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Title: Chronicles (1 of 6): The Historie of England (3 of 8)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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_Of Mulmucius the first king of Britaine, who was crowned with a
golden crowne, his lawes, his foundations, with other his acts and


[Sidenote: MULMUCIUS. _Matth. West. Polyd_.]
Now to proceede with the aforesaid authors, Mulmucius Dunwall[=o],
or as other saie Dunuallo Mulmucius, the sonne of Cloton (as
testifieth th'english chronicle and also Geffrey of Monmouth) got
the vpper hand of the other dukes or rulers: and after his fathers
deceasse began his reigne ouer the whole monarchie of Britaine, in the
yéere of the world 3529, after the building of Rome 314, and after the
deliuerance of the Israelites out of captiuitie 97, and about the 26
yéere of Darius Artaxerxes Longimanus, the fift king of the Persians.
This Mulmucius Dunuallo is named in the english chronicle Donebant,
and prooued a right worthie prince. He builded within the citie of
[Sidenote: _Fabian_. See more in the description.]
London then called Troinouant, a temple, and named it the temple of
peace: the which (as some hold opinion, I wote not vpon what ground)
was the same which now is called Blackwell hall, where the market
for buieng and selling of cloths is kept. The chronicle of England
affirmeth, that Mulmucius (whome the old booke nameth Molle)
[Sidenote: Malmesburie and the Vies built. _Matth. West_. Lawes made.]
builded the two townes Malmesburie and the Vies. He also made manie
good lawes, which were long after vsed, called Mulmucius lawes, turned
out of the British spéech into the Latine by Gildas Priscus, and long
time after translated out of latine into english by Alfred king of
England, and mingled in his statutes. He moreouer gaue priuileges to
temples, to plowes, to cities, and to high waies leading to the same,
so that whosoeuer fled to them, should be in safegard from bodilie
harme, and from thence he might depart into what countrie he would,
[Sidenote: _Caxton_ and _Polychron_.]
with indemnitie of his person. Some authors write, that he began to
make the foure great high waies of Britaine, the which were finished
by his sonne Blinus, as after shall be declared.

[Sidenote: The first king that was crowned with a golden crowne.]
After he had established his land, and set his Britains in good and
conuenient order, he ordeined him by the aduise of his lords a crowne
of gold, & caused himselfe with great solemnitie to be crowned,
according to the custome of the pagan lawes then in vse: & bicause he
was the first that bare a crowne héere in Britaine, after the opinion
of some writers, he is named the first king of Britaine, and all the
other before rehearsed are named rulers, dukes, or gouernors.

[Sidenote: _Polyd_. Weights and measures.]
Amongst other of his ordinances, he appointed weights and measures,
with the which men should buy and sell. And further he deuised sore
[Sidenote: Theft punished. _Fabian_.]
and streight orders for the punishing of theft. Finallie, after he
had guided the land by the space of fortie yéeres, he died, and was
buried in the foresaid temple of peace which he had erected within
the citie of Troinouant now called London, as before ye haue heard,
appointing in his life time, that his kingdome should be diuided
betwixt his two sonnes, Brennus and Belinus (as some men doo

       *       *       *       *       *

_The ioint-gouernment of Belinus and Brennus the two sonnes of
Mulmucius, their discontentment, the stratagems of the one against the
other, the expulsion of Brennus out of Britaine_.


[Sidenote: Belinus and Brennus. 3574.]
Brennus and Belinus began to reigne iointlie as kings in Britaine,
in the yéere of the world 3574, after the building of the citie
of Rome 355, and after the deliuerance of the Israelites out of
captiuitie 142, which was about the seuenth yéere of Artaxerxes
[Sidenote: _Matth. West_.]
surnamed Mnenon, the seuenth king of the Persians. Belinus held
vnder his gouernment Loegria, Wales, and Cornwall: and Brennus all
those countries ouer and beyond Humber. And with this partition
[Sidenote: _Polyd_. saith 5.]
were they contented by the tearme of six or seuen yéeres, after which
[Sidenote: Brennus not content with his portion.]
time expired, Brennus coueting to haue more than his portion came
to, first thought to purchase himselfe aid in forreine parties, &
therefore by the prouocation and counsell of yong vnquiet heads,
[Sidenote: Elsingius.]
sailed ouer into Norway, and there married the daughter of Elsung or
Elsing, as then duke or ruler of that countrie. Beline, offended with
his brother, that he should thus without his aduice marrie with
a stranger, now in his absence seized all his lands, townes, and
fortresses into his owne hands, placing garisons of men of warre where
he thought conuenient.

In the meane time, Brenne aduertised hereof, assembled a great nauie
of ships, well furnished with people and souldiers of the Norwegians,
with the which he tooke his course homewards, but in the waie he
[Sidenote: Guilthdacus king of Denmarke.]
was encountred by Guilthdacus king of Denmarke, the which had laid
long in wait for him, bicause of the yoong ladie which Brenne had
maried, for whome he had béene a sutor to hir father Elsing of long
time. When these two fléetes of the Danes and Norwegians met, there
was a sore battell betwixt them, but finallie the Danes ouercame them
of Norway, and tooke the ship wherein the new bride was conueied, and
then was she brought aboord the ship of Guilthdacus. Brenne escaped by
flight as well as he might. But when Guilthdacus had thus obtained the
[Sidenote: A tempest.]
victorie and prey, suddenlie therevpon arose a sore tempest of
wind and weather, which scattered the Danish fleete, and put the king
in danger to haue béene lost: but finallie within fiue daies after,
[Sidenote: Guilthdacus landed in the north.]
being driuen by force of wind, he landed in Northumberland, with a
few such ships as kept togither with him.

Beline being then in that countrie, prouiding for defense against his
brother, vpon knowledge of the king of Denmarks arriuall, caused him
to be staied. Shortlie after, Brenne hauing recouered and gotten
togither the most part of his ships that were dispersed by the
discomfiture, and then newlie rigged and furnished of all things
necessarie, sent word to his brother Beline, both to restore vnto
him his wife wrongfullie rauished by Guilthdacus, and also his lands
iniuriouslie by him seized into his possession. These requests
being plainlie and shortlie denied, Brenne made no long delaie, but
spéedilie made toward Albania, and landing with his armie in a part
thereof, incountred with his brother Beline néere vnto a wood named
[Sidenote: Calater wood is in Scotland.]
as then Calater, where (after cruell fight, and mortall battell
betwixt them) at length the victorie abode with the Britains, and the
discomfiture did light so on the Norwegians, that the most of them
were wounded, slaine, and left dead vpon the ground.

Hereby Brenne being forced to flée, made shift, and got ouer into
Gallia, where after he had sued to this prince, at length he
[Sidenote: Seguinus or Seginus duke of the Allobrogs, now the Delphinat
of Sauoy.]
abode, and was well receiued of one Seguinus or Seginus duke of the
people called then Allobrogs (as Galfrid of Monmouth saith) or rather
Armorica, which now is called Britaine, as Polychronicon, and the
english historie printed by Caxton, more trulie maie seeme to affirme.
But Beline hauing got the vpper hand of his enimies, assembling his
councell at Caerbranke, now called York, tooke aduise what he should
doo with the king of Denmarke: where it was ordeined, that he should
be set at libertie, with condition and vnder couenant, to acknowledge
himselfe by dooing homage, to hold his land of the king of
[Sidenote: The Danes tributarie of the Britains.]
Britaine, and to paie him a yéerelie tribute. These couenants being
agréed vpon, and hostages taken for assurance, he was set at libertie,
and so returned into his countrie. The tribute that he couenanted to
paie, was a thousand pounds, as the English chronicle saith.

