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´╗┐Title: Practical Rules for the Management of a Locomotive Engine - in the Station, on the Road, and in cases of Accident
Author: Gregory, Charles Hutton
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Practical Rules for the Management of a Locomotive Engine - in the Station, on the Road, and in cases of Accident" ***

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OF A LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE***



Transcribed from the 1841 edition by David Price, ccx074@pglaf.org



PRACTICAL RULES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF A LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE:
IN THE STATION, ON THE ROAD, AND IN CASES OF ACCIDENT.


                                    BY
                         CHARLES HUTTON GREGORY,
                             CIVIL ENGINEER.



PREFACE.


The substance of the following pages was written several months since,
and subsequently sent to the Institution of Civil Engineers, where it was
read in abstract on the 16th of February in the present session.

While our Engineering Literature contains several valuable Treatises on
the Theory and Construction of the Locomotive Engine, it has, as yet,
produced no work illustrating its Use.  This circumstance, added to the
recommendation of several competent authorities, has induced the writer
to apply to the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers for
permission to lay before the public these Practical Rules for the
Management of a Locomotive Engine, drawn up from individual experience,
in the hope that they may be acceptable, at a period when any subject
connected with the efficiency and safety of Railway travelling is
deservedly engaging attention.

At the end of the Paper will be found some Regulations for the first
appointment of Engine-men, adopted by the Directors of the London and
Croydon Railway, and framed by the writer in his official capacity as
their Resident Engineer.  Also, a Table of Railway Velocities, indicated
by the time occupied in passing over given distances, which he has
frequently found to save him the trouble of calculation, and which he
hopes may be similarly useful to others.

                                                   CHARLES HUTTON GREGORY.

London, March, 1841.



PRACTICAL RULES, &c.


THE MANAGEMENT OF A LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE IN THE STATION.


The careful examination of a Locomotive Engine when in the Station, and
its judicious management while running, are essential to the full
performance of its duty, and to ensure the safety of the passengers by
the train.

While an Engine is stopping at the Station before a trip, the fire should
be properly kept up,--the tubes clear at both ends,--and the fire-bars
picked free from clinkers: the regulator should be closed and
locked,--the tender-break screwed down tight,--the reversing-lever fixed
in the middle position, so that the slides may be out of gear,--the cocks
of the oil-vessels and feed-pipes turned off,--and the steam blowing off
from the safety-valve at a pressure of 35 lbs. per square inch; if
blowing off in any excess, the waste steam may be turned into the
Tender-cistern to heat the water, and the door of the smoke-box may be
opened to check the fire, but it should be fastened up again 10 or 15
minutes before the time of starting.

Before an Engine starts with a train, the attention of the Engine-man
should first be directed to its being in complete working order; with
this view he should go beneath the Engine, and carefully examine the
working gear in detail.

The connecting-rod is a very important part, and more liable perhaps than
any other to fail for want of proper examination.  The cotters must be
secure, and in case the brasses have too much play they must be tightened
up; observing, however, that brasses should never be set so hard as to
cause friction.  If there are set-screws at the side of the cotters, they
should be tight, and all cotters should have a split-pin at the bottom
for greater security.  The cotters which fasten the piston-rods to the
cross-heads should be firm in their place, as well as the set-screws,
keys, or other connections, by which the feed-pump pistons are secured to
the piston-rod.

The brasses of the inner framing which carry the inside bearings of the
cranked axle must be examined, and any considerable play prevented by
screwing them up if necessary.  The wheels ought to be accurately square
and firm on their axles, and the keys driven up tight.  All the pins,
bolts, &c., by which the slide-valve gear is connected, the
lifting-links, and the slings of the slide-spindles, must be secure in
their proper places; the spanners ought to be fast on the lifting and
weigh-bars, and the studs on the spanners of the weigh-bars should be
particularly noticed, as, if loose, they may be shaken off on the road
and cause the stoppage of the Engine.  A similar examination must be
extended to the hand-gear, if there be any; and the bolts which fasten
the plummer-blocks of the weigh-bars, &c., must be screwed up if they are
loose.

