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´╗┐Title: Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and the - Neighbouring Countries
Author: Griffith, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and the - Neighbouring Countries" ***

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BURMA, BHOOTAN, AFGHANISTAN AND THE NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES***



JOURNALS OF TRAVELS IN ASSAM, BURMA, BHOOTAN, AFGHANISTAN AND THE
NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES
By William Griffith.
Arranged by John M'Clelland.


[Sketch of William Griffith: pf.jpg]



CONTENTS.


Notice of the author from the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society, and
Extracts from Correspondence.

CHAPTER

I       Proceeding with the Assam Deputation for the Examination of the
Tea Plant.

II      Journal of an Excursion in the Mishmee Mountains.

III     Tea localities in the Muttock Districts, Upper Assam.

IV      Journey from Upper Assam towards Hookum.

V       Journey from Hookum to Ava.

VI      Botanical Notes written in pencil, connected with the foregoing
Chapter.

VII     General Report on the foregoing.

VIII    Notes on descending the Irrawaddi from Ava to Rangoon, written in
pencil.

IX      Journey towards Assam.

X       Continuation of the same, with Notes on the Distribution of
Plants.

XI      Journey from Assam into Bootan, with Notes on the Distribution of
Plants.

XII     Continuation of the Journey in Bootan.

XIII    Return of the Mission from Bootan, with Meteorological
Observations, etc.

XIV     Journey with the Army of the Indus, from Loodianah to Candahar.

XV      Journey from Candahar to Cabul.

XVI     Journey from Cabul to Bamean--the Helmund and Oxus rivers.

XVII    Journey from Cabul to Jallalabad and Peshawur.

XVIII   Journey from Peshawur to Pushut.

XIX     On the Reproductive Organs of Acotyledonous plants.

XX      Journey from Pushut to Kuttoor and Barowl in Kaffiristan, and
return to Pushut and Cabul.

XXI     Journey from Cabul to Kohi-Baba.

XXII    Journey from Peshawur to Lahore.

XXIII   Journey from Lahore to Simla.

XXIV    Barometrical Heights and Latitudes of places visited throughout
Affghanistan.



LIST OF PLATES.


I       VIEW FROM NUNKLOW

II      THE VILLAGE OF NUNKLOW

III     CAPTAIN MATHIE'S CUTCHERRY, THE BOOTAN HILLS, AND HIMALAYA

IV      THE HIMALAYA FROM RANGAGURRAH

V       BRAMAKHOOND AND FAQUEER'S ROCK

VI      THE MORI-PANEE AS IT ENTERS THE KHOOND

VII     THE DEO-PANEE AS IT ENTERS THE KHOOND

VIII    THE VALLEY OF HOOKUM

IX      MEINKHOOM

X       VIEW FROM BEESA

XI      VIEW ON THE JHEELS

XII     THE OK-KLONG ROCK

XIII    KULLONG BRIDGE

XIV     TASSGOUNG FROM UPPER KULONG

XV      CHINDUPJEE

XVI     GHUZNEE

XVII    BAMEAN IDOLS

XVIII   Map of the Khyber Pass



NOTICE OF WILLIAM GRIFFITH, from the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society,
with a few extracts from his private correspondence.


"WILLIAM GRIFFITH, Esq., the youngest son of the late Thomas Griffith,
was born on the 4th of March 1810, at his father's residence at Ham
Common, near Kingston-upon-Thames, in the county of Surrey.

"He was educated for the Medical profession, and completed his studies at
the London University, where he became a pupil of Prof. Lindley, under
whose able instructions, assisted by the zealous friendship of Mr. R. H.
Solly, and in conjunction with two fellow pupils of great scientific
promise, Mr. Slack and Mr. Valentine, he made rapid progress in the
acquisition of botanical knowledge.  The first public proofs that he gave
of his abilities are contained in a microscopic delineation of the
structure of the wood and an analysis of the flower of _Phytocrene_
_gigantea_, in the third volume of Dr. Wallich's 'Plantae Asiaticae
Rariores'; and in a note on the development and structure of _Targionia_
_hypophylla_, appended to M. de Mirbel's Dissertation on _Marchantia_
_polymorpha_, both published in 1832.  So highly were his talents as an
observer appreciated at this early period, that Dr. Wallich speaks of him
as one "whose extraordinary talents and knowledge as a botanist, entitle
him to the respect of all lovers of the science;" and M. de Mirbel
characterizes him as "jeune Anglois, tres instruit, tres zele et fort bon
observateur."

"His note on _Targionia_ is dated Paris, April 2nd, 1832, and in the
month of May of the same year, having finished his studies at the London
University with great distinction, he sailed from England for India,
which was destined to be the scene of his future labours.  He arrived at
Madras on the 24th of September, and immediately received his appointment
as Assistant-Surgeon in the service of the East India Company.

"His first appointment in India was to the coast of Tenasserim; but in
the year 1835 he was attached to the Bengal Presidency, and was selected
to form one of a deputation, consisting of Dr. Wallich and himself as
botanists, and Mr. MacClelland as geologist, to visit and inspect the Tea-
forests (as they were called) of Assam, and to make researches in the
natural history of that almost unexplored district.

"This mission was for Mr. Griffith the commencement of a series of
journeys in pursuit of botanical knowledge, embracing nearly the whole
extent of the East India Company's extra-peninsular possessions, and
adding large collections, in every branch of natural history, but
especially botany, to those which, under the auspices of the Indian
Government, had previously been formed.  He next, under the directions of
Capt. Jenkins, the Commissioner, pushed his investigations to the utmost
eastern limit of the Company's territory, traversing the hitherto
unexplored tracts in the neighbourhood of the Mishmee mountains which lie
between Suddiya and Ava.  Of the splendid collection of insects formed
during this part of his tour some account has been given by Mr. Hope in
the Transactions of the Entomological Society and in the eighteenth
volume of our own Transactions.

"His collection of plants was also largely increased on this remarkable
journey, which was followed by a still more perilous expedition,
commenced in February of the following year, from Assam through the
Burmese dominions to Ava, and down the Irrawadi to Rangoon, in the course
of which he was reported to have been assassinated.  The hardships
through which he passed during the journey and his excessive application
produced, soon after his arrival in Calcutta, a severe attack of fever:
on his recovery from which he was appointed Surgeon to the Embassy to
Bootan, then about to depart under the charge of the late Major
Pemberton.  He took this opportunity of revisiting the Khasiya Hills,
among which he formed a most extensive collection; and having joined
Major Pemberton at Goalpara, traversed with him above 400 miles of the
Bootan country, from which he returned to Calcutta about the end of June
1839.  In November of the same year he joined the army of the Indus in a
scientific capacity, and penetrated, after the subjugation of Cabool,
beyond the Hindoo Khoosh into Khorassan, from whence, as well as from
Affghanistan, he brought collections of great value and extent.  During
these arduous journeys his health had several times suffered most
severely, and he was more than once reduced by fever to a state of
extreme exhaustion; but up to this time the strength of his constitution
enabled him to triumph over the attacks of disease, and the energy of his
mind was so great, that the first days of convalescence found him again
as actively employed as ever.

"On his return to Calcutta in August 1841, after visiting Simla and the
Nerbudda, he was appointed to the medical duties at Malacca: but Dr.
Wallich having proceeded to the Cape for the re-establishment of his
health, Mr. Griffith was recalled in August 1842 to take, during his
absence, the superintendence of the Botanic Garden near Calcutta, in
conjunction with which he also discharged the duties of Botanical
Professor in the Medical College to the great advantage of the students.
Towards the end of 1844 Dr. Wallich resumed his functions at the Botanic
Garden.  In September Mr. Griffith married Miss Henderson, the sister of
the wife of his brother, Captain Griffith, and on the 11th of December he
quitted Calcutta to return to Malacca, where he arrived on the 9th of
January in the present year.  On the 31st of the same month he was
attacked by hepatitis, and notwithstanding every attention on the part of
the medical officer who had officiated during his absence, and who
fortunately still remained, he gradually sunk under the attack, which
terminated fatally on the 9th of February.  "His constitution," says his
attached friend, Mr. MacClelland, in a letter to Dr. Horsfield, "seemed
for the last two or three years greatly shattered, his energies alone
remaining unchanged.  Exposure during his former journeys and travels
laid the seeds of his fatal malady in his constitution, while his anxiety
about his pursuits and his zeal increased.  He became care-worn and
haggard in his looks, often complaining of anomalous symptoms, marked by
an extreme rapidity of pulse, in consequence of which he had left off
wine for some years past, and was obliged to observe great care and
attention in his diet.  In Affghanistan he was very nearly carried off by
fever, to which he had been subject in his former travels in Assam.  No
government ever had a more devoted or zealous servant, and I impute much
of the evil consequences to his health to his attempting more than the
means at his disposal enabled him to accomplish with justice to himself."

"The most important of Mr. Griffith's published memoirs are contained in
the Transactions of the Linnaean Society.  Previous to starting on his
mission to Assam, he communicated to the Society the first two of a
series of valuable papers on the development of the vegetable ovulum in
_Santalum_, _Loranthus_, _Viscum_, and some other plants, the anomalous
structure of which appeared calculated to throw light on this still
obscure and difficult subject.  These papers are entitled as follows:--

1.  On the Ovulum of _Santalum album_.  Linn. Trans. xviii.  p. 57.

2.  Notes on the Development of the Ovulum of _Loranthus_ and _Viscum_;
and on the mode of Parasitism of these two genera.  Linn. Trans. xviii.
p. 71.

3.  On the Ovulum of _Santalum_, _Osyris_, _Loranthus_ and _Viscum_.
Linn. Trans. xix. p. 171.

"Another memoir, or rather series of memoirs, "On the Root-Parasites,
referred by authors to _Rhizantheae_, and on various plants related to
them," occupies the first place in the Part of our Transactions which is
now in the press, with the exception of the portion relating to
_Balanophoreae_, unavoidably deferred to the next following Part.  In
this memoir, as in those which preceded it, Mr. Griffith deals with some
of the most obscure and difficult questions of vegetable physiology, on
which his minute and elaborate researches into the singularly anomalous
structure of the curious plants referred to will be found to have thrown
much new and valuable light.

"In India, on his return from his Assamese journey, he published in the
'Transactions of the Agricultural Society of Calcutta,' a 'Report on the
Tea-plant of Upper Assam,' which, although for reasons stated avowedly
incomplete, contains a large amount of useful information on a subject
which was then considered of great practical importance.  He also
published in the 'Asiatic Researches,' in the 'Journal of the Asiatic
Society of Bengal,' and in the 'Transactions of the Medical and Physical
Society of Calcutta,' numerous valuable botanical papers; but the most
important of his Indian publications are contained in the 'Calcutta
Journal of Natural History,' edited jointly by Mr. MacClelland and
himself.  Of these it may be sufficient at present to refer to his memoir
"On _Azolla_ and _Salvinia_," two very remarkable plants which he has
most elaborately illustrated, and in relation to which he has entered
into some very curious speculations; and his still unfinished monograph
of "The Palms of British India," which promises to be a highly important
contribution to our knowledge of a group hitherto almost a sealed book to
European Botanists.

"But the great object of his life, that for which all his other labours
were but a preparation, was the publication of a General Scientific Flora
of India, a task of immense extent, labour and importance.  To the
acquisition of materials for this task, in the shape of collections,
dissections, drawings and descriptions, made under the most favourable
circumstances, he had devoted twelve years of unremitted exertion.  His
own collections, (not including those formed in Cabool and the
neighbouring countries) he estimated at 2500 species from the Khasiya
Hills, 2000 from the Tenasserim provinces, 1000 from the province of
Assam, 1200 from the Himalaya range in the Mishmee country, 1700 from the
same great range in the country of Bootan, 1000 from the neighbourhood of
Calcutta, and 1200 from the Naga Hills at the extreme east of Upper
Assam, from the valley of Hookhoong, the district of Mogam, and from the
tract of the Irrawadi between Mogam and Ava.  Even after making large
deductions from the sum-total of these numbers on account of the forms
common to two or more of the collections, the amount of materials thus
brought together by one man must be regarded as enormous.  The time was
approaching when he believed that he could render these vast collections
subservient to the great end which he had in view.  He had some time
since issued an invitation to many eminent botanists in Europe to
co-operate with him in the elaboration of particular families; and he
purposed after a few years' additional residence in India to return to
England with all his materials, and to occupy himself in giving to the
world the results of his unwearied labours.  But this purpose was not
destined to be fulfilled, his collections have passed by his directions
into the hands of the East India Company, and there can be no doubt, from
the well-known liberality of the Directors, which this Society in
particular has so often experienced, that they will be so disposed of by
that enlightened body as to fulfil at once the demands of science and the
last wishes of the faithful and devoted servant by whom they were formed.
It is hoped too, that the most important of his unpublished materials,
both in drawings and manuscripts, will be given to the world in a manner
worthy of the author and of the rank in science which he
filled."--_Proceedings of the Linnaean Society_, No. xxv, 1845.

To the foregoing brief sketch which was read before the Linnaean Society
at the Anniversary Meeting 24th May 1845, it is scarcely necessary to
make any addition.  It is worthy of remark however, as showing how
talents sometimes run in families, that Mr. Griffith was great grandson
of Jeremiah Meyer, Historical Painter to George the Second, and one of
the founders of the Royal Academy.  It is also but fair to state on the
present occasion, that he was not himself the only member of the family
who would appear to have inherited something of his grandfather's
peculiar art, as we owe the transfer of the landscapes to stone, which
add so much to the appearance of the following volume, to the talent and
kindness of his sister.

It may perhaps be acceptable in this place to afford a few extracts from
the private letters of Mr. Griffith, especially those in which he adverts
with a liberality of feeling to his contemporaries, no less honourable to
himself than to the persons mentioned.

The following notes addressed to his uncle, at various periods, exhibit
the sentiments with which he regarded the late Mr. Bauer not merely as an
artist, but original observer.

* * * * *

_From letters of Mr. GRIFFITH, to Mr. MEYER_.

                               _Mergui_: _January 17th_, 1835.

"My last accounts of Mr. Bauer state him to have been in excellent
health: he had just completed some more of his unrivalled drawings."

* * * * *

                               _Suddya_: _December 30th_, 1836.

"Pray give the compliments of the season to Mr. Bauer, to whom I look up
with the greatest admiration: what a pity it is for science that such a
life as his is not renewable _ad libitum_.  Tell him that I have a
beautiful new genus allied to Rafflesia, the flowers of which are about a
span across, it is dioecious and icosandrous, and has an abominable
smell.  How I look back occasionally on my frequent and delightful visits
to Kew."

* * * * *

To MRS. H---.

                             _Serampore_, _Calcutta_: _July 22nd_,
1841.

"I was aware of the departure of Mr. Bauer through the _Athenaeum_, in
which an excellent notice of him appeared.  He certainly was a man to
whom I looked up with constant admiration: he was incomparable in several
respects, and I am happy to find, that his death was so characteristic of
his most inoffensive and meritorious life.  It is also very pleasing to
me to find that he continued to think well of me.  How I should have been
able to delight him had he lived a few years longer."

* * * * *

                                    _Calcutta_: _June_, 1843.

"Poor Mr. Bauer, we never shall see his like again, I have seen but few
notices of his life, which assuredly is worthy of study.  There is not a
place I shall visit with better feelings than Kew, it has so many
pleasant associations even from my school-days."

* * * * *

                                    _Calcutta_: _December 31st_, 1843.

"Mr. Bauer is not half appreciated yet; he is considered a very great
artist, but what is that to what he was?  But he did not fight for his
own hand, though he worked hard enough in all conscience.  Mr. Bauer in
fact preceded all in the train of discovery: he saw in 1797, what others
did not see till 30 years after.  For instance, the elongation of the
pollens' inner membrane into a tube, the first step towards the
_complete_ knowledge we now have of vegetable embryogeny.  Unfortunately,
Mr. Bauer drew, but did not write, and when I recall to mind a remark of
Mr. Brown, that it was a disadvantage to be able to draw, I always fancy
he had Bauer in his mind's eye; for had he been a writer and not a
drawer, before 1800, in great probability we should have known nearly as
much of embryogeny as we do now.  But he shut his portfolio, and folks
went on believing the old fovivillose doctrine and bursting of the
pollen, which, his observations of the pollens' inner membrane, would
have destroyed at once.  Then with regard to Orchideae and Asclepiadeae,
he was equally in advance: it would be a rich treat if some one would
come forward and publish a selection from his drawings, without a word of
letterpress."

* * * * *

                                 _Calcutta_: _February 11th_, 1844.

"Mr. Bauer's light is not yet set on the hill.  Really when I look back
at his works I am lost in admiration, and always regret that he worked
more for others than for himself, and that he did not use his pen as
freely as he did his brush.  When, in the name of all that is generous,
will great men think that true greatness consist in endeavouring to make
others more prominent than themselves?"

For some years before his death, Mr. Griffith would appear to have had a
presentiment that he would not be spared to complete the description of
all his collections.  On one occasion, when enumerating those who might
contribute most efficiently to this object, in the event of its not being
permitted to himself, he writes:--

"I cannot however refrain from paying my tribute of respect to Mr. George
Bentham, the most industrious, perspicuous, and philosophical Botanist
who has systematically contributed to lessen the difficulties under which
Indian Botanists have generally suffered.

"There are a few others from whom the sincerity of friendship fully
warrants me in expecting every possible assistance: of these Dr. Wight is
already well known, and others are rising rapidly to fill, I hope, the
highest Botanical stations when these shall have been vacated by the
leviathans who now occupy them.  Let not the cynic accuse me of
partiality when I mention the names of William Valentine, of Decaisne,
and C. M. Lemann."

He also delighted to speak and write in terms of the warmest regard of
those to whom he was indebted for facilities in his pursuits.  To Lord
Auckland he invariably alluded in terms of the deepest gratitude--"Under
his Lordship's patronage" he remarks on one occasion, "I have received
such advantages as make me ashamed of the little I have done, and which
are constantly holding up before me my deficiencies in many branches of
enquiry connected with the physiology and distribution of plants."

* * * * *

The following letters are quoted chiefly for the additional information
they afford on the subject of his travels and pursuits.  His letters to
Botanists would of course be more important and interesting.

* * * * *

                                 _Suddyah_: _16th September_, 1836.

"I am anxiously awaiting the arrival of the cold weather, as on the 1st
of November I hope to accompany ----- to Ava, but in the meantime, I
intend proceeding in search of the tea plant to the Mishmee Hills,
especially about Bramakoond, where it is reported to grow.  If I find it
there, I will endeavour to trace it up into the mountains, which form due
east of this an amphitheatre of high rugged peaks."

* * * * *

                                     _November 1st_, 1836.

"I here write from the foot of the 'dreaded' Mishmee Hills.  I left
Suddyah on the 15th October, and have already been to Bramakoond, where I
spent three days.  I miss you much; you would have been delighted with
the place, which is nothing but rocks and hills.  I am recruiting my
resources for a movement into the interior of the hills, in which I shall
follow Wilcox's route, taking with me 15 coolies, for whom I am
collecting grain.  I have already made considerable collections, chiefly
however in Botany, with a few stones and birds.  I hope before my return
to have seen Coptis teeta in flower, and to have proved that the Beese is
different from that of Nepal.  I have already seen numbers of the
Mishmees who are civil people.  I have however had great difficulties
with the Chief of the Khond, who though apparently friendly, will, I
fear, do all he can to hinder me from getting to Ghaloom, with the Gham
of which place I wish to have a conference."

* * * * *

                               _Noa Dihing Mookh_: _January 20th_,
1837.

"I have just returned from the trip to the Lohit much sooner than I
expected.  I saw nothing of any consequence except rapids which are
horrid things, and make one quite nervous.  I made a beautiful collection
on the Mishmee mountains, of which more anon.  Many of the plants are
very interesting.  I was however worked very hard, all my people being
sick: I had even to wash my own clothes, but I fear you will think I am
grumbling: so good-bye."

* * * * *

                                _Loodianah_: _11th December_, 1838.

"I arrived here in 14.5 days, notwithstanding some delays on the road,
and have put up with Cornet Robinson, Acting Political Agent.  I am not
pleased with the up-country, and would rather live in Bengal, for I
cannot abide sandy plains and a deficiency of vegetation.  Loodianah is a
curious place, very striking to a stranger, the town is large, built
under official direction, and consequently well arranged in comparison
with native towns: there is much trade carried on in it, and it has the
usual bustle of a large town.

"Capt. Wade's house is well situated on a rising ground, and the demesne
is a pretty one.  Otherwise the country is ugly enough, and very bare,
yet it is here well wooded, in comparison with what I hear of Ferozepore.
Along the face of the hill near the town, a nullah flows, abounding in
fish, of which more anon.  The rock pigeons, or grouse, are very
abundant, and there are two species, one remarkable for the elongated
side-feathers of the tail.  Both are beautiful birds, but very difficult
of access.  Crows, kites, vultures, adjutants, herons, Drongoles,
sparrows, parrots, etc. remain as before, but most of the less common
birds are different from those to the south; the most European are
genuine starlings; and, to my memory of eight years back, identical with
those of Europe.  I have already got thirty to forty species of fish.
Cyprinidae, are by far the most common; one loach, and one of
Macrognathus.

"But as they are all from one water, viz. the neighbouring nullah, and
the Sutledge being five miles off, I shall put them all into bottles, and
send them off before I leave this.  The most edible fish, and one of the
most common is the Roh, but it is not the Roh of Bengal, and might well
be called Cyprinus ruber.  Burnes has given I think a drawing of it,
which is faithful as to colour.  All the forms will be familiar to you,
but I hope there will be some new species.

"I have made further arrangements, and such as will give you a good
insight into the fish of the Sutledge, as to the number of duplicates!--it
is the safest plan for an ignoramus not to discriminate too nicely.  I am
to-day to get large specimens of the Kalabans, Rohi, etc. what a splendid
fish the Rohi is, both to look at and to eat.  There are two or three
species of the transparent _Chandas_, and three or four Perilamps, six or
eight Siluridae, besides the Gwali, which is too large; of Ophiocephalus
two or three, exclusive of the Sowli, but all ought to be examined, as
there is no relying on native discrimination.  There is a curious animal
here burrowing like a mole, but more like a rat: of this I have not yet
got a specimen, although they are very common.

"I commence with a list of the fish of this place.  I have only to
mention that several species are confounded under the name Bhoor, all the
Chandras under Chunda Begla, Loaches under Pote, all the Perilamps except
the Chulwa, which may be from its flavour a _Clupeia_, etc.  The fact is,
that the fishermen are aware of genera, but not of species, excepting
when the distinctive marks are very strong.  The fisherman enumerates
forty species, but I have only twenty-six, I have promised him one rupee
when he completes the list:

    Native Name.    Family.     General size.

1.  Khaila,  )                  ( 6.
2.  Bhoor,   )                  ( mature.
3.  Rewa,    )      Cyprins,    ( mature.
4.  Bangun,  )                  ( 18 inches, called also Kala Bhans.

5.  Chund Bigla,                  mature.
6.  Ditto ditto,                  ditto.
7.  Ditto ditto,                  ditto.
8.  Pote,           Loach,        ditto.
9.  Mailoa,         Perilamps,    ditto.
10. Khurda,                       ditto Trichopterus?
11. Puttra,         Salurida,     20 seers.
12. Kuttoa,         Ditto,        6 inches.

13. Ghichila,)      Macrognathus( 7 ditto.
14. Bham,    )                  ( 3 feet.

15. Nunghree,)                  ( 6 inches.
16. Nowhan,  )      Cyprins,    ( ditto.
17. Pootea,  )                  ( 12 inches.

18. Seengh,         Silurida,     8 inches.
19. Bugarlea,                     ditto.
20. Mootunna,                     nearly mature.
21. Bardul,                       6 inches.
22. Chilwa,         Perilamp,?    mature.
23. Nuwha,          Esox,         ditto.

24. Gwalee,  )      Silurus,    ( 2 maunds,
25. Ruttgull,)                  ( nearly mature.

26. Chundee         Clupeia,      ditto ditto.

* * * * *

                               _Candahar_: _May the 2nd_, 1839.

"We have seen three changes in the geological structure of the country.

"The Khojah Omrah was chiefly clay slate, and we are now in another
formation, which no one seems to know; but it must be different as the
outlines of the hills are completely changed.  We are now 3,500 feet
above the sea.  The climate is good, and would be delightful in a good
house, but in tents the thermometer varies from 60 to 98 degrees and even
105 degrees.

"I have got a decent collection of plants, only amounting however to 650
species.  The flora continues quite European.  I have some of singular
interest.  Compositae, Cruciferae, and Gramineae form the bulk of the
vegetation.  All fish are very different from those below the Ghats.  I
have five or six species of Cyprinidae.  One very inimitable fuscous
loach.  There are few birds, and fewer quadrupeds; in fact the country is
at a minimum in both these respects."

* * * * *

                                   _Ghuzni_: _July 25th_, 1839.

"We have been gradually ascending since leaving Candahar, and are here at
an elevation of 7,600 feet.  The same features continue.  I have as yet
not more than 850 species.  The mountains on every side, and indeed the
whole face of the country, is still bare.  Mookloor, a district through
which we passed, about seventy miles from this, is well cultivated and
inhabited.  There are few birds to be seen, and scarcely any insects, but
there are numerous lizards.  The thermometer varies in tents from 60  to
90 degrees."

* * * * *

                                   _Cabul_: _August 11th_, 1839.

"I am encamped close to Baber's tomb, lulled by the sound of falling
water, and cooled with the shade of poplar and sycamore trees, with
abundance of delicious fruit, and altogether quite happy for the nonce.  I
have not yet seen the town which is a strange place, buried in gardens:
but nothing can exceed the rich cultivation of the valley in which we are
encamped.  Beautiful fields on every side, with streamlets, rich verdure,
poplars, willows, and bold mountain scenery, which contrasts most
favourably with the dreary barren tracts to which we have been
accustomed.  I go with the Engineers to Bamean in the course of a few
days, when we shall cross ridges of 12,000 to 13,000 feet high.

"I can only find three kinds of fish in this neighbourhood.  I have been
making some drawings, and collecting a few plants which continue to be
entirely European."

* * * * *

                                 _Peshawur_: _November 17th_, 1839.

"I hope some day or other to turn out a real traveller.  I am now in
hopes of becoming a decent surveyor, and before many years have passed a
decent meteorologist.  I leave the Army here, and shall part with it,
particularly Thomson and Durand of the Engineers, with regret.  I start
in a short time to travel up the Indus with little before me but
difficulties, however _a la renommee_.  If I can do something
unparalleled in the travelling way I shall be content for a year or two
at least.

"I have obtained some few specimens of fossil shells from the shingly
beds of the Khyber Pass.  They seem to be a Spirifer with a very square
base, quite different from the common species of the Bolan Pass, which is
like a large cockle, and of which I have one beautiful specimen.  How I
regret not seeing Bukkur, for with a few days' leisure, a number of
fossils might be obtained.  The older I grow the less content am I
scientifically: would that I had received a mathematical education.  I
was much interested with some quotations from Lyell's Elements in a late
_Calcutta Courier_, especially about the Marine Saurian from the
Gallepagos.  What further proof can be wanted of the maritime and insular
nature of the world during the reigns of the Saurian reptiles?  What more
conclusive can be expected about the appearance of new species?  This
point would at once be settled if the formation of these islands can be
proved not to have been contemporaneous with the Continents.  Then the
animal nature of chalk!

"I am doing nothing in botany, but learning Persian, and the use of the
theodolite, with nothing but difficulties to look at all around.  I begin
to feel of such importance, (do not think me conceited in relation to my
collections and information on geographical botany,) that I am not
overpleased with the idea of facing dangers alone: however I suppose
every thing is as usual exaggerated."

* * * * *

                                    _Bamean_: _August 3rd_, 1840.

"Yesterday I crossed the Hindoo-koosh by my former route, and this
morning while out, i.e. trout fishing, was most agreeably interrupted by
the post.  The fishing was ended forthwith.  Indeed the sun in this
country even at elevations of 12,000 feet is very hot, and has excoriated
my hands, beautifully white as they were after my sickness, but not
before I had caught 3 barbels, evidently different from those of the
other side of the range.  I caught some trout yesterday evening, it is a
most beautiful fish, I was particularly struck with the size of the eye,
its prominence, and expressive pupil, in opposition to the sluggishness
of the eyes of carps.

"It is strange that Botany has always been the most favoured of the
natural sciences, it is strange that in spite of what all do say it is
the least advanced of any.  How can I reconcile my own splendid
opportunities with those of more deserving naturalists in other branches?
and I would willingly share them on the principle of common fairness with
others, who I know would turn them to a better account.  Oreinus takes
the worm greedily; in the Helmund, 11,000 feet above the sea, it is
abundant.  It is the same species I think as that in the Cabul river; but
in the Cabul river, Barbus is the predominant fish: in the Helmund it is
the reverse.  How can one account for the small elevation at which fish
are found in the Himalayan?  I cannot imagine it is owing as some think
to the relative impetuosity of the rivers, which after all is only an
assumption.

"This Bamean valley is the strangest place imaginable, its barrenness and
the variegated colours of the rocks convey the idea of its volcanic
origin, and give it a look as if it had come out of the furnace.  I
cannot make out where the stones so universally found all over the slopes
of the mountains, came from, for very generally they seem water-worn.  I
find no great peculiarity in the flora of this side of the range, except
an abundance of odd-looking Chenopodiaceous plants, probably resulting
from the saline saturation of the soil.  There is a very singular spring
on the other side of the range, about 11,000 feet above the sea: the
water very clear, with no remarkable taste, but every thing around is
covered with a deposit of a highly ferruginous powder.  I shall write
next from the fossil locality, which is said to be about forty miles from
this.  I am as stout as ever, but by no means so strong."

* * * * *

                                   _Bamean_: _August 21st_, 1840.

"I am now out of the region of trees, excepting a poplar, of which I will
send you a bit, as the same tree grows in much lower places.  The want of
rings in wood is by no means unusual in tropical vegetation.  For the
production of rings, some annual check to vegetation is required: their
absence is particularly frequent in climbers.  The walnut will not be a
good instance, because even if you can get it from Java, it is a tree
that requires cold, and must consequently be found at considerable
altitudes.  Your instances must be taken from subjects that can bear a
great range of climate: you have some in the apricot, vine, etc.  I will
not fail in sending you what you want from Cabul, and also from Peshawur,
in which almost the extremes of temperature can be contrasted.  I will
also get the woods of apricots, cherries, etc., at the highest elevations
on my road back, as I hope to pass through the grand fruit country of
Affghanistan.  No Jungermannias are obtainable in this part, nor anywhere
indeed, except towards the true Himalayas.  I do not remember having seen
the pomegranate growing at Cabul: the place is too cold for it.  I think
however, I can get some from Khujjah, where snow lies in winter.  I leave
for the Provinces early in October, and shall travel 30 miles a day.  I
want to get to Seharunpore, 15 or 20 days in advance of my time, as I
must run up to Mussoorie and fish in the Dhoon.  I shall be in Calcutta
in all February."

* * * *

                                 _Cabul_: _September 26th_, 1840.

"I despatch to-morrow the first of the bits of wood, the duplicates will
be sent on the 28th or 29th: on this latter day I leave for Peshawur, and
right glad am I that the time has come at last.  I will send you the same
woods from Peshawur, but shall scarcely be able to send you pomegranate
from any thing like a cold place.

"On receiving your specimens of vine, the following question occurred to
me.  If wood is a deposit from the leaves or fibres sent down from the
leaves, how is the presence of wood to be accounted for in tendrils,
which have no leaves, but yet which are evidently branches?  The theory
of the formation of wood, which considers it as above, is deemed
ingenious, but it will not I think be found to be true.  The bark
evidently has a great deal to say to the matter.

"I shall be most rejoiced at a remote prospect of again setting to work.
I take no interest now in the vegetation of this country.  I hope to be
at Loodianah _early_ in November; my present intention is to run up to
Simla, thence to Mussoorie, and descend on Seharunpore.  If I do this, I
shall only leave one point unfinished, and that is the Hindoo-koosh
Proper, where however I shall have the advantage of Major Sanders of the
Engineers, who will pick up a few plants for me.  I wish much to take
notes of the vegetation about Simla and Mussoorie, this I can do at a bad
season.  I shall afterwards be able to compare the Himalayan chain at
very distant points."

* * * * *

                                         _Serampore_, -- 1841.

"I will send you to-morrow dissections of Santalum if I can get a small
bottle for them: under .5 inch lens you can easily open the pistillum of
Santalum having previously removed the perianth: it is a concial body;
you must take care to get it out entire, especially at the base, then
place it in water, and dissect off the ovula of which there are three or
four, as per sketch.  I shall not say what I see, as I want to have your
original opinion unbiassed, etc.; but whenever you see the tubes with
filaments adhering to their apices, pray mark attentively what takes
place, both at the point and at the place where the tube leaves the
ovulum; your matchless 1/1500 would do the thing.  Try iodine with all
such, after having examined them in water.

"Should you find any difficulty in dissecting away the ovula, light
pressure under glass will relieve you.  I shall be very anxious to know
what your opinion is, particularly with regard to the tubes and all
adhering filaments; the question now occupying botanists, being this, is
the embryo derived directly from the boyau or is it derived from some
parts of the ovulum?

"I hope you can understand these sketches."

* * * * *

                            _Peshawur_: _13th December_, 1839.

"What a shame it is that botanists should know nothing whatever of the
formation and structure of wood!  They look at a section of a piece of
oak, and imagine they have discovered the secret, and write volumes on
this imagination, yet they have been told over and over again, that
nothing is to be learnt on such subjects without beginning at the
commencement, which they are too idle to do.  To name an abominable
Aster, is among them of much higher importance than to discover the cause
of the growth of wood.  Medullary rays are most difficult, because they
are very often deficient particularly in climbers.  I am horridly idle,
and yet what can I do without books; yet with regard to books, the more
originality we possess, the less we require them?  There is nothing to be
got here except a few marsh plants coming into flower.  One beautiful
Chara, which might disclose the secret, had I good glasses, it is a most
graceful pellucid form, an undescribed duckweed, a floating
Marchantiaceae.  Would that I was settled with a Ross on one hand, and a
Strongstein on the other, around my collections with good health and good
spirits.  Tell ---- I have in view the division of the vegetable kingdom
analagous to radiata, they include all the Marchantiaceae, and are, to
all intents and purposes, Vegetable Radiata."

* * * * *

                         _Pushut_, _1st march beyond Kooner_:
_January 29th_, 1840.

"This will be a letter of odds and ends, you know I was to return to
Jallalabad; well I reached that place, but left the encampment and
crossed the river, where an advance road making partly for the Kooner
expedition were employed, and having originally determined on going to
Kooner, I accompanied them two marches, when they were overtaken by the
army, to avoid which, I halted one day, and on the next proceeded onwards
by the north bank of the river, thus saving all the fords of this horrid
river.  I should call it beautiful at any other season.  The road was
bad, and the last one and a half mile into camp most difficult, the path
winding round and over spurs of sharp limestone rocks which must have had
abundance of silex in them they were so very hard.  At the very worst
part, my headman being in front, all of a sudden I heard three shots in
quick succession with the usual hallooing, and then I was called on in
advance, meeting my headman wounded: he has lost the two fore-fingers of
his right hand.  All I saw was three men scrambling up the face of the
hill, on whom I opened a fire as soon as my guns came up, and had the
pleasure of hitting one on the shield.

"Such a scene ensued! for when there are three or four on such occasions
we may reasonably expect thirty or forty, and my object was to get out of
the bad road, and so be close to camp.  Some of, or rather all, my people
became dismayed, I had therefore to cheer, to point my double barrels,
and in fact to enact a whole legion.  One fellow tried to shoot me but
his powder proved faithful, the others were wounded: however they kept in
sight, and to make matters worse, in one place within twenty yards, six
or seven of my loads were thrown; evening drawing on, and prospects
disgusting, when at last having passed over one bad part and got down
into a ravine, a number of people were seen closing down on us, but my
man had run off to camp, and by shouts succeeded in calling five or six
_sepahis_, part of the rear-guard, to our relief, and so we escaped bag
and baggage, the rascals making off when the red coats appeared.  I was
sick at heart at the loss of poor Abdool Rozak's fingers: he is an Arab
with an English heart, bearing his loss most manfully, and when his
fingers were removed expressed anxiety alone about me and my _Sundoogs_
(collections).  Well then, where should I have been had I been assailed
as Abdool Rozak was, I should have been unprepared, and if riding, my
mare would certainly have jumped into the river beneath.  Thomson {0a}
said when he left me, G---, you are rash and Abdool Rozak is rash, take
care or you will get into trouble.  My moving about without a guard was
imprudent, and I now return to Jallalabad to get one, or if not
successful to wait there until the spring and its floral excitements call
me out: what I dislike is danger without any recompense, not a flower is
to be had; with excitement it is nothing.  I have now had two escapes,
one from the buffalo in Assam, and this, which is a greater one, because
had not the army been delayed by accident at the ford, it would have been
eight or ten miles in advance, and consequently there would have been no
rear-guard at hand.

"The country is disturbed, and one can only stir out in the valley itself
close to camp, which is the more tantalizing as the mountains are
accessible, and covered with forest.  Our halt here should put us in
possession of much information respecting these forests.  As it is, I
shall leave probably as wise as I came, except in having ascertained that
the change from the well-wooded Himalaya mountains to those of the Hindoo-
koosh, without even a shrub five feet high, takes place to the east of
this.  My employment is surveying and collecting data for ascertaining
the heights of the hills around.  But wherever I turn, the question
suggests itself, what business have I here collecting plants, with so
many in Calcutta demanding attention?  How I am living! alone, without a
table, chair, wine, or spirits, with a miserable beard, and in native
clothes! but one thus saves much time; how unfortunate that mine now is
not worth saving!

"I have been reading Swainson's volumes in Lardner's Cyclopaedia, in
which there is a little to which severe critics may object, but a vast
deal more that is beautifully sound.  I am quite certain I never
appreciated them before.  How wonderful that no one before Macleay and
Swainson thought that living beings were created on one plan.  I have
imbibed all the important parts with the hope of bringing them to bear on
Botany, which is in a shameful state.  One talks of the typical nature of
polypetalous or monopetalous plants; another ridicules the idea, because
as he wisely says, some polypetalous plants are monopetalous, and vice
versa!! he objects, in fact to what constitutes the great value of a
character, _its mode of variation_.  All Swainson's propositions
appear to me philosophical and highly probable, but none of the present
generation have eyes young enough to bear such a flood of light as he has
thrown upon them.  There are faults I acknowledge, but a man who writes
for money does not always write for fame; rapid writing and much more
rapid publishing is a vast evil, but one which is too often unavoidable.
I have four or five drawings of fish, one of the spotted carnivorous
carp, the most carnivorous type of all except Opsarion, and perhaps a new
subgenus; {0b} one of the Sir-i-Chushme and Khyber _Oreinus_, and a
Perilamp with two long cirrhi on the upper lip.  I intend in my travels
now I am alone, to stop at every fertile place.  I am ascertaining the
limit of the inferior snow in these latitudes, which I fancy will be
3,500 feet.  Is it not curious that here 1,000 feet above Jallalabad we
have had no snow, while at Jallalabad there has been abundance.  I
attribute it to the narrowness of the valley at this place, and to the
forest.  When I glance at the subject of botanical geography, how
astounding appears our ignorance! we have no data, except to determine
the mere temperature and amount of rain yet men will persist in the rage
for imperfect description of undescribed species, and pay no attention to
what is one of the most important agents in preserving things as they are
in our planet,--i.e. vegetation.  On this point Swainson is less happy
than on others when he ascribes such importance to temperature, and
points out the fact that countries in the same latitudes, and having the
same temperatures, produce different animals."

* * * * *

                                 _Cabul_, _September 25th_, 1839.

"I am just on the eve of re-entering Cabul from a visit to Bamean, a
singular place on the other side of the Hindoo-koosh, celebrated for its
idols and caves.  It has amply repaid a march of 106 miles and back
again.  I never saw a more singular place, and never enjoyed myself more:
we crossed several high ridges between 11 and 13,000 feet, but so poor is
the flora that I have only added 200 species to my catalogue, now
amounting to 1200 species instead of 2,400 as I fully expected.  But I
must say I was as much pleased at the acquisition of a genuine _Salmo_ in
the Bamean river (which is a tributary of the Oxus,) as at any thing.

"Unfortunately we were so hurried, that I had only one afternoon and that
an unfavourable one, for indulging in my fishing propensities: the chief
fish seems to come very near the English trout, and so far as I can
judge, is not found on this side the Himalaya.  The other fish of these
rivers are a fine Schizothorax or Oreinus, allied to the _Adoee_, a flat-
headed Siluroid, a loach, and a small Cyprinus.  This is a singular
country, quite unlike any thing I have seen, and as distinct from the
Himalaya in its vegetation, etc. as can well be imagined.  Generally it
is very barren, and after travelling over so much of the country I have
yet seen only three parts of it decently cultivated.  It is reported to
be rich in minerals.

"But it will never bear comparison with Hindoostan.  It is however
capable of much improvement.  It consists of a succession of barren
valleys, divided from each other by barren ridges, and is generally
deficient in the great fertilizer of all things--water.  There is
scarcely an indigenous tree in the whole country, and generally very few
cultivated ones, except about Cabul, although they have poplars and
willows well suited to the climate.  It has been subjected to so much
misrule that the natives have become indifferent to its improvement, (if
they ever felt alive to any such interest.)  The Zoology is very poor,
quite at zero.  There is a species of Ibex, an _Ovis_, and a _Capra_,
which from the frequency of their heads and horns about sacred places and
gateways of towns, must be common; but I have never seen more than a
portion of one fresh specimen of the sheep.  Furs are brought from the
Hindoo-koosh, but are all too mutilated to be of any use, except to a
Zoologist with antiquarian eyes: one Jerboa.  Hares are rather common in
some parts, and about here there is a Lagomys.  Of birds there are but
few, but as the vegetation is chiefly vernal, these creatures may perhaps
be abundant.  The game birds are quail, three species of partridge, a
huge Ptarmigan?  Pterocles of Loodianah.  The fauna is richest in Saurian
reptiles, and of these one might make a very good collection.  I have
only seen two snakes, and both are I believe lost."

* * * * *

                                 _Mirzapore_: _April 26th_, 1841.

"Request --- to refrain from abusing compound microscopes.  Why should
not compound and simple microscopes each have their merits?  Valentine,
who is a great authority, and an unrivalled dissector, says, the simple
lens must be suspended.  I only wish I could dissect with a compound
microscope: what things might not one get access to.  The simple lens is
quite useless with opaque objects; it only does for transmitted light.
Now dissections of opaque objects have been too much neglected.  How odd
it is that all improvements are ridiculed at first.

"I enclose a bit of Sphagnam, a curious moss, with curious incomplete
spiral cells in the leaves.  I dare say it will bear preservation in
Canada balsam.  I have received a new microscope, a queer-looking thing,
very portable; one object glass of a quarter inch focus, by Ross; two eye-
pieces magnifying linearly 200 to 300 times.  I have put it up, but I am
not well enough to decide on its merits.  Now that I have arranged all my
things, I am literally frightened at the work I have to do.

"I am quite annoyed at the idea that German artists make better
microscopes than English.  I was aware that the lenses were better, but
otherwise I imagined that any comparison would be vastly in our favour.  I
am curious to know the price, and where to apply for one, as your account
makes me quite ashamed of mine.  Who knows what a fine penetrating power
of 1100 may not disclose.  I am very much pleased with your idea of
anointing cuts with nitrate of silver; this hint I will bear in mind.

"I enclose the first list of fish, No. 2, not that it is of much
use.--What nonsense it is to collect without knowledge.

No.  Native Name.       Family.                 REMARKS.

1    Kuggur,            Siluridae.
2    Soonnee,           Cyprinidae,             Back greenish,
                                                otherwise pearly-white.
3    Dhurra,            Cyprinidae,             Fins reddish, red spot
                                                on opercule, back
                                                greenish-brown.
4    Moogullee,           "   Perilampoid,      Diaphanous, silvery,
                                                head reddish.
5    Peedur,              "      "              Like the preceding.
6    Moorr,               "      "              Ditto ditto.
7    Bhanghun,            "      "              Ditto ditto.
8    Kundura,             "   Perilampus,       Back greenish,
                                                otherwise quite
                                                silvery.
9    Pullee,              "      "              Same as 4,5,6,7.
10   Goolla             Ciprinidae.
11   Khunnuree,         _Percidae_, Chanda
                         of Buchanan,           Diaphanous.
12   Sur-ri-rha,        Cyprinidae Perilamp,    Silvery-green on back.
13   Gundhan,             "   Perilampoid,      Same colours.
14   Mhukk,               "      "              Ditto ditto.
15   Ghurr,               "      "              Ditto ditto.
16   Dhoalee,           Ophiocephalus,          Colour brown, with
                                                usual marks and bars.
17   Ahaiha,            Siluridae,              Diaphanous, 3-5
                                                irregular longish
                                                stripes.
18   Mhullee,           Silurus,                Silvery-blueish.
19   Mhoarree,          Cyprinidae,             Yellowish-green, fins
                                                reddish. 5 seers.
20   Dhumpurra,           "                     Brownish-green, 6
                                                seers.
21   Pho-eikee,           " Perilampoid.
22   Putollee,          Cyprinidae,             Back and sides
                                                light-green.
23   Poapree,             "                     Back greenish-brown,
                                                sides greenish.
24   Shingra,           Siluridae,              No stripes, lightly
                                                tinged with brown.
25   Dhimmurr,          Silurus.
26   Ghoa-gha,            "                     Back greenish,
                                                punctulate, head
                                                reddish.
27   Mokkhurr,          Opiocephalus.
28   Dhujjha,             "
29   Thailla,           Cyprinidae,             5 to 6 seers.
30   Mhorakkee,           "                     Much like 19.
31   Singarhee,           "                     Much like 4, 5, 6, 7.
32   Logurr,            Siluridae,              3 to 4 faint punctulate
                                                longish lines.
33   Ghoje,             Not noted.
34   Tupree,              "
37   Ghunghutt,         Perilampus.
38   Soourr,            Siluridae,              Diaphanous. Faint
                                                punctulate lines.
39   Soonaree,          Cyprinidae.
40   Phunnee,             "      Perilampoid.
41   Kutchoo,             "                     Much like the
                                                preceding.
42   Saisurr,             "                     Ditto ditto.
43   Coommee,             "                     Much like no. 4.
44   Saluree,             "                     Ditto ditto.
45   Shumsheer,           "                     So called because of
                                                its voracity,
                                                  (Shumsheer a sabre.)
46   Ghora,               "                     Same as Soonee.
47   Saboan,              "                     Same as the preceding.
48   Bhambhun,          Cyprinidae,             Same as Dhurra.

All the above from the Indus, at Shikarpore.

No.  Family.            River.          REMARKS.

49   Cyprinidae,         Nari,          Small size, colour-silvery,
                                        except upper back, which is
                                        bluish-green.
50   Siluridae,          Mysore.
51   Ophiocephalus,       "
52     "                  "
53   Cyprinidae,          "             Same as 49.
54     " Systomus.        "             A beautiful fish, bright green
                                        back, otherwise bright
                                        orange-red, fins stained with
                                        black colours; fugacious.
55   Cyprinidae,          "
56     " Systomus,        "             Back greenish, opercle orange
                                        spotted, one black spot near
                                        tail.
57   Percida Chamda       "
58   Perilampoid,         "
Water of both these rivers, quiescent: bunded up.
59   Cyprinoid,         Dadur.
60     "                  "             Same as 54.
61     " Systomus,        "             Same as 56.
63   Cyprinoid,           "
64     "                  "
65     "                  "
66     "                  "             Same as 59.
67   Cobites,             "
68   Cyprinoid,         Bolan,          Bluish-green, blue bars and
                                        dots. Takes the fly.
69   Barbus?              "             Intestines very long, much like
                                        Naipoora.
70   Gonorhynchus?        "
71     "                  "             Probably a small specimen of
                                               69.
72   Cyprinoid,           "
73     " Gonorhyncus,   Gurmab,         Same as 70?
74     "                  "
75   Cyprinoid,           "             Closely allied to the Mahaseer.
76   Ditto Mahaseer,      "             Beautiful fish with
                                        yellow-brown back, golden
                                        sides.  Takes fly greedily.
77     " Gonorhynchoid,   "
78     "                  "
79   Silurida,            "             In Bolan river, deep still
                                        water.
80   Cyprinoid,           "             In small streams.
81   Macrognathus,        "             Tenacious of life, belly puffy,
                                        common throughout; a good deal
                                        like a Gudgeon.
82   Loach,             Quettah.
83   Cyprinoides,         "             A beautiful silvery-leaden
                                        backed fish, with a streak of
                                        bright-red along the side.
                                        Common, very like the
                                        preceding: of these Quettah
                                        fish No. 83 is the most common,
                                        82 the least so.
84   Cyprinus, curious,    "
      not being a
      mountainous form.
86     "                   "
87   Cyprinoides,        Lora,          Same mountain form,
                                        Gonorhynchoid.
88     "                   "
89   Loach,                "            Ditto ditto ditto.
90     "                   "            Perhaps same as the preceding.
91   Cyprinoides,          "
92     "                   "            Like the Adoee.
93     "                   "            Mountain form.
94     "                   "            Large size for the genus.
95     "                   "            _Note_.--Probable number of
                                        species 47, deducting those
                                        supposed not different
96   Cyprinoid,          Urghundab.
97   Loach,                "
98   Siluridae,            "
"I subjoin a list given me by a fisherman at Shikarpore, with his divisions into large and small:--
Large.                      Small.

Dhumpurra,                  Ghunghut.
Buree Phookee,              Pedir.
Buree Thaillee,             Soonnee.
Mhoarrhee,                  Phokee.
Moukkur,                    Mogullee.
Gundhan,                    Dhimmur.
Singaree,                   Ghoagar.
* Pulla,                    Khuggur.
                            Seenra.
                            Mhorr.
                            Bhangun.
                            Ghurr.
                            Soourr.
                            Morakee.
                            Tupree.
                            Ghogee.
                            Phopree.
                            Thaillee.
                            * Pulla.
                            Punnotee.
                            Dhaiee.
                            Ghogura.

(I send this list as all the specimens are not lost, and some are among
the plants.  Most of the species are, I think, distinct, and when they
have appeared to me not to be so, I have generally noted it on the spot.

The mountain forms are very distinct, the mouth being under the snout, or
head, the intestines long, peritoneum covered with a black pigment.  These
forms commence at Dadur, 800 feet above the sea: this stream abounds in
rapids.

Gurmab is 1,100 feet.  Quettah, 5,600 feet.  Lora river, 3,600 feet.
Urghundab, 3,600 feet.

These lists may be of some small use compared with Burnes's collection.
To a certain extent they may be useful as showing the preponderance, etc.
of certain forms.  You may rely on my distinctions between Cyprinidae,
Siluridae, and Percidae.)

"To-morrow I will send the other list of specimens No. 3, which will I
hope reach you; of all the fish in these parts, the Sir-i-Chushme and
Cabul river _Oreinus_ travels farthest up.  I have caught it at nearly
11,000 feet in the Helmund river.  Then come loaches, and the beautiful
trout-like Opsarion; other Cyprinidae ascend 2,000 or 3,000 feet, the
Mahaseer scarcely more.  Above that, come the genuine mountain forms.

No.  Family.           Locality.          REMARKS.

1    Cyprinidae,        Streams from      A brown fish, with irregular
       Oreinus?          So-faid-koh,     black spots.

2    Cyprinidae,         "

3      "                 "                A sombre looking Gudgeon-like
                                          fish, back blackish, sides
                                          yellowish, punctulate with
                                          groups of blackish spots.

4    Loach,              "                Colours and patches obscure.

5    Perilamp,         Jallalabad river,  Usual silvery-bluish hues.

6    Cyprinidae,moun-
     tain form,
     Schizothorax.

7    Cyprinidae, _Poo_-   "               Colours obscure, scales
       _teoides_,                         minute, dorsal spine very
                                          strong.

8    Cyprinidae,          "               A stout fish, of obscure
                                          colours, each scale with a
                                          transverse more or less
                                          wavy red line (like the
                                          Nepoora of Assam), mouth
                                          nepooroid, intestines very
                                          long, very thin, very
                                          frangible, packed in longish
                                          folds, Peritoneum covered
                                          with a black pigment. Herbiv.

9    Cyprinidae. Peri-   "                Back metallic bluish-brown,
       lampoid,                           otherwise silvery.

10   Cyprinoid,          "

11     " Schizo-         "
          thorax,

12     "   "             "                Back greenish, fins reddish,
                                          snout elongated.

13     "   "             "                Colours brownish, tinged with
                                          yellow; perhaps it is the
                                          same as the Helmund and Cabul
                                          species: intestines packed in
                                          a few folds, moderately long,
                                          4.5 inches longer than body:
                                          diameter of body 2 inches.
                                          Peritoneum with the black
                                          pigment   _Carneo-herbivorous_.

14   Cyprinoid,          "

15   Ophiocephalus,    Jheels, etc, Bus-  Colour rather a rich brown,
                         soollah,         pectoral fins barred with
                                          chesnut.

16   Cyprinoid like a    "                Back brownish: this colour
       Bleak, Schizo-                     limited to a narrowish line,
        thorax,                           otherwise entirely pearly.
                                          Peritoneum covered with black
                                          pigment. Intestines rather
                                          large, in 3 or 4 folds.

17   Cyprinoid. A nar-   "                A very pretty species,
      row deep fish.                      brownish back, marked faintly
       Perilamp.  An                      both longitudinally and
        Opsarion?                         transversely with iridescent
                                          patches, abdominal fins
                                          reddish.

18   Cyprinoid,        Jheels, etc, Bus-  A handsome species allied to
                        soollah, very     the Mahaseer; back black,
                         common,          otherwise yellowish, fins
                                          tinged with red, scales as it
                                          were bordered with
                                          dusky-black. Intestines
                                          short.

19     "                 "                An oval, rather thick fish,
                                          of obscure colours.

20     " Schizo-         "                An elegant species, back
          thorax.                         obscurely brown, otherwise
                                          pearly. Peritoneum black,
                                          covered with pigment.
                                          Intestines very long and
                                          narrow.

21   Racoma nobilis{0c} Lalpoor, Cabul    A stout fish, with a large
                        river,            head, not unlike a trout at
                                          first sight   Sides bluish
                                          silvery grey, back obscurely
                                          brown, remarkable for
                                          frequent irregular
                                          well-defined black spots,
                                          faintest in small specimens,
                                          fins tinged with reddish.
                                          Head flat at top, with some
                                          spots. Peritoneum with black
                                          pigment. Intestines of large
                                          size, loaded with fat, short,
                                          not twice the length of the
                                          abdomen, cavity loaded with
                                          fat. As usual no caeca. A
                                          remarkable type: aspectu
                                          omnino carnivoris.

22   Loach,            Khyber range       A very small and slender
                        stream, from      species, light brown,
                        Sir-i-Chushme     speckled and barred with
                        spring, temper,   brown, attracted
                        75 degrees, from  immediately by scraping up
                        limestone rocks.  the bed of the outlet of the
                                          spring.

23   Cyprinid, Orei-   Same place, but    Back brown, with some
       noides,         occurs down to     iridescent hues, sides
                       Khyber ghat        yellowish brown, dark spots
                       stream.            confined to back and sides,
                                          small but distinct; fins
                                          tinged with reddish.
                                          Peritoneum loaded with
                                          black pigment. Intestines in
                                          short loops across abdomen of
                                          intermediate size, as to
                                          length and diameter. Air
                                          bladder small; very common.
                                          Swarm in deepish pools under
                                          limestone rocks, takes bait,
                                          i.e. offal and worms with
                                          great avidity. Like many
                                          other species, it is asserted
                                          to be the English trout: it
                                          rises to the surface.

24   Loach,            Same place com-    Shape subcylindrical, pale
                         mon,             greenish-brown, with very
                                          broad bars of brown, fins
                                          spotted with black,
                                          otherwise fuscescent; at root
                                          of tail a deep black bar.
                                          Head depressed, in old
                                          specimens broad, closely
                                          spotted with black, snout
                                          attenuated, apex with cirrhi;
                                          upper jaw in the centre with
                                          a bony process not unlike an
                                          incisor tooth

25   Cyprinid, Opsa-      "               A beautiful trout-like fish,
       rion                               back bluish-black, triangular
                                          bars of azure blackish,
                                          ending in a point towards
                                          glandular line, fins tinged
                                          with orange, tail tipped with
                                          black. Peritoneum spotted
                                          slightly with black.

26     " Opsarion,        "               Possibly young specimens of
                                          preceding, colours same but
                                          fainter."

* * * * *

                    _Memorandum on return from Afghanistan_.

"As I considered on my arrival at Peshawur in December 1839, that a great
deal remained to be done, I obtained permission to remain another season
in Affghanistan.  I immediately mentioned my wishes of travelling to
General Avitabili, who strongly advised me not to attempt leaving
Peshawur in any novel direction, as the whole of his district was much
disaffected.  Soon afterwards I heard of an expedition being on the point
of leaving Jallalabad for Kooner, and I determined on joining it.  I re-
traversed the Khybur Pass alone, and arrived at Jallalabad just in time
to go in the advance.  I was present at Pushut, 18th January 1840; and on
the return of the force I remained behind with Captain Macgregor.  In
February 1840 I accompanied Captain Macgregor to Chugur-Serai, and thence
to Otipore or Chugur-Serai-Balu on the immediate frontier of Kaffiristan,
and through his influence I was enabled to remain there, and to increase
my materials in an extremely interesting direction.  I remained about
Otipore for some weeks, making arrangements for penetrating into
Kaffiristan and little Cashgur, and in daily expectation of being joined
by the late Capt. E. Connolly; all my plans, which first seemed to
promise success, were completely frustrated by the disturbances which
broke out in Bajore, consequent on Meer Alum Khan's absence at
Jallalabad.  Capt. Connolly barely escaped with his life from the hands
of the Momauds.  Meer Alum Khan found on his return towards his
government that he could not leave Chugur-Serai, and at last,
circumstances threatened so much around Otipore and Chugur-Serai, that
Meer Alum Khan insisted on my leaving Otipore and on returning with him
to Jallalabad.  I did not leave a moment too soon, for shortly after,
Syud Hoshin turned Otipore by crossing the hills to the north of Deogul,
and very soon possessed himself of Otipore.  Meer Alum and I reached
Jallalabad in safety, having been attacked once on the road.

"I remained at Jallalabad a few days, and was driven thence to Khaggah by
the necessity of obtaining medical aid.  I reached Khaggah in a high
fever, and was confined to my bed for six weeks: during my severe
illness, I experienced the greatest kindness and attention from Dr.
Thomson and Dr. Andrew Paton, of the H. C. European Regt.

"Early in July I proceeded to Cabul for change of air, and as soon as I
recovered a little strength, started to join Lieut. Sturly, who was
surveying on the Toorkistan frontier.  I met that Officer at Syghan the
day he left to prosecute his surveys, which had been interrupted by the
Kamard disturbances: he was recalled to Syghan, in consequence of heavier
and more serious disturbance.

"I returned to Cabul, as I found it impossible to proceed beyond Syghan,
and then waited with impatience for a season that would enable me to
cross the Punjab without great risk to my still debilitated constitution.

"My establishment of collectors consisted of unintelligent Affghans, who
were particularly prone to abrupt abscondings, and my supplies of
materials and carriage very limited.

"The botanical collection is as extensive as could be expected from the
nature of the country and the climate.  It is in excellent order,
consisting of about 1500 species, and a great number of duplicates.  This
collection has been formed on the principles which have guided me on
former travels.  Those principles I conceive to require the collection of
every form in numbers, and in various localities, so that the
geographical limits of each may be estimated, and the examination be
open.  They also require information as to habitat, locality, climate,
whether the plants are gregarious or not, and whether they contribute to
giving peculiar features to the country.  I do not hesitate to say that
this collection contains almost all the plants that existed in flower or
fruit along the line of march of the army between Cabul and Syghan, about
Chugur-Serai, Otipore, and Pushut, and in the neighbourhood of Khaggah.

"The extent over which it was formed is about 1,600 miles, and on the
variety of geographical position a considerable part of its value
depends.  If the plants between Cabul and Peshawur are less rich, as my
journeys between those cities always occurred at unfavourable seasons,
the deficiency has been lessened by my friend Dr. Ritchie.

"The Ornithological portion of the collection, consists of about 350
specimens, is in good order, and contains many objects of interest,
valuable for throwing some light on the geographical distribution of
birds.

"To the fish of the various tracts I paid considerable attention, but
owing to the difficulties of travelling and of climate, the collection
has suffered severely.  At Shikarpore I made an extensive collection of
the fish of the Indus.  I had collected most of the fish of the river, of
the Bolan Pass, of the streams of Quettah, and of the Urghundab, near
Candahar, unfortunately I relied too much on the preservative powers of
alcohol.  Subsequently I took the additional precaution of preserving
skins separately; and it is to these which amount to about 150 specimens,
that the collections are chiefly limited.  The collections contain the
fish of the Cabul river, between its source near Sir-i-Chushme, and
Peshawur, of the Helmund at an altitude of 11,500 feet, of the Bamean
river, and of the Chenab, Ravee, and Sutledge.

"This collection is particularly interesting, as showing that while the
plants, quadrupeds, and birds of the southern and northern declivities of
the Kohi-Baba, the continuation of the Hindoo-koosh, are much alike, yet
that a total difference exists in their fish.

"Lord Keane, and Sir Willoughby Cotton, left me in complete possession of
my own time, a great kindness due no doubt to the considerate
instructions of Lord Auckland, but for which I was not the less grateful.

"I always found Sir Alexander Burnes very considerate and very willing to
forward my views, and put me in possession of information.  The late Dr.
Lord also showed himself anxious to assist me in my duties, and very
kindly asked me to join the Mission to Toorkistan, so suddenly put an end
to by a suspected outbreak in Kohistan.

"To Captain Macgregor I was under great obligations during the whole time
I continued in his district.  Through his influence I was enabled to
remain at the outer borders of Kaffiristan; and that deservedly warm
respect which he was held in by all the chiefs, would, I am confident,
have gained me access into Kaffiristan, and towards Cashgur, at any less
unsettled period.  I have seen Captain Macgregor in the closet and in the
field, and I cannot sufficiently express the respect with which I have
had cause to regard him in both situations.

"Captain Sanders, of the Bengal Engineers, was always eager to swell my
stock of materials, and during periods of occasional indisposition, I
relied almost entirely on him.  Captain Sanders had also made for me a
collection of plants between Candahar and Herat, which, I regret to say,
was nearly entirely destroyed in crossing one of the rivers on that
route.

"It is to Dr. Ritchie, of the Bombay Medical Service, the companion of
the justly celebrated Major Pottinger, during his return from Herat via
Jhomunna, that the Botanical collections are mostly indebted.  Dr.
Ritchie not only placed unreservedly at my disposal a very interesting
collection made on that journey, but also a larger one made between
Peshbolak and Peshawur.  Both these are of considerable value, the one
shows that the Affghan forms prevail as far as Herat on both sides of the
Paropamisus, the other shows that Affghanistan, even in its hottest
parts, has a majority of European forms.  To the contents of these
collections, notes of the localities are also added, enhancing their
value very considerably.  I may be excused for adding, that Dr. Ritchie
is acquainted with route surveying; in this and his knowledge of Botany,
he possesses two valuable requisitions of a traveller.

"Dr. Grant, of the Bombay Medical Service, formerly in Medical charge of
Dr. Lord's Mission, liberally presented me with an excellent series of
specimens from the valley of Syghan.

"While I am beyond measure indebted for Zoological collections, to
Captain Hay, of the European Regiment."

* * * * *

"The following notes addressed to Emanuel Fernandez, plant collector at
Malacca, may perhaps be useful as containing instructions for the
collection and transmission of plants and seeds.  They are perhaps worthy
of insertion on other grounds, as an example of the painstaking, and
patient manner in which Mr. Griffith made his wishes known to the persons
employed by him in his pursuits."

* * * * *

_To Emanuel Fernandez_.

"I have received the open box of seeds, and the large case of plants, per
_'Tenasserim_.'  The Ebool seeds were coming up, the dried plants are in
good order, and are of very good kinds.

"Before you put in the palms and fruits with other collections, you
should see that they are quite dry, as otherwise they rot and injure the
dried plants.  When you send up more fruits, etc. put them into open
rattan baskets, so that they may be aired.

"I send a list of palms and _rotans_ wanted very much, and two more
glazed cases for seeds: water the earth inside a day before closing the
boxes and sending them off to Singapore.  Whenever you get any good
seeds, dry them, and put them in a letter, directed to me.  Seeds spoil
by being kept, particularly if kept among wet fruits and dried plants.

"If you can get flower-pots in Malacca buy two or three dozen, and
whenever you get seeds sow them in a pot, and keep them, until you have
enough pots filled to occupy one of the cases, then put mould between the
pots, and sow more seeds in this mould, fasten the lid down and send off
the box to Singapore."

* * * * *

                                        _May 30th_, 1843.

"The cases of plants, etc. have arrived: the fresh plants were nearly all
dead.

"You planted them very well, and cleverly, but some how or other the lids
of the boxes were nailed down, and so the plants died; because plants
will not live without light.

"Some of the Ebool seeds have sprouted, one Lanjoot arrived alive, and
also the Pakoo Galowe.

"I will send soon two glazed cases, in which you may put plants as
before, and seeds of palms, or any good plants: sow them in the same
manner, and three or four days before the cases are despatched water the
earth and plants moderately; then screw down the lid, when the plants, if
they have rooted in the earth, will not die, because the glass admits
light to them.  But to be sure of the plants having rooted, you must keep
the cases with you for three weeks, and if any plants are sickly, take
them out and put in others.

"I send a list: when your next despatch arrives, I will increase your
pay.  If you send plenty of seeds, etc. often, that is once a month or
six weeks, I will keep you in my service even if I do not come back to
Malacca.

"I also send a box with a large bottle in it of spirits of wine, this is
for monkey cups (Nepenthes).  Take the finest ones you can get of all
sorts, and put them in the bottle, leaves and all, do not squeeze them
into the bottle, then send it to me."

* * * * *

"I send two empty glazed cases for plants: when these reach you, fill
them with moist earth and plant in them ripe fresh seeds of the following
palms * * *  You need not wait until you have obtained all, but such only
as you can get at once; but remember when you have got ripe seeds of any
kind to sow them in the case.  Take care the earth is not too wet.  The
seeds you sent, sown in an open box, came up, and we have now six or
seven live Ebools, etc.

"Send me up some ripe fruits and seeds of the Epoo, those you sent were
not ripe.  If you can get any ripe ones, also sow some with the palm
seeds."

* * * * *

                                  _Calcutta_: _March 26th_, 1844.

"When you prepare Rotangs do not cut off the stalk of the leaf close to
the stem, but six inches from it, and do not cut off the thorns, but tie
all up in mats or gunny bags: at the same time send the leaves of each
dried in paper like other plants and flowers, all with names written
plainly in English and Malay.

"Send live plants according as you receive boxes for them."

* * * * *

"Whenever you find ripe fruits or seeds, dry them in the sun, and then
send them to the Post Office for despatch in paper bags.  Sow palm seeds
in open boxes as you did before, the Ebool having come up."

* * * * *

                                  _January_ 14_th_, 1844.

"The plants dried and living have been received, and do you great credit.
The live plants particularly are in excellent order.  I have sent two
more cases, when they reach you, fill them as you have done before, and
despatch them to me.  I send some cards on which you can write the names
plainly, and tie them on the specimens.  I will also send you a pocket
English Dictionary, and make you a present of the English and Portuguese
one."



PRIVATE JOURNALS OF WM. GRIFFITH, F.L.S.


CHAPTER I.


_When proceeding with the Assam Deputation for the_
_Examination of the Tea Plant_.

_September_, _1835_.--We arrived at Pubna on the 9th of September, and
left it on the following morning, pursuing the course of the Pubna
"Karee," which is exceedingly tortuous and of about an average width of
100 yards.  On the evening of the 10th, we halted in the same river near
its termination.  This morning we reached the "Beera," into which the
Pubna Karee enters, and which at the mouth presents a vast expanse of
water.  Among the jheels which occur on every side, we noticed in
abundance the _Tamarix dioica_.  About noon we entered a narrow river,
and in the evening a very narrow creek in which in two places we
experienced a great difficulty in getting the boats along.  We noticed
_Alpinia allughas_, _Nymphaea pubescens_, _Oxystelma esculentum_,
_Apluda aristata_, in abundance.  Up to this period the two most
conspicuous grasses continue to be _Saccharum spontaneum_, and
_Andropogon muricatus_.

_Sunday_, _13th_.--Arrived at Shiraz-gunge, about half-past 8 A.M., from
which place the people say Jumalpore is a three days' journey.  The
country through which we proceeded after leaving Shiraz-gunge is nothing
but a net-work of rivers, several of vast size, and low islands, occupied
almost exclusively by _Saccharum spontaneum_, and in some places
abounding in _Typha elephantina_, in fruit.  We halted at a small
village in the evening, where we procured _Centrostachys aquatica_.

_September 14th_.--Came in sight of distant very elevated land, which
we suppose to be the Kassiya Hills.  This morning (15th) the Hills are
very plain, and bear nearly due north.  The country through which we
passed yesterday presented no change whatever.  _Andropogon muricatus_
has now nearly left us; but the _Saccharum_ reaches to a large size, and
is incredibly abundant.  The natives use it for thatching their huts.  We
were visited by a heavy squall in the evening.

_16th_.--Strong winds from an easterly direction.  About noon we
succeeded in reaching a creek, in which we are completely sheltered.
During our route here, we were employed in examining a new species of
_Crotalaria_, and one of _Mitrasacme_! In pools close to us are
_Damasonium indicum_, _Nymphaea caerulea_, _Myriophyllum_
_tetrandrum_, _Polygonum rivulare_, and a species of _Villarsia_, _V_.
_cristata_.

_19th_.--Left the creek, and arrived at Jumalpore about 2 P.M.; the
cantonment of which occupies the right-hand side of the Burrampooter,
along the bank of which the officers' houses are situated; indeed this is
the only dry line about the place, as immediately inland there are
nothing but jheels and rice fields.  Jumalpore is about .75 of a mile
from the junction of the Jenai with the Burrampooter or rather from the
point of exit of the former river.

_24th_.--We left the cantonment about 11 A.M., and proceeded down the
Burrampooter, which is a very uninteresting river, and appears more like
a net-work of water and sand banks; opposite Jumalpore, the banks are
about a mile apart, but the distance between the extreme banks, leaving
the island opposite the cantonment out of the question, is much more.
During the dry weather this part of the river is passable, and indeed is
in some places nothing but a dry bed of sand, so that people walk across
it.  During our stay at the above place we met with many interesting and
new plants, among which a new species of _Villarsia_ occupied the most
prominent place.  _Cyperaceae_, _Gramineae_, and aquatic _Scrophularineae_
abound.  _Solanum spirale_ occurs in abundance, and the trees commence
to be clothed with ferns.  I observed only one _Epiphytica Orchidea_,
probably an _Aerides_.

The banks consist hitherto of nothing but sand, covered with _Saccharum_
_spontaneum_.  _Andropogon muricatus_ is scarcely to be met with.

_26th_.--We left Mymensing this morning, and proceeded down the
Burrampooter, the banks of which still present for the most part nothing
but a succession of sandy banks covered with _Saccharum spontaneum_.
The stream is not very rapid, and the river, owing to the numerous
islands and banks, does not present so imposing an appearance as the
Ganges.  For the last week strong easterly winds have prevailed.

_27th_.--We entered the mouth of the Soormah, or, as the natives seem to
call it, the Barak.  The water of this river or portion of the Megna? is
remarkably clear, compared with that of the Ganges; as indeed is that of
the Burrampooter.

_30th_.--Some time after we entered the Soormah we apparently left its
channel, and up to this morning we have passed through a tract of jheels
with a few clear and very deep channels.  The villages are built on small
eminences, and are entirely surrounded with water; they have the usual
form, and those houses adjoining the water have fences of an _Arundo_,
which they tell us are intended to keep out the grass.  We have since
entering these jheels passed through and between immense beds of
vegetation, formed principally of _Oplismenus_ (Panicum) _stagninus_,
_Leersia_? _aristata_, which by-the-bye is a distinct genus.  _Villarsia_
_cristata_, _Nymphaealotus_, Potamogeton, _Azolla Salvinii_, etc. etc.
The only novel things we have met with are _Ischaemum cuspidatum_,
Roxb. (sui generis,) and a small grass intermediate between Panicum and
Chamaeraphis.  The wild form of _Oryza sativa_, _Panicum interruptum_
and _Leersia_? _ciliaris_, Roxb. also occur; the two former in abundance.
On the more dry tracts, that occasionally though very rarely occur,
_Andropogon muricatus_ appears.  No _Saccharum_ presented itself since
the 28th.  High ground was visible yesterday evening, apparently at a
great distance.

_October 1st_.--We have continued to pass through immense jheels: about
6 A.M. we arrived at Hubbe-gunge, a large native town, situated on the
Barak, which does not deserve the name of a river.  The actual distance
from this place to Chattuc is about 42 miles, and the high land in that
direction was faintly visible for about 2 hours in the morning.  The
ground to the Eastward is losing the "Jheel" character, and appears
densely wooded, and to the S.E. rather high hills are visible.  Altogether
this land of jheels is very remarkable, particularly on account of the
great depth of the water, which except in one point has hitherto always
exceeded 6 feet, and yet the water has fallen in all probability two or
three more.  As the head quarters of tropical aquatic plants, it is well
worthy of attention; the profusion of _Leersia aristata_, Roxb. is
immense, but this is almost exceeded by _Oplismenus stagninus_.

_On the 3rd October_, we left the tract of jheels, and proceeded by
small rivers, overhung with jungle and fine bamboos; on the 5th we re-
entered the Soorma and proceeded down it to Chattuc, which is situated on
the left bank of the river, and which we reached in the afternoon.  During
our passage down the river we had beautiful views of the mountains, which
do not however strike one with an idea of great height.  We could plainly
distinguish two or three waterfalls shooting over scarped precipices.

_Churra Punjee_, _October 30th_.--After a residence of 20 days here,
I wrote to Mr. Solly, stating nothing particular, except that Bucklandia
has coniferous tissue, and that Podostemon will probably prove
Monocotyledonous and allied to Pistiaceae.  Our stay here has proved a
source of great delight, and accumulation of botanical and geological
treasures.  The cantonments of Churra are at an elevation of 4200 feet
above the sea, the native village being situated half way up the ascent
which closes in the table-land on which the cantonment is situated
towards the N. and W., and it is hence about 300 feet higher.  The
country immediately adjoining the cantonment is flat, with here and there
a rounded hillock, destitute of any covering but grasses and a few low,
half shrubby plants.  To the Eastward there is a very deep and beautiful
valley, the west side of which in particular is densely covered with
jungle, but this does not contain any large trees.  The opposite side,
fronting our bungalow, runs nearly N. and S., presents a succession of
ravines, and a most picturesque and varied surface.  This valley, along
the bottom of which as is usual a torrent runs, opens into the low
country at Terrya Ghat, which is situated at the foot of the ascent to
Churra.  Directly to the south, and at a distance of about two miles from
the cantonments, there is another valley likewise occupied below by a
torrent fed by the Moosmai falls.  The commencement of all these valleys,
that I have at least seen, is a sheer precipice, which often, and
particularly at Moosmai, assumes the form of a vast amphitheatre, over
the brink of which cascades, especially at Moosmai, fall in tolerable
plenty.  It is in these places that the immense depth of the sandstone is
best seen; the depth of the valley of Moosmai is, I am told, 1500 feet,
the country above these precipices is generally level, and is in fact
table-land.  The most beautiful valley is at Maamloo, a village to the
Westward of Churra, and about five miles distant.  The approach to Churra
is pretty enough, and gives the best view of the cantonment.  The coal
mines are to the Westward, and close to Churra.  These I have not yet
seen; the coal is of the very best description, it does not splinter,
gives remarkably few ashes, affords an admirable fire and the best coke.
Water-courses are plenty about Churra, but the body of water is at this
season small, although it becomes considerable after a few hours rain; it
is then that the great fall at Moosmai becomes really beautiful, the
water shooting over the precipice and falling into a bason about 150 feet
below.  By a succession of these falls, although of more limited height,
it at length reaches the bottom of the valley.  It is only on the
precipices about the fall that the Chamaerops appears to grow; at the
foot of a precipice a little to the right (going from Churra,) a tree
fern grows, which I have Wallich's authority for stating to be Polypod
giganteum, a fern which occurred at Mahadeb, and which I have seen in
somewhat similar situations at Mergui.  All my excursions have been
confined to this valley and to the water-courses immediately around
Churra; once only have I quitted the table-land and proceeded to Maamloo,
and yet in this very limited space the profusion of objects has been such
as to enable me only to embrace a very limited proportion.  The above
excursion proved very rich.  About half way to Maamloo I discovered a
solitary tree fern (_Alsophila Brunoniana_,) and to the left, and up
the broken sides of the calcareous cliffs that occur here and between
Maamloo and Moosmai, a group of several magnificent specimens, of which
on the succeeding day we brought home three.  We saw none above 30 feet,
although the specimen in the British Museum from these hills measures 45.
Their axis is of small diameter, and is nearly cylindrical, the vascular
fascicles being disposed in covered bundles, often assuming the form of a
UU near the circumference of the very dense cellular tissue of which the
axis is chiefly composed.  Towards the base it is enveloped in an oblique
dense mass of intermottled rigid fibres (roots) which, as they are
developed in the greatest extent, the nearer they approach the base, give
the trunk a conical form.  Their growth is essentially endogenous, and
will probably be found when examined aborigine to approximate to that of
Cycadeae, although these last are of a more exogenous than endogenous
nature.  Nothing however is known of the growth of Palms, Cycadeae, or
tree ferns.  I have above alluded to the calcareous rocks or cliffs;
these are of the same formation with those that occur so abundantly on
the Tenasserim coast, although they are much more rich in vegetation.
These I first saw at Terrya Ghat; like those of Burmah they abound in
caves, and assume the most varied and picturesque forms; they appear to
be the head quarters of Cyrthandraceae, of which we found a noble species
with the flower of a Martynia growing among the tree-ferns.  They are
very rich in ferns and mosses, of which last near the tree-ferns I
gathered four species of four genera without moving a foot.  The cliffs
in which, or at the foot of which the coal is found, bound the Churra
cantonments to the Westward.  These are chiefly calcareous.  The entrance
to Churra lies between this and the precipice at Moosmai.  Very few
animals of any description are to be seen about Churra.  I have seen one
small species of deer, about half as large again as the mouse-deer of
Mergui, and one young flying squirrel of a greyish black colour, with a
very bushy tail.  Leopards are, they say, not uncommon.  Tigers do not
generally come so high.  Of birds, I mean about Churra, there are several
species of hawks, and their old companions crows and swallows; but I have
seen no sparrows, which is singular enough.  There is one beautiful
species of jay, with crimson-orange beak and legs, and a pretty
king-fisher; but, except perhaps in the valleys, birds, I should say, are
very scarce.  With respect to shooting, scarcely any is to be had; wood-
cocks are found in the dells about Churra, but sparingly.  I have seen
only one snipe and one quail.

Regarding the natives, I have little to say.  They are a stout-built,
squat, big-legged hill tribe: the women in regard to shape being exactly
like their mates; and as these are decidedly ugly--somewhat tartarish-
looking people, very dirty, and chew pawn to profusion--they can scarcely
be said to form a worthy portion of the gentler sex.  They appear to be
honest; but that is a quality which, from the example of their European
lords, they are said to be losing fast.  They have no written character;
every thing being transmitted by tradition, and performed by the
interchange of tokens.  They drink like fish, and manufacture a bad kind
of arrack, the pernicious effects of which were experienced by the
European invalids when the Sanatarium was in existence.  They pay respect
to their dead by the erection of a sort of kairns and large erect slabs
of sandstone rounded off at the upper end: of these, I believe, they put
up three or five to each friend, according to their means and, probably,
rank.  The Churra people cultivate nothing but a little cotton, and
perhaps a species of Eleasine.  They depend upon the plains for their
support and supplies, and this is good management since rice at Terrya
Ghat is sold at 70 or 80 seers a rupee.  Their hire is, considering the
cheapness of their food, very expensive; a man being rated at four annas
a day, a woman at three, and a boy at two.  I should add, that they have
no caste.

The climate is certainly very cool and cold, the thermometer ranging from
about 56 to 66 degrees in-doors at this time of the year.  The rains are
said to be the coldest part of the year; they are excessive, commencing
in April and ceasing in October.  It occasionally rains for fifteen or
sixteen days in succession, and without intermission; and nine or ten
inches have been known to fall in twenty-four hours.  Since we have been
here, inclusive of this, we have had four days of wet weather, of which
three were continued rain.  Both were ushered in by the sudden irruption
of heavy mists from below, which soon spread over the country, obscuring
every thing.  These sudden irruptions occur during the partial breaking
up of the rain, during which time the valleys are completely choked up
with dense mists, the summits of the hills on the opposite side to that
on which one stands being alone visible.  After the rains were over, in
the first instance, the plains, or rather the mass of haze hanging over
them, presented a most curious spectacle.

The coldest weather we have yet experienced was at Maamloo, on the 27th,
the thermometer at 8 P.M. being at 52 degrees.  This is remarkable, as
Maamloo is rather below Churra.  There is however a good deal of wood
round the place. {7}

With regard to Botany, the chief vegetation about Churra, as indeed is at
once indicated by the appearance of the country, consists of grasses.
Along the water-courses, which intersect this portion of the country,
_Bucklandia populnea_, a species of Ternstraemia, Pandanus, Eugenia,
Camellia, are found; while Compositae, Eriocaulon, and ferns abound in
the same places.  The vegetation of the valleys is very rich and very
varied; and, an affinity is indicated with the botany of China by the
existence of a species of Illicum, I. khascanam, and several
Ternstroemiaceae.  The great orders are grasses, ferns, compositae.
During a trip to Maamloo, a beautifully situated village on the brink of
the table-land, we discovered abundance of the tree-fern _Alsophila_
_Brunoniana_, the highest of which measured 25 feet.  The appearance of
the tree is that of a palm.  The flora surrounding these tree-ferns we
found to be exceedingly rich.  Among Nepal ferns, I may mention
_Anisadenia_, _Saxifraga ligulata_.

_Interior of the Khasyah Mountains_.--On the 2nd, we left for
Surureem; at which place we halted a day.  Bucklandia here occurs, of a
very large size, perhaps 50 or 60 feet.  It is a rugged-looking tree,
many of the branches being decayed.  There we observed the first
_Rhododendrum arboreum_.  Our next stage was to Moflong; during our
march thither, or rather mine, I had a fine view of the Himalayas, but
not upon the regular road to Moflong.  The European forms certainly
increased in number between Surureem and the above place.  Two great
acquisitions occurred on the road; a new Crawfurdia, and a Podostemon
which W. has named after me.  This I found in the clear stream adjoining
the Bogapanee growing upon stones, and adhering to them very firmly.  It
is on the hills about the Bogapanee that the firs first make their
appearance, but do not attain to any great size.  The valley of the
Bogapanee is exceedingly deep, and both the descent and ascent are very
difficult.

Moflong is a bleak exposed village and the bungalow or residence for
travellers very bad.  The number of European forms we found to increase
considerably about this place.  The only woods that occur are of fir, but
the trees are of no great size; their frequent occurrence, however,
stamps a peculiar feature on the scenery.  We here experienced nearly
three days of continued rain, and, as the place is bleak, we were
miserable enough.  We left for Myrung on the 9th, and the greater and all
the first part of the long march was very uninteresting.  At Mumbree,
however, there is a decided improvement, and the scenery is very good.
One here notices the occurrence of woods--of oaks, etc., and their form
reminded me somewhat of the woods of Buckinghamshire.  No woods of fir
occur; all the trees occurring isolatedly.  I should mention that the
country between Molee and Moflong is quite peculiar in geological
structure, abounding in Cyanite, the masses of which are of very
considerable size.  I imagine that the vegetation farther on in this
direction would be more rich in European forms than elsewhere, at least
between Churra and Mingklow.

Myrung is certainly far superior in every point to any place that we have
yet seen; and, as the climate is peculiarly fine and the bungalow good,
the degree of enjoyment is as great as can be expected.  The features of
the country are similar to those of Mumbree.  The groves or woods are
composed chiefly of oaks, intermixed with Magnolias, which attain a very
large size.  These forests seem all to have a northern aspect.  Orchideae
abound in these woods, and so far as herbaceous forms go, European
vegetation is on the decrease.  From the bungalow one has occasionally a
remarkably fine view of the Himalayas, mountains intercepted by large
tracts of very high land, probably Bootan.  The coldest weather we have
experienced here was when the thermometer sank to 46 degrees; even in the
middle of the day the sun is not oppressive.  It is singular enough, that
the first attempts, so to speak, at a Fauna occur here.  The woods abound
with small birds.  I shot one squirrel, with a very short tail and
rounded head.  Red deer (the Gyee of the Burmese) occur, though rarely.
Two or three solitary snipes may be found during a day's excursion, and
perhaps a brace of quail, which are nearly as large as English
partridges.  Pheasants are reported to occur in the woods.  I should add,
that both here and at Nunklow snipe of a very large description, and of
the habits of the solitary snipe, are found in small numbers.  They are
very brown, as large as a wood-cock, and their cry is that of a common
snipe.  Lieutenant Townsend informs me, that these birds are a totally
distinct species.  Lieutenant Vetch tells me, that the Khasiyas declare
that they are the females of the wood-cock, in other words, wood-hens,
and that in March wood-cocks abound in the places with these wood-hens.
He likewise informs me, that the only difference he could ascertain to
exist between these birds and wood-cocks, consists in their having very
short and thick legs.

I have seen two of this particular description, but have never shot any.

[View from Nunklow: p8.jpg]

After Myrung one can speak much less in favour of these hills.  Nunklow
is a pretty spot, and commands a really magnificent view of the
Himalayas, of the Bootan mountains, and of the plains of Assam.
Altogether this view is the finest which, in my limited experience, I
have ever seen: I did not however like Nunklow, nor do my wishes recur to
it. {9}  The route thither is pretty enough, and not fatiguing.  I may
mention Nunklow as the station of some fine trees, among which is a
Betula, two AEsculi, oaks, etc. in abundance.  The pine is in fine order,
but not large.  Much more cultivation is carried on in this portion of
the hills than elsewhere, and paddy is cultivated apparently to some
extent.  The temperature is much warmer, and the air by no means so
bracing as that of Myrung.  Perhaps at this place the flora resemble that
of lower Himalaya more than other places we have yet seen.  The march
from Nunklow to Nowgong is very long, and, as we started late, owing
partly to mismanagement and partly to the want of coolies, we were most
agreeably benighted in the jungle.  The descent is very sudden and
commences at Nunklow; the valley, on the brink of which it is situated,
being perhaps 2000 feet deep.  It is in this valley or on its walls that
the finest pines we have seen occur, but even here they do not attain a
greater height than 60 feet, and perhaps a diameter of a foot or a foot
and a half.  As Mr. Brown of the Sillet Light Infantry informed me most
correctly, many would make fine spars; but Mr. Cracroft's language in one
of the Journals of the Asiatic Society when describing these firs, seems
rather overwrought.  During our march I picked up a pretty species of
Sonerila.  A small stream runs at the foot of the descent, by what name
it goes I know not.  Near the Bustapanee, flowing along a valley about
two hours' walk from the last mentioned water.  Wallich discovered
abundance of his favourite and really splendid Polypodium Wallichianum,
which I may accuse with justice of being an additional reason for our
benightment.  The stream is really the only respectable river we have
seen, or rather the second one that can be called a torrent, the other
being the Bogapanee.  It boils along, and the body of water is great,
even at the season of the year at which we passed it.  It has forced
enormous holes, frequently round, in the large masses of rock that form
its bed, and then in and a few yards beyond the bridge of bamboos by
which we crossed, it falls, they say, 70 feet into a fine bason, which
however is only partly visible from above.  They who have been on the
edges of this bason say that the fall is really fine; it certainly has
not much of this when viewed from above, neither can it, I think, even in
the rains come up to Mr. Cracroft's description.  Moosmai is, _apres_
_tout_ I will venture to say, the king of the falls between Terrya Ghat
and Ranee Godown.  On the farther side of this water, small trees of
Cycas first make their appearance, but we had no time now or rather then
to examine any thing.  As the shades of evening lengthened we quickened
our paces, and at last when it became dark, came up with the coolies in a
most rugged road, and when it was dark, after stumbling about a good
deal, I made my way to the foot of the descent, and reached a small
stream, where we made preparations for a halt, and where we passed the
night, during which we were treated with a slight shower of rain.  As the
season was far advanced we all escaped, scot-free, from fever, and
reached the Bungalow called Nowgong about 10 o'clock next morning, where
we spent the day.

[The village of Nunklow: p11.jpg]

From this time we were, I believe, all anxious to leave the hills, which
had lost all their charms, although the vegetation was still more
gigantic and interesting.  But we were now confined to the road, which is
very good, all digressions being prevented by the thickness of the
jungles, and then in some places swarms of wild elephants.  These animals
appear most numerous about Onswye, near which there is a marshy place
literally trodden up by them, and their tracks were so fresh that no
traces of Wallich or his coolies could be identified, although they had
preceded us only about half an hour.  It was in this particular place
that I gathered a solitary specimen of _Butomus pygmaeus_.  Beyond
Nowgong, saul first comes into view, and many trees attain a considerable
size.  Some fine ferns and two beautiful Acanthaceae, I may mention, as
collected about that place.  We reached Jyrung by an easy march the next
day; every step adding only to a greater renewal of acquaintance with old
faces, or at least old plain plants.  Between Jyrung and the foot of the
hills, we fell in with _Henslowia glabra_ in fine flower: Wallich took
many fine specimens, all of which were males.  This species is, as well
as the former, liable to deceive one as to the sex of the plant; but all
the seeming ovaries beginning to enlarge are due to insect bites or
punctures.  To conclude: at the foot of the hills we were embraced with
_Marlea Begonifolia_, _Bauhinia purpurea_, etc. almost exactly as at
Terrya Ghat.  Between the foot of these really delightful hills and Ranee
Godown, I fell in with one plant only, deserving of mention, _Dischedia_
_Rafflesiana_; this is worthy of notice, as our Indian Asclipiferous
species have not hitherto been found, I believe north of Moulmain, nor
otherwhere than that peninsula and the archipelago.  From Ranee Godown we
had the pleasure of walking nineteen miles to Gowahatty, which place we
reached on the 23rd November.

All I can say in its favour is, that it is very cold in the mornings,
always at this season cool; that it is very pretty, being situated on the
Burrampooter, and surrounded with hills; that the women are good-looking,
and the whole body of officers among the best.  Of its botanical riches I
can only say, that in a short afternoon's excursion we found
_Cardiopterus harnulosa_, or rather saw it, and a species of Apocynea
in fruit, probably the same with one I have from Tenasserim, and which is
remarkable for the very many fleshy alae of its fruit.  Gowahatty is
particularly known as the station for _Cycas circinatis_, one fine
specimen of which Captain Jenkins shewed us, and the height of which is
perhaps 20 or 25 feet.

It was dichotomous, but only once.  The rings formed by the scars of the
foot stalks, as well as those of the fruit stalks, were most distinct on
the two branches only, and gave them a very rich and less elated
appearance.  The examination of this specimen only strengthens me in my
opinion derived chiefly from examination of those in the Botanic Gardens,
that these rings which certainly afford the age of each branch, one being
added of either sort every year, are not to be distinguished in the stem
below its division.  So that after all, _Brongniart_ is only half-wrong,
although he is ignorant of the saving clause.

I may add, that we were on the hills about thirty-eight days, of which
seven and a half were rainy, a proportion of 1 in 5.5.

_On the 2nd December_, our party left Gowahatty for Suddiya, on the
morning of the 4th I proceeded in advance in Captain Matthie's express
canoe for Tezpoor, which place I reached on the evening of the 6th, and
at which I met with a most kind reception from Captain Matthie, Principal
Assistant to the Agent to the Governor General, and in Civil charge of
the district of Durrung.  Tezpoor possesses many advantages over
Gowahatty, from which place it is about 120 miles distant, that is,
following the river.  It is situated on the banks of what was once a
portion of the Burrampooter, but which is now nothing but a nullah,
nearly dry at the present season.  It is a completely new place, {12}
Captain Matthie having arrived here about a year since, at which time it
was a complete jungle.  Some small hills run along the side of the
nullah, on one of which Captain Matthie's house is situated.  The
clearings have already reached to a considerable extent, and there are
two good roads for buggies.  The great advantage it has over Gowahatty
consists in its freedom from fogs, which evidently hug the Meekur hills
on the opposite side of the Burrampooter, bearing about E.S.E. from
Tezpoor.  It is perhaps owing to the proximity of these hills that
Nowgong until 10 A.M. appears completely enveloped in fog, while all
round Tezpoor it is completely clear.

From this place the view of the Himalayas and of the intervening Bootan
hills is very fine.  The chain is of considerable extent, and presents
three grand peaks, of which the most westerly one is the largest.  They
do not appear very distant, and are distinctly seen at this season at all
times of the day.  They are more soft and picturesque towards evening, at
which time the different shades are better developed.  The degrees of
ascent of the Bootan hills are well shewn; the hills forming the lowest
range being of no considerable height.  It is at once obvious, that the
ascent into Bootan from this place would occupy several days.

[Captain Mathie's Cutcherry: p12.jpg]

The view to the S. and S.S.W. is barren enough, and is completely flat;
the country presenting nothing whatever but high grass, with an
occasional peep of the river.  That to the north is, owing to the
Himalayas, very striking and picturesque.

Cultivation is carried on to a great extent about Tezpoor, and the
district is populous, although few villages are to be seen, as they are
all concealed among trees.  Paddy is the principal grain cultivated, and
this is carried on in low places, which appear on a casual examination to
have been originally beds of rivers.  Captain Matthie however tells me,
that many of these have abrupt terminations and commencements, such may
have been old jheels.  Sursoo, opium, and sugar-cane are likewise
cultivated, especially the former.

The whole land indeed, with the exception of the rice-places and the
evidently old beds of the Burrampooter, are much more elevated than the
land round Gowahatty.  Both Tezpoor and Durrung are consequently less
damp, and more healthy than the above-mentioned place.  In fact, as a
residence I would infinitely prefer Tezpoor to Gowahatty.  With regard to
the shikar, (shooting) both large and small game abound.  Tigers are
frequent as well as bears.  Buffaloes are to be seen on the _churs_
(islands) in large herds.  Pea-fowl and jungle-fowl abound, as well as
water-fowl; floricans and partridges, both black and red, are by no means
unfrequent.

_Upper Assam_, _Jan_. _15th_.--We arrived at Kujoo, a rather large
village of Singfos, and within half a day's journey of which the tea is
found in its native state.  This is the first Singfo village I have as
yet seen, and is situated on the skirts of a plain of small extent, and
covered to all appearance by extensive grass jungles, among which trees
are interspersed.  The houses are not numerous, but they are of large
size, and are raised in the Burman fashion on piles from the ground.
Within one, many families are accommodated.  The people themselves are
fair, much like the Burmese, but still quite distinct.  The male dress
resembles the Burmese much; the female is more distinct, consisting
chiefly of a sort of _gown_; and whilst tattooing is confined to the
males in Burma, it here appears to be indulged in chiefly by the ladies;
all the legs I saw during the day, being ornamented with rings of tattoo.
The men are a stout, rather fine race; free, easy, and independent, and
great admirers of _grog_ in every form.

During our journey hither, and indeed en route from Kujoo Ghat, we passed
over a clay soil and through a dense jungle, comparable to which I have
seen but little.  Our direction has been nearly south from the above
place.  The jungle consisted chiefly of trees, here and there large
patches of bamboo or tobacco occurring: there was but little underwood.
Among the trees the most gigantic was a species of Dipterocarpus,
probably the same with that I have gathered on Pator hill, Mergui.  We
picked up likewise very large acorns with a depressed lamellated cap, and
two fruits of Castanea, one probably the same with that from Myrung.  But
of all the vegetation, that of ferns is the most luxuriant and most
varied.

_Jan_. _16th_.--This day we gave up to the examination of the tea in its
native place.  It occurs in a deep jungle to the south of the village,
and at a distance of about three miles from it.  Our route thither lay
through first a rather extensive grass jungle, then through a deep
jungle.  We crossed the Deboru once on our route; it is a mean and
insignificant stream.

Nothing particular presents itself in the jungle until you approach the
tea, on which you come very suddenly.  This plant is limited to a small
extent, perhaps to 300 yards square, the principal direction being N. and
S.  It grows in a part of the jungle where the soil is light and dryish,
and throughout which, _ravinules_ are frequent, due, Mac. tells me, to
the effect of rain dropping from the heavy over-shadowing foliage on a
light soil.  In addition to this, small mounds occur about the roots of
the large trees; but chiefly around bamboos, which are by no means
unfrequent.  This, however, is of common occurrence in all bamboo
jungles.  The underwood consists chiefly of Rubeaceae, a small Leea,
Cyrthandraceae and Filices, _Polypodium arboreum_, _Angiopteris_
_orassipes_, and a large Asplenium are common.  Among the arbuscles are a
large leaved Tetranthera, a Myristica, Anonaceae, _Paederioidea_
_faetidissima_, foliis ternatis; stipulis apicee subulata, 3-fidis, etc.
And among the forest trees are a vast Dipterocarpus, the same we met with
en route to Kujoo, _Dillenia speciosa_, etc.  Piper and Chloranthus are
likewise not uncommon.  There is no peculiar feature connected with the
existence of the tea in such a place, and in such a limited extent.  We
were fortunate enough to find it both in flower and fruit, owing to its
site; its growth is tall and slender, and its crown at least that of the
smaller, very small and ill developed.  Large trees are rare; in fact,
they have been all cut down by the Singfos, who are like all other
natives excessively improvident.  The largest we saw, and which Wallich
felled, was, including the crown, 43 feet in length.  Small plants are
very common, although Bruce had already removed 30,000.  Mac. thinks they
grow chiefly on the margins of the ravinules or hollows.  Their leaves
were all large, of a very dark green, and varying from four to eight
inches in length.  The pith of the tree felled was excentric, the greater
development taking place as usual on the southern side; it was two and a
half inches N., three and a half S.; but about 10 feet above the base
this excentricity was nearly doubled.  The wood is very compact, and the
tree apparently one of slow growth.  The largest that Bruce has seen, and
which he felled last year, was 29 cubits in length.  The jungle was so
thick that all general views as to its real extent, and the circumstances
limiting it, must be very superficial.  To the East the cessation of the
lightness of the soil and of the hollows is very abrupt, and strongly
influences the tea, only a few small straggles being visible in that
direction.  The jungle here was choked with grasses, and the large
viscous Acanthaceae of which we have elsewhere en route seen such
abundance.  The tree evidently, even in its large state, owes little
gratitude to the sun, at least for direct rays, none of which I should
think ever reach it.  The Singfos however say, that it will only thrive
in the shade.  We halted after gathering a crop of leaves under a fine
Dillenia, which was loaded with its fruit.  Here the Singfos demonstrated
the mode in which the tea is prepared among them.  I must premise,
however, that they use none but young leaves.  They roasted or rather
semi-roasted the leaves in a large iron vessel, which must be quite
clean, stirring them up and rolling them in the hands during the
roasting.  When duly roasted, they expose them to the sun for three days;
some to the dew alternately with the sun.  It is then finally packed into
bamboo chungas, into which it is tightly rammed.  The ground on which it
occurs is somewhat raised above the plain adjoining the village, as we
passed over two hillocks on our route to the tea, and the descent did not
evidently counterbalance the ascent.

_Jan_. _17th_.--We arrived at Kujoo-doo this afternoon, having passed
through a great extent of jungle, which I am sorry to say presented the
usual features.  We crossed the Deboro once during our march, and several
tributary streams which, as may be supposed, from the size of the
_larger_ recipient river, are excessively insignificant.  The soil
throughout, a good part seemed to be of clay.  The only plants of
interest we found were two Bambusae in flower, and two species of
Meniscium, and a _Polypodium venulis_ tertiariis simplicibus.  A
_Sarcopyramis Sonerilae_ was also found, but rather past flowering, and
an Acrostichum? or Lomaria?  We did not observe any ravinules or hollows,
although mounds were by no means uncommon.

_Jan_. _18th_.--We proceeded in a Southerly direction, and after marching
for nearly seven hours arrived at, and encamped on, a largish plain, on
which paddy had been extensively cultivated.  The whole route lay through
a vast and deep jungle, the road running partly on the side of an old
bund: part of our road was through very wet ground, part through rather
dry elevated woods, bamboos of two species occurred abundantly.  We saw
several vast specimens of Dipterocarpus, one which had been cut down
measured from the base to first branch 110 feet.  Ferns still continue in
excess.  I gathered another species of _Sarcopyramis_; a _Goodyera_,
_Chrysobaphus Roxburghii_ in flower, but rare; and an Apostasia not in
flower.

_Jan 19th_.--We reached Negrigam early in the forenoon although we did
not leave our ground before 10 A.M.  The road to the village was pretty
good.  Negrigam is a largish village on the north bank of the Booree
Dihing, which is here a considerable though not deep stream.  This bank
is at the site of the village very high.  The population seemed to be
considerable.  To the south, large ranges of hills were visible, the
first of which were close enough to admit of one's distinguishing them to
be wooded to the top.  The inner ranges were lofty.  We had some
difficulty in ascertaining where the tea was located, the accounts being
rather contradictory.  At length we proceeded up the bed of a small
river, Maumoo, which runs into the Booree Dihing close to the village:
after wading along in the waters for two hours we arrived at a khet where
we encamped.  The direction being from Negrigam N.W. along the banks of
this stream.  The Pavia I first observed at Silam Mookh, was abundant,
and some of the specimens were very fine, the largest was a handsome,
very shady tree, of perhaps thirty feet high.  The only plant of interest
was _Gnetum scandens_.  On a high land bank I gathered a species of
Polytrichum, and one of Bartramia.

_January 20th_.--This morning we crossed the small streamlet Maumoo,
ascended its rather high bank, and within a few yards from it came upon
the tea: which as we advanced farther into the jungle increased in
abundance; in fact within a very few yards, several plants might be
observed.  The plant was both in flower and ripe fruit, in one instance
the seeds had germinated while attached to the parent shrub.  No large
trees were found, the generality being six or seven feet high; all above
this height being straggling, slender, unhandsome shrubs: the leaves upon
the whole were, I think, smaller than those of the Kujoo plants.  With
respect to the plants with which it is here associated, I may observe
that they were nearly the same with those of the Kujoo jungle, but here
there was nevertheless one striking difference, that the jungle was by no
means so dark in consequence of the smaller size of the jungle trees.  The
underwood consisted chiefly of ferns, among which _Polipodium unitum_
was very common, and a Lycopodium.  Bamboos occurred here and there,
although by no means so extensively as at Kujoo.

_Chrysobaphus Roxburghii_, and a new _Dicksonia_, _D_.  _Griffithiana_,
Wall. were the plants of the greatest interest.  With regard to the
limits of the tea, it is by all accounts of no very great extent; but
this is a point upon which it is difficult to say any thing decisive, in
consequence of the thickness of the jungle.  The space on which we found
it may be said to be an elbow of the land, nearly surrounded by the
Manmoo river, on the opposite side of which, where we were encamped, it
is reported not to grow.  Within this space the greater part consists of
a gentle elevation or rather large mound.  On this it is very abundant,
as likewise along its sides, where the soil is looser, less sandy, and
yellow (McClell.); along the base of this I think it is less common, and
the soil is here more sandy, and much darker (McClell.)  We partly
ascertained that it was limited to the west, in which direction we soon
lost sight of it.  To the south and eastward of the elbow of land it is
most common, but here it is, as I have said above, stopped by the river.

The greatest diameter of the stem of any plant that I saw in this place,
might be two or three inches, certainly not more.

_Nadowar_, _Feb_. _17th_.--Our route from this village, at which we were
encamped, to the tea locality in the neighbouring forest, lay for the
first time partly over paddy fields, the remainder over high ground
covered with the usual grasses, with here and there a low strip; all was
excessively wet.  We next traversed a considerable tract of tree jungle,
perhaps for nearly a mile; this was a drier and higher soil than the rice
ground.  On the northern flank of this, and close to the edge of the
jungle we came to the tea, situated on a low strip of ground.

This plant here occupies an extremely limited space, and its greatest,
and indeed almost only extent, is from south to north.  It is in one spot
excessively thick, and many of the plants had attained a considerable
size, but the largest had been cut down, when it was visited by people
from Suddiya in search of tea some short time ago.  It had just passed
flowering; all the plants looked well, better I think than those of
Kujoo.  The soil was very much like that of the Kujoo and Negrigam
jungles, and was remarkable for its great dryness and looseness, in spite
of the long continued and heavy rains.  That near the surface was dark
brown, below yellow brown, and the deeper it was examined the more yellow
it seemed to become.  We satisfied ourselves that its depth extended
lower than two feet from the surface.  The space the plant occupies in
any numbers certainly does not exceed forty yards in length, by twenty-
five in breadth.  About fifty yards to the north several plants occurred,
but the soil here was of a much darker tint, although it appeared to be
nearly as dry as the other.  The accompanying diagram may give some idea
of its situation.

_February 17th_.--We arrived at Rangagurrah, the capital of the Muttack
country, and the residence of the Burra-seena Puttee, or Bengmara.  Our
route thither occupied us, inclusive of the day spent in examining the
tea at Noadwar, five days.  During the three first, we passed through a
low country admirably, and almost exclusively, adapted for rice
cultivation, and consequently abounding in wild wading birds and water-
fowl.

As we approached Rangagurrah the ground became higher, in addition to
which it is better drained.  We crossed about two miles from Rangagurrah
a small rivulet, a tributary of the Deboro; no plants but one of much
interest was detected _en route_.  That one was a fine forest tree
affecting damp low places, apparently very limited in extent.  It is a
new genus, belonging to Hamemelideae, and we have called it _Sedgwickia_
_cerasifolia_.  On our arrival at Rangagurrah we were met by the Burra-
seena Puttee, 'Big warrior,' who escorted us to the houses he had caused
to be erected for us, and which were at a little distance from the
village itself.  During our association with him or with his country, he
was remarkably attentive and civil, and as he is an independent man he
pleased me much.  On the -- Feb. we reached Tingrei, a poor village about
ten miles to the S.E. of Rangagurrah, situated on the west bank of the
rivulet of the same name, another tributary of the Deboroo.  On the same
morning as the march was very short, we proceeded to examine the tea, and
the following day was likewise given up to another examination.  The tea
here may be characterised as dwarf, no stems that I saw exceeding fifteen
feet in height; it had just passed flowering.  It occurs in great
abundance, and to much greater extent than in any of the places at which
we had previously examined it.  But here it is neither limited by
peculiarity of soil or such slight elevation as the place affords; it
grows indiscriminately on the higher ground where the soil is of a
brownish yellow, and on which it attains a larger size than elsewhere, or
on clumps occurring in low raviny ground and associated with fine
bamboos.  This ground was intersected by a very tortuous dry nullah bed,
on the banks of which tea was very abundant.  On either side of the
jungle in which it is found, extensive clearings occur, so that it is
impossible to say what its original extent may have been; I am inclined
to think, however that its limit was with the commencement of a small
clearing running to the N.W. of a village situated on the west bank of
the Tingrei, and that not much has been cut down.

[The Himalaya from Rangagurrah: p19.jpg]

The extent may be roughly estimated as follows, reckoning from the
entrance into the jungle in a south easterly direction: the one in fact
of our route from the village to the tea.

S.E. 180 yards, after which it disappears, but shews itself again
sparingly about 100 yards further on, and in the same direction.

To the S. of this I found none, its direction being totally changed; its
general direction being now,

N.W. or N.N.W. in which, and in about 200 yards from the place at which
it ceased towards the south, it becomes very abundant, and continues so
in a

W.N.W. course for about 220 yards.

Thence it appears to be interrupted for the space of 80 or 100 yards.

It then recommences a course

N. by W. for about 100 yards, when it is terminated by cultivated ground
to the east, and low raviny ground to the west.

200 yards to the north, and close to a small village, it is very
abundant, and at least its stumps with numerous shoots, occupy almost the
whole of a small clearing bounded on the N.E. by the rivulet Tingrei.  It
may be supposed to extend for a little distance into the contiguous
jungle to the N.W.

On the whole, it may be said to occupy a narrow strip of jungle,
extending from the village Tingrei in a S.E. direction about a .25 of a
mile.  I consider the plants here as finer than in any of the other tea
jungles, the crown being much better developed owing at least in some
parts to the less denseness of the jungle.  The fact of the shoots
appearing from the bases of the stems which had been cut down in the
small clearing above mentioned, gave us good opportunities of seeing the
effects of exposure to the sun.  This they seemed to bear well, but the
shoots were rather too much elongated, and the leaves had too much of a
yellow tint to indicate that such was their natural situation.  No part
of the soil on which tea was found was like the soil of Nadowar or
Manmoo; still, although stiffer than the others, it was characterised by
a certain lightness.

The superstratum was very light, and brownish black, the remainder
yellowish brown, the yellow tints as well as the stiffness increasing
downwards.  The soil was here deeper than in any of the other sites.

Many parts of the ground were excessively low, and very probably
inundated during the rains.

From the fact of its occurring in such abundance in the small clearing to
the N.W. of the village, I am induced to suppose that it had at some
period extended down the large clearing which runs 200 yards to the south
of the above village.

The associated vegetation presented no peculiarities; several plants,
with which we had not previously met, occurred.  One, a Stauntonia, was
found, which may be supposed from analogy to indicate a certain coldness
of climate.  But on the other hand, it was associated with so many
tropical forms that not much reliance can be placed on this isolated
fact.

On the 25th we returned to Rangagurrah, where the elephants and dowaniers
(_drivers_) were dismissed.  On the 26th we commenced returning by the
Deboroo, the descent of which occupied two days and a half.

Here let me express my opinion that in cases like ours, where a set of
men are deputed to examine countries, time spent on rivers is absolutely
thrown away.  Of course in many instances such must be the case, but
where it is avoidable, marching, and especially returning by a different
route, should be adopted.  Rangagurrah, be it known, is only two days'
march from Suddiyah in a direct line, yet we have been a month proceeding
by the circuitous line of rivers between these places.



CHAPTER II.


_Journal of a trip to the Mishmee Mountains_, _from the_
_Debouching of the Lohit to about ten miles East of_
_the Ghalooms_.  _Lat_. _27 degrees 50' to 28 degrees 10'_
_N_.; _Long_. _95 degrees 20' to 96 degrees 40' E_.

I left Suddiya on the morning of the 15th October 1836, and halted at Noa
Dihing Mookh, (river mouth) a place abounding in fish, and promising
excellent sport both in fly and live-bait fishing.  The temperature of
the Noa Dihing, an indolent stream flowing over a flat, sandy plain, was
79 degrees; that of the B. pooter, which falls in large volume rapidly
from the mountains, was 67 degrees.  Fish congregate in vast numbers at
the junction of rivers of different temperatures, and are there more
easily captured than in other situations, a fact that ought to be borne
in mind, whether for the mere object of sport or the more practical
purpose of fisheries in India.

The following day (16th) we passed Choonpoora, where the rapids commence,
and where stones first appear; one rapid, a little above Choonpoora, is
severe.  There is a severe one also at Toranee Mookh, on which the Copper
temple is situated; and one at Tingalee Mookh, on which Lattow is
situated.  The river now commences to be more subdivided; there is but
little sand deposited alone, but vast beds of sand and stones occur
together.  The banks are clothed with jungle, and are occasionally
skirted with tall grasses, but the _churs_ or islands disappear it may be
said with the sands, and are only formed in lower and more distant parts
from the mountains, where the velocity of the current is less.
Temperature at 6 A.M. 66 degrees, 4 P.M. 76 degrees, (water of B. pooter
64.65,) 7 P.M. 72 degrees.

Buffaloes abundant, but I only saw a few.

The most interesting plants were a Cyclocodon, Liriodendron, Sanicula: 32
species were collected.

_Oct_. _17th_.--Reached Karam Mookh, about noon.  Rapids much increased,
some very severe, especially that opposite Karam Mookh, which we crossed
without accident, although as we crossed a confluence of two rapids, the
water in the middle being much agitated; it was a wonder that no canoes
were upset.  The bed of the river is still more divided, the spots
between the streams being for the most part entirely composed of stones.
The lowest temperature of the B. pooter was 63 degrees.  A severe but
short rapid occurs at Karam Mookh itself, the fall being very great, but
the body of water small.  The water of this river is beautifully clear.
Its temperature at the Mookh 72 degrees.  The jungle extends down to both
edges of the water, and the stream is not divided into branches.  My
guide in the evening disgusted me by asking how many days I intended to
stop at the Koond before my return to Suddiya, when I had engaged him
expressly to go into the Mishmee hills, and not merely to Brama Koond, as
the above question implied.  But such is the way in which our best
designs depending on native agency are often tampered with.  Thermometer
at 8 P.M. 64 degrees.  Species of Conaria grow abundantly on the banks!

_Oct_. _18th_.--We are still in the Karam river.  Reached about noon the
Kamptee village, Palampan, or rather its Ghat.  This Karam river is
tortuous, generally shallow, with a more or less stony bed; it is nothing
more in fact than a succession of rapids, between each of which the slope
is very gentle, so that one makes good progress.  Temperature at 6 A.M.
66 degrees in the canoe; but in the hut in which I slept, it is as low as
60 degrees.  The dews are very heavy, and the jungle, as before, comes
down to the edges of the water, but scarcely affords any marked feature.
_Kydia calycina_ is common, as is likewise a large Mimoseous tree.
There is apparently very little diminution in the volume of water, though
several minor streams were passed between this and the Mookh.
Liriodendron is becoming more frequent.  The views of the mountains are
very varied; and that of the Koond defile or Chasm, very beautiful; water-
falls seem to be distinctly visible down one hill or mountain, in
particular.  The finest view however is on the Lohit, opposite Dyaroo
Mookh, at which place the three huge, ever snowy peaks, characteristic of
the Mishmee portion of the mountains, are distinctly seen.

Left the Ghat for the village which is situate on the Dea-soon or
Simaree, which flows into the Tenga-panee, and which is said now to carry
off so much water from the Karam that this river ceases a short distance
above this place to become navigable for boats like mine.  The path we
pursued ran in a S.E. or S.S.E. direction for about a mile; it is good,
and leads through a thick jungle: the village contains probably fifteen
houses.  The Gohain, or _chief_, is a most respectable-looking man, and
of very fair complexion.  His people are for the most part stout.  The
women also of very fair complexion, with their hair tied in a large knot
on the top of the head, in a peculiar way, putting one in mind of fat
Norman damsels.  Temperature in the boat to-day 76 degrees, the sky
beautifully clear.  The B. pooter seems still the only river, the
temperature of which is always below that of the air.  One interesting
Elaeocarpus occurred--Petal. viridibus apice dentatis; calice griseo
viridi, _vix valvato_.  I may remark, that the aestivation of Kydia is
scarcely valvate.  I saw a, to me, new kingfisher and wood-pecker.  The
black and white kingfisher, _Dalcedo rudus_, is not found on the B.
pooter beyond the termination of the sand banks.

