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Title: Capitals - A Primer of Information about Capitalization with some - Practical Typographic Hints as to the Use of Capitals
Author: Hamilton, Frederick W. (Frederick William), 1860-1940
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note:

1. Some examples does not make much sense in this text version (e.g.,
anything to do with small capitals). There is also an HTML version where
the examples are formatted to follow the typesetting of the original.

2. Italicized text is rendered as _text_, bold text is rendered as =text=.



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES--PART VI, NO. 34


CAPITALS


A PRIMER _of_ INFORMATION ABOUT
CAPITALIZATION WITH SOME PRACTICAL
TYPOGRAPHIC HINTS AS TO
THE USE OF CAPITALS


BY

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, LL.D.

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR
UNITED TYPOTHETÆ OF AMERICA



PUBLISHED BY THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
1918



COPYRIGHT, 1918
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
CHICAGO, ILL.



CONTENTS

                                                 PAGE
INTRODUCTION                                        1

USE OF FULL CAPITALS                                4

SMALL CAPITALS                                     17

SUGGESTIONS AS TO TYPOGRAPHIC USE OF CAPITALS      22



CAPITALS



INTRODUCTION


A capital letter is a letter of formal shape. Capitals were originally
derived from the stiff and angular letters used in formal inscriptions.
Originally all writing was done in capitals. Later the scribes devised
less formal shapes for the letters, making use of lines more easily made
by brush or pen on papyrus, parchment, or paper. The capitals were
retained for certain uses but the less formal shapes were employed to do
the greater part of the work. These less formal letters have been known
by several names. They will be referred to here by that under which they
are known to modern printers, "lower-case."

A further modification of the letter came with the introduction of the
sloping, or italic letter. This received its name from its place of
origin, Italy. It was introduced by Nicholas Jenson, a printer of
Venice, and was an imitation of the handwriting of the Italian poet
Petrarch. Originally it was used only for the lower-case and was
combined with the older form of capital letters, called roman, also from
the place of its origin. Later the italic characteristics were given to
capitals as well as lower-case letters.

An ordinary font of book type contains five series of letters: full
capitals, small capitals, italic capitals (full size), roman lower-case,
and italic lower-case. The full capital, roman or italic, is larger than
the other letters of the font, every letter being as high as the
lower-case ascenders. The small capital is only as high as the
lower-case round letters. Larger capitals still are sometimes used as
chapter initials and the like.

It will be observed that the distinction between capital and lower-case
letters is one of form, not of size. The full capitals being much more
used than the small capitals and being larger than the other letters in
the font, the impression is common that the size is the distinguishing
mark. This erroneous impression has even crept into dictionary
definitions.

The full capital, which will hereafter be called in this book simply the
capital, is used in combination with lower-case letters or with small
capitals in the same word. The small capital is not used in combination
with lower-case in the same word. We may print GEORGE WASHINGTON, GEORGE
WASHINGTON, GEORGE WASHINGTON, or George Washington, but not George
Washington.

In manuscript capitals are indicated by three lines under a word or
letter, [Symbol: triple line] and small capitals by two lines [Symbol:
double line]. A single line [Symbol: single underline] indicates that
italics are to be used.

Originally the writers of manuscripts used capitals for ornament and
variety in the text. They followed no rules but each writer was guided
by his own judgment and sense of beauty. As the use of capitals
gradually became systematized and reduced to rules, different systems
were adopted in different countries. The use of capitals varies greatly
in different languages. Attention will be mainly confined in this book
to the usages followed in the printing of English. Attempts to point out
the various differences to be found in German, French, etc. would only
confuse the young apprentice.

These rules grow out of a fundamental principle.

The purpose of capitals is to emphasize the words in which they are
employed. With the exception of the cases of the words _I_ and _O_,
which are capitalized for typographical reasons, this idea of calling
special attention to a word, or words, for one reason or another will be
found to be at the bottom of the variations in usage in different
printing offices and by different writers. The same tendency is
observable here which is so evident in style and in punctuation. Direct
statements, simple sentences as free from involution and complication as
possible, are more and more taking the place of the involved,
complicated, and obscure sentences of old times. The ideal style of
to-day consists of simple words simply arranged. Such a style needs
little pointing. The reader is quite able to find his way through the
paragraph without constant direction. Punctuation marks are directions
at the crossroads of thought. Consequently the punctuation mark is now
much more sparingly used than formerly.

Just as we have found out that well chosen words can tell their story
with very few marks of interpretation so we have found out that they can
tell their story with very few marks of emphasis. The use of capitals
has decreased greatly during the last two centuries and is constantly
decreasing, and this tendency is likely to go still further. The great
DeVinne whose books on _The Practice of Typography_, written ten to
fifteen years ago, are still of the highest authority was thoroughly
up-to-date in his methods and was remarkable for the restrained and
refined good taste which characterized all his recommendations, but in
some points restraint in the use of capitals has gone even beyond his
precepts.

It is worth while to remember that the real implement of English speech
is the word, not the point nor the letter form. Just to the extent that
we rely on marks of punctuation and emphasis to convey our meaning we
betray our ignorance of the really significant elements of the language.
The schoolgirl says she "had a _perfectly splendid_ time" at the dance,
when she tells about it in her letter to her dearest friend. If
"perfectly splendid" were a proper term to use in such a connection,
which it is not, the words themselves would carry all the emphasis
possible. Nothing could really be added to them by any typographical
device. In the same way the common use of profanity among ignorant
people probably arises mainly from a feeling that the ordinary words
with which they are familiar are colorless and do not express their
thoughts with sufficient emphasis.

Just as emphasis in style is difficult when one habitually uses the
strongest words and emphasis in voice is difficult when one habitually
shouts, so emphasis in print is difficult when one habitually uses large
capitals, display type, and italics. Loud printing is as objectionable
as loud talking.



USE OF FULL CAPITALS


General uses:

1. Use a capital letter to begin every sentence and every word or group
of words punctuated as a sentence.

    _Welcome! We are glad to see you._

This rule does not apply to literal reproductions of matter not
originally conforming to it.

2. Use a capital letter to begin every line of poetry.

    _The Lord hates a quitter,
    But he doesn't hate him, son,
    When the quitter's quitting something
    He shouldn't have begun.       [that_

This rule does not apply to turned over lines like the third line in the
stanza just preceding.

3. Use a capital letter to begin every quotation consisting of a
complete sentence.

    _Ben Franklin says, "Honesty is the best policy."_
    _The campaign was "a punitive expedition for the suppression of
    brigandage."_


Capitalize:

1. Names of the Deity, of the members of the Trinity, of the Virgin
Mary, and of the Devil, when a personal devil is referred to.

When the word devil is used as a general term or as an expletive the
capital is not used.

2. Nouns and adjectives used to designate the Deity or any member of the
Trinity:

    _the Almighty_, _the Ruler of the Universe_, _the Supreme Architect
    of the Universe_, _the Creator_, _Providence_ (personified),
    _Heaven_ (personified, e. g., _Heaven forbid!_), _Father_, _Son_,
    _Holy Ghost_, _Spirit_, _Messiah_, and the like.