The straps of the eccentrics should work with sufficient freedom, and the
eccentrics must be firm in their right position on the axle, or the
Engine will beat unevenly: if any escape of steam has been observed in
the stuffing-boxes of the piston-rod and slide-valve spindle, or of water
from the joints of the feed-pumps and suction-pipes, they must be screwed
up; and any dirt that may have collected near any of the bearings or
connections must be carefully wiped off with cotton waste.

The inspection beneath the Engine being complete, the Engine-man should
examine the ends of the tubes of the boiler, and if there should be
leakage to any serious extent, it would be prudent to drive in a plug at
each end of the defective tube.  A small quantity of Russian tallow
should occasionally be introduced into the steam-chests and cylinders, to
grease the slides and pistons.  This is done, either by cocks on the
outside of the smoke-box or in the cylinder covers, or through holes
secured by plugs, in the steam-chest covers.  The ashes should be emptied
out of the smoke-box, and the small ash-door carefully secured.

Occasionally the gauge should be applied to the wheels, and the Engine
should never be allowed to run when they are found to be at all incorrect
or out of the square.

If there are oil-vessels at the side of the Engine with pipes to the
pistons, bearings, &c., the Engine-man must see that they are filled, and
the cotton wicks in the top of the pipes, and hanging over into the oil;
that the grease-boxes of the axle-bearings are filled; and the pins,
links, &c., of the springs right and sound.  The draw-bar connecting the
Engine and Tender must be secure, and the safety-chains attached.

The Tender must be replenished with coke and water.  An Engine-man should
never run with an Engine without knowing what stock of both the Tender
will carry.  It is impossible to lay down any general rule for the
quantity of water evaporated and the coke consumed per mile with the same
Engine, as the amount depends entirely on the extent of duty performed.
The stock of coke is usually nearly twice as much as that of water,--the
water which most Tenders contain is ordinarily sufficient for running 30
miles with certainty; but when the gradients are steep, the load heavy,
and stoppages frequent, additional water may be oftener required; and on
the other hand, with light duty, an Engine may sometimes run further
without any stoppage.  The inconvenience attached to the necessity of
frequent stoppages, and the expense of maintaining a large number of coke
and water stations, have lately induced the manufacture of a larger class
of Tender on six wheels, which, from superior capacity, will admit of a
much longer run.

After a little practice, the examination described above occupies a very
short time: it ought to be completed, and the Engine in its position at
the head of the train, at least five minutes before the hour of starting,
when oil must be copiously supplied by the small oiling-can, to the
oil-cups of the guides, connecting-rods, &c., and to all rubbing parts
not fed by the oiling-pipes; the cocks of the large oil-vessels must be
opened, and the safety-valve screwed down to the working pressure, say 45
lbs. per square inch.

It would ensure a careful inspection, if, before any train starts, the
Engine-man were required to deliver to the Superintendent of the Station
a certificate that he has examined his Engine, and finds it in good
working order.

Several articles should be constantly carried on the Tender, as either
being frequently required in the working of the Engine, or occasionally
in cases of derangement or accident.  The following may be taken as a
list:

One large can of oil, and one or two small oiling-cans and an
oiling-tube, a box of Russian tallow, a quantity of cotton waste, hemp,
and gasken, a hand-brush, keys fitted to all the principal bolts, one
large and one small monkey-wrench, rods for clearing the tubes and fire,
an arrow-headed poker, a shovel, and a rake.

A number of iron or wooden plugs, an iron plug-holder, and a 7 lb. maul,
two cold chisels, a hammer and a file, spare washers, and duplicates of
the principal bolts, nuts, pins, cotters, &c., a quantity of thick and
thin cord, and some tarred line, a fire-bucket, two long crow-bars, a
spare coupling-chain, with shackle and hook complete, several wooden
wedges, about 2 feet long, 4 or 5 inches wide and 3 inches thick, and, if
running long journeys, two spare ball-clacks, and a screw-jack.