_Oct_. _18th_--Temperature in my hut at 5.5 A.M. is 56 degrees, outside
it is 52.5 degrees, that of the river water 63 degrees.  We left about 8,
and proceeded up the Karam, which presented nothing singular.  The volume
of water is now less, and rapids are more frequent: heavy snow is visible
from a little above Palampan Ghat, where the river bends to the
northward; and a little further on a fine view of the Koond occurs.  The
Chasm is bounded in the rear by the fine rugged peak so distinctly seen
from Suddiya due east.  About 11, we reached the Ghat, beyond which
boats, except of the smallest description, cannot pass; and about 1,
started for the Mishmee village Jing-sha, situated on the Karam.  Our
course was along the bed of the river, and nearly due east.  Formerly
boats were able to reach the Ghat of the village, but the water has
become shallower, owing, they say, to a larger portion being carried off
by the Dea-soon, which runs into the Tenga-panee.  We reached the village
Ghat about four in the afternoon, but our people arrived very little
before six o'clock.  The march was tedious and difficult, owing to the
numerous stones which are strewed in the way: and the necessity for
crossing the river was so frequent, that all idea of shoes was quite out
of the question.  To increase the difficulty, the stones in the bed of
river are very slippery, and as we crossed rapids, it frequently required
some care to prevent our falling.

We were met by the Gam, or chief, before any signs of the village there
were visible.  The population is small; the people fair, but begrimed
with dirt; the dress consists of a loose jacket without sleeves.  The
primary article of clothing is indeed so scanty, that the less one says
about it the better.  The women are decently clothed, and have generally
enormous calves, certainly bigger than those of the men: their favourite
ornament seems to be a band of silver, broadest across their forehead,
which encircles their head.  This village is close to the hills, and
within a day's journey of the Koond, at least for a Mishmee.  One
Assamese slave is among the inhabitants, who was sold when a boy.  A few
of the men have Singfo dhaos or swords, others miserable knives, and some
the usual spear so general with the tribes on this frontier.  But in
general the weapons of these people are most insignificant.  The view of
the hills is not fine from this place; it is too close to see any of
great height, and they soon disappear to the westward.  In the evening
that of the Koond, which bears E.N.E. by N. is fine, particularly one
mountain, which is known at once by its numerous cascades or appearances
of water-falls, which, although they appear like streaks of white to the
eye, are distinctly visible through a telescope.  The bed of the Karam is
almost entirely stony, and the immediate banks are clothed with grass.
The jungle is of the usual thick description.  The Gam, whose name is
Jingsha, is a respectable looking man, fair in his dealings, and willing
to oblige.  They all have tobacco pipes.

_Oct_. _19th_.--Halted to enable the people to bring up the baggage, and
we shall in all probability have to halt to-morrow.  I paid a visit to
the Gam's house, Jingshi; it is to the S.E. of the Ghat, and about a mile
and a half distant from it.  The houses are all detached, and almost
buried in jungle.  Jingsha's house is a good one, very long, and well
built; he has only about five skulls. {24}  _Mont_ was handed round to
the Mishmees in large bamboo cups.  From our encampment, abundance of
clearances for cultivation are visible on the hills.  Those to N., S.,
S.E. are of some extent, and belong to a Mishmee Gam, Tapa.  Some fine
timber trees exist on the road to the village, and a very large Ficus: no
particular plants occur except a Chloranthus, fructibus albis, which is
also common towards Palampan.  Thermometer at noon, in imperfect shade,
83 degrees.

_Oct_. _20th_.--The temperature of the air at 5.5 A.M. was 57.5 degrees.
That of water, 60 degrees.  I was obliged to halt again to enable the
rice to be brought up.  To-day we gathered on the banks of the Karam, a
tree in fruit, Fol. alterna, impari-pinnata, stipulis caducis.  Cymi
compositi dichotomi; calyce minuto, 4 dentato, reflexo; corolla coriacea,
viridi, rotata; stamina 4, hypogyna, gynobasi, maxima; carpellis 4,
aggregatis, 1, 3, fecundalis, globosis, atro-cyaneis, baccatis; stylis
lateralibus; semen 1, exalbumosum arbuscula mediocris; one Chrysobalanea?
one Ochnacea?

Yesterday they brought me a beautiful snake, Collo gracillimo, colore
pulchre fusco, maculis aterrimis, capite magno; {25} has all the
appearance of being venomous.  To-day we passed another place for
catching fish: the water is prevented from escaping, (except at the place
where the current is naturally most violent,) by a dam composed of
bamboos, supported by triangles, from the centre of which hang heavy
stones: the fish are prevented passing down except at the above spot, and
here they are received on a platform of bamboo: the stream is so strong
through this point, that when once the fish have passed down they are
unable to return.  One of these fish-traps on a larger scale exists below
Palampan.

The Karam debuts from the hills a little to the S. of east of Jingsha
Ghat: the chasm is very distinct.  Temperature at 2 P.M. 87 degrees, at
sunset 76 degrees, 8 P.M. 68 degrees.

_Oct_. _21st_.--Left the Ghat about 9, and proceeded over the same
difficult ground down the Karam until we arrived at Laee Mookh.  This
occupied about an hour; our course thence lay up the Laee, which runs
nearly due east.  The bed of the river throughout the lower part of its
course is 60 or 70 yards across: the journey was as difficult as that on
the Karam.  Towards 2 P.M. we were close to the hills, and the river
became contracted, not exceeding 30 or 40 yards across.  It is here only
that large rock masses are to be found, but the boulders are in no case
immense.  We arrived at the place of our encampment about 4 P.M., the
porters coming up much later.  The march was in every respect most
fatiguing.  Temperature about 6 A.M. 58 degrees, outside 57 degrees.
Water 60 degrees.  Temperature of Laee at sunset 66 degrees.  Of the air
71 degrees.

_Oct_. _22nd_.--Cloudy: during the night we were much annoyed by heavy
gusts of wind sweeping down the river.  Left our encampment at 7.5, and
struck into the jungle, the porters still continuing along the course of
the river; after crossing some rising ground we reached a path, which is
tolerably good.  Our course lay about N.E.; we crossed over some low
hills, and after marching for about an hour and a quarter, came upon the
Koond Chasm, or great defile; of which, however, from the thickness of
the jungle, we had no view.  We then descended a very steep, but not very
high hill, and came upon the Koond; of which nothing is at first seen but
large masses of rock strewed in every direction.  We were accompanied by
a number of Jingsha Gam's people, and in the evening we were visited by
Tapan Gam himself, with a train of followers.  This man assumes the
sovereignty of the Koond.  We encamped immediately under the Faqueer's
Rock, which is known to the Mishmees by the name "Taihloo Maplampoo."  The
south bank is wooded to its brink, but not very densely: it is
excessively steep, and in many places almost perpendicular.  The strata
composing it is partly limestone, lying at an angle of 45 degrees, and in
many places at a greater one.  The scenery is picturesque and bold: on
either side of the river are hills rising abruptly to the height of a few
hundred feet, but the hills are continued longer on the north side.  From
the Rock the river seems to run W.N.W. for a quarter of a mile, and then
bends to the S.W.  The breadth of the bed is a good hundred yards, but
the stream at this season is confined to the fifty yards near the south
bank, the remainder being occupied by rocks in situ, or boulders and
sand: the edge of the N. bank is occupied by stunted _Saccharum_.  The
appearance of the water is characteristic, of a greyish green tinge,
giving the impression of great depth.  It is only here and there that it
is white with foam, its general course being rather gentle.  It is in
various places encroached upon more or less by the rocks forming its bed,
some of which are quite perpendicular.  A little to the west of the
Faqueer's Rock there is an immense mass of rock in the bed of the river,
between which and the south bank there is now very little water and no
current.  The rocks are generally naked; here and there they are
partially clothed with Gramineae, and a Cyperaceous-looking plant,
something like an Eriophorum.  The river, a short distance beyond the Deo-
panee, takes a bend to the north; at the point where it bends there is a
considerable rapid.

[Bramakhoond and Faqueer's Rock: p26.jpg]

The Faqueer's Rock itself is a loose mass of rugged outline, about 50
feet high: access to its summit is difficult to anybody but a Mishmee; it
is, however, by no means impracticable.  The path by which it may be
gained, leads from the eastward.  At the summit is an insulated, rounded,
rugged mass of rock, on which the faqueers sit.  It is however the
descent by the path to the east which is difficult, and people generally
choose another path to the west.  This rock is clothed with ferns
epiphytical Orchideae, an Arundo, and a few stunted trees are very common
at its summit.  Between it and the hill is another much smaller mass, and
the intervening spaces are occupied by angular masses of rock.  These
spaces both lead westward to that corner of the river into which the Deo-
panee falls.  Eastward they lead to the margin of the bank.

The north face of the Faqueer's Rock is excavated into a hollow of the
Deo Dowar.  It has no resemblance to a Gothic ruin, which form is, I
believe, peculiar to calcareous rocks.  It is this rock which, by its
eastern extremity projecting into the water, forms the reservoirs into
which the Deo-panee falls, or rather at this season runs; the place
resembles merely a sort of bay.  The water-mark of floods visible on some
of the rocks, is probably eight feet above that of this time of the year.
The reservoir is completed by a projection from the rocks forming the
south bank, but it is almost entirely abstracted from the stream.  The
south bank immediately beyond this is extremely precipitous, and very
high.  The Faqueer's Rock is three-peaked; two peaks can only be seen
from the Deo-panee, the third is the low one to the west, the middle is
the highest, and is perforated: the eastern represents a sugar-loaf
appearance.  Two distinct streams run into the reservoirs, the bed of one
forms the second defile before alluded to: this is very insignificant.
The other occupies the corner of the bay, and can only be seen from a low
station on the sand beneath: it is an attempt at a small water-fall.

_Oct_. _23rd_.--To-day I have been employed in collecting plants.  Nearly
due east of the Koond, and at a distance of about 40 yards, the face of
the hill is perpendicular, and in some places overhanging; its extremity
juts out into the stream, which here flows with great violence; the banks
are occupied by masses of rock strewed in every direction, resulting from
a landslip of great size: some of these masses are enormous.  The greater
portion of the slip is clothed with herbage and trees, so that it is of
some age, or standing; but in one place over the river it is clean, as if
fresh formed, and white-looking much like chalk.  This cliff in many
parts is a dripping well, particularly in one extremity where a good deal
of water falls.  It is clothed with the Eriophorum, which hangs down in
long tufts; the moist parts with an Adiantum much like A. C. Veneris, a
beautiful Pteris, a Pothos or Arum foliis pulchre nigro tinctis, and some
mosses; B. speciosa out of flower, and some Hepaticae, Ruta albiflora,
etc.  Between this and the Deo-panee a small stream enters the Lohit:
following this up to some height, one arrives at a pretty water-fall;
here it is inaccessible in this direction, but by following a branch of
the stream to the west, one may arrive at the summit of the hill, from
which however no view is to be obtained.  The summit is ridge-like, and
excessively sharp; the descent on either side almost precipitous.  I
found several fine ferns up this hill; at its base an Acer and fine
Equisetum.

[The Mori-Panee as it enters the Khoond: p27.jpg]

The Koond is apparently formed by the Deo-panee and Mori-panee.  In the
rains it must be a rather striking object, now however it is at this
season, lost amidst the fine surrounding scenery.  How the Faqueer's Rock
and the rock between it and the Mori-panee were detached, is difficult to
say.  It is evident, however, that formerly the two rivers were not
united to form the Koond as at present, but that they had each their own
channels when the Faqueer's Rock must have stood between them.  In fact
both channels, in which water has flowed, still remain.  My broken
Thermometer pointed out the low temperature of the Lohit water, and 208
degrees was the point at which water boiled in two experiments.  All
attempts at passing along the river on this side would be vain, owing to
a cliff which is totally impracticable.  The Mishmees know of no rivulet
called the Mtee; probably this has been mistaken for the Mishmee name for
water, _Mchee_.  The way Wilcox went I am at a loss to ascertain; as he
could not have passed the Koond, he must have gone above it; although the
hills are said to be impracticable for loaded coolies.

_Oct_. _25th_.--The Koond is obviously little frequented.  I left
sometime after the coolies, pursuing the path leading to Ghaloom's, which
extends to the eastward.  An hour and a quarter brought me again to the
Laee-panee, and three hours and a half to Laee Mookh: from this place to
Jingsha Ghat is scarcely an hour's walk.  The day's journey occupied
about five hours inclusive of stoppages: the distance is probably about
twelve miles.  I came to the determination of returning, owing to the
known difficulty of the route pursued by Wilcox, and the impossibility of
making a collection of grain.  The Tapan Gam, or Lord of the Koond,
particularly insisted on the impossibility of ordinary coolies going this
way, and as he offered men to bring up grain from the plains, I at once
acceded to his proposal of making a granary in his village.  This man had
no delicacy in asking for presents: he at once said, "You must give gold,
silver, and every thing in the calendar of presents to the Deo," meaning
himself.  As I found it impracticable to satisfy him, I sent him off with
a small present, promising more when he should have amassed the grain.
His brother, a tall, stout, and much more useful man, (as he does not
refuse to carry loads,) on seeing me rub salt on a bird's skin, remarked,
"What poor devils we are!  Bird's skins with salt supply the Sahibs with
food, while we can't get a morsel."  They promised to take me all over
the country, and to be my slaves, if I would point out to them where salt
is to be found.

[The Deo-Panee as it enters the Khoond: p28.jpg]

I saw nothing particular in the woods.  I picked up the fruit of a
Magnolia and Castanea, and observed an arborescent Leea.  Some of the
timber is fine.  A large Acrotirchea abounds between Laee and the Koond,
as well as Chloranthus.  Near the Laee a climber, the base of whose stem
is elephantopoid and enormous considering the slender stem, is abundant.
I could not get any of the leaves.  At the Koond, Buddleia Neemda, a
Prunus, etc. occur.  Caelogyne polleniis 4 obovatis, faciebus
incumbentibus complanates materie pulverea, mediocri.  Dundoons are
rather troublesome; they are flies, and nearly as large as an ordinary
house fly: their proboscis is large, and leaves spots of extravasated
blood where they bite, nearly of the size of an ordinary pin's head.

_Oct_. _27th_.--My people brought me in a beautiful snake, _Coluber_
_porphyraceus_, ventre albo, caeterum pulchre coccineo-badio, capite
lineis nigris tribus quarum centralis brevior, dorso lineis nigris duabus
postea gradatim evanescentibus, lineis circularibus minus conspicuis,
iridibus carneis. {29a}

_Oct_. _28th_.--Yesterday evening two elephants arrived with grain, so
that I have every prospect of being fairly on my way in a day or two.
Nothing worth seeing has occurred, except a man who by some accident had
the lobe of his ear torn, and had the fragments stitched together with
silver wire.

_Oct_. _31st_.--Halted at the Laee-panee, and gathered an Oberonea, and
specimens of fish. {29b}

_Nov_. _1st_.--Dirty weather; rain looking much as if it were going to
continue for several days.  There is a small drupaceous fruit found here
and at Beesa, the Singfo name of which is Let-tan-shee; it is the produce
of a large tree probably the fruit of a Chrysobalanus, testibus stylo
_laterali_, stam, perigynis: cotyledonibus crispatis.  The flavour is
acid, rather pleasant, and somewhat terebinthinaceous.

_Nov_. _2nd_.--I thought it best to set off, although it was raining
heavily.  Our course lay in an E. direction up the Karam for about two
hours, when it diverged: it thence after passing through some heavy
jungle continued up the steep bed of the now dry Dailoom; it next
diverged again about 2 P.M., when we ascended a small hill; it continued
thence through heavy jungle chiefly bamboo, until we descended in an
oblique manner on the Laee-panee, about a mile up which we found our
halting place.  The whole march occupied, including a few halts, seven
hours; and as the pace was pretty good for six full hours, I compute the
distance to be about fifteen miles.  Hill Flora recommenced in the bamboo
jungle; two fine species of Impatiens and several Urticeae making their
appearance; _Camellia axillaris_ and some fine Acanthacea: the best
plant was a species of Aristolochea.  The latter part of the day was
fine, and the elephants with grain from Suddiyah arrived.

_Nov_. _3rd_.--Passed the forenoon in ascending the hill opposite our
encampment: it is of no great height, but like all the others very steep.
To the N.W. of this has occurred a large slip, but long previous to this
time; on it two or three Phaeniceous palms may be found.  Pandanus still
occurs.  The hill was barren of Botany, excepting a few ferns towards
base.

_Nov_. _4th_.--Left Laee-panee at 9.5 A.M., and reached the encampment at
3.5 P.M.  Our course diverged almost immediately from the last
encampment, and we ascended for some time up the bed of a torrent.  The
first hill we ascended occupied an hour, and the remainder of the day's
journey consisted of ascents and descents along the most difficult path
imaginable.  All the hills are very steep, and the paths when they wind
round these, are very difficult; a slip would cause a dangerous fall.
About 1 P.M. we reached two or three houses constituting a village.

From this, one has a fine view of the plains, and of the B. pooter near
its exit from the hills: it is much intersected by islets covered with
jungle.  Leeches are not very numerous.  Dundoons or sand flies very
annoying.  I have gathered plenty of plants, especially ferns.  Wallichia
continues; _Wulfenia obliqua_, and a Companula were the best.  At our
halting place I found the fruits of _Sedgwickia_ in abundance.  Passed
two or three streams.  Found the flowers of a large Loranthus, or rather
its very large flowers on the ground.  They are eaten by the natives, but
the acidity is unpleasant, owing to its being mixed with a bitter; the
flowers are two inches long: tubo 4 angulato, basi-coccinescenti, laminis
viridibus interstibus carneis, coccineo lineatis praesenti transverse,
antheris syngenesis.  _Sarcocordalis_, common.

_Nov_. _5th_.--Left at half-past 8, and reached extensive _kheties_
(cultivated fields) with dispersed houses at about 1 P.M.  This place is
called Dilling.  Our route consisted of the same fatiguing marching: we
passed over some hills, from which we had fine views.  The first gave us
a fine sight of the Patkaye mountains, {31} S.E. of Upper Assam, which
reach apparently a great height.  The second, of the plains of Assam.  The
exact summits of all the hills are covered with a coarse spicate
Saccharum.  On one we met with a Melampyracea.  The Botany is improving
greatly; two species of Viola, two fine Cyrthandraceae occurring.  I also
noticed Sedgwickia again, and got abundance of ferns, a Buddleia, and a
fine Amaranthacea.  Halted on a cleared ground immediately under the Red
mountain so plainly seen from Jingsha.  There is now no appearance of
water-falls on it, but there are several white spots owing to slips: the
brink or brim of this hill is woody, but there is a considerable space
covered only with short grass.  The strata are inclined at an angle of 45
degrees.  I here got two or three fine mosses.  All the Mishmees have the
idea, that on some hills at least rain is caused by striking trees of a
certain size with large stones, some hills are again free from this
charm; it was ridiculous to hear them call out not to throw stones
whenever we approached one of these rainy hills.  The people appear to
get dirtier the farther we advance.  I saw plenty of snow on two high
peaks, and had a peep of the Lohit beyond Brahma Koond.  Wallichia
continues, as well as Bambusa, Saccharum Megala.  The kheties are either
of rice or Cynosurus or Zea.  Tobacco is not cultivated, but left to take
care of itself.  Buddleia Neemda and wild plantain continue, the latter
is probably a distinct species; leaves subtis glauco niveis.  Pandanus
continues.  The name of the Red mountain before alluded to, is Thu-ma-
thaya, the rivulet at its base is Tus-soo-muchee.  Tus-soo Dee-ling is
the name of the place; a large mountain bearing N.N.E., is
Sun-jong-thaya.  It is obvious that Dee-ling must be of some extent, as
my site does not agree with that of Wilcox.  The view to the E. is
entirely limited to Thu-ma-thaya, and to the N.N.E., by Sun-jong-thaya;
no B. pooter is visible, nor is Ghaloom's house.  The snow collects on
the Thu-ma-thaya this month: the clearings for cultivation on the
declivities of Thu-ma-thaya are called Chim-bra: the houses, although at
great distances from the village, are called _Yeu_.

_Nov_. _6th_.--We arrived at our halting place after a march of seven
hours, over a most difficult and fatiguing road: we skirted throughout
the whole time the base of the huge Thu-ma-thaya; I never saw a worse
road, if road it may be called--part of it lay over places where a false
step or slip would be very dangerous, if not fatal.  We came suddenly on
the B. pooter; but as the place was not a good one for crossing, we
prepared to go a little higher up the stream, and though the distance we
had to go was not above 100 yards, yet as the river side was
impracticable, it became necessary to ascend and descend by a most
difficult path where a slip would have precipitated one into the river
sixty or seventy feet below.  What rendered this passage most difficult
and dangerous, was the jungle which, while it caused you to stoop, at the
same time concealed your footing.  It is one of the characteristics of
Mishmees, that they sooner risk their necks than take the trouble of
cutting down underwood.

We have scarcely passed Thu-ma-thaya, so that the distance we have
travelled in a direct line from Deeling must be very small.  The stream
of the Lohit is not forty yards broad, but the bed is about sixty.  It
has the appearance of great depth, and roars along amidst rocks in some
places in fine style.  I here picked up some small branches of an elm,
very like U. virgata: the tree was too late to reach fruit.  I also
gathered a fine Acanthacea, and some good ferns.  The north bank of the
Lohit here has the same structure as the south at the Koond, and is
perpendicular.  The water of the Lohit is certainly much cooler than any
of the mountain streams.  Vast blocks of rock, of many sorts, lie strewed
on the south side; one in particular is quartzose, remarkable for the
indentations on its surface.  I here gathered some mosses, and a good
Marchantiacea, very nearly allied to Octoskepos, but culiculate.  Pandanus
still continues, as also Marlea, Wallichia, Caryota, and Pentaptera.
Passed several streams, and a pretty fall, the water falling down a cliff
almost perpendicular, about 100 feet high.  The Mishmees use the fibres
and _reti_ of Caryota as an ornament to their baskets, from which it
likewise keeps the rain.  Wild plantain continues.  Our encampment is on
a fine bed of sand.

_Nov_. _7th_.--Rain throughout the night at intervals, and sharp cold in
the morning; we left at 9 A.M. and arrived at our encampment about 12
P.M.  The first part of our march was very difficult, it in fact
consisted of crossing a precipice overhanging the Lohit; the difficulty
was increased by the slipperiness occasioned by the rain; no one could
pass some of the places unless aided by ratans fixed to trees, etc.  We
came to the Sung river about 12 noon, but were delayed some time in
building a bridge.  This river appears to me to be in some places
fordable, but the Mishmees say that it is not; the water is beautifully
clear.  The first cane suspended bridge occurs here; I did not fancy it,
although I observed the Mishmees cross, the passage taking barely half a
minute.  _Throughout the whole time_ the Mishmees use their legs
and arms, to accelerate or determine their progress; the inclination
caused by the weight is slight.  I preferred one of our own erection,
about 100 yards distant from it.  The height is not great over the river,
and the width is perhaps thirty yards.  The Bourra crossed after some
delay; we were then obliged to make two halts: we followed the Sung down
to its mouth, which is barely 200 yards: its bed is rocky; at its
junction there is a large bay formed, on the N. side of which is a fine
sand bank.  The Lohit there runs nearly N. and S., and is excessively
violent in its course, certainly ten miles an hour.  The scenery is
pretty, but no hills of great height are seen to any extent.  This is the
most romantic spot I have seen in my course of travels as yet.  We forded
the bay about its centre, and encamped on the sand: the path we are to
follow is said to be above, and very difficult.  We here gathered some
fine ferns and a Bleteoid Orchidea.  A Gentianacea likewise occurred.  The
Tapan Gam, on my inquiring, said, that Wilcox passed by the upper path,
the Lohit at that time running under the cliff which forms one side of
the bay. {33}  The course of the river, he says, has since changed by the
occurrence of a large slip, principally of mica slate.

_Nov_. _8th_.--The commencement of our march to-day was up a hill, the
ascent, as in all the other cases, being very steep.  From its summit we
could see Dilling in a horizontal distance extremely near.  We then
proceeded skirting the hill, and descended subsequently to the _O_.
rivulet, which is of no size.  We then ascended another considerable
height, and found ourselves on the site of Ghaloom's old dwelling.  The
situation was delightful; to the N.E., a high range was visible, which is
covered with snow, the pines on the lower parts of the ridge standing
out, in fine relief.  To the N. was a noble peak bare at its summit, on
which snow rests during some months, its centre being prettily marked out
with numerous patches of cultivation.  To the N. again the Tid-ding might
be seen foaming along the valleys; the hills are evidently improving in
height and magnificence of scenery.  We reached this at 12 o'clock, our
march having lasted five hours.  We thence descended crossing a small
stream at the base of the hill, on which Ghaloom's former house stood,
called the Dhaloom Basee.

I thence proceeded over some nasty swampy ground with a few low
elevations until we reached Ghaloom's, which we did about 2 P.M.  A small
spot was allotted to us some distance from the village, on which we
erected our huts.  Ghaloom changed his residence to this place, owing to
the death of two of his people, which was attributed to the unhealthiness
of the former site; but as might be expected from the nature of the place
he has chosen, he has suffered very severely from fever since his
removal.  As soon as our huts were built, Ghaloom and his brother Khosha
visited us, preceded by the hind quarter of a pig.  Their appearance is
somewhat better than the ordinary run of Mishmees, but they are just as
dirty.  Khosha is a little man, with a mahogany-coloured wrinkled face.
Great attention was paid by their attendants to all they said, and Khosha
himself is evidently the Demosthenes of the Mishmees.  When interrupted,
he commanded silence in an authoritative way.  Krisong was not present.
Khosha declares that Rooling, the Mezhoo chief, is nobody, and that
Wilcox gave him his present unknown to them.  The acquisitions in Botany
consisted of some fine Cyrtandraceae, a Cymbidium, and some ferns.  One
of these Cyrtandraceae is very singular: the runners are long, producing
one stem with a very small terminal leaf, and a very large flower.
Afterwards this leaf enlarges, becomes a large cordate Begonioid one,
bearing from its bosom apparently one or two Siliquae; Pandanus Bambusa
continue.  The fine Quercus is common, _Megala_, _Podomolia_, Triumfetta,
Siegesbeckia.  Cynoglossum, Callicarpa, Urena, Rottlera and several other
low tropical forms continue.  The Cymbidioid has pollena 4, incumbentia
postice aliquoties minore, glandula nulla?

_Nov_. _9th_.--Halted.  Went to the suspension bridge over the Lohit,
which is about 60 yards across, or double the length of the one we
crossed on the 7th.  The passage by Mishmees takes two, or two minutes
and a half, requiring continued exertion the whole time, both by hands
and feet, as above described.  Both banks are very steep, yet the natives
are so confident of safety, that of this bridge only one cane is
trustworthy.  Bathed in the river, which is very cold and deep, but
comparatively quiet.

_Nov_. _10th_.--Went to the Lohit, gathered Cymbidium giganteum, two or
three ferns, and a Rafflesia in its several stages.  I have not however
yet seen the perfectly expanded flower, the natives do not know it,
although it must be a sufficiently striking object, the alabastri before
expansion are about the size of an orange.  Went to Ghaloom's house,
which is of great length, built of bamboos, raised high from the ground,
divided into about twelve compartments, and containing 100 men, women,
and children.

_Nov_. _11th_.--Left for Khosha Gams; crossed the Lohit on a raft, and
left its banks at noon.  Followed the river for some distance, and then
diverged towards the N.W. and reached Khosha at 3 P.M., the march owing
to the heat was very fatiguing.  Found very few plants; noticed a flower
of a Ternstroemiacea nearly allied to the genus Camellia, cor. rotat.
lacin. reflexis, albis fauce carnea. stam. 00, epipet. anther. erectis-
apice dehiscent, and of a large Hibiscus; the Caelogyne of the Koond was
also found.  Two species of Castaneae occur in these woods, one with very
stout thorns to its cupula, and not eatable fruit; the other has long
slender prickles, and its fruit about the size of an acorn, is eatable,
and not at all disagreeable.  On all the hills of any height with grassy
tops Compositae are among the most striking forms.  Areca parva
continues, Pentaptera, and Fici continue.  Saccharum Megala very abundant
and fine.  Cupuliferae are becoming more abundant.  The roofs of the
houses which are built of bamboo, are covered with the leaves of the
Marantaceous genus--capitulis densis lateralibus _culmis_ I-foliosis.
Buddleia N'eemda and Callicarpa continue.

Want of means forms the only limit to the number of wives of a Mishmee.  A
rich man who has at his disposal numerous cattle, etc, will give 20
_mithuns_; {35} but the wife appears to bring with her slaves, etc. as a
return.  A poor man will get a wife for a pig.  Whatever the number of
wives may be, each will have a separate khetee, (field) and each khetee
has a separate granary.  All the wives live in the same house; in fact,
one house forms the village.  Theft is punished by a fine inflicted by a
meeting of all the Gams; if the fine is not paid, or the offender refuses
to pay, he is slain in a general attack.  Murder is punished in the same
way, but by a heavier fine: adultery against the consent of the husband,
or at least elopement, is punished by death; if with the consent of the
husband, the delinquent is fined.  There appears to be no regular law of
succession: the favourite son succeeding without reference to age.

_Nov_. _12th_.--I went out for plants, and descended to the Paeen
rivulet, which is of small size: followed up its course some way, and
then returned over a low hill to Khosha's.  The guide who was some
distance behind, came up with a Rafflesia bud.  I returned with him, and
saw it to perfection; he likewise succeeded in tracing the roots to a
gigantic Cissus, the fruit of which I have before observed is eatable,
and not unlike a greengage.  I returned home loaded with this undescribed
genus: I found likewise a fine Buddleia, and Menispermum, with some rare
Compositae, among which was an arborescent Eupatorium and a gigantic
thistle, a Prunus in flower and fruit, and a neat Liparis, Calamus, Tree-
fern, Tupistra, Pandanus, were likewise observed, and a beautiful
Viburnum, Corol sterilibus, 4 phyllis, foliis niveis carneo venosis:
petal fertil calyptratis, deciduis, intus caeruleo tinctis: staminibus
cyaneis, ovariis pallide caeruleis, stigmatib. carnosis.

_Nov_. _13th_.--Opposite Khosha's, or rather his granaries to the E. is a
high mountain excessively steep, only partially clothed with trees, and
with stunted ones at its summit, which in December and the colder months
is covered with snow: this they call Thaya-thro.

Khosha positively refuses to take me any farther into the interior, and
Krisong begs that I won't come and see him.  It is obvious that they are
under great fear of other tribes.  Khosha says, he should be attacked by
all the Mishoos or Mizhoos, were he to conduct me any farther now, and
that very probably the Lamas would attack him likewise.  He says the only
chance of success in penetrating to Lama, is to send previously a present
of salt, (about a seer) to all the chiefs, and request their leave,
without which preparatory donation, they would cut up any messengers he
might send.  He offers to do this at any time, and to let me know the
result.  He declined taking me to the Chibong Gam, a few days' journey up
the Diree, although the man is a relation of his own, and a Deboro
Mishmee.  It is obvious that there is no chance of getting further at
present, nor would it be fair even if one could bribe them.  He says no
reliance whatever is to be placed on Rooling, the Mizhoo who deceived
Wilcox, and whom he represents to be an underhand person.  I tried to
overcome his scruples by assuring him that I only wanted to go as far as
Rooling, but he declines taking me.  He says I may go any where to the
west of this, but to the north he dare not conduct me.  I shall therefore
go to Premsong to-morrow, and if that is not a favourable place, return
forthwith to Ghaloom's, and thence to Deeling to botanise on Thuma-thaya.

_Nov_. _14th_.--Proceeded to Premsong's, which we reached in less than
two hours.  Our march was in a westerly direction across a hill of some
elevation: the remainder of it was over kheties and level ground.  The
plants evidently increase in interest as we advance in the interior,
Compositae and Labiatae being most numerous.  A large tree occurs not
uncommonly, which is either a Birch or a Prunus, most probably from the
venation of its leaves, the latter; the bark is exactly like that of a
Birch.  Close to Premsong's I gathered a Clematis, Valerian and a fine
Botrychium, a Carex and a Cuscuta.  The mountain on the base of which
Premsong's house is situated, is a very high one; it is the one that is
so striking from Ghaloom's old site: it is named Laimplan-thaya; its
summit, which is a high peak, is very rugged, partially clothed with
vegetation, in which, as in all the others of the same height autumnal
tints are very distinct.  Thai-ka-thaya is a smaller peak to the S.S.W.
of Premsong's house.  One of my Mishmee Dowaniers tells me that the
Mishmee (Coptis) teeta Khosha gave me last evening, is cultivated near
his native place; its flower buds are just forming and are enclosed in
ovate concave squamae.  The leaves are of a lively green, not unlike
those of some ferns, but at once to be distinguished by the venation; it
is very evident that the Mishmees know nothing about the period of its
flowering, as they told me it flowered in the rains, at the same time as
the _dhak_ flowers in Assam; the radicles are numerous, tawny yellowish,
the rhizomata are rugged tortuous, the bark and pith are of yellow orange
colour, the woody system gamboge: this is the same in the petioles: it
tinges the saliva yellow.  It is a pure intense bitter of some
permanence, but without aroma: it is dried over the fire, the drying
being repeated three times.  Judging from it in its fresh state, the test
of its being recently and well dried is the permanence of the colors.  The
_Bee_ flowers during the rains: its flower, (_on dit_) is white and
small; they pretend that it is very dangerous to touch, causing great
irritation; both Coptis teeta, and Bee, are found on high hills on which
there is now snow; one of them, the Ummpanee or Moochee, is accessible
from hence in three days.

The Mishmee name for the Teeta, is _Yoatzhee_; of Bee, _Th'wee_; _Ghe_-
_on_ is the Mishmee name for the smelling root, which the Assamese call
Gertheon.  The smell of this is a compound of Valeriana and Pastinaca; it
is decidedly aromatic, and not at all disagreeable, it is white inside
and abounds in pith, but has scarcely any taste.

Yesterday evening I visited Khosha's house, which is of immense length,
and considerably longer, though not so high from the ground as Ghaloom's:
it is divided into upwards of twenty apartments, on the right hand side
of the passage are ranged the skulls of the cattle Khosha has killed,
including deer and pigs; on the other side are the domestic utensils, the
centre of the floor is occupied by a square earthen space for fire-place:
the bamboos, of which the floor is composed being cut away.  From the
centre of each room over the fire-place, hangs a square ratan sort of
tray, from which they hang their meat or any thing requiring smoke; their
cooking utensils are, I believe, confined to one square stone vessel,
which appears to answer its purpose remarkably well.  The women appear to
have no shame; they expose their breasts openly, which from their dirty
habits by no means correspond with the exalted character of the sex.  On
hills to the N.E. of Khosha's first residence, forests are very visible,
descending far down the sides.

On an open spot a little distance from Premsong's, there is a fine view
of the course of the Lohit, and of the more remote (now) snowy ranges.
The hills beyond this exactly answer to Wilcox's description, being very
high, and all descending as it were unbroken to the Lohit.

Went out for about two hours over a tolerably level portion of the hill,
covered with Artemesia; found abundance of interesting plants, Crawfurdia
campanulacea, a Clematis, Acer, Prunus, Camellia axillaris, Cyathea,
Myrica, Rhus, Sedgwickia, Polygala, Galium: and a beautiful very fragrant
climbing Composita.

Great part of the side of the hill is covered with a small hard bamboo,
which forms excellent walking sticks.  An Urticea foliis peltatis, was
among the novelties.  The Paeen Panee forms the nearest ravine.  The
Polygonum, paniculis densissimis, is a certain indication of some
elevation.  I observed Calamus, and Torenia asiatica.  There is likewise
a large Mimoseous plant, which we found in fruit.

_Nov_. _15th_.--Spent the greater part of the day attempting to reach the
summit of Laim-planj-thaya, but my guide did not know the way.  We
ascended for upwards of four hours, slowly of course, but were still a
long way from its summit.  The face of the mountain is entirely occupied
by woods, with but little underwood.  Found abundance of plants, chiefly
ferns, only saw 4 Orchideae, of which 2 were in flower.  The novelties
were a Polygonatum, Camellia, and Quercus lamellata.

I observed no less than 5 Araliaceae, of which I succeeded in getting 4:
an Acer, probably that from Brahma Koond: and several _incertae_.  Near
Premsong's the varnish tree was shewn to me, it is obviously a species of
Rhus.  The Assamese name of the varnish plant is _Ahametta Gas_.  I
took specimens of it in fruit.

They obtain the juice by ringing, and the only two specimens I observed
were evidently well drained: no preparation is required for the varnish;
and it is applied one day, the next day is hard; it has a fine polish,
and is of an intense black.  It is the same probably with two small trees
I had previously seen in Capt. Charlton's garden at Suddyah.  Kydia
continues; a fine Palm, caudex 8-10-pedali; it probably belongs to the
genus Wallichia?  Camellia is only found towards the top; the Polygonatum
also does not descend far.  I saw also species of an undescribed
Bucklandia, likewise one specimen which had been damaged: the capituli
pluriflori.  Towards the middle a small bamboo becomes plentiful; the
lower joints, from which no branches proceed, are armed with a
verticillus of spines.  I did not observe Pandanus, but it is used for
constructing large mats: Megala continues, but not up the hill.

_Nov_. _16th_.--Attempted to ascend Laim-planj-thaya by the Paeen rivulet
which proceeds from the centre, but after proceeding about half an hour
we found our progress effectually stopped by a water-fall, the sides of
the stream being so precipitous as to render all idea of clambering over,
or proceeding round ridiculous.  Gathered two or three rare ferns, and a
pretty Lobelia.  On our return through the open grassy parts near
Premsong's, we found a fine Choripetalum and Crawfurdia campanulacea,
beautifully in flower; the flower is rose-coloured.  Anthistiria
arundinacea, the same Sambucus found at Suddya, Solanum 10 dentatum, a
Kydia and Torenia continue.

_Nov_. _17th_.--Left and returned to Khosha's, as we were all out of
rice, and it was impossible to get anything in Premsong's absence.  The
march on return occupied us about two hours, but the path was so
excessively slippery, owing to the grass not being cut away on either
side and to the dry weather and heat, that our progress was very slow.
Noticed Lactuca exalata and a Rottlera on the road; more snow has fallen
on the hills E.N.E.  The descent on returning, owing to the slippery
state of the roads, was more fatiguing than the ascent.  Hedychium
angustifolium I also observed on the road.

I have as yet observed the following grains used by the Mishmees.  1st,
Oriza, rice; variety of this called _Ahoo Da_; 2nd, a species of
Eleusine, _Bobosa_; 3rd, Zea Mays, _Gorm_ dan; 4th, Panicum Panicula
nutanti, densa clavata.  5th, _Konee_, Chenapodium sp. panicula simili.

The Mishmee names are as follow: _Dan-khai_ rice; _khai hoo_,
_bobosa_, _Mdo_.-_zea_, _or Maize_, _Ma-bon-konee-yo_
Chenopodium; _Thenna_, a kind of Polygonum; _Hubra-Aloo_,
_Ghee-kuchoo-shoom_, Sweet potato; _Gaihwan_, Plantain; _Puhee_
_Dhoonhwa_, Tobacco.  They likewise cultivate Sesamum.

_Nov_. _18th_.--Found more of the Rafflesiacea on low hills along the
Paeen; it was attached to the roots of the same species of Cissus, on
which it was found before. {40}  I also gathered a Euonymus and a fine
Engelhardtia.  The hairs of the fruits of Engelhardtia create a
disagreeable itching.  All the Mishmees decline shewing me the road a
foot in advance of this place.  I tried every way I could think of, to
overcome their objections, but to no purpose.  They have so little regard
for truth, that one cannot rely much on what they say: I begin to think
that it is all owing to the Tapan Gam, who I suspected was insincere in
his professions.

_Nov_. _19th_.--Yesterday evening Premsong arrived, he is a man about 35,
the best looking of all the Gams: but has rather a cunning Jewish face.
The brandy I gave him made him at first wonderfully obliging, for he
seemed disposed to enter into my views.  This morning however he came
with Khosha and Tapan, by whom it was at once obvious that he has been
overruled; not only will he not take me to the Lama _Dais_ (plains,) but
he won't even shew me the road to Truesong's, a Digaroo, whose village is
only distant about five days' journey.  Premsong I know wishes to go,
induced by the promise of 200 Rs. but he is afraid of incurring the
displeasure of Khosha, etc.  I shall therefore return towards Deeling,
and devote a few days to botanising on Thuma-thaya.

_Nov_. _20th_.--Returned to Ghaloom's: gathered the Martynia, finely in
flower, and observed the Rafflesiacea along the banks of the Lohit.

_Nov_. _21st_.--Halted at Ghaloom's, the Rafflesiacea is found all about,
anth. bilocular, apice poro-gemino dehiscent, pollen simplex, materie
viscosa cohaerenti, ovula antitropa, tegumento unico.  Made every
arrangement with Premsong.  According to this Gam we are to go up the
Diree, and then cross over high mountains, leaving the Lohit entirely.  He
says the Lamas wear trowsers, socks and shoes, and that they dress their
hair _a la mode Chinoise_; their houses are built on posts, and
raised from the ground: they erect forts like the Chinese, and have
plenty of fire-locks.  They have also abundance of cattle, consisting of
about seven kinds, but no _Mithuns_; and three sorts of Horses, which
alone they use as beasts of burden.  Their staple food is Ahoodan.  The
_Mithun_ of the Mishmees appears to me intermediate to a certain degree
between the Bison and the wild Bull; their head is very fine, and as well
as the horns that of a Bull, but their neck and body have, so to say, the
same awkward conformation as those of the buffalo.  I have not seen a
large living one; the largest head I saw was three feet from tip to tip
of the horns, the diameter of the forehead being probably about one-third
of the above.

_Nov_. _22nd_.--Returned to Loong Mockh.  I cannot reconcile Wilcox's
description of Ghaloom's old site with the reality, because the scenery
is decidedly fine, embracing the Tidding, and the (in comparison with the
near surrounding hills) gigantic Laim-planj-thaya, which from this
presents the appearance of a vast cone with a peaked summit.  Premsong's
village is obviously at a considerable elevation.  Found another
Acrostichum, a Bolbophyllum, a rare Aristolochia foliis palmatis, 7
lobis, subtus glaucis; sapor peracerbus, floribus _siphonicis_.  The
Huttaya I have not seen: it occurs at a greater distance in the mountains
than I have been.  In addition to the plants I have gathered, Asplenium
nidus it very common.  Tradescantia and Camelina both occur; Ricinus also
occurs, the Mishmees do not however put it to any use; Melica latifolia
is common on some of the hills.  Anthistiria arundinacea occurs in
abundance.  Likewise a small Areca and Chloranthus.

It is at Ghaloom's old site that these hills commence putting on an
interesting appearance, those previously seen, excepting however Thuma-
thaya, being entirely covered with tree jungle; but beyond this site, the
lower spaces unoccupied by jungle become much more numerous.  The Mishmee
word for bitter, is _Khar_.  Query--why should not the name of the plant
Coptis teeta, be changed to Coptis amara, although the species of the
genus Coptis are probably all bitter?  Sauraussa and Bombax both occur at
Ghaloom's, as well as Pentaptera; Sesamum is used for oil.

I should have mentioned the top of the hill, surmounted in going
immediately from Loong Panee towards Ghaloom's, is occupied almost
entirely by a species of Fraxinus.

On my arrival at Ghaloom's on the 20th, I found that the coolies had
played me the same trick as they had done previously, though not to such
an extent.  Instead of each man having 20 days' provisions, scarcely one
had more than 5 or 6: as they had 20 days' given them in addition to that
they would require on the road, it is obvious they must have thrown much
away.  Were all the Gams disposed to take one to Lama, it could not be
done with Assamese coolies and, above all, Seerings or Ahooms are the
very worst; and although often good sized men, they are very deficient in
strength.  Nagas and Mishmees are the best, then Kamptees.

I gave before leaving a packet of salt to Premsong, according I suppose
to their own custom of proceeding.  Yesterday he went to Roomling,
Krisong's eldest son, and gained his consent.  I mention this to shew how
active he is.  He is a friend of the Dupha's, {42} and to my surprise,
told me he saw Capt. Hannay at Hookhoom, who gave him a jacket, and tried
to induce him to shew him the road to Suddiya.  He is certainly the best
of all the Gams, and appears to be very liberal.

_Nov_. _23rd_.--Arrived at Deeling after a tedious march of 8 hours: we
did not traverse the two cliffs near the Lohit, but pursued a longer, but
more commodious cattle path: our Mishmees, however, preferred the shorter
one.  Gathered Sabia, Martynioidea, Alsophila, Menispermum at Paeen in
fine flower.  At Ghaloom's old site a large Euphorbia fol obovatis, ramis
4 angulato-alatis occurs, and Cymbydium giganteum in fine flower.  _En_
_route_ hither I noticed the following; Bauhinia, Hoya, Urtica gigas,
Mucuna, Curculigo, Panax, foliis supra-decompositis, Dalbergia, Laurus,
Abroma, Lactuca exaltata, Uncaria, Siegesbeckia, Megala, _Podo-Molee_,
and a species subscandent of bamboo, internodiis vix cylindricis,
gracilibus; this is of great use where it occurs, in assisting one's
ascent and descent.

_Nov_. _24th_.--Left about 11 for Thuma-thaya: we first descended the
Dissoo ravine, then up a very steep hill, the top of which was
cultivated, then descended and crossed another stream, the remainder of
our march consisting almost entirely of an uninterrupted steep ascent:
during our progress we gained partial views of the Plains and the Naga
Hills, but on crossing a high ridge on which I observed Betula Populus?
Rhododendrum arboreum, the view to the East and West was very fine.  That
to the W. embracing the greater part of the plains about Suddiya and the
Abor Hills, stretching along to S.W. the more distant Naga Hills.  The
Lohit could be traced for an immense way, the Dihong, Dibong, Digaroo,
Dihing were all partially visible.  To the N.E. Thegri-thaya was finely
seen, then some rugged peaks among which Laim-planj was conspicuous.  It
embraced the course of the Lohit, at least its right bank, ridge
surmounting ridge: the loftier ones tipped with snow; and lastly it was
closed by a huge wall, all covered with snow, especially its peaks,
stretching away to the N.  From this we descended to Yen, where, as
usual, I took up my quarters in a granary.  During the latter portion of
the journey, I gathered a Passiflora? Lobelia two species, a Scitaminea,
Spiraea, and a curious aromatic plant, pedunculis bracteae adnatis,
bracteis, coloratis, petal videis.

Codonopsis, etc. Dicksonia, stipitibus atris 3 canaliculatis, frondibus
amplis, 10 pedalibus; in fine fructification; this is the same with the
Manmoo plant.  I observed likewise an arborescent Sambucus, a Bonnaya, a
huge Begonia: Coix was seen cultivated.

_Nov_. _25th_.--Spent the day in botanising.  Gathered Adamia, some fine
ferns, a bamboo, spiculis dense congestis, bracteis scariosis
interspersis, and Schizosfachyum, Nees ab E. etc.

Another and much finer species of the Fumariaceous genus, I found on Laim-
planj, Deutzia, a rare Quercus, a fine species of Antonia, (Br.) in
fruit, a Bartramia, Trematodon, Neckera, etc., noticed a fruit something
similar to that of Combretum, allis 2 maximis, 2 minimis: cotyledonibus
haemisphaericis.

Saurauja, Prunus: 3 species of Aralia, Castanea, Quercus, etc.  A species
of Panicum is here cultivated; the Assamese know it by the name Cheena, 3
species of Polygonatum, including that from Laim-planj, one foliis
carnosis oppositis.  2 species of Begonia, making altogether six.  The
Amaranthacea of Deeling is here found extensively, it often assumes the
form of a climber of considerable size.  Musa farinosa grows to a great
size, 20 to 25 feet.  Bambusa in flower has stems about two inches in
diameter.  Sterculia flowers were observed on the ground.  In the
afternoon it rained slightly.  This is the coldest place I have visited
on these hills: in the evening and earlier parts of the night there is a
very cold draught down Thuma-thaya.

The Anthistiria found on the more elevated portions of these hills, is
probably different from that of the plains.  Urticea are here found in
abundance.

_Nov_. _26th_.--This morning the atmosphere being beautifully
transparent, very high land plentifully sprinkled with snow was visible
to the N.W. by W., and to the N.W. a slight peep of the Himalayas was
gained.  Started at 9, and commenced the ascent; we arrived at our
halting place at 11.5.  The greater part of the march was a steep ascent
through dry woods, the ground being very slippery owing to the leaves.
Bucklandia occurs in abundance and of a large size, and attains a much
greater height than Sedgwickia: found many interesting plants and a small
Conifera, probably an Araucaria or a Taxus.

I continued the ascent until about 12, but the scene had totally changed;
the whole face of the mountain on the S. side being entirely destitute of
trees, and in many places quite naked.  The ascent was not very
difficult, and occupied a little more than an hour.  This acclivity is
chiefly occupied by Graminea, all past flowering, all adhering very
firmly to the rock, which is quartzose and greyish blue outside,
excessively angular: Gentianeae 2: a beautiful Campanula, Hypericum,
Viburnum, Spiraea, Bryum Neckera, Pteris, Scabiosa, some Compositae, one
or two Vaccinioidea, and a curious shrubby Rubiacea evidently a Serissa,
were observed.  The top, which represents a ridge, is partially wooded,
the trees being the continuation or rather termination of the jungle that
covers the whole northern face of the mountain.  Here I saw Bucklandia, a
Pomacea, Crawfurdia, Deutzia, Cynaroidea, Viburna 2, some ferns.
Brachymeum, Neckera, Lichens several: a Caryophyllea and a Berberis.

All these were somewhat stunted.  The various views were beautiful,
embracing a complete panorama, but unfortunately obscured towards Lama by
trees.  The Lohit was seen extensively from the Koond to Ghaloom's, and
to the plains to an immense distance.  The whole range of Abor Hills and
a great portion of the Naga, some of which appeared very high, were
likewise seen: to the S.E. high ridges not far distant and covered with
snow, limited the view; slight snow was visible on the peak seen from
Suddiya.  The descent was very tedious owing to the excessive
slipperiness of the grass: it was dangerous, because a slip would have
frequently dashed you to pieces, and in all cases would have hurt one
severely.

_Nov_. _27th_.--Descended to Yen: near our halting place we gathered a
fine Pomacea arborea in fruit: a Symplocos, and observed Wallichioideae
and Calamus.  The plants of the greatest interest gathered were an Acer,
an Epilobium, a Hoya grandiflora, Eurya, Hypericum, a fine Arundo,
Bucklandia: Cotoneaster microphylla, a Sabia, Coriaria, Abelia? a rare
Dipodous Orchidea of the same genus as a dwarf plant of the Cossiya
Hills.  Rhododendron, scandesent Eleodendron.

The ascent for the greater part is a steep wooded ridge; the first change
indicated or induced by elevation is the diminution of the size in the
trees, and the frequent occurrence of a Betulus? out of flower.
Proceeding onward one comes to a ridge, the S.E. declivity of which is
nearly naked, the opposite being wooded with shrubs, Viburnum, Conaria,
Mespilus, Pomacea, Rhododendron, Rubiacea Serissa, Cupulifera and some
Compositae occur.  Then Arbutus Vaccinium; Nardus: Filix cano-tomentosa,
Lycopodium; Dicranum atratum; one or two Hypna, a Bryum, and Neckera
fusca.  Descending slightly from thence the ridge is observed to be
wooded on both sides; it is at the termination of this that we halted.
The ascent is continued up a rock, and the whole of the mountain is,
excepting the ravines, covered with Graminea, Cyperacea, Filix
cano-tomentosa, etc. but the Ericoidea are not so fine.  The grasses of
the summit are two Andropogons: an Arundo Festucoidea, Panicum, Isachne,
Nardus ceasing below, it is towards this that Crepis? and Campanula are
common.

The Ceratostemmata are found towards the summit, none descend any
distance, except one of Roxburgh's; they are all generally epiphytes.
Orchidea become more common towards the halting place; beyond this I
observed only two past flowering, one Habenaria, and a Malaxidea; the
others are two Caelogyne, a Dipodious Orchidea, labelli ungue sigmoideo
very common, a Bolbophyllum, and a few ditto epiphytes out of flower, one
terrestrial Bletioidea is common in some places.  At our halting place, I
observed an arborescent Araliacea, a Cissus, an Acanthacea and a
Laurinea.  A little below, Pandanus occurs here and there, and attains a
large size, the largest in fact I have ever seen.  Castanea occurs about
half way up, it is that species with rigid compound spines to the cupula.
I gathered also a fine Geastrum, but the specimens are lost.  Bucklandia
occurs extensively; it is a distinct species owing to its many flowered
capitula; Sedgwickia comes into play towards Yen, where Bucklandia
appears to become scarce: a large Vitex floribus roseo-purpureis is the
most conspicuous tree of all, it ceases towards the summit; Cyathea I
observed only above half way.  Camellia axillaris occurs below, but I
missed the Laim-planj plant.  I may here observe that almost all plants
with red flowers, at least in this quarter, are acid: the Assamese always
appear to expect this, the proofs are Loranthus, Ceratostemma, and
Begonia, in which red is generally a predominant colour.

Antrophyllum I noticed about Yen; towards Yen, I diverged from the path
to visit the place whence the stones are procured, which the Mishmees use
as flints for striking lights: this stone is found on the S. Western face
of the mountain: the stones or noduli are frequently sub-crystalline, and
are imbedded in a sort of micaceous frangible rock: they are very common,
of very different sizes, with glassy fracture; the best are hard; the bad
easily frangible, their weight is great.  The inclination of this bed is
considerable; overlying it at an inclination of 45 degrees, is the grey
quartzose rock which forms the chief part, and perhaps nearly the whole,
of the mountain.  The Mishmee name for the noduli is _Mpladung_.

In the jungle at Yen occurs a huge Palm evidently Caryota, foliis maximis
supra decompositis; the diameter of the trunk is 1.5 to 2 feet.  It is
said to die after flowering: the natives use the central lax structures
as food.  The Yen Gam promises to send me specimens to-morrow.  The Palms
I have hitherto seen are Wallichia, one or two Calami: Wallichioidia
trunco 5-10 pedali, and a Phaenicoidea, but this I only saw at the foot
of the mountains near Laee Panee, and the small Areca common about
Negrogam.  The name of the large Palm in Assamese is _Bura Sawar_.  All
the plants common to these and the Cossiya mountains, with one or two
exceptions, flower much earlier here, those being all past flowering
which I gathered in flower on the Cossiya hills in November last.  This
is owing to the greater cold, and the consequent necessity for the plants
flowering at an earlier and warmer period.

A species of ruminant, or, according to the native account, a species of
Pachydermata called the _Gan Pohoo_, occurs on Thuma-thaya.  At the
summit of the mountain the ground was in one place rooted up, the
Mishmees said, by this animal, which they describe as a large Hog, but
which I should rather take to be a kind of Deer.

_Nov_. _28th_.--Returned to Deeling.  At the commencement of the
principal descent we gathered Betula and another Cupulifera, both
moderately sized trees.  Anthestina arundinacea, is about this place very
common, and an Andropogon, Culmis ramosis which I had previously brought
from the Abor hills.  About half way down by a present of _kanee_
(opium), I succeeded in getting the arborescent vitex, which is the most
striking tree of all when in flower.  Lost sight altogether of
Bucklandia, nor did I observe Sedgwickia.  Gathered at the foot of Thuma-
thaya a Caelogyne in flower, allied to C. Gardneriana; Alsophila is
common towards the base.

In the evening the Yen Gam came up according to his promise with the
gigantic Palm, with male inflorescence, it is a Caryota; he likewise
brought Sarcocordalis, Rafflesiacea, and a curious pubescent Piper.  He
also added the female flowers of another Palm, which, according to him,
is another species of _Sawar_, or Caryota: the inflorescence is of an
orange yellow.  A tree with the habit of Pterospermum occurs on Thuma-
thaya, low down Habenaria uniflora on rocks in the Dirsoo Panee, or
river; Kydia occurs about Yen, but not higher.

_Nov_. _29th_.--Reached Laee Panee after a march of five hours; and
without Assamese coolies, it might be done in three.  I noticed below
Deeling, but still at a considerable elevation, Crawfurdia campanu lacea,
Adamea, Engelhardtia, Vitex speciosa, and Magnolia in the order in which
they are thus given, Quercus, cupulis echinatis occurs comparatively low
down, Castanea ferox still lower, Dracaena comes into view towards the
base.  At the village first reached in the ascent there is a Meliaceous
Azedarach looking tree.

At our old halting place, and which is near Deeling, another
_Ahum-metta Ghas_ was shewn me.  This attains, I am told, a large
size: it is not very unlike in habit a Melanorrhaea, and its young leaves
are tinged with red, the mature ones are coriaceous.  I have not seen it
in flower; the juice, at least from small branches, is not very abundant,
and at first is of a whitish colour; it is, _on dit_, after drying that
it assumes the black tint; at any rate it is excessively acrid, for one
of my servants who cut it incautiously, had his face spoilt for a time:
the swelling even after four days had elapsed was considerable.  With
this as well as the Rhus they dye the strings of the simple fibres of
_Sawar_, which they all wear below the knee: if not properly dried these
strings cause some inflammation: the strings are ornamental, light, and
when worn in small numbers graceful, but when dozens are employed, and
all the upper ones loose, they deform the figure much; some of the women,
perhaps anxious to restrain the protuberance of their calves, tie two or
three lightly across the calf.

At Nohun, near Deeling, Cocoloba aculeata, _baccis_ cyaneis occurs here
the same as at Mumbree in the Cossiya hills, and at Suddiya.

_Nov_. _30th_.--Halted.  Put all the grain into the Tapan Gam's hands,
amounting to 60 maunds.  In the evening received as a present a long
sword from Premsong.  Found a fine Impatiens and a shrub coming into
flower, Calyce aestiv. valvato?  Stamen 4, connectivo ultra antheras
longe producto, ovarium adnatum, foliis oppositis, exstipulatis.  Meyenia
coccinea, finely in flower.  An arborescent Urticea (Baehmeria?) foliis
subtus candidis is common.

_Dec_. _1st_.--Reached the Tapan Gam's after a sharp march of four hours.
We are not yet quite at the foot of the hills.  Gathered _en route_ 4
new Acanthaceae, not previously met with on this trip, among which is a
beautiful Eranthemum.  At Laee Panee one of my people brought me a fine
Aristolochia, very nearly allied to that from Ghaloom's, but at once
distinct by its ferruginous pubescence, Antrophyum, and a Polypodium not
before met with were among the acquisitions.  The Tapan Gam has behaved
very handsomely for a Mishmee, having killed a hog, and given five
kuchoos of beautiful rice, and feasted my people.  Found two snakes,
which inhabit the inside of bamboos.  Color superne brunneo-cinereus,
margines squamarum nigri, gula nigra, fascicula subtus antea alba,
postice lutescens.

Noticed Jenkinsia near Laee Panee, and some gigantic specimens of
Pentaptera, the Hool-look of the Assamese, the timber of which is used
for large canoes; and Lagerstraemia grandiflora occurs on the banks of
the Kussin Panee.



CHAPTER III.


_Revisits the Tea Localities in the Singphoo and Muttack_
_Districts_, _Upper Assam_.

_Dec_. _2nd_.--Returned to Jingsha via Kussin Panee, or river, and Karam
Panee, the march being a tolerably easy one.  Found along the steep banks
of the former a fine Meniscium, frondibus 6-8 pedalibus, and an
arborescent Polypodium, caudice 12-15 pedali, partibus novellis
densissime ferrugineo-tomentosis; frondibus subtus glauco-albidis.  The
caudex is altogether similar in structure to that of Alsophyla, equally
furnished with strong black bristly radicles towards its base.

_Dec_. _3rd_.--Left for Husa Gam's about 9, and arrived at the village
which is on the Kampai of the Singfos, Tup-pai of the Mishmees about 4.5
P.M.  The first part of our march was to the E. up the Karam, we then
traversed for a long way heavy jungle in a S. direction, and then came on
the dry bed of the Kampai, up which we ascended to the village.  Found a
Ruellioidea, _Cyananthus_, _mihi_. _Oom_ of the Assamese, with which the
Kamptees dye their black blue cloths.  Noticed an arborescent Araliacea
inermis, foliis supra decomposita; panicule patentissima.  The Husa Gam
treated us very handsomely forming a striking contrast with the Mishmees;
he declares positively that no tea exists in this direction; I shall
therefore proceed direct from Luttora to Beesa.  Roxburghia occurred on
the route.  The village is on the left bank of the river: the direction
from Jingsha's being about N.W.

_Dec_. _4th_.--Reached Luttora after an easy march of three hours and a
half, for the most part along an excellent path.  We passed the following
villages _en route_ Chibong, Wakon, Mtarm, and Mcyompsan: three of
which are of some size; none however so large as Nsas.  This is the
largest Singfo village I have seen, and probably contains 400 people.
This village and all the others are situated on high ground, the ascent
from the Kampai being probably 70 feet.  The country consists of level,
apparently good soil, with here and there broadish ravines in which
bamboos are abundant.  Cultivation is common, and of considerable extent.
On a similar eminence is situate Luttora, and it has been well chosen,
for on both sides that I approached it, the ascent is steep and capable
of being easily defended; the south side is bounded by the Ponlong Panee,
which runs into the Tenga Panee.  If any ascent it is an easy one, and
must be to the westward; to the north, there is a small stream, but
neither this, Ponlong or Tenga are any thing but mere rills, which may be
easily leaped over in the dry seasons.  Our route from Nsas was to the W.
of south.  No stockades appear to exist in this quarter.

Luttora is not so large as Nsas; formerly the Luttora Gam was the chief
of all this soil, but he has been partly deserted by two bodies of men
who have respectively chosen Nsas and Htan-tsantan.

The Gam visited me in the evening at our halting place on the Ponlong; he
is a large, coarse, heavy-looking man, nearly blind, and excessively
dirty.  He proposed of himself to me, to become the Company's ryott in
accordance with the wish, he said, of the Dupha Gam; but when I told him
he ought to send or go to the Suddiya Sahib, or Political Agent, he said
he wanted to see the Dupha first: he was accompanied by a very loquacious
oldish man, who had just returned from Hook-hoom, to which place he had
gone with the Dupha.  They left apparently not much pleased at my being
empty handed.

_Dec_. _5th_.--Left at 6.5, reached the Muttack Panee about 8.5, having
come through much heavy bamboo jungle; we then ascended the dry bed of
the Muttack, and ascended after some time the Minaboom.  This was most
tedious, as we continued along the ridge for two hours; we then commenced
our descent, but did not reach the Meera Panee much before 1 P.M.  Down
this we came here, and then along some curious chasms in the sandstone,
and encamped about 3.  The difference of soil between the Minaboom and
the Mishmee hills is most obvious; on the N.E. declivity there is much
soil; but on the opposite side little but rounded stones which supply the
place of soil, and in places we saw nothing but sandstone conglomerate?
or indurated soil with many boulders imbedded in it, and a blackish
greasy clay slate; while on the Mishmees, on the contrary, all is rock,
hard and harsh to the touch; or where loose stones do occur on the face
of the hills, they are all angular.  The vegetation of sandstone is
likewise far more varied; and that of the Meera Panee district, abounds
in ferns, among which is Polypodium Wallichianum.  The Tree-fern of
Kujing I observed in the Muttack, Sedgwickia in Minaboom, two
Magnoliaceae, one bracteis persistent, induratis, and a Dipterocarpus.
The chief vegetation of the ridge consists of grasses, among which bamboo
holds a conspicuous place.  A Begonia was common along the Muttack.  The
Meera Panee would well repay a halt of two or three days.

At our halting place we met four Burmese, despatched by the Maum, {51}
who has arrived at Beesa on a visit to the Luttora Gam.

_Dec_. _6th_.--Reached Beesa after a sharp march of six hours.  Our
course lay at first down the Meera Panee; here I observed more of the
Polypodium Wallichianum, which is common throughout the Singfo hill
country, and appears to be used as grog, at least the juice of the
petioles.  We then diverged to the westward through heavy jungle, and the
remainder of our march consisted of uninteresting dense jungle, water-
courses, and excessively low places.  Observed Sabia in some of the
jungles; the only interesting plants gathered were an Impatiens and two
or three Acanthaceae.  About 2.5 P.M.  we came on the Noa Dihing, which
is now nearly dry, the water having flowed into the Kamroop.  No boat,
not even a dak boat, can come near Beesa.  It is obvious that this river
here never presented any depth, both banks being very low; the bed
consists of small hard boulders.

_Dec_. _7th_, _8th_.--Halted at Beesa.

_Dec_. _9th_.--Started for the Naga village, at some distance, and

_Dec_. _10th_.--Left for Kujoo or Khoonlong, which we reached about 1,
after a march of five hours.  At 10, we arrived at Dhoompsan or Thoompsa,
a large village with extensive cultivation.  The remainder of our march
was through heavy jungle, many parts of which were very low, and crowded
with a fierce Calamus.  The higher parts abound in a Dipterocarpus, and
two Castaneae.  I found many fine ferns, all of which however we
collected last year.  Chrysobaphus, not uncommon.  Apostasia rare.

_Dec_. _11th_.--Visited the tea in the old locality at Nigroo.  No steps
have been taken towards clearing the jungles, except perhaps of tea.  The
Gam tells me, that the order for clearing was given to Shroo, Dompshan,
and Kumongyon, Gams of three villages near the spot.  Noticed Dicksonia
_en route_, so that we must have passed it last year.  AEsculus also
occurs here.

_Dec_. _12th_.--Arrived at Kugoodoo after an easy march of two hours and
a half.  At 12, went to see the tea which lies to the S.S.W. of the
village, and about ten minutes' walk to the W. of the path leading to
Negrogam, and which for the most part runs along an old bund road.  After
diverging from this road we passed through some low jungle, which is
always characterised by Calamus Zalaccoideus; and then after traversing
for a short time some rather higher ground, came on the tea.  This patch
is never under water; there is no peculiarity of vegetation connected
with it.  It runs about N. and S. for perhaps 150 yards by 40 to 50 in
breadth.  The Gam had cleared the jungle of all, except the larger trees
and the low _herbaceous underwood_, so that a _coup d'oeil_ was at
once obtained, and gave sufficient evidence of the abundance of the
plants, many of which were of considerable size, and all bore evidence of
having been mutilated.  They were for the most part loaded with flowers,
and are the finest I have seen in the Singfo country.  Young buds were
very common, nor can I reconcile this with the statement made by the Gam,
that no young leaves will be obtainable for four months.  From the
clearing, the plants are exposed to moderate sun; it is perhaps to this
that the great abundance of flowers is to be attributed.  The soil, now
quite dry at the surface, is of a cinereous grey; about a foot below it
is brown, which passes, as you proceed, into deeper yellow; about four
feet deep, it passes into sand.  No ravines exist, and mounds only do
about a few of the larger trees.  The soil as usual is light, friable,
easily reduced to powder, and has a very slight tendency to stiffness.

_Dec_. _13th_.--Left for the Muttack: our course lay through dense
jungle, principally of bamboo, and along the paths of wild elephants;
these beasts are here very common.  We halted after a march of seven
hours on a small bank of the Deboro; the only plant of interest was my
Cyananthus in flower.

_Dec_. _14th_.--Continued through similar jungle along the Deboro; bamboo
more frequent.  About 2 P.M. we left the undulating hillocks, and the
jungle became more open.  At 4, we reached Muttack, but had still to
traverse a considerable distance before we halted at Kolea Panee.  We
crossed the Deboro _en route_; no particular plant was met with.  I
shot two large serpents, _Pythons_; one 8, and the other 10 feet long.
The Kolea Panee is of some width, but is fordable.

_Dec_. _15th_.--After marching for about seven hours, halted at a small
village.  The country passed over was, like most of this part of Muttack,
open, consisting of a rather high plain covered with grasses, T. sperata,
Saccharum, and Erianthus, with here and there very swampy ravines; the
soil is almost entirely sandy, light at the surface; the yellow tint
increasing with the depth, which is considerable.  Crossed the Deboro by
a rude wooden bridge.  I found no particular plants _en route_.

_Dec_. _16th_.--Reached Rangagurrah, after a march of about an hour: and
halted for the day.

_Dec_. _18th_.--Started to visit Sedgwickia at the wood, where we found
it in February last.  Reached the spot, which is at least ten miles from
Rangagurrah, in two hours and a half.  The trees had evidently not
flowered last year; many of the buds were of some size, and such
contained flower buds, each capitula being in addition enveloped in three
bracteae densely beset with brown hair.  The natives assured me, it will
flower about April, or at the sowing of _halee_.  When we before found
it, the buds were all leaf buds, which at once accounts for the
non-appearance of flowers.  Gathered Sabia in the Sedgwickia wood.  The
Major {53} arrived before I got back.

_Dec_. _20th_.--Revisited the tea locality of Tingrei, which we reached
after a five hours' march.  The portion of it formerly cleared is now
quite clean: all the plants, and they are very abundant, have a shrubby
shady appearance; the branches being numerous, so that the first aspect
is favourable.  But one soon detects an evident coarseness in the leaves,
the tint of which is likewise much too yellow; altogether their
appearance is totally unlike that of teas growing in their natural shade.
That part, and the more extensive one which we first visited in February
last, is now clearing; almost all the large trees have been felled, and
all the underwood removed.  The branches, etc. are piled in heaps and set
fire to, much to the detriment of the plants: all the tea trees likewise
have been felled.  My conviction is, that the tea will not flourish in
open sunshine; at any rate, subjection to this should be gradual.
Further, that cutting the main stem is detrimental, not only inducing
long shoots, but most probably weakening the flavour of the leaves.  It
appears to me to be highly desirable, that an intelligent superintendent
should reside on the spot, and that he should at least be a good
practical gardener, with some knowledge of the science also.

_Dec_. _24th_.--Reached Suddiya.  The country passed through was, for the
first two days, of the same description as before; i.e. rather high
grassy plains with belts of jungle, and intervening low very swampy
ravines.  The soil precisely the same as that of the tea localities.  The
last march was, with the exception of Chykwar, through low damp dense
jungle.

* * * * *

_Extract from the Author's letter to Captain F_. _Jenkins_,
_Commissioner of Assam_, _regarding the Mishmees_.  _December_,
_1836_. {54}

"I had thus become acquainted with all the influential chiefs near our
frontier, and by all I was received in a friendly and hospitable manner.
In accordance with my original intentions, my attention was in the first
place directed towards ascertaining whether the tea exists in this
direction or not, and, as I have already informed you, I have every
reason to think that the plant is unknown on these hills.  From what I
have seen of the tea on the plains, I am disposed to believe that the
comparative want of soil, due to the great inclination of all the
eminences, is an insuperable objection to its existence.

"As I before observed to you, during my stay at Jingsha, my curiosity had
been excited by reports of an incursion of a considerable force of Lamas
into the Mishmee country.  It hence became, having once established a
footing in the country, a matter of paramount importance to proceed
farther into the interior, and, if possible, to effect a junction with
these highly interesting people; but all my attempts to gain this point
proved completely futile; no bribes, no promises would induce any of the
chiefs to give me guides, even to the first Mishmee village belonging to
the Mezhoo tribe.  I was hence compelled to content myself for the
present, with obtaining as much information as possible relative to the
above report, and I at length succeeded in gaining the following
certainly rather meagre account.

"The quarrel, as usual, originated about a marriage settlement between
two chiefs of the Mezhoo and Taeen tribes: it soon ended in both parties
coming to blows.  The Mezhoo chief, ROOLING, to enable him at once to
overpower his enemies, and to strike at once at the root of their power,
called in the assistance of the Lamas.  From this country a force of
seventy men armed with matchlocks made an invasion, and, as was to be
expected, the Taeen Mishmees were beaten at every point and lost about
twenty men.  The affair seems to have come to a close about September
last, when the Lamas returned to their own country.  Where it occurred I
could gain no precise information, but it must have been several days'
journey in advance of the villages I visited.

"It was owing to the unsettled state of the country, resulting from this
feud, that I could gain no guides from the Digaroos, without whose
assistance in this most difficult country, I need scarcely say, that all
attempts to advance would have been made in vain.  These people very
plausibly said, if we give you guides, who is to protect us from the
vengeance of the Mezhoos when you are gone, and who is to insure us from
a second invasion of the Lamas?  Another thing to be considered is, the
influence even then exercised over the Mishmees near our boundaries by
the Singphos connected with the Dupha Gam; but from the renewal of the
intercourse with our frontier station, there is every reason for
believing that this influence is ere this nearly destroyed.

"The natives of this portion of the range are divided into two tribes,
Taeen or Digaroo and Mezhoo, these last tracing their descent from the
_Dibong_ Mishmees, who are always known by the term crop-haired.  The
Mezhoo, however, like the Taeens, preserve their hair, wearing it
generally tied in a knot on the crown of their head.  The appearance of
both tribes is the same, but the language of the Mezhoos is very
distinct.  They are perhaps the more powerful of the two; but their most
influential chiefs reside at a considerable distance from the lower
ranges.  The only Mezhoos I met with are those at _Deeling-Yen_, a
small village opposite _Deeling_, but at a much higher elevation, and
_Tapan_.  I need scarcely add that it was owing to the opposition of this
tribe that Captain WILCOX failed in reaching _Lama_.  The Digaroos are
ruled by three influential chiefs, who are brothers DRISONG, KHOSHA, and
GHALOOM: of these, DRISONG is the eldest and the most powerful, but he
resides far in the interior.  PRIMSONG is from a distant stock, and as
the three brothers mentioned above are all passed the prime of life,
there is but little doubt that he will soon become by far the most
influential chief of his tribe.  Both tribes appear to intermarry.  The
Mishmees are a small, active, hardy race, with the Tartar cast of
features; they are excessively dirty, and have not the reputation of
being honest, although, so far as I know, they are belied in this
respect.  Like other hill people, they are famous for the muscular
development of their legs:--in this last point the women have generally
the inferiority.  They have no written language.  Their clothing is
inferior; it is, however, made of cotton, and is of their own
manufacture;--that of the men consists of a mere jacket and an apology
for a _dhoti_,--that of the women is more copious, and at any rate quite
decent: they are very fond of ornaments, especially beads, the quantities
of which they wear is very often quite astonishing.  They appear to me
certainly superior to the Abors, of whom, however, I have seen but few.
Both sexes drink liquor, but they did not seem to me to be so addicted to
it as is generally the case with hill tribes:--their usual drink is a
fermented liquor made from rice called _mont'h_: this, however, is far
inferior to that of the Singphos, which is really a pleasant drink.

"_Religion_.  Of their religion I could get no satisfactory
information--every thing is ascribed to supernatural agency.  Their
invocations to their deity are frequent, and seem generally to be made
with the view of filling their own stomachs with animal food.  They live
in a very promiscuous manner, one hundred being occasionally accommodated
in a single house.  Their laws appear to be simple,--all grave crimes
being judged by an assembly of Gams, who are on such occasions summoned
from considerable distances.  All crimes, including murder, are punished
by fines: but if the amount is not forthcoming, the offender is cut up by
the company assembled.  But the crime of adultery, provided it be
committed against the consent of the husband, is punished by death; and
this severity may perhaps be necessary if we take into account the way in
which they live.

"The men always go armed with knives, Lama swords, or Singpho _dhaos_ and
lances; and most of them carry cross-bows--the arrows for these are
short, made of bamboo, and on all serious occasions are invariably
poisoned with _bee_.  When on fighting expeditions, they use shields,
made of leather, which are covered towards the centre with the quills of
the porcupine.  Their lances are made use of only for thrusting: the
shafts are made either from the wood of the lawn (_Caryota urens_) or
that of another species of palm _juice_--they are tipped with an iron
spike, and are of great use in the ascent of hills.  The lance heads are
of their own manufacture, and of very soft iron.  They have latterly
become acquainted with fire-arms, and the chiefs have mostly each a
firelock of _Lama_ construction.

"With _Lama_ they carry on an annual trade, which apparently takes place
on the borders of either country.  In this case _mishmee-teeta_, is the
staple article of the Mishmees, and for it they obtain _dhaos_ or
straight long swords of excellent metal and often of great length; copper
pots of strong, but rough make, flints and steel, or rather steel alone,
which are really very neat and good; warm woollen caps, coarse loose
parti-colored woollen cloths, huge glass beads, generally white or blue,
various kinds of cattle, in which _Lama_ is represented as abounding, and
salts.  I cannot say whether the Lamas furnish flints with the steel
implements for striking light; the stone generally used for this purpose
by the Mishmees is the nodular production from _Thumathaya_,--and this,
although rather frangible, answers its purpose very well; with the
Singphos they barter elephants' teeth, (these animals being found in the
lower ranges,) for slaves, dhaws, and buffaloes.

"With the Khamtees they appear to have little trade, although there is a
route to the proper country of this people along the _Ghaloom panee_,
or _Ghaloom Thee_ of WILCOX'S chart; this route is from the great
height of the hills to be crossed, only available during the hot months.

"With the inhabitants of the plains they carry on an annual trade, which
is now renewed after an interruption of two years, exchanging cloths,
Lama swords, spears, _mishmee-teeta_, _bee_, which is in very great
request, and _gertheana_, much esteemed by the natives for its peculiar
and rather pleasant smell, for money, (to which they begin to attach
great value), cloths, salt and beads: when a sufficient sum of money is
procured, they lay it out in buffaloes and the country cattle."

* * * * *

The following is a list of collections of Plants from the Mishmee Hills
to the extreme East, Upper Assam.

        _Dicotyledones_.          _Dicotyledones_.

         (Ligulatae,    9)      Ericineae,         7
Composi- (Cynaraceae,   4) 89   Verbenaceae,       8
tae,      (Corymbiferae,76)     Boragineae,        2

                                Labiatae,         50
Valerianeae,            1       Gesneriaceae,     22
Dipsaceae,              1       Acanthaceae,      38
Caprifoliaceae,         6       Scrophularineae,  19
Rubiaceae,             42       Solaneae,          6

Apocyneae,     )        5       Convolvulaceae,    8
Asclepiadeae,  )                Primulaceae,       1

Gentianeae,             7       Myrsineae,        19
Oleinae,                2       Escalloniaceae?    3
Jasmineae,              6       Malvaceae,         6
Campanulaceae,          7       Cruciferae,        3
Lobeliaceae,            7       Polygaleae,        1
Vacciniaceae,           2       Violaceae,         5
Passifloreae,           1       Begoniaceae,       6
Modeccoideae,           1       Umbelliferae,      4
Samydeae,               1       Araliaceae,       12
Ampelideae,  Leea,      6       Rhamneae,          1
Balsamineae,           15       Celastrineae,      9
Sileneae,               6       Amaranthaceae,     8
Aurantiaceae,           5       Polygoneae,       12
Meliaceae,              5       Chenopodeae,       1
Sapindaceae,            3       Plantagineae,      1
Acerineae,              4       Urticeae,         14
Malpighiaceae,          3       Ulmaceae,          1
Hypericineae,           2       Euphorbiaceae,    21
Ternstroemiaceae,      11       Scepaceae,         1
Symplocineae,           3       Stilagineae,       5
Ebenaceae,              1       Myriceae,          1

         (Rhus,         5)      Juglandeae,        1
Terebin- (Buchanania,   1)      Cupuliferae,       4
thaceae, (Phlebochiton, 1) 9    Betulaceae,        5
         (Sabia,        2)      Salicineae,        1

Zanthoxyleae,           5       Laurineae,         8
Conareae,               1       Hamamelideae,      2
Trygophylleae,          1       Thymeleae,         1
Rutaceae,               2       Santalaceae,       1
Ranunculaceae,          4       Loranthaceae,      2
Fumariaceae,            2       Proteaceae,        1
Myristiceae,            2       Elaeagneae,        1
Anonaceae,              4       Aristolochiae,     3
Magnoliaceae,           1       Combretaceae,      2
Berberideae,            1       Chlorantheae,      1
Lardizabaleae,          1       Piperaceae,       14
Menispermeae,           5       Coniferae,         1
Rosaceae,              16       Incertae,         17
Leguminosae,           31       Unarranged,        8
Philadelpheae,          2       Ditto,            14
Saxifrageae,            3                        ---
Melastomaceae,          9                        725
Onagrariae,             3                        ---
Myrtaceae,              2
Cucurbitaceae,          6
_Monocotyledones_              _Acotyledones_

Smilacineae,           14
Dioscoreae,             1      Pteris,          21
Peliosantheae,          5      Blechnum,         1
Tupistraceae,           2      Dicksonia,        1
Commelineae,           10      Davallia,        12
Tacceae,                1      Lindsaea,         2
Aroideae,               6      Asplenium        27
Scitamineae,            6      Allantodioides,   6
Orchideae,             43      Aspidium,        22
Apostaceae,             1      Nephrodium,      16
Palmae,                 3      Cyatheae,         7
Cyperaceae,            22      Trichomanes,      4
Gramineae,             73      Hymenophyllum,    2
                      ---      Gleichenia,       1
                      187      Angiopteris,      1
                      ---      Botrychium,       1
        _Acotyledones_          Lygodium,        2
                                Lycopodium,      6
Acrostichum,           12      Tinesipteris      1
Ceterach,               2      Equisetum,        1
Grammitis,              3                      ---
Polypodium,            56                      224
Pleopeltis,             8      Monocotyledones,187
Niphobolus,             1      Dicotyledones,  725
Cheilanthes,            3      Mosses
                                unarranged,
                                about           50
Adiantum,               3                     ----
Vittaria,               1              Total, 1186
Lomaria,                1                     ----

N.B.--The plants enumerated above, were transmitted to the India House in
1838, together with former collections made _in the Tenasserim_
Provinces.



CHAPTER IV.


_Journey from Upper Assam towards Hookhoom_, _Ava_, _and_
_Rangoon_, _Lat_. _27 degrees 25' to 16 degrees 45' N_.,
_Long_. _96 degrees to 96 degrees 20' E_.

We left Suddiya on the 7th of February 1837, and reached Kedding on the
10th; stayed there one day, and reached Kamroop Putar, where I found
Major White and Lieut. Bigge on the 12th.  The jungle to this place was
similar to the usual jungle of the Singpho country, very generally low,
and intersected by ravines.  We crossed _en route_ the Karam river, the
Noa Dihing, or Dihing branch of the Booree Dihing, on which the Beesa's
old village was situated; and lastly the Kamroop.  Kamroop Putar is close
to the Naga hills; it is a cultivated rice tract, on the river Kamroop.
This river is fordable, with frequent rapids.  The only curious things
about it are the petroleum wells, which are confined to three situations.
The wells are most numerous towards the summits of the range; and the
place where they occur is free from shrubs.  The petroleum is of all
colours, from green to bluish white; this last is the strongest,
partaking of the character of Naphtha, it looks like bluish or greyish
clay and water.  The vegetation of the open places in which the wells are
found, consists of grass, Stellaria, Hypericum, Polygonum, Cyperaceae,
Mazus rugosus, Plantago media, etc., all of which are found on the
plains.  One of the wells is found on the Putar, or cultivated ground;
the petroleum in this is grey.  The Kamroop river above this Putar,
strikes off to the eastward, and the Kamteechick, a tributary, falls into
it from the south; this last is a good deal the smaller; the banks of the
Kamroop are in many places precipitous.  About two miles from the Putar,
a fine seam of excellent coal has been exposed by a slip: {60} the beds
are at an inclination of 45 degrees, and their direction is, I think,
nearly the same with that of the left bank of the river in which they
occur; immediately over the seam there is a small ravine, where three of
the veins are still farther exposed.  Caricea, a new Dicranum, Alsophila
ferruginea, Polytrichum aloides, Bartramea subulosa, and Jungermanniae
are common near this spot.

Left Kamroop on the 19th, and proceeded in a S.W. direction for twelve
miles, when we halted on the Darap Kha, at the foot of the Naga hills,
opposite nearly to Beesala.  Nothing of interest occurred.

_Feb_. _21st_.--Commenced the ascent, and after marching about ten miles,
halted in a valley near a stream.  Temperature 66 degrees.  Water boiled
at 210.5 degrees, giving an altitude of about 77 degrees, or 383 feet
above Suddiya.  The road was very winding, the path good, except towards
the base of the hills: the soil sandy, in places indurated, and resting
on sandstone; but there is not yet sufficient elevation to ensure much
change in vegetation.  Found Kaulfussia {61a} below in abundance,
observed Castanea and a Quercus; three species of Begonia, and three or
four species of Acanthacea.  In other respects the jungle resembles that
of the Singpho territory.  Dicksonia is abundant.  Dipterocarpus of large
size occurs.  Caught two innocuous snakes at the halting place. {61b}

_Feb_. _22nd_.--The distance of the march is about 12 miles, and we
halted after crossing the Darap Panee; some parts of the route were
difficult, at least for elephants.  No particular features of vegetation
yet appears.  The summit of the higher hills looks pretty.  Tree jungle
considerable, open places with low grass, is the surrounding feature of
vegetation.  The hill first surmounted from the halting place is covered
with a Camellia or _Bunfullup_, (i.e. bitter tea) of the Assamese.  The
fruit has loculicidal dehiscence.  In habit it is like that of the tea,
but the buds are covered with imbricate scales.  At the summit of the
hill, it attained a height of 30 or 40 feet.  Begoniacea, Urticaceae,
Acanthaceae, Filices, are the most common.

_Feb_. _23rd_.--Halted to enable the elephants to come up; they arrived
about 10 A.M.  Temperature of the air 75 degrees, water boiled at 210
degrees, altitude 1029 feet.  The Darap is a considerable stream, but is
fordable at the heads of the rapids.  Fish abound, especially _Bookhar_,
a kind of Barbel, {61c} which reaches a good size.  Clay slate appears to
be here the most common rock, and forms in many places the very
precipitous banks of the river.  Alsophila ferruginea, Areca, Calami,
Fici., Pentaptera, Laurineae, Myristiceae continue.  Kaulfussia assamica,
is common along the lower base of the hills.

_Feb_. _23rd_.--Started at 7, and after a march of five hours, reached
the halting place on the Kamtee-chick, some distance above the place at
which we descended to its bed.  Distance 12 miles, direction S.S.E.;
crossed one hill of considerable elevation, certainly 1000 feet above the
halting place, which we find by the temperature of boiling water to be
1413 feet above the sea.  The tops of these hills continue comparatively
open, and have a very pretty appearance.  The trees, however, have not
assumed a northern character; their trunks are covered with epiphytes.
The Kamtee-chick is a small stream fordable at the rapids, the extreme
banks are not more than 30 or 40 yards.  No peculiarity of vegetation as
yet occurs; the fruit of a Quercus continues common, as well as that of
Castanea ferox.  I met with that of a Magnolia; Tree ferns, Calami, Musa,
Areca, and the usual sub-tropical trees continue; Acanthaceae are most
common, Gordonea plentiful on the open places on the hills, Sauraufa two
species, Byttneria, etc. etc.  Altogether, I am disappointed in the
vegetation, which, although rich, is not varied.  Wallichia continues
common.  A Begonia with pointed leaves, and a Smilacineous plant are the
most interesting, and a large Quercoid Polypodium, the lacineae of which
are deciduous; and these I found in abundance on the Mishmee hills,
although I did not succeed in getting an entire frond.

_Feb_. _24th_.--Marched about ten miles all the way up the bed of the
Kamtee-chick, now a complete mountain stream, the general direction being
S.S.E.  Traversed in places heavy jungle, but for the most part we
ascended the bed of the river.  The only very interesting plant was
Podostemon, apparently Griffithianum, which covers the rocks on the bed
of the river.  The usual plants continue, viz. Scitamineae, Phrynium
capitatum, Tradescantia, Paederia and Isophylla, Pothos 2 or 3 species,
Ixora 2, Leea, which occasionally becomes arborescent.  Cissus 3 or 4,
Panax ditto, Pierardia sapida, Elaeocarpus, Smilax, Areca, Calami 2 or 3,
Asplenium nidus, Fici several, Pentaptera, Cupuliferae, the latter rare;
Bauheniae 2, Acanthaceae, one of which attains the size of a large shrub,
Guttiferae 2, Phlebochiton, Rottlera, Millingtonia simplicifolia, Inga,
Wallichia, Pentaptera, Malvacea, and Acanthacea convallariae flore.  I
observed Pandanus to be common, (one Sterculia was yesterday observed).
Equisetae 2, the larger being the plant of the plains.  Erythrina,
Lagerstraemia grandiflora.  Chondospermum, Polypodium, Acrostichoides
ferrugineum, and the fruit of Cedrela Toona, Megala.  Choranthus was not
seen.

_Feb_. _25th_.--Proceeded about 100 yards up the Kamchick, then crossed
the Tukkaka, and commenced the ascent of a high hill, certainly 1000 feet
above the elevation of our last halting place on the Kamchick: the lower
portion is covered with tree jungle, the upper portion of the mountain is
open, covered with a tall Saccharum and an Andropogon, among which are
mixed several Compositae, and an Ajuga.  Among the grass, occur trees
scattered here and there, chiefly of a Gordonia.  From the summit we had
a pretty view of the Kamchick valley, closed in to the S.W. by a high and
distant wall, being part of the Patkaye range.  All the hills have the
same features, but it is odd that their highest points are thickly
clothed with tree jungle.  Observed Kydia, Alstonia, _Eurya_, Triumfetta,
Celtis, Engelhardtia, Rhus, Rottlera, Loranthus, Callicarpa and Dicksonia
all at a high elevation, but this latter is scarce.  No pines visible.
_Dhak_, Fici, Musa farinacea, Bambusae continue.  Compositae are common
on the clearings.  A Mimosa occurs on the summit, and Andrachne,
3-foliata.  Thence we descended for a short distance, and halted at the
foot of the Patkaye near the stream.

Direction S.S.E.  Distance four miles.

Elevation 3026 feet.  Temperature 66 degrees.  Boiling point, 206.5
degrees.

All the trees have a stunted appearance.

_Feb_. _26th_.--Halted.

_Feb_. _27th_.--To-day ascended a hill to the W. of our camp, certainly
500 feet above it; its features are the same, Porana alata.  Bignonia, a
Leguminous tree, a ditto Mimosa.  Panax, Lobelia zeylanica, Artemisia,
Cordia.  Panicum curvatum, Anthistina arundinacea.

Panicum _plicatoides_, Smithea, Hypericum of the plains, and Potentilla,
Sida, and Plantago all plain plants, are found at the summit.  To the
S.W. of our camp are the remains of a stockade, which was destroyed by
fire, it is said, last year.  The only interesting plants gathered were a
Cyrtandracea, AEschynanthus confertus mihi, a Dendrobium, and a fine
Hedychium, beautifully scented, occurring as an epiphyte.  Of Ficus
several species are common.  On the large mountain to the N.E., either
birch or larches are visible, their elevation being probably 1000 feet
above that of our camp.

The party halted until the 3rd March; I had one day's capital fishing in
the Kamtee-chick with a running line.

_March 2nd_.--A Havildar arrived, bearing a letter from Dr. Bayfield,
{64} stating that he would be with the Major in two or three days.

_March 3rd_.--Capt. Hannay and I started in advance; we crossed a low
hill, then a torrent, after which we commenced a very steep ascent.  This
ascent, with one or two exceptions, continued the whole way to the top of
the Patkaye range, which must be 1500 feet above our halting place.  The
features continued the same.  The Patkaye are covered with dry tree
jungle on the northern side.  The place, whence the descent begins, is
not well defined: at first winding through damp tree jungle.  After a
march of four hours we descended to a small stream, the Ramyoom, which
forms the British boundary; this we followed for some distance through
the wettest, rankest jungle I ever saw: thence we ascended a low hill,
and the remainder of our march was for the most part a continued descent
through dry open tree jungle, until we again descended into the damp
zone.  We reached water as night was setting in, and bivouacked in the
bed of the stream.

The former vegetation continued until we reached the dry forest covering
the upper parts of the Patkaye, and here the forms indicating elevation
increased.  Polygonatum, Ceratostemma, Bryum Sollyanum, and a
Ternstroemiacea occurred, Epiphytical orchideae are common, but were
almost all out of flower.  Owing to the thickness of the jungle, and the
height of the trees, we could not ascertain what the trees were; but from
the absence of fruit, etc. on the ground, I am inclined to think that
they are not Cupuliferae.  _Betee bans_, (of the natives) a kind of
bamboo, perhaps the same as the genus Schizostachyum, N. ab. E. is common
all over the summit, and descends to a considerable distance, especially
on the southern side.  On this side the prevalence of interesting forms
was much more evident.  Along the Kamyoom I gathered an Acer, an Arbutus,
a Daphne.  Polypodium arboreum ferrugineum was likewise here very common.
Succulent Urticeae, Acanthaceae swarmed: a huge Calamus was likewise
conspicuous.  On this side there is plenty of the bamboo called _Deo_
_bans_, articulis spinarum verticillis armatis, habitu B. bacciferae.
Among the trees on the descent, Magnoliaceae occur; the petals of one I
picked up were light yellow, tinged with brown in the centre.  A species
of Viola occurred low down.  I believe it is V. serpens.  On both sides,
but especially the south Ceratostemma variegatum occurs; this is common
still lower down the Kamyoom.  The trees along this portion of the
boundary nullah, are covered with masses of pendulous Neckera and Hypna.
On the summit I observed two species of Panax, a fruitescent or
arbusculous Composita, Asplenum nidus, Laurineae, etc.

The direction of the day's journey was about S.S.E.  The distance 15
miles.

_March 4th_.--We reached almost immediately the real Kamyoom, down
which our route laid; we halted in its bed at 3, after a march most
fatiguing from crossing and recrossing the stream, of about ten miles:
general direction E.S.E.  The features of this torrent are precisely the
same as those of the Kamteechick, but Sedgewickia is common.  I gathered
a Stauntonia, Ceratostemma variegatum, and some fine ferns, and two or
three Begoniaceae, Magnoliaceae three species occur, among which is
Liriodendron; Cupiliferae are common, especially Quercus cupulis
lamellatis, nuce depressa; a Viburnum likewise occurred.  The stream is
small; the banks in many places precipitous.  In one place great portion
of the base of a hill had been laid waste by a torrent coming apparently
from the naked rocks; trees and soil were strewed in every direction.
Clay-slate is common.

I should have mentioned that Dicksonia occurs at 4000 feet, as well as
(Camellia) _Bunfullup_, after that the former ceases.  The two Saurauja
of Suddiya continue up to 4000 feet of elevation; on the first ascent I
observed a large Thistle, but out of flower.  No cultivation was passed
after surmounting the first ascent; we passed the remains of a stockade
on the 4th, in which some Singphos had on a previous inroad stockaded
themselves.  The hills are generally covered with tree jungle, except
occasionally on the north side where they have probably at some early
period, been cleared for cultivation.  To this may be added the curious
appearance of the trees indicating having been lopped.

Equisetum continues in the bed of the river.  Nothing like a pine was
observed.

_March 5th_.--Proceeded in an E.S.E. direction towards Kamyoom for a
distance of four miles, where we met Dr. Bayfield.  As we found from him
that it was impossible to go on, as there were no rice coolies, etc. to
be obtained, we returned to our halting place; where I remained chiefly
from supposing that the Meewoon will start less objections when he sees
that I am in his territory without coolies, etc.  Fished in the
afternoon.  The Bookhar, or large Barbel already mentioned, still
continues; but there is another species still more common, of a longer
form, ventral fins reddish, mouth small, nose gibbous rough; {66} it
takes a fly greedily, and is perhaps a more game fish than the other.  All
the birds inhabiting the water-courses of the north side of the Patkaye
continue.  Barking Deer are heard occasionally.

Gathered one fine Bleteoidia Orchidea, racemis erectis oblongis, sepalis
petalisque fusco-luteis, arcte reflexis, labello albido, odore forti
mellis.  Engelhardtia occurs here, Pentaptera, Wallichia, Calamus,
Saccharum, etc.

_March 7th_.--To-day the Meewoon arrived, accompanied by perhaps 200
people chiefly armed with spears; he was preceded by two gilt chattas.  He
made no objections to my remaining, and really appeared very
good-natured.  The first thing he did, however, was to seize a
shillelagh, and thwack most heartily some of his coolies who remained to
see our conference.  He did not stay ten minutes.

_March 8th_.--To-day I examined superficially the ovary and young fruit
of Ceratostemma variegatum, Roxb.  The placenta which is very green, is 5-
rayed.  The substance of the walls of the ovary which is thick and white,
projects towards the axis not only between the lobes, but also opposite
to each; so that the fruit is really 10-celled, but 5 of the cells are
spurious.  The production opposite the placentae necessarily divides the
ovula of one placenta into two parcels, and these are they that have no
adhesion with the axis.  At present I can say nothing about the relative
site of the lobes of the placentae, otherwise there is nothing
remarkable, beyond the production of the ovary opposite the lobes of the
placentae.

_March 12th_.--Yesterday evening Bayfield returned alone, leaving
Hannay on the Patkaye, unable to come on or retreat, owing to his having
no coolies.  It was decided, that there was no other step left me to
follow than going on to Ava, and I thus am enabled to obey the letter of
Government, relative to my going to Ava, which reached me on the 10th by
the Havildar.  The Meewoon can give me no assistance towards returning,
although he will spare me a few men to carry me on to Mogam.  For the
last three days I have been indisposed.  Altitude 2138 by the Therm.
Temp. 208 degrees, at which water boils.

_March 13th_.--Left and proceeded down the Kamyoom, or properly Kam-mai-
roan, according to Bayfield, in an E.S.E. direction for about seven
miles, when we reached the previous halting place of Dr. Bayfield.  We
passed before arriving at this a small Putar on which were some remains
of old habitations; on it limes abound, and these are a sure test of
inhabitation at some previous period.

The vegetation continues precisely the same as that of the Namtucheek,
even to Podostemon Griffithianum, which I to-day observed for the first
time.

_March 14th_.--Proceeded on, still keeping for the chief part of our
march along the Kammiroan.  We left this very soon, and crossed some low
hills on which the jungles presented the same features.  We left the
village Kammiroan to our right.  We did not see it, but I believe it
consists of only two houses.  Passed through one khet, the first
cultivated ground we saw after leaving that on the Kamchick; then we came
on to a few more Putars, in which limes continue abundant.  On these I
find no less than three species of Rubus; in those parts on which rice
has been cultivated a pretty fringed Hypericum likewise occurs, and these
are the most interesting plants that have presented themselves.  Our
course improved much yesterday; it extended E. by S., and was rather less
than seven miles.  Halted at Kha-thung-kyoun, where the Meewoon had
halted, and where the Dupha Gam had remained some time previous.  The
same vegetation occurs, Engelhardtia, Gleichenia _major_ longe scandens,
Equisetum both species, Euphorbiacea nereifolia, Dicksonia rare, Scleria
vaginis alatis, Plantago media, Zizania ciliaris, Melastoma malabathrica,
Lycium arenarum, Duchesnia indica, Mazus rugosus, the Suddiya Viburnum,
Millingtonia pinnata, Pentaptera, Erythrina; an arboreous Eugenia fol.
magnis, abovatis, is however new, and Polypodium Wallichianum which
occurred to-day growing on clay-slate.  But considering the elevation at
which we still remain to be tolerably high, the products both of the
vegetable and animal kingdom are comparatively uninteresting.  There are
more epiphytical Orchideae on the south sides of these hills, than the
north.  Musci and Hepaticae are common, but do not embrace a great amount
of species.  Machantia asamica is common.  Another new tree I found is
probably a Careya or Barringtonia; the young inflorescence is nearly
globular, and clothed with imbricated scales.  Sedgewickia has
disappeared.  No tea was seen.  There is but little doubt that on hills,
the ranges of which rise gradually, the acclimatization of low plants may
take place to such a degree, that such plants may be found at high
elevations; can they however so far become acclimated, as to
preponderate?  I expected of course to find the same plants on both sides
of the hills, but I did not expect to find Rottlerae, Fici, tree-ferns,
etc., at an elevation of 4000 feet and upwards.

The fish of the streams continue the same, as well as the birds.  The
Ouzel, white and black, long-tailed Jay, white-headed Redstart,
red-rumped ditto, all continue.  Water Wagtails were seen to-day.  This
bird is uncommon in hill water-courses; one snipe was seen yesterday.
Ooloocks (Hylobates agilis), continue as in Assam.  With regard to fish,
both species of Barbel occur; {68} the most killing bait for the large
one, or Bookhar of the Assamese, is the green fucus, which is common,
adhering to all the stones in these hill-streams: it is difficult to fix
it on the hook.  The line should be a running one, and not leaded, and
the bait may be thrown as a fly.  To it the largest fish rise most
greedily; plenty of time must be allowed them to swallow before one
strikes, otherwise no fish will be caught.  All the same Palms continue
except Calami, Areca, and Wallichiana.

Balsamineae are uncommon.  There is one however, although rare, probably
the same as the bright crimson-flowered one of the Meerep Panee.  Urticeae
have diminished; the Suddiya Viola occurred yesterday, the Asplenium,
fronde lanceolat. continues common.

_March 14th_.--Halted.  Water boiled 209 degrees.  Temp. 59 and 60
degrees.  Elevation 1622 feet.

_March 15th_.--Left the Meewoon about 8, and proceeded about 100 yards
up the Khathing.  Thence we struck off, and commenced the ascent, which
continued without intermission for some hours, the whole way lying
through heavy tree jungle.  Ascent in some places very steep.  On
reaching the summit, or nearly so, the jungle became more open, and the
route continued along the ridge.  We then descended for 50 feet, and
halted on an open grassy spot where we ascertained the altitude to be
5516 feet.  Boiling point 202 degrees.  Temperature of the air 63
degrees.  The vegetation increased in interest; I noticed near the
Khathing, Buddleia neemda, Pladera Justicioidea, which continues however
all along even to 5000 feet.  Thunbergia coccinea, Chondrospermum,
Dicksonia; near and on the summit Magnoliae and two or three Cupuliferae,
Daphne Strutheoloides, nobis, Gymnostomum involutum, Berberis pinnata,
the same as the Khasiya one, but scarce.  Laurinea arborea, Bambusa
monogynia, Rubus moluccanus: Frutex Ruscordeus, Loranthus, Anthistiria
arundinacea, Melastoma, Cyathea, Compositae, Conyzoideae two or three,
Correas one, Hedychium, Eurya, Gleichenia, Hermannia, Lycopodium
ceranium, Hoya teretifolia, Acanthaceae two or three, Bucklandia.

We thence descended, and after a longish march reached the Natkaw Kyown,
and finally halted on the Khusse Kyown.  During this portion I gathered
some very interesting plants, a new Ceratostemma, Adamia, two or three
Orchideae, a beautiful large flowered Cyrtandracea, the same Daphne, an
Umbellifera.  Vaccineaceae, four species of Begoniae, a Viburnum.
Crawfurdia and Polypodium Wallichianum, which roofed in our shed; Musci
increased as well as Succulent Urticeae in shady places.  Smilacinae were
common, especially one at elevations of from 3 to 5000 feet
inflorescentia cernua.  The features are the same, the drier woods
crowning the ridges.  On the trees of these, Orchideae and Filices are
common, as well as in low parts in which Acanthaceae abound.  I saw no
_Betee-bhans_ nor Deo-bhans, (peculiar bamboos).  Of the above,
Ceratostemma, Daphane, Smilacinae, Cyathea, some of the Begoniae, the
large flowered Cyrtandraceae, Umbelliferae are sure indications of
considerable elevation.  The course was nearly south.  Distance about 13
miles.  Thermometer in boiling water 206 degrees.  Temperature of the air
50.5 degrees.  Halting place, 3516.

_March 16th_.--Started before breakfast, and reached the Khusee Kyoung
without any material descent.  Thence we continued descending on the
whole considerably until we reached Namthuga, at 10 A.M.  Thence the
descent increased.  Halted on Kullack Boom.  General direction S.;
distance 13 miles.  Noticed Areca up to 3800 feet, as well as
Cheilosandra obovata, Bletea melleodora, and Begonia palmata as high as
3000 feet.

At Namthuga a Sambucus, probably S. Ebulus, a Mimosa, Pothos decursiva,
Hedychium, Urtica urens, Gleichenia major, Tradescanthia panicularis.
Between this and Kullack Boom Acanthaceae are the most common; Paederia
triphylla appears near the Boom, together with Arum viviparum.  Black
Pheasants were likewise heard on our route.  On the open halting place,
grasses preponderate.  Anthestiria arundinacea, arbusculous Gordonia, and
Saurauja, a Laurinea, Styrax, etc.  AEsculus asamicus is common, and
profusely in flower, and Pteris as on Thuma-thaya; Musa glauca made its
appearance.  From this open space an extensive view is obtained of
Hookhoom valley, bounding which occurs a range of hills stretching E.S.E.
and W.N.W.  These in the centre present a gap in which a river is seen
running S.  The view to the E. is impeded by the trees on that face of
the hill.  The valley is as usual one mass of jungle, with here and there
clear patches occurring, especially to the W. of S., but whether from
cultivation or not, I am unable to say.  The Namlunai river is visible;
winding excessively, especially to the E.S.E., it appears a considerable
stream with much sand: it passes out towards the gap above alluded to,
winding round the corner of the hills.

During the 16th, my attention was particularly directed towards Tea,
which was said positively to exist.  I obtained some of the bitter sort,
or _Bunfullup_, but the plant which was pointed out to me as tea
certainly was not, although resembling it a good deal.  There is no
reason for supposing, that it exists on these hills, and if tea is
brought hence, it is I should think a spurious preparation.  The soil is
in many places yellow, in many brick-dust coloured.  If the Tea existed
in abundance, I must have seen it.

The hills which confine the valley, at least those which are obvious
outliers of the Patkaye range, are characterised by conical peaks, and
there is a bluff rock of good elevation to the W.S.W. .5 S.

[Valley of Hookhoom: p71.jpg]

_March 17th_.--Boiled water at 206 degrees Fahr.  Thermometer in the
air 61 degrees.  Elevation 3270.  Commenced the descent, which continued
without interruption to the Loon-karankha, where we breakfasted.  The bed
of this, which is a mere mountain torrent, is of sandstone.  Here
Ceratostemma variegatum is very common, and has larger, broader and more
obovate leaves, than before observed; Polypodium Wallichianum, a Begonia
and Orchideae are common on its boulders.  Continued our course at first
up a considerable ascent, thence it was nearly an uniform descent.
Crossed the Namtuwa, along which our course lay for a short time.  The
latter part was through low wet jungle, along small water-courses, till
we reached the Panglai Kha, along which we continued for some time.
Reached our halting place on the Namtuseek about 2 P.M.  General
direction E.S.E.; distance about ten miles.  Noticed Podostemon
Griffithianum, on rocks on the Namtuwa.  My collector gathered one
Daphne, Acanthus Solanacea occurred very abundantly, corinfundib. lab
super postico, infer reflexo, laciniis bifidis.  Low down observed the
usual Dipterocarpus, Uncaria and Kaulfussia asamica, Dracaena.  Mesua
ferrea occurred during the first part of the march.  Noticed the tracks
of a Rhinoceros.  At 5 P.M. water boiled at 210 degrees.  Temperature 69
degrees.  Elevation 1099 feet.

The most interesting plants were an Arum, an undescribed Ceratostemma,
and a Celastrinea.

The collection formed between this place and Suddiya now amount to about
500 species.  The vegetation of the lower portions is the same, or nearly
so, on either side of the hills; but I did not observe near this the
Polypodium ferrugineum arboreum, although there is a small arborescent
species of this genus.  On either side, the lower ranges are clothed with
heavy wet tree jungle, the under-shrubs consisting of Acanthaceae,
Rubiaceae, Filices, Aroideae, and Urticeae; Kaulfussia does not ascend so
high on this side.  Acanthacea solanacea appears peculiar to this side,
although there is a species of the genus on the Kammiroan.

The plants indicating the greatest elevation are Acer, Ceratostemma
miniatum, and angulatum, Vacciniaceae; Daphne, particularly the Patkaye
one, and D. struthioloides, most of the Smilacineae, Berberis, etc. etc.
Bucklandia Crawfurdii, Begoniae, some Viburnia, Cyathea, etc. of
Ceratostemma (Gay Lussacium?) several, perhaps not less than seven
species occur; all have the same habit, and the same depot of nourishment
in the thick portion near the _collet_.  No Coniferae exist, although the
elevation is more than sufficient to determine their appearance.  In
Orchideae the flora is certainly very rich, but few species are in flower

(_Memo_.  To compare these elevational plants with those from the Mishmee
hills, on which, speaking from memory, they are more abundant.)

_March 18th_.--Left at half-past 6, and arrived (after halting about
one hour and a half) at 3 P.M.  The road was very circuitous, for the
first part E. by S., subsequently for some time N.N.E., and even N.E.;
the general direction is perhaps E.; the distance certainly 18 miles.  The
greater part of the route lay through heavy but dryish tree jungle; but
during the latter half, and especially towards Nempean, Putars or
cultivated fields increased in number, and extent.  We crossed one stream
only.  The soil is yellow and deep, occasionally inclining to brick-red;
it is apparently much the same as that of Muttack.  The low spots were
uncommon.  We saw only two paths diverging from ours; one of these led to
Bone, which is about two miles from our path, in a south direction, and
at no great distance from the Namtuseek.

The features of the country and its productions are much the same as
those of Upper Assam, indeed strikingly so.  During the earlier part of
our march we observed a fine Shorea in abundance; it had a noble straight
stem, but the leaves were too small for Saul.  The only new plants I
found were Styrax floribus odoris, ligno albo close grained, arbor
mediocris, a Baeobotrys, two Goodyerae, a Laurinea, Sparganium!
Tabernaemontana fructibus magnis, edulibus, fol. obovatis, and a species
of Shorea.

I noticed the following plants in the following order from Namtuseek:
Dicksonia, Areca, Calamus, Bambusa, speculis pubescentibus, deformatis, a
species of Phrynium, Pladera justicioides, Chrysobaphus Roxburghii,
Phyllanthus, Embilica, a species of Wendlandia common in places that
appeared to have been formerly cleared; Gnetum lepidotum, Celastrinea
_foliis Leguminosarum_, Bombax (inerme) Saccharum Megala, Imperata
cylindica, Anthistiria arundinacea, Ingae sp., Sauraujae sp.  Entada,
Gleichenia, Hermannia, Blechnum orientale, Baeobotrys, Meniscium
3-phyllum, Sonerila, Acanthus leucostachys, Diplazium of Kujoo,
_Podomolee_, Saccharum foliis apice spiraliter tortis, Osbeckia,
Rottlera, Lygodium, Rubus moluccanus, Centotheca, Zizania ciliaris, Viola
asamica, Potamogeton nutans, foliis linearibus, Limnophila, Pontederia
dilatata, Lobelia Zeylanica, Hypericum venustum.  Panax foliis supra
decompositis spinosis, Callicarpae 2 spec, Duchesnea indica, Combretum,
Melica latifolia, Magus rugosus, Vandellia peduncularis, Villarsia
pumila, Artocarpus integrifolius, Piper, Lagerstraemia grandiflora, Roxb.
Dillenia speciosa, Spathodea.  All these exist in Assam.

The birds are the same.  As for instance, common Maina, Doves, the Picus
of low swampy places, and the _Lark_ of the plains of Assam.  Squirrel,
ventre ferrugineo.  Black Pheasant, _Phasianus leucomelanus_, Laurineae,
Acanthaceae, Rubiacea and Filices, are common in the jungles.

The Putars are clothed with the same grasses as in Assam.  Imperata
cylindrica, Anthistiria arundinacea, Megala in low places with Alpinea
Allughas, in those lately under cultivation, the Campanula of the B.
pooter occurs, together with Hypericum, Gnaphalium, Poa and Carex.

From the frequent occurrence of these Putars, I should say that the
capabilities of the country, at least the latter half of our march,
improves as far as regards _halee_ cultivation.

Throughout the march nothing occurred to shew that this part of the
valley is inhabited.  We passed, however, an old and extensive burying
ground of the Singphos.  Of the Putars only small portions were
cultivated, and the crops did not appear to be very good.

Nempean, which is a stockaded village, is about a quarter of a mile from
the encampment of the Meewoon, and about S.E., and within 200 yards to
the N.N.E. is a similar stockaded village called Tubone.  Both these
villages are on the right bank of the Namturoon, which is a large stream,
as big nearly as the Noa Dihing at Beesa.  B. measured it, and finds its
extreme bed to be 270 yards broad.  The volume of water is considerable,
the rapids are moderate; it is navigable for largish canoes.  On this
bank, _i.e_. right, there is an extensive plain running nearly N. and
S.; no part of it seems to be cultivated.  The scenery is precisely the
same as that of Upper Assam, viz. open, flat, intersected by belts of
jungle.  With the exception of the W. and the points between this and
south, hills are visible, some of considerable height.  To the S.E. there
is a fine peak, which reminds one much of the Mishmee peak, so remarkable
at Suddiya.  It is in this direction that the hills are highest.

No tea is reported to exist here.  B. met with it on his road hither, and
shewed me the specimen; there is no difference between this and the Assam
specimens in appearance, neither are the leaves at all smaller.  As a new
route has been cut out I cannot visit it, but shall wait until I arrive
at Meinkhoom.

The Chykwar Mulberry occurs, and to a larger size than I have seen it in
Assam.  The Singphos, however, as they have no silkworms, do not make use
of it; I have seen some little cultivation on the Tooroon belonging to
Bon: Kanee or Opium formed portion of it.

Thermometer in shade at 2 P.M. 85 degrees.

_March 21st_.--7 A.M.  Thermometer 60 degrees.  Yesterday at 2 P.M. 86
degrees! under a decently covered shed.

Boiled water at 209.5 Fahr.  Thermometer 70 degrees, which gives 1399
feet of elevation.

Started at 9, and arrived at Kidding on the Saxsai, a small stream which
now falls into the Tooroon.  Distance about four miles and a half from
Nempean: general direction about S.S.E.  The road runs along the Tooroon
S., and a little to the W. of S.; it then diverges up the Saxsai, which
runs nearly W. and E.  Near the mouth of the Saxsai, and about 400 yards
above, there is another small stream, the Jinnip Kha.  Both these are on
the left bank of the river.  On the opposite side, and about a quarter of
a mile, is a village, which like all the rest is stockaded.  Kidding is
larger than either Tubone or Nempean; it is on the left bank of the
Saxsai.  Rapids are common in the Tooroon, but are not of any severity.

The vegetation remains in a remarkable degree similar to that of Assam.
The Lohit Campanula is very common in the stony beds of either river.

Brahminy Ducks seen at Nempean, and the ravenous Geese of Kamroop Putar.
Fished in the Tooroon, and had excellent sport, killing in the afternoon
twenty fishes, average weight half pound; some weighing nearly two
pounds.  Three species occurred, and all were taken with flies; the
smallest are a good deal like the _Boal_ of Assam.  The large-mouthed,
trout-like Cyprinida {74a} occurs, and to a larger size than in the Noa
Dihing.  The third is the _Chikrum_ of the Singphos; it is a thick, very
powerful fish, a good deal resembling the Roach: one of two pounds,
measures about a foot in length.  Outline ovate lanceolate, head small,
mouth with four filaments; eyes very large, fins reddish, first ray of
the dorsal large spinous.  It affects deep water, particularly at the
edges of the streams running into such places. {74b}   It takes a fly
greedily even in quite still water; but as it has a small mouth, the
smaller the flies the better.  Black hackle is better for it than small
grey midges.  On being hooked it rushes off with violence, frequently
leaping out of the water.  It is a much more game fish than the Bookhar:
the largest I took with flies; with worms I took only one small one.  With
regard to the Bookhar, it is strange if it is not found in the streams
running through this valley, as in the Kammaroan it occurs in abundance.

Black and white Kingfisher, _Alcedo rudis_, Snippets, Curlews of the B.
pooter, with chesnutish back occur in the valley, together with Toucans:
and Ravens occur as in Assam.

At the village of Kidding there are silkworms fed.