[Sidenote: The foure high waies finished.]
When Beline had thus expelled his brother, and was alone possessed
of all the land of Britaine, he first confirmed the lawes made by his
father: and for so much as the foure waies begun by his father were
not brought to perfection, he therefore caused workmen to be called
foorth and assembled, whom he set in hand to paue the said waies with
stone, for the better passage and ease of all that should trauell
through the countries from place to place, as occasion should require.

[Sidenote: The Fosse.]
The first of these foure waies is named Fosse, and stretcheth
from the south into the north, beginning at the corner of Totnesse in
Cornewall, and so passing foorth by Deuonshire, and Somersetshire,
by Tutherie, on Cotteswold, and then forward beside Couentrie vnto
Leicester, and from thence by wild plaines towards Newarke, and endeth
[Sidenote: Watling stréet.]
at the citie of Lincolne. The second waie was named Watling
stréete, the which stretcheth ouerthwart the Fosse, out of the
southeast into the northeast, beginning at Douer, and passing by the
middle of Kent ouer Thames beside London, by-west of Westminster, as
some haue thought, and so foorth by S. Albons, and by the west side of
Dunstable, Stratford, Toucester, and Wedon by-south of Lilleborne, by
Atherston, Gilberts hill, that now is called the Wreken, and so foorth
by Seuerne, passing beside Worcester, vnto Stratton to the middle of
Wales, and so vnto a place called Cardigan, at the Irish sea. The
[Sidenote: Erming streét.]
third way was named Ermingstréet, which stretched out of the west
northwest, vnto the east southeast, and beginneth at Meneuia, the
which is in Saint Dauids land in west Wales, and so vnto Southampton.
[Sidenote: Hiknelstréet.]
The fourth and last waie hight Hiknelstréete, which leadeth by
Worcester, Winchcombe, Birmingham, Lichfield, Darbie, Chesterfield,
and by Yorke, and so foorth vnto Tinmouth. After he had caused
these waies to be well and sufficientlie raised and made, he confirmed
[Sidenote: Priuilegs granted to the waies.]
vnto them all such priuileges as were granted by his father.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Brennus marrieth with the duke of Alobrogs daughter, groweth into
great honour, commeth into Britaine with an armie against his brother
Beline, their mother reconcileth them, they ioine might & munition and
haue great conquests, conflicts betweene the Galles and the Romans,
the two brethren take Rome_.


In the meane time that Beline was thus occupied about the necessarie
affaires of his realme and kingdome, his brother Brenne that was
fled into Gallia onelie with 12. persons, bicause he was a goodlie
gentleman, and séemed to vnderstand what apperteined to honour, grew
shortlie into fauour with Seginus the duke afore mentioned, and
declaring vnto him his aduersitie, and the whole circumstance of
his mishap, at length was so highlie cherished of the said Seginus,
deliting in such worthie qualities as he saw in him dailie appearing,
[Sidenote: Brenne marieth the duke of Alobrogs daughter.]
that he gaue to him his daughter in mariage, with condition,
that if he died without issue male, should he inherit his estate &
dukedome: and if it happened him to leaue anie heire male behind him,
then should he yet helpe him to recouer his land and dominion in
Britaine, béereft from him by his brother.

These conditions well and surelie vpon the dukes part by the assent of
the nobles of his land concluded, ratified, and assured, the said duke
within the space of one yéere after died. And then after a certeine
time, being knowne that the duches was not with child, all the lords
of that countrie did homage to Brenne, receiuing him as their lord and
supreme gouernour, vpon whome he likewise for his part in recompense
of their curtesie, bestowed a great portion of his treasure.

[Sidenote: Brenne with an armie returneth into Britaine.]
Shortlie after also, with their assent he gathered an armie, and
with the same eftsoones came ouer into Britaine, to make new warre
vpon his brother Beline. Of whose landing when Beline was informed, he
assembled his people, and made himselfe readie to méete him: but
[Sidenote: Brenne and Beline made friends by intercession of their
as they were at point to haue ioined battell, by the intercession of
their mother that came betwixt them, and demeaned hirselfe in all
motherlie order, and most louing maner towards them both, they fell to
an agréement, and were made friends or euer they parted asunder.

After this they repaired to London, and there taking aduice togither
with their peeres and councellors, for the good order and quieting of
the land, at length they accorded to passe with both their armies
into Gallia, to subdue that whole countrie, and so following this
determination, they tooke shipping and sailed ouer into Gallia, where
beginning the warre with fire and sword, they wrought such maisteries,
that within a short time (as saith Geffrey of Monmouth) they
[Sidenote: They inuade Gallia and Italie.]
conquered a great part of Gallia, Italie, and Germanie, and brought it
to their subiection. In the end they tooke Rome by this occasion (as
writers report) if these be the same that had the leading of those
Galles, which in this season did so much hurt in Italie and other
parts of the world.

After they had passed the mountaines, & were entred into Tuscan, they
[Sidenote: Now Clusi.]
besieged the citie of Clusium, the citizens whereof being in great
danger, sent to Rome for aid against their enimies. Wherevpon the
Romanes, considering with themselues that although they were not in
anie league of societie with the Clusians, yet if they were ouercome
the danger of the next brunt were like to be theirs: with all
[Sidenote: Ambassadours sent from Rome. Brennus answere.]
spéed they sent ambassadours to intreat betwixt the parties for some
peace to be had.

They that were sent, required the capteines of the Galles, in the name
of the senat and citizens of Rome, not to molest the friends of the
Romans. Wherevnto answere was made by Brennus, that for his part he
could be content to haue peace, if it were so that the Clusians would
be agréeable that the Galles might haue part of the countrie which
they held, being more than they did alreadie well occupie, for
otherwise (said he) there could be no peace granted.

The Romane ambassadours being offended with these wordes, demanded
what the Galles had to doo in Tuscan, by reason of which and other the
like ouerthwart wordes, the parties began to kindle in displeasure
[Sidenote: The treatie of peace breaketh off.]
so farre, that their communication brake off, and so they from
treating fell againe to trie the matter by dint of sword.

The Romane ambassadours also to shew of what prowesse the Romans were,
contrarie to the law of nations (forbidding such as came in ambassage
about anie treatie of peace to take either one part or other) tooke
weapon in hand, and ioined themselues with the Clusians, wherewith the
Galles were so much displeased, that incontinentlie with one voice,
they required to haue the siege raised from Clusium, that they might
go to Rome. But Brennus thought good first to send messengers
thither, to require the deliuerie of such as had broken the law, that
punishment might be done on them accordinglie as they had deserued.
This was done, and knowledge brought againe, that the ambassadors were
not onelie not punished, but also chosen to be tribunes for the next

The Galles then became in such a rage (because they saw there was
nothing to be looked for at the hands of the Romans, but warre,
injurious wrongs, and deceitfull traines) that they turned all their
[Sidenote: The Galles make towards Rome. The Romans incountring with
the Galles are overthrown.]
force against them, marching streight towardes Rome, and by the waie
destroied all that stood before them. The Romans aduertised thereof,
assembled themselues togither to the number of 40. thousand, and
encountring with Beline and Brenne, neare to the riuer Allia, about
11. miles on this side Rome, were slaine and quite discomfited.

