest
efficiency, pleasure and profit. This is well illustrated in the
case of specialization in baseball, for excellence as a pitcher does
not stunt the player as a catcher.

    Functions may be subdivided as far as the nature of the work
demands. Note here, again, that it is the relative complexity or
simplicity of the nature of the work that is to be done that
determines the degree of its functionalization, not the number of
men employed at the work.

    Note, also, that with every subdivision of functions comes
greater opportunity for specialization, hence for individual

    PLACE OF OPERATION OF THE FUNCTIONS.--Four functions of the
eight find their place in the planning department. The other four
are out on the work. That is to say,--the men who represent four
functions work almost entirely in the planning room, while the men
who represent the other four functions work mostly among the
workers. This division is, however, largely a matter of convenience.
Three of the first four groups of men communicate with the workers
mostly in writing and are seldom engaged as observers, except in
obtaining data for the creation of standards, while the fourth is
often in the planning room. The last four usually communicate with
the men orally, and must observe and teach the worker constantly.

    In the descriptions that follow, each function is represented
as embodied in one man, this aiding simplicity and clearness in

    THE ORDER OF WORK AND ROUTE CLERK.--The Order of Work and Route
Clerk lays out the exact path of each piece of work, and determines
the sequence of events of moving and a general outline of
performance.[12] With the requirements of the work in mind, the most
efficient day's work for each worker is determined. The paths and
sequences of transportation are outlined by means of route charts
and route sheets showing graphical and detailed directions, which
are the means by which the foremen of the other functions are
enabled to coöperate with other foremen and with the workers.

    The work of this function requires a practical man, of the
successful foreman type, experienced in the class of work to be
executed, who is also familiar with the theories of Scientific
Management in general, and the work of the other foremen in
particular, and who has the faculty of visualization and well
developed constructive imagination. He must also have at his command
in systematic form, and available for immediate use, records of
previous experience.

    THE INSTRUCTION CARD CLERK.--The Instruction Card Clerk prepares
written directions for the workers as to what methods should be used
in doing the work, the sequence of performance of the elements of
the method, the speeds and action of the accompanying machinery, the
time that each element should take for its performance, the time
allowed for rest for overcoming fatigue caused by its performance,
and the total elapsed time allowed for performing all of the work on
the instruction card in order to obtain the unusually high
additional wages as a reward for his skill and coöperation.

    The work of this function requires the best available (but not
necessarily the fastest), practical experienced man in the trade
described, who also has had sufficient experience in motion study
and time study to enable him to write down the best known method for
doing the work described, and also prophesying the correct time that
the work and rest from its resulting fatigue will take. He must
supplement the instruction card with such sketches, drawings and
photographs as will best assist the worker to visualize his work
before and during its performance.

    FUNCTION OF TIME AND COST CLERK.--The work done by the Time and
Cost Clerk calls for accuracy and a love of statistical detail. It
will help him if he knows the trades with which he is coöperating,
but such knowledge is not absolutely essential. He will be promoted
fastest who has a knowledge of the theory of management, coupled
with the theory and practice of statistics and accountancy, for the
true costs must include knowledge of costs of materials, and the
distribution of the overhead burden of running expenses and selling.

    FUNCTION OF THE DISCIPLINARIAN.--The function of the
Disciplinarian must be discussed at length, both because of the
psychological effect upon the men of the manner of the discipline
and of the disciplinarian, and because of the fact that the
disciplinarian is the functional foreman of the four in the planning
department who comes in most personal contact with the workers, as
well as all of the other foremen, and the Superintendent.

    It is important to note, in the discussion that is to follow,
not only how disciplining is transformed as management develops
progressively, but also that the intimate acquaintance of
discipliner with disciplined is not done away with, but rather
supplemented by the standardizing which is the outcome of Scientific

    The defects of methods of disciplining under Traditional
Management are remedied, but here, as always, Scientific Management
retains and develops that which is good. This because the good in
the older forms conformed, unconsciously, to the underlying laws.

Traditional Management, the disciplining is done by the foreman;
that is, the punishment is meted out by the man who has charge of
all activities of the men under him. This is actually, in practice
and in theory, psychologically wrong. If there is one man who should
be in a state of mind that would enable him to judge dispassionately,
it is the disciplinarian. The man to be disciplined is usually
guilty of one of six offenses:

    1. an offense against an employé of a grade above him.
    2. an offense against an employé of the same grade.
    3. an offense against an employé of a grade below him.
    4. falling short in the quality of his work.
    5. falling short in the quantity of his work.
    6. an offense against the system (disobeying orders), falling
       down on schedule, or intentionally not coöperating.

    The employé over him, or the foreman, to whom he is supposed to
have done some injustice, would be in no state of mind to judge as
to the man's culpability. In the case of an offense against an
employé of the same grade, the best that the injured employé could
do would be to appeal to his foreman, who oftentimes is not an
unprejudiced judge, and the multiplicity of whose duties give him
little time to give attention to the subject of disciplining.

    If the offense is against quantity or quality of work, again the
old fashioned foreman, for lack of time, and for lack of training
and proper standards of measurement, will find it almost impossible
to know how guilty the man is, and what form of punishment and
what amount of punishment or loss of opportunity for progress will
be appropriate.

MANAGEMENT.--All this is changed under Scientific Management. The
disciplinarian is a specially appointed functional foreman, and has
few other duties except those that are directly or indirectly
connected with disciplining. He is in touch with the requirements of
the work, because he is in the Planning Department; he is in touch
with the employment bureau, and knows which men should be employed;
he has a determining voice in deciding elementary rate fixing and
should always be consulted before wages are changed or a
reassignment of duties is determined. All of these are great
advantages to him in deciding justly and appropriately punishments
and promotion, not for the workers alone but also for the foremen
and the managers.

    DUTIES OF THE DISCIPLINARIAN.--The Disciplinarian keeps a record
of each man's virtues and defects; he is in position to know all
about the man; where he comes from; what his natural and acquired
qualifications are; what his good points, possibilities and special
fitness are; what his wages are, and his need for them. All that it
is possible for the managers to know of the men is to be
concentrated in this disciplinarian. He is, in practice, more the
counsel and advocate of the worker than an unsympathetic judge, as
is indicated by the fact that his chief function is that of
"diplomat" and "peacemaker." His greatest duty is to see that the
"square deal" is meted out without fear or favor to employer or
to employé.

position of disciplinarian under Scientific Management answer the
psychological requirements for such a function, but also the holder
of the position of disciplinarian must understand psychology and
apply, at least unconsciously, and preferably consciously, the known
laws of psychology, if he wishes to be successful.

    The disciplinarian must consider not only what the man has done
and the relation of this act of his to his other acts; he must also
investigate the cause and the motive of the act, for on the cause
and motive, in reality, depends more than on the act itself. He must
probe into the physical condition of the man, as related to his
mental acts. He must note the effect of the same kind of discipline
under different conditions; for example, he must note that, on
certain types of people, disciplining in the presence of other
people has a most derogatory effect, just as rewards before people
may have a most advantageous effect. Upon others, discipline that is
meted out in the presence of other people is the only sort of
discipline which has the desired effect. The sensitiveness of the
person to be disciplined, the necessity for sharp discipline, and
for that particular sort of discipline which may require the element
of shame in it, must all be considered. He must be able to discover
and note whether the discipline should be meted out to a ringleader,
and whether the other employés, supposed to be blameworthy, are
really only guilty in acquiescing, or in failing to report one who
has really furnished the initiative. He must differentiate acts
which are the result of following a ringleader blindly from the
concerted acts of disobedience of a crowd, for the "mob spirit" is
always an element to be estimated and separately handled.

    INADEQUACY OF TERMS IN DISCIPLINING.--The words "disciplinarian"
and "punishment" are most unfortunate. The "Disciplinarian" would be
far better called the "peacemaker," and the "punishment" by some
such word as the "adjustment." It is _not_ the duty of the
disciplinarian to "take out anybody's grudge" against a man; it _is_
his duty to adjust disagreements. He must remember constantly that
his discipline must be of such a nature that the result will be for
the permanent best interests of the one disciplined, his co-workers,
his associates and his family.

    The aim is, not to put the man down, but to keep him up to his
standard, as will be shown later in a chapter on Incentives. If the
punishment is in the form of a fine, it must not in any way return
to the coffers of the management. The fines collected--even those
fines collected from the individuals composing the management,
should go in some form to the benefit of the men themselves, such,
for example, as contributions to a workman's sick benefit fund or to
general entertainment at the annual outing of employés. In practice,
the disciplinarian is rather the friend of the worker than of the
employer, if the two interests can possibly be separated. Again
"penalty" is a bad word to use. Any words used in this connection
should preferably have had taken from them any feeling that personal
prejudice affects the discipline. It is the nature of the offense
itself which should prescribe what the outcome of it shall be.

    The position of disciplinarian requires a man who has a keen
sense of justice, who has had such experience as to enable him to
smooth out difficulties until all are in a frame of mind where they
can look upon their own acts and the acts of others calmly. He must
be able so to administer his duties that each decision inspires the
realization that he acted to the best of his knowledge and belief.
He must be one who is fearless, and has no tendency to have
favorites. He must have a clear knowledge of the theories and
principles of Scientific Management, in order that he can fill the
position of enforcer of its laws.

    THE GANG BOSS.--The duties of The Gang Boss are to see that the
worker has plenty of work ahead, to see that everything that he will
need with which to do the work is at hand, and to see that the work
is actually "set," or placed and performed correctly. This position
calls for a practical demonstrator, who must himself be able and
willing actually to prepare and help on the work. It calls
particularly for a man with teaching ability, with special emphasis
on ability to teach, with great exactness, the prescribed method and
to follow the orders of the planning department implicitly.

    THE SPEED BOSS.--The speed boss is responsible for the methods
of doing work with machinery. He has charge of overseeing the work,
and teaching the worker, during the entire time that the work is
being done. He must be prepared constantly to demonstrate at any
time not only _how_ the work is done, but also that it can be done
in the specified time called for in order to earn the bonus. This
position calls for a man who is able, personally, to carry out the
detailed written orders of the instruction card in regard to speeds,
feeds, cuts, methods of operation, quality and quantity.

    He must be proficient at the art of imparting his knowledge to
other workmen, and at the same time be able to secure the prescribed
outputs and quantities. He need not be the fastest worker in the
shop, but he should be one of the most intelligent workers and best
teachers, with a keen desire to coöperate, both with the workers and
with the other foremen.

    THE REPAIR BOSS.--The repair boss has charge of the plant and
its maintenance. He must have a natural love of order and of
cleanliness, and a systematic type of mind. This position calls for
a man with an experience that will enable him to detect liability of
breakdowns before they actually occur. He must be resourceful in
repairing unexpected breakdowns in an emergency, and be able at all
times to carry out literally the directions given on the instruction
cards of the Planning Department for cleaning, maintaining, and
repairing the machines.

    THE INSPECTOR.--The function of inspector under scientific or
the Taylor plan of management is most important, especially in
connection with the "first inspection." During the manufacture of
the first piece and after it is finished the inspector passes and
reports upon it before the worker proceeds with the other pieces.
Here the worker gets a return in person for each successive act on
the first piece he makes under a new instruction card, or, if he is
a new worker, under an old instruction card. Ambiguity of
instructions, if present, is thus eliminated, and wrong actions or
results are corrected before much damage to material has been done
and before much time and effort are wasted. The first erroneous
cycles of work are not repeated, and the worker is promptly shown
exactly how efficiently he has succeeded in determining the
requirements of his instructions.

    The inspector is responsible for the quality of the work. He
fulfills the requirements of Schloss, who says, in speaking of the
danger, under some managements, that the foreman will sacrifice
quality to speed, if he gets a bonus for quantity of output,--"The
best safeguard against this serious danger would be found in the
appointment of a distinct staff of inspectors whose duty it should
be to ascertain, as the work proceeds, that the stipulated standards
of excellence are at all times scrupulously maintained." This
position of inspector requires an observant man who naturally is
inclined to give constructive rather than destructive-criticism. He
should be a man who can coöperate with the workman and foreman to
rescue condemned or damaged material with the least expenditure of
time, effort and expense.

    FUNCTIONALIZING THE WORKER.--Under Scientific Management,
the worker as well as the foreman, is a specialist. This he
becomes by being relieved of everything that he is not best fitted
to do, and allowed to concentrate upon doing, according to exact
and scientifically derived methods, that work at which he is
an expert.[13]

    RELIEVING THE WORKER OF THE PLANNING.--The planning is taken
away from the worker, not because it is something too choice, sacred
or entertaining for him to do, or something which the managers
desire to do themselves, but because it is best, for the workers
themselves as well as the work, that the planning be done by
specialists at planning. If he is expert enough to plan, the worker
will be promoted to the planning department. In the meantime, he is
working under the best plan that experts can devise.

    MASTER PLANNING A LIFE STUDY.--The best planner is he who,--
other things being equal,--is the most ingenious, the most
experienced and the best observer. It is an art to observe; it
requires persistent attention. The longer and the more the observer
observes, the more details, and variables affecting details, he
observes. The untrained observer could not expect to compete with
one of special natural talent who has also been trained. It is not
every man who is fitted by nature to observe closely, hence to plan.
To observe is a condition precedent to visualizing. Practice in
visualizing makes for increasing the faculty of constructive
imagination. He with the best constructive imagination is the
master planner.

    The art of observing is founded on a study of fundamental
elements. In order that planning may be done best, previous to
starting work, the entire sequence of operations must be laid out,
so that the ideas of value of every element of every subdivision of
the process of working may be corrected to act most efficiently in
relation with each and all of the subsequent parts and events that
are to follow. This planning forwards and backwards demands an
equipment of time study, motion study and micro-motion study records
such as can be used economically only when all the planning is done
in one place, with one set of records. The planner must be able to
see and control the whole problem in all of its aspects.

    For example,--the use that is to be made of the work after it is
completed may entirely change the methods best used in doing it.
Thus, the face of a brick wall that is to be plastered does not
require and should not have the usual excellence of nicely ruled
joints required on a face that is not to be plastered. In fact, the
roughest, raggedest joints will be that quality of wall that will
make the plaster adhere the best.

    As an example of professional observation and investigation with
which no untrained observer could compete, we cite the epoch making
work of Dr. Taylor in determining the most efficient speeds, feeds,
cuts and shape of tools to use for the least wastefulness in cutting

    Dr. Taylor, an unusually brilliant man, at the end of twenty-six
years, working with the best scientists, engineers, experimenters,
and workmen, after an expenditure of literally hundreds of thousands
of dollars, was able to determine and write down a method for
cutting metals many times less wasteful in time than was ever known
before; but the data from the experiments was so complex and
involved that a considerable knowledge of higher mathematics had to
be used to apply the data. Furthermore, the data was in such form
that it took longer to use the knowledge contained therein than it
did to do the work on any given piece of metal cutting. After
gathering this knowledge, Dr. Taylor, with his assistants, first Mr.
Gantt and finally Mr. Barth, reduced it to such a form that now it
can be used in a matter of a few seconds or minutes. This was done
by making slide rules.[15] Today workers have this knowledge in a
form that any machinist can use with a little instruction. As a
result, Dr. Taylor's observations have revolutionized the design of
metal cutting machinery and the metal cutting industry, and the data
he collected is used in every metal cutting planning department.

    Furthermore, as a by-product to his observations and
investigations, he discovered the Taylor-White process of making
high speed steel, which revolutionized the steel tool industry. No
untrained workman could expect ever to compete with such work as
this in obtaining results for most efficient planning and at the
same time perform his ordinary work.

    WASTEFULNESS OF INDIVIDUAL PLANNING.--Even if it were possible
so to arrange the work of every worker that he could be in close
proximity to the equipment for planning and could be given the
training needed, individual planning for "small lots" with no
systematized standardization of planning-results would be an
economic waste that would cause an unnecessary hardship on the
worker, the employer and the ultimate consumer. Individual planning
could not fit the broad scheme of planning, and at best would cause
delays and confusion, and make an incentive to plan for the
individual self, instead of planning for the greatest good of the
greatest number.

    Again, even if it were possible to plan best by individual
planning, there is a further waste in changing from one kind of work
to another. This waste is so great and so obvious that it was
noticed and recognized by the earliest manufacturers and economists.

most wages and profits there must be the most savings to divide.
These cannot be obtained when each man plans for himself (except in
the home trades), because all large modern operations have the
quantity of output dependent upon the amount of blockades, stoppages
and interferences caused by dependent sequences. It is not,
therefore, possible to obtain the most profit or most wages by
individual planning. Planning is a general function, and the only
way to obtain the best results is by organized planning, and by
seeing that no planning is done for one worker without proper
consideration of its bearing and effect upon any or all the other
men's outputs.

is the sort of a man who can observe and plan, or who desires to
plan, even though he is not at first employed in the planning
department, he is sure to get there finally, as the system provides
that each man shall go where he is best fitted. Positions in
planning departments are hard to fill, because of the scarcity of
men equipped to do this work. The difficulty of teaching men to
become highly efficient planners is one of the reasons for the slow
advance of the general adoption of Scientific Management.

forgotten that many people dislike the planning responsibility in
connection with their work. For such, relief from planning makes the
performance of the planned work more interesting and desirable.

has been said about the worker's "God-given rights to think," and
about the necessity for providing every worker with an opportunity
to think.

    Scientific Management provides the fullest opportunities for
every man to think, to exercise his mental faculties, and to plan

    1. in doing the work itself, as will be shown at length in
       chapters that follow.
    2. outside of the regular working hours, but in connection
       with promotion in his regular work.

    Scientific Management provides always, and most emphatically,
that the man shall have hours free from his work in such a state
that he will not be too fatigued to do anything. Furthermore, if he
work as directed, his number of working hours per day will be so
reduced that he will have more time each day for his chosen form of
mental stimulus and improvement.

    Our friend John Brashear is a most excellent example of what one
can do in after hours away from his work. He was a laborer in a
steel mill. His duties were not such as resemble in any way planning
or research work, yet he became one of the world's most prominent
astronomical thinkers and an Honorary member of the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, because he had the desire to be a student.
Under Scientific Management such a desire receives added impetus
from the method of attack provided for through its teaching.

    FUNCTIONALIZING THE WORK ITSELF.--The work of each part of the
planning and performing departments may be functionalized, or
subdivided, as the result of motion study and time study. The
elementary timed units are combined or synthesized into tasks, made
to fit the capabilities of specialized workers. It is then necessary

    1. List the duties and requirements of the work.
    2. Decide whether the place can be best handled as one, or
       subdivided into several further subdivisions, or functions,
       or even sub-functions, for two or more function specialists.

    For the sake of analysis, all work may be considered as of
one of two classes:--

    1. the short time job.
    2. the long time job.

    These two divisions are handled differently, as follows:

    THE SHORT TIME JOB.--On the short time job that probably will
never be repeated, there is little opportunity and no economic
reason for specially training a man for its performance. The
available man best suited to do the work with little or no help
should be chosen to do it. The suitability of the man for the work
should be determined only by applying simple tests, or, if even
these will cause costly delay or more expense than the work
warrants, the man who appears suitable and who most desires the
opportunity to do the work can be assigned to it.

    If the job is connected with a new art, a man whose habits will
help him can be chosen.

    For example:--in selecting a man to fly, it has been found
advantageous to give a trick bicycle rider the preference.

    There is no other reason why the man for the short job should
not be fitted as well to his work as the man for the long job,
except the all-important reason of cost for special preparation. Any
expense for study of the workers must be borne ultimately both by
worker and management, and it is undesirable to both that expense
should be incurred which will not be ultimately repaid.

    THE LONG TIME JOB.--The long time job allows of teaching,
therefore applicants for it may be carefully studied. Usually that
man should be chosen who, with all the natural qualifications and
capabilities for the job, except practical skill, requires the most
teaching to raise him from the lower plane to that highest mental
and manual plane which he is able to fill successfully continuously.
In this way each man will be developed into a worker of great value
to the management and to himself.

    The man who is capable and already skilled at some work is thus
available for a still higher job, for which he can be taught. Thus
the long job affords the greatest opportunity for promotion. The
long job justifies the expenditure of money, effort and time by
management and men, and is the ideal field for the application of
scientific selection and functionalization.


Management, there was little or no definite functionalization. If
the quantity of output did increase, as the result of putting a man
at that work for which he seemed best fitted, there was seldom
provision made for seeing that the quality of product was maintained
by a method of constructive inspection that prevented downward
deviations from standard quality, instead of condemning large
quantities of the finished product.

    Under Transitory Management, the Department of Inspection is one
of the first Functions installed. This assures maintained quality,
and provides that all increase in output shall be actual gain.

    Under Scientific Management, functionalization results in
increased quantity of output,[16] with maintained and usually
increased quality.[17] This results in decreased cost. The cost is
sufficiently lower to allow of increased wages to the employés, a
further profit to the employer, and a maintained, or lowered,
selling price. This means a benefit to the consumer.

    It may be objected that costs cannot be lowered, because of the
number of so-called "non-producers" provided for by Scientific

    In answer to this it may be said that there are no non-producers
under Scientific Management. Corresponding work that, under
Scientific Management, is done in the planning department must all
be done somewhere, in a less systematic manner, even under
Traditional Management.[18] The planning department, simply does
this work more efficiently,--with less waste. Moreover, much work of
the planning department, being founded on elementary units, is
available for constant use. Here results an enormous saving by the
conservation and utilization of planning effort.

    Also, standard methods are more apt to result in standard
quality, and with less occasion for rejecting output that is below
the requisite standards than is the case under Traditional

Management, even if the worker often becomes functionalized, he
seldom has assurance that he will be able to reap the harvest from
remaining so, and even so, neither data nor teaching are provided to
enable him to fulfill his function most successfully.

    Under Transitory Management the worker becomes more and more
functionalized, as the results of motion study and time study make
clear the advantages of specializing the worker.

Scientific Management the effects of Functionalization are so
universal and so far reaching that it is necessary to enumerate them
in detail.

Functionalization, in providing that every man is assigned a special
function, also provides that he be called upon to do work in that
function only, relieving him of all other work and responsibility.
Realization of this elimination has a psychological effect on action
and habits of thinking.[19]

    PLACES ARE PROVIDED FOR SPECIALISTS.--Functionalization utilizes
men with decided bents, and allows each man to occupy that place for
which he is fitted.[20] Assignment to functions is done according to
the capabilities and desires of those who are to fill them.

    SPECIALIZING IS ENCOURAGED.--It is most important to remember
that the man with any special talent or talents, individuality or
special fitness is much more likely, under Scientific Management, to
obtain and retain the place that he is fitted for than he ever could
have been under Traditional Management, for, while many fairly
efficient men can be found who can fill a general position, a man
with the marked desirable trait necessary to fill a distinct
position requiring that trait, will be one of few, and will have his
place waiting for him.

    ONE-TALENT MEN UTILIZED--.With Functionalization, men who lack
qualifications for the position which they may, at the start,
endeavor to fill, may be transferred to other positions, where the
qualities they lack are not required. If a man has one talent,
Scientific Management provides a place where that can be utilized.

    For example:--

    Men who cannot produce the prescribed output constantly, are
placed on other work. The slow, unskilled worker who has difficulty
to learn, may be put upon work requiring less skill, or where speed
is not required so much as watchfulness and faithfulness. The worker
who is slow, but exceptionally skilled, has the opportunity to rise
to the position of the functional foreman, especially in the
planning department, where knowledge, experience and resourcefulness,
and especially ability to teach, are much more desired than
speed and endurance. Thus there are places provided, below and
above, that can utilize all kinds of abilities.

    "ALL ROUND" MEN ARE UTILIZED.--The exceptional man who possesses
executive ability in all lines, and balance between them all, is the
ideal man for a manager, and his special "all round" ability would
be wasted in any position below that of a manager.

    STABILITY PROVIDED FOR.--Every man is maintained in his place by
his interresponsibility with other men. If he is a worker, every
man's work is held to standard quality by the inspector, while the
requirements and rewards of his function are kept before him by the
instruction card man, rate fixer and the disciplinarian.

provides for promotion by showing every man not only the clearly
circumscribed place where he is to work, but also by showing him the
definite place above him to which he may be promoted and its path,
and by teaching him how he can fill it. This allows him to develop
the possibilities of his best self by using and specially training
those talents which are most marked in him.

    Functional Foremanship allows many more people, to become
foremen, and to develop the will and judgment which foremanship

organization are preferable to outsiders as functional foremen and
for promotion. Not only does a worker's knowledge of his work help
him to become more efficient when he is promoted to the position of
foreman,--but his efficiency as a teacher is also increased by the
fact that he knows and understands the workers whom he is there
to teach.

    ALL MEN ARE PUSHED UP.--Scientific Management raises every man
as high as he is capable of being raised. It does not speed him up,
but pushes him up to the highest notch which he can fill. Actual
practice has shown that there is a greater demand for efficient men
in the planning department than there is supply; also, that men in
the planning department who fit themselves for higher work can be
readily promoted to positions of greater responsibility, either
inside or outside the organization.

    YEARS OF PRODUCTIVITY PROLONGED.--Under Functionalization the
number of years of productivity of all, workers and foremen alike,
are increased. The specialty to which the man is assigned is his
natural specialty, thus his possible and profitable working years
are prolonged, because he is at that work for which he is naturally

    Moreover, the work of teaching is one at which the teacher
becomes more clever and more valuable as time goes on, the
functional foreman has that much more chance to become valuable as
years go by.

functionalization is such as to arouse the worker's attention and to
hold his interest.[21] But the most important and valuable change in
the worker's feelings is the change in his attitude towards the
foremen and the employer. From "natural enemies" as sometimes
considered under typical Traditional Management, these all now
become friends, with the common aim, coöperation, for the purpose of
increasing output and wages, and lowering costs. This change of
feeling results in an appreciation of the value of teaching, and
also in promoting industrial peace.

CHAPTER III FOOTNOTES: =============================================

 1. Mary Whiton Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, p. 273.
 2. Sully, _The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, p. 1.
 3. _Ibid._, p. 54.
 4. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems_, p. 35.
 5. Gillette and Dana, _Cost Keeping and Management Engineering_,
    p. 1.
 6. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 221. Harper Ed., p. 96.
 7. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 221-231. Harper Ed.,
    pp. 96-98.
 8. Compare H.L. Gantt, No. 1002, A.S.M.E., para. 9.
 9. Compare H.P. Gillette, _Cost Analysis Engineering_, pp. 1-2.
10. F.W. Taylor, _Principles of Scientific Management_, p. 37.
11. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 245. Harper Ed., p. 104.
12. For excellent example of special routing see: Charles Day,
    _Industrial Plants_, chap. VII.
13. C. Babbage, _Economy of Manufacturers_. p. 172. "The constant
    repetition of the same process necessarily produces in the
    workman a degree of excellence and rapidity in his particular
    department, which is never possessed by a person who is obliged
    to execute many different processes."
14. F.W. Taylor, _On the Art of Cutting Metals_, Paper No. 1119,
15. C.G. Barth, _Slide Rules for Machine Shops and Taylor System_.
    Paper No. 1010, A.S.M.E.
16. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 19.
17. Adam Smith, _Wealth of Nations_, p. 2. "The greatest improvement
    in the productive powers of labor, and the greater part of the
    skill, dexterity, and judgment, with which it is anywhere
    directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the
    division of labor." Also p. 4.
18. H.K. Hathaway, _The Value of "Non-Producers" in Manufacturing
    Plants. Machinery_, Nov., 1906, p. 134.
19. Gillette and Dana, _Cost Keeping and Management Engineering_,
    p. 11.
20. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, _Bulletin No. 5, Carnegie Foundation for
    the Advancement of Teaching_, p. 15.
21. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 120.


                               CHAPTER IV


    DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT.--"Measurement," according to the
Century Dictionary,--"is the act of measuring," and to measure
is--"to ascertain the length, extent, dimensions, quantity or
capacity of, by comparison with a standard; ascertain or determine a
quantity by exact observation," or, again, "to estimate or determine
the relative extent, greatness or value of, appraise by comparison
with something else."

been of importance in psychology; but it is only with the
development of experimental psychology and its special apparatus,
that methods of accurate measurements are available which make
possible the measurement of extremely short periods of time, or
measurements "quick as thought," These enable us to measure the
variations of different workers as to their abilities and their
mental and physical fatigue;[1] to study mental processes at
different stages of mental and physical growth; to compare different
people under the same conditions, and the same person under
different conditions; to determine the personal coefficient of
different workers, specialists and foremen, and to formulate
resultant standards. As in all other branches of science, the
progress comes with the development of measurement.

    METHODS OF MEASUREMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY.--No student of management,
and of measurement in the field of management, can afford not to
study, carefully and at length, methods of measurement under
psychology. This, for at least two most important reasons, which
will actually improve him as a measurer, i.e.--

    1. The student will discover, in the books on experimental
psychology and in the "Psychological Review," a marvelous array of
results of scientific laboratory experiments in psychology, which
will be of immediate use to him in his work.

    2. He will receive priceless instruction in methods of
measuring. No where better than in the field of psychology, can one
learn to realize the importance of measurements, the necessity for
determination of elements for study, and the necessity for accurate
apparatus and accuracy in observation.

    Prof. George M. Stratton, in his book "Experimental Psychology
and Culture,"--says "In mental measurements, therefore, there is no
pretense of taking the mind's measure as a whole, nor is there
usually any immediate intention of testing even some special faculty
or capacity of the individual. What is aimed at is the measurement
of a limited event in consciousness, such as a particular perception
or feeling. The experiments are addressed, of course, not to the
weight or size of such phenomena, but usually to their duration and

    The emphasis laid on a study of elements is further shown in the
same book by the following,--"The actual laboratory work in
time-measurement, however, has been narrowed down to determining,
not the time in general that is occupied by some mental action, but
rather the shortest possible time in which a particular operation,
like discrimination or choice or association or recognition, can be
performed under the simplest and most favorable circumstances.[3]
The experimental results here are something like speed or racing
records, made under the best conditions of track and training. A
delicate chronograph or chronoscope is used, which marks the time in
thousandths of a second."

MANAGEMENT.--Measurement in psychology is of importance to
measurement in management not only as a source of information and
instruction, but also as a justification and support. Scientific
Management has suffered from being called absurd, impractical,
impossible, over-exact, because of the emphasis which it lays on
measurement. Yet, to the psychologist, all present measurement in
Scientific Management must appear coarse, inaccurate and of
immediate and passing value only. With the knowledge that
psychologists endorse accurate measurement, and will coöperate in
discovering elements for study, instruments of precision and methods
of investigation, the investigator in industrial fields must persist
in his work with a new interest and confidence.[4]

    Scientific Management cannot hope to furnish psychology with
either data or methods of measurement. It can and does, however,
open a new field for study to experimental psychology, and shows
itself willing to furnish the actual working difficulties or
problems, to do the preliminary investigation, and to utilize
results as fast as they can be obtained.

appreciation which psychologists have shown of work done by
Scientific Management must be not only a matter of gratification,
but of inspiration to all workers in Scientific Management.

    So, also, must the new divisions of the Index to the
Psychological Review relating to Activity and Fatigue, and the work
being so extensively done in these lines by French, German, Italian
and other nations, as well as by English and American psychologists.

    MEASUREMENT IMPORTANT IN MANAGEMENT.--The study of individuality
and of functionalization have made plain the necessity of
measurement for successful management. Measurement furnishes the
means for obtaining that accurate knowledge upon which the science
of management rests, as do all sciences--exact and inexact.[5]
Through measurement, methods of less waste are determined, standards
are made possible, and management becomes a science, as it derives
standards, and progressively makes and improves them, and the
comparisons from them, accurate.

problems of measurement in management is determining how many hours
should constitute the working day in each different kind of work and
at what gait the men can work for greatest output and continuously
thrive. The solution of this problem involves the study of the men,
the work, and the methods, which study must become more and more
specialized; but the underlying aim is to determine standards and
individual capacity as exactly as is possible.[6]

    CAPACITY.--There are at least four views of a worker's

    1. What he thinks his capacity is.
    2. What his associates think his capacity is.
    3. What those over him think his capacity is.
    4. What accurate measurement determines his
       actual capacity to be.

    IGNORANCE OF REAL CAPACITY.--Dr. Taylor has emphasized the fact
that the average workman does not know either his true efficiency or
his true capacity.[7] The experience of others has also gone to show
that even the skilled workman has little or inaccurate knowledge of
the amount of output that a good worker can achieve at his chosen
vocation in a given time.[8]

    For example,--until a bricklayer has seen his output counted for
several days, he has little idea of how many bricks he can lay, or
has laid, in a day.[9]

    The average manager is usually even more ignorant of the
capacity of the workers than are the men themselves.[10] This is
because of the prevalence of, and the actual necessity for the
worker's best interest, under some forms of management, of
"soldiering." Even when the manager realizes that soldiering is
going on, he has no way, especially under ordinary management, of
determining its extent.

Management there was little measurement of a man's capacity. The
emphasis was entirely on the results. There was, it is true, in
everything beyond the most elementary of Traditional Management, a
measurement of the result. The manager did know, at the end of
certain periods of time, how much work had been done, and how much
it had cost him. This was a very important thing for him to know. If
his cost ran too high, and his output fell too low, he investigated.
If he found a defect, he tried to remedy it; but much time had to be
wasted in this investigation, because often he had no idea where to
start in to look for the defects. The result of the defects was
usually the cause for the inquiry as to their presence.

    He might investigate the men, he might investigate the methods,
he might investigate the equipment, he might investigate the
surroundings, and so on,--and very often in the mind of the
Traditional manager, there was not even this most elementary
division. If things went wrong he simply knew,--"Something is wrong
somewhere," and it was the work of the foremen to find out where the
place was, or so to speed up the men that the output should be
increased and the cost lowered. Whether the defects were really
remedied, or simply concealed by temporarily speeding up, was not
seriously questioned.

    Moreover, until measuring devices are secured, the only standard
is what someone thinks about things, and the pity of it is that even
this condition does not remain staple.

first improvements introduced when Traditional Management gives
place to the Transitory stage is the measurement of the separated
output of individual workers. These outputs are measured and
recorded. The records for extra high outputs are presented to the
worker promptly, so that he may have a keen idea constantly of the
relation of effort to output, while the fatigue and the effort of
doing the work is still fresh in his mind.

    The psychology of the prompt reward will be considered later at
length, but it cannot be emphasized too often that the prompter the
reward, the greater the stimulus. The reward will become associated
with the fatigue in such a way that the worker will really get, at
the time, more satisfaction out of his fatigue than he will
discomfort; at the least, any dissatisfaction over his fatigue will
be eliminated, by the constant and first thought of the reward which
he has gotten through his efforts.

    This record of efficiency is often so presented to the workers
that they get an excellent idea of the numerical measure of their
efficiency and its trend. This is best done by a graphical chart.

    The records of the outputs of others on the same kind of work
done concurrently, or a corresponding record on work done
previously, will show the relative efficiency of any worker as
compared with the rest. These standards of comparison are a strong
incentive and, if they are shown at the time that such work is done,
they also become so closely associated not only with the mental but
the bodily feeling of the man that the next time the work is
repeated, the thoughts that the same effort will probably bring
greater results, and that it has done so in the past with others,
will be immediately present in the mind.

Scientific Management measurement is basic. Measurement is of the
work, of outputs, of the methods, the tools, and of the worker, with
the individual as a unit, and motion study, time study and
micro-motion study and the chrono-cyclegraph as the methods of

    Measurement is a most necessary adjunct to selecting the workers
and the managers and to assigning them to the proper functions and
work. They cannot be selected to the greatest advantage and set to
functionalized work until--

      (a) the unit of measurement that will of itself
          tend to reduce costs has been determined.
      (b) methods of measurement have been determined.
      (c) measurement has been applied.
      (d) standards for measurement have been derived.
      (e) devices for cheapening the cost of measuring
          have been installed.

important aim of measurement under Scientific Management is to
determine the Task, or the standard amount of any kind of work that
a first class man can do in a certain period of time. The "standard
amount" is the largest amount that a first class man can do and
continuously thrive.

    The "first-class" man is the man who can eventually become best
fitted, by means of natural and acquired capabilities, to do the
work. The "certain period of time" is that which best suits the work
and the man's thriving under the work. The amount of time allowed
for a task consists of three parts--

    1. time actually spent at work.
    2. time for rest for overcoming fatigue.
    3. time for overcoming delays.

    Measurement must determine what percentage of the task time is
to be spent at work and what at rest, and must also determine
whether the rest period should all follow the completed work, or
should be divided into parts, these parts to follow certain cycles
through the entire work period.

    The method of constructing the task is discussed under two
chapters that follow, Analysis and Synthesis, and Standardization.
Here we note only that the task is built up of elementary units
measured by motion study, time study, and micro-motion study.

    When this standard task has been determined the worker's
efficiency can be measured by his performance of, or by the amount
that he exceeds, the task.

observer, or as he has well been called, "trade revolutionizer,"
should be filled by a man specially selected for the position on
account of his special natural fitness and previous experience. He
also should be specially trained for his work. As in all other
classes of work, the original selection of the man is of vital
importance. The natural qualities of the successful hunter,
fisherman, detective, reporter and woodsman for observation of
minute details are extremely desirable. It is only by having
intimate knowledge of such experiences as Agassiz had with his
pupils, or with untrained "observers" of the trade, that one can
realize the lack of powers of observation of detail in the average
human being.

    Other natural qualifications required to an efficient observer
are that of being

      (a) an "eye worker";
      (b) able to concentrate attention for unusually
          long periods;
      (c) able to get every thought out of a simple
          written sentence;
      (d) keenly interested in his work;
      (e) accurate;
      (f) possessed of infinite patience;
      (g) an enthusiastic photographer.

    The measurer or observer should, preferably, have the intimate
knowledge that comes from personal experience of the work to be
observed, although such a man is often difficult if not impossible
to obtain.

    The position of observer illustrates another of the many
opportunities of the workmen for promotion from the ranks to higher
positions when they are capable of holding the promotion. Naturally,
other things being equal, no man is so well acquainted with the work
to be observed as he who has actually done it himself, and if he
have also the qualifications of the worker at the work, which
should, in the future, surely be determined by study of him and by
vocational guidance, he will be able to go at once from his position
in the ranks to that of observer, or time study man.

    The observer must also familiarize himself with the literature
regarding motion study and time study, and must form the habit of
recording systematically the minutest details observable.

    The effect upon the man making the observation of knowing that
his data, even though at the time they may seem unimportant, can be
used for the deduction of vital laws, is plain. He naturally feels
that he is a part of a permanent scheme, and is ready and willing to
put his best activity into the work. The benefits accruing from this
fact have been so well recognized in making United States surveys
and charts, that the practice has been to have the name of the man
in charge of the work printed on them.

mental equipment needed by a measurer, or observer, will show that
much may be done toward training oneself for such a position by
practice. Much pleasure as well as profit can be obtained by
acquiring the habit of observation, both in the regular working and
in the non-working hours. Vocational Guidance Bureaus should see
that this habit of observation is cultivated, not only for the
æsthetic pleasure which it gives, but also for its permanent

    UNBIASED OBSERVATION NECESSARY.--In order to take observations
properly, the investigator should be absolutely impartial,
unprejudiced, and unbiased by any preconceived notions. Otherwise,
he will be likely to think that a certain thing ought to happen. Or
he may have a keen desire to obtain a certain result to conform to a
pet theory. In other words, the observer must be of a very stable
disposition. He must not be carried away by his observations.