_March 22nd_.--Started at 6 P.M., reached Shelling khet on the Prong
Prongkha in about two hours; it is distant about seven miles.  The
village is now deserted.  The nullah is small, with a very slow stream;
direction from Kidding nearly S.E.  It was at this place that Bayfield
got his specimen of tea, but on enquiry we found that it was brought from
some distance; it is said to grow on a low range of hills.  We started
after breakfast, and reached Culleyang, on the same nullah, about 12
o'clock.  Total distance thirteen miles; direction S.S.E.  Path very
winding.  The country traversed is much less open than that of Nempean,
but few Putars occurred; and the whole tract is covered either with tree
or Megala jungle.  Water boiled at Shelling khet at 209.5 Fahr.  Temp. of
the air 68.5 degrees.  Elevation 1340 feet.  Noticed but very little
clearing for cultivation, neither did the Putars appear to have been
lately under cultivation.

Culleyang is a village containing about eight houses; it is not
stockaded, and has the usual slovenly appearance of Singpho villages.  The
natives keep silkworms, which they feed on the Chykwar or Assam morus,
which they cultivate.  I noticed likewise Kanee, or Opium, and Urtica
nivea, which they use for nets; Acanthaceae, Indigofera, and Peach trees.

Close to the village are the burying places of two Singphos.  These have
the usual structure of the cemeteries of the tribe, the graves being
covered by a high conical thatched roof.  I find from Bayfield, that they
first dry their dead, preserving them in odd shaped coffins, until the
drying process is completed.  They then burn the body, afterwards
collecting the ashes, which are finally deposited in the mounds over
which the conical sheds are erected.  Between the village and the graves
I saw one of these coffins which, if it contained a full-grown man, must
have admitted the remains in a mutilated shape; and close to this were
the bones of a corpse lately burnt.

To-day I shot the beautiful yellow and black crested Bird we first saw on
the Cossiya hills, _Parus Sultaneus_, and two handsome Birds,
_Orioles_, or _Pastor Traillii_, quite new to me, blackish and bright
crimson, probably allied to the Shrikes.

Of fishes, Cyprinus falcata, or _Nepoora_ of the Assamese, together with
the Sentooree {75} of the Assamese, both occur.  Of plants, we noticed
Stauntonia, Vitis, Cissampelos, Butomus pygmaeus, Dicksonia, Hedychia 2,
Croton Malvaefolium of Suddiya, Xanthium indicum; Cheilosandra
ferruginea, Pothos scandens decursiva, etc., Liriodendrum, Kydia.  Ficus
elastica?  Asplenium nidus, Conyza graveolens, south of the old
clearings.  Lemna, Valisneria, Azolla, AEsculus asamicus in abundance.
Limes in profusion near Culleyang; Paederia faetida and the other
species, Naravelia, Hiraea, Phrynium dichotomum, Gaertnera, and Carallia
lucida.  New plants, Ophioglossum, Carex, Gnetum sp. nov. Choripetalum,
and two _incerta_.  Noticed Pladera justicioides during the first part of
the march, and the small Squirrel of Kujoodoo.

Six A.M.  Temperature 58.5.  Water boiled at 210 degrees Fahr.  8 P.M.
Temperature of the air 66.  Altitude 1064 feet.

_March 23rd_.--Started at 6 A.M. and reached Lamoom about 8, where we
breakfasted.  Reached Tsilone, the Dupha's village, at noon.  General
direction S.W.  Distance about ten miles.  Lamoom is a small
_un_stockaded village on the Moneekha.  Tsilone is a moderate sized
Singpho village on the right bank of the Nam Tunail.  The river is of
considerable size, with scarcely any rapids: stream slow.  The village is
situated on a rather high bank.

The country continues the same, perhaps a little more open, at least
Putars are of frequent occurrence, although they are all narrow.  Observed
Cryptolepis, Celastrus _leguminoideus_ Cuscuta Uncaria racemis pendulis.
Of birds the smaller Maina, common house Sparrow, blue Jay, and the
larger grey Tern occur.  We halted on a sandbank about one mile and a
half higher up to the south of Tsilone.  New plants, the Campanula of
Chykwar, ditto Lysimachia, Dopatrium, Jasminum, Rhamnea, Pothos, Lasia,
Riccia, etc.

_March 24th_.--Thermometer 58 degrees.  Boiling point 210.  Altitude
1064 feet.  After a long and hot march of seven hours we reached
Meinkhoon; general direction -- distance 17 miles.  During the first two
hours we marched along the bed and banks of the Nam Tenai, subsequently
over grassy plains intersected by belts of jungle.  Country much more
open than that we saw yesterday.  To the W. low ranges of hills, about
one-third of a mile distant, occurred throughout the day.  We passed two
or three small nullahs, in one of which I observed lumps of lignite.

The Nam Tenai continued a large river, extreme breadth varying from 250
to 350 yards.  We crossed at once, about half a mile from our encampment,
deepest part of the ford four feet; its banks are either thickly wooded
or covered with Kagara jungle.  The day's march was very uninteresting.  I
observed a few Mango trees, a Mucuna, Laurineae are common, as well as a
Wendlandia in open grassy places.  Sagittariae sp. was the only novelty.
Noticed the Hoopoe bird, _Upapa Capensis_.

[Meinkhoom: p76.jpg]

_March 25th_.--Meinkhoon is situated on a very small nullah, the
Eedeekha.  The village which is large and well stockaded, is divided into
two by this nullah.  The population of both cannot, including children,
be less than 200.  They belong to the Meerep tribe.  The women wear the
_putsoe_ somewhat like those of Burma, which seems to me quite new in
Singpho women; and is not the fashion with those in Assam.  To the S.W.
there is a group of somewhat decayed Shan Pagodas, and a Poonghie house,
around which are planted mango trees and a beautiful arboreous Bauhinia,
B. rhododendriflora mihi, ovariis binis!  Around the village is an
extensive plain, and to the S.E. one or two more Pagodas.  This Bauhinia
has flowers 1.5 inches across, calyx spathaceus, petalis,
sub-conformibus, obovatis, repandis laete purpureis, vexillo coccineo-
purpureo, colore saturate venoso, carinae petalis distantibus, odor
Copaivae!  Stam. 5 declinata, cum petalis, alternantia.  Ovaria 2!
anticum posticumque, longe stipetata, difformia superiore minore,
aborticate, ambobus vexillo oppositis!  Stylus ruber pallide; stigma
capitatum.  One B. variegata, W. Roxb. Fl. Indic. vol. ii. p.319, quamvis
auctor de ovario antico silet.

Two snakes were captured, approaching in shape to the green snake of the
Coromandel Coast.  Under surface throughout bright gamboge colour; upper
surface throughout, excepting about a span or less of the back of the
neck, bright ochraceous brown.  The space above alluded to is in one
faintly, in the other strongly variegated with black and white.  Irides,
gamboge-coloured.

_March 26th_.--Visited the amber mines, which are situated on a range
of low hills, perhaps 150 feet above the plain of Meinkhoon, from which
they bear S.W.  The distance of the pits now worked is about six miles,
of which three are passed in traversing the plain, and three in the low
hills which it is requisite to cross.  These are thickly covered with
tree jungle.  The first pits, which are old, occur about one mile within
the hills.  Those now worked occupy the brow of a low hill, and on this
spot they are very numerous; the pits are square, about four feet in
diameter, and of very variable depth; steps, or rather holes, are cut in
two of the faces of the square by which the workmen ascend and descend.
The instruments used are wooden-lipped with iron crowbars, by which the
soil is displaced; this answers but very imperfectly for a pickaxe: small
wooden shovels, baskets for carrying up the soil, etc., buckets of bark
to draw up the water, bamboos, the base of the rhizoma forming a hook for
drawing up the baskets, and the Madras lever for drawing up heavy loads.

The soil throughout the upper portion, and indeed for a depth of 15 to 20
feet, is red and clayish, and appears to inclose but small pieces of
lignite; the remainder consists of greyish slate clay increasing in
density as the pits do in depth: in this occur strata of lignite very
imperfectly formed, which gives the grey mineral a slaty fracture, and
among this the amber is found. {78}  The deepest pit was about 40 feet,
and the workmen had then come to water.  All the amber I saw, except a
few pieces, occurred as very small irregular deposits, and in no great
abundance.  The searching occupies but little time, as they look only
among the lignite, which is at once obvious.  No precautions are taken to
prevent accidents from the falling in of the sides of the pits, which are
in many places very close to each other (within two feet): but the soil
is very tenacious.

We could not obtain any fine specimens; indeed at first the workmen
denied having any at all, and told Mr. B. that they had been working for
six years without success.  They appear to have no index to favourable
spots, but having once found a good pit they of course dig as many as
possible as near and close together as they can.  The most numerous occur
at the highest part of the hill now worked.  The article is much prized
for ornaments by the Chinese and Singphos, but is never of much value;
five rupees being a good price for a first-rate pair of earrings.
Meinkhoon is visited by parties of Chinese for the purpose of procuring
this article.  There are at present here a Lupai Sooba and a few men,
from a place three or four days' journey beyond the Irrawaddi, waiting
for amber.  These men are much like the Chinese, whose dress they almost
wear: they squat like them, and wear their hair like them; shoes,
stockings, pantaloons, jackets, tunic.  They are armed chiefly with
firelocks, in the use of which at 50 yards two of the men were expert
enough.  They talk the Singpho language.

The vegetation of the plains, proceeding to the mines, is unchanged.
Noticed Apluda, a Phyllanthus, Cacalia, Poa, etc.  That of the hills is
the same as that of the low ranges before traversed.  The only new plants
were a Celtis? a Krameria (the Celtis is the Boolla of Upper Assam,)
Ventilago, Quercus or Castanea, Compositae, etc.  In the damp places a
largish Loxotis, two or three Begoniae, ditto Urticeae occur.  I noticed
among and around the pits a species of Bambusa, Celtis, Kydia calycina,
Clerodendrum infortunatum, Calamus, Areca, Dicksonia, Ficus, Pentaptera,
and Rottlera.  Pladera has ceased to appear.

Last night a sort of alarm occurred, and in consequence, this evening,
the head cooly gave his orders to his men in the following terms: "Watch
to-night well."  Nobody answering him, he continued, "Do you hear what I
say?"  Then addressed himself to them in the most obscene terms, which
habit and uncivilized life seem to have adapted to common conversation
amongst these people without any breach of modesty or decorum; and
amongst the Assamese such expressions likewise form not an uncommon mode
of familiar salutation.

_March 27th_.--Left about 7, and proceeded over the Meinkhoon plain in
an easterly direction, in which the highest hills visible from the
village lay.  We continued east for some time, our course subsequently
becoming more and more south.  On reaching the Nempyokha, we proceeded up
its bed for about two miles, the course occasionally becoming west.  We
reached Wollaboom at 12.5.  General direction S.E.; distance thirteen
miles.  The greater part of the country traversed consisted of low
plains, splendidly adapted for _halee_ cultivation.  No villages were
passed.  Saw two paths, one leading to the N., one to the S. not far from
Meinkhoon; of these the N. one leads to the hills, the S. to a Singpho
village.  And we passed burial places of some antiquity, and considerable
extent.  New plants; a Loranthus floribus viridibus, petalis 6 reflexis.
Zizyphoidea, and an arborescent Bignonia foliis cordatis oppositis,
integris, basi bi-glandulosis, paniculis racemiformibus, solitariis et
axillaribus vel terminalibus et aggregatis.  Marlea Sporobolus, Castanea
edulis, Pteris dimediata, etc., occurred.  Noticed the tracks of a Tiger,
of Elks, and the Peewit or Curlew.

Woollaboom is rather a large village on the Nempyokha, which is here
scarcely 40 yards broad; it is of no depth, and has not much stream.  The
villagers are Meereps, but seem to bear a small proportion to their
Assamese slaves.  It is not stockaded, but was so formerly.  The Souba,
like a Hero and a General, has erected a small stockade for himself near
his house, out of which he might be with ease forced by a long spear, or
a spear-head fastened to a bamboo.  He is an enemy of the Duphas, indeed
almost all appear to be so.  Whatever events the return of this Gam to
Assam may cause, it appears obvious to me, that the feuds in Hookhoom
will not cease but with his death.  So much is he hated, that B. informs
me that his destruction is meditated directly the Meewoon retires to
Mogam.

Water boiled at 210 degrees Fahr.  Elevat. 1064 feet.

List of Plants observed in Hookhoom, which occur likewise in Assam.

Eclipta floribus albis,               Dactylon.
Pogonatherum crinitum,                Cardamine.
Verbena chamaedrys?                   Sisymbrium.
Phlebochiton extensum,                Gaertnera.
Ehretia arenarum,                     Phrynium capitatum.
Erythrinae, sp.                        ----- dichotomum.
Trematodon sabulosum,                 Hiraea.
Marchantia asamica,                   Naravalia.
Euphorbiacea nerifolia,               Liriodendrum.
Adelia nereifolia, Roxb.              Paederia foetida, and another.
Spilanthus,                           Azolla.
Convolvulus flore albo,               Lemna.
Mimosa sudiyensis-stipulis am-        Conyza graveolens,
   plis foliaceis,                      on clearings.
Vandellia pedunculata,                Asplenium nidus.
Bonnayae sp. fol. spathulatis         Ficus elastica.
   floribus saturate caeruleis,       Kydia calycina.
Cordia of Suddiya,                    Pothos scandens.
Ricinus communis, (See Journal,       Croton malvaefolium.
p.174.)                               Hedychium.
Buddleia Neemda,                      Hedychim, bracteis
                                        obtusis, apice
                                        reflexis, concavis.
Urtica gigas,
Plantago media,                       Dicksonia.
Cotula, 2 species,                    Phlogacanthus, _major_.
Coladium nympheaefolium,              Vitis.
Millingtonia pinnata,                 Butomus pygmaeus.
Uricariae sp.                         Cissampelos.
Saccharum spontaneum,                 Stauntonia.
Eleusine indica,                      Apludae sp.
Cynoglossum canescens,                Clerodendrum infortunatum.
AEsculus asamicus,                    Vandellia pedunculata.
Cynodon,                              Mangifera indica.
Ardisia fol. obovatis, umbellis       Briedelia.
  nutanti-pendulis, on the hills.     Marlea.
Cheilosandra.                         Pteris dimidiata.
Loxotis major.                        Centotheca.
Bauhinia variegata.                   Castanea edulis.
Cacalia rosea.                        Sporobolus.



CHAPTER V.


_Continues the Journey from Hookhoom Valley_; _Lat_. _26_
_degrees 20' N_., _Long_. _96 degrees 40' E_., _towards Ava_.

_March 28th_.--Started at 5.5 A.M., and arrived at a halting place at
3.5 P.M.  General direction nearly south.  Distance 22 miles.  Throughout
the first part we followed the Kampyet, on the left bank of which
Wulloboom is situated.  We thence diverged into jungle.  The remainder of
the time was occupied in crossing low hills, with here and there a small
plain.  We halted on a nullah, which discharges itself into the Mogam
river.

In the Kampyet I saw abundance of Bookhar fish: these indeed actually
swarm.  The country throughout was uninteresting, although in the tree
jungle clothing the small hills we crossed there are noble timber trees.
I saw one of the finest Fici, I ever saw.  The Botany of these hills was
very interesting; for instance, a Conifera taxoidea occurred, a new
Cyrtandracea, ditto Acanthaceae 2, Begoniae 2, Tankervillia speciosa, a
species of Bletea, etc. etc.

I also observed Lindsaea, and Pteris in abundance.  Hymenophyllum,
Davallia atrata, Diplazium, Begonia Malabarica? Bambusa spiculis
hispidis, Hypni sp. spinivenio prop. Dicranum glaucum, etc. etc.  A fine
Alpinia occurred near Wulloboom.

We observed no other signs of population than an old burial ground, near
where you strike off into the hills.

_March 29th_.--Marched in a southerly direction from 5.5 to 1.5 P.M.,
inclusive of a halt of two hours nearly: distance fifteen miles.  Country,
etc. continue the same.  Crossed same nullahs _en route_, before we
reached the Mogam river at 11 A.M.  Our course continued down it for 300
yards; we then crossed into the jungle, and traversed a low rising
ground: subsequently we descended on the bed of the river.  The jungle
was for the most part dry.

Fish abound in the Mogam river; in one place I never saw such swarms of
Bookhar, thousands must have been congregated.  The river is of no great
size, the extreme banks being at our halting place about 30 yards
distant.  No rapids occur here, and the stream is in general gentle.

Noticed the Shorea, which is the _Foung bein_ of the Burmese.  Some
occurred of gigantic size.  It is strange, but a considerable change has
occurred in the Flora since we left Hookhoom.  Thus, Jonesia and
Peronema, Jack? or at least one of the involucrate Vitices occurred, as
well as a large Byttneria? fructibus echinatissimis.  A climbing species
of Strychnos, a Diospyros, a Sapindacea, were the principal new plants.
Dicksonia and Polypodium Wallichianum continue.

Slackia of Cuttackboom has white infundibuliform bilabiate flowers, tubo
brevi, deorsum leniter curvato, lobo medio labii inferioris reliquis
minore, lab. super.  intus biplicato, plicis sursum convergentibus, stam.
quinto valde rudimentario, antheris apice cohaerentibus.  The new
Cyrthandracea of yesterday is suigeneris, Ramondiae affinis.  Of this
there are three species, two of which I have not seen in flower.  Calycis
laciniae lineari-subulatae.  Cor. rotata, subregularis Stam. 4,
subsessilia connectivis amplis, quinto minimo dentiformi.  Stylus
declinatus, Stigma subsimplex, Capsula (per junior) siliquosa.  Herbae
vel suffrutices, hispidae, habitu peculiari.  Folia alterna! vel summa
sparsa vel ob approximationem sub-opposita: intervenia areolata, areolis
piliferis, pilis basi bulbosis.  Inflorescentia axillaris, cymosa,
dichotoma.

The Tankervellia (or Pharus?) has sepala pet. conformia extus alba, intus
fusco-brunnea, labellum cucullatum, breve, calcaratum; intus inconspicue
bilamellatum; extus albidum margines versus exceptis qua uti intus fusco-
sanguineum, fauce saturatiore.  Columnae albae clavale sursum subulata.
Anthera fere immersa, Rostellum integrum ut in omnibus glandula orbotis
Pollinia 8.  5 A.M.--Temperature 62. 210.

_March 30th_.--Marched for about thirteen miles along the bed of the
river, and a more uninteresting march I never had.  We breakfasted about
four miles from our halting place at the granary of the Meewoon.  The bed
of the river continues wider, and more sandy: the water being in general
shallow.  The only acquisitions met with to-day are Grislea, an
arborescent Capparidea, and a pretty Grewia.  Of birds, I noticed the
Avocet, or curved-billed Plover, the grey Kingfisher, the green Pigeon,
and the snake-bird, Plutus Levalliantia.  The plants occupying the banks
and the bed of the river are the same, viz. Ehretia, Saccharum
spontaneum, spirale; _Kagara_, Erythrina, Ficus, Gnaphalia, Podomolee,
Bombax.  Of fish, Cyprinus falcata, and _Nepoora mas_, occur in this
river.

Temperature at 5.25 A.M. 6l.  Water boils at 210.

_March 31st_.--Continued our march down the Mogaung river, passing
through a most uninteresting, inhospitable-looking tract.  General
direction S.E., distance fourteen miles.  The river is not much enlarged:
it is still shallow, and much spread out, and impeded by fallen trees and
stumps; it is navigable for small boats up to the Meewoon's granary.
Noticed AEsculus in flower.  Of birds, saw the grey and black-bellied
Tern.

The Botanical novelties are an arborescent Salix, a ditto Cordia floribus
suave odoratis, Phyllanthus Embelica.

Saw some cultivation on low hills to the S.E. and E. inhabited by
Kukheens.  1st April.  Temperature 63.  Water 210.25 altitude.

_April 1st_.--Started at 5.25.  Leaving almost directly the Mogaung
river we traversed extensive open plains, halting for breakfast on the
Wampama Kioung.  This we crossed, continuing through open plains until we
came to patches of jungle consisting of trees, and quite dry.  We
subsequently traversed more open plains until we reached the Mogaung
river, on the opposite (right) bank of which Camein is situated.  These
plains were in many places quite free from trees; they are, except
towards the south, quite surrounded with low hills, the highest of which
are to the E., and among these, Shewe Down Gyee, from which the Nam Tenai
rises, is pre-eminent, looking as if it were 3000 feet high, and upwards.
The hills although generally wooded are in many places quite naked; and
as the natives say, this is not owing to previous cultivations, I suppose
that they are spots naturally occupied entirely by Gramineae.  The plains
slope towards the hills on either side.  They are covered with Gramineae;
among which Imperata, occasionally Podomolee and Saccharum, Anthistiria
arundinacea, a tall Rottboelia, and Andropogon occur; and in the more
open spaces a curious Rottboellioidea, glumis ciliatis, is common.  In
addition a Polygala, a Crucifera with bracteae and white flowers, an
Acanthacea, Prenanthes? Centranthera tetrastachys are met with.  The
trees are quite different from those of Hookhoom; the principal one is a
Nauclea; Bombax, Wendlandiae sp., a Rhamnea, Phyllanthus, and Bignonia
cordifolia occur; the Nauclea giving a character to the scenery.  The
Botany of the patches of jungle is varied.  Strychnos Nux-vomica is
common; Congea tomentosa, Engelhardtia, etc.  Bauhinia arborea, and
Costus also occur.

Teak occurred to-day for the first time, but not in abundance, neither
were the specimens fine: it was past flowering, it occurred only between
the patches of jungle among grass.  I should have mentioned, that
throughout the first portion of the plains traversed, a dioceous dwarf
Phoenix was not rare, as well as an Herpestes.  A beautiful Rose occurs
on the banks of nullahs, and at Camein, on the Mogaung river: it has
large white flowers, involucrate; smell sweet like that of a Jonquil.

The general direction of the march was S.S.E.  Distance fourteen miles.

Camein consists of two stockaded villages: the smaller one being situated
on a small hill on the Endaw Kioung, which comes from near the serpentine
mines, and falls into the Mogaung river here; this has about twelve
houses: the one below about twenty, the inhabitants are Shans chiefly,
and appear numerous and healthy.  Assamese slaves are not uncommon.

Observed the large blue Kingfisher of the Tenasserim coast, _Alcedo_
_sinensis_.

The day's Botany was very interesting, more so than that of any other
days, excepting two on the higher ranges of the Naga hills.  The
Crucifera is highly interesting.  In the woods Alstonia and Elephantopus;
Salvinia is common in marshes.

_April 2nd_.--Left at 10 A.M., proceeding over the low hill to the W.
of lower Camein; our course continued traversing low ranges and small
intermediate plains, which we skirted.  At noon we reached the Tsee Een
nullah, where we found a large party of Shan Chinese, returning from the
mines; they had but few Ponies, and still fewer Mules.  Their dress,
appearance, habits, etc. are those of the lower orders of Chinese.  After
leaving this our course continued over similar country, until we reached
the Endaw Kioung at 3 P.M., which we crossed, halting on its left bank;
it is a stream of much strength and a broad bed, but shallow.  We saw
some cultivation on low hills to the W.N.W., and could distinguish two or
three houses; it is a small village inhabited by Meereps.

The vegetation of the valleys or plains continues the same, but in
addition to the Rottboelleoidea minor, is a curious Andropogon, and on
the skirts of the hills a large Anthistiria; some of the finest specimens
of teak also occurred.  Bamboo in abundance; otherwise the trees are,
with a few exceptions, completely changed.  A fine arborescent
Wendlandia, Bignonia indica? fructibus siliquo-formibus spiraliter
tortis, arborea, Kydia, Eurya arborea, and many other fine trees
occurred, but these I leave until my return.  On one plain I noticed a
Cycas, caudice simplici vel dichotomo, and the Phoenix of yesterday.  In
the Endaw Kioung two species of Potamogeton, Azolla, and Pistia,
Villarsia and Ceratophyllum occur.

_April 3rd_.--5.25 A.M.  Therm. 55.  Water boiled at 210.  Elevation
1064 feet.

Continued our journey over similar country, marching from half-past 5 to
1 P.M., including an hour's halt.  Distance fifteen miles: general
direction S.S.W.  Passed many streamlets, and continued for some time
close to the Endaw, which is still a largish river, apparently deep, with
a sluggish stream.  The plains continue, but of much narrower diameter.
Met many Shan Chinese and two parties of Mogaung people returning from
the mines.

The most interesting plants of to-day are a Santalacea, a climbing
species, racemis subpendulis, of Citrus--Citrus scandens, Cardiopteris of
which I found old fruit alone, a new Roydsia, R. parviflora mihi.

The vegetation of the plains continues unchanged, a Dillenia with small
yellow flowers is common on their skirts, Bignonia cordata occurs as a
large tree; no one has seen teak.  There is something peculiar in the
appearance of the trees of the plains, especially of the Nauclea; they
look scraggy.  I picked up the flowers of an arborescent Hibiscus, and
the fruit of Lagertraemia grandiflora.

Halted on an old rice khet, near a pool of tolerably clear water.

Bignonia cordata has sweet smelling flowers, lab. medio labii inferioris
bicristato.  Is it not rather a Viticea, owing to the absence of the 5th
stamen?  Phlebochiton, Sambucus, Butomus pygmaeus.  Many portions of the
hills are covered with plantains in immense numbers, (not Musa glauca).
On hills bounding to the south, one or two spots of cultivation belonging
to a village in the interior occur.  The Shans wear curious sandals made
of a sort of hemp, at least those who do not wear the usual Chinese
shoes.  _4th_.--5.25 A.M.  Temperature 55.5.  Water boiled at 210.
Elevation as before.

_April 4th_.--Continued our course through exactly the same kind of
country, the plains becoming much narrower.  Reached the path leading to
Keouk Seik after five hours' marching, and up to this our course was
nearly the same with that of yesterday, between W.S.W. and S.W.  We did
not see the village; several (seven or eight) houses are visible on the
hill, which here extends north and south, and along which runs a nullah,
the Kam Theem.

From this place our course continued almost entirely over low hills not
exceeding 800 feet above us, until we halted on the margin of a plain
bounded to the W. by the Boom, which runs N. and S., the direction being
W.N.W.  Distance seventeen miles.  On our march we met several parties of
Shans, Burmese, and Singphos.  The path from the village to this is much
better, and much more frequented than any of the other parts.  Most of
the parties were loaded with Serpentine.  Noticed _en route_, both on
the plains and on the hills, Teak; in the latter situations many of the
specimens were very fine.  Another noble Dipterocarpea arborea was
observed.  I observed Drymaria, Vallaris solanacea, and a Spathodia,
which is common on the plains.  Teak is remarkable for the smoothness and
peculiar appearance of its bark, so that it seems to have had it stripped
off.

Gathered on the hills Ulmus and Hyalostemma, the petals of which are
united into a tri-partite corolla, a Cyrtandracea in fruit, and an
Olacinea, floribus tri-sepalis, appendicibus 6 apice fimbriatis, stam. 3,
sepalis oppositis, racemis erectis.

_April 5th_.--Reached the mines after a march of about four hours; our
course was winding, continuing through jungle and small patches of plain,
until we reached the base of that part of the Kuwa Boom which we were to
cross, and which bore N.W. from the place at which we slept.  The ascent
was steep in some places, it bore in a N.N.W.  direction, principally
through a bamboo jungle.  From a clear space half way up, we had a fine
and pretty view of the hills and plains, especially to the S. and S.E.  In
the former direction, and distant about fifteen miles, we saw on our
return, the Endaw Gyee, but we could not estimate its size or figure; it
is evidently however a large sheet of water; the natives say, several
miles across.  From the summit, we likewise had a fine view of the
country to the E.; very few plains were visible in this direction.  Nearly
due east, and about thirty miles off, was visible Shewe Down Gyee, and
this will make Camein nearly due east also, or E. by S.  The descent
passed through similar jungle, that at the foot being damp.  The course
continued in a direction varying from S. to W., or rather between these
points, through damp jungle.  We then ascended another steep hill, but
not exceeding 5 or 600 feet in height; descending from this, and passing
through low tree and then bamboo jungle, we reached the mines.

The road was, up to the base of Kuwa Boom on the W. side, very good,
thence it was in general bad; wet, slippery, much impeded by blocks of
serpentine, and foliated limestone (Bayfield) crossing several streams,
mountain torrents, the principal one being Sapya Khioung.  This takes its
name from a spring of water of alkaline properties, which bubbles up
sparingly from under its rocky bed, and which must be covered during the
rains.  The water is clear, of a pure alkaline taste, and is used by the
natives as soap.

The mines occupy a valley of a somewhat semi-circular form, bounded on
all sides by hills clothed with trees, none being of very great height.
The valley passes off to the N. into a ravine, down which the small
stream that percolates the valley escapes, and in this at about a coss
distant other pits occur.  The surface of the valley apparently at one
time consisted of low rounded hillocks; it is now much broken, and choked
up with the earth and stones that have been thrown up by excavating.  The
stone is found in the form of more or less rounded boulders imbedded with
others, such as quartz, etc. in brickish-yellow or nearly orange clay.
The boulders vary much in size.  There is no regularity in the pits,
which are dug indiscriminately; some have the form of ditches, none
exceed 20 feet in depth.  They are dug all over the valley, as well as on
the base of the hill bounding it to the W. and N.W.  We could not obtain
any good specimens, nor is there any thing in the spot that repays the
visit.  No machinery is used, the larger blocks are broken by fire.  But
that they are of importance in the light of increasing the revenue, is
evident, from the fact that B. counted, since we left Camein, 1,100
people on their return, of whom about 700 were Shan Chinese.  The loads
carried away are in some cases very heavy; the larger pieces are carried
on bamboo frames by from two to five men, the lesser on a stout piece of
bamboo lashed to and supported on two cross or forked bamboos, the
stouter joint resting on the bearer's neck, the handles of the forks
being carried in his hands.  The most obvious advantage of this is the
ease with which the load may be taken off, when the bearer is fatigued.
The revenue yielded last year, B. tells me, was 320 viss of silver, or
about 40,000 rupees.  The length of the valley from E. to W. is about
three quarters of a mile; its breadth varies from 460 to 800 yards.

On our return we boiled water at the Soap spring, which is about 50 feet
above the mines, Temp. of the air 80.5.  2.5 P.M. of boiling water 209.
Elevation 1600 feet.  And on the top of Kuwa Boom, which is crossed at a
comparatively low place, at 4.5 P.M. Temp. of the air 76, of boiling
water 207.  Elevation 2678 feet.

I can say nothing as to the peculiar features of the vegetation, in the
woods towards Kuwa Boom.  I gathered three Aurantiaceae; the Olacinea of
yesterday is common, a large arborescent Artocarpus fructibus oblongis
sub-informibus, sub-acidulis, .75 uncialibus; Teak rarely; Tonabea, noble
specimens occur; on the Kuwa Boom, a large Gordonia arborea, two
arborescent Myrtacea, large Mangoes, Bamboo, a Morinda; Magnoliaecea
occurs on its western face, as well as the Conifera toxoidea before
gathered.  Dicksonia and Pladera justicioidea both occur.  Dianella
nemorosa, etc.  The Serpentine is carried from Keoukseik in boats down
the Endaw Kioung, thence to Camein, and from whence it goes to Mogam,
which is probably the principal mart.  Calamus spioris petiolorum
uncialibus verticillatis occurs in abundance in all the damp jungle.

We returned in the afternoon to our halting place of yesterday, from
which the mines are distant ten miles, four of which occur from the side
of Kuwa Boom to the West.  The Endaw Gyee is situated on a plain, but it
is enclosed by hills on every side except the S.E.  Those to the south
are very high.

_April 6th_.--Returned, diverging from the path to the village
Keoukseik.  Noticed Liriodendron, AEsculus, Achyranthis aspera, Vallaris
solanacea, etc.

The village is situated to the S. of the road to the mines; it is close
to the Nam Teen, and on a small elevation; it is stockaded.  The number
of houses is about sixteen; of inhabitants, including children, 120: all
the houses, except two, being small.  The merchants, etc. employed about
the mines, halt on the Nam Theen, which is up to this point navigable for
small boats.

Thermometer 66.  6.5 A.M.  Temp. of boiling water 210.

_April 8th_.--Reached Camein at noon: halted on the 7th at our former
hut on the Endaw Kioung.  The additional plants noticed are Duchesnia
indica, common in wet places; a Bamboo, paniculis (culmis) nutantibus
aphyllis, amplus.  Pandanus; Curculigo pumila, floribus sub-solitarius
ante folia, 6 vel. 4 partitis; a Careya, Dillenia, arborea floribus
numerosis parvis luteis.

AEschynomena, Anthistiria arundinacea, Composita arborea, 40-50 pedalis.
Another species of Anthistiria, common on the margins of hills during the
march.  Fir trees are reported to exist on _Lioe Peik_, which bears
South from Kioukseik.  Volcanic hills reported to exist near the Endaw
Gyee, but no salt rock occurs.  This mineral is said to be found three
days' march from Kioukseik on the Nam Theen.  The revenue said to accrue
from the Serpentine mines, is probably highly exaggerated; and the supply
of the stone is said to be diminishing yearly.  Casually found on the Nam
Toroon, a Sterculia arborea, florib-masculis clavato, infundibul.
coccineis, pubescentibus: a Sophora, floribus albidis pallidissima
ceruleo tinctis, of which the flowers alone were seen; Prenanthis
flosentis citrinis, a Polygala and Hypericum were likewise found.

_April 9th_.--Left Camein at 6, and reached Mogoung at 6 P.M. after a
march of at least twenty-five miles.  The course at first was nearly due
east, until we reached the Nam Pong, but subsequently it became more
southerly.  Camein bears from this about S.S.E.  The country traversed
was the same, generally comparatively open, that is to say, grassy plains
with Rhamnea, Nauclea, Bombax, etc.  For some distance the path extended
through shady woods.  No villages, nor any signs of such were observed
_en route_.  We passed many streamlets particularly during the latter
half of the march.  Our original intention was to have come to Mogoung by
water, and with this view Bayfield told the man sent by the Myoowook to
procure two or three canoes.  At 6 A.M. the Havildar came up to our hut,
and said that the headman of the village was disputing violently about
our taking the boats.  Bayfield proceeded down to the river side, where
the Yua Thugee was very insolent, and he and his followers drew their
_dhaos_ (swords) on Bayfield, who slightly pushed the Thugee.  It ended
in our going by land.  We had previously heard of the rebellion at Ava:
the Thugee's behaviour evidently arose partly from this.  I did not
observe the dispute, as I remained near the stockade.

Noticed a Lonicera in low places, and the Viola of Suddiya on the plains,
a Cardiopteris, Kempferia, Curcuma, a Bambusa vaginis collo barbatis, a
scandent Strychnos, an Aerides, Ardisiae 2, some Acanthaceae, Loxotis
major, Urticeae 2 or 3, Santalacea as before, Tetrantherae, Davallia
atrata, Asplenium fronde simplici, etc. etc.

_April 10th_.--We halt, and hear a report of the death of Mr. Kincaid,
and that a Burmese army is _en route_ here.  The whole country is most
unsettled, all the Singphos and Khukeens being in open rebellion.  It
appears that Thurrawaddi is meeting with success in his summons for men.
No resistance shewn to his authority hitherto except by one Myoowoon.  Our
Myoowoon has absented himself, and the Myoowook determined on surrender.
Bayfield under all circumstances, and failing authentic intelligence of
Mr. Kincaid, resolves on remaining here.

Mogam is a rather pretty town, situated on the right bank of the Mogoung
river, at the confluence of a river 100 yards broad, the water of which
spreads out, in some places, to a considerable breadth and depth.  The
country is however low, flooded in the rains, and surrounded by hills,
except in the direction of Shewe Down Gyee.  In many places it is only
covered with grass.  The town is large, and was formerly stockaded, the
remains of the timber stockade being still visible.  It contains about
300 houses, about 2,500 inhabitants, mostly Shans.  The houses are
generally raised, in many cases like those of the Kampties, the chopper
coming low down, shaped like a turtle's back.  There is a very distinct
opening or chasm in the hills between S. D. Gyee and a low range to the
North, but no river makes its exit there.  Sunday, 16th.

_April 18th_.--Halted up to this date, waiting for information
especially regarding the army at Tsenbo.

In this place two fragrant Dipterocarpeae are found; as also Bixa,
Tamarindus, and Carthamus, which last is cultivated and used both for
food and dyeing.  About the Poongie houses some remarkable Fici occur,
the trunk being divided so low down as to give the idea of a group of
several trees.  The roots in addition are made to spread over the conical
mounds, thrown up at their bases.

A race of wild-looking short men, called Lupai Khakoos, inhabit this
vicinity, wearing a jacket, and dark-blue cloth with an ornamented
border, worn with the ends overlapping in front.  They wear garters of
the Suwa.  Their hair is worn either long or cropped, and a beard is also
occasionally worn by the elders.

In this place very few regular Chinese are to be found, and the few that
are here seen, are ultra-provincials; none are acquainted with the
manufacture of tea.  This article is procurable here, but at a high rate;
it is sold in flat cakes of some diameter; it is black, coarse, with
scarcely any smell, and in taste not much superior to the Assamese
article; 20 tickals weight sells for 1.25.  All the blue cloths of the
Shans are dyed, Bayfield informs me, with Ruellia, or jungle indigo.

It is with these people that the only trade seems to be carried on, and
this is limited to amber and serpentine.  They are very dirty, and
excessively penurious, but industrious.  Owing to their habits and
extreme penury, there is no outlet for our manufactures in this
direction; so that I fully agree with Hannay's statement, that 500 rupees
worth of British goods would be unabsorbed for some years.  Rosa is
common, also a Rumex; a Sisymbroid plant also occurs.  Among the trees,
all which are stunted, Gmelina arborea occurs.  There are some Assamese
slaves here among the people, one of them is said to be a relation of
Chundra Kant, the Suddiya chief: slaves are held in very small estimation
with the Burmese.  Thus Bayfield asked his writer, who such a one
standing near him was, whether a Shan or Singpho?  The man answered, "My
lord, it is not a man; it is a Waidalee."

Altogether, Mogoung is an uninteresting place; the surrounding plains are
barren-looking, and inhospitable, and clothed with grass.  Here and there
a ragged Nauclea, Careya, etc. is visible with Gmelina arborea.  The
undershrubs are chiefly a Rhamnoidea, and a Phyllanthus.  Rosa is common;
Rumex and Nasturtium are both met with.

News arrived yesterday evening to the effect, that the King is drowned,
the heir-apparent in the palace: and that Colonel Burney is with
Thurrawadi!!!

My collections up to this place amount to 900 species.

_April 19th_.--Left at 12, and halted after having gone about four
miles.  The river continues the same as above; it is a good deal impeded
by trees, and much more so by sandbanks.

_April 20th_.--Reached Tapaw in the afternoon; our progress is,
however, very slow the stream being slight, but the river is much
improved; being less spread out, owing to its greater proximity to the
low hills: often very deep, generally clothed with jungle to the water's
edge.  On the hills near Tapaw are some Khukeens of the Thampraw tribe,
and on these hills bitter tea is reported to be found.  This the Khukeens
bring down for sale.

_April 21st_.--Continued our course, performing about twelve miles
between 7 and 5, inclusive of one hour's halt.  At some distance from
Tapaw and thence throughout the day, here and there occur rapids, which
are much worse, from the stream being impeded by large rocks.  In some
places it is divided, in others, compressed between hills, and here it is
very deep.

_April 23rd_.--Arrived at the Irrawaddi.  The Mogoung river is very
uninteresting; the stream being generally slow, sandbanks very abundant,
as well as stumps of sunken trees.  At its mouth it is deep, and about
seventy yards across.  The banks are either overgrown with trees or else
grassy; the grasses being Arundo and Saccharum.  On the steep banks of
the hills where these descend into the river, ferns are common together
with an Amaryllidea out of flower.  Cadaba is common, as well as a large
Mimosea.  Rosa continues; as also AEsculus.  On the road by which the
Chinese branch off from Tapaw to the Irrawaddi, I gathered an arborescent
Apocynea foliis suboppositis, and a Homalineous tree, floribus
tetrameris; Salix is common all down the river.  Teak only occurs
occasionally.  In one place I gathered Lonicera heterophylla, a fragrant
Valeriana? and Jonesia in abundance; this last being here apparently
quite wild.  Adelia nereifolia, a Ficus, Ehretia arenarum, and the usual
sandy plants occur on the banks.  Pistia, Salvinia and Azolla are common.

The Irrawaddi opposite the entrance of the Mogoung river, is 600 yards
across.  It is a noble stream; has risen a good deal, and presents one
unbroken sheet of water.  The banks are by no means high, and are grassed
to the brink.  The water is cold and clouded; its temperature is 66.5
degrees, that of air in a boat 88.5.  We reached Tsenbo about 1 o'clock,
having passed five or six villages, mostly small, and inhabited by Shans.
Tsenbo numbers about 30 houses, but these as throughout Burma, as far as
we have seen, are small; it is situated on a low hill on the left bank.
Both banks are hilly, especially the right.  The river has risen
enormously during a halt here--many feet.  In one hour we found it to
rise about 16 inches.  At this place I gathered a fine blue Vanda, and a
curious tree habitu Thespiae: stigmatibus 4.  Between this and the
entrance to the narrow defile Kioukdweng, which is about 1.5 miles
distant, three villages occur.  This entrance is well marked, the river
becoming suddenly contracted from 300 to less than 100 yards.  We halted
about 6.5 P.M. at Lemar.  Noticed four or five villages between Lemar and
the village at the entrance of the defile.  All these villages are
inhabited by Poans, a distinct hill tribe.  Passed through two fearful
places, one in particular where the whole body of water rushes through a
_gate_, formed by huge rocks not 50 yards wide.

_April 24th_.--Continued our course, and arrived at Bamoo about 5.5
P.M.; the greater part of the journey extended through the Kioukdweng, or
defile, in which some terrific places occur, one in particular known by
two rocks which are called the Elephant and Cow.  Passed several small
villages before we made our exit from the K. dweng: all inhabited by
Poans.  Between this and Bamoo the country along the river is truly
magnificent, and is well inhabited.  The largest village contains about
70 houses; at least seven or eight occur, between the points above noted.

The Kioukdweng is a remarkable and an awful object.  The greatest breadth
of the river while confined within this defile does not exceed 250 yards,
and in all the bad places it is contracted to within 100, occasionally
50.  From the enormous rise of the river, which, last night alone
amounted to an increase of ten feet, the passage is one continued scene
of anxiety.  In the places above referred to the river rushes by with
great velocity, while the return waters caused on either side by the
surrounding rocks, occasion violent eddies and whirlpools, so as to
render the boat unmanageable, and if upset the best swimmer could not
live in these places.  The rocks are serpentine and grey limestone,
presenting angular masses which project into the stream; the former in
all places within high-water mark is of a dark-brown colour.  Micaceous
slate? likewise occurs, although rarely.  The depth is of course
enormous, in the low state of the river, when Bayfield passed up, in many
places no bottom was found, at 25 or even 40 fathoms, and at this season
the water had no doubt risen 40 feet higher.  Some idea of the rise that
has taken place may be formed from the fact, that in places where, when
Bayfield passed up, the stream did not exceed 70 yards in width, it was
now 200; and of course a rise of 20 feet in the open river, would
determine one of at least 40 within the K. dweng.  After passing the
Elephant and Cow, which have the usual resemblance implied by their
fanciful names, the river widens and becomes tranquil.  The whole of this
Kioukdweng is truly remarkable, and in many places very picturesque.

The vegetation is, I imagine, similar to that of the low hills about
Mogoung; but so dangerous was the passage, that I had but few
opportunities of going ashore.  The hills are thinly wooded, and all bear
many impressions of former clearings; but the spots now under cultivation
are certainly few.  Besides, we must bear in mind, that the spots
cultivated generally throughout thinly populated parts of India are
deserted after the first crop, so that a very limited population may
clear a great extent of ground.  Bayfield tells me, and I consider his
authority as excellent, that the population is almost entirely limited to
the villages seen during the passage.  These do not exceed twelve, and
they are all small.  None of the hills exceed 500 feet in height
(apparently,) they do not present any very peculiar features.

Below the maximum high-water mark the vegetation is all stunted, at least
that of the rocks; a tufted Graminea is the most common.  Adelia
nereifolia (Roxb.), a Celastrinea, a curious Rubiacea, which I also have
from Moulmain, two Myrtaceae, a Rungia, are the most common.  I did not
observe Podocarpus.  In the occasionally sandy spots Campanula, the usual
Compositae, Panica three.  Eleusine, Clenopodium, and Atriplex are
common, a Stemodia, and Asclepiadea likewise occur.  One Clematis
carpellis imberbibus, and the Lonicera are met with.  No mosses appear to
occur.  One remarkable tree, _Belhoe_ of Assam, 70 feet high, cortice
albido, foliis orbato, panculis (fructus) pendulis, occurs: it has the
appearance of an Amentaceous tree.

_April 27th_.--We have remained at Bamoo; nothing appears to have been
settled below, and the river is reported to be unsafe.  It has fallen at
least three feet since our arrival.  Bayfield measured the left channel
yesterday; it is nearly 750 yards wide.

Bamoo is situated on the left bank, along which its principal street
runs.  The town is a very narrow one, the breadth averaging about 200
yards; its extent is considerable, but it scarcely contains 600 houses,
and of these 105 are Chinese, and only has one good street, _i.e_. as
to length.  Neither are the houses at all good or large, so that the
population cannot be established at more than 3000.  I allude only to
those within the stockade; out of this, and close to Bamoo are two or
three small villages.  The stockade is of timber, _pangaed_, or fenced
outside for about 30 yards; it has just been completely repaired, as an
attack is expected from the Khukeens.

The Chinamen live all together, in a street of low houses built of
unbaked bricks; these are not comparable to the houses at Moulmain.  There
is but little trade now going on.  Within the stockade and without, low
swampy ravines occur, that cannot be but injurious to the healthiness of
the town.  The Myoowoon spends all his money in pagodas, none of which
are worth seeing: all the roads and bridges he leaves to take care of
themselves.

The _inferior caked tea_, sugarcandy, silk dresses, straw hats, and
caps are procurable, but at a high price.  Pork is plentiful, and the
bazaar is well supplied with fish.  It is a much more busy place than
Mogoung, as well as considerably larger.  The chief export trade with the
Chinese is cotton; the revenue however by no means equals that of the
Mogoung district.

The country around is nearly flat; on one side of the stockade there is
an extensive marsh well adapted for paddy.  Otherwise the ground is dry,
and tolerably well drained; it appears to have been formerly wooded; at
present the environs are occupied by undershrubs.  I have observed no
peculiar botanical feature.  Among the undershrubs are Phyllanthae 2,
Apocynea arborescens, Gelonium, Combretum, Strychnos, Vitex, Melastoma.
When I say undershrubs, I mean that such is their present appearance.  The
only new plant is an elegant Capparis, subscandens, floribus albis,
odoratis demum filamentisque purpureo-roseis.  About old Pagodas, Pladera
of Moulmain, a Labiata, Stemodia, and Andropogon occur.

The cultivated plants are those of the coast, Hyperanthera Moringa, Bixa
Orellana, Calotropis gigantea, Artocarpus integrifolia, a Phyllanthus,
Cordia Myxa, Carica Papaya, Citrus medica, Plantains, a large and coarse
Custard Apple, Mango, Zyziphus, Cocos, Taliera, Agati.

The climate is dry and sultry, the diurnal range of the Thermometer being
from 28 to 32 degrees.  At this season, viz. at 6.5 A.M. from 66 to 68; 4
P.M. from 94 to 96.  North winds are common, daily commencing from that
quarter, or terminating there.  They are not accompanied by much rain,
although the weather is unsettled.

_May 2nd_.--A Khukeen whom Bayfield sent for tea returned, bringing
with him many specimens out of flower.  The striking difference between
this and the tea I have hitherto seen, consists in the smallness and
finer texture of the leaves.  For although a few of the specimens had
leaves measuring six by three inches, yet the generality, and these were
mature, measured from four to three, by two to three.  As both entire and
serrated leaves occur, the finer texture was more remarkable.  The
bitterness, as well as the peculiar flavour were most evident.  Young
leaves were abundant.

The Khukeens make no use of the tea.  The Chinese here talk of this as
the jungle tea, and affirm that it cannot be manufactured into a good
article.  They talk of the valuable sorts as being very numerous, and all
as having small leaves.  Neither here nor at Mogoung are there any real
Chinamen, nor is there any body who understands the process of
manufacturing tea.  The caked tea is not made to adhere by the serum of
sheep's blood, it adheres owing to being thus packed before it is dry.
The plain around Bamoo is intersected by ravines, which afford good paddy
cultivation; no large trees occur within 1.5 miles of the town.  At this
distance a large Dipterocarpea is common.  In the underwood around the
town, a Dipterocarpus, arbuscula, foliis maximis, oblongo-cordatis,
Gordonia, Lagerstraemia parviflora, Elodea, Nauclea; Leguminosae 3,
Gelonia, Combretum, Jasminum occur.  In the marshes Ammannia
rotundifolia, Cyrilla, Azolla, Marsilea, and Salvinia, Serpicula,
Ceratophyllum; a Campanula _arenosa_ reaches thus far.

Every day indecent sights occur in the river, owing to the women bathing
without clothes, and either with or near the men.  They appear to be
indifferent to the concealment of their person, breasts, and hoc genus
omne, being freely exposed.  They swim very well, and in a curious way.
They make their escape by squatting down in the water, unfolding their
cloth, and springing up behind it.  As for the men, they appear to take a
pride in exposing every part of their bodies.  No gazers-on occur among
these people, such not being the fashion.

The Shan Tarooks who trade with this place use oxen in addition to other
beasts of burden; the breed appears good, resembling the smaller kind of
India.

The Irrawaddi here is between the extreme banks a little less than 1.5
miles broad; the channel on which Bamo is situated is the largest, and is
800 yards across.  Two other channels exist, of which the west is the
smallest, and carries off least water.  The river is a good deal
sub-divided by sandbanks, but is, compared with the Burrumpooter a
confined river.  Since our arrival here it has sunk several (say five or
six) feet, and no longer looks the noble river it did on our arrival.

The sandbanks when they do exist are either naked, or clothed with
partial and not gigantic grassy vegetation.  I have not seen any thing
comparable to the churs of the B. pooter in this respect.  The
temperature of the river is not particularly low, and is much higher now
than during the rise.  From Bamoo the opening of the Kioukdweng is not
conspicuous, nobody unacquainted with the course of the river would
imagine that it passes through the range of hills to the N. and NNE.  The
highest hills visible are to the east.  They are within a day's journey,
and are clothed to their summits.  Some appear 3000 feet high.

Low hills inhabited by wild Khukeens, are visible nearly all around,
except perhaps due west.  The wild fierce nature of these people is
attended with a great extent of mischief, quite unchecked, without
eliciting even precautionary measures on the part of the Burmese
Government.

There are a few angles in the Bamoo stockade, and these exist because a
straight line cannot be preserved; and large torches are placed out on
levers for illuminating the enemy, and loop-holes are cut through the
timbers; watch-houses are likewise placed at certain points.  There are
two rows of _pangahs_ or fences outside, but not the Singpho pangahs.
Notwithstanding all this the river face is quite defenceless.

The soil is dry and sandy, and cultivation is carried on principally on
the churs.  Pumpkins and Gourds are abundant; Yams, (Dioscorea,) not very
good.  Rice is sold at the usual price, a basket full for a rupee.  The
town is dirty, and not kept in any order.

_May 6th_.--We left Bamoo, and in three hours reached Kounglaun, a
rather large village on the left bank, containing 100 houses, many of
which are respectable, better indeed than any in Bamoo.  It contains many
small ruined pagodas.  A gigantic tree grows within the stockade, which
is a very poor one.  Punica Granatum, and Beloe, were the only plants of
interest observed in the neighbourhood.

We passed several (six or seven) villages, none except one with more than
thirty houses; the one alluded to had sixty.  All the houses continue
small.  The river is here much subdivided, and in many places shallow;
sandbanks are common.  Vegetation of banks is almost entirely Gramineae,
and coarse strong-smelling Compositae.  The grasses are different from
those previously met with, except the Arundo.  Rosa continues; Salix is
common.  Between Koungloung and Tsenkan, which is on the same bank, and
close to the entrance to the Kioukdweng, three villages are met with; but
none of any size.  Tsenkan is prettily situated on a high bank, or rather
low hill.  The houses are about 100 in number, all poor and small.  The
stockade is a miserable affair.  There are some good Poonghie houses, and
a very pretty group of pagodas on a small rock.  The country is jungly;
just above the town a nullah enters the Irrawaddi: it is down this that
large quantities of teak is brought, from hills two days' journey to the
eastward; some large rafts were seen, but although some of the timbers
were stout, none were of any great size.  I gathered a pretty
Hippocrateaceous plant in the jungles, as well as a Combretum; a Vitex,
an Amyridea, etc.  Phrynium dichotomum occurs here; Rosa continues;
Jatropha is cultivated.

_May 7th_.--Started at 5 A.M., and entered the Kioukdweng almost
immediately.  We halted about 7, at Tsenbo.  Noticed AEsculus,
Sisymbrium, Campanula, Adelia nereifolia, Dillania speciosa, the usual
Compositae, and largish Dipterocarpeae.  The river is a good deal
narrowed, but never less than 130 yards across, and as there are no rocks
in any direction to impede the stream, the water flows but slowly and
very placidly.  Almost all the rocks forming the hills are grey carbonate
of lime.  These hills are covered to high-water mark, with scanty
somewhat stunted trees, the most of which have no foliage.  The scenery
is by no means so bold as in the upper K. dweng, although just above
Tsenbo, there is a noble cliff, 300 feet high, and almost perpendicular;
under its ledges we observed great numbers of bees' nests.  The rock when
exposed is rather greyish black, and in many places reddish.  Serpentine
occurs, but is not common.  A good deal of lime is prepared in this
Kioukdweng, and some portions of it in the rugged serrated appearance,
remind one of the limestone cliffs on the coast.  Above Tsenbo and nearly
opposite the cliff, is a small village of eight houses.  Tsenbo numbers
fifteen; it is on the left bank, and is a miserable place.  Here we were
left by our escort which accompanied us from Tsenkan, and the Thogee
refused positively to give us two or three men to row.  Although master
of a miserable hole, he had made preparations for defence, and had set on
foot a custom house.  We saw a good many boats passing up, all evidently
containing families moving away from their villages.

In this Kioukdweng a fine Palm exists, which I have never seen before.
Caudex 10-15 pedalis, crassa, petiolorum basibus processibus vestitis,
frondibus pinnatis, 10 pedalibus, pinnis ensifornibus 2 to 2.5 pedalibus,
subtus glaucis, diametro 1.5 uncialibus, basi valde obliquis, bilobis!
lobo inferiore maximo, decurrenti, uninervi: floribus in spadicibus
nutanti-curvatis, amplis, basi spathaceis spicato-paniculatis.  Florib.
masculis polyandris.

Petiol. bases cretosae, intus processubus atris, subulatis, longissimis
robustis quasi panicillatis.

Habitus quodammodo Wallichiae.  Hab. in Umbrosissimis.

An arbuscula Anonacea, floribus dioicis, Mas. corollae petalis apice
valvatim cohaerentibus, basi apertis, potius distantibus, Ovariis (faem)
pedicellatis, also occurred.

Fructus elliptico-oblongus, subuncialis, hinc a basi ad styli punctum
linea tenui exsculptus, unilocularis, unisporus.  Endocarp, ac testa
viscoso-gelatinosa.  Testa ac tegumen intera membr. chartacea.  Albumen
copiosum hinc et suturae fructus oppositae, profundius exarat. sectione
transversa-reniformi.  Carnoso albumeni germen secus sulcum affixium.
Embryo in axi albuminis, radicul super.  Cotyledones foliaceae, albae,
amplae, curvat seminis sequentes: suturae placental, oppositae.  Ejusdem
generis cum Menispermea: in sylvis Singfoensibus cum Wallichia: vide
Icones.

Arrived at Kioukgyee at 5 P.M.  Waited on and dined with the Meewoon, who
is a gentlemanly, spare, lively man with grey hair.  Dinner was good, and
clean.  Preserved dried jujubes from China, as well as some preserved by
himself were very good.  Kioukgyee is on the right bank of the river,
which is here undivided by islands, and about 1200 yards broad.  Just
above the town there are some rocks.  The number of houses is about
eighty-five, most of them arranged in a broad street running along the
river, and the best that I have seen for some time.

The village is surrounded by a new and wretched stockade, the outskirts
being fenced or _pangaed_; the people are on the qui vive, and the whole
village seems to be in a constant state of alarm.  All the jungle
immediately adjoining the town is cut down; many of the houses are
unroofed, and all the gates are guarded.  Visited this morning the lines
occupied by the attacking force; these were not 300 yards from the
village, and occupied the skirts of the jungle: trees had been felled and
earth thrown up, but not in such a manner as to obstruct in any way
tolerably brave men.  We saw none of the slain, we may therefore doubt if
there were any, but it was evident from platters, etc. strewed about,
that the flight of the robbers had been very precipitate.  We passed some
little distance above this, a holy island, the numberless small pagodas
on which, had a very pretty effect.  Close to these there was a small
village, Sheweygyoo, which had been just burnt down by the Kioukgyee
people, for giving assistance to the robbers; this as well as two other
contiguous villages before occupied a good extent of the left bank, and
numbered probably 150 houses.  Most of the inhabitants have retreated up
the river.

_May 8th_.--Reached Katha at 6 P.M.  Throughout the day saw little of
interest.  What we did see, gave evident tokens of disturbances,:
villages deserted; dogs starved, howling piteously; canoes without
owners.  At one village a few miles below Kioukgit, our arrival caused
much excitement, and a gun was fired off as a signal of alarm on our
approach.

_May 9th_.--Katha is on the right bank of the Irrawaddi; it is situated
on an eminence, and commands a fine view of a fine reach of the river;
the situation indeed is excellent.  It contains nearly 200 houses, but
these are not of the better description.  To the west is a fine chain of
hills, the lowest ranges of which are distant about one mile and a half;
the highest peaks are perhaps 1500 feet.  No signs of alarm or
disturbances are here visible, although part of the force that invested
Kioukgit came from this village.  We here learn the agreeable news that
the country below is quiet, and that no robbers now infested the road.
The Thogee is a fine looking young man; very polite.  This village boasts
of some pretty pagodas, well grouped, and a very fine _Kiown_, the
workmanship of which astonished me, particularly the carving; it is built
of teak, the posts being very stout, and very numerous.  Several merchant
boats left before us, apparently anxious for our escort.

Behind the town is a large plain used for the cultivation of paddy.
Otherwise the jungle comes close to the houses, although the larger trees
have been felled for firewood, etc.: the woods are dry, and tolerably
open.  In the morning I went out towards the hills; the chief timber
trees are a fine Dipterocarpus, and a Hopea; Pentapetes likewise occurs;
Terminalia Chebula.  Gathered a fine Arum, somewhat like A. campanulatum.
An arboreous Gardenia, as at Mergui; Myrtacea, Vitex, Bauhinia of
yesterday; Randia, Andropogon aciculare; some stunted bamboos were
likewise observed.  Altogether Katha is the prettiest place I have yet
seen.  The river opposite it is confined to one bed, about 500 yards
broad.

_May 9th_.--Left at 7 A.M., and reached the mouth of the Shwe Lee at 1
P.M.; the distance according to B. being sixteen miles.  Passed a few
villages, but none of any size; the houses of all continue of the same
description.  The river presents the same features.  Salix continues.
Sandbanks occupied by annual Compositae occur, two Polygona, Campanula, a
Ranunculus, much like that of Suddiya, a Labiata, Paronychia, two
Spermacoces; Bombax occurs just below Katha; Salix and Rosa continue.
Shwe Lee is a considerable river, at the mouth between 4 and 500 yards
broad; but one-third of this is unoccupied by water, and the stream is
not deep, although of the ordinary strength.  Above, it narrows
considerably.

7.5 P.M.  Temperature of the air 76 degrees.  Of Irrawaddi 74 degrees.

_May 9th_.--Tsa-gaiya.  This is a mean village on the left bank, about
eighteen miles from Katha; it is close to a low range of hills, and
occupies part of a plain, which is adapted for paddy cultivation.  Near
the village to the North, is a small _jeel_, covered to a great extent
with a large Scirpus, Jussiaea, Azolla, Salvinia, etc.  Water-fruits are
abundant; round this paddy is cultivated, and they appear to cut it at
this time.  Low ground near the jeel is covered with a low, handsome
Stravadium or Barringtonia, as well as a Xanthophyllum, resembling
exceedingly in appearance a Leguminosa: the wood is hard.  Calamus is
also common.  A handsome Nauclea occurs, and on the grassy margins of the
plain a small Euphrasia is common.

During our stage I observed large quantities of Bombax, and a tree
apparently the Beloe of Assam; the banks were either grassy or wooded,
especially on the right bank, which is skirted entirely by hills of the
same barren looking description.  The grasses are all small compared with
those of Assam.

_May 10th_.--Reached Tagoung late in the evening at 7.5: distance
thirty-two miles.  The river continues the same; the hills on the left
bank are much broken into ravines: all continue clothed with the same
stunted vegetation.

_May 11th_.--Tagoung is a miserable village on the left bank; it
occupies a rocky eminence, and contains less than 100 houses.  It is the
most inferior village I have yet seen, the streets being dreadfully dirty
and the houses very mean.  We visited an old pagoda, about a mile from
the town, which is surrounded by an antique wall, much obscured by
jungle, and more resembling a bund.  On our route hither we landed at
Thigan, a village containing about forty houses, and prettily situated at
the foot of a hill of micaceous sandstone, on the right bank.  At this
place are the remains of a fort built by the Chinese, of slabs of the
rock forming the hill.  Similar remains exist at Myadoung, on the
opposite bank, as I learn from Mr. Bayfield.  I gathered a Sida,
Capparis, Prionitis, Gnaphalium, and a Xanthoxylia petiolis alatis
armata; an Adiantum grows between the slabs composing the wall.  At
Tsenkan I observed an Agave, a different Cactus, a fleshy Euphorbia; and
an Ananassa is common all about.

About Tagoung the botany is varied, and interesting.  I gathered about
fifteen plants that had not occurred before, two Poae, two Andropogons, a
Zanthoxylum, and an Olax.  The most interesting is an Apocynea, floribus
infundibulifor. lamina reflexa, fauce squamis dentatis 10, serie duplici
dispositis, interioribus petalis oppositis et majoribus, antheris, in
conum stigma omnino coadunatis.  Cotton cultivated here; plants taller
than usual.  The villages around are all forsaken owing to one of them
having been attacked by Khukeens, and two men carried off.  Hence the
population at Tagoung, although usually scanty, is now much increased
from adjoining places.  A small river falls into the Irrawaddi
immediately above Tagoung.

_May 12th_.--Reached Male about 6 P.M.  Passed _en route_ a few
villages, none of any size or importance.  The river varies in width,
_i.e_. the channel, from 400 to 600 yards.  The banks are either
alluvial or rocky; and there are hills on the right bank skirting the
river; those on the left, are more distant and higher.  Borassus
commences to be common; it is a taller, and more slender tree than that
of Coromandel, and the trunk is not covered with the persistent bases of
the petioles.

The village of Tsebainago is opposite to Male, and appears nearly of the
same size.  Both are situated close to the mouth of the third Kioukdweng.
Male contains 150 houses, all small; it is a place of no trade.  To the
north is a hill forming the river bank, and covered with pagodas; it is
the prettiest place we observed after Katha.  The soil has now put on the
dry sterile appearance of the Coromandel coast, all the trees of which,
except the figs, are common; and often render the banks very pretty.
Tectona of Hamilton is very common; it is a tree not exceeding in height
40 feet, much resembling in habit the more valuable species; the flowers
are blueish, particularly the villi; the leaves have the same excessive
rough feel.  Two other Verbenaceae, a curious Capparidea, caule laxo,
foliis lineari-oblongis, basi hastato-cordatis, and a Ximenia are common.
On the banks Stravadium, and an arboreous Butea, a Combretum, are common.
Low stunted bamboos likewise prevail; and all the bushes are prickly.
Nyctanthes is cultivated.  The rocks as well as those forming the
Kioukdweng, are of coarse sandstone, here and there affording nourishment
to abortive Compositae, stunted grasses, Mollugo, etc.

Left Male, and entered immediately the last Kioukdweng on descending, or
the first defile on ascending against the stream.  This is a pretty
passage, and moreover has no dangerous places; the hills are low, lower
than those of the two former passes, consisting of sandstone partially
clothed with the same scanty vegetation, presenting the same barren
appearance.  Olax, Fici, Leguminosa, stunted bamboos, Hippocrateacea,
Mimosa, and Stravadium, occur.  Celsia on sandy spots, together with
Campanula, but this last is becoming rare.  Adelia nereifolia continues.
An arundo occurs on the naked rocks; Cassia fistula, Tectona Hamiltoniana
are also present.

We are much impeded by south-west winds; and owing to this and the
slowness of the stream, we were compelled to remain some time at Thee-ha-
dau.  We there had excellent opportunities of seeing the fish, which are
so very tame as to come up to the sides of the boat, and even to allow
themselves to be handled.  The faqueers of the place call them together;
but I think they are not much disposed to come from mere calling, for
they seem to require more substantial proofs of being wanted, in the
shape of food: they are found in still water in a small bay, which is
closed up still more from the influence of the stream by a round island,
constructed superficially on a rocky base, and on which pagodas are
built.  They resemble a good deal the Gooroa Mas of Assam, but have no
large teeth as this has.  They are very greedy, of a blueish grey colour,
occasionally inclining to red; the feelers are in some forked: they have
no scales.

We continued our course when the wind lulled; halted to dine on a
sandbank, and proceeded on afterwards, until we reached Kabuct about 8.5
P.M.  On the sandbank where we dined I gathered a Crotalaria, Campanula,
Cleome, a Graminea, Polygonum, Cyperaceae, and a Dentelloidea.  The
villages seen were all small.

_May 13th_.--Left Kabuct before 6.  Halted to breakfast on a steep
bank, finding it impossible to proceed against the south-west winds,
which have now become prevalent.

At this place, which is hilly, I gathered Gmelina villosa, an Anonacea,
calyce 6 sepalis, cor. tripetala, pet. patentissimis, margine revolutis,
luteis.  A Carissa, Grewia, Malpighiacea samaris, 3-alatis, alis
dorsalibus abbreviatis, a curious Graminea, a green Orchidea, terrestris,
bulbosa, flore ante folia evoluta, a Diospyros, Polygala, Plectranthus,
Rungia, Pladera, etc.

Halted at Movo, owing to the wind.  This is a very pretty village; of no
great size, and of no importance.  A delightful tope formed by Mango,
Fig, and Garcinia, or Xanthochymus, the dense shade of which is most
agreeable; Averrhoa, AEgle Marmelos is cultivated here; Borassus is
common, trunks of which are often of very irregular diameter.  Low grassy
places occur running along the back of the village, with abundance of a
Combretum fruticosum; and a nullah at either end of the village presents
many trees on its banks, particularly a very large and handsome Myrtacea,
Hemarthria compressa.  Stravadium racemis longe pendulis.

We were compelled to put into Mala on the right bank, about a mile above
Tsengoo, by a severe storm from the north-west.  This village consists of
about forty houses, many pagodas, and has a good many potteries, and some
fine trees.  It is at the entrance of the Kioukdweng.  Observed Jatropha
Curcas, and Vitex negrendo.  In the evening we proceeded to Tsenbou.

_May 14th_.--Left Tsenbou, and breakfasted at Nbat Kiown-wa.  Just
above this are several villages, two of which number nearly seventy
houses each.  This is the most populous part I have seen.  To the east of
this are the Ruby mines in the Shan hills; and to the south-east low
hills from which the marble is procured, from which they make the idols.
The river features continue the same; namely, low hills close to the
right bank, and more distant as well as higher ones on the left.  On the
Shan hills to the east, teak forests occur; on those to the west, tea
also grows.  In Polong tea districts also occur; but the tea is very
coarse, and said not to be drinkable.  Hemarthria, and Hoya viridiflora
were found.

Here I found Solanum, Tribulus, a Mimosa, lime trees, Carissa, Mimusops,
Stemodia ruderalis now appear.  The most interesting is a small diffuse
Caryoplylleous-looking plant, with white Campanulate flowers; it is
probably a Frankeniacea.  On the pagodas an Aristella grows.  Certain
features prevail in the vegetation similar to those of the Coromandel
coast.  Fig trees often surrounded at base with brick-work; this never
lasts long, the roots tearing up the masonry in every direction.

The exit from this 3rd Kioukdweng is very pretty.  Tsengru with its
numerous white pagodas; the noble river expanded into a broad bay; the
Eastern hills are very beautiful, and the Marble hills which form a
background to Tsenbou are no less so.  The banks towards the exit from
the defile are sloping, often covered with grass.  The Palmyra trees and
Fig trees have a very pleasing effect.  At Kiougyoung there is a large
brick fort, built by Alompras.  The village contains about 150 houses: no
large village is passed between this and Kubuct.

Halted above Sheemnaga to look at Gaudama's foot, a piece of workmanship
contained in a pagoda; it is a very large foot, with a central circular
impression.  This is about a mile below Endawka.  Sheemnaga never
contained more than 400 houses, I counted upwards of 180, and although
extensive traces of fire, and of new houses existed, I should reckon it
to have contained only about 300.  At the Pagoda I gathered a curious
Rutaceous-looking decandrous thorny tree, with foliis bijugis.

Reached Mengoon about 7 P.M.  Landed at the commencement of the sandstone
hills, which in some places assume the form of cliffs: texture very
loose.  They are full of holes, and abound with blue rock Pigeons.
Gathered a Murraya.  Trichodesma indicus and Compositae, Asclepiadea,
Calotropis gigantea, and a curious Arenariod-looking plant.

_May 15th_.--Mengoon boasts of a huge unfinished Pagoda, consisting as
it now stands of an immense square brick mass, surrounded by four fine
broad raised terraces; it would have been, had it been finished, upwards
of 700 feet high.  The dome was to have been with angular sides.  Height
170 feet; the basement, as may be supposed, is immense.  The plan or
model of it was first built in a small adjoining grove to the south, by
the grandfather of the present king.  The whole kingdom must have been
occupied in its erection.  The entrance to it is guarded by two huge
Griffins.  Several large bells lie close to it.  The country around is
hilly; the hills low, raviny, and clothed with stunted vegetation.
Beautiful topes exist along the river bank, between this and the cliffs
before alluded to; consisting chiefly of fine mango trees, noble Fici
likewise occur.  About Mengoon, Jatropha Curcas is common.  Gymnemea,
Calatropis gigantea, and Argemone abound.  We found a Pergularia, Lippia,
Zyzyphus, and one or two small Euphorbiaceae.  The soil is dry, sandy,
and barren.

We reached Ava about 1 o'clock.

_May 21st_.--Went to Tsegai on an excursion: the hills in this vicinity
are low, none exceeding 300 or 400 feet, dry and barren, chiefly composed
of grey carbonate of lime, and in some places Kancha occurs.  Pagodas are
very numerous, but none are very large, or bearing the stamp of great
age.  A fine view of country is however afforded: large plains are seen
to the east of the city, and between the hills and the river two large
jheels are visible from the hills.

The vegetation almost entirely consists of low stunted, very ramous
shrubs, and these are generally thorny.  Not a tree visible except Bombax
and Tamarindus, but this last is planted.  A large subarboreous Cactus,
spinosus, ramis 4 angulis, is common.  Noticed four species of Capparis,
and the following plants, Barleria, Prionitis, Tamarindus, AEgle,
Zizyphus, Cocos; Borassus, Bixa, Cordia, Punica, Ricinus, Melia Azederak;
Citrus Cassia, near houses and on the hills; Euphorbia 2, Ximenia,
Cleome, Boerhaavia, Adhatode, Cassia sennoidea, Sidae, Andropogon, a lax
Linaria common on old pagodas; Calanchoe, Sedum, Pommereulla, Vinca
rosea, Tectona Hamiltoniana, but not of such size as at Male.  Bambusa
stunted and rare, Blepharacanthus, Polygala, Labiatae 2, AEruae, sp. Fici
one or two, an Alstonia, Celosia mollugo, Solani sp. Stemodia, Combretum,
Heliotropium indicum, and the Euphorbiacea of Mengwong.  It will at once
be seen that the vegetation has some similarity with that of the
Carnatic, for in addition I found Asplenium radiatum, and Limonea
Monophylla, a Carissa, Ximenia, Flacourtia, etc. etc.

Ava is a fine town, surrounded with an excellent brick wall: the streets
are wide, and kept clean; the houses are regular, and as trees are
interspersed, a pleasing effect is produced.  The appearance is much
improved by a lattice before each house.  The houses also are of a
superior description, a few only are of brick.  The fort is surrounded by
an additional wall, and a broad but shallow ditch.  The palace is a
handsome, irregular, gilt edifice; but its precincts are not kept so
clean as they might be.  The Shwottoo is a handsome hall.  The town
altogether conveys an idea of importance.  The river is about 800 yards
broad opposite the Residency; but above, it is encroached on by a
sandbank.  Boats are numerous, and opposite Tsegain there is a busy
ferry, especially now the king is at Tsegain.  This is a much preferable
place, and rendered much more pleasing by its superb Tamarind trees, with
their most elegant foliage and sculptured trunks.  The plants cultivated
about Ava are Palmyra, Cocoa (rare).  Tamarinds abound; Carica Papaya,
Punica Granatum; Mangoes, which are of good description; Cordia,
Plantains, AEgle Marmelos.

The country is flat, and destitute of trees to the south and southwest.
The whole of this is cultivated during the rains, chiefly for Gram,
Tobacco, Capsicum, and a Melilotus.  At present the plains are barren,
the low places being almost exclusively occupied by a Combretum; the rest
give a new Polygonum, Lippia, 2 or 3 Compositae, and a curious dwarf
grass.  On the walls Linaria is common.  Noticed near one of the gates,
Cryptostegia grandiflora; the waste places and banks are occupied by
Argemone, Mollugineae three, Xanthium, Dentella, and low annual
Compositae.

_May 26th_.--Visited Tsegain in the evening, and returned to Ava on the
following morning.

_May 27th_.--Noticed Phoenix sylvestris.  The Euphorbia is common; it
is not a Cactus, but a species of this genus, ramis complanatis, is found
though not common; as well as an Agave or Aloe, but this is a doubtful
native.  Poinciana pulcherrima, both red and yellow, Rhus? sp. arbuscula,
Vallaris solanacea.  A small Lycopodium, Gmelina asiatica?  The
additional Madras plants are, Cissus quadrangularis.  There is likewise
another fleshy species fol. 3 phyllis, Sarcostemma viminale, Indigofera,
Kalanchoe laciniata is common; so is the white Cyperacea on barren spots!
I met with Sarcostemma ciliatum; Wall.? petalis extus viridescent, intus
ciliisque purpuro sanguinies, but it is rare.  Cardiospermum pubescens is
certainly distinct, the flowers are twice as large as those of C.
Halicacabum, fructibus inflatis vix alatis, ovalibus, dehiscentia
septicida, septis axi adnatis, persistentibus.  Semin. solitarii centro
loculi affixis, pisiparvi magnitudine, atris.

NOTE.--Where any discrepancy occurs with regard to the native names in
the preceding Journal, it is requested that such may be corrected from
the Report to Govt. Chapter VII. p.115.

[The view from Beesa: p109.jpg]



CHAPTER VI.


_Botanical notes connected with the foregoing Journal_.

(_February 19th_.--The finest view of the hills from Upper Assam is
obtained on a reach or turn of the river just above Palankar, the river
bending to the NNE.  Snow is plentifully seen on one back range from the
Sugar-loaf peak.  Another reach shortly after presents a fine view of the
Burrampooter chasm, terminated by the rugged peak so distinctly seen from
Suddiyah, due east.  This view might be chosen, as a general
characteristic of the Scenery of Upper Assam.

It embraces the Mishmee mountains to the left, the higher peaks of which
are covered with perpetual snow.  These lie to the NNE. of Beesa.  To the
east, is the continuation of the Himalaya, to the South-east and South,
the Patkaye, and Naga ranges; the whole forming a panorama, rarely if any
where surpassed in beauty.  Temperature. of the river at 6 A.M. 67
degrees

_Musa_.  Many flowers from the axil of a bract; no bractioles
interspersed, hence we may expect racemose or spicate partial
inflorescences.  The perianth is unilateral, 5 cleft, the two smaller
segments, which are intermediate, being internal, or belonging to a
different series.  Within this petaloid perianth is a membranous one,
together with a boat-shaped bracteolate body, entire.  The stamens are
five, evidently opposite to the segments of the petaloid perianth,
staminibus adnatis, the sixth is not developed, but is rudimentary, and
exceedly minute, opposite to the bracteoid body.  The carpella three,
alternate as they ought to be with the last series of stamina, and hence
they are opposed to the larger and outer segments of the petaloid
perianth, but this last point deserves further examination.

The base of the bracteoid sepal is filled with a gelatinous, sweet,
transparent, unicoloured .5 fluid.

I am unaware whether this explanation has occurred to any body else.

It is curious as compared with Scitamineae, in which the posticous stamen
is alone fully developed.  Pl. 1. Fig. 3. _a_. bracteoid body, _b_.
sterile stamen, c.c.c. outer series, d.d. inner ditto.

The fact of the outer smaller laciniae belonging to a second series is
not very apparent, but is corroborated by the evidently internal
situation of the bracteoid scale, and by the evidently elevated lines
visible in the inner.

(_April 3rd_, _1837_.--On march towards the Serpentine mines) the face
of the perianth, corresponds to these smaller laciniae.

_April 7th_.--Thunbergia grandiflora has the pedicels of its flowers
twisted, or not twisted, according to the situation of the flowers.  Thus
if the flower be so situated that the raceme has the direction of the
axis, or in other words is erect, the pedicel is straight, but if the
raceme, as generally happens, be pendulous, the twisting of the pedicel
is resorted to, to secure the flower that situation which it would have,
were the raceme erect.

The above is obvious in flowers which from elongation of the axis of
inflorescence, have fasciculate or aggregate flowers.  An obvious
inference is, that the twisting of the pedicel is not of generic, nor of
specific importance; and that it is capable of being produced
artificially.

This resupination is not uncommon in the order; it is most evident in
Thunbergia coccinea, in which the racemes are always pendulous.  There is
nothing, at least in this species, in the situation of the genitalia to
account for the resupination.

Pedicelli demum apicem infra articulati, the inflorescence of this order
is always centrifugal, the partial axis being invariably as well indeed
as the general, disposed to dichotomy.  Hence the very common presence of
three bracteae to each flower, the central one presenting the leaf from
whose axil the partial branch springs.

Stipulae--if the analogy of these be difficult to ascertain, the
structure and functions would appear to be as of leaves, in addition to
the function of protection.  In most cases they are certainly not double
organs; in Naucleaceae they are apparently so.  Can this be explained by
supposing them to form a bud with four scales, the scales instead of
being imbricate, being on one plane.  Stipellae of Leguminosae are
certainly single; these being all probably stipulate plants, are to be
considered as having terminal buds, the buds being either totally, or
partially protected by the stipulae.  The difficult nature of ochreae of
Polygoneae is certainly to be acknowledged, but they are similar to those
of Costus, and hence not stipulae, but an extension of the margin of the
vaginate petiole, from which veins are prolonged into it; the functions
of these are not stomatose, since they are membranous, the veins being
the only green parts.

I see no reason why the stipulae of Rosae are not to be considered as
belonging to, or dilatations of the petiole.  They have no distinct
vascular fascicles to indicate a distinct origin.  And further, in Lowea
no stipulae exist.

_Jonesia_: pedicellis apice articulatis, basi bracteolatis, ideoque
infloresc. magis composita esse debet; laciniis anticis? corollae?
perianth compositum, binatum praebentibus, emarginatio et situs stam 5ti
rudiment.  Staminis laciniis alternatis? basi in annulum, seriem 2
indicantem coalit. {111}  The situation of the stamens is somewhat
obscure, the two lowermost however alternate with the segments, the two
intermediate being sometimes sub-opposite.

Of course if they be opposed, the perianth will be referrible to a calyx
if not to a corolla.

_Lepidostachys_ or Scepa.  Fruit dicarpillary, stigmata four, hence they
are placentary not costoid. bilocular, loculis dispermis, ovula 2 pend; 1
abortiv. semiunceum, testa vix arillus obsacuit clause lutescens carnosa
et ab nuclei inter adhaeren.  Rad. sup. embryo junior viridis.

Stipulae cad. Gemmam oblegent.

_Homalineae_, Calycis; laciniae 4, petal 4, Glandulae 4 totidem sepalis
oppositae.  Connat; stamin 4, petal opposita; styli 4.  Ovar non ext.

Arbor magna. foliis alternis stipulatis, paniculae racemoso-axillares,
Flores minut. viridescent.  Pet. et sep. fimbriat. aestiv. imbricat.

_Clematis_ has semina pendula.

The stipulae of Ficus obviously belong not to the leaves, their insertion
taking place .5 a line above that of the petiole.  Hence they belong as
obviously to the elongation of the axis above the leaf; their coloration
is curious, especially as they are green when young.  Their vernation is
conduplicate and plicate.

_Combretum_ presents several points in common with Rhamneae; valvate
calyx, and tendency to want of petals; to Elaeagneae in calyx and
furfuraceous scales; a decandrous Rhamneae would differ but little in
flowers from Combretum.

_My idea_ of the origin of stigmata is proved to be correct by a
Phyllanthus, the carpella of which are ovuliferous below, the upper part
being fleshy, the stigmata are two to each, obviously corresponding to
the placentary inflexions, while the sinus terminating the dorsal suture
is totally naked; it is this which should bear the stigma if Lindley's
view were correct.

The true place of Moringa seems to be near Xanthophyllum with which genus
it has some remarkable points of resemblance, witness the papilionaceous
corolla; unilocular stamina, their situation, ovary, placentation, and
lastly glandulation.

To this Lindley has made an approximation by placing the order near
Violarieae.  Its chief difference from Polygaleae, is habit, foliation,
and the perigynous insertion of corolla and stamina, and consequent union
of the sepals.  As in Xanthophyllum there is no albumen.

(An additional Xanthop. which until to-day I have always taken for a
Leguminosa.)

_Tamarindus_ cal 4 partitus, sepals 2, superiorib. connatis.  Pet. 3,
vexillo, sepalo postico composit; opposit; stamen tria; sepalis 3,
inferior opposita.  Stylus aestivation deflexus.

Pedicelli apice articulat.  Folii petiol. basi articulat.  Stipulae
minimae stipellae.

In Jonesia, there are no petals.  Humboldtia comes near Tamarindus,
through H. Brunonis, which agrees in calyx and petals.

Thorns of Prionites, what are they?  They are axillary, and yet buds are
produced between them and the axis.  They have no connection with the
leaves.  Were it not for the buds above alluded to, I should say that
they were abortive branches (bearing one pair of leaves) reduced to
spines.

_Olacineae_.  Certainly in habit, corolla, etc. Olacineae are allied to
Aurantiaceae, but they are nearer akin to Santalaceae.  The processes are
indubitably modified stamina, with a great tendency to irregularity; in
one species from Tagoung only three fertile, and five sterile stamina
were observed: the three fertile generally, but not invariably, alternate
with the petals.

To Santalaceae they approach in processes, valvate corolla, and
placentation, also to Loranthaceae.

Eight stamina thus accounted for; when two opposed to petals, belong to
outer series--also single one.

In Punica, the structure of the ovaria is highly curious.  We find the
bottom of the tube is occupied by two cells, partially filled with ovula,
which are attached both to the axis and to the base, as well as to the
lower part of the outer paries of each cell; so far, it does not depart
from the order, for in Aplexus the placentation is tolerably similar.

Above these two, are 4-5 cells, filled with ovula, which are attached
entirely to the outer wall of each cell, but the placentae however would
seem to have an obvious connexion with the axis, although this is very
doubtful.

The formation of the stigma decidedly indicates a binary formation of
carpella.

If these 4 upper cells are 4 constantly, and the base of the ovary is as
constantly two celled, then the explanation is sufficiently obvious,
though different from that given by Lindley. {113}

First, we have in the bottom from which the mere structure of an ovary is
deduced, the normal dicarpellary structure, and there is in addition a
tendency in excess toward a parietal placentation.

The anomalous formation arises first from parietal placentae being
produced to the axis, and from spurious growth from the sides of the
ovary also meeting in the axis, by which the ovula are divided into four
bundles.

Lindley's view seems to be questionable, because as in all cases the
styles and stigmata are more permanent than ovaries, there should be as
many styles, etc. as ovaries.  2nd, because according to this view the
placental suture of the carpella would be turned from the axis, (look at
Pomaceae,) although his view of Pomaceae being right would indicate an
additional affinity with Mespilus, etc. which it does in habit and
abbreviated lateral branches.

Are all Myrtaceae dicarpellar?

The true nature of the case is pointed out in the instance cited by
Lindley of a permanent variety of apple, which has 14 cells and 14
styles!  With regard to Nicotiana and Nolana; have these one or two rows
of carpella?

TECTONA.

Arbores, trunco crasso, cito ramoso, cortice albido, laevi, tenui.

Folia siliceo-aspera, inflorescent dichotoma.

Calyx aestiv. valvat. cor infundibul, subregularis laciniis, 5
rotundatis, demum reflexis aestivat. laciniis super 2, omnino exterior,
facies barbato-villosa.

Antherae longit dehiscent, stylus stigma simplex.

Pubescentia stellata.

Modo Asclepiadeae, corolla rotata.

GMELINA VILLOSA.

Lab. super. aestivat. omnino exterior fl. axi fere paralleli, pedicell
apice bibracteolat.

Cal. minim. 5 dentat.

Cor. infundibul campanul. bilab; 4 partit. stigma bilabiat-lab infer
longiore.

AROIDEUM.

Radix maxime napiformis, undique radiculas exserens, et superne e centro
spadicem.  Spadix pedunculum 3-uncial terminans, basi squamis magnis
membranaceis, lineari-oblongis stipatus sursum in corpus fungoiden,
capitatum, maximum, purpureo-sanguineum, superficie rugose dilatata.

Ovar bilocul, diovulat.

Medio antheras bipoross confertissimas, sessiles, numerosas, basi ovaria
distantiora gerens.

Ovaria fusco-purp, stylus elongatus clavatus, stigma clavato, capitat.

Odor-floris praeserti marcescentis pessimus.

Katha in sylvis aridis.

The fruit of Lagerstramia grandiflora can, I think, be explained by
assuming it to consist of several carpella, which by not becoming united
near the axis, leave an irregular shaped space in the centre; the
placentae are fleshy, the ovule inserted all around.  This view does not
take into consideration the situation of the stigmata.  The deeper sulci
visible externally correspond to the inflexions of the carpellary leaves;
in addition to this, the centre of the dorsum of each of these is marked
with a line. {114})



CHAPTER VII.


_Report to the Government of India_, _12th July_, _1837_.

In the following report, I have divided the marches into series,
corresponding with the countries through which they were made, reserving
a table of the whole for a subsequent part.  These series will be as
follows--

1.  From Sadiya to Beesa Lacoom.

2.  From Beesa Lacoom to Namtusseek.

3.  From Namtuseek to Wullabhoom.

4.  From Wullabhoom to Mogoung.

5.  From Mogoung to Ava.


I.  FROM SADIYA TO BEESA LACOOM.


COUNTRY TRAVERSED BELONGING TO THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, AND FORMING PART
OF THE SOUTH-EAST EXTREMITY OF THE VALLEY OF ASSAM.

1.  From Sadiya to the Noa Dihing river mouth or Mookh.  Direction east.
Distance 6 miles performed in boat, the course lying up the Burrumpootur.

2.  From Noa Dihing Mookh to Rangagurrah on the Noa Dihing.  Direction
SSE.  Distance 12 miles, course lying along the dry bed of the Noa
Dihing.

3.  From Rangagurrah to Moodoa Mookh, on the same river.  Direction south-
east, the distance being 12 miles. {115a}

4.  From Moodoa Mookh to Kidding.  Direction south, the distance 9 miles,
course south-east, along the bed of the Noa Dihing as far as Wakhet,
thence diverging to SSW. through heavy jungle.

5.  From Kidding to Namroop Puthar.  Direction, nearly south, the
distance being 12 miles, course lying through very heavy jungle, crosses
the Karam Panee, {115b} which here is not fordable, and another
considerable feeder of the Booree Dihing, and lastly up the Namroop.

6.  From Namroop Puthar to Beesa Lacoom.  Direction southwest, the
distance 12 miles, the course extending at first over low hills and
difficult ground, thence through heavy jungle intersected by narrow
plains, lastly chiefly along the banks of the Darap Panee.

_Nature of the country_.--It will be seen that with the exception
of the three first marches, and part of the fourth, the country is
occupied by the heavy jungle so prevalent in these parts.  The chief
difficulties our party experienced arose from the limited manner in which
the jungle had been cut for their passage.

_Rivers_.--The only one not fordable in the above route, is the Karam
Panee, but this does not hold good either above or below the place I
crossed.  They all discharge much water during the rains, and even in the
dry season are navigable for small canoes.

_Villages_.--These are as follows:--

1.  _Digalo Gohain Goung_.--On the right bank of the Noa Dihing it is
inhabited by Kamptees lately settled in our territory, and is a
respectable village.  The Noa Dihing here ceases to be navigable even for
small canoes.

2.  _Wakhet_.--This is a new but wretched village, inhabited by Singphos.
Wakhet Gam was an adherent of the Duphas, and is by all account one of
the worst-disposed Singpho chiefs.  He is said even at this period still
to traffic occasionally in slaves.

3.  _Kidding_.--A temporary village, containing about 10 houses,
inhabited by Nagas, now naturalised to the plains.

4.  _Namroop Puthar_.--So called from a plain on the left bank of the
Namroop.  The village, which is a mean and despicable one, is on the
opposite bank.

5.  _Beesa Lacoom_.--Is situated on the right bank of the Darap Panee,
which is fordable at the heads of the rapids.  It contains 12 small
houses.  The Gam is, I believe, an uncle of the Beesa Gam, and exercises
exclusive control over the tribe of Beesa Nagas.  This influence he
appeared to exercise to our disadvantage.  He is a discontented man, and
his behaviour to our party was very unsatisfactory.

_Population_. {116} --This is scanty enough, particularly when we
consider that the houses in the above villages are much smaller than in
the better sort of Singpho villages.  With the exception of the Kamptee
village the average number of people to each house cannot exceed five.
Another small Singpho village exists on the Namroop, about 3 miles from
Namroop Puthar, and not far from the site of the coal mine.

_Capabilities of the Country_.--These are of the usual description.
The soil is productive enough, but the labour of clearing the drier spots
is excessive.  Excellent rice grounds exist in abundance between Beesa
Lacoom and Namroop Puthar, but the cultivation of this, as well as of all
the other necessaries, is limited to the quantity absolutely required.
Scarcities of grain are of frequent, indeed almost of annual, occurrence;
and this is chiefly owing to the pernicious influence of opium or Kanee,
to which all our Singphos are immoderately attached.  Of the _Mineral_
_Productions_, coal and petroleum were the only ones we met with.

_The coal occupies_ the greater portion of a precipitous part of the
sandstone composing the left bank of the river Namroop.  Three large
veins have been completely exposed by the cutting away of the bank.  The
coal is I believe of good quality.  The river immediately under the veins
is very deep, and were it not for the rapids which intervene between the
site of the mineral and the Booree Dihing, it would be difficult to
conceive a spot affording similar facilities for the transmission of the
mineral.  I must however, observe, that even in the dry season the river
is navigable for small canoes as far as the site alluded to.  During the
rains no difficulty whatever would be experienced in the carriage, as
rafts might be made on the spot.  No use is made of the coal by the
natives, nor did they seem to be aware of its nature.

Of _the Petroleum_ {117} no use whatever is made, although we have
ample experience from its universal use by the Burmese, that it is a
valuable product both as affording light, and preserving in a very great
degree all wooden structures from rot and insects.  The springs occur in
four different places, all close to the Puthar: of these three occur on
the low hill which bounds the Puthar to the southern side, and one on the
Puthar itself, at the foot of the range alluded to.  The springs are
either solitary, as in that of the Puthar, or grouped, a number together;
the discharge varies extremely from a thin greenish aqueous fluid to a
bluish grey opaque one, of rather a thick consistence: the quantity
poured out by these latter springs is very considerable.  On the surface
of all, but especially on these last, an oleaginous, highly inflammable
fluid collects in the form of a thin film.  The jungle surrounding the
springs ceases abruptly, the ground around, and among them, being covered
with stunted grass and a few small herbaceous plants.  Elephants and
large deer are frequent visitors to the springs; of the former, the
tracts are frequent, and they are sometimes shot here by the natives.

_Vegetable Products_.--The jungles afford several kinds of bamboo, some
of which are of value; generally speaking the trees are not large, with
the exception of a gigantic Dipterocarpus, wood-oil or dammar tree; of
this particular tree I have seen specimens measuring 100 feet from the
base to the first branch.  The wood is of no value, nor have I seen any
use made in Assam of the resinous secretion, which is in great vogue on
the Tenasserim Coast for the construction of torches, etc.


II.  FROM BEESA LACOOM TO NAMTUSSEEK.


COUNTRY TRAVERSED FORMING PARTS OF THE NAGA RANGE OF HILLS, AND OF THE
SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF THE VALLEY OF ASSAM: THE NORTHERN SIDE IS SUBJECT TO
BRITISH, THE SOUTHERN TO BURMESE CONTROL.

1st. STAGE.--_Halting place_ in the jungle, at an elevation of 770 feet
above the sea.  Direction SSE.  Distance 12 miles, course over low hills
covered with dense jungle.

2nd.  _Darap Panee_.--Altitude 1029 feet.  Direction SSE.  Distance 12
miles, passed over some difficult places; crossed the Darap twice before
we reached the halting place, course through very heavy jungle, except on
the summits of the higher hills, which are tolerably open.

3rd.  _Namtusseek_, {118} or Tusseek Panee, altitude 1413 feet.  Direction
SSE.  Distance 12 miles, country more open: summit of the hills covered
with grass and scattered trees.  The highest hill surmounted was
certainly 1000 feet above our halting place.

4th.  Namtusseek, or Tusseek Panee, altitude (not observed).  Direction
SSE.  Distance 10 miles, course almost entirely up the bed of the river
over boulders, occasionally skirting the stream through heavy and wet
jungle.

5th.  _Yoomsan nullah_, near the foot of the Patkaye.  Alt. 3026 feet;
direction SSE.  Distance 4 miles.  Course for a short time along the bed
of the Namtusseek, until we crossed a small stream, the Tukkakha: then
ascended a mountain, about 3500 feet high; on reaching the summit we
descended until we reached the halting place.

6th.  _Nam-maroan_, or Maroan-kha. {119a} Alt. 2500 feet.  Direction
ESE.  Distance 15 miles.  Ascended until we reached the summit of the
Patkaye; the ascent was in some places very steep, and owing to the
unsettled state of the weather, very difficult.  Reached the boundary
nullah, along which we proceeded for some time; we then commenced the
descent, which was steep, and continued so, until we reached the
Nam-maroan.  The extreme elevation we reached was rather more than 5000
feet. {119b}

7th.  _Nam-maroan_.--Altitude estimated 2000 feet.  Direction ESE.
Distance 10 miles, course along the bed of the stream; ground difficult,
and much impeded by boulders.

8th.  _Nam-maroan_.--Altitude not taken.  Direction ESE.  Distance 7
miles.  Course the same, but of a less difficult nature.

9th.  _Khathung khioung_. {119c}--Altitude 1622 feet.  Direction E. by
S.  Distance 7 miles, course continues along the Nam-maroan, the whole
way: ground much less difficult.  Passed close to a Singpho village of
two houses; some Puthars which bore traces of having once been cultivated
and inhabited occurred on this march.

10th.  _Khussee-khioung_.--Altitude 3516.  Direction E. by S.  Distance
13 miles, left almost immediately the Khathung Kioung, and commenced
ascending.  Ascent in some places very steep and difficult, and continued
until we had reached an elevation of 5600 feet.  The descent then
commenced, and continued until we reached the Khussee-khioung, passing
along for some distance the Natkaw-khioung.  The descent was occasionally
difficult, owing to broken ground; tree jungle occurred almost throughout
the whole distance.

11th.  Kuttack Bhoom. {119d}--Altitude 3270.  General direction S.
Distance 13 miles.  Left the Khussee-khioung, but reached it again before
long.  Continued to descend considerably, until we reached the Nam-thuga,
thence the descent increased considerably.  Halted on an open grassy
spot, from which an extensive view of the valley of Hookhoom is obtained.

12th.  _Namtusseek_.--Altitude 1099 feet.  General direction ESE.
Distance 10 miles.  Descended from Kuttack Bhoom, until we reached the
Loonkharankha, then ascended considerably.  The descent then recommenced,
until we reached the Namtusseek.  Heavy jungle occurred throughout.  Path
occasionally difficult, becoming as we approached the base of the range
very wet.  We crossed several small mountain streams.

_General features of the hills_.--The prevailing formation
appears to be sandstone, and connected with this we have rounded summits,
not attaining a great elevation, and a considerable depth of soil.  The
lower ranges are throughout covered with heavy tree jungle.  This becomes
excessively thick and wet along the water courses, which are of frequent
occurrence towards the base of the range, both on the northern and
southern sides.  But from an elevation of 1000 feet to that of Yoomsan, a
great change for the better takes place on the northern face, the hills
being covered with clay, and generally not very high grass jungle, among
which trees are scattered.  This character is particularly evident along
both sides of the valley drained by the Namtusseek of the northern side.
The Patkaye is wooded to its summit; the jungle on the south side being
much more humid than that on the northern.  Indeed on this face of the
range, with the exception of the Puthars on the Nam-maroan, scarcely more
than two open spots exist, and both of these are of small extent.  Of
these one exists at an elevation of 5500 feet, and one at Kuttack Bhoom.

The paths although very often steep, are easy enough for coolies, except
during wet weather, when they become very slippery.  With some degree of
preparation the worst places might be made passable for lightly loaded
elephants, and this would be facilitated by the soft nature of most of
the rocks.  The most difficult marches are those which lie along the beds
of the streams, and these, it has been seen, are far the most numerous;
they are particularly difficult for elephants, the boulders affording a
very precarious footing to these weighty animals.  The difficulty is much
increased by rain, when even coolies find considerable difficulty in
making any progress.  Several elephants accompanied Major White as far as
the Darap Panee, and a small suwaree elephant, loaded with a light tent,
succeeded in reaching Yoomsan.  The southern side of the range is
decidedly of a more difficult nature than the northern, and it is in
addition of greater extent: the highest point traversed is 5600 feet
above the level of the sea.  The range might be traversed by a lightly
loaded active native in six days.

_Streams_.--These all partake of the usual nature of mountain torrents;
they are all fordable during the cold weather, the principal ones being
crossed at the heads of the rapids.  The boundary nullah is a mere
streamlet: it runs between two ridges of the Patkaye: its course being
about ESE. and WNW.  Owing to the frequency of the streams and their
mountainous nature, I should imagine that this route is impracticable
during the rains.

_Villages_.--Not a single village or house exists directly on the route.
One small Naga village is visible from the Namtusseek below Yoomsan, and
a detached hut is visible here and there on a high mountain close to, and
NE. of Yoomsan.  On the Burmese side there is, as I have mentioned
before, a village consisting of two houses close to the route.  This
village has lately been established by some Singphos from Nimbrung,
several marches to the eastward.

_Population_.--I certainly did not see 100 Nagas throughout the time
passed in traversing these hills, although I am satisfied that every man
within a reasonable distance came into Camp in the hopes of sharing in
the extensive distribution of presents.  From the appearance of the
country about Yoomsan, and the valley of the Namtusseek, I am inclined to
think that the population was at one time considerable.  The openness of
the country, which is as I have previously said chiefly clothed with
grass, and the peculiar and generally imperfect aspect of the trees, can
only be accounted for, by supposing the country to have been extensively
cleared, particularly when it is remembered that the highest portions of
the range are thickly wooded.  But allowing this supposition to be
correct, it is no proof, that the total population has been on the
decline, for we must take into account, the wandering nature of all hill
tribes.  In forming an opinion of a hill population, which in all times
and places has, in this country at least, been found scanty, we must take
care not to confound the temporary huts, erected in khets, for the
purpose of protecting the cultivation, with actually inhabited houses; to
the former description I think the detached houses mentioned as being
visible from Yoomsan are to be referred.

The Nagas, at least the men, for I saw no women, are a small, active,
large-legged race, with Tartar faces.  They are divided into very many
tribes, each of which has some peculiarity of costume.  Those I saw were
decidedly inferior to any of the other hill tribes with which I am
acquainted.  Their clothing is miserable, the chief protection consisting
of a number of rings, made of rattan, which encircle the abdomen.  They
are as usual excessively dirty, and much attached to the use of tobacco
and ardent spirits.  Their wants are few, but even these are miserably
supplied.  They entertain an unbounded fear of the Singphos, who appear
to make any use of them they think proper.  Their only weapons are
spears, Singpho dhas and battle axes.

The Singphos cannot be considered otherwise than as encroachers.
Invasions of these restless marauders appear not to have been uncommon up
to a late date.  The remains of two stockades, in which they had
entrenched themselves were extant, one close to Yoomsan, the other on the
S. face of the Patkaye.  I have before said that the puthars on the Nam-
maroan bore evidence of having been inhabited, and apparently to some
extent.  But even during the stay of Major White on these hills, an
irruption of Singphos from Nimbrung had taken place, and had totally
unsettled the peace of the native inhabitants.  Such things must be
expected to occur, particularly when it is well known that the Burmese,
the only power to which they are subjects, can exercise no authority over
the Singphos in any one direction, except when they have a large armed
force in the valley of Hookhoom.

_Of the Capabilities_ of the country it would be vain to attempt
giving an opinion.  Scarcely any cultivation was passed on the route.  The
soil is generally deep, more or less yellow, and somewhat clayey; the
hollows having a thin superstratum of black mould.  Taking the deserted
state of the country into account, this part of the Naga range is of
little importance, except as forming portion of a most natural and well
defined boundary, compared with other portions of the same range to the
westward.

_Products_.--The principal mineral product is salt, an article which is
procured abundantly in some other more available points of the range.  We
saw one small spring on the Namtusseek, from which supplies had been
lately taken.

_Vegetable Products_.--Fine timber trees occur here and there.  Oaks,
Magnolias and Chesnuts occur not uncommonly, the Magnolias being of these
in this range the most characteristic of elevation.  The horse chesnut of
Assam, (Osculus Asamicus mihi) occurs on both sides of the range, but
does not ascend further than 3,000 feet.  No Fir trees exist on the
route, nor is it probable that they exist on the range in this direction.
One of the most interesting plants is a new species of tea, which I
believe to be a genuine Thea; it is called Bun Fullup, or jungle tea, by
the Assamese, in contra-distinction to the true tea plant, which is
called Fullup.  This species makes its appearance at an elevation of
about 1,000 feet, and is met with as high up as 4,000 feet.  It attains
the size of a tree of 30 feet in height; it is used only as a medicine.
No real tea exists on this route; several plants were pointed out to me
as tea, but all were spurious instances.  The higher portions of the
ranges have a flora approaching in many instances to that of northern
latitudes.  As examples of this, it will be sufficient to allude, in
addition to the trees mentioned above, to the existence of two species of
Daphne, one of Barberry, several species of a genus nearly allied to the
Whortle Berries, a Violet, and several species of Smilacineae, to which
order the Lily of the Valley belongs.

In concluding this part of my report, I may perhaps be permitted to
advert to the question of the possibility of transporting a body of armed
men into the Burmese dominions by this route.  Although there is nothing
in the nature of this portion of the boundary which would render this
operation very difficult, yet considering the state of the adjoining
parts of Upper Assam, and that of Hookhoom, it becomes almost
impracticable.  I allude to the extreme difficulty of procuring grain in
Upper Assam, in which, at least around Sadiya, annual scarcities are by
no means uncommon, and to the utter impossibility of drawing any supplies
from Hookhoom in its present miserable state.  All the necessary supplies
would require to be drawn from Lower Assam, and for the transport of
these the scanty population of this extremity of the valley would by no
means be sufficient.  Bearing on this point it must be remembered, that
from the 1st of April to the 1st November, these hills cannot be
traversed except by their native inhabitants, without incurring great
risk from the usual severe form of jungle fever.


III.  FROM NAMTUSSEEK TO WULLABOOM.


COUNTRY TRAVERSED SUBJECT TO BURMESE AUTHORITY, FORMING GREATER PORTION
OF THE VALLEY OF HOOKHOONG, OR THE PAEENDWENG.

March 1.  _From Namtusseek to Nhempean_.--Direction E.  Distance 18
miles, crossed the Namtusseek, then passed through heavy tree jungle, and
subsequently over extensive grassy plains.

2.  _From Nhempean to Nidding_.--Direction SSE.  Distance 4.5
miles, course along the Namtoroan, thence up the Saxsaikha.

3.  _From Nidding to Kulleyang_.--Direction SSE.  Distance 13
miles, country covered either with tree or high grass jungle.  Passed a
deserted village, Thilling Khet.

4.  _From Kulleyang to Isilone_.--Direction SW.  Distance 10 miles,
country rather more open.  Puthars are of common occurrence; passed a
small village, Damoon.

5.  _From Tsilone to Meinkhoong_.--Distance 17 miles, course at
first along the Namtunai, {124a} country open, consisting of grassy
plains; several nullahs occur.

6.  _From Meinkhoon to Wullabhoom_.--Direction SE.  Distance 13
miles.  Course over plains intersected by tree jungle, subsequently up
the bed of the Nempyo-kha.

_Nature of the Country_.--The valley of Hookhoong, or as the
Burmese call it, in allusion to its amber mines, Paeendweng, is of small
extent.  Its greatest diameter is in the direction of E. to W., {124b}
its southern termination being within a few miles from Wullabhoom.  It is
surrounded on all sides by hills, the highest of which are towards the
NE. and E.; none however would appear to exceed 6000 feet in height; and
from their appearance, I imagine they are wooded to their summits.  The
lowest hills are those which form the southern boundary, and these
scarcely deserve the name.  From Kuttack-bhoom a fine view of the valley
is obtained; it is here very narrow, and does not I should think exceed
25 miles in breadth.  The features of the country are in a striking
degree similar to those of Upper Assam, that is, it presents a plain
surface intersected frequently by belts of jungle, the parts at the base
of the boundary hills being exclusively occupied by heavy jungle.  The
general elevation of the plain above the sea may be estimated at about
1000 feet, so that it is several hundred feet above the level of Sadiya.
But although this is the case, the valley of Hookhoom undergoes the same
changes during the rainy season as Assam, the greater part being during
that period under water.

_Of the Climate_ it is perhaps presumptuous to give any opinion; it
is however by no means so cold as that of Upper Assam.  In April the
daily range of the thermometer was very considerable, from 60 degrees to
88 degrees.  The rains set in later than on the northern side of the
Patkaye, and they are said to be much less severe.

_The rivers_ are numerous, the principal one is the Namtunai, {125}
which subsequently assumes the name of Kyeendweng.  This is in the places
I saw it a large, generally deep and sluggish stream, varying in breadth
from 270 to 350 yards.  The next in size is the Namtoroan, which has more
of the character of a mountain stream; it is of considerable breadth
(opposite Nhempean it is 270 yards across,) and presents numerous rapids.
Both of these rivers are navigable for boats of some size.  The other
rivers are small and insignificant; all fall into the Namtoroan or
Namtunai.

_Villages_.--Of these the following were passed on the route:--

1.  _Nhempean_, on the right bank of the Namtoroan, is situated on an
extensive open grassy plain, it is stockaded: it contains about 12
houses, the river is here navigable for middling sized canoes.

2.  _Tubone_, on the same bank, but lower down, and within quarter of a
mile of Nhempean, it is of about the same size, and similarly stockaded.

3.  _Nidding_, on the left bank of the Saxsai-kha, about three-quarters
of a mile above its junction with the Namtoroan: it is a stockaded
village, and about the same size.

4.  _Calleyang_, on the Prong-kha contains about 8 houses: it is not
stockaded.

5.  _Lamoon_, on the Moneekha, is a very small village, containing four
or five houses: it is not stockaded.

6.  _Tsilone_, on the left bank of the Namtunai.  This is the Dupha Gam's
village: it is of the ordinary size, and is stockaded in the usual
manner.

7.  _Meinkhoon_, on the Cadeekha, by which it is intersected; it consists
of two stockades, separated by the above stream; and contains about 25
houses, none of which are however large.  It is here that the first
Pagodas (Poongye houses) occur.  The village is situated on an open
grassy plain of considerable extent.

8.  _Wullabhoom_, on the right bank of the Nemokapy, an insignificant
stream.  This village is not stockaded; it contains about 10 houses, of
which several are of the Singpho structure.

The Gam of this village was in expectation of an attack from the Dupha
people, and had in consequence erected a small square stockade for his
own use; he had however built it so small that he might easily be
dislodged by means of a long spear.

In addition to these, there is a village called _Bone_, on the Namtoroan;
the path leading to this is crossed soon after leaving Namtusseek, and
another stockaded village, on the right bank of the Namtoroan, a little
below the mouth of the Saxsai-kha.

None of the above villages are situated on strong positions.  The
stockades are as usual of bamboo, and are but weak defences; the space
between the stockade and the outer palisades is covered with short
pointed bamboos, placed obliquely in the ground: these are called Panjahs
by the Assamese; they inflict very troublesome wounds, and are
universally employed by the Singphos.  The interiors of the stockades are
dirty, the houses are built without order, and generally fill the
stockade completely, so that the people inside might be burnt out with
the greatest ease.  The average number of houses in each of the above
villages, may be estimated at about 12, of these the largest occur at
Wullaboom.  They are built on muchowns, and resemble in all respects
those of our Assam Singphos.  They are generally thatched with grass
(Imperata cylindrica. {126} ) The larger kinds have invariably one end
unenclosed; under this portico, which is usually of some size, all the
domestic operations are carried on.  The Dupha Gam's is not distinguished
above the rest in any one way.

_Population_.--No country inhabited by sets of petty chieftains belonging
to different tribes, which are generally at enmity with each other, can
be populous; it is therefore with considerable surprise that I find it
stated that the number of houses in the north and eastern sides of the
valley is estimated at not less than 3000, which at the rate of 7 men to
one house, which is, considering the great size of very many Singpho
houses, rather underrated, would make the population of these portions of
the valley amount to 21,000 souls.  The part of the valley which I have
traversed, and during which route 75 miles of ground were passed over,
does not present a single sign which, in the absence of direct evidence,
would lead one to suppose that it contained a considerable population.
During the before mentioned marches, I saw only four paths, crossing or
diverging from that which we followed.  Of these, one _leads_, as I have
mentioned, to Bone, one to the hills on the NE., one to a Singpho
village, some miles to the south of our track, and the fourth diverged
from the path leading to the Amber mines through the village of a chief
called Tharapown Hhoung.  The population on the above route of 75 miles,
would at the rate of 7 men to one house, and 12 houses to each village,
amount only to 840, but I think that 1,100 or 1,200 would be a fairer
estimate.  From Kuttack-bhoom, as I have mentioned, a great portion of
the valley is distinctly seen, and nothing meets the eye but jungle,
broken here and there by the waters of the Namtunai: not a clearing is
even visible; instead of a population of 30,000, as has been stated I
should imagine that the whole valley of Hookhoom does not contain more
than 12,000.

The above population consists almost entirely of Singphos and their
Assamese slaves, and these last form a considerable portion.  This was
particularly evident at Wulla-khoon, where they certainly out-numbered
their masters.

The Singphos of Hookhoong resemble exactly those located in Assam: they
are however less given to opium eating.  They are of the same indolent
habits, and content themselves with cultivating sufficient grain to keep
themselves from starving.  The women wear the Thumein, or Burmese dress,
a costume which is entirely unknown among the Singphos of Assam.  The
most superior men I saw belonged to the Lupai tribe, from the east of the
Irrawaddi; they had come to Meinkhoon for the purpose of procuring amber.
In manners and dress they resembled the Shan-Chinese, they were provided
with firelocks, in the use of which they were certainly adroit.  The
usual weapons of the Hookhoong Singphos are dhas and spears.  I saw very
few muskets.

The behaviour of these people was throughout civil, and perhaps friendly.
Their hatred of the Burmese is excessive, the visits of the armed forces
of this nation being most harassing and oppressive.  They are sub-divided
into tribes, among whom there is but little unanimity.  The Dupha Gam is
much disliked, as he is considered the cause of the visit of the Burmese.
His power has been much exaggerated; he is not capable of bringing 500
men into the field.  So unpopular was he, that it was reported to Mr.
Bayfield, that he was to be cut off immediately the Burmese force had
left the valley.

In giving the foregoing low estimate of the population of the valley, I
believe I have taken into consideration every circumstance of importance.
The occurrence of several old burial places on the route, some of which
are of considerable extent, might be considered by some as a proof, that
the population has undergone a decrease; but I conceive that it is
sufficiently accounted for by the wandering habits of the people.

_Capabilities_.--The greater part of the valley is well adapted for the
cultivation of rice, and as the soil is generally rich, approaching in
external characters to that of some parts of Upper Assam, particularly
Muttack, it is capable of supporting a large population.

_Products_.--Of the mineral productions, the most remarkable is Amber,
for which the valley of Hookhoong has been long famous, and from the
existence of which it derives its Burmese name.  The mines are situated
in low, wooded hills, from which they are distant between five and six
miles; of this distance the first three miles traverse the plain on which
Meinkhoong is situated.  The pits now worked give occupation to about a
dozen people; they occur on the brow of a hill: they are square, and of
various depth, the deepest being about 40 feet, the diameter not
exceeding three feet; the workmen ascending and descending by placing
their feet in holes made in two faces of the square.  No props are used
to prevent the sides of the pits from falling in, the tenacity of the
soil rendering this precaution unnecessary.  The instruments used, are
small wooden shovels, a wooden crow-bar tipped with iron for displacing
the soil or breaking the rocks, baskets for removing the substances so
displaced, buckets made of the bark of trees {128} for removing the water
which is met with in the deepest pits, and rude levers similar to those
used in Madras for the purposes of irrigation, for carrying the soil,
etc. from the pits to the surface; these however are only used in the
deeper pits, a hooked bamboo answering the purpose in the shallower ones.

The soil throughout the upper portion, and indeed for a depth of from 15
to 20 feet, is clayey and red: the remainder consists of a greyish-black
carbonaceous earth, increasing in density with the depth, and being very
hard at a depth of 40 feet.  The amber occurs in both these, the clue to
its existence being the presence of small masses of lignite.  The
searching occupies but very little time, as the presence of the lignite
is readily ascertained; all I saw dug out occurred as small irregular
deposits; it did not appear to be abundant.  The people appear to have no
guide for the selections of favourable spots on which to commence their
operations; but having once met with a good pit, they dig other pits all
around, and often within a distance of two feet from the first one sunk.

I could not succeed in procuring a single fine specimen; indeed the
workmen denied having found any of value during the last six years!  It
is an article in great request among the Chinese and Singphos; at the
pits, however, it is not high priced, and a first rate pair of ear-rings
are procurable at Meinkhoong for 5 tickals; in Assam 10 rupees are
occasionally given.  Meinkhoong is annually visited by parties of Shan-
Chinese, for the purpose of procuring this mineral; the caravan at the
time I passed this village had returned, and I believe was met by Mr.
Bayfield.  There was a small party of Lupai Singphos from the East of the
Irrawaddi, consisting of a Tsonba and six or seven followers still
waiting for a supply.

The spot occupied by pits is considerable, but three-fourths of these are
no longer worked.  Compared with the Serpentine mines, they are but of
small value.

Both _Coal and Salt_ exist in the valley; the only indication of the
existence of the former I saw, was a mass of lignite in the bed of a
nullah between Tsilone and Meinkhoong.