The Galles could scarse beléeue that they had got the victorie with so
small resistance: but when they perceiued that the Romans were quite
ouerthrowne and that the field was clearelie rid of them, they got
togither the spoile, and made towards Rome it selfe, where such
feare and terror was striken into the heartes of the people, that all
[Sidenote: The Romans in despaire withdraw into the capitoll.]
men were in despaire to defend the citie: and therefore the senate
with all the warlike youth of the citizens got them into the capitoll,
which they furnished with victuals and all things necessarie for the
maintenance of the same against a long siege. The honorable fathers
and all the multitude of other people not apt for warres, remained
still in the citie, as it were to perish with their countrie if hap so

[Sidenote: The Galles enter into Rome.]
In the meane time came the Galles to the citie, and entring by the
gate Collina, they passed forth the right way vnto the market place,
maruelling to sée the houses of the poorer sort to be shut against
them, and those of the richer to remaine wide open; wherefore being
doubtfull of some deceitfull traines, they were not ouer rash to enter
the same; but [Sidenote: The Reuerend aspect of the senators.] after
they had espied the ancient fathers sit in their chaires apparelled
in their rich robes, as if they had bin in the senat, they reuerenced
them as gods, so honorable was their port, grauenesse in countenance,
and shew of apparell.

[Sidenote: _Marcus Papirius_]
In the meane time it chanced, that Marcus Papirius stroke one of
the Galles on the head with his staffe, because he presumed to stroke
his beard: with which iniurie the Gall being prouoked, slue Papirius
(as he sat) with his sword, and therewith the slaughter being begun
with one, all the residue of those ancient fatherlie men as they sat
in their chaires were slaine and cruellie murthered. After this all
the people found in the citie without respect or difference at
[Sidenote: Rome sacked. 365.]
all, were put to the sword, and their houses sacked. And thus was Rome
taken by the two brethren, Beline and Brenne, 365 yeares after the
first building thereof. Besides this, the Galles attempted in the
night season to haue entred the capitoll: and in déed ordered their
enterprise so secretlie, that they had atchieued their purpose, if a
[Sidenote: The capitoll defended.]
sort of ganders had not with their crie and noise disclosed them,
in wakening the Romans that were asléepe: & so by that meanes were the
Galles beaten backe and repelled.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Camillus reuoked from exile, made dictator, and receiueth
peremptorie authoritie, he ouerthroweth the Galles in a pitcht field,
controuersie betweene writers touching Brennus and Belinus left
vndetermined; of diuers foundations, erections and reparations doone
and atchiued by Belinus, the burning of his bodie in stead of his


The Romans being thus put to their extreame shift, deuised among
themselues how to reuoke Furius Camillus from exile, whom not long
before they had vniustlie banished out of the citie. In the end they
did not onelie send for him home, but also created him dictator,
committing into his handes (so long as his office lasted) an absolute
power ouer all men, both of life and death. Camillus forgetfull of the
iniurie done to him, and mindfull of his dutie towards his countrie,
and lamenting the state thereof, without delay gathered such an armie
as the present time permitted.

In the meane time those that kept the capitoll (being almost famished
[Sidenote: A composition.]
for lacke of vittels) compounded with Brenne and Beline, that for
a thousand pounds weight in gold, the Romans should redéeme their
liberties, and the said Brenne and Beline depart with their armie out
of the citie and all the territories of Rome. But at the deliuerie
of the monie, and by a certeine kind of hap, the Romans name was
preserued at that time from such dishonor and ignominie as was likelie
to haue insued. For some of the couetous sort of the Galles, not
contented with the iust weight of the gold, did cast their swords also
into the balance where the weights lay, thereby to haue ouer weight:
wherevpon the Romans refused to make paiment after that weight.

And thus whilest they were in altercation about this matter, the one
importunnate to haue, the other not willing to grant, the time
[Sidenote: Camillus disappointeth the Galles of their paiment.]
passed, till in the meane season Camillus came in amongst them with
his power, commanding that the gold should be had away, and affirming
that without consent of the dictator, no composition or agréement
might be concluded by the meaner magistrate. He gaue a signe to the
Galles to prepare themselues to battell, whervnto they lightlie
[Sidenote: The Galles overthrowne]
agréed, and togither they went. The battell being once begun, the
Galles that looked earst for gold, and not for battell, were easilie
ouercome, such as stood to the brunt were slaine, and the rest by
flight constreined to depart the citie.

Polybius writeth, that the Galles were turned from the siege of the
citie, through wars which chanced amongst their owne people at home,
and therefore they concluded a peace with the Romans, and leauing them
in libertie returned home againe.

But howsoeuer the matter passed, thus much haue we stept from our
purpose, to shew somwhat of that noble and most famous capteine
Brennus, who (as not onelie our histories, but also Giouan Villani the
Florentine dooth report) was a Britaine, and brother to Beline (as
before is mentioned) although I know that manie other writers are not
of that mind, affirming him to be a Gall, and likewise that after this
present time of the taking of Rome by this Brennus 110 yeares, or
there abouts, there was another Brennus a Gall by nation (say they)
vnder whose conduct an other armie of the Gals inuaded Grecia, which
Brennus had a brother that hight Belgius, although Humfrey Llhoyd
and sir Iohn Prise doo flatlie denie the same, by reason of some
discordance in writers, & namelie in the computation of the yeares set
downe by them that haue recorded the dooings of those times, whereof
the error is growen. Howbeit I doubt not but that the truth of this
matter shall be more fullie sifted out in time by the learned and
studious of such antiquities. But now to our purpose.

This is also to be noted, that where our histories make mention, that
Beline was abroad with Brennus in the most part of his victories, both
[Sidenote: _Titus Liu. Polydor_.]
in Gallia, Germanie, and Italie; Titus Liuius speaketh but onlie
of Brennus: wherevpon some write, that after the two brethren were by
their mothers intreatance made friends, Brennus onlie went ouer to
Gallia, and there through proofe of his woorthie prowesse, atteined to
such estimation amongst the people called Galli Senones, that he was
[Sidenote: _Matth West_.]
chosen to be their generall capteine at their going ouer the
mountaines into Italie. But whether Beline went ouer with his brother,
and finallie returned backe againe, leauing Brennus behind him, as
some write, or that he went not at all, but remained still at home
whitest his brother was abroad, we can affirme no certeintie.

Most part of all our writers make report of manie woorthie deeds
accomplished by Beline, in repairing of cities decaied, & erecting
[Sidenote: _Polychr. Gal. M_. Caerleon Wiske built by Belline.]
of other new buildings, to the adorning and beautifieng of his realme
and kingdome. And amongst other works which were by him erected, he
builded a citie in the south part of Wales, neare to the place where
the riuer of Vske falleth into Seuerne, fast by Glamorgan, which
citie hight Caerleon, or Caerlegion Ar Wiske. This Caerleon was the
principall citie in time past of all Demetia, now called Southwales.
Manie notable monuments are remaining there till this day, testifieng
the great magnificence and roiall buildings of that citie in old time.
In which citie also sith the time of Christ were thrée churches, one
of saint Iulius the martyr, an other of saint Aron, and the third was
the mother church of all Demetia, and the chiefe sée: but after, the
same sée was translated vnto Meneuia, (that is to say) saint Dauid
in Westwales. In this Caerleon was Amphibulus borne, who taught and
instructed saint Albon.