The following list of words of this sort to be capitalized, taken from
Mr. William Dana Orcutt's _The Writer's Desk Book_ (Frederick A. Stokes,
New York) will be found useful:

    Almighty
    Authorized Version
    Common Version
    Creator
    Deity
    Father
    God
    Holy Bible
    Holy Spirit
    Holy Writ
    Jehovah
    Jesus Christ
    King
    Logos
    Lord
    Messiah
    Passover
    Pentecost
    Redeemer
    Revised Version
    Sabbath
    Saviour
    Scriptures
    Son of Man
    Son
    Spirit
    The Trinity
    The Virgin Mary
    Word

Care needs to be taken with words of this class. Particular attention
should be paid to the wording of rule 2, just given. The same words in
other senses or other connections are not capitalized. _Heaven_ and
_hell_ and derived adjectives are not capitalized in their ordinary
uses:

Adjectives and other derivatives from these words are not capitalized.
We write _Messiah_, but _messianic_ and _messiahship_; _Christology_ but
_christological_, _fatherhood_, _sonship_, and the like.

Such words as _deity_, _god_, and the like are not capitalized where any
but the God of the Bible is referred to.

3. Pronouns referring to God, Christ, or the Holy Spirit in direct
address or where there might otherwise be ambiguity.

These pronouns are not capitalized in the Bible. They are generally
capitalized in hymn books and books of devotion. These pronouns were
formerly all capitalized as a mark of respect to God whenever there was
any mention of him, even indirect. The tendency is more and more to
eliminate them except in the second person (direct address). In view of
the change now going on it is best to follow copy if the author appears
to have decided preferences.

4. Books, divisions, and versions of the Bible.

    _Book of Job_, _Twenty-third Psalm_,
    _New Testament_, _Revised Version_.

5. General biblical terms and titles of parables.

    _The Law_, _The Prophets_, _Major and Minor Prophets_ (referring to
    the collections of prophetic books), _Lord's Prayer_, _Lord's
    Supper_, _Parable of the Prodigal Son_, _the Beatitudes_, _the
    Priestly Code_ and many other such terms.

Use lower-case for _biblical_ and _scriptural_.

6. Capitalize _Holy_ in _Holy place_ and _Holy of holies_.
Say _Gospel of John_, but speak of the _gospel message_.

7. The names of religious bodies and their followers.

    _Catholic_, _Protestant_, _Unitarian_, _Methodist_, _Buddhists_,
    _Taoists_, _Lamas_.

8. The names of monastic orders and their followers.

    _Jesuits_, _Brothers of the Common Life_, _Recollets_, _Crutched
    Friars_, _Cowley Fathers_.

9. The word Church when it stands for the Church universal or is a part
of the name of some particular denomination or organization.

    _For salvation he sought the Church._
    _The Church of Rome._
    _The First Presbyterian Church._
    _I was on my way to church._
    _He is a student of church history._ (Note use of lower-case in
    this sentence.)

10. The names of creeds and professions of faith.

    _Apostle's Creed_, _Thirty-nine Articles_, _Nicene Creed_.

Note that the adjective ante-Nicene is printed as it here appears.

11. The word "father" when used in direct reference to the fathers of
the church, and to the Pilgrim leaders of New England, and the word
"reformers" when used of the leaders of the Reformation.

    _The ante-Nicene Fathers._
    _Luther, Calvin and the other Reformers._

The word "father" is not capitalized when the reference is general, as
in the first sentence of this section.

The capitalization of "reformer" is intended to distinguish persons
connected with a certain definite historical movement from persons
interested in reform. Many persons might consider that the Reformers
were not reformers.

12. Names of persons.

    _John Smith,_
    _George V._

But write _John o' Groat_, _Tam o' Shanter_, and the like where _o'_ is
an abbreviation of _of_ and not the Gælic _O'_ as _O'Neil_, etc.

In writing foreign names which contain particles, capitalize the
particles when not preceded by a Christian name or title.

    _Alfred de Musset_ but _De Musset_,
    _le Due de Morny_ but _De Morny_,
    _Prince von Bismarck_ but _Von Bismarck_.

By exception the Dutch particle "van" is always capitalized.

    _Van Hoorn_, _Stephen Van Rensselær_.

13. Epithets appended to proper names or substituted for them.

    _Frederick the Great_
    _Peter the Hermit_
    _William Red Head (Rufus)_
    _the Conqueror_.

14. Names of races of men.

    _Aryan_, _Caucasian_, etc., but generally _negro_ and _gypsy_, by
    exception.

15. Names of places.

a. Cities, rivers, oceans, lakes, mountains, etc.

    _Chicago_
    _Mississippi River_
    _Atlantic Ocean_
    _Lake Superior_
    _Pike's Peak_
    _Strawberry Hill_.

Note that the generic terms ocean, lake, mountain and the like are
capitalized only when they are an actual part of the name itself. We
would say "_The Atlantic Ocean lies east of the United States_," but we
would say "_The states which form the North American republic look out
on two great oceans, the Atlantic and the Pacific._"

The following tables are taken from _A Manual for Writers_ by John
Matthews Manley and John Arthur Powell (University of Chicago Press,
Chicago).

Subject to the rule just stated, they will be found very useful.

Capitalize, in singular form only, when immediately following the name

    Archipelago
    Borough
    Branch (stream)
    Butte
    Canyon
    County
    Crater
    Creek
    Delta
    Forest
    Fork
    Gap
    Glacier
    Gulch
    Harbor
    Head
    Hollow
    Mesa
    Narrows
    Ocean
    Parish (La.)
    Park
    Plateau
    Range
    Reservation
    Ridge
    River
    Run

Capitalize in singular or plural form when immediately following the
name

    Hill
    Island
    Mountain
    Spring

Capitalize, in singular form, either before or after the name; and in
plural form before the name

    Bay
    Bayou
    Camp (military)
    Cape
    Dalles
    Desert
    Falls
    Fort
    Isle
    Lake
    Mount
    Oasis
    Pass
    Peak
    Point
    Port
    Sea
    Strait
    Valley
    Volcano

b. Names of streets, squares, parks, buildings, etc.

    _Amsterdam Avenue_
    _Van Buren Street_
    _Independence Square_
    _Lincoln Park_
    _Transportation Building_.

The same rule as to capitalization of the generic name holds here as in
the preceding section. The usual tendency to drop capitals is at work
here and newspapers now write _Washington street_ and _Federal
building_. It is very probable that the capitals will finally be dropped
from the generic terms wherever used.

Printers should keep a careful watch on the usage of the best offices so
as to keep advised as to the progress of these changes.

c. Nouns, and adjectives derived from them designating recognized
geographical divisions of a country or of the world.

    _East_, _West_, _North_, _South_,
    _Westerner_, _Oriental_.