THE MANAGEMENT OF A LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE ON THE ROAD.


In the management of a Locomotive Engine, many unforeseen circumstances
may occur, requiring the use of that discretion which experience alone
can confer, and which it would be almost impossible to comprise in the
particular instructions contained in the following pages, which, however,
the writer believes to contain all the leading principles of
Engine-driving.

On receiving the signal to start, the Engine-man should only slightly
open the regulator, and let the train run for several yards, before he
opens it, by slow degrees, to the full extent.  The object of thus giving
a slight aperture to the regulator in starting, is to avoid any jerk to
the carriages, by which passengers might be annoyed, or even the
coupling-irons broken; to prevent the slipping of the driving-wheels,
from their adhesion being unequal to the inertia of the train, when the
full power of the Engine is suddenly used; and because fully opening the
regulator at starting generally causes the Engine to _prime_
considerably, from the quantity of water condensed in the cylinders and
steam-passages while the Engine was standing.  When _priming_ occurs at
starting, the discharge-cocks of the cylinders should be opened to remove
the water.  On leaving the station, and frequently on the road, the
Engine-man should watch the train behind him, to see that it is all right
and its motion regular.

The Engine-man should now be standing on the foot-board of the Engine,
which he ought never to leave, unless the machinery is out of order, when
he may leave the Stoker in his place; he should as much as possible be in
such a position as to command, without moving from his place, the
reversing-lever, the whistle, and the regulator, these being the parts
which he is most frequently obliged to use at the shortest notice; his
hand should be upon the regulator, which, when he has arrived at a good
speed, he will gradually ease off, so as to economise steam without
retarding the train: his eye should be constantly directed to the rails
in front of him, that he may be immediately aware of any obstruction, and
at the same time his full attention must be given to the maintaining a
sufficiency of steam at an equable pressure; this is to be done by using
the requisite care in the manner and time of supplying _water_ and
_fuel_.

Water is supplied by opening the cocks in the feed-pipes, which allow the
pumps to act; and the height of water in the boiler is commonly shown by
a glass gauge-tube, and by three gauge-cocks at the side, which should be
opened from time to time, (especially when stopping,) as they afford a
more correct indication of the quantity of water and steam than the
gauge-tube.

One pump, if constantly at work, would, in most Engines, supply as much,
or rather more water than is required by the Engine as equivalent to the
steam consumed; so that by turning on or off either or both pumps, the
Engine-man has the power of regulating the height of the water in the
boiler at discretion.

It may be laid down as an invariable rule, that water alone should always
blow off from the bottom cock (which is from 1 inch to 1.5 inch above the
top of the fire-box), in order that there may be enough water over the
fire-box and tubes to prevent their burning; and few Engines will carry
their water much above the top cock without _priming_, so that the height
of the water may be made to range between these two points, according as
more or less steam is required.

The water is higher when the Engine is running than when stopping: a good
working height for it in most Engines is when _water_ blows off from the
middle cock while running, and _water and steam_ when stopping: an
Engine-man is sometimes obliged to run the water rather lower, if he has
heavy work; but it is always better to keep the level of the water as
high as possible.

It is observed that when any variation takes place in the pressure of the
steam, a corresponding change occurs in the level of the water,--that
when the pressure of the steam rises or falls, the height of the water
rises or falls simultaneously.  Partly for this reason, and partly to
allow the more rapid generation of steam, the feed-pumps are not
generally allowed to act when the Engine starts: a knowledge of this fact
also shows the necessity of the water being above the ordinary level,
before a decrease is allowed in the pressure of the steam.

When the Engine is highest on an inclined plane, rather a greater height
of water must be kept over the fire-box than on a level, in order that
the chimney ends of the tubes may be well covered.