_Vegetable products_.--Fine timber trees, {129} which belong to the
same genus as the Saul, occur between Nhempean and Namtusseek, and
elsewhere towards the foot of the hills surrounding the valley.

The Mulberry of Upper Assam occurs likewise, and the leaves supply with
food a species of silkworm.  From the silk a coarse species of cloth is
manufactured, but the use of this appears to be very limited.

Tea appears to be of uncommon occurrence.  The only specimens I saw were
given me by Mr. Bayfield, they were procured from low hills some distance
from Shellingket.  On this subject Mr. Bayfield made very frequent and
minute enquiries, and the result appears to be that the plant is of rare
occurrence; none exists towards or about the amber mines.

The Room of Upper Assam (Ruellia Indigofera Mihi) is in use for dyeing
cloths, but not so much so as in Assam.

The cultivated plants are of the ordinary kind; and the produce is just
sufficient to meet the wants of the inhabitants.  Owing to the presence
of the Myoowoon's force, rice was scarce during my visit; the price was
seven tickals a basket, each of which contains about 30 days' supply for
one man.

The domestic animals are of the ordinary description: fowls forming the
only poultry.  But on this subject it is unnecessary to enlarge, as the
habits and manners of the people are precisely the same as those of the
Assamese Singphos.


IV.  FROM WULLABHOOM TO MOGOUNG.


COUNTRY TRAVERSED FORMING CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF THE MOGOUNG VALLEY,
THROUGHOUT SUBJECT TO BURMESE AUTHORITY.

March 1.  _Halted_ on a small stream, a tributary of the Mogoung
river.--Direction nearly S. distance 22 miles, course at first along the
Namphyet, thence over low hills, forming part of the S. boundary of the
valley of Hookhoong.

2.  _Halted_ on the Mogoung river.--Direction S. distance 22 miles, over
similar low hills until we reached the Mogoung river after a march of
four hours, soon descending into its bed, which we followed.

3.  _Mogoung_ river.--Direction S. distance 13 miles, course along the
bed of the river.

4.  _Mogoung_ river.---Direction SE. distance 14 miles, course continued
along the bed of the river.

5.  _Kamein_.--Direction SSE. distance 14 miles: on starting left the
Mogoung river: course throughout over fine open high plains intersected
by belts of jungle.

6.  _From Kamein to Mogoung_.--Direction SSE.  Distance 25 miles,
course over high open plains and dry woods.  Many nullahs occurred on the
route: crossed the Mogoung river opposite to Kamein.

_Nature of the Country_.--The low hills which are passed before
reaching the Mogoung river, are covered with tree jungle, but they afford
scarcely any thing of interest; they are here and there intersected by
small plains, covered with the usual grasses. {130}  The country
traversed while following the Mogoung river, is most uninteresting, the
road following almost entirely the sandy bed of the river, the banks of
which are either covered with grass or tree jungle.  On leaving this most
tortuous river, the face of the country improved and became very
picturesque, presenting almost exclusively fine high, and rather
extensive plains covered with grass, and partially with trees, while here
and there they are intersected by strips of dry tree jungle.  Low hills
are visible frequently, especially to the eastward.

_Villages and Towns_.

1.  _Kamein_, on the right bank of the Mogoung river, at the junction of
the Endaw-khioung, consists of two stockades, one on a small hill the
other at the foot.  Both together contain about 32 houses.  The
inhabitants are Shans.  It is a place of some consequence, as it is on
the route from Mogoung to the Serpentine mines.  From Kamein, Shewe Down
Gyee, a conspicuous mountain, so called, bears east.

2.  _Mogoung_, on the right bank of the river of the same name, just
below the junction to the Namyeen Khioung, contains rather fewer than 300
houses.  Although it contains so few houses it is a place of considerable
extent.  It is surrounded by the remains of a timber stockade, similar in
construction to those of Burmah proper.  The houses are mostly small, and
I speak within bounds when I say, that there is not a single one that
bears the stamp of respectability.  There is a bazaar, but nothing good
is procurable in it.  Tea and sugar-candy are rare and high priced.  Pork
is plentiful.  Mogoung is situated in a plain of some extent, this plain
is surrounded in almost every direction by hills, all of which, with the
exception of Shewe Down Gyee, are low: the nearest of these are about
three miles off.

The inhabitants are mostly Shans, there are some Assamese, the chief of
whom is a relation of Chundra Kant, the ex-Rajah of Assam.  The best
street in the town, though one of small extent, is that occupied by the
resident Chinese, none of whom however are natives of China proper.  Of
this people I should say there are barely 60 in Mogoung, and, judging
from their houses, none of which are of brick, I should say they are very
inferior to their fellow-countrymen residing in Bamo.

During our stay in Mogoung, which was protracted owing to the disturbed
state of the country, the population was much increased by Shan-Chinese
returning from the Serpentine mines; and as there was a considerable
number of boats engaged by them for the transportation of the Serpentine,
the town looked busier than it otherwise would have done.

The Mogoung, river is here about 100 yards broad, but it is much
subdivided by sand banks: it is navigable for moderate sized boats a
considerable distance above the town.  In the upper part of the course
this river abounds with fish to an unprecedented degree; of these the
most numerous is the Bokhar of Assam, and of this I have seen shoals of
immense extent.

The Namyeen is a small and shallow stream.  Although from the extent of
the stockade Mogoung has evidently in former periods (during the Shan
dynasty) been of extent and consequence, it is at present a mean and
paltry town.  It derives any little consequence it possesses from being
the rendezvous of the Shan-Chinese, who flock here annually for procuring
Serpentine.

The most valuable product of the Mogoung district is the Serpentine; the
mines producing which, we visited from Kamein.  The marches are as
follows,

1.  _From Kamein to Endawkhioung_.--Direction SSW.  Distance 10
miles, course over low hills covered with jungle, with intervening grassy
valleys of small extent; crossed the Isee Een nullah.

2.  _Halted on a plain_, on a patch of ground lately under
cultivation.  Direction SSW.  Distance 14 miles.  Course over a similar
tract of country; continued for some time close to the Endawkhioung;
crossed several nullahs.

3.  _Halted in the jungle_.--Direction WNW.  Distance 17 miles.
Country the same: we changed our course on reaching the path which leads
to Kionkseik, a Singpho village, diverging to the N.; halted within a
short distance of Kuwa Bhoom.

4.  _Reached the mines_.--Direction WNW.  Distance 10 miles, course
over small plains and through jungle until we reached Kuwa Bhoom, which
we ascended in a WNW. direction, extreme altitude attained 2,799 feet.
The descent was steep, varied by one or two steep ascents of some hundred
feet in height.  On nearing the base of the range we continued through
heavy and wet jungle, until we arrived at the mines.

These celebrated Serpentine {132} mines occupy a valley of somewhat semi-
circular form, and bounded on all sides by thickly wooded hills of no
great height.  To the north the valley passes off into a ravine, down
which a small streamlet that drains the valley escapes, and along this,
at a distance of two or three miles, another spot of ground affording
Serpentine is said to occur.  The valley is small: its greatest diameter,
which is from E. to W. being about three-quarters of a mile, and its
smallest breadth varying from 460 to 600 or 700 yards.

The whole of the valley, which appears formerly to have been occupied by
rounded hillocks, presents a confused appearance, being dug up in every
direction, and in the most indiscriminate way; no steps being taken to
remove the earth, etc. that have been thrown up in various places during
the excavations.  Nothing in fact like a pit or a shaft exists, nor is
there any thing to repay one for the tediousness of the march from
Kamein.

The stone is found in the form of more or less rounded boulders mixed
with other boulders of various rocks and sizes imbedded in brick-coloured
yellow or nearly orange-coloured clay, which forms the soil of the
valley, and which is of considerable depth.  The excavations vary much in
form, some resembling trenches; none exceed 20 feet in depth.  The
workmen have no mark by which to distinguish at sight the Serpentine from
the other boulders; to effect this, fracture is resorted to, and this
they accomplish, I believe, by means of fire.  I did not see the manner
in which they work, or the tools they employ, all the Shans having left
for Kamein, as the season had already been over for some days.  No good
specimens were procurable.  The workmen reside in the valley, drawing
their supplies from Kioukseik.

On our road to the mines we met daily, and especially on the last march,
parties of Shan-Chinese, Burmese, and a few Singphos on their return.  Of
these in all Mr. Bayfield counted about 1,100, of whom about 700 were
Shan-Chinese: these were accompanied by ponies, which they ordinarily use
as beasts of burden.  The larger blocks of stone were carried by four or
five men, on bamboo frames; the smaller, but which still are of
considerable size, on ingenious frames which rest on the nape of the
coolies' neck; the frame has two long arms which the bearer grasps in his
hand, and which enables him to relieve himself of his burden, and
re-assume it without much sacrifice of labour, as he props his load
against a tree, which is then raised by the legs of the frame some height
from the ground.  The valley we visited affords I believe the greatest
quantity of the stone, which is said to be annually diminishing, neither
are pieces of the finest sort so often procurable as they were formerly
wont to be.

The path to the mines is on the whole good; it is choked up here and
there by jungle, and the occurrence of one or two marshy places
contribute to render it more difficult.  It bears ample evidences of
being a great thoroughfare.

The greater part of the stone procured is removed in the large masses, to
Kioukseik, and thence by water by the aid of the Endawkhioung to Mogoung.
At this place duties are levied upon it.  Hence almost the whole is taken
to Topo by water.  From this place the Shan-Chinese carry it to their own
country on ponies.

From the stone various ornaments are made; from the inferior kind,
bangles, cups, etc. and from the superior, which is found in small
portions generally within the larger masses, rings, etc.  The stone is, I
am informed by Mr. Bayfield, cut by means of twisted copper wire.  The
price of the inferior kind is high.

It is from these mines that the province of Mogoung derives its
importance; so much so, that its revenue is said to exceed that of any
other Burman Province.  The sum derived from the Serpentine alone is
stated to be occasionally as high as 40,000 Rs. per annum.

Owing to the avidity with which this product is sought after by the
Chinese, it is highly desirable to ascertain whether it exists in Assam,
which indeed is probably the case.  I believe it is reported to exist
near Beesa; at any rate, blood-stone is found in this extremity of the
valley of Assam, and this, in Chinese eyes, is of considerable value.  If
the Serpentine is found, specimens should be sent to Mogoung.  As the
Shan-Chinese are reported to be a most penurious race, a small reduction
in the price below that of the Burmese, would suffice to divert the
current of the trade into Assam.  Another interesting product, although
of no value, exists in the shape of an Alkaline spring on the Sapiya
Khioung, which hence derives its name.  The water of this spring bubbles
up sparingly and quietly from under the rocky bed of the above mountain
torrent, it is quite clear, of a decided and pure alkaline taste: it is
used by the natives for the purpose of washing, and it answers this
remarkably well.  Of this interesting spring Mr. Bayfield took specimens
for analysis.

Salt is procurable within a distance of three or four days from
Kioukseik.

_Vegetable products_.--Teak, and some of it is of a fine description,
occurs both on the route between the Mogoung river and Kamein, as well as
between Kamein and the Serpentine mines.  The natives do not however
appear to cut it, probably owing to the want of water carriage.  Fine
timber trees, nearly allied to the Saul, likewise occur on the road to
the mines.

I met with the tea but once.  This occurred among the low hills dividing
the Mogoung district from the valley of Hookhoong, close to the Dupai-
beng-kheoung, or Tea tree Nullah.  There was no difference in the
specimens brought to me from the plant of Assam, with the exception that
the leaves were even larger than in the plant alluded to; it did not
occur in abundance.  It exists I believe, in another place on this route,
and among the same hills, but I did not succeed in procuring specimens.
Throughout both routes scarcely any cultivation was seen.  Between the
Mogoung river and Mogoung town considerable portions of some low hills to
the East, presented the appearance of clearings.  It must however be
observed, that the appearance of clearings is a most fallacious ground on
which to form an estimate of the population; 1st, owing to the habits of
a nomadic population; 2ndly, because a spot once cleared, keeps up the
appearance of a clearing for a long time; and 3rdly, because some
particular spots are, from some local cause or other, exclusively
inhabited by grasses, the prevalence of which will at a little distance
always give one the idea of cultivation.

_Population_.--This in the somewhat extensive tract of the Mogoung
district traversed, is very scanty.  That of Mogoung and suburbs may be
estimated at about 1,600, and that of Kamein at 250.  In addition to
these places, I have to mention a small Singpho village of three or four
houses, seen on a range of hills during our first march towards the
mines, and bearing about WNW., and Kioukseik.  This latter place we
visited on our return from the mines, it is a stockaded village,
containing 16 houses, and about 120 souls.  It is situated about 100
yards from a small stream, the Nam Teen: it is inhabited by Singphos: it
is about a mile from the divergence of the road to the mines, and bears
from this spot nearly due south.  During the season of operations at the
mines it is a place of some consequence, as all the necessary supplies of
grain are procured from it.  At the time of our visit, there was a good
sized bazaar along the Nam Teen, which was likewise a good deal crowded
by boats.

The neighbouring hills are inhabited here and there by Kukkeens, the most
troublesome perhaps of all mountainous tribes; but there are some other
villages about the lake, called the Endawgyee.  We had an opportunity of
viewing from a distance the above lake on our return from the mines.  From
an open spot on the eastern face of Kuwa Bhoom, it bore nearly due south,
and was estimated as being 15 miles distant.  We could not distinguish
its outline, but we saw enough to satisfy us that it was a large body of
water.  It is situated in an extensive plain near a range of hills, part
of which form portion of its banks.  From the same spot we could see
Shewe Down Gyee, the large range from which the Namtunai takes its
course, bearing nearly due east, and at an estimated distance of 35
miles; the situation of the mines is therefore nearly due east from
Kamein.


V.  FROM MOGOUNG TO AVA.


THE WHOLE OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO ABOVE PLACES WAS PERFORMED BY
WATER.

The time occupied in descending the Mogoung river was three days.  This
river is exceedingly tortuous, generally a good deal subdivided, and its
channels are in many places shallow.  The chief obstacle it presents to
navigation consists in rapids, which commence below Tapan, and continue
for some distance; these rapids are not severe, but are rendered
difficult by the presence of rocks, many of large size.  These rapids
commence immediately the river in its course approaches some low ranges
of hills.  Boats of considerable size however manage to reach Mogoung;
they ascend the severer rapids in channels made along the sides of the
river, by removing and piling up on either side the boulders which form
great part of the bed of the river in these places.  The descent is
managed in the same way, the speed of the boat being retarded by the crew
exerting their united force in an opposite direction.  On leaving the
proximity of the hills, the river resumes its natural and rather slow
character, and towards its mouth there is scarcely any stream at all.  The
channels are much impeded by stumps of trees.  The country through which
the Mogoung river passes is very uninteresting, and almost exclusively
jungle, either tree or high grass.

Only one village, Tapan, is met with; this is small, and is situated on
the right bank; with the exception of its river face it is stockaded.  At
this place the Shan-Chinese leave the river, striking off in an E.
direction towards the Irrawaddi, which they reach in one day.  We
observed a small Kukkeen village on some hills near Tapan; with these
exceptions no sign of inhabitants occurred until we reached the
Irrawaddi.  On the hills above alluded to, the bitter Tea is reported to
exist.  The Mogoung river at its mouth is about 70 yards across.  The
Irrawaddi even at the mouth of the Mogoung river, and at a distance of
nearly 800 miles from the sea, keeps up its magnificent character.  At
this point it is 900 or 1,000 yards across; when we reached it, it had
risen considerably, and the appearance of this vast sheet of water was
really grand.  Its characters are very different from the Ganges and
Burrumpooter, its waters being much more confined to one bed, and
comparatively speaking becoming seldom spread out.  Generally speaking it
is deep and the stream is not violent.  It appears to me to afford every
facility for navigation; in one or two places troublesome shallows are
met with, and in several places the channel near the banks is impeded by
rocks.  It is only in the upper defile, or Kioukdweng, that the
navigation is during the rises of the river dangerous, and at times
impracticable.  On our reaching Tsenbo, which is about 12 miles below the
junction of the Mogoung river with the Irrawaddi, the river continued to
rise in a most rapid degree, Mr. Bayfield ascertaining by measurement
that it rose 16 inches an hour.  We were consequently compelled to push
on, as we were informed that the next day the defile would be impassable.
The Kioukdweng alluded to commences about two miles below Tsenbo, the
river becoming constricted from 1000 to 150 yards.  The rush of water was
great, and was rendered fierce by rocks which exist in the midst of the
river.  Still further within the defile the difficulties were increased;
at one place the whole of the enormous body of water rushes through a
passage, and it is the only one, certainly not exceeding 50 yards in
width.  The passage of this was really fearful, for on clearing it we
were encountered by strong eddies, backwaters and whirlpools, which
rendered the boat nearly unmanageable.  These scenes continued, varied
every now and then by an expanded and consequently more tranquil stream,
until a gorge is passed, well known by the name of the "Elephant and
Cow," two rocks which are fancifully supposed to resemble the above named
animals; the defile then becomes much wider, and the waters flow in a
tranquil and rather sluggish manner.  The depth of the river in this
defile is, as may be supposed, immense; Mr. Bayfield ascertained during
his passage up, at a season when the waters were low, that in many places
no bottom was to be found at a depth of 45 fathoms.  The necessity of
this enormous depth is at once evident, and is pointed out by the
configuration of the banks, which are in many places sheer precipices.
Two other defiles exist between Bamo and Ava, of these the middle or
second is the shortest, in both the stream flows sluggishly, and there is
no impediment whatever to navigation.  In these the depth is great, but
owing to their greater width, much less so than in the upper.

The temperature of the waters of the Irrawaddi is as usually obtains,
except during the rises of the river caused by the melting of snow, when
it is higher than usual.

_Tributaries of the Irrawaddi between Mogoung river and_
_Ava_.

The number of tributaries even to Rangoon is unprecedentedly small: this
tends to increase the astonishment with which one regards this
magnificent river.

The rivers that fall into the Irrawaddi within the above distance are,

1st.  The Mogoung river.

2nd.  Tapien Khioung, above Bamo.

3rd.  Shewe Lee Khioung.

These are about the same size, and only discharge a considerable quantity
of water during the rainy season.  The Shewe Lee at its mouth, is between
5 and 600 yards wide, but only an inconsiderable portion of this is
occupied by water, and this to no depth.

The great branch from which the Irrawaddi derives its vast supply of
water still remains to be discovered, and will probably be found to be
the Shoomaee Kha.  It is evident, at any rate, that the great body of
water comes from the eastward, for between the Mogoung river and
Borkhamtee, in which country Captain Wilcox visited the Irrawaddi, and
where it was found to be of no great size, no considerable branch finds
its way from the Westward: neither are the hills which intervene between
these points, of such height as to afford large supplies of water.

On the whole it is, I think, probable, that the Irrawaddi is an outlet
for some great river, which drains an extensive tract of country; for it
appears to me that if all its waters are poured in by mountain streams, a
tract of country extensive beyond all analogy, will be required for the
supply of such a vast body of water.

In addition to the above three rivers, few nullahs exist, but these are
scarcely worthy of consideration.

_Nature of the country_.--From the mouth of the Mogoung river
nearly to Tsenbo the country is flat, and the banks wooded or covered
with grass to the brink.  The range of hills which form the upper
Kioukdweng there commence, and continue for a distance of 16 or 20 miles,
during the whole of which they form the banks of the river.  These hills
are scantily covered with trees, most of which are in addition stunted.
The vegetation within the maximum high water mark consists of a few
scraggy shrubs.  The rocks composing these hills are principally
serpentine, which within the influence of the water is of a dark sombre
brown colour.  Limestone occurs occasionally.

From this Kioukdweng to the second, the entrance of which (coming from
above) is at Tsenkan, the features of the country are of the ordinary
alluvial description, and the river is a good deal spread out and
subdivided by islands, covered with moderate sized grasses.  On leaving
the second Kioukdweng the same scenery occurs, the banks are generally
tolerably high, often gravelly or clayey.  About Tsagaiya, a few miles
below the mouth of the Shewe Lee, low hills approach the river, and they
continue along one or both banks {139} at variable distance until one
reaches Ava.  These hills are all covered with a partial and stunted
vegetation, chiefly of thorny shrubs, and present uniformly a rugged
raviny and barren appearance.  The scenery of the river is in many places
highly picturesque, and in the upper Kioukdweng and portion of the
second, where there is a remarkable cliff of about 3,000 feet in height,
bold and even grand.

_Villages and Towns_.--These although numerous compared with the
almost deserted tracts hitherto passed, are by no means so much so as to
give an idea of even a moderate population.  From the mouth of the
Mogoung river to the Kioukdweng there are several villages, but all are
small, mean, and insignificant.  Strange to say, they are defenceless,
although the neighbouring Kukkeens are dangerous and cruel neighbours.
Nothing can be more calculated to shew the weakness of the Burmese
government than the fact, that the most mischievous and frequent
aggressions of these hill tribes always go unpunished, although a short
time after an attack the very band by whom it has been made will enter
even large towns to make purchases, perhaps with money the produce of
their robberies.

The upper Kioukdweng has a very scanty population, consisting of a
distinct race of people called Phoons: who are sub-divided into two
tribes, the greater and lesser Phoons.  About 12 villages occur in this
defile, and Mr. Bayfield says that the population is almost entirely
confined to the banks of the river: all these villages are small.

Between the defile and Bamo a good number of villages occur, the largest
of which does not contain more than 100 houses, the generality are small
and mean.  Bamo, which is a place of celebrity, and is perhaps the third
town in Burmah, is situated on the left bank of the river, which is here,
including the two islands which subdivide it into three channels, about a
mile and a quarter in width; the channel on which Bamo is situated is the
principal one.  The town occupies rather a high bank of yellow clay,
along which it extends for rather more than a mile, its extreme breadth
being perhaps 350 yards.  It is surrounded by a timber stockade, the
outer palisades being well pangoed; the defences had just undergone
repair owing to an expected attack from the Kukkeens.  It contains within
the stockade rather less than 600 houses, (the precise number was
ascertained personally by Mr. Bayfield,) and including the suburbs, which
consist of two small villages at the northern end, one at the southern,
and one occupied by Assamese at the eastern, it contains about 750
houses.  These are generally of the usual poor and mean description;
indeed, not even excepting the Governor's house, there is not a good
Burman or Shan house in the place.  One street which occupies a portion
of the river bank, is inhabited by Chinese, and contains about 100
houses; these are built of unburnt brick, and have a peculiar blueish
appearance; none are of any size.  The best building in Bamo is the
Chinese place of worship.  Those occupied by the Burmese have the usual
form.  The country adjoining Bamo is flat, dry, and I should think
unproductive; it is intersected by low swampy ravines, one or two of
which extend into the town.  To the south there is an extensive marsh,
partially used for rice-cultivation.

The population of Bamo including the suburbs, may be estimated at about
4500, of whom 4 or 500 are Chinese.  The governor is a bigoted Burman, of
disagreeable manners; he expends much money in the erection of Pagodas,
while he leaves the streets, roads and bridges by which the ravines are
passed, in a ruinous and disgraceful state.

The Bazaar of Bamo is generally well supplied: British piece goods and
woollen cloths are procurable, but at a high price: the show of Chinese
manufactures is much better, particularly on the arrival of a caravan;
considerable quantities of Tea are likewise brought in the shape of flat
cakes, of the size of a dessert plate, and about two inches thick.  This
tea is of the black sort, and although very inferior to the Chinese case
teas, is a far better article than that of Pollong.  In addition to this,
warm jackets lined with fur, straw hats, silk robes, skull-caps, and
sugar-candy are procurable; pork of course is plentiful, and is
excessively fat; grain, vegetables and fish are plentiful.  On the whole
Bamo is a busy and rather flourishing place: it derives its consequence
entirely from its being a great emporium of trade with the Chinese, who
come here annually in large numbers; for the accommodation of these
people and their caravans, two or three squares, fenced in with bamboos,
are allotted.

The principal article of Burmese export is cotton, and this I believe is
produced for the most part lower down the Irrawaddi.

The climate of Bamo is in April dry and sultry: the range of the
thermometer being from 66 degrees or 68 degrees to 94 degrees or 96
degrees.  North-westers are of common occurrence in this month, and are
frequently of extreme severity.  I saw very little cultivation about
Bamo, some of the ravines alluded to had lately been under rice-culture;
the chief part of the cultivation for vegetables, etc. is confined to the
sandy islands, which occur here and there.

Of the numerous villages passed between Bamo and Ava not one deserves
especial notice, nor is there one, with the exception of Umeerapoora, the
former capital, which contains 500 houses.  Shewegyoo, which formerly
occupied a considerable extent of the left bank near the south opening of
the second Kioukdweng had been burnt by the orders of the Monein
Myoowoon, on account of their having supplied troops to the emissaries of
the Tharawaddi.  Kioukgyee, the residence of the above governor, had a
short time before our arrival been invested by a force in the interest of
the Tharawaddi, but had been repulsed.  The governor was to proceed with
the whole population, amounting to several hundred souls, to Bamo, to
join his forces with those of the Bamo governor.  This part of the
country was most unsettled and almost deserted.  On reaching Katha the
state of the country was more tranquil, all the people below this point
having espoused the cause of the Tharawaddi.  Katha contains 200 houses,
and has a rather respectable bazaar; it is well situated, and has the
most eligible site in my opinion, of all the towns hitherto seen.  The
most remarkable object is a noble Kioung, or Mosque, built by the head-
man of the place; this is one of the finest now existing in Burma.

The only other large place is Sheenmaga, about a day's journey from Ava.
This is said to contain 1,000 houses.  An extensive fire had lately
occurred here.  I counted 200 houses, and judging from the extent of the
ruins, I should say it might probably have numbered between 4 and 500.
There are several villages contiguous to this, and I think that the
district immediately contiguous is more populous than any part hitherto
seen.

During the above portion of the journey our halts were as follows:--

 1.  Tapaw.
 2.  Mogoung river.
 3.  Mogoung river.
 4.  Lemar, in the upper Kioukdweng.
 5.  Bamo.
 6.  Tsenkan.
 7.  Kioukgyee.
 8.  Katha.
 9.  Tsagaya.
10.  Tagoung.
11.  Male, at the entrance of the lower Kioukdweng.
12.  Kabuet, in the lower Kioukdweng.
13.  Male.
14.  Menghoon.
15.  Ava.

This distance down the Irrawaddi may, in a fast boat, be performed in ten
days, but owing to the disturbed state of the country we were compelled
to avail ourselves of the first opportunity that offered to enable us to
reach Ava; in addition the proper number of boatmen was not procurable,
everybody being afraid of approaching the capital even a few miles.

The chief product I saw was Teak, of this there were large rafts at
Tsenkan and elsewhere.  This tree seems to abound in the hills forming
the NE. boundaries of Burmah.  I did not, however, see any of large size.

Tea is found on hills to the east of Bamo, and at a distance of one day's
journey from that place.  Through the kindness of Mr. Bayfield, I was
enabled to procure specimens; the leaves were decidedly less coarse, as
well as smaller, than those of the Assamese plants, and they occurred
both serrated and entire.  No use is made of the wild plants in this
direction, and the Chinese at Bamo, asserted that it was good for
nothing.  It must be remembered, however, that none of them had seen the
plant cultivated in China.  Indeed the only real Chinaman we saw, was one
at Kioukgyee, serving the Myoowoon as a carpenter: this man had been to
England twice, and talked a little English.

Cotton is, I was informed, extensively cultivated.

But the most valuable product is the Ruby, which is procured from hills
to the eastward of Tsenbo, and which are, I believe, visible from the
opposite town, Mala.  From the same place and to the SE., low hills are
visible, from which all the marble in extensive use for the carving of
images, is obtained; this marble has been pronounced by competent
authority to be of first-rate quality.

_Population_.--This must be considered as scanty.  From a list of towns
and villages, observed by Captain Hannay, between Ava and Mogoung
inclusive, I estimated the population at 100,000 souls, but from this one-
third at least must be deducted.  In this estimate of the number of
houses, Captain Hannay was probably guided, either by the Burmese census,
or by the statement of the writer who accompanied him.  From the numbers
given by this officer, in almost every case one-third, and occasionally
one-half, or even more, must be deducted: as instances, I may cite his
statement of the number of houses in Bamo and Katha.

In almost every case Mr. Bayfield counted all the houses, and in all
doubtful cases, I counted them also at his request, so that I am enabled
to speak with great confidence on this point.

As a collateral proof of the scanty population of this extensive portion
of the Burmese territory, I may allude to the fact that Bamo, the third
place in Burmah, and the emporium of great part of an extensive Chinese
trade, contains only even at the rate of seven souls to each house, which
is two too many, 4,250 inhabitants.  The capital may be adduced as an
additional instance; for including the extensive suburbs, no one
estimated it as having a larger population than 100,000.  It must be
remembered also, that there is no doubt, but that the banks of the
Irrawaddi are more populous than any other portion of the kingdom.

Throughout the above rather long journey, we were treated, with one
exception, tolerably well; indeed our delays arose from the
unwillingness, real or pretended, of the authorities to forward us on
while the country remained so unsettled.  The headman of Kamein on our
first arrival was extremely civil, but on our return after he had
received news of the revolt of the Tharawaddi, he behaved with great
insolence, and actually drew his dha on Mr. Bayfield.  It must be
remembered however that he had been brought to task by the Mogoung
authorities for having, as it was said, accepted of a douceur for
allowing us to proceed to the serpentine mines.

The general idea entertained by the people through whose countries we
passed, was, that we had been sent to report upon the country prior to
its being taken under British protection.  Of the existence of this idea,
Mr. Bayfield met with some striking proofs.

On reaching Katha our troubles ceased, and these, excepting at Kamein and
Mogoung, only arose from the evident wish of the natives to keep at a
distance from us, and not to interfere in one way or the other.  At
Mogoung I consider it probable that we should have been detained had it
not been for the firm conduct of Mr. Bayfield, and his great knowledge of
the Burmese character.  At this place the authority of the Myoowoon, who
was absent in Hookhoong, was totally disregarded, and his brother the
Myoowoah, was in confinement, the Shan Matgyee having espoused the cause
of the prince Tharawaddi.

_Conclusion_.--For the brief and rapid manner in which I have run through
this last section of my report, as well as for having forsaken the
arrangement adopted in the previous sections, I trust I shall be excused.
In the first place, this portion of the route had been previously
travelled over by Captain Hannay and by Mr. Bayfield, by whom much
additional information will be laid before Government; and in the second
place, I would advert to the hurried nature of this part of our journey,
and to the disturbed state of the country.  For similar reasons I have
only drawn up this account to the period of my reaching Ava.  It will be
at once seen that the information might have been much more extensive,
especially as regards the revenues of the districts, but I abstained from
interfering with subjects which were in every respect within the province
of Mr. Bayfield; and the minute and accurate manner in which this officer
performed the duties consigned to him, reconciled me at once to the
secondary nature of the objects which were left for my examination.

I subjoin a tabular view of the marches, this will not agree entirely
with those given in the body of the report, as one or two of those were
unavoidably short.  I give the table to shew the shortest period in which
the journey could be accomplished by an European without constantly
overfatiguing himself.  If the total distance be compared with an
estimate made from charts, all of which however are imperfect so far as
the country between Meinkhoong and Beesa is concerned, the tortuousness
of our course will be at once evident.

Marches.                             Miles

 1   From Sadya to Noa Dehing Mookh,     6
 2   To Rangagurreh,                    12
 3   To Moodoa Mookh,                   12
 4   To Kidding,                         9
 5   To Namroop Puthar,                 12
 6   To Beesa Lacoom,                   12
 7   To Halting place in the hills,     12
 8   To Darap Panee,                    12
 9   To the Namtuseek,                  12
10   Namtuseek,                         10
11   To the Boundary Nullah,            12
12   To the Namaroan,                   15
13   Namaroan,                          13
14   To Khathung Khioung,               15
15   To Khussee Khioung,                13
16   To Kuttack Bhoom,                  13
17   To Namtuseek,                      10
18   To Nhempean,                       18
19   To Kulleyang,                      17
20   To Tsilone,                        10
21   To Meinkhoong,                     17
22   To Wullabhoom,                     13
23   To Halting place towards the
               Mogoung river,           22
24   Mogoung river,                     15
25   Ditto ditto,                       13
26   Ditto ditto,                       14
27   Kamein, {145}                      14
28   Mogoung,                           25
                                       ---
Total number of miles,                 378

The remaining distance performed in
  boats may be thus estimated down the
  Mogoung river to the Irrawaddi,       45

From the confluence of the Mogoung
  river down the Irrawaddi to Ava,     240
                                       ---
                                       663
                                       ---

Allowing twelve days for the performance of this last portion, which
however is too short a time, the entire distance may be performed in
forty days.



CHAPTER VIII.


_Notes made on descending the Irrawaddi from Ava to_
_Rangoon_.

_28th May_.--I left Ava and halted about two miles above Menboo.

_29th May_.--Continuing the journey, the country appears flat with
occasionally low hills as about Kioukloloing, no large villages occur;
the river is sub-divided by churs; no large grasses to be seen, and the
vegetation is arid.  Bombax is the chief tree: Mudar and Zizyphus occur:
Guilandina, Crotolaria a large Acanthacea, and a Jasminioides shrub are
the most common plants: Borassus is abundant: Fici occur about villages.
The banks are generally sandy, not high.

Yandebo.  This is a wretched village; barren plains bounded to the east
by barren rather elevated hills; base jungly.  Observed the tree under
which the treaty was signed with the Burmese at the close of the late
war.  It is an ordinary mango, near a pagoda on a plain with two large
fig trees.  I counted to-day 28 boats sailing up between this and our
halting place of yesterday, mostly large praows.  The banks present few
trees, are flat, barren, and from being occasionally overflowed, adapted
to paddy.

Halted at Meengian, which is a middling sized village on the left bank,
about a mile below Tarof myoo.

_30th May_.--I made an excursion into the country which is dry, barren,
and sandy, with a descent towards the banks of the river.  Zizyphus,
Acacia, Euphorbia 20 feet high, Calotropis, Capparis 2, etc., occur all
the same as before, only one Ehretiacea appears to be new.  Hares are
very common.  Likewise red and painted Partridges, and Quail.  Carthamus
and Tobacco are cultivated, specially the latter at Meengian.  The most
common tree here, is Urticea procera? which has always a peculiar
appearance.  The country towards Pukoko becomes prettier, the left bank
wooded, and the ground sloped very gradually up to Kionksouk, which is
barren, and 2,000 feet high at least, with the slopes covered with
jungle.

_31st May_.--Passed Pagam, a straggling town of some size, famous for
its numerous old pagodas of all sorts.  The surface of the country is
raviny, and the vegetation continues precisely the same.  Below Pagam,
the range of low hills becomes very barren: altogether the country is
very uninteresting.

The low range of hills on the right bank is nearly destitute of
vegetation.  The hills present a curious appearance of ridges, sometimes
looking like walls.  The country continues the same.

Halted opposite Yowa.

_June 1st_.--A low range of hillocks here occurs on the left bank, and
as in other places, consisting of sandstone with stunted and scanty
vegetation.

Tselow is a large place on the left bank, the river is here much spread
out, with large sand banks.  The hills on the right bank present the same
features; passed Pukangnai, a large village on the left bank.  Passed
Pukkoko, Pagam, Tselow, etc., the hills about this last place abound with
Prionites.  Strong wind prevails.

_June 2nd_.--Yeanangeown 10 A.M.  The country continues exactly similar
to that already observed--hillocks intersected by ravines, loose
sandstone, very barren in appearance.  Vegetation is the same, but more
stunted; fossil wood is common, especially in the bottom of ravines.
{147}  Of fossils very few were seen, but more are to be procured by
digging.  The most common trees are Zizyphus, Acacia, and a Capparis: the
most common grass Aristida.  Arrived at Yeanangeown, a busy place judging
from the number of boats.

Wind less strong.  At 2 P.M. stopped at Wengma-thoat, where Zizyphus is
extremely common.  Euphorbia seems rather disappearing.

The plants met with at the halting place six miles above Yeanang, were
Euphorbia, Olax, Zizyphus, Mimosa, Carissa, Ximenia, Prionites,
Calotropis, Gymnema, Capparis pandurata et altera species arborea,
Murraya rare, Gossypium frutex 6-8-petal, Xanthophyllum blue, petiolis
alatis of Tagoung, Sidae sp.  On the right bank flat churs continue
covered with a small Saccharum.  Vegetation more abundant and greener
than before.  Ficus again occurs and Stravadium occasionally.

Passed 5 P.M. Memboo at a large village on right bank, containing perhaps
200 houses.  The river below this runs between two ranges of low hills,
similar in every respect to those already passed.  A Kukkeen woman was
observed, who appeared to have a blue face, looking perfectly frightful.

_June 3rd_.--Maguay.  Reached this place at 8 P.M.  It is on the left
bank.  It is a place of some importance.  Many boats lying in the stream.
The country, is of the same dry, arid description: the banks of the river
are however lower than previously observed.

Passed Esthaiya, a small village on the right bank, at 6 A.M.  Adelia
nereifolia continues common in some places.

Dhebalar, Meemgoon, two villages nearly opposite, neither of these
villages large.  Ficus and Bombax are common; no Euphorbia was observed.

We are now evidently getting within the influence of the Monsoon, as the
vegetation is more green.

Passed Mellun, a village on the right bank.  The hills on either side of
the river are higher and better wooded than before observed, and the
river itself is not more than 350 yards broad.

Observed gold washers below Meegyoung-yea, where they find gold, silver,
and rubies by washing the sands.  Here Bombax is very common on the right
bank.

Passed Thembounwa, a village on the left bank.  The country presents the
same ridges of singular hills formed of veins of slaty, tabular, brown
rock, this is very conspicuous at Thembounwa.  The hills on the left bank
above Meeaday are very barren; the banks rocky.

Halted at Khayoo, just above Meeaday, at 7 P.M.

_June 4th_.--Passed Teiyet myoo, a village on the right bank, which
seems to have some cotton trade; the houses along the bank are wretched
in appearance.  Meeaday was passed during a squall, I was thus prevented
from making any observation on it.  Teiyet is the largest place I have
seen.  The country we are now passing is very slightly undulated, soil
light and sandy.  Fine tamarind trees occur, also Terminalia.  In
addition to the usual plants a Lagerstraemia occurs, which attains the
size of a middling tree, and a frutescent Hypericum, Aristolochia, and
Hedyotis occur.  Strong south wind prevails so that we can make no
progress whatever, I therefore went into the jungle and found Stravadium,
a fine Bignonia foliis pinnatis, floribus maximis, fere spitham.
infundibulif. subbilabiat. lacinus crispatis: one or two Acanthaceae, two
Gramineae, two Vandelliae, Bonnaya, Herpestes, Monniera, Rumex, Dentella,
three or four Cyperaceae, Ammannia, Crotalaria on sand banks, Triga in
woods and Bauhinia, Dioscoria, a pretty herbaceous perennial Ardisia,
etc.  We have not made two miles since breakfasting at Teiyet, about four
hours ago.  Convolvulus pileatus and dwarf bamboo are common on the low
hills.  The Lagerstraemia has petals none, or minute squamiform.

Reached Caman Myoo, a village on the right bank, at 7 P.M.

_June 5th_.--Many boats are here, owing to there being an excellent
place of anchorage in still water, protected by an Island, but there are
not many houses in the village.

Below, the river again becomes confined between hills, but above this it
expands.  These hills are rather bare: no Euphorbia exists, and the whole
vegetation is changed.

Now passing hills, chiefly covered with bamboos.  Bignonia crispa occurs,
and a Scilloid plant out of flower is common.  Aroideum, similar to that
of Katha, is common, a new species is likewise found, but it is a
Roxburghia, and rare.

Stravadium has very minute stipules, the habit and gemmation is that of
Ternstraemiaceae, and it perhaps connects this order with Myrtaceae;
Punica from this is certainly distinct, owing praeter alia to its valvate
calyx.  Soneratia belongs I suspect to Lythrarieae, connecting it with
Myrtaceae.

The Roxburghia above alluded to, is a distinct genus.

Planta quam juniorem tantum vidi vex spithamaea.  Radices plurimae
filiformes, cortice crassa, tenacissima obfibras foliiformas ad vaginam
redacta, superiora petiolique purpureo-brunnei, vernatione involutiva,
flores solitarii in axillis foliorum et vaginarum, albi carneo tincti.
Pedicellis subtereti apice, articulatis, monoicis.

Perianth sub-companulat, 4-sepalum, sepalis lanceolato-oblongis a medio
reflexis, estivat imbricat.

Stam. 4. sepalis alterna, filam subanth. magna, subsagittat, connectivo
magno supra in apiculum longum product, et inter loculos in carinam
(carneam) purpuream, loculi angustissimi, viridis, alabastrus lutescens.
Pollen viridescens.  Faemin flos, infimus, unum tantum vidi sepala
longiora herbacea, stam. 0.

Ovarium compressum, fol. carpell () {149}, stylus conicus, ovar viridis,
stigma sub-simplex.

Char. gen. Flores monoici Per. 4, sepalum, stam. 4.

Arrived at Prome on the left bank, the stockade seemed to be out of
repair: the water front of the stockade is about 800 yards in length: it
extends about 200 yards back from the river, and beyond the hill on which
are pagodas: opposite the pagodas it is of brick, and beyond this a long
line of houses or huts extends; there is no appearance of improvement
going on.  The hills on the opposite side present the same features,
trees just commencing to leaf; every thing indicates a temporary
sterility caused by the long hot season.  Above this place we passed a
village extending 500 yards along the river.  Cocoa trees thrive well
here, and are not uncommon.  Borassus continues.

Shwe Doung, 6 miles from Prome, is as large as Prome itself: the country
beyond this expands; no hills were seen near this part of the river; some
way below Palmyras are common; Bombax, Ficus, and Tamarind are the chief
trees.

Passed Reedan, a straggling place on the left bank.  A range of hills
occur, extending close along the right bank, and which, as well as the
distant ones, are wooded to the summit, as the hills are on the Malay
Coast.

Passed Thengyee, a village on the right bank.  Hills at this place
approach close to the river for a short way, but soon cease.  They are
covered with Teak, scarped, and many images are carved in the recesses of
the rock, apparently sandstone.  Thengyee, just below this, seems to be a
great place for boat-building.

Halted at Talownmo at 7.5 P.M.

_June 6th_.--At this place there are no hills near the river, which is
sub-divided by islands.  Painted partridge continues.  Kioungee; palmyra
trees continue in plenty.  Talipat never seen dead, but with its
inflorescence.  Passed Meavion and Runaown.  Palmyras here occur: great
numbers of boats passing up and down.  Traffic considerable.

Moneu, a village on the left bank, at which many boats were observed.

The river banks throughout are today flat and alluvial, and those of the
Islands are covered with moderate sized grasses; extreme banks jungly.
Palmyras continue.

Halted at Thendan, on left bank.

_June 7th_.--The country here has the usual alluvial features; few
villages are seen, but as the river is sub-divided, one must not judge
from this and the consequent barren appearance, that the country is less
populated than above.

Stravadium is common in the woods: on the banks, noticed Acrostichum
difforme; Epiphytical Orchideae are common.  Urticea fructibus late
obcordatis.

Passed Tharawa, a village on the left bank, and Theenmaga myoo on the
right bank, which seems a large place; here Pandanus commences.  Palmyras
were seen, together with a few Areca.  At 4 P.M. I saw at Zulone myoo,
for the first time during the descent, a Crocodile, which is an
indication of our approach to the coast.  A Bombax is now common on some
of the islands, the banks are now generally grassy.

This Bombax is apparently the same as that of Assam; the river here
resembles the B. pootur about Chykwar.

Halted at a small village about six miles above Donai-byoo near Dollong.

_June 8th_.--Donai-byoo, 7 A.M.  This is a large place, on the right
bank, having a good many boats.

Niown Sheedouk on the left bank, three miles below Donai-byoo, is
likewise a large place.

Tides exist here, and their influence extends upwards as far as Zulone,
that is to say, the stream is much diminished during the flood.  Entered
Rangoon river at 1 P.M.: it is here not more than 200 yards broad.
Nioungdoa is a middling sized village, situated about a mile from the
mouth or entrance, at which were observed plenty of boats.  The banks of
the river are here grassy; tall Saccharum and Arundo occur, but not so
large as those of Assam.  The river a small way below the mouth is not
more than 100 yards wide.  Bombax and Ficus are the most common trees:
Lagerstraemia grandiflora forms a little tree jungle: Butea likewise
occurs.

Passed Tsamaloukde, a small village on the right bank.

_June 9th_.--Halted at 6 this morning at a small village on the left
bank.  The features of the country now become paludosal.  Acanthus
ilicifolius, Cynometra acacisides, Cyperaceae, Soneralia acida,
Avicennia, Stravadium, Croton malvaefolium are very common, Creni sp.
Caesalpinia, and a leguminous tree, fructibus 1-spermis, drupaceis,
Webera, Premna, Cissi sp. potius _Vitis_, Clerodendri sp. Heritiera
fomes, Flagellaria indica, Hibisci species populneae affinis, Arundo,
Ambrosinia 2 species.

Country open, low, and quite flat, admirable for rice cultivation.

Crinoid giganteum, Excaecaria, Agallocha, no Rhizophores, Ipomaea
floribus maximis, hypocrateriform, albis, foliis cordatis.  Soneratia
apetala less common, but becomes more so as we approach Rangoon, it is an
elegant tree with pendulous branchlets.  Heritiera is very common and
conspicuous when in flower, it is then of a yellow brown tint;
Acrostichum aureum, Calamus, and Lomaria scandens occur.



CHAPTER IX.


_Journal towards Assam and to Bootan--contains notes on_
_distribution of Plants_.

Left Calcutta a second time on the 31st August 1837, arrived at Serampore
on the 1st September, and spent the day with the Voights.

_September 3rd_.--Continue on the Hooghly: paddy cultivation prevails
and Crotalaria juncea; this last is sown broadcast in low places, but not
quite so low as paddy.  Bengallees are but slovenly husbandmen; grass,
etc. collected by them in small cocks, and covered with a small thatch,
which answers its purpose as well as a narrow brimmed hat would answer
that of an umbrella.  Broken earthenware not unfrequently visible in the
banks, in some places at the depth of 3-4 feet.  Unsettled weather, with
gusts of strong wind from the S. and SSE.  Thermometer 78 degrees 82'.
The usual Calcutta birds continue, jackdaw-like crow, Falco
pondicherainus, two common mainas, Ardea indica, and the white one.

Came on the Ganges about noon; on passing Chobda had the horror of seeing
the bodies of burning Hindoos, the friends who are present at these
funeral rites turning them about with sticks, so as to give each side its
share of fire.  The women bathe in their ordinary dresses: these though
ample are of fine cotton fabric, so that when wet more of the shape is
disclosed than is deemed desirable in Europe, but exposure of person has
no repugnant effect on Asiatics.

The Matabangah is a small, very tortuous, stream, not exceeding 70 yards
in breadth: the banks are low, either wooded to the edge or covered with
grass, such as Cynodon.  Excellent pasturage prevails, as indicated by
the number of cows.

_Monday 4th_.--Wind SE.  There are not many villages in the vicinity of
the river; passed yesterday Kranighat, where there is a toll, from which
officers on duty are exempt; but as no precautions seem to be taken to
keep the river clear, no toll whatever should be taken: although the
latter is high, the receipts must be very small.  Passed Arskally about
noon, the banks are composed occasionally of pure sand, and the country
becomes more open, with very little jungle, much indigo cultivation
occurs.  Thermometer 78 degrees 85'.

_Tuesday_, _5th_.--Wind SW.  The country continues the same as before.  At
2 P.M., we reached Krishnapoor.

_Wednesday_, _6th_.--8 A.M.  We left the Matabangah river and entered a
less tortuous nullah.  The country continues the same.  Much indigo
cultivation still occurs.  We saw yesterday evening a large herd of cows
swim across the Matabangah; they were led by a bull, who kept turning
round every now and then to see whether his convoy was near him.  Today I
saw a rustic returning from his labours, with his plough thrown easily
across his shoulders; to a strong Englishman the feat of walking home
with such a plough, cattle, and all would not be very difficult.  Indigo
is cut about a foot from the ground, then tied in bundles.  Water for
steeping it in is raised from the rivers by something like chair-buckets,
only the buckets are represented by flat pieces of wood, the whole is
turned on an axle by the tread of men; the water is carried upon an
inclined narrow plane; the machine answers its purpose very well, and the
natives work it with great dexterity.  At 5 P.M., we came on a stream 100
yards wide, down which we proceeded.

_Thursday_, _7th_.--The country continues much the same.  Of birds the
black and white peewit is not uncommon;--cormorants, etc. also occur.
P.M.  Thermometer 90 degrees.

_Friday_, _8th_.--The country is more low and more sub-divided by rivers
than before.  Abundance of indigo.  Pumps also used, as before observed,
for raising water.  Passed Moodoo Kully at 5 P.M., and left its river for
a small nullah.  Indigo abundant on all sides throughout the day's
journey.

_Saturday_, _9th_.--Continue in this nullah.  Country wooded.  Phaenix
sylvestris very abundant: Areca Catechu also becoming abundant.  A good
deal of cultivation occurs, mottled chiefly with sugar-cane and
vegetables.  The habits of the black and white kingfisher, Alcedo rudis,
are different from those of the other Indian species: it never perches,
choosing rather the ground to rest upon: it builds in banks: takes its
prey by striking it from a height of 20 feet or thereabouts, previously
fluttering or hovering over it.  The size and figure of this bird when
resting on the ground, resembles the two common Indian Terns.

Palms, contrary to what might be supposed from the nature of these
plants, can put forth additional buds;--this is exemplified in phaenix
sylvestris, the stems of which are deeply and alternately notched by the
natives for procuring toddy.  When this is carried to a great extent, the
tree either dies or a new apex is formed laterally.  The old notches, as
might be expected, at length, become much obliterated.  It is from the
study of such palms that much light will be thrown on the growth of
monocotyledonous stems.  The vegetation of jheels is now obviously
commencing.  Pistia stratioles, Nymphaea, Potamogeton, Potamochloa,
Oplismenus stagninus, and Villarsia occur.  Reached Furreedpore at 7 P.M.

_Sunday_, _10th_.--Came on the Paddo, an immense stream 1.5 miles wide,
with a very strong current, about a mile to the East of Furreedpore.
Lagerstraemia Regina here occurs.

_Monday_, _11th_.--The country is become much lower since leaving
Furreedpore, and is inundated during the height of the rains.  The
peculiar vegetation of jheels predominant; that of the jungle continues
much the same.  Plhugoor continues plentiful.  No palmyras.  Mangoes
plentiful, but small.  Passed a deserted Roman Catholic Chapel, and
Priest's house.  White-winged long-nailed water-hens becoming plentiful.

_Tuesday_, _12th_.--The country abounds more in jheels: in many places
nothing is visible but water, in which huge plains of floating grasses
occur.  The villages are very numerous, and occupy in fact almost every
spot of ground not subject ordinarily to inundation.  Damasonium Indicum,
Nymphaea pubescens occur in profusion.  The grass which exists in such
vast quantities is, I believe, Oplismenus stagninus.  The water of these
jheels is clear, black when deep, which it often is to a great extent.

_Wednesday_, _13th_.--Reached Dacca about 2 P.M.: it is a large and
populous place.  The numerous grass of the jheels is sown there: it is
the red bearded _dhan_ or paddy grass: of this vast quantities are cut
for fodder, for, the whole face of the country being overflowed, it
follows that the cattle are throughout the rains kept in stalls.

_Thursday_, _14th_.--Left about noon, and proceeded down the Dacca river
about 5 miles, then diverged into a narrow creek running nearly south.
Along this were observed fine specimens of tamarind trees.  Stravadium in
abundance.  Sonninia scandens, and Mango, both in abundance.  Passed at 5
P.M. Neerangunge, a large native town, and below it Luckepoor.  A vast
expanse of water appeared near this, viz., the Megna.  A good deal of
native shipping occurs, consisting of brigs: great quantities of rice
being exported from both places.  Pelicans I observed here to roost in
trees.

[View in the jheels: p154.jpg]

Friday, 15th.--In the midst of jheels: the whole face of the country is
covered with water several feet deep.  Vast quantities of Oplismenus
stagninus still occur.

_Saturday_, _16th_.--Still in jheels.  The same features continue.  The
country is still very populous, all the more elevated spots having
villages.  Oplismenus stagninus still prevails in vast quantities.

_Sunday_, _17th_.--Jheels in every direction:--nothing indeed seen but
water, with occasional grassy or reedy, and elevated spots occupied by
villages:--here and there a round-headed tree springing apparently out of
the water.  Hills visible to the east.  Cormorants, Ciconia nudiceps,
paddy-birds, the common white ones with black feet, are abundant, and
associate in flocks: there is one very nearly allied to this, which is
solitary, having black feet with yellow toes.  The boats of this district
are very simple, something like a Bengal _dingy_ reversed, but they are
sharp in the bows and ought to be fast; their only mode of progression is
to be pushed along by means of poles.  There appears to be a great number
of Mussulmans, who would here seem to form the majority of the
population.  Strong winds from the south interrupt our progress.

_Monday_, _18th_.--Delayed by bad weather.

_Tuesday_, _19th_.--Continued to pass through same kind of country, but
less jheelly.  The Cook boat was left behind on the 17th in a squall, and
has not come up yet, so that I dine with the boatmen.

The black and white long-toed water-hen continues plentiful: when alarmed
by kites, etc. it pursues them uttering a low mournful scream, until it
has succeeded in getting its enemy off to some distance; it then returns,
I suppose to its young; otherwise its cry is something like the mewing of
a cat, or rather a low hollow moan.  The hills are plainly visible to-
day, lying towards the north.

The males of the white and black water-hen have tails something like
those of a pheasant.  There are two other species: one that is found on
the Tenasserim coast; the other is much larger,--the size, of a large
domestic fowl: one of the sexes, has red wattles on its head.  The white
and black one is far the most common; it feeds apparently, in flocks: the
Maulmain one is the least common.  These with Ardea Indica, the white,
black-toed, yellow-beaked Ardea, Ciconia nudiceps a small brown _chat_?,
Pica vagabunda, are the birds of the jheels or rather the dry spots in
them.  I saw yesterday a flock of the black Ibis, flying _in a_
_triangle_ (>) _without a base_, the party was headed by one of the
white paddy-birds!  Villages have become very numerous, and the
population abundant and flourishing.  The cattle are, as I have said,
stalled and fed with paddy grass, quantities of boats being employed for
its conveyance.  Oplismenus stagninus appears less common about here.

_Thursday_, _21st_.--Still among jheels; our progress is necessarily very
slow; we are indeed scarcely moving, there being no tracking ground:
jheels occur in every direction, although the hills are not 15 miles
distant.  Pelicans with white and black marked wings occur, together with
the slate-colored eagle with white tail, barred at tip with black; it is
common in the low wooded places surrounded by jheels.  Black-bellied Tern
occurs, but not that of Assam.

_Friday_, _22nd_.--Arundo and two species of Saccharum occur, among which
S. spontaneum, is very common and of large size.  We reached the Soorma
river about 12 o'clock, 3 or 4 miles above Mr. Inglis's house.

I arrived at Chattuc on the 21st, which place I left for Pundoa the
following day.  There are no mountains of this name as would seem from
the habitat of some plants given in Roxburgh's Flora Indica.  The
mountains therein called Pundoa are the Khasya or Cossiah range; Pundoa,
is the name of a village called by the natives Puddoa.  The jheels are
for a great part under cultivation.  The paddy cultivation is of two
kinds; it is either sown in the jheels just at the commencement of the
inundation, or it is sown on higher portions, and then transplanted into
the jheels.  Jarool, Lagerstraemia Regina is the chief timber, it comes
from Kachar; it is a dear and not a durable wood.

Dalbergia bracteata, first appears, on low hills about Chattuc; there is
also a Grimmia here on the river banks.

Porpoises are often seen in the Soorma; alligators or crocodiles, very
rarely.

Jheels continue nearly to the foot of the mountains; these last are not
wooded more than half way up; the remaining wood being confined to
ravines, the ridges appearing as if covered with grass.  Here and there,
scarped amphitheatres are visible, down which many fine cascades may be
seen to fall.

Arrived at Mr. Inglis's Bungalow at Pundoa about 3 P.M., and here
regulated my thermometers; temperature of boiling water taken with the
large thermometer 210.5 degrees, by means of the one in wooden case 210.5
degrees, temperature of the air 92.5 degrees, red case thermometer
indicated the boiling point at 206 degrees!! nor would the mercury rise
higher.

_Saturday_, _23rd_.--Commenced the ascent, from Terya Ghat.  Up to which
point the country is perfectly flat low and wet, covered for a great part
with gigantic Sacchara; among which partridges are common.  Osbeckia
nepalensis, Marlea begonifolia, Gouania, Bignonia Indica, a Panax,
Byttneria, Hedysarum gyrans, Pueraia, Mimosa stipulacea, a very large
Rottboellia, Bauheniae 2, Bombax, Tetranthera arborea, Grewia sepiaria
may all be observed.  On the Terya river among stones, and where it is a
pure mountain stream Eugenia salicifolia, as in the Upper Kioukdweng,
between Terya and the foot of the hills occurs; Alstonia, Ophioxylon,
Trophis aspera, Urtica naucleiflora, Varecae sp. Impatiens in abundance,
oranges in groves occur; at the foot Cryptophragmium venustum; rather
higher, Argostemma, and Neckera are common; AEschynanthus fulgens, jack
and sooparee commonly cultivated.  Then Oxalis sensitiva, a small tender
Lycopodium; pine-apples, Pogonatherum crinitum; Gordonia soon commences,
probably at 400 feet.  Polytrichum aloides appears on banks with
Gordonia; Eurya commences above the first cascade.  Choripetalum,
Modecca, Sonerila about two-thirds up to Mahadeb, and Commelina, C.
bengalensis, and Anatherum muricatum continue to Mahadeb, as also
Andropogon acicularis, the Impatiens, etc.  No change takes place, in
fact the vegetation being all tropical.  Up to this place thick tree
jungle continues; the ridges sometimes are covered with grass, either
Saccharum, Anthistiria arundinacea or Manisuris; scarcely any oaks occur.
Euonymus occurs at Mahadeb.  Beyond Mahadeb the scene becomes changed
especially after surmounting the first ridge, the face of the hills is
covered with grasses, interspersed with rocks; the clumps of wooded
vegetation being small, irregular, and composed of barren looking stunted
trees.

Above this ridge the country puts on the appearance of a table land.  At
Mahadeb, Staurogyne, Ruellia Neesiana, and Cryptophragmium are common, a
little above these is a species of Zalacca; Impatiens bracteata is very
common from near the foot to beyond Mahadeb; but it becomes small and
disappears before Moosmai is reached.  Cymbidium bambusifolium commences
600 feet above Mahadeb.  Linum trigynum commences at Mahadeb; Scutellaria
a little above, but I have found this at the foot.

Dianella is found 1,000 feet above Mahadeb, as also Camellia candata;
Plantago, and Eriocaulon 2 sp. appear about 500 feet above Mahadeb; and
continue to Churra.  Randia, the common one, is found up to 4,000 feet.
Cinchona gratissima appears at Moosmai.  The first Viburnum, also occurs
here.  Impatiens graminifolia a little lower.  Salomonia, which appears
half way to Mahadeb, continues to Moosmai and Churra, but is stunted.

Vaccinium, Ceratostemma, Crotalaria Hoveoides, Gnaphalia appear towards
Moosmai.  Wendlandia at Moosmai.  Ruellia persicaefolia straggles a
little lower than these.  Smithia commences at Moosmai; Pandanus also;
this is excessively common on hills to the left, towards the caves.
Dipsacus commences above Moosmai.

_Monday_, _25th_.--Churra is situated in a plain surrounded in every
direction by low rounded hills, except to the E. and SE., on which side
there is a deep ravine, the whole plateau rising considerably towards the
north, in the direction of Churra itself.  Ravines exist here and there;
it is along these, and the water-courses, that the only woody vegetation
is to be found.  The rest of the surface is clothed with grasses, of
which a number of species exist, they are chiefly Andropogoneae.  Two or
three Osbeckias exist; a Tradescantia (T. septem clavata) covers certain
patches with its bright blue flowers.  Three species of Impatiens, two
with bright pink flowers are common.  Spathoglottis, and Anthogonum occur
on the flat rocks, which frequently prevail; Arundinaria is seen every
where as well as a Smithia? with lotus-like blossoms.  With regard to
birds, the Motacilla or water-wagtails are seen at Churra and at Pundoa,
are generally of yellow colour in place of white.

The woody vegetation consists of Berberis, Viburnum, Bucklandia, Cleyera
floribus fragrantis, petalis sepalis oppositis, Myrsine and many others,
too numerous indeed to mention.

The woods, towards Churra, assume that rounded and very determinate form,
which is seen so commonly in some parts of England, Bucks for instance.
None of the trees arrive to any great size.  The generality are low,
rounded, and stunted.  It is in these, that Quercus, Viburnum, and
Pandanus may be seen growing side by side.

_October 4th_.--Took the height of the station, which I make to be
3,921 feet; temperature 74 degrees; water boiled at 205 degrees; in the
small metal thermometer 198 degrees! centigrade 97 degrees; large metal
205.25 degrees; wooden scale 204 degrees.

_October 5th_.--Left for Surureem.  On the first height on which the
village is situated, a Potentilla is to be found, and this becomes more
abundant as we continue to ascend.  The next European form that appears,
is Fragaria, the height of which may be estimated at 4,200 feet, this too
becomes more common as we ascend; Caryota may be seen, or at least, a
palm tree, in ravines as high as 4,000 feet; Daucus appears at 4,300 feet
in grassy plains; Prunella at about the same, Gerardia at 4,500 feet;
Gaultheria and an Impatiens with very small yellow flowers at 4,800 feet,
as well as Othonna.

With the exception of these, the vegetation is much the same as that
about Churra: but the Balsams of that place disappear almost towards
Surureem, as well as the Tradescantia 7-clavata.  Plants which are not in
flower about Churra, are found towards Surureem in perfection.

After the first considerable ascent is surmounted, and which is probably
4,750 feet, the country becomes more barren, the grass more scanty and
less luxuriant.  Spathoglottis, and Anthogonium disappear; Xyris
continues in abundance, likewise Eriocaulons, especially the middling-
sized one; Bucklandia becomes more common and more developed; a
frutescent Salix commences at 4,800 feet, as well as a Gramen Avenaceum
vel Bromoideum.

Surureem is a small village, 100 feet above the rude bungalow, provided
for the few travellers who pass this way; close to it is to be found
Zanthoxylum and Hemiphragma, which last commences at Moosmai.  The simple
leaved Rubus of Churra, petalis minutis carneis, has ceased; a trifoliate
one foliis cordato-rotundatis, existing instead.  Most of the grasses
continue, but all are comparatively of small stature.  Two new
Andropogonoids make their appearance: of Compositae, a Tussilaginoid and
a stout Senecionidea, the former not uncommon about Churra, but out of
flower.  Salomonia ceased.

The height of Surureem I calculate at 4,978 feet; temperature 65 degrees
Fahr.; of centigrade 19 degrees; water boiled at 95.5 degrees of
centigrade; 203 degrees Fahr., wooden scale; 203.5 degrees large metal;
small ditto 195.5 degrees!  Temperature of the air at 6 P.M., 63 degrees.

_October 6th_.--Temperature 6 A.M., 63.5 degrees.  Left for Moflong.
There is a considerable rise at first, then the country is tolerably
level until one reaches the Kala Panee, the descent to this is about 7 or
800 feet, thence the rise is great, with a corresponding descent to the
Boga Panee, which I estimate at 4,457 feet, and which is certainly 1,000
feet below the highest ground passed on this side of the Kala Panee.
After crossing this torrent, by means of a miserably unsteady wooden
bridge, the ascent is very steep for about 1,200 feet, thence there is a
small descent to Moflong, which I find to be 5,485 feet.  Most of the
plants continue.  Tradescantia and Commelina become much less common
towards the Kala Panee, as well as the Impatiens of Churra, but their
place is supplied by others.  Along 100 yards of the Kala Panee, upwards
of four species may be met with.  Polygonum (Bistorta) becomes more
common on the higher ground between Surureem and Kala Panee, thence
diminishing in size and frequency.  Polygonum Rheoides becomes abundant
towards a height of 5,200 feet, when Pyrus, an apple-like species, and
Spiraeas make their appearance at 5,300 feet.  On the Kala Panee,
Bucklandia re-appears, but thence would seem to cease: on the brow of the
ascent from this, Pedicularis appears in abundance among grasses, with it
_Sphacele_?  At the same height, which cannot be less than 5,400 feet,
Carduus or Cnicus, appears.  Solidago commences in the valley of the Kala
Panee, but becomes more abundant at higher elevations.  Sanguisorba
appears at 5,400 feet, but in small quantities, and at this height
Anisadenia recommences.  Epilobium appears at 5,300 feet, continues at
the same elevation to Moflong, where it is common.  On the descent to the
Boga Panee, an European form of Euphorbia appears at 5,000 feet with
Viola Patrinia and a Galium asperum.  Hieracium appears at about the same
height.  Cuscuta is very common from 5 to 5,500 feet, continuing even to
Moflong; the scales of this genus are, it appears to me, mere appendages
of the filaments, and not due to non-development or suppression of parts.
Erythrina, which is found about Churra, is seen on the road to Kala
Panee, apparently quite wild; altitude 5,200 feet: it recommences at
Moflong, where it is common about villages, but never exceeds the size of
a small tree.  Commelina bengalensis? continues throughout here and
there, and may be found even about Moflong.

The most striking change occurs, however, in the Pines, which, although
of small stature, exist in abundance on the north side of the Boga Panee;
so far as may be judged of by the naked eye, they disappear on this side,
about a mile to the westward, very few cross the torrent, and few indeed
are found 100 feet above its bed on the south side.  I took the height of
the bed of this torrent.  Temperature of the air 72 degrees; water boiled
at 204 degrees; which gives the height about 4,400 feet.  Between
Surureem and the Boga Panee, many new plants occur; grasses continue, as
also at Moflong, the prevailing feature.  The principal new ones occur on
the descent, consisting of two large Andropogons, one closely allied to
A. schaeranthus and a tall Anthistiria habitu A. arundinacea; a beautiful
Saccharum occurs here and there, especially before reaching the Kala
Panee and the Gramina Bromoidea, which is the only really European form.
On the Kala Panee, scarcely any Podostemon griffithia; except a few small
ones, very few signs or appearance of fresh plants.  Along the Boga
Panee, among the wet rocks which form its banks, a fine Parnassia; a
trailing Arbutoidea; a very European looking Quercus; Anesadenia
pubescens, a Circaea, Campanulae 2, AEschynomene, Crotalaria, a Serissa?;
this last continuing to Moflong, a fine Osbeckia, and Gnaphalium
aereonitus may likewise be found.  On the ascent, few new plants occur;
Rhinanthoidea, Osbeckia nepalensis, and capitata, Conyzoidea, Dipsacus,
Gnaphalium foliis linearibus, Crotolaria hoveoides, Colutoidea, Pteris
(Aquilina.) Scutellaria, Potentilla, Smilax occur at 5,000 feet with
Plantago, Fragaria and Artemisia, as well as lower down.  The most
striking plant is a Delphinium, which, at about 5,000 feet, occurs
stunted; this is common about Moflong.

Agrimonia range from 3,500 to 5,500 feet, where they are very common,
Hypericum three sorts occur, H. myrtifolium commences, about Churra, re-
occurs here and there on the road to Moflong, about which it is very
common.  H. ovalifolium, is more elevational, scarcely descending below
5,000 feet; H. japonicum is found from towards Mahadeb to Moflong; H.
fimbriatum foliis decussatis, scarcely below 5,000 feet; Leucas galea
brunneo villosa on grassy hills is common towards Boga Panee, and
continues as high as Moflong.

Quercus commences about Mahadeb: a new species occurs on the edge of
woods towards the Kala Panee; altitude 5,000 feet; it nearly commences
with two Rhododendra, which, at least the arborescent one, arrives at
perfection on the Kala Panee.

Viburna continue; Salix (fruticose) commences about 5,000 feet, continues
here and there to Moflong.  Buddleia Neemda is found about Churra, but
not commonly; and soon disappears.  B. 4-alata commences beyond the
Churra Punjee, and continues as far as Moflong.

Thibaudia buxifolia becomes less common beyond 5,000 feet; other forms of
Ericineae appear in places about 5,000 feet, Gaultheria continuing as far
as Moflong.  Eurya species alterum, commences about the same elevation,
continuing to Moflong.

Three species of Spiraea are found between Surureem and Moflong, none
perhaps below 5,000 feet; Prunella occurs about the same height,
continuing as far as Moflong.

On crossing the Boga Panee, the country becomes perhaps more undulated
and much more barren, scarcely any arborescent vegetation is to be seen,
the little woody vegetation consisting of stunted shrubs.  Immediately
around Moflong, the country is excessively bare, not a tree is to be
seen, even the sides of ravines being clothed with stunted shrubs.
Berberis asiatica, Viburna, Spiraea _bella_? Eurya _camellifolia_, Betula
_corylifolia_.

To the north, fine woods are seen, and to the east, fir woods, the
nearest being about 4 miles off.  The village is small and wretchedly
dirty, the paths being the worst of all I have seen on these hills.  The
houses and the adjoining fields are surrounded with hedges of
Colquhounia, Erythrina, Buddlaea.

In waste places Colquhounia _micrantha_, Cysticapnos, Verbesina, Pteris,
Davallia, etc. are to be found, as well as Codonopsis viridiflora.  The
hills are covered with low grass, almost a sward.  On this, Potentilla,
Agrimonia, Geranium as well as in fields, Pisoideum floribus cyaneis,
Campanula, Aster disco azureo may be found; on low spots a very small
Parnassia, and a still smaller Ischaemum.

Ranunculus, one species, but this is uncommon; Delphinium is common in
thickets, etc.

The only cultivation is potatoes, a few years since introduced, and which
answers admirably, some turnips and Glycine tuberosa.  Cattle, goats and
pigs abundant.

On the whole this is to be considered as the place where the peculiar
vegetation of Churra, arrives at its boundary, for although many of the
plants of the plains are to be found, they are all in a dwarf state.

Noticed a Hoopoo, but birds in general are not frequent.



CHAPTER X.


_Continues the Journey towards Assam and Bootan_.

The annexed table of the distributions of plants in relation to altitudes
of the Khasyah mountains may render the subject of the preceding
observations more clear and distinct.  The dotted line along the left
hand margin represents the elevation of the mountains, the greater height
of which is something better than 6,000 feet.

[Gradient Surureem to Moflong: g163.jpg]

_October 8th_.--Visited the fir wood, which is about three miles to the
eastward; the road runs over the same _downey_ ground.  The first plant
that appears is a Boreal Euphorbia, allied to that previously mentioned.
A Sanguisorba of large stature occurs in low wet places.  Epilobum not
uncommon.  The Pines appear first straggling, and they only form a wood
in one place, and even there not of much extent; none are of any size.
Musci Lichens and fungi abound in the wood, as also Circaea and
Herminium?

Osbeckia Nepalensis, Hedychia 2, a small Goodyera, Tricyrtis Hedera,
Polygonum, Polypodium, Gaultheria, Viburnum, Thibaudiacea fructibus
gratis, subacidis.  Eurya, Valeriana, Quercus, may likewise be found.
Salix occurs on the skirts in low places.  The hills around are clothed
with grasses, among which is a large Airoidea; in the low valleys between
these, intersected with small water-courses, three species of Juncus, a
curious Umbellifera fistulosa, and Mentha verticillata, occur.  Another
Hypericum is likewise found in lately cleared places.

Some cultivation occurs about the place on the slopes of hills, chiefly
of a Digitaria, sown broadcast, and tied up in bundles when nearly ripe;
together with Glycine tuberosa, and Coix Lacryme.

To the eastward the hills become more rocky, affording little vegetation,
the chief plant is an Othonnoidea; another Herminioidea, and a
Habenariod, both out of flower, may be found, the former on hills, the
latter in low places; a tall Campanula was among the new plants, and an
Umbellifera with curious foliage.

The height of this ridge is 5,768 feet, the temperature being 74 degrees,
and water boiling at 201.75 degrees.

Took the elevation of Moflong bungalow.  Temperature of the air 65
degrees; water boiled at 202.25 degrees; this gives 5,410 feet.

There are several high rounded hills about this place, (one to the south
of the Boga Panee,) the generality of which are more elevated than those
on the northern side; the most conspicuous is the hill near Moleem, the
north face of which is wooded, and which is at least 1,000 feet above
Moflong.

8 P.M.  Temperature 58.5 degrees.  5 P.M. 65 degrees.

_October 9th_.--Rain as usual in the morning.  Thermometer at 7 A.M.,
58.5 degrees.

_October 10th_.--A fine bracing cold morning, with the thermometer at
53.5 degrees.  7 A.M. left for Myrung.  The march to Syung is
uninteresting, passing over precisely the same country as that about
Moflong, with vegetation much the same.  A tall Carduaceous tree with
pink flowers was found in the swampy bottoms of the valleys.  About
Syung, a seneciois tree foliis angustissimus.  It is about this place
that the sides of the ravines become clothed with forest, and from this
northward, Pines increase in abundance.  Anthistiria speculis
villosissimis continues here and there; a good deal of cultivation passed
on the road, especially under Syung to the south, where there is a large
valley.  The chief cultivation appears to be Coix, Glycine, and some
rice, but the produce seemed very small.  At the foot of Syung on the
north side, large tufts of Juncus occur, and on the first ascent another
species of Valeriana foliis radicalibus reniformi cordatus occurs.  Urena
lobale was noticed as high as 5,300 feet.  Between Syung and Myrung,
especially about Nungbree, Parnassia recurs, with another species of
Epilobium, Xyris, Juncus, the Senecioneoe, etc.; a new Impatiens occurs
towards Myrung.  Generally speaking, the plants are much the same as
those about Moflong; but several new Compositae occur.

The road leaves Nungbree to the right, leaving the most interesting parts
of the march behind.  Altogether not more than 20 additional plants
occurred in a journey of 6 hours.  Many parts are wet and marshy, and
there is an absence of all tree vegetation, until one reaches Syung.  This
makes the first part of the way somewhat tedious.  At Syung an Elaeagnus
occurs; Colquhounia as usual in hedges; Styrax occurs at foot of the hill
the altitude of which is 5,000 feet.

An anemone is common on road sides, especially on this side of Syung; a
new Potentilla occurs; and the only Boragineous plant hitherto seen by me
on these hills, a Cynoglossum closely allied to C. canescens.  The
altitude of Syung is 5,594 feet.  The temperature being 70 degrees, and
water boiling at 202 degrees.  Myrung 6 P.M.  Thermometer 65 degrees.

_October 11th_.--Myrung 7 A.M. temp. 63 degrees Fahr.; noon 67 degrees;
6 P.M. temp. 65 degrees; 9 temp. P.M. 62.5 degrees.  Weather unsettled,
showery, and very cloudy, a very fine view is had of Bootan and the
Himalayas from this place, particularly about 7 A.M. when the atmosphere
is clear, the Durrung peaks being most magnificent.  The vegetation of
the hills about here is much the same as about Moflong.  The woods are
fine, composed chiefly of oaks; a Magnolia, which is a very large tree,
likewise occurs together with Gordonia, an occasional Pinus, Myrica
integrifolia.  The most curious tree is one which with the true
appearance of an Elaeagnus, seems to be a Loranthus, the first
arborescent species yet found, although, as one or two other exceptions
occur to parasitism, there is no reason why there should not be a
terrestrial arborescent species, as well as a fruticose one.  The wood to
the east of the bungalow, which clothes a deep and steep ravine, has a
very rich flora; a dryish ridge on the other side of its torrent abounds
with Orchideae, and presents an arborescent Gaultheria.  The ridge in
question may be recognised by its large rocks which are covered with
Epiphytes Mosses, etc.  In this wood Pothos flammea is very common,
climbing up the trees as well as hanging in festoons.  The marshes which
are frequented by a few snipe, present grasses, the usual Cyperaceae,
Xyris, occurs but is not common; Panicum stagninum? Eriocaulon spe.
fluitans? Burmannia Rungioidea floribus carneis magnis, Senecionides,
Ammannia rotundifolia, Sphagnum, Carduacea floribus roseis, Limnophilae
sp. Mentha verticillata, and the others previously found in similar
situations.  _Goldfussia_ so common about Churra, recurs here, but
rarely.

The wood abounds with several species of birds, among which a green
_Bulbul_ is the most common, then the fan-tailed Parus, with its
coquettish airs; judging from the voice there is a species of Bucco.  Both
species of Phaenicornis, yellow and crimson, described in Gould's Century
as male and female, and the black Edolius are found.  The only animals
are two species of squirrel, and a genet, of which I shot one, but
although it fell from a height of 70 feet or so, I could not succeed in
securing it; it is a lengthy animal, black and grey, with a long tail,
climbing trees with great facility.  The ring-dove of Churra continues.

The weather during the four days I stayed at Myrung was unsettled; fine
usually in the morning, but cloudy and showery in the evening; the range
of the thermometer from 53 degrees, at 6.5 A.M. to 68 degrees in the
afternoon in an open verandah.  The place, however, is not a cheerful
one, for the aspect on every side except to the E. and NE. is dreary,
marshes and the usual bleak grassy hills being alone visible.  My
favourite spot in this direction would be the Nungbree hill, the altitude
of which, at least of that part over which the road to the village runs,
is 5,439, (or probably 5,700,) temperature of the air being **, and water
boiling at 202.5 degrees.  There is a beautiful and very extensive wood
at Nungbree, the largest I have yet seen; it consists, at least at the
skirts, principally of oaks; a large Pyrus is also not uncommon.  Eurya,
and an arborescent Buddleia likewise occur.

[THE OK-KLONG ROCK: p167.jpg]

At this place Plectranthus azureus makes its appearance, otherwise the
vegetation is that of Myrung; the most remarkable plant is a huge
Sarcocordalis, parasitic on the roots of a large climbing Cissus cortice
suberosa, foliis quinatis, on the wet parts of the wood, especially
towards the mountain foot, mosses abound, chiefly the pendent Hypna and
Neckerae.

On the 13th, I went to a celebrated rock called Kullung, bearing about
NW. from Myrung, from the heights surrounding which it is visible; the
road runs off from the Nunklow nearly opposite Monei, near to which
village one passes; the village is of no great size, and as well as
others in this direction is inhabited chiefly by blacksmiths, the iron
being procured from the sand washed down the mountain torrents; the sound
of their anvils when beaten is very soft and musical, not unlike that of
a sheep bell.  The road to the rock is very circuitous; it finally
ceases, and for an hour one traverses ridges on which no path exists,
having the usual vegetation.  The rock is certainly a vast mass, forming
a precipice of 700 feet to the westward, on which side it is nearly bare
of vegetation, gradually shelving to the east, and covered with
tree-jungle, among which huge mosses are to be found.  At its foot some
fine fir trees occur, one at its very base measured nine feet in
circumference, but had no great height.  The forest consists of Oaks,
Pines, Panax, Erythrina Eurya, Gordonia.

The base of the rock is covered with mosses, Hepaticae, a Didymocarpus,
Caelogyne and some other epiphylical orchideae, among others Bolbophyllum
cylindraceum.

All these continue to its apex, except the mosses and Hepaticae, which
are gained by clambering, and proceeding up fissures clothed with
grasses.  The apex is rounded, presenting here and there patches of
grass, Aira, and Nardus, together with a few stunted shrubs--Viburnum,
another Rhododendron, and Didymocarpus common, Caelogyne in profusion,
Bolbophyllum cylindraceum in abundance, mosses, Lichens, an Allium also
in abundance on the slopes, Stellaria in the woods towards the middle.

The view to the westward in particular was pretty, embracing a fine well-
wooded undulated valley, with several villages and a stream of some size.
The plains of Assam and the huge Brahmapoutra were likewise seen, but not
very clearly.  The distance from Myrung to the Kullung rock is certainly
not less than eight miles, the time it took was 4 hours.  The altitude of
the rock is 5,392 feet, temperature 76 degrees, water boiling at 202.5.
Wild hog are found round its base. {168}

_October 14th_.--I left for Moleem, the march is long and fatiguing;
the road leaves the Moflong road at about four miles from the village of
that name, continuing over similar barren hills, clothed with scanty
grass.  On reaching Morung firs become common, but they are small.  The
view of Moleem, from this direction is remarkably pretty; the country
being better wooded, especially with young firs, and the effect being
much increased by the quantities of large boulders that occur strewn in
every direction.  The Boga Panee is here a contemptible stream, not knee
deep.  Moleem is a place of some size on the left bank of the river,
occupying the side of a hill of considerable height.  Thermometer 7 P.M.
58 degrees.

_October 15th_.--Temp. 7 A.M. 53 degrees, at 3 P.M. 70.5 degrees, water
boiled at 204 degrees, altitude 4,473 feet, or perhaps rather more.
Walked towards Nogandree; between this and a stream resembling the Boga
Panee there is a pretty valley, the eminences generally well-wooded with
young firs.  Pretty and eligible sheltered sites might here be chosen for
a Sanatarium.  The vegetation is the same as that of Moflong--Delphinium,
Ranunculus, Anemone, Potentilla, Tricyrtis, Codonopsis, Lilium giganteum,
Spiraeaceae, Viola, Pyrus, Galium, Carduus, Viburna.

The woods are not very frequent, they consist, when not exclusively of
Pines, chiefly of Oaks and Chesnuts.  Underwood almost entirely of
Acanthaceae.  Rhus Bucki-Amelam is common here, an Oxalis occurs in very
shady places with fleshy leaves, it is so large that it is scarcely
referrible to O. corniculata.  Berberis asiatica is very common.  6 P.M.
thermometer 58 degrees, 9 P.M. 50.5 degrees.

_October 16th_.--7 A.M. 842.5 degrees (sic).  Ascended the Chillong
hill, which is among the highest portion of this range, it is said that
from this both the plains of Bengal and of Assam may be seen, not because
it overtops all the intermediate ground, but because that happens in some
places to be rather low; the termination of the 1st elevation above
Churra, is seen to be very abrupt, but nothing can be seen beyond the
elevated plateau of this part towards the south.  To the east and west
the view has the usual appearance--grassy valleys and hills--with a great
disproportion of jungle.

The summit is gained after an easy march of two hours; the ascent is
gradual.  The highest ridge is naked of trees, but to the north the slope
is in one portion covered with heavy tree-jungle, in which the underwood
is as thick as I have ever seen it: it consists of an Acanthaceous plant;
the forest itself of oaks, chesnuts and Rhododendron arboreum, which last
is common on the highest margin.  A few Pines occur, but scarcely above
the middle of the hill.  To the north very high ground is visible, as
likewise from Myrung, and between this and Chillong is an elevated
plateau which appears to me likewise very eligible for the sites of
European residences.

But many places about Moleem are so, especially towards Nonkreem; and it
is much to be regretted that some situation in this part of the range had
not been selected for the site of a sanatarium instead of Churra.  The
Rhododendra were covered with mosses and other epiphytes, among which
Otochilus occurred.  Bambusae, 2 Fici sp. Andropogon, Gaylussacia, etc.
occur about the wood.  The vegetation of the grassy hills was precisely
the same, Aroidea, Erianthus, Tofieldioidea, Parnassia nana _potius_
_collina_, Sphacelioidea, Osbeckia, Arbutoideae, etc.  I got scarcely a
single new plant; the best was a fine large Neckera, sect. Dendroidea.
The temperature being 70 degrees: water boiled at 201 degrees, making the
altitude 6,167 feet.  No view of any particular beauty was obtained, nor
did any thing occur to repay me for the trouble and fatigue of the
journey.

About Moleem an Osmundoid is common enough, but not in _flower_: the
northern forms are Ranunculus, Anemone, Parnassia, Pyrus, Pinus, Viola,
Galium, Campanula, Clematis, of which an additional species occurs,
Bromoideae, etc. etc., as at Moflong.  I took the height of this place
again; the mean of the three thermometers gave 4,502 feet, the
temperature being at 60 degrees: water boiling at 95 degrees, 203.75
degrees, 204 degrees.  It must, however, be remembered that my residence
is not 100 feet above the bed of the Boga Panee, so that it would be easy
to attain an elevation of 5,000 feet in the village itself.

_October 17th_.--I returned to Churra to send away my collections and
to consult with Major Lister as to the routes proposed for me by Capt.
Jenkins, viz. through the Garrows, or through the Cacharees.  Nothing
particular occurred en route.  I met with Hydrangea exaltata along a
torrent flowing into the main-feeder of the Boga Panee, and two other
Araliaceae.  The highest ground crossed is towards the ravine of the Boga
Panee, and from this a good view of Moflong is obtained, and also of the
Himalayas in clear weather.  Coelogyne Wallichiana was commencing to
flower; this plant occurs in profusion in some rocky spots about Moflong.
The only additional thing I remarked was, that Luculia scarcely reaches
the Kala Panee.

On my return to Churra, a change was observed in the character of the
vegetation, all the Tradescantias had ceased, as well as most of the
Impatientes, and Eriocaulons.  The grasses had become more withered, and
the general tint was brown.  No kites (Falco milvus) are to be observed
out of Churra.

The plants which were particularly conspicuous about Churra, were past
flowering in the interior; thus Osbeckia Nepalensis? was not to be met
with in flower in the interior, while it is in profusion about the
station.  The same may be said of other instances.

After all Churra presents the richest flora of any other place in the
Khasyah hills, because there is a greater extent of wood near it, than is
found in any other locality, much greater _altitudes_ and deeper descents
in its ravines, and it is as it were the transit point between a tropical
or sub-tropical, and a temperate vegetation.  I have no doubt, that
within a circle of three miles of Churra, 3,000 species might be found in
one year.

The principal plants pointing out the tropical nature of the vegetation
are Pandanus, which is almost limited to the limestone formation, on
which it is excessively abundant, Chamaerops Martiana? which from its
affecting particularly the walls of the amphitheatres so conspicuous
about Moosmai, Mamloo and Surureem, and the depths of whose sides is
probably at Mamloo 1,000 feet, might have been better named.  I have
never seen it on any other places.  The Alsophila Brunoniana is likewise
apparently confined to the limestone hills, while the tree fern,
Polypodium, is found on sandstone, as well as Impatiens, Tradescantia,
Commelineae, Eriocauloneae, Xyres, almost all the grasses, Melastomaceae,
almost all the Leguminosae and the preponderance of tropical Rubiaceae,
which are, however, few, Scitamineae, Epiphytical Orchideae, Urena
Labiata, etc. etc.

On the _23rd_ I went to Mamloo, which is about four miles to the west of
Churra.  To this place the limestone ridge, extending from Churra, nearly
approaches: its vegetation is not rich but always stunted: rocky
amphitheatres are very remarkable at Mamloo, they are of excessive depth;
their walls being generally perpendicular, often somewhat overhanging.
The manner of their formation is now to be seen in the amphitheatre
immediately contiguous to the village, although it appears to be very
slow.  It is thus, bodies of water falling from the edge of the table
land, seem to undermine the sandstone below, producing land slips, which
occur in this manner year after year.  Since 1835, the edge of the
Moosmai fall has receded at least 10 feet, and ample evidence remains of
the recession to take place next rains.  This simple undermining will
suffice for the formation of ravines, which are formed by their sides
merely slipping down without being carried away, this last only occurring
in the immediate vicinity of the strength of the torrent.  All the
different stages may be easily seen.  The edge of the table land I take
to have been originally at Mahadeb.  The time that has elapsed between
the falling of the first cataract over its edge, and the formation of the
edge over which the waters at present fall, must be immense, since that
edge has now receded several miles.  Allowing the annual recess to be 5
feet, and the distance 5 miles; the time occupied would be 5,700 years:
that the time has been great, is proved by the sides of these places
being clothed with large tree-jungle to the base of the scarp.

_October 25th_.--I went in search of the fossil marine beach, (found
during our first visit in 1835,) but passed it, and my journey ended at
the site of the Jasper beds: this occupies a ridge where roads strike off
leading to the Orange villages, so called from the groves of orange trees
by which they are surrounded, and from which they derive their name.  From
this spot, 3 villages are seen occupying sheltered situations, none much
above 2,000 feet in elevation.  Luckily I was accompanied, (although
going down I was unconscious of it,) by a boy who had been with
McClelland when he originally discovered the fossil remains, so I
recommenced the ascent, after digging in many places without any success.
The site is scarcely 1,000 feet below Mamloo, which is 3,153 feet; it is
below the ridge along which the road is visible from the village, and is
about 100 yards farther from it than the second square stone erection.
One would imagine that one was passing through rocks presenting nothing
interesting: the rocks are in many places very hard, particularly when
they have been long exposed to the atmosphere, in which case they are
less red than when sheltered by vegetation, when they are soft and of a
reddish colour: the fossils are by no means frequent, the cylindric
_tubes_ appear to occupy the outer or rather upper surface of the
sandstone, in the interior of which Medusae or Cyrtomae are most
frequent, accompanied by shells, some of large size, the largest bivalves
resembling _scolloped oysters_; the next in size looking like oblong
cockles: for only in one position did I see a conglomeration of minute
shells; this occurred above the others and nearer the jungle.  I brought
away with me, two boxes full.  Owing to my presuming that I should meet
with water near, I omitted the precaution of taking some with me, so I
could not ascertain exactly the height of the place.  All the fossils are
easily friable. {172}

From the Jasper, which is scarce 1,800 feet in elevation, the following
plants occurred nearly in succession--Holmskioldia, this is scarcely
found above 2,000 feet; Porana in abundance, gradually diminishing above;
Callicarpa arborea abundant, continuing to about 2,200; Triumfetta, Urena
lobata, Arundo the same as above, Melica latifolia, Panicum plicatum, and
one or two other species; a Polygonum, Andropogon, small Commeline, Leea,
Erythrina are very close to the spot, and the only Churra plant, except
the Arundo and Wendlandia is a Labiata, Geniosporum? so is Composita
arborea; indeed the vegetation is almost decidedly tropical.  The
following plants are then seen--Tetranthera, Flemingia as at Mahadeb,
Vitis, Drymaria, Panicum eleusinoides, Eurya, Panax foliis decompositis
inermis, Pogonatherum crenitum, Wallichia, which occur before one has
gained an ascent of 2,000 feet: Osbeckia nepalensis descends to this but
in small quantities; then I remarked Bidens, AEtheilema, Caricineae,
Rottlera, Didymocarpus, Begonia, Cheilanthes dealbata, Stemodia
ruderalis? Scutellaria, Impatiens bracteata, Rungiae sp. Sida,
Elephantopus sp. and Bambusa, Gordonii occurring there at an elevation of
about 2,100 feet.  Then Centotheca lappacea, Deeringia, Panicum
_centrum_, Gouania, Caryophyllus, which last occurs on all the chain of
Himalayas, and which I have seen as high as 6,000 feet in the Mishmee
Mountains, latitude 28 degrees.  Panax foliis palmatim partitis,
Clerodendrum nutans, Ficus feruginea and F. hispida, foliis cordatis,
serrato-dentatis: then Saurauja micrantha; before 2,300 feet were
reached.  There Oxyspora sp. paniculis cernius ramis ascendentibus,
frutex, Croton of old, Ruellia persicaefolia appeared, and about 2,400
feet, the 1st Quercus appeared.  Here, as at Mahadeb, Ruellia Neesiana
became common, and Linum trigynum, Uncinia, etc.  Grasses commence to
preponderate at about 2,800 feet, but not the grasses of Churra.  Holcus,
Airoides, etc. not being found, but Panica varia, and Rottboellia which
ceases above this.

At the raised Marine Fossil Beach, a queer Cephalanthus? Legumenosa
arbuscula fol. pinnatis impari (Pongamiae) Legumenibus secus suturam
quamque alatis, Mangifera indici, Anthistiria arundinacea are found, and
an arbusculous Mimosa, but unarmed.  Shortly above this, Holcus,
Andropogons, etc., begin to preponderate, and thence the vegetation is
nearly that of Churra.  The woods of Mamloo consist of Bucklandia, oaks,
chesnuts, Panax, Hyalostemma, Eurya, and Oleineoe; Epiphytes are very
common.  The most remarkable tree is one foliis alternis bistipulat;
corymbis denis, Calycibus hinc fissis, petalis 5-albis, Antherae sinuosae
columna terminans, et ovarium et stigma occultantes? fructibus pendulis
stipilatis ovato oblongis, carpellis 5-latere marginatus.

This has some affinities apparently with Sterculiaceae; the flowers are
perhaps polygamous.

Here Cypripedium insigne, Venustum, and various other fine Orchideae may
be found.

The only bird I saw was a Bucco, which in voice resembled the green one
of the plains.

The elevation of Mamloo is 3,153, the temperature being at 7 A.M. 63
degrees.  The large metal thermometer rose at the boiling point to 206.25
degrees: wooden one to 206.5 degrees: centigrade 96.7 degrees: small
metal 200 degrees.

One of the most curious places about Churra is situated over the ridge in
which the coal is found; on surmounting this, which is steep and perhaps
400 feet high, one soon commences to descend gradually until you come to
a water-course; on proceeding along this a short way you come to a
precipice.  The water falling over this, has cut a deep well in the
limestone: the road to the bottom is precipitous and dangerous.  On
reaching the water-course again no signs of the well are observable,
access to this is gained by subterranean passages, of which two, now dry,
exist.  The scene inside is very striking; you stand on the rugged bottom
of the well which is 70 or 80 feet deep, the part above corresponding to
the fall, being of about the same depth; the water now escapes through a
chasm below the bed of the well, the other fissures or passages being
above, and probably now rarely letting off the water.  After a severe
fall of rain the scene must be grand.

_November 4th_.--Nonkreem 6.5 A.M., thermometer 31 degrees: hoarfrost.
Marched hither from Surureem.  Vegetation the same until you reach the
Boga Panee, when Delphinium, Anemone, and Ranunculus make their
appearance.  On the high ridges before reaching Boga Panee, found an
Astragalus; at Nonkreem, a Scrophularia.  Nonkreem is a curious place,
the village of no great size in a valley: the sides of the valley are
covered with boulders; those at the entrance from Churra of huge size,
and thrown together with great confusion.  Pines at this place occur of
some size, but they are distinctly limited in this direction to the
granitic formation.  The downs have now assumed a withered wintry
appearance.  Nonkreem is a great place for iron; this is found in coarse
red sandstone, or it may be fine granite, forming precipices; this is
scraped or pushed down by iron rods, it is then washed by a stream turned
off on to it: the stream is dammed up, and the irony particles by their
weight fall to the bottom: they are very heavy, of a dull blackish
appearance.  All the streams are of a whitish colour, and the rocks are
covered with Caelogyne Wallichiana.

The elevation of Nonkreem is 4,578 feet, the temperature of the air being
52 degrees.  The large thermometer indicated boiling water 203 degrees:
centigrade 96.5 degrees: wooden 204 degrees: small 197 degrees.  In the
Nonkreem jheel, Alisma, Villarsia! and Potamogeton occur.

_November 5th_.--The march to Suneassa continues over high downs, the
vegetation being precisely as before, viz. Cnicus, Carduus, Prunella
Pedicularis, Gaultheria, Gnaphalia, Bromoid acroideum, Tussilaginoid
Andropogon, Sphacelia Daucas, Hypericum, Hedychium, Polygonum rheoides,
Smithia but rare, Tradescantia clavigera, Parnassia collina, Pteris
aquilina, Euphorbia, Dipsacus, Salix, Osbeckia capitata, AEthionnia,
Eriocaulon, Knoxia cordata, and Campanula.  In short, the higher ridges
have the vegetation of those between the Kala and Boga Panee, the less
elevated, that of Surureem.  Along the watercourses Pyrus, Betula,
Corylifoliae, and Eurya.

As one approaches Suneassa the ravines become wooded, and the aspect of
country more diversified.  The woods consist of a Castanea, 2 oaks,
Rhododendron arboreum and R. punctatum, Panax, Eurya, Thebaudiaceae
variae, no less than 4 or 5 of these, one is a Gaylussacia; Saccharum
megala makes its appearance at Suneassa.

This is a small straggling village, on the brow of the ravine of the same
name; it is like Moflong, each house being hidden by hedges composed as
usual of Buddleia, Colquhounii, Solanum spirale? Erythrina, Ficus, and
Rhus.  Sugarcane, but of poor quality, is here cultivated, as well as
capsicum, but this is also of inferior quality; the houses are worse than
usual.  Near this place several Nunklow plants appear, as Plectranthus
caeruleus, Labiata foliis verticillatis of Suddya.  Its elevation is
4,362 feet, the temperature being in the air, 59 degrees.  Big
thermometer boiling point ditto 204 degrees: wooden ditto 204 degrees:
small 198 degrees: centigrade ditto 96 degrees.  Pines occur here and
there towards Suneassa, but of no size and no abundance.

_November 6th_.--Left Suneassa and proceeded down the ravine which is
probably 1,200 to 1,500 feet deep.  The scenery is very pretty, the sides
being much wooded; the woods open, consisting chiefly of pines, which are
of moderate size, Gordonia, Castanea, and Quercus: Mimosea occurs, also
Saurauja.  The grasses are as before, except that the Anthisteria of
Nunklow appears, with Volkameria, Verbena Primulacae, and Osbeckia
capitate, foliis lineari oblongis, floribus carneis.  Towards the foot,
the scenery still improves.

The woods consist of pines and a Quercus foliis castaneae cupulis
echinatis, Arbor mediocris; the slopes as well as the valley are
cultivated chiefly for rice, this last often assuming the terrace
fashion.  The river is of considerable width, 50 to 60 yards, but of no
depth: two here flow together, and at the end of the valley a still
larger stream not fordable in the rains, at least where I crossed, meets
it.  On the streams at the base of the Suneassa acclivity, Salix,
Ligustrum, Ficus frutex humelis, and a fine Indigofera occur.  Moving
thence along the valley the vegetation becomes tropical, although pines
descend nearly to its level.  Pontederia the small one of Bengal, ditto
Sagittaria Vandelliae, Poae 3, Apluda, Cyperaceae, Saccharum megala, and
spontaneum, Elytrophorus, Ammannia, Erianthus, Cnicus! Artemisia as
before, Arundo exalum, Cirsium, Carduus! Scitamineae 2, Panicum curvatum,
Setaria glauca, Swertia angustifolia! Volkameriae sp., Ranunculus
hirsutoideus! Zizania ciliaris.

Those marked with (!) have probably straggled down.  The cultivation is
chiefly of rice, Eleusine, Coix, and the edible seeded Labiata.  Grasses
abound; in addition to those above several new ones occur, Rottboellia
exallata, Anthisteria of Nunklow, Arundinaceae, Andropogones several,
Saccharum fusco-rubum, 25 species might certainly be collected.

Fine pines occur on the other ascent from its base to apex.  Here also
occurs Phoenix pumile, which as well as the Rottboellia, which I think I
have seen in the Mogoung valley (during the journey to Ava), and Buddleia
neemda.

The ascent gained, the country appears level, covered with the usual
grasses.  The ravines are well wooded, but few pines occur, although they
may be seen here and there.  The woods appear the same as those of
Churra.  Pandanus sp. altera? occurs.  In one ravine gathered a new
Thebaudiaceae allied to T. variegata, differing in its short greenish
flowers and its smoothness.

[Gradient Nonkreem to Amwee: g176.jpg]

Amwee is situated on an undulated plain or table land; the undulations
are gentle, separated by marshy tracts: no steep ravines occur, the face
of the undulations is covered with grasses, among which are seen most of
the Churra plants, the sides are covered with fine woods with defined
edges, consisting chiefly of oaks, chesnuts and Bucklandia.  The aspect
of the country is pretty, resembling some woodland scenery in the south
of England; close to Amwee is a fine stream 40 yards wide, this winds
through the valley, and on its upper part fine cascades occur.  No fish
are to be found besides those of Churra.  The river is crossed by a stone
bridge consisting of pillars of single slabs of large size, one measuring
20 feet in length by from 4 to 5 in breadth.  The temperature varies from
50 to 68 during the day in an open verandah.  Fogs are not so common, nor
is the rain so heavy as at Churra.  The space being much greater, and the
country more level, it would be better as a sanatarium than Churra,
besides which, its access is as easy, it being reached in one day from
Jynteapore.  There is, however, a Toorai about Jynteapore, which is
unhealthy.  Its altitude is 3,500 feet, or nearly 500 below Churra.

The vegetation is nearly the same as about Churra, some new Castaneae and
an Elaeocarpus occur, and Pandanus of large size in the woods.
Epiphytical Orchideae abound; Nepenthes occurs here.  Altitude from three
observations 3,530 feet: 1st observation 3,439: 2nd 3,597: 3rd 3,624.

_November 10th_.--Joowye: this is north from Amwee, and about 8 miles
distant.  Two valleys have to be descended, one rather steep.  The
country alters immediately after the 1st ascent, the woods nearly
disappearing except in the more favoured spots.  Pines soon commence.  In
the second valley, the stream of which is large, and of which pretty
views are to be obtained, the pines reach on the south side to the bank
of the stream, on the north scarcely any are to be seen.  In the woods
about Amwee, Eugenia is very common: noticed on the route Lonicera.

Joowye is the largest village I have seen, it is of great extent but
straggling; near its entrance is a breast-work now nearly complete.  The
houses are of a better description than those generally met with.  They
are surrounded by wood, especially fine bamboos, in habit not unlike B.
baccifera.  They are also surrounded by excellent timber palings.  The
people are different from Khasyas Proper--perhaps they are not so fine a
race.  Their features approach more to those of Bengallees, particularly
the women, who dress their hair like those of Assam, indeed the dress
generally of both sexes assimilates to that of Assamese, although their
language seems to be Bengallee.  In the wood surrounding this place
curious features of vegetation occur, and beautiful lanes and pathways.
One may see a beech now naked of leaves, standing out in graceful relief
close to the elegant foliage of a bamboo.  Bamboos surround all the
houses--sugarcane, kuchoos, mustard, hemp, Musa, Ricinus were observed.

The plants are beech, which is common and of large size.  Pyrus of
Moleem, Pinus rare, Marlea begonifolia! Betula corylifolia common.
Verbena chamaedrys, Rubi 3 or 4, Tetrantherae? Rubia cordifolia, Morus,
Cerasus, Panax 3 species, Gleicheniae 2, Eurya, Juncus, Ranunculus,
Viola, Verbesina of Moflong, Sida, Clematis _pubescens_, Caricineae,
Myrica, Gordonia, Polygonum 3, among them Rheoides Engeldhaardtii common,
Viburna 2, Wendlandia, Osbeckia capitata and nepalensis.  The grasses
chiefly Andropogons; Mussaenda, Bucklandia, Saurauja, Hiraea, Dipsacus
rare, Camellia oleifolia, and C. axillaris, Begonia laciniata, Ficus,
Vitis, Sonerila, Plectranthus azureus, Randia, Mephitidia, Psychotria,
Galium, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Pyrus or crab, Fragaria, Potentilla,
Urena lobata.  The diversified nature of the vegetation, both tropical
and temperate, is at once evident.

The altitude is 3,553 feet--temperature of the air 62 degrees; large
thermometer boiling point 205.5 degrees: wooden ditto 206.75: centigrade
ditto 96 degrees: small ditto 199.5 degrees.

The higher ground about the place is about 4,000 feet: Joowye being
situated in a hollow.  Viola and Peristrophe occur.

_November 11th_.--The march to Nurtung occupies about 6 hours.  The
country is level, or merely undulated, with no considerable descent, the
steepest being that to the river on which Nurtung is situated.  The
vegetation continues the same, the trees except in the ravines almost
exclusively pines, those on the ravines consisting of oaks, Rhododendra,
Betula corylifolia, Betula moroides, Solidago, Verbena, Primulaceae,
Othonna, occur; Anthistiriae, _both_ those of Nunklow are common,
Rottboellia Manisuris in low valleys: here and there Phoenix pumila is
common.  The country just before Nurtung is uninteresting, scarcely any
thing but grass being visible in some directions.  Indeed it falls off on
leaving Joowye.

Rhinanthus, Corolla infundibulif. subbilabiat. lobis 2, superioribus
minoribus, stam. ascendent. stigmati inclusi decurvo.

_November 12th_.--Nurtung is a large place for these hills, perhaps
next in extent to Joowye, it occupies principally both sides of a
sufficiently sheltered hill.  The lanes adjacent to the place are narrow,
often very wet, and always very dirty.  The gardens are enclosed with
wooden palings and are screened still further by bamboos.  The houses, at
least the better order, are still better than even those of Joowye.  The
exterior is of the same construction as all Khasya houses, but the lawns
and the comparative cleanliness of the front makes them look much better.
The market, which took place to-day, is outside the village and close to
our bungalow: it is well attended, but the amount of persons could not
exceed 100 to 200, and these form a considerable amount of all the
persons capable of bearing burdens from the neighbouring villages.  The
luxuries exhibited are all Khasyan, consisting of stinking fish, some
other things of dubious appearance and still more dubious odour, millet
and the inferior grains, and the fashionable articles of Khasya clothing
and the adjuncts to that abominable habit pawn eating.  There was plenty
of noise, but still order prevailed: no other rupees than the _rajah's_
were taken, and even pice were refused.  Iron implements of husbandry of
native manufacture were vended, in short all the various luxuries or
necessaries of a Khasya are obtainable.

This place bears evidence of having been ruled over by some chief
pretending to Hindooism.  This is observable in the large fig trees in
some of the buildings, in most of the houses in the presence of some
brahmins, in the tanks, and in a sacred lake.  At any rate it is attended
with bad effects, and to see a Khasya attempting the formalities of a
rigid Hindoo is ridiculously absurd.

It must be a wealthy place, many of the natives are well off; and I saw a
_lady_ of a decidedly superior nature to the Khasya women, clad in snow
white, reclining in oriental fashion on a platform.  The _vegetation_ of
this place forms a curious melange around our huts: Rhus bucki ameli, two
Artimiseae, Anthistiria arundinacia, Pteris aquilina, Callicarpa
_lilacina_, Eurya, Bombax, Osbeckia nepalensis and linearis, Marlea
begonifolia, Pyrus, Pinus, Urticia fructibus aurantiaceus capitulatis,
Polygonum rheoides, Rubi 3, Swertia angustifolia, Polygonum globuliferum,
Valerianae, Cacalia, Randia, Gnaphalia nervosa, and G. revoluta, Smilax,
Plectranthus azureus, Trichosanthes, Leea, Tradescantia clavigera,
Geniosporum, _Butea_, Hypericum, Knoxia cordata, Rice cultivation.

Along the path to the village are to be found, Carduus, Myrica
crotalaria, _Hacyoides_, Cariceneae, Panicum curvatum, Arundo, Mentha
verticillata, Cyperaecae usual, Zizania ciliaris, Panax, Wendlandia
_Salvinia_, Isachne bigeniculata, Betula corylifolia common, Pontedera,
Tetranthera, Erythrina, Celtis, Salix, Buddleia, Gordonia, Calamus
abundant, Juncus, Arum macrophyllum, Cordiaceae, Urena lobata,
Cynoglossum canescens, Bambusa, Verbesinea, _Lavinia_, Magnolia of
Myrung, Camellia oleifolia, Gualtheria.

About the village, Porana, Musa, Verbena, Xanthophyllum, Xyris, Urtica
herophylla, Sambucus, etc.

The cultivation consists of rice, millet, Soflong? pumpkins and tobacco;
guavas and oranges, are also to be seen.

Daphne cannabina occurs here, as well as Loxotis obliqua, the Cardaminum,
Plantago, and Martynia.

From a fresh observation and taking the mean, I find the elevation of
Nurtung to be 3,302 feet.

On enquiry I find that Rulung is one march off, that the country is
similar, and that pines grow there to a large size.  From this place to
Koppilee river it is said to be nine marches.  A fuqueer from Cutch said
several, six to ten--and as the distance is nearly fifty miles and the
ground difficult, he was probably right.

You then come to the Meekir country.  To get into Tooly Ram's country
would require at least nine days, but with loaded people probably twelve
or fifteen.  The station between Rulung and the Koppilee is Hush Koorah.
Thermometer varies here from 45 to 85 in the sun, in shade from 52 to 74.

_November 13th_.--Left for the Borpanee.

The country traversed is easy, consisting chiefly of undulations covered
with grassy vegetation.  There are no steep ascents nor descents; and the
only obstacle is the Borpanee.  The march is of about six hours'
duration.

Butea suffruticosa is very common about Nurtung, but ceases soon after
leaving its environs.  All the valleys near this place are cultivated:
the ground being now inundated in proportion.  Dipsacus valeriana
continued, and a short distance from Nurtung pines become very common.
Thence the country became more undulated and scarcely a tree was met
with: Hedysarum gyrans commenced shortly after leaving Nurtung: a sure
sign of decreasing elevation.  The country subsequently improved, being
more diversified with wood: firs became abundant, Callicarpa arborea
commenced.  About Nonkreen, a small village to the east, close to our
path the trees became mostly different.  Kydia appeared, a tree like the
mango, and some others unknown to me.  Bauhinia, Randia, Phyllanthus
Embelica, and a stunted arboreous Symplocos, Anthistiria arundinacea
common, with chesnuts (Castaneae).

Close to this, Gordonia, pines of some size, Anthistiria arundinacea and
Cassioides.  The grasses continued the same, but two new Andropogons and
a small Rottboellia appear; Holcus, Airoides, etc. of Churra have ceased:
the other are Sacchara and various Andropogons.  On approaching a
considerable descent the woods became open, consisting at first entirely
of pines, Betula of Joowye, etc. then of pines, Quercus castaneoides
which attains a large size.  It was here that the pines became large, one
felled measured sixty-nine feet to the first branch, most are straight,
the greatest diameter not two feet.  Gordonia occurred here of large
size, the woods are really delightful, reminding one much of England.
Here Myrica occurs but rarely, Lematula, Flemingia, Elephantopus, Vanda,
Quercus callicarpifolius commences, Biophytum appears a short distance
hence.  Also, Liriodendron, Dipterocarpus, Bambusa, Pinus but of smaller
size, Engelhaardtia, Dioscorea, Castanea, Quercus callicarpa, which is
very common.

Here Bombax appears somewhat lower, with it Castanea, Kydia, Gordonia.  No
pines now occur except on the neighbouring heights.

The descent to the Borpanee is not great, say 400 feet; on its banks
Thunbergia grandiflora commences, but the Castanea castaneoides of large
size, Camellia oleifolia, Daphne cannabina, Rhododendron punctatum
variety.  Engenia Wallichii (which commences), Quercus castaneoides, etc.
may be found along its banks.

This is a large stream, not fordable at any time, nor passable in the
rains; both banks are high, rocks of course break the stream, which is
gentle at the points crossed.  Breadth is 50 to 60 yards, the elevation
of its bed is 2,508 feet, water boiling at 207.5 degrees: temperature 74
degrees.

The ascent of the north bank is great, on surmounting it one returns to
grassy undulations, the vegetation of which is the same as before,
Rottboellia of Suniassa as well as Manisuroides here occur.  The village
Madan is very small, the people, of course, as they have scarcely ever
seen a white face, very polite and obliging: it is situated on a hill,
but is still below the north bank of the river.  Its altitude is 2,753
feet--temperature of the air 67 degrees: boiling water 207 degrees.

[Gradient Nurtung to Madan: g182.jpg]

The birds, as well as those of the Nurtung river, are the water-ouzel,
the greyish-blue water-chat, the red and black ditto with a white head-
top, and the black bird, _durn-durns_ or bird producing that cry
occurs, but not in great numbers.  Pea-fowl at Madan.  Elephants are
abundant, especially towards the descent to the Borpanee.  _Fly wheel_
(?) insect is here common at Kokreen, a small village close to Nonkreen.
Equisetum occurs along the Boga Panee as well as a new species of
Podostemon, P. fronde profunde lobato, lobis liniaribus simplicibus vel
lobatis saxis arcti adpressis, floribus marginalibus distiches.  Polygala
occurs at 3,000 feet and continues higher.

_November 14th_.--The march to Mengtung occupies about six hours, it is
by no means difficult, and the only ascent of any length is that before
descending on Nungtung.  Throughout the 1st part, all the bottoms of the
valleys are cultivated, thence all is jungle, either of high grass or of
trees.

Near Madan, Arundinaria bambusifolia may be found, although at an
elevation of 2,800 feet, Volkameria is common.  The same grasses
continue.  In the rice field Butomus lanceolatus, Herpestes, Jussaeia,
Juncus, Eriocaulon, Zizana ciliaris.

We then came after traversing such low swampy ground for sometime to a
wood composed of Quercus castaneoidea, of large size; its bark is thick
and somewhat corky, its diameter three feet.  Quercus callicarpifolius
appeared soon after, with Polygala linearis, Scitamineae are common in
the valley.  In similar low places, Impatiens graminifolia of Churra was
seen, and Hedysarum gyrans.

Oolooks {183} and parrots are both found: Cnicus floribus roseis,
Gerardia, Apluda, Senecio pubescens, were found in similar spots.

After traversing a low valley with gentle undulations presenting the
usual grasses, we came to a wood presenting many tropical features.  Oaks
and chesnuts still continuing to be the usual trees.  Much underwood,
consisting of Acanthaceae, Laurineae, Anonaceae, Rubiaceae, among which
Poederia triphylla and Mephitidia were common.  Centothca sp.,
Sarcopyramis, Garcinia, Triumfetta were observed.

Thence we came to pines.  Then a low valley, the altitude of the stream
of which was 1,979 feet, the thermometer being in the air 82 degrees,
boiling point 208.5 degrees.  Then a wood.

In it Castanea ferruginea continued common, Quercus dalbergioides, Daphne
cannabina, Acanthus leucostachyus (1st appearance), Oxyspora and
Polypodium Wallichii were found; ascending a few feet, say 60, Randia
microphyllum, Aneilema aspera, and pines appeared in the woods, with
straight trunks and high branches, occasioned by the abortion of the
lower branches, sometimes dichotomously forked, bark grey, and scaley,
branches horizontal, approximated; cones inclining towards the axis.  The
descent occasioned a loss of pines, oaks and chesnuts continuing,
Orthopogon, Pederia triphyllum.

This wood was of great extent, the path running along the precipitous or
steep edge of a very wet water-course.  Castanea ferruginea very common,
Cyrtandracea.

Begonia malabarica, Achyranthes, Tradescantia flagellifera,
Phlogacanthus, Acanthaceae, Sarcopyramis, Magnolia, Eupatorium arboreum,
Laurineae, Gleichenia minor.

Pinus subsequently appears but is rare, Eurya.

Daphne involucrata, Gaultheria arborescens, Knoxia cordata, Polypodium
arborescens, Thibaudia, Viburni sp., Vareca, Leucas galea brunacea.

Then still gradually ascending, open woods occurred.

Pines, Q. castaneoides.

Thence the ascent is still through open woods of pines.  Castanea,
Quercus castaneoides and callicarpifolia, Polygala here appears, Knoxia
linearis, Flemingia, AEschynomene.

On the top no Pines.  Oaks, chesnuts, and Gordoniae appear.

Thence a second but small ascent, pines re-appear with birch,
Scutellaria, Erythrina, Melica latifolia, Epiphytes common, especially on
Gordoniae.  The altitude of the summit before descending on Nungtung was
3,359 feet: thermometer 75 degrees, boiling point 206 degrees.

The altitude of Nungtung is 2,862 feet, Temp. 64 degrees.  Big Therm. in
boiling water 206.5 degrees, ditto wooden 207 degrees, small ditto 201
degrees, centigrade 97.75 degrees.