When these words are used in their ordinary significance of mere
direction or location they are not capitalized except that in writing of
Biblical history we speak of the _Northern Kingdom_ and the _Southern
Kingdom_ into which Solomon's territory was split after his death.

16. Generic terms for political divisions.

a. When the term is part of the name and directly follows it.

    _Holy Roman Empire_
    _British Empire_
    _Northwest Territory_
    _Queen's County_.

b. When it is used with the preposition of in such phrases as _Borough
of the Bronx_, _Department of the Gulf_.

c. When part of a nickname, _The Crescent City_, _the Buckeye State_,
_the City of Brotherly Love_.

Be careful not to capitalize such words when they are not an actual part
of the name. _French Republic_ is the name of the county, exactly
translating _Republique Francaise_, but _American republic_ is not such
a name. You would write _State of New York_ in a legal document in which
the state would be considered as a corporate person, but in ordinary
references it would be _state of New York_.

17. The days of the week and the months of the year, but not the seasons
unless personified.

    _Monday the fifth of August._
    _April is the first month of spring._
    _Spring, beautiful Spring._

But write _ten o'clock_, _nine a.m._, _ten p.m._

18. Festivals and historic or famous days.

    _Easter Day_
    _Fast Day_
    _Independence Day_
    _Black Friday_.

19. Stars, planets, constellations, and the like, except _sun_, _moon_,
_stars_, _earth_.

    _Mars_, _the Milky Way_, _the Pleiades_.

20. Ordinal numbers used to designate numbered political divisions,
sessions of Congress, names of regiments, Egyptian dynasties, and the
like.

    _Second Congressional District_,
    _First Ward_, _Ninth Precinct_, _Forty-third
    Congress_, _Sixth Massachusetts Regiment_,
    _Fifth Dynasty_.

21. Names of genera but not of species: except that in botanical and
zoölogical copy the species may be capitalized if derived from a proper
name.

    _Agaricus campestris_
    _Parkinsonia Torreyana_
    _Pterygomatopus schmidti_, (Medical).

The English derivatives from these scientific words are not capitalized.
We write of the _agarics_, the _felids_, the _carnivores_, etc.

22. _Father_, _mother_, and other words denoting relationship when used
with a proper name or without a personal pronoun.

    _I saw Aunt Lucy and Cousin Charles._
    _I saw my aunt Lucy and my cousin Charles._
    _I have received a letter from my mother._
    _I have received a letter from Mother._

23. Names of political parties and of philosophical, literary, and
artistic schools, and their adherents.

    _Republican_, _National Liberal_, _Social Democrats_, _Stoics_ (but
    _neo-Platonism_, _pseudo-Christianity_, etc.) _the Lake school_,
    _the Romantic movement_, _the Symbolic school of painters_.

24. Political and historical designations which have been much used and
have come to have special significances such as names of leagues,
parties, classes, movements, and the like.

    _Holy Alliance_, _Dreibund_, _Roundheads_, _Independents_,
    _Reformation_, _Dissenter_.

25. Names of well-known historic epochs, periods in the history of
language, and geological ages and strata. The word "age" is not
capitalized except when necessary to avoid ambiguity.

    _Stone age_, _Middle Ages_, _Age of Elizabeth_, _Crusades_, _Commune
    (of Paris)_, _Middle English_, _Neolithic_.

26. Names of important events.

    _Hundred Years War_, _Battle of Trenton_,
    _Louisiana Purchase_, _Norman Conquest_.

27. Names of specific treaties, important laws, and the like.

    _Peace of Amiens_, _Edict of Nantes_, _Concordat_, _Emancipation
    Proclamation_, _Fourteenth Amendment_.

28. Names of governmental bodies and departments and their branches when
specifically designated.

    _Congress_, _the Senate_, _the Board of Aldermen_, _the House of
    Commons_, _the Committee on Education_.

Care must be taken to distinguish between these specific references and
general uses of the same word.

    _The state legislature of Massachusetts is officially termed the
    General Court._
    _The matter was referred to the War Department but was sent back on
    the ground that it belonged to another department._

29. The official titles of corporations, organizations, and
institutions, social, religious, educational, political, business, and
the like.

    _Knights Templars_, _Knights of Columbus_, _Associated Charities_,
    _Cook County Normal School_, _Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
    to Animals_, _Chicago_, _Rock Island and Pacific Railroad_.

In long titles, like the last example given, the important words are
capitalized as in book titles (see Sec. 31). Use capitals when referring
to such organizations by initials, _C. R. I. & P. R. R._ Here again it
must be remembered that the capitals are used in specific references
only.

    _The Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor of the Third
    Congregational Church._
    _The young people's societies connected with the Congregational
    churches do great good._

30. The names of conventions, congresses, expositions, etc.

    _Parliament of Religions_,
    _International Peace Congress_,
    _Panama-Pacific Exposition_.

31. The first words, principal words, and last word in English tides of
books and other publications; of their divisions (parts, chapters,
cantos, etc.); of the topics of speeches, sermons, toasts, and the like;
of pictures; of plays; of musical compositions, etc.

In long titles nouns and pronouns are capitalized always; verbs,
participles, and adverbs usually; articles, prepositions and
conjunctions never.

    _Standard Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases_, _Science and
    Health with Key to the Scriptures_, _Lincoln's Gettysburg Address_,
    _Paradise Lost_, _Measure for Measure_, _A New Way to Pay Old
    Debts_, _The Coronation of Charles VII at Rheims_, _the Moonlight
    Sonata_.

The word "the" is capitalized when it forms an actual part of the title
of a book but not otherwise.

    _The Printer's Dictionary_. _The Life and Times of Charles V._ _the
    Review of Reviews_, _the Laacoon_, _the Fifth Symphony_.

32. Dedications; headings of parts and chapters; headings of many
important minor parts of a book.

    _To All Who Love Good Printing._
    _Chapter Twenty-Seven._
    _Part Three._
    _The Invention of Movable Types._
    _The Practical Value of Gutenberg's Invention._
    (These last as sections of a book on the origin of printing).

33. In foreign languages the usage is somewhat different. The following
rules will be found useful:

a. Always capitalize the first word.

b. In Latin capitalize only proper nouns and adjectives derived
therefrom.

    _Commentarii Cæsaris de bello Gallico._

c. In French, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, and Norwegian, capitalize
proper names but not adjectives derived therefrom.

    _La vie de Ronsard_; _Histoire de la litterature francaise_,
    _Novelle e racconti popolari italiani_, _Antologia de poetas liricos
    castellanos_.

d. In German capitalize all nouns and all adjectives derived from the
names of persons but not those derived from other proper nouns.

    _Geschichte des deutsches Reich_
    _Die Homerische Frage_.

e. In Danish capitalize all nouns.

f. In Dutch capitalize all nouns and all adjectives derived from proper
nouns.

34. Titles of ancient manuscripts.

    _Codex Alexandrinus._

35. In titles of books, etc. all nouns forming parts of hyphenated
compounds should be capitalized.

36. In side heads capitalize the first word and proper nouns only.

37. Personal titles as follows:

a. Titles preceding a name and so forming part of it.