The most favourable time for allowing the feed-pumps to act, is when the
steam is blowing off with force from the safety-valve, and the fire
strong; and the least favourable time is when the steam and fire are low:
indeed the Engine-man should manage that it may never be necessary in the
latter case, as the addition of water rapidly lowers the steam.

In order to know the force of the steam, one hand may occasionally lift
or depress for a moment the lever of the safety-valve, according as the
steam is under or over the working pressure; and a little practice will
soon enable a person to judge the extent of excess or deficiency.

Both feed-pumps should not commence working at the same time.

The water should never be allowed to run low before arriving at any part
of the road where considerable power is required, as steam is produced
more rapidly when both pumps are turned off,--a measure which is
imprudent unless the water is high.

When "the feed" is turned on, the Engine-man should try the pet-cock to
see whether the pump is acting freely: the water thrown from it should be
in forcible intermittent jets; warm water with a little steam will
frequently escape from it at first; if this should continue, it may be
concluded that the upper clack does not act; and if the water is in a
continuous stream without pulsations, the lower clack is out of order.
In either case it will not be prudent to trust too much to the faulty
pump, but the evil may frequently be remedied by working the pump a short
time with the pet-cock open, or alternately turned on and off.

Coke is put on the fire by the Stoker, at the order of the Engine-man,
who should hold the chain of the fire-door in his hand, and open it for
as short a time as possible, while the Stoker throws on each shovelful of
coke: the shovel should be well filled, and the coke distributed equally
over the fire.

In most Engines, the fuel need not be higher than the bottom of the
fire-door; and if allowed to fall more than 6 or 8 inches below it, it
must not be expected that the pressure of the steam will be maintained,
if the Engine has a load.

The supply of fuel should be regular, and so arranged that the fire may
have burned up well by the time the steam is most required.  As the
addition of fuel causes a temporary reduction of the force of the fire,
coke should not be laid on immediately before arriving at an inclined
plane or any part of the road where much power is required; but when
ascending an incline, coke should be gradually added when the Engine
begins to _beat heavily_,--the draught is then powerful, and a regular
supply of fuel required to keep up the fire.

In other circumstances, provided the fire is low enough to require fuel,
the best time to put on coke is when the water is sufficiently high to
turn off the feed-pumps, the steam slightly blowing off, and the Engine
travelling at a good speed.

No definite instructions can be given for the frequency with which coke
must be laid on the fire, as it varies according to the duty to be done,
and the water consequently to be evaporated: in cases of heavy duty and
bad gradients, it may at times be necessary even at as short an interval
as 2 miles; under contrary circumstances an Engine may sometimes run as
much as 15 miles without adding fresh coke.

The fire should be allowed to run rather low before arriving at the top
of an inclined plane down which the steam will not be used: on beginning
to descend the plane, fuel should be put on the fire, which will burn up
by the time the train reaches the bottom of the plane.

If it is wished to keep up the steam, it is better not to supply water
and fuel at the same time.

While running, the Stoker should occasionally pick the ashes from the
tubes to clear the draught.

By observing the above rules for the supply of water and coke, an
efficient pressure and quantity of steam will be produced, which it must
be the study of the Engine-man to economise.  With this view the
regulator should never be kept too far open;--as soon as the train has
acquired the velocity wished, the aperture may be considerably reduced
without diminishing the speed.  As any diminution in the amount of steam
used causes a corresponding diminution in the quantity of coke consumed,
the skill of the Engine-man should be unceasingly directed to the
reduction of so heavy an item of Railway expenditure.

If there should be, at any time, an unnecessary quantity and force of
steam, it is readily reduced by opening the fire-door, and by turning on
the feed-pumps; if there should be too little, the Engine-man must be
content to run slowly for a short time, keep the regulator only partially
open, and put on a gradual supply of coke.