[Gradient Madan to Nungtung: g185.jpg]

Nungtung is a small village not containing more than 12 houses; these are
on michaowns, {186} and are built entirely of bamboos.  The doors of
curious construction, consisting of bamboos strung longitudinally over a
transverse one, so that they can be only opened by pushing on one side.
The pigs have similar doors to their houses and appear well acquainted
with the mode of ingress and egress.

Tobacco flourishes here.  Here also I saw Sesamum and Ricinus, sure signs
of increasing temperature, Labiata edulis.  The first part of the march
lay through an oak and chesnut wood; then through the valley which is
under rice cultivation; then through part of an oak and fir wood; I then
turned off to NNE. traversing undulated hills entirely covered with
grass; here and there an oak and chesnut wood occurred; this continued
until 1 P.M., when the path joined the great road as it is called, but
which is nearly as bad as the Nungtung one.  The marching was very
disagreeable, owing to the path being choked up with grass, particularly
in the swampy valley just before Onkreem.  In this valley wild elephants
were first seen.

After leaving the halting or resting place under a large oak (Q.
castaneoides) at Onkreem, the path improved and is only rendered bad by
the swarms of elephants, by which animals we were disturbed twice; it
continued until 6 P.M., over undulated ground becoming lower and lower
until we arrived at the large valley of Onswye, which is even now at this
advanced period of the season, the middle of November, considerably
swampy.

Oaks and chesnuts continued, but pines ceased about half way between
Onkreem and Onswye.

[Gradient Nungtung to Onkreem: g187.jpg]

[Gradient Journey towards Assam and Bootan: g188.jpg]

[Gradient From Onkreem to Onkreem: g189.jpg]

[Gradient Journey towards Bootan: g190.jpg]

[Gradient Descent into Assam: g191.jpg]

Onswye is a small village, seated on a low hill, and entirely hidden by
trees: the access to it is pretty.  Its elevation is 1,632 feet,
temperature 63 degrees.  Water boils at 98.75 of centigrade, small ther.
202.5 degrees, big ditto 208.75 degrees, wooden ditto 210 degrees: taking
209 degrees as the mean.

It is a Lalung village.  These people have distinct habits and language
from their neighbours: their dress is like that of the Khasyahs.  They
approach to Hindoos in not eating cows.  They inhabit the lower northern
ranges of these hills, but do not extend further east, nor into the
plains at the foot, and are far less civilized than the Khasyahs.

They have religious houses or places of worship, deo-ghurs, in one of
which I slept, having it first cleansed, and the deity appeased by some
most villainous music, and a procession of men with knives.

At this village Carica, Ficus elastica, Ficus cordifolius, Ricinus,
Artocarpus intigrifol, Tamarind, Guava, Musa, Solanum Melongena, tobacco,
etc., are cultivated.

Caryophyllea scandens, Desmochaeta, Plumbago, Plectranthus azureus,
Phlebochiton, Cassia tora, Orthopogon, Adhatoda, Mangifera, Croton
malvaefol, Hastingsia, Torenia asiatica, Caricinea, Leea, Prunus! Congea!
Antidesma, Rottleria, Clerodendron nutans, Calamus, Xanthochymus.  Mesua
ferrea, Garcinia Cowa, Leea arbuscula, Dalhousia, Roxburghia, are found
on the ascent which is moderate and pretty.

The heavy tree or bamboo jungle does not begin until you attain 12 or
1,500 feet, up to that, the ridges present the former grasses.
Rottboellia, Andropogons, Erianthus, Saccharum, Anthistiria, and the
trees are scattered consisting of Arborescent Leguminosae, Sterculia,
Cedrela, Semicarpus continues to the tree jungle, but rarely.

The road to the village runs through heavy woods, the plants forming
which I have already mentioned, it is in good order.  The village is a
Lalung one.

At Dullagong, which is situated in the plains of Assam, at the foot of
the range the temperature being 66 degrees, 8.5 A.M., water boiled at
211.1 degrees in the large thermometer.  100 centigrade, and above the
boiling point in the wooden.  205.5 degrees in the small metal
thermometer.

Between this and Goba, the path is generally through grass or tree
jungle.  I noticed Exacum, Careya, Butea arborea, Ficus, Cinchona, Kydia,
Saccharum Megala fuscum masus, Spathodea, Alstonia, Bombax, Semicarpus!
AEgle Marmelos, Emblica, Panax, Elephantopus, and Lagerstraemia Reginae
succeeds about Goba: and between this and Dhumria, the country being low
and highly cultivated, presents generally the appearance of one sheet of
rice.  In this march I observed one or two instances of the absolute
enclosure of Dicotyledonous trunks by Fici.  This enclosure arises
entirely from the excessive tendency to cohesion between the roots and
radicles of some of the species of this genus.  With these, an expert
gardener might produce any form he likes; the tendency exists in all to
throwing out additional roots; in few only to excess.  In the generality
it is limited to the trunk and often to its base.  Nobody can understand
this genus who cannot study it from living specimens.

Cardiopterus is very common along the foot of these hills: it abounds
with milky juice, and in habit and some other points approaches nearer to
Chenopodiaceae than Sapindaceae.

_December 7th_.--Returned from Jeypore, whither I had been to report on
the Caoutchouc trees. {193}

These trees appear to be limited to the belt of jungle or toorai which
commences towards the foot of the Aka and Duphla hills, and which in the
part in which I examined them is about 8 miles wide.  They are said to be
found likewise among the neighbouring villages, but I saw no instance of
this.  They occur solitarily, or at most in groups of two or three.  They
appear to be more frequent towards the immediate base of the hills, and
to prefer the drier parts of those humid and dense forests called toorai.
They are frequently of vast size, and by this as well as their dense
head, may be at once recognised even at a distance of a few miles.  Some
idea of their size may be formed from the following measurements of a
large one:

Circumference of main trunk,                 74 feet
Ditto, including the supports,              120  "
Ditto, of space covered by crown branches,  620  "
Height, ditto ditto,                  80 to 100  "

The roots spread out in every direction on reaching the ground; the
larger running along the surface, their upper portion being uncovered:
occasionally they assume the form of buttresses, but never to such a
marked degree as occurs in some other trees, such as the Simool,
Herietiera, etc.  The supports are only thrown out towards the base of
the principal branches, not as in the banian at indefinite distances.  The
trunk is a compound one, formed entirely by the mutual cohesion of roots;
not as in almost all other trees by the growth of parts in an ascending
direction.  Its aspect is picturesque and varied, occasionally putting on
the appearance of sculpture.  It is, I think, doubtful whether this as
well as some other species of the genus are not to be considered as
genuine parasites, at any rate they generally cause the destruction of
the tree on which they originally grew.  If this be the case the
parasitism is the reverse of that which occurs in Cuscuta, in which the
plantule draws its first nourishment from the earth, relinquishing this
when sufficiently developed to enable it to draw its supply from other
plants.  I may here observe, that parasites are common on the peepul,
contrary to the statement of M. DeCandolle.

The destruction of the foster-mother takes place by the mutual
interlacement of the roots, which descending irregularly, form at first a
strong net-work, subsequently becoming a cylindric binding, in the
strongest possible way to the trunk, and preventing all lateral
distinction.  The hollow occupied by the trunk when dead may become
filled up, when this has passed away, by other roots.  The adhesion of
the roots commences by abrasion of the bark, the union subsequently
becomes of the most intimate kind.  The supports are perfectly
cylindrical; they become conical only towards the earth, on approaching
which they divide into roots: they are strictly descending growths, and
as such, under ordinary circumstances, they never produce leaves, etc.
Roots likewise issue from every section of the bark of sufficient depth
to reach the outer layer of wood, with the outer fibres of which they are
obviously continuous.  To such an extent is this carried, that transverse
sections of young supports assume the appearance of coarse paint-brushes
or tails.  The lenticells, which are very numerous, have nothing whatever
to do with their production; if the bark remains entire, no roots are
thrown out except by division of the apex.  The branches ascend
obliquely, the outermost running nearly horizontally.

The juice is obtained from the larger; that from young parts is less
thick: an exposed semi-denuded root, is selected for transverse incisions
through the bark, from which alone the juice flows, a small hole is made
in the ground immediately beneath the incised parts into which a leaf,
generally of Phrynium capitatum is placed: it is collected in this simple
manner in a very clean state, far more so than that which can be
collected from the tree in any other situation.  On issuing, it is of a
very rich pure white; if good, of the consistence of cream: its
excellence is known by the degree of consistence, and by the quantity of
caoutchouc it contains.  This is ascertained by rubbing a few drops up in
the palm of the hand, which causes the watery juice to separate (probably
by evaporation) from the caoutchouc which remains in the form of small,
oblong, or round portions; and by kneading this in the hand, and striking
it sharply once or twice with the fist it acquires elasticity, so that an
additional test of excellence is at once pointed out.  Many incisions are
made in one tree, the juice flows rapidly at first, at the rate of sixty
drops a minute from an ordinary incision, but this soon becomes so much
diminished that it dwindles to eight.  The bleeding is continued for two
or three days, when it ceases spontaneously by the formation of a layer
of caoutchouc over the wound; and it is to the commencement of this that
the rapid diminution in the number of drops is perhaps to be attributed.
The quantity obtained from one tree has not exactly been ascertained; by
some it is stated to be as much as four or five maunds, while others say
that a moderate tree will only yield one gurrah full, or about ten seers.
From the slowness with which it flows, I should consider half a maund to
be a fair average for each bleeding.  The juice is, however, said to flow
faster at night, but this demands verification.

The operation is repeated at the end of eighteen or twenty days.  In
seven miles of jungle we observed eighty trees, by far the greater
portion of which were of large size.  Lieutenant Vetch has made a
calculation, (on the assumption that they are equally plentiful
throughout Chardowar,) that the number in this district alone is ---
trees.

I calculate the number to be about 20,000.  There is no reason for
supposing that they are not equally abundant throughout Noadwar, nor in
fact on any line where toorai prevails between Goalpara and Bishnath;
beyond this, however, the increase in latitude may occasion their
decrease both in number and size.  On the southern side of the valley
there is every reason to believe it to be equally common.  The general
geographic range may hence be said to be in latitude 24 degrees, to 26.5
degrees in longitude.  It has been stated by Mr. Royle that it does not
extend beyond Pundua, Jynteapoor, and Churra Punjee, but on no other
authority than that it had not been found elsewhere.

Taking the number of trees at 20,000, and the produce of each from four
bleedings at two maunds, the annual supply that may be obtained from
Durrung may be estimated at 13,000 maunds of the caoutchouc itself,
assuming Dr. Roxburgh's proportion of one to three to be nearly correct.
Some idea may be formed of the extent to which it is procurable, when
from the mere outskirts of the forest, 300 maunds of juice may be
collected in one month.

On the excellence of the Assam product as compared with that of America,
it does not become me to pronounce.  If strength, elasticity, clearness,
and perfect freedom from viscidity, be tests of excellence, then this
product may be considered as equal to any other.  It has been pronounced
by persons in Calcutta to be excellent, but no details have been entered
into except by Mr. Bell, who objects to its snapping: if by this we are
to understand snapping on being pulled too much, in contradistinction to
breaking, it only proves its excellence.  It is declared to be inferior
to the American by Mr. McCosh, evidently on examination of the worst
possible specimens.

The size of the trees as they generally occur in the limits above alluded
to, entirely precludes all idea of any great liability to be destroyed by
the extraction of juice, the amount of which must be so minute, compared
to that of the whole tree.  Still it may be considered desirable for the
security of the tree to limit the bleedings to the cold months, and this
is rendered more necessary by the inferiority of the juice during the
season of active vegetation.  And if it be possible to limit the number
of bleedings of each tree to four or five during the above period, I
consider that the present 3,000 stock cannot fail to be kept up.  But to
venture on still larger supplies, to meet the demand for this most useful
article, a demand to which limits can scarcely be assigned, the formation
of plantations should be encouraged, the sites chosen to be near the
villages bordering on the line of the natural distribution of the tree.
Propagation by cuttings or layers cannot fail to be of easy and rapid
application; and if we consider that the tree is the most valuable
receptacle of the lac insect, there is every reason to suppose that the
natives will readily enter into such views.

The jungle in which the tree occurs is of the usual heavy description,
presenting in fact no one feature in particular.  The trees are all of a
tropical nature, except towards the foot of the hills, when two species
of chesnut and one of alder begin to shew themselves.



CHAPTER XI.


_Journey from Assam towards Bootan_.

Left Gowahatti on the 21st and halted at Ameengong ghat.

_December 22nd_, _1837_.--Left at twelve and proceeded to Hazoo, which
is nearly due west of Ameengong, and distant thirteen miles.  Road,
through grassy plains; much cultivation throughout the greater part.
Passed several villages, and forded one stream.  Hazoo is at the foot of
some low hills, on one of which is a temple of great sanctity with the
Booteahs.  The hills above this, as well as between this and Ameengong,
abound with Cycas, many of which were once dichotomous; on these hills a
fleshy Euphorbia likewise occurs, a sure indication of barren soil.  Pea-
fowl abound.  The light-blue Jay figured in Hardwickii, Sterna, Haliaetus
pondicerianus, Chat, Butcher-bird, Edolius, Plovers, Hoopoe, and Ardea
indica, were met with.

_December 23rd_.--Hazoo, a large village, extending nearly north and
south, all the houses surrounded by trees.  Areca bamboos, Ficus
elastica, F. indicoides, F. religiosa, Sapotea (Mimusops) Arborea,
Erythrina.  Country to the east very jheely, and one huge expanse of
paddy cultivation.  Fine Loranthus, Hingtstha repens.

_December 24th_.--Nolbaree, seventeen miles nearly, N. by W.,
throughout the latter half of the way, the country consisted of highly
cultivated plains, intersected by bamboo jungles, etc.  Villages very
abundant, surrounded by trees, especially bamboos.  The hedges are made
of a dwarf Pandanus.  Crossed four streams, two not fordable.  Grallatores
and water-birds innumerable throughout, but especially after passing the
Borolia, Bec ouvert or Anastomus coromandelianus, Pelicans, Water-hens,
Divers, Ibis bengala, Cigoines (Ardea Pavonia) Syras, Mangoe-bird, large
King-fisher, Hawks abundant, of which we observed five species; this is,
generally speaking, one of the richest parts of Assam I have hitherto
seen.

_December 25th_.--Dum Dummia, distance ten miles, direction north,
country very open, in parts less cultivated than before, scarcely any
jungle towards Dum; this is a straggling place on the banks of a small
stream called Noa Nuddee.

The bamboo continues common, as well as Pandanus, Pterocarpus marsupium,
Bombax, Diospyros ebenum, which are the most common trees.  Villages are
very numerous, but as usual, entirely concealed from view by jungle.

_December 31st_.--Up to this morning we remained at Dum Dummia, and had
the Booteas alone been consulted, we should have remained there till to-
morrow.  It is a very uninteresting place, the country consisting of one
extensive plain, diversified only by trees wherever there are villages.
There is a good deal of cultivation, chiefly however, of rice; some
sugarcane is visible, but it is of inferior quality, and evidently not
sufficiently watered.  Sursoo is considerably cultivated.  The river Noa
Nuddee is about seventy yards wide, with a stream of three miles an hour;
it is full of sand-banks and of quicksands, and is crossed with great
difficulty on elephants; by men it is easily fordable.  The only shooting
about the place is Floriken, which are very abundant, ten or twelve being
seen in one day.

We left for Hazareegoung, a Bootea-Assam village to the north.  We passed
through a similar open country not much cultivated, but overrun with
grassy vegetation.  The path was of the ordinary description, and not
kept at all cleared: crossed a small stream twice, with a pebbly bed and
sub-rapids, a sure indication of approaching the hills.  These, in their
lower portion, have a very barren appearance, but this may arise from the
cultivated patches: land-slips are of very frequent occurrence.

The grasses of the enormous plains, so prevalent every where in this
direction, are Kagaia, Megala, Vollookher, Saccharum spontaneum, this is
soft grass, and affords an excellent cover for game, Cymbopogon hirsutum,
which is more common than the C. arundinaceum, Erianthus, Airoides,
Rottboellia exaltata, Arundo, (?) Anatherum muricatum, Apluda, Trizania
cilearis, is common in the old rice khets.

Among these occur a tall Knoxia, Plectranthus sudyensis, and P.
uncinatus.

I observed Vareca, Grislea, about Dum Dummia.  Elytrophorus is common in
rice khets.

Towards Hazareegoung we came on a high plain, covered principally with S.
spontaneum.  Among this occurred Lactuioides, Premna herbacea, Grewia,
with here and there Pterygodium.  I observe here Bootea bamboo baskets
made water-proof by caoutchouc; this is a practice much adopted by the
Booteas: and the trees are here.  The large coloured stipulae are
peculiar to the young shoots cultivated, they are often a span long.  The
young fruit is enveloped by three large coloured scales, which originate
from the annuliform base; this is hence a peduncle, not a bracte, as I
before supposed.

January 1st, 1838.--Halted.

_January 2nd_.--Marched to Ghoorgoung, a small village, eight miles
from Hazareegoung and nearly due north.  We crossed similar grassy
tracts: the country gradually rising as we approached the hills.

Very little cultivation occurred.  Crossed the Mutunga, now dry, but the
breadth testifies to its being a large stream in the rains, as the
boulders do to its being a violent one.  The same plants continue; small
jungle or wood composed of Simool.  Trophis aspera, Cassia fistula,
Bauhinia, Butea scandens, Byttneria, underwood of Eranthemum, and another
Acanthacea.

About this place Cnicus and Arundinaria occur, and a small Santalaceous
or Olacineous plant, with the habit of a Polygala.  Merops apiaster is
very common.

_January 3rd_.--To Dewangeri, distance eight miles.

Our route hither lay for the greater portion up the bed of the Durunga,
the stream of which makes its exit about one mile to the west of
Ghoorgoung.  After ascending its bed for some time, the ascent becomes
steep, for perhaps 800 or 1,000 feet, when we reached a portion of
Dewangeri, but two or three hundred feet below the ridge on which the
village is situated.  The hills bounding the watercourse are very steep,
many quite perpendicular, owing to having been cut away; generally they
are of decomposed granite as at Dacanara, in some parts of conglomerate.

The torrent contains but little water, and very few fish, the banks are
wooded tolerably well, as soon as the lower barren ranges are past.

At the base Cassia fistula, Leguminous trees, Artemisia, Simool,
Spathodea, Bignonia indica, Sterculia, Caesalpinea, Phlogacanthus
thyrsiflorus, Paederia faetida, Eugenia, Rhamnea, Croton malvaefoliis are
found among the usual grasses, which form the chief vegetation.

These continue along the sandy bed for some time, but afterwards the
usual small Andropogons usurp their place.  Anthistiria arundinacea
continue longest; with some of the large Saccharum, Rubus moluccanus soon
appears, with Melica latifolia, and a species of Rhus.

_Leptospartion_ is very common up to 1,000 feet, Pandanus 3-500 feet, but
soon ceases; the higher precipices abound with an elegant palm tree,
habitu Cocos.

Fleshy urticeae and Aroideum become common at 300 feet, along the shaded
watery banks, and continue so long as shade and humidity are found.
Equisetum commences at 300 feet, Arundo, Saurauja, Pentaptera, which last
ascends to 1,000 feet, as does Dillenia speciosa, Castaneae feorox
commences at 500 feet.  Between this and the Choky, Polypodium,
Wallichianum arboreum, Davallia grandis, Oxyspora, Musci, Goodyera, and
Composita arborea are found.

At the Choky, the elevation of which is 965 feet, OEsculus begins.
Wallichia,* OEschynanthus, Urtica gigas,* Derngia,* Govania,* Anthistiria
arundinacea, Alstonea, Angiopteris, are found.  Grislea is found as high
as 1,000 feet.  Ficus obliquissima is found at 300 feet, and Ficus altera
species as high as 700 feet.

At 1,200 feet Rubi sp., Panax, Cordia, are found, and on the steep
ascent, Hastingsia,* Gordonia, Eurya, Corisanthera, Griffithia.

At one place the jack fruits, Ficus elastica, Compositi arborea, Panax
altera species.

Dewangeri occupies a ridge 200 feet above our halting place, the
elevation of which is 2,031 feet.  The view to the north is confined to a
ravine of 1,500 feet deep, at the bottom of which runs a considerable
mountain torrent: to the SW. plains are visible, to the east and west the
view is hilly.

The village itself is a poor one, containing perhaps sixty houses, but
these are divided into three or four groups; the houses, with the
exception of three or four stone and lime ones, are of the usual build,
viz. of bamboo, and raised on muchauns.  Filth and dirt abound every
where, and the places immediately contiguous to the huts are furnished
plentifully with various ordures.

Along the ridge three or four temples occur, these are of the
Boodhistical form: they are composed entirely of slate, are white-washed;
none are of any size, and the workmanship is rude in the extreme; on each
face of the square basement, slabs of slate with inscriptions are
visible, and in one instance many of these are ranged along a longish
wall.  The Pagodas are surrounded with long banners, with inscriptions
fastened longitudinally to bamboos.  On the west side of this the view is
remarkably pretty, embracing all the temples, part of the village, and
the Rajah's house.  The hills adjoining being considerably diversified
and remarkable, and for India over picturesquely wooded.

The pucka houses are ungainly structures, the height being out of all
proportion to the width, the walls are very thick, and composed of slate
slabs, the roof is choppered with projecting eaves, the windows are very
narrow.  Each has three stories, the middle one being occupied by the
owner, this is divided into several rude compartments, each of which has
one or two balconies.

The steps are rude and awkward, consisting of notches cut into large
blocks.  The cooking is carried on, on the ground floor, much to the
edification of the residents above.  Dirt abounds in every direction.  The
doors are rudely constructed of wood.

_January 4th_.--To-day was occupied by moving up into the village, in
which we occupy a pucka house.

_January 5th_.--Visited the Sooba or Rajah, his house is very
picturesque, reminding me much of the pictures of Swiss cottages: it is
white-washed, with a red belt.  The interior is capacious; the state room
has hangings, which are decorated with native pictures on cloth.  At the
east end is a recess in which are some well-executed Chinese statues, the
chief figure is of large dimensions, and is intended to represent the
Durmah Rajah, whose statue is supposed to give infallibility.  Two bells
were suspended, one from the centre, the other from the balcony, the
tongues of which were long, of ivory, and moved by a string.  The Rajah
received us in state, amidst discordant sounds of horns, pipes, and
drums; his followers for the most part were badly clothed, the few decent
looking persons being only decent externally.  He was seated on a raised
dais and was well dressed.  He is a stout Chinese looking man, about 50
years old, and his deportment was certainly easy and dignified.  The
meeting was very friendly, but it is evident that we shall be delayed
here at least seven days.

The central room in the Rajah's house is used as a guard house! arms were
fixed round the walls, but they seemed to consist chiefly of spears,
swords, and bucklers.

_January 6th_.--I walked this morning to a village, a mile to the west,
in which there is a picturesque pucka house of religion.  What pleased me
especially was a specimen of a juniper, of extreme elegance, with
drooping branches.  The house itself was of the usual form, and one end
was occupied as usual by an ornamental window and balcony.  I noticed in
addition Ulmus and Quercus.

The vegetation hitherto seen about this, consists of mango trees, several
species of fig, among which were Ficus indica, elastica, terminalioides,
Papyrifera, etc. two with cordate leaves occur.  Ulmus, Quercus, Bombax,
Juniperus and Pinus, both cultivated.  Aralia or Panax, four or five
species, Croton malvaefolium, Justicia, Adhatoda, Peristrophe,
Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Urtica urens? and heterophylla, Pogostemon,
Triumfetta, (these occupy the old cleared spots,) Castaneae sp.?
Artocarpus integrifolium, Erythrina, Sambucus ebulus, Rubi, three
species, Solanum farinaceum, Engeldhaardtia, Pandanus, Leptospartion,
Calamus, Nauclea, Euphorbia carnosa, foliis ligulatis, Artocarpus
chaplasha, the fruit of which is eaten, Phlebochiton extensus, Sedgwickia
cerasifolia, Callicarpa arborea, Porana, Randia, sugarcane, citrons,
tobacco.

The fauna contains two or three squirrels, one of which is the small one
of Upper Assam, Trocheloideus, the lesser Edolius or Drongo minor.
Mainas, two kinds, carrion crows, Bucco, Muscipeta flammea, and one or
two other species, Parus, two or three species, kites, large
tailor-birds, sparrows.  The black-bird of the torrents, and the usual
water-birds, black pheasants; bulbuls very common, Bucco barbatus,
parroquets, barking deer.

The temperature being 58 degrees 61', water boiled at 208 degrees.  The
mean of two observations accordingly gives the altitude as 2,165 feet
above the sea.

The number of houses is about 130, but these form two or three detached
villages.  The population is considerable, and there is no want of
children.  The people are stout and very fair, with ruddy cheeks, but
abominably dirty.  Some of the men are six feet in stature.  We had one
opportunity of witnessing their practice with the bow, but only two or
three of the dozen candidates were decent shots.  The mark was a very
small one, and the distance 120 steps, but none hit it during the time we
looked on, nor even the circular patch of branches, on which the slab of
wood of this form was placed.  The practice was accompanied with the
usual proportion of noise and gesticulations.

There is very little cultivation on the hills around, so that this people
are, at least about here, evidently dependent on the plains for their
supplies.  The cattle are a good breed, and totally different from those
of the plains.  Ponies and mules are by no means uncommon; there are
likewise pigs and fowls, both of which are abundant, and of fine
description.

_January 16th_.--Every thing leads me to conclude that the Booteas are
the dirtiest race in existence, and if accounts be true, they are equally
deficient in delicacy.  Although much beyond other mountain tribes
inhabiting either side of the Assam valley, in the structure of their
houses, in their clothing, in their language, and probably in their
religion, they are inferior to them in other points.  Thus their looms
are perhaps really primitive, and of the most simple construction;
neither in their weapons of defence are they at all superior.

On the 14th I ascended a peak to the eastward, and certainly 1,000 feet
above the village: on the summit of this, where there were the remains of
an old clearing, I observed Pyrus, Acer, Rhus, Tetrantherae, three or
four species, Bigonia species picta, Carex, Composita arborea, Pteris
aquilina, Kydia zyziphifolia, Saurauja, Eurya, Maesa Panax, Artemisia,
Hedyotis scandens, Callicarpa arborea, Camellia, Caelogyne, Oberonia,
Otochilus fuscescens, Ficus, Cinnamomum, AEschynanthus, Pholidota,
Cyrtandra, Piper, Citrus, Corysanthera, Hypoxis, Tupistra, Bambusa.

Sanicula appeared at 2,500 feet with Bartramea spectabilis, and a small
Ophiorhiza, Acer at 2,800 feet, as likewise Rhopala; at 2,000 feet,
Costus and Abroma, Thunbergia grandiflora.

_January 19th_.--I find that large quantities of Mungista or madder are
sent to the plains from this, where the plant is very common; it is
exchanged for ill preserved salt-fish, one bundle of madder for one fish.
This fish is of an abominable odour, and probably tends to increase the
natural savour of the Booteas, which, considering their total
unacquaintance with soap, is sufficiently strong.

P. tells me that the Kampo country is situated north of this, and that it
may be reached by a Kampo, in twenty-six days.

The language of the people we are now among, is distinct from that of
Assam, as will be observed from the names given to the common grains
cultivated in both countries, their principal grain is barley, which is
of a fine description; very little cultivation being carried on here, the
people drawing all their supplies from the plains.  The following is a
list of grains cultivated: those marked * are Cerealea:--

   _Assam_.                      _Bootea_.

1* Lalkonee dhan,                Yungra, )Panici sp.
2* Legaid ditto,                 Ditto,  )

3  _Boot_, Tel,                  Hnam,   A Sesamum.

4 _Cultivation_ in Upper Assam,  Braime, (Polygonum Fago-
                                         (pyrum, grains
                                         (very large.

5* Bhobosa,                      Khongpo, Eleusine sp.
6* Goomdam,                      Peihnam, Zea Mays.
7  Gellei-ma,                    Linjee,  Phaseoli sp.

[Gradient Bootan: g204.jpg]

The palm from the cliffs on the road hither is evidently a species of
Phaenix, pinnulis inferioribus spiniformibus reticula copiosa, pinnulis
liniaribus acuminatissimus, apicem versus canaliculatis reticulo copioso,
the height must be about that of a moderate Areca.  No specimens of the
trunk, none of flowers and seeds have been brought to me.

The temples here have a good deal of the Burmese shape, but the dome is
more like that of a Mussulman mosque.

_January 22nd_.--Yesterday evening Mr. Blake's Khidmutgar died rather
suddenly, he had been ailing for some days, but apparently not serious;
his indisposition was owing to over-loading the stomach with radishes,
etc. in which all partook too freely during the protracted halt, thus
causing a good deal of sickness.

This place is so straggling that it is difficult to make a guess at the
number of the houses, the greater number of the people are temporary
residents and mostly are natives of Kampo,{205a} they are more dirty than
the Booteas, and seem to have an especial predilection for begging.  When
wishing to be very gracious they bow and gesticulate awkwardly, shewing
their tongue at the same time.  Their principal dress is coarse woollen
clothes, and in lieu of turbans they wear caps or hats.  Their beasts of
burden are principally asses, which are perhaps, from bad treatment,
undersized: they likewise use goats, and largish animals between goats
and sheep in appearance; of these we saw one male only, it had _once_
_spiral_ horns.  Even a little black kid was not exempt from carrying its
share, this was ornamented by woollen tassels of a red colour, fastened
through a hole in the ear.

Pemberton tells me, that most of these people come hither with the view
of going to Hazoo, a place of pilgrimage in Assam; some remain here as a
security for the return of their brethren in three months, the period
during which leave is granted by our friend the Rajah of this place.
Their language is totally different from that of the Booteas.  The day
before yesterday an edict against catching fish, being taken off as I
supposed it would be on shewing the Rajah some flies, Blake and I went
down, and repeated our visit yesterday; the bed of the river at the
debouchment of the path leading towards Tongsa, is elevated 1,431 feet,
(70.209.8), {205b} it is of no great size, and is generally fordable; the
fish are almost exclusively Bookhar. {205c}  I saw one or two
Sentooreahs, {205d}  and caught a long thin Bola, {206a} beautifully
banded with purplish-blue.  The Bookhars as usual take a fly well,
especially red hackles; the largest was caught by Blake, and must have
weighed nearly three pounds.

Very little worth noticing occurred in the vegetation.  Sedgwickia is
common and of very large size, 2,400 feet above the river, as well as
tree ferns.

Equisetum occurs in the bed of the river; in some places at the same
level a species of Ranunculus, Aroidea, Succulent Urticeae were common;
along the edges or in the small churs, that have established themselves
here and there, and which are covered with the usual Sacchara, but of
smaller size; Erythrina, Leptospartion, Sambucus, Boehmeria tomentosa,
Kydia calycina, Grislea, Tupistra, Leea occurred, Ficus elastica is not
uncommon, one specimen presented itself, which had sprung up on another
tree, fifty feet from the ground; this it had destroyed, and the
appearance was singular enough.

The juice is used for water-proofing bamboo vessels.  The general rocks
are slate, and this was the only one we saw _in situ_; the vegetation
is rather barren.

Near the bed of this river, which is called the Deo Panee, I found a
curious Menispermous genus, Columnea, Clypeae perianthia uncialata, ore
integeriuscula, a Myrtacea, Uncaria, Abroma augusta, etc.

On ascending, Murraya exotica, Magnoliaceae, Paederia faetida, and
Bignonia, occurred at low elevations, Lobelia baccata, Wulfenia obliqua,
Costus, Chloranthus, Justicea orchidiflora below 600 feet, Eurya occurred
scarcely below 1,800 feet with Millingtonia simplicifolia.

The cattle here are really noble, particularly the bulls; they are much
like the Mishmee Methuns, but are distinct, {206b} they are very quiet.

_January 23rd_.--Left at twelve, and arrived late at Rydang on a
nullah, distant eight miles.  Passed no villages, but passed a bridge
erecting over the Deo Nuddee, at which place a Lam Gooroo or high Priest
was employed: vegetation continued the same, and only two new plants
occurred, a Stemodia with large yellow flowers, and a Begonia, with
branched stems.  Rydang is 2,404 feet above the sea (55.208.5.) {212}

_January 24th_.--Started early in the morning, (at 8 A.M.) the coolies
mostly leaving at daylight.  Yet although the distance was only eleven
miles, we did not reach till 5 P.M. and many of the coolies did not
arrive till late at night.  The fact is the ascent was nearly
uninterrupted during the day, the highest point traversed being about
6,000 feet.  We then descended slightly to Khegumpe, our halting place,
the altitude of which is 5,395 feet (46.202,) at the highest point Fahr.
thermometer stood at 42 degrees at 1 P.M.

The first part of the road lay over grassy sparingly-forested hills,
until we reached 4,000 feet.  Here or a little below this the change in
the vegetation commenced, the first elevational plants being Serissoid;
Gaultheria, and Rhododendron commenced at about 3,600 feet on dry rocky
eminences, which it always prefers.

On the 1st eminence, 600 feet above Rydang or 3,000 feet above the sea,
Quercus, Castanea, Sedgwickia, Polypodium Wallichii, Lobelia,
Pyramidalis, Composita arborea, Gordonia, Pteris aquilina, Anthistiria,
Gramen airoides, Callicarpa arborea, Artemisia, Tephrosia, Flemingia,
Govania, and these continued up to 4,000 feet.  We here met with Kampo
Tartars with their laden sheep, the children being generally placed
cradle-fashion on the top of the loads, each in its own basket.  Itea
macrophylla occurred at 3,200 feet, with Clematis, Hastingsia, Bignonia,
Euphorbiacea, Briedleia.

At 3,300 feet Kydia zyziphifolia, Rhopala, Composita arborea, Hypericum,*
Triumfetta, Smilax, Indigofera.*

At 3,600 feet, the same with Panax, Wendlandia, Myrtacea arborea, l.
Melica latifolia.

At 3,800 feet, Hedychium, Gaultheria, Habenaria, Serissoides, Gnaphalium,
Gordonia, here very abundant, covered with Lichens and epiphytical
Orchidea, Phyllanthus, Emblica.

At 4,000 feet, Rhododendron arborea, Eugenia, l. Gaultheria arborea,
Echinanthus, Bambusa, microphylla.*  The same trees continue.

At 4,200 feet, Hedychium, Briedleia, Pyrus, Ficus,* and Rhododendron in
flower, Gordonia, Itea macrophylla, Pteris aquilina, Osbeckia nepalensis,
Artemisia major, Airoides, Flemingia.

At 4,500 feet, Myrica, Callicarpa arborea, Verbenaceae, Buddlaeoid,*
Ardisia, Maesa, Panax, Piper, Styrax, Camellia,* Polygonum rhaeoides,
Cyrthandra common, Mimosa arborea, Betula,* Ficus, foliis cordatis
hispidis, Kydia calycina, Inga, Rubus moluccanus.  Anisadenia, Begonia,
Otochilus latifolius, Tussilaginoides, Neckerae, Urtica, Gaylussacia,
Lobelia, Panax, AEschynanthus venosus of Churra,* Lycopodium of
Surureem,* Smilax ruscoideus,* Liparis, Rhododendron arboreum verum,
Bucklandia of vast size.  Hoya fusca, Ophiopogno, Viola, Hymenophyllum,
Croton heterophyllum, Convallaria oppositifolia, Plectranthus Roylii,
Begonia picta, Isachne, Cerastium, Spiraea, Hedera, Hypericum,
Peliosanthes, Carex gracilis rupium, which commenced at 5,500 feet,
Bambusa microphylla.

The forests here were damp and tropical so far as herbaceous underwoods
were concerned, the trees were loaded with mosses chiefly pendulous
Neckerae and Hypnea, as well as the rocks, Epiphytes were common.

We then continued along ridges about the same elevation, Ranunculus,
Hemiphragma, Thibaudia buxifolia, Polygonum rheoides, Pyrus indica.
Gnaphalium common, Pteris aquilina, Airoides, Artemisia on sunny spots,
Gaultheria, Galium of Churra, Arundo.  The trees were about this all
scraggy, but of picturesque appearance.  Choripetalum, Panax, Laurineae,*
Piper, Cissus, Photinia and Gleichenia major, Thibaudia myrtifolia,*
Potentilla, Calophyllum,* Hydrangea arbuscula,* Thalictrum majus,*
Crawfurdia speciosa,* Macrocapnos,* Daphne papyrifera.*

Our march now wound round a huge hill with rocky head, lowering several
hundred feet above us, the road being narrow, rocky, overhanging vast
precipices.  All the trees were scraggy, stunted with tufted grasses.
Here about Dipsacus of Churra occurred, Buddleia, Phlomoides, Lonicera,
Rosa, _Jubrung_, Cheilanthes dealbata of Brahmakund, Asparagus, Urticea
arborea floribus faem. capitulatis aurantiaces, Spiraea bella,
Hymenopogon, Saxifraga ligularis,* on the rocks Primula,* in the
crevices, with Hydrocotyla, Thalictrum renatum, Umbelliferae,* Scirpus,
Stemodia, Compositae, Hypericum, Didymocarpus contortus of Oklong,
Erianthus, Gymnostomum, all these on the bare rocks.  Along the path,
Codonopsis, Cnicus, Valeriana, Hardwickia, Lobelia.

Hence we passed along nearly at the same elevation through romantic
paths, the vegetation being European, and comparatively open: the trees
covered with moss, with grassy swards here and there: the scenery was
beautiful, the descent hence to Khegumpa was gradual and easy, along
similar paths.

Noticed the following trees, etc. in the following order: Tetranthera,
Gaultheria arborea, Tradescantia cordifolia,* Acer, Polygala, Deutzia,
Tradescantia, Jasminum triphyllum, Plectranthus azureus, Macrocapnos,
Rubia cordifolia,* Cucurbitacae Cissampeloid, then forests of
Rhododendron, on the paths Swertia, Potentilla, Fragaria, Alnus Acer
folius palmatum lobatis oppositis, Porana.

This day I gathered about 130 species, the march was really delightful.
The plants marked thus * indicate elevation.

Madder is furnished by both Rubia munjista and R. cordifolia, these
species are quite distinct, the latter affecting greater elevations than
the former, scarcely descending below 4,000 feet.

Scarcely any water occurred on the route; from just above Khegumpa, a
beautiful valley is seen to the left, with a good deal of cultivation.  No
large villages were seen.

[Gradient Rydang to Khegumpa: g210.jpg]

_January 25th_.--Khegumpa.  This is a pretty place; but the whole
country has a wintry appearance from the trees having mostly deciduous
leaves; it is a small village, not containing twelve houses.  Pagodas
with the inscription-bearing walls occur as usual; on a small hill rising
from just below the village, a large house with out-houses belonging to a
Lam Gooroo, is the prettiest bit of architecture I have yet seen.  We put
up in a small house, of the usual poor construction, capable of
containing four or six people, the roofs are of wood, the planks being
kept down by stones.  The evening was very cold, but the thermometer did
not fall below 44 degrees.  Here a solitary specimen of Pinus was seen.

A beautiful tree, with pendulous leaves and cones, which resemble those
of Abies, occurred.  Rhododendron is common here.  Around the hut I
observed Lobelia, Rumex, Quercus, Ranunculus, Plantago, Leucas ciliata,
Gnaphalia, Rubus, Urtica urentior, Rubi 2, Pteris aquilina, Geranium,
Galium, Artemisia major, Fragariae, Betula? ramis pendulis, foliis
lineari lanceolatis, _Jubrung_, Phlomoides, in flower, Spiraea bella,
Tetranthera, Daucus, Gleichenia major, Oxalis corniculata, Dipsacus.  The
trees were covered with Lichens; the only cultivated plants I saw, and of
these only straggling individuals, were tobacco and Bhobosa.

In a wood at the base of the hill on which the Lam Gooroo's house is
situated, Saurauja hispida, and S. arborea,* Woodwardia,* Rubia
cordifolia, Oaks, Spiraea bella, decomposita, Stemodia, Cerasus,
Curculigo, Pogonatherum,* Carduus, Polygonum rheoides, Panax, Bucklandia,
Berberis asiatica and Porana, occurred.

Our march, after passing this hill, commenced by a descent through a damp
wood of Oaks, Eurya.  Here Swertiae 2 occurred on banks.  Clematis
verbesina, Gordonia, Erythrina, Myrica.  Thence we passed along a ridge,
the forests being stunted and wintry, abounding with Rhododendron and
oaks.  Myrica, and pendulous lichens occurred in abundance, but grasses
predominate, chiefly Airoid and Andropogons.

From this to the right was seen a beautiful valley with a moderate-sized
village and picturesque houses, with considerable and very clever
cultivation.

Thence we crossed to the other side of the ridge, descending a little and
then continuing through forests of oak, consisting of a species found on
the Khasyah hills, and approaching Q. Robur: as all the leaves had
fallen, the whole appearance was that of winter.  Here I shot the Jay
figured in Royle's work: continuing to descend very gradually, I observed
Epilobium,* Neckera, Fissidens, Brachymenium, Nerioideum in fruit and
half buried in the fallen leaves; a pretty Gentiana, Ruta albiflora,
Potentilla.  After passing along this for some way we commenced a sharp
descent.  At about 4,800 ft. Vitex simplex, occurred.  Indigofera
re-appeared, with Saccharum rubro nitens of Churra, the other grasses
being Andropogons, 2-3, and Orthopogon, Hedychium, Gordonia soon
re-appeared: to the east, cultivation was visible, and to the north,
Pines were visible in every direction stretching away far below us to a
considerable torrent.  About one-third of the way down this steep ravine,
at the bottom of which a torrent was heard roaring, Wendlandia, Spiraea
bella, Hedychium, Gaultheria arborea, Aspera Rhododendron, Pteris
aquilina, Artemisia, Saurauja hispida, Indigofera, Eurya, Mimosa arborea,
Maesa angustifolia of yesterday; Osbeckia nepalensis, Viburnum,
Tetranthera, Ficus, Gleichenia minor, Crawfurdia speciosa, Polygonum
rheoides, were found.  Hitherto the woods had been dry, or rather so, but
on turning to the east, we came into damp woods presenting many tropical
features, along which we continued descending gradually for some time: at
the commencement in this, Callicarpa arborea, a weeping Beech, Dipsacus
verbesina, and the Alnus, of Thumathaya occurred, Arbutoideus, Hydrangea,
Urtica heterophylla, Neuropeltoid aromatica.  Then below we came on
Piper, Deeringia, Cerasus, Sanicula, Cyrtandracea, Cheilosandra gracilis,
and fleshy Urticeae.  Underwood, herbaceous forms of Acanthaceae, Ferns,
as Davallia, Asplenium, all more or less succulent.  Darea, Glycine,
Buchanania, Saurauja ferruginea, Thalictrum majus, Pothos, etc.
Hypericum, Begonia, Panax terebinthaceus, Magnoliacae, Garciniae,
Valeriana cordifolia.*  Passing on at the same elevation, we suddenly
rounded a ridge, and in one moment came on dry, sunny, rocky, grassy
ground, the trees being exclusively Rhododendron, oaks and a few
Gordonias with Airoid, Andropogons, Pteris aquilina: we then came on the
brink of the ridge up to which Pinus longifolia ascends; the elevation of
this was 4,132 feet (60.204.5.) {212}   From this all around Pinus is
visible in profusion; we then dipped to the south, this face being
occupied by thick forest, having Rhododendrons on the skirts.  From the
above spot Saleeka was visible, with a fine grove of Pines, it is 1,500
feet, at least above this.

The descent was steep, we soon came on Callicarpa arborea, Celtis megala,
Pogostemon, Stemodia grandiflora; this was about 4,300 feet, where a
clearing had been commenced: close to this I observed Martynia, Pteris,
Composita arborea, Desmodium vestilum, Flemingia, and gathered at 4,000
feet a Verbenaceous shrub, looking like a Plumbago, and a Boehmeria;
continuing, without descending much, I came on Pinus, Rhododendron,
Gaultheria.

Loranthus was here a common parasite on Pinus, oaks occurred but the
species was changed; this had small leaves, white underneath; and
descending we continued through pine woods, Artemisia minor, together
with the usual grasses and Aspideium macrosomum.

Here we travelled along a hill just above a ravine.  Either side of this
was covered with grasses and pines, the ravine being crowded with oaks,
etc.  Panax, and Composita arborea occurred.

A little below this, Hastingsia, common, Desmodium hispidisum, Artemisia
minor, Briedelia, Mimosa, and several Compositae: we continued descending
very steeply, and observed Holcus elegans, Melica latifolia, Erianthus
Apludoid Circium.

At 2,600 feet, came on Scutellaria; Pines had ceased, but on the opposite
side of the nullah, they descended lower.  Knoxia scandens, Kydia
calycina, Hastingsia, Hedyotis linearis, Ficus pedunculis radiciformibus
pendulis, Leguminous trees as Dalbergia, Triumfetta; Boehmeria,
Asparagus, Buchanania again, Solanum, 10-dentat., Urtica urens,--l.
(66.208.5.) {212}

The altitude of the bed of the Cameon nullah is here, 1,937 feet, its
banks are formed by hills cut away and hence precipitous, those to the
east are covered with Pines, Oaks descend to this.  Here Arundo Karka,
Leptospartion, Erythrina, Artemisia major, Solanum farinaceum, black
pheasants of which I shot a male.  Ficus Dumooriya, Grislea, Rhamnoid
scandens, Pandanus, Boehmeria torrentum, Urtica pendula, Barleria
Prionites of Dgin, Sida cuneifolia, Dalbergioid.

Thence we ascended 100 feet or thereabouts, and descended to another and
larger torrent.  Anonaceae, Phlogacanthus thyrsifloris here occurred.

The bed of this stream is 70 to 80 yards wide, but the volume of water is
inconsiderable.  The hills forming the opposite bank are lofty, not under
4 to 5,000 feet; their bases and the nullah above alluded to have the
vegetation of Dgin, otherwise they are clothed with the usual grasses and
noble Pines.  The brown bird with crooked bill was heard here.

At 500 feet above the torrent Menispermum, Bidens albiflora, Megala,
Leptospartion, Verbenacea, Plumbaginea, Mucuna, Desmodium hispidum and
Ficus were seen as before: Phyllanthus, Emblica, and Grislea occurred at
800 feet: Grewia at 1,000 feet: and Osbeckia linearis occurred at 1,200
feet in rocky places; with Poa, Cynosuroides of Churra, and Bassia at
1,300 feet, with Emblica, Labiata sudyensis, Osbeckia nepalensis, Ficus.

On rounding the ridge to the east, which is 200 feet above this place
_Sassee_, we came on a forest of oak, Rhododendron, Viburnum, Pothos
pinnatus.

_January 26th_.--Sassee.  Our coolies left us here, they are not very
good ones, not equal to Khasyah, they are however merry, and whistle or
sing when tired, their feet are generally naked, but occasionally they
wear leathern sandals.  Thermometer 60 degrees: water boiled at 204.5
degrees: altitude 4,109 feet.

About this place I first met with Thlaspi bursa pastoris, Malva
rotundifolia also occurs, Ligustrum, Adhatoda! Euphorbia ramis 4-gonis,
foliis? in spinis abeuntibus! Bambusa, Urtica urentior, Geranium, Rumex
of Khegumpa, Pancratium or Crinum! Peristropha triflora, Holcus elegans,
Pteris aquilina both Artemisias, Panicum cynosuroides! Stemodium
ruderalis! Callicarpa arborea! Cerasus, Pyrus indica and malus, Barleria
prionitis! Ervum, Hedychium coronarioides! in wet places, Buchanania,
Peperomia, Moschosma! Dendrobium! Thibaudia myrtifolia, Gordonia,
Dioscorcae! Tetrantheroid arbor magna, Pinus longifolia, Quercus, 2-sp.
Rhus, Citrus also is found.  Thus the mixture of forms is nearly
excessive, those marked ! thus indicate usually low elevations.  Rubia
cordifolum.

The whole four leaves of this plant are petiolate, but one pair is
perhaps always unequal, one occasionally abortive, I look upon this as a
proof that the so-called stipulae of Stellatae are real leaves.  There is
this difference then between Rubiaceae and Stellatae, the one has covered
buds, the other not.  The development of the lamine before the petiole is
particularly conspicuous in this plant.

Buck-wheat with trisulcate seeds, and Cannabis sativa are found here;
barley is cultivated.

_January 27th_.--Sassee: temperature 58 degrees, big metal thermometer.
Tomato found here; Leptospartion ascends woody ravines as far as this; of
birds, the larger dove is abundant; Verbena officinalis.

_January 28th_.--On walls about this a Lobelia, and Stemodia ruderalis
occurred.  Sassee is a ruined village, said once to have been large, now
containing not more than five or six houses, an equal number being in
ruins.

_January 29th_.--Commenced to descend almost immediately, until we
reached the Giri Nuddee, we then ascended again 5,600 feet, and continued
over excessively precipitous rocky ground, until we reached the nullah
again.

The same vegetation continued until we had descended some hundred feet.
Pinus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Viburnum, Indigofera, Osbeckia nepalensis,
Desmodium, Gaultheria arborea, Rubus, deltoidifolius, Conyza, Saurauja
ferruginea, Crawfurdia speciosa, Labiata sudyensis, Dipsacus occurs but
is rare, Gordonia, Rubus idaeus, Gleichenia minor, Pendulous lichens,
Galium asparagus, Engeldhaardtia, Smilax.

The descent was steep.  Thibaudia myrtifolia, Peperomia, Stemodia
grandis, Airoid, Otochilus linearis.

At 300 feet Composita arborea, and penduliflora, Polygonum rheoides,
Flemingia, and a cleared spot with Zea Mays.  400 feet Pteris aquilina,
Rubus moluccanus, Aspidium Polypodioides, Lygodium, Aspidium macrosorum,
Moschosma, Mimosa arborea, Millet, Cerasus, Hedyotis, Plectranthus,
Roylia, Knoxia Scandens, Ruta albiflora, Rottlera, commenced at 500 feet.
Stemodia, Hovenia, Cerastium, 4-Ovulatum, Carex.

[Gradient Khegumpa to Sassee: g216.jpg]

Carex, Kydia, Jujubifolia, Randia, Hovenia, occurred at 600 feet, with
Rhopala, Panax, Ficus obliqua.

Then shady jungle commenced, underwood of Ferns, Acanthaceae, Urticeae,
Andropogons, Stemodia secunda occurred at 700 feet. {217a}  Hastingsia,
Pogostemon, Kydia calycina, Glypea, Curculigo, 750 feet, with Clematis
Cana, Cerasus, Quercus Robur, this came down a ridge.  Rhus acidissima.

Scleria, Lycopodia, Maesa, Sterculia Balanghas, and Kydia Jujubifolia, at
900 feet. {217a}   Phlomoides, Acanthacea specicosa, Pothos pinnatus,
Choulmoogrum, Malpighiacea, at 1,000 feet. {217a}  Buchanania, Magnolia,
Achyranthes, Murraya exotica, Sedgwickia, Urtica Gigas, Chloranthus
inconspicuus, Peliosanthes, Phaenix pygmaea, Hedysarum acenaciferum, at
1,200 feet. {217a}

The altitude of the bed here is 3,112 feet (64.206.2: of Woollaston,
6.4.3) {217b} and along its banks Cissus, Woodwardia, Megala, Polygonum
Rheoides, Mimosa arborea, Curculigo, Woodwardia, Andropogon fuscum,
Conaria, Potentilla, Rumex, Rubia cordifolia, Drymaria, and Begonia
occurred.

The ascent was steep, leading over several land slips, the same
vegetation continuing.  Oaks, Pines, Rhododendrons occupying the more
exposed faces, and the usual humid jungle characterising aspects not so
much exposed.  Pinus longifolia strays down to within 100 feet of the
nullah.  We passed a pretty cascade discharging a considerable body of
water: here at 200 feet {217a} above the nullah, I observed Crotalaria
juncea, the Betula of Thumathaya, Quercus lanatus, Leea crispa, Panax
terebinthaceus, Indigofera, Scutellaria, Clematis, Cana, Panax altera,
Mimosa, Porana, Arundo karka, Flemingia, Conyza, Aspidium macrosomum.

At 400 feet, {217a} Itea macrophylla, Ficus, Composita arborea.  The
woods are dry, but little occurring underneath the trees, except the
usual grasses, Andropogons and Airoides.  At 500 feet, {217a} Thibaudia
myrtifolia, Triumfetta mollis, Composita penduliflora, Lysimachia, Pinus,
Rhododendron.  The ground now became excessively rocky, the road winding
along at the same elevation, not more than a foot wide.

At 600 feet, {217a} Desmodium vestilum, Artemisia, Acanthacea lurida,
Gentiana, as before.  Gordonia, Bambusa, Microphylla, Arum viviparum,
Tussilaginoid, Wendlandia, Thibaudia, _variegatoides_, and a myrtifolia;
Sedum, rocks strewn in every direction covered with Sedum and epiphylical
orchideae.

On rounding a ridge with a north-east aspect we came without altering our
elevation, on a humid jungle.  Pothos pinnatus and red, Ferns,
Acanthaceae, Choripetalum, Calamus, Acrostichea, Blakea, Grammitis
decurrens, Moschosma.  We descended through similar jungle with Pandanus
also occurring until we again changed our aspect, when the oak woods,
etc. reverted with Rhododendron and Thibaudia myrtifolia; again changing,
we returned to an intermediate jungle, gradually assuming all the humid
characters of those places passed before.  Here I observed Tupistra,
Asplenium nidus, at 200 feet above the bed of a nullah.  Rottleria,
Mimosa arborea, Crawfurdia, Speciosa, Zanthoxzlon triphyllum.

Along the bed of this nullah, Crawfurdia speciosa, Potentilla,
Choripetalum, Eurya, Ranunculus, Cardamina, Juncus! Oxyspora, Saurauja
hispida, occurred; some in a sort of marsh, with Thibaudia variegatoides.
The places along which torrents formerly flowed were occupied by Typha
elephantina, Kujara, Megala, Arunda, the Alnus of Bhailseeree, Artemisia
major, Rubus deltoidifolia, (Corysanthera hispida with Juncus;) here
Anthistiria arundinacea, Artemisia minor, Bucco grandis (Bird), Polygonum
rheoides, Baehmeria torrentum, Gaultheria deflexa, Indigofera, Oaks,
Gordonia, Holcus elegans, Conaria nepalensis in flower, and Erythrina
occurred along the bed, up which we proceeded about a mile.

We then ascended among Pines and Oaks, Callicarpa arborea, and others,
ascending up the humid ravines, which in the rains give exit to
torrents--at 300 feet noticed a different Pinus, which is observed in
abundance on a mountain on the opposite side, up which it ascends 2 or
3,000 feet.

Callicarpa azurea, Buddleia Neemda, Eugenia, Serissoides, and the
Saccharum of Churra, occurred here.

The ascent was continual but gradual, rounding the almost precipitous
face of the hill, the path was stony, often loose and frequently not
above a foot wide, with a precipice lowering above and yawning beneath.
The vegetation had, with the exception of the Pines, Oaks, and
Rhododendrons, all been burnt, so that the ascent was uninteresting.  As
we neared the summit it became bitterly cold, a strong biting wind nearly
cutting us in two: we reached Bailfa, which is on the summit but
sheltered, at 6 P.M.

Conaria occurs at the top! being more advanced in flower than below; in
one instance with young capsules.  I noticed Pogonatherum, Didymocarpus
contortus, Serissoides, Gaultheria fruticosa, Polytrichum fuscum,
gathered at 7,000 feet, previously: at 1,200-1,500 feet above the nullah,
Indigofera reaches the top.  In a sheltered place here I found a
beautiful Gaultheria; a small Campanula occurs on the rocks at from 1,000
feet upwards.

BAILFA or _Bulphai_.--This place is 6,808 feet above the level of the
sea, yet on the east and south are mountains towering far above it.  Snow
is said to fall in February, but sparingly--the hills around are bleak,
thinly vegetated, except those on the south of the Geerea, which are more
wooded.  There are only a few houses.  Turnips and barley are cultivated
here, and in these fields may be found a Cruciferous annual, and probably
a small species of Lamium.  The chief cultivation is visible in the
valleys below.  Buckwheat is among the number.

_January 29th_.--To-day I sallied out a few hundred yards to the west,
on turning over the ridge, the south side of which is so bleak, thinly
covered with Q. lanata and Rhododendrons, I found myself in a thick shady
jungle, the chief tree being a species of oak, widely different from Q.
lanata.  The trees and shrubs are loaded with mosses, especially
pendulous Neckerae, Daltoniae, Hypne; Hookeria, Fissidens, etc. occurred
on the ground.  I imagine, I gathered twenty-five species of mosses here.
Ferns were likewise abundant; I noticed Daphne papyracea, Berberis
asiatica, Conyza nivea, Smilax ruscoides, OEschynanthus venosus, Hedera,
Ophiopogon linearis, O. latifolius, Cymbidium viridiflorium, Ardisia
crenata, Carex, Piper! Clematis, Gordonia, Spiraea decomposita, Composita
volkamerifolia, Cissus, Smilax, Bambusa microphylla, Viburna, as before.
Gaylussacia serrata and microphylla, the former in fruit.  Thibaudia
lanceolata, buxifolia, Gaultheria of yesterday.

On the exposed face Santalacea, Gentiana, Hypericum decussatum of
Moflong, Leucas ciliata, Ischaemum pygmaeum, on Rhododendron, Loranthus
obovatus.  The mosses of this side were Brachymenium, Tortula, Famaria,
Trichostomum, Neckerae, Polytrichum fuscum, Zygodon? Dendrobium and
Otochilus, occur here.  A stray and small Abies occurs on the ridge
itself.

About the village of Bailfa, occur Urtica urens, Artemisia major,
Saccharum aristatum, Rubus triphyllus, Senecio scandens, Rumex,
Chickweed, Stemodia ruderailis, Lactucoidea murorum, Carduus, Phlomoides,
Rubus deltoidifolies, Achyranthoid, densa.

_January 30th_.--Thermometer at 7 A.M. 40 degrees.  The houses here are
roofed with split bamboos, and they are tied on by rattans, a precaution
rendered necessary by the boisterous winds which prevail.  The place is
very cold; the thermometer varying from 40 degrees to 52 degrees; mean
temperature of the day 46 degrees.

In the barley fields I noticed Fumariae sp., Potentilla and Cynoglossum.
Erythrina ascends to this!  Pyrus Malus and Spiraea bella occur.

_January 31st_.--Our march this day commenced with an ascent of a ridge
lying to the north-east of our halting place, this occupied us some time,
and at last we reached a pagoda, visible from Bailfa, and which is nearly
1,000 feet above that place.  Thence we descended about a hundred feet,
through a well-wooded situation.  Emerging thence at about the same
elevation, we crossed barren bleak downs; the ravines being alone wooded,
and hence the woods had that rounded, defined appearance, so remarkable
in some parts of the Khasya hills.

Thence the descent was continued to Roongdong, the march is an easy one,
about seven miles.

The first new plant that occurred was an Allium on rocks, but it had been
dried up by the fires which had bared the surface of the hill of every
thing, except the trees and stouter shrubs, capable of resisting its
action.

Toward the pagoda, on the summit of the ridge, Pendulous lichens were
abundant, Epiphytes were common, consisting chiefly of Orchideae, with
the 2 Gay Lussacias, Rhododendron punctata, Hymenopogon parasiticus,
Orthodon, Tussilaginoid, Alnus occurred at 7,300 feet.  The other
vegetation continued.

At 7,400 feet, a new Quercus appeared, this, which has in its young
state, leaves much like those of the Holly, and may therefore be called
Q. _elicifolia_! Andropogon, Viburnum caerulium, Neckera, Bambusa
microphylla, Fragaria, Potentilla, Conyza nivea, Scabiosa Spiraea
decomposita, Gillenioides, Smilax ruscoideus, Hyperica of Moflong,
Campanula, Swertia, Dipsacus.

At 7,500 feet, Epilobium, Rosa, Vaccinium cyaneum! Rhododendron
coccineum, Tetranthera.

At 7,800 feet, Abies pendulifolia, Hemiphragma.

At the pagoda, and about it, Grimmia was found on rocks, with the usual
pendulous Neckerae, Q. ilecifolia, Vibura, Hypericum.

Abies Brunoniana, a large solitary tree, with pendulous branches,
Tetranthera, Laurineae, Smilax gaultherifolia, Ilex, on the wooded side
of the ridge.  Ferns and mosses were abundant, Ilex! Daphne papyracea.

Eurya, Panax rhododendrifolia, Rhododendron arborea, minus et majus.  The
tree of Thumathaya foliis ad apicem ramorum aggregatis, petiolis
colorat., Celastrinea Euryifolia, Tetranthera another species without
leaves.  In the more moist places a small Urticeae, Lonicera as before,
on the exposed side stunted Q. ilecifolia, Dipsacus, Gnaphalia, Vaccinium
cyaneum, and Gramineae, Hemiphragma, Potentilla, Campanula,
Tussilaginoides.  Long tailed grey monkeys.

The ridge we crossed, runs up into a bleak ridge on which are houses, and
which cannot be under 9,500 feet high, about the descent through the
wood, which did not extend many hundred yards.  I noticed Galium,
Valeriana, Crawfurdia fasciculata, Sphaeropteris Betula corylifolia,
Hypericum, Spiraea gillenioides, Rubus cordifolius, Senecio scandens,
Juncus effusoideus, in wet places, Rhododendron majus, coming into
flower, (flower white) Cerastium bacciferum, arborea, canescens, Cissus,
Rubus moluccanus, Elaeagnus, Rubus potentillifolia, Plantago, Ligustrum,
Berberis pinnata and asiatica, which last is generally covered with
lichens.

Xanthoxylum, Lilium giganteum! Polytrichium fuscescens, Trichostomum
anielangioides, Pohlia, on walls and rocks, Adoxa! in wet places under
banks, with a fleshy Urticea: about this was observed the brick-red and
black bird. {221}

Along the naked ridge and on the downs, which had a most wintry
appearance, and where it was bitterly cold, the Lycopodium of Surureem
was found, also Vaccinium cyaneum, Gnaphalium, Pteris aquelina stunted,
Hypericum of Moflong, Swertia stunted, Hemiphragma.

The defined woods are formed of oaks and stray Abies pendulifolia, Panax
rhododendrifolia, Berberis asiatica, and B. pinnata.

Mespilus microphyllus, Rhododendron minus, and R. arborea, (Euphorbia,
and Juncus on the swards.)  Eurya, Gaultheria arborea, Stauntonia.  From
this ridge a village near Benka is visible, as well as a large stream,
the Goomrea, and several villages.  The one we now inhabit, being the
best looking and occupying a deep valley, is surrounded with much terrace
cultivation.

Descending still farther we left the downs, first coming into the scraggy
woods of Oaks, Rhododendron, Quercus, chiefly Q. robur.  About here we
met abundance of people going to Hazoo from Kampo; they were accompanied
with asses chiefly carrying burdens of one maund weight; few goats; one
yak was seen of a black colour; a low compact animal, much resembling,
except in the absence of a hump, the bison: it was not a handsome
specimen.  We also passed a village to the left, containing about twenty
houses, here a Nai gooroo, or person of rank, resides, and here I also
got fruit-bearing specimens of Abies pendula.

Noticed, as I descended, Pyrus, Cerasus, Magnoliacea, Gaultheria arborea
and frutex, Pteris aquelina, Quercus sclerophylla of Bulphai, Viburnum
caerulescens and angustifola! Rhododendron minus, Ilex! Aspid. nidus,
Gordonia, Q. lanata, Woodwardia, Rubia albiflora, Gleichenia major, Pyrus
indica.  Then we came to a pretty temple built like a house, with a fine
specimen of Cypress pendula, altitude of the place 7,000 feet.  From this
a fine view of Roondong is obtained.

Still descending a short distance came to another temple, with a dome of
the ordinary form, and a large square terraced basement, and inscribed
slabs in the recesses.  Hence the ascent was very steep.  Erythrinum,
Buddleia! Indigofera! Spiraea bella, Artemisia major! Polygonum rheoides!
Rubus deltoidens! Curculigo, Conaria nepalensis, Thalictrum majus!
Asparagus, Jubrung! Oxalis corniculata, Clematis cana, Eurya ferruginea!
Santalacea australas, Pyrus malus! Elaeocarpus! Maesa salicifolia.  We
then crossed a small torrent, and ascended about 100 feet to Roongdong;
noticed Stemodia grandiflora! Spiraea bella, Conaria, Erythrium, Elaeagnus
spinosus, Salix? buds with velvet or woolly hairs, Martynia! Hedera!
Citrus! Woodwardia.

The transitions of the flora were this day well shewn.  The plants which
indicated the greatest elevation are, Vaccinium, Abies Brunoniana,
Saxifraga, or Adoxa, Q. ilecifolia, Rhododendron formosum, R. arboreum
majus, Sphaeropteris, Ilex, Eurya acuminata? Panax rhododendrofol., Berb.
pinnata and B. asiatica, Mespilus, Microphylla, Juncus.

The occurrence of the Urticea at such elevation is curious, the proofs of
the wonderful effects of humidity, and non-exposure were particularly
shewn, between the exposed south face of the Bulphai mountain, and the
north-east face which was wooded.

From scarcity of grass, horses were here seen to feed on boughs so high
as to be obliged to stand on stones, to get at their food.  They are
likewise fed on maize and tares; the poultry is of a large brood.  The
cocks are atrociously noisy, two in particular had such lengthened,
cracked or quavering voices, that they were quite a nuisance.  We put up
in the house of the Dumpa or head man.  It is situated on the top of a
stony, and a bitter cold place, exposed to the four winds of heaven.
House very large, and our host a little man with great airs, and a red
coat or wrapper of coarse English cloth, drinks intensely.

During our stay at this place he invited Pemberton and Blake to shoot
pigeons; the poor man thought that they would not be able to hit them, on
finding out his mistake, he put an end to the sport.

Atriplex is cultivated here, Mooreesa of Assam, Hempstee of the Booteas,
though seeds are used as well as the leaves.

The loads of salt brought down by the Tibetans on asses are packed up
neatly in coarse cloths, and weigh upwards of forty seers each.

[Gradient Bulphai to Roongdong: g224.jpg]

_February 1st_.--Our march commenced by descending gradually at first,
then very rapidly to the Dimree nuddee: crossing this at the junction of
two streams, we ascended a little and then kept along the side of the
ridge forming the right bank of the nuddee, until we came over the
Monass: thence proceeding about one and a half mile, we reached Tassgong
or Benka which is situated on this river, and about 1,000 feet above it.
This we crossed by a suspension bridge.

But little interesting botany occurred to-day: Chenopodium sp. occurs in
fields at Roongdong.  The terrace cultivation here had just yielded a
crop of rice, and was now planted with wheat.  Agriculture would appear
to be at a low ebb, and if the country is populous, the people must be
half-starved.

Water was abundant throughout the route: the Monass is a large stream,
but not generally very deep, although from its rapidity it must discharge
even at this season a great body of water.  Composita penduliflora
descends to the Dimree, the altitude of which is about 3,000 feet, so in
fact did most of the plants found about Roongdong.  Pyrus continues half-
way, Rhododendron to the bottom.  Hovenia at an altitude of 5,000 feet,
Randia--as also Tetranthera oleosa, and a new Flemingia.

At 4,900 feet, _Jubrung_ occurs.--Clematis Cana, Luculiae sp., Conyzoidea
nivea, Kydia calycina, Mimosa arborea, began at 4,800 feet: Gaultheria,
arborea, Gordonia, descend to the bottom: Crawfurdia speciosa, Oxyspora,
Aspidium, Macrostomium, and Polypodioides, Saurauja hispida, Hypericum,
Spiraea bella, Gillenioinis, Quercus, Rubus, and Viburnum caerulescens.  A
tree yielding lac, which had lately been cut, and Meliaceae, Rhus
triphyllum.  Hence some snow was visible on a lofty ridge above our
heads, at least 9,500 feet, the snow descending a considerable way down
ravines.  Of birds, Bulbuls and Bucco, were here observed.

At --- feet, Leguminosa arborea, Loranthus Scurrula, Kydia Wendlandia,
Celtis, Osbeckia nepalensis, a Vitex, Grislea, Pteris aquilina,
Indigofera! Acanthacea caerulea.

At --- feet, Triumfetta mollis, Composita arborea, Pterospermum,
fructibus 10-valvibus, valvis lobatibus, Sem. alatis.  Santalacea
australasica, here a large shrub.

At the nullah, Fici sp., Saccharum Megala, Verbenacia? foliis apice craso
lobatis.  On the opposite side, Pinus longifolia, to within 200 feet of
the nullah, Phlebochiton extensus! Solanum farinaceum! Achyranthes densa!
a Plumbaginacea which is a Paederioid Rubiacea, and another Ficus,
Hastingsia, Bassia, Labiata Sudyensis, Grislea, very common, Emblica,
Ficus obliquus were found along the road, after crossing the nullah.  The
ridge of the mountain was rocky, barren, covered chiefly with grasses,
the Butea of Nurtung, Artemisia minor, Umbelliferae, Desmodium vestilum,
Kalanchoe, also occurred.  At the few houses below our path, we saw
plantains! and bamboos as well as mangoes!  The terraces here are fronted
with stones: Lemna occurred in water; Linaria on rocks; Conaria and a
fleshy Euphorbia, this last, about villages.

The occurrence of plantains and mangoes here is curious, and a sure sign
of mild climate, as Kalanchoe is of dryness; nothing could well exceed
the barrenness of the road, from crossing Dumria to Benka.

Benka is a straggling place, built on a ridge overhanging the Monass, and
on exceedingly rugged ground, the north face of the ridge being nearly
equally steep; the southern face, contains about fifty houses, all of
which are small and a few in ruins.  The only large house is the Rajah's,
which is said to be of Chinese construction.

This day the Rajah paid us a visit; a tent was pitched for his reception
on the open ground before our house, consisting of a small silken pall,
with two high silken parti-coloured kunnauts.  He arrived about eleven,
preceded and succeeded by followers amounting to less than a hundred.  On
reaching the ground, he was carried or shuffled off his horse and
deposited in the tent amid most terrific screechings.  He took an immense
time to arrange for our admission.  We found him seated on a shabby
throne, with a head priest, a coarse looking man, on his right, on a less
elevated seat.  Brass cups, etc. were arranged before him.  Our chairs
occupied the left; a present of fruits, onions, etc., the floor.  The
meeting was friendly, and he promised us coolies in two days.  He is a
youngish man with a square face, and was well dressed.

After we had taken leave, he feasted his attendants and the spectators
with salt-fish and rice.  He departed about 2 P.M.  The procession was as
follows, both going and returning--

A large, black, shaggy dog led by a chain.

A drum and drummer; a gong with a melodious sound; a clarionet played by
an old and accomplished musician, rivalling in its strains that beautiful
instrument the bagpipe; a man bearing a wooden painted slab on a pole, on
this was an inscription; a banner looking like a composition of rags; a
white flaglet; fifteen matchlockmen; fifteen bowmen; the Dompa of
Roongdong; five horses and one mule led.

The household; Natchees; guitar; sundries.  Personal attendants, looking
like yeomen of the guard in red cloth dresses, variegated with yellow;
the Rajah wearing a Chinese copper hat.

Lastly, the priests, of whom there were about six.

These were the best clothed and best mounted, and evinced satisfactory
tokens of being corporeally well off.  Their dress consisted of a sombre
jacket with no sleeves, with either a yellow or red silk back, over this
is a sombre scarf.  They are great beggars, and the headman was well
pleased with a present of four rupees.  In return, he gave P. two, B. and
myself each one paper of salt, similar to those given to the lookers-on.

The ponies were all poor, excepting two or three of the Rajah's own,
which were handsomely equipped; these had their tails raised on end,
exactly like hobby-horses.  In addition to this, each was supplied with
supernumerary yak tails, one on either side.

The whole people collected did not amount to more than 300.  The arms, at
least were wretched, consisted of culverins, which went off with an
enormous report, and matchlocks with short rests, like the end of a
pitchfork.  The bows were long and good.  The helmets were worn on the
head when going and coming, but were allowed to sling on the back while
resting here; they are rude iron things, like bowls, but covered for some
way up the sides with cloth in a most unbecoming way.  Dirt and noise
were predominant; the dancing women, evidently not what they should be,
had clean faces, but horridly dirty feet, and were very plain.  The
dancing was poor, consisting chiefly of ungraceful motions of the hands
and forearms; the singing pleasing, harmonious but monotonous.

A peculiar kind of spirit called _Chonghoons_ is in great requisition:
this liquor is pleasant, perfectly clear like whiskey and water, with a
small matter of malt in it.

Fumaria is found here much more advanced than that at Bulphai, Drymaria
ovata.  They cultivate one sort of Legume, perhaps more; mangoes, jacks
and pomegranates; all these trees bear fruit towards the end of the hot
weather.  A young mango tree was observed with opposite leaves, uppermost
pair one abortive nearly: thus the Mariam of Burma, may probably present
the normal form of foliation.  _Adoee_ fish {227} found in the Monass.

Bheirs, papia, tobacco, banyan, of these last, poor specimens may be seen
here.  The place is miserably poor, and as it is reckoned one of some
importance, its condition shows the barrenness of the country.  The
Rajah's house is a large one, apparently consisting of a quadrangle with
an elevated story.  News arrived yesterday to the effect that tumults
still prevailed: the Deb it was said had been deposed by treachery: that
a new one had been permanently appointed: but that the usurper did not
wish us to come on.  Tongsa, however, said that after we have come so
far, we should advance, and that we may settle our plans at his place.

_February 5th_.--Left: descended immediately from the town to the
bridge over the Monass.  The descent is steep but winding, the face of
the hill being nearly precipitous.  Close to the river we passed a small
field of Cajanus, used for feeding the lac insect.  The bridge is a
suspension one, the chains, one on either side, being of iron in square
links; the curve is considerable, in the form of the letter V, the sides
being of mat.  Hence it is difficult to cross, and this is increased by
the bridge swinging about considerably: it is seventy yards in span, and
about thirty above the Monass.

The Monass is 1,300 feet below Benka, it is a large river, the banks
being about eighty yards apart, but this space is not generally filled
with water.  Its violence is extreme.

We continued along this river some time, gradually rising from its bed
until we ascended nearly 1,000 feet.  We continued at this elevation
until we reached Nulka, to which place we descended a little.  The whole
march was through a barren, rocky, burnt-up country.  The Monass was in
sight nearly the whole distance.  Passed two villages, both small, one on
the right and one on the left bank of the river.  No change in vegetation
occurred except that we came upon pines, P. longifolia about a mile and a
half from Nulka, coming into flower.  I am almost inclined to think this
is different from the Khasya species, Kurrimia, Indigofera pulchra,
Desmodium, Buddleia sp., were the only plants of a novel nature that
occurred.  The hills are chiefly clothed with Andropogoneous grasses,
very little cultivation was observed, but there seemed to be more on high
hills to the east.

[Gradient Benka to Nulka: g229.jpg]



CHAPTER XII.


_Continuation of the journey in Bootan_.

The following table affords the result of observations made with the view
to determine the relation between temperature and altitude, in these
parts.

                    Difference of    Difference of  Value in height of
                     Temperature       Elevation     1 degrees of Temperature

Benka and Monass,      13 degrees Fahr. 1,222 feet         94 feet

Benka and Nulka,         4 =              406 =           01-5/10

Benka and Khumna,       13 =            1,110 =           85-5

Khumna and Nulka,       16 =            1,516 =           89-3

Monass and Nulka,        9 =              816 =           90-6

Monass and Khumna,      26 =            2,332 =           89-9
                                                       ----------
                                                       6)550-8
                                                       ----------
Mean value of 1 degrees of Fahr. as indicated on the barometer   91-8

Second series of observation

Benka and Monass,       13 degrees Fahr.1,193-4 feet      91-8 feet

Benka and Nulka,         4 =              367-2 =         91-8

Benka and Khumna,       13 =            1,178-1 =         90-6

Khumna and Nulka,       17 =            1,557-0 =         91-10

Monass and Nulka,        9 =              826-2 =         91-8

Monass and Khumna,      26 =            2,386-8 =         91-8
                                                       ----------
                                                       6)549-8
                                                       ----------
                                                          91-6

The Monass is called Goongree by the Booteas; its bed is very much
inclined, and tranquil pools are of rare occurrence: it is not fordable
in any place, although many of the rapids are not very deep.  The
singular bridge is said to be of Chinese construction, and that it serves
the purpose of a chief thoroughfare, is a proof of the extremely small
population of the country.

Onions grow at Nulka, plantains, sugarcane, tobacco.

Bheirs are common.  Weeping cypress occurs, but stunted.

The entrance to this village on the north-side, is through a square
building, the ceiling of which is painted, and the walls decorated with
figures of deities, white and red.

[Koollong Bridge: p230.jpg]

_February 6th_.--We descended immediately to the Monass, keeping along
its banks throughout the greater part of the march; rising however, over
one or two spurs that dip into it.

This river varies a good deal in width, its bed, however, is generally
confined, and the stream fierce; occasionally, however it spreads out and
becomes here and there more placid.  We continued along its banks,
crossing one or two small streams until 12 o'clock, when we reached a
large torrent, the Koollong, up which we proceeded three or four hundred
yards, but at some height above its bed.  We crossed this by a wooden
bridge of similar construction with that over the Deo Panee, and the idea
of which is ingenious.  It is nearly fifty yards wide, and about twenty
above the torrent.  It is in a bad state, and unprovided with railings
throughout the central level part.  The houses into which the inclined
supporting beams are fixed are strong, and built on rock.  The fastenings
are altogether of cane, and the whole presenting the appearance given in
the annexed drawing.

Hence we ascended a black, rocky, burnt-up mountain until we reached
Khumna, the ascent amounted to nearly 2,000 feet, and occupied more than
an hour.

But little of interest occurred, in fact I never saw a more barren
country.  We passed a small village of two or three houses, and two good
patches of rice cultivation, one just below Nulka, one at Ghoomkhume, the
small village just alluded to.

Pinus longifolia descends nearly to the bed of the Monass, which below
Nulka is about 2,200 feet above the level of the sea.  Along this I
noticed Hiraea, Eugenia, Vitis, Jasminum, Paederia foetida, Ficus,
Loranthus, Scurrula, Desmodium, Aerides, Vanda, Flacourtia, Kalanchoe,
Leguminosa, _Vanillidora of Solani mookh_, Ceanothus, Bergera,
Dischidia bengalensis, Leguminous trees, Euphorbia, Bassia, Cheilanthes
of Brahmakoond common, Coccoloba cyanea.  In rice khets at Ghoomkurrah, I
found Lemna, Cardamine, Rumex of Khejumpa, Cirsium decurrens, Gnaphalia,
Datura, Simool in flowers; Spathoidea, Oxalis coriculata, Cannabis,
Verbesina.

I observed water-ouzels, bucco, water-wagtails, bulbuls, ordinary and
yellow-rumped.

[Gradient Nulka to Khumna: g232.jpg]

Passed cotton cultivation in two places, one close to the Monass, and one
to the Koollong, both equally bad, and observed Begonia edule, which they
call Sheemptsee, and which they eat.

The road to-day was generally good, overhanging in one place the Monass
at a height of forty yards above, and below scarped precipices.  The road
here was constructed or supported artificially.  Distance six miles.

_February 7th_.--To Phoollong.  Left at 9.5 A.M., and immediately
commenced ascending.  The ascent was at first steep, then gradually wound
round the Khumna mountain, which was most barren throughout.  The ascent
continued but very gradually until we came near Phoollong, to which we
descended, and then ascended about 1,000 feet.  About half-way, and when
we had ascended perhaps 1,000 feet, we came on new vegetation, oaks,
Rhododendra, etc. as before, and this continued improving in denseness
until we reached the village.  The distance is five miles, ascent about
1,500 feet, but so gradual, that one would not imagine it more than 800
feet.  At Khumna, I noticed Pinus longifolia, Pyrus malus, Achyranthes
dense, Cirrus, Urtica urens, tobacco, Musa, Datura, Artemisia major.  Hogs
are fed here in large circular platters made of stone scooped out.

Commencing the ascent, I observed Ficus cordata of Bhamru, Rhus pendula,
Indigofera _elatior_, Conaria, Pteris aquilina, Cerasus commenced at
5,000 feet.  Then Desmodium vestilum, Artemisia minor, Conyza laculia,
Rubus deltifolius, Labiata Sudyensis, Acanth. caerulescens.

Quercus robur commenced at about 5,200 feet, but stunted Flemingia
secunda, then Gaultheria arborea, Gnaphalium nivea.

Here there was a high ridge to the right, crowned with a wood of Q.
robur, all the leaves of which had fallen.  Myrica, Rhododendron,
Jubrung, Didymocarpus contortus on rocks, Cnicus, Clematis cana,
Polygonum rheoides.  At a village here, which contained ten houses,
observed Cupressus pendula, Citrus, wheat, Bambusa, then Juncus.  Primula
of the Khasya hills.  Q. robur abundant, Composita penduliflora, Saurauja
hispida, Equisetum, Rubus caesius, Alnus of Thumathaya, Elaeagnus
spinosus, E. macrophyllus 5,300 feet: Plantago, Coriaria, Erythrina, Rhus
acidum, Cerastium coenum, Dipsacus, Viburnum microphyllum, Rubia
cordifolia, Barleria, Tetranthera oleosa, Hedera, Gentiana, Myrsine,
Blasia, Fleshy urticea, Q. robur, Gordonia, Adamia, Neckera
jungermannoides and laeta, Primula in abundance, Acorus, Calamus, Scirpus
kysoor of Churra, Gram. latifolia, Andropogonoides of Suniassa.

Coming on a well-wooded ravine close to Phoollong, the first I have seen
since leaving Balphai, found Quercus 2, Castanea, Gordonia, Spiraea
decomposita, and S. Bella, Hydrangea, Rhododendron, Thalictrum, Quercus,
Curculigo, Viburnum caerulescens, Indigofera elatior, Gnaphalium niveum,
Sempervivum on rocks, Panicum eleusinoides, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Swertia
major, Alnus as before, Rubus moluccanus, Salix lanata, Primula Simsii,
Phlomoides, Orthodon.

Throughout the march we observed many detached houses on the mountains
forming the right bank of the Koollong, and much cultivation, all of the
terrace sort.  Passed one village beneath us about 700 feet, containing
twelve houses, and the one mentioned above; as usual, ruined houses
occur.

Cattle furnished with litters of leaves; a curious low was heard, like
that of an elephant.

Booteas work their own cotton, much of which is cultivated along the
rivers at low elevations.

Higher land, certainly 11 to 12,000 feet high, was visible to the north
side: on this a good deal of snow was visible.

[Gradient Khumna to Phoollong: g235.jpg}

_February 8th_.--Towards the morning it commenced to rain; snow has
fallen on both sides the Koollong: it has fallen on the road we came by
yesterday, and on the hills above to within 200 feet of us, or in some
places to the level of this.  Exemption in favour of this place is to be
attributed to local causes.  The trees in the neighbourhood are
completely covered with it, and it is said to have fallen here twice
during the night,

The Bootea houses are ill calculated for rain, they leak all around as
indeed might be expected, from the nature of the roofs, which consist of
boards, kept _in situ_ by stones.  It would be curious to ascertain the
temperature under which snow does not fall, and if possible the
temperature here and among the snow.  In the morning, sleet with a few
flakes of snow fell also, but only occasionally.

Snow continued to fall throughout the day, and steadily too: it commenced
slightly: as the cold increased it ceased to melt on reaching the ground,
and at length all around was a sheet of white.  The variations of the
thermometer were considerable and frequent, the wind blowing pretty
steadily from the south-east.

At 10  A.M.  37 degrees    Snow commencing.
At 10.5 A.M. 36 degrees    South-east wind.
At 10.75 A.M.40 degrees    Wind from the north, snow rather heavy.
At 11.75 A.M.37 degrees    South-east.
At 12  Noon  35 degrees      ditto.
At 12.5 P.M. 36 degrees      ditto.
At  2.5 P.M. 37 degrees      ditto.
At  4  P.M.  39 degrees      ditto.
At  6  P.M.  37 degrees      ditto.
At  9  P.M.  38 degrees      ditto.

Fine moonlight night.  View to the north beautiful; every thing silvered
with snow; the deep and black ravine of the Koollong is particularly
conspicuous, and on some cultivated spots the pendulous cypress with its
sombre head and branches covered with snow, was also remarkable,
altogether a beautiful scene.  Larch-like firs were visible 500 feet over
the road leading to this from Khumna.

_February 9th_.--Fine sunny morning: thermometer at 7 A.M. 35 degrees:
at 8 A.M. 42 degrees.  Hills around covered with snow.  High ridge to
south plainly visible, a good deal of snow visible.  Went out at noon
over to the south-east, in which direction a pine wood was visible; this
I ascertained to consist of Pinus or Abies pendula, which has much the
habit of a Larch.  The altitude of this above Phoollong is certainly
1,000 feet; snow covered the ground in all sheltered spots.  The woods
here are formed chiefly of Q. robur, Q. ilecifolia also occurs here and
there, Gordonia, Cerasus, Rhododendron minus.

Mosses and Jungermanniae abound, and were in high perfection owing to
being saturated with moisture.  Polytrichum, Neckera, Brachymenium,
Dicranum, Weissiae, Fissidens, Hypnum, Didymodon, Diastoma, Orthodon,
were found in perfection.  The only new plants were a Campanula and a
Chimaphila, which last was found at 7,000 feet.  Berberis asiatica
scarcely occurs below 6,000 feet, Hedera.  The birds seen were the jay,
barbet, red-and-black-headed, variegated short-wing, large ditto of
Khegumpa, orange-breasted Trochilus, brown Fringilla, green woodpecker,
black pheasant, and small squirrel of Assam was also found.

From the fir wood, Tassyassee was distinctly visible, bearing nearly due
south, distance 10 or 12 miles.  Koollong was also seen: all the high
ground between that and Bulphai was covered with snow.  The high range to
the south is, I think, the same as that which runs up behind from the
pagoda above Bulphai.

A few plants of the Assam Indigo, Ruellia indigofera, are kept here, and
preserved with care, but stunted and obviously unsuited to the climate.
Montario, our taxidermist, says that it is the fourth plant he knows from
which indigo is procured.  First, Indigofera--Second, the custard apple,
_shereefa_--Third, a climbing plant used in Java, etc. probably Marsdenia
tinctoria--Fourth,--?

_February 10th_.--Fine weather: thermometer at 7 A.M. 40 degrees.
Started at 9 A.M., and reached Tassyassee at 3 P.M.; the distance being
nine miles.  We continued throughout nearly at the same elevation,
rounding the hill on which Koollong is placed.  About three miles from
this we descended about 500 feet to a nullah, which we crossed over by
means of planks, thence we ascended about the same height, and continued
at nearly our former level until we descended to the Koollong, which we
crossed by the usual form of wooden bridge.  Thence we ascended 400 feet
to the village, which is chiefly constituted by the Rajah's house, a very
large edifice.  The Koollong is still a considerable stream, but appears
to be fordable, at least in the present season.

The vegetation continued the same almost throughout.  In ascending from
the nullah above mentioned, we came on plenty of Pinus longifolia, and on
getting still nearer Tassyassee the Abies pendula became more and more
common, until it forms on the opposite bank of the Koollong opposite
this, a large wood; Pinus longifolia disappearing.  The hills continue
openly wooded, the woods consisting of oaks, chiefly Q. robur and
Rhododendrons.  In the ravines which are thickly wooded, oaks, chesnuts,
Cerasus, Rhododendron arborea, mosses; Panax two or three species, among
which is a new one, _P_. _aesculifolia_, arbor parva armati, foliis 7
digitatis, paniculis nutantibus.  Hydrangea, Viburnum caerulescens, and
Microphyllum, Galium, Ferns abundant, Bucklandia likewise occurred here
and there! Tetranthera, Valeriana, Scabiosa, Conaria, Holcus elegans.

In the broken ground before reaching this, Gaultheria nummularifolia,
Primula minor, in crevices of rocks.  In some places Erythrina was very
common, Gentiana, Dipsacus, Sedum and Didymocarpus contortus on rocks,
Saccharum aristatum, Salix lanata, Woodwardia, Primula minor, which grows
in shade on the Khasya hills, is found here in sunny wet places.  The
scenery in some places is very romantic, and occasionally grand; the
valley of the Koollong being closed far to the north by a high ridge and
beautiful peaks, all heavily snowed.  The Rajah's house is visible from a
considerable distance.  As we approached, some parts were rugged and
bold.  Water abundant throughout.

[Gradient Phoollong to Tassangsee: g239.jpg]

_February 11th_.--Went out at 1 P.M.; descending to, and crossed the
Koollong, then ascending along its banks for about a mile.

The bridge over this is about thirty yards wide, abutting from two houses
of ordinary structure, built on solid rocks: the river is underneath the
bridge apparently of great depth; above it is a succession of rapids, it
is even at this, the driest season, a considerable river.  The path leads
in a winding direction either over rice cultivation or on precipitous
banks.  I noticed Berberis asiatica, pinnata, a Pomacea spinosa, foliis
spathulatis, Stauntonia latifolia, Hedera, Gaultheria two or three,
Thebaudiaceae, Artemisia major, Erythrina, Primula Stuartii in abundance,
Juncus, Alnus, Myrsina, Prunella in grassy spots, Rumex of Khegumpa,
Daphne papyracae, Peperomia quadrifolium, Spiraea bella, Viola,
Ophiopogon linearifol., Hypericum, Smilax, Elaeagnus, Conaria, Lonicera
villosa, Epilobium sericeum, a common plant in all watery places,
Cardamina Swertia, Viburnum microphyllum.  Rhododendrum arborea and
minor, Leucas ciliata, Thistles, Pteris aquilina, Neckerae, Osbeckia
capitata of Churra, Oaks, Catharinea, Xyris, Gordonia, Fragaria,
Potentilla two, Festucoidea, Cupressus pendula.

The greatest acquisitions were a beautiful pink farinaceous ascapous
Primula, and a new genus of Hamamelideae.  This plant I have long known,
and called _Betula corylifolia_, as I had only seen it in fruit, and
not examined it; it is found on the Khasya hills at elevations of between
4,000 and 6,000 feet.  It will be worth dedicating it to some
distinguished geologist, thereby associating his name with that of
Bucklandia and Sedgwickii.

No fly-fishing is to be had in this stream, nor indeed in any at such
elevations.  The Adoee is found, but always keeps at the bottom, the
structure of its mouth pointing out its grovelling habits.  The Bookhar
does not, I think, ascend more than 2,500 feet.  Water-ouzels,
white-fronted Sylvia occur.  Observed for the first time the religious
vertical revolving cylinders, these revolve by the action of water, which
runs on the cogs of the wheel by means of hollowed out trunks of trees.
Flour mills are common here, the grindstone revolves on another by means
of vertical spokes, which are set in motion by a horizontal wheel, and
moved by a stream let on it in the same way.

Funaria heygrometrina abounds in the larch wood here.

This is a very cold place, although 550 feet below Phoollong: it is much
colder than that place: thermometer at 7 A.M. 34 degrees.

Snow still remains on the height around; heavy snow on the lofty ridge to
the north; strong south-east winds prevail here.

[Tassgong from the Koollong: p241.jpg]

_February 12th_.--Tassyassy, which is also called Tassangsee, is a
small place apparently consisting of one large house, belonging to the
Soobah, and some religious edifices, the other houses belonging to it are
scattered about among the adjoining cultivation.  The Soobah we have just
learnt is absent at Tongsa, so we have no opportunity of comparing his
rank with that of the Tassgong man.  His house is however, much larger;
it is situated on a promontory formed by the debouching of a considerable
sized torrent into the Koollong.  The bridge is at the foot of this hill,
which is about 400 feet high: the house is accessible to the north and
west only.  Half-way up a high hill to the north-west is a fort! and
between the foot of this hill and the Rajah's house there is a wall with
a tower at the north-west end, and a house at the south-east.  In the
afternoon the weather threatened snow, but it ended in very slight rain.

_February 13th_.--Thermometer at 7 A.M. 33 degrees: at 9 P.M.  31
degrees: cloudy.  Observed Conyza nivea, Composita penduliflora,
Agrimonia, Stemodia grandiflora, a species of Alopecurus in inundated
rice fields, Fragaria, in the wood, Arenaria, Gymnostomum on the
terraces.  An Arabis in cornfields with a Viola, probably V. patrinia,
Gaultheria deflexa and Gerardia of Churra.  The fir woods are
comparatively bare of mosses and lichens.  Shot an Alauda, a Fringilla,
and a curious climber with the tail of a woodpecker, at least so far as
regards the pointing of the feathers, plumage of Yunx, and beak of
Certhia.

Fine cypresses were seen opposite Tassangsee.

_February 14th_.--Left Tassangsee, diverging from the Koollong at that
place, and following the nullah, which falls into that river below the
Soobah's house.  The march was a generally, continued, gradual ascent; we
crossed two considerable streams by means of rude wooden bridges, and the
whole march was a wet splashy one, owing to the abundance of water.  Snow
became plentiful towards the latter end.  The direction was west, the
distance about seven miles.  We passed two or three deserted villages.

We commenced ascending through woods of stunted oaks, Rhododendrons,
Gaultheria arborea.  The chief under-shrubs being Daphne papyracae,
Gaultheria fruticosa, Primula Stuartii, Lycopodium of Surureem, Thibaudia
myrtifolia continue, the Alnus of Beesa occurred plentifully along the
bed of the nullah. Spiraea decomposita, Valeriana simplicifolia, Conaria,
Scabiosa, Fragaria, Potentilla, Geranium, Artemisia major, Spiraea bella,
Hedera, Viburnum caerulescens, Q. robur, Crawfurdia speciosa also
occurred.

Ascending, the oaks and Rhododendrons became more developed the latter
being the smaller species, Bambusa microphylla, Gordonia, Sphoeropteris,
Antrophyum trichomanes, Oxalis major! commenced.  Larches on the opposite
side, Saccharum aristatum, Gillenioides, Gleichenia major, Hemiphragma,
Abies Brunonis commence.

At 6,500 feet Smilax ruscoides, Senecio scandens, Lilium giganteum.  The
Rhododendrons here are large, forming with oaks, open woods, mosses and
lichens, very abundant.  Here we came on snow, with it commenced Eurya
acuminata, Rhododendron formosa, majus, Rhododendron fruticosa on ruins,
Pyrus malus, Dipsacus.

At 6,800 feet, Q. ilecifolia, Q. glauca, Dalibarda, Bambusa very common,
Sphagnum abundant, Rhododendron formosa, majus, Quercus ilecifolia larger
and more common at 7,000 feet, Gaultheria nummulariodes very abundant,
Daltonia, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Gaultheria flexuosa, Thibaudia acida,
Tetranthera nuda, Lycopodium of Surureem, Primula Stuartii, Hyperici sp.,
also _H_. _moflongensis_, are found up to 7,400 feet, with Hemiphragma,
Elaeagnus spinosus, microphyllum, Juncus, Alnus of Beesa, Saccharum
aristatum.

The village is a ruined one apparently, and never contained more than
four or five houses, situated on an open spot, surrounded by woods.  This
spot is covered with sward, a fine Q. ilecifolia occurs about the centre
of the village.  Its altitude is 7,983 feet.

The vegetation is the same, Abies pendula, Oaks, Rhododendron formosa,
majus, the other has disappeared, Bambusa microphylla, Thibaudia acida,
Primula Stuartii, Juncus.

[Gradient Tassangsee to Sanah: g243.jpg]

_February 15th_.--We started very early; the coolies were all off by
6.5 A.M.  Our march was first over undulating ground, either sward or
through green lanes.  We then commenced ascending a steep hill visible
from Sanah, the face of which was covered with sward; at the top of this,
snow lay rather thick, especially in the woods.  The ascent continued,
soon becoming very steep, snow laying heavily on the path, until we
reached the summit of the second ridge; thence we descended a little,
soon ascending again very steeply until we surmounted the highest ridge.
The descent from this was at first most steep, the path running in zig-
zags, and being in many places very difficult.  About 1,000 feet below,
we came on sward, with wood on the right, along which we descended,
diverging subsequently through a thick wood, until we reached sward
again.  Here the coolies who had come up had halted, refusing to go on,
as it was already dusk.  Learning that Pemberton and B. had gone on, I
hurried on likewise, expecting that the coolies would follow, and
continued along the swardy ridge, the path running occasionally between
patches of wood, the descent being gradual; the path then struck off into
wood, and the descent became rapid.  I continued onward, until it was
quite dark, and finding it impossible to proceed, and meeting with no
signs of B. and P., I determined on returning.  I reached the coolies
about eight, covered with mud, the path in the wood being very difficult
and excessively slippery.  I had nothing but broken crusts to eat; I
procured some sherry however, and my bedding being up, I was glad to take
shelter for the night under the trees.  Next morning on overtaking P. and
B., I found that they had remained all night in the wood without any
thing to eat, and without bedding, and that no habitation was near.  We
reached the village about 9.5 on the 16th, fatigued and dispirited.
Nothing was at hand, and we had no meal until 5 P.M. except some tea, and
an egg or two.

Many of the coolies came up late on the 16th, and some have not yet
arrived (17th.)  The distance was fifteen miles, to the halting place
about twelve.  The amount of ascent about 4,500 feet, and descent 6,100
feet, the road being difficult and very slippery: snow was heavy
throughout, and the elevations between 9 and 12,400 feet; icicles were
frequent.  The trees were all covered with frost, and the aspect was
wintry in the extreme; luckily there was no wind, and no snow fell.  The
summit of the ridge was 12,477 feet high. No views were obtained
throughout the 15th and 16th; the weather being cloudy and very
disagreeable.  No bad effects were experienced from the rarefaction of
the air; we all suffered of course from colds owing to exposure at night,
at an elevation of nearly 9,500 feet; the servants bore it tolerably
well.

At Sanah, the altitude of which is 7,983 feet, (Pemb.) I observed Quercus
ilecifolia, on it Neckerae, Anhymenium, Senecio scandens, Rhododendron
arboreum, majus, Juncus effusus, Swertia, Pendulous lichens, Dipsacus,
Artemisia major, Primula Stuartii, Berberis asiatica, Bambusa
microphylla, Lycopodium of Surureem, Orthotrichum!

At 8,000 feet, Smilax ruscoideus, Senecio scandens, woods of oak and
Rhododendrons, the ground and the trees covered with mosses.  Gnaphalium,
Daphne papyrif., Mespilus microphyllus! Gaultheria nummularioides, Spiraea
gillenioides, and S. bella, Hypericum, Gnaphalium lanceolatum, trivenum,
Sambucus! but withered, Tetranthera nuda of Bulphai, Abies Brunonis which
is probably a Podocarpus.

At 8,300 feet, Tussilaginoides of Churra, Primula Stuartii common on
swards with Swertiae, etc. as before, Funaria and Weissia Templetonia
common, Sphaeropterus! Quercus ilecifolia, Abies pendula, Rhododendron
arboreum, majus! Dalibarda, Rubus, Ilex dipyrena! Rhododendron undulatum!

At 8,400 feet, the road running along, and above a ravine, rocky ground
to the right, Eurya acuminata! Composita penduliflora.  Thibaudia
rotundifolia, and in a swampy sward a small dwarfed very narrow-leaved
bamboo, Primula Stuartii, Gnaphalium densiflorum, Swertia
monocotyledonea, Prunella in the woods, Salix lanata, and Panax
rhododendrifolia.

Just above this, 8,500 feet, the first Abies cedroides appeared, soon
becoming very common, and extending up to 9,500 feet, its habit is like
that of a cedar, and it is a tall handsome tree, Rubia* cordifolia!
Geranium scandens, Baptisioides.

Crossing a nullah, we commenced a steep ascent, Thibaudacae rotundifolia,
Abies cedroides, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Crawfurdia speciosa, Andropogon,
Gaultheria nummulacifol.  Ilex, Epibolium Vaccinium cyaneum!  Here a
sward commenced with vegetation as before, the summit of this ascent was
9,050 feet.  Here Ilex, Daphne papyracae, Rhododendron, Scleria, Lomaria
of Khegumpa! Primula pulcherrima! Spiraea bella, Gnaphalium trivenium,
Rubus moluccanus, Thibaudia, Ericinea orbiculens, Spiraea decomposita,
Gaultheria, nummulariod., Scutellaria prunella, Gaultheria flexuosa,
Scandent composita, Cerastium bacciferum.  The trees covered with mosses,
Neckerae, Dicranum, Daltoniae, Abies pendula ceased, its limits visible
below.  Hence the ascent was gradual at first: snow became heavy at 9,100
feet.  Hemiphragma, Rhododendron abundant.

At 9,500 feet, much the same vegetation, Abies densa commenced, cedroides
ceased.  Woods entirely of A. densa, with a small baccate-like deciduous
leaved tree.  Hydrangea! Spiraeacea! Urticeae?! Pedicularis elatior.

At 10,000 feet, some trees all covered with frost; snow very heavy, quite
crisp, Juncus niveus, Cerastium inflatum! bamboos, other plants of 9,500
feet, continue.  Old Cretins!

At 11,270 feet, thermometer 39 degrees, the same trees, scarcely any
thing but Abies, Arenoid, Dicranum macrocarpus, Orthotrichum, Lichen
pendulum atratum.

Thence we descended a little, soon to re-ascend.

At the same elevation Parnassia, Epilobium monus, Gnaphalium densiflor.,
Vaccinium pumilum, Gentiana, Polygonum(?)

At 11,000 feet, icicles were common, and snow, very heavy.  Woods of some
Abies, a species of rose very abundant, a shrub of four feet high; other
plants continue as before.

From this to the summit the ascent was very steep; Abies continues.
Rhododendron(?) very common, with rose, Parnassia, Saxifraga, Composita
arenoid, Gentiana, Polygonum(?), Pedicularis dwarfed, Triticoides,
Aroides.  Many pines dead as if blasted.  Summit nearly bare of trees,
which appear confined to slopes, Rhododendron very common, Umbellifera
crassa, figured in Royle, Lilium unifloria.

At 12,000 feet, after descent, commenced Hymenophyllum, Xyris on rocks,
Pyrus at 11,500 feet, Rhododendron ellipticum common, summit strewed with
rocks, Rhododendron pumilum.

At 10,000 feet, the Spilus microphyllus, Polygonum, as well as on ascent
Gaultheria nummularioid., swards abounding with Gramen nardoides(?),
Dipsacus minor, Epilobium parnassia, Swertia, Umbelliferae, Primula
scapigerc. floribus in globum densum, pedalis, Habenariae herminioid.

At the halting place 9,700 feet, Berberis ilecifolia, Daphne papyracae,
Thibaudia myrtifolia, Baptisia, Dipsacus, major, Swertim pedicularis,
Andropogones, Ilex dipyrena, Rumex of Khegumpa, Betula, Euonymus cornets,
Abies cedroides, and Brunonis, Geranium scandens, Pyrus, Hypericum
moflongensis, Hemiphragma, Mespilus microphyllus, Panax rhododendrifol.,
Rhododendron obovatum.

At 9,500 feet, Rhododendron arborea, majus, Abies cupressoides,
Gaultheria nummularioides flexuosa, Thibaudiacea rotundifolia, Primula
Stuartii, stunted juncus.

At 9,000 feet, Q. ilecifolia, Rhododendron undulatum, Primula
pulcherrima, Tetranthera nuda, Chimaphiliae! Andropogons, Rhododendron
arbor, majus, common, which varies much in size of leaves, Dalibarda,
Smilax ruscoideus.

At 8,500 feet, Berberis pinnata, asiatica, Buddlaea purpurea; Eurya
acuminata.

At 8,000 feet, Gnaphalium trivenium, Baptisia, Spiraea, (Gillenioid)
bella, Artemisia major.  7,500 feet, Rhododend. minus arborea, Leucas
ciliata, and woods of Q. robur, as usual deciduous.

[Gradient Sanah to Linge: g248.jpg]

All the plants above 10,500 feet, had perished, not a single one being
found in flower.  The descent was so hurried, that it was impossible to
note down more plants; and the same applies to the descent to this from
the halting place.  Starvation being to be added to discomfort.

Of Rhododendrons, the species observed, may be characterized as follows:--

               _Floribus in racemis umbelliformibus_.

1.  R. _arboreum_, arboreum, foliis oblongo obovatis, subtus argenteis.

2.  R. _ferrugineum_, arboreum, foliis obovatis, supra rugosis, subtus
ferrugineis.--No. 654.

3.  R. ----- fruticosum, foliis oblongis, subtus ferruginea
lepidotis.--No. 652.

4.  R. _ellipticum_, fruticosum, foliis ellipticis.--No. 653.

5.  R. ----- fruticosum, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis subtus glaucus
reticulatis.--No. 659.

6.  R. ----- fruticosum, foliis lanceolato oblongis, sub-obovatis, subtus
punctatis.--No. 655.

7.  R. _undulatum_, fruticosum, foliis elongati lanceolatis, undulatis
subtus reticulatis.--No. 656.

                    _Floribus solitariis_.

8. R. _microphyllum_, fruticosum, lotum ferrugineo lepidotum, foliis
lanceolatis parvis.

_February 17th_.--Snow has fallen during the night all around, but not
within 1,000 feet of us: this will make the snow line here about 7,300
feet, the village being 6,335 _supra marem_.  Mildness of climate would
appear to be indicated by the abundance of rice cultivation round this
place, chiefly, however, about 1,000 feet below.  In every direction
ranges of 9 to 12,000 feet are visible: villages are very common,
especially so in a hollow on the western side of the ravine of the
Kooree, in which I counted sixteen or eighteen; one containing between
thirty and forty houses.  The space alluded to is one sheet of
cultivation, chiefly rice and wheat.  Linge itself is an ordinarily sized
village, containing about twelve houses.  The wooded tracts cease for the
most part, about 1,000 feet above this.  The face of the country, where
uncultivated, being clothed with harsh Andropogoneous grasses, Salix
pendula, Thuja pendula, Pyrus malus, Erythrina, Quercus, Juncus effusus,
Porana of Churra, Plantago, Barleria, Polygonium rheoides, Stellaria
media, Rubus deltifoliis, Cnicus, Rhodod. arboreum minus, but rare,
Smithea occurs also.

_February 18th_.--Our march commenced by a steep descent on the south
face of the hill, the coolies proceeding by a more direct one to the
north, but which was said to be difficult.  We continued descending in a
westerly direction, until we came in sight of the Kooree river which
flows along the ravine, and which is a large stream, one-third less than
the Monass.  We then turned to the north following the river, the path
running up, about 800 feet above it.  We then came to another ravine, and
descended to the torrent, which we crossed by a rude wooden bridge: then
followed again the Kooree, to the bed of which we descended, and along
which we continued for some time.  We then ascended where the banks were
of such a nature as not to allow a path, descending again here and there.
Then we came on the Khoomun, a large torrent, which we crossed by a
wooden bridge about 100 yards above its bed; re-descended to the Kooree,
reached its bridge; and thence descending rather steeply, and for about
one and a half mile to Ling-Ling, or Lengloon, which is plainly visible
from the bridge over the Kooree.

After turning to the north along the Kooree, and indeed after passing the
cultivation below Linge, which chiefly occupies a sort of plateau, we
passed through a most miserable country, the hills being rocky, nearly
destitute of trees, and chiefly clothed with the usual coarse
Andropogoneous grasses, especially lemon-grass, occurred between Linge
and Lengloon.

At 5,000 feet, observed Desmodium, Santalacea australasia, Gaultheria
arborea, Indigofera, as before, Clematis cana, Acanthacea caerulescens,
Pteris aquilina, Viburnum caerulescens, Oxyspora, Panicum eleusinoides,
Anthistiria, Conyza, Ficus cordifoliis of Bhamree, Labiata Suddiensis,
Corearia, Rhus pendula, Airoides major, Flemingia secunda and major.

At 4,800 feet, Desmodium vestilum, stunted, Q. robur, Dipsacus,
Epilobium, Elaeagnus microphyllus, spinosus.

At 4,600 feet, Sedum, Campanula, Osbeckia capitata, Citrus in villages,
Emblica, Artemisia minor.

At 4,000 feet, Paederia cyanea, lemon-grass, Panax, Terebinthaceus, Pinus
longifolia, here and there, Ficus obliqua, Grislea, Cirsium.

At the bed of the torrent 4,000 feet, Bassia.

Over the Kooree, Euphorbia antiqorum, a sure sign of aridity.
Didymocarpea contorta, D. canescens, which differs from the other in
being hirsute, Menispermum, Holcus elegans.

Along its bed, Sedum of Phoollong, Eugenia, Achyranthis, Ingoides
arborea, Aspidium polypodioides, Briedleia obovata; Desmodium of Nulka!
Arundo, Buddlaea neemdoides, Jasminum of Benka, Composita, involucri
squamis ciliatis.  Rice fields, in these Gnaphalium aureum, Phleoides of
Tassangsee, but in full flower, Lysimachia majus, rugosus, Oxalis
comiculata, Hieracioid, Composita, Lactucoid purpureseus, Ammannia,
Bidens alba, Drymaria.

Then along the wooded banks, Wendlandia, _Pomacea_? Mimosa arborea,
Camunium, Butea suffruticosa, Pterospermum of Bhamree, Luculia, Ulmus, as
before, Pinus longifolia, Rottlera, Melica latifolia, young plants of Q.
robur on rocks, along with it Goodyera articulata, Urticoid rhombifolia,
carnosa; on rocks up Khoomun, Orthotrichum corcalypta.  At the bridge
over this, a Myrtaceous tree and the Simool occur.  The plants occur
during the ascent, as in the descent.  Water-wagtails, blackbirds,
tomtits, were observed, as also white-pated and white-rumped water-chats.

_February 19th_.--Ling-Ling or Lengloon.

_February 20th_.--To-day we visited the Soobah, who is a young man,
certainly not more than twenty years old, with a good humoured
countenance.  The meeting was cordial but unattended with any state, and
judging from appearances only, this Soobah is inferior to the others we
have seen, and especially to him of Tassgong.  No armed men were present,
and the whole bystanders scarcely amounted to 100.  It was agreed that we
remain here until the baggage, now in the rear, arrives.  Tonsa is, we
hear, only four or five days journey from this.

The meeting took place in an open plot of ground below the Soobah's house
and on the skirts of the village, the ground was matted and a space
enclosed with mats: we sat in the open air; the Soobah under a silken
canopy.  Altogether he seemed a person of no pretensions, crowds,
speaking comparatively, of priests attended as usual, they were the
slickest looking of the whole, and the greatest beggars.  A hideous party
of _nachnees_ were in attendance, and ready to perform any more pleasing
duties they might be required; they were however so ugly, that not much
self-denial was required in declining their offers.  They were dressed in
red, with abundance of cumbrous silver ornaments, and dirty leggings; one
was additionally ornamented with incipient goitre.

Sugarcane (but stunted), almonds, or peach, oranges, castor-oil, datura,
pear, simool, may be found here.  Oranges are poor enough, the pear no
better.  Pinus longifolia, Cupressus pendula, are almost the only trees:
the hills being barren, covered with coarse grasses.

_February 23rd_.--Marched to Tumashoo: our march commenced with a steep
ascent, but which may be avoided by going through the village, it
commenced and continued throughout in the direction of Linge, opposite to
which place we found ourselves on our arrival, but on the right bank of
the river.  The highest part reached, before we descended to this
village, was 6,350 feet, or about the height of Linge.  The march was
nearly six miles, it was easy, the road being throughout excellent and
apparently more frequented than any we had hitherto seen.  Generally we
moved along through open Rhododendron woods, frequently very much
stunted, at 6,000 feet.  These were intermixed with Quercus tomentosa.
The only spot well wooded, occurred in the ravines, giving exit to small
streams.

The first ascent from Leng-Leng, gave the same vegetation, scarcely any
trees being visible.  Tradescantia clavijera of Churra on rocks, Galium
of Churra, Santalacea, Desmodium vestilum, Indigofera canescens,
Artemisia major and minor, Oxyspora, Luculia, Conaria, Sambucus in wet
places, Lobelia pyramidalis, Spiraea bella and decomposita, Thalictrum
majus, Gaultheria fruticosa, Woodwardia, Saurauja hispida, Rhododendron
minus, and lemon-grass, occurred in the order of ascent.

Turning hence along the ridge at the same elevation, Gaultheria arborea,
Quercus tomentosa, Rhododendron minus, Hedychium, Holcus elegans, Leucas
ciliata.  In wet wooded spots Gaultheria duplexa, Bucklandia, Viburnum
caerulescens, Polyg. rheoides, Erythrina, Gordonia, Porana, Neuropeltis
aromatica, Catharinea, Thibaudia myrtifolia, in open massy woods of
Rhododendron minus and Quercus tomentosa, Rosa, Cnicus, Pyrus, Gleichenia
major, Agrimonia occurred at the same elevations.

From one spot seven villages were visible, on opposite bank of Kooree and
between Linge and the Khoomun.  A few stunted P. longifolia: one or two
of Abies pendula, occurred 100 feet above the highest point of the
former: at 6,350 feet, woods of the deciduous Q. robur, were observable.

On the descent at 6,000 feet, Mimosa spinosa, Primula Stuartii, Rhus,
Juncus, and others, as before.

We passed several villages, some containing twenty or thirty houses, and
on halting found ourselves towards the edge of the cultivated tract
alluded to, as seen from Linge.

Cattle are here kept in farm yards which are well littered with straw; as
in other places they are noosed round the horns: they are fed, while tied
up, on straw of a coarse and unnutritious description, which they do not
seem to fancy much. Pigeons abound, but they are of no use as they cannot
be caught; they may help to feed the sparrow-hawks, which are generally
found about the villages, and which are very bold.

_February 24th_.--Left at 8 A.M. after the usual trouble about coolies
and ponies.  We ascended at first about 1,000 feet, passing over sward
with woods of P. longifolia on either side, crossing the ridge through a
hollow, we then commenced a steep descent to the west, until we reached a
water-course, the elevation of which is about 200 feet below that of
Tumashoo.  We then struck off, again to ascend, and continued to do so
until we attained 7,800 feet, from which point we descended gradually at
first, then abruptly to our _mokan_.  The direction was nearly west, the
distance 11 miles, the march pretty easy, as the road was good, and the
ascent gradual.

Up to the ravine and indeed throughout, nothing new occurred in the
vegetation.  The hill up which we ascended to again descend, was bare,
covered with the usual coarse grasses, Campanula linearis and C. cana,
foliis undulatis, Desmodium vestilum, Santalacea.

In the ravine Gordonia, Photinia, Pothos flammea and another species,
Maesa, Polygonum rheoides, Ficus of Bhamree, and in the khets Hieraceoid,
Gnaphalium aureum, Ajuga, and Veronica occurred.

Up the first ascent and at about 5,500 feet, there was a field of peas,
in very luxuriant condition.  Our road lay through open dry woods of
oaks, either Q. robur or Q. tomentosa, principally the latter,
Rhododendron minus, and Pinus longifolia preponderated in some places,
but few trees of Abies pendula occurred.

The march was so far interesting as establishing nearly the limits of Q.
robur, Q. tomentosa and Q. ilecifolia, which last only commenced, and
then in a small state, at 7,300 feet, I should say that Q. tomentosa was
to it the next indication, as well as Q. glauca.  But it must be
understood that only full grown trees are now considered.  Mosses were
common in the woods on reaching 6 to 7,000 feet, principally Dicrana,
Hypna, Orthotricha, Pendulous lichens frequent; about 7,000 feet, Primula
Stuartii in its old situations between 6 to 7,000 feet, Hypericum of
Moflong, 7,000 feet.

We crossed several small water-courses, along these, the dry woods
ceased, and the usual humid jungle made its appearance; mosses very
numerous.

[Gradient Longloon to Tumashoo: g254.jpg]

The above plants continued throughout, after reaching an altitude of
6,000 feet, the woods consisting of oaks and Rhododendrons.