    The elimination of any charting by the man who makes the
observations, or at least its postponement until all observations
are made, will tend to decrease the dangers of unconscious effect of
what he considers the probable curve of the observations should be.

    As has been well said, watching the curve to be charted before
all of the data have been obtained develops a distinct theory in the
mind of the investigator and is apt to "bend the curve" or, at
least, to develop a feeling that if any new, or special, data do not
agree with the tendency of the curve--so much the worse for the
reputation of the data for reliability.

MEASUREMENT.--The observed worker should be made to realize the
purpose and importance of the measurement. The observing should
always be done with his full knowledge and hearty coöperation. He
will attain much improvement by intelligent coöperation with the
observer, and may, in turn, be able to be promoted to observing if
he is interested enough to study and prepare himself after hours.

should ever be observed, timed and studied surreptitiously. In the
first place, if the worker does not know that he is being observed,
he cannot coöperate with the observer to see that the methods
observed are methods of least waste. Therefore the motion study and
time study records that result will not be fundamental standards in
any case and will probably be worthless.

    In the second place, if the worker discovers that he is being
observed secretly, he will feel that he is being spied upon and is
not being treated fairly. The stop watch has too long been
associated with the idea of "taking the last drop of blood from the
worker." Secret observations will tend strongly to lend credence to
this idea. Even should the worker thus observed not think that he
was being watched in order to force him, at a later time, to make
higher outputs, after he has once learned that he is being watched
secretly, his attention will constantly be distracted by the thought
that perhaps he is being studied and timed again. He will be
constantly on the alert to see possible observers. This may result
in "speeding him up," but the speed will not be a legitimate speed,
that results to his good as well as to that of his employer.

    Worst of all, he will lose confidence in the "squareness" of his
employer. Hence he will fail to co-operate, and one of the greatest
advantages of Scientific Management will thus be lost.

    It is a great advantage of micro-motion study that it demands
coöperation of the man studied, and that its results are open to
study by all.

    AN EXPERT BEST WORKER TO OBSERVE.--The best worker to observe
for time study is he who is so skilled that he can perform a cycle
of prescribed standard motions automatically, without mental
concentration. This enables him to devote his entire mental activity
to deviating the one desired variable from the accepted cycle
of motions.

    The difficulty in motion study and time study is not so often to
vary the variable being observed and studied, as it is to maintain
the other variables constant. Neither skill nor appreciation of what
is wanted is enough alone. The worker who is to be measured
successfully must

    1. have the required skill.
    2. understand the theory of what is being done.
    3. be willing to coöperate.

measurement of individuals, in actual practice, brings out the fact
that lamentably few persons are accustomed to be, or can readily be,
measured. It has been a great drawback to the advance of Scientific
Management that the moment a measurer of any kind is put on the
work, either a device to measure output or a man to measure or to
time reactions, motions, or output, the majority of the workers
become suspicious. Being unaccustomed to being measured, they think,
as is usually the case with things to which we are unaccustomed,
that there is something harmful to them in it. This feeling makes
necessary much explanation which in reality should not be needed.

    The remedy for this condition is a proper training in youth.
A boy brought up with the fundamental idea of the importance of
measurement to all modern science, for all progress, accustomed to
being measured, understanding the "why" of the measuring, and the
results from it, will not hesitate or object, when he comes to the
work, to being measured in order that he may be put where it is best
for himself, as well as for the work, that he be put.

    The importance of human measurement to vocational guidance and
to the training of the young for life work has never been properly
realized. Few people understand the importance of psychological
experiment as a factor in scientific vocational guidance. For this
alone, it will probably in time be a general custom to record and
keep as close track as possible of the psychological measurements of
the child during the period of education, vocational guidance and
apprenticeship. Not only this, but he also should be accustomed to
being measured, physically and psychologically, from his first
years, just as he is now accustomed to being weighed.

    The child should be taught to measure himself, his faculties,
his reactions, his capabilities as compared with his former self and
as compared with the capabilities of others. It is most important
that the child should form a habit not only of measuring, but of
being measured.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.--Under Scientific Management, much measuring
is done by motion study and time study, which measure the relative
efficiency of various men, of various methods, or of various kinds
of equipment, surroundings, tools, etc. Their most important use is
as measuring devices of the men. They have great psychological value
in that they are founded on the "square deal" and the men know this
from the start. Being operated under laws, they are used the same
way on all sorts of work and on all men. As soon as the men really
understand this fact, and realize

    1. that the results are applied to all men equally;
    2. that all get an ample compensation for what
       they do;
    3. that under them general welfare is considered;
       the objections to such study will vanish.

Study is the dividing of the elements of the work into the most
fundamental subdivisions possible; studying these fundamental units
separately and in relation to one another; and from these studied,
chosen units, when timed, building up methods of least waste.

consists of timing the elements of the best method known, and, from
these elementary unit times, synthesizing a standard time in which a
standard man can do a certain piece of work in accordance with the
finally accepted method.

    Micro-motion study is timing sub-divisions, or elements of
motions by carrying out the principles of motion study to a greater
degree of accuracy by means of a motion picture camera, a clock that
will record different times of day in each picture of a moving
picture film together with a cross sectioned background and other
devices for assisting in measuring the relative efficiency and
wastefulness of motions. It also is the cheapest, quickest and more
accurate method of recording indisputable time study records. It has
the further advantage of being most useful in assisting the
instruction card man to devise methods of least waste.[11]

Motion Study and Time Study measure individual capacity or
efficiency by providing data from which standards can be made. These
standards made, the degree to which the individual approaches or
exceeds the standard can be determined.

Time Study are devices for measuring methods. By their use, old
methods are "tried out," once and for all, and their relative value
in efficiency, determined. By their use, also, new methods are
"tried out." This is most important under Scientific Management.

    Any new method suggested can be tested in a short time. Such
elements of it as have already been tested, can be valued at the
start, the new elements introduced can be motion studied and time
studied, and waste eliminated to as great an extent as possible,
with no loss of time or thought.

    Under Scientific Management, the men who understand what motion
study and time study mean, know that their suggested methods will be
tested, not only fairly, but so effectively that they, and everyone
else, can know at once exactly the worth of their suggestions.

comparative study can be seen at a glance. When one such method
after another is tried out, not only can one tell quickly what a new
method is worth, but can also determine what it is worth compared to
all others which have been considered. This is because the study is
a study of elements, primarily, and not of methods as a whole. Not
only can suggested methods be estimated, but also new methods which
have never been suggested will become apparent themselves through
this study. Common elements, being at once classified and set aside,
the new ones will make themselves prominent, and better methods for
doing work will suggest themselves, especially to the inventive mind.

investigation may be best fostered, not only must books of standards
be published, but also books of preliminary data, which other
workers may attack if they desire, and where they can find common
elements. Such books of preliminary data are needed on all

and motion study are measuring devices for ascertaining relative
merits of different kinds of equipment, surroundings and tools.
Through them, the exact capacities of equipment or of a tool or
machine can be discovered at once, and also the relative value in
efficiency. Also motion study and time study determine exactly how a
tool or a piece of equipment can best be used.

    In "On The Art of Cutting Metals" Dr. Taylor explains the effect
of such study on determining the amount of time that tools should be
used, the speed at which they should be used, the feed, and so
on.[13] This paper exemplifies more thoroughly than does anything
else ever written the value of Time Study, and the scientific manner
in which it is applied.

misfortune that the worker does not understand, as he should, that
motion study and time study apply not only to his work, but also to
the work of the managers. In order to get results from the start,
and paying results, it often happens that the work of the worker is
the first to be so studied, but when Scientific Management is in
full operation, the work of the managers is studied exactly to the
same extent, and set down exactly as accurately, as the work of the
worker himself. The worker should understand this from the start,
that he may become ready and willing to coöperate.

    DETAILED RECORDS NECESSARY.--Motion study and time study records
must go into the greatest detail possible. If the observations are
hasty, misdirected or incomplete they may be quite unusable and
necessitate going through the expensive process of observation all
over again. Dr. Taylor has stated that during his earlier
experiences he was obliged to throw away a large quantity of time
study data, because they were not in sufficient detail and not
recorded completely enough to enable him to use them after a lapse
of a long period from the time of their first use. No system of time
study, and no individual piece of time study, can be considered a
success unless by its use at any time, when new, or after a lapse of
years, an accurate prediction of the amount of work a man can do can
be made.

    All results attained should invariably be preserved, whether
they appear at the moment to be useful or valuable or not. In time
study in the past it has been found, as in the investigations of all
other sciences, that apparently unimportant details of today are of
vital importance years after, as a necessary step to attain, or
further proof of a discovery. This was exemplified in the case of
the shoveling experiment of Dr. Taylor. The laws came from what was
considered the unimportant portion of the data. There is little so
unimportant that time and motion study would not be valuable. Just
as it is a great help to the teacher to know the family history of
the student, so it is to the one who has to use time and motion
study data to know all possible of the hereditary traits,
environment and habits of the worker who was observed.

    SPECIALIZED STUDY IMPERATIVE.--As an illustration of the field
for specialized investigation which motion study and time study
present, we may take the subject of fatigue. Motion Study and Time
Study aim to show,

    1. the least fatiguing method of getting least waste.
    2. the length of time required for a worker to do a
       certain thing.
    3. the amount of rest and the time of rest required to
       overcome fatigue.

    Dr. Taylor spent years in determining the percentage of rest
that should be allowed in several of the trades, beginning with
those where the making of output demands weight hanging on the arms;
but there is still a great amount of investigation that could be
done to advantage to determine the most advisable percentage of rest
in the working day of different lengths of hours. Such investigation
would probably show that many of our trades could do the same amount
of work in fewer hours, if the quantity and time of rest periods
were scientifically determined.

    Again, there is a question of the length of each rest period. It
has been proven that in many classes of work, and especially in
those where the work is interrupted periodically by reason of its
peculiar nature, or by reason of inefficient performance in one of
the same sequence of dependent operations, alternate working and
resting periods are best. There is to be considered in this
connection, however, the recognized disadvantage of reconcentrating
the attention after these rest periods. Another thing to be
considered is that the rate of output does not decline from the
beginning of the day, but rather the high point of the curve
representing rate of production is at a time somewhat later than at
the starting point. The period before the point of maximum
efficiency is known as "warming up" among ball players, and is well
recognized in all athletic sports.

    As for the point of minimum efficiency, or of greatest fatigue,
this varies for "morning workers," and "night workers." This
exemplifies yet another variable.

    The minuteness of the sub-fields that demand observation, is
shown by an entry in the Psychological Index: "1202. Benedict, F.G.
"Studies in Body--Temperature." 1. Influence of the Inversion of the
Daily Routine; the Temperature of Night Workers."[14]

Selecting the unit of measurement that will of itself reduce costs
is a most important element in obtaining maximum efficiency.[15]
This is seldom realized.[16] Where possible, several units of
measurements should be used to check each other.[17] One alone may
be misleading, or put an incentive on the workers to give an
undesirable result.

    The rule is,--always select that unit of output that will, of
itself, cause a reduction in costs.

    For example:--In measuring the output of a concrete gang,
counting cement bags provides an incentive to use more cement than
the instruction card calls for. Counting the batches of concrete
dumped out of the mixer, provides an incentive to use rather smaller
quantities of broken stone and sand than the proportions call
for,--and, furthermore, does not put the incentive on the men to
spill no concrete in transportation, neither does it put an
incentive to use more lumps for Cyclopean concrete.

    Measuring the quantity actually placed in the forms puts no
incentive to watch bulging forms closely.

    While measuring outputs by all these different units of
measurements would be valuable to check up accuracy of proportions,
accuracy of stores account, and output records, the most important
unit of measurement for selection would be, "cubic feet of forms
filled," the general dimensions to be taken from the latest revised
engineer's drawings.

    NECESSITY FOR CHECKING ERRORS.--Dr. Stratton says,--"No
measurements, whether they be psychic or physical, are exact beyond
a certain point, and the art of using them consists largely in
checks and counter checks, and in knowing how far the measurement is
reliable and where the doubtful zone begins."[18]

    Capt. Metcalfe says,--"Errors of observation may be divided into
two general classes; the instrumental and those due to the personal
bias of the observer; the former referring to the standard itself,
and the latter to the application of the standard and the record of
the measurement."[19]

    The concrete illustration given above is an example of careful
checking up. Under Scientific Management so many, and such careful
records are kept that detecting errors becomes part of the daily


Management, even the crudest measurement of output and cost usually
resulted in an increase in output. But there was no accuracy of
measurement of individual efficiency, nor was there provision made
to conserve results and make them permanently useful.

    Under Transitory Management and measurement of individual
output, output increased and rewards for the higher output kept up
the standard.

RESULTS.--Under Scientific Measurement, measurement of the work
itself determines

    1. what kind of workers are needed.
    2. how many workers are needed.
    3. how best to use them.

Motion Study and Time Study measurement,--

    1. divide the work into units.
    2. measure each unit.
    3. study the variables, or elements, one at a time.
    4. furnish resulting timed elements to the synthesizer
       of methods of least waste.

ACCIDENTS.--The accurate measuring devices which accomplish
measurement under Scientific Management prevent breakdowns and
accidents to life and limb.

    For example.--

    1. The maintained tension on a belt bears a close relation to
       its delay periods.
    2. The speed of a buzz planer determines its liability to
       shoot out pieces of wood to the injury of its operator,
       or to injure bystanders.

    Scientific Management, by determining and standardizing methods
and equipment both, provides for uninterrupted output.

    EFFECT ON THE WORKER.--Under Traditional Management there is not
enough accurate measurement done to make its effect on the worker of
much value.

    Under Transitory Management, as soon as individual outputs are
measured, the worker takes more interest in his work, and endeavors
to increase his output.

    Under Scientific Management measurement of the worker tells

    1. what the workers are capable of doing.
    2. what function it will be best to assign them to and to
       cultivate in them.

measurement increases the worker's efficiency in that it enables him
to eliminate waste. "Cut and try" methods are eliminated. There is
no need to test a dozen methods, a dozen men, a dozen systems of
routing, or various kinds of equipment more than once,--that one
time when they are scientifically tried out and measured. This
accurate measurement also eliminates disputes between manager and
worker as to what the latter's efficiency is.

Motion Study.

      (a) measure the man by his work; that is, by the results
          of his activities;
      (b) measure him by his methods;
      (c) measure him by his capacity to learn;
      (d) measure him by his capacity to teach.

    Now measurement by result alone is very stimulating to
increasing activities, especially when it shows, as it does under
Scientific Management, the relative results of various people doing
the same kind of work. But it does not, itself, show the worker
_how_ to obtain greater results without putting on more speed or
using up more activities. But when the worker's methods are
measured, he begins to see, for himself, exactly why and where he
has failed.

    Scientific Management provides for him to be taught, and the
fact that he sees through the measurements exactly what he needs to
be taught will make him glad to have the teacher come and show him
how to do better. Through this teaching, its results, and the speed
with which the results come, the workers and the managers can see
how fast the worker is capable of learning, and, at the same time,
the worker, the teacher and the managers can see in how far the
foreman is capable of instructing.

measurement in Scientific Management, managers acquire--

    1. ability to select men, methods, equipment, etc.;
    2. ability to assign men to the work which they should do, to
       prescribe the method which they shall use, and to reward
       them for their output suitably;
    3. ability to predict. On this ability to predict rests the
       possibility of making calendars, chronological charts and
       schedules, and of planning determining sequence of events, etc.,
       which will be discussed at length later.

    Ability to predict allows the managers to state "premature
truths," which the records show to be truths when the work has
been done.

    It must not be forgotten that the managers are enabled not only
to predict what the men, equipment, machinery, etc., will do, but
what they can do themselves.

worker's interest is held. The men know that the methods they are
using are the best. The exact measurements of efficiency of the
learner,--and under Scientific Management a man never ceases to be a
learner,--give him a continued interest in his work. It is
impossible to hold the attention of the intelligent worker to a
method or process that he does not believe to> be the most efficient
and least wasteful.

    Motion study and time study are the most efficient measuring
device of the relative qualities of differing methods. They furnish
definite and exact proof to the worker as to the excellence of the
method that he is told to use. When he is convinced, lack of
interest due to his doubts and dissatisfaction is removed.

    2. The worker's judgment is appealed to. The method that he uses
is the outcome of coöperation between him and the management. His
own judgment assures him that it is the best, up to that time, that
they, working together, have been able to discover.

    3. The worker's reasoning powers are developed. Continuous
judging of records of efficiency develops high class, well developed
reasoning powers.

    4. The worker fits his task, therefore there is no need of
adjustment, and his attitude toward his work is right.

    5. There is elimination of soldiering, both natural and

confidently expected in the future, as they are already becoming
apparent where-ever Scientific Management is being introduced:

    1. The worker will become more and more willing to impart his
knowledge to others. When the worker realizes that passing on his
trade secrets will not cause him to lose his position or, by raising
up a crowd of competitors, lower his wages, but will, on the
contrary, increase his wages and chances of promotion, he is ready
and willing to have his excellent methods standardized.

    Desire to keep one's own secret, or one's own method a secret is
a very natural one. It stimulates interest, it stimulates pride. It
is only when, as in Scientific Management, the possessor of such a
secret may receive just compensation, recognition and honor for his
skill, and receive a position where he can become an appreciated
teacher of others that he is, or should be, willing to give up this
secret. Scientific Management, however, provides this opportunity
for him to teach, provides that he receives credit for what he has
done, and receive that publicity and fame which is his due, and
which will give him the same stimulus to work which the knowledge
that he had a secret skill gave him in the past.

    One method of securing this publicity is by naming the device or
method after its inventor. This has been found to be successful not
only in satisfying the inventor, but in stimulating others to invent.

ALL.--2. The worker will, ultimately, realize that it is for the
good of all, as well as for himself, that individual efficiency be
measured and rewarded.

    It has been advanced as an argument against measurement that it
discriminates against the "weaker brother," who should have a right
to obtain the same pay as the stronger, for the reason that he has
equal needs for this pay to maintain life and for the support of
his family.

    Putting aside at the moment the emotional side of this argument,
which is undoubtedly a strong side and a side worthy of
consideration, with much truth in it, and looking solely at the
logical side,--it cannot do the "weaker" brother any good in the
long run, and it does the world much harm, to have his work
overestimated. The day is coming, when the world will demand that
the quantity of the day's work shall be measured as accurately where
one sells labor, as where one sells sugar or flour. Then, pretending
that one's output is greater than it really is will be classed with
"divers weights and divers measures," with their false standards.
The day will come when the public will insist that the "weaker
brother's" output be measured to determine just how weak he is, and
whether it is weakness, unfitness for that particular job, or
laziness that is the cause of his output being low. When he reaches
a certain degree of weakness, he will be assisted with a definite
measured quantity of assistance. Thus the "weaker brother" may be
readily distinguished from the lazy, strong brother, and the brother
who is working at the wrong job. Measurement should certainly be
insisted on, in order to determine whether these strong brothers are
doing their full share, or whether they are causing the weaker
brothers to over-exert themselves.

    No one who has investigated the subject properly can doubt that
it will be better for the world in general to have each man's
output, weak and strong, properly measured and estimated regardless
of whether the weak and strong are or are not paid the same wages.
The reason why the unions have had to insist that the work shall not
be measured and that the weaker brother's weakness shall not be
realized is, that in the industrial world the only brotherhood that
was recognized was the brotherhood between the workers, there being
a distinct antagonism between the worker and the manager and little
or no brotherhood of the public at large. When Scientific Management
does away, as it surely will, with this antagonism, by reason of the
coöperation which is its fundamental idea, then the workers will
show themselves glad to be measured.

    As for the "weaker" brother idea, it is a natural result of such
ill treatment. It has become such a far-reaching emotion that even
Scientific Management, with its remedy for many ills, cannot expect
in a moment, or in a few years, to alter the emotional bias of the
multitudes of people who have held it for good and sufficient
reasons for generations.

which can permanently alter this feeling forms the natural
conclusion to this chapter. That is, measurements in general and
motion study and time study in particular must become a matter of
government investigation. When the government has taken over the
investigation and established a bureau where such data as Scientific
Management discovers is collected and kept on file for all who will
to use, then the possessor of the secret will feel that it can
safely place the welfare of its "weaker brothers" in the hands of a
body which is founded and operates on the idea of the "square deal."

step of the workers in this direction must be the appreciation of
time study, for on time study hangs the entire subject of Scientific
Management. It is this great discovery by Dr. Taylor that makes the
elimination of waste possible. It has come to stay. Many labor
leaders are opposed to it, but the wise thing for them to do is to
study, foster and cultivate it. They cannot stop its progress. There
is no thing that can stop it. The modern managers will obtain it,
and the only way to prevent it from being used by unscrupulous
managers is for the workman also to learn the facts of time study.
It is of the utmost importance to the workers of the country, for
their own protection, that they be as familiar with time study data
as the managers are. Time study is the foundation and frame work of
rate setting and fixing, and certainly the subject of rate fixing is
the most important subject there is to the workmen, whether they are
working on day work, piece work, premium, differential rate piece,
task with bonus, or three-rate system.

    Dr. Taylor has proved by time study that many of the customary
working days are too long, that the same amount of output can be
achieved in fewer hours per day. Time study affords the means for
the only scientific proof that many trades fatigue the workers
beyond their endurance and strength. Time study is the one means by
which the workers can prove the real facts of their unfortunate
condition under the Traditional plan of management.

    The workers of the country should be the very ones that should
insist upon the government taking the matter in hand for scientific
investigation. Knowledge is power,--a rule with no exception, and
the knowledge of scientific time study would prepare the workers of
any trade, and would provide their intelligent leaders with data for
accurate decisions for legislation and other steps for their best
interests. The national bodies should hire experts to represent them
and to coöperate with the government bureau in applying science to
their life work.

    The day is fast approaching when makers of machinery will have
the best method of operating their machines micro-motion studied and
cyclegraphed and description of methods of operation in accordance
with such records will be everywhere considered as a part of the
"makers' directions for using."

    Furthermore associations of manufacturers will establish
laboratories for determining methods of least waste by means of
motion study, time study and micro-motion study, and the findings of
such laboratories will be put in standardized shape for use by all
its members. The trend today shows that soon there will be hundreds
of books of time study tables. The government must sooner or later
save the waste resulting from this useless duplication of efforts.

CHAPTER IV FOOTNOTES: ==============================================

 1. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems,_ p. 34.
 2. G.M. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Its Bearing upon
    Culture_, p. 37.
 3. _Ibid_., p. 38.
 4. For apparatus for psychological experiment see Stratton, p. 38,
    p. 171, p. 265.
 5. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits,_ p. 15.
 6. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, Bulletin No. 5, _The Carnegie Foundation
    for the Advancement of Teaching,_ p. 7.
 7. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management,_ para. 29. Harper Ed., p. 25.
 8. H.L. Gantt, Paper No. 928, A.S.M.E., para. 6.
 9. F.B. Gilbreth, _Cost Reducing System_.
10. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 61. Harper Ed., p. 33.
11. _Industrial Engineering_, Jan., 1913.
12. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, pp. 398-391. Harper Ed., p. 179.
    Compare, U.S. Bulletin of Agriculture No. 208. _The Influence of
    Muscular and Mental Work on Metabolism_.
13. President's Annual Address, Dec., 1906. Vol. 28, Transactions
14. _American Journal of Physiology_, 1904, XI, pp. 145-170.
15. R.T. Dana, For Construction Service Co., _Handbook of Steam
    Shovel Work_, p. 161. H.P. Gillette, Vol. I, p. 71, A.S.E.C.
16. F.W. Taylor, Vol. 28, A.S.M.E., Paper 1119, para. 68.
17. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems_, p. 37.
18. G.M. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 59.
19. Henry Metcalfe, _Cost of Manufactures_.
20. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 46. Harper Ed., p. 30.
    F.W. Taylor, _A Piece Rate System_, Paper 647, A.S.M.E.,
    para. 22.


                               CHAPTER V

                         ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

    DEFINITION OF ANALYSIS.--"Analysis," says the Century Dictionary
is "the resolution or separation of anything which is compound, as a
conception, a sentence, a material substance or an event, into its
constituent elements or into its causes;" that is to say, analysis
is the division of the thing under consideration into its definite
cause, and into its definite parts or elements, and the explanation
of the principle upon which such division is made.[1]

    DEFINITION OF SYNTHESIS.--"Synthesis" is, "a putting of two or
more things together; composition; specifically, the combination of
separate elements of objects of thought into a whole, as of simple
into compound or complex conceptions, and individual propositions
into a system."

defined by Sully as follows: "Analysis" is "taking apart more
complex processes in order to single out for special inspection
their several constituent processes."

    He divides elements of thought activity into two

      "(a) analysis: abstraction
       (b) synthesis: comparison."

    Speaking of the latter, he says, "The clear explicit detachment
in thought of the common elements which comparison secures allows of
a new reconstructive synthesis of things as made up of particular
groupings of a number of general qualities."

management which aims to prove that management may be, and under
Scientific Management is, a science, must investigate its use of
analysis and of synthesis.[2] Upon the degree and perfection of the
analysis depends the permanent value and usefulness of the knowledge
gained. Upon the synthesis, and what it includes and excludes,
depends the efficiency of the results deduced.

Under Traditional Management analysis and synthesis are so seldom
present as to be negligible. Success or failure are seldom if ever
so studied and measured that the causes are well understood.
Therefore, no standards for future work that are of any value can be
established. It need only be added that one reason why Traditional
Management makes so little progress is because it makes no analyses
that are of permanent value. What data it has are available for
immediate use only. Practically every man who does the work must
"start at the beginning," for himself. If this is often true of
entire methods, it is even more true of elements of methods. As
elements are not studied and recorded separately, they are not
recognized when they appear again, and the resultant waste is
appalling. This waste is inevitable with the lack of coöperation
under Traditional Management and the fact that each worker plans the
greater part of his work for himself.

Division of output appears early in Transitory Management, but it is
usually not until a late stage that motion study and time study are
conducted so successfully that scientifically determined and timed
elements can be constructed into standards. As everything that is
attempted in the line of analysis and synthesis under Transitory
Management is done scientifically under Scientific Management, we
may avoid repetition by considering Scientific Management at once.

MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDIZATION.--Analysis considers the subject
that is to be measured,--be it individual action or output of any
kind,--and divides it into such a number of parts, and parts of such
a nature, as will best suit the purpose for which the measurement is
taken. When these subdivisions have been measured, synthesis
combines them into a whole.[3] Under Scientific Management, through
the measurements used, synthesis is a combination of those elements
which are necessary only, and which have been proven to be most
efficient. The result of the synthesis is standardized, and used
until a more accurate standard displaces it.

    Under Scientific Management analysis and synthesis are methods
of determining standards from available knowledge. Measurement
furnishes the means.

    ANALYST'S WORK IS DIVISION.--It is the duty of the analyst to
divide the work that he is set to study into the minutest divisions
possible. What is possible is determined by the time and money that
can be set aside for the investigation.

PRACTICABLE.--In determining the amount of time and money required,
it is necessary to consider--

    1. the cost of the work if done with no special study.
    2. how many times the work is likely to be repeated.
    3. how many elements that it contains are likely to be
       similar to elements in work that has already been studied.
    4. how many new elements that it contains are likely to be
       available in subsequent work.
    5. the probable cost of the work after it has been studied--
       (a) the cost of doing it.
       (b) the cost of the investigation.
    6. The loss, if any, from delaying the work until after it
       has been studied.
    7. the availability of trained observers and measurers,
       analysts and synthesists.
    8. the available money for carrying on the investigations.

    These questions at least must be answered before it is possible
to decide whether study shall be made or not, and to what degree it
can be carried.

    COST THE DETERMINING FACTOR.--It is obvious that in all
observation in the industrial world cost must be the principal
determining feature. Once the cost can be estimated, and the amount
of money that can be allowed for the investigation determined, it is
possible at least to approximate satisfactory answers to the other
questions. How closely the answers approximate depends largely on
the skill and experience of the analyst.

    The greater number of times the work is to be repeated, the less
the ultimate cost. The more elements contained similar to elements
already determined, the less the additional cost, and the less the
time necessary. The more elements contained that can be used again,
even in different work, the less the ultimate cost. The better
trained the analyst, the less the immediate or additional cost
and time.

    Much depends on the amount of previous data at hand when the
investigation is being made, and on the skill and speed of the
analyst in using these data.

    PROCESS OF DIVISION UNENDING.--In practice, the process of
division continues as long as it can show itself to be a method for
cost reducing. Work may be divided into processes: each process into
subdivisions; each subdivision into cycles; each cycle into
elements; each element into time units; each time unit into
motions,--and so on, indefinitely, toward the "indivisible

    MEASURING MAY TAKE PLACE AT ANY STAGE.--At any of these stages
of division the results may be taken as final for the purpose of the
study,--and the operations, or final divisions of the work at that
stage, may be measured.

    To obtain results with the least expenditure of time, the
operations must be subjected to motion study before they are timed
as well as after. This motion study can be accurate and of permanent
value only in so far as the divisions are final. The resulting
improved operations are then ready to be timed.

proceeded as far as he can in dividing the work into prime factors
the problem continues in the field of psychology. Here the
opportunities for securing further data become almost limitless.

    ULTIMATE ANALYSIS JUSTIFIABLE.--It is the justification for
analysis to approach the ultimate as nearly as possible, that the
smaller and more difficult of measurement the division is, the more
often it will appear in various combinations of elements. The
permanence and exactness of the result vary with the effort for
obtaining it.

    QUALIFICATIONS OF AN ANALYST.--To be most successful, an analyst
should have ingenuity, patience, and that love of dividing a process
into its component parts and studying each separate part that
characterizes the analytic mind. The analyst must be capable of
doing accurate work, and orderly work.

    To get the most pleasure and profit from his work he should
realize that his great, underlying purpose is to relieve the worker
of unnecessary fatigue, to shorten his work period per day, and to
increase the number of his days and years of higher earning power.
With this realization will come an added interest in his subject.

enough that the worker should understand the methods of measurement.
He can get most from the resultant standards and will most
efficiently coöperate if he understands the division into elements
to be studied.

    SCHOOLS SHOULD PROVIDE TRAINING.--Much of the training in
analysis in the schools comes at such a late period of the course
that the average industrial worker must miss a large part of it.
This is a defect in school training that should be remedied. Even
very young children soon are capable of, and greatly enjoy, dividing
a process into elements. If the worker be taught, in his
preparations, and in the work itself, to divide what he does into
its elements, he will not only enjoy analysis of his work, but will
be able to follow the analysis in his own mind, and to coöperate
better in the processes of measurement.

studies the individual results of the analyst's work, and their
inter-relation, and determines which of these should be combined,
and in what manner, for the most economic result. His duty is to
construct that combination of the elements which will be most

Scientific Management were nothing more than combining all the
elements that result from analysis into a whole, it would be
valuable. Any process studied analytically will be performed more
intelligently, even if there is no change in the method.

    But the most important part of the synthesist's work is the
actual elimination of elements which are useless, and the combination
of the remaining elements in such a way, or sequence, or schedule,
that a far better method than the one analyzed will result.

    We may take an example from Bricklaying.[5] In "Stringing
Mortar Method, on the Filling Tiers before the Days of the
Pack-on-the-Wall-Method"--the division, which was into operations
only, showed eighteen operations and eighteen motions for every
brick that was laid. Study and synthesis of these elements resulted
in a method that required only 1 3/4 motions to lay a brick. Over
half the original motions were found to be useless, hence entirely
omitted. In several other cases it was found possible to make one
motion do work for two or four brick, with the same, or less,
fatigue to the worker.

    RESULT IS THE BASIS FOR THE TASK.--The result of synthesis is
the basis for the task,--it becomes the standard that shows what
has actually been done, and what can be expected to be repeated. It
is important to note the relation between the task and synthesis.
When it becomes generally understood that the "Task," under
Scientific Management is neither an ideal which exists simply in the
imagination, nor an impossibly high estimate of what can be
expected,--but is actually the sum of observed and timed operations,
plus a definite and sufficient percentage of allowance for
overcoming the fatigue,--then much objection to it will cease.

TASK.--As is the case with most objections to Scientific Management,
or its elements, ignorance is the chief obstacle to the introduction
and success of the Task Idea. This ignorance seems to be more or
less prevalent everywhere among managers as well as workers.

    Scientific Management can, and does, succeed even when the
workers are ignorant of many of its fundamental principles, but it
will never make the strides that it should until every man working
under it, as well as all outside, understand _why_ it is doing as it
does, as well as _what_ is done.

    This educational campaign could find no better starting point
than the word "task," and the "task idea."

    THE NAME TASK IS UNFORTUNATE.[6]--The Century Dictionary defines
"Task" as follows:

    1. "a tax, an assessment, an impost
    2. "labor imposed, especially a definite quantity or amount
       of labor; work to be done; one's stint; that which duty or
       necessity imposes; duty or duties collectively
    3. "a lesson to be learned; a portion of study imposed by a
    4. "work undertaken,--an undertaking
    5. "burdensome employment; toil."

    Only the fourth meaning, as here given, covers in any way what
is meant by the task in Scientific Management.

    The ideas included in the other four definitions are most
unpleasant. The thought of labor; the thought that the labor is
imposed; the thought that the imposition is definite; that duty
makes it necessary that it be done; that it is burdensome; that it
is toilsome: these are most unfortunate ideas and have been
associated with the word so long in the human mind that it will be a
matter of years before a new set of associations can be formed which
will be pleasant, and which will render the word "task" attractive
and agreeable to the worker and to the public in general.

to be no better word forthcoming; therefore, one can but follow the
example of the masters in management, who have accepted this word,
and have done their best to make it attractive by the way they
themselves have used it.

    To the writer, the word "stint" is far more attractive and
more truly descriptive than is "task." Perhaps because of the
old-fashioned idea that a reward, usually immediate, followed the
completion of the "stint."

    Opinions as to a preferable word will doubtless vary, but it is
self-evident that the word "task" has already become so firmly
established in Scientific Management that any attempt to change it
would result in a confusion. It is far better to concentrate on
developing a new set of associations for it in as many minds
as possible.

way it is fortunate that the use of the word "task" does coincide
more or less with the use of that word under Traditional Management.
Under Traditional Management the task is the work to be done. It may
be just as well that the same word should be used under Scientific
Management, in order that both the worker and investigator may
realize, that, after all _the work that is to be done_ is, in its
essentials, exactly the same. With this realization from the
beginning, the mind of the worker or investigator may be the more
predisposed to note the eliminations of waste and the cutting down
of time, effort and fatigue under the scientifically derived methods.

under Scientific Management, differs from the task under Traditional
Management in that--

    1. The tools and surrounding conditions with which the work
       shall be done are standardized.
    2. The method in which the work shall be done is prescribed.
    3. The time that the work shall take is scientifically
    4. An allowance is made for rest from fatigue.
    5. The quality of the output is prescribed.

    When to this is added the fact that the method is taught, and
that the reward is ample, fixed, prompt and assured, the attractive
features of the task under Scientific Management have been made plain.

Management there is a task for every member of the organization,
from the head of the management to the worker at the most
rudimentary work. This is too often not known, or not appreciated by
the worker, who feels that what is deemed best for him should be
good for everyone. The mental attitude will never be right till all
understand that the task idea will increase efficiency when applied
to any possible kind of work. With the application of the task idea
to all, will come added coöperation.

which is to be done by the organization should be considered the
task of the organization, and this organization task is studied
before individual tasks are set. The methods used in determining
this organization task are analysis and synthesis, just as in the
case of the individual task.

individual tasks are considered as elements of the organization
task. The problem is, to determine the best arrangement of these
individual tasks, the best schedule, and routing. The individual
task may be thought of as something moving, that must be gotten out
of the way.

    Management has been called largely a matter of transportation.
It may be "transportation" or moving of materials, revolution of
parts of fixed machinery, or merely transportation of parts of one's
body in manual movements;[7] in any case, the laws governing
transportation apply to all. This view of management is most
stimulating to the mind. A moving object attracts attention and
holds interest. Work that is interesting can be accomplished with
greater speed and less fatigue. Thinking in terms of the methods of
Scientific Management as the most accurate and efficient in
transporting the finished output and its "chips"[8] will be a great
aid towards attaining the best results possible by means of a new
method of visualizing the problem.

    QUALIFICATIONS OF THE SYNTHESIST.--The synthesist must have a
constructive mind, for he determines the sequence of events as well
as the method of attack. He must have the ability to see the
completed whole which he is trying to make, and to regard the
elements with which he works not only as units, but in relation to
each other. He must feel that any combination is influenced not only
by the elements that go into it, but by the inter-relation between
these elements. This differs for different combinations as in
a kaleidoscope.

    THE SYNTHESIST A CONSERVER.--The Synthesist must never be
thought of as a destructive critic. He is, in reality, a conserver
of all that is valuable in old methods. Through his work and that of
the analyst, the valuable elements of traditional methods are
incorporated into standard methods. These standard methods will,
doubtless, be improved as time goes on, but the valuable elements
will be permanently conserved.

    SYNTHESIST AN INVENTOR.--The valuable inventions referred to as
the result of measurement are the work of the synthetic mind. It
discovers new, better methods of doing work, and this results in the
invention of better means, such as tools or equipment.

    For example,--in the field of Bricklaying, the Non-stooping
Scaffold, the Packet and the Fountain Trowel were not invented until
the analysis of bricklaying was made, and the synthesis of the
chosen elements into standard methods made plain the need and
specifications for new equipment.

has been much discussion as to the relation of Invention to
Scientific Management. It has been claimed by many otherwise able
authorities that many results claimed as due to Scientific
Management are really the results of new machinery, tools or
equipment that have been invented.[9] Scientific Management
certainly can lay no claim to credit for efficiency which comes
through inventions neither suggested nor determined by it. But the
inventions from the results of which Scientific Management is said
to have borrowed credit are usually, like the bricklaying inventions
cited, not only direct results of Scientific Management, but
probably would not have sprung from any other source for years
to come.

    SYNTHESIST A DISCOVERER OF LAWS.--It is the synthetic type of
mind that discovers the laws. For example--it was Dr. Taylor, with
the aid of a few of his specially trained co-workers, who discovered
the following governing laws:

    1. law of no ratio between the foot-pounds of work done and
       the fatigue caused in different kinds of work.
    2. law of percentage of rest for overcoming fatigue.
    3. law of classification of work according to percentage of
       fatigue caused.
    4. laws for making high-speed steel.
    5. laws relating to cutting metals.
    6. laws that will predict the right speed, feed and cut on
       metals for the greatest output.
    7. laws for predicting maximum quantity of output that a man
       can achieve and thrive.
    8. laws for determining the selection of the men best suited
       for the work.

constructed the standard tasks or standard methods which are new,
the synthesist must remember to introduce his new task or method
with as few new variables as possible. He should so present it that
all the old knowledge will come out to meet the new, that all the
brain paths that have already been made will be utilized, and that
the new path will lead out from paths which are well known and well

speed in learning a new method will be attained by introducing it
with as few new variables as possible.