When the water in the boiler is high, many Engines begin to prime,
especially after running for several days.  When this occurs, the
aperture of the regulator should be diminished, and the fire-door and the
discharge cocks of the cylinders opened: if the height of the water will
allow it, the blow-off cock of the boiler may be opened for a short time
to carry off the sediment, which will be found advantageous.

The Engine-man should frequently look to the working gear, to see that it
is in proper order, and to rectify any deficiency at the next Station.

On nearing a Station where it is intended to stop, the regulator should
be gradually eased off at about five-eighths of a mile from the Station,
so that the train may be more under control, and when from a quarter to
half a mile distant, according to the velocity and weight of the train,
the steam should be completely shut off, and the train brought to rest by
the breaks.  In approaching terminal Stations the steam should be shut
off at a greater distance than at the intermediate Stations, to prevent
the possibility of overrunning the mark from the failure of breaks.  It
must be borne in mind that the breaks act much less efficiently in wet or
frosty weather, when it becomes necessary to shut off the steam further
from the Stations.  The use of the reversing-lever ought, as much as
possible, to be avoided: it may sometimes be placed in the middle
position (in which the valves do not act), but it should never be
completely reversed unless absolutely necessary for the stoppage of the
train.

At the intermediate Stations, the Stoker should frequently oil all the
bearings not supplied by the large oil-vessels, and fill the oil-cups of
the connecting-rods, slides, &c., and if any of the bearings, brasses,
&c., are hot, they should be more copiously oiled, and eased if
necessary.  He should also examine all the working gear cursorily to see
if it is in a complete state; particular attention should be given to the
axle-bearings, and especially those of the cranked axle, which sometimes
become so hot by running as to require cooling by throwing on water.

In case of the driving wheels slipping much in starting from a Station,
the opening of the regulator should be reduced, and only gradually opened
as the wheel bites; the Stoker is sometimes obliged to scatter ashes,
sand, &c., before the wheels: some Engines are now furnished with hoppers
in front, opened by a handle from the foot-board, by means of which sand
may be dropped on the rails in front of the driving wheels.

If slipping is observed to an unusual extent, it may be inferred that
there is not sufficient weight on the driving wheels, and the springs
ought to be tightened by screwing up the nuts of the bearing bolts: or
where the framing is hung to the springs by plain links, the spring pins
must be lengthened the next time the Engine is in the repairing shops.  A
deficiency of weight on the front or hind wheels is indicated by the
pitching of the Engine, and should be remedied in a similar manner.

The regulator should be gradually and completely closed, when the Engine
or train pitches or rocks violently,--in passing a series of points and
crossings,--in very sharp curves, especially if double,--in rough parts
of the permanent way,--and in descending planes whose inclination is
sufficient to carry the train down, without steam, at a velocity of 30
miles per hour.  In descending such an inclined plane, if it should be
found that the velocity is greater than 30 miles per hour, it should be
reduced by gently applying the break.

On every Railway there is a prescribed limit to the pressure of the
steam, and no circumstance should induce the Engine-man to use steam at a
higher pressure, or in any case to weight the lever, or hold it down for
more than a moment.  When there are two safety-valves, that which is out
of reach may be set at the limit of pressure, and the valve next the
foot-board some pounds lower.  It is an advantage to have a stop placed
below the lever of the safety-valve on the screw of the spring balance,
to prevent its being inadvertently screwed down to more than the working
pressure.

The steam whistle is obviously intended to give notice of danger: on this
account its use is forbidden on some Railways, excepting on occasions of
extreme emergency; but the variety of modulation of which it is
susceptible has in others induced its adoption as a frequent warning.
When the latter is the case, it has been found a safe measure to sound
the whistle directly the steam has been shut off previously to stopping
at a Station, and to give two short whistles the moment before starting,
to warn parties of the approach and departure of the train.  When this
system is practised, the Engine-man should not turn on the full power of
the whistle, but reserve it exclusively for cases of danger.