The route for the most part wound along the course of the Kooree, but
considerably above, we left this track about 3 P.M. on the river turning
to the southward.  Linge was in sight nearly the whole day; we have been
six days (including a halt) performing what might with ease be done in
one, for there probably is a road in a direct line between this part and
the opposite bank of Kooree.  The small-crested finch, and red-beaked and
red-legged fare occurred, the former is a noisy bird, inhabiting chiefly
woods of Q. robur, the flock were loth to leave one particular spot, so
that we obtained five specimens: the finch occurred at 7,800 feet.

Various temples and walls were passed en route, and a few villages, with
one exception of average small size, were visible in various directions.

_February 25th_.--Our route hence continued for some time at about the
same level, when we descended rather rapidly, until we reached a
considerable stream, the Oongar, which is crossed by the ordinary wooden
bridge; about 200 yards further, it is again crossed by means of a rude
bridge, and the remainder of the march is a steep, long, and unmitigated
ascent.  I reached the tent about 5 P.M.; we passed one village situated
near the larger bridge, with this exception the country seemed
uninhabited: very little cultivation was visible in any direction.

The vegetation was the same, for the most part, the drier faces of the
hills being covered, i.e. at about the level of Oongar, with oaks and
Rhododendrons, the wet ravines being more densely, and more variously
wooded.  On sward about Oongar, I noticed a Pedicularis, Artemisia major,
Stellaria angustifolia, Berberis pinnata in woods at the same elevation,
Plantago, Crawfurdia speciosa, Rubus deltoideus, Alnus of Beesa,
Otochilus, Gordonia, Lilium giganteum, Bucklandia.

In one spot near this place mosses were very abundant.  On one rock I
gathered, Weissioides, Orthodon, Pohlia, Brachymenium bryoides, Weissia,
Bartramioides, Didymodon, Daphne papyrifera, and Eurya acuminata, this
being about the lowest elevation at which I have seen this plant.  In
cultivated spots Crucifera, Ervum, and at a temple about a mile from
Oongar, Cupressus pendula, and a juniper, Arbor parva, of aspect scraggy,
trunco laevi, Cannabis, Cerastium canum in cultivated places.  The most
common oak was Q. robur.  The Jay, larger Brachypodium, which always goes
in large flocks, orange-breasted Trochilus and blackbird, were likewise
seen, as well as the brown finch, which was seen feeding on Rhododendron
minus.  On rocky ground I procured a really fine Acanthus, leaves all
flesh-coloured, subscandens, spic. maximis lanato-ciliatis, tetrastich.
on this the black cattle appear to be fed, as large bundles were brought
in at Oongar.  In the woody ravines Panax curcasifolia was common, in
these I noticed Cerastium scandens, Elaeagnus, Clematis, Tetrantheroidea
habitu, Sedgewickiae! Orthotrichum pumulum! Phlomoides, and in wet spots
are Epilobium.  The descent shewed nothing remarkable: towards the nullah
I noticed Engelhaardtia, tree fern, and Gaultheria deflexa.  Obtained a
beautiful woodpecker at 5,000 feet, with the chesnut-pated lesser tomtit,
Yunx, and speckled Brachypodium in woods here; this last has the habit
and manners of the crooked bill of Dgin.

The wood between the two bridges was very pretty and open; the trees
covered with mosses.  The ascent shewed nothing remarkable until 2,000
feet had been surmounted, the plants forming the vegetation below this
were Q. robur, Rhododendron minus in abundance, Thibaudia myrtifolia,
Gaultheria arborea, Saurauja hispida uncommon, Viburnum caerulescens,
Conyza nivea, Oxyspora towards the base with paper plant, and Bambusa
microphylla.  About 5,000 feet, a Daltonia, D. hypnoides, was found in
abundance both on rocks and trees.

The change takes place about the situation of a spacious open sward; here
the jungle is thick, the trees consisting principally of Q. glauca, which
is a noble tree, with immense lamellated acorns, Pendulous lichens are
here common, Hymenopogon parasiticus, Lomaria of Khegumpa! Berberis
asiatica! Hemiphragma, Gaultheria nummulareoides, Panax Rhododendrifol.

At 7,500 feet, Rhododendron majus appears, the wood preserving the
umbrageous humid aspect, Eurya acuminata, Hydrangea, and about this snow
commenced sparingly, but soon became thick.  At 8,000 feet, Rhododendron
undulata, Tetrantheroides baccis nigris.  At 9,000 feet, Rhododendron
ferrugineum.  The evening now became so misty that it was impossible to
discern any thing; in addition, it was snowing: these circumstances added
to fatigue made me press on for the halting place, before coming to which
I passed through heavy snow.

_Pemee_, where we put up, is a miserable hut, is upwards of 9,000 feet
above the sea, situated on an open sward, now densely covered with snow,
the accommodations being of course very miserable.  Icicles of large size
were seen here; and we had nothing but snow for water.

_February 26th_.--Leaving this, we commenced a long and at last very
steep ascent, the snow increasing in thickness as we increased our
elevation, the march commenced with undulations, but soon passed off into
an excessively steep ascent, in some parts indeed precipitous.  We
crossed at twelve and a half P.M. the Pass of Rodoola, on which are some
slabs, with mystic characters, but even here the ascent did not
terminate, but continued, although very gradually for perhaps two miles
more.  Before coming to the summit, a small hut is passed.  The descent
was at first very rapid, then we proceeded along the side of the mountain
for a long way, at nearly the same level through woods of Abies densa.  On
recommencing the descent, swardy patches commenced, surrounded by fir
woods, these increased in frequency.  At length we reached extensive fir
woods, from whence a valley was visible, percolated by a large stream to
which we descended over open country with beautiful patches of firs, and
at length over extensive swards.  I reached the village at 5 P.M., after
a march of nearly nine hours, the direction was west, the distance
eighteen miles.  The road was very bad; in one place our ponies escaped
with difficulty, the road having apparently fallen in, and the only
footing being afforded by the thickness of the snow: one pony was saved
by placing branches under him.  The highest portion of the Pass near the
peak was good enough. Snow was heavy on the road, until we descended into
the open fir-wooded country, it became scanty at 9,500 feet.  The day was
gloomy and misty, for a moment, the sun appeared while I stood on the
summit, disclosing deep ravines, one formed by the valley in which we now
are, surrounded in every direction by equally high land, as that on which
I stood, and certainly not under 12,000 feet.  Nothing visible but dense
forests of firs.  The highest point crossed was 12,035 feet, estimating
the summit to be 300 feet above the Pass itself, which is so narrow as
scarcely to admit of the passage of a loaded mule.

In the open spot around the hut, Tofieldioid, which continues as high as
10,500 feet, Cerastium inflatum, Labiata species, Conecis, which, as on
Dhonglaila, continues up to 12,000 feet, Dipsacus, Prunella, Gaultheria
nummularioides, Pteris aquilina, stunted, Juncus niveus, Gnaphalium.  No
firs were visible, but the trees were so covered with snow, that I was
not able to distinguish them.

At 9,800 feet, along an open ridge, Spiraea belloides, Buddlaea, B.
purpurasae, Khasyanae affinis, Andropogones, Mespilus microphyllus,
Hydrangea, Taxus, Swertia, Gnaphalium, Thibaudia orbicularis commences,
continuing up to 10,500 feet, Brachymenium bryoides, Bambusa very common,
forming frequently the chief bulk of the forest, even up to 10,500 feet,
Acer arbuscula foliis palmatum lobatis!! Pyrus arbor magna fol. obovat.
serratis subtus albus, fructibus cerasi magnitudinum.

At 10,000 feet, Composita penduliflora! Hemiphragma, Lobelioides,
Brachymenium bryoides, Rhododendron minus ferrugineum, arboreum vel
arbuscula, Rhododendron obovatum, foliis subtus albus, Rhododendron
hispidum, Rosa microphylla, Bambusa, Spiraea of former ascent.

At 10,200 feet, Polygonum, Rheum, Hydrangea! Spiraea belloides,
Hydrangea, Betuloides.

At 10,500 feet, Abies densa, but sparingly, Rhododendron ellipticum,
foliis basi cordatis, Hypericum, Rhododendron microphyllum.

At 11,000 feet, no firs: nothing almost but Rhododendrons, R. ellipticum,
and R. ellipticum foliis basi cordatis.

At 11,500 feet, Vaccinium, foliis ovatis spinuloso-dentatis, atratus
fructex pygmaeus repens.

Towards the Pass, the face of the mountain became more and more rugged,
the vegetation more scanty, consisting of nothing but Rhododendrons.

At 12,000 feet, Eriogonum minus, Polygonum, Rheum, Rhodod. microphyllum
and ellipticum foliis basi cordatis.

About the Pass, Trichostomum, _Xyris_, Abies densa, one small plant,
Rosa, Eriogonum minus, Rhododendron microphyllum and ellipticum foliis
basi cordatis.

On the more level ridge between this Pass and the summit, Rhododendrons
still were most frequent, Triticoides umbellifera of Royle, Eriogonum
majus, woods of Abies densa occurred a little below the path, Gentiana
maxima, 4-pedalis folliculis bipollicaribus, Lilium uniflorum, Potentilla
common between this and 9,000 feet, Rosa microphyllum, Juniperus,
Epilobium minus of Dhonglaila, Rheum.  Large black crow, Pedicularis,
Saxifraga, Umbellifera alia, Compositae, Spiraea.

At the summit, no woody vegetation was visible, except Rhododendrons; the
firs being confined below.

The descent at first through Rhododendron, then for a long time entirely
through vast woods of Abies densa, most of the larger trees of this are
apparently blasted, it has a tabular form, and very sombre appearance,
and can be recognized even at great distances by its black columnar palm-
like appearance.

At 11,000 feet, Acer sterculiacea, Rosa microphylla, Ribes, which ceases
below 10,000 feet, it is confined to the A. densa woods.

At 10,500 feet, Saxifraga, two species on moist banks, A. densa woods,
small Umbellifera.

The sward commences at about 10,000 feet, and is common at 9,500 feet.  It
is clothed principally with the small bamboo noticed in similar places
above Sanah.  Berberis spathulata commences.  It is with this sward that
a new fir, with a larch-like look, which I call temporarily Abies
spinulosa, commences, and continues down to the nullah, becoming more
abundant as A. densa becomes less abundant, and finally usurping its
place entirely.  Rhododendron microphyllum continues to 9,600 feet, at
which point Baptisoidea commences.

The vegetation hence to Bhoomlungtung consists entirely of Abies
spinulosa, intermixed with a species very like Abies pendula, this
appears at about 9,500 feet.  The sward consists of small grasses, Juncus
niveus, Gnaphalium, Hypericum of Mollong, suffrutex incertus.  Juncus
effusus at 9,000 feet, with Prinsepia utilis.

The marked indicators of great elevation are A. densa, Polygonum, Rheum!
Eriogona! Rhododendron microphyllum, ellipticum, and ellipticum foliis
basi cordatis, Epilobium, Triticoides, Holcoides, Umbellifera of Royle,
Saxifragae, Ribes, Juniperus.

The most marked peculiarity is the comparative absence of A. densa on the
east side of the mountain, and its excessive abundance on the west.  This
valley may be justly called the valley of pines, for in no direction is
any forest to be seen but those composed of pines.  The change indeed is
extraordinary, in other respects as indicated by the presence of a new
Rosa and Prinsepia utilis.  Another peculiarity is the appearance for the
first time of A. spinulosa.  The range of which is between 8 to 10,000
feet; this is a beautiful tree, and disposed in beautiful groups.  The
valley altogether is a beautiful one, and actually repays one for the
trouble endured in getting access to it.

The temperature in crossing the ridge was below that on Dhonglaila, and
below the freezing point at times.  No inconvenience was felt by us from
the elevation, but many of our servants suffered probably as much from
fright as cold.

_February 27th_.--Halted.

_February 28th_.--This valley is certainly the prettiest place we have
yet seen, the left bank is particularly level, but neither are of much
breadth, the hills adjacent present rounded grassy patches, interspersed
with beautiful groves of pines.  The level space, as well as the more
favourable sites on the slopes of the hills, are occupied by wheat
cultivation, which is carried on in a more workman-like manner, than any
of the previous cultivation I have hitherto seen.  The fields are
occasionally surrounded with stone walls, but generally only protected
from the inroads of cattle by branches of thorny shrubs strewed on their
edges.  They are kept clean, and above all, manure is used: it is however
dry and of a poor quality, apparently formed of animal and vegetable
moulds.  In some of the fields the surface is kept very fine, all stones
and clods being carefully removed and piled up in various parts of the
field, but whether these masses are again strewed over the ground.  The
plough is used, and penetrates to about four inches.  Hoes and rakes are
also used, but the angle of the handle is much too acute.  Radishes are
grown with the wheat: no rice is cultivated here.

The village Bhoomlungtung, at which we are stationed is on the left bank
of a branch of the Bhoomla nullah, a river of some size, but fordable in
most places, its bed being subdivided.  It is 8,668 feet above the sea.
The houses are ordinary, but they are surrounded with stone walls.  Our's,
which is a portion of the Dhumpas or headman's, has a court-yard,
surrounded by a stone wall, and the entrance is defended by a stout and
large door.  The natives invariably wear dark clothing, the colour being
only rivalled by that of their skins, for I never saw dirtier people.  The
Bhooteas hitherto visited, were quite paragons of cleanliness compared to
those we are now among.  Half ruined villages are visible here and there,
although otherwise the appearance of the valley is prosperous enough.  The
valley is surrounded on all sides by hills of great altitude, the lowest
being 10,500 feet high.  Snow is plentiful on the ridges, but it does not
remain long below, although falls are frequent.  No fish are to be seen
in the river, which is otherwise as regards appearance as beautiful a
trout stream as one could wish to have.  The birds are the common
sparrow, field-fare, red-legged crow, magpie, skylark, a finch which
flies about in large flocks, with a sub-forked tail, raven, red-tailed
stonechat, larger tomtit, syras, long-tailed duck, and quail, which is
much larger than that found in Assam.  The woods are composed entirely of
Abies pendula, a few A. spinulosa occur, intermixed, but the woods of the
latter species are scarcely found below 9,500 feet.  The ridges are
clothed with the columnar Abies densa.  In thickets a smaller Rosa,
Rhododendron ellipticum, foliis basi cordatis, Rhododendron elliptica,
foliis subtus argenteis, Rhodod. gemmis viscosis.  Berberis asiatica,
Hamamelidea? Bambusa microphyllum, Philadelphus, Thibaudia orbicularis,
Mespilus microphyllus, Taxus or Abies Brunonis, Ilex dipyrena, occur.  The
sward shews small grasses, all past flower, Hemiphragma, Thymus,
Dipsacus, Juncus niveus, Gnaphalia 2, 3, Potentilla.

The fields have Crucifera Lamium and Verbascum, a late biennial species,
Caule simplici, Hemiphragma.

The marshy spots abound with Juncus effusus, and shew also a Primula out
of flower, and a Xyris past flowering.

Along the bed of the river, Hippophae is the most common plant.  Lastly,
a few trees occur of Q. ilecifolia, which assumes a very handsome
character, looking much like a Conifera at some distance, one group
occurs near the village, and a solitary tree or two elsewhere.  The other
woody vegetables are Rosa fructibus hispidis, Cycnium, Pomacea arbuscula,
and one or two other deciduous shrubs.  The willow tree is also common.

_March 1st_.--Marched to Byagur, we were told that the march was a
short one, and that we should continue throughout along the Bhoomlungtung
river, which is called Tung-chiew.  We did keep along this for about two
miles, when we struck off into the hills passing through a village, we
continued rising for perhaps 1,000 feet, when we descended to a small
nullah.  Leaving this we commenced an ascent, and a very long one too,
and continued to ascend until we surmounted the ridge overlooking the
river, on which Byagur or Iugur is situated.  To the place we descended,
the march was fourteen miles, direction westerly.  Highest ground
traversed about 9,500 feet high.  Road throughout winding round and up
hills, through woods of Abies pendula: nothing of interest occurred.
Magpies, crows, chatterer feeding on pine cones, common in woods at 9,000
feet.  Passed two or three villages, all containing ruined houses.
Direction we pursued was that of the Tung-chiew river, until we reached
the ridge guiding the Byagur river to it: their junction takes place two
or three miles below this place, Cycnium occurred on the road in plenty,
also Sarcococea.

Horseshoe curlew, the same as we shot at Daimara, common in the
Tung-chiew, along which the chief shrubs are Hippophae and Elaeagnus,
particularly in the islets which are not uncommon in its bed.  The common
water wagtail also occurs.

I find that the root of the common Potentilla is used here, as about
Nunklow, as a substitute for _sooparee_, it is unpleasantly astringent.
Observed Rhododendron microphylla on the loftier ground; very high land,
18,000 feet visible to the south along the course of Tung-chiew, covered
with heavy snow: Abies pendula is occasionally a beautiful tree, 100 feet
high, and in appearance something like a cedar, the finest occurs at a
monastery under a bluff rock, about one and a half mile from
Bhoomlungtung on the Tung-chiew; Daphne papyriferae occurred at 9,000
feet.  The heaps of earth piled up in the fields before sowing, consist
of burnt rubbish, the ashes are subsequently spread out.  The manure
consists entirely of vegetables: here I find that the pine leaves are
piled up, and formed into manure by fermentation.

_March 2nd_.--Byagur, the Soobah's house is about 500 feet above us,
and is a huge rambling edifice.  We are in a village situated in a rather
capacious valley, percolated by a large river, twice the size of the Tung-
chiew, which is crossed by an ordinary bridge, the river runs close to
the hills, which form the left bank, the right is a sort of plain,
occupied by wheat cultivation, and which has apparently at a former
period, been the bed of the river.  In this valley other villages are
visible, but they are small, and nothing indicates either fertility or
prosperity.  The valley is surrounded on all sides by high mountains,
those towards Bhoomlungtung being lowest.  To the north-east very high
land is visible.  The ridge which separates us from Tongse is, in the
highest parts, certainly 12,000 feet, and covered with snow.  The people
are dirty to an excess.

Crow, sparrow, Alauda, are the birds here.  Saw a fox, an animal of some
size, with a beautiful brush.  The botany is poor, the hills are clothed
with the usual grasses, abundance of Abies pendula.  The khets or fields
present the old Lamium and Crucifera.  The only trees are one of Q.
ilecifolia, and one or two of Salix lanata.

_March 3rd_.--Cycnium is found here, but is put to no use.  The crops
which are now springing up are very poor, the soil being extremely bad,
they are irrigated by means of canals, but terraces are not in use, the
ground being too level, the embankments are much smaller than those used
in rice cultivation.

The place is bleak in the extreme, and here, as often on the western face
of the Himalaya, at this season a fierce diurnal wind rises directly the
sun gets power, which always blows up the ravines or against the streams
draining these, it dies away towards evening, generally.  It is cold in
the extreme, and must check vegetation extremely.  Syras, common here, as
at Bhoomlungtung.

The ridge above this which is crossed coming from Bhoomlungtung, is 9,947
feet high, yet no snow was on the ground.  The contrast between it and
Pemee in regard to snow and vegetation is remarkable; there the woods
were thick, luxuriant, and varied, here nothing is to be seen but Abies
pendula.  I consider this a proof that A. pendula is a native of places
below much snow, and that where snow abounds, it will not be found to
extend above 8,000 feet.  The dwarf bamboo of Sanah is common here,
covering large patches of ground, Lamium of Bulphai in the vicinity of
temples, and enclosing pagodas.  The people here evince great skill in
figures, but none in architecture.

The Soobah's house, a castellated heterogeneous mansion, spread over much
ground, the defences on one side reaching nearly to the level of the
valley.  The Kumpa dogs are fierce and handsome, with the bark of a
mastiff, they are not apparently deterred by threats, but rather the
contrary.  A woman with dropsy, wrapped in filthy clothes, presented
herself and evinced great anxiety to have her pulse felt, but the dirt of
her clothes was such, that I made excuses.

Manure for the land consists of pine leaves, etc. mixed with cow-dung.
The cattle are well littered; and grass is here of rather better
description: all cattle are however in wretched condition
notwithstanding, and the cows give very little milk.  The houses of the
poorer orders, are unornamented, but those of the better classes are
always ornamented with a belt of red ochre outside.  There are no large
boulders in the river here, although it runs with violence.  This is
owing to the softness or tenacity of the rocks.

_March 4th_.--Our march commenced with a steep ascent up the ridge,
forming the west boundary of the valley, surmounting this we proceeded on
for some distance at about the same level, and thence descended rapidly
to a nullah.  We then ascended slightly, and subsequently descended to
the valley, in which the village Jaisa is situated.  The distance was
nine miles; the march was pretty, almost entirely through fir woods,
three villages were visible in a valley to the left, which is in fact the
termination of the Jaisa one, but beyond the valleys no cultivation
whatever was visible.

The first part was up a barren grassy slope, after which we entered fir
woods, these at first were almost entirely constituted of Abies pendula.

At 9,000 feet Chimaphila, Berberis spathulata, Abies pendula, Bambusa
microphylla of Sanah, Mespilus microphyllus, Rhododendron elliptica,
foliis basi cordatis subtus argenteis, Philadelphus Lycopod. of Surureem,
Gaultheria nummularifolia, Rhododendron viscosum.

At 9,300 feet, Abies spinulosa becomes more common, Rosa hispida and
microphylla! Pinus cedroides commences, Dalibarda, Daphne papyracea,
Thymus, Gnaphalia, Mespilus and Berberis, as before, Potentilla.

At 9,500 feet, snow lying on the path in sheltered places, Euphorbia,
Gaultheria arboreoides, Hypnum rubescens, scolopendrioids, Pteris
aquilina, Melianthus, Rosa, frutex erectus ramis hispidissimis, ramulis
subglabratis, fructibus pendulis glabris, tubo-ovato, sepalis
lanceolatis.  Salix arbuscula, gemmis rubur glabris, foliis lanceolatis
subtus glaucis, amentis faeminies pendulis, Bupleurum, Hydrangea, Spiraea
densa belloides! Prunella, Pinus cedroides common at Potentilla.

At 9,700, 9,800, to 10,000 feet, Abies densa, a few trees, as usual many
blasted, from lightning confined entirely towards the summit, Acer
sterculiacea, Aruncus, Thibaudia orbicularis, A. spinulosa very common,
A. pendula ceases, or at most only stunted plants occur, Mespilus
microphyllus, Berberis spathulata, Baptisia, these were very common on
west face, which is level enough and open.

Here also Pedicularis, Bupleurum, stunted Pteris aquilina, Polygonum,
Rheum! Avena! Pendulous lichens luxuriant.  Along the level tracts, the
woods consisted entirely of Abies spinulosa, a minute Gentiana common on
the sward.

The descent was steep to the ravine; half-way down A. pendula commenced
to flourish, and towards the ravine it was more common than A. spinulosa;
Rhododendron microphyllum was seen on this face at 9,500 feet, Verbascum
at 9,200 feet, but most of the plants seen on the east face were not
found on this.  Acer sterculiacea, however occurred at 9,800 feet,
otherwise pines were the most prominent feature.

At the nullah, Dipsacus, Elaeagnus, Salix lanata, Artemisia major, Daphne
papyracea, Rhododendron viscosum, Mespilus microphyllus, Rosa hispida,
spinus acutissimis, Bambusa of Sanah, Plectranthus a large suffruticose
annual species, common in all the same altitudes, were observed.  The
subsequent descent was through woods of A. pendula, with a few of A.
spinulosa intermixed.

The limits of A. densa, A. spinulosa and A. pendula, Melianthus, Acer
sterculiacea, Thibaudia orbicularis, A. cedroides, Rosa microphylla,
Pedicularis, Hydrangea, Baptisia, Berberis spathulata were well
determined.  They may be expressed as follows: A. densa, 10 to 13,000
feet, A. spinulosa, 9 to 10,500 feet, A. pendula, 6 to 9,000 feet,
Melanthus, 9,500 feet, Acer sterculiaceum, 9,800 to 10,000 feet,
Thibaudia orbicularis, 10,000 feet, A. cedroides, 9,000 to 9,800 feet,
Rosa microphylla, 9,800 to 13,000 feet, Pedicularis, 10 to 12,500 feet,
Hydrangea, 4 to 10,000 feet unless two species are confounded, Baptisia,
9 to 9,800 feet, Berberis spathulata, 9 to 10,000 feet.

_Jaisa_ is a good sized village for Bootan, and the houses are rather
large.  We were lodged in the castle, a large building, with a capacious
flagged court-yard, surrounded by galleries: we were housed in the grand
floor of the higher portion fronting the gate.  A good deal of wheat
cultivation occurs around.  The village is situated in a small nullah,
surrounded on all sides by pine-clad hills.  The vegetation is precisely
the same as at Juggur, with the exception of a Ligustrum, which is common
along the nullah.  Larks, red-legged crows and ravens, abound here.

_March 5th_.--Our march consisted of a progress along levelish ground
up the river, occasionally rounding small eminences: we then commenced
the ascent of a ridge, the summit of which we reached about half past-
twelve.  Snow is common above 9,000 feet.  The descent was steep and
uninterrupted from about 2,000 feet, when we reached a small river.
Thence we ascended a little to descend again, we continued over a ravine
at nearly the same level, for some time proceeding over undulated ground:
on reaching the debouchure of the ravine into a larger one running north
and south, we commenced to descend rapidly until we came to an elevation
situated above Tongsa, to this place the descent was excessively steep.
The march was thirteen miles long, the direction west.

At a temple near Jaisa found the Juniper of Oongar in flower, and
arboreous, attaining a height of about 40 feet.  The whole march up,
nearly to the summit, was through pine woods, A. pendula and spinulosa
being intermixed for some time.  I noticed Primula globifera, Eucalypta,
Thibaudia orbicularis, Aruncus, Rosa ramis hispidis, Dipsacus, Prunella,
Potentilla, Gnaphalium, Sphagnum, Daphne papyracea, Tofieldia, Gaultheria
nummularoides, as we approached the base of the ridge or rather the spot
at which the ascent commenced.  At this place Abies cedroides commenced,
and Abies pendula became uncommon.

On a bank here, I gathered abundance of mosses, Bartramia, Dicrana, etc.
and some Jungermanniae.

The ascent was through precisely similar vegetation, in one place it was
exceedingly pretty, consisting of sward with pines.  Here snow was lying
on the ground in sheltered places to the depth of several inches.  The
ground hence was levelish, but between this place and the summit a rise
of a hundred feet took place.  Between these places Abies densa,
cedroides and spinulosa, occurred, but this was uncommon, Rosa ramis
hispidis, Salix of yesterday, Bambusa of Sanah, stunted Pteris aquilina,
Betuloidea, Hydrangea, Hypnum rufescens, scolopendrioid as well as below:
Spiraea belloides, Rhododendron obovatum, which varies on the same plant
with ferruginous and white leaves, Sphagnum, Thibaudia orbicularis.  On
sward Gentiana minima.

As the snow increased, Abies cedroides became less, Abies densa more
common.  At the very summit Parnassia, Polygonum rheum, Composita
penduliflora, Rhododendron hispidum, Berberis spathulata, which had
occurred previously, Vaccinium pumilium, ciliatum, Gentiana minima,
Swertia, Cnicus, Compositae frequent, Labiata spicata of Dhonglaila.

The descent was at first open, through swardy places: here Acer
sterculiaceum, Geranium scandens, Avena, Abies densa, Juniperus
fruticosa, raro arbuscula.

At 9,800 feet, Rhododendron foliis lanceolato-oblongis subtus ferruginea
tomentosis, arborea, became very common, forming large woods, Abies densa
interspersed, Juniperus, Betuloidea which has six or seven layers of
bark, the _boj-putah_ of Hindoostan according to Blake, Rosa
microphylla, Hemiphragma, Daphne papyracea, Dicranum stratum, etc.

At 9,500 feet, Clematis, Berberis asiatica, commences, Betula, common
Andropogoneous grasses.

At 9,300 feet, Primula pulcherrima, Abies cedroides very common, Abies
densa ceasing, Buddlaea purpurescens, Aruncus, Bupleurum.

At 9,200 feet, Lonicera villosa, Vaccinium cyaneum, Bambusa alia, Abies
densa ceasing.

At 9,000 feet, the jungle now became humid, Gaultheria flexuosa, Mespilus
microphyllus, Quercus ilecifolia, Tetrantheroides baccis nigris,
Gaultherium nummularifolia common, Rubia cordifolia! Hydrangea.

At 8,900 feet, Junipers cease, woods of Q. ilecifolia and Pinus
cedroides, Rosa microphylla, shrubby Rhododendrons, that which was
arboreous previously now becoming shrubby, Berberis asiatica, Taxus or
Abies brunonis! Lomaria of Khegumpa, Rhododendron foliis oblongis subtus
punctatis ferrugineis, Rubus, Primula Stuartii! Quercus foliis, Castaneae,
Ilex, Betuloid, continues.

At 8,500 feet, Panax rhododendrifolia, Thibaudia obovata, Taxus
ophiopogon angustissimus, Rhododendron formosum majus! Smilax ruscoideus
vel gaultherifolia! Primula pulcherrima, very common.

At 8,200 feet, Spiraea decomposita, Thibaudia obovata very common.  No
firs, woods of oaks and Rhododendron majus, Panax rhododendrifolia and
another species; Bambusa.

At the nullah, same vegetation, Tetranthera nuda, Primula pulcherrima,
Valeriana violifolia, Eurya acuminata, Daphne papyrifolia, Fragaria,
Potentilla supina, Rumex of Khegumpa, Poa annua, Stellaria media and
angustifolia, Rhodoracea deflexa!

At 8,000 feet, the woods at this elevation have the same characters,
Rhododendron argenteum becomes common, Q. ilecifolia and Castaneae
facies, both very handsome and large trees, covered with pendulous
mosses, Sphaeropteris, Saxifragea viridis, fleshy Urticea, Oxalis major
on sward at the same elevation, Vaccinium cyaneum, Mespilus microphyllus,
Artemisia major, Gnaphalium, Dipsacus, Elaeagnus in woods, Tetranthera
nuda, Taxus, Gaultheria flexuosa nummularifolia, Vaccinium cyaneum,
Lomaria, Lonicera villosa, paper plant, Thibaudia orbicularis, Hedera.

At 7,800 feet, towards open barren hills, Indigofera canescens, Q. robur,
Spiraea decomposita, Anthistiria minor, Composita penduliflora, Alnus of
Beesa, Juncus effusus, Viburnum caerulescens, Xyris, Scripus fuscescens
of Tassangsee, Gaultheria arborea and fruticosa, Polygonum rheoides,
Smilax auriculata, Saccharum aristata, Lobelia pyramidalis, Stauntonia
latifolia, Salix lanata, Deutzia.

At 7,500 feet, Quercus tomentosa commences, between this and Tongsa,
Berberis asiatica is very common, Rosa sp., quarta, Cyaneum dycopod. of
Surureem, Ilex dipyrena, Tuipus, Kysoor of Churra, Apple, Gleichenia
major, Rubus deltoideus.  In wheat fields, 7,500 feet, Crucifera,
Thlaspa, Lamium, Ervum, are found, Vaccinium cyaneum continues to 7,000
feet, this Mespilus microphylla, Berberis asiatica, Cycnium, Lycopod. of
Surureem, Ilex, Daphne papyriferae, are the only elevational plants found
between 8 and 9,000 feet, and which continue low down.  All the others
ceased with the jungles.

_March 13th_.--_Tongsa_: this, although the second place in the
kingdom, is a poor wretched village, the houses, always excepting the
palace, are poorer than ordinary, abounding in rats, fleas, and other
detestable vermin.  Our reception would seem to be uncordial: we are
miserably housed in the heart of the village, which is a beggarly one.  On
descending the hill some people in the Pillo's house behaved very
insolently, roaring out, and making most insolent signs for me to
dismount, of which of course I took no notice: sparrow-hawk was seen at
8,000 feet.  There is but little cultivation, indeed the adjoining hills
are barren in the extreme.  The little cultivation there is of barley,
which is now in the ear, and decent enough; the crops being much better
than any we have yet seen, although in many fields it is difficult to see
any crop at all.  The village, including the houses on the surrounding
adjoining heights does not contain thirty houses.  There is one flock of
sheep, which are in good condition, some small shawl-goats, and a few
cattle, but of a lighter breed than the Mithans, from which they are very
distinct, and which we have scarcely seen since crossing Dhonglaila, the
first high ridge.  There is some rice cultivation along the nullah or
torrent, on which the village is situated.  Pears, peaches likewise
occur, and are now both in flower.  The hills around are bare, nothing
but shrubby vegetation being visible, the tree-jungle not descending
below 7,500 feet, except on one spur to the south-west, on which it
reaches nearly to our present level.

The shrubby vegetation consists of Hamamelidae, Salix, Gaultheria
fruticosa, Rosa, Rubus, Pomacea, Elaeagnus, Berberis asiatica, among
which Artemisia major occurs on sward.  Primula Stuartii, Potentilla and
P. supina, Oxalis acetoseltoides, Juncus, Bartramia, Polytrichum glaucum,
Fragaria vesca.  In the fields Lamium, Crucifera, Thlaspi, Gnaphalium
aureum, Prenanthoid, Fragaria indica, Viola, Ranunculus, Oxalis
acetosella, Poa annua.

Urtica urens, and urentior occur about the houses, Cupressus pendula and
a Magnoliaceous tree, with exquisitely fragrant blossoms.

The palace is a huge, long, straggling piece of patch-work, of ordinary
construction, and less imposing than that of Byagur, which the Pillo
makes his summer residence on the Bhoomlungtung; it is however ornamented
with three gilt umbrellas.  It is situated on the bank of the nullah, and
defended by some outworks, 6 to 700 feet above it; to the east, these
might, from their situation, be easily demolished by stones.  The palace
itself is commanded in every direction, particularly by the hill, along
which we came from Jaisa; indeed a person might jump from the summit of
this on to the outpost, and thence on to the palace; so precipitous is
the descent.

The people, above all those hitherto seen, are dirty in their persons,
uniting curiosity with no small share of obstinacy and impertinence in
their manners.  The birds are the blackbird, a black mina, the
house-sparrow, sparrow-hawk, larger crow, domestic pigeons, kites, and
hoopoo.  The red-legged crows I have heard once, but far above, nor do I
think that they ever visit this.  The productions being essentially
different from those of the elevated valleys we have lately quitted.  Can
those valleys be the _steps_ to the table-land of Thibet to which they
must be near, and which is reached sooner in that direction than any
other?  The idea of the high valleys in question being steps to table-
land is perhaps corroborated by the fact, that the table-land is said to
be within two days' journey from Byagur.

Our interview with the Pillo took place on the 15th, it was conducted
with some state, and with some impertinence.  The latter was indicated by
delaying us at the door of the audience room, the former by the
attendance of more numerous and better dressed attendants than usual.  Two
Pillos were present.  The incense as usual was burning, and the Pillos,
both old and new, were seated before some large Chinese-looking figures.
The only novel ceremony was the praying over a mess of something which I
imagine was meant for tea; in the prayer all joined, when finished the
beverage was handed to the Pillos, who, however, were contented with
merely tasting it.  Before this some was strewn on the floor in front,
and some to the right of the chieftains.  The castle was in places
crowded with people, no less than 5 to 600, but all were as dirty as
usual.  None but the immediate attendants appeared armed.  The new Pillo
is a dark low-looking man, with an incipient goitre, the old one a more
decent aristocratic looking person, good-looking and very fair.  The
presents were of course beggarly, consisting of indifferent oranges,
wretched plantains, sugarcane of still worse quality, and ghee of an
abominable odour.

March 17th.--We still remain here, and do not expect to leave for two or
three days.  The weather is unsettled, and the sun increasing in power
daily.  The new Soobahs left to-day for their appointments, with the
exception of the Dewangur one.  Pigs are here fed on boiled nettle
leaves: old ladies may be seen occasionally busily employed in picking
the leaves for this purpose, and which they do by means of bamboo pincers
or tweezers.  A few plantains may be met with here, but in a wretched
state.  Rice may be seen 500 feet above this, on the north of the castle,
the slope of a hill being appropriated to its cultivation; the terraces
above, owing to the inclination, are very narrow, and from the paucity of
straw, the crops must, I should infer, be very poor.

_March 22nd_.--To-day we took our leave of the Pillo, who received us
in a room to the south of the castle.  He was friendly enough, but begged
for presents unconscionably.  He was surrounded by a considerable number
of more mean-looking persons than ordinary.  On the previous meeting he
talked openly of being at enmity with the present Deb Rajah, but on this
occasion he said little on the subject.

The castle is an ill-built, and worse arranged building, the windows and
loopholes being so placed as to afford every facility for shooting into
the air.  In a court-yard, several tiger skins brought from the plains,
are suspended.

It now appears that this Pillo, who said previously that the new Deb was
never installed, is himself an usurper, previously handing the old Deb
from the throne.  This latter personage appears to be by far the more
popular of the two.  The Pillo must now have great influence, as all the
posts in his division, are either held by his own sons, or by his more
influential servants.  The sons by the bye are, so long as they remain in
the presence, treated like ordinary servants.  Joongar is held by one of
his sons, a lad of about eighteen, of plain but pleasing appearance and
of good manners.  He visited us yesterday, and his newly acquired rank
sat easily on him.  The old Pillo no doubt owes his rank to his having
been the father of the lad chosen to be Dhurma Rajah, he is himself very
evidently low-born and low-bred, and compared with the former one, so
poor a specimen, that the greater popularity of the former is not to be
wondered at.  From all we have heard, they are contemptible rulers, as
they appear to do nothing but intrigue for power among themselves.
Changes are hence excessively frequent, and were they attended with much
bloodshed, the country would be depopulated.

This evening we had ample proof that the Bhootea houses are not water-
proof.  Heavy showers occurred with thunder and dense clouds from the
south-west.

_March 23rd_.--We left Tongsa, proceeding through the castle, and
thence struck down to the river Mateesun.  The descent was very steep,
and amounted to about 1,200 feet.  The river is crossed by an ordinary
bridge, it is a large and violent stream and contains fish, some of
which, seen by Blake, were of large size.  Crossing this, we continued
throughout the remainder of the march, gradually rising along the ridges
bounding the Tongsa river.  We continued rising until we reached our
halting place, Taseeling.  In one or two places, the road was completely
built up; ascending by zig-zags up, in some degree, perpendicular cliffs.
The distance was seven miles.

Proceeding to the bridge, observed Rubus deltoideus, Pomacea, Quercus
tomentosa, Artemisia major, Cycnium, Gaultheria arborea and fruticosa,
Buddlaea, Quercus altera, Indigofera cana, Gaylussacia serratoides,
Hedera, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Pomacea sauraugifolia, Viburnum
caerulescens, Quercus robur budding, Pterogonium, Fragaria, Duchesnia.

The remaining hills were much similar, generally very bare, clothed with
partial woods of Q. tomentosa, Rhododendron minus; the oak changing to Q.
robur, as we increased our elevation.  Near the bridge noticed
Bucklandia, Erythrina, which is likewise found at Tongsa, Maesa
salicifolia, Urena lobata, Cnicus, Mimosea! Arbuscula inermis, Senecio
scandens in flower, Araliacea subscandens, Didymocarp. contort., a
Solenia, Betuloideus, Panax curcifolia, Alnus, Arundo, Anthistiria
arundinacea, Cerasus, Tricerta unisexualis, at 6,000 feet.

At about the same elevation Rhododendron minus becomes common, Primula
Stuartii, Dipsacus, Verbenacea exostemma, Scleria, Valeriana,
Tradescantia on rocks, with Saxifraga ligularia in full flower at 6,500
feet.

About this, 6,500 to 6,800 feet, Spiraea decomposita, Hamamelidea here a
tree, occasionally but small, Erythroxyloides, Conyza nivea and communis,
Gleichenia major, Parochetus communis on wet dripping rocks, Woodwardia,
Clematis ternata.

At 7,000 feet, Berberis asiatica, Q. tomentosa ceased, its place being
supplied by Q. robur, Verbascum, Juncus, Gaultheria nummularioid,
Mespilus microphyllus, Scirpus fuscus of Tassangsee, Thibaudia
gaultherifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Azalea, and Daphne capitulis pendulis,
Ranunculus uniflorus, Hydroctyle.

Taseeling is situated about 2,000 feet above the Mateesun, on a nakedish
hill; about it there is some cultivation, and one or two villages, one
towards Tongsa and above Taseeling of some size.  The place itself
consists of a large house, with some fine specimens of Cypressus pendula,
the east face of the house has the red stripe, indicative of rank.  Its
elevation is about 7,300 feet, close to the house I observed the Lamium
of Bulphai, Bursa pastoris, Oxalis corniculata, Cnicus out of flower,
Artemisia major, Fragaria vesca, Daphne pendula and papyracea,
Hemiphragma, Composita pendulifolia, Lycopod. of Surureem, Hypericum,
Berberis asiatica, Juniperus; Barley cultivation, and a Pomaceous
arbuscula, armat. ovar. 5-discretis.  The red-legged crow occurs here,
and a thrush much resembling our English one.  The raven of course
occurs.  A curious opening occurs in the hills at Taseeling, affording a
prospect of the Bag Dooar plains, seven days' journey distant, but the
road is bad.

_March 24th_.--Leaving Taseeling we commenced to ascend until we
rounded a ridge, when we turned to the west, we then commenced to
descend, but slightly, winding over undulated surfaces of barrenish
hills.  After some time we reached heavy tree jungle, the road proceeding
in the same undulating manner, so that it was impossible to say whether
we had risen or descended.  About one we came on the river, up the ravine
of which we had been advancing ever since turning to the west.  This
stream is of some size, very violent and rapid, but fordable.  Near this
is a large pagoda, built after the old Boodhistical style, and the only
respectable one we have yet seen, its site is pretty, and it is
ornamented above with eyes and a fiery-red nose.  Leaving this we
ascended along one bank of the river, until we reached Chindupjee, our
halting place; this was distant from the pagoda three miles, and from
Taseeling twelve.  This latter part reminded me of Bhoomlungtung; firs
being the prevailing trees, and the valley having more pretensions to the
name than usually happens.

We encamped in a beautiful spot, the house being situated on fine sloping
sward, surrounded by picturesque trees of Q. ilecifolia, a few tall
Cypressus standing up in the centre.  The village is a few feet above,
and of average size, although it looks from a little distance to be of
considerable size.  The march throughout was beautiful, especially after
entering the wooded tract; this reminded me of the march near Khegumpa,
the woods were here and there very picturesque, glades and swards
abounding, water was very abundant here, and this no doubt causes the
development of so much vegetation.

At 7,800 feet, Thibaudiaceae very common, Rhododendron two species,
Gaultheria flexuosoides, Thibaudia obovata, Caudata myrtifolia,
Hydrangea, which I find to be a climber, Rhododendron majus, commencing,
pine wood; chatterers heard here.  Hills naked or covered here and there
with stunted wood; marshy places common.

At 7,600 feet, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Tetranthera nuda, Sphaeropteris, pear
and apple, Q. tomentosa, Magnolia grandiflora begins, Polygonum rheoides,
Daphne pendula, which is used, as well as the other, both here and in
Nepal in the manufacture of paper: brick-red black-pate.

At this same elevation farther on, Rosa hispida! Gillenia, Juncus,
Rhododendron deflexa, Smilax gaultherifolia, Spiraea bella, Dipsacus,
Spiraea decomposita, Ilex, Vaccinium cyaneum, Magnolia grandiflora very
common.  The country now becomes more wooded, the woods being confined to
moist ravines, and in other situations where water is very plentiful, the
woods throughout become continuous, and forming the large forests before
mentioned: having the open spaces between the woods covered with sward,
on which Gentiana pygmaea, and Fragaria are very common.

[Chindupjee: p272.jpg]

As we approached the wood or forest, Pinus cedroides commenced, and
towards the valley of Chindupjee this species became very common, Rumex
occurred throughout in wet places, also at Taseeling.  Geranium is common
also in wet places, Stauntonia latifolia, Potentilla, Duchesnoides,
Tussilago of Churra, on the confines of wood and on it.  Here the orange
breasted trochilus occurred.  The mass of the wood is formed of a fine
Quercus, resembling Q. glauca, it is a beautiful and a shady tree.  Next
to it in abundance is Rhododendron majus, now in full flower, and forming
a beautiful object, Rhododendron minus ceases with the barrener tracts.
Magnolia is very conspicuous; Pinus cedroides common towards the pagoda;
Eurya not rare, Gaultheria nummulifolia continues throughout, Valeriana
violifolia, Oxalis acetoselloides, Bryum, Butia purpurea, Sambucus,
Saxifraga of Bulphai, and another species, Bambusa microphylla, Swertia,
Luzula, Thibaudia orbicularis, Primula Stuartii, occurred between the
commencement of the ascent and the pagoda; at between 7,300 to 7,600
feet, Magnolia odoratis.

At the pagoda and village, Pinus cedroides, P. pendula, Bambusa of Sanah,
Mespilus microphyllus, Magnolia grandiflora, Berberis asiatica, Q.
anthoxylia, Coriaria, Rosa altera of Bhoomlungtung, Elaeagnus, Salix and
Allium of Bulphai, occur.

Chindupjee is situated on a rivulet close to the confluence, with a
larger stream.  Around it, or at least between the village and the larger
stream, picturesque patches of sward bordered with a very picturesque
oak.  Q. ilecifolia occur; this tree predominates all about the village,
it is certainly the prettiest place we have yet seen.

Some cultivation occurs around, chiefly of barley, with a little portion
of radishes.  The valley is surrounded by comparatively low mountains,
most of which are rather bare, many are transversely furrowed on the
surface, this may arise from their having been at some former period
under cultivation.--The prevailing trees on the surrounding heights are
firs, Pinus pendula and cedroides.  No fish are to be seen in the river.
The birds are the raven, white-necked starling, _bullfinch_, crimson and
yellow shrikelets, blue tomtits, lesser ditto with two stripes on the
head, white-rumped waterchat, red-tailed chesnuty sparrow.

The plants are Q. ilecifolia, Magnolia grandiflora, Laurinea,
Hamamelidioides, Castanea aromatica, Pinus cedroides and pendula, Bambusa
microphylla, and B. of Sanah which may be a variety depending on its
marshy sites, Rhododendron minus, Salix, Mespilus microphyllus,
Gaultheria nummularoides, Elaeagnus, Marchantia, Swertia, Rumex, Daphne
papyracea, Dipsacus, Artemisia major, Berberis asiatica, Rosa hispida,
Rubus caesius, Stauntonia latifolia, Tofieldioid of Sanah and Pemee,
Taxus, Mespilus microphyllus, Ilex dipyrena, Oxalis acetoselloid, Thymus,
Lycopodium of Surureem, Juniperus.

Bamboos split and inverted, and then placed in the ground, are used to
scare away beasts from the cornfields.

_March 26th_.--Left at seven and a half and proceeded along the river
which runs by Chindupjee, the path running over the spurs of the hills,
forming its right bank.  After proceeding about four miles, we crossed
the nullah, changing our direction, and proceeding up a tributary, until
we reached a prettily situated, and rather large village, thence we
commenced to ascend over naked slopes with intervening woods, until we
reached the base of the chief ascent, which is not very steep, although
of good length, chiefly over naked hills.  On reaching the summit, which
is about 10,000 feet high, we commenced to descend, and the descent
continued uninterruptedly and steeply until we reached Rydang, where we
halted.

We passed only one village, which is about five miles from Chindupjee,
and of similar size; but we passed in the more elevated places two
temporary ones, apparently intended for the residence of the herdsmen of
yaks or chowry-tailed cows, as a herd of these animals was seen feeding
near each place.

The march throughout was beautiful, in the more elevated and drier
portions, winding over swardy slopes or through woods of fir trees: on
the descent from 9,000 feet downwards, passing through beautiful forests,
chiefly of oak, and diversified in every possible way.  The long-tailed
pie was met with in the first portion, about 7,800 feet, the speckled
chatterers at 8,500 feet, red shrikelet at 7,800 feet, and a new hawk at
8,300 feet.  I observed the water-ouzel again as high as 8,000 feet.  The
new plants were a Carex, 6,500 feet, a sileneous plant past flowering,
from the _same_ limestone formation.

At 7,800 feet, and not far from Chindupjee, Pinus spinulosa again
re-appears, it becomes common towards the village alluded to, and
continues throughout the ascent, up to 9,300 feet, P. cedroides was
uncommon during the first part of the march, its place being occupied by
P. spinulosa, afterwards it re-appeared, and continued abundant up to
9,300 feet, it re-appeared on the descent about the same elevation, and
continued to about 8,000 feet.  Abies densa commences at the base of the
chief ascent: at 10,000 feet, it is the only fir to be seen, it descends
but a short way on the Rydang side.  In the higher portions it occurred
mixed with a Juniper, which in proper places becomes a small but elegant
tree.

At the village on 7,000 feet, observed Rosa hispida, Ligustram of Jaisa,
Philadelphus, Pinus spinulosa common, as also Pinus cedroides, Bambusa of
Sanah very common.  Near this, larks were heard soaring high above us.

At 8,500 feet, Pendulous lichens becoming plentiful, Lonicera villosa.

At 9,000 feet, Abies densa appears, Acer sterculium, Betula, Bogh Pata,
Rhododendron fruticosa, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis.

At 9,300 feet, Abies densa common, P. cedroides rare, spinulosa 0,
pendula 0, Rosa hispida, Gaultheria nummularioid, which as usual
continued throughout, Hypnum scolopendroid, Sphagnum, Bogh Pata very
common, Rhododendron foliis ellipticis basi cordatis subtus argenteis,
which I found on the descent as low as 8,000 feet.

At 9,500 feet, Bogh Pata very common, trees covered with Pendulous
lichens, Bambusa of Sanah, Abies densa everywhere.

At 10,000 feet, Abies densa, Juniperus, Rhododendron obovata, foliis
subtus argenteis; I am not sure whether this is a variety or not, but it
indicates greater elevation than the ferruginous one, Rhododendron
gemmis, viscosis, foliis lanceolatis, supra venosis subtus subargenteis
very common, Gnaphalium, Mespilus microphyllus, Rosa hispida, Swertia,
Berberis spathulata, Orthotuck, Cerastum inflatum, Hemiphragma, Bogh
Pata, Primula globifera, Pedicularis, Dicranum nigrescens, etc. Limonia,
Laureah.

Daphne papyraceae occurs at the same elevation, chiefly on the side of
the descent.  From this place an opening is visible to the north west,
occupied by low hills.  Juniperus very fine occurs, Compositae abundant.
Snow lies in the hollows and sheltered woods.

At 9,600 feet, Lonicera villosa, Rosa microphylla, Buddlaea purpurescens!
Berberis spathulata, Spiraea belloides, Hydrangea! Rhododendron foliis
lanceolatis, etc. as above, forming thick woods, Abies densa, Bogh Pata,
Bambusa, Limonia lanceolata.

At 9,400 feet, Prunella, Cerastium inflatum, Labiata spicata, Baptisia!
High ground 14 to 15,000 feet, is seen forming a lofty heavily snowed
ridge to the north.

At 9,000 feet, Pinus cedroides re-appears, Bogh Pata, Rhododendron as
before, Daphne papyraceae, Thibaudia orbicularis, Limonia lanceolata,
Dalibarda, Polygonum rheum!

At 8,800 feet, Rhododendron hispida, Abies densa ceased, Limonia
lanceolata common, Lonicera villosa, Rebus triphyllus, Acer! Taxus!
Primula Stuartii! Rubia cordifolia!!

At 8,500 feet, Chimaphila, Rhododendron obovata-ferrugina! Pinus
cedroides, here and there, of immense size, diameter of one-six feet,
Lycopodium of Surureem, Bogh Pata, Gaultheria flexuosa, Q. ilecifolia,
also a very large and tall tree.

At 8,400 feet, Taxus very common, Smilax gaultherifolia, Olea, Sarcococea
very common, Thibaudia orbicularis, Laurinea, Hamameloides.  Beautiful
glades here occurred, trees covered with mosses: another fine oak, Q.
castaneoides commences, Daphne papyraceae very common, Composita
penduliflora, Hemiphragma, Rhododendron elliptica, foliis basi, cordatis
subtus punctatis, Ilex! Berberis intermedia, Laurinea uniflora, large
Umbellifera of Rodoole descent.

At 8,000 feet, Acer, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron majus! R. argentea
commences.

At 7,500 feet, Cedar ceased, Rhododendron majus very common, Taxus
diminishing, Sphaeropteris, Ericinia soloraefolia, Lomaria of Khegumpa,
Thibaudia orbicularis ceases.

At 7,300 feet, Berberis pinnata, Spiraea bella, Cycnium, apple tree.  Here
we emerged on open space in front of a hill, on which several detached
houses stood, around which Pinus pendula was very common.  Barley
cultivation.  Several small villages visible around, and to the north, in
front of the snowy ridge, a curious truncated mountain was seen, its apex
covered with snow.

Magnolia! Conaria! Cycnium, Viburnum canescens! Gaultheria arborea,
Berberis intermedia very common, Fragaria.

At 7,200 feet, Q. tomentosa! the others have ceased, Gaultheria
fruticosa, Rhododendron arborea, minus and argentea, in fine flower,
Eurya aecuminata, Smilax, Gaultherifolia, Thibaudia caudata, Q. robur,
Gleichenia major, Salix as before, Artemisia major, Rumex, Valeriana
violifolia, Rosa, Berberis asiatica, Ervicia crucifera, Thlaspi,
Callitriche, Calamus.

The curious features are, the absence of Thibaudia obovata on the
descent, and of Mespilus microphyllus, the substitution of Thibaudia
orbicularis, and its low descent, the abundance of Taxus, size of the
cedar and Q. ilecifolia, the re-appearance at same elevation of Magnolia
grandiflora, occurrence of Rubia cordifolia, at such an elevation, etc.

_Rydang_ is prettily situated towards the bottom of a rather narrow
valley.  There is a good deal of barley cultivation about it.  I also
noticed Cycnium, Celopecurus, Acorus Calamus, Corydalis! Fragaria,
Cardamina, Rosa, Berberis, Ilex, Plantago, Rumex, Viola, Artemisia major,
Daphne papyraceae, Gentiana pygmaea of Khegumpa, Houttuynia! Pomacea,
Callitriche, Dipsacus, Berberis pinnata, Elaeagnus, Q. robur, ilecifolia.
Of birds the long-tailed pie! is common.  Berberis asiatica, Viburnum,
Caneun, apple, Quercus microcarpus, Orthodon, Pteris aquilina,
Ophiopogon, Angustis, Valeriana violifolia, Urtica urentium, Stellaria
media, Eurya acuminata, Betula.

_March 27th_.--Our march commenced with a steep descent to the Gnee, a
river of average size.  We then continued descending along it for some
time, crossing it once on our way: we then diverged up a small nullah,
and then commenced a very steep ascent, of about 2,000 feet.  After
attaining this, we proceeded through woods, or over sward at about the
same elevation, still continuing along the Gnee.  We subsequently
commenced to descend at first through fine oak woods, then over barren
naked hills.  We reached Santagoung, about three and a half miles
distance in a direct line, but fourteen miles by the road, highest point
traversed 8,000 feet; lowest reached 6,000.

During first part of descent, noticed one or two straggling cedars and
Taxus, Primula Stuartii, the woods were formed by Quercus robur,
tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, Rhododendron minus, Scabiosa reappears,
Clematis nova species, Sambucus, Rubus cresius, Composita pendulifolia,
etc. as at Rydang.

Along the Gnee, the beech became plentiful, as also two Viburnums, both
trees, together with the Cupulifera of Tongsa was here common and in fine
foliage.  Juglans, Incerta of Boodoo, Gaultheria, Mimosa arborea,
Cupressus pendula, Conaria, Berberis racemosa and pinnata, Quercus
microcarpus, Woodwardia, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Marlea! Cucurbitaceae
menispermoides, Alnus of Beesa, Polygonium rheoides, Mespilus
microphyllus! Gentiana pygmaea, Salix, Pyrus.  The birds were the usual
water birds, viz. ouzel, slaty-white rump, slaty-red tail, white-pated
chat.

On the smaller nullah Bucklandia, Viburnum microphyllum, Bucklandia!

The ascent was at first through dry woods of Rhododendron minus, Q.
tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, a Taxus or two occurred at 7,000 feet,
Indigofera cana, Rosa, Gaultheria fruticosa of Sanah aristatum.

At 7,000 feet, the same vegetation continued, Rhododendron minus very
common, Pendulous lichens commencing.

At this elevation, in more moist spots, woods thick, differently
constituted, Quercus glauescense, Castaneoides ilecifolia, here and there
Rhododendron majus, Magnolia grandiflora.

Gaultheria flexuosa, Pinus cedroides rare, Vaccinium cyaneum, Rosa
hispida! Saxifraga! Thibaudia orbicularis and caudata, Mespilus
microphyllus, Azalea, Ilex, Symplocos, Tussalago of Churra, Acer,
Thibaudia obovata, Pendulous mosses abundant.

The remainder of the vegetation afforded little of interest; consisted of
stunted oaks, Q. tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, Rhododendron minus:
Serissoides reappears near Santagoung, Pinus longifolia, plantains.

The valley to the left towards Santagoung is on the left side well
populated and cultivated.

_March 28th_.--Santagoung, a small village 6,300 feet above the sea,
situated on bare hills, between two loftier ridges.  Country around well
inhabited and well cultivated in the terrace style: villages numerous.
Pinus longifolia, Rosa, Azalea, etc. occur here as before.  A lake or
jheel was observed 500 feet below the village, of some extent, formed in
a natural hollow, abounding with Scirpus trigueter of Churra, and
Hydropeltis.  Water-fowl, snipe, and red pie-like peewit or plover.

The march commenced with a steep descent, which continued until we
reached the river.

Crossing this we ascended 1,000 feet, and then proceeded in an undulating
manner over naked hills until we reached Thain, distance six miles; the
greatest descent was about 1,800 feet, ascent 1,000 feet; the country
naked; no forest.  The hills for some extent towards Thain appeared from
some cause very red.

But little interesting vegetation occurred: noticed a huge Cypressus
pendula, half-way to the Gnee.  Vegetation otherwise much the same as
towards Tassgong, Valeriana violifolia, Azalea, Campanula linearis, Rubus
deltoides, Aspidium macroser., Artemisia major, Pinus longifolia
straggling, only plentiful near Thain, Anthistiria minor! Primula
Stuartii, Mimulus, Gentiana pumila, Alnus, Flemingia secunda, Morus
rubeseoides, Salix, Quercus, Viburnum microphyllum.

At the river Caesalpinia! Ficus obliqua! Desmodium, Salix, Indigofera
cana, Arundo, Luculia.

On the ascent Holcus, Elaeagnus, Santalacea, Clematis cana,
Senecionoides, Conyza vulgaris, Emblica, Schaenanthus, Phyllanthus ruber,
Q. tomentosa, Desmodium vestilum, Briedleia obovata! Nerium canum,
Euphorbia antiquorum, Jasminum of Benka, Ligustrum conaria, Mesp.
microphyllus (are these two species confounded by me, as the
larger-leaved one never descends so low?), Lerissoides, Osbeckia
linearis, Euphorbia, Gordonia, Gymnobotrys.  Red-legged crow; in descent
altitude 5,800 feet, the most common plant is a species of Berberis very
nearly allied to B. asiatica.  Rain in the afternoon.

_March 29th_.--Mimulus, Acorus Calamus, Quercus robur, Rhododendron
minus, P. longifolia, Gymnobotrys, Campanula linearifolia, Rosa
tetrapetala, Gordonia, Salix, Verbena officinalis, majus, rugus, Lemna,
Gentiana, Hypericum japonica, Indigofera cana, Schaenanthus, Senecio,
Buddlea of Nulka, Pyrus, wheat, Ervum, Vicia, Potentilla, Q. tomentosa,
Cypressus, Ficus, Berberis, Phyllanthus ruber.

Blackbird, sparrow-hawk, and Hoopoe about houses; it has a curious hoop,
varied with a grating chirp.

The blackbird frequents houses here; its voice is very discordant and
singular, sparrow-hawks were seen to pursue wounded pigeons.  Houses few,
built of unbaked and large bricks or rather cakes of mud.  The village of
Wandipore is visible to the south-west, about one and a half mile.  Snow
on ridges to west, all which are lofty.  The country around Wandipore is
tolerably populous, though not so much so as about Santagoung.

We were compelled to halt at Phain or Thain, until the 1st instant, owing
to the admirable management of the Bhooteas.  It appeared at first as if
the Zoompoor or Governor of Wandipore was determined that we should not
be gainers in time by not going through his castle, but subsequently it
turned out that the Deb had, with infinite consideration, wished us to
remain in order to rest ourselves after our long journey.  This may have
been merely said to shelter the Wandipore man, who had the impudence to
send one evening to us saying, that the Deb and Durmah were coming to
Wandipore next morning, and that we were to meet them there, and return
the same evening to Punukha.  This turned out untrue.  Pemberton was at
last compelled to write to the Deb, and the consequence was the
arrangement for our advance next morning.

_April 1st_.--The march to Punukha extended over a most barren dried-up
country, the features presented were the same as those about Phain.  We
proceeded at first in the direction of Wandipore, then diverged,
proceeding downwards in the direction of the villages.  The remainder of
our journey extended either just above the base of the hills, or along
the valley: the distance was nine miles.  The march was an uninteresting
one; the only pretty part being the river that drains the valley, and it
is one of considerable size, fordable in but few places; the rapids are
frequent, but the intermediate parts flow gently.  We were all dreadfully
disappointed in the capital, the castle even is by no means so imposing
as that of Tongsa or Byagur; the city miserable, consisting of a few mean
houses, and about as many ruined ones.

The surrounding cultivation is chiefly poor wheat; the hills the most
barren conceivable.  On arriving near the palace we made a detour, to
avoid exposure to the usual regal insolence: our plan was effectual.  From
some distance I had espied our quarters, and although our mission is one
sent by the most powerful eastern government, yet we had allotted to us a
residence fit only for hogs.

It consisted of a court-yard, surrounded by walls, and what had evidently
been stabling; the apartments were numerous, but excessively small, the
roof of single mats.  The place swarmed with vermin.  In this we
determined not to stay, and so proceeded to the city, (for sure there
cannot be a capital without a city,) and there, after some delay,
procured two houses, in one of which the present Tongso Pillo had lodged
before his present exaltation.  But imagine not that it was a palace.  The
two houses together furnished three habitable rooms.

I imagine not that the houses were procured for us by the local
government.  We only obtained them by Pemberton's liberality was well
known.  The Sepoys' lines were transported hither not by Bhooteas but by
our own people.  In addition the people are in many cases insolent, and
it was only after a peremptory message to the Deb, stating what the
consequences would be of such a system of annoyance, that we got any
assistance.

_April 3rd_.--We have heard nothing of the Mutaguat.  It appears that
the country is unsettled now.  The old Deb having possession of
Tassisudon, and the people here declaring they will stop all supplies if
the Deb does not, according to custom, repair at the usual period to
Tassisudon.  A Deewan here, who has held office under four Rajahs, says,
that the present truce is owing to the hot weather; Bhooteas only admire
fighting in the cold season, in conformation of which, he says that in
the cold season the contest will be renewed.  There will then be an
additional bone of contention for the present.  Nor should I much wonder
if the Paro Pillo then comes forward and takes the Debship and all away.
The Deewan's account of the past fighting, places the Bhooteas in a most
contemptible light: it appears that when they fire a gun, they take no
aim, their only aim being to place their bodies as far as possible from
the weapon; the deadly discharge is followed up by the deadlier discharge
of a stone.  At plunder they are more adroit.

The following plants may be found about this place; Ligustrum, Salex
pendula, Valeriana orolifolia, Campanula linearis, senecionideae, Viola,
Jasminum, Rosea, Conaria, mangoe one tree in the gardens, Citrus two or
three species in ditto, Jubrung, Diospyros, Acorus, Veronica, Ranunculus,
Sclerossophalos, Alopecercus, Agrostides, Bombax, stunted weeping
cypress, Pinus longifolia, Punica, Dipsacus, Potentilla, Potamogeton 2,
Hypericum japonica, Lysimachia, Chenopod, Ajuga, Anisomales.

Birds--great kingfisher, diver snappet, white-pated rumped chats, no
ouzels.  Part of the gardens extend from the palace up the river to the
village; the breadth is fifty to seventy yards, the length 200.  They are
surrounded by a dilapidated stone fence.  Although an Assam malee or
gardener resides in them, they are kept in miserable order: the soil
seems good, the trees flourishing, mangoe, Diospyros, Jubrung, oranges,
citrons, pomegranates, are the principal trees.  The south side has a
streamlet running along it outside the fence, for the supply of water.
This streamlet abounds with Acorus Calamus.

_April 9th_.--Our interview with the Deb took place.  We dismounted at
the boards over the streamlets above mentioned, and then proceeded over
the wooden bridge across the Patcheen, which is here a wide and deep
stream: the bridge was partially lined with guards, in different dresses,
few in uniform; it was besides armed with shoulder wall-pieces, capital
things for demolishing friends.  We then crossed a sort of court-yard and
then ascended a steep and extraordinarily bad flight of steps to the door
of the palace.  Here we found the household troops all dressed in scarlet
with two door-keepers, one seated on either side of the door: this led us
into a quadrangle.  The citadel being in front, the side walls were
rather low, although viewed externally they appear of good height, but
the ground of the interior is much raised.  We crossed this diagonally,
passed into the opposite quadrangle on the west side, and thence ascended
into a gallery, hung with arms, and filled with followers, from this we
passed after a little delay into the Rajah's room.

This was handsomely decorated with scarfs, the pillars were variously
ornamented.  The Rajah was seated on an elevated place in the corner, and
appeared a good-looking well-bred man.  He received the Governor
General's letter from P. with much respect, getting up from his chair:
the visit was a short one, and entirely of ceremony.  The presents were
deposited on a raised bench in his front.  Communications were kept up by
the Deewan and the Zimpay, formerly Joongar Zoompoor or Governor.  On
retiring we were presented with fruits, oranges, walnuts, horrid
plantains, ghee, eggs and rice.

The whole business went off very well, no attempt at insolence.  The
concourse of people was greater than I expected.  Swarms of Gylongs, the
more curious of whom received whacks from leathern straps, wielded by
some magisterial brother.

_April 10th_.--Yesterday we saw the Dhurma, to whom we had to ascend by
several flight of steps, which are most break-neck things, the steps
overlapping in front, and being often lined with iron on the part most
subject to be worn.  We found him in the south room of the upper story of
the citadel.  We waived our right to sitting in his presence as the
question was put to us with respect and delicacy.  The Rajah is a good
looking boy, of eight or ten years old: he was seated in the centre, but
in an obscure part of the room, and was not surrounded by many immediate
attendants.  The balcony was filled with scribes with handsome black,
gilt, lettered books before them.  Two other scribes were likewise
engaged on our right, noting down what passed, but they seemed to be very
bad writers.  The visit went off well.  The room was tastily, but not so
profusely ornamented with scarfs as was the Deb's.

On returning we found the household guard drawn up in front to prevent
our passing out without paying a fee.  This matter was soon settled
forcibly, and the durwan, or door-keeper, lost by his impudence the
present he would otherwise have had from P., besides being in a great
fright lest the affair should be reported to the Rajah.

_April 11th_.--The rains appear to have set in: the sky is constantly
overcast, and showers are by no means unfrequent.  One of our dawks
arrived opened: this no doubt took place in the palace, although the Deb
strenuously denies it.  Messengers are to be sent to Tassgoung, where the
accident is said to have happened.  The cause of its having been opened,
is no doubt the report that there was a letter in it from the old Deb.

_April 14th_.--A violent squall unaccompanied by rain, came on
yesterday from the west: roofs were flying about in every direction, and
many accidents occurred from the falling of the stones by which they were
secured.  Part of the palace was unroofed.  The storm has stopped all our
amusements, particularly as the Gylongs attribute it to our firing.  The
Kacharies, our servants, were likewise requested not to play any more on
the esplanade.  This is just as it has been in every other place in
Bootan, nothing is said against amusement until the presents have been
received, and then we are requested to do nothing, and the authorities
become disobliging!

The potters fashion their earthenware entirely with their hands, the
upper half is finished on a flat board; the lower being added afterwards;
the finishing is done chiefly by a wet rag, the operator revolving around
the pot.  The vessels chiefly used for carrying water are oval, these are
covered with black glaze.

Some Didymocarpi very fragrant, one near Chindupjee most grateful,
resembling quince and sandal wood; the odour is permanent, and appears to
reside in the young leaves before their expansion: Iris, Hypericum,
Viola, Ligust., Ranunculus, Verbasena, Gymnostomum, Serratula arenaria,
Veronica.



CHAPTER XIII.


_Return of the Mission from Bootan_.

_May 9th_, _1838_.--We left Punukha at twelve, having been delayed
throughout the morning, on account of coolies.  We crossed the palace
precints, and the two bridges unmolested.  Our road lay in the direction
of our entering Punukha for some time, but on the opposite bank of the
river.  We gradually descended throughout this portion.  Then at about
eight miles turning round a ridge, we followed a ravine to the west, some
distance above its base, gradually descending to the watercourse draining
it.  Thence we ascended in a very circuitous route to Talagoung, the
castle of which is in a ruinous state: it is visible from the place
whence one turns to the westward.

Up to this point, which was certainly 1,200 feet above Punukha, no change
occurred in the vegetation.  The country remained barren, the ravines in
favourable places being clothed with underwood, and as we increased our
elevation, with trees.  Noticed a Bupleurum, Viburnum sp., Ficus obliqua.

At 3,500 feet, Sambucus, Bupleurum sp., Potentilla as before, Gentiana
pinnata, Serissoides, Campanula.

At 3,800 to 4,000 feet, Pinus longifolia more common though still a
stunted tree; Emblica, Paederia cyaneum, Q. tomentosa, Primula Stuartii,
Parochetus, Pogonantherum, this is a most common grass about here, it
becomes more stunted as we proceed lower, and its extreme elevation does
not exceed 6,000 feet, Acorus very common, Adhatoda!

At 4,000 feet, Simool, Dipsacus as before, Aspidium, Macrodon,
Rhododendron minus re-appears.

On rounding the ridge, although we did not increase our elevation, the
country became more wooded.  In some places Q. robur, Gordonia, Pyrus
were common, others and the greater portion were composed of Pinus
longifolia, Bucklandia re-appears at 4,500 feet, Azalea, Saccharum
aristatum, Hedera, Didymocarpus contortus, on rocks.

Towards the nullah we passed a village with some wheat and buckwheat
cultivation; Plantago, Ranunculus, Thymus, were interspersed.  Along the
watercourse Symplocos styracifolius, which becomes a middling-sized tree,
was seen, and Stellaria cana, petalis albis profunda partitus, as well as
S. media.

Our section was as follows:

[Section Page 285: m285.jpg]

_Telagoung_ is a middling-sized, dilapidated castle, in which it is
settled the first blood is to be shed in the forthcoming contest, it is
occupied by the old Deb's men.  Up to its walls, thickets abound, and the
fragrant rose was very conspicuous.

Its elevation is about 5,600 feet, yet a Ficus may be seen planted by the
side of Cupressus pendula, and Punica thrives.  The change in temperature
was very great.  Birds abounded throughout; a new sombre-coloured dove
was shot by P.: the most common birds were the orange-billed shrike of
towards Tumashoo.

_May 10th_.--We left Telagoung at 7 A.M. and descended instantly to a
small nullah, from which we re-ascended.  The ascent continued without
intermission, occasionally gradually, but generally rather steep for
three or four hours.  The descent occupied about as long, and about three-
fifths the distance, following nearly throughout a small nullah.
Woollakkoo, our halting place, is a good-sized village, and fourteen and
a half miles from Telagoung.

To the nullah I observed Stellaria cana, Berberis asiatica, which has re-
appeared, Erythrina, Rubus deltoid, which is very common all over these
parts and whose fruit is palatable, Uvularia, Swertia plantaginifolia,
Caesalpinia, Mimulus, and Urtica foliis apice erosis.

The ascent commenced through woods of Q. robur, the shrubs consisting of
Gaultheria fragrans and arborea, a Myrsinea, Thibaudia serrata, whose
inferior limit is here, Rhododendron minus, but not very common.  A good
deal of wheat cultivation and of better quality occurred at 6,500 feet,
assuming Telagoung as 5,600 feet, Pteris aquilina common throughout and
up to 10,000 feet.

At 8,000 feet, Taxus re-appears, with Baptisia in flower, Thibaudia
orbicularis, Luzula of Chindupjee, Smilax gaultherifolia, Thibaudia
obovata, Fragaria vesca, which continues throughout, and has a range of
between 3 to 10,000 feet, Bambusa microphylla, and Acer sterculiacea
appear, woods of Q. ilecifolia, up to 7,200 feet, chiefly of Q. robur,
Gaultheriae two common ones, occur commonly.

At 8,500 feet, the woods composed chiefly of Q. castaneoides and glaucum,
Q. ilecifolia less common.  No Q. robur, path-like glades and rather
open, Pythonium ecaudata, up to 9,000 feet, Primula pulcherrima very
common.

At 8,500 feet, Saxifraga of Khegumpa and of Chindupjee, Mitella,! Luzula,
Carex, Viola reniformis, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Hedera, Ilex, Mercurialis,
grey lichens.

Taxus, Quercus, Rhododendron, another species foliis subtus ferrugineo-
argenteis floribus rosaceis.

Smilacina, Ophiopogon, Urtica carnosa decumbens, Limonia laureola,
Pythonium ecaudatum.

At the same elevation and indeed below us, but on other ridges, cedars
were seen in abundance: Hydrangea and Hydrangeacea calyptrata, Epilobium
sp. withered.

At 7,800 feet, Aristolochia novum genus, Tritium glaucum, Thlaspi, Arabis
cordata, Loranthus, Symplocos sessiliflora.

At 7,900 feet, Lardizabalea.

At 8,000 feet, Hamiltonia?

At 9,000 feet, Crucifera floribus amplis albis, on mossy banks, with
Mitella, Spiraea densa.

Acer sterculiacea in forests, Cerasi sp. common.

Betula, Ribes, Arenaria, Lilium giganteum, Laurinea, Chimaphila, Acer.

At 9,300 feet, Rhododendron hispida and rosaceum, Taxus, Pythonium
filiformia, Trillium album, Salvia of Royle, Rhododendron ferrugineo and
obovata, Smilacinia densiflora, Sarcococea, Daphne cannabinum, here in
flower, Anemone, Prunella, Hemiphragma, Cedar, but rare.

At 9,700 feet, Primula Stuartii in flower lower down, but here quite
past, Corydalis linetta, Viola, Juniperus, Viburnum floribus magnis
albis, Rhododendron deflexa, in flower.  Acer: 1, vel. 2, Cerasi sp.
altera, Paris polyphylla, and from 7,000 feet, Iris foliis angustis,
Cerasus apetalus gathered below here a shrub, very common, Osmundia alia,
Berberis ilecifolia and integrifolia, Rosa microphylla, Spinis latis,
Baptisia, Corydalis altior floribus luteis, Aconiti sp., Papaveracea
succo aqueo, ferrugineo hispida, capsula siliquosa, 3-valvis, replis
totidem, stigmata radiata, 5-lobo.  Prunella, Betula, Ranunculus minimus,
Carex, Mimulus! Sambucus of below, Salvia of Royle, Polytrichum
rubescens.

From the ridge the view to the south is pretty, the country undulated,
either naked and swardy, or clothed with firs.

Abies spinulosa commences: and is soon succeeded by Pinus pendula, which,
as we proceeded lower, soon became the chief tree; Rhododendron obovata
finely in flower, Lilium giganteum common.  Trillium stratum, Ribes
lacineat.

Q. ilecifolia re-appears 500 or 600 feet below the ridge, Pinus spinulosa
common, with a Salix, grey pendulous lichens.

At 6,000 feet, P. pendula, Mespilus microphyllus, Larix, Rumex, which has
occurred throughout, Salvia alia viscosa foliis subhastatis trilobis,
Cycnia, Astragaloides! bracteis subvaginant magnis, Rosa latispina
becomes very common.

At 8,800 feet, Hedera, Hamiltonia re-appears, Galium sp., Juncus, Oxlip,
Clematis, Salix, very common.

At 8,500 feet, a village is seen to the right; Q. ilecifolia is the chief
tree, with P. pendula, Azalea, Baptisia, Pomacea of Rydang, Rhododendron
arbor. minus.  Red-legged crow, pine chatterers.

At 8,000 feet, Baptisia continues; all alpine vegetation ceased;
Rhododendron minus continues, Q. ilecifolia, but no Corydalis, Anemone,
Iris, etc. although Oxlip does; Salix continues.

The descent to the halting place is marked by return to the old
vegetation indicated by re-appearance of Elaeagnus fragrans and Rosa
tetrapetala, Valeriana violifolia.

Baptisia rotundifolia and oblonga, this last a tree very common, Pinus
pendula chief tree, Pomacea celastufolia, Elaeagnus fragrans, Rosa
tetrapetala, very common along the nullah, Baptisia continues low down,
as Oxlip, Stauntonia alba, Viburnum, _Asteroides_, Jasminum luteum,
Tussilago, Spiraea bella, found about the level of this.

All the monocotyledons have a defined elevation; Smilacina cordifolia is
the lowest, except Uvularia, Lilacineae and Trillium, are the highest,
not being found much under 10,000 feet.  There is an Osmundia likewise on
the ridge, the fronds below are not contracted, it is
ferrugineo-tomentosa.  Hemiphragma has a wide range, between 6 and 10,000
feet: Salvia nubigena of Royle, confined to 10,000 feet, Aconitum,
Corydalis lutea, lenella and caerulea, Prunus penduliflora, Papaveracea,
Juniperus, Rhododendron obovata, Silacinea, Cerasus apetala, Ribes 2, are
sure signs of elevation.

If the Mimulus be the same as that from Punukha, it has a very wide
range, as also Lilium giganteum, Pythonium filiformeis, limited, as well
as ecaudata, Crucifera, Anemone, Laurinea, Polytrichium, were all
definite.  Mitella ranges between 9 and 9,500 feet, it is strange that
the chief variety in vegetation occurred on the Telagoung side, on which
springs are rare.  No Thibaudias occurred on the other side, Euphorbia
was confined to the Woollakkoo side, as also Primula, etc. etc.  The
chief cultivation about Woollakkoo is of wheat, but from the mode of
cultivation the plant is evidently adapted for irrigation; rice is also
cultivated.  This is perhaps its maximum height.  The hills around are
covered here and there with snow, and must therefore be above 10,000 feet
high.  The highest were to the north-west.

The river is of moderate size, fordable in most places, but still well
supplied with wooden bridges.  Fish, in shoals too, were seen here and
there.

_May 11th_.--Our march continued down this river throughout: we left
its banks once or twice owing to ascending some hundred feet above its
bed, occasionally it spread out, but generally was confined between the
rocks.  Its banks in some places were planted with weeping willows.  The
vegetation throughout was much the same.  The most common plants were
Rosa, this literally abounds, Pinus pendula, Viburnum grandiflora, a
Symphoria! Crataegus 2 species, Mespilus microphyllus, Lantonea, Jasminum
luteum, Berberis asiatica and obovata, Plectranthus canus, Elaeagnus
fragrans, Stellaria cana, Colquhounia, _Indigofera_ sp. altera, Baptisia
did not re-appear, Euphorbia continues, as does the Celastrus noticed
yesterday, which commences at 8,500 feet.

Cycnia re-appears, it is in fruit, the cotyledons are not conduplicate.
In the fields Stachys, Potentilla (common), Brumus, Lamium of Khegumpa,
Cynoglossum, Thlaspi, Datura in waste places, Conaria, rare, Imperata!
Scabiosa of Bulphai.

A low shrub abounded on the road sides and walls, having all the
characters of Plumbago, a Lantonea likewise abounded, Fragaria, Swertia,
Taraxacum, Cardamina lilacina, Herminu sp., Marchantia, Astragalus,
Ranunculus; Carex, Potentilla supina, Potamogeton, Clematis grata,
Poplars were seen; of these, Taraxacum very common.  Quercus robur re-
appears towards Lamnoo, as well as Juglans and Populus.

Weeping cypresses about villages, Hordeum hexastichum is commonly
cultivated, A. Buddlaea floribus lilacinis noticed yesterday was found,
its range is 8,500 to 7,500 feet, Zanthoxyla here.

A cuckoo was shot; this bird would seem to be as in Europe attended by
the Yunx, at least a cry very similar to that of that bird was heard.
Lysimachia of Punukha, Campanula re-appears.

The most common bird is Lanuis.  The sombre-coloured dove too is rather
common.  The wheat cultivated here is poor, a good deal of the Bromus
occurs with it.  Astragalus is common on the borders of the fields, and
in some of them Ervum, Lamium and Vicia.

The whole upper surface of the column of Aristolochia of Telagoung, is
viscid and stigmatic, and likewise the margins of the depressions in
which the anthers are lodged, it is certainly akin to Rafflesiaceae.

_May 12th_.--Proceeded to Chupcha, our march to, and indeed beyond
Panga, seven miles from Lamnoo, was through exactly similar country.  The
hills naked or clothed with firs, the path lay along the river Teemboo
chiefly, but occasionally we met with one or two stiff ascents.  On
reaching Panga it was determined to push on to Chupcha, which was said to
be but a short way off; we started, and descended after some time to the
river, above which Panga is elevated about 1,000 feet.  We continued
along the river until we commenced to ascend towards Chupcha, this ascent
was very long and rather steep, the road tolerably good.  We found
Chupcha to be ten miles from Panga, and 8,000 feet high, the greatest
height we crossed being 8,600 feet, and this day we were told, that all
our climbings had ceased.  The road was generally bad, and well furnished
with rocks: in one place we passed from 100 yards along the perpendicular
face of a cliff, the Teemboo roaring underneath, the road was built up
with slippery slabs of stone.  The country was generally very pretty, the
scenery along the river being very picturesque.  We passed a waterfall of
considerable size, which is Turner's Minzapeeza.  After leaving Panga we
came on an uninhabited country, nor did we see more than one village,
until we reached the ridge immediately above Chupcha, 1,000 feet above
this, there is a very large village inhabited by Gylongs, the bare summit
of the hill rising an equal height above it; snow visible to the south.
The greatest distance we descended was 6,500 feet, the greatest height
8,500 feet.  The distance seventeen miles, the longest march we have yet
had.

The vegetation was nearly the same up to the time we turned off towards
Chupcha, it was characterized by a profusion of Rosa, among which the
Crataega, Symphorema, (which is less common than towards Woollakkoo,)
Rhamnus, Viburnum grandiflorum, Pinus pendula, Thymus, Cycnium.

In grassy banks of fields between Panga and Lamnoo, Astragalus, Ervum,
Vicia, Aster major, Rumex, Agrostia, in fields Hieraciae sp., Caricia
sp., Lactuca, Bromus.

Salix pendula about villages.  After leaving Panga we came on to a place
called Minzapeeza, here Adiantum, Aspidium? Hamamelidea, Cedrela? Rhus,
Galium, Tussilago, Saxifraga ligularis, Valeriana violifolia, Smilax
flexuosa, Aruncus, Sarcococea, Azalea.

Rhododendron minus recommenced after leaving the river towards Panga, a
straggling cedar or two occurred, Populus rotundifol. very common,
Gaultheria arborea.

About Panga, Lithospermum, Oxalis corniculata, Umbellifera, from the
flowers of which _moud_ is made, Rubus, Arabis, Taxacum, Dipsacus.

Beyond the waterfall the Quercus robur became common, forming beautiful
woods, it continued throughout until we re-descended to the river, range
7 to 7,500 feet.  In these woods formed likewise by Pinus pendula,
Convallaria cirrhosa appeared, Rubia cordifolia, hispida, Paris
polyphylla, Aralia cissifolia, Mitella, Ribes! Spiraea, Asparagus,
Epipactis, Avularia, Houttuynia! Arum viviparum on rocks, Duchesmium,
Populus oblonga occurred also, Coriaria! Hedera common, Benthamia common.

On rocks along the river, Peperomia, 4-phylla, Populus oblonga, Acer
sterculiacea! Symphoria alia! Indigofera, Salix, Cedrela, Sassafras,
arbor facie, Gordonia, Vitis, Syringa, Serissa, Buddlaea, Sedum on rocks,
Eriophon ditto, Campanula cana, Pinus pendula, Rosa, Convallarium
cirrhosa, Polygonum robustum, foliis cordatis.

The ascent up to 7,500 feet, was marked by similar vegetation: up to this
point the prevailing shrubs gradually disappeared, they were never so
common as about Panga.  Quercus robur having ceased, was succeeded by
Quercus ferruginea, which is much like Quercus ilecifolia, and has very
coriaceous leaves, this again at 7,500 feet, was succeeded by Quercus
ilecifolia, Dipsacus up to this, Pteris aquilina, Gaultheria arborea.

At 7,600 feet, Rhododendron oblonga, a most beautiful species, Calyce
discoideo commenced, as also Rhodora deflexa and Rhodoracea ochrolenea,
which is, I think, that I before noticed as R. elliptica, foliis basi
cordatis subtus argenteis et punctatis, Euphorbia occurs also here, as
also the Rosa, Berberis asiatica.

At 8,000 feet, the trees were covered with grey lichens, and assumed the
usual highly picturesque appearance: noticed Primula Stuartii in flower
(Symphoria! ceased), Euphorbia, Gaultheria nummularifolia commences,
Artemisia major, Crataegus odoratus continues, Saxifraga ligularis common
up to this, Ribes commences, Gaultheria of Bulphai, Galum, Hyperici sp.,
Lilium giganteum, Clematis grata, Populus species, do not ascend above
this.

At 8,500 feet, Rhododendron minus, Rhododendron oblonga, ochroleucum,
Coccineum appears, Ribes, Smilax sanguinea, Gaultheria of Bulphai very
common, arborea stunted, Limonia major, Clematis grata! Rhododendron
hispida, Potentilla, Pteris aquilina, Berberis asiatica, Mespilus
microphyllus, Gnaphalium, Swertia, Viola, Patrinum! Elaeagnus fragrans!
Thymus, which ranges from 6 to 10,000 feet, Euphorbia, Pedicularis,
Cycnii sp., Mimulus, Rhodora deflexa, Pinus pendula, Quercus ilecifolia,
both stunted, Pteris aquilina.

The descent to the village was about 500 feet, Arenarium on rocks,
Mimulus, Viola, Rumex, Juncus, Acorus veronica, Anagallis, Pythonium of
Blake, Euphorbia, Pedicularis, Carex, Mespilus microphyllus: pine
chatterers throughout, at least above 7,000 feet.

The summit, which was certainly 9,500 feet, was completely bare: Pinus
pendula ascends a long way.

Chupcha--Hordeum hexastichor in beautiful order, the chief cultivation.
Red-legged crow; larger dove.  The form of the country traversed is as
follows:-

[Teemboo to Chupcha: m291.jpg]

At Diglea we had an opportunity of seeing the mode of building in this
part of Bootan; the houses are made of mud, which is trampled and beat
down by men, who perform sundry strange evolutions while so employed; the
mud is beat down in a frame-work; it is from the different layers formed
that the lines seen outside finished houses result.  The mode is slow,
but must give great firmness.

_May 14th_.--Ascended to the Gylong village, above Chupcha, and then to
the naked ridge.  The village may be estimated as being 8,700 or 8,800
feet above the sea, and that part of the ridge to which I ascended as
9,800 or 10,000 feet.  The ascent is uninterrupted up to the village; it
winds through a fine fir wood, after diverging from the road to Panga,
after that it is quite open, scarcely a shrub being met with until the
ridge is surmounted.  On turning to its northern face, woody vegetation
becomes pretty abundant, and 500 feet below, woods occur.  This is
contrary to what usually happens; the south faces of mountains being
supposed to be better wooded than the others, but in Bootan the
difference would seem to be due to the piercing winds blowing from south,
or up the ravine of the Teemboo.  The scenery was very pretty, both in
the woods before reaching the village, and from the ridge: vast
quantities of snow visible to the north and north-east.  I ascended to
within 1,000 feet of snow, and I think that at this season, an elevation
of 11,000 feet is required _in open places_ to secure the presence of
snow: it is obvious that local circumstances, such as shelter, etc. may
cause it to descend nearly to 9,000 feet, and it is as obvious that snow
will descend lower down a mountain of 15,000 feet high than one of
12,000; the difference in the beds of snow causing a greater reduction of
temperature in the one than in the other.  In an isolated mountain, an
elevation of 11,000 feet will be required for the presence of snow in
May.

At 8,000 feet, Baptisia, Viburnum canum, Umbellifera toxicaria,
Colquhounia, Deutzia, the Symphoria of Teemboo.

At 8,200 feet, Salix, Abies spinulosa straggling, Rhododendron
microphylla commences, the bruised has a terebenthaceous odour, Ilex,
Gaultheria flexuosa, Parus major: variegated shortwing, Papilio
machaonires.

At 8,300 feet, Saxifraga ligularis.

At 8,400 to 8,500 feet, Limonia, Viburnum grandiflorum or canum, Berberis
asiatica, Mespilus microphyllus, Populus oblonga, Rhododendron ochrolena,
Clematis grata viola lutea,* Epipactis, Hemiphragma.

At 8,700 feet, Rhododendron microphyllum very common, Ribes, Bupleuri
sp.,* Rosa fructibus hispidis,* Rubia hispida, Sambucus, Berberis
integrifolia, an vero distincta.

At 8,800 feet, Viola pusilla, Fragaria vesca and lutea, Baptisia, Rosa,
Sphaerostemma, Clematis grata, Pinus pendula, etc.

At 9,000 feet, commencement of sward, no trees, except stunted shrubs of
Pinus pendula, Mespilus microphyllus, Baptisia, Gnaphalium Pedicularis,*
Rosa, Bistorta,* leaves with margins not united to the margins of
pitchers of Nepenthes and Cephalotus, Pteris aquilina, Prunella,
Rhododendron microphyllum, Euphorbia, Taxaxacum, Potentilla, Thymus,
Primula Stuartii.

At 9,100 feet, Hyperica brachiata of Moflong.

At 9,300 feet, Morina Wallichiana, Osmundioid, Dipsacus, Scabiosa?
capitulo nutanta, Verbascum, Juncus, Epilobia sp.

At 9,400 feet, Salix shrubby, Cyperus fuscescens of Tassangsee, dwarfed
Larix.

At 9,500 feet, Anemona aurea commences, covering in some places the
sward; it straggles down in favourable places with Iris angustifolia, to
9,300 feet, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron microphyllum, Gnaphalia,
Euphrasia.

At 9,800 feet, southern face of ridge bare, northern thickety, consisting
of Rhododendron fruticosum, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis punctato
lepidotis, Salix, Berberis, Pyrus aria, Bambusa, Tetranthera.

In wet sheltered spots, Iris angustifolia, Aconitum, foliis aconitoideum,
on the sward Euphorbia radians.  Below this a little, woods commence
chiefly of Bogh Pata, Cerasus, Salix, Rosa fructibus hispidis, Acers,
Abelia? Viburnum niveum, Hydrangea arbuscula, non-scandens, Berberis
integrifolia.  The woods are open, the open spaces occupied by remains of
last summer's vegetation, as Compositae, Umbelliferae, Aquilegium, a
plant five or six feet high, folii aconitoidie, etc.  Epilobium.

Among these in the woods, Trillia sp., Saxifraga reniformis, Liliacea
Brodidoid, Viola, Primula purpurea, a lovely species, Aconiti sp.,
Papaveracea hirsuta foliis, Aconitoid very common, Orchideae, Ribes
sanguina, Composita penduliflora, Arenaria pusilla of above Telagoung,
Polygoni sp., pusilla repens hirsuit foliis cordata ovatis, vel
reniformibus subtus purpurescent, Salvia nubicola? Euphorbia coccinea.

Abies densa appears, as also close to the Gylong village, from this
elevation upwards, it is common.

Abies spinulosa common on north face at 9,000 feet, Abies pendula ascends
on south side as high as 9,300 feet, but is stunted beyond 9,000 feet, it
does not exist on north face.

Primula Stuartii throughout, very abundant.

The plants most limited were Papaveracea, Aconitum folium aconitoideum,
Saxif. reniformis, Primula purpuria, Euphorbia radians, Rhododendron
cereum, mentioned above, and another at 9,800 feet with similar leaves,
but normal flowers, Abelia, Cerasus, Trillii sp., Anemona, Iris,
Bistorta, Ribes, A. densa.

The most dispersed are Euphorbia coccinea, Salix, Bogh Pata, Mespilus
microphyllus, Cyperus fuscus, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron
microphyllum.

Hordeum hexastichum gives fine produce here; nothing can exceed it in
appearance, oats also occur mixed with it, but is not sown, at least, it
occurs rarely on walls, Arabis, Magus stolonifer, Juglans in villages,
(Ribes Juniperus in the Gylong village), Acorus, Carex, Stellaria cana,
Media, Caltha, and Thlaspi.

The temperature is delightful, thermometer 46 degrees at 7 A.M., 52
degrees in the middle of the day.

_May 15th_.--Left Chupcha for Chuka, distant seventeen miles.  Our
march commenced by a very steep and indeed almost precipitous descent to
the nullah, at the foot of Chupcha, of 1,800 feet.  Thence we ascended
gradually until we reached a temple visible from Chupcha, at which place
we returned to the course along the Teemboo.  The remainder of the road
undulating, varying in level from 6,000 to 6,500 feet, until we commenced
the descent to Chuka, which was long and tedious: we reached this at 5.5
P.M.  The road latterly was very bad, we passed Punukha, a small village,
about 300 feet below our path.  The mountains closing in the Teemboo
continue lofty, at least 9,000 feet.  Iris, cedars, and Abies densa, were
common on the loftier parts.

We passed some beautiful places, indeed the march throughout was pretty.
The vegetation was beautiful, owing to the quantity of water on the road,
a stream occupying each hollow, round many of which we wound.  Glades and
pieces of green sward were not uncommon.

The Lamium of Bulphai is found about Chupcha.  On the descent to the
nullah the following plants were found.

At 7,000 feet, Iris commences, with a species of Lychnis, ground bare and
rocky, Umbellifera cana, Umb., from which _moud_ is prepared, common.

At 6,800 feet, Quercus ferruginea commences, on rocks here Stemodium
ruderalis, Santonica of Panga, etc., Convallaria cirrhosa.

At 6,500 feet, Hedera common, Aristolochia tetrarima, Berberis obovata,
Viburnum caerulescens, Filix ferrugineo tomentosa, Pteris dealbata.

Iris common to 6,500 feet, continues lower down, but scarce.  Along the
nullah, which is a middling-sized torrent, Rhus, Cederela toone, Acer
sterculiacea, Hamamelis, Fici sp., scandens, Rhus, Juglandifolia! Populus
oblonga, Sassafras, on the ascent to the temple, Populus of very large
size, and the above trees.  Fraxinus floribunda, Osmundia in profusion,
Aristolochia tetrarima, Scabiosa of Bulphai, Prunella, Fragaria vesca,
Duchesnum, Sarcococea, Elaeagnus fragrans, Galium of Panga cascade,
Corydalis, which continues to Chuka, but is scarce below 5,000 feet,
Deutzia, Lilium giganteum, Uvularia very common, Primula Stuartii,
Woodwardia (scarce), Pythonium pallidium, Campanula cana, Panax herbacieae
2 species, Rhododendron agaleoides of ridge above Chupcha, Buddlaea cana,
Ranunculus of Taseeling, Benthamia, Anemona ranunculacea, Buxus,
Delphinum sp.? common, Gaultheria nummularifolia, Jasminum lutium,
Conaria.  This ascent was about 500 feet.  Long-tailed pie seen here, red-
billed shrikelet, first met with towards Tumashoo, common now as far down
as 4,500 feet.

On passing the temple, or rather before coming to it, we changed the
vegetation which became of the ordinary _dry_ character.  Woods of Q.
ferruginea mixed with Pinus pendula, Benthamia, Pteris aquilina, Viburnum
caerulescens, Conaria, Polygonum of Teemboo, Rhododendron minus,
Gaultheria arborea.

The remainder of the march consisted of a series of winding round spurs:
at about an average elevation of 6,000 feet found a Pythonium foliis
pedalis, spad. apice filiformo recurvo, vel erecto, spathe viridi,
Didymocarpea odora contuso terebinthaceo, Solanum nigrum, Succulent
urticeae, Scabiosa of Bulphai, Gnaphalium, Polygonum globiferum, Scirpus
eriophorus, Hippocratia angulata, Mitella, in damp spots, Cycnium, but
rare, Sarcococea, Impatiens two species, one at 6,500 feet, with a
creeping plant, foliis ranunculaceis floribus solitariis hypocrateriform
albis.  No Buxus or Delphinum was observed, in any other glens than the
first crossed.  Alnus became common soon, the pines disappeared, Osmundia
common, Primula rotundifolia, Paris polyphylla, Bletia as of Churra at
Punukha, Sphaeropteris.

In some places Rhododendron minus common, and with it Quercus ferruginea,
Rubia hirsuta, not uncommon throughout as far as 15,000 feet,
Thalictroides majus, Houttuynia, Betula.

In glades, Smilax gaultherifolia, in a wood round the marsh a Pomaceous
tree: on the march, Swertia, Peloria, Carex stricta, and of Chupcha,
Spiranthes rubriflora, Berberis pinnata, Saxifraga of Bulphai occur here.

Still further on, the forest assumed the appearance of those towards
Khegumpa.  Q. robur, recommences, cedars straggle down; Pinus pendula,
more common, Arenariae sp., Lomaria of Khegumpa, Hottoneoides
ranunculofolia common, Luzula, Sedi sp., Sambucus common throughout in
shady spots, Radsurae sp., Daphne papyracea, rare, Acer sterculiacea
common, Sabia, Hydrangeacea calyptrata, Hamiltonia, this last common to
4,500 feet.

On wet rocks Hutchinsia, Arenaria, succulent Urticea.  In woods
Cucurbitacea cessifolia, Ajugae sp., Polygonum rheoides.  On open spots,
Benthamium in flower, Gaultheria arborea, here of large size, pines cease
without changing the elevation, Q. ferruginea ceased, this is limited to
dry spots.

The first change indicated by the appearance of Laurineae, and Symplocos
among oaks and chesnuts.  The woods continued thick for some time, but on
commencing the descent, which is gradual, especially at first, Q. robur
is common, Gaultheria arborea, Rhododendron minus.

At 5,500 feet Hottonia, Rubia hirsuta, Hydrangeacea calyptrata,
Phytolacea, also at 6,500 feet, and as low as 4,000 feet, Senecio
scandens, Verbenacea of Dgin appears, Uvularia, Duchesnia, Polygonum
rheoides.

Umbellifera gigantea, Potentilla supina appear, Pythonium recurvum, Rhus,
Dipsacus of Churra, Alnus, Pomacea macrophylla, Stauntonia angustifolia,
Photinea parviflora, Benthamea disappears, in flower at least,
Didymocarpea, Rhamnus, and also at 5,000 feet, Fragaria vesca, in fruit!
Paris, Curculigo pygmaea appears, Sedum continues and ceases at 4,500
feet, Ranunculus of Taseeling found also as low as 3,600 feet, Daphne
nutans appears.  This found first near Taseeling, found as low as 4,000
feet, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron minus, Viburnum caerulescens
continue, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Rubus deltoideus appears.

At 4,500 feet, a Malvaceae Sidoides, Erythrina, Rosa fragrans, Pythonium
sp. majus, spadicis apice filiformi 2-pedali, Incerta of Taseeling,
Ribesioides, Quercus ferruginoides, Indigofera major, Berberis obovata,
in fruit.

At 4,400 feet, Cuscuta, Hamiltonia, Hottoneoides, Daphne pendula vel
nutans, Impatiens, Mimosa, Menispermum tropaeolifolia, Celastrinia sp.,
Panax crucifolia, Hypericum japonicum.

At 4,300 feet, Conyza nivea, Q. robur, Indigofera major, of Tassgoung,
etc.  Gaultheria arborea, Hedychium appears! Buddlaea of Nulka, Maesa
salicifolia!

At 4,200 feet, Thibaudia lanceolata appears, ranges between 4,200 and
2,000 feet, Sanicula, Cynoglossum, Zyziphi sp.

Along the bed of the river, Zizyphus arborea, Urtica, foliis apicae
erosis, Berberis obovata, Erythrina, Artemisia major, Elaeagnus fragrans,
and Stellaria cana, occur, the last ranges between 3 and 6,000 feet,
Thlaspi, Polygonum globifera, Dendrobium pictum, Verbenacea of Dgin,
Clematis, petiolis basi connatis demum induratus majus, Magnolia, Randia
of Punukha, Liriodendron tulipif., Apocynum nerufolium.

At Chuka, Ficus elastica, but not flourishing, Musa, Salix pendula,
Phytolacea, Buckwheat, Crucifera cordifructus, Sanicula, Stellaria cana,
Thibaudia lanceolata, Cynoglossum, Vandea, Parkioides common.

The most limited plants are Iris, Silene, Aristolochia tetrarima vix
infra 6,000 feet, Buxus, Delphinioid, Fraxinus non infra 6,000 feet,
Epipactis ditto, Hutchinsia, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Mitella, Carex stricta
of Chupcha, _Petunia_, Smilax gaultherifolia, Osmundia non infra 5,500
feet, Hydrangeacea ditto, Cucurbitacea cissifolia, found about Suddiya,
etc.

The most diffused, Hottonia, Q. robur, Gaultheria arborea, 5 to 3,500
feet, Corydalis.

The subtropical forms, Mimosa, Impatiens, occurrence of fleshy Urticea,
Ficus elastica, but not flourishing, Musa, Salix pendula, Buckwheat,
Urtica urens, peaches, Stellaria cana, Crucifera cordifructus, Panax
curcifolia, Andropogon arbusculoid, Rubia cordata.

_May 16th_.--The fort of Chuka not being whitewashed, is not
conspicuous: its situation is strong, and against Bhooteas would be
impregnable.  It occupies a low hill arising from the centre of the
valley, one side of which is washed by the Teemboo or Tchien-chiw.  The
room we were lodged in was a good one.  The village is a mean one, and
consisting of three or four houses.

We crossed the river by a suspension bridge much inferior to that of
Benka, and then rose gradually and inconsiderably, following the Teemboo.
To this we subsequently descended by a most precipitous road built for
the most part on the face of a huge cliff: we reached the Teemboo at its
junction with a small torrent; the tongue of land here was strewn with
huge rocks, and bore evidences of the power of the torrents, for it
evidently had been once a hill, such as that we had just descended.
Thence we continued ascending, following the river, from which however we
soon diverged to our right, but not far.  The road was rugged beyond
description.  As we approached Murichom, it improved somewhat, but was
still very bad.  We reached this place which is visible for some distance
at 5 P.M.; the march being one of eighteen miles.  No villages occurred
en route.  The hills were densely wooded to the summits and much lowered
in height than those to which we had been accustomed.  Passed two
waterfalls, one less high, but more voluminous than the other, is the
Minzapeeza of Turner; both these occurred on the left bank of the river.
Minzapeeza, is a fall of great height, but the body of water is small.

The vegetation to-day partook much of the subtropical character, almost
all boreal plants being left behind.  We ascended and descended between
3,000 to 4,500 feet near Chuka, Parkioides, Mimosa arborea! and M.
frutex.  Magnolia! Rubia munjista, Impatiens! Cucurbitacea!

Oxyspora latifolia! Rosa fragrans, Incerta ribesioides, Piper! Urtica
heterophylla! Wendlandia! Phytolacea, Daphne nutans, Rottleria! Curculigo
orchediflora, Acer, Eurya pubescens, Rhus, Alnus! Adamia, Gordonia! Q.
robur reappears at a lower elevation than before seen: Dipterocarpioides
arbor vasta trunco ramoso! Smilax auriculata! Pothos pinnatifid! Briedlia
oblonga! Corydalis, Dipsacus, Acanthaceae common, Rubiaceae of a tropical
character, such as Ophiorhizae; Celastrus! Pythonium majus, Tetranthera
macrophylla! Quercus coriacea! Gaultheria arborea scarce, Deutzia on the
descent to the Teemboo, Macrocapnos, Sterculia platanifolia, Melica
latifolia! Arundo! Achyranthes densa! Labiata spinosa of Khegumpa or
Phlomis, Labiata, Quercoides.  The rocks on the river side are covered
with Epiphytical Orchideae; Saurauja sterculifolia, Pythonium pallidum,
Elaeagnus fragrans.

Along the banks of the Teemboo, Pandanus! Rhododendron azaleoides, R.
pulchrum, Lyellia, Begonia picta, Composita arborea! Ficus! on ascent
above its banks, Dioscorea! Elaeocarpus! Acrosticum atratum! Convallarium
oppositifolia, Thibaudia loranthiflora! Pogostemon of Dgin! Leea!  The
only northern plant a species of Viola; Otochilus linearis! Entada!
Kydia! Mussaenda! Macrocapnos altera of Yen, Callicarpa arborea! Panax
aculeato palmiformis supra decompositae of Dgin! Solanum farinacium!
Urena lobata! Marlea, Panicum plicatum!  Before ascending to Murichom we
made two descents to two streams, crossed by common wooden bridges: that
nearer Murichom being the largest; elevation at 2,500 feet.  Here tree-
fern; Pythonium majus, Duchesnia, Lysimacha, Begonia of Punukha!
Caryophyllea scandens, Urtica gigas! Modeceoides exembryonata! Commelina!
Combretum sp.! Baehmeriae! Piper spica caudata pendula and another
species!! Euphorbia! Galina of Panga, Croton malvifolius! Bambusa major!
Bauhinia! Engeldhaardtii!

Although we subsequently ascended 1500 feet, very little change occurred:
no re-appearance of tropical forms, Sterculiacea novum of Moosmai,
Adamia, Volkameria! serrata, Triumfetta mollis! Briedlia ovalis of
Chilleeri! Gortnera! Corydalis! Hydrangeacae! Melastoma malabathrica!

The march was very tiresome, some of the ranges passed were high and well
clothed with firs.  Those marked thus* are subtropical or tropical, and
one glance will show their predominance: only Corydalis straggles down.
The woods were in many places damp, in others dry: it was obvious that
less rain had fallen between Chupcha and Chuka, than in other situations:
a large proportion of Laurineae and Acanthaceae appeared in the woods,
with Gordonia: the oaks and chesnuts when they did present themselves
bore a tropical form, pointed out by their coriaceous undivided or merely
serrated leaves.  I certainly never saw such a predominance of tropical
forms, at such an elevation as 3,500 or 4,000 feet.

For Lyellia I had been hunting for three years, but never thought of
looking for it at low elevations; as it was I believe given out to be a
native of high places.  Of birds, Bucco, Picus intermedius, green pigeon,
azure shrikelet, occurred.

_May 17th_.--Murichom is a small village of eight or nine thatched
houses, it is well and prettily situated: about it maize and wheat are in
cultivation, Ficus, Hoya, Dendrobium, Croton malvaefolius, Meliacea,
Cedrela Toona, orange, Verbesina, Datura, Artemisia major, Echites, in
fact it would be difficult to point out an elevational plant.  The same
remark applies to the march to Gygoogoo, distant twelve miles, and
situated 500 feet below the road, but still it is about the same level as
Murichom.  The march commenced with a steep descent, followed by a
steeper ascent, then winding along, in and out, at an average elevation
of 5,000 feet.  The road was very bad, rocky and rugged as usual, P. and
B. passed the village, and pushed on to Buxa, a distance of twenty miles,
which place they reached at 7 P.M.  At Murichom, Ficus cordata, fructibus
pyriformibus, Clerodendron infortunata, Adamia, Spilanthes, Melastoma
malabathrica, Bignonia, Pentaptera.  The Oollook or Simia Hylobates, of
Upper Assam.

Scarcely any thing worth noticing occurred; the vegetation being
precisely the same.  No oaks or chesnuts, at least comparatively few:
Elaeocarpus, Rhus, Gordonia are the most common trees; Pythonium common,
Hoya rotundifolia.  Gygoogoo, a small village of two or three houses, was
passed.

_May 18th_.--Marched to Buxa, ascending from Gygoogoo over a wretched
rocky road, winding in and out.  No water was to be had until we reached
a ridge from which to Buxa is one continued descent.  This ridge is
between 5 and 6,000 feet, and yet there is scarcely a change in the
vegetation.  Pythonium abounded, especially P. majus, which literally
occurred in profusion.  The trees towards the top of the ridge were
covered with moss, but all appeared subtropical; a few chesnuts, E.
spinosissima occurred, Bambusa nodosis, verticillatis, and spinosis.

En route thither, Pholidota imbricata, Thib. loranthiflora, Aralia
terebinthacea, Rottleria foliis peltatis, Ranunculus of Taseeling,
Meniscum majus, Byttneria ferox, Caladium foliis medio discoloratis
saepius atratis, Gnetum, Ixora, Choulmoogra, Phlogacanthi sp.,
Corisanthes of Sudya, Acer platanifolia, Croton foliis oblongis
irregularis dentato-lobatis occurred before, between 2,500 to 3,500 feet,
Calamus, wild plantains as before, Gordonia, Rhus, Mimosa, Rottleria,
Wallichia, Sida cuneata, Tradescantia cordata, AEschynanthus fulgens, et
altera, Tupistra, Lobelia baccifera, Costus, tree-fern, as high as 5,000
feet, Bambusa fasciculata; of birds, the large Bucco.

At 5,000 feet, Thibaudia serrata, and on this side, as low as 2,500 feet,
myrtifolia, Gordonia, Pythonium majus and medium, cinnamon, Piper, Acer
platanifolia, Mucuna, Angiopteris, Saurauja ferruginea.

At 5,300 feet, Polygonia pinnatifolia, Hookeria macrophylla, Aralia
scandens, etc. as before.

On descent nothing remarkable, except steepness: same vegetation.
Pythonium majus not below 3,000 feet, Guttiferae at 3,000 feet,
Acanthaceae, Carduaceus 2,800 feet.

At 2,500 feet, Buchanania undulata, Hyalostemma undulatum, Roydsia.

What can be the cause of this tropical elevation at such altitudes?  Buxa
is hot enough for any tropical plants, as jacks, mangoes, Cactus, etc.
are found in fine order.  It is not attributable to a gradual rise, as
the ascent from this to 5,500 feet, is excessively steep.  It must be
owing to local causes modifying the climate: at 5,000 feet on the Dgin
route, there are many elevational plants, indeed more than of
subtropical.

It must not be forgotten that no Pinus longifolia exists on this route
after leaving Telagoung.

Buxa is a rather pretty place, but as usual poor: the Doompa's house is
the only decent one in the place, the others, amounting to eight or ten,
are common huts.  The big house occupies an elevation in the centre of
the pass, being cut off from the neighbouring hill on either side by a
ravine, one of which is now quite dry, the other affords a scanty supply
of water.  The hills are covered with jungle, the only clearing being
about Buxa, and this, except the flat summit of the hill, is overrun with
bushes, Capparis modecea, Croton malvaefolia, Menisperma tropaeolifolia.
Bergerae 2 species, Ixora, Brucea same as of the plains, Atriplex,
Tournefortia of plains, Maesa macrophylla, Mimosa scandens, Ficus
elastica in good order, jacks, mangoes, oranges, plantains,
Tabernamontana, Calamus, Cedrela Toona, are found.

Black pheasants, Bulbuls, Drongoles, Oorooa, Bucco, green pigeons.  Long-
tailed blue-crested shrike, etc. are found here.  The Doompa, or Chong
Soobah, is a man of no rank, and the place itself is of no importance,
except as the pass or entrance between the mountains of Bootan and the
plains of Bengal.

The descent from Buxa is gradual at first and not unpicturesque: after
passing a small chokey about half a mile from Buxa, sandstone of a coarse
nature commences.  The descent is very steep, and continues so until
within a short distance of a place called Minagoung, at which the
bullocks are unladen at least of heavy baggage.  The remaining descent is
very gradual, and continues so for several miles.  The march throughout
and until the level of the plains is reached, was through tree jungle.
The underwood being either scanty or consisting of grass.

On reaching the plains, the usual Assamese features presented themselves,
viz. vast expanses of grass, intersected here and there with strips of
jungle.  Reached Chichacootta about 3 P.M.: distance eighteen miles, of
which about fifteen were over either level or very gradually sloping
ground.  No villages occurred, and only one path struck off from the Buxa
one.  We passed two or three halting places.

The vegetation throughout was subtropical.  At the same elevation as
Buxa, noticed Cassia lanceolata, Torenia the common Leucas, Bheir,
Solanum quercifolia, Banyan, Alstonia, Styrax, Caryota, Elephantopus,
Osbeckia linearis, Herminioides, Wedelia scandens.

At 1,500 feet, Celastrus guttiferoid, Malvacea digyna, of which I found
flowers on the path, Koempfera terminal, Antidesma, Anthericum, Echites
arborea, Careya, Mimosa scandens, Pavetta, Rubiacea alia, Lepidostachys,
Lagerstroemia grandiflora, Leea crispa, Costus, Thunbergia grandiflora,
Gordonia, Commelina, Phyllanthus, Briedlia, Dioscorea, Cassia fistula.

As we approached a lower level, the same plants continued: a Dillenia
very common, Urena lobata, Hedera terebenthacea: the root is in some
cases like figs, Spathodea, Nauclea, Sterculia carnosa, foliis palmatis,
Dalbergia, Panax, Semecarpus, Rhaphis trivialis, Cymbid. alvifolium,
Sarcanthus guttatus common, Apocynea fauce, 10-glandulata, Ixora, etc.

Saul was not common, nor did I see one tree of any size; it commenced
about the margin of the Toorai.

Among the grasses forming the underwood of the Toorai and the grassy
masses clothing the plains, Sacchara were the most common and the most
conspicuous: next to these a species of Rottboellia.  Sciurus Bengmoria
occurred, Hemarthria, Greweia edulis, Leea crispa, Crinum in the Toorai,
Viburnum of Sudya, Millingtonia pinnata, Volkameria serrata, Labiata
Sudyensis, Mussaenda erecta, humilis, Cinchona, Premna herbacea, Phoenix
pumila.

Arrived at Chichacootta, a small village, situated in an open grassy
plain, miserably stockaded; and lodged in a good well elevated house.  The
following day started and reached Cooch Behar territory, after crossing a
considerable but fordable stream.  The contrast between the desolate
territories of Bootan, and the sheet of cultivation presented by Cooch
Behar was striking.

The same contrast continued until we reached the Company's territories,
and its less cultivated portions along the bed of the Brahmapootra.  The
only plant worth notice on the route, was a species of Swertia; the
vegetation being almost precisely the same as in Upper Assam.

_Rangamutty_, _Bhooruwa_.

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CHAPTER XIV.


_Journey with the Army of the Indus_.  _From Loodianah_
_to Candahar through the Bolan Pass_.

I reached Loodianah on the 10th December 1838, after a dawk journey of
fourteen and a half days.  After passing the Rajemahal Hills, the country
presents an uniform aspect, but becoming more sandy as one proceeds to
the northward.  The hills alluded to, form a low range, the only one of
any height being that called Pursunath.  They are well wooded, the under-
vegetation being grassy.  Undulating ground bare of trees, but provided
with shrubs, is passed before coming on the wooded tracts, the vegetation
of these present much similarity with that of even 31 degrees N.  The
_Dhak_, Pommereulla, Zizzyphus, occurring.  The _Mahooa_ occurs in
abundance on the hills, but does not reach much beyond Cawnpore.  The
country from the hills upwards, is almost entirely cultivated; very few
trees occurring, and those that do, are almost entirely mango.  The
Borassus does not extend in abundance much beyond Benares, but the
_Khujoor_ is found everywhere in sandy soil.