    _King George V._
    _Pope Benedict XV._
    _Duke William of Aquitaine._

But not otherwise.

    _Woodrow Wilson_, _president of the United States_, _the emperor of
    Germany_, _the present king of Spain is Alfonso XIII_.

b. Titles used in place of the name with reference to a particular
person or to the present holder of an office.

    _I hope when in Rome to see the Pope._
    _He hoped some day to become pope._

c. Familiar names applied to a particular person.

    _the Father of his Country._
    _Unser Fritz._
    _the Little Corporal._

d. Orders of knighthood and titles attached to them.

    _Knight of the Garter_,
    _Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George_.

e. Titles used in direct address.

    _Good morning, Mr. President._

f. Academic degrees in abbreviated form following a name.

    _David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., LL. D._

So also letters following a name indicating membership of certain
scientific and artistic organizations.

    _F. R. G. S._ (Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society).
    _R. A._ (Member of the Royal Academy).

So also in the United States and Great Britain, _M. C._ (Member of
Congress) and _M. P._ (Member of Parliament).

Where a person has many titles the following of this rule involves
certain difficulties. Such a name as

    _John Smith, A. M., D. D., Ph. D., L. H. D., D. C. L., LL. D._ is by
    no means impossible.

In such a case the titles become much more prominent than the name and
the page is disfigured by the spotty appearance of the text. Small
capitals may sometimes be used with good effect in such a case but this
should not be done without obtaining proper permission.

The difficulty of handling these long and numerous titles in the
composition of title pages is sometimes considerable. Three methods of
dealing with the difficulty are open.

a. The honorary titles may be put in capitals regardless of the
unsightly appearance of the line.

b. The honorary titles may be put in a small size of the same face and
justified in the line. This lessens the undue prominence of the titles,
but puts the line out of balance.

c. The honorary titles may be put in a separate line, or lines, below
the name, set in small type, and spelled out in full. It is not
necessary to capitalize _jr._ and _sr._ in lower-case text matter unless
so desired by the author.

In compound titles capitalize each word if it would be capitalized
separately.

    _Major General Leonard Wood_,
    _Chief Justice Taney_,
    _Commander-in-Chief Field_
    _Marshal Sir John French_.

38. Names of things personified.

    _Nature_, _Vice_, _Thrift_, and the like.

39. Adjectives derived from proper nouns.

    _The Elizabethan age._
    _Roman law._

Such adjectives and even proper nouns themselves lose the capital when
they are applied as trade or scientific names to articles of common use
or reference.

    _roman type_, _india ink_, _chinese white_, _volt_, _watt_,
    _boycott_, _platonic_, _bohemian_.

40. The first word of a direct quotation.

    _As he turned to go he said: "Farewell, we shall never meet again."_

41. The first word after "Whereas" and "Resolved" in resolutions.

    _WHEREAS. It has pleased God...._
    _therefore be it
    RESOLVED, That...._

42. The first word after a colon when the colon introduces a logically
complete phrase not very closely connected with what precedes.

    _My conclusion is: A policy of consistent neutrality is the only
    proper one for the country._
    _As the proverb well says: Beware the anger of a patient man._

43. _O_ interjection, but not _oh_ unless it begins a sentence.

In Latin sentences of exclamation, denunciation or appeal the lower-case
_o_ is used.

    _O tempora, o mores temporum._

44. The first personal pronoun _I_ wherever it occurs.

45. Emphasized words.

    _We stand for Liberty and Union._

This use should be avoided except for advertising display, or job work.

    _We call attention to our Stock of
    Boots, Shoes, and Furnishings._



SMALL CAPITALS


The use of small capitals presents its own peculiar problems to the
printer. The small capital has the form of the large capital but without
its size and conspicuousness. The small capitals are ordinarily no
taller than the round letters of the lower-case. They are usually on a
smaller set, with a lighter face and obscured by more connecting lines.
In many fonts of type they are really the weakest and least
distinguished of all the five series. Wide enough to cover the body of
the type fairly thoroughly in most letters and thus to reduce the
apparent space between letters, without ascenders and without
descenders, they are very monotonous and singularly ineffective when
used in any considerable quantity. When used in masses it is at times
even difficult to read them.

The use of small capitals is quite different from that of large ones.
For the reasons just given they are not suited to display. For this
purpose they are no better than italics, if as good. Owing to their lack
of striking appearance and commanding quality they are not used for
emphasis. Display and emphasis it will be remembered are the two
principal uses of the full capital.

Small capitals are used more for variety than for display. They are
commonly used for:

    Side heads

    Running titles

    Catch lines of title pages when particular display is not desired.

They are sometimes used for the first word after a blank line,
especially for the first word of a new chapter.

Long quotations of poetry are often printed with the first word in small
capitals. In this, as in the preceding case, the whole word is printed
in small capitals except the first letter which is a full capital.

Proper names standing at the beginning of a chapter, occasionally even
of a paragraph, are sometimes spelled in capitals or small capitals. If
small capitals are used the initials of the name are put in full
capitals.

Until within a comparatively short time tables of contents were often
set in small capitals. At the same time it was customary to give a
fairly full synopsis of the contents of each chapter under the chapter
head. The result was a very monotonous page, dull, dense, hard to read.
It is much better and now more common to use small caps for the chapter
heads and ordinary text type for abstracts, using dashes or dots to
separate the phrases in the synopsis and beginning each phrase with a
capital.

The following reproduction of a part of a page from the table of
contents of DeVinne's _Modern Methods of Book Composition_ shows this
method of treatment.

                             CONTENTS

Chapter                                                     Page

  I EQUIPMENT                                                  1

    Types...Stands...Cases...Case-racks.

 II EQUIPMENT                                                 39

    Galleys and galley-racks...Compositors' implements
    Brass rules and cases for labor-saving rule and leads
    Dashes and braces...Leads...Furniture of wood and
    of metal...Furniture-racks...Quotations and electrotype
    guards.

III COMPOSITION                                               75

    Time-work and piece-work...Customary routine
    on book-work...Justification...Spacing and leading
    Distribution...Composition by hand and machine
    Proper methods of hand work...Recent mannerisms.

 IV COMPOSITION OF BOOKS                                     111

    Title-page...Preface matter...Chapter headings and
    synopsis...Subheadings...Extracts...Notes and il-
    lustrations...Running titles and paging at head or at
    foot Poetry...Appendix and index...Initials...Headbands,
    etc.

Where chapter synopses are not given, ordinary text type may be used for
the table of contents.

The following reproduction of the table of contents of DeVinne's
_Correct Composition_ shows this method of treatment.