When near the end of the trip very little fire is wanted, and both
feed-pumps should be turned on for a short distance before arriving at
the Station, unless the Engine is to start again immediately.  If it is
intended to remain at the Station about an hour, the water should be
considerably above the middle cock (when the Engine is standing), which
will be effected by keeping on both feed-pumps from a half to
three-quarters of a mile.  The safety-valve should, at the same time, be
eased off to 35 lbs.

If the train is brought into the Station by a tow-rope, great care must
be taken to stretch the rope gradually by a gentle advance of the Engine,
which must be stopped at a signal from the tow-rope man.

It would be prudent to conduct the examination described at the
commencement, directly the Engine arrives at the Station, in order to
leave time for any repair which may be required.

When an Engine is running the last trip for the day, no fuel need be put
on for the last 10, 15, or 20 miles, according as the duty is heavy or
light; indeed, the fire may be nearly run out by the time the Engine
stops, if the gradients, &c., are favourable.  For a considerable
distance before stopping both pumps should be at work, so that the water
in the boiler may be at or above the top cock when the Engine stops, and
the safety-valve should be eased off to 25 lbs. per square inch.

On stopping over the pit, the fire is drawn by opening the fire-door,
introducing the arrow-headed poker through the fire-bars, and pulling up
two or three of them from the bottom of the furnace, by which room will
be allowed for the rest to be separated, and the fire fall through into
the ash-pan, from which it is raked out by the Stoker.  The practice of
blowing off all the water from a boiler by the pressure of the steam
should never be allowed, without an express order from the Superintendent
of Locomotives, when the boiler is unusually full of mud; as, if
frequently practised, it will seriously injure the fire-box and tubes.



THE MANAGEMENT OF A LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE IN CASES OF ACCIDENT.


An Engine is liable to several accidents while running, and it is
important that the Engine-man should know how to act promptly under the
circumstances.  In the following list several cases are enumerated, with
the particular steps to be taken in each.

1.  _The bursting of a tube_.--The Engine-man should stop the Engine, and
drive a plug into each end of the tube.  It frequently happens that the
water and steam blow out with so much force, that it is impossible even
to discover the defective tube: by running the Engine for a short
distance with both pumps acting, the pressure of the steam will perhaps
be sufficiently reduced to enable the Engine-man to work with safety; but
if the escape of water and steam is still too great to do so, he must run
his Engine and train, if possible, off the main line into a siding, and
draw the fire, to prevent its injuring the fire-box and tubes: when the
water has run out down to the level of the defective tube, it may be
easily plugged, and a fresh fire laid and lighted.  A tube will
frequently leak to a considerable extent without absolutely requiring the
stoppage of the train; but in this case great care is necessary not to
use much steam, or urge the fire too far.

The bursting of a tube or other causes will sometimes lead to the lagging
or casing of the boiler catching fire, which should be extinguished by
throwing on water from the Tender-cistern in a fire-bucket, or from the
water crane at a Station.

2.  _The failing of one of the feed pumps_.--In this case the adequate
supply of water may, with care, be maintained by one pump only.  The
supply of coke must be regular, and not in large quantities; and the
steam must be economised, or the water may run low.  The pump should be
repaired as soon as possible; this may frequently be done in the interval
between two trips.

3.  _The breaking of a spring_.--This is an accident which does not
necessarily involve the stoppage of the train; but as working the Engine
in such a state causes an unequal strain, it should run very gently over
rough parts of the road; and if the derangement is considerable, and
cannot be repaired at the Stations, the Engine should cease running as
soon as possible.