Loodianah is situated about five miles south of the Sutledge, in the
midst of a sandy country, very bare of trees.  The fort and Capt. Wade's
house are situated on a rising ground, at the base of which runs a
nullah, a tributary of the Sutledge.  There is much cultivation about the
place, chiefly of grain, barley and wheat, bajerow, cotton, the latter
bad, but there is much land uncultivated.  The surface is often flat and
somewhat broken; in such places there is much of a low prickly _Bheir_,
much used for making fences.  This and _Dhak_ jungle, which occurs in
strips, form two marked features, the _Dhak_ occurs in patches.  The
grasses, which occasionally form patches, are Andropogoneous;
Anathericum, Pommereulla, and Eleusine occur.

Sugar-cane occurs; it is cultivated in thick masses, it is poor, and
always fenced with the _Bheir_.

The most common trees are the mango, Parkinsonia, _Babool_, Acacia altera
babooloides, a Leguminous Mimosoid tree, Tamarisk, a middling sized tree
and very pretty, Ficus.

The hedges about the cantonments, etc. are formed by prickly pear; much
Ricinus occurs in waste places, and it appears to me to be different from
that to the south.

The most varied vegetation occurs along the nullah, but consists entirely
of aquatic or sub-aquatic plants; among these the most common are two or
three Scirpi, particularly a large rush-like one, a large Sparganium, a
very narrow leaved Typha, Hydrocharis! a pointed leaved Villarsia,
Potomogetons three or four, one only natant; Chara, Naias, Ceratophyllum,
Ulva, Valisneria, Marsilea, Herpestes, Jussieua repens, Fumaria common in
fields.

The town is a large bustling place: the houses low and regular, and of a
somewhat picturesque style, built of brick, the streets are wide and
regular, having been laid out by our officers.  There is a good deal of
trade, and the place is filled with Cashmereans, who may be seen working
their peculiar shawls, and producing very beautiful dyes.

_January 22nd and 23rd_.--Violent south-east winds during the day;
abating at night.

_February 4th_.--Arrived at Hurreekee, having halted on the previous
day at Mokhoo, a small village, with the usual style of mud fort.  The
marches were as follows: from Loodianah to Ghosepoora is eight miles; to
Boondree, eight miles; Tiraia, ten miles; to Durrumkote, ten miles; to
Futtygurh, ten miles; to Hurreekee, ten miles.  Thus Hurreekee is at
least eighteen miles from Durrumkote, although we had been told it was
only five.  The country near Loodianah, and, perhaps as far as
Durrumkote, is occasionally very sandy, but beyond that it is easily
traversed by hackeries.  Being much less cultivated and overrun with
grasses, among which Andropogons are the most numerous and conspicuous,
these grasses are either coarse and stout or wiry and fine, should afford
excellent cover for game, which however, does not seem to be very
abundant.  Very few trees are visible in any direction, and although
neither very much cultivation nor many villages are visible, it would
appear from charts that the country is very populous.  The most
interesting plant was a species of Fagonia.

Durrumkote is the largest of the villages we passed, and has a
respectable looking mud and brick fort.  Inside the village is filthy;
the houses wretchedly small, and the streets very narrow.  It is much the
same sort of village as other Seikh ones.  In the bazars cocoanuts were
noticed.  All the Seikhs eat opium, and very often in a particular way by
infusing the poppy-heads, from which the seeds have been extracted by a
hole in the side; great numbers of these are found in the bazars.

Hurreekee is on Runjeet's side.  I crossed the Sutledge, which is between
400 to 500 yards broad with a sufficiently rapid stream, by a bridge of
boats built by the Seikhs, under the superintendence of Mr. Roobalee.  It
contained 65 boats, placed alternately up and down the river; the boats
were moored to posts: over them were placed, both lengthwise and across,
timbers, then grass, then soil; many elephants passed over, until it gave
in, but was quickly repaired, and since many more hundreds of camels,
horses, and thousands of people have passed.  The right bank is thirty
feet high, the left low and sandy.  The country where uncultivated, is
clothed with grasses, and the only trees visible are perhaps the Pipul;
the _Jhow_ occurs but not the Parhass; a few Bukeens are visible,
Ricinus, Salvadora, which is occasionally a climber, especially at
Tiraia.  The river rose suddenly on the night of the 6th and carried away
the bridge.  The Himalayas had been seen very distinctly throughout the
day, so that the rain must have been local: the height of the rise was
three feet.

We left Hurreekee on the 8th at 10 A.M., the river up to this time (9th)
presents the same monotonous appearance--sandy banks clothed with
grasses, intermixed with _Jhow_ here and there, and occasionally
AEschynomene, and Typha.  Very few villages have been passed, nor does
the rare occurrence of topes indicate that there are many near it.  The
channel has been throughout much subdivided, and flats are of frequent
occurrence.  Yesterday we passed two busy ferries, at which two or three
boats were unceasingly employed, and there was an obvious demand for
more.  Black partridges were heard frequently, black-bellied tern,
herons, cormorants, etc.  The stream averages three miles an hour.
Parkinsonia was seen near Hurreekee.  Reached Ferozepore at 12.5 on the
9th; it is a very busy ghat, more so than that of Hurreekee: two large
godowns were passed on the Company's side.  The river is wider by 100
yards than at Hurreekee.

_10th_.--Reached Mamdot at 9.5 A.M.  The fort appears of good size, with
high walls: it is about half a mile from the river.  The country
continues the same.  Some wheat cultivation, in which Fumaria, Anagallis,
Medicago are abundant; Calotropis Hamiltonii common; some grapes; _doob_
grass wherever there is or has been cultivation.  The only trees I see
are Babooloid, but not the true _Babool_, which has very odorous flowers,
and is always an arbuscula, a shrubby _Bheir_, spina una erecta, altera
recurvo also occurs; among the fields, Lathyrus, Aphaca, and a Compositae
which has the leaves of a thistle, are common.

Halted at Buggeekee, which is, I imagine, the Pajarkee of Tassin's Map.

_11th_.--Continued passing down, breakfasting at Attaree: few signs of
villages, but a good deal of cultivation.  Persian wheels not
unfrequently employed in raising water from the river: a short channel
having first been cut in the bank, and the banks, when loose, propped up.
Wheat, radishes, etc.  Grasses appear to be much less common, while the
_Jhow_ is increasing much.  The river is much subdivided, and the actual
banks are scarcely discernible owing to the want of trees.  The soil and
current remain the same: no impediments have been met with by our boats,
nor have I yet observed any to tracking, the grass jungle being easily
overcome, and very unlike that of the Brahmapootra, and the _Jhow_ not
reaching that height necessary to make it troublesome.  The Nawab of
Mamdot visited the Envoy today, accompanied by a small party of horsemen.
Only two alligators have been seen thus far: no game even to be heard,
and but few living creatures visible.

_12th_.--The river becomes even less interesting than before; the channel
is occasionally much narrowed by sands, over one of which we found
yesterday evening some difficulty in passing; it is much more spread out
and subdivided, and from this circumstance, will occasion difficulty in
tracking up.  The banks are low and generally within reach of inundation:
scarcely a village is to be seen; and _Jhow_ is the most uniform feature.
Yesterday evening saltpetre was visible in abundance on some of the
higher banks, and on these _Phulahi_, _Jhow_, a Composita, and Salsola?
or Chenopodium were observed.  Since the 10th, the few boats seen are of
different structure from those to which we had been accustomed; they are
flat, less wide, and much better fastened together, elevated at both
ends; they are propelled as well as guided by the rudder, which is
curved, so as to bring it within reach of the helmsman, who is on a level
with the bottom of the boat.  Very little cultivation: Tassin's Map of
but little use, as few of the names are recognised by the boatmen or
villagers.

Paukputtea was passed to-day; it is the shrine of a _fakeer_, and one in
great repute, as passing through a particular gate is supposed to
authorize one to claim admittance into Paradise.  The Moulavee
consequently has proceeded there in full faith and extravagant joy: with
natives of the east such absurdities are to the full as much believed by
the educated as by the uneducated; indeed the former are much the more
bigoted of the two.  The _fakeer_ alluded to, not only lived for years on
a block of wood carved into the likeness of a loaf, but subsequently
suspended himself for several years in a well, without even the wooden
loaf.  He is then said to have disappeared, and is no doubt now enjoying
all the pleasures of a Mohammedan paradise.  We were detained by strong
winds at a small village opposite Paukputtea, which is situated on rather
high ground, as far as could be judged from the distance.

_13th_.--The cultivation round this village consists of wheat, radishes,
a sort of mustard cultivated for its oily seeds, and the Mehta of
Hindoostan.  Among the fields I picked up a Melilotus, a Melilotoid, and
a genuine Medicago, which is also found at Loodianah, both these last are
wild, and their occurrence is as curious as it is interesting; the latter
being a decidedly boreal form.  In connection with these annuals I have
to observe, that most flower about January or February, at which time the
mornings and nights are the coldest: also observed Lathyrus cultivated, a
Chenopodium was also found, Calotropis, a large Saccharoid, Amaranthaceae,
were the most common plants, Gnaphalium, Lippia; _Purwas_, occurs
scantily.

_14th_.--Detained till 12 P.M. by bad weather.  Sissoo not uncommon but
small, _Babool_, the true sweet scented sort.  The Colocynth seen in
fruit much like an apple, not ribbed; it has the usual structure of the
order, viz. 3-carpellary with revolute placentae, so much so, that they
are placed near the circumference; seeds very numerous, surrounded with
pulp, not arillate: no separation taking place; oval, brown, smooth.  In
fields here, a wild strong smelling Umbellifera occurs, called _Dhunnea_,
used as a potherb, and esteemed very fragrant by the natives.  Besides
the absence of an arillus, there is another anomaly about the above
Colycynth, which is, that between each placenta a broad partition
projects from the wall of the fruit, usually provided with 3-septa, so as
to be divided into two chambers, these contain seeds, the funiculi
passing completely through them; seeds are also contained between the
outermost septa and the placentae themselves.

Passed two or three villages.  The Persian wheels continue in vogue;
their site is always on a sufficiently high and tenacious bank.  I
observed some wells, communicating with the river by an archway in the
bank.  Most of the cattle are blinded by the conical blinkers or hoods
over the eyes.

_15th_.--Halted at a village partly washed away, surrounded by a good
deal of wheat and radish cultivation.  The mango tree and Moringa also
occur here with the larger _Babool_, which invariably has long white
thorns.  The small Sissoo still occurs.  Snake bird seen, black crowned
tern.

The river remains most uninteresting; the banks are low and covered
chiefly with _Jhow_.  In many places recent shells are very abundant, but
do not appear to be composed of more than three species.  Reseda,
Oligandra in fields.

_16th_.--No change in the country.  Heavy fog yesterday morning; to-day
strongish north-east winds.  Grass and _Jhow_ about equal.

_17th_.--Cloudy, drizzling, raw weather; river more sluggish; more
villages and more cultivation: Phascum, and Gymnostomum common on
tenacious sand banks.

_18th_.--Weather unsettled; windy and rainy.  _Jhow_ and grass jungle
continue, Tamarisk, _Furas_ fine specimens, Fumaria continues in fields,
Capparis aphylla, which has something of a Cactoid habit, and whose
branches abound with stomata, Reseda.

_19th_.--Weather finer but still cloudy, north-east wind still prevalent,
and impeding our progress in some of the reaches very much.  Salvadora,
Capparis aphylla, _Phulahi_, _Bheir_, large _Babool_, _Furas_, Ranunculus
sceleratus: _Jhow_ and grass jungle are the prevailing features.  Current
much the same, only occasionally sluggish.  Pelicans, black-headed
adjutants, (Ardea capita,) wild geese, ducks very numerous in the jheels
formed by alteration in the course of the river; the country is more
cultivated, but as dreary looking as imaginable.  Phoenix becoming more
frequent and finer, P. acaulis? likewise occurs occasionally, rather
young _Khujoors_.  We passed Khyrpore about 3 P.M., it seems a straggling
place, stretching along the bank of the Sutledge; there are a great many
_Khujoor_ trees about it, and indeed about all the villages near it.  A
little below this large tract, the banks were covered with a thick
_Sofaida_ shrubby jungle, which looked at a distance like dwarf Sissoo.
The country is much improved, and there is a great deal of cultivation,
especially on the left bank.

_20th_.--Continued--the river is very winding, and its banks present the
same features: the immediate ones being covered with short _Jhow_ or
grass, or both intermixed, the extreme ones well wooded, and well
peopled.  _Khujoor_ very common.  Yesterday near Khanpore, caught a
glimpse of the descent, and to-day again the ground appears uneven, and
almost entirely barren.  It must be within a mile of the Sutledge.  The
left bank continues well cultivated.  In some of the fields I noticed
Medicago vera, Anagallis, Fumaria, Chenopodium cnicoideus, Prenanthoid,
the _Furas_, larger _Babool_, and Calotropis Hamiltonii continue.
Radishes very common, as also _Teera Meera_.

_21st_.--Halted about 8 coss from Bahawulpore.  The Khan's son, a boy of
8 years, came to see Mr. Macnaghten, and saluted him with "good night,"
he was attended by about twelve indifferent pony _suwars_, or horsemen.
The river is very tortuous, both banks a good deal cultivated; there
appear to be a good many canals, which have high banks owing to the
excavated soil being piled up: they are 8 or 10 feet deep, and about 20
feet wide, at this season they are nearly dry, becoming filled during the
rains.  The same plants continue--_Furas_, _Jhow_, Chenopodia 2, Reseda,
Linaria, Malva, Boraginea, Lactucoidea.  The wheat throughout these
countries is sown broadcast.  Irrigation is effected by means of small
ditches, and squares formed in the fields--each partition being banked
in, so as to prevent communication; when one is filled, the water is
allowed to pass off into its neighbour, and so on.  Irrigation is
entirely effected by Persian wheels; the cattle are hoodwinked in order
to keep them quiet: besides from not seeing, they are led to imagine that
the driver is always at his post, which is immediately behind the oxen
and on the curved flat timber which puts the whole apparatus in motion.
Saw a man cross the river by means of a _mushuk_ or inflated skin.  The
very common bushy plant with thorns and ligulate leaves which commences
to appear about Hazaribagh and continues in abundance throughout the
sandy north-west, is, judging from its fruit, which is a moniliform
legume--a Papilionacea; the fruit are borne by the short spine-terminated
branches: the stalk of the pod is surrounded for the most part by a
cupuliform membranous calyx.  I have only seen however withered
specimens.  Reached Bahawul ghat at 1 P.M.  The Khan visited Mr.
Macnaghten in the afternoon, his visit was preceded by one from his
Hindoo minister, and another man, Imaam Shah, who is a very fat ruffianly-
looking fellow.  The Khan was attended by numerous _suwarries_; he is a
portly looking, middle-aged man.

_22nd_.--We returned the visit to-day, the Khan having provided us with
one horse and two bullock _rhuts_: we traversed the sandy bank of the
river for about a mile before we reached the town, the suburbs of which
are extensive, but very straggling, and thinly peopled.  The inner town
seemed to be of some extent, the streets narrow, the houses very poor,
and almost entirely of mud; there were a number of shops, and the streets
were lined with men and a few old women.  There is very little
distinction in appearance between the Khan's residence and any other
portion of the town, and I did not see a defence of any kind.  The Khan
received us on some irregular terraces; near his house, the street
leading to the private entrance was lined with his troops, as well as
that leading to the terrace, and this was surrounded with his adherents,
variously and well-dressed.  The troops, for such appeared, were decent,
and those forming one side were dressed in white, in imitation of our
Sepoys, and the other side were in red and blue, _more proprio_ I
imagine: they were armed with muskets; the red ones for the most part
having muskets of native workmanship.  A royal salute was fired when the
meeting took place, which was on the terrace, and as we proceeded up the
street, a band made a rude and noisy attempt at 'God save the King.'
Having had a private consultation, Mr. Macnaghten withdrew with similar
honours, presenting arms, etc.  The presents were a handsome native
rifle, with a flint lock, and the fabrics of the city, some of which
called Kharse, were very creditable.

There are a good many trees about the place, indeed these form the chief
mark when seen from the ghat: the principal are mangoes, _Khujoors_,
Moringas, oranges.  The natives are rather a fine race, but dirty: some
of the women wore the _Patani_ veils, or hoods, with network over the
eyes.

Continued down the river; though much delayed by strong south-east winds.
The vegetation, etc. continue the same, Potentilla sp. in flower, Phascum
very common.

_23rd_.--Nothing new has occurred: the current is stronger than above
Bahawulpore: the channel continues very winding, and sandbanks very
frequent.  _Furas_, Salvadora, _Phulahi_ very common.  The boats
accidentally separated, and we went without dinner in consequence: came
into the Pungnud.  The mouths of the Chenab seem to be two, both
apparently of no great size, yet the Pungnud is a noble river, and
although much subdivided by sand banks, is a striking stream, the waters
are very muddy, and when agitated by a strong wind become almost reddish.
The jungle continues much the same: the Sissoid jungle again occurred to-
day, the natives call it _Sofaida_; it has a very curious habit, and is
gemmiferous, the gemmae abounding in gum.  Quail, black-grey partridge,
hares, continue; a goat-sucker (Caprimulgus,) was seen.

_24th_.--The boats joined early this morning: we were delayed the whole
day by strong north-east winds; the whole country was obscured by the
dust.

_26th_.--The wind abated towards evening, and occurred again in gusts
during the night.  This morning we came in sight of the southerly portion
of the Soliman range, by which name however, these mountains do not
appear to be known hereabouts; their distance must be forty miles at
least, yet they appear to be of considerable height: the range runs north
and south nearly.  Wheat is here sown in rows.  _Khujoor_, large
_Babool_, Fagonia, continue, _Jhow_ very common.  Towards evening we came
to a subdivision of the stream following the smaller one in which the
current was very strong; in some places, apparently six knots an hour.  We
came to for the evening at a village on the limits of the Bahawul
territory.

_27th_.--We came on the Indus early in the morning and stopped opposite
Mittunkote until 2 P.M., awaiting the arrival of Mr. Mackeson.  The
mouths of the Attock river are scarcely more striking than those of the
Chenab; neither is the combined river immediately opposite Mittunkote of
any great size: certainly the stream we followed was not more than 800 or
900 yards wide, the extreme banks are at a considerable distance; and
half a mile below Mittunkote the surface of the water must be one and a
half to two miles in breadth; the river is much subdivided by banks, and
shallows are frequent, yet some of the reaches are of great extent.

The banks are low and rather bluff, the vegetation continues the same,
but _Jhow_ is far the most common plant.  _Bheir_, _Babool_, and the
_Seerkee_ Saccharum continue; the cultivation is the same; Calotropis
Hamiltonii.  Mittunkote appears, from a distance of two coss, a place of
some size, with a somewhat conspicuous dome.  Immediately behind it are
the Soliman Hills, of no great altitude; and, except at the bases, which
are covered with black patches of forest, they appear uniformly brown,
otherwise there is nothing to vary the monotony of the scene, scarcely
any trees being visible.  On stopping for breakfast, a general scene of
embracing among the dhandies or boatmen and their friends occurred; women
were also embraced in the usual way, but with apparently less tenderness
or warmth than the men.  The boats tracking up, have masts, but the goon
or rope is seized with both hands, a plan far less advantageous than that
adopted on the Ganges and Bramahpootra, where the principal tracking is
exercised by a bamboo placed over the shoulder, farthest from the goon.

_28th_.--No change worth noticing.  The current continues rapid.  The
hills visible, running parallel to the river, and ending very gradually.
Typha is very common, and in some places Arundo.

_29th_.--We remain in sight of, and generally continuing in the same
direction as the hills, which run out very gradually indeed.  Scarcely a
tree is to be seen, and very few villages.  The country continues to have
some vegetation.  The _Sofaida_ is now found in flower, it is the _Ban_
of the natives of these parts; the former name indicates in Persian, a
tree, said to be wild Poplar, with which this has an obvious affinity.
Saccharum _Seerkee_ very common, growing in tufts and covering extensive
tracts.  Scarcely any cultivation is to be seen along the river, and
altogether a very small proportion is rendered available.  River very
much subdivided: towards evening the sky is obscured to leeward by the
smoke arising from burning jungle.  Waterfowl are very common along the
Indus; especially wild geese, which frequent open streams, whereas ducks,
etc. haunt places which only communicate with the main streams during
floods: myriads of _Bogulas_, (the general name for herons,) were seen
yesterday in a compact body.  The Soliman mountains are by no means
rugged, and this only in one or two places, where they become peaked.  In
Mr. Elphinstone's account of a Journey to Cabul, the limestone said to be
found in the desert contains shells; it would be most interesting to
compare this with the limestone of Churra more especially.  Mr. E. also
mentions a wild rue as forming part of the very scanty vegetation of the
desert; the chief plants being _Kureel_, which is a Capparis; Phoke ----
and _Bheir_.  Mr. E. also says that the material of which the tope of
Manikyalah is built, resembles petrified vegetable matter, an observation
to be kept in view.  The mottled kingfisher occurs throughout, but is
commoner in southern latitudes of India.

Alligators abounded to-day, and it was curious to see them basking in the
sun with flocks of herons so close, that at a little distance they
appeared to be perching on the backs of the alligators, or rather
crocodiles.  Again saw a man swim the Indus by means of a _mushuk_ or
inflated skin: he swam very rapidly, and with great ease; half his body
nearly being out of the water; he reclined on the skin and kept the
aperture by which it is inflated in his mouth, carrying his clothes on
his head.  Passed Chuck about 4.5 P.M.  The country appears populous
hereabouts.

_30th_.--We have seen a good many boats today employed in carrying grain
to the camp; the smaller ones are not unlike Bengal boats, having a high
stern; all on the Indus however have square bows and flat bottoms.

The _Jhow_ has increased in size in some places as has _Sofaida_, which
is occasionally a moderate tree, and it is now more advanced in
flowering: the temperature having visibly increased.  The river puts on
the same features and is much subdivided; the channels by which we have
come, are not above 400 to 500 yards in breadth, yet there is often seen
to be a waste of low sand banks stretching to a great extent, and the
extreme banks are very remote, so as generally not to be visible.

_31st_.--Arrived at Uzeeypore about 9 A.M.  Here we found horses and
camels for our conveyance to Shikarpore.  Uzeeypore appears to be a well
frequented passage of the river, although we did not see any ferry boats.
Bukkur is visible from it, apparently occupying a hill almost to the
extreme right of a low range running south-west; it is seven or eight
coss distant.  We left for Shikarpore about 2.5 P.M. and reached about 7
P.M.: the distance is said to be twenty-four miles; the road is generally
very sandy, although the sand is not very deep; the substratum being
solid.  We passed some cultivation and a few villages, at one of which
(Khye) there is a neat sort of fortification; here we changed horses.  The
jungle throughout consisted of Furas, Tamarisk, Salvadora, _Phulahi_
parva, the prickly Leguminosa, with the habit of Fagonia, Calotropis
Hamiltonii, Saccharum.

Shikarpore is not visible until one reaches the clearing around the town;
in the twilight it appears to be a very large place.

_February 2nd_.--We do not proceed to Larkhanu, as daily news from
Hyderabad is expected.  I see nothing likely to interest me about this
place; there is absolutely not a flower to be got any where.  The jungles
consist of _Jhow_, small _Furas_, _Rairoo_, a small arbusculoid Mimosa,
_Kureel_, and Ukko, Calotropis Hamiltonii; _Bheirs_ shrubby; one of the
most abundant plants is the _Joussa_ or prickly Leguminosa, with the
habit of Fagonia; some of the saline loving Compositae, No. 51, frutex 2-
3 pedalis, foliis carnosis lanceolato-spathulatis, sessilibus.  Corymbis
et Cymi axillaribus et terminalibus pauci capitat.  Floscules
inconspicuis, also occurs.  Near the Shah's tents there is a grove of
_Phulahi_, all more or less demolished, and a good many _Khujoors_.  Hares
and grey partridges appear common.  The changes of temperature are very
great; in the mornings and evenings it is cold; in the afternoon the
thermometer reaches as high as 82 degrees.

_9th_.--Shikarpore is getting hotter every day: thermometer ranges from
40 degrees to 85 degrees.

_15th_.--The heat continued to increase until the 12th; the range of
thermometer being from 50 degrees to 95 degrees; the evenings gradually
became hotter, and the night although cool, had the peculiar thrilling
coolness of tropical nights.

On the 12th, the barometer commenced falling, and has since continued to
do so.  The visible signs of rain have been confined to cloudy mornings;
the fall of the mercury is perhaps connected with the occasional strong
northerly winds, which at times, as last night, blow nearly half gales.
The range of thermometer is now from 55 degrees to 85 degrees.  The
change was sudden on the 9th or 10th; the nights were cold, thermometer
at 5 A.M. 34 degrees 36'; and the days were only moderately warm.  The
weather now is pleasant.  Shikarpore is disagreeable _inter alia_ from
its dust, every thing becoming covered with it.

The suburbs of the city are well wooded, and all such portions are well
provided with gardens.  The _Khujoor_ is the most common tree, the
Moringa, mango, _Jamun_, _Bheir_, _Neem_, Cassia fistula, Sissoo,
_Peepul_, _Furas_, _Phulahi_, another Mimosa and Agati, occur; oranges in
gardens, and a Pomaceous tree from Cashmere, which appears to thrive very
well.  The cultivation consists chiefly of wheat, _Mahta_, mustard,
radishes, _Soonf_, coriander, beet, _Bagree_.

In these fields Phascum, Plantago, Ispaghula, Singee, Chenopodiaceae 1-2,
Salsola lanata, and Boehmeria, may be found; Composita salinaria, stocks
and wall-flowers in the gardens.

The vegetation elsewhere is very scanty; consisting of _Jhow_, _Bheir_,
_Furas_, _Ukko_, _Joussa_, Andropogon _Seerkee_, _Rairoo_, _Kureel_, a
low bush called ----, and a Lycium? Boehmeria albida.

The town is miserably defended: the streets are very irregular and very
narrow: the houses all of mud, of the usual Scindian form, and completely
irregular.  The bazaars or arcades, are mere ordinary streets, covered in
with timbers, over which tattered mats are placed: in these are situated
the Hindoo shops, and in some places darkness is completely visible.
These Hindoos have a peculiar elongated Jewish aspect, and are reported
to be very wealthy.  Grain and cloth are the principal articles in which
they deal, and they say the streets are covered in order that the
purchaser may buy with his eyes half shut.  The city is a large rambling
place, and each house deposits its own filth before it.  The inhabitants,
especially the Hindoo portion, have a peculiar complexion, and by no
means a healthy one.  No one seems to have deserted the town on account
of our approach, neither has fear hitherto prevented them from bringing
their merchandise into camp.

The weather has continued cool: yesterday we had a good deal of rain; to-
day it is very cloudy.  The range of the thermometers from 46 degrees and
48 degrees to 82 degrees outside.

Artificers are not uncommon, as carpenters and blacksmiths, but their
tools are miserable: and there is no such thing as a large saw to be
seen.  Wages are high, and from the slowness with which they work, it is
ruinous to employ them.

Left Shikarpore on the 21st and marched to Jargon, 13.5 miles, one of the
usual fortified villages of _kucha_ or unburnt brick.  Houses surrounded
also with _Jhow_ fences.  The jungle and country precisely the same as
that round Shikarpore, road at first bad, but subsequently good enough:
water is to be had very good: at no great depth.

_22nd_.--To Janidaira, 11.5 miles: road excellent throughout.  Country
less covered with jungle: features mostly the same: a curious looking
plant occurred plentifully, but to a limited extent near Jargon and
subsequently, as the country became more sandy, we had abundance of
Salicornia, of which camels are excessively fond, otherwise _Jhow_,
_Furas_, very common, _Rairoo_, _Kureel_, _Ukko_ throughout; near Jargon,
Elrua very common, Chenopodium cymbifolium throughout.

The soil at first is very fine, finely pulverized, brownish as we
proceeded onwards, becoming more and more sandy.  Hills of some height,
apparently very distant, are seen ahead due north, and to the west.  We
passed one village to the left, two canals of small size, and some
_Bagree_ cultivation.  A small ridge with a hillock occurred after
passing the village, otherwise all was flat.  And about this the jungle
was thin, entirely of patches _Kureel_, _Rairoo_, and _Furas_, Peepul.

We had a violent north wind yesterday evening with some rain.

_23rd_.--To Rogan, distance 11 to 12 miles: country generally flat,
presenting here and there sandy undulations, generally bare of
vegetation.  Salvadora, _Jhow_, _Furas_, _Kureel_, _Rairoo_, continue;
_Furas_ and _Rairoo_ most common; a new Chenopodium and a Salsola, or a
plant of the same genus as that met with yesterday, swarming in some
places, both species were common in some parts, in others one of the two
only occurred.  Road generally excellent, level and unbroken.  Two small
ghurrees or forts occurred, with a large patch of cotton, and still
larger of _Bagree_: a small Sedoid-looking plant with yellow flowers, and
one or two other (to me) novelties occurred: Heliotropium, Fagonia,
_Joussa_, _Bheir_.  In those parts in which loose sand had become
accumulated, it not only formed banks, but every bush was submerged in
it.  The fresh sand must be derived from decomposition of the hard level
plain by the action of the air: yet there should be a regular gradation
in size of the waves; those nearest the windward side of the desert ought
to be the smallest.  Rock pigeon of Loodianah seen.

There are two ghurrees or forts at the halting place, both small; the
water is tolerable.  The chief trees are Salvadora and _Rairoo_.

_24th and 25th_.--Left in the evening and marched all night through
the desert, which commences within two miles of Rogan, and towards which
place vegetation gradually becomes more scarce until it disappears
entirely.  This sandy waste is upwards of twenty miles in extent: in the
direction we traversed it, NW. or NNW., it is almost totally deprived of
vegetation; one or two plants, such as Salsoloid, being alone observable
near its borders.  The surface is generally quite flat, in some places
cut up by beds of small streams: the surface is firm, and bears marks of
inundation: tracks of camels, etc. being indented.  We reached Bushore at
5.5 A.M.; the camels performed twenty-six miles in ten hours.  We halted
for four hours in the centre of the desert and tried to sleep but the
cold was too great, striking up as it were from the ground.  The camels
marched through without halting, and we suffered only one loss amongst
them next day.  The occurrence of this peculiar desert is unaccountable,
especially its almost absolute privation of vegetation; for many other
places, equally dry, have their peculiar plants, such as Salsola,
Chenopodium, _Furas_, _Rairo_, _Ukkoo_, _Kureel_.

_25th_.--Bushore is a miserable place, consisting of the usual mud houses
and defences: the adjacent nullah does not invite attention; it is
however the only seat of wells, which, as in all this country since
leaving Rogan, are of small diameter, from thirty to forty feet deep, and
contain very little water, which also is rather brackish and well
impregnated with sand.  The surrounding country is so barren that it may
be called a desert, while the desert itself may be called the desert of
deserts.  I should mention that this ceases first to the west, in which
direction shrubs encroach on it.  _Phulahi_, Evolvulus acanthoides,
Tribulus, _Kureel_, etc. are found about Bushore, but the prevailing
plant is Chenopodium cymbifolium.

_26th_.--Leaving Bushore, we proceeded to Joke, which we reached late, it
being nineteen miles: we lost the road however, which is in a direct line
only sixteen miles.  We soon came on a nullah, or canal, which we
followed to Meerpore, a rather large double village, with a nice grove of
_Furas_, situated on the dry river Naree, which is as contemptible in
size as deficient in water, this is only procurable by digging wells of
thirty feet deep, and even then in small quantity.  Before reaching it,
we passed several villages, mostly deserted and ruined.

The country is frightfully bare of wood; the chief plant is Chenopodium
cymbifolium, and along the canal lemon grass, _Kureel_, _Rairoo_,
_Joussa_, _Ukko_, _Bheir_, etc.; near Meerpore a Centaurea, and Evolvulus
acanthaceus.  But along the nullah some wood may be found, stunted though
it be, it is chiefly _Rairoo_.  We left Meerpore and proceeded about one
and a half mile from Joke, following the nullah until we came on a canal
in which, from a bund having been thrown across, there was a puddle or
two of water.  Here we halted.  Much remains of cultivation is presented
about this, chiefly _Bagree_, which is perennial.  Durand tells me that
the sprouts of the second year are poisonous to cattle, i.e. horses; but
this report may have been given out purposely by the natives.  Along the
river, _Jhow_ and _Furas_ occur, in the naked plains, Chenopodium
cymbifolium, _Rairoo_, and a few _Kureel_, but they are so naked as to
afford little fodder for the camels: there is a little cultivation of
mustard, and _Taira meera_.  The hills are about twenty miles off, and
appear about 4,000 feet high, they are precipitous, but the outline is
not rugged: they appear perfectly barren.  Those to the north which run
nearly east and west are more distant.  No new birds were seen; rock
pigeons occur.  The soil would be rich if water were abundant: in the
_Bagree_ fields it is of a cloddy kind.

Reseda, Euphorbia, Salsola lanata, Chenopodium cymbifolium, Evolvulus,
Panicum, and Andropogon occur here.  _Jowaree_ sells at twelve seers a
rupee, and _Khurbee_ is very dear.  A large plain occurs here covered
with Gramen Panicum, which is in tufts, and has the appearance of being
cultivated.

_27th_.--Halted at our camp near Joke.  The Naree runs one and a half
mile to the westward: its bed is fifty yards wide and about ten feet
deep; the banks are well clothed with _Furas_.  There is a good deal of
_Bagree_ cultivation.

_28th_.--To _Oostadkote_, nine and a half miles.  The road is not a made
one for the latter one-third.  Crossed the Naree about two miles from our
encampment: the country appeared the same.  On arriving near our halting
place, green wheat fields, intermixed with much fresh Chenopodium, Gramen
Panicum, Reseda were most abundant, Chloroideum, Sinapis, Raphanus
cultivated with _Taira meera_, two Cruciferous plants common, Salsola
lanata also occurs.  Water abundant in a channel of fifteen yards wide
and three feet deep, clear and tasteless.  _Furas_ the most common shrub.
No grass occurs but the remains of Panicum.  Wheat is here sown in
drills, in some places the crop is promising.  The country is evidently
occasionally overflowed, witness the indurated surface and the fissures,
which away from the road, renders it bad for camels, being full of holes.

There are several villages visible round our camp, all of the usual
miserable description, and there is a good deal of _Bagree_ cultivation.
The water does not extend more than a mile; it is eight feet deep, and
about twenty yards wide towards the head, where the bund is thrown
across.

_March 1st_.--To Bagh nine and a half miles.  The country is quite
similar: the chief plants continue to be Chenopodium cymbifolium,
_Kureel_, a _Rairoo_, _Ukko_, _Joussa_, and Salsola robusta, but occur in
no great plenty, they and all the face of the country exhibit marks of
inundation.  Bagh is visible a long way off from its being ornamented
with a gamboge, or ochre-wash, otherwise its aspect is poor and muddy.  We
came on the Naree about three miles from the town, and as it has been
bunded, it is full of clearish blue water, to a good depth.  We encamped
about one and a half mile on the south side of the town.  About the head
of the bund there is a good deal of wheat cultivation, and some mustard.
In these _khets_ Reseda is very abundant, Heliotrope is also common; I
picked up a Matthiola and a Pommereulla.  The banks of the Naree are
clothed with small _Furas_, which in these parts are always encrusted
with saline matter, or, as it would seem, pure salt.  Rock pigeons both
sorts, Loodianah rats, etc.

Bagh is celebrated for gunpowder; it is a largish, straggling, but poor
place, though thickly tenanted.  Its latitude is 29 degrees 1' 20", and
is placed thirty miles too far south in Tassin's last map.  Sugar-candy
from Bussorah and cloth, are the principal articles sold.

_4th_.--Marched sixteen miles to Mysoor: direction at first NNW. and
latterly west, close to the Brahorck hills.  Water is plentiful in bunds
and river, but the country is very very bare, Salicornia robusta
uncommon, Plantago canescens, Poa, Cynodon, _Ukko_ is very common,
otherwise _Kureel_ is the predominant plant.  A good deal of wheat
cultivation, every thing depends on water: the wheat along watercourses
is luxuriant, but where water is less plentiful, stunted: soil the same,
a tenacious sandy clay when wet: fields very free from weeds.  Reseda
very common, but very small, Heliotropium ditto, Crucifera hispida ditto.
Green wheat a maund for a rupee.  The road or rather country, is
intersected here and there by ravines.

_5th_.--Halted.  The nearest range of hills are six miles off, they have
a very peculiar irregular brown appearance.  The higher ones also have a
similar appearance; these appear quite precipitous, and have in some
parts a curious crenated outline.  The chief vegetation about this place
is _Kureel_, especially along the river and towards the bund, which last
is well filled with water.  _Kureel_, _Furas_, _Ukko_, very common,
Cynodon, Prenanthoid, Poa minima, _Joussa_, Fagonia, Saccharum, Nerioid.
In the water Scirpus, Cyperaceus, Charae two species, Potomogeton two
species, Valisnaria, Typha.  On banks, Plantago cana, a curious
_Sileneacea_, a splendid Orobanche, and a Brassicacea.

The birds continue the same: there is abundance of Fulica, swarms of
waterfowl, herons, plovers, etc.; starlings re-appear.

Some wheat fields well irrigated; most luxuriant _Khujoors_, radishes.

_6th_.--Marched to Nowshera, sixteen miles: five first miles across a
plain scantily furnished with _Kureel_.  Sturt tells me the country looks
quite a desert to the eastward from one of the hills.  Thence we came on
the hills, through which and the dividing valleys we proceeded for two
miles, thence emerging into a narrow valley in which Nowshera is
situated, drained by the river of Mysoor, which is an insignificant
running stream.

The hills are very curious, totally bare of vegetation, not more than two
or three stunted Chenopodium cymbifolium being seen on or about them.
They do not exceed 300 feet in height; their composition is various; they
are much worn by rain, and the outline although generally sharp, is often
rounded.  They present great variety, but chiefly are of a soft clayish
looking substance, distinctly enough stratified, the uppermost strata
being indurated and often quite smooth, and of a sub-ochreous appearance.
The outer ridges on each side of the range slope gradually outwards, and
the surface in these slopes is smooth.  Inside, or towards the inner part
of the range, they are generally precipitous, but beyond the uppermost
strata, the exposed face is not indurated, hence this can scarcely arise
from exposure to the weather.  In these places they look much like
sandstone, the fragments at the base of the cliffs are clayey, mixed with
brown angular masses, occasionally shingle, and indeed, a low ridge near
the north side of the range is chiefly of shingle.  The direction is
NNE., the angle of inclination of the slopes say 30 degrees.  The hills
are highest towards the centre, and here some of the strata are curved.

The plain between this and the main range is much broken by ravines
caused by rain; it is thinly covered with _Kureel_, Salsola robusta,
Chenopodium, etc.  The vegetation along the river is the same as at
Mysoor.  Durand finds nummulites, but thinks them brought down by the
river.  The strata or rather debris of slips often intersected by nearly
erect projecting lines of a fibrous dyke.  There is some wheat
cultivation in the fields, a new Plantago, a Ruta, Silenacea, a curious
Composita, two Boragineae, Phalaris, Phleum, Avena, two or three
Crucifera, Trigonella, and Melilotus are to be found.  The vegetation
elsewhere is much the same, _Rairoo_, _Kureel_, _Ukko_, Chenopodium,
Lycium albidum re-occurs.

_7th_.--Proceeded to Dadur, a distance of seven and a half miles, nearly
north.  The country is a good deal cut up by water: within two and a half
miles of Dadur we crossed the Naree, a running stream, with small
boulders, and high clayey banks.  The country improves towards Dadur,
topes becoming more frequent.  Salsola lanata abundant: a good deal of
cultivation occurs along the river.

_10th_.--Dadur is a good sized, and more orderly looking place than Bagh,
and is ornamented with well wooded gardens, among which the _Khujoor_
holds a conspicuous place.  An elegant and large _Bheir_ and a Mimosa,
are two other trees of the place; it is situated on the left bank of the
Bolan river.  The bed of this river until the Levee bund was cut, had
been dry, but there is now plenty of water in it.  It is in some places
much choked by bulrushes, etc., it is eighty yards broad, and is shingly.
Dadur stands nearly on the end of a good sized plain, surrounded on all
sides by hills, of which those traversed to Nowshera, run NNE. and are
lowest.  The main range is four or five miles off.  The greater part of
this plain is uncultivated and covered with _Rairoo_, _Kureel_, _Joussa_,
Sal. lanata, and Chenopodium; but along the sides of the river, as well
as near that crossed en route to this place from Nowshera, there is a
highly luxuriant cultivation of wheat, bearded and beardless, and barley.
In some places near the town, are rich gardens of _sonff_, coriander,
_Mola_, cress, onions, carrots, beet, among which a few poppies and
Cannabis occur.  These, as well as the fields, are protected with loose
_Bheir_ fences.  There are a few small villages around, all of the same
kucha or temporary construction, together with some remains of cotton,
which in these parts is perennial.

There are no wild trees to be found, excepting perhaps an elegant species
of willow.  The vegetation of the fields is highly interesting,
consisting of many European forms, similar to those at Nowshera--Avena,
Phleum, Polygonium, Zanthoxyloid, Erodium! Anagallis in abundance,
Plantago, _Pecagee_, Cynodon two species, Andropogon, Melilotus,
Medicago, Boraginea, Malva, Tetragonolotus, Astragaloides, Sperguloides,
Cruciferae.

In the bed of the river Nerium, Paederioides, Crotalaria, etc. of which
the former is common every where: Fagonia, Viola found in the bed of the
river crossed en route hither, a very curious plant.  Antirrhenoid was
brought from the hills by Capt. Sanders, singular in the inequality of
the calyx and the great development of the posticous sepal.

Altogether this spot is curious in regard to vegetation, for the mean
annual temperature must be high, and the winter temperature by no means
low enough to account for the appearance presented.

The only novel birds are a jackdaw, with the voice and manners of the red-
billed Himalayan species, and which I have only seen at a distance, and a
different sort of Pterocles.

_11th_.--Proceeded to Drubbee, eight miles from Dadur, and about three
within the range of hills, the plain towards which is rather elevated,
and generally covered with boulders and shingle.  The vegetation of this
shingly plain is much the same, Chenopodium, _Ukko_, Salsola, _Kureel_,
_Rairoo_; the most common shrubby plant, however, is an elegant Mimosa,
much like the _Babool_, with white thorns; Nerium oleander is also very
common along cuts.

In some wheat fields I procured Imperata, a new Plantago, and a curious
Gnaphalium.  The entrance to the pass is gradual; the hills almost
entirely bare.  I noticed _Rairoo_, Salvadora, _Kureel_.  The most novel
plant is a curious, erect, bushy, thorny Convolvulus, which is one of the
most common plants farther in.  The pass to Drubbee is wide, say 300
yards; the only obstacle exists in the shingle, which renders the road
heavy.  No abutments are present, jutting out from the hills, the stream
is considerable but easily fordable, and abounds with fish, the Mahaseer,
and two or three species of Gonorhynchus.  The hills about Drubbee are
not more than 500 feet high.  They are generally of a coarse breccia, the
component parts principally limestone; abundance of nummulites.  The
chief vegetation of the pass is one or two Andropogoneous grasses, and
Apocynum nerioides.  There is absolutely no fodder for camels, which
however, take readily to grass.  Towards the mouth of the pass, Paederia
involucrata, Villarsia, Lycioid, Stenophyllum and _Ukko_ are common, but
they are rare inside, although the last continues some distance up the
hills and attains a large size, becoming quite arboreous.  A Crucifera, a
rhubarby sorrel, a Goodyera, and one or two grasses, were the only
additional novelties met with.

_12th_.--Marched on eight miles, after five of which we turned to the
right, and the pass became and continued narrow, until we reached our
halting place, which is something like what we may suppose to be the
remains of a mountain, still a good deal elevated above the bed of river.
The mountains continued the same in the gorge, until we came to limestone
cliffs, which afforded a peculiar vegetation, Linaria retephioides,
Linaria alia pusilla foliis 5-gonis cordatis, floribus luteis minutis
pubescens, specimen lost, one or two Rubiaceae, a Salvia, several very
interesting grasses, among which is a Stipa, a Composita, Santanoides, a
curious Capparidea, Cassia, etc. etc.

The hills have increased in height, in many places they were extremely
picturesque, split and divided in every direction.  The valley running
off to south on our entrance into the gorge: river diminished somewhat in
size.  Jheely spots, with very deep water common, surrounded with thick
Andropogon, Typha and Scirpus jungle.  Few fish were seen and none taken.
Can the Mahaseer not reach this?  Gonorhynchus continue, but they never
take a fly; Ophiocephalus, _Sowlee_; turtle caught by bearers, Silurus.
No less than twenty-three plants novel to me were gathered on the
limestone, which looks as bare as the breccia; all its plants grew in
small tufts or singly, and all adhered firmly to the rock.  The only tree
which continues is _Phulahi_ or _Rairoo_; Convolvulus spinosus very
common, a very curious Chenopodioid, Reseda with Cruciferous qualities.

_13th_.--Proceeded to Gurmab, eight and a half miles.  Country continues
the same.  The defile after crossing some rather broad water three feet
deep, opened out into a rather large valley, near the south end of which
Gurmab is situated, and it is _ornamented_ with a good many _Rairoo_
trees, of indifferent size and appearance.  No change whatever in the
vegetation; Salsola prima occurs sparingly.

_14th_.--Halted at Gurmab.  The hills close to our encampment are of
limestone, which is in many places very angular.  Oolite found by Durand
in a low range, standing by itself in the valley, it generally bears a
vast quantity of nummulites and madrepores.  A flat discoid organized
remain occurs in abundance, and probably belongs to the same group.
_Ukko_, _Rairoo_, _Kureel_ rare, Convolvulus spinosus, Frankenioides,
Stipaceum gramen, Euphorbia, Polygonum rheoides, Salvadora, may be found.
Along the water Andropogonoides 2, Typha, Arundo, Juncus, Scirpus
juncinus in abundance.  In the water, a new Naias, and Conferveae.  In a
ravine near our camp, I found a Cynoglossum and a curious Periploceous
plant, in habit approaching to certain Aphyllous, true Asclepiads.

A few stunted dates are visible near Gurmab, which is three miles from
Kirtah, and towards the deep water there is a ruin of a single house.
_Rairoo_, Nerioid, and Lycium albidum are the most common ground plants.
There is only _Rairoo_ for camels, who do not thrive on harsh grasses,
although compelled by hunger to eat them.  Large flocks of Doombah sheep
and goats belonging to Khelat men were met with.  Mahaseer in abundance,
and very greedy after a red hackle of fish, Macrognathus and
Opheocephalus occur also.  Of birds the white vulture, Alauda cristata et
alia, with a notched beak, a partridge which I had not previously seen,
Motacilla alia.

_15th_.--Proceeded to Beebee Nanee, nine and a half miles up the valley
in which Gurmab is situated.  The road tolerably level and good; boulders
not however common.  The village of Kuttah, is one mile to the right,
consisting of one ruined house; near the exit from the valley a burial
ground occurs, having flags, or banners, pointing out the graves, which
are covered with heaps of stones.  The exit from the valley is by a
narrow pass through a low range of angular limestone, thence up another
narrow shingly valley or narrowish gorge, and over a small stream of
water of ordinary temperature, where we encamped: in the second valley
two spots were observed covered with graves.  Immense flocks of birds
were seen on the range to the west of the valley.  In the first valley
Paederia involucrata and Salsola prima, are the most common plants.  On
the limestone hills, Convolvulus spinosus, Frankeniacea, Plantago
villosa, and a curious Composita, subacaulis, involucro foliaceo, of
which the single specimen has been lost, a few _Bheirs_.

Encamped in a small valley or pass leading to Khelat, a marked one only a
few hundred yards wide.  To the west, the hills continue very barren.
Gurmab--this takes its name from the warmth of the water, which
apparently rises in several sedgy spots; the united waters form a small
stream abounding with Mahaseer, Barbus, etc. and falling into another
stream, again meets the main river, which runs off to the eastward from
the place where it is crossed towards Gurmab.  There is no sign of
bubbling in the springs, although the water commences to run visibly from
within a few yards.  The temperature of one did not vary from 76 degrees,
which must be about the mean temperature of the place, but the
temperature of a deep body of water after the confluence of several
springs was 82 degrees, so that some of them must hence be of
considerable temperature: the highest examined was 81 degrees.

Of three springs examined--the first of these had a temperature of 82
degrees Fahr.--the second of 77 degrees, these unite to form the
streamlet that runs towards the east--the third spring had a temperature
of 77 degrees: this is crossed on entering the valley from the south, it
runs under a limestone range, and then bends off to the south-east to
unite with the main stream.  Cyprinus fulgens and C. bimaculatus were
found in the 82 degrees spring.  From the variation in the temperature of
the three, it is obvious that neither represents the mean temperature of
the place.

_16th_.--To Abigoom, eight and a quarter miles, through a similar country
up a valley in a NNW. direction; the valley is narrowed towards the
middle, and is a plain of considerable inclination, the chief rocks
passed are limestones.  No fodder for camels, and little enough on the
road for horses; the chief vegetation consisting of Nerioides, Paederia
involucrata, and small tufts of _Kuss-kuss_ grass; Ruwash is common,
Lycium album; Salsola prima are not common, and the _Bheir_ is rare.  A
new and curious plant looking like _Kureel_ was found, male flowers with
large semi-antheriferous bearing disc.  Apocynum viminale not uncommon,
and not ruined by cattle, Prenanthoid albiflora, Echinopsides, a fine
Begonia, B. punicoides, arbuscula; Salvadora also occurred.  The inclined
valleys are very shingly and bouldery.  The mountains as barren as ever.

There is at Beebee Nanee a running streamlet, in which small Mahaseer,
Nepuroid, Gonorhynchus and Barbus may be found; also a species of Cancer.
We were encamped close to the cliffy termination of a limestone range, in
which Linaria, Trichodesma, Cynoglossum, Ruwash, Labiata, and a most
singular Telepheoid polygalous looking plant were found.  There is some
fodder along the water for horses, but for camels scarcely any: we
accordingly lose six to ten camels now daily.  There was a curious echo
from the cliff.

_17th_.--To-day we halt at Abigoom, which is at the extremity of an
inclined plain, and 2,500 feet above the sea; some of the boundary hills
are considerably higher, the valley is shingly and bouldery, covered with
the usual plants, but more scantily: Nerioid, Paederia involucrata,
Lycium albidium, Apocynum viminale.

I went to some wheat cultivation yesterday afternoon about two and a half
miles off, in a small valley to the south-east.  The wheat was fine, all
bearded, most of the Dadur plant occurred in it with some curious
novelties, Boraginea, Cynoglossum, Compositae, Cuscuta, and a new Reseda.
The Melilotus and red Anchusoid were not found, Plantago, were among the
most abundant.  A single _Furas_ tree and some _Kureel_ were seen near
the wheat.  The weather unsettled; cloudy; rain fell at night and early
this morning.  A _cafilah_ or caravan from Candahar with figs and raisins
passed us.  Rock pigeon of Loodianah and the small partridge were
observed.  There is a streamlet here.

_18th_.--Detained by bad weather, which threatened the whole of
yesterday.  The river came down during the night, flooded, and upset some
of the tents, damaging many things, but not carrying off much.  It rained
smartly almost the whole night: we moved this morning to rather higher
ground, but not so high as to preclude all danger should the river rise
again.  A dawk man arrived last night, bringing a handful of tulips which
he said came from Shal; it is a small species, foliis subtortis undulatis
caule 1-flora, flore amplo aureo subodora.

_19th_.--Advanced to Sirekhugoor, distance nineteen miles, ascent
throughout on a considerably inclined plain up the bed of a river,
shingly and bouldery; the pass is not much contracted, but a short
distance from Abigoom we parted from every thing like valleys.  The
vegetation continues much the same: _Kureel_, Salsola prima re-occurred
near Abigoom but sparingly, chief vegetation consists of clumps of
withered coarse Andropogons, Nerioides, Paederia, and Lycium, but less
common than before, while Apocynum viminale, and Convolvulus spinosus
have increased.  The bed of the streamlet is until near Sirekhugoor,
chiefly occupied by a large Arundo just past flowering, in which Typha
also occurs sparingly: within 300 feet of the halting place, a solitary
_Khujoor_, and some wheat cultivation occurs, the latter much behind that
of Abigoom.  In the fields Polygala occurred with a Galium; the most
common plant being a Sinapis found at Dadur: some _Bheir_ trees also
occur here; a few Compositae, Labiatae, and Cruciferae, similar to those
at Abigoom, are also found: the novelties were _Peganum_ which continues
throughout the pass, Hyoscyamoid, and one or two Compositae; while in
water-courses close to it the first dripping rocks occurred covered with
Adiantum and fructiferous mosses, and a curious Primuloid plant out of
flower, with a curious Clematis.

The halting place is at the head of the stream, which gushes copiously
out of a rock; the bed of the river or defile is 100 yards wide: the
mountains immediately adjoining not exceeding 1,000 feet in height, but
the second range is much higher, that to our north being plentifully
sprinkled with snow.  These mountains are barren, chiefly covered with
Convolvulus spinosus, which has a different aspect, with a Sytisoid,
handsome silvery shrub, a species of Caragana and Apocynum viminale:
about the spring and in other places there are thick patches of a very
dwarf palm, and a solitary fig tree, a Lycium album continues: the bed
occupied by tufts of coarse Andropogons and Apocynum viminale; about the
spring Adiantum, a small Boraginia, white flowered small Compositae, a
withered Hepaticum, two or three efructiferous mosses, and the Primuloid
plant.  In the stream Chara, Conferva, Peppermint, _Beccabunga_,
Convolvulus, like C. reptans, Arundo left behind nearly.  On the
mountains fragrant Labiatae, Compositae, and Umbelliferae are commencing.
The barometer stood at 25.669; thermometer 64 degrees at 11 A.M.  Many
soft rocks occurred: passed a clayey looking one, with very elevated
strata, containing veins of transverse crystals: the sides of the defile
are often precipitous, these are generally formed of conglomerate.

_20th_.--Continued up the same defile, a gradual ascent, and about two
miles from Sirekhugoor entered the pass by pre-eminence; very much
narrowed, precipitous cliffs on both sides: this continues for some time.
The road good, shingly, but not very bouldery; very winding, and
generally capable of strong defence; much cover exists from the rugged
margins of cliffs, and windings of the road.  The mountains, after four
or five miles were passed, gradually receded and became less precipitous:
at length we came to gradually rounded more distant mountains; then to a
small valley; then ascended say 100 feet, over a low rocky range, and
descended into a fine valley, surrounded by usual barren looking
mountains: high ranges to the north and south covered with snow
presenting a beautiful view--and now entered Khorassan.  We were
accompanied by several bands of a gypsyish-looking people, forming parts
of a _cafilah_.  They were accompanied with numerous goats: and camels
ornamented with trappings.

Throughout the very narrow portion of the pass the vegetation continues
the same: at Sirekhugoor a Xanthoxylon appears and continues nearly
throughout: this and an oleinous looking small tree are the only
arborescent plants: Apocynum viminale and the other plants of Sirekhugoor
continue, nor did I notice any new ones further than a Sedum, and
Tortula.  However fragrant Labiatae and Compositae increase in number,
but none are in flower.

As soon as we opened out from the pass, the vegetation almost entirely
changed; the hills assumed a rounded form, covered with low bushes, and
were much less rocky.  Umbelliferae, Labiatae, and Compositae abound,
some of them deliciously fragrant: an Astragaloid spinosus very common, a
shrubby Cerasus, Thalictrum, Hypoxis, and small Cruciferae abundant.  The
chief vegetation consists of grasses in low round tufts; Anemone, Tulipa,
etc. all small.  After crossing a low range we came into the valley,
which is almost entirely covered with an Artemisioid odoriferous plant;
no verdure was visible, even on the snowy ranges.  We encamped close
under a ridge about two and a half miles to the north of the summit of
the pass.

_21st_.--Halted: there being some water collected in attempts to form a
nullah from the last rain, it is quite brownish and opaque, but deposits
no sediment, and makes good tea, although disagreeable to drink in any
other form.  I walked out in the afternoon into a valley to the west,
close to our encampment, and thence ascended a hill 600 feet high at
least.

This valley like the one in which we are encamped is covered entirely by
an Artemisioid, a very fragrant plant, each shrub of which is distinct;
mixed with it are tulips, several small Cruciferae, and a
Fritillarioides.

The same Artemisioid is also the chief plant on all the hills: it is
mixed, but in small quantities with Cerasus pygmaeus, Equisetoid,
Caragana, and one or two shrubby Labiatae; and also especially above,
with a curious Astragaloid looking plant.  The herbaceous plants are
numerous, consisting of very fragrant Umbelliferae, bursting into leaf;
tulips, Fritillarioides, Trichostema, Erodium, Iris, Thalictrum, Senecio,
Boragineae 2, Gilenacea, several tufted Gramineae, Berberideae,
Ranunculoides, Myosotis, Anemone cracea, Asphodeloid, Mesembryanthoids;
of mosses Tortula, Grimmia.

_22nd_.--Proceeded to Sinab, a distance of fifteen and three quarter
miles, up two valleys, no ascents.  These valleys are elevated towards
the mountains and generally depressed in the centre: in some they stretch
out a long way from the mountain to which they may be imagined to belong.
The mountains seen from a distance jutting out from perhaps the centre of
a plain, look curious.  The vegetation is generally Artemisioid, and very
fragrant: the first valley in its depressed portions was covered with a
Salsoloid looking plant, to the exclusion of Compositae, but these last
recurred in the higher parts.

With the Compositae, swarms of small Cruciferae occur; that with purple
flowers and pinnatisect leaves being the most common.  Very rugged hills
are visible to the north-east and north of our route, presenting a very
different appearance from the usual aspect: they are steep to the east,
and present inclined slopes to the west.

_Sunday_, _24th_.--Halted this day.  Little new occurs in the valley,
except a few trees out of leaf and flower, which, though trees here, yet
the species are not so elsewhere.  At this place are the heads of the
river of Pisheen, which appear to arise more artificially than naturally
from _Kahreezes_, or wells dug in a rude way, and communicating by
subterranean channels; those nearest the natural outlet of the water
being the shallowest.  The vegetation is the same; there is a little
cultivation, but nothing to indicate any descent.  The amount of
population is not great; and the hills to the west are covered with snow.
The chief vegetation is _Santonica_.  In cornfields Fumariaceae, Adonis,
Cruciferae, Pulmonaria, Arenaria, Hordei sp., Tulipa lutea, and
Hyacinthus? may be found.

The vegetation of the plains, inclusive of Santonica, consists generally
of three or four small Cruciferae, Tulipa lutea.

I went to the west towards the snow, and found in the river here an
aquatic Ranunculus, foliis omnibus immersis, floribus albis, Chara is
common; gravelly slopes commence some distance from hills, covered with
Santonica, Astragaloid spinosus, Leguminosae, a spinous Statice, Cytisus
argenteis, Composita floribunda carnosa.

The mountains are covered with masses of rock.  One tree occurs with a
Fraxinus? a Thymeleous looking shrub, Cytisus, Caragana.  The herbaceous
plants are very numerous, Compositae, Cruciferae, small Leguminosae,
Berberideae, Isopyroides, Crocus? Gentiana, Onosma and other Boragineae,
Umbelliferae, Silenaceae, especially small Arenariae; Cupressus commences
about 6,500 feet, near the Cypress an Arctium occurred, at least it has
the habit of that genus, Onosma, a curious Boraginea calyce sinubus
bidentigeris, demum plano! ampliato bilabiato! clauso, quasi hastato
lobato, nucibus compressis, 2, Sedums 4, Arenariae, a fine Gentiana,
Crocoides, Iris, Ornithogaloides or Trichonema occurred, with many
others.  The greatest elevation attained was about 1,200 feet above the
camp.  Chikor and the smaller partridge were seen.

_25th_.--Marched to Quettah, eight and a half miles up the valley over a
delightful road.  The valley is cultivated, and many villages are visible
with their orchards, consisting of mulberry trees, cherries, and
apricots, surrounded with mud walls; the houses miserable, and all trees
out of leaf: the crops under cultivation are more advanced, but depend on
irrigation, some salad-bearing plant occurred cultivated in trenches like
asparagus: the fields are clean, and sometimes well manured.  A Veronica
allied to V. agrestis, 2 or 3 Euphorbiaceae, a very well defined
Plantago, Hyacinthus, and a pretty Muscari, were among the novelties;
Juncus, Chara, Carex, occurred in some marshy spots.  I was most struck
with the occurrence of at least two species of Lucerne, or Trefoil: wells
are common, and water abundant.  The climate is delightful, temperature
49 degrees at 9 P.M. in a tent.

_26th_.--I ascended towards a snowy range to the ESE. of our camp,
crossing a cultivated portion of the valley extending to the gradual
slopes so universal between the level portion and the bases of the
mountains, and which are always covered with shingle, and occasionally
much cut up by watercourses.  Turning a ridge I ascended up a ravine,
rather wide and easy at first, but becoming gradually narrow, and at last
difficult.  On coming to its head I rambled some distance higher among
precipitous rocks, the ground generally covered with loose shingle,
giving bad footing.  The rocks too were treacherous, often giving way
under the feet.  I was still 1,000 feet from the summit, which is the
second range between our camp and the snow but which is not visible from
the camp.  From it I saw the camp, and the valley of Pisheen beyond the
termination of the Tuckatoo range.  Water boiled at 196 degrees 7',
making the height about 8,300 feet, in my (new) Woollaston instrument at
686; temperature of the air 46 degrees 5'.  Nothing occurred to repay me
for the fatigue of the excursion.  Junipers or cypress form the chief
arbusculous vegetation, but even these are scanty; they commence at 6,500
feet, and continue to the snow: Fraxinus occurred about 7,000 feet, and
another tree of which I could make nothing, it being out of flower and
leaf.  Compositae were the prevailing vegetation; but of these, only the
remains were found, which were very fragrant.  A large thorny Leguminous
shrub out of leaf, etc. looking much like a Rosa, Equisetoides, etc.; of
mosses, Weissia Templetonii, and Tortula, so that in these there is very
little variety; the debris of one Hepatica occurred.

At the foot of the mountains, the only place out of the valley where any
vegetation is to be found, Asphodelus, radicibus luteis, foliis
triangularibus, a fine plant coming into flower, Cytisus, Caragana,
Narcissus? Cruciferae, among them a small Draba, Cerasus pygmaeus,
Peganum, Salsoloid of Mumzil, Trichonema, Myosotis, Gentiana of Chiltera,
Buddlaea, Carex; indeed the vegetation is precisely the same as at
Chiltera.  The only novelty was Bardana in flower, and it proves to be a
cruciferous plant of large size.

On the stony slopes, a shrubby spinous Centauroid, foliis pinnatifidis
glaucis, Cytisus, Caragana, Asphodelus and Cheiranthus are the prevailing
plants.  No Santonica is found about here.

A new Iris occurs in abundance: near this in wettish parts of the valley
a Vicia, Muscari, Hyacinthus and others as before.  The chief cultivation
is wheat, irrigated in plots: the soil when saturated with water, forming
a clayish, adhesive, finely pulverulent mass, which cakes on drying.  A
watermill for flour, having a horizontal wheel acted on by the stream as
in Bootan occurs; the grain drops in from a pyramidal cone fixed over the
two horizontal stones, in the upper of which there is a hole.  The
apparatus is very rude.

The height attained by me on the eastern ridge being about 8,300 feet;
that of the 2nd range, will be 9,300 feet at least, and the height of the
peak or highest ridge, cannot be less than 11,000 feet.

30th.--Continue to halt.  There is a good deal of cultivation about this
place, but the crops will not be ripe before August: it is principally
wheat; munjit is also cultivated on trenched ground: the young sprouts
have a good salad-like flavour.  The Suddozye Lora runs through the
valley, about two miles from the town: it is a small stream, crowded here
and there with bulrushes, sedges, etc.  Towards its banks there is a good
deal of Santonica, but elsewhere there is no good fodder, and wherever
this is the case the camels eat Iris, and destroy themselves.  The valley
is sprinkled over with villages and orchards, and is picturesque enough.
In one spot, where water runs over the surface, it is delightfully green
and velvety, covered with short grass and trefoil, Carex, etc.

In cornfields in this direction, Berberidea ranunculiflora is very
common, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Taraxacum, Plantago.  Of animals the Jerboa,
sent to Macleod by Mr. Mackenzie, of the Artillery, several specimens
having been caught here: presenting affinities obviously with the hare,
and analogies with the Kangaroo.  Macleod has just given me, from his
namesake of the 3rd Cavalry, a tadpole-like animal, very similar to one
from the Khasiya Hills.  I fear it is a tadpole, but I keep the specimen
lest it should be a Lepidosiren.

The orchards here consist of cherry, and a pomaceous tree which also is
cultivated at Shikarpore, and on the skirts occasionally of willows,
which, were they unmutilated, would be handsome trees.  The Punjabi name
of the pomaceous one is _Sai-oo_, of the cherry or plum _Aloochah_.

Senecionoid glauca is extremely common towards the river, but is not
eaten by camels.  In the streams arising from springs a Myriophylloides
is very common; as also in some places, Ranunculus aquaticus, Beccabunga,
Mentha piperitioid, a Sicyoid, Juncus, Coniferae, and Cariceae, all
small.

Along the banks of the river, there is a good deal of a small thorny
shrub with white bark and fleshy clavato-spathulate leaves.  Themopsis is
extremely common, Crucifera glauca ditto, Peganum less so, Achilleoides
is very common.  In damp spots a Lotus (out of flower) occurs.  The
ground is covered in many places with an efflorescence of saltpetre.

_Quettah_.--The country was so disturbed throughout the greater part of
the line, and attacks on followers so frequent, that I did not go out so
much during the last few days as I otherwise would.  The only plant that
seems to a considerable extent local, is the larger Asphodel, which is
however found occasionally towards Kuchlak.  Within the last few days
vegetation has rapidly progressed; the orchards bursting into leaf, and
the whole plain, where uncultivated, is assuming a greenish tint.  I have
nothing to add respecting the botany, except having found Ceratophyllum
and two species of Chara, one a very interesting species from having the
joints furnished with semi-reflexed, very narrow leaves, it is apparently
Dioeceous, there is also a Naiad, much like that found at Dadur.  No
Lemnae occur among the vegetation: there is some sort of pea cultivated:
but the chief object is wheat, then next to it in extent is Lucerne,
which is cultivated in plots; the ground being laid out as in wheat, so
as to allow of irrigation.

The climate is variable; rain generally falls every four or five days,
before this happens it becomes hot and hazy, afterwards it is very cold
and clear: the alternations are hence very great.  From the thermometer
immersed in the fount of a spring gushing out from a _Kabreeza_, the mean
temperature would appear to be 56 degrees.  Water running in cuts close
to it, was 66 degrees.  A Tauschia occurs in abundance near the spot, and
is remarkable for illustrating the nature of the leaves of the upper
parts; it is curious that all such have a peculiar aspect.  (For other
plants of this neighbourhood, see Cat. and Icones.)

The town although the third in Khorassan, is a miserable place and has a
deserted aspect, the houses are of the most temporary construction, and
the hill is crowned by a poor half-ruined _kucha_ fort; the gates of the
town are ornamented with wild goats' horns and heads.  There is no trade,
and the place is stated to be plundered often by Caukers.
Orchards--apricots of large size, and very large cherry trees, a
pomaceous plant with the habit of poplar, occurs; the Ulmus of this place
is one of the largest sized trees; no walnuts.

_April 6th_.--Left Quettah for Kuchlak.  We traversed the sandy plain
and then ascended the gravelly slope to the pass traversed before
reaching Kuchlak, the ascent and descent were about equal, but the former
was long and gradual, the latter rapid and short.  The features of the
country are precisely the same; the pass is short, the descent to the
ravine, which in the rains is evidently a watercourse, short and steep,
not 100 feet.  The mountains forming the sides are steep; and those to
the left, bold and romantic, with here and there a small tree.  The plain
of Kuchlak is like that of Quettah, well supplied with water-cuts and one
small canal, but miserably cultivated, and with very few villages.  The
hills forming its west boundary are low, rugged, and curiously variegated
with red and white.  Tuckatoo forms part of its eastern boundary: no snow
is visible on its face towards Kuchlak: a few low rounded hillocks occur
in the centre of the valley.  The chief vegetation round the camp, is
Santonica.  We encamped close to the western boundary of the valley,
about two miles from the grand camp: total distance of the march thirteen
and a half miles.  The climate is very hot and variable; thermometer
ranged to-day from 40 degrees to 86 degrees.

The chief vegetation of the gravelly slopes is as marked as ever, and
differs entirely from that of the sandy tillable portion; it consists of
Centaurea fruticosa, C. spinosa, Anthylloides or Ononoides, Astragalus
spinosus, and Staticoides, another thorny Composita occurs, but is not
common, the herbaceous plants are Cruciferae in large numbers, as well as
Compositae; of Boragineae, a good many, some Labiatae, a large Salvia:
towards the tillable lands or where gravelly places occur among these,
Asphodelus is common with Cheiranthus; one or more fruticose Dianthi
occur in these places, and a curious shrubby Polygonum.

In dry watercourses Cytisus is common, with a host of small Cruciferae,
Boragineae, and Compositae; Papaveraceae are very common with Glaucium.

The novelties in the pass were Ficus, Lycium, some grasses, Onosma.  (See
Cat. from Nos. 411 to 430,) Marchantiaceae.

_7th_.--Proceeded to Hydozee, distance eight miles.  The country is very
barren, diversified by curious low hills, of a red, white, or yellowish
colour, divided by small bits of plain, which in some cases were a good
deal cut up by ravines.  Passed immediately on starting, the Sudoozye
Lora, here a sluggish muddy stream, knee-deep, twenty yards wide, and in
addition to a bad dry cut, we passed likewise another little stream with
a pebbly bottom and rapid current.

The crops composing the very little cultivation seen before arriving,
were backward and scanty: so were those at Hydozee.  The chief vegetation
is Santonica; here and there are gravelly spots with Centaurea fruticosa,
spinosa; Statice, Salvia, etc. re-occur.  The commonest shrub along the
watercourses is Lycium, with another Lycioid thorny plant.

The low hills were in some cases stratified, the strata in others and
perhaps in most were indistinct: most were rounded, but the outlines at a
distance were very diversified.  The novelties today were a fine
vesicular calyxed Astragalus, an Isatidea, tulip of red, orange, and
yellow, indiscriminately mixed, Papaver Rheas, Cheiranthus lapidium,
Asphodels both sorts, but the second and larger one is uncommon, Iris
_Stacyana_ very common in sandy places, Iris agrestis, most common about
Suddozye, Adonis, and Ranunculus Anemoides occurs.  Snow on north side of
Tuckatoo mountain as heavy as on Chiltera; the valley of Pisheen is here
a miserable place, narrower than that of Quettah.

_9th_.--Advanced to Hykulzyea, distance twelve miles to the town, about
eleven through a similar country with that previously noted, and until
the expanded part of the valley of Pisheen is entered the aspect is very
barren; the road extends between low rounded hills.  After crossing the
valley of Hydozyea, three streams are passed, none of any size.  Botanical
features continue the same, Santonica being still the prevailing plant.
The curious frutex pluvinatus of Sinab re-occurred, together with an
additional subspiny Astragaloid shrub and a small Ruta.  The hills are
covered with distinct small shrubs, never coalescing into patches.
Peganum continues in addition to the other plants: Glaucioides has
aqueous juice, Papaver Rheas ditto, the other smooth-leaved one has it
slightly milky.

Lycium and Tamarisk 4-fida is rather common: Hykulzyea is a far larger
place than Quettah, but miserably defended.  The houses are very
inferior, consisting of thatch and mud.  The cultivation of wheat is
rather extensive around.  Many villages are seen towards the hills to the
north and NNE.; also one or two forts, but not a tree is to be seen in
the valley which is comparatively very large and very level.  The hills
to the north have the ordinary appearance; those separating us from the
valley of Hydozyea, more especially the lower ranges, are so confused
that they look like a chopping sea, and present a red and white colour.
The rock pigeon of Loodianah is common about Hydozyea.  A few novelties
occurred in the vegetation, the chief of which being a large Salvoid
Labiata, a plant which is very common throughout Khorassan from Sinab in
gravelly spots.  Leguminosae, Boragineae, Compositae, Cruciferae, and
Labiatae, are the prevailing plants; Salsola tertia not uncommon.  Birds
as before, Alauda cristata, and Sylvioides being the most common; no red
legged crows were seen.  Rock pigeons are abundant.

_10th_.--March to Berumby, distance thirteen miles, the road very bad in
one or two places: the first difficulty being a rather deep ravine, the
second a nullah, with water knee-deep, and very high precipitous banks,
yet both these had to be passed.  Much of the baggage was not up at the
encampment until 5 P.M., although we started at 3 A.M., but the nullah
was literally choked up with camels.  No change in the vegetation has
appeared, except in the occurrence of large tracts of Tamarisk, which
tree reaches to nearly the same size as the _Jhow_.  Very little
cultivation is to be seen; the villages are tolerably numerous,
especially near the hills forming the north boundary of the valley.

_11th_.--Entered the pass which is at first wide, with a gradual ascent,
but which soon becomes narrowish, with a good though gradual and easy
ascent: the mountains are of no height, and they are not generally
precipitous: no limestone, but much clay slate occurs.  The ravine up
which we passed, or rather watercourse, was well stocked with
Xanthoxylon, some of large size as to the diameter of trunk, but very
stumpy: water is found not far from the entrance: some cultivation also
occurs and one large walled village, Dera Abdoollah Khan, lay to our
left.  Not much change in the vegetation: Xanthoxylon is almost entirely
confined to ravines, Cerasus common, and one or two other prickly shrubs,
and a Ruta, Onosma, Linarea, coming into flower, are among the novelties.

We encamped where the pass becomes narrow, and the ascent steep, and
where water is plentiful, but the stream being soon absorbed does not
appear to run down the main ravine at this season.

_12th_.--Halted, to make the road where the main ascent commences about
400 yards from our camp, and which is about 300 feet high; thence there
is a descent, and afterwards an ascent to about 600 feet above the camp,
whence the _low_ plains of Candahar are visible, as well as the range to
the north of which Candahar stands.  The road is good compared with
places elsewhere to be seen, and for common traffic on camels may be easy
enough; but for guns, it is steep and difficult.  The way it has been
made by the Engineers is admirable and rapid; three other passes without
roads, and in their rude natural state are as yet to be crossed.  The
pass here is narrow, none of the hills rise more than 1,000 feet above
it, they are easily accessible, and are composed chiefly of clay slate.
Chikores are frequent.  The cuckoo was heard to-day, as well as a
beautifully melodious titmouse, with a black crown: a fine eagle, or
falcon was seen.

The hills are as usual barren, all the shrubs are thorny, and all the
plants unsocial, never coalescing into any thing like groups.  The
Xanthoxylon is found throughout in ravines up to nearly 7,000 feet, the
utmost height of the pass.  Fraxmus of Chiltera also occurs, Cerasus
primus, in abundance, Cerasus alius, tertius, not uncommon, Berberis!
here and there in ravines, Equisetoides, Caraganoides altera; the most
common shrubs of any size are Cerasus primus.  The other shrubs consist
of the low customary Compositae, and Astragaleae, Umbelliferae are
common, among which last the Nari, a species of Assafoetida occurs?  A
beautiful Iris is common, as well as tufts of Berberideae, Asphodelus
major, and which is much eaten when cooked as a _turkaree_ by our hungry
followers, Eryngioides, Aconitoides, a Valeriana, three new small
Veronicae, small Cruciferae, Silenaceae, Boragineae, and Labiatae, form
the bulk of the herbaceous vegetation.  An Arenarioid, Muscoid,
Cruciferae, common at the head of the pass.  A large Acanthoid leaved
Umbellifera, a Rheoides papillis verrucosum, this is a true Rheum, and
when cultivated becomes the _Ruwash_ of the Affghanistans; it is very
common on the Candahar face of the pass, particularly about Chokey, where
it is in flower.

_13th_.--Proceeded to Chokey, not quite four miles.  The top of the pass
may be reached by three or four passes.  I went by one to the right,
which is easy enough, and the descent from which is much better adapted
for camels than the made road, which is very steep, with two sharp turns,
but soft.  The descent thence is gradual, down one of the ordinary
ravines, well clothed with the usual shrubs and Xanthoxylon: our camels
were a good deal fagged, but more from the halt at the pass, where some
cathartic plant abounds and weakens them very much, than fatigue.  The
view from the top of the pass is very extensive: the plains are seen to
have nearly the same level, and are divided here and there very
frequently to north-east and north, by the ordinary mountains.

_14th_.--Halt; water here is not abundant, and is obtained from driblets
and pools; around these, the surface is covered with a rich sward, which
affords fine fodder for a small number of horses.  In the swampy spots,
_Beccabunga_, Anagallis, Mentha, Carex, Glaux, apparently identical (so
far as a memory of 7 years may be trusted,) with the English plant, the
small variety of Leontodon, Medicaginoides, Phleum, and the very small
Amaranthoid, Polygonea, occur.

The hills around Chokey, and below it are rounded, those towards the pass
being more steep.  They are covered with Centaurea fruticosa, and C.
spinosa, a favourite food of camels when it has young shoots, Santonica,
Statice, all of which grow precisely as before, Boragineae, Compositae,
Labiatae, and Papilionaceae, are the predominant forms, and mostly of the
same type: I observe a tendency among Boragineae to have cup-shaped nuts.
Generally speaking, the plants are the same as those before found.  Rheas,
Papaver, Glaucium purpureum, especially the two last are common, Labiata
salvoides, Iris persica, and crocifolia (rare), Trichonema, Gentiana,
Alyssoides.

The novelties were Rheum, Silena fruticosa, Linaria, Ruta, Astragalina, 2
small Silenaceae, Iris, Glaucium aureo-croceum, a beautiful Boragineae
with cup-shaped nut, Lotoides, an Hippophaoid looking shrub, Scrophularia
sp. singulous, Malthioloids spiralis, Allium, Glaux, Nitella, etc.  (See
Catalogue 482 to 516.)  Graminea very common, Rottboellia and
Anthistiria, 2 curious forms, the other more northern, Umbelliferae
common, Nari much less so than on the south face.

The vegetation of the summit which is nearly 7,000 feet, and of peaks
which rise 600 to 700 feet above the pass, has no change, except the
abundance of Cruciferae and Muscoides; Cerasus is the chief shrub;
Thymelaeus frutex occurs at 6,500 feet.  The prevailing rock is clay
slate.

_16th_.--Marched to Dund-i-Golai, distance fifteen miles, we first
descended gradually to the plain, and then traversed this until we
skirted some low hills, about one and a half mile, from which a pool of
water was situated, where we halted, and which was fed by a small cut
coming from some distance.  The road was very good throughout, the water-
cuts although not unfrequent, being either shallow or skirting the left
of the road.  The vegetation continued the same as about Chokey, until
the plains were reached, but the prickly shrub, habitu Berberidioides,
became more common in the water-cuts below than I had seen it before,
while Santonia, Centaurea spinosa, and the plants of Chokey, disappeared
as we reached the plain, except some few herbaceous forms, which
continued throughout.  I was much indisposed during this march, and for
the time we halted at Dund-i-Golai, a period of four days, was unable to
go out, but Capt. Sanders and my people brought me many novelties, which
I have not yet noted down.  The chief vegetation of the plain is Salsola
tertia, the surface is level and firm, clothed with scattered Salsola and
a few stunted herbaceous plants, among which a yellow Centaureoid, a
Crucifera siliquis junioribus clavati 4-gonis, were the most common,
there was also a curious Thiscoid looking plant.  A considerable change
commenced about the low hills, a Thymelaeus shrub, some curious grasses,
an Erodium, a Santonica, occupying the places of the former shrubs, and
Dipsacus or Scabiosa becoming very common.  The height of this place is
about 4,040 feet, the climate most variable.  Fahr. thermometer 48
degrees to 105 degrees in single roofed tents.  No cultivation seen, a
pool of water is situated near the hill, and a little is reported as
situated half-way between this place and Chokey, this however I did not
see.  The country is much parched up, and bears every appearance of
always having been so; no remains of tanks, villages, etc. visible.
Painted partridges were seen; and the eggs of a large bird like a plover?
The wind inclining to be hot, but it is cool up to 7.5 or 8 A.M.

Alaudo cristata? and an Alauda with the form of Sylvia.

_Sunday_, _21st_.--Proceeded to Killa Pootoollah, a distance of ten
miles.  The road was good over an open, dry, level country, but
intersected with small cuts: some cultivation was passed, but no
villages.  Some little improvement was observed close to the Garrah
hills, which are of the usual description, and of no great height: a
curious slip of the strata exhibited itself, in which the upper strata
are cut away in the centre as if there had been a watercourse there.
Vegetation continues the same.  The Thymelaeous shrub and Iris, still
occur in sandy spots, Allium and a second species; Centaureoides, yellow
and pink, Thesioides, a curious sand-binding grass, Salsola tertia most
common, and in some open firm places _Joussa_ reappears as it did at Dund-
i-Golai: Anthemis occurs, Rheas, Salvioides in stony places, otherwise
few of the plants of the Pisheen side are seen; grapes abundant about old
and new cultivation, Hordeum, Bromus several species, Triticoides, etc.,
in profusion.  Passed a deep well of considerable diameter, which had an
open communication with a widish and deep canal, the only place I have
seen that would hold a good deal of water; it was cut throughout in
shingle, and was perhaps fifty feet in its deepest part.

_22nd_.--Left Pootoollah for Mailmandah, and on our arrival found some of
the troops and the cavalry had passed through and made a double march to
the river Lora, a distance in all of twenty-four miles.  There is a good
deal of pure water at Mailmandah running in a cut by the side of that,
which is in the rains a considerable stream, also one or two _Kabreezes_
about two miles further on, producing excellent water.  The road first
led up a ravine of some width, and swardy, and then over low hills, until
we surmounted these to descend into the valley in which part of the army
halted.  The country continues mostly the same; although if possible it
is still more barren than before: the mountains generally are more
rugged: the ridges frequently toothed, and the sides precipitous; not a
tree to be seen except a willow near some water, and a small arbusculoid
fig.  After passing the halting place we re-ascended an inclined plane,
entered a gorge, and again issued out of it: after a short time again we
entered into another valley drained by an actual river, _really_
_containing water_, and bounded to the west and north-west by curious
red low hills, not unlike an embankment.  The vegetation continues much
the same: Salsola tertia very common in some sandy places, Centaurea
spinosa, Statice, Santonia, etc. re-assuming their places on all gravelly
slopes: some novelties occurred as (See Catalogue, Nos. 543 to 574
inclusive,) one or two new shrubs, Cytisus, etc.  The heat continues
great; 102 degrees Fahr. in tents in the middle of the day.  We encamped
on a flat ground about 200 yards from the river, which contains a good
deal of water, and has a sluggish stream running to the north, surrounded
by mountains, none of any height.  Wheat cultivation, Arundo, Vitex,
Prunus or Cerasus abundant in the pass to the river, and yet the former
does not indicate water as it ought to do, Lycium, Tamarisk, Arundo on
the banks of the river, and Tamarisk in profusion in its bed.

The cultivation on the opposite side of the river is remarkably clear of
weeds, as compared with the cultivation at Quettah, etc.  Achilleoides,
Veronica, Iris crocifolia, Phalaris, Chenopodium, Rottboellioides,
Hordeum vulgare, being the only or the chief plants cultivated.

Proceeded next to Dai Hap, thirteen miles, over a similar but even more
barren country, the hills being destitute of all vegetation, except a few
stunted small shrubs, such as Statice.  The usual plants recur with
shingle and in sand, the chief is a _Santonica_, {349} a few novelties
occurred, among which is a curious plant, with large vesiculate petaloid
connectiva.  See Catalogue, No. 576, et sequent.

The hills continue with toothed ridges, near Dai Hap, where water is
abundant, but not in the form of a river.  Thymelaea occurs in abundance,
with a Mimosea fruticosa humilis: a curious hairy-fruited Polygonum et
Peganum, is among the most common plants.

_25th_.--To Khoshab, distance twelve miles, over a large level plain,
either sandy, and then generally cultivated, or gravelly, and then
uncultivated: road open: passed two dry beds of rivers: one must be of
large size, but is very shallow.  A new Tamarisk occurs along it; no
trees are visible until we approach Candahar: vegetation continues much
the same.  _Santonica_, (see above) Centaurea spinosa, Astragalina
(Ononoides recurs), Staticoid, Asphodelus, Mesembryanthoid, Peganum, are
the chief plants, especially on gravel; most of the small Cruciferae have
disappeared, Labiata-Salvioides continues; a curious subaphyllous
Composita occurs, Iris persica is not uncommon; another Iris is found
here and there in profusion, with Gnidia in sandy spots, Compositae,
Monocotyledons of Abigoon are common in shingle.  New rock pigeons.  Fine
madder cultivation in _khets_.  Of birds the yellow hammer occurs.
Villages numerous, poor, and though built of mud and straw yet present
abundance of small domes.

In these dry hot plains the prevailing wind is westerly, blowing very
strong in the heat of the day, and having a tendency to become hot: the
thermometer is here 98 degrees.  The cultivation of wheat is very general
around our present encampment which is within four miles of Candahar, the
wheat is fine; Lolioides occurs in it.

_26th_.--Halted: Candahar is hid from us by some low hills, on the
surmounting of which a large straggling place is obscurely visible,
interspersed with trees, the valley is much smaller than that in which we
are now, which is very extensive.  Munjit cultivation is conducted by
deep trenches, it is a different species I think from that of the
Himalayas.  The bed of the Turnuk is now dry and very shallow: and the
hills near us are extremely barren, the chief vegetation being
Paederioides vestila and Staticoides cymosa, Cheiranthus continues.  The
vegetation is very poor as indeed it has been since leaving the Khojeb
Amrah, nor is there any appearance to be seen of a better autumnal
vegetation.

Candahar is visible at a distance of six miles, from some low hills to
the north of our camp.

_27th_.--Moved to Candahar, skirting the low hills just mentioned and
passed through two villages, a mile from Candahar in a fine open plain.

Candahar has rather a pleasing aspect; it is situated close to a
picturesque range of hills, and is well diversified with trees, barley
and wheat fields.  The slope on which the town stands is a parallelogram;
towers occur frequently along the wall, which is however, of mud, and not
strong; it is surrounded by a ditch utterly insignificant on account of
its narrowness and shelving banks, this ditch is crossed by an
insignificant causeway.  The gate at which I entered is oblique, and is
defended by a tower: it leads into the main street which is rather wide
and not very dirty: towards the centre of this you pass under a middling
dome, a street branching off to the right and left; the continuation of
the main street or bazar leads to the _topekhanah_, or artillery ground,
a small space quite disorderly, containing eight or ten guns, most of
them melted at the mouth; one Sheik 18-pounder of cast iron, another of
English make, 140 years old.  From the end of this space you pass over
another similar ditch into the fort, the entrance to which is covered,
affording two or three angles capable of good hand to hand defence.
Passing thence through some spaces occupied by low buildings, you reach
Khoondil Khan's house, an extremely rude looking place outside, but very
different within.  It consists of two houses, one looking into a small
square with a delicious reservoir of water, and some fine and very green
mulberry trees; the ground being laid out as a garden with sweet-william,
etc.; the water is supplied by a small cut, and is seven or eight feet
deep.  The garden fronts of both houses are prettily ornamented, one has
a _tharkhanah_, delightfully cool; generally the rooms are small, coated
with a pretty sort of stucco.  The remaining sides of the square are
occupied by offices; small rooms opening into the garden by lattice work
evidently denote a portion of the _zenana_.  Altogether the Khan must be
a man of taste.

The bazars of the city are well thronged, but the shops are by no means
equal to those of Buhawulpoor, and the manufactures, except those of
earthenware, are utterly insignificant.

Tobacco, _atta_, _musallahs_, dried fruits, _aloo-bokhara_, figs,
apricots, raisins, salt, sugar, a green fruit something between a plum
and greengage, meat, onions, salads, _dhie_, _sherbets_, _kubabs_, wicker-
work, singing birds, are offered for sale: also abundance of Lucerne and
some _bhoosee_.  Altogether it is a busy place, but not so busy as the
road near the gate, which is thronged by followers, and dismounted
Europeans, who are forbidden access to the city without a pass.  Tea from
Khiva of good quality is procurable in small quantities.  No women but
old ones to be seen.  The dress of the inhabitants very often, and in
some cases very completely, approximates to that of the Chinese.  The
features too of most are evidently of Tartar cast, and some wear two
tails of plaited hair.  Blue seems to be a favourite colour of dress.

The chief trees about the city are mulberry, a few _Khunjucks_, which is
the Xanthoxylon of Bootan and the Kojhlak passes, occur outside; willows
are frequent, and generally appear to be cultivated, among these a
weeping species here and there occurs.

_May 3rd_.--The resources of the city are evidently small, the only
things indeed that appear plentiful are earthenware and milk: grain is
excessively dear, but is reported to exist in considerable quantities.
Khoondil Khan having ordered all those out of the city, who had not
provided themselves with six months' provisions.  _Atta_ or flour is now
selling at two seers a rupee, or 6d per pound, and every thing is
proportionally dear: wood excessively so, the chief fuel is derived from
the _Santonia_, which in some form or other appears to constitute a
principal feature of the vegetation of Central Asia, and there is some
other wood apparently derived from some tree I have not yet seen.

Some discontent prevails in the town owing to the high price of
provisions, which is, no doubt, severely felt.  The established price of
grain is at the rate of eight seers the rupee, a rate established by the
king, but on occasions like the present there can be no rule.  Water is
very abundant, it is to be found within four feet of the surface, and
some regiments have already supplied themselves from this source by means
of temporary wells.  The water is excellent.

Asses, ponies, and horses are common, the former are excellent, 150
rupees is a good price for one; they carry heavy loads with the
additional weight of an Affghan on their back; the ponies or tattoes are
less valuable, but still they are strong.

The horses are indifferent; good, generally speaking, but heavy, and with
little spirit.  Excellent milch cows have been procured for twenty-five
rupees, including the calf.  Goats are not easily procurable.  Sheep
(_Doombas_) are common, and afford excellent mutton, they vary in price
from two to three rupees.

Tea from Bokhara is procurable in small quantities; its quality is
decent: it was originally eight rupees a seer but is now thirty.  Coarse
Russian cloths, and very inferior silks are also procurable.

The great drawbacks are the want of wood, and above all want of
inhabitants; from what I have seen of the cultivation, the soil appears
to be very capable, and well adapted to barley and wheat; rice might also
be raised as a summer crop.  With regard to water, if there is a scarcity
of this element, it is due to the indolence of the people.  I have not
yet seen any vestiges of buildings, topes, etc. to indicate that Candahar
has ever been a very populous place, the want of trees considering the
ease with which they may be cultivated, is a strong evidence of the
extreme laziness of the Affghans, who appear to me remarkably low in the
scale of civilization; and in personal habits, very generally
inexpressibly filthy.

Poplars, mulberries, and willows are the principal trees: the poplar is
very much akin to the _Sofaida_ of the Sutledge, it is a handsome tree,
with a fine roundish crown.  The fruit trees generally appear small in
gardens; lettuces and onions are commonly cultivated, especially the
latter, fields of Lucerne are very abundant, and I believe clover also; a
pony load of the former now costs five annas, but it is sufficient for a
day's consumption of two or three horses.  The pomegranate attains the
ordinary size.  In gardens two or three Ranunculaceae, Jasminum, pinks,
sweet-williams, marigolds, stocks, and wall-flowers, are common, with a
broad-leaved species of flag, the flowers of which I have not seen.

The crops vary according to the mode in which they have been watered; if
this has been properly done, they are rich.  Some of the fields are
tolerably clean, others filled with weeds, among which a Dipsacea, and
one or two Centaureae are very common.

The villages are not generally defended: each house has its own
straggling direction, is built of mud, and the roof is generally dome-
shaped, and it has its own enclosure within a mud-wall.  The houses are
very low, and indicate poverty, and want of ingenuity.  The better order
appear always with arched roofs, and none are without picturesque ribs
and recesses.

The vineries here are so well enclosed, that there is no way of access
except by scaling the mud-wall: the vines are planted in trenches; a row
on each side, and allowed to run over the elevated spaces between the
trenches.  In one garden pomegranates, a pomaceous tree, and mulberries,
whose fruit is now ripe but quite devoid of flavour, occurred.  A
Zygophyllum, a beautiful Capparis, an Anthemis, Marrubium, Centaureoides
2, occurred as weeds, with Plantago, Phalaris, Cichorium.

For an excellent register of the thermometer at this place, I am indebted
to the kindness of Dr. Henderson; the range in the open air is from 60
degrees to 110 degrees!!!

The variations in the wet bulb are due to the currents of air, which
beginning about 11 A.M., pass into a rather constant strongish west wind
about 11.5 or 2 P.M., and even almost become hot.  The climate is
excessively dry, as indicated by the effects it has on furniture, etc.

The difference of temperature between a tent, even with two flies or
double roof, and the open air in free situations, is by no means great;
thus when the thermometer was 105 degrees in part of my tent, it was
scarcely 110 degrees in the sun; in Capt. Thomson's large tent 102
degrees; placed against the outer _kunnat_, it rose to 105 degrees.
Hanging free with black cloth round the bulb, 112 degrees.  But to shew
the great heating powers of the sun, the thermometer with the bulb,
placed on the ground and covered with the loose sand of the surface of
the soil, rose to 141 degrees.

Black partridges occur in the cornfields here, but in no great numbers.
Much of the cultivation of barley, wheat, and rye, is very luxuriant, but
the proportion of waste, to cultivated land is too considerable to argue
either a large population or active agricultural habits.  Pastor roseus
occurs in flocks; it is evidently nearly allied to the _mina_.  The
capabilities of this valley are considerable, more particularly when the
extreme readiness with which water is obtained in wells is considered, as
well as the nature of the soil, which is well adapted to husbandry.
Candahar, viewed from about a mile to the west of our camp, backed by the
picturesque hills (one bluff one in particular), the numbers and verdure
of the trees, the break in the mountains on the Herat road, presents a
pretty scene.

_8th_.--The installation of the Shah, which took place to-day on the
plain to the north of the city, was a spectacle worth seeing on account
of the grand display of troops; but there were very few of the
inhabitants of Candahar or surrounding villages present.  Mulberries and
apricots are now ripening.  Rats, a Viverra with a long body and short
legs, tawny with brown patches, face broad, blackish-brown, white band
across the forehead, and white margins to the ears which are large;
storks were seen when alarmed.  Pastor roseus occurs in flocks; magpies,
swallows, swifts, and starlings.  There is a garden with some religious
buildings, to which an avenue of young trees leads in a north-east
direction from one of the Cabul gates, for there are two on this face.
The buildings are not remarkable; nor are the trees, which are small; a
few planes (Platanus) occur, the most common is the _Benowsh_, a species
of ash, (Fraxinus) of no great size or beauty.  The elegant palmate
leaved Pomacea likewise occurs, with the mulberry: the marigold is a
great favourite.

The fields are now ripening, this being the harvest-moon.  Wild oats
occur commonly, although they are not made any use of; the seed is large,
and ripens sooner than any of the others; from the size of the
uncultivated specimens, I am sure that oats would form an excellent crop.

In the fields Cichorium is very common, and Carduacea, Centaurea cyanea,
Dipsaceae, and in certain low places an Arundo, are the most common
weeds; two or three Silenaceae, and Umbelliferae also occur.  In the
ditches Typha, Butomus, watercresses, Alomioides, Ceratophyllum, Lemna
_gibba_? Confervae, Gramineae two or three, Ranunculus, Potamogeton, one
species immersa; Mentha, Sium.

On the _Chummuns_, which are of no extent, but which are pleasing from
their verdure and soft sward chiefly consisting of Carex, Trifolium,
Juncus rigidus, Santalacea, and Gentiana likewise prevail.

The fields of Lucerne are luxuriant, but require much water, the price of
which is very dear; one ass-load costs eight annas!!

Iris crocifolia is common in old cultivations.

The city is situated at the termination of one of the shingly slopes,
which are universal between the bases of the hills, and the cultivated
portion of the valley.  The ditch is hence shingly, whereas an equal
depth in the cultivated parts would meet nothing but a sandy, light,
easily pulverizable brownish-yellow soil, tenacious, and very slippery
when wet.  The tobacco crop is excellent.



CHAPTER XV.


_Candahar to Cabul_.

The good old _Moolla_ of a mosque, to which we resort daily, gives me the
following information about the vegetable products of this country, from
which it would seem, that every thing not producing food, is looked upon
with contempt.  The fruit trees, are--

1.  _Sha-aloo_, _Aloo-bookhara_, (damson), which has ripe fruit in
August, the same time as figs; _Zurd-aloo_, (apricot),
_Aloocha_--apricot, _Shuft-aloo_, another kind of apricot; _Unar_,
(pomegranate); _Ungoor_, (grapes); _Unjeer_, (guava); _Bihee_, (figs);
_Umroot_, _Toot_, (mulberry); _Aloogoordaigoo_, _Shuft-aloo_, all these
_Aloos_ being Pomaceous.

The Elaeagnus is called Sinjit: it produces a small red fruit, used in
medicine as an astringent, it ripens in August, and sells at eight or
nine seers the rupee; it is exported in small quantities; but the plant
is not much esteemed.

The _Munjit_ is an article of much consequence; it is exported chiefly to
China and Bombay, some goes to Persia; the roots are occasionally dug up
after two years, but the better practise is to allow them five to seven:
the price is six Hindostanee maunds for a rupee.  The herb is used for
camel fodder.  The Affghan name is _Dlwurrung_.

The common Artemisia of this place is called _Turk_; the camels are not
so fond of it, as they were of the Sinab and Quettah sort; perhaps this
is due to their preferring Joussa, which is found in abundance.

The carrot is called _Zurduk_; it is dug in the cold months, and sown in
July; three seers are sold for a pice: both men and cattle use it.

_Turbooj_, (watermelon,) ripens in June; it is not watered after
springing up; four seers are sold for a pice.  But I have not seen much
of this fruit.

The wheat is watered according to the quality of the soil, the better the
soil the less water is required, and this varies from four to eight
repetitions of water.  _Jhow_ requires two waterings less.  Wheat is
considered dear if less than one maund is sold for the rupee.  One year
ago, three maunds of barley, and four of wheat were sold for a rupee.

Iris odora, _Soosumbur_; (the two kinds, and _Datura_ has the same name)
is indigenous.

The timber trees, or rather trees not producing fruit, and which the
_Moolla_ thinks very lightly of, are the _Chenar_, (plane), _Pudda_,
(Poplar?), Baid, _Sofaida_.

The fig trees are often planted in rows, they are very umbrageous, and
look very healthy.  These, and the mulberry, are the most common; next
are the bullace and damson.  Neither are worth introducing to India, nor
have I seen any thing yet in the country that is so.

It is certainly the interest of the inhabitants to keep the army here as
long as our commissariat places so many rupees in their hands.  It may
indeed be questionable whether with an overpowering army, the rates paid
for grain and other supplies for the troops should not be established by
authority rather than advancing money for grain at exorbitant rates, when
the crops are entirely within the command of foraging parties.  _Atta_
now sells at two and three-quarter seers the rupee, a mere nominal fall,
for the dealers will only give fifteen annas for a Company's rupee.

There is a curious _hazy_ appearance of the atmosphere over the city in
the evening, occasioned by fine dusty particles from cattle, suspended in
air; which, from their fineness, are long in subsiding.

This curious hazy weather increases daily, yesterday evening was very
cloudy, and this morning the wind rather strong and southerly up to 8
A.M.: and at 5.5 P.M. the sun is either quite obscured, or the light so
diminished, that the eye rests without inconvenience on his image.  In
the morning the wind strengthens as the sun attains height and power.

The old _Moolla_ says that this weather commences in Khorassan with the
setting in of the periodical rains in the north-western provinces of
India, and continues with them.  From the direction of the wind it is
probably connected with the commencement of the south-west monsoon at
Bombay, for the rains at Delhi do not commence before June.

The haze is so strong at times that hills within three to five miles are
quite obscured; it tends to diminish the temperature considerably,
especially between seven and eight of a morning; curious gusts of hot
winds are observed, even when the general nature of the wind is cool.

_21st_.--A fine and clear cold morning; thermometer 56 degrees at 7 A.M.
in the tent.  Air fresh; thermometer 75 degrees at 9 P.M.  A few drops of
rain at 12; _cloudy generally_.

_22nd_.--Thermometer 48 degrees at 5 A.M.  Similar weather, clear and
elastic: south winds continue but of less strength.

Easterly wind prevails in the morning up to 9 A.M., after which hour the
westerly hot wind, variable in strength, sets in: the range of the
thermometer is then somewhat increased, although in the house it does not
rise above 90 degrees.

The _Moolla_ tells me, that snow is of rare occurrence at Candahar; he
mentions one fall in about four or five years.  The rains last for three
months, and happen in winter.  During the winter all occupations out of
doors are suspended, and people wrap themselves up, and sit over fires.

Clouds are of very rare occurrence, and then only partial.

The clouds, if resulting from the south-west monsoon, ought to be
intercepted by the Paropamisus and Hindoo Koosh, and rain ought to fall
along these and about Ghuznee at this time.  In the evening a cool wind
sets in, indicating a fall of rain somewhere.

Rarity of dews in Khorassan: as dews depend on a certain amount of
moisture either in the soil or atmosphere, it follows that in a very dry
climate no dews will occur.  The occurrence of the dews here at this
period, is another proof that rain must have fallen somewhere (to the
southward), to which the coolness of the weather is attributable.
Yesterday and to-day, the thermometer at 5 A.M. stood at 48 degrees, 49
degrees; at 8 P.M. 75 degrees, 72 degrees, the daily range in the mosque
is from 70 degrees to 80 degrees.  Capt. Thomson suggests that the dews
observed here are either confined to, or much greater in the _Chummuns_,
in which the water is very close to the surface, as indicated _inter_
_alia_ by the green turf.

The kinds of grapes are numerous; those earliest ripe are the black, and
a small red kind called _Roucha_; which will be ripe in the latter end of
this moon.  _Kismiss_ another sort, comes in July.  The _Tahibee_ is the
best kind produced here, and the dearest.

Tobacco is cultivated chiefly along the Arghandab; it is planted about
this season, and gathered in two or three months, and requires to be
watered ten or twelve times.

The barley is now fully ripe, and is generally cut and thrashed in some
places.  Pears in gardens are now ripe.

Candahar valley is of great extent to the westward, or south-west and
SSW.

The wasps, with large femora, I observe build their mud nests in houses.
The rarity of Lepidoptera, except perhaps some nocturnal moths, is
curious; Coleoptera are more common, but inconspicuous.  Ants are
abundant in the mud walls.  A small gnat with large noiseless wings, is
very annoying, and the bite very painful and irritating.  Doves, and wild
pigeons are tolerably common, as also crested larks, and swifts.
Abundance of lizards; a venomous snake of brown colour, having an
abruptly attenuated tail.

Every thing that happens shows how credulous, and how unenquiring we are;
and in all cases out of our particular sphere, how extremely apt most are
to give excessive credit, where a moderate only is due.  It is a generous
failing which it is difficult to condemn, particularly with regard to our
travellers in this direction.  Instance Connolly, and certainly Gerard
whose acquaintance with Burnes and its results demands attention.  It is
singular that his name scarcely occurs in Burnes' book, although his
scientific knowledge and MSS. submitted to Government, entitle him to be
considered an observant, and well-informed traveller.  Pottinger is
another instance of what I have said above.

The general opinion is, and it is one which I have not discarded
entirely, that he threw himself into Herat, that he was throughout the
siege daily employed in the front of the garrison, and that it is owing
to his personal exertions that Herat was saved.  I hear however on good
authority that he was at Herat accidentally, and wished to leave it when
the besiegers appeared, but was prevented by want of funds.  So anxious
was he however to get away, as his leave of absence had expired, that he
was obliged to discover himself to Yar Mahommed, and request loans to
enable him to rejoin India.  The Vizier at once secured him, took him to
Kamran, and hindered him from leaving, forcing him indeed to the
dangerous elevation of British Agent at Herat.  His merits, if this be
true, rest on very different grounds from those generally supposed; his
courage however has been proved of a high moral cast.

The _Joussa_, the _Moolla_ tells me, is the _Kan Shootur_ or _Shootur_
_Kan_.  Burnes' account of the _Turunjbeen_ or manna is correct, except
perhaps in the limits he assigns to its production.  It is at any rate
produced here and sold in the bazar, its production while the plant is in
flower is curious, and worthy of examination; it may however be deposited
by an insect, in which case the probable period of its production would
be that of inflorescence.

There is some cultivation of Indian corn here, the plants have now
attained one-third of their growth.

Except in the immediate vicinity of the town, nothing can exceed the
sterility of the valley, or rather its desolation: scarcely a plant,
beyond the Peganum and _Joussa_, is to be found.

_Khaisee_, an excellent smooth skinned apricot, is now ripe, and is of
light yellowish colour, sometimes faintly spotted; it is a product from
grafts, the seeds are useless, as they do not continue the good qualities
of the fruit: it is here grafted on _zurd-aloo_, _thulk_, Potentilla
quinquefolia.

Melons and grapes are now coming in; the former, at least those I have
seen, have pale pulp, and are not superior.  The grapes first ripe are
the ordinary black sort: we tasted yesterday some very good ones in the
_Moolla's_ garden.  The _Kismiss_ are especially delicate, and another
large sort of very fine rich flavour, both were rather unripe.  Those for
packing are still unripe.  The trenches in this garden are very deep: the
vines are planted on the northern face only.

Gardens are very common to the south-west of the town.  The valley of the
Arghandab is the most fertile part of Khorassan I have yet seen.  A strip
of cultivation extends along the banks of the river, and from these last
not being high, the stream is easily diverted into channels for
irrigation.  Seen from any of the neighbouring hills, the valley presents
one uniform belt of verdure, almost as far as the eye can reach, and the
view up and down is of some extent.  The chief cultivation is wheat,
barley, and lucerne; _Chummuns_ also occur.  Gardens abound, together
with fine groves of mulberry trees, the former are walled in, and are
verdant to a degree.

There is a bluff mountain to the north of Candahar, the disintegration of
which is so rapid, that it is evident from the slope of the debris, it
will in time bury the original structures.

The hills forming the ridge separating Arghandab from Candahar, as well
as all those rugged looking ones about Candahar, are of limestone, they
are much worn by the weather, and full of holes.  They are very barren,
the only shrubby vegetation of any size being Ficus, which may be the
stock of the _Ungoor_, as it resembles it a good deal, Centaurea spinosa,
Paederiae 2, Echinops, Pommereulla, one to two, other Graminae, lemon-
grass, Dianthus, Peganum, Cheiranthus as before, Sedum rosaceum,
Gnaphalium, _Hyoceyamus_, _Didymocarpeae_, Gnidia, etc.

The Arghandab is a good sized river, with channel subdivided: its stream
is rapid and fordable; no large boulders occur in its bed; the
temperature of its water is moderate.

The fish are a Cyprinus and a Barbus, or Oreinus with small scales, thick
leathery mouth, and cirrhi; a Loach of largish size, flat head, reddish,
with conspicuous brownish mottlings, and a Silurus.

The hills forming the northern boundary of the valley are picturesque,
and of several series, and perhaps the subordinate valleys are not so
large and fruitful in this direction.

Between Arghandab and Candahar, two ranges occur; one interrupted: the
other nearer Candahar has first to be surmounted at a low pass; the pass
is short, rugged and impassable for guns.  The inner ridge is much closer
to the cultivated part of the valley than the northern range.

Between it and the Arghandab, at least six cuts occur: these are met with
generally in threes, and are at different elevations; the inner one being
close at the foot of the hills; great labour must have been required to
make them.  Numerous villages, some with flat roofed houses occur.

Arundo, Salsola, Plantago, P. coronopoid, Cnicus, Juncus, Veronica
exallata, Santalacea, Mentha, Lactucoides, Chenopod. 2-3, Panicum,
Samolus, Ceratophyllum; Salix occurs near the river; apricots, apples,
pomegranates, damsons or plums, bullaces, pears, mulberries and
raspberries in the gardens.

The shingle found about all the hills in Khorassan, can scarcely be
derived from any source but disintegration, it slopes too gradually and
uniformly for upheavement.  If my idea is correct, the mountains will at
some period be buried in their own debris, of course inspection of the
shingle will at once point out whether this is true or not, more
especially _in all those places where the rocks are of_
_uniform structure_.  There is a curious desert to the south and
southwest of Candahar, elevated a good deal above the valley, quite bare,
and stretching a long way to the westward: it is seen for forty miles
along the Girishk road.

_Curious reflection_.--Observed in ghee used as lamp-oil, a bubble
ascending from the surface of the water on which it floated, met by
another descending; the deception of this is perfect.  That it is due to
reflection, is apparent from the variation of the length of the descent,
according to the angle under which it is viewed.  When viewed from
beneath at a very oblique angle, the descent is complete, but if viewed
parallel to the surface, no appearance of the sort occurs.  The
reflection is due to the surface of the ghee which appears to be more
dense than the rest, probably more oily; this mathematical reflection may
suggest others of a moral nature, touching our liability to mistaken
views of things, from observing only one side.

Old Candahar is about three miles to west of the new town; it is
immediately under a steep limestone range, running about southwest, and
not exceeding 500 feet in height.  It bears marks of having been
fortified, and at either extremity remains of forts are still visible.
The fort of forty steps is at the north end of the range.  The town is in
complete ruins; indeed none of the edifices are visible except those that
occupy the mound of stones, (with which they are partly built) probably
the site of the citadel.  On three sides, the town is fenced by two
respectable ditches, the outer one about 50 yards wide; both are now,
especially the outer, beds of marshes; they were supplied by cuts from
the Arghandab river.  Wells exist however.  There is one white mosque in
good preservation.  The works were strong, and much better than the very
indifferent ones of new Candahar; and the walls of the town were
prolonged up the face of the hills.

About Candahar, conical houses occur, probably for granaries.  A curious
mosque cut out of the rock in situ, is seen on the Girishk road, with a
flight of steps leading to it, cut in like manner out of the rock.  There
is also in the same quarter the fort of Chuhulzeenat, or forty steps; a
work not of very considerable extent; and as in other Asiatic countries I
have visited, troughs are cut in rocks for separating grain from the
husk.  But there is no work to be seen indicating vast labour or any
genius.

Some remains of good pottery may be picked up; and the earth of which the
works, etc. were made, is filled with remains of coarse pottery.

_27th_.--Moved four miles to Shorundab, the country is very barren: not
much _Joussa_: the water is brackish at our present encampment, which is
within sight of Babawallee.

_28th_.--Proceeded to Kileeyazim, ten and a quarter miles, marched at 2
P.M. and reached the place at 6 P.M., the camels arriving one hour
afterwards: the ground is generally good, throughout stony, difficult in
places and undulated, particularly in two situations occasioned from
cuts.  There is a square fort, situated at the halting place with a tower
at each corner, and on north face two; as well as towers at the gate: but
without windows.  _Joussa_ is abundant, as also grass along the cuts.
Salsola rotundifolia, a Chenopodia, and a curious prickly, leafless
Composita and _Joussa_ occur, the latter most common, Artemisiae sp.  Also
rock pigeons and the raven.  Halted one mile to the east of the fort.

_29th_.--Proceeded to the Turnuk, near Khet-i-Ahkoond, distance fifteen
and a half miles.  The country continues the same, no cultivation to be
seen before reaching the Turnuk.  The road tolerable, over gravelly or
shingly ground: it was at first level, until we reached a mountain gorge,
when it became undulated.  Passed the dry beds of two streams, the second
the larger: its banks were clothed with Vitex instead of Tamarisk.  At
the entrance of gorge a fort similar to that of yesterday was passed.
Scarcely any change in vegetation.  Artemisiae one or two, Centaurea
spinosa, Salsola cordifolia and aphylla? are the most common plants,
Euonymus and Malpighiacea? Polygonoides, occurred along the nullah, a
pretty species of the plant, Antheris globosis petaloideo-terminalis, in
profusion in some places, literally colouring the ground: close to it
another very distinct species, foliis connatis, floribus albis, a
Rubiaceous crystalline looking plant, another novelty; all the plants
about the hills at Candahar continue: Dianthoid, Statice, Paederia
villosa.  Cultivation along the Turnuk, melons in small trenches, the
crops are now cut, _Jhow_ or _gaz_ along the bank: but there is not much
water.  The hills around are apparently of limestone, very picturesque,
and presenting very fine cliffs.  The valley of the Turnuk is here very
narrow, and the country very arid looking, completely burnt up.  _Joussa_
rather scarce, _doob_ grass occurs along the river, the water of which is
discoloured.

_30th_.--Proceeded to Shair-i-Suffa, ten miles and six furlongs.  The
country continues the same.  The road extending along the right bank of
the Turnuk, over undulating ground for one and a half or two miles, is
bad, very narrow, and overhanging the steep bank of the river, scarcely
passable for wheel carriages without preparation.  Vegetation continues
precisely the same: little verdure to be seen even along the Turnuk: the
hills desperately barren; a high mound occurs in middle of the valley
near our halting place, well adapted for a fort, but unoccupied.  Small
fields of cultivation are now seen.  A small species of mullet occurs in
the river: thermometer 101 degrees at 1 P.M. in the tent.

Nothing can exceed the barren aspect of this valley, which is near Khet-i-
Ahkoond, but at several miles distance, a few trees are visible in nooks:
the only green along the banks of the river, is occasioned apparently by
Tamarisk: the hills are picturesque, rugged, varied with bold cliffs, the
valleys are changed in structure, being now occupied by rounded undulated
ground, instead of hollow basins.

[River Turnuk banks: m363.jpg]

_July 1st_.--Proceeded ten miles, and halted on the Turnuk within one
mile of the tower of Tirandaz.  The country continues precisely the same:
the road at first is bad, owing to the inhabitants having tried to flood
it.  At a distance of six miles we ascended a small defile without any
difficulty; the remainder of the march being over undulating stony
ground: the valley then becomes narrow, and we again enter into the
arable part, which is especially narrow.  The hills present the same
aspect.  _Joussa_ very abundant, and also Artemisia, and a Salsoloides
flore ochroleuco.  No villages are visible.  We are unable to judge of
the extent of cultivation, because the country, which seems uniformly
dried up, is rugged and bouldery: on the right is the old bed of the
river, consisting of dry sand.  We crossed one small nullah, when an old
fort became visible on a hill, in the centre of the valley.

_2nd_.--Proceeded to Toot, a distance of eleven miles, through a similar
country; the road dividing at the low hills approaching the river and
forming its banks, which are in places precipitous; the greater part of
the difficulties were avoided by taking the lower route, that along the
hills being impassable for guns owing to the large rocks scattered in
every direction, and detached from conglomerate hills.  Two or three
nullahs were passed, one with a little water.  The ground was besides a
good deal cut up towards the centre of the valley, and a water-cut was
crossed several times.  Owing to the delay in making the road, the troops
did not reach the encamping ground before 8 or 8.5 P.M., the camels in
some instances not before 12 P.M.  An attack is reported to have been
made on the baggage at the river where the road ascends the cliff: it was
prevented by a party of the 13th, who shot two of the marauders.  _Joussa_
is plentiful, and Mentha in flower.

The Turnuk river is 20 feet broad, the current rapid, and the water
discoloured; the banks are sandy, 15 feet high: coarse grass, Clematis
scandens fol. ternatisectis pinnatis.  _Jhow_ is abundant.