[Sidenote: _Fabian_.]
This Beline also builded an hauen, with a gate ouer the same,
within the citie of Troinouant now called London, in the summitie or
highest part wherof afterwards was set a vessell of brasse, in the
which were put the ashes of his bodie, which bodie after his deceasse
[Sidenote: _Iohn Leland_.]
was burnt, as the maner of burieng in those daies did require.
This gate was long after called Belins gate, and at length by
corruption of language Billings gate. He builded also a castell
eastward from this gate (as some haue written) which was long time
[Sidenote: The Tower of London built by Beline.]
after likewise called Belins castell, and is the same which now
we call the tower of London. Thus Beline studieng dailie to beautifie
this land with goodlie buildings and famous workes, at length departed
this life, after he had reigned with his brother iointlie and alone
the space of 26 yeres.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Gurguintus, Guintolinus, and Sicilius, three kings of Britaine
succeeding ech other by lineall descent in the regiment, and of their
acts and deeds, with a notable commendation of Queene Martia_.


[Sidenote: GURGUINTUS]
Gurguintus the sonne of Beline began to reigne ouer the Britains,
in the yeare of the world 1596, after the building of Rome 380, after
the deliuerance of the Israelites out of captiuitie 164 complet, which
was about the 33 yeare of Artaxerxes Mnenon, surnamed Magnus, the
seuenth king of the Persians. This Gurguint in the English chronicle
[Sidenote: _Matth. West_]
is named Corinbratus, and by Matthew Westmin. he is surnamed
Barbiruc, the which bicause the tribute granted by Guilthdag king of
Denmarke in perpetuitie vnto the kings of Britaine was denied, he
[Sidenote: _Gal. M_. Gurguint c[=o]strained the Danes by force to pay
their tribute.]
sailed with a mightie nauie and armie of men into Denmarke, where he
made such warre with fire and sword, that the king of Denmarke with
the assent of his barons was constreined to grant eftsoones to
continue the paiment of the aforesaid tribute.

After he had thus atchiued his desire in Denmarke, as he returned
backe towards Britaine, he encountred with a nauie of 30 ships beside
the Iles of Orkenies. These ships were fraught with men and women, and
had to their capteine one called Bartholin or Partholin, who being
[Sidenote: _Matth. West. Gal. Mon.]
brought to the presence of king Gurguint, declared that he with
his people were banished out of Spaine, and were named Balenses or
[Sidenote: Basques.]
Baselenses, and had sailed long on the sea, to the end to find
some prince that would assigne them a place to inhabit, to whom
[Sidenote: Sée more hereof in Ireland.]
they would become subiects, & hold of him as of their souereigne
gouernor. Therefore he besought the king to consider their estate, and
of his great benignitie to appoint some void quarter where they might
settle. The king with the aduice of his barons granted to them the Ile
of Ireland, which as then (by report of some authors) lay waste and
[Sidenote: Polychron.]
without habitation But it should appeare by other writers, that
it was inhabited long before those daies, by the people called
Hibernenses, of Hiberus their capteine that brought them also out of

After that Gurguintus was returned into his countrie, he ordeined that
the laws made by his ancestors should be dulie kept and obserued. And
thus administring iustice to his subiects for the tearme of 19 yeares,
he finallie departed this life, and was buried at London, or as
[Sidenote: Caius.]
some haue at Caerleon. In his daies was the towne of Cambridge with
the vniuersitie first founded by Cantaber, brother to the aforesaid
Bartholin (according to some writers) as after shall appeare.

[Sidenote: GUINTOLINUS.]
Guintolinus or Guintellius the sonne of Gurguintus was admitted
king of Britaine in the yere of the world 3614, after the building
of the citie of Rome 399, and second yere of the 206 Olimpiad.
This Guintoline was a wise prince, graue in counsell, and sober in
behauior. He had also a wife named Martia, a woman of perfect beautie,
& wisedome incomparable, as by hir prudent gouernement and equall
administration of iustice after hir husbands deceasse, during hir
sonnes minoritie, it most manifestlie appeared.

It is thought that in an happie time this Guintoline came to the
gouernement of this kingdome, being shaken and brought out of order
with ciuill dissentions, to the end he might reduce it to the former
estate, which he earnestlie accomplished: for hauing once got the
place, he studied with great diligence to reforme anew, and to adorne
with iustice, lawes and good orders, the British common wealth, by
other kings not so framed as stood with the quietnesse thereof.
But afore all things he vtterlie remooued and appeased such ciuill
discord, as séemed yet to remaine after the maner of a remnant of
those seditious factions and partakings, which had so long time
reigned in this land. But as he was busie in hand herewith, death
tooke him out of this life, after he had reigned 27 yeares, and then
was he buried at London.

[Sidenote: SICILIUS.]
Sicilius the sonne of Guintoline, being not past seuen yeares of
age when his father died, was admitted king, in the yeare 3659, after
the building of Rome 430, & after the deliuerance of the Israelites
out of captiuitie 218, & in the sixt after the death of Alexander.
[Sidenote: Queene Martia gouerneth in hir sonnes roome.]
By reason that Sicilius was not of age sufficient of himselfe to guide
the kingdoms of the Britains, his mother that worthie ladie called
Martia, had the gouernance both of his realme and person committed to
hir charge.

She was a woman expert and skilfull in diuers sciences, but chiefelie
being admitted to the gouernance of the realme, she studied to
preserue the common wealth in good quiet and wholsome order, and
[Sidenote: She maketh lawes.]
therefore deuised and established profitable and conuenient lawes, the
which after were called Martian lawes, of hir name that first made
them. These lawes, as those that were thought good and necessarie for
the preseruation of the common wealth, Alfred, or Alured, that was
long after king of England, translated also out of the British toong,
into the English Saxon speech, and then were they called after that
[Sidenote: _Matt. West_.]
translation Marchenelagh, that is to meane, the lawes of Martia.
To conclude, this worthie woman guided the land during the minoritie
of hir sonne right politikelie; and highlie to hir perpetuall renowme
and commendation. And when hir sonne came to lawfull age, she
[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm_.]
deliuered vp the gouernance into his handes. How long he reigned
writers varie, some auouch but seuen yeares, though other affirme
15. which agréeth not so well with the accord of other histories and
times. He was buried at London.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Kimarus and his sudden end, of Elanius and his short regiment,
of Morindus and his beastlie crueltie, all thrée immediatlie
succeeding each other in the monarchie of Britaine, with the exploits
of the last_.


[Sidenote: KIMARUS. _Fabian_.]
Kimarus the sonne of Sicilius began to reigne ouer the Britaines,
in the yeare of the world 3657, and after the building of Rome 442,
& in the first yeare of the 117. Olimpiad. This Kimarus being a wild
yoong man, and giuen to follow his lusts and pleasures, was slaine by
some that were his enimies, as he was abroad in hunting, when he had
reigned scarselie three yeares.