    For example,--learning to dictate to a dictaphone. The writer
found it very difficult, at first, to dictate into the dictaphone,--
the whirling of the cylinder distracted the eye, the buzzing of the
motor distracted the ear, the rubber tube leading to the mouth-piece
was constantly reminding the touch that something new was being
attempted. At the suggestion of one well versed in Scientific
Management, the mouth-piece of the dictaphone was propped on the
desk telephone on a level with the mouth-piece of the latter. The
writer then found that as soon as one became interested in the
dictating and one's attention was concentrated on the thought, one
was able absolutely to forget the new variable, because it is one
which is kept constant, and to dictate fluently. The emphasis laid
on the likeness in thus dictating to the old accustomed act of
talking through the telephone, seemed to put all other differences
into the background, and to allow of forming the new and desired
habit very quickly.


Analysis and Synthesis is Standardization, so the effect of them
upon work is standard work. Quantity of output can be predicted,
quality of output is assured.

    EFFECT ON THE WORKER.--The effect of Analysis and Synthesis upon
the worker is to make him feel that the methods which he is using
are right, and that, because of this, his work must be of value. The
more the worker is induced to coöperate in the determining and the
combination of elements, the more will he share with the
investigators the satisfaction in getting permanent results. The
outcome of this coöperation will, again, result in more perfect
future results, and so on, progressively.

CHAPTER V FOOTNOTES: ===============================================

 1. Compare _Mechanical Analysis_. Taylor and Thompson, _Concrete,
    Plain and Reinforced_, p. 193.
 2. H. LeChatelier, Discussion of Paper 1119, A.S.M.E., p. 303.
 3. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 35.
 4. F.B. Gilbreth, _Cost Reducing System_.
 5. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, p. 151.
 6. James M. Dodge, Discussion of Paper 1119, A.S.M.E., para. 284.
 7. F.B. Gilbreth, _Motion Study_.
 8. James M. Dodge.
 9. London, _Engineering_, Sept. 15, 1911.


                               CHAPTER VI


    DEFINITION OF STANDARDIZATION.--Standardization is "the act of
standardizing, or the state of being standardized." "A standard,"
according to the Century Dictionary, "is that which is set up as a
unit of reference; a form, type, example, incidence, or combination
of conditions accepted as correct and perfect and hence as a basis
of comparison. A criterion established by custom, public opinion or
general consent; a model."[1]

    We must note particularly that the standard is a "unit of
reference," that it is a "basis of comparison," and that it is "a
model." These three phrases describe the standard in management, and
are particularly emphasized by the use of the standard in Scientific

standards not from theories as to best methods, but from scientific
study of actual practice.[2] As already shown, the method of
deriving a standard is--

    1. to analyze the best practice known into the smallest
       possible elements,
    2. to measure these elements,
    3. to adopt the least wasteful elements as standard elements,
    4. to synthesize the necessary standard elements into
       the standard.

    THE STANDARD IS PROGRESSIVE.--A standard remains fixed only
until a more perfect standard displaces it. The data from which the
standard was derived may be reviewed because of some error, because
a further subdivision of the elements studied may prove possible, or
because improvements in some factor of the work, i.e., the worker,
material, tools, equipment, etc., may make a new standard desirable.

    The fact that a standard is recognized as not being an ultimate
standard in no wise detracts from its working value. As Captain
Metcalfe has said: "Whatever be the standard of measurement, it
suffices for comparison if it be generally accepted, if it be
impartially applied, and if the results be fully recorded."[3]

INCENTIVE.--Necessarily, with the change in the standard comes a
change in the task and in the reward. All parts of Scientific
Management are so closely related that it is impossible to make a
successful progressive step in one branch without simultaneously
making all the related progressions in other branches that go
with it.

    For example,--if the material upon which a standard was based
caused more care or effort, a smaller task must be set, and wages
must be proportionately lowered. _Proportionately_, note, for
determining that change would necessitate a review and a
redistribution of the cost involved.

    In the same way, if an improvement in equipment necessitated a
new method, as does the packet in laying brick, a new task would
become imperative, and a reconsideration of the wage. The wage might
remain the same, it might go down, it might go up. In actual
practice, in the case of bricklayers, it has gone up. But the point
is, it _must_ be restudied. This provides effectually against
cutting the rate or increasing the task in any unjust manner.

PSYCHOLOGY.--There are many points of similarity between the
"Standard," of management, and the "judgment" of psychology. Sully
says, in speaking of the judgment,[4]--"This process of judging
illustrates the two fundamental elements in thought activity, viz.,
analysis and synthesis." "To judge is clearly to discern and to mark
off as a special object of thought some connecting relation." "To
begin with, before we can judge we must have the requisite materials
for forming a judgment." "In the second place, to judge is to carry
out a process of reflection on given material." "In addition to
clearness and accuracy, our judgments may have other perfections. So
far as our statements accord with known facts, they should be
adhered to,--at least, till new evidence proves them untrue."

STANDARD.--The standard under management, even under Scientific
Management, can lay no claim to being perfect. It can never nearly
approach perfection until the elements are so small that it is
practicable to test them psychologically and physiologically. The
time when this can be done in many lines, when the benefit that will
directly accrue will justify the necessary expenditure, may seem far
distant, but every analysis of operations, no matter how
rudimentary, is hastening the day when the underlying, permanently
valuable elements can be determined and their variations studied.

PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF STANDARDS.--Coöperation in collecting and
comparing the results of motion study and time study everywhere will
do much to assist toward more ultimate determination of elements. At
the present time the problems that management submits to psychology
are too indefinite and cover too large a field to be attacked
successfully. Coöperation between management standardizers
would mean--

    1. that all management data would be available to
       psychologists and physiologists.
    2. that such data, being available also to all standardizers,
       would prevent reduplication of results.
    3. that savings would result.
    4. that, from a study and comparison of the collected data a
       trained synthetic mind could build up better standards than
       could be built from any set of individual data.
    5. Savings would result from this.
    6. Inventions would also result.
    7. Savings would again result from these.
    8. All of these various savings could be invested in more
       intensive study of elements.
    9. These more valuable results would again be available to
       psychologists and physiologists.

    This cycle would go on indefinitely. Meantime, all would benefit
with little added cost to any. For the results of the psychological
and physiological study would be available to all, and investigators
in those lines have shown themselves ready and glad to undertake

    PURPOSE OF STANDARDIZATION.--The purpose of standardizing is the
same under all types of management; that is, it is the elimination
of waste.

MANAGEMENT.--In much progressive Traditional Management there is an
appreciation of the necessity of standardizing tools and equipment,
that is to say, of having these on the "duplicate part system," that
assembling may be done quickly, and repairs made without delay.

    The manager notices some particularly successful man, or method,
or arrangement of tools, equipment, or the surroundings, and decides
to have a record made thereof that the success may be repeated.
These records, if made in sufficient detail, are very valuable. The
difficulty is that so often the man making the records does not
observe all the variables. Hence the very elements which caused the
success may be overlooked entirely.

MANAGEMENT.--It is surprising, under Traditional Management, to
note, in many cases, the years that elapse before any need for
standardization is felt. It is also surprising that, even when some
standardization has been done, its importance is seldom realized.
The new standard becomes a matter of course, and the management
fails to be impressed enough with its benefits to apply the
principle of standardization to other fields.

MORE IMPORTANT.--Not until Motion Study and Time Study have been
introduced can the full benefits of standardization be attained. But
as soon as the Transitory Stage of Management appears, the
importance of standardization is realized. This is brought about
largely through the records of individual outputs, which constantly
call attention to the necessity of making available to all the
methods, tools and equipment of the most successful workers.

embody successful practice become more profitable as the necessity
for more detailed recording of all the variables becomes possible.
An appreciation of what scientific motion study and time study will
ultimately do affects the minds of the management until the workers
are given directions as to methods to be used, and the incentive of
extra pay for following directions.

standing orders or collections of written directions, that are
evolved at this stage have a permanent value. This is especially
true when the directions, often called "rules," contain the reason
for the rule. There is a decided awakening to the importance of
Psychology in this appeal to the reason of the worker. He is not
affronted by being forced to follow directions for which he is given
no reason and which he has no reason to believe have been
scientifically derived. These rules, in a certain typical case, are
stated in simple language, some in the form of commands, some in the
form of suggestions, and are obviously so prepared as to be
understood and obeyed by the workers with the least possible amount
of effort, opposition and time. As ample opportunity is given for
suggestions, the worker's attention and interest are held, and any
craving he may have for self-expression is gratified.

    SYSTEMS PERMANENTLY USEFUL.--These systems, collections of
rules, directions or standing orders are useful even when Ultimate
Management is completely installed--

    1. for use as records of successful methods which may be
       scientifically studied for elements.
    2. for use by the instruction card clerk in explaining to
       the men why the rules on the instruction card are given.

worker is too often not made to understand the relation of Systems
to Standards. The average worker does not object to Systems, because
he realizes that the System is a collection of his best, least
wasteful methods of doing work. When he can be convinced that
standards are only efficient elements of his own methods
scientifically studied and combined, any opposition to them
will disappear.

one thing that makes the typical "Systems" so attractive is the
personal note that they contain. Illustrated with pictures of
successful work that the workers themselves have done, often
containing pictures of the men themselves that illustrate successful
methods, with mention of the names of men who have offered valuable
suggestions or inventions, they make the worker feel his part in
successful results. They conserve the old spirit of coöperation
between the master and his apprentices.

    The conditions of modern industry make it extremely difficult to
conserve this feeling. Scientific Management is successful not only
because it makes possible a more effective coöperation than has ever
existed since the old "master-and-apprentice" relation died out, but
also because it conserves in the Systems the interim channel for
personal communication between the various members of the

MANAGEMENT.--One great problem which those introducing Scientific
Management have to face is exactly how to make the worker understand
the relation of the new type of management to the old. The
usefulness of the written system in use in most places where it is
planned to introduce Scientific Management as a means of making the
worker understand the transition has, perhaps, not been appreciated.

    The development of the standard from the system is easy to
explain. This being done, all parts of Scientific Management are
so closely related that their interrelation can be readily made

    It is the worker's right as well as privilege to understand the
management under which he works, and he only truly coöperates, with
his will and judgment as well as with his hands, when he feels that
his mind is a part of the directing mind.

SCIENTIFICALLY.--Under Scientific Management the elimination of
waste by the use of standards becomes a science. Standards are no
longer based on opinions, as under Traditional Management, but are
based upon scientific investigation of the elements of experience.

    As James says, in the "Psychology, Briefer Course," page 156,
paragraph 4,--"It is obvious and palpable that our state of mind is
never precisely the same. Every thought we have of a given fact is,
strictly speaking, unique and only bears a resemblance of kind with
our other thoughts of the same facts. When the identical fact recurs
we must think of it in a fresh manner, see it under a somewhat
different angle, apprehend it in different relations from those in
which it last appeared."

therefore, that a scientifically derived standard can never be the
outcome of an opinion. Whenever the opinion returns, the different
thoughts with which it would be accompanied would so color it as to
change it, and the standard with it. It is obvious, therefore, that
a standard must be the result of definite mathematical and other
measured proof, and not of an opinion, and that the standard must be
in such physical shape that the subject-matter will always be
clearly defined, otherwise the ultimate losses resulting from
dependent sequences of the standard schedule and time-tables would
be enormous.

STANDARDS.--The laws for establishment of standards; the laws of
achieving them; the laws for preventing deviations from those paths
that will permit of their achievement; the dependent sequences
absolutely necessary to perform the complete whole; these have been
worked out and given to the world by Dr. Taylor, who recognized, as
James has said, page 157, that, "a permanently existing 'Idea' which
makes its appearance before the footlights of consciousness at
periodic intervals, is as mythological an entity as the Jack of
Spades." The entire organization from the highest to the lowest must
conform to these standards. It is out of the question to permit the
deviations resulting from individual initiative. Individual
initiative is quite as objectionable in obtaining the best
results,--that is, high wages and low production cost,--as service
would be on a railroad if each locomotive engineer were his own
train despatcher, determining at what time and to what place he
would go.

    INITIATIVE PROVIDED FOR.--There is a distinct place for
initiative in Scientific Management, but that place is not outside
of the planning department, until the planning department's method
has been proved to be fully understood by achieving it. The
standards must be made by the men to whom this work is assigned, and
they must be followed absolutely by the worker. He is willing to
follow them, under Scientific Management, because he realizes that a
place for his suggestions is supplied, and that, if his suggestions
are accepted, they will be incorporated into the new standards which
must then be followed by all thereafter.

note that standardizing is applied to the work of all. This, if
understood by all, will do away with all question of discrimination
or the lack of a "square deal." It will make the worker feel ready
to follow his standard exactly, just as he knows the manager is
following his. So, also, the worker should be made to realize that
the very fact that there is a standardization means, under
Scientific Management, that that applies to every man, and that
there is no discrimination against him in any possible way.

Standardization conserves individual capacity by doing away with the
wasteful process of trial and error of the individual workman. It
develops individuality by allowing the worker to concentrate his
initiative upon work that has not before been done, and by providing
incentive and reward for inventions.

Management not only eliminates waste, but provides that waste shall
be eliminated for all time in the future.

    The standard once written down, there can be no slipping back
into the old methods based upon opinions of the facts.

STANDARDIZATION OF SPELLING.--The need for standardization has
already been emphasized, but might further be illustrated by the
discussions, pro and con, of the question of simplified spelling.
Before the days of dictionaries, our spelling was not standardized--
it was the privilege of any good writer to spell much as he desired;
but the creation of written standards of spelling, that is to say
the making of dictionaries, fixed the forms of spelling at that
time, that is, created standards. The Simplified Spelling Board is
now endeavoring to make some new standards, their action being based
upon sufficient reasons for making a change, and also for not
changing the spelling of any word until it is determined that the
suggested spelling is more advisable than the old spelling.

    Just so, under Scientific Management, the best known standards
are used continuously until better have been discovered. The
planning department, consisting of the best men available, whose
special duty it is to create new standards, acts as does the
Simplified Spelling Board, as a court of appeals for new standards,
which must pass this court before they can hope to succeed the old,
and which must, if they are to be accepted, possess many elements of
the old and be changed only in such a way that the users can,
without difficulty, shift to the new use.

Standardization in Scientific Management the standardization of the
nomenclature, of the names and of the terms used must be noted. The
effect of this upon the mind is excellent, because the use of a word
very soon becomes a habit--its associations become fixed. If
different names are used for the same thing,--that is to say, if
different names are used indiscriminately, the thing itself becomes
hazy, in just such a degree as it possesses many names. The use of
the fixed term, the fixed word, leads to definiteness always. Just
so, also, the Mnemonic Symbol system in use by Scientific
Management, leads to swift identification of the subdivision of the
classification to which it is applied, and to elimination of waste
in finding and remembering where to find any particular thing or
piece of information desired. By it may be identified "the various
articles of manufacture and papers relating to it as well as the
operations to be performed on each piece and the various charges of
the establishment."

save actual motions and time in speaking and writing, and save time
in that they are so designed as to be readily remembered. They also
save time and effort in that the mind accustomed to them works with
them as collective groups of ideas, without stopping to elaborate
them into their more detailed form.

savings effected by standardization, we may cite a lineman talking
to the Central Telephone Office:--

    "John Doe--1234 L. Placing Extension Station," This signified--
"My name is John Doe, I am telephoning from number 1234, party L.
I have finished installing an extension station. Where shall I
go next?"

    In the same way standard signals are remembered best by the man
who signals and are understood quickest by the man who receives
them, with a direct increase in speed to the work done.

standard man is the ideal man to observe and with whom to obtain the
best Motion Study and Time Study data. He is the fastest worker,
working under the direction of the man best informed in the
particular trade as to the motions of best present practice, and
being timed by a Time Study Expert.

GIVEN MAN AND THE TASK.--The "first-class man" under Scientific
Management means the man who is best fitted by nature and by
training to do the task permanently or until promoted.

    The "given man" is the man who is actually put to work at the
task, whether or not he is well fitted for its performance.

    The "task" is that percentage of the standard man's achievement
that the given man to whom the task is to be assigned can do
continuously and thrive, that he can do easily enough to win his
bonus without injuring himself, temporarily or permanently, in
any way.

Scientific Management, and even in the early stages of Transitory
Management, writing is the standard means of conveying information.

    All orders, without exception, should be in writing. This
insures that the "eye workers" get their directions in the most
impressive form; does away with the need of constant oral
repetition; eliminates confusion; insures a clear impression in the
mind of the giver as well as of the receiver of the order as to
exactly what is wanted; and provides a record of all orders given.
Putting the instructions in writing in no way precludes utilizing
the worker's natural aptitude to learn by imitation, for he also
always has the opportunity to watch and imitate the workings of the
functional teachers as well as his scientifically taught

INSTRUCTIONS AS TO THE TASK.--The records of the work of the
standard man are contained in data of the Motion Study and Time
Study department. These records, in the form in which they are to be
used by the man who is to perform the task, are, for the benefit of
that man, incorporated in what is known as the instruction card.

    DEFINITION OF THE INSTRUCTION CARD.--The instruction card is a
set of directions for the man, telling him what he is to do, how he
is to do it, how long it should take him to do it, and what he will
receive for doing it, and giving him an opportunity to call for, and
obtain, assistance the instant that he finds he cannot do it, and
to report back to the managers as to how he has succeeded in
the performance.

    The Instruction Card has been called "a self-producer of a
predetermined product."

MANAGEMENT.--There are three types of Instruction Cards, which may
be described as follows:

    Type One:--Largely geographical, telling
    1. Where to Work.
    2. From Whom to Take Orders.
    3. What to Do.

    Type Two:--Typical engineer's specification,--telling
    1. Results desired.
    2. Qualities of Products.

    Type Three:--A list of elementary, step-by-step instructions,
subdivided into their motions, with time allowed for each timable
element, preferably for each motion, and a division between
    1. Getting ready.
    2. Making or constructing.
    3. Clearing up. This is the only type used by Scientific

The Instruction Card under Scientific Management must contain
directions, and state the pay allowance and time allowance.

    Directions as to how the work shall be done eliminate waste by
cutting out all wrong methods and prescribing the right method

    The setting of a time in which the work is to be done is a great
stimulus to the worker, and is also necessary, because upon the
attainment of this set time depends the ability of the managers to
pay the bonus to the worker, and also to maintain a schedule, or
time-table, that will make possible the maintaining of necessary
conditions for others, in turn, to earn their bonuses. It cannot be
too often emphasized that the extra wages are paid to the men out of
the savings, and are absolutely dependent upon the fact of there
being savings. It is only when the worker does the work within the
time prescribed, that the managers do save enough to warrant the
payment of the extra wages that compensate the man for doing the
stipulated quantity of work.

    The instruction card contains a statement of the wage or bonus
that will be earned for the complete performance of the task set
therein, thus furnishing an incentive at the time that the work
is done.

reasons for dividing an instruction card in the present standard
way, namely,--

      (a) to reduce the amount of time study observation
          necessary to be taken,
      (b) to reduce the difficulties of synthesizing the time
          studied element,
      (c) to locate quickly just where the worker needs help and
          instruction to enable him to achieve his task,
      (d) to keep up the interest of the worker by having short
          time elements with which to measure his relative
      (e) to present the subject-matter of instruction in such
          natural subdivisions that resting places are
          automatically provided that allow the mind to recover
          from its absorption of each subdivision. This provides
          definite stopping places between co-related units of
          instruction holding the attention as a complete unit
          against distraction, and a complete resting place
          between subdivisions that permits the mind to relax and
          wander without losing complete grasp of each unit as
          a whole.

    DETAILED INSTRUCTION EDUCATIVE.--The greater the perfection of
the detail of the instruction card, the greater the educative value
of this plan of management. The educative value of the instruction
card will be discussed at length under Teaching.

    Those inexperienced in Scientific Management have complained
that the detail of Instruction Cards and other parts of Scientific
Management is tiresome. Dr. Taylor has answered such objectors in
Discussions, and also in his own directions for planning the
Instruction Card, which are to be found in "Shop Management."

    The advantages of the detailed instruction card are more than
might appear on the surface. Not only does the man whose attention
is easily distracted keep to his work better if he is told every
possible detail, but also the cards when filed can be taken out
again, and every detail and item of the method reviewed at length
and revised if necessary.

    The experienced worker who gets to know the instruction by rote
is not bothered by extreme detail. On the contrary, he grasps it at
a glance, and focuses his mind upon any new feature and upon the
speed and exactness of muscular action needed for compliance with
the card.

instructions and commands are transmitted on the instruction card is
of sufficient importance to warrant careful consideration. It would
be helpful if the instruction card clerk and the man who is to use
the instruction cards were both masters of English, but this is
hardly to be expected. The best substitute for such special English
training is a "System" for the use of the instruction card clerk
that will give him some outline of English that will by degrees make
his wording terse, simple and unambiguous.

    He should be impressed with the value of short sentences, and of
sentences that will require no punctuation other than a period at
the end. The short sentence is the most important step toward
brevity, terseness, conciseness and clear thinking.

    The second most important feature is that the instruction card
clerk always uses the same standard wording for the same
instructions. Repetition of phrasing is a virtue, and the use of the
same word for the same thing and the same meaning repeatedly is very
desirable. The wording, phrasing and sentencing should be standard
wherever possible.

    STANDARD PHRASING DESIRABLE.--After a short time a phrase or
sentence that is often repeated will be recognized as quickly as
will a word or a letter. Men who cannot read and write at all are
comparatively few. Men who can read and write but little are many.
It is entirely possible to teach such men standard groupings, which
they can recognize on the Instruction Card and use in a very
short time.

    For example,--laborers who do not even know their alphabets will
learn quickly to read setting marks on cut stone.

    Just as mnemonic symbols save time and effort, so standard
phrasing aids toward finding out what is to be done, and remembering
how it is to be done.[5] Both of these can be accomplished if the
standardization is so complete that directions can be read and
remembered almost at a glance.[6]

    SPECIFIC TERMS HELPFUL.--To be most effective, directions should
be in the imperative form, and in specific terms.

    The history and growth of language shows that the language of
the savage consisted of vague general terms as compared to the
specific individual terms of the modern language of civilized man.
There are examples to be seen on every hand to-day where the oral
language of instructions and orders to proceed, that are given to
the worker, are still more vague, comparatively, than the language
between savages.

shape, as Dr. Taylor says, "anything that will transmit ideas by
sketch or wording will serve as an instruction card." He advises,
however, taking advantage of the saving in time to be gained by
having the instruction cards as nearly alike as possible. They may,
for convenience' sake, vary as to length, but in width, ruling,
spacing and wording they should be as nearly alike as possible.

    STANDARD SURROUNDINGS VALUABLE.--Standard environment, or
surroundings, of the worker are valuable for two reasons:

    1. Because they directly increase output by eliminating
everything which might distract attention or cause needless fatigue,
and by assisting in the attainment of more output by having the best
possible surroundings for greater output.

    2. Because all surroundings suggest an easy achievement. Knowing
that everything has been done to make his work possible and easy,
the worker feels this atmosphere of possibility and ease around him,
and the suggestive power of this is strong.

and furniture, and the clothing of the worker should be of that
color which will rest his eyes from the fatigue of the work. All
unnecessary noise should be eliminated, and provision should be
made, where possible, that the workers may enjoy their sleep or
their rest hours in perfect quiet.

    Records show the value of having quiet reign in and near the
camp, that the workers may not be disturbed. Even though they are
not disturbed enough to be waked up, every noise that is registered
in the brain affects the body, for it is now conceded that the body
reflects every phase of mental activity.

is now generally accepted that the body reflects every shade of
psychic operations; that in all manner of mental action there is
some physical expression."[7] All consciousness is motor "is the
brief expression of this important truth; every mental state somehow
runs over into a corresponding bodily state."

more fireproof the building, and the more stable the other
conditions, the greater the efficiency of the inmate. Burglar-proof
buildings not only actually induce better sleep, in that possible
intrusions are eliminated, but give a state of mental peace by the
removal of apprehension. So also, a "germ proof" house is not only
really more healthful for an inmate, but eliminates worry over
possible danger of ill health. The mental health of the worker not
only controls, in a measure, his physical health, but also his
desire to work. Having no distractions, he can put his mind upon
that which is given him to do.

worker is apt to be distracted not only by recognized dangers, such
as burglars, fires, and disease, but also by other transitory things
that, involuntarily on his part, take his mind from the work in
hand. A flickering light distracts the attention and causes fatigue,
whether we have consciously noticed it or not. Many things are
recorded by the senses without one's being conscious of them.

    For example, the ceasing of a clock to tick, although we have
not noticed that it was ticking. Another example is the effect upon
the pulse or the brain of being spoken to when asleep.

    The flickering lamp of the chronocyclegraph device is much more
fatiguing than the steady lamp of plain cyclegraphs.

Workers must be placed so that they do not see intermittently moving
objects out of the corners of their eyes. In the early history of
man it was continuously necessary to watch for first evidence of
things behind one, or at a distance, in order to be safe from an
enemy. From generations of survival of the most fit there have
developed human eyes most sensitive to moving objects that are seen
out of the corner of the eye. Even civilized man has his attention
distracted quickest, and most, by those moving objects that he sees
the least distinctly, and furthest to one side from the direction in
which he is looking.

    The leaf that moves or the grass that trembles may attract the
attention where seen "out of the corner of the eye" to a point where
it will even cause a start and a great fear.

    As an example of the distracting effect of moving objects seen
"out of the corner of the eye," try reading a book facing a window
in a car where the moving scenery can be seen on each side of the
book. The flitting object will interrupt one, one cannot get the
full meaning out of what one is reading--yet if one lays down the
book and looks directly at the scenery, the mind can concentrate to
a point where one does not see that moving scenery which is directly
in front of the eyes.

    There is a great difference in this power of sensitiveness of
the corners of some workers' eyes from that of others. The first
move of Scientific Management is to place and arrange all workers,
as far as is possible, in such a position that nothing to distract
them will be behind them, and later to see that the eyes of workers
are tested, that those whose eyes are most sensitive may be placed

necessity of removing all things which will distract the attention
is as great for the brain worker as for the shop or construction
worker. All papers that attract the eye, and hence the attention,
should be cleaned from the desk, everything except that on which the
worker is working. The capability of being distracted by the
presence of other things varies in all workers.

    In using the dictaphone, one can do much better work if one is
in a room where there is little or nothing to distract attention. An
outline of work ahead, may tempt to study and planning of what is
ahead, rather than to carrying out the task scheduled for immediate
performance. The presence of a paper with an outline merely of what
is being done is found to be a great help, as the eye can rest on
that, and after a few moments, will become so accustomed to it that
the whole attention will be given to the dictating.

time lost by "decision of choice." The elimination of this is well
illustrated by the bricks that are piled on the packet, which
decides for the bricklayer which brick is next, making an obvious
sequence, hence the saving of time of decision regarding motions,
also the saving coming from the play for position. Oftentimes a
handicap of slow mental action can be compensated for, in a measure,
by planning ahead in great detail. In this way, if the plan is made
sufficiently in detail, there is absolutely no time possible left to
be wasted in "decision of choice." The worker goes from one step to
another, and as these steps are arranged logically, his mind does
not tend to wander away, but to keep on in an uninterrupted sequence
to the goal.

    STANDARD EQUIPMENT IMPORTANT.--As for equipment, the phenomena
of habit are among the most important features of the psychology of
management and the possibilities of the elimination of unnecessary
waste resulting from taking advantage of this feature is possible
only when the equipment, surroundings and methods of the worker are
standardized. Therefore the insistence upon standardization, even
down to the smallest things, is vital for achieving the greatest

    For example,--suppose the keys of the monotype machine, piano or
typewriter were not located permanently in the same relative
position. Consider the loss of time in not being able to use habits
in finding each key. Such an arrangement sounds ridiculous on the
face of it, yet it is a common practice for many operators,
especially of monotype machines, to make a complete mental decision
as to the muscles and fingers with which they will strike the
desired key.

    Imagine the records of output of a typist who was using a
different keyboard every day, if there were that many kinds of
keyboards. It is easy for anyone to conceive the great advantages of
standard keyboards for such machines, but only those who have made a
study of output of all kinds of workers can fully realize that
similar differences in sizes of output are being produced by the
workers of the country for lack of similar standardization of
working conditions and equipment.

OPERATING UNDER IT.--The attention of those who believe that
standardization makes machines out of the workers themselves, is
called to the absence of such effect upon the typist as compared
with the scribe, the monotype and linotype operator as compared with
the compositor, and the mechanical computing machine operator as
compared with the arithmetician.

cannot be standardized until the devices and tools used are of
standard pattern. It is not nearly so essential to have the best
tools as it is to have standard tools.[8] Experience in the
hospitals points to the importance of this fact in surgery. Tools
once adopted as standard should not be changed until the improvement
or greater efficiency from their use will compensate for the loss
during the period of "breaking in" the user, that is, of forming new
habits in order to handle strange tools. As will be brought out more
fully under "Teaching," good habits are as difficult to break as bad
ones, the only difference being that one does not usually desire to
break good ones. Naturally, if a new device is introduced, what was
an excellent habit for the old device becomes, perhaps, a very bad
habit for the new device. There must come a time before the
manipulation of the new device has become a habit when output will
go down and costs will go up. It is necessary, before introducing
this device, to investigate whether the ultimate reduction of costs
will be sufficient to allow for this period of lower production. It
is not fair, however, to the new device or method really to consider
its record until the use of it has become such a habit with the
workers as was the use of the old device.

    No one who has not made a study of cutting tools can realize the
crying need for standardizing in that field. Dr. Taylor says,
writing in the Revised "Shop Management" of 1911,--"Hardly a shop
can be found in which tools made from a dozen different qualities of
steel are not used side by side, in many cases with little or no
means of telling one make from another."[9] The effect of the
slightest variation in the shape or the method of handling the tool
upon the three dimensions of the work that the tool can do in a
given time, is astounding.[10] More important, from the
psychological point of view, is the effect upon the mind of the
worker of seeing such unstandardized equipment; of having to stop to
select the particular tool that he desires, and thus having his
attention distracted from his work; and of knowing that his act of
judgment in so selecting is of no permanent value, as the next time
he needs a similar tool he will probably have to reselect.

    STANDARD CLOTHING A CRYING NEED.--There is a great need today
for standardization in the field of clothing. The idea prevalent
that wearing apparel is attractive only when it is "different" is
unfortunate in its influence upon the cost of living. How much more
unfortunate is it, when it affects the mind of the worker, and leads
him to look upon standard working clothes with distaste.

    To a careful observer, there is nothing more disheartening than
a study of workers' clothes, especially the clothes of women
workers. Too warm clothes where work requiring high temperature is
done, with no provision for adding needed wraps for the trip home;
high-heeled shoes where the worker must stand at her task for hours
at a time; tight waists and ill fitting skirts, where every muscle
should have free play,--these are but examples of hundreds of places
where reforms are needed.

    Little or no blame attaches to the worker for this state of
affairs. Seldom, if ever, does the management attempt to standardize
working clothes. Moreover, the underlying idea is not made clear
that such clothes bear no resemblance to the meaningless uniforms
which are badge and symbol of service. They resemble rather the
blouse or pinafore of the artist, the outfit of the submarine diver
or the fireman.

toward standardizing clothing has come in the sports, which, in many
respects, present admirable object-lessons. In the tennis court, on
the links, on the gridiron, the diamond, or track, the garment worn
of itself does not increase fatigue. On the contrary, it is so
designed as not to interfere with the efficiency of the wearer.

Management the most efficient clothing for any kind of work will be
standardized. The expense of such articles of clothing as will add
to the quantity or quality of output will, directly or indirectly,
be borne by the management, just as it now bears the expense for
equipment and tools. These essentials being supplied, and the
underlying dignity and importance of standardization understood, the
worker will gladly conform, and supply the minor accessories.

    SUCH STANDARDS MUST APPLY TO ALL.--It is of the utmost
importance that such standardization, when adopted, should apply to
the clothing of all, managers as well as employés. When the old
pride in the "crafts" returns, or when efficiency is as universal in
the industrial world as it is in the world of sport,--then one may
look for results.

    EFFECTS OF SUCH STANDARDS ENORMOUS.--The effect which such
standardized clothing would have on the physical and mental
well-being of the wearers can scarcely be overestimated. Fatigue
would be eliminated, and the old "joy in working" might return. Not
being based upon looks alone,--though the æsthetic appeal should not
be neglected,--the worker's ability to work more and better with
greater content of mind would be the criterion. The success of the
clothing would be scientifically measured, the standards improved,
and progress itself become standardized.

    STANDARD METHODS ELIMINATE FATIGUE.--There is no doubt in the
minds of those who have made it a study, that the constant receipt
of the same kind of impressions, caused by the same kind of
stimulation of the same terminal sense organs, causes semi-automatic
response with less resulting fatigue, corresponding to the lessened
effort. All methods should, therefore, as far as possible, be made
up of standard elements under standard conditions, with standard
devices and appliances, and they should be standardized from the
standpoint of all of our senses as to color, shape, size, weight,
location, position and surface texture, that the worker may grasp at
a single thought by means of each or all his senses, that no special
muscles or other fatiguing processes need be operated to achieve the
standard result desired.

that all work should be so arranged that the muscle that changes the
position or shape of the eye or the size of its pupil should not be
operated except when necessary. Care in planning can oftentimes
standardize conditions so as to relieve these and other muscles,
which grow tired easily, or transfer this work to other muscles
which are not so easily tired.

    Not only do the reactions from such standards require less
bodily effort, but it also requires less mental effort to work under
methods that are standardized. Therefore, both directly and
indirectly, the worker benefits by the standardization.

Management provides and prescribes rest for overcoming fatigue of
the worker more scientifically and economically than he could
possibly provide it for himself. Weber's law is that "our power of
detecting differences between sensations does not depend on the
absolute amount of difference in the stimuli, but on the relative
amount."[11] The additional fatigue from handling additional weights
causes fatigue to increase with the weight, but not in direct
proportion to the extra weight handled. When the correct weight of
the unit to be handled has been determined, the additional weight
will cause fatigue in quantities greater in proportion than the
extra weight handled.

possible, rest from fatigue is so arranged as to interfere with work
the least. The necessary rest periods of the individuals of a gang
should come at that period of the cycle that does not cause any
allowance to be made for rest in between the performance of the
dependent operations of different members of the gang. Such an
arrangement will enable the worker to keep a sustained interest in
the work.

standardizing work with animals has been greatly underestimated,
although it has been done more or less successfully in systems for
construction work. For work with horses and carts, the harnesses and
the carts should be standardized and standards only should be used.
The instruction card dealing with the action, motions and their
sequence should be standard to save time in changing teams from the
full to the empty cart and _vice versa_. While standardized action
is necessary with men, it is even more necessary for men in
connection with the work of animals, such as horses, mules and oxen.
The instruction card for the act of changing of teams from an empty
cart to a full cart should state the side that the driver gets down
from his seat to the ground, the sequence in which he unhooks the
harness and hooks it up again, and the side on which he gets up to
his seat in the cart. Even the wording of his orders to his horse
should be standardized.

    While this book will deal with the human mind only, it is in
order to state that a book could be written to advantage on training
the horse by means of a standard man-horse language and a standard
practice of their combined action.

    Animals have not the capacity for forming new habits that they
have for remembering the sequence of former acts. They have little
ability to adapt themselves to a sequence of motions caused by
unexpected conditions, unless those conditions suggest the
opportunity of revenge, or the necessity of self-preservation, or
immediate welfare. This is only touched upon here from the man side.

    Naturally, the output earning power of a man working with
animals depends largely upon the handling of the animal, and the man
can never attain his full output, or the managers get what they
might expect to get from the man-horse combination, until the
psychology of the horse, or mule, or elephant, or whatever animal is
used, is also studied and combined with the other studies on
Scientific Management.

    An example of the benefits of standardized work with
animals:--The standard fire signals in the Fire House cause such
perfect horse action that fire horses always have a reputation for
superior intelligence.

exaggerated case of the result of leaving the selection of the
method to the worker is that of the West Indian negro who carried
the wheelbarrow on his head.[12] This well-known example, though it
seems impossible and absurd, is no more inefficient than are
hundreds of methods in use in the industrial world to-day.

Management determines exactly what quality as well as what quantity
of work is needed, and the method prescribed is that one not only of
lower costs, but which fits the particular need of the particular
occasion most accurately.

    Workers are kept under pressure for quality, yet the pressure is
not irksome, because the worker understands exactly what quality is
desired, and what variations from exactness are permitted.

SIGNS.--All dimensions on the drawings of work have either a letter
or symbol or plus or minus signs. There is much to be said about the
effect this has on the worker.

    1. It gives the worker immediate knowledge of the prescribed
       quality demanded.
    2. He does not have to worry as to the maximum variation that
       he can make without interfering with his bonus.
    3. There is no fear of criticism or discharge for using his
       own faulty judgment.

must note next the standard "method of attack" in Scientific
Management. It is recognized that sensations are modified by those
that come before, by those that come simultaneously, and by those
that follow. The psychic effect of each and every kind of sensation
depends upon what other sensations have been experienced, are being
experienced at that time, or will presently be experienced. The
scientific manager realizes this, and provides for the most
desirable sequence of sensation; then, having seen, to the best of
his ability, that the sensation occurs at the time which he desires
it to occur, he provides for concentration upon that one sensation
and elimination of all other thoughts or desires.

    Professor Faraday says: "That part of self-education which
consists in teaching the mind to resist the desires and inclinations
until they are proved to be right is the most important of all." How
this is shown under Scientific Management will be shown in "Teaching."
It is sufficient to say here that the method of attack of
Scientific Management is to eliminate all possible bodily as well as
mental exertion,--to cut down motions, to cut down even sensations
and such mental acts as visualizing. The object is, not so much to
eliminate these motions and these sensations, and this visualizing
from the life of the worker, as simply to use up less energy in
producing the output. This allows the worker an extra supply of
energy upon which to fall back to produce greater output and to get
greater wages. If his energy is not all utilized in his working
hours, then, as will be shown more clearly under "Welfare," there is
that much more left for him to enjoy in his own leisure time.


    RESULT TO THE WORK.--Under Traditional Management, where
standards are not established, the worker is constantly delayed by
the necessity for decision of choice, by the lack of knowing what
should be chosen, and by a dearth of standard equipment, materials
and tools from which to choose.

    Under Transitory Management, with the introduction of standards,
the elimination of delays and the provision for standard
surroundings and supplies of all kinds, comes increased output of
the desired quality.

    Under Scientific Management, not only is output increased and
quality assured, but results of work can be predicted.[13]

    RESULTS TO THE WORKER.--Results from standardization to the
worker under Traditional and Transitory Management are the same as,
and are included in, results under Scientific Management.