                             CONTENTS

CHAPTER                                                     PAGE
        Preface                                              vii

     I  Spelling                                               5

    II  Abbreviations                                         33

   III  Compound Words                                        61

    IV  Figures and Numerals                                  76

     V  Italic                                                94

    VI  Capital Letters                                      108

   VII  Division of Words                                    128

  VIII  Small Capitals                                       145

    IX  Extracts and Letters                                 157

     X  Notes                                                171

    XI  Indention                                            182

   XII  Spacing                                              198

  XIII  Quotation-marks                                      209

   XIV  Subheadings                                          230

    XV  Punctuation                                          241

   XVI  Proof-reading                                        294

  XVII  About Copy                                           327

 XVIII  Errors of the Press                                  345

        Appendix                                             359

        Index                                                447

Small capitals are best for subheads when of not more than two lines. If
the subheads are longer it is best to use lower-case.

Signatures and credits are often put in small capitals. It is usually,
however, better to use italics for the purpose. There is no need of a
dash to connect the name with the quotation. When two or more quotations
from the same author are used as mottoes, with reference to the works
from which they are taken or the occasion on which they were said, the
name of the author may be put in small capitals in a separate line, the
name of the book or speech in italics, and the occasion in smaller roman
type.

Numerous signatures to a document or petition, such as the _Mayflower
Compact_ or the _Declaration of Independence_, are often set in columns
using capitals for the initials and small capitals for the rest of the
name. Full capitals are too large for the purpose.

    We therefore, the Commissioners for the Massachusetts, Connecticut,
    and New Haven, do also, for our several governments, subscribe unto
    these.

    JOHN WINTHROP, Governor of the Massachusetts
    THOMAS DUDLEY           THEOPHILUS EATON
    GEORGE FENWICK          EDWARD HOPKINS
                            THOMAS GREGSON

Dedications of books are commonly set in small capitals. As these
dedicatory formulas are ordinarily brief there should be wide leading,
good display, and care as to margins. The author will often give very
definite specifications as to the arrangement of his copy in lines, and
this will sometimes cause difficulty, occasionally compelling the use of
too small type. The author's specifications must be followed if he
adheres to them.

Small capitals are much favored for running titles of pages. Full
capitals are much more effective and are to be preferred where the words
are few. Small capitals of 12 or 14 point body are distinct but smaller
sizes are crowded and hard to read. This difficulty can sometimes be
remedied by hair spacing. Over spacing of such lines is objectionable
though it has sometimes prevailed as a temporary fashion.

Small capitals used in running titles are exposed to heavy wear and
their shallow counters are liable to get choked up with ink. Capitals of
the monotint or of a light-faced antique are sometimes selected for
books frequently reprinted where the wear on the exposed running titles
is very severe.

In reprinting letters it is common to use small capitals for the name of
the place from which the letter was written, for the name of the
addressee, and for the signature. In job and advertising work the name
of the month and day and date are generally put in lower-case of the
text letter. This rule is not followed, however, in books. When the
heading of the letter is very long lower-case letters are preferable to
small capitals under the general rules of taste which govern the use of
types. The salutation, _Dear Sir_, _Gentlemen_, or the like, does not
need small capitals. It is better printed in italic lower-case with a
colon (not followed by a dash) at the end. If the matter is double
leaded the salutation may go in a line by itself, otherwise conforming
to the rules just given.

Reprints of formal inscriptions on tablets and the like are often made
in small capitals surrounded by a border. There should be a good relief
of white space between the type and the border.

In the Bible and in hymn books the words LORD and GOD are usually set
with full capital initial and the rest of the word in small capitals.

This is, of course, a method of showing veneration and at one time it
was customary to print all names of spiritual or temporal dignitaries
and magnates or even ordinary names in small capitals. This practice
still lingers in a few newspapers which print the names of persons, even
those of small consequence, in small capitals, especially on the
editorial page.

The tendency is steady toward the discriminating use of capitals, small
capitals, and italics. More and more we restrict the use of marks of
emphasis to the really necessary places leaving the words to tell their
story without outside aid.



SUGGESTIONS AS TO TYPOGRAPHIC USE OF CAPITALS


Capitals are too strong to be used with Arabic numerals. This fault of
proportion is increased by the custom of casting Arabic numerals on an
en body for table work, making them only half as thick as the type. Full
capitals may be used with full figures the width of an ordinary letter.
Condensed capitals may be used with en body numerals.

If old-style capitals and figures are required in the same line use
figures about one-half larger in body than the capitals and justify them
to the line.

It is this difficulty in combining capitals and Arabic numerals in the
same line that causes the extensive use of Roman numerals in chapter
numbers, numbers of other headings, dates on title pages, and the like.

When a large initial three or four lines high is used for the first
letter of a new chapter, large capitals are sometimes used, although
such usage is not free from the reproach of looking too much like
newspaper advertising. When this initial is a two line letter it should
be in alignment with the small capitals of the upper line and the base
line of the text letter of the lower line.

[Illustration:
AMONG the earliest methods of communicating
ideas to the absent pictures
hold the largest place.]

[Illustration: THERE comes a tide in the affairs of men which,
taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.]

Care should be taken not to compact capitals. Use wider leading and
broader spacing than for lower-case; for example, where you would use
one lead between lower-case lines you should use two or three between
lines of capitals.

Capitals occupy more of the type-body than lower-case letters and
consequently words or lines set entirely with capitals need wider
spacing and leading than the lower-case to make composition readable.
When lines of roman capitals are set solid or single-leaded the en-quad
will usually be enough space between words especially if the words are
short; but for wide-leaded lines and head-lines double spaces (two
three-to-em) will be needed. A head-line of round, open capitals may
even need em-quad spaces. Wide letter words require wide spaces and
words of thin or condensed letters require thin spaces.

[Illustration:
UNITED TYPOTHETAE
OF AMERICA

UNITED TYPOTHETAE
OF AMERICA]

Words which begin or end with A Y L V W T may need spaces a little less
than those with H I M, etc. In small types the inequalities in white
space beside or between combinations like L Y A T W and letters with
regular shape like H I M N, may not be readily noticed, but in large
sizes of capitals these differences are greatly increased and will often
make unequal white spaces in a line with uniform metal spaces. In some
styles of types a line may need unequal metal spaces in order to space
the words evenly.

(Marks indicate insertion of spaces.)

[Illustration: TEN MAIL TRAINS]

    This line has en-quads between the words, but the forms
    of L and T make the white space greater than
    between the first and second words.

[Illustration: TEN MAI'L TRAI'N'S]

    This line has an en-quad in first space and three-to-em
    in the second, with hair-spaces between some
    letters of the words.

So, also, it will often be necessary to insert pieces of paper, card, or
thin leads between the letters of a word in large display, in order to
make them evenly spaced, as shown in these examples:

(Marks indicate insertion of spaces.)

[Illustration:
PLAINLY
PLAI'N'LY
UNEVENLY SPACED
EVE'N'LY S'PA'C'E'D]

This differential spacing in a line of capitals will also be required in
a line having abbreviations or initials. The following line, spaced with
en-quads throughout, has unnecessarily wide spaces between the initials:

[Illustration: JOHN ENDICOTT LODGE, A. O. U. W.]

Spaced with four-to-em in the last three places, it is improved:

[Illustration: JOHN ENDICOTT LODGE, A. O. U. W.]