[Sidenote: ELANIUS.]
Elanius the sonne of Kimarus, or (as other haue) his brother,
began to rule the Britaines in the yeare after the creation of the
world 3361, after the building of Rome 445, after the deliuerance
[Sidenote: _Matth. West_.]
of the Israelites 229, and in the fourth yeare of the Seleuciens,
after which account the bookes of Machabees doo reckon, which began
in the 14, after the death of Alexander. This Elanius in the English
Chronicle is named also Haran; by Mat. Westm. Danius; and by an old
chronicle which Fabian much followed, Elanius and Kimarus should seeme
to be one person: but other hold the contrarie, and saie that he
reigned fullie 8. yeares.

[Sidenote: MORINDUS.]
Morindus the bastard sonne of Elanius was admitted king of
Britaine, in the yeare of the world 3667, after the building of Rome
451, after the deliuerance of the Israelites 236, and in the tenth
yeare of Cassander K. of Macedonia, which hauing dispatched Olimpias
the mother of Alexander the great, and gotten Roxanes with Alexanders
sonne into his hands, vsurped the kingdome of the Macedonians, and
held it 15 yéeres. This Morindus in the English chronicle is called
Morwith, and was a man of worthie fame in chiualrie and martiall
dooings, but so cruell withall, that his vnmercifull nature could
scarse be satisfied with the torments of them that had offended him,
although oftentimes with his owne hands he cruellie put them to
torture and execution. He was also beautifull and comelie of
personage, liberall and bounteous, and of a maruellous strength.

[Sidenote: _G. Mon_.]
In his daies, a certeine king of the people called Moriani, with a
great armie landed in Northumberland, and began to make cruell warre
vpon the inhabitants. But Morindus aduertised héerof, assembled his
Britains, came against the enimies, and in battell putting them to
flight, chased them to their ships, and tooke a great number of them
prisoners, whome to the satisfieng of his cruell nature he caused
to be slaine euen in his presence. Some of them were headed, some
strangled, some panched, and some he caused to be slaine quicke.

¶ These people (whome Gal. Mon. nameth Moriani) I take to be either
those that inhabited about Terrouane and Calice, called Morini, or
[Sidenote: The like may be thought of those Murreis or Morauians of
whom _H.B_. speaketh. _Fabian_.]
some other people of the Galles or Germaines, and not as some estéeme
them, Morauians, or Merhenners, which were not known to the world (as
Humfrey Llhoyd hath verie well noted) till about the daies of the
emperour Mauricius, which misconstruction of names hath brought the
British historie further out of credit than reason requireth, if the
circumstances be dulie considered.

But now to end with Morindus. At length this bloudie prince heard of a
monster that was come a land out of the Irish sea, with the which
when he would néeds fight, he was deuoured of the same, after he
had reigned the terme of 8 yeeres, leauing behind him fiue sonnes,
Gorbonianus, Archigallus, Elidurus, Vigenius, or Nigenius, and

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Gorbonianus, Archigallus, Elidurus, Vigenius, and Peredurus, the
fiue sons of Morindius, the building of Cambridge, the restitution
of Archigallus to the regiment after his depriuation, Elidurus three
times admitted king, his death and place of interrement_.


Gorbonianus the first son of Morindus succéeded his father in the
kingdome of Britain, in the yéere of the world 3676, after the
building of Rome 461, and fourth yéere of the 121. Olimpiad. This
Gorbonianus in the English chronicle is named Granbodian, and was a
righteous prince in his gouernment, and verie deuout (according to
[Sidenote: A righteous and religious prince.]
such deuotion as he had) towards the aduancing of the religion of
his gods: and thervpon he repaired all the old temples through his
kingdome, and erected some new.

He also builded the townes of Cambridge and Grantham (as Caxton
writeth) and was beloued both of the rich and poore, for he honoured
the rich, and relieued the poore in time of their necessities. In his
time was more plentie of all things necessarie for the wealthfull
state of man, than had béene before in anie of his predecessors daies.
He died without issue, after he had reigned (by the accord of most
writers) about the terme of ten yeares.

Some write that this Gorbonian built the townes of Cairgrant, now
[Sidenote: Cambridge by whome it was built.]
called Cambridge, & also Grantham, but some thinke that those
which haue so written are deceiued, in mistaking the name; for that
Cambridge was at the first called Granta: and by that meanes it might
be that Gorbonian built onlie Grantham, and not Cambridge, namelie
because other write how that Cambridge (as before is said) was built
in the daies of Gurguntius the sonne of Beline, by one Cantaber a
Spaniard, brother to Partholoin, which Partholoin by the aduice of the
same Gurguntius, got seates for himselfe and his companie in Ireland
(as before ye haue heard.)

The said Cantaber also obteining licence of Gurguntius, builded a
towne vpon the side of the riuer called Canta, which he closed with
walles, and fortified with a strong tower or castell, and after
procuring philosophers to come hither from Athens (where in his youth
he had bene a student) he placed them there, and so euen then was that
place furnished (as they saie) with learned men, and such as were
readie to instruct others in knowledge of letters and philosophicall
doctrine. But by whome or in what time soeuer it was built, certeine
it is that there was a citie or towne walled in that place before the
comming of the Saxons, called by the Britaines Caergrant, and by the
Saxons Granchester.

This towne fell so to ruine by the inuasion of the Saxons, that at
length it was in maner left desolate, and at this day remaineth as a
village. But néere therevnto vnder the Saxon kings, an other towne was
built, now called Cambridge, where by the fauour of king Sigebert and
Felix a Burgundian, that was bishop of Dunwich, a schoole was erected,
as in place conuenient shall appeare.

[Sidenote: ARCHIGALLUS.]
Archigallus, the second sonne of Morindus, and brother vnto
Gorbonianus, was admitted king of Britaine, in the yeare 3686, after
the building of the citie of Rome 470, after the deliuerance of the
Israelites out of captiuitie 255, and in the first yeare of Sosthenes
king of Macedonia. This Archigallus (in the English chronicle called
Artogaill) followed not the steppes of his brother, but giuing
[Sidenote: He is giuen to nourish dissention.]
himselfe to dissention and strife, imagined causes against his nobles,
that he might displace them, and set such in their roomes as were men
of base birth and of euill conditions. Also he sought by vnlawfull
meanes to bereaue his wealthie subiects of their goods and riches,
so to inrich himselfe and impouerish his people. For the which his
inordinate dooings, his nobles conspired against him, and finallie
depriued him of all his honor and kinglie dignitie, after he had
reigned about the space of one yeare.

[Sidenote: ELIDURUS.]
Elidurus the third sonne of Morindus, and brother to Archigallus,
was by one consent of the Britains chosen to reigne ouer them in his
brothers stead, after the creation of the world 3687, and after the
building of the citie of Rome 471, after the deliuerance of the
Israelites 256, & in the first yeare of Sosthenes king of Macedonia.
This Elidurus in the English chronicle named Hesider, or Esoder,
prooued a most righteous prince, and doubting least he should doo
otherwise than became him, if he did not take care for his brother
Archigallus estate, a man might woonder what diligence he shewed in
trauelling with the nobles of the realme to haue his brother restored
to the crowne againe.