Management the state of the employé's feelings is improved by the
standardization. It is a recognized fact that mental disturbance
from such causes as fear of losing his job will sometimes have the
same ill effect upon a workman as does overwork, or insufficient
rest for overcoming fatigue. It will occasionally wear upon the
nervous system and the digestive organs. Now Scientific Management
by standardization removes from the workman this fear of losing his
job, for the worker knows that if he conforms to the standard
instructions he certainly will not lose his position unless the
business as a whole is unsuccessful.

    On the other hand, feelings, such as happiness and contentment,
and even hearing rhythmic sounds, music, etc., are an aid toward
increasing output. For the best results, therefore, under Scientific
Management the worker is furnished with standard conditions; his
train of ideas is held upon the work in hand without interruption,
and the working conditions are such that the managers furnish the
worker with inducements to conform to the standard conditions

    WORKER'S RETENTIVE POWER INCREASED.--We note in the second
place, the increased retentive power of anyone who is working with
standards. There is great difference between different people of the
same degree of intelligence as to their ability to memorize certain
things, especially such as sequences of the elements of a process.
This lack of retentive power is illustrated particularly well in the
cases often found where the student has difficulty in learning to
spell. It is here that the standard instruction card comes into play
to good effect. Its great detail remedies the defect in memorizing
of certain otherwise brilliant workers, and its standard form and
repetition of standard phrases aid the retentive power of the man
who has a good memory.

standardized elements makes the time elapsing between repetitions
shorter, for, while it may be a long time before the worker again
encounters the identical work or method, still, the fact that
elements are standard means that he will have occasion to repeat
elements frequently, and that his memory will each time be further
drilled by these repetitions.

card has been used with good effect at the beginning of unfamiliar
repetitive cycles of work to train the memory of whole gangs of men
at once, and to cut down the elapsed time from the time when one
man's operation is sufficiently completed to permit the next man to
commence his. It has been found, in the case of setting timbers in
mill construction for example, that to have one man call out the
next act in the sequence as fast as the preceding one is finished,
until all have committed the sequence to memory, will materially
decrease the time necessary for the entire sequence of elements in a
cycle of work.

instruction card supplies a most accurate memory in inanimate form,
that neither blurs nor distorts with age.

    The ranter against this standard memory is no more sensible than
a man who would advocate the worker's forgetting the result of his
best experience, that his mind might be periodically exercised by
rediscovering the method of least waste anew with each problem.

    Other things being equal, that worker has the longest number of
years of earning power who remembers the largest number of right
methods; or at least remembers where to find them described in
detail; and, conversely, those who have no memory, and know not
where to look for or to lay their hand on the method of least waste,
remain at the beginning of their industrial education. "Experience,"
from an earning standpoint, does not exist when the mind does not
retain a memory of the method. The instruction card, then, acts as a
form of transferable memory--it conserves memory. Once it is made,
it furnishes the earning power without the necessity of the former
experience having been had more than once.

    Plans, details, free-hand sketches, and two-dimension
photographs surpass the highest form of mental imagery, and such
cultivated imagery is undoubtedly a high achievement. There is no
kind of memory, visualization, nor constructive imagination that can
equal the stereoscopic or three-dimension photographs that may
accompany the instruction card for enabling the worker to "see the
completed work before it is begun." Probably the greatest hindrance
to development of lower forms of animal life is their inability to
picture past experiences, and the reason for the intellectual
strides made by the worker under Scientific Management is the
development of this faculty.

    A CONSERVER OF INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES.--Many people believe that
the memory of a person ceases at his death. Whether this is so or
not, the loss to the world, and particularly the industrial world,
of not having the instruction card for the passing on of the
worker's experience to the workers who follow is stupendous and
incalculable, and this loss, like so many other losses, can be
eliminated by the process of making written standards.

retentive powers of the brain improved, but also the brain centers,
and the muscles, etc., become trained through standardization. With
standardization a long sequence of muscular motions or operations
can be noted at a glance, and can be remembered without difficulty.

to the worker taking advantage of these scientifically derived
standards which aid the memory, can only be compared to such people
as desire the workers to turn into unthinking animals. Psychologists
believe that some of the lower animals have no memory. Turning the
workers into machines which do not in any way utilize thought-saving
devices is simply putting them but little above the class of these
lower, memory-less, animals.

START.--The general act of attention plays an important part in
Scientific Management. The insistence upon standardized performance
requires the utmost attention at the beginning of learning a new
method of performance. This extra output of mental activity, which
is always required for accomplishing new methods of work, could not
be continuously maintained, but after the new method has once been
learned, its repetition requires less attention, consequently less
fatigue. The attention of the worker is, therefore, strongly
demanded at the beginning and when, later, it is not needed except
for new and unfamiliar work, an opportunity arises for invention and
mental advancement.

shifts the objects of attention and eliminates the need for constant
concentration. The standardization of processes relieves the worker
to a marked extent from the extremely fatiguing mental effort of
unproductive fixed, valueless, and unnecessary attention on the
stream of consciousness. The repeated elements which form a part
of all standards reconcentrates the attention if it is allowed
to lapse.

old-time Traditional Management the way that the man happened to
feel at the particular time made a great difference, not only in his
work, but in his relations with other men. The standardization not
only of the relationship between the men, but of the relationships
between the foreman, the manager, and the worker, the fact that the
disciplining is put in the hands of a man who is not biased by his
personal feelings in his dealings with the men;--all of these things
mean that the viewpoint of the men as to their work and their
relationship remains fixed. This standardizing of the viewpoint is
an enormous help toward increasing output.

    THE COMMON VIEWPOINT IS AN IMPETUS.--There are those who believe
that the concerted standard process of thought of the many minds
assists the operation of any one mind. However this may be, there is
no doubt that the fact that the standard thought is present in all
minds at one time at least eliminates some cause for discussion and
leads to unity and consequent success in the work.

    INVENTION IS STIMULATED.--Chances for invention and construction
are provided by standardization.[14] By having a scientifically
derived standard method as a starter, the worker can exert much of
his mental power toward improvement from that point upward, instead
of being occupied with methods below it and in wasting, perhaps, a
lifetime in striving to get up to it,[15] this in distinction to the
old plan, where a worker knew only what he could personally remember
of what had been handed down by tradition, tradition being the
memory of society. Under Scientific Management a worker has many
repetitions of experience, some of which he does not always
recognize as such. When he does recognize them, he has the power and
daring for rapid construction that come to those only who "know that
they know."

    Standardization of ultimate subdivisions, as such, brings that
power to the worker sooner. The conscious knowledge of familiarity
of process is an essential for attaining the complete benefits of

    Far from making machines out of the men, standardization causes
a mental state that leads to invention, for the reason that the
worker's brain is in most intimate contact with the work, and yet
has not been unnecessarily fatigued by the work itself. No more
monotonous work could be cited than that of that boy whose sole duty
was to operate by hand the valve to the engine, yet he invented the
automatic control of the slide valve used throughout the world

standardization so far given, concern changes in the worker's mental
capacity, or attitude. Such changes, and other changes, will be
discussed from a different viewpoint under "Teaching." As for
results to the worker's body, one of the most important is the
elimination of causes for accidents.

    The rigid inspection, testing, and repairing provided for by
Scientific Management provides against accidents from defects in
equipment, tools, or material. The fact that instructions are
written, provides against wrong methods of handling work.[16] The
concentrated attention caused by standardization, is a safeguard
against accidents that occur from the worker's carelessness.[17] The
proper allowance of rest for overcoming fatigue, insures that the
worker's mind is fresh enough to enable him to comply with
standards, and, finally, the spirit of coöperation that underlies
Scientific Management is an added check against accidents, in that
everyone is guarding his fellows as well as himself.

becomes older, progress will be faster, because up to this time
there has been a hindrance standing in the way of rapid advancement
of the best standards. This hindrance has been the tendency of
habits of thought coinciding with former practice. For example, the
design of concrete building for years followed the habit of thinking
in terms of brick, or wood, or steel, and then attempting to design
and construct in reinforced concrete. Again, in the case of the
motor car, habits of thinking in vehicles drawn by animals for years
kept the design unnecessarily leaning toward that of horse vehicles.
As soon as thought was in terms of power vehicles, the efficient
motor truck of to-day was made, using the power also for power
loading and power hoisting, as is now done in motor trucks specially
designed for transporting and handling pianos and safes. So, also,
while the thought was of traditional practice, standard practice was
held back. Now that the theories of standardization are well
understood, standardization and standards in general can advance
with great rapidity.

CHAPTER VI FOOTNOTES: ==============================================

 1. Compare R.T. Dana and W.L. Sanders, _Rock Drilling_, chap. XVI.
 2. The idea of perfection is not involved in the standard of
    Scientific Management. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, Bulletin No. 5,
    of _The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching_,
    p. 6.
 3. _Cost of Manufactures_.
 4. Sully, _The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, pp. 290-292.
 5. C.B. Going, _Methods of the Sante Fé_, p. 66.
 6. For desirability of standard signals see R.T. Dana, _Handbook of
    Steam Shovel Work_, p. 32.
 7. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, pp. 268-269.
 8. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management,_ para. 285, Harper Ed.,
    pp. 123-124.
 9. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management,_ revised 1911, pp. 124-125.
10. F.W. Taylor, _On the Art of Cutting Metals_, A.S.M.E., No. 1119.
11. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 11.
12. Mary Whiton Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, p. 65.
13. C.G. Barth, A.S.M.E., Vol. 25, Paper 1010, p. 46.
14. Charles Babbage, _On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures_,
    Secs. 224-225. Adam Smith, _Wealth of Nations_, Book 1, chap. 1,
    p. 4.
15. F.W. Taylor, paper 1119, A.S.M.E., para. 51; para. 98-100.
16. F.A. Parkhurst, _Applied Methods of Scientific Management,
    Industrial Engineering_, Oct. 1911, p. 251.
17. H.L. Gantt, paper 928, A.S.M.E., para. 15.


                              CHAPTER VII

                         RECORDS AND PROGRAMMES

    DEFINITION OF RECORD.--A record is, according to the Century
Dictionary--"something set down in writing or delineated for the
purpose of preserving memory; specifically a register; an authentic
or official copy of any writing, or an account of any fact and
proceedings, whether public or private, usually entered in a book
for preservation; also the book containing such copy or account."[1]
The synonyms given are "note, chronicle, account, minute, memorandum."

purposes of this preliminary study of records, emphasis will be laid
on the fact that the record is written. Under Traditional Management
there are practically no such labor records. What records are kept
are more in the nature of "bookkeeping records," as Gillette and
Dana call them, records "showing debits and credits between
different accounts." In many cases, under Traditional Management,
not even such records of profit or loss from an individual piece of
work were kept, the manager, in extreme cases, oftentimes "keeping
his books in his head" and having only the vaguest idea of the state
of his finances.

has been amply demonstrated in discussing Individuality and
Standardization, the recognition of the value of records is one of
the first indications of Transitory Management. Since this stage of
management has Scientific Management in view as "a mark to come to,"
the records evolved and used are not discarded by Scientific
Management, but are simply perfected. Therefore, there is no need to
discuss these transitory records, except to say that, from the
start, _quality_ of records is insisted upon before quantity of

Scientific Management there are no "bookkeeping records" kept of
costs as such. Instead, there are "time and cost records," so
called, of the time and efficiency of performance. From these, costs
can be deduced at any time. Items of cost without relation to their
causes, on work that is not to be repeated, have little value. Cost
records, as such, usually represent a needless, useless expenditure
of time and money. It must be emphasized that Scientific Management
can in no way be identified with "cost keeping," in the sense that
is understood to mean aimlessly recording unrelated costs. Under
Scientific Management costs are an ever-present by-product of the
system, not a direct product.

records that should be made depends on the amount, diversity and
state of development of the work done. No record should be made,
which does not, directly or indirectly, actually reduce costs or in
some way increase efficiency. The purpose of the records, as of
Scientific Management in general, is to simplify work. Only when
this is recognized, can the records made be properly judged.
Numerous as they may at times seem to be, their number is determined
absolutely by the satisfactory manner in which they--

    1. Reduce costs.
    2. Simplify work.
    3. Increase efficiency.

    RECORDS OF WORK AND WORKERS.--Records may be of the work or of
the worker[2]--that is to say, of material used, tools used, output
produced, etc., or of individual efficiency, in one form or another.
Records of efficiency may be of workers, of foremen, and of
managers, and a record may be made of any man in several capacities;
for example, a record is kept of a functional foreman in the form of
the work of the men who are under him, while another record might be
kept of him as a worker himself; for example, the time being taken
that it took him to teach others their duties, the time to learn
what was to be done on any new work, etc.

    RECORDS OF INITIATIVE.--Records of initiative are embodied in
the Suggestion Card. Even under advanced Traditional Management the
cards are furnished to the men upon which to write any ideas as to
improvements. These suggestions are received, and, if accepted,
are rewarded.

    Under Scientific Management such suggestions become more
valuable, for, as has been shown, they are based upon standards;
thus if accepted, they signify not only a real, but a permanent
improvement. Their greatest value, however, is in the stimulus that
they furnish to the worker, in the information that they furnish the
management as to which workers are interested, and in the spirit of
coöperation that they foster.

    The worker receives not only a money-reward, but also publicity,
for it is made known which worker has made a valuable suggestion.
This indicates that the worker has shown good judgment. His interest
is thus stimulated, his attention is held to his work, and the habit
of initiative comes to him. That this habit of initiative can be
fostered, is shown by the actual fact that in many sorts of work the
same man constantly makes suggestions. It becomes a habit with him
to look for the new way, and as he is constantly rewarded, the
interest is not allowed to diminish.

    RECORDS OF GOOD BEHAVIOR.--Records of good behavior are
incorporated in the White List File. The White List File contains
the names of all men who have ever been employed who merit a
recommendation, if they should go to work for others, and would
deserve to be given work as soon as possible, if they came back.
This White List File should be filled out with many details, but
even if it contains nothing but a record of the names, and the
addresses where the men can be reached when new work starts up, it
has a stimulating effect upon the worker. He feels, again, the
element of permanence; there is a place for individuality, and not
only does the manager have the satisfaction of actually having this
list, and of using it, but a feeling that his men know that he is in
some way recognizing them, and endeavoring to make them and their
good work permanent.

    RECORDS OF ACHIEVEMENT.--Records of achievement vary with the
amount and nature of the work done. Such records are, as far as
possible, marked upon programmes.

worker makes his own records. Even when this is not advisable he is
informed of his record at as short intervals as are practicable.[3]

by separating records for the inspection of the man above, simply
having him examine the exceptions to some desired condition,--the
records which are exceptionally good, the records which are
exceptionally bad. This not only serves as a reward to the man who
has a good record, and a punishment for the man who has had a bad
record, but it also enables the manager to discover at once what is
wrong and where it is wrong, and to remedy it.

    The value of the exception principle can hardly be
overestimated. It would be of some value to know of exceptionally
good or poor work, even if the cause were not known. At least one
would be made to observe the signpost of success or of danger. But,
under Scientific Management, the cause appears simultaneously with
the fact on the record,--thus not only indicating the proper method
of repeating success, or avoiding failure, in the future, but also
showing, and making clear, the direct relation of cause to effect,
to the worker himself.

above are only a few of the types of records under Scientific
Management. Discussion has been confined to these, because they have
the most direct effect upon the mind of the worker and the manager.
Possible records are too numerous, and too diverse, to be described
and discussed in detail. They constitute a part of the "how" of
Scientific Management,--the manner in which it operates. This is
covered completely in the literature of Scientific Management,
written by men who have made Scientific Management and its
installation a life study. We need only further discuss the posting
of records, and their effect.

    POSTING OF RECORDS BENEFICIAL.--As has been already noted under
Individuality, and must be again noted under Incentives, much
benefit is derived from posting records, especially when these are
of such a character, or are so posted, that the worker may see at a
glance the comparative excellence of his results.


    RESULTS OF RECORDS TO THE WORK.[4]--The results of recording are
the same under all forms of management, if the records are correct.

    Output increases where records are kept. Under Traditional
Management there is the danger that pressure for quantity will
affect quality, especially if insufficient records of the resultant
quality are kept. Under Transitory and Scientific Management,
quality is maintained or improved, both because previous records set
the standard, and because following records exhibit the quality.

    RESULTS TO THE WORKER.--James says, "A man's social use is the
recognition which he gets from his mates. We are not only gregarious
animals, liking to be liked in sight of our fellow, but we have an
innate propensity to get ourselves noticed, and noticed favorably,
by our kind. No more fiendish punishment could be devised, were such
a thing physically possible, than that one should be turned loose in
society and remain absolutely unnoticed by all the members thereof.
If no one turned around when we entered, answered when we spoke or
minded what we did, but if every person we met 'cut us dead' and
acted as if we were non-existing things, a kind of rage and impotent
despair would ere long well up in us, from which the cruelest bodily
tortures would be a relief; for these would make us feel that,
however bad might be our plight, we had not sunk to such a depth as
to be unworthy of attention at all."[5] This recognition the worker
gets partly through the records which are made of him.

output, and especially through charts of such records, and timed
motion-picture films, or micro-motion study pictures the worker may,
if he be naturally observant, or if he be taught to observe, gain a
fine knowledge of himself.

    The constant exhibit of cause and effect of the relation of
output to, for example,--drink of alcoholic beverages; to smoking;
to food values; to nutrition; to family worries; and to other
outside influences;--in fact, the effects of numerous different
modes of living, are shown promptly to the worker in the form of

    Two things should here be noted:

    1. The necessity of having more accurate records of the
worker and the work, that the relation o£ cause to effect may be
more precise and authentic.

    2. The necessity for so training the worker, before, as well
as after, he enters the industrial world, that he can better
understand and utilize the lesson taught by his own records and
those of others.

Scientific Management in its most highly developed form, the worker
makes his own records on his return cards and hands them in. The
worker thus not only comes to realize, by seeing them and by writing
them down, what his records are, but he also realizes his individual
position to-day compared to what it was yesterday, and compared to
that of his fellows in the same line of work. Further, he gains
accuracy, he gains judgment, he gains a method of attack. He
realizes that, as the managers are more or less recorders, so also
he, in recording himself, is vitally connected with the management.
It is, after all, more or less an attitude of mind which he gains by
making out these records himself. It is because of this attitude of
mind, and of the value which it is to him, that he is made to make
out his own record under the ultimate form of management, even
though at times this may involve a sacrifice of the time in which he
must do it, and although he may work slower than could a specialist
at recording, who perhaps would, in spite of that, be paid less for
doing the work.

    EXACT KNOWLEDGE VALUABLE.--We cannot emphasize too often in this
connection the far-reaching psychological effect upon the worker of
exact knowledge of the comparative efficiency of methods. The value
of this is seldom fully appreciated; for example, we are familiar
with the many examples where the worker has been flattered until he
believes that he cannot make mistakes or do inefficient work. This
is most often found where the glowing compliments to the
manufacturing department, found in the advertising pages of the
magazine and in the praises sung in print by the publicity
department, oftentimes ends in an individual overconfidence. This
unjustified self-esteem is soon shattered by accurate comparative

    On the other hand, hazing of the new worker and the sneers of
the jealous, accompanied by such trite expressions as--"You can't
teach an old dog new tricks," have often destroyed self-confidence
in a worker, who, in the absence of accurate records of his
efficiency, is trying to judge himself at new methods. The jibes and
jokes at the new man at the new work, and especially at the
experienced, efficient man at unfamiliar work cease, or at least are
wholly impotent, so far as discouraging the man is concerned,
provided the worker sees by the records of a true measuring device,
or method, that his work compares favorably with others of the same
experience, made under the same conditions.

    DEFINITION OF PROGRAMME.--The word "programme" is defined by the
Century Dictionary as "a method of operation or line of procedure
prepared or announced beforehand. An outline or abstract of
something to be done or carried out."

has two meanings in management.

    1. the work, as it comes to the management to be done
    2. the work as it is planned out by the managers, and handed
       over to the worker to be done.

    Programme as here used is a plan for doing work, the plan which
the planning department lays out and hands over for the performers,
or the workers, to do.

POSSIBLE.--Under Traditional Management the plan is at best a
repetition of records of unscientifically planned work. The most
that the managers can hope to do is to lay out the time in which
they expect, after consulting previous elapsed time records, the
work to be done. Methods are not prescribed, so there is no
assurance that the calendar will be followed, for the times are set
by guess, or at best by referring to old unscientifically made

Transitory Management, with the introduction of systems, that is,
records of how the work has been done best at various times, come
methods and a possibility of a more exact calendar. There is some
likelihood under Transitory System of the work being done on time,
as the method has been considered and, in many cases, is specified.

Scientific Management programmes are based on accurate records
scientifically made and standardized, and a calendar may be made
that can be conformed to with exactness.

    PROGRAMMES A MATTER OF ROUTING.--The problems of a programme
under Scientific Management are two, both problems of routing:--

    1. to route materials to the work place.
    2. to route the worker to the placed materials.

    At first glance it might seem simpler to consider the worker as
static and the materials as in motion. The "routing" of the worker
is really often not a question of motion at all, as the worker, if
he were operating a machine, for example, would not change his
position between various pieces of work--except to rest from
fatigue--enough to be considered. The word "routing" is used
figuratively as regards the worker. He is considered as transported
by the management through the day's work.

    But, whether the work move, or the worker, or both, programmes
must so plan out the progress of each, in detail, for as many days
ahead as possible, that the most efficient outcome will ensue.

    ROUTING OF WORK.--The work is routed through schedules of
materials to buy, schedules of material to handle, and schedules of
labor to be performed. The skilled worker finds all the materials
for his work ready and waiting for him when he arrives at the task,
this being provided for by programmes made out many tasks ahead.

    ROUTING OF WORKERS.--The workers themselves are routed by means
of the route sheet, route chart, pin plan and bulletin board.

    The devices for laying out the work of the workers appeal to the
imagination as well as the reason. The route chart is a graphical
representation of a large river, starting with the small
stream,--the first operation, gathering to itself as the
tributaries, the various other operations,--till it reaches its full
growth, the completed work.

    The pin plan, with each pin or flag representing a worker, or
work place, and following his progress on a plan of the work,
presents a bird's-eye view in miniature of the entire working force;
and the bulletin board, with its cards that represent work ahead,
not only eliminates actual delay of shifting from one task to
another, but permits studying out one task while doing another, and
also destroys all fear of delay between jobs.

routing devices might all be described at length, but no description
could do them justice. A visit to a shop, or factory, or other
industrial organization operating under Scientific Management is
necessary, in order to appreciate not only their utility, but the
interest that they arouse. These programmes are no dead, static
things. They are alive, pulsing, moving, progressing with the
progress of the work.

calendar, or chronological chart, becomes a true prophecy of what
will take place. This is based on the standardized elementary units,
and the variations from it will be so slight as to allow of being


    RESULTS OF PROGRAMME TO THE WORK.--Under Traditional Management
the tentative calendar might cause speed, but could not direct
speed. Under Transitory Management elimination of waste by
prescribed methods and routing increases output. This increase
becomes greater under Scientific Management. Standardized routing
designs the shortest paths, the least wasteful sequence of events,
the most efficient speed, the most fitting method. The result is
more and better work.

    RESULTS OF PROGRAMMES TO THE WORKER.--A programme clarifies the
mind, is definite. The Traditional worker was often not sure what he
had better do next. The worker under Scientific Management knows
exactly what he is to do, and where and how he is to do it.

    The attention is held, a field of allied interests are provided
for possible lapses, as are also methods for recalling attention.

    The programme provides for a look ahead, and the relief that
comes from seeing the path before one. This ability to foresee also
leads to a feeling of stability. The knowledge that there is a large
amount of work ahead, ready to be attacked with no delay, eliminates
anxiety as to future employment. This allows of concentration on the
work in hand, and a feeling that, this work being properly done, one
is free to turn to the next piece of work with the absolute
assurance that what has been done will be satisfactory.

records and programmes would be complete that did not consider the
relation between them.

    IMPORTANCE OF THIS RELATION.--The relation between records and
programmes in the various types of management is most important, for
the progress from one type to another may be studied as exemplified
in the change in these relations.

    A BROADENING OF THE DEFINITIONS.--In order to understand more
plainly the complexity of this relation, we will not confine
ourselves here to the narrower definition of a record as a written
account, but will consider it to mean a registering of an experience
in the mind, whether this expresses itself in a written record or
not, A programme will, likewise, be a mental plan.

understand the number of different types of records and programmes
that can be made for a worker, the table that follows may be
examined (Table I). It exemplifies twelve possible records and
twelve possible programmes.

                                TABLE I

                        /                /
                        |                |1. unconscious record
                        |                |2. conscious record,
           /1. Man -----|                |   not written
           |   working  |                |3. written record
           |   for      |                |4. standardized record
           |   himself  \                \
I.         |
RECORDS----|                             /1. unconscious record
           |                             |2. conscious record, not written
           |            /(a) One of a ---|3. written record
           |            |    gang        |4. standardized record
           |            |                \               /(a) made by man
           \2. Man -----|                                |(b)  "   "  manager
               working  |                /1. unconscious |(a) made by man
               for      |                |   record      |(b)  "   " manager
               another  |                |2. conscious  -|(a) made by man
                        |                |   record,     |(b)  "   " manager
                        \(b) Individual -|   not written |(a) made by man
                             output      |3. written     |(b)  "   " manager
                                         |   record      |(a) made by man
                                         |4. standardize \(b)  "   " manager
                                         \   record

                                         |1. unconscious programme
           /1. Man     ------------------|2. conscious programme
           |   working                   |3. written programme
           |   for                       |4. standardized programme
           |   himself                   \
II.        |
           |                             /1. unconscious  /(a) made by man
           |            /(a) One of a ---|   programme    |(b)  "   "  manager
           |            |    gang        |2. conscious    |(a) made by man
           |            |                |   programme,   |(b)  "   " manager
           \2. Man    --|                |   not written -|(a) made by man
               working  |                |3. written      |(b)  "   " manager
               for      |                |   programme    |(a) made by man
               another  \(b) Individual -|4. standardized |(b)  "   " manager
                             output      |   programme    |(a) made by man
                                         \                \(b)  "   " manager

    INTERRELATION OF THESE TYPES.--The man is classified first, as
working for himself, or working for another. There will usually be a
fundamental difference, at the outset, in the minds of these two
men, for the man working for himself will be of a more independent
cast of thought. There will be no question as to the man's output
showing up separately, unless he chooses to prevent this by having
others work with him. Neither will there be any question but that,
if a record is made, he makes it himself, unless someone who is not
vitally connected with the work, as some onlooker, interested or
disinterested, should make the records for him. But the typical case
of the man working for himself would be that he was working as an
individual, and that the record was made by himself. There would
then be four kinds of records--an unconscious record, a conscious
record not written, a written record and a standardized record. The
"unconscious record" would be, in reality, no record at all. It
would simply be, that somewhere in the man's mind there would be a
record of what he had done, which, except as a "fringe of
consciousness" would not particularly influence his programme. What
we mean by a "conscious record" would be more of a set habit, the
man knowing that he had done the work in a certain way. This would
begin to influence, more or less, his programme, and also his
knowledge of his capacity for work. With a written record, would
come a thorough knowledge on his part of what he had done and how he
had done it, and we must note that with this written record comes
the possibility for some sort of a set programme, the man knowing
what it will be possible to do, and how he had best do it. With the
standardized record comes the standardized method.

    RELATIONSHIPS COMPLEX.--When we consider the man working for
another, he may either be one of a gang, or one whose work is
considered as that of an individual. In either case, any of the four
sorts of records can be made of his work that have been already
described for the man working for himself. Each one of these records
may be made by the man, or by the management; for with the man
working for another, naturally the second mind, that of the other,
or the manager, enters in, and a great many more combinations
are possible.

    For example,--there might be an unconscious record made by the
man and a conscious record, or a written record, made by the
manager. There might be a conscious record made by the man, but an
unconscious or a written record made by the manager, etc. There are
too many combinations made to be here considered. Each one of these
combinations would have a definite and a different effect, both upon
the mind of the man, and upon the mind of the manager; and also upon
their relation to each other. The second half of this chart is
similar, but treats of programmes, as many variables enter here.

    It may be thought that the details of the preceding chart and
the three following charts are uninteresting, obvious, and show too
many possible combinations. If this be so, then it is most necessary
to include them to illustrate the conditions that are passed through
and slipped back into too often in our schools, our apprenticeship
and in all but the best of managements.

    The outline of advancement must be known and recognized if the
quality of teaching, efficiency, and management is to be graded in
its right class.

    When we consider that each type of record bears a relation to
each type of programme, the complexity of the problems involved
become apparent. This will be better shown in Table II.

                      TABLE II

                      1. Unconscious record, unconscious programme.
                      2. Conscious record, unconscious programme.
                      3. Unconscious record, conscious programme.
                      4. Conscious record, conscious programme.
 I. Man working       5. Unconscious record, written programme.
    for himself.      6. Written record, unconscious programme.
                      7. Conscious record, written programme.
                      8. Written  record,  conscious programme.
                      9. Written record, written programme.
                     10. Standardized record, standardized programme.

    ILLUSTRATION OF THIS COMPLEXITY.--Table II represents the man
working for himself, with subdivisions under it showing the possible
relationship between his record and his programme. We find that
these are at least ten, reaching all the way from the unconscious
record and unconscious programme of the migrating transitory laborer
to the standardized record and the standardized programme of the
manager who manages himself scientifically.

    Each one of these represent a distinct psychological stage. The
progression may not be regular and smooth as is here given,--it may
be a jump, possibly even from one to nine. It may, however, be a
slow progression from one stage to another, largely to be determined
by the type of mind that is considered, and the opportunities for
development along scientific lines which are afforded. It is the
writer's intention to discuss these at length at some other time.
Here it is only possible to enumerate, in order to show the size and
complexity of the problem which is here involved.

    The table does not indicate, as perhaps it should, the fact that
the relationship between an unconscious record and an unconscious
programme is slight, while the relation between a written programme
and a written record is very close indeed. In Table IV this will
be indicated.

                      TABLE III

                      1. One of a gang, unconscious
                         record, unconscious programme,
                         on part of both
                         manager and man.
II. Man working
    for another.
                      2. Individual output,--standardized
                         record and programme,
                         known to, or made by, both
                         manager and man.

    ELIMINATION OF WASTE POSSIBLE.--The third table--that of the man
working for another man--attempts to do no more than indicate the
first and last step of a long series, beginning with the man, one of
a gang, an unconscious record, and an unconscious programme, on the
part of both the manager and the man, down to the final stage of
individual output, with the written record and programme known to
both manager and man. It would be a most interesting problem to work
out the various steps stretching between these two, and the various
ways in which progression might be made through these steps, either
taking one step after another slowly or making the various possible
jumps long and short. A psychological discussion of each step would
be of value, and certainly must in time be made, but this book has
not the scope, nor can the time be devoted to such a discussion.

    If this third chart had no other purpose, it would be useful to
suggest to the student the wide tracts which still remain for study
and development. It must not be thought that any of the steps
omitted on this chart are not in existence. Every single possible
combination of record and programme is in existence to-day, and must
be studied by the manager of men. Not until these are all
discovered, described, and standardized, the progression noted,
and standard progressions outlined, can methods of least waste
be adopted.

    With a more thorough experimental study of the mind will come a
possible prediction as to which stages the various types of mind
must pass through. So, too, with the training of the young mind in
the primary schools and in the methods of Scientific Management,
will come the elimination of many stages now necessary, and the
possibility, even, that the final stage may be introduced at the
outset, and the enormous waste of time, energy and wearing of
unnecessary brain paths be absolutely abolished.

various records and programmes and their relation, we will now
consider the four stages of the record,--(1) unconscious, (2)
conscious, (3) written, (4) standardized, and trace the derivation
of the programme from each stage.

                          TABLE IV
  I. Record unconscious.  Programme cannot be definite.
                          Method is indefinite.
 II. Record conscious.    Programme becomes more definite.
                          Method becomes  more definite.
III. Record written.      Programme yet more definite.
                          Method definite.
 IV. Record standardized. Programme standardized, i.e.,
                          Results predictable.
                          Methods standard.

suppose that the records are unconscious. What does this imply? It
implies in the first place that the worker has no idea of his
capacity; never having thought of what he has done, he has no idea
what can be done, neither has he a comparative idea of methods, that
is, of how to do it. It is impossible for a definite programme to be
laid out by such a worker,--that is to say, no predictions by him as
to the time of completing the work are possible. Neither could a
method be derived by him from his previous work.

    Note here the alarming amount of waste. All good methods which
the worker may possibly have acquired are practically lost to the
world, and perhaps also to him. Not only this, but all bad methods
which he has fallen into will be fallen into again and again, as
there are no warning signs to keep him out of them.

    As there is no possibility of an accurate chronological chart,
the worker may undertake more than he can do, thus delaying work
which should have been done by others. On the other hand, he may
underestimate his capacity, and be left idle because work he should
have done has been assigned to others. Either of these leads to a
sense of insecurity, to wavering attention, to "hit or miss" guess
work, "rule-of-thumb methods," which are the signs of Traditional

turn now to the case where the record is conscious,--that is, where
the worker keeps in mind exactly what he has done. With this
conscious record the idea of capacity develops. The man realizes
what he can do. So also, the idea of method develops, and the man
realizes how he can do the work. Third, there comes gradually an
idea of a margin; that is, of a possible way by which capacity can
be increased for a higher speed, or methods can be slightly varied
to meet any particular deviation in the work to be done.

    From this ability to estimate capacity, and to plan the method
ahead, comes the ability to lay out a more definite programme. When
the record becomes written the exactness of the programme increases.
Methods also become written, and, though accurate prediction is not
possible, such prediction is more and more nearly approached. This
increasing accuracy is the work of Transitory System in all its

case, the record is standardized, that is, the result of the method
of processes of analysis and synthesis. Through this process, as has
been shown, the reason for success is discovered and rendered
usable. The programme becomes standard, results can be predicted
accurately, and methods by which these results can be best obtained
are also standard.

    It may at first escape notice that these standardized records,
of the ultimate or scientific management type, imply _not_ a greater
rigidity, but a greater elasticity. This because of the nature of
the elements of the records, which may, in time, be combined into a
great number of different, predictable programmes.


WORK.--The most noteworthy result of the closer relations between
records and programmes which appear during the evolution of
Scientific Management is the fact that they cause constant
simplification. The more carefully records are standardized, the
simpler becomes the drafting of the programme. As more and more
records become standard, the drafting of programmes becomes
constantly an easier and cheaper process.

    PROGRAMMES BECOME RECORDS.--Under Traditional Management the
record that follows a programme may appear very different from the
programme. Under Scientific Management the record that follows a
programme most closely resembles the programme. Improvements are not
made between the programme and the following record,--they find
their place between the record and the following programme. Thus
programmes and records may be grouped in pairs, by similarity, with
a likelihood of difference between any one pair (one programme plus
one record) and other pairs.

    RESULT ON THE WORKER.--The greatest effect, on the worker, of
these relations of record to programme under Scientific Management
is the confidence that he gains in the judgment that is an outcome
of Scientific Management. When the worker sees that Scientific
Management makes possible accurate predictions of times, schedules,
tasks, and performance; that the methods prescribed invariably
enable him to achieve prescribed results, his confidence in
Scientific Management grows. So also does the manager's confidence
in Scientific Management grow,--and in this mutual confidence in the
system of management is another bond of sympathy.

    The place left for suggestions and improvements, in the
ever-present opportunities to better standards, fulfills that
longing for a greater efficiency that is the cause of progress.

CHAPTER VII FOOTNOTES: =============================================

 1. Gillette and Dana, _Cost Keeping and Management Engineering_,
    p. 65.
 2. H.L. Gantt, Paper No. 1002, A.S.M.E., page 2.
 3. Gillette and Dana, _Cost Keeping and Management Engineering_,
    p. VII.
 4. H.L. Gantt, Paper No. 1002, A.S.M.E., p. 1336.
 5. William James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 179.


                              CHAPTER VIII


    DEFINITION OF TEACHING.--The Century Dictionary defines
"teaching" as "the act or business of instructing," with synonyms:
"training" and "education;" and "to teach" is defined:--

    1. "to point out, direct, show;" "to tell, inform, instruct,
    2. "to show how (to do something); hence, to train;"
    3. "to impart knowledge or practical skill to;" "to guide in
       learning, educate."

    "Educate," we find meaning "to instruct, to teach methodically,
to prescribe to; to indoctrinate;" and by "indoctrinate" is meant
"to cause to hold as a doctrine or belief." "To educate," says the
same authority, "is to develop mentally or morally by instruction;
to qualify by instruction and training for the business and duty
of life."

Under Traditional Management there is either no definite scheme of
teaching by the management itself, or practically none; at least,
this is usually the condition under the most elementary types of
Traditional Management. In the very highest examples of the
traditional plan the learner may be shown how, but this showing is
not usually done in a systematic way, and under so-called
Traditional Management is seldom in the form of written

Traditional Management there is no particular time in which this
teaching goes on, no particular time allowed for the worker to ask
for the instruction, nor is there any particular source from which
he obtains the instructions. There is, moreover, almost every
hindrance against his getting any more instruction than he
absolutely must have in order to get the work done. The persons to
whom he can possibly appeal for further information might discharge
him for not already knowing. These persons are, if he is an
apprentice, an older worker; if he is a journeyman, the worker next
to him, or the foreman, or someone over him. An important fact
bearing on this subject is that it is not to the pecuniary advantage
of any particular person to give this teaching. In the first place,
if the man be a fellow-worker, he will want to do his own work
without interruption, he will not want to take the time off;
moreover, he regards his particular skill as more or less of a trade
secret, and desires to educate no more people than necessary, to be
as clever as he is. In the third place, there is no possible reward
for giving this instruction. Of course, the worker necessarily
improves under any sort of teaching, and if he has a receptive mind,
or an inventive mind, he must progress constantly, either by
teaching himself or by the instruction, no matter how haphazard.

of teaching under this type of management with many men who have
learned under it, can sufficiently emphasize the variations to be
found. But the consensus of opinion would seem to prove that an
apprentice of only a generation ago was too often hazed, was
discouraged from appealing for assistance or advice to the workers
near him, or to his foreman; was unable to find valuable literature
for home-study on the subject of his trade. The experience of many
an apprentice was, doubtless, different from this, but surely the
mental attitude of the journeymen who were the only teachers must
have tended toward some such resulting attitude of doubt or
hesitancy in the apprentice.

management, the apprentice must appear to the journeyman more or
less of a supplanter. From the employee's standpoint it was most
desirable that the number of apprentices be kept down, as an
oversupply of labor almost invariably resulted in a lowering of
wages. The quicker and better the apprentice was taught, the sooner
he became an active competitor. There seldom existed under this type
of management many staff positions to which the workers could hope
to be promoted, certainly none where they could utilize to the
fullest extent their teaching ability. There was thus every reason
for a journeyman to regard the teaching of apprentices as
unremunerative, irksome, and annoying.

    WORKER NOT TO BLAME FOR THIS.--The worker is not to be blamed
for this attitude. The conditions under which he worked made it
almost inevitable. Not only could he gain little or nothing by being
a successful teacher, but also the bullying instinct was appealed to
constantly, and the desire of the upper classmen in hazing days to
make the next class "pay up" for the hazing that they were obliged
to endure in their Freshman year.