4.  _The breaking of a connecting-rod_, _or its disconnection_ by the
loss of cotters, fracture of the straps, &c.  This accident, or any
disconnection which allows the piston to be driven from end to end of the
cylinder without restraint, causes expensive damage to the cylinders and
covers; and the connecting-rod, if loose, will seriously injure the
smaller gear, or may even throw the Engine off the road.  The Engine
should therefore be instantly stopped, and if possible the connection
restored; if that cannot be done, the connecting-rod must be taken off,
and if on a level or a descending gradient, the train may sometimes be
drawn by a single cylinder: to do so, the slide-valve spindle of the
defective cylinder must be detached from the valve gear, by unscrewing
the nuts, and setting the slide at the middle of its stroke so as to
cover both ports.

If it should be found impracticable to move the train, the Engine might
run on alone for assistance; but in any case where the Engine is obliged
to remain stationary, the fire must be drawn directly the water is down
to the bottom cock.

5.  _The fracture or disconnection of the eccentrics, or any of the
slide-valve gear_.--In Engines without hand-gear, if the connection
cannot be restored, the attempt may be made, as in the previous instance,
to work with one cylinder.  When the slide-valve gear is disabled,
Engines with hand-gear possess an advantage which others want, in being
able to be worked by hand, when a single cylinder would be unequal to the
duty, from not being able to move the crank over the centres at starting.

6.  _The fracture of the strap which holds the slide-valve_, renders
unavailable the cylinder on that side where it occurs, without affecting
the other side.  The slide should be detached and placed in the middle of
its stroke, and the attempt made to work with one cylinder.

7.  _The disconnection of a piston_, by the fracture of either cotter, is
sometimes caused by shutting off the steam too suddenly when the Engine
is travelling fast with a heavy load.  In this case also the slide should
be detached and set in the middle position, and the piston-rod uncoupled
from the connecting-rod, which should be removed to prevent its damaging
the small gear.

8.  _The breaking of an axle_, in a four-wheeled Engine is an accident
which is almost of necessity attended with the overturn of the Engine.
In a six-wheeled Engine it requires the stoppage of the train until
assistance arrives.

9.  _The Engine running off the rails_.  With an Engine-man who drives
carefully, watching well the position of the switches, and the signals
given him, and stopping when he sees any danger attending his further
course, this is an accident of very rare occurrence.  If the Engine
should run off on hard ground and near the rails, it may sometimes be
lifted on again at once, by screw-jacks, crow-bars, and long sways; but
if on soft ground or far from the rails, the fire must be drawn, and
instant attention given to prevent its sinking deep into the ground.

The Engine should first be separated from the Tender, which, being a
lighter weight, may be pushed out of the way, and leave more room for
operating on the Engine; this, if it has fallen over on its side, should
be lifted as quickly as may be into a vertical position; to do so, a
purchase should be obtained under the framing on the lowest side, in two
places if possible; two long and tough sways should be brought to bear on
these points, and several men placed to weigh upon each; and as the
Engine is gradually lifted by the sways, every movement should be
followed up and supported by screw-jacks bedded on timber blocking.  When
the Engine has been lifted upright, it should be firmly supported by
timbers placed as stanchions under the framing; the earth may then be
cautiously removed from under the wheels, and a length of rail
introduced, taking care to bed it as securely as possible on the
blockings previously laid down, without disturbing them: the same process
should be repeated on the other side, and cross sleepers driven in under
both rails to secure the foundation.  As soon as the Engine is in a
vertical position and rails inserted under the wheels, a temporary
railway may be laid down in continuation, and the Engine again drawn on
the main line.  It will much facilitate the raising of the Engine if the
water is drawn away out of the boiler as soon as it is sufficiently cool.

                                * * * * *

In all cases of accident involving stoppage on the main line, it is of
the highest importance that some person should immediately be sent back
about three-quarters of a mile along the road, to give the proper signal
of obstruction, and prevent any following train from running in
unexpectedly.

                                * * * * *

The most essential personal qualifications of an Engine-man are, sobriety
and steadiness, activity, presence of mind, and unceasing watchfulness;
and wherever these are combined with an accurate knowledge of the
construction of a Locomotive Engine and the principles of its management,
they tend in no small degree towards rendering Railways, what they
properly are, the safest as well as the most agreeable mode of
travelling.