Now as it chanced one day (being abroad on hunting in the wood called
Calater) neare vnto Yorke, he found his brother Archigall wandering
there in the thickest of that wildernesse, whom in most louing
[Sidenote: By this it should séeme that Acliud should not be in
Scotland, contrarie to the Scotish authors.]
maner he secretlie conueied home to his house, being as then the citie
of Aldud, otherwise called Acliud. Shortlie after he feined himselfe
sicke, and in all hast sent messengers about to assemble his barons,
who being come at the day appointed, he called them one after another
into his priuie chamber, and there handled them in such affectuous
sort with wise and discréet words, that he got their good wils
to further him to their powers, for the reducing of the kingdome
eftsoones into the hands of his brother Archigallus.

After this he assembled a councell at Yorke, where he so vsed the
matter with the commons, that in conclusion, when the said Elidurus
had gouerned the land well and honourablie the space of thrée yeares,
he resigned wholie his crowne and kinglie title vnto his brother
Archigallo, who was receiued of the Britaines againe as king by
mediation of his brother in manner as before is said. ¶ A rare
[Sidenote: An example of brotherlie loue.]
example of brotherlie loue, if a man shall reuolue in his mind what
an inordinate desire remaineth amongst mortall men to atteine to the
supreme souereintie of ruling, and to kéepe the same when they haue it
once in possession. He had well learned this lesson (as may appeare by
his contentation and resignation) namelie, that

  Nec abnuendum si dat imperium Deus,
  Nec appetendum,

[Sidenote: Sen. in Thiess.]
otherwise he would not haue béene led with such an equabilitie of
mind. For this great good will and brotherlie loue by him shewed thus
toward his brother, he was surnamed the godlie and vertuous.

When Archigallus was thas restored to the kingdome, and hauing
learned by due correction that he must turne the leafe, and take out a
new lesson, by changing his former trade of liuing into better, if
he would reigne in suertie: he became a new man, vsing himselfe
vprightlie in the administration of iustice, and behauing himselfe so
woorthilie in all his doings, both toward the nobles & commons of his
realme, that he was both beloued and dread of all his subiects. And so
continuing the whole tearme of his life, finallie departed out of this
world, after he had reigned this second time the space of ten yeares,
and was buried at Yorke.

[Sidenote: ELIDURUS AGAINE. _Matt. West_.]
Elidurus brother to this Archigallus was then againe admitted king
by consent of all the Britaines, 3700 of the world. But his two yonger
[Brother against brother.]
brethren, Vigenius and Peredurus, enuieng the happie state of
this woorthie prince, so highlie for his vertue and good gouernance
esteemed of the Britains, of a grounded malice conspired against him,
and assembling an armie, leuied warre against him, and in a pitcht
[Sidenote: Elidure committed to prison.]
field tooke him prisoner, and put him in the tower of London, there to
be kept close prisoner, after he had reigned now this last time the
space of one yeare.

Vigenius and Peredurus, the yoongest sonnes of Morindus, and
brethren to Elidurus, began to reigne iointlie as kings of Britaine,
in the yeare of the world 3701, after the building of Rome 485, after
the deliuerance of the Israelites 266 complet, and in the 12 yeare of
Antigonus Gonatas, the sonne of Demetrius king of the Macedonians.
These two brethren in the English chronicles are named Higanius and
Petitur, who (as Gal. Mon. testifieth) diuided the realme betwixt
[Sidenote: Britaine divided into two realmes.]
them, so that all the land from Humber westward fell to Vigenius, or
Higanius, the other part beyond Humber northward Peredure held. But
other affirme, that Peredurus onelie reigned, and held his brother
Elidurus in prison by his owne consent, forsomuch as he was not
willing to gouerne.

But Gal. Mon. saith, that Vigenius died after he had reigned 7 yeares,
and then Peredurus seized all the land into his owne rule, and
gouerned it with such sobrietie and wisedome, that he was praised
aboue all his brethren, so that Elidurus was quite forgotten of the
[Sidenote: Varitie in writers.]
Britains. But others write that he was a verie tyrant, and vsed
himselfe verie cruellie towards the lords of his land, wherevpon they
rebelled and slue him. But whether by violent hand, or by naturall
sicknesse, he finallie departed this life, after the consent of most
[Sidenote: _Caxton_.]
writers, when he had reigned eight yeares, leauing no issue behind
[Sidenote: _Eth. Bur_.]
him to succéed in the gouernance of the kingdome. He builded the
towne of Pikering, where his bodie was buried. Elidurus then, as
soone as his brother Peredurus was dead, for as much as he was next
heire to the crowne, was deliuered out of prison, and now the third
time admitted king of Britaine, who vsed himselfe (as before) verie
orderlie in ministring to all persons right and iustice all the daies
of his life, and lastlie being growne to great age died, when he had
[Sidenote: He is buried at Caerleill.]
reigned now this third time (after most concordance of writers)
the tearme of foure yeares: and was buried at Caerleill.

       *       *       *       *       *

_A Chapter of digression, shewing the diuersitie of writers in
opinion, touching the computation of yeares from the beginning of the
British kings of this Iland downewards; since Gurguintus time, till
the death of Elidurus; and likewise till King Lud reigned in his
roialtie, with the names of such kings as ruled betweene the last
yeare of Elidurus, and the first of Lud_.


Here is to be noted, that euen from the beginning of the British
kings, which reigned here in this land, there is great diuersitie
amongest writers, both touching the names, and also the times of their
reignes, speciallie till they come to the death of the last mentioned
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
king Elidurus. Insomuch that Polydor Virgil in his historie of
England, finding a manifest error (as he taketh it) in those writers
whome he followeth touching the account, from the comming of Brute,
vnto the sacking of Rome by Brennus, whome our histories affirme to be
the brother of Beline, that to fill vp the number which is wanting in
the reckoning of the yeares of those kings which reigned after Brute,
till the daies of the same Brenne & Beline, he thought good to change
the order, least one error should follow an other, and so of one error
making manie, he hath placed those kings which after other writers
should séeme to follow Brenne and Beline, betwixt Dunuallo and
Mulmucius, father to the said Beline and Brenne, and those fiue
kings which stroue for the gouernement after the deceasse of the two
brethren, Ferrex and Porrex, putting Guintoline to succéed after the
fiue kings or rulers, and after Guintoline his wife Martia, during the
minoritie of hir sonne, then hir said sonne named Sicilius.

After him succéeded these whose names follow in order, Chimarius,
Danius, Morindus, Gorbonianus, Archigallo, who being deposed, Elidurus
was made king, and so continued till he restored the gouernement (as
ye haue heard) to Archigallo againe, and after his death Elidurus was
eftsoones admitted, and within awhile againe deposed by Vigenius and
Peredurus, and after their deceasses the third time restored. Then
after his deceasse followed successiuelie Veginus, Morganus, Ennanus,
Idunallo, Rimo, Geruntius, Catellus, Coilus, Porrex the second of that
name, Cherinus, Fulgentius, Eldalus, Androgeus, Vrianus and Eliud,
after whom should follow Dunuallo Molmucius, as in his proper place,
if the order of things doone, & the course of time should be obserued,
as Polydor gathereth by the account of yeares attributed to those
kings that reigned before and after Dunuallo, according to those
authours whom (as I said) he followeth, if they will that Brennus
which led the Galles to Rome be the same that was sonne to the said
Dunuallo Mulmucius, and brother to Beline.