    ATTITUDE OF THE LEARNER.--The attitude of the typical learner
must frequently be one of hesitancy and self-distrust if not of
fear, though conditions were so varied as almost to defy
classification. One type of apprentice was expected to learn merely
by observation and imitation. Another was practically the chore boy
of the worker who was assigned to teach him. A third was under no
direct supervision at all, but was expected to "keep busy," finding
his work by himself. A fourth was put through a severe and valuable
training by a martinet teacher,--and so on.

    TEACHING OFTEN PAINSTAKING.--It is greatly to the credit of the
worker under this type of management that he was, in spite of all
drawbacks, occasionally a painstaking teacher, to the best of his
lights. He insisted on application, and especially on quality of
work. He unselfishly gave of his own time and skill to help the
apprentice under him.

    METHODS OF TEACHING USUALLY WRONG.--Unfortunately, through no
fault of the worker-teacher the teaching was usually done according
to wrong methods. Quality of resulting output was so emphasized that
neither speed nor correct motions were given proper consideration.

    TEACHER NOT TRAINED TO TEACH.--The reason for this was that the
worker had no training to be a teacher. In the first place, he had
no adequate idea of his own capabilities, and of which parts of his
own method were fit to be taught. In the second place, he did not
know that right motions must be insisted on first, speed next, and
quality of output third; or in other words that if the motions were
precise enough, the quality would be first. In the fourth place he
had no pedagogical training.

    LACK OF STANDARDS AN UNDERLYING LACK.--All shortcoming in the
old time teaching may be traced to lack of standards. The worker had
never been measured, hence had no idea of his efficiency, or of
possible efficiency. No standard methods made plain the manner in
which the work should be done. Moreover, no standard division and
assignment of work allowed of placing apprentices at such parts of
the work that quality could be given third place. No standard
requirements had determined his fitness as a teacher, nor the
specialty that he should teach, and no incentive held his interest
to the teaching. These standards the worker-teacher could not
provide for himself, and the wonder is that the teaching was of such
a high character as it was.

    VERY LITTLE TEACHING OF ADULTS.--Under Traditional Management,
teaching of adults was slight,--there being little incentive either
to teacher or to learner, and it being always difficult for an adult
to change his method.[1] Moreover, it would be difficult for a
worker using one method to persuade one using another that his was
the better, there being no standard. Even if the user of the better
did persuade the other to follow his method, the final result might
be the loss of some valuable elements of the poorer method that did
not appear in the better.

underestimation of the importance of teaching lay at the root of the
lack of progress. This is so directly connected with all the other
lacks of Traditional Management,--provision for adequate promotion
and pay, standards, and the other underlying principles of
Scientific Management, especially the appreciation of
coöperation,--that it is almost impossible to disentangle the
reasons for it. Nor would it be profitable to attempt to do so here.
In considering teaching under Scientific Management we shall show
the influence of the appreciation of teaching,--and may deduce the
lacks from its non-appreciation, from that discussion.

Transitory Management the importance of teaching becomes at once
more apparent. This, both by providing for the teaching of foremen
and journeymen as well as apprentices, and by the providing of
written systems of instructions as to best practice. The worker has
access to all the sources of information of Traditional Management,
and has, besides these, in effect, unsystematically derived
standards to direct him.

systems enables every worker to receive instruction at any time, to
feel free to ask it, and to follow it without feeling in any way

    The result of the teaching of these systems is a decided
improvement in methods. If the written systems are used exclusively
as a source of teaching, except for the indefinite teachers of the
Traditional Management, the improvement becomes definitely
proportioned to the time which the man spends upon the studying and
to the amount of receptive power which he naturally has.

    INCENTIVES TO CONFORM TO SYSTEM.--The worker has incentives to
follow the systems--

    1. In that he is required to render reasons in writing for
       permanent filing, for every disobedience of system.
    2. That, as soon as work is placed on the bonus basis, the
       first bonus that is given is for doing work in accordance
       with the prescribed method.

    Even before the bonus is paid, the worker will not vary for any
slight reasons, if he positively knows at the time that he must
account for so doing, and that he will be considered to have
"stacked his judgment" against that of the manager. Being called to
account for deviations gives the man a feeling of responsibility for
his act, and also makes him feel his close relationship with the

    NO SET TIME FOR USING SYSTEMS.--There is, under this type of
management, no set time for the study of the systems.

    SYSTEMS INELASTIC.--Being written, these systems have all the
disadvantages of anything that is written. That is to say, they
require considerable adaptability on the part of the man who is
using them. He must consider his own mind, and the amount of time
which he must put on studying; he must consider his own work, and
adapting that method to his work while still obeying instructions.
In the case of the system being in great detail, he can usually find
a fairly detailed description of what he is going to do, and can use
that. In the case of the system being not so complete, if his work
varies, he must show intelligence in varying the system, and this
intelligence often demands a knowledge which he has not, and knows
not where to obtain.

necessitated by the worker's laying out details of his method is
taken from the total time of his working day, hence in so far cuts
down his total product. Moreover, if no record is kept of the
details of his planning the next worker on the same kind of work
must repeat the investigation.

STANDARDS.--Later Transitional Management eliminates this waste of
time by standardizing methods composed of standardized timed units,
thus both rendering standards elastic, and furnishing details.

is a most important element under Scientific Management not only
because it increases industrial efficiency, but also because it
fosters industrial peace.[2]

MANAGEMENT.--As we have seen, Scientific Management has as a basic
idea the necessity of divided responsibility, or functionalization.
This, when accompanied by the interdependent bonus, creates an
incentive to teach and an incentive to learn. Scientific Management
divides the planning from the performing in order to centralize and
standardize knowledge in the planning department, thus making all
knowledge of each available to all. This puts at the disposal of all
more than any could have alone. The importance of having this
collected and standardized knowledge conveyed best to the worker
cannot be overestimated. Through this knowledge, the worker is able
to increase his output, and thus insure the lowered costs, that
provide the funds with which to pay his higher wages,--to increase
his potential as well as actual efficiency, and best to coöperate
with other workers and with the management.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.--Upon the emphasis which it places on
teaching rests/a large part of the claim of Scientific Management
for permanence.[3] We have already shown the derivation of the
standards which are taught. We have shown that the relation between
the planning and performing departments is based largely on means
and methods for teaching. We have only to show here that the
teaching is done in accordance with those laws of Psychology that
are the laws of Pedagogy.

ONLY.--The methods of teaching under Scientific Management were not
devised in response to theories of education. They are the result of
actual experience in getting work done most successfully. The
teachers, the methods, the devices for teaching,--all these grew up
to meet needs, as did the other elements of Scientific Management.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.--The fact that teaching under Scientific
Management does conform, as will be shown, to the laws of
Psychology, is an added proof of the value of Scientific Management.

says, "The general policy of the past has been to drive; but the era
of force must give way to that of knowledge, and the policy of the
future will be to teach and to lead, to the advantage of all
concerned."[4] This "driving" element of Traditional Management is
eliminated by Scientific Management.

is eliminated the old belief that the worker must go through all
possible experiences in order to acquire "judgment" as to best
methods. If the worker must pass through all the stages of the
training of the old-fashioned mechanic, and this is seriously
advocated by some, he may fail to reach the higher planes of
knowledge afforded by training under Scientific Management, by
reason of sheer lack of time. If, therefore, by artificial
conditions caused by united agreement and collective bargaining,
workmen insist upon forcing upon the new learners the old-school
training, they will lose just so much of the benefits of training
under those carefully arranged and carefully safe-guarded processes
of industrial investigation in which modern science has been
successful. To refuse to start in where others have left off, is
really as wasteful as it would be to refuse to use mathematical
formulas because they have been worked out by others. It might be
advocated that the mind would grow by working out every possible
mathematical formula before using it, but the result would be that
the student would be held back from any further original
investigation. Duplicating primary investigations might be original
work for him, but it would be worthless as far as the world is
concerned. The same is absolutely true in management. If the worker
is held back by acquiring every bit of knowledge for himself instead
of taking the work of others as the starting point, the most
valuable initiative will be lost to the world.

the waste of time would be the danger of acquiring habits of bad
methods, habits of unnecessary motions, habits of inaccurate work;
habits of inattention. Any or all of these might develop. These are
all prevented under Scientific Management by the improved methods
of teaching.

are, however, many valuable elements of the old Traditional system
of teaching and of management which should be retained and not be
lost in the new.

    For example,--the greatest single cause of making men capable
under the old plan was the foreman's unconscious ability to make his
men believe, before they started a task, that they could achieve it.

    It must not be thought that because of the aids to the teacher
under Scientific Management the old thought of personality is lost.
The old ability to convert a man to the belief that he could do a
thing, to inspire him with confidence in his foreman, with
confidence in himself, and a desire to do things, is by no means
lost, on the contrary it is carefully preserved under Scientific

transforming of Transitory into Scientific Management, we note that
the process is one of supplementing, not of discarding. Written
system, which is the distinguishing characteristic of Transitory
Management, is somewhat limited in its scope, but its usefulness is
by no means impaired.

Management teaching must cover

    1. Teaching of right methods of doing work,
    2. Teaching of right habits of doing the right methods.

    The teacher must so impart the knowledge that judgment can be
acquired without the learner being obliged himself to experience all
the elements of the judgment.

this teaching have been stated, but may be recapitulated here.

    1. Worker may not observe his own mistakes.
    2. Worker has no opportunity under the old industrial
       conditions to standardize his own methods.
    3. Worker must know standard practice.
    4. Waste can be eliminated by the teaching.
    5. Right habits can be instilled.

teaching under Scientific Management are

    1. Friends or Relatives    }
    2. Fellow workers          } If the worker chooses
    3. Literature of the Trade }    to use them.
    4. Night schools and study }
    5. The Management.         }

Teaching under Scientific Management are

    1. Written, by means of

       (a) Instruction Cards telling _what_ is to be done
           and _how._
       (b) Systems, explaining the _why._
       (c) Drawings, charts, plans, photographs, illustrating
       (d) Records made by the worker himself.

    2. Oral, the teaching of the Functional Foremen.

    3. Object-lessons:

       (a) Exhibits.
       (b) Working models.
       (c) Demonstrations by the Teacher.
       (d) Demonstrations by the worker under Supervision.

    WORKER A SOURCE OF THESE METHODS.--It should be often stated
that, ultimately, the elements of all methods are derived from a
study of workers, and that the worker should be enabled to realize
this. Only when he feels that he is a part of what is taught, and
that the teachers are a _means_ of presenting to him the underlying
principles of his own experience, will the worker be able to
coöperate with all his energy.

    INSTRUCTION CARDS ARE DIRECTIONS.--Instruction Cards are direct
instructions for each piece of work, giving, in most concise form,
closely defined description of standard practice and directions as
to how each element of the standardized task is to be performed. The
makers know that they must make their directions clear ultimately,
therefore they strive constantly for clearness.

Instruction Cards not only teach the worker directly best to do his
work, but also teach him indirectly how to become a leader,
demonstrator, teacher and functional foreman. Study of them may lead
to an interest in, and a study of, elements, and to preparation for
becoming one of the planning department. The excellent method of
attack of the Instruction Card cannot fail to have some good effect,
even upon such workers as do not consciously note it.[5]

orders are collections of detailed reasons for, and explanations of,
the decisions embodied in the directions of the Instruction Cards.
There is a system showing the standard practice of each kind of

    THEY ENLIST THE JUDGMENT OF THE WORKER.--Under really successful
management, it is realized that the worker is of an inquiring mind,
and that, unless this inquiring tendency of his is recognized, and
his curiosity is satisfied, he can never do his best work. Unless
the man knows why he is doing the thing, his judgment will never
reënforce his work. He may conform to the method absolutely, but his
work will not enlist his zeal unless he knows just exactly why he is
made to work in the particular manner prescribed. This giving of the
"why" to the worker through the system, and thus allowing his reason
to follow through all the details, and his judgment to conform
absolutely, should silence the objections of those who claim that
the worker becomes a machine, and that he has no incentive to think
at his work. On the contrary, it will be seen that this method
furnishes him with more viewpoints from which he can consider
his work.

DIRECTIONS CLEARER.--The Instruction Cards are supplemented with
drawings, charts, plans and stereoscopic and timed motion
photographs,--any or all,--in order to make the directions of the
Instruction Cards plainer.

USEFUL.--Stereoscopic photographs are especially useful in helping
non-visualizers, and in presenting absolutely new work. The value as
an educator of stereoscopic and synthesized micro-motion photographs
of right methods is as yet but faintly appreciated.

    The "timed motion picture," or "micro-motion study photograph"
as it is called, consists of rapidly photographing workers in action
accompanied by a specially constructed chronometer that shows such
minute divisions of time that motion pictures taken at a speed that
will catch the most rapid of human motions without a blur, will show
a different time of day in each photograph. The difference in the
time in any two pictures gives the elapsed time of the desired
motion operation or time unit.

    SELF-MADE RECORDS EDUCATIVE.--The educative value of the
worker's making his own records has never been sufficiently
appreciated. Dr. Taylor insists upon this procedure wherever
possible.[6] Not only does the worker learn from the actual marking
in of the spaces reserved for him, but also he learns to feel
himself a part of the record making division of the management. This
proof of the "square deal," in recording his output, and of the
confidence in him, cannot fail to enlist his coöperation.

Functional Foremen are teachers whose business it is to explain,
translate and supplement the various written instructions when the
worker either does not understand them, does not know how to follow
them, or makes a mistake in following them.

MANAGEMENT.--Oral instruction under Scientific Management has at
least four advantages over such instruction under Traditional

    1. The Instructor is capable of giving instruction.
    2. The Instructor's specialty is giving instruction.
    3. The instruction is a supplement to written instructions.
    4. The instruction comes at the exact time that the learner
       needs it.

PEDAGOGY.--The successful teacher must understand the minds of his
men, and must be able to present his information in such a way that
it will be grasped readily. Such knowledge of psychology and
pedagogy as he possesses he may acquire almost unconsciously

    1. from the teaching of others,
    2. from his study of Instruction Cards and Systems,
    3. from actual practice in teaching.

    The advantages of a study of psychology itself, as it applies to
the field of teaching in general, and of teaching in the industries
in particular, are apparent. Such study must, in the future, become
more and more prevalent.

SCHOOLS.--The Functional Foreman-teacher has an advantage over the
teacher in the school in that the gap between him and those he
teaches is not so great. He knows, because he remembers, exactly how
the worker must have his information presented to him. This gap is
narrowed by functionalizing the oral teaching, by using it merely as
a supplement to the written teaching, and by supplementing it with

TEACH.--The teacher must have an intimate practical knowledge of the
art or trade that he is to teach. The most profound knowledge of
Psychology will never be a substitute for the mastery of the trade,
as a condition precedent to turning out the best craftsmen. This is
provided for by securing teachers from the ranks of the workers.[7]

have more than the traditional knowledge of the trade that he is to
teach; he must have also the knowledge that comes only from
scientific investigation of his trade. This knowledge is ready and
at hand, in the standards of Scientific Management that are
available to all for study.

TEACHES.--The teacher must also have an intimate acquaintance with
the records of output of the method he is to teach as compared with
those of methods held in high esteem by the believer in the old
methods; for it is a law that no teacher can be efficient in
teaching any method in which he does not believe, any more than a
salesman can do his best work when he does not implicitly believe in
the goods that he is selling.

    HE MUST BE AN ENTHUSIAST.--The best teacher is the one who is an
enthusiast on the subject of the work itself, who can cause
contagion or imitation of his state of mind, by love of the problems

    SUCH ENTHUSIASM CONTAGIOUS.--It is the contagion of this
enthusiasm that will always create a demand for teachers, no matter
how perfect instruction cards may become. There is no form or device
of management that does away with good men, and in the teacher, as
here described, is conserved the personal element of the successful,
popular Traditional foreman.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.--The most valuable teacher is one who can
arouse his pupils to such a state of interest in the economic values
of the methods of Scientific Management, that all other objects that
would ordinarily distract or hold their attention will be banished
from their minds. They will then remember each step as it is
introduced, and they will be consumed with interest and curiosity to
know what further steps can be introduced, that will still further
eliminate waste.

    OBJECT-LESSON MAY BE "WORKING MODELS."--The object-lesson may be
a "fixed exhibit" or a "working model," "a process in different
stages," or "a micro-motion study film" of the work that is to be
done. Successful and economical teaching may be done with such
models, which are especially valuable where the workers do not speak
the same language as the teacher, where many workers are to perform
exactly similar work, or where the memory, the visualizing and the
constructive imagination, are so poor that the models must be
referred to constantly. Models naturally appeal best to those who
take in information easiest through the eyes.

teacher may demonstrate the method manually to the worker, or by
means of films showing synthesized right methods on the
motion-picture screen. This, also, is a successful method of
teaching those who speak a different language, or of explaining new
work,--though it calls for a better memory than does the "working
model," The model, however, shows desired results; the
demonstration, desired methods.

manual demonstration method is the chief method of teaching the
workmen by the foremen under Scientific Management, and no method is
rated as standard that cannot be successfully demonstrated by the
teacher, at any time, on request.

that type that can learn only by actually doing the work himself, he
is allowed to demonstrate the method under supervision of the

Scientific Management all of these forms of teaching are available
constantly. The instruction card and accompanying illustrations are
given to the worker before he starts to work, and are so placed that
he can consult them easily at any time during the work. As, also, if
object-lessons are used, they are given before work commences, and
repeated when necessary.

    The teacher is constantly available for oral instruction, and
the systems are constantly available for consultation.

RIGHT.--In order to prove that teaching under Scientific Management
is most valuable, it is necessary to show that it is psychologically
right, that it leads to mental development and improvement. Under
Scientific Management, teaching,--

     1. uses and trains the senses.
     2. induces good habits of thinking and acting.
     3. stimulates attention,
     4. provides for valuable associations.
     5. assists and strengthens the memory.
     6. develops the imagination.
     7. develops judgment.
     8. utilizes suggestion.
     9. utilizes "native reactions."
    10. develops the will.

Scientific Management, in teaching the man, aims to train all of his
senses possible. Not only does each man show an aptitude for some
special sense training,[9] but at certain times one sense may be
stronger than another; for example, the sense of hearing, as is
illustrated by the saying, "The patient in the hospital knoweth when
his doctor cometh by the fall of his footsteps, yet when he
recovereth he knoweth not even his face." At the time that a certain
thing becomes of interest, and becomes particularly interesting to
one sense, that sense is particularly keen and developed.

    Scientific Management cannot expect, without more detailed
psychological data than is as yet available, to utilize these
periods of sense predominance adequately. It can, and does, aim to
utilize such senses as are trained, and to supply defects of
training of the other senses.

importance of sense training can scarcely be overestimated. Through
his senses, the worker takes in the directions as to what he is to
do, and on the accuracy with which his senses record the impressions
made upon them, depends the mental model which he ultimately
follows, and the accuracy of his criticism of the resulting physical
object of his work. Through the senses, the worker sets his own
task, and inspects his work.

training of the senses the possibility of increased efficiency
increases. As any sense becomes trained, the minimum visable is
reduced, and more accurate impressions become possible.[10] They
lead to more rapid work, by eliminating time necessary for judgment.
The bricklayer develops a fineness of touch that allows him to
dispense with sight in some parts of his work.

    SELECTIVE POWER OF SENSES DEVELOPED.--James defines the sense
organs as "organs of selection."[11] Scientific Management so trains
them that they can select what is of most value to the worker.

senses are trained under Scientific Management by means of the
various sources of teaching. The instruction card, with its detailed
descriptions of operations, and its accompanying illustrations, not
only tends to increase powers of visualization, but also, by the
close observation it demands, it reduces the minimum visible. The
"visible instruction card," or working model, is an example of
supplementing weak power of visualization. The most available
simple, inexpensive and easily handled device to assist visualizing
is the stereo or three-dimension photograph, which not only serves
its purpose at the time of its use, but trains the eye to see the
third dimension always.

    Much training is given to the eye in Scientific Management by
the constant insistence on inspection. This inspection is not
confined to the inspector, but is the constant practice of worker
and foremen, in order that work may be of such a quality as will
merit a bonus.

training given to the various senses depends on the nature of the
work. When the ear is the tester of efficiency, as it often is with
an engineer watching machinery in action, emphasis is laid on
training the hearing. In work where touch is important, emphasis is
on such training as will develop that sense.[12]

are constantly going to prove that each sense has a predominance at
a different time in the age of the child or man. Dottoressa
Montessori's experience with teaching very young children by touch
shows that that sense is able to discriminate to an extraordinary
extent for the first six years of life.[13]

    So, also, acute keenness of any sense, by reason of age or
experience should be conserved.[14] Such acuteness is often the
result of some need, and, unless consciously preserved, will vanish
with the need.

    PROGRESS IN SUCH TRAINING.--The elementary sense experiences are
defined and described by Calkins.[15] Only through a psychological
study can one realize the numerous elements and the possibility of
study. As yet, doubtless, Scientific Management misses many
opportunities for training and utilizing the senses. But the
standardizing of elements, and the realization of the importance of
more and more intensive study of the elements lends assurance that
ultimately all possibilities will be utilized.

has made great progress in appealing to as many senses as possible
in its teaching. The importance of the relation between the senses
is brought out by Prof. Stratton.[16]

    In teaching, Scientific Management has, in its teachers, animate
and inanimate, great possibilities of appealing to many senses
simultaneously. The instruction card may be

    1. read to oneself silently--eyes appealed to
    2. read to oneself aloud--eyes and ears appealed to, also
       muscles used trained to repeat
    3. read aloud to one--ears
    4. read aloud to one and also read silently by one,--
       eyes and ears
    5. read aloud, and at the same time copied--eyes, ears,
       muscles of mouth, muscles of hand
    6. read to one, while process described is demonstrated
    7. read to one while process is performed by oneself

    There are only a few of the possible combinations, any of which
are used, as best suits the worker and the work.[17]

appeal to many senses is best realized in teaching an inexperienced
worker. His senses help to remind him what to do, and to "check up"
his results.

work that must be watched constantly, and that involves continuous
processes, it may prove best to have directions read to the worker.
So also, the Gang Instruction Card may often be read to advantage to
the gang, thus allowing the next member of a group of members to
rest, or to observe, while directions are taken in through the ears
only. In this way time is allowed to overcome fatigue, yet the work
is not halted.

    AT TIMES ONE SENSE IS BEST NOT UTILIZED.--At times teaching may
well omit one sense in its appeal, because that sense will tend to
confuse the learning, and will, when the method is learned, be
otherwise utilized than it could be during the learning process. In
teaching the "touch system" of typewriting,[18] the position of the
keys is quickly remembered by having the key named aloud and at the
same time struck with the assigned finger, the eyes being
blindfolded. Thus hearing is utilized, also mouth muscles and finger
muscles, but _not_ sight.

    IMPORTANCE OF FATIGUE RECOGNIZED.--A large part of the success
of sense appeal and sense training of Scientific Management is in
the appreciation of the importance of fatigue. This was early
recognized by Dr. Taylor, and is constantly receiving study from all
those interested in Scientific Management.

of the _Psychological Review_ will demonstrate the deep and
increasing interest of psychologists in the subject of fatigue. The
importance of such stimulating and helpful work as that done by
Doctor A. Imbert of the University of Montpellier, France, is
great.[19] Not only are the results of his investigations
commercially valuable, but also they are valuable as indicating the
close connection between Psychology and Industrial Efficiency.

    IMPORTANCE OF HABITS.[20]--Prof. William James says "an acquired
habit, from the psychological point of view, is nothing but a new
pathway of discharge formed in the brain, by which certain incoming
currents ever after tend to escape."

    And again,--"First, habit simplifies our movements, makes them
accurate, and diminishes fatigue,"[21] and habit diminishes the
conscious attention with which our acts are performed. Again he
says, page 144, "The great thing, then, in all education, is to make
our nervous system our ally instead of an enemy; as it is to fund
and capitalize our acquisitions, and live at ease upon the interest
of the fund. For this we must make automatic and habitual, as early
as possible, as many useful actions as we can, and guard against the
growing into ways that are likely to be disadvantageous to us, as we
should guard against the plague."

    These quotations demonstrate the importance of habit.

    How deep these paths of discharge are, is illustrated by the
fact that often a German, having spent the early years of his school
life in Germany, will, even after learning to speak, read, write
and think in English, find it difficult to figure in anything
but German.

    HABIT EASILY BECOMES THE MASTER.--Another illustration of the
power of habit is exhibited by the bricklayer, who has been trained
under old-time methods, and who attempts to follow the packet
method. The standard motions for picking up the upper row of bricks
from the packet are entirely different from those for picking up the
lower row. The bricklayers were taught this, yet invariably used the
old-time motions for picking up the bricks, in spite of the waste

ideas often retard development. For example, it took centuries for
artists to see the colors of shadows correctly, because they were
sure that such shadows were a darker tone of the color itself.[23]

HABITS.--The aim of teaching under Scientific Management, as has
been said, is to create good habits of thinking and good habits of

standards of Scientific Management, as presented to the worker in
the instruction card, lead to good habits, in that they present the
best known method of doing the work. They thus aid the beginner, in
that he need waste no time searching for right methods, but can
acquire right habits at once. They aid the worker trained under an
older, supplanted method, in that they wage a winning war against
old-time, worn-out methods and traditions. Old motor images, which
tend to cause motions, are overcome by standard images, which
suggest, and pass into, standard motions. The spontaneous recurring
of images under the old method is the familiar cause of inattention
and being unable to get down to business, and the real cause of the
expression, "You can't teach old dogs new tricks." On the other
hand, the spontaneous recurrence of the images of the standard
method is the cause of greater speed of movement of the experienced
man, and these images of the standard methods do recur often enough
to drive down the old images and to enable all men who desire, to
settle down and concentrate upon what they are doing.

standards the bad habit is broken by the abrupt acquisition of a new
habit. This is at once practiced, is practiced without exception,
and is continually practiced until the new habit is in control.[24]

standards, as presented in teaching, allow of the speediest forming
of habits, in that repetition is exact and frequent, and is kept so
by the fact that the worker's judgment seconds that of the teacher.

    HABITS ARE INSTILLED BY TEACHING.--The chief function of the
teacher during the stage that habits are being formed is the
instilling of good habits.

insisting on

    1. right motions first, that is to say,--the right number
       of right motions in the right sequence.
    2. speed of motions second, that is to say, constantly
       increasing speed.
    3. constantly improving quality.[25]

old-time practice the quality of the work was the first
consideration, the quantity of work the second, and the methods of
achieving the results the third.

    RESULTS OF OLD-TIME PRACTICE.--As a result, the mechanical
reactions, which were expected constantly to follow the improved
habits of work, were constantly hindered by an involuntary impulse
of the muscles to follow the old methods. Waste time and low output

of teaching the right motions first was early recognized by a few
progressive spirits, as is shown in military tactics; for example,
see pages 6 and 7, "Cavalry Tactics of U.S.A." 1879, D. Appleton,
also page 51.

    Note also motions for grooming the horse, page 473. These
directions not only teach the man how, but accustoms the horse to
the sequence and location of motions that he may expect.

right motions first reactions to stimuli gain in speed. The right
habit is formed at the outset. With the constant insistence on these
right habits that result from right motions, will come, naturally,
an increase in speed, which should be fostered until the desired
ultimate speed is reached.

absolute insistence on right motions will be prescribed quality,
because the standard motions prescribed were chosen because they
best produced the desired result.

LEARNING.--As will be shown later, Scientific Management provides
that there shall be little or no loss from the quality of the work
during the learning period. The delay in time before the learner can
be said to produce such work as could a learner taught where quality
was insisted upon first of all, is more than compensated for by the
ultimate combination of speed and quality gained.

FAR-REACHING.--There is no more important subject in this book on
the Psychology of Management than this of teaching right motions
first. The most important results of Scientific Management can all,
in the last analysis, be formulated in terms of habits, even to the
underlying spirit of coöperation which, as we shall show in
"Welfare," is one of the most important ideas of Scientific
Management. These right habits of Scientific Management are the
cause, as well as the result, of progress, and the right habits,
which have such a tremendous psychological importance, are the
result of insisting that right motions be used from the very
beginning of the first day.

Concentrating the mind on the next motion causes speed of motion.
Under Scientific Management, the underlying thought of sequence of
motions is so presented that the worker can remember them, and make
them in the shortest time possible.

methods, being associated from the start with right habits of
motions only, cause an almost automatic response. There are no
discarded habits to delay response.

    STEADY NERVES RESULT.--Oftentimes the power to refrain from
action is quite as much a sign of education and training as the
power to react quickly from a sensation. Such conduct is called, in
some cases, "steady nerves." The forming of right habits is a great
aid toward these steady nerves. The man who knows that he is taught
the right way, is able almost automatically to resist any
suggestions which come to him to carry out wrong ways. So the man
who is absolutely sure of his method, for example, in laying brick,
will not be tempted to make those extra motions which, after all,
are merely an exhibition in his hand of the vacillation that is
going on in his brain, as to whether he really is handling that
brick in exactly the most efficient manner, or not.

    REASON AND WILL ARE EDUCATED.--"The education of hand and muscle
implies a corresponding training of reasoning and will; and the
coördination of movements accompanies the coördination of

    The standards of Scientific Management educate hand and muscle;
the education of hand and muscle train the mind; the mind improves
the standards. Thus we have a continuous cycle.

    JUDGMENT RESULTS WITH NO WASTE OF TIME.--Judgment is the outcome
of learning the right way, and knowing that it is the right way.
There is none of the lost time of "trying out" various methods that
exists under Traditional Management.

    This power of judgment will not only enable the possessor to
decide correctly as to the relative merits of different methods, but
also somewhat as to the past history and possibilities of different

    This, again, illustrates the wisdom of Scientific Management in
promoting from the ranks, and thus providing that every member of
the organization shall, ultimately, know from experience how to
estimate and judge the work of others.

habits which result from teaching standard methods result in habits
of attention. The standards aid the mind in holding a "selective
attitude,"[27] by presenting events in an orderly sequence. The
conditions under which the work is done, and the incentives for
doing it, provide that the attention shall be "lively and

prescribed motions that result from motion study and time study, and
that are arranged in cycles, afford a rhythm that allows the
attention to "glide over some beats and linger on others," as Prof.
Stratton describes it, in a different connection.[28] So also the
"perfectly controlled" movements, which fall under the direction of
a guiding law, and which "obey the will absolutely,"[29] give an
æsthetic pleasure and afford less of a tax upon the attention.

already said in describing the instruction card under Standardization,
it was designed as a result of investigations as to what would
best secure output,--to attract and hold the attention.[30]
Providing, as it does, all directions that an experienced worker is
likely to need, he can confine his attention solely to his work and
his card; usually, after the card is once studied, to his work
alone. The close relation of the elements of the instruction card
affords a field for attention to lapse, and be recalled in the new
elements that are constantly made apparent.

fact that under Scientific Management oral teaching is individual,
not only directly concentrates the attention of the learner upon
what he is being taught, but also indirectly prevents distraction
from fear of ridicule of others over the question, or embarrassment
in talking before a crowd.

that interest or attention may be held, there must be provision for
allied subjects on which the mind is to wander. This, under
Scientific Management, is constantly furnished by the collection of
jobs ahead on the bulletin board. The tasks piled up ahead upon this
bulletin board provide a needed and ready change for the subject of
attention or interest, which conserves the economic value of
concentrated attention of the worker upon his work. Such future
tasks furnish sufficient range of subject for wandering attention to
rest the mind from the wearying effect of overconcentration or
forced attention. The assigned task of the future systematizes the
"stream of attention," and an orderly scheme of habits of thought is
installed. When the scheme is an orderly shifting of attention, the
mind is doing its best work, for, while the standardized extreme
subdivision of Taylor's plan, the comparison of the ultimate unit,
and groupings of units of future tasks are often helps in achieving
the present tasks, without such a definite orderly scheme for
shifting the attention and interest, the attention will shift to
useless subjects, and the result will be scattered.

    INCENTIVES MAINTAIN INTEREST.--The knowledge that a prompt
reward will follow success stimulates interest. The knowledge that
this reward is sure concentrates attention and thus maintains

    In the same way, the assurance of promotion, and the fact that
the worker sees those of his own trade promoted, and knows it is to
the advantage of the management, as well as to his advantage, that
he also be promoted,--this also maintains interest in the work.

extended to the work of others, not only by the interrelated
bonuses, but also by the fact that every man is expected to train up
a man to take his place, before he is promoted.

INTEREST.--The attention of the entire organization, as well as of
the individual worker, is held by Scientific Management and its
teaching, because all parts of Scientific Management are related,
and because Scientific Management provides for scientifically
directed progression. Every member of the organization knows that
the standards which are taught by Scientific Management contain the
permanent elements of past successes, and provide for such
development as will assure progress and success in the future. Every
member of the organization realizes that upon his individual
coöperation depends, in part, the stability of Scientific
Management, because it is based on universal coöperation. This
provides an intensity and a continuity of interest that would still
hold, even though some particular element might lose its interest.

relationship of all parts of Scientific Management provides that all
ideas are associated, and are so closely connected that they can act
as a single group, or any selected number of elements can act as
a group.

ACT IN UNISON.--Professor Read, in describing the general mental
principle of association says, "When any number of brain cells have
been in action together, they form a habit of acting in unison, so
that when one of them is stimulated in a certain way, the others
will also behave in the way established by the habit."[31] This
working of the brain is recognized in grouping of motions, such as
"playing for position."[32] Scientific Management provides the
groups, the habit, and the stimulus, all according to standard
methods, so that the result is largely predictable.

standard elements of Scientific Management afford units for such
groups. Eventually, with the use of such elements in instruction
cards, would be formed, in the minds of the worker, such groups of
units as would aid in foreseeing results, just as the foreseeing of
groups of moves aids the expert chess or checker player. The size
and number of such groups would indicate the skill of the worker.

    That such skill may be gained quickest, Scientific Management
synthesizes the units into definite groups, and teaches these to the
workers as groups.

    TEACHING DONE BY MEANS OF MOTION CYCLES.--The best group is that
which completes the simplest cycle of performance. This enables the
worker to associate certain definite motions, to make these into a
habit, and to concentrate his attention upon the cycle as a whole,
and not upon the elementary motions of which it is composed.

    For example--The cycle of the pick and dip process of
bricklaying is to pick up a brick and a trowel full of mortar
simultaneously and deposit them on the wall simultaneously.[33] The
string mortar method has two cycles, which are, first to pick a
certain number of trowelfuls of mortar and deposit them on the wall,
and then to pick up a corresponding number of bricks and deposit
them on the wall.[34] Each cycle of these two methods consists of an
association of units that can be remembered as a group.

    SUCH CYCLES INDUCE SPEED.--The worker who has been taught thus
to associate the units of attention and action into definite
rhythmic cycles, is the one who is most efficient, and least
fatigued by a given output. The nerves acquire the habit, as does
the brain, and the resulting swift response to stimulus
characterizes the efficiency of the specialist.[35]

of standard methods, Scientific Management restricts association,
and thus gains in the speed with which associated ideas arise.[36]
Insistence on causal sequence is a great aid. This is rendered by
the Systems, which give the reasons, and make the standard method
easy to remember.

TO THE MEMORY.--Industrial memory is founded on experience, and that
experience that is submitted by teaching under Scientific Management
to the mind is in the form of scientifically derived standards.
These furnish

      (a) data that is correct.
      (b) images that are an aid in acquiring new
          habits of forming efficient images.
      (c) standards of comparison, and constant demands
          for comparison.
      (d) such arrangement of elements that reasoning
          processes are stimulated.
      (e) conscious, efficient grouping.
      (f) logical association of ideas.

Ebbinghaur says, "Associations that have equal reproductive power
lapse the more slowly, the older they are, and the oftener they have
been reviewed by renewed memorizing." Scientific Management provides
for utilizing this law by teaching right motions first, and by so
minutely dividing the elements of such motions that the smallest
units discovered are found frequently, in similar and different

    BEST PERIODS FOR MEMORIZING UTILIZED.--As for education of the
memory, there is a wide difference of opinion among leading
psychologists in regard to whether or not the memorizing faculty, as
the whole, can be improved by training; but all agree that those
things which are specially desired to be memorized can be learned
more easily, and more quickly, under some conditions than under

    For example, there is a certain time of day, for each person,
when the memory is more efficient than at other times. This is
usually in the morning, but is not always so. The period when
memorizing is easiest is taken advantage of, and, as far as
possible, new methods and new instruction cards are passed out at
that time when the worker is naturally best fitted to remember what
is to be done.

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES RESPECTED.--It is a question that varies
with different conditions, whether the several instruction cards
beyond the one he is working on shall be given to the worker ahead
of time, that he may use his own judgment as to when is the best
time to learn, or whether he shall have but one at a time, and
concentrate on that. For certain dispositions, it is a great help to
see a long line of work ahead. They enjoy getting the work done, and
feeling that they are more or less ahead of record. Others become
confused if they see too much ahead, and would rather attack but one
problem at a time. This fundamental difference in types of mind
should be taken advantage of when laying out material to be

classifications furnish a place where the worker who remembers but
little of a method or process can go, and recover the full knowledge
of that which he has forgotten. Better still, they furnish him the
equivalent of memory of other experiences that he has never had, and
that are in such form that he can connect this with his memory of
his own personal experience.

    The ease with which a learner or skilled mechanic can associate
new, scientifically derived data with his memory, because of the
classifications of Scientific Management, is a most important cause
of workers being taught quicker, and being more intelligent, under
Scientific Management, than under any other type of management.

says, "Take care of the learning and the remembering will take care
of itself."[37] Scientific Management both provides proper
knowledge, and provides that this shall be utilized in such a manner
that proper remembering will ensue.

    BETTER HABITS OF REMEMBERING RESULT.--The results of cultivating
the memory under Scientific Management are cumulative. Ultimately,
right habits of remembering result that aid the worker automatically
so to arrange his memory material as to utilize it better.[38]

    "IMAGINATION" HAS TWO DEFINITIONS.--Professor Read gives
definitions for two distinct means of Imagination.

    1. "The general function of the having of images."
    2. "The particular one of having images which are not
       consciously memories or the reproduction of the facts of
       experience as they were originally presented to

shown under the discussion of the appeals of the various teaching
devices of Scientific Management,--provision is made for the four
classes of imagination of Calkins[40]--

    1. visual,
    2. auditory,
    3. tactual, and
    4. mixed.

IMAGINATION.--Scientific Management realizes that one of the special
functions of teaching the trades is systematic exercising and
guiding of imaginations of apprentices and learners. As Professor
Ennis says,--"Any kind of planning ahead will result in some good,"
but to plan ahead most effectively it is necessary to have a
well-developed power of constructive imagination. This consists of
being able to construct new mental images from old memory images; of
being able to modify and group images of past experiences, or
thoughts, in combination with new images based on imagination, and
not on experience. The excellence of the image arrived at in the
complete work is dependent wholly upon the training in image forming
in the past. If there has not been a complete economic system of
forming standard habits of thought, the worker may have difficulty
in controlling the trend of associations of thought images, and
difficulty in adding entirely new images to the groups of
experienced images, and the problem to be thought out will suffer
from wandering of the mind. The result will be more like a dream
than a well balanced mental planning. It is well known that those
apprentices, and journeymen as well, are the quickest to learn, and
are better learners, who have the most vivid imagination. The best
method of teaching the trade, therefore, is the one that also
develops the power of imagination.