REGULATIONS FOR THE FIRST APPOINTMENT OF AN ENGINE-MAN, ADOPTED BY THE
DIRECTORS OF THE LONDON AND CROYDON RAILWAY.


1840.

1.  The candidate must not be under twenty-one years of age, and must
produce a certificate of a sound constitution and steady habits.

2.  He must be able to read and write, and, if possible, understand the
rudimental principles of mechanics.

3.  It will be a great recommendation if he has served his time to any
mechanical art, especially as a Fitter of Locomotive Engines; and, if
possible, he should produce testimonials stating his qualifications as
such.

4.  If the candidate has been a Fitter or a stationary Engine-man, he
must, for several months at least, have been a Stoker on a Locomotive
Engine, under the direction of a steady and competent Engine-man; and
before his appointment, he should produce a testimonial from the
Superintendent of Locomotives, or at least from the Engine-man under whom
he has served, stating full confidence in his acquaintance with the
construction of an Engine and the principles of its management.

5.  If the candidate has not been a Fitter or a stationary Engine-man, he
must have served as a Stoker for at least two years, and produce the
testimonials named in the preceding rules.

6.  If required by the Board of Directors, for greater security, the
candidate must undergo an examination from their Engineer, Superintendent
of Locomotives, or other competent person, as to his knowledge of an
Engine and its management, and the general result of this examination
must be committed to paper, signed by the examiner, and presented to the
Board.

7.  The Engineer or Superintendent of Locomotives of the Railway to which
the candidate is desirous of being appointed, shall sign a certificate
stating that he has conversed with him, has seen him drive, and has
confidence in his steadiness and ability.

8.  Before being allowed to take the entire charge of an Engine and
train, the candidate must drive for several days under the direction of
an experienced Engine-man, who must be on his Engine, and certify to his
ability.

9.  All certificates and testimonials must be deposited with the
Secretary of the Company, who will restore them to the owner on his
leaving their service.



A TABLE OF VELOCITIES.



   Time occupied in        Time occupied in              Velocity
 Travelling one eight   Travelling quarter of
      of a mile                 a mile
         7.5                      15                       60.0
          8                       16                       56.2
         8.5                      17                       52.9
          9                       18                       50.0
         9.5                      19                       47.4
          10                      20                       45.0
         10.5                     21                       42.9
          11                      22                       40.9
         11.5                     23                       39.1
          12                      24                       37.5
         12.5                     25                       36.0
          13                      26                       34.6
         13.5                     27                       33.3
          14                      28                       32.1
         14.5                     29                       31.0
          15                      30                       30.0
         15.5                     31                       29.0
          16                      32                       28.1
         16.5                     33                       27.3
          17                      34                       26.5
         17.5                     35                       25.7
          18                      36                       25.0
         18.5                     37                       24.3
          19                      38                       23.7
         19.5                     39                       23.1
          20                      40                       22.5
         20.5                     41                       21.9
          21                      42                       21.4
         21.5                     43                       20.9
          22                      44                       20.4
         22.5                     45                       20.0
          23                      46                       19.6
         23.5                     47                       19.1
          24                      48                       18.7
         24.5                     49                       18.4
          25                      50                       18.0
         25.5                     51                       17.7
          26                      52                       17.3
         26.5                     53                       17.0
          27                      54                       16.7
          28                      56                       16.0
          29                      58                       15.5
          30                      60                       15.0
          31                      62                       14.5
          32                      64                       14.1
          33                      66                       13.6
          34                      68                       13.2
          35                      70                       12.8
          36                      72                       12.5
          37                      74                       12.2
          38                      76                       11.8
          39                      78                       11.5
          40                      80                      11.25
          41                      82                       11.0
          42                      84                       10.7
          43                      86                       10.5
          44                      88                       10.2
          45                      90                       10.0





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