_3rd_.--From Toot to ----, nine miles and four furlongs.  Road decent,
over the usual sort of ground, except in one place, where the bank
approaches the river; this defile is much shorter and much easier than
that at Tirandaz or rather Jillongeer: a small river with a little water
is crossed: here the road for a very short distance bends suddenly to a
little west of north, but having crossed a narrow and deep ravine-like
cut, resumes its original direction.  The country continues precisely the
same, the valley however becomes narrow and more undulating, while the
peculiar limestone ranges appear to be fewer.  Reached the encamping
ground in very good time, the vegetation almost precisely the same as
before, but with some willow trees.  Many of the ravines are however,
actually covered with thickets, apparently of the prickly yellow flowered
Dioica shrub of _Chummun_; trees and these shrubs occupied by thousands
of a hymenopterous insect or fly.  _Joussa_ very abundant: a village, the
lights of one were visible _en route_.  The water of the Turnuk is
still very much discoloured, its bed shingly, and the ground near it much
cut up: a mill was passed on the river; the valley here not being 500
yards wide: the climate is more agreeable, though still very hot in the
middle of the day; in the shade, the air continues pleasant up to 10 A.M.
Thunder not heavy, was succeeded by a squall from the ENE.; little rain
fell, but there were clouds of dust.

_4th_.--Reached Khilat-i-Gilzee, distance thirteen and a half miles, from
our last encampment, direction NE. by E. as before: the aspect of the
country is unchanged, the road became somewhat difficult about one and a
half mile from camp, where a defile exists along the hills forming the
bank of the river; it was however much easier than that of Botee.  Thence
we continued over undulating ground, leaving the Turnuk river to the
right, but reverting to it beyond the fort.  Half-way the deep and steep
channel of a river presented a serious obstacle; the country gradually
rises until Khilat-i-Gilzee fort is passed, from thence it descends
somewhat.  At this place there is a considerable expanse of irregular
valleys; and to south curious low undulated ground occurs: to the south-
east is a patch of table land, which is not an uncommon form in these
parts; some cultivation here exists along the Turnuk, which runs half a
mile below the fort, which is in ruins, occupying a hill not commanded by
any near ones.  This is of no great height, and has two ramifications,
and in the centre the remains of a tower.

In the valley extending NNE. two villages with castles occur, together
with a good many low trees.  Vegetation the same: a curious Antirrhinoid
plant occurs out of flower, Echinops, Carduacea, and a curious Centaurea.
Wet places abound in Rumex and Tamarisk along the river.  Horsemen were
seen after passing the fort: two or three willow trees about the
villages.  _Jhow_ or barley is selling for ten seers the rupee, _atta_ or
flour at eight.

_5th_.--Khilat-i-Gilzee is a very uninteresting place, with little
appearance of cultivation.  The vegetation of the undulated ground
continues the same, Asphodelus, Mesembryanthemoides, remains of Tauschia,
and the former Cruciferae.  The Turnuk discharges a good deal of water
much discoloured, and forming a series of constant rapids.  The most
common plants are Artemisiae two or three species, Centaurea spinosa,
Salsola luteiflora, Almond groves, Iris crocifolia? vel sp. affinis,
Asphodelus, Mesemb., Salvioides, Thermopsis, Cichorium, _Joussa_, and
Mentha recur, the two last in abundance.  The new plants are a
Chenopodium, Polygonum, Lotoides, Triticum, Astragalus, Scirpus,
Caesalpinioides, Centaurea micrantha, and Eryngioides: a spring occurs in
the old fort of Khilat-i-Gilzee.

Indian-corn is just sprouting up, barley and other crops ripe.  Latitude
of Khilat-i-Gilzee 32 degrees 7' 30"; altitude, Bar. 24.740: the climate
is disagreeable from the violent sudden extremes to which it is exposed.
West winds during day, and east winds of a morning.

_6th_.--Proceeded to Sir Tasp, ten miles, north-east, road good over an
open undulating country, the only difficulty in the way arising from a
cut with deep holes in it.  Vegetation continues precisely the same:
limestone hills less frequent, or at any rate much less rugged, and the
country assumes a much more open character.  Artemisia most abundant, of
large size, Caesalpinia, Euonymus dioica, Centaurea spinosa, Echinops,
new plants two Linariae, Eryngium, Verbascum.  Altitude 24.505, latitude
32 degrees 12' 22" north.  _Atta_ has risen in price to seven seers a
rupee.

_7th_.--Arrived at Nooroock after a march of nine miles; still extending
up the valley in a direction north-east--direct on the star Capella.  The
country is undulated; vegetation still the same.  Artemisia most abundant
and of a larger size; road good: no fodder for horses, except along the
river: the valley open, distant hills on either side with a fine range to
the north of the camp, apparently composed of limestone, with abundance
of junipers, and the Iris of Dund-i-Golai very common.  Hares, rock
pigeons, Alauda.  Myriads of Cicada, and the Jerboa rat.  The Turnuk
river is again occasionally in sight, valley apparently little
cultivated.  Stipa very common, as well as Iris, Festuca vivipara,
Astragali sp., and Artemisia.  Cloudy evening, followed by a stormy
night; wind southerly.

_8th_.--Reached Tazee, eight miles seven furlongs from Nooroock:
direction still the same, no change: the road good, extending over an
undulated country, except one or two small nullahs with rather steep
banks.  A range of mountains seen to the north, called Kohi-Soork,
continue forming a long line, the southern boundary of which is broken:
we are encamped opposite a valley running east, presenting much
cultivation: several villages indicated by distant _smoke_: some trees
are seen here and there: the face of the valley is rather green,
indicating more water than usual.  Vegetation is precisely the same; no
_Joussa_ or other fodder for camels than Artemisia and spinous Compositae.
Morning very cloudy and cold at 12 P.M.  The plants met with are Chara,
Naiad, Polygoni 3, Malva fl. amplis lilacinis, on banks of river.

_9th_.--_Shuftul_, five miles: the direction lay towards the star
Capella: road bad, requiring to be made over three difficult ravines, all
forming beds of torrents descending from the Koh-i-Soork.  The country
otherwise presents the same features.  The Turnuk runs close under the
southern boundary of the valley, and is here a pretty stream of
considerable body.  _Joussa_ grows abundantly on its immediate banks,
together with excellent grass and some clover, one or two new Compositae,
one of them a Matthiola, otherwise Artemisiae, Stipa, Centaurea spinaceis
herb.  Astragalus, and Peganum, are the most common; Muscoides,
Plantaginacea reoccur, a curious _leaved_ Composita?

_10th_.--Halted yesterday, and went out along the banks of the Turnuk:
where I found twenty-six species not obtained before.  Some cultivation
was observed, but as usual weedy, abounding with two species of
Centaurea.  In ditches two species of Epilobium, Sparganium, Mentha,
Polygonum natans, Ranunculus aquaticus, Lotus, Carex, Astragaloid on
swards, on the sandy moist banks of the Turnuk: Epilobium, two Veronicae,
several Cyperaceae, 2 or 3 Junci, Cyperus fuscus.  Alisma abundant in
swamps: small partridges: no chakor: hares, swifts, rock-pigeons.  Springs
of beautiful clear water: temperature not changeable, 59 degrees; two
small platiceroid fishes in it; tadpoles.  Temperature of the river 78
degrees.  The fish of this river are the same as those of the Arghandab,
the large Cyprinus takes Cicada greedily.  The vegetation of the hills is
the same: Cerasus pygmaeus and canus, common; the novelties were a fine
Composita, Plectranthus, Ephedra in fruit, Artemisia, and Astragal.,
formed the chief bulk; _Joussa_ is common on the river sides.

This place is 150 feet above the last, yet the increased elevation is not
appreciable to the sight: the tents of the army at the Tazee encampment
are distinctly visible.  _Atta_ sold, at eight seers yesterday, barley
sixteen seers for the rupee.  Where the sellers come from I know not.
_Atta_ was fifteen seers, but it was soon made eight by the approach of
the army, and to-day it has risen to four and a half.

_11th_.--Proceeded to Chushm-i-Shadee, ten miles six furlongs, direction
the same: road good, not requiring any repairs; it continues up the
valley but at a greater distance from the river than before; the valley
is enclosed in hills on both sides.  Koh-i-Soork, the northern one, is
not very high, but bold and cliffy, with very little cultivation: the
country is less undulated.  Chushm-i-Shadee is a beautiful spring, not
deep, but extending some distance under ground; large-sized fish are
found in it: apparently Ophiocephali, but only parts of their bodies can
be seen.  Indian-corn and madder are cultivated: a new Asteraceous flower
was found.  Passed a small eminence in the centre of the valley, about
three miles from Chushm-i-Shadee.  _Joussa_ very abundant.  Temperature
of spring 59 degrees.

_12th_.--Reached Chushm-i-Pinjup, six and a half miles, direction more
northerly; keeping Capella a little to the right: the country is
precisely the same, the road good, one or two easy ravines; one with
water in it.

The valley is rather wider, soil much less shingly, and capable of
cultivation; several patches of trees are visible in many directions,
indicating villages.  We encamped opposite the entrance or gap between
the mountains forming hitherto the southern boundary, and a more lofty
range is seen running parallel with them, about east and west.  This
range is of considerable height; presenting a _peculiar slope_ rising
almost half-way up, and very conspicuous: four forts are seen in this
direction; together with several patches of trees, and a good deal of
cultivation, but nothing to what might exist.  Artemisia is the chief
shrub; several good springs occur: clover, and good grass are both
abundant for a small party; _Joussa_ in cultivation.  The mountain range
to the north is very fine, and apparently of different formation from the
others; here and there whitish patches occur.  There is a very evident
slope, which is very gradual from the northern range to the _peculiar_
slope of the southern.

Several springs of fine water occur: the temperature of which is 60
degrees.  Fish are abundant about the mouths of these springs, which are
like caves; their waters form one of the heads of the Turnuk, along them
Mentha, Gramineae 2, Plantago major, Centaurea magnispina, Compositae,
Trifolium.  In the spring Polygonum natans, and P. graminifol., Chara,
Cyperacae.

[Peculiar slope: m368.jpg]

_13th_.--Gojhan, the distance to this place is 12 miles 6 furlongs: it is
not within sight of the Turnuk, though still up the valley of that river,
with the same boundaries: a few ravines were crossed but they were not
difficult: the road, otherwise level, turning most of them, and capable
of easy transit.  One small stream was passed, when we encamped on a
small cut with excellent water: the banks as usual clovery and grassy;
opposite this are two villages on either side of a gorge in the northern
boundary, both apparently fortified; the one to the north of the gorge is
of large size.  The country is not shingly, but the soil is mixed with
small pebbles; to our right is a bold hill; vegetation the same.
_Bicornigera_ planta is very common, and a good deal of madder
cultivation occurs; wheat and barley all cut and thrashed or trodden out:
_atta_ selling eight and a half seers the rupee.  Thermometer at day
break 49 degrees, the west winds continue strong: they arise about 11
A.M. and continue till sunset, sometimes even a little later; they are
not hot.

This place, and its environs, is one of the most promising looking I have
seen; the whole face of the country being perhaps capable of cultivation.
No _Joussa_ seen except perhaps among the cultivated fields; grass is
plentiful enough for a small force, and _Boosee_ likewise.

Quails were seen on the march at some distance: it seems to be a great
country for potash, and perhaps for camphor, which is evidently abundant
in one species of Artemisia.

_14th_.--Proceeded to Mookhloor or _Chushm-i-Turnuk_, twelve and a
half miles; direction about NNE.  The country is the same, but the road
is more raviny: certain passes occur about three miles from Gojhan,
presenting a fine defile, and some smaller ones afterwards.  Vegetation
continues the same.  Artemisiae, Astragali, and Peganum, are most common;
observed a new Astragalus.  The valley is much wider after passing
Gojhan; the southern boundary is not so distinct, owing to the haze:
there is not much cultivation, which appears to be confined to the slopes
under the hills.  Mookhloor is situated under a fine limestone cliff; and
an excellent stream of water occurs here, and abundance of fine grass
along the humid banks: along this water villages are abundant, they are
all fortified.  Trees are plentiful, indeed after Candahar and Arghandab,
this is the best looking place we have seen: the view is not distinct
however, owing to the haze above alluded to: beyond the water, lies a
vast and barren plain.  Fish are abundant in the stream, and vegetation
luxuriant along its margins.  This stream divides into two or three
branches, which are all soon choked up with sedges, etc., a cut carries
off the greater part of the water, the slope is to the south, or a little
to the west of south.

Typha angustifolia occurs in profusion, Mentha, Cochlearia, Epilobiae 2,
Calamus abundant, Cyperaceae in profusion, Ranuncul. aquatic, Alisma
ditto.  The vegetation of the plain where we are encamped is chiefly
Artemisia.

_15th_.--Halted: and I here ascended the hills overhanging the heads of
Turnuk where many villages are visible along its branches, fifty may be
counted, but it is not known how many of these are in ruins, the villages
occur at little distances from each other; the valley is very broad.
These hills, which are of conglomerate limestone, except about the upper
one-third, which is simple limestone, have no peculiar vegetation.  Ficus
is the only moderate sized shrub, Asphodelus, Lameoides, Salvia alia,
which must be a beautiful species, Labiatae caespitosa, Baehmerioides,
Pommereulla, and several grasses, Compositae, Linaria, Senecionoides
glaucescens of Quettah, Dianthoides frutex alius congener, Staticoides
alia, Composita Eryngifolia, Eryngium, Astragali 2, Umbelliferae 2-3,
Hibiscus vel Althaei, Rutae sp.; Frutex pistacioides, Sedoides rosaceus,
Onosma, Verbascum, Dipsacea, Cerasus pygmaeus, canus, Scrophularia
tertia, Compositae, Labiatae, and grasses, are all the most common
plants.

The novelties along the water are a pretty species of Astragalus, in turf
a Triglochin and Typha in flower, Potamogetons 3-4, and Ecratophyllum
occur: barley is now selling at sixteen seers, wheat at eight seers for a
rupee.

_16th_.--Reached Oba-kahreeze, the distance of which from the last
encampment being fourteen miles.  The country is open, but very
uninteresting; the boundary hills are scarcely discernible owing to haze:
the road is good, and a few small hills occur here and there.  Vegetation
is comparatively scanty; Astragalus novus, common; the chief plants,
however, is another Artemisia of much more medicated qualities than those
previously met with, that is, less fragrant, Peganum common.  Water is
plentiful enough, but fodder is scarce, and scarcely any _Joussa_ occurs;
but a good deal of cultivation was passed, consisting of madder, barley,
and wheat.  A few trees were observed here and there marking the sites of
villages.  The country is much poorer than that at Mookhloor, but almost
the whole expanse of plain is capable of good cultivation: soil pebbly.
Fowls a good many are procurable.  Apricots are also brought for sale,
but very inferior: a striking boundary hill to the north presents a
rugged, lofty aspect, not less in the peaks than 4,000 above the plain;
several ranges occur, but those to the south are low, rounded, and small;
rounded clumps of Astragali are seen.

_17th_.--Proceeded to Jumrat, 12 miles and 2 furlongs, our direction
lying to the north of the star Capella.  The country continues to present
a similar aspect: valley expanded, road tolerable, several ravines and
beds of dry watercourses, with sandy bottoms; indeed as compared with
yesterday, the soil is much more sandy and less pebbly.  Vegetation is
the same, no more dense aggregations of Artemisia fruticosa are seen, but
the plants consisting of scattered Artemisia of yesterday, barely
suffruticose, Peganum, Astragalus, Astragaloid Muscoideus, and Senecio
glaucescens.  A good deal of cultivation occurs on both sides of the
slope towards the southern boundary, which is here lofty, presenting the
usual limestone characters.  Many villages are seen, all fortified, and
about Jumrat there is the appearance of much population.  Jerboas,
ravens, rock pigeons, and wild pigeons, are common; hares are uncommon.
Very few trees are to be seen, but there is abundance of good water and
grass along the margins of the cut.  Sheep are also to be had, but they
are small, and goats for one rupee each, large sheep two rupees: _dhal_,
_atta_, barley procurable; and Herat rugs.

To-day the native troops were put on short rations of twelve _chatacs_;
servants, etc. on eight.  Horsemen to the number of 100? came to meet the
Shah, all mounted on decent ponies, but quite incapable of coping with
our irregular horse.  Barometer 23.305, thermometer 87 degrees, Wooll.
new thermometrical barometer 697.6, old 595.8.

From 11 P.M. to 12 P.M. heavy rain; very heavy for about twenty minutes,
with a threatening aspect in the horizon at 7 A.M. to south by east, from
which direction the rain came: thunder and lightning; latter very
frequent.

_18th_.--Entered the district of Karabagh, distance to our present place
of encampment from that we had left eight and a half miles.  The road
decent, traversing several watercuts, one or two ravines, and a small
stream, indeed water becomes more abundant to-day than in almost any
other march: our direction lay the same as before, but as we approached
the low hills, separating us from Ghuznee plain, we proceeded more east
in order to turn them.  The features of the country are the same,
together with the vegetation, the only novelty being a genuine Statice
and a Cruciferous plant, which I observed at Mookhloor, and a Composita,
Echinops spinis radiantibus continued.  The medicated suffruticose
Artemisia: _Joussa_ in old cultivation, and Peganum are the most common
plants.

Grass abundant along the cuts and streamlets, mixed with a pretty new
Astragalus, and the Astragalus of Mookhloor, _Composita depressa_, etc.

The valley narrowing, we halted at the foot of low hills, which we are
yet to traverse; the ground about our camp stony and barren, producing
Astragalus, thorny Staticoides, Centaurea spinosa, Verbascum, and
Thapsus.

The soil of the plain good and deep, as instanced by ravines, and the
deep beds of streamlets.  Cultivation is abundant, villages numerous,
and, as usual, all walled; their form generally square, with a bastion at
each corner, and often two at each face, in which there is a gate.  The
people are very confident of their own security in these parts, crowding
to our camp with merchandise.  The country continues bare of trees,
except about some of the villages; northern boundary hills lofty; a
curious snow-like appearance is occasionally produced from denudation of
land slips, like a long wall running along one of the ridges: southern
hills distant, presenting limestone characters.

The articles sold in camp yesterday, were _atta_ (wheat) eight seers,
barley sixteen _chenna_, sugar three to four seers.  Lucerne abundant, at
one rupee four annas a bullock load, _soorais_, _kismiss_, three to four
seers, _zurd-aloo_ twelve seers, dried _toot_ or mulberry one and a
half seers for a rupee, but these are insipid, very sweet, but also very
dirty, _pistacio_ nuts one seer: crops not yet cut, but ripe.

_Kupra_, cloth of common quality, as well as a black kind called
_soosee_.

Barometer, mean of three observations (12 P.M., 1 P.M., 2 P.M.) 23.433,
thermometer 85 degrees 6'.  Wooll. new therm.  bar. mean of two
observations, 699.1, old, 597.5.  Lichens abundant on black _limestone_?
rocks.  On hills about camp, Labiata nova, and a curious tomentose plant
were the only novelties.

_19th_.--Proceeded to Argutto, distance nine miles, direction easterly,
the country continues unchanged until we ascended gradually the end of
the low ridge between us and Ghuznee.  The slope was very gradual: the
road towards the foot generally sandy, and in some places very bouldery:
on surmounting the ridge, which was not 300 feet above the plain, we
descended a trifle, and encamped in an open space with hills to the
north; this place slopes to the south into the valley up which we have
come for some marches.  The valley in this upper portion is not so
fertile as the lower parts we have seen lately, still there are a good
many forts, and some cultivation: one or two cuts were passed, and water
is abundant at our halting place in cuts, or _Kahrezes_, as well as in a
small torrent with a shallow bed.  Several forts were seen on the north
side, situated in the small ravines of the hills, they are however,
mostly ruined.  No change in the vegetation.  Jerboas not uncommon.  An
Accipitrine bird, the same as that obtained at Shair-i-Suffer.

Horsemen, about thirty, were seen on the hills; they descended thence and
skirted the base in number; when they were pursued by our cavalry, but
escaped through a ravine which Sturt says, leads into a fine plain with
many forts.  The 4th brigade joined with the Shah's force.  I observed to-
day a curious monstrosity of an Umbelliferous plant, in which the rays of
the umbellules are soldered together; forming an involucre round the
immersed central solitary female, the male flowers forming the extreme
teeth of the involucre.

Detached thermometer 83 degrees 3', attached ditto 83 degrees 3';
barometer 23.262, mean of three observations: old therm. bar. 597.2, new
ditto 696.9.  Abundance of villages throughout the part of the valley
running east, and then north, and many trees.

[Ghuznee: p373.jpg]

_20th_.--Proceeded to Nanee, distance eight to ten miles, bearing north-
east; after descending slightly from the ground we encamped on, and
turning the east extremity of its slope, the road is good, sandy and
shingly, running close to low undulated hills.  No change in vegetation.
Encamped on undulated shingly ground formed from low hills to the north,
about half a mile off: Ghuznee is thence visible, situated close under a
range of hills, the walls high, having many bastions, and one angle on
the south face.  Abundance of villages and topes or groves about the
valley closing up with irregular barren mountains.  Picquets were seen
about five miles from our camp, but no appearance of an army about
Ghuznee.

The valley up which we have come since leaving Mookhloor, runs opposite
this place, from nearly east to north, and apparently, terminates beyond
Ghuznee; it is highly capable, is well inhabited and much cultivated.  So
are all the valleys that we have seen on surmounting the boundary ridges:
the villages occupy each indentation of the valley, as well as its
general level.

Barometer at 1 P.M. 23.336, thermometer 91 degrees: new thermometric bar.
697.1, old 597.2.  Latitude mean of three observations 33 degrees 24' 26"
North.

_21st_.--Moved to Ghuznee, ten miles six furlongs.  Cavalry in very
regular columns on the left; infantry to the right, and the artillery in
the centre; the park bringing up the rear: to the last moment we were not
aware whether the place would hold out or not.  The Commander-in-Chief
and staff moved far in advance to reconnoitre until we entered a road
between some gardens, at the exit of which we were almost within range of
the town; here we halted; a fire was soon set up against us from gardens
to our left, and somewhat in advance, but all the shots fell far short.
On the arrival of the infantry, the light companies of the 16th, the 48th
were sent to clear the gardens, which they easily did, although from
being trenched vineyards, walled and _treed_, their defence might have
been very obstinate.  In the mean time the guns on the south face of the
fortress opened on us, and our artillery forming line at about 800 yards
range, opened their fire of spherical case and round shot in return;
other guns in the fort then opened and a sharp fire was kept up on those
in the gardens by _jhinjals_ and _pigadas_, who when hard pressed took
refuge in an outwork or round tower.  The fire from the south-east
extremity was soon silenced _pro tempore_, the shrapnel practice being
very effective.  The howitzer battery on the extreme left of the
artillery line was too great a range, and with the exception of one gun,
all the shells fell short.  In the _melee_, the Zuburjur 48-pounder, was
dismounted, and carried with it a considerable portion of the wall of the
citadel where it is built upon a scarp in the east face.  After some
further firing, the troops were withdrawn almost without range, but
sheltered by gardens and broken ground.  From 9 A.M. the engineers with
an escort reconnoitred the place, and having ascertained that the only
practicable point of attack _with our means_ was the Cabul gate, we
were moved off, and marched to the new ground in the evening.  Owing to
the difficulty of crossing a river and several cuts which intercepted the
way, and formed the worst road for camels and guns I have yet seen, much
of the baggage was not up till twelve next (i.e. this) morning.

One European was killed, accompanying the escort.  Graves severely, and
Von Homrig slightly wounded, a _golundauz_ lost his leg, and a few others
were wounded.  Their gun practise in the fortress improved much towards
the end, and against the reconnoitring party, was said to be good.

_22nd_.--The ground we now occupy is the mouth of the valley, up which
the Cabul road runs: our camp stretches obliquely across this; the Shah's
camp taking a curve and resting by its left on the river.  On our (i.e.
the sappers) right, is a range of hills, from the extremity of which the
town is commanded; between us and the range in question, the 4th brigade
is stationed, and on the other side, the remainder of the infantry.  We
are it seems within reach of the long gun, which has been remounted, and
occasionally directs its energies against the Shah's camp.  The night was
quiet, the troops completely knocked up by the fatigues of the day, the
distance we came (to the right) was certainly six miles, and that by
which the infantry moved to the left, was still more.

The gardens between us and the town are occupied by the enemy, but the
village of Zenrot on the ridge, is not.  Large numbers of cavalry are
seen on the other boundary range of the valley, opposite our encampment,
certainly 2,000; this is probably the other son of Dost Mahommud, who
left the fort with the Gilzee cavalry on the night of our march to
Ghuznee, for the purpose of attacking our baggage; they were easily
driven from the ridge, which is now occupied by our horse.

_23rd_.--Ghuznee was taken this morning by a coup-de-main, the whole
affair was over in half an hour from the time the gate was blown open;
there was, however, a good deal of firing afterwards, and some of the
inhabitants even held out throughout the day, and caused almost as much
loss as that which occurred in the storm.  The affair took place as
follows: the guns moved into position between 12.5 and 2.5 P.M., and
about 3 P.M. commenced firing at the defences over the gate: under cover
of this fire the bags of powder, to the amount of 800 lbs. were placed
against the gate by Captain Peat, the hose being fired by Lieut. Durand.
In the mean time the road to the gate was occupied by the storming party,
the advance of which was composed of the flank companies of all the
European Regiments.  The head of the advance was once driven back by a
resolute party of Affghans, who fought desperately hand to hand, but a
jam taking place, the check was only momentary.  After clearing the gate,
the enemy must have become paralysed, and both town and citadel were
gained with an unprecedentedly trifling loss.  None of the engineers, or
of the party who placed the bags, were touched, although from the enemy
burning blue lights they must have been seen distinctly: two, of a few
Europeans who accompanied Capt. Peat were shot; one killed.  During the
day a great number of prisoners were taken, among whom was Dost
Mahommud's son; a great number of horses also fell into our hands.

_24th_.--Ghuznee: by this morning at 9 o'clock every thing was quiet, and
the last holders-out have been taken; strict watch is kept at the gate to
prevent plunder, dead horses are now dragged out, and dead men buried:
the place looks desolate, but the inhabitants are beginning to return.  It
appears to me a very strong, though very irregular place, the stronger
for being so: the streets are very narrow, and dirty enough, houses poor,
some said to be good inside, it is a place of considerable size, perhaps
one-third less than Candahar.  It is surrounded by a wet ditch, of no
great width, the walls are tall and strong, weakest on the north-east
angle immediately under the citadel; parapets, etc. are in good repair.
The loop holes are however absurd, and even when large are carefully
screened.  The ditch is crossed at the Cabul gate by a stone bridge.  The
Zuburjur is a very large gun, but almost useless to Affghans, who are no
soldiers.  Every side of the town might have been stoutly defended.

The view from the citadel is extensive and fine, the mountains to the
north and north-west extremely so, and seem crowded in the view, while
the river and its cultivation add novelty to an Affghan landscape; many
villages are visible in every direction, surrounded with gardens and
orchards.

There is a good deal of cultivation all round the town, which is situated
on a sloping mound, separated by the ditch from the ridge forming the
northern boundary of the valley, up which the Cabul road runs; there is a
small mosque on this ridge, and below it, within 400 yards of the
ramparts, a small village, from which the attack was best seen.  The
gardens are as usual walled, and are all capable of irrigation, the plots
being covered with fine grass or clover.  Apples, apricots, pears, and
plums much like the Orlean's plum, a sort of half greengage, bullace,
Elaeagnus, and mulberries, are the principal fruit trees; of these the
pear is the best, it is small but well flavoured; the others are
indifferent.  There are many vineyards dug into shallow trenches: the
plum is allied to the egg-plum, but altogether there are four kinds.

The chief vegetation of the uncultivated ground is a small Salsola,
Salsola luteola, this is mixed with Peganum, Santalaceae, Senecionoides
glaucescens, Umbelliferoid bicornigera, Composita, having the decurrent
part of the leaves dislocated and hanging down.  Centaurea spinescens,
Linaria, _Joussa_, and one or two Astragali.

The vegetation, with the exception of an Artemisia indicae similis, a
Malvacea, and an Orobanche growing on Cucumis sp., is precisely the same
as that met with from Mookhloor hither, Cichorium, Polygonum
graminifolium natans, and two others, Rumex, Mentha, Epilobium
micranthum, Dandelion, Plantago major, Panicum.

There are two kinds of willow trees; Thermopsis is not uncommon,
Centaurea magnispina and Zygophyllum of Candahar are very common,
Sisymbrium, Lophia, Hyoscyamus, Centaurea cyanea, Tauschia.  Magpies,
Hoopoes, Pastor roseus.  Corvus corax, etc., along the water-cuts.

Some fine Poplars occur at a village, or rather a Fuqeer's residence;
about one and a half mile to the south-west of the town on the road to
Candahar, and about it, one or two Carduaceae, one a fine one, to be
called C. zamufolia, Pomacea acerifolia, also in gardens: among the
cultivated plants are maize, fennel, aniseed? Solarium, Bangun! Madder,
the beautiful clover of Mookhloor, lucerne, melons, watermelons, cresses,
L. sativum, radishes, onions, beetroot.

There are no ruins indicating a very extensive old city.  About our camp
are the remains of bunds and old mud walls; near us, and between us and
the city, are two minars, with square tall pedestals, of burnt brick,
about 100 feet high, and 600 paces apart: there is nothing striking about
them, although they bear evidences of greater architectural skill than
any thing I have seen in the country, excepting the interior of Ahmed
Shah's tomb.  The base is angular, fluted, and equals the capital, which
is but little thicker towards its base.  They are brick, and derive their
beauty from the diversity in the situation of the bricks.  The one
nearest the city is the smaller, and appears perfect, it is likewise
provided with a staircase: the larger one is broken at the top of the
capital.

_26th_.--I went to see Mahmoud of Ghuznee's tomb, which is situated in a
largish and better than ordinarily built village, about two miles from
the Cabul gate, on the road to Cabul, at a portion of the valley densely
occupied with gardens.  The situation is bad, and the building which
appears irregular, quite unworthy of notice; it is situated among the
crowded houses of the village, and to be found, must be enquired for.

At the entrance of the obscure court-yard which leads to it, there is a
fine rivulet that comes gushing from under some houses, shaded by fine
mulberry trees; in this court are some remains of Hindoo sculpture in
marble; the way there leads past an ordinary room under some narrow
cloisters to the right, then turning to the left one enters another
court, on the north side of which is the entrance to the tomb; there is
no architectural ornament at all about it, either inside or out.  The
room is an ordinary one, occupied towards the centre by a common old
looking tomb of white marble, overhung by lettered tapestry, and
decorated with a tiger skin: over the entrance, hang three eggs of the
ostrich, for which the natives have the very appropriate name of camel
bird, and two shells, like the Hindoo conches, but smaller.  The roof is
in bad order, and appears to have been carved.  The doors appear old;
they are much carved, but the carvings are effaced; they are not
remarkable for size, beauty, or mass; and appear to be cut from some fir
wood, although the people say they are sandal wood.  The tomb strikingly
confirms the idea that the Putans became improved through their
connection with Hindoostanees, rather than the reverse; the tomb is
unworthy of a great conqueror.

I then ascended the ridge, and descended along it to the picquets on the
flank of our camp.  This ridge, like all the low ones from Mookhloor to
this place, is rounded, very shingly, and generally on the northern face,
is partly covered with rocks, apparently limestone.  The vegetation
presents nothing unusual, with the exception of a very large Cnicus,
Cnicoideus zamiafolius, capitulis parvis, an Umbellifera, a Scutellaria,
Dipsacus; otherwise they are thinly scattered with two or three
Astragali, two or three Artemisiae, among which A. gossypifera is the
most common, Labiata fragrans of Karabagh, Senecio glaucescens,
Compositae, Eryngioides, Centaurea alia, magnispinae affinis, Santalacea,
Leucades, Onosma major, et alia, foliis angustis, Echinops prima,
Sedoides, Cerasus, Canus pygmaeus, Dianthoides alia.

The view from this ridge is beautiful, it shows that three valleys enter
the Karabagh one about Ghuznee, the largest to the eastward; then the
Cabul one, then that of the Ghuznee river.  The slope of this valley from
the mountains to the river, presents a very undulated appearance.  The
cultivation is confined to the immediate banks of the river, which is
thickly inhabited, and to most of the ravines of the mountains, shewing
that water is generally plentiful.  The river is to be traced a long way
by means of the line of villages and orchards which follow its banks.

The mountains are very barren, much varied in the sculpture of their
outlines, and are by no means so rugged as those of limestone in the
Turnuk valley.  The lofty one which presents the appearance of a wall
near its ridge, and of snow, alluded to during the march hither on the
18th ultimo, is still visible.  Considerable as is the cultivation, it
bears a very small proportion to the great extent of waste, and probably
untillable land, untillable from the extreme thinness of the soil and its
superabundant stones.  Cratoegus occurred near Mahmoud's tomb, also
Centaurea cyanea.

_29th_.--Halted: nothing new; botany very poor; poorer than ordinary.

_30th_.--Moved to Shusgao, distance thirteen and three-quarter miles,
direction still the same, or, to the north of the star Capella.  The road
extends over undulating ground, is cut up by ravines, but easily
traversed, ascending and descending; then crossing a small valley, at the
north-east corner of which the ghat is visible: the ascent to the mouth
of this gorge equals apparently the height attained before descending
into the valley.  The pass is narrow, the sides steep but not
precipitous; the hills are not very rugged, and they are generally thinly
clothed with scattered tufted plants; the pass gradually widens, and has
a ruin or remains of a small fort-like building as at the entrance.  This
ruin, or fort, looks down into a poorly inhabited, poorly cultivated,
Khorassan valley: road good, with a gradual ascent for one and a half
mile from the exit of the pass, where we encamped, about five miles on
the Cabul side.

The Botany is rather interesting, the general features are the same as
those of the hills round Ghuznee; the most common plants Senecionoides
glaucus, Plectranthus of Mookhloor in profusion, a new densely tufted
Statice very common, Verbascum, Thapsioides, Linaria, Artemisia very
common, Cnici, two or three of large stature, Astragali, two or three,
Asphodelus luteus, Labiata of Mookhloor, Santalacea, Dipsacus, _Thymus_,
Lotoides, Staticoides major.

In the undulated ground before reaching the valley preceding the pass, a
fine tall Cnicus occurs, also Plectranthus; Peganum is very common.

About our halting place the same small Artemisia and Composita dislocata
occur in profusion; Cnicus zamiafolius, Dianthus aglaucine, _Astragalus_,
a peculiar prim-looking species.  Leguminosae, Muscoides two or three,
very large Cnici, Plectranthus, Iris out of flower, Astragali alii, 2-3.

Cultivation consisting of mustard and very poor crops, of which wheat is
the principal: a few ordinary villages are seen with good and abundant
supplies of water; the country notwithstanding is inferior, as compared
with that about Ghuznee.  The soil coarse and gravelly, or pebbly.
Thermometer 47 degrees at 5 A.M.

After descending from the gorge, the summit of which may be estimated at
400 to 500 feet, the ascent is considerable: barometer standing at 1.5
P.M. at 22.323; thermometer 86 degrees; so that the extreme ascent since
leaving Ghuznee has certainly been between 1,100 to 1,200 feet.

The inhabitants are coming into camp with articles for sale, as lucerne,
clover, coarse rugs, and sheep.

_31st_.--Proceeded to Huftasya, eight and a quarter miles, direction
about the same, continuing down a narrow valley with a well marked and
tolerable road, extending over undulating ground, having a slight descent
throughout: the centre of the valley is cultivated, villages extend up
the ravines of the northern side.  We halted near several villages, with
a good deal of cultivation around, consisting of beans and mustard.  But
few trees are seen about the villages, and there is no change in
vegetation: water abundant from covered _kahreezes_ or wells, which
generally flow into small tanks.

The slope of the southern boundary is undulated, that of the northern
though generally flat and uninteresting, yet near us becomes very bold
and rugged, but its ravines and passes are easily accessible.

Shusgao--The plants found here about the cultivation, are Achillaeoides,
Asteroides, Plantago major, Hyoscyamus, Tanacetoides, Artemisia,
Trifolium, Taraxacum, Mentha, Phalaris, Rumex, the small swardy Carex of
Chiltera, Astragalus, calycibus non-inflatis, tomentoso villoso, this
last with Composita dislocata is common on shingly plains.

On slopes of hills Leucades, Cerasus canus, pygmaeus rare, Dianthoides,
Plectranthus very common, Cnici 3 or 4, Labiata of Mookhloor,
Senecionoides glaucescens common, Artemisia, sp. very common, Staticoides
of Dhun-i-Shere, Anthylloides, Verbascum.

_Hyoscyamus_.  The circumcision of the capsule of this genus is
apparently in connection with the peculiar induration of the calyx of the
fruit; its relations to the capsule is so obvious that its dehiscence is
the only one compatible with the free dissemination of the seeds, _the_
_calyx remaining entire_.  _Hence_? the induration of the calyx
should be the most permanent if it is the cause, but to obviate all
doubts, both calyx, fructus induratus, and capsula circumscissa, should
enter into the generic character; the unilaterality of capsules, and
their invariable tendency to look downwards, or rather the inferior
unilaterality, may likewise reasonably be considered connected with the
same structure of calyx, as well as the expanded limb of the calyx.

The indurated calyx is the cause, because although circumscissa capsula
is by no means uncommon, and in others has no relation to the calyx, yet
in this genus it has such, and should have in every other similar case.

_August 1st_.--Hyderkhet, distance ten and a half miles down the same
valley; the road is bad and after crossing the undulating terminations of
the southern slope, very stony and bouldery; in several places it is
narrow and uneven.  The country is well inhabited, and very well
cultivated, particularly towards the bed of the river, which is here and
there ornamented with trees.  Numbers of villagers are seen on the road
as spectators.  Beans very abundant, mustard less so, excellent crops of
wheat; the fields are well tilled, and very cleanly kept: this portion of
the valley, though small, is perhaps the best populated and cultivated
place we have yet seen: the descent throughout is gradual: the boundary
hills, at least lower ranges present a very barren character, covered
with angular slaty fragments.  Some tobacco cultivation.

_2nd_.--Shekhabad, nine miles and six furlongs, direction north-east by
east.  The road throughout is rather bad, particularly in places near the
Schneesh river, which has a very rapid current.  We left this on its
turning abruptly through a narrow ravine to the south: towards this, the
valley narrows much; we then ascended a rising ground, and descended as
much or perhaps less until we reached the Logur, a river as large almost
as the Arghandab, this we crossed by a bridge composed of stout timbers,
laid on two piers composed of stones and bushes, and tied together by
beams: the cavalry and artillery forded below, and above the bridge.
Crossing the bed which is low and well cultivated, chiefly with rice, we
ascended perhaps 100 feet, and encamped on undulating shingly ground; we
then passed much cultivation on the road: villages are plentiful, and
often placed in very narrow gorges unusually picturesque for
Affghanistan; one scene was especially pretty, enclosed by the high
barren mountains of the southern boundary, in the distance a village or
two, and the Schneesh, with banks well wooded, and willows in the
foreground.

The aspect of the hills, except some of the distant ranges, is however
changed; quartz has become very common among the shingle, with reddish,
generally micaceous, slate: the mountains are rounded, and easy of
access: very poorly clothed with vegetation.  The course of the Logur is
nearly north and south.

There are some villages about this place, with lucerne, clover and
bearded rice of small stature.

The elevation of the country is here about 100 feet below our camp, which
is about half a mile from the river.  Barometer 182, 23.362; thermometer
95 degrees; latitude 34 degrees 5' 30".

_3rd_.--Halted: the Logur river discharges much water; the whole of the
tillable portions of adjacent banks are not under cultivation, the rocky
sides to the south composed of micaceous slate, are very precipitous;
these mountains were originally rounded, but are now formed into cliffs;
willows and poplars are abundant along the river.  But the vegetation of
the cliffy sides scarcely presents any change, except in a Salvia, a
Ruta, a small withered Leguminosa; the other plants are Polygonacea
frutex uncommon, Senecionoides, Salvia Horminum common, Artemisia two:
the usual one very common, Asphodelus, Mesembryanthoides, and luteus,
several Compositae, two or three Cnicoidei, a Pulicaria, etc. of the same
section, Cuscuta, Linaria angustifolia, Stipa, several withered grasses,
Dianthoides, Scrophularia, Allium, Cerasus canus, pygmaeus uncommon,
Sedoides, Boragineae, Boraginis facie common, Leucades, Astragali, three
or four, Onosmae 2, angustifolia and majus, Scutellaria, Equisetoides,
Ephedra.

Anthylloides, Plectranthus common, Peganum uncommon, Staticoides major,
Compositae dislocata common.

In the swardy and wet spots along river, the usual plants occur; the
novelty being a Hippuris out of flower, Plantago, Glaux, Chara, Alisma,
Tamarisk, Salix, Trifolium fragiferum, Thermopsis, Cyperacea, Triglochim,
Equisetum.  The _Nuthatch_ found in the cliffs, cultivation occurs.

To-day news arrived of the flight of Dost Mahommud to Bamean, with 3,000
Affghan Horse.  Captain Outram sent in pursuit.  The Shah joined us,
attended by perhaps 2,000 Horse, and people are said to be flocking into
our camp from Cabul.

_4th_.--Proceeded to Killa-Sir-i-Mahommud, distance ten and a half miles,
direction north by east, the park of artillery, etc. remaining behind,
the road for the first half extending over undulating ground to the head
of the valley, then becoming level and good with some inferior
cultivation: the valley is dry and barren.  We encamped on stony ground
forming a slight eminence under a beautiful peak, certainly 4,000 to
5,000 feet above the plain, and hence 12,000 to 13,000 feet above the
sea.  The valley at the base of the hills is occupied by a few villages,
but generally speaking little population exists in these parts.  No
change in vegetation; at the level part of the march the Chenopodiaceae
of Karabagh is very common.

The 2,000 Dooranees who joined the Shah yesterday dwindled down to 300 by
the evening, and the camp was fired into at night.  There is some
cultivation about this, chiefly of mustard, carrots, millet and Panicum,
Setaria.

_5th_.--To Maidan, distance eight miles? direction at first as before,
but after crossing the river due north, we continued down the valley,
passing some villages and cultivation consisting of beans, etc.; water
being abundant about three miles from camp, forming a small brook, which
falls into the Cabul river at the end of the valley.  Before reaching
this we crossed a low spur, and then descended into Maidan valley: which
presented a beautiful view; much cultivation, and trees abundant along
the Cabul river.

Crossing this which is a rapid current one foot deep, twenty yards wide,
running south, or in the contrary direction to that which is given in
Tassin's Map, we ascended an eminence on which a ruinous stone fort is
built, we crossed this eminence between the fort and main ridge and
descended into a valley again, keeping above the cultivation at the foot
of the east boundary range, for about a mile, when we halted.  The ruins
of a stone bridge exist over the river, one arch remaining on the left
bank.

The valley is the prettiest we have seen, the hills to the west and north
being lofty and picturesque; one to the latter direction presenting an
appearance exactly like that of snow on its ridge, quite white, but not
changing even at noon, nor occupying such places, as it would do if it
were snow.  The mountains, except those to the west, are not boldly
peaked, the valley is prettily diversified with wood, all of the usual
sombre cypress-like appearance, from the trees, especially poplars, being
clipped.  Cultivation and water both plentiful: villages and small forts
numerous, with very barren mountains.  This was the place where Dost
Mahommud was to have fought; he could not have selected a better, the
ridge entering the valley, and the passage of the river, as well as that
of the fort would have afforded good positions: a road however runs round
the base of the eminence on the river side.  By swamping the valley, or
cutting a canal, and entrenching himself he might have caused great
difficulties.  Apples are abundant here, rosy and sweet.

Cultivation of the valley consists of wheat, barley, Cicer, not _chunna_,
maize, rice, carrots, beans, peas.

The river side is well furnished with willows and poplars, Salix viminea
also occurs; the villages are generally square, with a bastion at each
corner, and loopholes.  Cyprinus microsquamatus, {383} common.

_6th_.--Arghundee, distance eight miles, direction for the first fourth
of the way NE., then considerably to the eastward, when we soon left the
valley and commenced with an ascent over a low ridge by a vile stony road
over undulating ground.  On reaching the ridge a similar descent took
place, where the road becomes less stony, but much intersected by
ravines.  We encamped about three miles from the ridge, in a rather
barren narrow valley.  Nothing of interest occurred on the road, except
Dost Mahommud's guns, which are the best I have seen in the country.  The
hills to our north crowded closely together, the inner ranges are very
high, with the appearance of snow.

Hindoo-koosh is dimly seen in the distance to the eastward.  In some
streams water birds, particularly the small kingfisher of India are seen.
The Hoopoe is common, Merops, Pastor, and ravens.  New plants a Boragineae
floribus infundibuliformis, tubiformibus, loeta caeruleis, venosa roseis,
melons.  Snow on the Hindoo-koosh: rain in the afternoon, and at night a
heavy thunderstorm to the north.

_7th_.--Kilah-i-Kajee, lies one mile to the eastward: distance of
to-day's march, nine miles? one continued but gradual descent over a bad,
frequently very stony road, not much water.  Direction at first ENE.,
then on descending into the first valley, due east or even to the south
of east, we encamped in the centre of a well-cultivated valley; near
dense gardens, having good apples; apricots indifferent.  Hindoo-koosh is
here more distinctly visible with several ranges interposed; the outline
is rugged, highest point presenting a fine conical irregular peak towards
the south-east.

_8th_.--Halted: encamped close to gardens and rich cultivation.  The
fields are separated by rows of poplars, willows, and Elaeagnus; scenery
pretty from abundance of trees with rice fields interspersed among woods;
the umbrageous banks of the rocky river of Cabul, are quite of unusual
beauty for Afghanistan: extensive fields of cultivation lie in this
direction, as well as across the valley in the direction of Cabul,
consisting of rice in great quantities, mixed with much of a Panicum
stagninum, lucerne, carrots, peas, quantities of safflower, which appears
to me to be of a different species, wheat and barley both cut, the rice
is just in flower.

In orchards, hazel-nuts, apples, pears, etc. some of the fruit excellent,
particularly pears, but generally they are coarse; apples beautiful to
look at, but poor to the taste, excellent but too luscious plums, good
grapes, excellent and fine sized peaches, melons as good as those of
Candahar, water melons, cherries of very dark colour.

Some change is to be observed in the vegetation, see Catalogue, two or
three Labiata, an Ononis, an Aconite, Tussilago? etc. among the most
striking, Ammannia and Bergioides, remarkable as tropical forms, but it
is now hot enough for any plant: rice fields crowded with Cyperaceae and
Alisma.

Crataegus oxycantha, or one very like it.  The poplar here grows like the
Lombardy one, either from cropping or crowding; its leaves (when young)
are much smaller! and at this stage it might easily be taken for another
species.

Heliotropium canus common.  The large poplar when young, or even when
matured, has its younger branches with terminal leaves like the sycamore.
The pomaceae-foliis palmatis subtus niveis of Quettah and Candahar are
nothing but this poplar in its young state!!  Nothing can exceed the
difference between the two, both in shape and tomentum.

_12th_.--Halted since 10th at Baber's tomb, situated at some fine
gardens, or rather groves very near the summer-house of Shah Zumaun, and
to the right of the entrance into the town.  It is a delightful
residence, and for Afghanistan, a paradise.  There are some tanks of
small size, around one of which our tents are pitched under the shade of
sycamores and fine poplars; the tank is fed by a fall from a cut above
its level, and which skirts the range of hills at an elevation of fifty
feet in some places from its base.  The tomb of Baber is poor, as also is
the so-called splendid mosque of Shah Jehan, a small ordinary open
edifice of coarse white marble.  In the gardens, one finds beautiful
sycamores, and several fine poplars both round the tank and in avenues.
Below them a Bauhinioid fruit was found, together with abundance of
hawthorn, roses, and jasmines.

The view from this spot is beautiful, as fine as most woodland scenery.
The view from Shah Zumaun's summer-house is also extensive, and not to be
exceeded as a cultivated woodland scene; it is variegated with green
swardy commons, presenting all sorts of cultivation; with water,
villages, abundance of trees, willows, poplars, hedgerows, and by the
grand but barren mountains surrounding it, the Pughman hills, which must
be at least 13,000 feet above the sea.

The entrance to Cabul on this side, is through a gorge flanked by hills;
these to the left are low, those to the right reaching 1,000 feet,
through which the Maidan river, here called the Cabul river, runs; it may
be 100 yards wide.  The river is subdivided, and crossed by a ruined
stone bridge of many arches, one parapet of which (the outer) is
continuous with the wall before mentioned.  The gorge is occupied by
cultivation of several kinds, having the city wall at its termination,
running irregularly across the valley.  A village is situated between the
entrance of the gorge and the wall.  There are no defences to the city
worth mentioning: one enters immediately into narrow dirty streets, with
here and there a fever-breeding stagnant sewer; while the streets are
narrow, the bazars are good, of good breadth, well covered in by flat
ornamented roofs: the shops are clean, and well laid out.  Shoemakers and
leather-workers, and fruiterers, are the most common: there are
armourers, blacksmiths, drapers and bakers.  Hindoos and Mussulmen
intermixed, form the population.  There is great bustle and activity,
everywhere profusion of fine fruit, especially melons, grapes, and apples
are presented.

_13th_.--I ascended this morning the ridge above us, up which the wall
runs; the ascent is, after surmounting the summer-house of Shah Zumaun,
considerably steep, and very rugged.  The highest position of the wall is
1,150 feet above the city.  It is eight feet high, and six or seven
thick, composed of slabs of the micaceous slaty stone of the place,
cemented by mud, with a parapet of two feet, generally of _kucha_, or
mud, with loopholes, and bad embrasures.  It is furnished with bastions,
but is now in a ruinous state.  It is a work completely thrown away.  To
the south, the wall bends eastward, and is continuous with the outworks
of the upper citadel; to the north it dips into the gorge, and re-ascends
the hills on the opposite side.

From the peak, (which is not the highest point of the ridge, there being
two higher to the south, on the nearest of which is a mound, and a small
pillar) a beautiful view is obtained of Cabul, its valley, and its
mountains, together with the far more beautiful valley in which the army
is encamped.

The town itself presents an irregular outline, and is, with the exception
of some gardens towards its northern side, some lucerne fields near its
centre, and one or two open spots of small size, densely crowded with the
usual terraced-roofed, _kucha_, or mud houses, which are so close, as to
show no streets whatever.

There is not a single conspicuous building in it, with the exception of
the lower Bala Hissar and a mosque of small size on the right bank of the
river, occupying an open space near a garden, which alone renders it
distinct.

The Bala Hissar occupies the eastern corner: its outworks are regular
enough.  It is surrounded by the remains of a wet ditch; its works have
been lately improved.  Excepting the part occupied by the Shah, etc. the
space is crowded by houses exactly like the town.  The fort to its south
and commanding it completely, is the upper citadel, and is altogether out
of repair; this continues the defence formed by the wall.  The walls of
the city themselves are not distinguishable, excepting those of the
nearest quarter, occupied by Kuzzilbashes.  The river intersects the
town, it is crossed by two, three, or perhaps more small stone bridges,
and runs nearly due east, and may be traced almost to the foot of the
eastern boundary range.  From near the mosque a fine straight road runs
NNE. or thereabouts, with avenues of trees of small size near the town.
Two other roads are visible on the east side; one is continuous with that
which runs along the north face of the lower citadel, it runs due east;
and the other slopes towards this, and meets it about two or three miles
from the city at the end of a low range of hills.

The valley is not so well cultivated as ours, (i.e. the one in which the
army is encamped) nor by any means so well wooded; it appears bare some
way from the city, but this may arise from the stubble of the prevailing
cultivation of wheat and barley.  There is abundance of water, the only
distinct _Chummun_ is to the south of the citadel, it is now under water.

Some low isolated hills or ranges are interspersed in the valley; of
these the largest is that running nearly parallel to the central road;
the next is due north of the city, and midway between it and the salt-
water lake which stretches several miles along the north of the valley,
and which appears to be a large body of water.

The boundary hills are generally fine; to the east is a high scarped bold
range, running nearly due north and south, its terminations being plainly
visible; near its southern end commences the ridge that forms the oblique
south boundary of the valley, and which runs up towards the south into a
fine broadly conical peak, very conspicuous from Arghandab.  To the north
are the fine Pughman mountains; these run east and west: they are of
great elevation, and of fine outline, presenting here and there
appearances of snow.  To the west is the walled ridge, not exceeding
1,300 feet in its highest point above the general level; this is
interrupted by the Cabul river, and never reaches such elevations again;
before ending to the north, it sends off a spur to the east.

Beyond the eastern boundary, glimpses of the Hindoo-koosh are obtainable.

To the west, there are no very high hills visible, excepting the western
part of the Pughmans; those of our valley are not exceeding 2,000 feet in
height, and are low to the south, in which direction the Maidan river
flows into the valley.  Beyond the highest point of the walled ridge, are
several crowded high mountains.

The vegetation of the western hills is not peculiar, Echinops, a tallish
Carduacea, Carduacea alia, Senecionoides, Astragali, Artemisiae 2,
Statice of Dhuni pass.

Leucades, Labiata of Karabagh, Gramineae, several small Compositae,
foliis dislocatis, Leguminosa, fructu echinatis, Santalacea, Asphodelus
luteus, Ruta angustifolia, Umbellifera, foliis maximis of Chiltera, a
very stout plant, with a very medicinal gum, a new Polanisioid, a
Centaureoid, and a fine Carduacea are to be found in it.

A Marmot, the size of a large rat, is also found here, the large
specimens are of a reddish tinge, the small ones of a blackish.

The bazars are crowded all day, and in the morning are obstructed from
asses loaded with wood.  Most things are procurable; the cloths seen are
mostly the indifferent common kind of cloth related to the Seikh Puttoo;
camel hair _chogas_, posteens or coarse blankets; these last indicating
very cold winters: there are not many other things peculiar--long knives,
and the shoes and boots are among the most so, and wretched silk
handkerchiefs.

The most common grapes are the _kismiss_, a long coarse grape which
answers for packing, a round, very sweet, purple grape, with large seeds,
and small seedless ones intermixed, are all capable of being much
improved by thinning, and a huge, tough-skinned, coarse, purple grape, of
good flavour.

The best peaches have a green appearance, even when ripe; the ordinary
ones are coarse, and not well-flavoured; but the Affghans are quite
ignorant of the art of packing fruit, and hence most are bruised.

Two sorts of apples are common, both rosy; one very much so, but much
inferior to the other.

Pears principally of two kinds, both allied to the common pear in shape;
the large ones are very coarse, but well adapted for stewing.

_Aloocha_ excellent for jellies, as also the cherries: most kinds of
plums are now out of season.

The melons vary much in quality, the watermelons are generally better,
and vary less: the muskmelons I have here seen, are ruined by inattention
to the time of gathering; some are very fine, the pulp is never very deep
coloured; it is very rarely green; some of the Kundah sort are very good;
this and the _turbooj_ are both excessively common.  The usual Cucurbita
is cultivated, as well as the other common cucumber, pumpkin, Luffa
foetida, and L. acutangula.

Cabbages common, beet root ditto, _bangun_ ditto, excellent spinage
(Spinaceae).

All sorts of spices procurable, but they are generally old: sugar very
good, is sold in flat candied cakes, one and a half inch thick; _koorool_
in small cakes resembling chunam.



CHAPTER XVI.


_From Cabul to Bamean--The Helmund_, _and Oxus rivers_.

_24th August_, _1839_.--Left Cabul for Bamean, and marched to
Urghundee.

_25th_.--To the Cabul river, distance twelve and a half miles; diverged
from the Cabul road at Urghundee Chokey, striking obliquely across a
ravine that debouches into the main valley at this point.  The course of
the river ENE. or thereabouts, then we entered a ravine to the west side
of the river, and commenced ascending the pass, which is not difficult,
and although rather steep at first, subsequently it becomes merely
undulated, the surrounding hills of the pass have the usual character,
but are separated by mere ravines.  Vegetation very scanty; Senecionoides
very common, as also _Joussa_ and Statice of Dund-i-sheer; here I noticed
the Solora found in the wood at Kilatkajee.  The Barometer at the summit
of the pass, 22.148: thermometer 60 degrees.  An extensive view is had
from it, up the Cabul river, the valley of which is well cultivated, but
presents nothing very striking in its neighbouring mountains.  Great
numbers of sheep passed us going towards Cabul, also numbers of Patans
with their families, all on camels, than some of which last nothing could
be finer.  The women's dress consists of loose gowns, generally bluish,
with short waists coming almost up under the arms, and leggings of folded
cloths; they are a gipsy-like, sun-burnt, good looking people.  Numbers
of asses laden with grain were also passed.  At the halting place
indifferent apples only were to be had.  Slight rain fell in the
afternoon from east, then it became heavier from west.

_26th_.--Distance eight miles, the road lay along the Cabul river up a
gentle ascent, over undulated ground; features of country the same,
villages, etc., abundant.  Heavy rain set in from the west after our
arrival at the encamping ground at 4 P.M., with thunder.  Night hazy,
heavy dew.

_27th_.--To Sir-i-Chushme, distance ten miles, direction continues
easterly up the Cabul river valley: features the same; road generally
good, here and there stony, crossed a large tributary falling into the
Cabul river, from the north at Juljaily, a large village, the largest in
the valley, and very pretty.  Poplars and willows in plenty along river.
Near Sir-i-Chushme the valley becomes narrow; the river passing through a
gorge, on the left side of which on rugged rocky ground, are the remains
of a tower.  The rocks here are mica slate, reposing at a considerable
angle, occasionally nearly vertical.  The surface is thinly vegetated,
Silenacea, two or three _Muscoides_ (981), Scrophulariae sp., common,
etc. (see Catal. 971, etc.)  Beyond, the valley again widens, presenting
similar features to those just mentioned.  To the right side of the
valley there is a beautiful narrow ravine, bounded on the south with
springs, to the north by a noble bleak rugged ridge, with much snow; it
has the usual features, namely, a shingly inclined plane between huge
hills.  The village of Sir-i-Chushme is built on a rising ground or small
spur, surrounded by numerous springs which supply the source of the Cabul
river; the bed of which above them is nearly dry.  The springs abound
with the usual water plants, a Cinclidotoid moss in abundance, a Celtoid
tree stands over one spring; Peganum continues.  A shallow circular pool
occurs at the foot of the hills, on which the village is built; it is
crowded with the peculiar Cyprinidae of these parts, {390a} some of which
attain three pounds in weight, as also a small loach. {390b}

The cultivation throughout this valley is good.  The soil is however
heavy, but in places it gives way to a brown mould: rice is cultivated up
to Julraiz, but not beyond, millet (Setaria), Indian-corn, lucerne,
mustard, beet root; beans and peas are very common.

Great pains are taken with watercuts, which are led off into each ravine
that debouches into the valley, at elevations of sixty to eighty feet
above the river; opposite each, the river where led off is bunded across.
The watercuts or courses are in some places built up with stones.  Apricot
trees continue, also mulberries near Julraiz, but they are not
productive.

Timber is cut in good quantities, and is floated down in the spring to
Cabul.  We continue to meet flocks of sheep and camels with Patans,
Momums, and Ghilzees going to Cabul, thence to Julallabad; after selling
their produce at Cabul, they return in the summer to the same pasturages.

The oxen used to tread out corn are muzzled: grain is winnowed as in
Europe by throwing it up in the wind, the corn falls nearest the wind,
the coarse chaff next, then the fine chaff.  Sir-i-Chushme is about the
same height as the pass into the valley of the Cabul river.

English Scrophularia were observed to-day at Julraiz.  We obtained all
provisions cheap at this place, but of very inferior quality compared to
Cabul.

The most common plants are Senecionoides and Plectranthus; Artemisiae one
or two, some Carduaceae.  Very few novelties occur: hedges of Hippophae
and roses, Salvia very common to-day; asses were seen laden with dried
_Ruwash_ leaves.

_28th_.--To Yonutt, twelve miles, continued for a short distance up the
Sir-i-Chushme valley, then we diverged to the north-west, still following
the principal streamlet up an easy defile; on reaching a beautiful
_kila_, differently ornamented from the usual form, we diverged along the
same ravine much more to the west.  We continued doing so for five or six
miles, passing a little cultivation in every possible spot capable of it,
and four or five forts.  The ascent then commenced to be steeper, still
continuing up the watercourse which was very small; this we soon left,
passing over five ridges of easy access, the third being the highest.
Barometer 20.365: thermometer 80 degrees at 10.5 A.M.; after this we
descended the 5th ridge or kotal, 200 or 300 feet, which is very steep,
having a watercourse at its bottom; direction of stream lies to the
north, thence ascending we again descended gradually over an open stony
ridge, until we reached the fort of Yonutt, where we encamped near a
green wet spot, visible for some distance.

The road here and there was bad owing to stones; except at the last
kotal, or ascent, it was nowhere very steep, but difficult enough for
camels, especially up the ascent of the 1st kotal.  It lay up a ravine
not unlike others we have seen, the ascent being considerable, but
gradual, when we left the watercourse, however, we came on a different
country, very elevated (1st kotal not under 10,000 feet), longly
_undulated_, the mountains generally massive, rounded, here and there
rising into peaks, especially to the south, near Yonutt, where there is a
fine ridge not under 14,000 or 15,000 feet, rugged with spots of snow;
the mountains to north of this are more rounded; slate and limestone
abundant, but not a tree from the base of the 1st ascent.  The ascent is
very practicable, the road is made, or artificial in many places, soil
soft and broken: there is water at seven miles from Sir-i-Chushme, and
even at the foot of the 1st kotal, at least there are two or three of the
usual villages; there is one with its wall demolished.  Many granite
blocks are strewed on the road.  For ponies and horses, even laden, the
road is very easy, but for draft it is difficult.  We experienced a cold
cutting west wind from 11 A.M.  Grass is plentiful along all the moist
spots, but it is useless as the camels prefer the Carduacea of this
place, though a bad fodder for them.

[Sir-i-Chushme ridges: m392.jpg]

Not much change was observed in the vegetation for half-way up the 1st
kotal or ascent; willows and poplars continue to nearly one mile from the
last village.  Here and there along the ravine or streamlet, Salvia is
very common, Senecionoides, Bubonoides on rocky ground, Sinapis,
Verbascum decurrens used in the Himalayas for German tinder, Statice of
Dund-i-Shere, Muscoides of yesterday, Urtica of Cabul, Malva
rotundifolia, Hyoscyamus 1-labiat., Polygonum prostratum of shingly
spots, Composita dislocata, Leucades, Boraginea, Boraginis fasciae _of_
_before_.  About Kila Moostaffur Khan a coarse tufted grass, Centaurea
oligantha common throughout, first found at Khilat-i-Gilzee; Onosma
major, Cochlearia, Dianthoides.  Chenopodium diclinum, villosa, Astragali
2-3, Cichorum, Linaria angustifolia, Euphorbia angustifolia, Marrabium,
Hyoscyamus of Quettah, Testucoides annua appears about here, Epilobium
minus, Rumex, Lactuca fol. cost. subtus spinosis, Melilotus, Silene
angulata, Arenaria, calyce globoso inflato, Echinops of Cabul.  The water
plants are precisely the same as those of Cabul.

For new plants see Catalogue 980, etc.

Summit of 1st kotal Statice of Dund-i-Shere, Statice grandiflora,
Dianthoides, several Astragali, one with the pinnulae dentato serratis,
petiola spinosa, a tufted Monocotyledonous plant with terete canaliculate
subulate leaves, _Salvia_, Gramen alterum, Composita dislocata,
Carduacea, this is the most common plant on the open rounded parts, while
the others occupy the rocky sides of the hills.  The vegetation is
however very poor.

Cultivation various, as seen in different stages along the gorge up to
the ascent.  Thus, people are seen ploughing for the next year's crops
amidst stubble fields, and lucerne; but above and throughout the ascent,
no crops are cut, while the wheat and barley on the descent are in the
ear: mustard very common.  Several encampments of what are badly called
black teal, and paths are to be seen very frequently over the hills in
most directions, together with flocks of sheep.  A large road leading off
to the south-west from the summit is seen; from this our road is well-
marked.

_29th_.--Halted: every tillable spot is made use of about Yonutt, where
there is a fort with forty families.  The crops are chiefly wheat and a
four-awned barley, the grain is fine though scanty, and the plants are of
stunted growth.  Ravens the same, round-tailed eagle as at Urghundee, and
Percnopterus, wagtails, three kinds of Conirostres, and an Alauda are
found here, one or two Sylviae.  The sward about this place is abundant,
affords good pasturage for a few horses, and water is plentiful.  This
sward is chiefly occupied by a Leguminous Caraganoid shrub, rather
thorny, and not unlike some species of Barberry in habit, this is
abundant, and is first met with in the ravines beyond the Oonnoo pass,
Cyperaceae, viz. 2-3, Carices, small grasses, Leontodon, Astragaloid
caerulens, Trifolium album, Composita corona, Cnicus acaulis, and
Gentiana pusilla, compose the sward chiefly; in the drier parts of it
there is a very fine Carduacea, which appears very local.

The hills about are all either clay slate, pure slate, or micaceous
slate, the strata generally vertical.

Descended the ravine which the rivulet passes down, to where it joins the
Helmund, the hills bounding it are of no great height, but the slips are
sometimes bold.  The Helmund runs between rocky cliffs, its bed not much
broader than the stream, the water is clear, rapid, and the column
considerable.

This gorge is picturesque, the sides being generally precipitous.

The plants of these hills are, Umbelliferae very common, Statice 2,
Carduacea, Ephedra, Labiatae of Karabagh vel similia, Arenarioid out of
flower in the crevices, a large Mattheoloid, Leucades, Dianthoides foliis
undulatis, Artemisiae two or three, one a peculiar one, No.--a shrubby
Astragalus, stunted scraggy Polanisia of Cabul? Campanula of Karabagh in
the bed of the stream, Cnicus of Kot-i-Ashruf, and Salvia are excessively
common, Artemisia pyramidalis, two or three: mosses occur on the banks,
and several Gramineae, see Catalogue 1,005, etc.  Cnicus alius,
Verbascum.

[Helmund gorge: m393.jpg]

_30th_.--We continued ascending gradually, crossing a low ridge covered
with sward, and then descended to surmount another ridge, which appeared
to me to be as high as the top of the Oonnoo.  We thence descended,
crossing several small ridges; and, at about the distance of five miles
from the commencement of the day's journey, suddenly turned north,
entering a gorge of the usual structure, drained by a small stream, and
thence came on the Helmund, not much increased in size as compared with
the point at which we had seen it first, but in a comparatively wide and
partly cultivated ravine, containing three or four ruined forts.  We
continued a quarter of a mile down the Helmund, then ascended up a
considerable stream through a similar gorge, until we reached an
encamping spot, after performing thirteen and a half miles.  The
barometer at the Helmund stood at 21.206, thermometer 63 degrees in sun.

Kohi-Baba is first seen from the first ridge, but it is seen beautifully
from the second, and still better from some distance beneath this; it is
a noble three-peaked ridge, the eastern peak is the largest, and of
angular, conical shape.  The other two are rugged; the central one is
perhaps the highest; the lower portions cliffy, evidently slaty.

The river up which we came after leaving the Helmund, is fully equal to
that in size; it is very rapid: the ravine is very narrow, occasionally
widening into swardy spots.  We encamped nearly opposite Kohi-Baba, the
conical peak of which here seems a huge rounded mass, with heavy patches
of snow, particularly along the northern ridge: the second range to the
south is very precipitous and cliffy: at this place a small streamlet
falls into the river from the direction of Kohi-Baba.

No particular change in vegetation is observed: two or three Umbelliferae,
a Scrophularia, Geranium, Ranunculus aquaticus, Herba immersa, foliis
anguste loratis, Potentilla, _Panserina_, a new Graminea.

The most common plants are still Carduaceae and Salvia; Rosa occurs also,
(Senecionoides ceased some time before) Statice, Scutellaria common,
Verbascum, Euphorbia linearifolia, Linaria ditto, Mentha: no change in
water plants, or in those of the sward, Chenopod. faemin. villos, coarse
grass, No. 998, common; the chief new feature is _Ruwash_, the dead red
leaves of which are abundant.  Two villages were passed after leaving the
Helmund, both ruined, yet all spots cultivated, several with Cicer.
Watercourses as high up cliffs and hills as 100 feet above the river.

A dreadfully cutting dry wind blows down the ravine, and in our faces all
the way.  Limestone cliffs occurred, about which the vegetation became
rich, more especially near a bridge consisting of trees thrown across a
narrow portion of the river, at a point where the stream is very deep;
near this are two willow trees of a different species.  A fine Rosa, a
new Epilobium, Aconitum, Salisburifolium, a small Crucifera, one or two
Compositae, a curious Polygonum, a Rumex, a Dianthus, Silene, three or
four Umbelliferae, among which is the yellow Ferula? of the Kojhuk pass,
two or three new Leguminosae, Saponaria, Silenacea inflata, Cerastium may
be found among them, or in the fields close by.

_31st_.--We ascended the high bank or cliff over the bridge, and
continued up the ravine which lies over the river, but whose bed is too
narrow for a road: we passed two or three villages, the road undulating
over ground covered with granite boulders, or rather small masses,
rounded only when exposed to weather; the bottom of each undulation is
covered with sward and giving exit to a small stream; sometimes we came
on the bed of the river.  At six and a half miles we came on a fort, used
as a custom house, and diverged again to the east up a ravine; the Arak
road continuing along the river.  We passed another fort, and then
commenced the main ascent of Hajeeguk.  In a ravine to the left, 100 feet
above us, was a large mass of half frozen snow: barometer at the foot of
main ascent 20.320, thermometer 80 degrees.  The ascent is rather steep,
but easy enough: barometer 19.755, thermometer 80 degrees.  Thence the
descent was steep for about 800 feet, and then gradual for four or five
more, when we encamped on sward.  From the top of the pass we had a
beautiful view of the _ridge_ of Kohi-Baba, running about WNW.,
presenting a succession of fine bold rugged peaks, the conical mass was
not seen well, as there is heavy snow on it, and on some other parts of
the ridge.

Water is plentiful in all ravines, the lower parts of which are covered
with swardy grass.  Cultivation is less advanced than at Yonutt,
consisting chiefly of barley; every capable spot is made use of.  Boulders
of antimony, also a large mountain close to, and on the right of our camp
composed of this ore, which is very heavy; a ruined fort on the hill near
us, shewing again how some of these ridges become disintegrated.  A
_cafila_ passed with huge loads of cloths of various sorts, carried on
asses, going to Bamean: they paid toll I observed at Choky fort.

The vegetation in the snow ravine was rich, and varied in the swardy
spots: Ranunculi 2, Swertia 2-3, Gentiana a fine one, Junci, Carices,
Euphrasia, Triglochin, Veronica as before, Cardaminoides; near the snow
in sward, a pretty Primula in flower; two other Pediculares.  A Brynum on
the dry parts of the ravine, two Astragali in flower 2-3, Cruciferae,
Echinops, Carduaceae, Silene pusilla, Stellaria, Campanula odorata,
Rutacea about springs, Parnassia? Astragali 3-4, in flower, long past
this elsewhere, Thalictrioides, Secaloides.

See Catalogue Nos. --- of exposed face; Staticoides of Yonutt, Graminae
998, Carduaceae very common, Statice aliae rare.

The hill over which the pass runs, is chiefly covered with a herbaceous
Carduacea out of flower in profusion, one or two Astragali, an
Artemisioid, small Compositae, and the abundant Carduaceae of Yonutt,
Astragaloid pinnulis on the west side, _Koollah hujareel_, Statice,
Macrantha dentatis; a spinous leaved Carduacea, different from the Zamea
leaved ones out of flower, Gramin. 998 common, Chenopodioid? Arenaria
spinosa, Onosma, Carduacea alia, two or three Astragalus primus.
Altogether the vegetation is different from that of Oonnoo, in the
comparative absence of Statice, Dianthoid, and Astragali.

Similar swardy spots occur on the west of the pass, a large Swertia,
Caraganoid, Carices, etc. as before, Gentiana of Yonutt, a new
Potentilla, Salix fruticosa; here also occurs the first Orchidea I have
seen in Khorassan: it belongs to the tribe Orchis, but is out of flower.
On the 1st of Sept., I re-crossed Hajeeguk, directing my way again into
the snow ravine from the top of the pass, and found a number of plants,
for which see Catalogue.  A Campanula abundant about springs at 12,400
feet.  The vegetation of the ravine close by the little fort is rich, and
would repay two or three days' halt, as it runs a long way up the
antimony hill, Swertia in profusion, Geranium also, Stellaria, a fine
Conyzoidia.

I had here an opportunity of observing the curious effect of a patch of
snow in retarding vegetation, all the plants about, being as it were a
spring flora, even such as at similar elevations elsewhere, were all past
seed; such as Astragalus primus.  Again, why do some plants flower sooner
at such elevations than at other lower places? such as Cardamine, here
past flower, but not commencing at Cabul; is it because this plant will
flower in the winter in Cabul? so there may be a law requiring such
plants to flower in wintery situations by a certain time?  The idea is
perhaps absurd, as their growth depends exclusively on the power of the
sun.

_September 1st_.--After re-crossing Hajeeguk we continued our march to
Sohkta, five and a half miles.  The road continued along a considerable
descent throughout, at first down the valley in which we had halted to
the west, thence down the large Kulloo valley in a northerly direction;
towards the mouth of first ravine or valley it is bad, passing across a
land slip, then it crosses the bed of a huge torrent falling at a great
rate, and obstructed with boulders; the right bank, a high almost
precipitous mountain, the left a high aggregate of granitic and other
boulders.  Water abundant, divided into three streams or so: this torrent
comes direct from the nearest portion of Kohi-Baba, which appears of easy
descent, presenting beautiful peaks.  The road then keeps along left
bank, undulating over the ravines, down which water flows from the hills
on the eastern side; some of these are very steep, and the road itself is
infamous, as may be supposed, crowded with boulders, and impracticable
for wheeled carriages: one precipitous ravine we passed through, the
rocks consisted of blackish, curiously laminated, and metallic looking
stone.  On descending one steep ravine, we then came on the road leading
up to the Kulloo mountain, where we halted.

A good many villages, with forts, as usual were passed; the cultivation
more advanced than at our last halt, crops consisting chiefly of barley.
One good fort was observed close to our halting place opposite the
direction of the small Kulloo ravine; across the valley a well marked
road is seen running up a part of Kulloo ridge, at a lower elevation than
that which we crossed.

Poplars and willows occur in the large valley, particularly towards
Sohkta, a small orchard of stunted mulberry trees.  Cultivation
consisting of peas; barley of fine grain, resembling wheat when freed
from the husk.

The plants of the valley of Kulloo were badly observed, as I was greatly
tired and fatigued.  Polygonum fruticosum re-occurs, Silene, Clematis
erecta, Tragogopon, Salvia but less common, a curious Cruciferous plant,
Lactucacea purpurea of Cabul, Chenopodium villosum faemin.  Dianthus,
Saponaria, Lychnis inflata, oats common in fields, the common thistle,
Urtica, Caragana abundant along the bed of the river, Papaver.  On rocks
about camp, 2 Salsolae, Glaucum, Umbelliferae of the Yonutt ravine,
Artemisiae, Rosa _Ribes_! Scrophularia alia.

The valley is very narrow at camp, the river running between precipices,
in some parts passable without wetting the feet.

_2nd_.--From Sohkta Kullar-Rood to Topehee, eight and a half miles.  The
road lay in a northerly direction for a quarter of a mile, then turning
up a steep ravine, with an ascent for 800 feet; then small descent, then
levellish, until we came to a black cliff, over which another steeper but
longer ascent extended, then it became levellish for some distance; two
other moderate, extended, longish ascents, led us to the summit, which is
500 feet higher than that of Hajeeguk.  The descent continued steep and
most tedious on reaching the precipitous ravine of Topehee, the road
wound over small spurs, until we came to a grove of willows near the
village.  The road although steep is not bad, the soil being soft, that
of the upper parts and of the descent, even annoying from the sand, both
might with little trouble be made easy, but especially the descent.

The mercury of the Barometer on the summit at 11 A.M., stood at 19.513,
at 11.5 A.M., 19.506, Thermometer 66 degrees.

The camels all came up but one, though very slowly; to them as to us, the
descent was more tiring than the ascent.

From the summit a fine view of Kohi-Baba was obtained, running to NW. by
N.  To the NE., another high range, but not so marked as Kohi-Baba, was
seen running in a similar direction; on this, two considerable peaks
present themselves, but only visible when lower down.

A splendid view of the Bamean valley is here obtained.  We have now
obviously passed the highest ranges: to west where the country is low and
flat; to the north, the mountains indistinctly visible, are beautifully
varied, presenting rugged outlines 10,000 feet above Bamean, also a view
of an unearthly looking mountain, most variedly sculptured, is obtained,
with here and there rich ravines and columnar sided valleys, presenting
tints very varied; in those of the lower ranges, rich rosy tints are
predominant; also niches in which gigantic idols are plainly seen: also a
view of Goolghoolla, looking as it is in reality, a ruined city: a fine
gorge apparently beyond the Bamean river, and a large ravine due north,
by which I expect the Bamean river reaches the Oxus; not a tree is to be
seen, except a few about Bamean.  The whole view is indescribably
volcanic, barren yet rich, requiring much colouring to convey an idea of
it.

[Bamean Idols: p398.jpg]

To the top of the pass it is three and a half miles; the character of
Kulloo mountain is different from that above described, it is rounded,
and composed of a curious compact slate, towards the summit well covered
with plants, large tufts of Statice, two or three kinds, two undescribed;
immense quantities of Artemisia, coarse tufted grasses, Onosma, Carduacea
herbacea of Hajeeguk, uncommon; Triticoides 998, not common; Alium fusco
purpurea common.  A few exposed rocks occur on the summit.  The ravines
are all dry, there being no water or very little in them, and no
cultivation; thus the contrast visible on both sides of the Kulloo river
which runs round the foot of the mountain, is remarkable.  Vegetation
being distinct on either side.

Yet the ravine of Topehee shows, that when exposed to the action of
water, this rock becomes very precipitous, cliffy, easily dislocated: the
latter part of the road winds over a portion of this.  Chakor, Ptarmigan
a fine bird, voice somewhat like that of a vulture, to which it is
perhaps anologous.

About Sohkta or in ravines, Euphorbia linearifolia, Ephedra, Asteroides,
Rosa Ribes, Composita dislocata, Artemisiae, Aster pyramidalis,
Chenopodium villosum faem., Senecionoides.

Scutellaria, Scrophularia, Santonicoides, Polygonum fruticosum, Salvia,
Artemisia linearifolia, Centaurea angustifolia, Cochlearia, Umbelliferae
of Yonutt, Stellaria, Glaucium, Labiata nova, Hyoscyamus minor,
Lactucacea, Linaria, Salsola elegans, Marrubium, common thistle, Rumex,
Potentilla anserina, Sinapis of Siah-Sung ravine, Berberis, Secaloides,
Statice, _Marmots_, Statice glauca pedunculata, Stipha of Nakhood,
Aconiti sp., Ferula? Spiraea facie frutex, Ribes, Muscoides.

First ridge Dianthoides, Statice three to two glaucous species, one
sessile the other pedunculate, Ferula, Scutellaria, Labiata
trumpet-shaped calyces, Astragali, Diacanthus, Stipa, Ribes, Arenaria
spinosa, Triticum carneo pubescens, Pulmonaria corolla trumpet-shaped,
Salvia sparingly, Pommereulla, Artemisia in profusion, Spiraeoides,
Chenopodium villos., faemin. parvus, Leguminosae two or three, _Ruwash_
sparingly.

Not much change beyond 12,000 feet, at that height Glaucium in abundance,
with a few Hyoscyamus parvus, Borago.

Labiatifol, inciso dentatis occurs throughout, Sinapis of Siah-Sung
straggles to 12,000 feet.

[Topehee cliffs and ravine: m399.jpg]

The same vegetation continues down to Topehee; on the red hills over its
ravine, the plants are different.  Portulacea cana, several pretty
Salsolae, a Polanisia occurs, with Statice two or three, a straggling
Astragalus, Ferula, Peganum re-appears! Cerasus canus, Carduacea Frutex
of Mailmandah, fructibus combretiformibus, Muscoides which is a Sedum,
Polygon. fruticosum common, the usual plants of cultivation, etc. etc.

_3rd_.--We proceeded from Topehee to Bamean, a distance of twelve miles,
for two and a half miles down Topehee ravine.  The road is a decent
descent, although steepish: from thence turning abruptly at the Bamean
valley, we cross the river, which is of considerable size, but fordable,
although rapid.  The road then extends along the left bank, not in the
valley which is occupied by cultivation, but winding over and round the
bases of low hills and cliffs, forming a northern boundary; throughout
this part the road is villainous, often impeded by huge blocks.  After a
distance of about ten miles it improves, the valley expanding into a
cultivated plain.

Topehee valley narrows towards its mouth or exit, which is walled in by
high, red, raviny cliffs; above, in its upper parts it is well cultivated
with beans, barley, wheat, and oats, and contains two villages: it opens
into the Bamean valley at a village also called Topehee, there the Bamean
valley is well cultivated, with oats intermixed with barley or wheat,
trefoil, etc., it then narrows, forming the bed of a ravine occupied by
Hippophae, Tamarisk, etc., then it widens again.

The structure of the hills is curious, and generally exhibiting the
appearance of having been much acted on by water.  They are often cliffy,
composed either of limestone or a soil of red clay, with which salt
occurs in abundance, conspicuous from the white appearance, or springs.
Crystals of carbonate of lime are frequent, limestone, or coarse
conglomerate with large rounded stones, occurs; together with a curious
laminated clayey rock, with white and ochraceous layers intermixed.  The
tints most various, as well as the sculpture of the mountains: here
ravines representing tracery occur: there, columnar curiously carved
cliffs, exhibiting all sorts of fantastic forms: here, as it were, a hill
thrown down with numberless blocks into the stream, scattered in every
direction; and here, but this is rare, very red horizontal strata,
colours various, generally rosy, especially the clayey cliffs: here and
there the colour of the rock is ochraceous, at one place its structure is
slaty.  The curious intermixture of these colours owing to the weather,
is striking.

From the head of two of the ravines by which considerable torrents flow
into Bamean river, beautiful views are obtained of the Kohi-Baba, whose
peaks according to native authority, stretch sixty miles to the westward
of Bamean, without much diminution in height.  The scenery, however, is
less beautiful after emerging into the widened part of the valley, where
the hills are less varied both in form and tints, than they are in lower
parts: fine views however of Kohi-Baba are occasionally had.

Salsolae are the prevailing plants of the rocky sides of the valley,
Clematis erecta common, here and there a small Statice.

Caves occur throughout the wide portion of the valley, but chiefly on the
northern side; they also extend a little way into the narrow portion,
where they seem to be excavated into clayey-looking, red, earthy
limestone, or more commonly conglomerate, of coarse grey, or reddish
colour.

The caves are most common in two cliffs composed of conglomerate mixed
with transverse strata of the same rock, 3,400 feet high, presenting a
rugged outline; and between the two, which are 800 yards apart, large
idols are carved.  These cliffs in some places have suffered little from
the action of the elements, as testified by the perfect nature of the
opening of the caves, and the corners, etc. of the niches enclosing
idols; in others they are furrowed by the action of water; in others
again slips have taken place to such extent in some, as to cause the fall
of all their caves, or of their greater portion, thus exposing the
galleries, etc.

The base of the cliffs is irregular, formed of the same conglomerate and
clay, but covered more or less by boulders, evidently brought down by the
river; by these many caves are choked up, so that originally the cliff
might have been perpendicular to the edge of the base, and if so, the
caves in the cliffs, and the idols, are of later date than those of the
rugged base.  But more probably the cliffs, and the caves, are much as
they were originally, the boulders having been a subsequent deposit.

The western corner of the cliff beyond the large idol, is much destroyed;
on this, the force of the current would have acted: a breakwater
occurring along the returning face.

The caves are very numerous, but are confined chiefly towards the base of
the cliffs, not scattered over them as I believe Burnes represents.  These
are of no size, finish, or elegance, and it is only their number, and the
extreme obscurity of their history, that makes them interesting; the
roofs are usually arched, and the walls are often supplied with niches,
and covered with a coating of tar of some thickness, and intense
blackness.  The galleries are low, arched, and admit one person at a
time, or a line of persons with ease; they often form the ascent to the
upper caves now inhabited, but originally they were enclosed in the rock,
they are defended in such cases by a parapet.

The largest caves are those about the idols, but I see none of any size.
They are often domed, the spring of the dome is ornamented with a
projecting frieze, some of these are parallelogramic, in one instance
with an ornamented border thus.

[Part of a frieze in caves near Bamean: m402.jpg]

Some of the caves are situated as high as, or even above the tops of the
idols; all parts within the rock are lighted by small apertures.

Access to the large idol is destroyed; the smaller one is gained by a
spiral staircase of rude construction, and by galleries.  The floor of
the galleries is rugged, the steps and the cement of the conglomerate
having worn out from between the masses of rock.  The images all occupy
niches in the face of the hill: two are gigantic, the rest not very
large.  They are generally in the usual sitting posture, and rather high
up, while the larger ones are erect, and reach the base of the cliffy
portion of the rock.  They are all male, and all obviously Boodhistical;
witness the breadth, proportion, and shape of the head, and the drapery;
both are damaged, but the smaller is the more perfect, the face of the
large one being removed above the lower lip; the arms are broken off,
showing they were occupied by galleries.  The drapery is composed of
plaster, and was fixed on by bolts which have fallen out, leaving the
holes.  The arms in the smaller one are supported by the falling drapery.
The height of the large image in the niche is 135 feet.

The pictures are much damaged, the plaster on which they were painted
being mostly very deficient, all the faces are damaged by bullets or
other missiles: their execution is indifferent, not superior to modern
Burmese paintings; the colours however are good, the figures are either
grouped or single, and one is in the style of the time of Henry VIII,
with a hat and plume, others represent groups flying--one a golden bird,
another a man with a hemispherical helmet, all are much damaged.  The
hair in some is dressed as in the modern Burmese top-knot, often
surrounded by a circle.

Otherwise the niches are not ornamented, except in one instance, as above
alluded to; the head of the smaller figure was formerly covered by the
roof, as evident from holes or troughs for timbers in the gallery.  These
holes are now inhabited by pigeons, and the lower ones by cows, donkeys,
fowls, kids, dogs; some are filthy apertures blocked up by stone and mud
walls; the doors irregular, and guarded between two giants.

An old tope occurs near some small figures, it is composed of stones very
much disintegrated, with curious blocks of _kucha_ work, and large
Babylonish bricks; the smaller figures are much destroyed, some
completely; all are in alto-relievo.

The plants about Topehee valley, are Cichorium, Centaurea lutea, Berberis
common, Salvia, Cicer cultivated, Lucerne, Centaurea angustifolia, Cnicus
of Koti-Ashruf, ditto of Karabagh hills, Triticum, Asteroides, Avena,
Centaurea glauca, the common thistle, Ephedra, Mentha, Rumex, Melilotus,
Medicago, Artemisia pyramidalis, Lychnis inflata, Saponaria, Bromus,
Verbascum, Cerasus canus, Ferula, Statice, Salsola, Astragalus, Polygonum
fruticosum, Composita dislocata, Clematis erecta, Clematis alia,
Echinops, Leucades, Pulicaria fragrans, Hyoscyamus parvus, rare;
Geranium, Rosa, Fabago of Maidan, fructi echinatis, Arundo, Hippophae.

Halted at Bamean till the 6th, and inspected Ghoolghoola or Bheiran,
which presents extensive ruins: those of the city are almost destroyed;
but those of the citadel are more perfect, and situated on a mound 300
feet high, which still stands with steep banks or fortifications,
apparently of Kafir origin, generally _kucha_, with bases formed of
boulders.  Three lines of defences remain on the valley side; and the
remains of a ditch 50 feet broad at the mound on the east side.  _Pucka_,
or burnt bricks are common among the debris, also pottery, but this is of
the ordinary sort: I observed but few _pucka_ bricks in the fortification
on the west side.  Great masses of rocks have been thrown about near the
building of the fort, and some of the lower bastions were built on these
masses.  The mound is chiefly occupied by Salsolaceae, some of which
exist in profusion.  Nothing seems to be known about the history of the
place, except that it was built by _Julal_, to whom the Mahommedans fix
_Ud-deen_.

Quails are abundant in the fields about Bamean; it is a curious thing
that in many of these fields oats far preponderate over other grain; yet
they are not cut, although all the seeds have fallen out of the ear!  Can
it be cultivated solely for the straw?

Fine groves of poplars occur about certain portions of the valley; from
beyond this to the south, a beautiful view is obtained, embodying the
cliffs with the large image, and the back hills whose varied surface and
tints it is impossible to describe, so as to convey a correct idea of
their fine effect.  The poplar grove contains some ordinary Mahomedan
_tombs_.  The trees are the P. heterophylla, but the leaves are much
smaller and more silvery underneath than usual; a beautiful poplar of
large size and unencumbered growth, of the same sort occurs in the ravine
beyond the small image.  Abundance of wild sheep's heads are preserved
about all the sanctified buildings, together with a few of those of the
ibex, and fewer of the wild goat.  The plants of Bamean require no
specification, the hills are very barren, chiefly occupied by Salsoleae,
of which 6 or 7 species occur.

The water plants continue the same as at Cabul; Hippurus and Triglochin,
Mentha, Cochlearia, Naiad? Potamogeton of Siah-Sung, Polypogon.

The other plants are those found in cultivation, and present no change,
Anchusoides alba, abundant.  Choughs very abundant; wild pigeons, ravens,
Laurus; the nuthatch, a noisy but not unmusical bird, Chakor, together
with small partridges, but these are rare; several Conirostres.

The greatest curiosity is a genuine trout, {404} this appears rare, the
spots are very bright, the largest caught was only six pounds in weight.
I could not take any even with the fly; but I caught with this,
Schizothorax, or one of the universal Khorassan Cyprins.

The range of the thermometer is great; before sunrise it varies from 28
degrees to 30 degrees! in the sun in midday it is 100 degrees! when there
is no wind, and the mornings are delightful.

One of the long-tailed clumsy Brachypodiums occurs in the fields: bears
also are found here.

_Joussa_, Mentha, Tanacetoid, Polypogonum, Cichorium, Plantago, common
thistle, Potamogeton longifolium, Labiata arvensis of Yonutt, Centaurea
lutea, Cyanea angustifolia, Cochlearia, Hippuris, Ranunculus, Potamogeton
pectinata, Triglochin, Convolvulus arvensis, acaulis, Glaux, Capparis of
Arghandab, Centranthera pinnatifida, Malva rotundifolia, Asteroides,
Lactuca purpurea.

Salt is obtained in some places from the red earth, as also alum an
earthy substance of a whitish or brown colour, and irregular surface,
sent in quantities to Mindosh, called Zak.

_6th_.--To Zohawk, down the valley two miles beyond the mouth of Topehee
ravine, or embouchure of the Kulloo-Rood.  The angle is occupied by a
Kafir fort called Kojhuk, of very large size, situated on a precipitous
dusky-red and very high rock, facing towards both rivers; the defences
reach down the eastern face of rock to the Kulloo bed, and are in good
preservation, more ornamented than the modern fort, and better
proportioned.  A pretty grass sward occurs here, with Tamarisk.

The fort must have been of great size, and is chiefly weak, _i.e_. to a
native army, from depending on the river for supplies of water, for it is
commanded from the opposite sides of either ravine.  The bed of the river
under the east face, presents the remains of outworks to protect the
supply of water, which is perhaps a sign of its being a recent structure?

The works are good, much better than those of the Affghans, the view of
the fort from half a mile down the Bamean river, with the sun gilding the
ruined battlements, while the precipice contrasts with it its dusky-red
colour, is beautiful.

The Bamean river, especially after receiving the Kulloo-Rood, is of
considerable size, but fordable at the head of most of the rapids, its
course is rapid, and its waters greyish, while those of the Kulloo are
quite colourless; its bed is of some width, presenting a capital road
over green sward, with plenty of willows, Lycium, Hippophae, Berberis,
and Tamarisk.

About one mile east of our camp, its ravine turns to the south.  Wild
ducks, quails, chakor, and trout occur whose haunts are in holes, and
taking the worm are easily caught.

This fort of Kojhuk is as well worth examining as any place we have seen,
the dusky-red rocks are coarse conglomerate.  A violent wind prevails up
the ravine, commencing about 2 P.M.  A curious staircase situated at the
corner towards Bamean, ascends through rock, the bottom of which is
defended by a bastion and round wall; near, or close to this a slip has
occurred, destroying part of the wall and blocking up one exit.

Ascended the cliff by the gateway of the Kulloo valley, and found the
line of fortifications, with good loop-holes and parapets extend two and
a half miles up, a few houses likewise occur.  The path leads through the
face of the solid rock: abundant defences, with arched buildings occur
above: this cliff is almost totally separated from the upper citadel by a
ravine: the citadel has four lines of defences surmounting a steep ridge
with outworks on the Kulloo river, the bed of which is 60 yards broad.

_7th_.--Proceeded to Erak, six miles.  We crossed the Kulloo-Rood, and
immediately ascended its right bank, 100 feet high; then descended into
the ravine up which we continued, then leaving it we struck over the spur
of a high mountain; the ascent being about 1,000 feet, thence we
commenced a steep descent, of 5,600 feet into the Erak valley, up which
we proceeded for two miles distance and encamped.  From the top of the
pass, a fine view is obtained of Kojhuk, and the valley of the Bamean
river, presenting a rich and varied surface beyond description, with
beautifully sculptured rocks, of purplish-red colour, which are seen up
the Kulloo, close to Kojhuk.

The hills and ravines are however very barren, nothing but Salsola
occurs.  At the top of the pass a section is partly laid open, shewing a
mass of conglomerate, twenty to thirty feet thick, resting on red clay.
This conglomerate being less acted on by water than the clay, the rocks
often assume curious shapes, and are occasionally even fungiform.

[Sculptured rocks near Kojhuk: m406.jpg]

We observed here a new partridge, at least one to which we were not
accustomed; it is almost the size of chakor, black on the back, with a
grey neck, and very shy; chakors abundant here in coveys.  The valley of
the Erak is very narrow, but well cultivated, and with a good many
villages.

All the mountains in this direction have rounded shapes or outlines, the
precipices variously curved, the surfaces are thus formed by the action
of water on the outer strata; when this is once exposed, the changes
appear often rapid, as may be imagined in a country of such low winter
temperature.  Caves occur in the Erak valley, chiefly situated in a dirty
white conglomerate.

[Erak ravine: m407.jpg]

_8th_.--Halted and encamped eight miles up the Erak ravine on a swardy
spot: the road easy, ascent bad in some places, but generally good,
particularly for the latter part of the march: the rocks in some places
rising in abrupt rugged cliffs, generally rounded, slaty.  We passed one
mass of snow about two miles from camp, botany good, especially about the
snow; so much so, that it employed me all day.

Caragana appears at about 10,000 feet, a Tamerioid of large stature in
abundance, Asphodelus, not as I thought a Mesembryanthemum, but a
beautiful and very distinct species; see Catalogue for other plants.

Our camp is within one and a half mile of the head of the Erak ravine,
where snow occurs in two large masses; patches of snow also occur on the
ridge or a little below it; these ridges rise about 1,200 to 1,500 feet
above us.

Unsettled evening, snow during night on all the ridges about us with
frozen sleet in camp.  Thermometer at 6 A.M. 31 degrees.

Large round-tailed eagle seen.

Barometer 20.164, thermometer 61 degrees; boiling point of Wollast. new
thermometer; barometer 650, old ditto 555.3.

Swardy plants.  Parnassia, Swertia, Gentiana, Carices, Composita
coronata, Primula, Labiata, Menthoides, Caprifoliacea! Pedicularis,
Umbelliferae.

Plants of hill sides Asphodelus, Leguminosae alter, a Nakhood Moschata,
Nakhood Labaria violacea, Mulgedioid, Euphorbia, Astragalus prior,
alter., Pedicularis, Onosma versicolor, Boraginea, stamens exserted.

_9th_.--Proceeded to Kurzar, eight miles up a ravine to the left or
eastward, about one and a half mile, then the steep ascent of the pass;
thence the descent was as steep for 800 feet, then gradually down a
swardy ravine until we came to the Kurzar ravine, which we followed till
we reached the Choky.  The road good; the ascent for 1,000 feet is very
steep, the soil good, hills rounded, here and there slate rocks
outcropping.  No change in vegetation.  Passed a mass of snow: abundance
of snow on the summit where the mercury in the Bar. stood at 19.200;
thermometer 58 degrees; boiling point of Wollast. new thermometer; Bar.
648.5, old 539.1, this being the highest spot we have visited.

The vegetation of the summit presents no change from that of the rocks
and hill sides 1,500 feet below.  There is a good deal of vegetation,
Carduaceae, Statices, Astragali, a few tufted grasses forming the great
bulk, _Nakhood_ rare on the Kurzar side, 500 feet down, Statice becomes
most abundant, it is curious that on the sward of this side, neither
Fumariaceae, nor Campanula were observed, Silene fimbriata one species.

Caragana all about, even at Kurzar in ravines; Primula abundant, also
Swertiae, generally all four plants are found at the Hajeeguk snow
ravine, and may be found between this and Erak, with some interesting
novelties.  The distance to Bamean by both routes is within two miles of
the same, the Kulloo-Rood being the shorter, but Hajeeguk the best road.
That of the Kulloo river is followed to Zohawk.  The weather unsettled
with showers of hail, clouds and sunshine: and heavy gusts of wind
occasionally from Kohi-Baba, whose eastern extremity comes in sight after
entering the _Kurzar_ ravine.  No view from the summit of the pass.

[Pass between Erak and Kurzar: m408.jpg]

Pedicularis, Campanula, Rubiaceae, Hippuris in flower, Phleum, Carduacea
of Yonutt, Cnicus of Koti-Ashruf, Pulmonaria, corolla tubiform.  Euphorbia
linearifolia, Composita dislocata, Cardamina lutea.

_10th_.--Proceeded to the Helmund, thirteen and a half miles; the only
novelty met with is a curious spring about half-way between Siah-Sung
halting place, and the Helmund consisting of limpid water emitting a
copious ebullition of gas, not water, as the overflow is very small; a
copious deposition of fine red earth is formed all round, which looks
especially bright in the springs themselves.  The water possesses a
peculiar acid taste.

Quails abundant, especially about this place, the water of the Helmund is
very clear and affords excellent fishing with worms which are greedily
taken, and also with the fly, particularly towards evening, by a species
of Gonorhynchus.

_11th_.--Returned to the foot of the ascent of the Oonnoo, nine miles:
nothing new having been met with, except that Kohi-Baba is seen to great
advantage, from the higher ridges of this pass.  On going to Bamean we
saw it for the first time from the ridges beyond Yonutt, badly from the
first, but beautifully from the second ridge.  The weather continues as
usual threatening in the evening, clearing up after sunset: there is less
snow on Kohi-Baba now than when we went.

_12th_.--Proceeded to Sir-i-Chushme, eight miles, which was one continued
descent.  Passed Killa Moostaffur Khan, built by a Kuzzilbash; it is the
prettiest fort in the country.  The common Carduacea disappears below
9,500 feet, Cnicus of Koti-Ashruf commences here.

Temperature of the spring at Sir-i-Chushme, 55 degrees (1.5 P.M.); that
at Kallo, on the other side of Hajeeguk, 45 degrees.

All crops are cut, and the ground ploughed or preparing; in one place the
young wheat is springing up; but the country generally looks very brown,
and the hills small.  Abundance of black teal.  Plectranthus reappears at
the foot of Oonnoo, Verbascum rare, if any, on the Tartary side of the
Hindoo-koosh.  Abundance of Loaches or Balitora in the streamlets arising
from the springs.

13th.--Proceeded to Julraiz, eight and a half miles, having passed a
waterfall, as well as abundance of people going to Jallalabad.  Bar.
22.760 at noon; Ther. 75 degrees.

14th.--Proceeded to Koti-Ashruf, where there is excellent fishing with
worms, the fish however did not take a fly, though they often appeared at
the surface: a large headed Silurus occurs, but I was unable to procure a
specimen.

15th.--Proceeded to Arghundee, where we met the Bamean force.

16th.--Proceeded to Topehee Bashee.

17th.--Returned to Cabul.  Eryngium is rare between the foot of Oonnoo
and Moostaffur Khan's fort.



CHAPTER XVII.


_From Cabul to Jallalabad and Peshawur_.

_October 7th_.--Proceeded to Bhootkhak, nine and a half miles from
Cabul, and seven from our camp: the direction lay easterly.  A canal and
a river were both crossed by bridges, the latter of stone, but much
needing repairs: the country generally marshy: the marshes were crossed
by a causeway of stones, rough and broken here and there.  The road is
one apparent continued slope to this, but the Barometer gives no
indication of any difference of level.  The march proving uninteresting,
and the country an uniform brown and barren tract.

_8th_.--Proceeded to Koord Cabul valley, the distance of which from the
place we left being eleven miles: first having rounded a spur extending
from the south boundary of Cabul valley, we then entered a narrow ravine,
chiefly occupied by a small stream, which we crossed several times.  The
mountains being chiefly of limestone, then becoming slaty, very
precipitous, rugged, and barren; on emerging from this very tedious
ravine, we entered on some sward with plenty of Tamarisk, and Salix
vimenea.  Koord Cabul valley is a frightfully barren, and very stony
place; the chief vegetation of the valley, as also of the ravine, being
Artemisiae, in which there is abundance of Carduacea subspicata from
Baber's tomb.

The road throughout is indifferent, but only so from the stones, the
largest of which would require removal, and there are not more than two
or three difficult rocks in the way, these however might be avoided by
keeping in the bed of the stream.  There are two ruined stone walls
thrown across the ravine, the remains merely of the very few villages of
Koord Cabul.  A high truncated mountain stands to the south, on which
some patches of snow are visible.

The mountain forming the east wall of the ravine is the subconical one,
seen to such advantage from Arghundee, it is of limestone, quite
precipitous, with a few large bushes of, I do not know what; none of them
being within reach,--Ilex, and _Cupressus_.

_9th_.--To Tazeen, the road for seven miles extends over somewhat
undulated ground, generally good; but here and there stony, with a
gradual but almost imperceptible ascent, until the top of the pass is
reached; from this, the view of Tazeen valley, and the summit of the
Sofaid-Koh is good.

Thence the road extends over ascents and descents, three of which have
considerable, and stony inclinations, then it enters the ravine drained
by a small stream, and continues down it until we enter Tazeen valley.

Two streams are passed in the ascent; the first, near the former halting
place, flowing, where it is crossed, between slaty cliffs of no height;
the second one, small, frozen, and not sufficient to supply a large
party: there is however a spring a short way below the summit, although
very small.  Temperature 58 degrees.  The rocks forming the narrow ravine
are very rough and slaty: limestones presenting the usual characters.

This march has been said to present a very bad road, but it is not the
case, at least in comparison with many of the Affghan roads, distance
twelve and a half miles, the time it takes for camels to perform the
journey is six hours.  The road, where not stony, is very well beaten.

No change is observed in the features of the country until the opposite
side of Tazeen valley is seen, and the summit of the Sofaid-Koh: here,
wonderful to relate! are abundance of firs extending down and along the
ridge to some distance, but not forming forests.

Otherwise the vegetation consists of Senecionoides, _Astragali_, _Rosa_,
Statice 2-3, Artemisiae, and Plectranthus, which last is very common in
the ravine leading to Tazeen valley, which is drained by a small stream.
Here also Carduacea, and Onosmoid angustifolia occur!

In this ravine, Xanthoxylon of Kojhuk, a willow, Rosa, and a distinct
Ilex, occur, forming chiefly a shrubby vegetation.  Ilex is also, so far
as can be judged from appearance, the bushy thing seen on the limestone
hill at our last halt, also Cupressus, a fine specimen of which I found
on limestone at about the height of the top of the pass, (22.76 Bar.)
Ther. 60 degrees, with a very small Spiraea.

The large-winged vultures of Arghundee are common here.  Some ruined
villages were passed, a mosque stood near one of these, two and a half
miles from last halt, little cultivation in the Tazeen valley, and in the
centre of this, two villages with orchards are visible.

[Pass between Koord Cabul and Tazeen: m411.jpg]

_9th_.--Tried to get to the firs, but failed.

The lower hills, and indeed the range between the valley and the fir
range, are conglomerate, easily disintegrated, then limestone, which
often occurs quite vertical.  Some of the hills are red, others brown, in
one instance the coloured substance is interposed between strata of
limestone, which last have alone withstood the effects of climate, this
range is as high as the Koord Cabul pass.

Ilex very common, and much used for charcoal, the trunk being eight to
ten inches in diameter; almost all are pollarded.  Pomacea common at 500
feet above this, Plectranthus, Senecionoides.

Artemisiae, Astragali, Statices, Rosa, bastard indigo, Cerasus.  The
orchards are now assuming their autumnal tint, Salvia pinnata, Canus
aliusque, _Ruwash_.  Chough, ravens, nuthatch, and chakor here occur.
Heavy snow is observed on the eastern portions of Hindoo-koosh, which are
quite barren.  The best way to the fir tract I find on enquiry will be to
follow the bed of the stream up to it.  Fields are being now ploughed and
sown.  Thermopsides very common here in old cultivation: it affords
decent fodder for camels.

_10th_.--To Barikab, distance ten and a half miles; the road extending
down the Tazeen ravine, over a tract with a considerable descent for
about nine miles; on passing a long dark looking rock and its spur, the
road then leaves the bed, and ascends over low undulations of easily
detachable conglomerate, and sand; then a short but rather steep ascent
occurs for 200 feet, passing over an easily friable sandstone, either
existing as grains slightly adherent, or caked; thence the descent passes
over the preceding sort of conglomerate, to an abominably barren ravine,
drained by a very small stream.

The road only once leaves the bed of this ravine, but soon rejoins it
before finally turning off.

The mountains present the same features; where no outcrop of strata
occurs, they are rounded, brown, and very barren, with here and there an
Ilex; towards the end of the raviny part in one or two places, more wood
than usual occurs, forming scattered thickets.  Fraxinus, the older
branches of which have much smaller leaves, Thymelia of Chiltera, Cerasus
canus, and alius, Senecionoides, Compositae, Artemisiae, Polygonum
frutescens, which last is not uncommon throughout.  Equisetoides becomes
common towards the black rock.

Where the road turns off from the ravine, a _Khubar_ or tope occurs,
shaded with two or three large Xanthoxyleae now in fruit, called
_Khinjuk_.

Snow visible from Barikab to the north, but generally in ravines.  The
country continues abominably barren, we passed the entrance of the
Lutabund pass, near the black rock, but without seeing it: no difficulty
occurs on the road, except from the jolting of stones.  There is however
no forage to be had at the halt, and but little fodder.  A sprinkling of
holly-looking bushes are seen extending over the lower ranges of Hindoo-
koosh.

_11th_.--Jugdulluck, ten and a half miles from our last encampment; on
leaving Barikab we commenced ascending, winding over undulating ground
for a short distance, until we reached the main ascent, which is short,
but moderately steep: thence we descended steeply for perhaps 500 feet,
hitherto the road extended over sand hills, with quantities of stones.  On
reaching the foot of the steep descent, we then descended gradually over
a long stony inclined plane, then entered undulating ground, descending
from which the road took us over a small stream, which we followed up,
soon entering a gorge, up which we continued till we reached Jugdulluck.
This gorge is the finest and boldest we have seen, the rocks forming
precipitous cliffs 2,400 feet high, which often hem in the road, and
confine it to a breadth of a few feet, sufficient merely for a gun to
pass.

On emerging from this we reached the tope of Jugdulluck, now a grove of
mulberry trees, surrounded by the remains of a wall.

The country, until we entered the gorge, presented the same features as
before, being frightfully barren.  Passed a spring of water at the foot
of the main descent where there is level ground sufficient for a small
party, afterwards we passed a smaller spring containing less water, but
situated in much better ground than Barikab.

The vegetation of undulated ground continues unchanged, very poor and
stunted; in ravines below the main descent, Stipa is very common; in
others, a large Andropogon occurs near the mouth of the gorge along the
bed of the river, also _Jhow_ in patches, and one patch of Donax.

The vegetation of the gorge is more varied; two small trees occur, one
the _Khinjuk_, and it is the commonest, the other a Terebinthacea;
Thymelaea of Chiltera is common, Ephedra, Ilex occurs but is less common
than on hills.

Along the water to which it gives exit, and which is abundant, the usual
Cyperaceae, Junceae, Gnaphalium, Potentilla, and Epilobium occur as at
Cabul; the place is chiefly remarkable for two or three Saccharoid
grasses, Stipa common, Polypogon, Donax, Dracocephala of Quettah and the
Bolan pass, Spiraea, Typha, young Tamarisks.

Chakor, large vulture, ravens; a woodcock rose from a dripping rock,
covered with a tropical Andropogon in dense patches.  Adiantum, Rubus,
Erythrea, Labiatae two, common; Salix.

The gorge appears to be a distinct formation of sandstone, slate, and
limestone: on the way to it, we continued over the sand and conglomerate
hill, which again recur at Jugdulluck, with plenty of Holly.

The Sofaid-Koh is visible from the main ridge: it is a ridge running
perhaps SW. to NE., tolerably covered with snow, as barren as any others:
a few fir trees are found in the direction of Tazeen: are these confined
to the sandstone formation? little grass, a few rice fields, bad forage.

[Pass and gorge, Barikab to Jugdulluck: m414.jpg]

_12th_.--Halted at Jugdulluck.  Small partridges are common: observed a
curious Certhioid creeper, whose flight is like that of the Hoopoe; it is
scandent over rocks.

_13th_.--To Soorkhab, twelve and a half miles over a similar country:
region of Hollys continues; we first passed up a ravine, then over
undulating ground, until the summit of the pass is reached.  From this a
fine view of Sofaid-Koh is obtained, the lower ranges in some places
being black with firs; thence a continued descent, varied here and there
by small ascents over undulating ground, we at length came to a ravine
filled with bulrushes: we followed this, leaving it near the halting
place, and winding over rocky ground and a bad road, we descended to the
bed of the river.  The road good, though stony here and there, but
nowhere so, to such an extent, as the previous marches.

Hills precisely similar to those already passed, either sandy, easily
friable, or conglomerate, held together by sandy cement.  Vegetation
continues the same; _Baloot_, or oak, is said to be abundant though I did
not see it; Daphne, and Xanthoxylon, compose the chief shrubby
vegetation; Saccharum here and there.  Small partridge very common.  The
greatest ascent is 5,600 feet.  No grass for forage; several very small
streamlets were passed en route, so that a small party might halt
anywhere.

[Ascent and descent Jugdulluck to Soorkhab: m415.jpg]

The beautiful Himalaya looking range Sofaid-Koh, runs east and west; it
is very high, in the back ranges with very heavy snow on both ridges, and
peaks.  The view from the pass shows a rapid fall in the country to the
eastward, which still continues hilly, and very very bare.  Large coarse
grapes are had here, also pomegranates: some _seedless_ rice cultivation
occurs since we descended to Jugdulluck.

_14th_.--We proceeded nine and a quarter miles, throughout until reaching
a grove near Gundamuck: the road lay over undulating ground, is more
sandy than stony, and in two or three places it is raviny, and requires
to be made.  Then the road emerges into a fine sort of valley, dipping
down to a small stream with many sedges.  In the bed of the stream,
willows occur, and mulberries about it: we then ascended and halted just
beyond the ascent.  Water and _dhoob_ grass are both plentiful, as well
as supplies of grain, pomegranates, and grapes, as yesterday; _Bajree_.

A fine view is obtained of Sofaid-Koh, which forms the southern boundary
of the valley; many villages, with cultivation in a very sandy soil.
Small partridge very abundant.  A fox observed.  The ravines wherever
there is water, crowded with Typha, and Saccharum; oaks are seen in
abundance on the mountain to the south; left the Soorkhab river after
fording it near yesterday's camp; the bridge is quite useless for cattle,
as the ground is rocky and broken on this side, no pains having been
taken to carry the work to the road; cypresses, planes and mulberry trees
in the gardens: Cannabis, also one patch of cotton cultivation was
passed.

No descent, but rather small ascent on the whole, say 200 feet, the
ascent from the principal nullah crossed being equal, though much shorter
than the descent to it.

[Soorkhab to Gundamuck: m416.jpg]

_15th_.--We halted: many rivulets descend near us from the Sofaid-Koh;
and the water in these is beautifully clear; many villages and mills with
several beautiful spots occur, well shaded with trees, poplars,
mulberries, and figs.  The objects of cultivation are millet,
Indian-corn, rice, and wheat; this last just sprung up: many _bedanah_
pomegranates, but none I think of superior quality.

All the low hills here, and indeed between us and the boundary ranges of
the valley, are of sandstone, generally very slightly held together, here
and there more firm, and distinctly stratified towards the upper surface.
The surface consists of conglomerate, formed of boulders imbedded in the
same kind of sandstone as that below; often very friable, occasionally it
is as hard as flint.  In the sandstone below, a few stones occur here and
there; but I saw no fossils.  The upper surface of these hills is
remarkably stony, all the stones being more or less rounded.

Several new plants were found in these ravines, a Lythrum, a very
aromatic species of Compositae, Samolus in some of the swamps with Typha,
which swarms in every ravine and ravinelet, Rubus, Clematis, Bergia,
Ammannia, Lythraria, Chara, Xanthium.

The plants of tropical forms are, Celosia of Digera! Polanisia,
Andropogons, two or three.

The tropical cultivation consists of cotton, the usual annual sort;
Indian-corn, Pennisetum, and rice.

The fish are, four kinds of Cyprinidae, including one Oreinus, and one
loach.

_16th_.--Proceeded to Futtehabad, eleven and a half miles.  The road
leaves the valley after crossing a stream with a ruined bridge, like that
at Soorkhab, but of two arches, and ascending a little way, then winding
along over undulating very stony ground; this continues until we descend
steeply and along the Neemla valley, a mere ravine, historically
interesting, as the field on which Shah Soojah lost his kingdom in 1809,
and for a fine tope of trees: then crossing a streamlet, we ascend a
little way over sandstone, then another stream, which we follow for 500
yards, and ascending a little, we proceed thence to camp, along a slight
slope of very stony, generally _very level_ ground, where we halted on
a rivulet with a wide grassy bed, Lythrum growing around.

[Gundamuck to Futtehabad: m417.jpg]

No change appears in the vegetation: the surface very barren in stony
parts, chiefly Artemisia, Saccharum, Andropogon albus, in ravines,
Capparis common, also AErua and Lycionoides.

The northern boundary of the valley is comparatively low, and from Sofaid-
Koh to this is an uniform slope, broken by ravines; here and there by
small hills; ravines occasionally dilating into small valleys, the only
parts in which cultivation is to be seen.  This is so far different from
the usual formation where the valleys occupy the level tract between the
slopes from either boundary range.  Neemla is a very confined space for
any thing like the battle said to have taken place here, the rising
grounds inclosing the small space being too much broken for cavalry.

The rocks consist of conglomerate at top, below sandstone, layers of both
alternating near the surface: a break occurs (nearly opposite) in the
hills, this break is minutely undulated. {417}  Rock pigeons were seen on
the march by Thomson, and small partridges.  I find that though to our
senses there was comparatively but little descent, that the barometer and
thermometer indicate one of 1,500 feet.  The Neemla river must be the
boundary between the hot and cold countries alluded to by Burnes.

In spite of this descent, and our small altitude, about 3,000 feet, but
little change if any occurs in the vegetation, and none in the general
features of the country; the Apocynea of Dadur and Bolai (Nerioides) has
re-appeared.

At this season (October), throughout the way we came from Cabul, there is
a curious white efflorescence covering the Shootur Kari, I do not know
what it is, but it is not Conferva.  A good deal of forest is seen on
some of the ranges to the north of this, bearing from camp about NNE.,
certainly not firs, perhaps oaks.

_19th_.--Yesterday we went to the Soorkhab, which runs east and west
along the northern boundary of the valley; half the distance down the bed
of this stream the ground is strewed with boulder