Capitals used as initials of titles and for other abbreviations, with
the accompanying periods, should be thin-spaced or set close together,
as shown in the second of these examples:

[Illustration:
GEORGE MARKHAM, D. D., PH. D.
GEORGE MARKHAM, D.D., PH.D.
JOHN FLINT, M. D. V., BOSTON, U. S. A.
JOHN FLINT, M.D.V., BOSTON, U.S.A.]

Two or more lines of capitals of the same size should be spaced as
nearly alike as possible. These three lines are so disproportionately
spaced that they are not pleasing:

[Illustration:
NORTH END UNION
B  O  S  T  O  N
MASSACHUSETTS]

The squaring up is arbitrary and strained. The lines are better like
this:

[Illustration:
NORTH END UNION
    BOSTON
MASSACHUSETTS]

But if it is necessary to square up lines and no additional words or
letters can be inserted the short line may be filled with florets or
other characters which should not be bolder than the type itself and
should be of a style to harmonize with it as nearly as possible.

[Illustration:
NORTH END UNION
*** BOSTON ***
MASSACHUSETTS]

The extra wide spacing of words set in capitals, as in head-lines and
running-heads, should be avoided by the young compositor; there are
places where it may be unobjectionable but it will require good judgment
and some experience to prevent such lines making the page look freakish
or amateurish.

In jobbing, advertisement, and display work, capitals are used more
freely than in plain reading matter. In book work the practice is to use
capitals more freely than in newspaper composition. A study of the
reading columns of daily newspapers will discover that capitals are used
very sparingly and words are "kept down" in many cases which in more
formal book and pamphlet work would be capitalized.

In advertisements, announcements, and circular letters, words are often
capitalized for distinction or emphasis, as in these examples:

    Those who win a Second or First Prize through a monthly or special
    contest become Honor Members of the Guild, and receive the Guild
    badge without charge.

    You are cordially invited to attend the Spring Opening of Suits and
    Outside Garments for Women, on Wednesday and Thursday, April 28 and
    29, in our new Mason Street Annex.

Precise rules for the use of capitals cannot be given for work of all
kinds. Their insertion or omission will be governed greatly by the
subject matter and the style of treatment desired by the proof-reader or
the customer and the compositor's duty will not go further than to
maintain some consistency in their use in each piece of work. When he
has copy in which capitals are used as in the following example he will
be expected either to discard all capitals except at the beginning of
the sentences or to capitalize the words as in the second example:

    Fifty styles of the Smartest and nobbiest wheel specialties for
    ponies and Small horses, Pony carts, light horse novelties, traps,
    wagons, Harness, Saddles, etc.

    Fifty Styles of the Smartest and Nobbiest Wheel Specialties for
    Ponies and Small Horses, Pony Carts, Light Horse Novelties, Traps,
    Wagons, Harness, Saddles, etc.

In lines of large display, like head-lines, set in capitals and
lower-case, all the important words should begin with capitals.
Unimportant words, such as _of_, _the_, _by_, _for_, _but_, _in_, etc.,
except when they are at the beginning of the displayed phrase, are not
capitalized.

    Notice to the Public
    The Best is the Cheapest
    A Great Bargain in Hats
    By Right of Conquest
    For Love and Honor

A line of capitals containing an abbreviation or other short word should
have capitals throughout when possible, as in the second form of these
examples:

    JOHN SMITH, Jr.              JOHN SMITH, JR.
    ROBINSON & Co.               ROBINSON & CO.

In advertisement display lines like the following are permissible:

    The GOLDEN HARVESTER
    REGAL SHOES _for_ MEN

Combinations of different sizes and styles of types are also common and
serve their purpose properly, as in this style, often used in billheads,
etc.

    TO THOMAS W. ABBOTT, DR.
    _In account with_ FRANK ABBOTT

Combinations of large and small capitals and lower-case like the
following are, however, not approved:

    WILLIAM BROWN, President

The words in small capitals as well as the word in lower-case should
begin with large capitals, like this:

    WILLIAM BROWN, President

When lines of capitals are used in books and pamphlets, for headings and
display, they should be used consistently--that is, all headings of a
similar kind should be alike in any piece of work, and not one heading
in capitals and another in lower-case. The composition of a title page
is more pleasing when its chief lines are in one style of letters,
giving a harmonious effect. When lines of capitals and lines of
lower-case are interspersed in a page an appearance of confusion is
liable to be the result.



SUPPLEMENTARY READING


A Manual for Writers. By John Matthews Manley and John Arthur Powell.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. Frederick Stokes
Company, New York.

Correct Composition. By Theodore L. DeVinne. The Oswald Publishing
Company, New York.

A Handbook of Composition. By Edwin D. Woolley. D. C. Heath, Boston.

Punctuation. With Chapters on Hyphenization, Capitalization and
Spelling. By F. Horace Teale. Appleton & Co., New York.



QUESTIONS


As the subject matter of this book is such that many of the questions
will serve only to bring out the accuracy of the pupil's memory of rules
it is very desirable that care should be taken to insure intelligent use
and application of the rules. To be able to repeat a rule is of very
little importance compared with the ability to apply it intelligently.

The instructor should give the pupils constant practice in the
application of these rules. This should consist of;--

(a) Study of passages taken from all kinds of printed matter.

(b) Rewriting of passages given out without capitalization.

In the first case a wide range of material should be used from the most
carefully printed books to the most carelessly printed matter that can
be found, including newspapers of varying excellence and pure
advertising matter. The capitalization found should be studied and
explained by the rules and the criticisms or changes suggested justified
in the same way.

In like manner in the second case every capital used in the rewritten
text should be justified by the proper rule.

Without such exercises as these, the book will have comparatively little
value.

1. What is a capital letter?

2. How many series of letters does an ordinary font of type contain?

3. Name them, and tell what you know about each one.

4. In what does the distinction between capital and lower-case letter
consist?

5. What combinations of capitals and lower-case are permissible?

6. In manuscript how do you indicate capitals? Italics?

7. What are capitals used for?

8. What tendencies are observable in style?

9. What is the real implement of English speech?

10. What are the general rules for the use of capitals?

11. Capitalize, _men pray to god, to christ and to the virgin mary that
they may be defended by the holy ghost from those assaults of the devil
which would make devils of them_. Give the rule for so doing.

12. Capitalize, _the supreme architect of the universe, sometimes called
providence, has his own ways of bringing men to heaven_. Give the rule
for so doing.

13. Learn the list of words under rule 2.

14. Are these words capitalized in all cases?

15. Are adjectives derived from these words capitalized?

16. When do you not capitalize _God_ and its synonyms?

17. What is the usage as to pronouns referring to God and the other
persons of the Trinity?

18. What is the rule regarding the Bible and matter related to it?

19. What is the rule regarding biblical terms?

20. Capitalize, _the holy man entered the holy place at the appointed
time_. _The message of the gospel is found in the most spiritual form in
the gospel of John._ Give the rule.