But sith other haue in better order brought out a perfect agréement in
the account of yeares, and succession of those kings, which reigned
and gouerned in this land before the sacking of Rome; and also another
such as it is after the same, and before the Romans had anie perfect
knowledge thereof; we haue thought good to follow them therein,
leauing to euerie man his libertie to iudge as his knowledge shall
serue him in a thing so doubtfull and vncerteine, by reason of
variance amongst the ancient writers in that behalfe.

And euen as there is great difference in writers since Gurguintus,
till the death of Elidurus, so is there as great or rather greater
after his deceasse, speciallie till king Lud atteined the
[Sidenote: _Fabian_.]
kingdóme. But as maie be gathered by that which Fabian and other whome
he followeth doo write, there passed aboue 185 yeares betwixt the last
yeare of Elidurus, and the beginning of king Lud his reigne, in the
which time there reigned 32, or 33, kings, as some writers haue
mentioned, whose names (as Gal. Mon. hath recorded) are these
immediatlie héere named; Regnie the sonne of Gorbolian or Gorbonian,
a worthie prince, who iustlie and mercifullie gouerned his people;
Margan the sonne of Archigallo a noble prince likewise, and guiding
his subiects in good quiet; Emerian brother to the same Margan, but
far vnlike to him in maners, so that he was deposed in the sixt yeare
of his reigne; Ydwallo sonne to Vigenius; Rimo the sonne of Peredurus;
Geruntius the sonne of Elidurus; Catell that was buried at Winchester;
Coill that was buried at Nottingham; Porrex a vertuous and most gentle
prince; Cherinus a drunkard; Fulginius, Eldad, and Androgeus; these
thrée were sonnes to Chercinus, and reigned successiuelie one after
[Sidenote: _Vrianus_.]
another; after them a sonne of Androgeus; then Eliud, Dedaicus,
Clotinius, Gurguntius, Merianus, Bledius, Cop, Owen, Sicilius,
Bledgabredus an excellent musician: after him his brother Archemall;
then Eldol, Red, Rodiecke, Samuill, Penisell, Pir, Capoir; after him
his sonne Gligweil an vpright dealing prince, and a good iusticiarie;
whom succeeded his sonne Helie, which reigned 60 yeares, as the
forsaid Gal. Mon. writeth, where other affirme that he reigned 40
yeares, and some againe say that he reigned but 7 moneths.

There is great diuersitie in writers touching the reignes of these
kings, and not onlie for the number of yéeres which they should
continue in their reignes but also in their names: so that to shew the
diuersitie of all the writers, were but to small purpose, sith the
dooings of the same kings were not great by report made thereof by
any approoued author. But this maie suffice to aduertise you, that
by conferring the yéeres attributed to the other kings which reigned
before them, since the comming of Brute, who should enter this land
(as by the best writers is gathered) about the yéere before the
building of Rome 367, which was in the yéere after the creation of the
world 2850 (as is said) with their time, there remaineth 182 yéeres
to be dealt amongst these 33 kings, which reigned betwixt the said
Elidure & Lud, which Lud also began his reigne after the building of
the citie of Rome (as writers affirme) about 679 yéeres, and in
the yéere of the world 3895, as some that will séeme the precisest
calculators doo gather.

Polydor Virgil changing (as I haue shewed) the order of succession in
the British kings, in bringing diuerse of those kings, which after
other writers followed Beline and Brenne, to precéed them so
successiuelie after Beline and Brenne, reherseth those that by his
coniecture did by likelihood succéed, as thus. After the decesse of
Beline, his sonne Gurguntius, being the second of that name, succeeded
in gouernment of the land, and then these in order as they follow:
Merianus, Bladanus, Capeus, Duinus, Sicilius, Bledgabredus,
Archemallus, Eldorus, Rodianus, Redargius, Samulius, Penisellus,
Pyrrhus, Caporus, Dinellus, and Helie, who had issue, Lud,
Cassibellane, and Neurius.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of king Helie who gaue the name to the Ile of Elie, of king Lud,
and what memorable edifices he made, London sometimes called Luds
towne, his bountifulnes, and buriall_.


[Sidenote: Whereof the Ile of Elie tooke name.]
Here note by the waie a thing not to be forgotten, that of the
foresaid Helie the last of the said 33 kings, the Ile of Elie
tooke the name, bicause that he most commonlie did there inhabit,
building in the same a goodly palace, and making great reparations of
the sluces, ditches & causies about that Ile, for conueiance awaie of
the water, that els would sore haue indamaged the countrie. There be
that haue mainteined, that this Ile should rather take name of the
great abundance of éeles that are found in these waters and fennes
wherwith this Ile is inuironed. But Humfrey Llhoyd holdeth, that it
tooke name of this British word Helig, which signifieth willowes,
wherwith those fennes abound.

[Sidenote: LUD.]
After the decesse of the same Helie, his eldest son Lud began his
reigne, in the yéere after the creation of the world 3895, after
the building of the citie of Rome 679, before the comming of Christ
72, and before the Romanes entred Britaine 19 yéeres. This Lud
[Sidenote: A worthie prince.]
proued a right worthie prince, amending the lawes of the realme that
were defectiue, abolishing euill customs and maners vsed amongst his
people, and repairing old cities and townes which were decaied: but
speciallie he delited most to beautifie and inlarge with buildings the
[Sidenote: Londone inclosed with a wal. Iohn Hard.]
citie of Troinouant, which he compassed with a strong wall made of
lime and stone, in the best maner fortified with diuerse faire towers:
and in the west part of the same wall he erected a strong gate, which
he commanded to be called after his name, Luds gate, and so vnto this
daie it is called Ludgate, (S) onelie drowned in pronuntiation of the

[Sidenote: Fabian. Gal. Mon. Matt. West.]
In the same citie also he soiorned for the more part, by reason
whereof the inhabitants increased, and manie habitations were builded
to receiue them, and he himselfe caused buildings to be made betwixt
London stone (sic) and Ludgate, and builded for himselfe not farre from the
[Sidenote: The bishops palace.]
said gate a faire palace, which is the bishop of Londons palace beside
Paules at this daie, as some thinke; yet Harison supposeth it to haue
bin Bainards castell, where the blacke friers now standeth. He also
builded a fairer temple néere to his said palace, which temple (as
some take it) was after turned to a church, and at this daie called
Paules. By reason that king Lud so much esteemed that citie before all
other of his realme, inlarging it so greatlie as he did, and
[Sidenote: The name of Troinouant changed and called London.]
continuallie in manner remained there, the name was changed,
so that it was called Caerlud, that is to saie, Luds towne: and after
by corruption of spéech it was named London.

Beside the princelie dooings of this Lud touching the aduancement of
the common wealth by studies apperteining to the time of peace, he was
also strong & valiant in armes, in subduing his enimies, bountious and
liberall both in gifts and kéeping a plentifull house, so that he was
greatlie beloued of all the Britaines. Finallie, when he had reigned
with great honour for the space of 11 yéeres, he died, and was buried
néere Ludgate, leauing after him two sons, Androgeus and Theomancius
or Tenancius.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Cassibellane and his noble mind, Iulius Cæsar sendeth Caius
Volusenus to suruey the coasts of this Iland, he lieth with his fleet
at Calice, purposing to inuade the countrie, his attempt is bewraied
and withstood by the Britains_.