Scientific Management assists productive, or constructive,
imagination, not only by providing standard units, or images, from
which the results may, be synthesized, but also, through the
unity of the instruction card, allows of imagination of the outcome,
from the start.

    For example,--in performing a prescribed cycle of motions, the
worker has his memory images grouped in such a figure, form, or
sequence,--often geometrical,--that each motion is a part of a
growing, clearly imagined whole.

    The elements of the cycle may be utilized in other entirely new
cycles, and are, as provided for in the opportunities for invention
that are a part of Scientific Management.

"mental process which ends in an affirmation or negation of
something,"[41] comes as the result of experience, as is admirably
expressed by Prof. James,--"Let no youth have any anxiety about the
upshot of his education whatever the line of it may be. If he keeps
faithfully busy each hour of the working day, he may safely leave
the final result to itself. He can with perfect certainty count on
waking up some fine morning, to find himself one of the competent
ones of his generation, in whatever pursuit he may have singled out.
Silently, between all the details of his business, the _power of
judging_ in all that class of matter will have built itself up
within him as a possession that will never pass away. Young people
should know this truth in advance.[42] The ignorance of it has
probably engendered more discouragement and faint-heartedness in
youths embarking on arduous careers than all other causes put

MANAGEMENT.--Under Scientific Management this judgment is the result
of teaching of standards that are recognized as such by the learner.
Thus, much time is eliminated, and the apprentice under Scientific
Management can work with all the assurance as to the value of his
methods that characterized the seasoned veterans of older types
of management.

supplied by Scientific Management is also used as a spring toward
action.[44] Scientific Management appeals to the reason, and workers
perform work as they do because, through the Systems and otherwise,
they are persuaded that the method they employ is the best.

of ideas is recognized by Scientific Management, in that the
instruction card is put in the form of direct commands, which,
naturally, lead to immediate action. So, also, the teaching written,
oral and object, as such, can be directly imitated by the

    Imitation, which Dr. Stratton says "may well be counted a
special form of suggestion," will be discussed later in this chapter
at length.[47]

worker is expected to follow the suggestion of Scientific Management
without delay, because he believes in the standardization on which
it is made, and in the management that makes it. But the Systems
afford him an opportunity of reviewing the reasonableness of the
suggestion at any time, and his constructive criticism is invited
and rewarded.

    SUGGESTION MUST BE FOLLOWED AT THE TIME.--The suggestion must be
followed at the time it is given, or its value as a suggestion is
impaired. This is provided for by the underlying idea of coöperation
on which Scientific Management rests, which molds the mental
attitude of the worker into that form where suggestions are quickest
grasped and followed.[48]

enumerates the "native reactions" as (1) fear, (2) love, (3)
curiosity, (4) imitation, (5) emulation, (6) ambition, (7)
pugnacity, (8) pride, (9) ownership, (10) constructiveness.[49]
These are all considered by Scientific Management. Such as might
have a harmful effect are supplanted, others are utilized.

    FEAR UTILIZED BY ANCIENT MANAGERS.--The native reaction most
utilized by the first managers of armies and ancient works of
construction was that of fear. This is shown by the ancient rock
carvings, which portray what happened to those who disobeyed.[50]

bodily injury is not usual under modern Traditional Management, but
fear of less progress, less promotion, less remuneration, or of
discharge, or of other penalties for inferior effort or efficiency
is still prevalent.

Management the worker may still fear that he will incur a penalty,
or fail to deserve a reward, but the honest, industrious worker
experiences no such horror as the old-time fear included. This is
removed by his knowledge

    1. that his task is achievable.
    2. that his work will not injure his health.
    3. that he may be sure of advancement with age and
    4. that he is sure of the "square deal."

    Thus such fear as he has, has a good and not an evil effect upon
him. It is an incentive to coöperate willingly. Its immediate and
ultimate effects are advantageous.

worker's knowledge that the management plans to maintain such
conditions as will enable him to have the four assurances enumerated
above leads to love, or loyalty, between workers and employers.[51]

    Far from Scientific Management abolishing the old personal and
sympathetic relations between employers and workers, it gives
opportunities for such relations as have not existed since the days
of the guilds, and the old apprenticeship.[52]

    The coöperation upon which Scientific Management rests does away
with the traditional "warfare" between employer and workers that
made permanent friendliness almost impossible. Coöperation induces
friendliness and loyalty of each member in the organization to all
the others.

    Mr. Wilfred Lewis says, in describing the installation of
Scientific Management in his plant, "We had, in effect, been
installing at great expense a new and wonderful means for increasing
the efficiency of labor, in the benefits of which the workman
himself shared, and we have today an organization second, I believe,
to none in its loyalty, efficiency and steadfastness of
purpose."[53] This same loyalty of the workers is plain in an
article in _Industrial Engineering_, on "Scientific Management as
Viewed from the Workman's Standpoint," where various men in a shop
having Scientific Management were interviewed.[54] After quoting
various workers' opinions of Scientific Management and their own
particular shop, the writer says: "Conversations with other men
brought out practically the same facts. They are all contented. They
took pride in their work, and seemed to be especially proud of the
fact that they were employed in the Link-Belt shops."[55]

manner of teaching under Scientific Management fosters such loyalty.
Only through friendly aid can both teacher and taught prosper. Also,
the perfection of the actual workings of this plan of management
inspires regard as well as respect for the employer.

    VALUE OF PERSONALITY NOT ELIMINATED.--It is a great mistake to
think that Scientific Management underestimates the value of
personality.[56] Rather, Scientific Management enhances the value of
an admirable personality. This is well exemplified in the Link-Belt
Co.,[57] and in the Tabor Manufacturing Co. of Philadelphia, as well
as on other work where Scientific Management has been installed a
period of several years.

Management arouses the curiosity of the worker, by showing, through
its teaching, glimpses of the possibilities that exist for further
scientific investigation. The insistence on standard methods of less
waste arouses a curiosity as to whether still less wasteful methods
cannot be found.

very useful as a trait of the learner, the planner and the
investigator. It can be well utilized by the teacher who recognizes
it in the learner, by an adaptation of methods of interpreting the
instruction card, that will allow of partially satisfying, and at
the same time further exciting, the curiosity.

    In selecting men for higher positions, and for special work,
curiosity as to the work, with the interest that is its result, may
serve as an admirable indication of one sort of fitness. This
curiosity, or general interest, is usually associated with a
personal interest that makes it more intense, and more easy to

a popular custom of the past to look down with scorn on the
individual or organization that imitated others. Scientific
Management believes that to imitate with great precision the best,
is a work of high intelligence and industrial efficiency.

IMITATION.--Teaching under Scientific Management induces both
spontaneous and deliberate imitation. The standardization prevalent,
and the conformity to standards exacted, provide that this imitation
shall follow directed lines.

RESULTS.--Under Scientific Management, the worker will spontaneously
imitate the teacher, when the latter has been demonstrating. This
leads to desired results. So, also, the worker imitates, more or
less spontaneously, his own past methods of doing work. The right
habits early formed by Scientific Management insure that the results
of such imitation shall be profitable.

imitation is caused more than anything else by the fact that the man
knows, if he does the thing in the way directed, his pay will be

    Such imitation is also encouraged by the fact that the worker is
made to believe that he is capable, and has the will to overcome
obstacles. He knows that the management believes he can do the work,
or the instruction card would not have been issued to him. Moreover,
he sees that the teacher and demonstrator is a man promoted from his
rank, and he is convinced, therefore, that what the teacher can do
he also can do.[58]

of immense value in obtaining valuable results from imitation, that
Scientific Management provides standards. Under Traditional
Management, it was almost impossible for a worker to decide which
man he should imitate. Even though he might come to determine, by
constant observation, after a time, which man he desired to imitate,
he would not know in how far he would do well to copy any particular
method. Recording individually measured output under Transitory
Management allows of determining the man of high score, and either
using him as a model, or formulating his method into rules. Under
Scientific Management, the instruction card furnishes a method which
the worker knows that he can imitate exactly, with predetermined

    IMITATION IS EXPECTED OF ALL.--As standardization applies to the
work of all, so imitation of standards is expected of all. This fact
the teacher under Scientific Management can use to advantage, as an
added incentive to imitation. Any dislike of imitation is further
decreased, by making clear to every worker that those who are under
him are expected to imitate him,--and that he must, himself, imitate
his teachers, in order to set a worthy example.

    IMITATION LEADS TO EMULATION.--Imitation, as provided for by
teaching under Scientific Management, and admiration for the
skillful teacher, or the standard imitated, naturally stimulate
emulation. This emulation takes three forms:

    1. Competition with the records of others.
    2. Competition with one's own record.
    3. Competition with the standard record.

    NO HARD FEELING AROUSED.--In the first sort of competition only
is there a possibility of hard feeling being aroused, but danger of
this is practically eliminated by the fact that rewards are provided
for all who are successful. In the second sort of competition, the
worker, by matching himself against what he has done, measures his
own increased efficiency. In the third sort of competition, there is
the added stimulus of surprising the management by exceeding the
task expected. The incentive in all three cases is not only more pay
and a chance for promotion, but also the opportunity to win
appreciation and publicity for successful performance.

    AMBITION IS AROUSED.--The outcome of emulation is ambition. This
ambition is stimulated by the fact that promotion is so rapid, and
so outlined before the worker, that he sees the chance for
advancement himself, and not only advancement that means more pay,
but advancement also that means a chance to specialize on that work
which he particularly likes.

    PUGNACITY UTILIZED.--Pugnacity can never be entirely absent
where there is emulation. Under Scientific Management it is used to
overcome not persons, but things. Pugnacity is a great driving
force. It is a wonderful thing that under Scientific Management this
force is aroused not against one's fellow-workers, but against one's
work. The desire to win out, to fight it out, is aroused against a
large task, which the man desires to put behind him. Moreover, there
is nothing under Scientific Management which forbids an athletic
contest. While the workers would not, under the ultimate form, be
allowed to injure themselves by overspeeding, a friendly race with a
demonstration of pugnacity which harms no one is not frowned upon.

    PRIDE IS STIMULATED.--Pride in one's work is aroused as soon as
work is functionalized. The moment a man has something to do that he
likes to do, and can do well, he takes pride in it. So, also, the
fact that individuality, and personality, are recognized, and that
his records are shown, makes pride serve as a stimulus. The outcome
of the worker's pride in his work is pride in himself. He finds that
he is part of a great whole, and he learns to take pride in the
entire management,--in both himself and the managers, as well as in
his own work.

    FEELING OF OWNERSHIP PROVIDED FOR.--It may seem at first glance
that the instinct of ownership is neglected, and becomes stunted,
under Scientific Management, in that all tools become more or less
standardized, and the man is discouraged from having tools peculiar
in shape, or size, for whose use he has no warrant except long time
of use.

    Careful consideration shows that Scientific Management provides
two opportunities for the worker to conserve his instinct for

    1. During working hours, where the recognition of his
personality allows the worker to identify himself with his work, and
where his coöperation with the management makes him identified with
its activities.

    2. Outside the work. He has, under Scientific Management, more
hours away from work to enjoy ownership, and more money with which
to acquire those things that he desires to own.

    The teacher must make clear to him both these opportunities, as
he readily can, since the instinct of ownership is conserved in him
in an identical manner.

that the worker performs is constructive, because waste has been
eliminated, and everything that is done is upbuilding. Teaching
makes this clear to the worker. Constructiveness is also utilized in
that exercise of initiative is provided for. Thus the instinct,
instead of being weakened, is strengthened and directed.

STUDY.--Teaching under Scientific Management can never hope fully to
understand and utilize native reactions, until more assistance has
been given by psychology. At the present time, Scientific Management
labors under disadvantages that must, ultimately, be removed.
Psychologists must, by experiments, determine more accurately the
reactions and their controlability. More thorough study must be made
of children that Scientific Management may understand more of the
nature of the reactions of the young workers who come for industrial
training. Psychology must give its help in this training. Then only,
can teaching under Scientific Management become truly efficient.

WILL.--The most necessary, and most complex and difficult part of
Scientific Management, is the training of the will of all members of
the organization. Prof. Read states in his "Psychology" five means
of training or influencing the will. These are[59]

   "1. The first important feature in training the will is the
       help furnished by supplying the mind with a useful body
       of ideas.
   "2. The second great feature of the training of the will is
       the building up in the mind of the proper interests, and the
       habit of giving the attention to useful and worthy purposes.
   "3. Another important feature of the training of the will is
       the establishing of a firm association between ideas and actions,
       or, in other words, the forming of a good set of habits.
   "4. Another very important feature of the training of the
       will has reference to its strength of purpose or power of
   "5. The matter of discipline."

    Teaching under Scientific Management does supply these five
functions, and thus provide for the strengthening and development of
the will.

JOURNEYMEN.--Scientific Management must not only be prepared to
teach apprentices, as must all types of management, it must also
teach journeymen who have not acquired standard methods.

    APPRENTICES ARE EASILY HANDLED.--Teaching apprentices is a
comparatively simple proposition, far simpler than under any other
type of management. Standard methods enable the apprentice to become
proficient long before his brother could, under the old type of
teaching. The length of training required depends largely on how
fingerwise the apprentice is.

the problem is not so simple. Old wrong habits, such as the use of
ineffective motions, must be eliminated. Physically, it is difficult
for the adult worker to alter his methods. Moreover, it may be most
difficult to change his mental attitude, to convince him that the
methods of Scientific Management are correct.

    A successful worker under Traditional Management, who is proud
of his work, will often be extremely sensitive to what he is prone
to regard as the "criticism" of Scientific Management with regard
to him.

consider itself adequate that does not try to enter into the mental
attitude of its workers. Actual practice shows that, with time and
tact, almost any worker can be convinced that all criticism of him
is constructive, and that for him to conform to the new standards is
a mark of added proficiency, not an acknowledgment of ill-preparedness.
The "Systems" do much toward this work of reconciling the older
workers to the new methods, but most of all can be done by such
teachers as can demonstrate their own change from old to standard
methods, and the consequent promotion and success. This is, again,
an opportunity for the exercise of personality.

the methods of teaching employed by Scientific Management,--right
motions first, next speed, with quality as a resultant product,--it
is most necessary to provide a place where learners can work. The
standard planning of quality provides such a place. The plus and
minus signs automatically divide labor so that the worker can be
taught by degrees, being set at first where great accuracy is not
demanded by the work, and being shifted to work requiring more
accuracy as he becomes more proficient. In this way even the most
untrained worker becomes efficient, and is engaged in actual
productive work.

Management the results of teaching and learning become apparent
automatically in records of output. The learner's record of output
of proper prescribed quality determines what pay he shall receive,
and also has a proportionate effect on the teacher's pay. Such a
system of measurement may not be accurate as a report of the
learner's gain,--for he doubtless gains mental results that cannot
be seen in his output,--but it certainly does serve as an incentive
to teaching and to learning.

TRAINING AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE.[60]--Teaching under Scientific
Management can never be most efficient until the field of such
teaching is restricted to training learners who are properly
prepared to receive industrial training.[61] This preparedness
implies fitting school and academic training, and Vocational

    LEARNER SHOULD BE MANUALLY ADEPT.--The learner should, before
entering the industrial world, be taught to be manually adept, or
fingerwise, to have such control over his trained muscles that they
will respond quickly and accurately to orders. Such training should
be started in infancy,[62] in the form of guided play, as, for
example, whittling, sewing, knitting, handling mechanical toys and
tools, and playing musical instruments, and continued up to, and
into, the period of entering a trade.

render every student capable of filling some place worthily in the
industries. The longer the student remains in school, the higher the
position for which he should be prepared. The amount and nature of
the training in the schools depends largely on the industrial work
to be done, and will be possible of more accurate estimation
constantly, as Scientific Management standardizes work and shows
what the worker must be to be most efficient.

in Mr. Meyer Bloomfield's book, "Vocational Guidance,"[63] bureaus
of competent directors stand ready to help the youth find that line
of activity which he can follow best and with greatest satisfaction
to himself. At present, such bureaus are seriously handicapped by
the fact that little data of the industries are at hand, but this
lack the bureaus are rapidly supplying by gathering such data as are
available. Most valuable data will not be available until Scientific
Management has been introduced into all lines.

    PROGRESS DEMANDS COÖPERATION.--Progress here, as everywhere,
demands coöperation.[64] The three sets of educators,--the teachers
in the school, in the Vocational Guidance Bureaus, and in Scientific
Management, must recognize their common work, and must coöperate to
do it. There is absolutely no cause for conflict between the three;
their fields are distinct, but supplementary. Vocational Guidance is
the intermediary between the other two.


    RESULTS TO THE WORK.--Under the teaching of Traditional
Management, the learner may or may not improve the quantity and
quality of his work. This depends almost entirely on the particular
teacher whom the learner happens to have. There is no standard
improvement to the work.

    Under the teaching of Transitory Management, the work gains in
quantity as the methods become standardized, and quality is
maintained or improved.

    Under the teaching of Scientific Management, work, the quantity
of work, increases enormously through the use of standards of all
kinds; quantity is oftentimes tripled.

    Under the teaching of Scientific Management, when the schools
and Vocational Guidance movement coöperate, high output of required
quality will be obtained at a far earlier stage of the worker's
industrial life than is now possible, even under Scientific

    RESULTS TO THE WORKER.--Under Traditional Management, the worker
gains a knowledge of how his work can be done, but the method by
which he is taught is seldom, of itself, helpful to him. Not being
sure that he has learned the best way to do his work, he gains no
method of attack. The result of the teaching is a habit of doing
work which is good, or bad, as chance may direct.

    Under Transitory Management, with the use of Systems as
teachers, the worker gains a better method of attack, as he knows
the reason why the prescribed method is prescribed. He begins to
appreciate the possibilities and benefits of standardized teaching.

    The method laid down under Scientific Management is devised to
further the forming of an accurate accumulation of concepts, which
results in a proper method of attack. The method of instruction
under Scientific Management is devised to furnish two things:

    1. A collection of knowledge relating in its entirety to the
       future work of the learner.
    2. A definite procedure, that will enable the learner to
       apply the same process to acquiring knowledge of other subjects
       in the most economical and efficient way.

    It teaches the learner to be observant of details, which is the
surest method for further development of general truths and

    The method of attack of the methods provided for in Scientific
Management results, naturally, in a comparison of true data. This is
the most efficient method of causing the learner to think for

    Processes differing but little, apparently, give vastly
different results, and the trained habits of observation quickly
analyze and determine wherein the one process is more efficient than
the other.

    This result is, of course, the one most desired for causing
quick and intelligent learning.

    The most valuable education is that which enables the learner to
make correct judgments. The teaching under Scientific Management
leads to the acquisition of such judgment, plus an all-around sense
training, a training in habits of work, and a progressive

    A partial topic list of the results may make more clear their

     1. Worker better trained for all work.
     2. Habits of correct thinking instilled.
     3. Preparedness provided for.
     4. Productive and repetitive powers increased.
     5. Sense powers increased.
     6. Habits of proper reaction established.
     7. "Guided original work" established.
     8. System of waste elimination provided.
     9. Method of attack taught.
    10. Brain fully developed.
    11. "Standard response" developed.
    12. Opportunities and demands for "thinking"
    13. Self-reliance developed.
    14. Love of truth fostered.
    15. Moral sentiment developed.
    16. Resultant happiness of worker.

vocational guidance and teaching under Scientific Management
coöperate, the worker will not only receive the benefits now
obtained from Scientific Management, but many more. There will be
nothing to unlearn, and each thing that is learned will be taught by
those best fitted to teach it. The collection of vocational guidance
data will begin with a child at birth, and a record of his
inheritance will be kept. This will be added to as he is
educated, and as various traits and tendencies appear. From this
scientifically derived record will accrue such data as will assist
in making clear exactly in what place the worker will be most
efficient, and in what sphere he will be able to be most helpful to
the world, as well as to himself. All early training will be planned
to make the youth adept with his muscles, and alert, with a mind so
trained that related knowledge is easily acquired.

    When the vocation for which he is naturally best fitted becomes
apparent, as it must from the study of the development of the youth
and his desires, the school will know, and can give exactly, that
training that is necessary for the vocation. It can also supplement
his limitations intelligently, in case he decides to follow a
vocation for which he is naturally handicapped.

    This will bring to the industry learners prepared to be taught
those things that characterize the industry, the "tricks of the
trade," and the "secrets of the craft," now become standard, and
free to all. Such teaching Scientific Management is prepared to
give. The results of such teaching of Scientific Management will be
a worker prepared in a short time to fill efficiently a position
which will allow of promotion to the limit of his possibilities.

    The result of such teaching will be truly educated workers,
equipped to work, and to live,[65] and to share the world's
permanent satisfactions.

    The effect of such education on industrial peace must not be
underestimated. With education, including in education learning and
culture,--prejudice will disappear. The fact that all men, those
going into industries and those not, will be taught alike to be
finger wise as well as book wise, up to the time of entering the
industries, will lead to a better understanding of each other all
through life.

    The entire bearing of Scientific Management on industrial peace
cannot be here fully discussed. We must note here the strong effect
that teaching under Scientific Management will ultimately have on
doing away with industrial warfare,--the great warfare of ignorance,
where neither side understands the other, and where each side should
realize that large immediate sacrifices should be made if necessary,
that there may be obtained the great permanent benefit and savings
that can be obtained only by means of the heartiest coöperation.

CHAPTER VIII FOOTNOTES: ============================================

 1. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, para. 541-545.
 2. H.K. Hathaway, _Prerequisites to the Introduction of Scientific
    Management, Engineering Magazine,_ April, 1911, p. 141.
 3. H.L. Gantt, paper 928, A.S.M.E., p. 372.
 4. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 116.
 5. H.L. Gantt, paper 928, A.S.M.E., p. 342.
 6. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 289, Harper Ed.,
    pp. 127-128.
 7. H.K. Hathaway, _Engineering Magazine_, April, 1911, p. 144.
 8. W.D. Ennis, _An Experiment in Motion Study, Industrial
    Engineering_, June, 1911, p. 462.
 9. C.S. Myers, M.D., _An Introduction to Experimental Psychology_,
    chap. V, p. 73.
10. G. M. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 125.
11. William James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 171.
12. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, chap. I, _Training of
13. _McClure's Magazine_, May, 1911, Dec, 1911, Jan., 1912.
14. As a woodman's keenness of hearing.
15. M.W. Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, chap. III.
16. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, chap. VII.
17. Compare with an actor's learning a part.
18. As proved by experimenting with a six-year-old child.
19. Imbert, _Etudes experimentales de travail professionnel ouvrier,
    Sur la fatigue engendree par les mouvements rapides_.
20. William James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 134.
21. _Ibid._, p. 138. William James, Psychology, Advanced Course.
    p. 112.
22. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, p. 142.
23. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 214.
24. Prof. Bain, quoted In William James' _Psychology, Briefer
    Course_, pp. 145-147.
25. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, para. 18-19.
26. M.W. Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, p. 354.
27. James Sully, _The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, p. 119.
28. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 99.
29. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_ p. 240.
30. Attracting the attention is largely a matter of appealing to
    what is known to interest, for example, to a known ambition.
31. M.S. Read, _An Introductory Psychology_, p. 183.
32. F.B. Gilbreth, _Motion Study_, p. 89.
33. _Ibid._, _Bricklaying System_, para. 555-557.
34. F.B. Gilbreth, _Bricklaying System_, p. 150.
35. M.S. Read, _An Introductory Psychology_, pp. 179-194.
36. G.M. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 42.
37. M.S. Read, _An Introductory Psychology_, p. 208.
38. William James, _Psychology, Advanced Course_, Vol. I, p. 667.
39. M.S. Read, _An Introductory Psychology_, pp. 212-213. William
    James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 302.
40. M.W. Calkins, _A First Book in Psychology_, p. 25.
41. James Sully, _The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology_, p. 290.
42. William James, _Psychology, Briefer Course_, p. 150.
43. W.D. Scott, _Influencing Men in Business_, chap. II.
44. _Ibid._, chap. III.
45. W.D. Scott, _The Theory of Advertising_, p. 71.
46. W.D. Scott, _Increasing Human Efficiency in Business_, p. 41.
47. G.M. Stratton, _Experimental Psychology and Culture_, p. 200.
48. F.W. Taylor, _The Principles of Scientific Management_, p. 36.
49. William James, _Talks to Teachers_, chap. III.
50. Knight's _Mechanical Dictionary_, Vol. III, p. 2204.
51. For example, see W.D. Scott's _Increasing Efficiency in
    Business_, chap. IV.
52. R.A. Bray, _Boy Labor and Apprenticeship_, chap. II, especially
    p. 8.
53. Wilfred Lewis, _Proceedings of the Congress of Technology_,
    1911, p. 175.
54. November, 1910.
55. The Link-Belt Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
56. For value of personality see J.W. Jenks's, _Governmental Action
    for Social Welfare_, p. 226.
57. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 311, Harper Ed., p. 143.
58. Compare with the old darkey, who took her sons from a Northern
    school, where the teacher was white, in order to send them to a
    Southern school having a colored teacher that they might feel,
    as they looked at him, "What _that_ nigger can do, _this_ nigger
    can do."
59. M.S. Read, _An Introductory Psychology,_ pp. 297-303.
60. Hugo Münsterberg, _American Problems_, p. 29.
61. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, _Bulletin No. 5_ of _The Carnegie
    Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching_, p. 70. William
    Kent, _Discussion of Paper 647_, A.S.M.E., p. 891.
62. A well known athlete started throwing a ball at his son in
    infancy, to prepare him to be an athlete, thus practically sure
    of a college education.
63. Meyer Bloomfield, _The Vocational Guidance of Youth_, Houghton
    Mifflin & Co.
64. A. Pimloche, _Pestalozzi and the Foundation of the Modern
    Elementary School_, p. 139.
65. Friedrich Froebel, _Education of Man_, "To secure for this
    ability skill and directness, to lift it into full
    consciousness, to give it insight and clearness, and to exalt
    it into a life of creative freedom, is the business of the
    subsequent life of man in successive stages of development and


                               CHAPTER IX


    DEFINITION OF INCENTIVE.--An "incentive" is defined by the
Century Dictionary as "that which moves the mind or stirs the
passions; that which incites or tends to incite to action; motive,
spur." Synonyms--"impulse, stimulus, incitement, encouragement,

    IMPORTANCE OF THE INCENTIVE.--The part that the incentive plays
in the doing of all work is enormous. This is true in learning, and
also in the performance of work which is the result of this
learning: manual work and mental work as well. The business man
finishing his work early that he may go to the baseball game; the
boy at school rushing through his arithmetic that he may not be kept
after school; the piece-worker, the amount of whose day's pay
depends upon the quantity and quality he can produce; the student of
a foreign language preparing for a trip abroad,--these all
illustrate the importance of the incentive as an element in the
amount which is to be accomplished.

    TWO KINDS OF INCENTIVES.--The incentive may be of two kinds: it
may be first of all, a return, definite or indefinite, which is to
be received when a certain portion of the work is done, or it may be
an incentive due to the working conditions themselves. The latter
case is exemplified where two people are engaged in the same sort of
work and start in to race one another to see who can accomplish the
most, who can finish the fixed amount in the shortest space of time,
or who can produce the best quality. The incentive may be in the
form of some definite aim or goal which is understood by the worker
himself, or it may be in some natural instinct which is roused by
the work, either consciously to the worker, or consciously to the
man who is assigning the work, or consciously to both, or
consciously to neither one. In any of these cases it is a natural
instinct that is being appealed to and that induces the man to do
more work, whether he sees any material reward for that work or not.

    DEFINITIONS OF TWO TYPES.--We may call the incentive which
utilizes the natural instinct, "direct incentive," and the incentive
which utilizes these secondarily, through some set reward or
punishment, "indirect incentive." This, at first sight, may seem a
contradictory use of terms--it may seem that the reward would be the
most direct of incentives; yet a moment's thought will cause one to
realize that all the reward can possibly do is to arouse in the
individual a natural instinct which will lead him to increase
his work.

indirect incentives first as, contrary to the usual use of the word
"indirect," they are most easy to estimate and to describe. They
divide themselves into two classes, reward and punishment.

    DEFINITION OF REWARD.--Reward is defined by the Century
Dictionary as--"return, recompense, the fruit of one's labor or
works; profit," with synonyms, "pay, compensation, remuneration,
requital and retribution." Note particularly the word "retribution,"
for it is this aspect of reward, that is, the just outcome of one's
act, that makes the reward justly include punishment. The word
"reward" exactly expresses what management would wish to be
understood by the incentive that it gives its men to increase
their work.

    DEFINITION OF PUNISHMENT.--The word "punishment" is defined
as--"pain, suffering, loss, confinement, or other penalty inflicted
on a person for a crime or offense by the authority to which the
offender is subject," with synonyms, "chastisement, correction,

    The word punishment, as will be noted later, is most unfortunate
when applied to what Scientific Management would mean by a penalty,
though this word also is unfortunate; but, in the first place, there
is no better word to cover the general meaning; and in the second
place, the idea of pain and suffering, which Scientific Management
aims to and does eliminate, is present in some of the older forms of
management Therefore the word punishment must stand.

that a reward is an incentive. There may well be doubt as to whether
a punishment is an incentive to action or not. This, however, is
only at first glance, and the whole thing rests on the meaning of
the word "action." To be active is certainly the opposite of being
at rest. This being true, punishment is just as surely an incentive
to action as is reward. The man who is punished in every case will
be led to some sort of action. Whether this really results in an
increase of output or not simply determines whether the punishment
is a scientifically prescribed punishment or not. If the
punishment is of such a nature that the output ceases because of it,
or that it incites the man punished against the general good, then
it does not in any wise cease to be an active thing, but it is
simply a wrong, and unscientifically assigned punishment, that acts
in a detrimental way.

    SOLDIERING ALONE CUTS DOWN ACTIVITY.--It is interesting to note
that the greatest cause for cutting down output is related more
closely to a reward than a punishment. Under such managements as
provide no adequate reward for all, and no adequate assurance that
all can receive extra rewards permanently without a cut in the rate,
it may be advisable, for the worker's best interests, to limit
output in order to keep the wages, or reward, up, and soldiering
results. The evils of soldiering will be discussed more at length
under the "Systems of Pay." It is plain, however, here that
soldiering is the result of a cutting down of action, and it is
self-evident that anything which cuts down action is harmful, not
only to the individual himself, but to society at large.

management, the principal rewards consist of promotion and pay, pay
being a broad word used here to include regular wages, a bonus,
shorter hours, other forms of remuneration or recompense; anything
which can be given to the man who does the work to benefit him and
increase his desire to continue doing the work. Punishments may be
negative, that is, they may simply take the form of no reward; or
they may be positive, that is, they may include fines, discharge,
assignment to less remunerative or less desirable work, or any other
thing which can be given to the man to show him that he has not done
what is expected of him and, in theory at least, to lead him to
do better.

    NATURE OF DIRECT INCENTIVES.--Direct incentives will be such
native reaction as ambition, pride and pugnacity; will be love of
racing, love of play; love of personal recognition; will be the
outcome of self-confidence and interest, and so on.

all other discussions of any part or form of Traditional Management,
the discussion of the incentive under Traditional Management is
vague from the very nature of the subject. "Traditional" stands for
vagueness and for variation, for the lack of standardization, for
the lack of definiteness in knowledge, in process, in results. The
rewards under Traditional Management, as under all types of
management, are promotion and pay. It must be an almost unthinkably
poor system of management, even under Traditional Management, which
did not attempt to provide for some sort of promotion of the man who
did the most and best work; but the lack of standardization of
conditions, of instructions, of the work itself, and of reward,
makes it almost impossible not only to give the reward, but even to
determine who deserves the reward. Under Traditional Management, the
reward need not be positive, that is, it might simply consist in the
negation of some previously existing disadvantage. It need not be
predetermined. It might be nothing definite. It might not be so set
ahead that the man might look forward to it. In other words it might
simply be the outcome of the good, and in no wise the incentive for
the good. It need not necessarily be personal. It could be shared
with a group, or gang, and lose all feeling of personality. It need
not be a fixed reward or a fixed performance; in fact, if the
management were Traditional it would be almost impossible that it
would be a fixed reward. It might not be an assured reward, and in
most cases it was not a prompt reward. These fixed adjectives
describe the reward of Scientific Management--positive, predetermined,
personal, fixed, assured and prompt. A few of these might apply,
or none might apply to the reward under Traditional Management.

    REWARD A PRIZE WON BY ONE ONLY.--If this reward, whether
promotion or pay, was given to someone under Traditional Management,
this usually meant that others thereby lost it; it was in the nature
of a prize which one only could attain, and which the others,
therefore, would lose, and such a lost prize is, to the average man,
for the time at least, a dampener on action. The rewarding of the
winner, to the loss of all of the losers, has been met by the
workmen getting together secretly, and selecting the winners for a
week or more ahead, thus getting the same reward out of the employer
without the extra effort.

punishment, under Traditional Management, was usually much more than
negative punishment; that is to say, the man who was punished
usually received much more than simply the negative return of
getting no reward. The days of bodily punishment have long passed,
yet the account of the beatings given to the galley slaves and to
other workers in the past are too vividly described in authentic
accounts to be lost from memory. To-day, under Traditional
Management, punishment consists of

    1. fines, which are usually simply a cutting down of wages,
       the part deducted remaining with the company,
    2. discharge, or
    3. assignment to less pleasant or less desirable work.

    This assignment is done on an unscientific basis, the man being
simply put at something which he dislikes, with no regard as to
whether his efficiency at that particular work will be high or not.

    RESULTS ARE UNFORTUNATE.--The punishment, under Traditional
Management, is usually meted out by the foreman, simply as one of
his many duties. He is apt to be so personally interested, and
perhaps involved, in the case that his punishment will satisfy some
wrong notions, impulse of anger, hate, or envy in him, and will
arouse a feeling of shame or wounded pride, or unappreciation, in
the man to whom punishment is awarded.

have called direct incentive, the love of racing was often used
under Traditional Management through Athletic Contests, the faults
in these being that the men were not properly studied, so that they
could be properly assigned and grouped; care was not always
exercised that hate should not be the result of the contest; the
contest was not always conducted according to the rules of clean
sport; the men slighted quality in hastening the work, and the
results of the athletic contests were not so written down as to be
thereafter utilized. Love of play may have been developed
unconsciously, but was certainly not often studied, Love of personal
recognition was probably often utilized, but in no scientific way.
Neither was there anything in Traditional Management to develop
self-confidence, or to arouse and maintain interest in any set
fashion. Naturally, if the man were in a work which he particularly
liked, which under Traditional Management was a matter of luck, he
would be more or less interested in it, but there was no scientific
way of arousing or holding his interest. Under Traditional
Management, a man might take pride in his work, as did many of the
old bricklayers and masons, who would set themselves apart after
hours if necessary, lock themselves in, and cut bricks for a
complicated arch or fancy pattern, but such pride was in no way
fostered through the efforts of the management. Pugnacity was
aroused, but it might have an evil effect as well as a good, so far
as the management had any control. Ambition, in the same way, might
be stimulated, and might not. There is absolutely nothing under
Traditional Management to prevent a man being ambitious, gratifying
his pride, and gratifying his pugnacity in a right way, and at the
same time being interested in his work, but there was nothing under
Traditional Management which provided for definite and exact methods
for encouraging these good qualities, seeing that they developed in
a proper channel, and scientifically utilizing the outcome again
and again.

MANAGEMENT.--Under Transitory Management, as soon as practicable,
one bonus is paid for doing work according to the method prescribed.
As standardization takes place, the second bonus for completing the
task in the time set can be paid. As each element of Scientific
Management is introduced, incentives become more apparent, more
powerful, and more assured.

output, and recording of output separately, love of personal
recognition grew, self-confidence grew, interest in one's work
grew. The Athletic Contest is so conducted that love of speed, love
of play, and love of competition are encouraged, the worker
constantly feeling that he can indulge in these, as he is assured
of "fair play."

important, psychologically and ethically, that it be understood that
Scientific Management is not in any sense a destructive power. That
only is eliminated that is harmful, or wasteful, or futile;
everything that is good is conserved, and is utilized as much as it
has ever been before, often much more than it has ever been
utilized. The constructive force, under Scientific Management, is
one of its great life principles. This is brought out very plainly
in considering incentives under Scientific Management. With the
scientifically determined wage, and the more direct and more sure
plan of promotion, comes no discard of the well-grounded incentives
of older types of management. The value of a fine personality in all
who are to be imitated is not forgotten; the importance of using all
natural stimuli to healthful activity is appreciated. Scientific
Management uses all these, in so far as they can be used to the best
outcome for workers and work, and supplements them by such
scientifically derived additions as could never have been derived
under the older types.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REWARD.--Rewards, under Scientific
Management are--

      (a) positive; that is to say, the reward must be a
          definite, positive gain to the man, and not simply a
          taking away of some thing which may have been a
      (b) predetermined; that is to say, before the man begins to
          work it must be determined exactly what reward he is to
          get for doing the work.
      (c) personal; that is, individual, a reward for that
          particular man for that particular work.
      (d) fixed, unchanged. He must get exactly what it has been
          determined beforehand that he shall get.
      (e) assured; that is to say, there must be provision made
          for this reward before the man begins to work, so that
          he may be positive that he will get the reward if he
          does the work. The record of the organization must be
          that rewards have always been paid in the past,
          therefore probably will be in the future.
      (f) the reward must be prompt; that is to say, as soon as
          the work has been done, the man must get the reward.
          This promptness applies to the announcement of the
          reward; that is to say, the man must know at once that
          he has gotten the reward, and also to the receipt of
          the reward by the man.

benefit of the positive reward is that it arouses and holds
attention. A fine example of a reward that is not positive is that
type of "welfare work" which consists of simply providing the worker
with such surroundings as will enable him to work decently and
without actual discomfort. The worker, naturally, feels that such
surroundings are his right, and in no sense a reward and incentive
to added activity. The reward must actually offer to the worker
something which he has a right to expect only if he earns it;
something which will be a positive addition to his life.

reward allows both manager and man to concentrate their minds upon
the work. There is no shifting of the attention, while the worker
wonders what the reward that he is to receive will be. It is also a
strong factor for industrial peace, and for all the extra activities
which will come when industrial conditions are peaceful.

a strong incentive toward initiative, towards the desire to make the
most of one's individuality. It is an aid toward the feeling of
personal recognition. From this personal reward come all the
benefits which have been considered under individuality.[1]

    FIXED REWARD ELIMINATES WASTE TIME.--The fact that the reward is
fixed is a great eliminator of waste to the man and to the manager
both. Not only does the man concentrate better under the fixed
reward, but the reward, being fixed, need not be determined anew,
over and over again; that is to say, every time that that kind of
work is done, simultaneous with the arising of the work comes the
reward that is to be paid for it. All the time that would be given
to determining the reward, satisfying the men and arguing the case,
is saved and utilized.