21. What is the rule about religious bodies and their members?

22. What is the rule about monastic orders?

23. What is the rule about _church_? Give examples of the different
uses.

24. What is the rule about names of creeds?

25. Give different uses of _father_ and _reformer_ and explain them.

26. How do you use capitals in writing names of persons in English and
in other languages?

27. What is the usage with regard to epithets and the like?

28. What is the usage with regard to races of men?

29. Give the rule for names of places, and examples of each usage.

30. Learn the tables under rule 15.

31. When do you capitalize generic terms for political divisions and
when do you not?

32. What is the rule about words denoting time?

33. What is the rule about festivals, etc.?

34. What is the rule about astronomical terms?

35. When are ordinal numbers capitalized?

36. How are capitals used in scientific names?

37. What is the usage in such words as _father_, _mother_, and other
terms denoting relationship?

38. What is the rule regarding names of parties, political, literary,
etc.?

39. What is the rule as to historic parties, leagues, etc.?

40. What is the usage in writing of periods, historic, geological, etc.?

41. What is the usage regarding important events?

42. How are treaties, laws, etc., treated?

43. When are the names of governmental bodies, departments, etc.,
capitalized?

44. How are official titles of corporations and other bodies treated?

45. How are names of conventions, expositions, and the like treated?

46. How are capitals used in book titles and similar copy, including the
use of _the_?

47. How are capitals used in dedications and headings?

48. Give the rules for the use of capitals in foreign book titles.

49. Give the rules for the use of capitals in personal titles.

50. What can you do when a name is followed by the initials of a number
of titles?

51. What do you do in case of compound titles?

52. How do you write the names of things personified?

53. How are adjectives derived from proper nouns treated?

54. How are capitals used in direct quotations?

55. How are capitals used in resolutions?

56. Are capitals used after colons?

57. How do we write the interjections _O_ and _oh_?

58. How do we write the first personal pronoun?

59. When and where are capitals used for emphasis?

60. Describe the peculiarities of small capitals.

61. Are they used in the same way as full capitals? Why?

62. What is the principal use of small capitals?

63. Give some of the places where small capitals are commonly used.

64. How are small capitals now used in tables of contents, and how were
they formerly used?

65. What type would you use for a table of contents when chapter
synopses are not given?

66. How are subheads treated?

67. How are signatures and credits treated?

68. How are dedications of books treated?

69. How are running titles treated?

70. What is good usage in reprinting letters?

71. What is a good way to set reprints of formal inscriptions?

72. What is the usage with regard to the names of persons treated with
veneration?

73. What is the tendency in the use of capitals and other devices for
emphasis?

74. How would you handle combinations of capitals and numerals, and why?

75. How would you treat large initials?

76. How should you space and lead capitals as compared with lower-case?

77. How should lines of capitals be spaced, and why?

78. Would capitals set with even spacing or without spacing appear to be
evenly spaced?

79. What is the reason for the appearance just noted?

80. What would you do about it?

81. How should you space capitals used as initials of titles with
accompanying periods?

82. How should you space two or more lines of capitals of the same size?

83. If squaring up is necessary, how should it be done?

84. What can you say about wide spacing of words set in capitals?

85. What can you say of the use of capitals in different sorts of
matter?

86. How is the compositor guided in these cases?

87. How are capitals used in lines of large display?

88. How would you set a line of capitals containing an abbreviation or
other short word?

89. How may capitals be used in lines of advertising display?

90. Under what circumstances are combinations of different sizes and
styles of type permissible?

91. Are combinations of large and small capitals and lower-case
advisable?

92. What rule should be followed when lines of capitals are used in
books and pamphlets for headings and display?



GLOSSARY


FORMAL--Made in accordance with regular and established forms, or with
dignity and impressiveness: stiff.

GENERA--Plural of genus, a group for purposes of classification,
embracing one or more species.

GENERIC--Of or pertaining to a genus (see genera) as distinct from
specific, of or pertaining to a species (which see).

ORDINAL--That form of the numeral that shows the order of anything in a
series.

SPECIES--A group for purposes of classification subordinate to a genus
and composed of individuals having only minor differences.

VERSIONS--(Of the Bible) Different translations of the original into the
same or different languages.



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL
SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the
Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade
classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of
authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of
the United States--employers, journeymen, and apprentices--with a
comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable,
up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the
printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5×8 inches. Their
general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as
practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular
contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each
title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each
publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and
essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been
taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of
bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the
different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined
drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional
clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in
trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by
a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter.
A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department
treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, UNITED
TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U. S. A.


PART I--_Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials_

=1.= =Type: a Primer of Information=                  By A. A. Stewart

     Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes,
     font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture.
     44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

=2.= =Compositors' Tools and Materials=               By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads,
     brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.;
     illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

=3.= =Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture=           By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets,
     case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.;
     illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

=4.= =Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances=         By A. A. Stewart

     Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the
     press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59
     pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

=5.= =Proof Presses=                                  By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the customary methods and machines
     for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review
     questions; glossary.

=6.= =Platen Printing Presses=                         By Daniel Baker

     A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical
     construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand
     press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on
     automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review
     questions; glossary.

=7.= =Cylinder Printing Presses=                   By Herbert L. Baker

     Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types
     of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review
     questions; glossary.

=8.= =Mechanical Feeders and Folders=           By William E. Spurrier

     The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines;
     with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

=9.= =Power for Machinery in Printing Houses=         By Carl F. Scott

     A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and
     allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53
     pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

=10.= =Paper Cutting Machines=                       By Niel Gray, Jr.

     A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever
     cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting
     paper, 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

=11.= =Printers' Rollers=                             By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and
     care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions;
     glossary.

=12.= =Printing Inks=                                 By Philip Ruxton

     Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by
     permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of
     Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the
     everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review
     questions; glossary.

=13.= =How Paper is Made=                  By William Bond Wheelwright

     A primer of information about the materials and processes of
     manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated;
     62 review questions; glossary.

=14.= =Relief Engravings=                         By Joseph P. Donovan

     Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of
     engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for
     reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=15.= =Electrotyping and Sterotyping=
                                  By Harris B. Hatch and A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and
     stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions;
     glossaries.


PART II--_Hand and Machine Composition_

=16.= =Typesetting=                                   By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying,
     spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=17.= =Printers' Proofs=                              By A. A. Stewart

     The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with
     observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=18.= =First Steps in Job Composition=               By Camille DeVéze

     Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first
     jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make
     good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions;
     glossary.

=19.= =General Job Composition=

     How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and
     miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=20.= =Book Composition=                             By J. W. Bothwell

     Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition,"
     revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W. Bothwell
     of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of pages. Part
     II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525 review
     questions; glossary.

=21.= =Tabular Composition=                           By Robert Seaver

     A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples
     of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review
     questions.

=22.= =Applied Arithmetic=                            By E. E. Sheldon

     Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade,
     calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard
     tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with
     examples and exercises. 159 pp.