    ASSURED REWARD AIDS CONCENTRATION.--The assured reward leads to
concentration,--even perhaps more so than the fact that the reward
is determined. In case the man was not sure that he would get the
reward in the end, he would naturally spend a great deal of time
wondering whether he would or not. Moreover, no immediate good
fortune counts for much as an incentive if there is a prospect of
bad luck following in the immediate future.

    NEED FOR PROMPTNESS VARIES.--The need for promptness of the
reward varies. If the reward is to be given to a man of an
elementary type of mind, the reward must be immediately announced
and must be actually given very promptly, as it is impossible for
anyone of such a type of intellect to look forward very far.[2] A
man of a high type of intellectual development is able to wait a
longer time for his reward, and the element of promptness, while
acting somewhat as an incentive, is not so necessary.

    Under Scientific Management, with the ordinary type of worker on
manual work, it has been found most satisfactory to pay the reward
every day, or at the end of the week, and to announce the score of
output as often as every hour. This not only satisfies the longing
of the normal mind to know exactly where it stands, but also lends a
fresh impetus to repeat the high record. There is also, through the
prompt reward, the elimination of time wasted in wondering what the
result will be, and in allaying suspense. Suspense is not a stimulus
to great activity, as anyone who has waited for the result of a
doubtful examination can testify, it being almost impossible to
concentrate the mind on any other work until one knows whether the
work which has been done has been completed satisfactorily or not.

    PROMPTNESS ALWAYS AN ADDED INCENTIVE.--There are many kinds of
life work and modes of living so terrible as to make one shudder at
the thoughts of the certain sickness, death, or disaster that are
almost absolutely sure to follow such a vocation. Men continue to
work for those wages that lead positively to certain death, because
of the immediateness of the sufficient wages, or reward. This takes
their attention from their ultimate end. Much more money would be
required if payment were postponed, say, five years after the act,
to obtain the services of the air-man, or the worker subject to the
poisoning of some branches of the lead and mercury industries.

    If the prompt reward is incentive enough to make men forget
danger and threatened death, how much more efficient is it in
increasing output where there is no such danger.

the prompt reward is not to be preferred, because the delayed reward
will be greater, or will be available to more people Such is the
case with the reward that comes from unrestricted output.

    For example,--the immediacy of the temporarily increased reward
caused by restricting output has often led the combinations of
working men to such restriction, with an ultimate loss of reward to
worker, to employer, and to the consumer.

    REWARDS POSSIBLE OF ATTAINMENT BY ALL.--Every man working under
Scientific Management has a chance to win a reward. This means not
only that the man has a "square deal," for the man may have a square
deal under Traditional Management in that he may have a fair chance
to try for all existing rewards. There is more than this under
Scientific Management. By the very nature of the plan itself, the
rewards are possible of achievement by all; any one man, by winning,
in no way diminishes the chances of the others.

emphasis, in the discussion of reward, has been on the reward as
given to the worker, and his feeling toward it. The reward to the
management is just as sure. It lies in the increased output and
therefore the possibility of lower costs and of greater financial
gain. It is as positive; it is as predetermined, because before the
reward to the men is fixed the management realizes what proportion
that reward will bear to the entire undertaking, and exactly what
profits can be obtained. It is a fundamental of Scientific
Management that the management shall be able to prophesy the outputs
ahead. It will certainly be as personal, if the management side is
as thoroughly systematized as is the managed; it will be as fixed
and as assured, and it certainly is as prompt, as the cost records
can be arranged to come to the management every day, if that
is desired.

    RESULTS OF SUCH REWARDS.--There are three other advantages to
management which might well be added here. First, that a reward such
as this attracts the best men to the work; second, that the reward,
and the stability of it, indicates the stability of the entire
institution, and thus raises its standing in the eyes of the
community as well as in its own eyes; and third, that it leads the
entire organization, both managed and managing, to look favorably at
all standardization. The standardized reward is sure to be
attractive to all members. As soon as it is realized that the reason
that it is attractive is because it is _standardized_, the entire
subject of standardization rises in the estimation of every one, and
the introduction of standards can be carried on more rapidly, and
with greater success.

into two kinds; first, promotion and, second, pay. Under Scientific
Management promotion is assured for every man and, as has been said,
this promotion does not thereby hold back others from having the
same sort of promotion. There is an ample place, under Scientific
Management, for every man to advance.[3] Not only is the promotion
sure, thus giving the man absolute assurance that he will advance as
his work is satisfactory, but it is also gradual.[4] The promotion
must be by degrees, otherwise the workers may get discouraged, from
finding their promotion has come faster than has their ability to
achieve, and the lack of attention, due to being discouraged, may be
contagious. It is, therefore, of vital importance that the worker be
properly selected, in order that, in his advancement and promotion,
he shall be able to achieve his task after having been put at the
new work. He must be advanced and promoted in a definite line of
gradual development, in accordance with a fully conceived plan. This
should be worked out and set down in writing as a definite plan,
similar to the plan on the instruction card of one of his tasks.

many lines of business, the business itself offers ample opportunity
for promoting all men who can "make good" as rapidly as they can
prepare themselves for positions over others, and for advancement;
but under Scientific Management provision is made even in case the
business does not offer such opportunities.[5] This is done by the
management finding places outside their own organization for the men
who are so trained that they can be advanced.

    SUCH PROMOTION ATTRACTS WORKERS.--While at first glance it might
seem a most unfortunate thing for the management to have to let its
men go, and while, as Dr. Taylor says, it is unfortunate for a
business to get the reputation of being nothing but a training
school, on the other hand, it has a very salutary effect upon the
men to know that their employers are so disinterestedly interested
in them that they will provide for their future, even at the risk of
the individual business at which they have started having to lose
their services. This will not only, as Dr. Taylor makes clear,
stimulate many men in the establishment whose men go on to take the
places of those who are promoted, but will also be a great
inducement to other men to come into a place that they feel is
unselfish and generous.

    SUBDIVISIONS OF "PAY."--Under "Pay" we have included eight

    1. Wages
    2. Bonus
    3. Shorter hours
    4. Prizes other than money
    5. Extra knowledge
    6. Method of attack
    7. Good opinion of others
    8. Professional standing.

    RELATION BETWEEN WAGES AND BONUS.--Wages and bonus are closely
related. By wages we mean a fixed sum, or minimum hourly rate, that
the man gets in any case for his time, and by bonus we mean
additional money that he receives for achievement of method,
quantity or quality. Both might very properly be included under
wages, or under money received for the work, or opportunities for
receiving money for work, as the case might be. In the discussion of
the different ways of paying wages under Scientific Management,
there will be no attempt to discuss the economic value of the
various means; the different methods will simply be stated, and the
psychological significance will be, as far as possible, given.

    Before discussing the various kinds of wages advised by the
experts in Scientific Management, it is well to pause a moment to
name the various sorts of methods of compensation recognized by
authorities. David F. Schloss in his "Method of Industrial
Remuneration" divides all possible ways of gaining remuneration
into three--

    1. the different kinds of wages
       1. time wage
       2. piece wage
       3. task wage
       4. progressive wage
       5. collective piece wage
       6. collective task wage
       7. collective progressive wage
       8. contract work
       9. coöperative work


    2. profit sharing, and
    3. industrial coöperation. These are defined and discussed at
       length in his book in a lucid and simple manner.

    It is only necessary to quote him here as to the relationship
between these different forms, where he says, page 11,--"The two
leading forms of industrial remuneration under the Wages System are
time wages, and piece wages. Intermediate between these principal
forms, stands that known as task wage, while supplemental to these
two named methods, we find those various systems which will here be
designated by the name of Progressive Wages."[6]

    DAY WORK NEVER SCIENTIFIC.--The simplest of all systems, says
Dr. Taylor in "A Piece Rate System," paragraph 10, in discussing the
various forms of compensation "is the Day Work plan, in which the
employés are divided into certain classes, and a standard rate of
wages is paid to each class of men," He adds--"The men are paid
according to the position which they fill, and not according to
their individual character, energy, skill and reliability," The
psychological objection to day work is that it does not arouse
interest or effort or hold attention, nor does it inspire to
memorizing or to learning.

    It will be apparent that there is no inducement whatever for the
man to do more than just enough to retain his job, for he in no wise
shares in the reward for an extra effort, which goes entirely to his
employer. "Reward," in this case, is usually simply a living
wage,--enough to inspire the man, if he needs the money enough to
work to hold his position, but not enough to incite him to any extra

    It is true that, in actual practice, through the foreman or some
man in authority, the workers on day work may be "speeded up" to a
point where they will do a great deal of work; the foreman being
inspired, of course, by a reward for the extra output, but, as Dr.
Taylor says, paragraph 17--"A Piece Rate System," this sort of
speeding up is absolutely lacking in self-sustaining power. The
moment that this rewarded foreman is removed, the work will again
fall down. Therefore, day wage has almost no place in ultimate,
scientifically managed work.

is the opposite of time work, in that under it the man is paid not
for the time he spends at the work, but for the amount of work which
he accomplishes. Under this system, as long as the man is paid a
proper piece rate, and a rate high enough to keep him interested, he
will have great inducements to work. He will have a chance to
develop individuality, a chance for competition, a chance for
personal recognition. His love of reasonable racing will be
cultivated. His love of play may be cultivated.

    All of these incentives arise because the man feels that his
sense of justice is being considered; that if the task is properly
laid out, and the price per piece is properly determined, he is
given a "square deal" in being allowed to accomplish as great an
amount of work as he can, with the assurance that his reward will be
promptly coming to him.

    DANGER OF RATE BEING CUT.--Piece work becomes objectionable only
when the rate is cut. The moment the rate is cut the first time, the
man begins to wonder whether it is going to be cut again, and his
attention is distracted from the work by his debating this question
constantly. At best, his attention wanders from one subject to the
other, and back again. It cannot be concentrated on his work. After
the rate has been cut once or twice,--and it is sure to be cut
unless it has been set from scientifically derived elementary time
units,--the man loses his entire confidence in the stability of the
rate, and, naturally, when he loses this confidence, his work is
done more slowly, due to lack of further enthusiasm. On the
contrary, as long as it is to his advantage to do the work and he is
sure that his reward will be prompt, and that he will always get the
price that has been determined as right by him and by the employers
for his work, he can do this work easily in the time set. As soon as
he feels that he will not get it, he will naturally begin to do
less, as it will be not only to his personal advantage to do as
little as possible, but also very much to the advantage of his
fellows, for whom the rate will also be cut.

Schloss calls the Task Wage would, as he well says, be the
intermediate between time or day wage and piece wage; that is, it
would be the assigning of a definite amount of work to be done in
definite time, and to be paid for by a definite sum. If the task
were set scientifically, and the time scientifically determined, as
it must naturally be for a scientific task, and the wage adequate
for that work, there would seem to be nothing about this form of
remuneration which could be a cause of dissatisfaction to the
worker. Naturally, however, there would be absolutely no chance for
him to desire to go any faster than the time set, or to accomplish
any more work in the time set than that which he was obliged to, in
that he could not possibly get anything for the extra work done.

the discussion of the three types of compensation so far discussed,
that there is nothing in them that renders them unscientific. Any
one of the three may be used, and doubtless all are used, on works
which are attempting to operate under Scientific Management. Whether
they really are scientific methods of compensation or not, is
determined by the way that they are handled. Certainly, however, all
that any of these three can expect to do is to convince the man that
he is being treated justly; that is to say, if he knows what sort of
a contract he is entering into, the contract is perfectly fair,
provided that the management keeps its part of the contract, pays
the agreed-upon wage.

    In proceeding, instead of following the order of Schloss we will
follow the order, at least for a time, of Dr. Taylor In "A Piece
Rate System"; this for two reasons:

    First, for the reason that the "Piece Rate System" is later than
Schloss' book, Schloss being 1891, and the "Piece Rate" being 1895;
in the second place that we are following the Scientific Management
side in distinction to the general economic side, laid down by
Schloss. There is, however, nothing in our plan of discussion here
to prevent one's following fairly closely in the Schloss also.

    THE GAIN-SHARING PLAN.--We take up, then, the Gain-sharing Plan
which was invented by Mr. Henry R. Towne and used by him with
success in the Yale & Towne works. This is described in a paper read
before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, in professional
paper No. 341, in 1888 and also in the Premium Plan, Mr. Halsey's
modification of it, described by him in a paper entitled the
"Premium Plan of Paying for Labor," American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1891, Paper 449. In this, in describing the
Profit-sharing Plan, Mr. Halsey says--"Under it, in addition to
regular wages, the employés were offered a certain percentage of the
final profits of the business. It thus divides the savings due to
increased production between employer and employé."

    OBJECTIONS TO THIS PLAN.--We note here the objection to this
plan: First,--"The workmen are given a share in what they do not
earn; second, the workmen share regardless of individual deserts;
third, the promised rewards are remote; fourth, the plan makes no
provision for bad years; fifth, the workmen have no means of knowing
if the agreement is carried out." Without discussing any farther
whether these are worded exactly as all who have tried the plan
might have found them, we may take these on Mr. Halsey's authority
and discuss the psychology of them. If the workmen are given a share
in what they do not earn, they have absolutely no feeling that they
are being treated justly. This extra reward which is given to them,
if in the nature of a present, might much better be a present out
and out. If it has no scientific relation to what they have gotten,
if the workmen share regardless of individual deserts, this, as Dr.
Taylor says, paragraph 27 in the "Piece Rate System," is the most
serious defect of all, in that it does not allow for recognition of
the personal merits of each workman. If the rewards are remote, the
interest is diminished. If the plan makes no provision for bad
years, it cannot be self-perpetuating. If the workmen have no means
of knowing if the agreement will be carried out or not, they will be
constantly wondering whether it is being carried out or not, and
their attention will wander.

    THE PREMIUM PLAN.--The Premium Plan is thus described by Mr.
Halsey--"The time required to do a given piece of work is determined
from previous experience, and the workman, in addition to his usual
daily wages, is offered a premium for every hour by which he reduces
that time on future work, the amount of the premium being less than
his rate of wages. Making the hourly premium less than the hourly
wages is the foundation stone upon which rest all the merits of
the system."

    DR. TAYLOR'S DESCRIPTION OF THIS PLAN.--Dr. Taylor comments upon
this plan as follows:

    "The Towne-Halsey plan consists in recording the quickest time
in which a job has been done, and fixing this as a standard. If the
workman succeeds in doing the job in a shorter time, he is still
paid his same wages per hour for the time he works on the job, and,
in addition, is given a premium for having worked faster, consisting
of from one-quarter to one-half the difference between the wages
earned and the wages originally paid when the job was done in
standard time," Dr. Taylor's discussion of this plan will be found
in "Shop Management," paragraphs 79 to 91.

    Psychologically, the defect of this system undoubtedly is that
it does not rest upon accurate scientific time study, therefore
neither management nor men can predict accurately what is going to
happen. Not being able to predict, they are unable to devote their
entire attention to the work in hand, and the result cannot be as
satisfactory as under an assigned task, based upon time study. The
discussion of this is so thorough in Dr. Taylor's work, and in Mr.
Halsey's work, that it is unnecessary to introduce more here.

    PROFIT-SHARING.--Before turning to the methods of compensation
which are based upon the task, it might be well to introduce here
mention of "Coöperation," or "Profit-sharing," which, in its extreme
form, usually means the sharing of the profits from the business as
a whole, among the men who do the work. This is further discussed by
Schloss, and also by Dr. Taylor in paragraphs 32 to 35, in "A Piece
Rate System"; also in "Shop Management," quoting from the "Piece
Rate System," paragraphs 73 to 77.

    OBJECTIONS TO PROFIT-SHARING.--The objections, Dr. Taylor says,
to coöperation are, first in the fact that no form of coöperation
has been devised in which each individual is allowed free scope for
his personal ambition; second, in the remoteness of the reward;
third, in the unequitable division of the profits. If each
individual is not allowed free scope, one sees at once that the
entire advantage of individuality, and of personal recognition, is
omitted. If the reward is remote, we recognize that its power
diminishes very rapidly; and if there cannot be equitable division
of the profits, not only will the men ultimately not be satisfied,
but they will, after a short time, not even be satisfied while they
are working, because their minds will constantly be distracted by
the fact that the division will probably not be equitable, and also
by the fact that they will be trying to plan ways in which they can
get their proper share. Thus, not only in the ultimate outcome, but
also during the entire process, the work will slow up necessarily,
because the men can have no assurance either that the work itself,
or the output, have been scientifically determined.

PROFIT-SHARING.--Scientific Management embodies the valuable
elements of profit-sharing, namely, the idea of coöperation, and the
idea that the workers should share in the profit.

    That the latter of these two is properly emphasized by
Scientific Management is not always understood by the workers. When
a worker is enabled to make three or four times as much output in a
day as he has been accustomed to, he may think that he is not
getting his full share of the "spoils" of increased efficiency,
unless he gets a proportionately increased rate of pay. It should,
therefore, be early made clear to him that the saving has been
caused by the actions of the management, quite as much as by the
increased efforts for productivity of the men. Furthermore, a part
of the savings must go to pay for the extra cost of maintaining the
standard conditions that make such output possible. The necessary
planners and teachers usually are sufficient as object-lessons to
convince the workers of the necessity of not giving all the extra
savings to the workers.

    It is realized that approximately one third of the extra profits
from the savings must go to the employer, about one third to the
employés, and the remainder for maintaining the system and carrying
out further investigations.

    This once understood, the satisfaction that results from a
coöperative, profit-sharing type of management will be enjoyed.

    The five methods of compensation which are to follow are all
based upon the task, as laid down by Dr. Taylor; that is to say,
upon time study, and an exact knowledge by the man, and the
employers, of how much work can be done.

Dr. Taylor's method of compensation, which is acknowledged by all
thoroughly grounded in Scientific Management to be the ultimate
form of compensation where it can be used, is called Differential
Rate Piece Work. It is described in "A Piece Rate System,"
paragraphs 50 to 52, as follows:--

    "This consists, briefly, in paying a higher price per piece, or
per unit, or per job, if the work is done in the shortest possible
time and without imperfection, than is paid if the work takes a
longer time or is imperfectly done. To illustrate--suppose 20 units,
or pieces, to be the largest amount of work of a certain kind that
can be done in a day. Under the differential rate system, if a
workman finishes 20 pieces per day, and all of these pieces are
perfect, he receives, say, 15 cents per piece, making his pay for
the day 15 times 20 = $3.00. If, however, he works too slowly and
turns out only, say 19 pieces, then instead of receiving 15 cents
per piece he gets only 12 cents per piece, making his pay for the
day 12x19= $2.28, instead of $3.00 per day. If he succeeds in
finishing 20 pieces--some of which are imperfect--then he should
receive a still lower rate of pay, say 10¢ or 5¢ per piece,
according to circumstances, making his pay for the day $2.00 or only
$1.00, instead of $3.00."

    ADVANTAGES OF THIS SYSTEM.--This system is founded upon
knowledge that for a large reward men will do a large amount of
work. The small compensation for a small amount of work--and under
this system the minimum compensation is a little below the regular
day's work--may lead men to exert themselves to accomplish more
work. This system appeals to the justice of the men, in that it is
more nearly an exact ratio of pay to endeavor.

    TASK WORK WITH A BONUS.--The Task work with Bonus system of
compensation, which is the invention of Mr. H.L. Gantt, is explained
in "A Bonus System of Rewarding Labor," paper 923, read before the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, December, 1901, by Mr.
Gantt. This system is there described as follows:--

    "If the man follows his instructions and accomplishes all the
work laid out for him as constituting his proper task for the day,
he is paid a definite bonus in addition to the day rate which he
always gets. If, however, at the end of the day he has failed to
accomplish all of the work laid out, he does not get his bonus, but
simply his day rate." This system of compensation is explained more
fully in Chapter VI of Mr. Gantt's book, "Work, Wages and Profits,"
where he explains the modification now used by him in the bonus.

advantage of the task with a Bonus is the fact that the worker has
the assurance of a living wage while learning, no matter whether he
succeeds in winning his bonus or not. In the last analysis, it is
"day rate" for the unskilled, and "piece rate" for the skilled, and
it naturally leads to a feeling of security in the worker. Mr. Gantt
has so admirably explained the advantages, psychological as well as
industrial, of his system, that it is unnecessary to go farther,
except to emphasize the fine feeling of brotherhood which underlies
the idea, and its expression.

    THE DIFFERENTIAL BONUS SYSTEM.--The Differential Bonus System of
Compensation is the invention of Mr. Frederick A. Parkhurst, and is
described by him in his book "Applied Methods of Scientific

    "The time the job should be done in is first determined by
analysis and time study. The bonus is then added above the day work
line. No bonus is paid until a definitely determined time is
realized. As the time is reduced, the bonus is increased."

Compensation is the invention of Mr. Frank B. Gilbreth and consists
of day work, i.e., a day rate, or a flat minimum rate, which all who
are willing to work receive until they can try themselves out; of a
middle rate, which is given to the man when he accomplishes the work
with exactness of compliance to prescribed motions, according to the
requirements of his instruction card; and of a high rate, which is
paid to the man when he not only accomplishes the task in accordance
with the instruction card, but also within the set time and of the
prescribed quality of finished work.

    ADVANTAGE OF THIS SYSTEM.--The advantage of this is, first of
all, that the man does not have to look forward so far for some of
his reward, as it comes to him just as soon as he has shown himself
able to do the prescribed methods required accurately. The first
extra reward is naturally a stimulus toward winning the second extra
reward. The middle rate is a stimulus to endeavor to perform that
method which will enable him easiest to achieve the accomplishment
of the task that pays the highest wage. The day rate assures the man
of a living wage. The middle rate pays him a bonus for trying to
learn. The high rate gives him a piece rate when he is skilled.

    Lastly, as the man can increase his output, with continued
experience, above that of the task, he receives a differential rate
piece on the excess quantity, this simply making an increasing
stimulus to exceed his previous best record.

bonus forms of wages, if the bonus is not gained the fact is at once
investigated, in order that the blame may rest where it belongs. The
blame may rest upon the workers, or it may be due to the material,
which may be defective, or different from standard; it may be upon
the supervision, or some fault of the management in not supplying
the material in the proper quality, or sequence, or a bad condition
of tools or machinery; or upon the instruction card. The fact that
the missing of the bonus is investigated is an added assurance to
the workman that he is getting the "square deal," and enlists his
sympathy with these forms of bonus system, and his desire to work
under them. The fact that the management will investigate also
allows him to concentrate upon output, with no worry as to the
necessity of his investigating places where he has fallen short.

the blame for losing the bonus is the worker's fault directly or
not, he loses his bonus. This, for two reasons; in the first place,
if he did not lose his bonus he would have no incentive to try to
discover flaws before delays occurred; he would, otherwise, have an
incentive to allow the material to pass through his hands, defective
or imperfect as the case might be. This is very closely associated
with the second reason, and that is, that the bonus comes from the
savings caused by the plan of management, and that it is necessary
that the workers as well as the management shall see that everything
possible tends to increase the saving. It is only as the worker
feels that his bonus is a part of the saving, that he recognizes the
justice of his receiving it, that it is in no wise a gift to him,
simply his proper share, accorded not by any system of philanthropy,
or so-called welfare work, but simply because his own personal work
has made it possible for the management to hand back his share
to him.

of great importance to the workers that the users of any of these
five methods of compensation of Scientific Management are all ready
and glad to acknowledge the worth of all these systems. In many
works more than one, in some all, of these systems of payment may be
in use. Far from this resulting in confusion, it simply leads to the
understanding that whatever is best in the particular situation
should be used. It also leads to a feeling of stability everywhere,
as a man who has worked under any of these systems founded on time
study can easily pass to another. There is also a great gain here in
the doing away of industrial warfare.

greatest incentive, next to promotion and more pay, are shorter
hours and holidays. In some cases, the shorter hours, or holidays,
have proven even more attractive to the worker than the increase of
pay. In Shop Management, paragraph 165, Dr. Taylor describes a case
where children working were obliged to turn their entire pay
envelopes over to their parents. To them, there was no particular
incentive in getting more money, but, when the task was assigned, if
they were allowed to go as soon as their task was completed, the
output was accomplished in a great deal shorter time. Another case
where shorter hours were successfully tried, was in an office where
the girls were allowed the entire Saturday every two weeks, if the
work was accomplished within a set amount of time. This extra time
for shopping and matinees proved more attractive than any reasonable
amount of extra pay that could be offered.

    DESIRE FOR APPROBATION AN INCENTIVE.--Under "Individuality" were
discussed various devices for developing the individuality of the
man, such as his picture over a good output or record. These all act
as rewards or incentives. How successful they would be, depends
largely upon the temperament of the man and the sort of work that is
to be done. In all classes of society, among all sorts of people,
there is the type that loves approbation. This type will be appealed
to more by a device which allows others to see what has been done
than by almost anything else. As to what this device must be,
depends on the intelligence of the man.

Management, many workers are forced by their coworkers to try to
earn their bonuses, as "falling down on" tasks, and therefore
schedules, may force them to lose their bonuses also.

    The fact that, in many kinds of work, a man falling below his
task will prevent his fellows from working, is often a strong
incentive to that man to make better speed. For example, on a
certain construction job in Canada, the teamsters were shown that,
by their work, they were cutting down working opportunities for cart
loaders, who could only be hired as the teamsters hauled sufficient
loads to keep them busy.

knowledge, and the better method of attack learned under Scientific
Management, are rewards that will be appreciated by those of
superior intelligence only. They will, in a way, be appreciated by
all, because it will be realized that, through what is learned, more
pay or promotion is received, but the fact that this extra
knowledge, and better method of attack, will enable one to do better
in all lines, not simply in the line at which one is working, and
will render one's life more full and rich, will be appreciated only
by those of a wide experience.

the success of the worker under Scientific Management assures such
admiration by his fellow-workers as will serve as an incentive
toward further success, so the professional standing attained by
success in Scientific Management acts as an incentive to those in
more responsible positions.

    As soon as it is recognized that Scientific Management furnishes
the only real measure of efficiency, its close relationship to
professional standing will be recognized, and the reward which it
can offer in this line will be more fully appreciated.

    PUNISHMENTS NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE.--Punishments may be first
negative, that is, simply a loss of promised rewards. Such
punishments, especially in cases of men who have once had the
reward, usually will act as the necessary stimulus to further
activity. Punishments may also be positive, such things as fines,
assignment to less pleasant work, or as a last resort, discharge.

    FINES NEVER ACCRUE TO THE MANAGEMENT.--Fines have been a most
successful mode of punishment under Scientific Management. Under
many of the old forms of management, the fines were turned back to
the management itself, thus raising a spirit of animosity in the
men, who felt that everything that they suffered was a gain to those
over them. Under Scientific Management all fines are used in some
way for the benefit of the men themselves. All fines should be used
for some benefit fund, or turned into the insurance fund. The fines,
as has been said, are determined solely by the disciplinarian, who
is disinterested in the disposition of the funds thus collected. As
the fines do not in any way benefit the management, and in fact
rather hurt the management in that the men who pay them, no matter
where they are applied, must feel more or less discouraged, it is,
naturally, for the benefit of the management that there shall be as
few fines as possible. Both management and men realize this, which
leads to industrial peace, and also leads the managers, the
functional foremen, and in fact every one, to eliminate the
necessity and cause for fines to as great an extent as is possible.

Assignment to less pleasant work is a very effective form of
discipline. It has many advantages which do not show on the surface,
The man may not really get a cut in pay, though his work be changed,
and thus the damage he receives is in no wise to his purse, but
simply to his feeling of pride. In the meantime, he is gaining a
wider experience of the business, so that even the worst
disadvantage has its bright side.

course, available under Scientific Management, as under all other
forms, but it is really less used under Scientific Management than
under any other sort, because if a man is possibly available, and in
any way trained, it is better to do almost anything to teach him, to
assign him to different work, to try and find his possibilities,
than to let him go, and have all that teaching wasted as far as the
organization which has taught it is concerned.

Management realizes that discharge may be a grave injury to a
worker. As Mr. James M. Dodge, who has been most successful in
Scientific Management and is noted for his good work for his
fellow-men, eloquently pleads, in a paper on "The Spirit in Which
Scientific Management Should Be Approached," given before the
Conference on Scientific Management at Dartmouth College,
October, 1911:

    "It is a serious thing for a worker who has located his home
within reasonable proximity to his place of employment and with
proper regard for the schooling of his children, to have to seek
other employment and readjust his home affairs, with a loss of time
and wages. Proper management takes account not only of this fact,
but also of the fact that there is a distinct loss to the employer
when an old and experienced employé is replaced by a new man, who
must be educated in the methods of the establishment. An old employé
has, in his experience, a potential value that should not be lightly
disregarded, and there should be in case of dismissal the soundest
of reasons, in which personal prejudice or temporary mental
condition of the foreman should play no part.

    "Constant changing of employés is not wholesome for any
establishment, and the sudden discovery by a foreman that a man who
has been employed for a year or more is 'no good' is often a
reflection on the foreman, and more often still, is wholly untrue.
All working men, unless they develop intemperate or dishonest
habits, have desirable value in them, and the conserving and
increasing of their value is a duty which should be assumed by
their superiors."

why punishments are needed at all under this system; that is, why
positive punishments are needed. Why not merely a lack of reward for
the slight offenses, and a discharge if it gets too bad? It must be
remembered, however, that the punishments are needed to insure a
proper appreciation of the reward. If there is no negative side, the
beauty of the reward will never be realized; the man who has once
suffered by having his pay cut for something which he has done
wrong, will be more than ready to keep up to the standard. In the
second place, unless individuals are punished, the rights of other
individuals will, necessarily, be encroached upon. When it is
considered that under Scientific Management the man who gives the
punishment is the disinterested disciplinarian, that the punishment
is made exactly appropriate to the offense, and that no advantage
from it comes to any one except the men themselves, it can be
understood that the psychological basis is such as to make a
punishment rather an incentive than a detriment.

incentives, these are so many that it is possible to enumerate only
a few. For example--

    This may be simply a result of love of speed, love of play, or
love of activity, or it may be, in the case of a man running a
machine, not so much for the love of the activity as for a love of
seeing things progress rapidly. There is a love of contest which has
been thoroughly discussed under "Athletic Contests," which results
in racing, and in all the pleasures of competition.

the race under Scientific Management is most interesting. The race
is not a device of Scientific Management to speed up the worker, any
speed that would be demanded by Scientific Management beyond the
task-speed would be an unscientific thing. On the other hand, it is
not the scope of Scientific Management to bar out any contests which
would not be for the ultimate harm of the workers. Such interference
would hamper individuality; would make the workers feel that they
were restricted and held down. While the workers are, under
Scientific Management, supposed to be under the supervision of some
one who can see that the work is only such as they can do and
continuously thrive, any such interference as, for example, stopping
a harmless race, would at once make them feel that their individual
initiative was absolutely destroyed. It is not the desire of
Scientific Management to do anything of that sort, but rather to use
every possible means to make the worker feel that his initiative is
being conserved.

self-confidence, pugnacity,--all the "native reactions" utilized by
teaching serve as direct incentives.

    RESULTS OF INCENTIVES TO THE WORK.--All incentives in every form
of management, tend, from their very nature, to increase output.
When Scientific Management is introduced, there is selection of such
incentives as will produce greatest amount of specified output, and
the results can be predicted.

Management the incentives are usually such that the worker is likely
to overwork himself if he allows himself to be driven by the
incentive. This results in bodily exhaustion. So, also, the anxiety
that accompanies an unstandardized incentive leads to mental
exhaustion. With the introduction of Transitory Management, danger
from both these types of exhaustion is removed. The incentive
is so modified that it is instantly subject to judgment as to its
ultimate value.

    Scientific Management makes the incentives stronger than they
are under any other type, partly by removing sources of worry, waste
and hesitation, partly by determining the ratio of incentive to
output. The worker under such incentives gains in bodily and mental
poise and security.

CHAPTER IX FOOTNOTES: ==============================================

 1. W.P. Gillette, _Cost Analysis Engineering_, p. 3.
 2. F.W. Taylor, Paper 647, A.S.M.E., para. 33, para. 59.
 3. Hugo Diemer, _Factory Organization and Administration_, p. 5.
 4. James M. Dodge, Paper 1115, A.S.M.E., p. 723.
 5. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 310-311, Harper Ed.,
    pp. 142-143.
 6. See also C.U. Carpenter, _Profit Making in Shop and Factory
    Management_, pp. 113-115. For an extended and excellent account
    of the theory of well-known methods of compensating workmen, see
    C.B. Going, _Principles of Industrial Engineering_, chap. VIII.


                               CHAPTER X


    DEFINITION OF WELFARE.--"Welfare" means "a state or condition of
doing well; prosperous or satisfactory course or relation; exemption
from evil;" in other words, well-being. This is the primary meaning
of the word. But, to-day, it is used so often as an adjective, to
describe work which is being attempted for the good of industrial
workers, that any use of the word welfare has that fringe of meaning
to it.

    "WELFARE" HERE INCLUDES TWO MEANINGS.--In the discussion of
welfare in this chapter, both meanings of the word will be included.
"Welfare" under each form of management will be discussed, first, as
meaning the outcome to the men of the type of management itself; and
second, as discussing the sort of welfare work which is used under
that form of management.

welfare as the result of work divides itself naturally into three
parts, or three questions:

    What is the effect upon the physical life?
    What is the effect upon the mental life?
    What is the effect upon the moral life?

indefiniteness of Traditional Management manifests itself again in
this discussion, it being almost impossible to make any general
statement which could not be controverted by particular examples;
but it is safe to say that in general, under Traditional Management,
there is not a definite physical improvement in the average worker.
In the first place, there is no provision for regularity in the
work. The planning not being done ahead, the man has absolutely no
way of knowing exactly what he will be called upon to do. There
being no measure of fatigue, he has no means of knowing whether he
can go to work the second part of the day, say, with anything like
the efficiency with which he could go to work in the first part of
the day. There being no standard, the amount of work which he can
turn out must vary according as the tools, machinery and equipment
are in proper condition, and the material supplies his needs.

    NO GOOD HABITS NECESSARILY FORMED.--In the second place, under
Traditional Management there are no excellent habits necessarily
formed. The man is left to do fairly as he pleases, if only the
general outcome be considered sufficient by those over him. There
may be a physical development on his part, if the work be of a kind
which can develop him, or which he likes to such an extent that he
is willing to do enough of it to develop him physically; this liking
may come through the play element, or through the love of work, or
through the love of contest, or through some other desire for
activity, but it is not provided for scientifically, and the outcome
cannot be exactly predicted. Therefore, under Traditional Management
there is no way of knowing that good health and increased strength
will result from the work, and we know that in many cases poor
health and depleted strength have been the outcome of the work. We
may say then fairly, as far as physical improvement is concerned
that, though it might be the outcome of Traditional Management, it
was rather in spite of Traditional Management, in the sense at least
that the management had nothing to do with it, and had absolutely no
way of providing for it. The moment that it was provided for in any
systematic way, the Traditional Management vanished.

    NO DIRECTED MENTAL DEVELOPMENT.--Second, mental development.
Here, again, there being no fixed habits, no specially trained habit
of attention, no standard, there was no way of knowing that the
man's mind was improving. Naturally, all minds improve merely with
experience. Experience must be gathered in, and must be embodied
into judgment. There is absolutely no way of estimating what the
average need in this line would be, it varies so much with the
temperament of the man. Again, it would usually be a thing that the
man himself was responsible for, and not the management, certainly
not the management in any impersonal sense. Some one man over an
individual worker might be largely responsible for improving him
intellectually. If this were so, it would be because of the
temperament of the over-man, or because of his friendly desire to
impart a mental stimulus; seldom, if ever, because the management
provided for its being imparted. Thus, there was absolutely no way
of predicting that wider or deeper interest, or that increased
mental capacity, would take place.

    MORAL DEVELOPMENT DOUBTFUL.--As for moral development, in the
average Traditional Management it was not only not provided for, but
rather doubtful. A man had very little chance to develop real,
personal responsibilities, in that there was always some one over
him who was watching him, who disciplined him and corrected him, who
handed in the reports for him, with the result that he was in a very
slight sense a free agent. Only men higher up, the foremen and the
superintendents could obtain real development from personal
responsibilities. Neither was there much development of
responsibility for others, in the sense of being responsible for
personal development of others. Having no accurate standards to
judge by, there was little or no possibility of appreciation of the
relative standing of the men, either by the individual of himself,
or by others of his ability. The man could be admired for his
strength, or his skill, but not for his real efficiency, as measured
in any satisfactory way. The management taught self-control in the
most rudimentary way, or not at all. There was no distinct goal for
the average man, neither was there any distinct way to arrive at
such a goal; it was simply a case, with the man lower down, of
making good for any one day and getting that day's pay. In the more
enlightened forms of Traditional Management, a chance for promotion
was always fairly sure, but the moment that the line of promotion
became assured, we may say that Traditional Management had really
ceased, and some form of Transitory Management was in operation.

    "SQUARE DEAL" LACKING.--Perhaps the worst lack under Traditional
Management is the lack of the "square deal." In the first place,
even the most efficient worker under this form of management was not
sure of his place. This not only meant worry on his part, which
distracted his attention from what he did, but meant a wrong
attitude all along the line. He had absolutely no way of knowing
that, even though he did his best, the man over him, in anger, or
because of some entirely ulterior thing, might not discharge him,
put him in a lower position. So also the custom of spying, the only
sort of inspection recognized under Traditional Management of the
most elementary form, led to a feeling on the men's part that they
were being constantly watched on the sly, and to an inability to
concentrate. This brought about an inability to feel really honest,
for being constantly under suspicion is enough to poison even one's
own opinion of one's integrity. Again, being at the beck and call of
a prejudiced foreman who was all-powerful, and having no assured
protection from the whims of such a man, the worker was obliged,
practically for self-protection, to try to conciliate the foremen by
methods of assuming merits that are obvious, on the surface. He
ingratiates himself in the favor of the foreman in that way best
adapted to the peculiarities of the character of the foreman,
sometimes joining societies, or the church of the foreman, sometimes
helping him elect some political candidate or relative; at other
times, by the more direct method of buying drinks, or taking up a
subscription for presenting the foreman with a gold watch, "in
appreciation of his fairness to all;" sometimes by consistently
losing at cards or other games of chance. When it is considered that
this same foreman was probably, at the time, enjoying a brutal
feeling of power, it is no wonder that no sense of confidence of the
"square deal" could develop. There are countless ways that the
brutal enjoyment of power could be exercised by the man in a
foreman's position. As has already been said, some men prefer
promotion to a position of power more than anything else. Nearly all
desire promotion to power for the extra money that it brings, and
occasionally, a man will be found who loves the power, although
unconsciously, for the pleasure he obtains in lording over other
human beings. This quality is present more or less in all human
beings. It is particularly strong in the savage, who likes to
torture captured human beings and animals, and perhaps the greatest
test for high qualifications of character and gentleness is that of
having power over other human beings without unnecessarily accenting
the difference in the situation. Under Military Management, there is
practically no limit to this power, the management being satisfied
if the foreman gets the work out of the men, and the men having
practically no one to appeal to, and being obliged to receive their
punishment always from the hands of a prejudiced party.

influence as this, there is little or no possibility of the
development of an intelligent will. The "will to do" becomes
stunted, unless the pay is large enough to lead the man to be
willing to undergo abuses in order to get the money. There is
nothing, moreover, in the aspect of the management itself to lead
the man to have a feeling of confidence either in himself, or in the
management, and to have that moral poise which will make him wish
to advance.