=23.= =Typecasting and Composing Machines=        A. W. Finlay, Editor

     Section I--The Linotype                        By L. A. Hornstein
     Section II--The Monotype                           By Joseph Hays
     Section III--The Intertype                    By Henry W. Cozzens
     Section IV--Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines
                                                     By Frank H. Smith

     A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their
     mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART III--_Imposition and Stonework_

=24.= =Locking Forms for the Job Press=              By Frank S. Henry

     Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and
     about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=25.= =Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press=       By Frank S. Henry

     Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods
     of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART IV--_Presswork_

=26.= =Making Ready on Platen Presses=                 By T. G. McGrew

     The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive
     features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan,
     regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting
     gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=27.= =Cylinder Presswork=                             By T. G. McGrew

     Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers,
     ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and
     overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=28.= =Pressroom Hints and Helps=                 By Charles L. Dunton

     Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with
     directions and useful information relating to a variety of
     printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

=29.= =Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts=      By A. W. Elson

     A primer of information about the distinctive features of the
     relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing.
     84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.


PART V--_Pamphlet and Book Binding_

=30.= =Pamphlet Binding=                        By Bancroft L. Goodwin

     A primer of information about the various operations employed in
     binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated;
     review questions; glossary.

=31.= =Book Binding=                                 By John J. Pleger

     Practical information about the usual operations in binding books;
     folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case
     making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and
     blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART VI--_Correct Literary Composition_

=32.= =Word Study and English Grammar=               By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about words, their relations, and their
     uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

=33.= =Punctuation=                                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their
     use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review
     questions; glossary.

=34.= =Capitals=                                     By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical
     typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review
     questions; glossary.

=35.= =Division of Words=                            By F. W. Hamilton

     Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks
     on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review
     questions.

=36.= =Compound Words=                               By F. W. Hamilton

     A study of the principles of compounding, the components of
     compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

=37.= =Abbreviations and Signs=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with
     classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review
     questions.

=38.= =The Uses of Italic=                           By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the history and uses of italic
     letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

=39.= =Proofreading=                                 By Arnold Levitas

     The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking,
     revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by
     examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

=40.= =Preparation of Printers' Copy=                By F. W. Hamilton

     Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in
     preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

=41.= =Printers' Manual of Style=

     A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions
     relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization,
     abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

=42.= =The Printer's Dictionary=                      By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about
     various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical
     terms explained. Illustrated.


PART VII--_Design, Color, and Lettering_

=43.= =Applied Design for Printers=                   By Harry L. Gage

     A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on
     the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats
     of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and
     variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46
     review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=44.= =Elements of Typographic Design=                By Harry L. Gage

     Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building
     material of typography paper, types, ink, decorations and
     illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book,
     treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units.
     Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=45.= =Rudiments of Color in Printing=                By Harry L. Gage

     Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster
     effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with
     process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and
     chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value,
     intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory
     of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full
     color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=46.= =Lettering in Typography=                       By Harry L. Gage

     Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect.
     Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on
     type design. Classification of general forms in lettering.
     Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully
     illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=47.= =Typographic Design in Advertising=             By Harry L. Gage

     The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which
     advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis,
     legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising
     typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=48.= =Making Dummies and Layouts=                    By Harry L. Gage

     A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a
     proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout.
     Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy
     envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


PART VIII--_History of Printing_

=49.= =Books Before Typography=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the
     history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.;
     illustrated; 64 review questions.

=50.= =The Invention of Typography=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about.
     64 pp.; 62 review questions.

=51.= =History of Printing--Part I=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the
     development of the book, the development of printers' materials,
     and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

=52.= =History of Printing--Part II=                 By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry
     from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship,
     internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review
     questions.

=53.= =Printing in England=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present
     time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

=54.= =Printing in America=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes
     on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.;
     84 review questions.

=55.= =Type and Presses in America=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and
     press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.


PART IX--_Cost Finding and Accounting_

=56.= =Elements of Cost in Printing=                By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=57.= =Use of a Cost System=                        By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=58.= =The Printer as a Merchant=                   By Henry P. Porter

     The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing.
     The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of
     the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

=59.= =Fundamental Principles of Estimating=        By Henry P. Porter

     The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for
     estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

=60.= =Estimating and Selling=                      By Henry P. Porter

     An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their
     relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

=61.= =Accounting for Printers=                     By Henry P. Porter

     A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary
     books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


PART X--_Miscellaneous_

=62.= =Health, Sanitation, and Safety=              By Henry P. Porter

     Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new;
     practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and
     rules for safety.

=63.= =Topical Index=                                By F. W. Hamilton

     A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic
     Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

=64.= =Courses of Study=                             By F. W. Hamilton

     A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for
     classroom and shop work.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid
co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the
printing business and its allied industries in the United States of
America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under whose
auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges its
indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many authors,
printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of those
contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a group
list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have
co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting the
first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the
Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee hopes
will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many
subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION,
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA.

  HENRY P. PORTER, _Chairman_,
  E. LAWRENCE FELL,
  A. M. GLOSSBRENNER,
  J. CLYDE OSWALD,
  TOBY RUBOVITS.

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, _Education Director_.



CONTRIBUTORS


=For Composition and Electrotypes=

ISAAC H. BLANCHARD COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
S. H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
J. S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass.
THE DEVINNE PRESS, New York, N. Y.
R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill.
GEO. H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass.
EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich.
FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
F. H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass.
STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
W. F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill.
J. B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
MCCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE PATTESON PRESS, New York, New York
THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass.
POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill.
EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE STONE PRINTING & MFG. CO., Roanoke, Va.
C. D. TRAPHAGEN, Lincoln, Neb.
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.

=For Composition=

BOSTON TYPOTHETAE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, Boston, Mass.
WILLIAM F. FELL CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE KALKHOFF COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
OXFORD-PRINT, Boston, Mass.
TOBY RUBOVITS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Electrotypes=

BLOMGREN BROTHERS CO., Chicago, Ill.
FLOWER STEEL ELECTROTYPING CO., New York, N. Y.
C. J. PETERS & SON CO., Boston, Mass.
ROYAL ELECTROTYPE CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
H. C. WHITCOMB & CO., Boston, Mass.

=For Engravings=

AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS CO., Boston, Mass.
C. B. COTTRELL & SONS CO., Westerly, R. I.
GOLDING MANUFACTURING CO., Franklin, Mass.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Mass.
INLAND PRINTER CO., Chicago, Ill.
LANSTON MONOTYPE MACHINE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
GEO. H. MORRILL CO., Norwood, Mass.
OSWALD PUBLISHING CO., New York, N. Y.
THE PRINTING ART, Cambridge, Mass.
B. D. RISING PAPER COMPANY, Housatonic, Mass.
THE VANDERCOOK PRESS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Book Paper=

AMERICAN WRITING PAPER CO., Holyoke, Mass.
WEST VIRGINIA PULP & PAPER CO., Mechanicville, N. Y.





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