    REAL CAPACITY NOT INCREASED.--With the likelihood of suspicion,
hate and jealousy arising, and with constant preparations for
conflict, of which the average union and employers' association is
the embodiment, naturally, real capacity is not increased, but is
rather decreased, under this form of management, and we may ascribe
this to three faults:

    First, to lack of recognition of individuality,--men are handled
mostly as gangs, and personality is sunk.

    Second, to lack of standardization, and to lack of time study,
that fundamental of all standardization, which leads to absolute
inability to make a measured, and therefore scientific judgment, and

    Third, to the lack of teaching; to the lack of all

    These three lacks, then, constitute a strong reason why
Traditional Management does not add to the welfare of the men.

MANAGEMENT.--As for welfare work,--that is, work which the employers
themselves plan to benefit the men, if under such work be included
timely impulses of the management for the men, and the carrying of
these out in a more or less systematic way, it will be true to say
that such welfare work has existed in all times, and under all forms
of management. The kind-hearted man will show his kind heart
wherever he is, but it is likewise true to say that little
systematic beneficial work is done under what we have defined as
Traditional Management.

DIFFICULT TO MAKE.--It is almost impossible to give any statement as
to the general welfare of workers under Transitory Management,
because, from the very nature of the case, Transitory Management is
constantly changing. In the discussion of the various chapters, and
in showing how individuality, functionalization, measurement, and so
on, were introduced, and the psychological effect upon the men of
their being introduced, welfare was more or less unsystematically
considered. In turning to the discussion under Scientific Management
and showing how welfare is the result of Scientific Management and
is incorporated in it, much as to its growth will be included.

COMMENDABLE.--As to the welfare work under Transitory Management,
much could be said, and much has been said and written. Typical
Welfare Work under Transitory Management deserves nothing but
praise. It is the result of the dedication of many beautiful lives
to a beautiful cause. It consists of such work as building rest
rooms for the employés, in providing for amusements, in providing
for better working conditions, in helping to better living
conditions, in providing for some sort of a welfare worker who can
talk with the employés and benefit them in every way, including
being their representative in speaking with the management.

    AN UNDERLYING FLAW IS APPARENT.--There can be no doubt that an
enormous quantity of good has been done by this welfare work, both
positively, to the employés themselves, and indirectly, to the
management, through fostering a kinder feeling. There is, however, a
flaw to be found in the underlying principles of this welfare work
as introduced in Transitory Management, and that is that it takes on
more or less the aspect of a charity, and is so regarded both by the
employés and by the employer. The employer, naturally, prides
himself more or less upon doing something which is good, and the
employé naturally resents more or less having something given to him
as a sort of charity which he feels his by right.

    ITS EFFECT IS DETRIMENTAL.--The psychological significance of
this is very great. The employer, feeling that he has bestowed a
gift, is, naturally, rather chagrined to find it is received either
as a right, or with a feeling of resentment. Therefore, he is often
led to decrease what he might otherwise do, for it is only an
unusual and a very high type of mind that can be satisfied simply
with the doing of the good act, without the return of gratitude. On
the other hand, the employé, if he be a man of pride, may resent
charity even in such a general form as this, and may, with an
element of rightness, prefer that the money to be expended be put
into his pay envelope, instead. If it is simply a case of better
working conditions, something that improves him as an efficient
worker for the management, he will feel that this welfare work is in
no sense something which he receives as a gift, but rather something
which is his right, and which benefits the employer exactly as much,
if not more than it benefits him.

    WELFARE WORK NOT SELF-PERPETUATING.--Another fault which can be
found with the actual administration of the welfare work, is the
fact that it often disregards one of the fundamental principles of
Scientific Management, in that the welfare workers themselves do not
train enough people to follow in their footsteps, and thus make
welfare self-perpetuating.

    In one case which the writer has in mind, a noble woman is
devoting her life to the welfare of a body of employés in an
industry which greatly requires such work. The work which she is
doing is undoubtedly benefiting these people in every aspect, not
only of their business but of their home lives, but it is also true
that should she be obliged to give up the work, or be suddenly
called away, the work would practically fall to pieces. It is built
up upon her personality, and, wonderful as it is, its basis must be
recognized as unscientific and temporary.

Under Scientific Management general welfare is provided for by:--

    The effect that the work has on physical improvement. This we
shall discuss under three headings--

    1. the regularity of the work.
    2. habits.
    3. physical development.

    As for the regularity of the work--we have

      (a) The apportionment of the work and the rest. Under
          Scientific Management, work time and rest time are
          scientifically apportioned. This means that the man is
          able to come to each task with the same amount of
          strength, and that from his work he gains habits of
      (b) The laying out of the work. The standards upon which
          the instruction cards are based, and the method of
          preparing them, assure regularity.
      (c) The manner of performing the work. Every time that
          identical work is done, it is done in an identical

    The resulting regularity has an excellent effect upon the
physical welfare of the worker.

    2. Habits, under Scientific Management,

      (a) are prescribed by standards. The various physical
          habits of the man, the motions that are used, having
          all been timed and then standardized, the worker
          acquires physical habits that are fixed.
      (b) are taught;[1] therefore they are not remote but come
          actually and promptly into the consciousness and into
          the action of the worker.
      (c) are retained, because they are standard habits and
          because the rewards which are given for using them make
          it an object to the worker to retain them.
      (d) Are reënforced by individuality and functionalization;
          that is to say, the worker is considered as an
          individual, and his possibilities are studied, before
          he is put into the work; therefore, his own
          individuality and his own particular function naturally
          reënforce those habits which he is taught to form.
          These habits, being scientifically derived, add to
          physical improvement.

    3. Physical development

      (a) is fostered through the play element, has been
          scientifically studied, and is utilized as far as
          possible; the same is true of the love of work, which
          is reënforced by the fact that the man has been placed
          where he will have the most love for his work.
      (b) is insured by the love of contest, which is provided
          for not only by contest with others, but by the
          constant contest of the worker with his own previous
          records. When he does exceed these records he utilizes
          powers which it is for his good physically, as well as
          otherwise, to utilize.

    RESULTS OF PHYSICAL IMPROVEMENT.--This regularity, good habits,
and physical development, result in good health, increased strength
and a better appearance. To these three results all scientific
managers testify. An excellent example of this is found in Mr.
Gantt's "Work, Wages and Profits," where the increased health, the
better color and the better general appearance of the workers under
Scientific Management is commented on as well as the fact that they
are inspired by their habits to dress themselves better and in every
way to become of a higher type.[2]

    MENTAL DEVELOPMENT.--Welfare under Scientific Management is
provided for by Mental Development. This we may discuss under
habits, and under general mental development.

    1. As for habits we must consider

      (a) Habits of attention. Under Scientific Management, as we
          have shown, attention must become a habit. Only when it
          does become a habit, can the work required be properly
          performed, and the reward received. As only those who
          show themselves capable of really receiving the reward
          are considered to be properly placed, ultimately all
          who remain at work under Scientific Management must
          attain this habit of attention.
      (b) Habit of method of attack. This not only enables the
          worker to do the things that he is assigned
          satisfactorily, but also has the broadening effect of
          teaching him how to do other things, i.e., showing him
          the "how" of doing things, and giving him standards
          which are the outcome of mental habits, and by which he
          learns to measure.

    2. General mental development is provided for by the experience
which the worker gets not only in the general way in which all who
work must give experience, but in the set way provided for by
Scientific Management. This is so presented to the worker that it
becomes actually usable at once. This not only allows him to judge
others, but provides for self-knowledge, which is one of the most
valuable of all of the outcomes of Scientific Management. He becomes
mentally capable of estimating his own powers and predicting what he
himself is capable of doing. The outcome of this mental development is

      (a) wider interest.
      (b) deeper interest.
      (c) increased mental capabilities.

    The better method of attack would necessarily provide for wider
interest. The fact that any subject taken up is in its ultimate
final unit form, would certainly lead to deeper interest; and the
exercise of these two faculties leads to increased mental

    MORAL DEVELOPMENT.--Moral development under Scientific
Management results from the provisions made for cultivating--

          1. personal responsibility.
          2. responsibility for others.
          3. appreciation of standing.
          4. self-control.
          5. "squareness."

    1. Personal responsibility is developed by

      (a) Individual recognition. When the worker was considered
          merely as one of a gang, it was very easy for him to
          shift responsibilities upon others. When he knows that
          he is regarded by the management, and by his mates, as
          an individual, that what he does will show up in an
          individual record, and will receive individual reward
          or punishment, necessarily personal responsibility is

    Moreover, this individual recognition is brought to his mind by
his being expected to fill out his own instruction card. In this
way, his personal responsibility is specifically brought home
to him.

      (b) The appreciation which comes under Scientific
          Management. This appreciation takes the form of reward
          and promotion, and of the regard of his fellow-workers;
          therefore, being a growing thing, as it is under
          Scientific Management, it insures that his personal
          responsibility, shall also be a growing thing, and
          become greater the longer he works under Scientific

    2. Responsibility for others is provided for by the
inter-relation of all functions. It is not necessary that all
workers under Scientific Management should understand all about it.
However, many do understand, and the more that they do understand,
the more they realize that everybody working under Scientific
Management is more or less dependent upon everybody else. Every
worker must feel this, more or less, when he realizes that there are
eight functional bosses over him, who are closely related to him, on
whom he is dependent, and who are more or less dependent upon him.
The very fact that the planning is separated from the performing,
means that more men are directly interested in any one piece of
work; in fact, that every individual piece of work that is done is
in some way a bond between a great number of men, some of whom are
planning and some of whom are performing it. This responsibility for
others is made even more close in the dependent bonuses which are a
part of Scientific Management, a man's pay being dependent upon the
work of those who are working under him. Certainly, nothing could
bring the fact more closely to the attention of each and every
worker under this system, than associating it with the pay envelope.

    3. Appreciation of standing is fostered by

      (a) individual records. Through these the individual
          himself knows what he has done, his fellows know, and
          the management knows.
      (b) comparative records, which show even those who might
          not make the comparison, exactly how each worker
          stands, with relation to his mates, or with relation to
          his past records.

    This appreciation of standing is well exemplified in the happy
phrasing of Mr. Gantt--"There is in every workroom a fashion, or
habit of work, and the new worker follows that fashion, for it isn't
respectable not to. The man or woman who ignores fashion does not
get much pleasure from associating with those that follow it, and
the new member consequently tries to fall in with the sentiment of
the community.[3] Our chart shows that the stronger the sentiment in
favor of industry is, the harder the new member tries and the sooner
he succeeds."

    4. Self-control is developed by

      (a) the habits of inhibition fostered by Scientific
          Management,--that is to say, when the right habits are
          formed, necessarily many wrong habits are eliminated.
          It becomes a part of Scientific Management to inhibit
          all inattention and wrong habits, and to concentrate
          upon the things desired. This is further aided by
      (b) the distinct goal and the distinct task which
          Scientific Management gives, which allow the man to
          hold himself well in control, to keep his poise and to
          advance steadily.

    5. "Squareness." This squareness is exemplified first of all by
the attitude of the management. It provides, in every way, that the
men are given a "square deal," in that the tasks assigned are of the
proper size, and that the reward that is given is of the proper
dimensions, and is assured. This has already been shown to be
exemplified in many characteristics of Scientific Management, and
more especially in the inspection and in the disciplining.

"WILL TO DO".--The three results of this moral development are

          1. contentment
          2. brotherhood
          3. a "will to do."

    1. Contentment is the outgrowth of the personal responsibility,
the appreciation of standing, and the general "squareness" of the
entire plan of Scientific Management.

    2. The idea of brotherhood is fostered particularly through the
responsibility for others, through the feeling that grows up that
each man is dependent upon all others, and that it is necessary for
every man to train up another man to take his place before he can be
advanced. Thus it comes about that the old caste life, which so
often grew up under Traditional Management, becomes abolished, and
there ensues a feeling that it is possible for any man to grow up
into any other man's place. The tug-of-war attitude of the
management and men is transformed into the attitude of a band of
soldiers scaling a wall. Not only is the worker pulled up, but he is
also forced up from the bottom.[4]

    3. The "will to do" is so fostered by Scientific Management that
not only is the worker given every incentive, but he, personally,
becomes inspired with this great desire for activity, which is after
all the best and finest thing that any system of work can give
to him.

the interrelation of physical, mental and moral development, it must
never be forgotten that the mind and the body must be studied
together,[5] and that this is particularly true in considering the
mind in management.[6] For the best results of the mind, the body
must be cared for, and provided for, fully as much as must the mind,
or the best results from the mind will not, and cannot, be obtained.

    Successful management must consider the results of all mental
states upon the health, happiness and prosperity of the worker, and
the quality, quantity and cost of the output. That is to say, unless
the mind is kept in the right state, with the elimination of worry,
the body cannot do its best work, and, in the same way, unless the
body is kept up to the proper standard, the mind cannot develop.
Therefore, a really good system of management must consider not only
these things separately, but in their interrelation,--and this
Scientific Management does.

CAPACITY.--The ultimate result of all this physical improvement,
mental development and moral development is increased capacity,
increased capacity not only for work, but for health, and for life
in general.

Strictly speaking, under Scientific Management, there should be no
necessity for a special department of Welfare Work. It should be so
incorporated in Scientific Management that it is not to be
distinguished. Here the men are looked out for in such a way under
the operation of Scientific Management itself that there is no
necessity for a special welfare worker. This is not to say that the
value of personality will disappear under Scientific Management, and
that it may not be necessary in some cases to provide for nurses,
for physical directors, and for advisers. It will, however, be
understood that the entire footing of these people is changed under
Scientific Management. It is realized under Scientific Management
that these people, and their work, benefit the employers as much as
the employés. They must go on the regular payroll as a part of the
efficiency equipment. The workers must understand that there is
absolutely no feeling of charity, or of gift, in having them; that
they add to the perfectness of the entire establishment.


    RESULTS OF WELFARE TO THE WORK.--Because of Welfare Work, of
whatever type, more and better work is accomplished, with only such
expenditure of effort as is beneficial to the worker. Not only does
the amount of work done increase, but it also tends to become
constant, after it has reached its standard expected volume.

    RESULT OF WELFARE WORK TO THE WORKER.--This description of
welfare of the men under Scientific Management, in every sense of
the word welfare, has been very poor and incomplete if from it the
reader has not deduced the fact that Scientific Management enables
the worker not only to lead a fuller life in his work, but also
outside his work; that it furnishes him hours enough free from the
work to develop such things as the work cannot develop; that it
furnishes him with health and interest enough to go into his leisure
hours with a power to develop himself there; that it furnishes him
with a broader outlook, and, best of all, with a capacity of judging
for himself what he needs most to get. In other words, if Scientific
Management is what it claims to be, it leads to the development of a
fuller life in every sense of the word, enabling the man to become a
better individual in himself, and a better member of his community.
If it does not do this it is not truly Scientific Management. Miss
Edith Wyatt has said, very beautifully, at the close of her book,
"Making Both Ends Meet"[7]: "No finer dream was ever dreamed than
that the industry by which the nation lives, should be so managed as
to secure for the men and women engaged in it their real prosperity,
their best use of their highest powers. How far Scientific
Management will go toward realizing the magnificent dream in the
future, will be determined by the greatness of spirit and the
executive genius with which its principles are sustained by all the
people interested in its inauguration, the employers, the workers
and the engineers."

    We wish to modify the word "dream" to the word "plan." The plan
of Scientific Management is right, and, as Miss Wyatt says, is but
waiting for us to fulfill the details that are laid out before us.

    CONCLUSION.--The results thus far attained by Scientific
Management justify a prediction as to its future. It will accomplish
two great works.

    1. It will educate the worker to the point where workers will
       be fitted to work, and to live.
    2. It will aid the cause of Industrial Peace.

    It will put the great power of knowledge into every man's hands.
This it must do, as it is founded on coöperation, and this
coöperation demands that all shall know and shall be taught.

    With this knowledge will come ability to understand the rights
of others as well as one's own. "To know all is to pardon all."

    Necessity for coöperation, and trained minds:--These two can but
lead to elimination of that most wasteful of all warfare--Industrial
Warfare. Such will be the future of Scientific Management,--whether
it win universal approval, universal disapproval, or half-hearted
advocacy to-day.

    When the day shall come that the ultimate benefits of Scientific
Management are realized and enjoyed, depends on both the managers
and the workers of the country; but, in the last analysis, the
greatest power towards hastening the day lies in the hands of
the workers.

    To them Scientific Management would desire to appeal as a road
up and out from industrial monotony and industrial turmoil. There
are many roads that lead to progress. This road leads straightest
and surest,--and we can but hope that the workers of all lands, and
of our land in particular, will not wait till necessity drives, but
will lead the way to that true "Brotherhood" which may some day come
to be.

CHAPTER X FOOTNOTES: ===============================================

 1. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 115, p. 121.
 2. Pp. 171-172.
 3. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, pp. 154-155.
 4. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 170, Harper Ed., p. 76.
 5. William James, _Psychology, Advanced Course_. Vol. II, p. 372.
 6. See remarkable work of Dr. A. Imbert, _Evaluation de la Capacite
    de Travail d'un Ouvrier Avant et Apres un Accident; Les Methodes
    du Laboratoire appliquees a l'Etude directe et pratique des
    Questions ouvrieres._
 7. Clark and Wyatt, Macmillan, pp. 269-270.



Accidents, prevention by measuring devices, 114.
  prevention by standardization, 180.
"All Round" Men utilized by scientific management, 87.
Ambition, use of, 258.
American Journal of Physiology--1904, 111.
Analysis, amount governed by nature of work, 126.
  definition of, 123.
  field of psychology in, 128.
  training should be provided in schools, 129.
  worker should understand process, 129.
Analysis and Synthesis, cost the determining factor, 127.
  effect on work of, 138.
  effect on worker of, 138.
  place in traditional management, 124.
  place in transitory management, 125.
  under scientific management, 125.
  use by psychology, 123.
Analysist, duties of, 126.
  qualifications of, 128.
Animals, standardization of work with, 170.
Appreciation, under scientific management, 325.
Apprentices, teaching of, 262.
Approbation, as an incentive, 304.
Athletic Contests, description of, 34.
Attention, forming habit of, 240.
  gaining of, 178.
  held by bulletin board, 241.
  relation to fatigue, 160.
  relation to instruction card, 241.
  relation to placing of workers, 161.

Babbage, Charles--"Economy of Manufacturers," 2, 76, 179.
Barth, C.G.--"A.S.M.E. Paper 1010," 778, 174.
Blan, L.B.--"Special Study of Incidence of Retardation," 29.
Body, relation of mind to, 48, 160.
Bonus, definition of, 288.
  investigation of loss of, 301.
Brashear, John, 81.
Breakdowns, prevented by measuring devices, 114.
Brotherhood, coming of, 332.
  under scientific management, 328.
Bulletin Board, aids attention, 241.
  benefit of, 194.

Calkins, M.W.--"A First Book in Psychology," 22, 53, 171.
Card, instruction, 44.
Capacity, increasing of, 317, 329.
Class, relation to individual, 49.
Clothing, in sports, 167.
  standards, 166.
Constructiveness, benefits of, 260.
Contentment, under scientific management, 327.
Cooke, M.L.--"Bulletin No. 5 Carnegie Foundation," 9, 86, 94, 139.
Coöperation, necessity for, 102, 265, 332.
  relation to incentives, 304.
Cost, determining factor in analysis and synthesis, 127.
Curiosity, under scientific management, 255.

Dana, R.T.--"Handbook of Steam Shovel Work," 111.
Dana and Saunders--"Rock Drilling," 139.
Day, Charles--"Industrial Plants," 66.
Day Work, description of, 289.
Decision of choice, elimination of, 163.
Demonstration, value of, 227.
Development, mental, 313, 323.
  moral, 324.
Devices, standard, need for, 164.
Differential Bonus, description of, 300.
Differential Rate Piece, description of, 298.
Discharge, avoidance of, 306.
Disciplinarian, duties of, 68, 70.
Disciplining, psychology of, 71.
  under scientific management, 70, 72.
  under traditional management, 69.
Dodge, James M., 135.
  "Discussion to Paper 1119 A.S.M.E.," 131.
Driver management, 10.

Efficiency, controlling factor in, 3.
  measured by time and motion study, 115.
  securing of, 3.
Emulation, use of, 258.
"Engineering," London, Sept 15, 1911, 136.
Equipment, measured by motion study and time study, 108.
  standardization of, 163.
Errors, checking of, 112.
Exception principle, records made on, 187.
  value of, 188.

Fatigue, eliminating of, 159.
  importance of, 233.
  influence of distracted attention on, 160.
  relation to standards, 168.
Fear, treatment of, 252.
Fines, use of, 305.
First class man, definition of, 98, 152.
Foreman, duties of, 55.
  duties under scientific management, 64.
  qualifications of, 54, 55.
Foremanship, functionalized, 63,
Functional foreman, as teacher, 224.
Functional foremanship, teaching feature of, 63, 64.
Functionalization, definition of, 52.
  effect upon work of, 83.
  effect upon worker of, 85.
  under scientific management, 61, 81.
  under traditional management, 54.
  under transitory management, 61.
  use by psychology, 53.
Functions, basis of division into, 6S.
  place of operation of, 66.

Gain-sharing, definition of, 293.
  objections to, 294.
Gang boss, duties of, 73.
Gang instruction card, description of, 45, 175.
Gantt, H.L.--"A.S.M.E. Paper 928," 95, 181.
  "A.S.M.E. Paper No. 1002," 55.
  "Work, Wages and Profits," 24, 84, 89, 93, 125.
Gilbreth, F.B.--"Bricklaying System," 130.
  "Cost Reducing System," 8, 35, 95, 127.
  "Motion Study," 4, 28, 134.
Gillette, H.P.--"A.S.E.C. Paper No. 1," 3, 111.
  "Cost Analysis Engineering," 55.
Gillette and Dana--"Cost Keeping and Management Engineering," 3, 53, 86.
Given man, definition of, 152.
Going, C.B.--"Methods of the Sante Fe," 158.
Government, duty in measurement of, 120.

Habit, importance of, 234.
  methods of instilling, 236.
  relation to standards, 235.
  relation to teaching, 235.
Habits, necessity of forming, 312.
  of attention, 24.
  of motions, right, 238.
  standardizing of, 164.
  under scientific management, 321.
Hathaway, H.K.--"Machinery," Nov., 1906, 84.
Holidays, effectiveness as reward, 303.

Idiosyncrasies, emphasis on, 50.
Iles, George--"Inventors at Work," 17.
Imagination, under  scientific management, 248.
Imitation, use of, 256.
Improvement, physical, 322.
Incentives, classes of, 272.
  definition of, 271.
  direct, 275.
  importance of, 271.
  indirect, 272.
  individual, 46.
  relation to coöperation, 304.
  relation to interest, 242.
  relation to knowledge, 304.
  relation to standards, 140.
  result on work of, 310.
  result on worker of, 310.
  under scientific management, 279.
Individual, as unit, 50.
  differences respected, 246.
  importance of study of, 23.
  relation to class, 49.
Individuality, definition of, 21.
  development of, 50.
  psychological emphasis on, 22.
  recognition under scientific management, 27.
  recognition under transitory management, 26.
  relation to instruction card, 44.
  relation to standardization, 149.
  relation to teaching, 46.
  result upon work, 46.
  result upon worker, 47.
  status under traditional management, 24.
Industrial engineering, 106.
Industrial peace, relation of scientific management to, 331.
Initiative, records of, 185.
Initiative and Incentive Management, 10.
Inspector, duties of, 75.
Instruction card, as teacher, 221.
  clerk, duties of, 67.
  contents of, 154.
  definition of, 153.
  educative value of, 156.
  gang, 45.
  help to memory of, 176.
  individuality under, 44.
  language of, 157.
  relation to attention, 241.
  types of, 154.
Interest, relation to incentives, 242.
Interim management, 11.
Invention, fostered by comparing methods, 107.
Invention, relation scientific management, 136.
  under standardization, 179.

James, William--"Psychology," 7.
  "Psychology, Briefer Course," 22.
Job, long time, provision for, 83.
  short time, provision for, 82.
Journeymen, teaching of, 262.
Judgment, derivation of, 250.
  result of teaching, 251.
  securing of, 240.

Knowledge, as an incentive, 304,
  transferred  under scientific management, 117.

Ladd, G.T.--definition of psychology, 22.
Le Chatelier, H.--"Discussion to Paper 1119, A.S.M.E," 124.
Long time job, provision for, 83.
Loyalty, under scientific management, 253.

Man, first class definition of, 98, 152.
  given, definition of, 152.
  standard, definition of, 152.
Management, change in meaning of, 8.
  definition of, 6.
  driver, 10.
  good foundation of, 3.
  initiative and incentive, 10,
  interim, 11.
  Marquis of Queensbury, 10.
  military, 9.
  place of analysis and synthesis in, 124.
  place to start study of, 5.
  scientific, 12.
  successful, definition of, 3,
  teaching of, 3.
  three stages of, 14.
  traditional, definition of, 8.
  traditional, preferable name for, 9, 11.
  transitory, 11.
  types of, 8.
  ultimate, 12.
  value of study of, 2, 4.
Manufacturers, duty toward measurement, 122.
Manual training, necessity for, 264.
Marquis of Queensbury management, 10.
Measurement, coöperation of worker under, 116.
  definition of, 90.
  duty of government toward, 120.
  effect upon worker of, 114.
  elimination of waste by, 115.
  importance in management, 93
  importance in psychology, 90.
  methods in psychology, 91.
  methods under scientific management, 105.
  necessity for training in, 104.
  of teaching and learning, 263.
  problems in management, 94.
  relation to task of, 98.
  results to work of, 113.
  selection of units, 111.
  under scientific management, 97.
  under traditional management, 95.
  under transitory management, 96.
Measured functional management, 12.
Measurer, qualifications of, 99.
Measuring devices, prevent accidents and breakdowns, 114.
Memory, relation to scientific management, 245.
Metcalfe, Henry--"Cost of Manufactures," 113, 140.
Method of attack, standardization of, 172.
Methods, benefits of comparison of, 107.
  introduction of new, 137.
  measurement by motion study and time study, 106.
Micro-motion study, definition of, 106.
  demands coöperation, 103.
Military management, 9.
Mind, relation of body to, 48, 160.
Mnemonic symbols, advantages of, 151.
  use of, 247.
Motion cycles, use in teaching, 244.
Motions, habits of right, 238.
  teaching of right, 237.
Motion study, aims of, 110.
  definition of, 106.
  measurement by, 105.
  scope of, 108.
Münsterburg, Hugo--"American Problems," 22, 30, 53, 90, 112.

Native reactions, use of, 252, 309.

Object lessons, value of, 226.
Observation, dangers of surreptitious, 102.
  necessity for unbiased, 101.
Observed worker, qualifications of, 103.
Observer, qualifications of, 99.
  relation of Vocational Guidance Bureau, 101.
One-talent men, utilized by scientific management, 86.
Oral teaching, advantages of, 241.
Order of work clerk, duties of, 66.
Outputs, advantages of recording, 37.
  advantages of separating, 36.
  handling under traditional management, 25.
  relation to individuality, 33.
Ownership, use of feeling of, 259.

Parkhurst, F.A.--"Applied Methods of Scientific Management," 181.
Pay, subdivisions of, 288.
  use of, 286.
Performing, separated from planning, 61.
Personality, value of, 255.
Piece work, description of, 290.
Planning, a life study, 76.
  an epoch-making example of, 78.
  detailed done by all under scientific management, 80.
  hardship to worker of individual, 79.
  open to all who like it, 80.
  separated from performing, 61.
  taken from all who dislike it, 80.
  wastefulness of individual, 79.
Planning department, work of, 62.
Pin plan, description of, 194.
Premium plan, description of, 295.
Pride, stimulation of, 259.
Professional standing as an incentive, 305.
Profit-sharing, description of, 296.
  objections to, 296.
  relation to scientific management, 297.
Programme, as routing, 193.
  definition of, 192.
  derived from record under scientific management, 203.
  relation to records, 196.
  result to work and worker of, 195.
  types of, 197.
  under traditional management, 192.
  under transitory management, 193.
Promotion, provision for under scientific management, 87, 88.
  use of, 286.
Psychology, aid to industries by, 233.
  appreciation of scientific management by, 93.
Psychology, definition of, 1, 22.
  experimental field of, 30.
  relation to progress, 260.
  value of study of, 1, 4.
Psychology of management, conclusions of, 18.
  definition of, 1.
  description and outline of, 1.
  importance of, 1, 4, 15.
  outline of method of, 18.
  plan of study in, 15.
Pugnacity, usefulness of, 259.
Punishment, avoidance of, 308.
  classes of, 305.
  definition of, 273.
  nature of, 274.
  under traditional management, 277.

Quality, maintenance of, 238.
  standardization of, 171.

Rate, necessity of maintaining, 291.
Reason, education of, 239.
Recognition, individual, 324.
Records, advantages of, 39.
  definition of, 183.
  educative value of, 190, 223.
  individual, 40.
  making by workers of, 40, 187.
  necessity for detailed, 109.
  of achievement, 187.
  of good behavior, 186.
  of initiative, 185.
  posting of, 188.
  relation to incentives, 41.
  relation to programmes, 196.
  result to work of, 188.
  result on worker of, 189.
  test of worth of, 184.
  types of, 185, 197.
  under scientific management, 184.
  under traditional management, 183.
  under transitory management, 184.
Records and programmes, result on work of, 206.
Records and programmes, result on worker of, 206.
Repair boss, duties of, 74.
Responsibility, under scientific management, 325.
Rest, provision for, 169.
Reward, assured, 282.
  attainability of, 284.
  benefits of positive, 281.
  definition of, 273.
  fixed, 282.
  nature of, 274.
  personal, 282.
  predetermined, 282.
  results of, 285.
  under scientific management, 280.
  under traditional management, 26, 275.
  under transitory management, 279.
Rhythm, securing of, 240.
Route chart, description of, 194.
Route clerk, duties of, 66.

Schloss, David F.--"Methods of Industrial Remuneration," 75, 289.
Scientific management, appreciation by psychologists of, 93.
  athletic contests under, 34.
  brotherhood under, 328.
  change in mental attitude under, 89.
  contentment under, 327.
  definition of, 6, 12.
  derivation of, 17.
  development of men under, 87.
  disciplining under, 70.
  divisions of, 16.
  duties of foremen under, 64.
  emulation under, 258.
  final results of, 331.
  functionalization under, 6, 81.
  importance of teaching under, 215.
  incentives under, 279.
  individual task under, 43,
  measurement under, 97.
  methods of measurement under, 105.
  opportunities in, 4.
  place of workers under, 62.
  provision for specialists under, 86.
  provides for same detailed planning by all, 80.
  place of analysis and synthesis in, 125.
  possibility of prophecy under, 195.
  promotion of men under, 87.
  relation of all parts of, 242.
  relation to imagination, 248.
  relation to individuality, 27.
  relation to individual records, 42.
  relation to industrial peace, 331.
  relation to invention, 136.
  relation to memory, 245.
  relation to profit snaring, 297.
  relation to traditional management, 218.
  relation to welfare, 320.
  rewards under, 184, 280.
  results in loyalty, 253.
  selection of workers under, 32.
  standardization under, 147.
  stimulation of pride by, 259.
  supplements demanded by, 29.
  teaching of apprentices under, 262.
  teaching of journeymen under, 262.
  training of will under, 261.
  transference of knowledge under, 117.
  underlying ideas of, 16.
  use of ambition by, 258.
  use of curiosity, 255.
  use of imitation, 256.
  utilization of "all round" men under, 87.
  utilization of one-talent men by, 86.
  vocabulary, interest of, 8.
  vocabulary, poverty, 7.
  "will to do" under, 328.
Self control, development of, 326.
Sense training, importance of, 228.
  methods of, 230.
  scope of, 231.
Short time job, provision for, 82.
Smith, Adam--"Wealth of Nations," 84, 179.
Soldiering, disadvantages of, 274.
Specialists, provision under scientific management for, 86.
Specializing, encouraged under scientific management, 86.
Speed boss, duties of, 74.
Square deal, need for, 315.
Squareness, under scientific management, 327.
Standards, derivation of, 139.
  effect of, 168.
  relation to automatic response, 239.
  relation to habit, 235.
  relation to incentive, 140, 257.
  relation to "judgment," 141.
  relation to phrasing, 158.
  relation to psychology, 142.
  relations to systems, 145.
  relation to task, 140.
  result of measurement, 147.
"Standard amount," definition of, 98.
Standard clothing, 167.
Standard man, definition of, 152.
Standardization, definition of, 139.
  develops individuality, 149.
  invention under, 180.
  of clothing, 166.
  of devices, 164.
  of equipment, 163.
  of method of attack, 172.
  of nomenclature, 151.
  of quality, 171.
  of tools, 164.
  prevention of accidents by, 180.
  progress of, 181.
  purpose of, 143.
Standardization, relation to initiative, 148.
  result to work of, 173.
  result to worker of, 174.
  under scientific management, 147.
  under traditional management, 143.
  under transitory management, 144.
  universality of application, 149.
  waste eliminated by, 150.
Stratton--"Experimental Psychology and Culture,"
  92, 93, 113, 160, 169.
Suggestion, use of, 252.
Suggestion card, description of, 185.
Sully, James--"The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology,"
  22, 23, 53, 141.
Synthesis, definition of, 123.
  importance of selection in, 129.
  relation to task, 130.
Synthesist, duties of, 129.
  qualifications of, 135.
Systems, definition of, 221.
  importance of, 144.
  incentives to follow, 214.
  inelasticity of, 214.
  relations to standards of, 145.
  teaching power of, 213.
  value in transitory management, 146.

Task, advantage to name for, 133.
  applied to work of all, 134.
  definition under scientific management, 133.
  individual under scientific management, 43.
  measured by motion study and time study, 108.
  organization, 134.
  relation to measurement of, 98.
  relation to standard, 140.
  result of synthesis, 130.
  under traditional management, 25.
  unfortunate name of, 131.
Task wage, definition of, 292.
Task work with a bonus, 299.
Taylor, F.W.--"A.S.M.E. Transactions, Vol. 28," 108.
  "A.S.M.E. Paper 1119," 112, 180.
  "On the Art of Cutting Metals," 78, 166.
  "Piece Rate System, A," 117.
  "Principles of Scientific Management," 4, 10, 15, 18, 62.
  "Shop Management," 7, 9, 26, 54, 55, 63, 94, 95, 108, 117, 164, 165.
Taylor and Thompson--"Concrete Plain and Reinforced," 123.
Teaching, availability of, 227
  equipment of, 225.
  functional foreman as, 224.
  training of, 224.
Teaching, availability of, 227.
  by motion cycles, 244.
  definition of, 208.
  devices of, 222.
  future of, 268.
  involved in functional foremanship, 64.
  measurement of, 263.
  methods of, 220.
  need of, 219.
  of right motions, 23.
  of untrained worked, 232.
  oral, 223, 241.
  psychological basis of, 228.
  relation to habit, 235.
  relation to individuality, 46.
  results in judgment, 251.
  results to work of, 266.
  results to worker of, 266.
  scope of, 219.
  sources of, 220.
  under scientific management, 215.
  under traditional management, 25, 208.
  under transitory management, 213.
Three Rate with Increased Rate,
  description of, 300.
Time and Cost clerk, duties of, 68.
Time study, aims of, 110.
  definition of, 106
  importance to worker of, 121.
  measurement by, 105.
  scope of, 108.
"Tolerance," provision for, 172.
Tools, standard, need for, 164.
Towne, H.R.--"Introduction to Scientific Management,"  12.
Traditional management,
  definition of, 8, 11.
  disciplining under, 69.
  functionalization under, 54.
  handling of output under, 25.
  measurement under, 95.
  place of analysis and synthesis in, 124.
  position of workers under, 60.
  preferable name for, 9.
  programme under, 192.
  punishment under, 277.
  records under, 183.
  reward under, 26, 275.
  selecting workers under, 24.
  standardization under, 143.
  tasks under, 25.
  teaching under, 25, 208.
  treatment of individuality, 24.
  welfare under, 311, 317.
Transitory management,
  functionalization under, 61.
  measurement under, 96.
  place of analysis and synthesis in, 125.
  programmes under, 193.
  recognition of individuality, 26.
  records under, 184, 185.
  reward under, 279.
  standardization under, 144.
  teaching under, 213.
  value of systems in, 146.
  welfare under, 318.

Ultimate management, 12.
U.S. Bulletin of Agriculture, No. 208, 108.
Units of measurement, selection of, 111.

Vocabulary, importance of scientific management, 7.
Vocational guidance, duties of, 265.
  relation to teaching, 264.
Vocational guidance bureau,
  training of observers by, 101.
  work of, 29.

Wages, definition of, 288.
Waste, eliminated by measurement, 115.
  eliminated by standardization, 150.
Welfare, definition of, 311.
  individual, 46.
  relation to traditional management, 311.
  relation to transitory management, 318.
  result to work of, 330.
  result on worker of, 330.
  under scientific management, 320.
Welfare work,
  relation to scientific management, 329.
  under traditional management, 317.
White List File, description of, 186.
Will, development of, 316.
  education of, 239.
  training of, 261.
Will to do, under scientific management, 328.
Work, effect of analysis and synthesis on, 138.
  effect of functionalization upon, 83.
  necessity for regularity in, 321.
  result of incentives to, 310.
  result of individuality upon, 46.
  results of measurement on, 113.
  result of programme on, 195.
  result of records on, 188, 206.
Work, result of standardization on, 173.
  results of teaching on, 266.
  result of welfare on, 330.
Worker, advantages of functionalization to,  76.
  appreciation of time study by, 121.
  capacity of, 94.
  change in mental attitude under scientific management, 89.
  coöperation under measurement of, 116.
  development through records, 39.
  effect of analysis and synthesis on, 138.
  effect of functionalization upon, 85.
  effect of measurement upon, 114.
  given planning if he likes it, 80.
  hardship of individual planning to, 79.
  making of records by, 40.
  observed,  qualifications  of, 103.
  observed, securing coöperation of, 102.
  place under scientific management, 62.
  position under traditional management, 60.
  records made by, 187.
  relation to process of analysis, 129.
  relation to standardization, 164.
  relieved of planning if he dislikes it, 80,
  rest periods for, 169.
  result of incentives on, 310.
  result of individuality upon, 47.
  result of programme on, 195, 206.
  result of records to, 189, 206.
  results of standardization to, 174.
  results of teaching on, 266.
  result of welfare on, 330.
  rewards of, 285.
  selection under scientific management, 32.
  selection  under  traditional management, 24.
  untrained, teaching of, 232.
  variables of, 28.
Working models, value of, 226.

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