Cassibellane, the brother of Lud was admitted king of Britaine,
in the yéere of the world 3908, after the building of Rome 692, and
before the comming of Christ 58 complet. For sith the two sonnes
[Sidenote: _Gal. Mon. Matt. West. Fabian_.]
of Lud were not of age able to gouerne, the rule of the land was
committed to Cassibellane: but yet (as some haue written) he was not
created king, but rather appointed ruler & protector of the land,
[Sidenote: _Gal. Mon_.]
during the nonage of his nephewes. Now after he was admitted (by
whatsoeuer order) to the administration of the common wealth, he
became so noble a prince and so bountious, that his name spred farre
and néere, and by his vpright dealing in seeing iustice executed he
grew in such estimation, that the Britaines made small account of his
nephewes, in comparison of the fauour which they bare towards him. But
Cassibellane hauing respect to his honour, least it might be thought
that his nephewes were expelled by him out of their rightfull
possessions, brought them vp verie honourablie; assigning to
[Sidenote: _Matt. West_.]
Androgeus, London and Kent; and to Theomantius the countrie of
Cornwall. Thus farre out of the British histories, whereby it maie be
gathered, that the yéeres assigned to these kings that reigned before
Cassibellane, amount to the summe of 1058.

[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
But whether these gouernors (whose names we haue recited) were
kings, or rather rulers of the common wealth, or tyrants and vsurpers
of the gouernment by force, it is vncerteine: for not one ancient
writer of anie approued authoritie maketh anie remembrance of them:
and by that which Iulius Cesar writeth, it maie and dooth appéere,
that diuerse cities in his daies were gouerned of themselues, as
héereafter it shall more plainlie appéere. Neither doth he make
mention of those townes which the British historie affirmeth to be
built by the same kings. In déed both he and other Latine writers
speake of diuerse people that inhabited diuers portions of this land,
as of the Brigantes, Trinobantes, Iceni, Silures, and such other like,
but in what parts most of the said people did certeinlie inhabit, it
is hard to auouch for certeine truth.

But what Iohn Leland thinketh héereof, being one in our time that
curiouslie searched out old antiquities, you shall after heare as
occasion serueth: and likewise the opinions of other, as of Hector
[Sidenote: _Hector Boetius_ his fault.]
Boetius, who coueting to haue all such valiant acts as were atchiued
by the Britains to be ascribed to his countriemen the Scots, draweth
both the Silures and Brigantes, with other of the Britains so farre
northward, that he maketh them inhabitants of the Scotish countries.
And what particular names soeuer they had, yet were they all Scots
with him, and knowne by that generall name (as he would persuade vs
to beléeue) saieng that they entred into Britaine out of Ireland 330
yéeres before the incarnation of our Sauiour.

Neuerthelesse, how generall soeuer the name of Scots then was, sure
it is, that no speciall mention of them is made by anie writer, till
about 300 yeares after the birth of our sauiour. And yet the Romans,
which ruled this land, and had so much adoo with the people thereof,
make mention of diuerse other people, nothing so famous as Boetius
would make his Scotish men euen then to be. But to leaue to the Scots
the antiquitie of their originall beginning, as they and other must
doo vnto vs our descent from Brute and the other Troians, sith the
[Sidenote: More certeintie from hence forth appeareth in the historie.]
contrarie dooth not plainelie appeare, vnlesse we shall leane vnto
presumptions: now are we come to the time in the which what actes were
atchiued, there remaineth more certeine record, and therefore may we
the more boldlie procéed in this our historie.

[Sidenote: Iulius Cesar.]
In this season that Cassibellane had roiall gouernment héere in
Britaine, Caius Iulius Cesar being appointed by the senat of Rome to
conquer Gallia, was for that purpose created consull, and sent with
a mightie army into the countrie, where after he had brought the
[Sidenote: _Cesar de bello Gal. lib 4_. Britains unknowne to the
Galles vnto some frame, he determined to assaie the winning of
Britaine, which as yet the Romans knew not otherwise than by report.
The chiefest cause that mooued him to take in hand that enterprise,
was for that he did vnderstand, that there dailie came great succours
out of that Ile to those Galles that were enimies vnto the Romans. And
[Sidenote: _Cesar de bello Gall. lib. 4_. Causes of the warre.
Cesars purpose.]
though the season of that yéere to make warre was farre spent
(for summer was almost at an end) yet he thought it would be to good
purpose, if he might but passe ouer thither, and learne what maner of
people did inhabit there, and discouer the places, hauens, and entries
apperteining to that Ile.

Héerevpon calling togither such merchants as he knew to haue had
traffike thither with some trade of wares, he diligentlie inquired of
them the state of the Ile: but he could not be throughlie satisfied in
anie of those things that he coueted to know. Therefore thinking it
good to vnderstand all things by view that might apperteine to the vse
of that warre which he purposed to follow: before he attempted the
[Sidenote: Caius Volusenus sent ouer into Britaine.]
same, he sent one Caius Volusenus with a gallie or light pinesse
to surueie the coasts of the Ile, commanding him (after diligent
search made) to returne with spéed to him againe. He him selfe also
drew downewards towards Bullenois, from whence the shortest cut lieth
to passe ouer into Britaine.

[Sidenote: _Iohn Leland. Polydor_.]
In that part of Gallia there was in those daies an hauen called
_Itius Portus_ (which some take to be Calice) and so the word
importeth, an harbourgh as then able to receiue a great number of
ships. Vnto this hauen got Cesar all the ships he could out of the
next borders & parties, and those speciallie which he had prouided and
put in a readinesse the last yeare for the warres (against them of
Vannes in Armorica, now called Britaine in France) he caused to be
brought thither, there to lie till they should heare further. In the
[Sidenote: Vannes in Britane.]
meane time (his indeuour being knowne, and by merchants reported
in Britaine) all such as were able to beare armour, were commanded and
appointed to repaire to the sea side, that they might be readie to
defend their countrie in time of so great danger of inuasion.

¶ Cesar in his commentaries agréeth not with our historiographers: for
he writeth that immediatlie vpon knowledge had that he would inuade
Britaine, there came to him ambassadours from diuers cities of the
Ile to offer themselues to be subiects to the Romans, and to deliuer
hostages. Whome after he had exhorted to continue in their good mind,
[Sidenote: Comius.]
he sent home againe, and with them also one Comius gouernor of
Artois, commanding him to repaire vnto as manie cities in Britaine as
he might, and to exhort them to submit themselues to the Romans. He
maketh no mention of Cassibellane, till the second iournie that he
made into the Ile, at what time the said Cassibelane was chosen (as ye
shall heare) to be the generall capteine of the Britains, and to haue
the whole administration of the warre for defense of the countrie: but
he nameth him not to be a king. Howbeit in the British historie it is
contained, that Cesar required tribute of Cassibelane, and that he
answered how he had not learned as yet to liue in seruage, but to
[Sidenote: Which is more likelie in this behalfe, as appeared by the
defend the libertie of his countrie, and that with weapon in hand
(if néede were) as he should well perceiue, if (blinded through
couetousnesse) he should aduenture to séeke to disquiet the Britains.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Caius Volusenus discouereth to Cæsar his observations in the Ile of
Britaine, he maketh haste to conquere it, the Britains defend their
countrie against him, Cæsar after consultation had changeth his
landing place, the Romans are put to hard shifts, the Britains begin
to giue backe, the courage of a Roman ensigne-bearer, a sharpe
encounter betweene both armies._


[Sidenote: Volusenus returneth.]
Caius Volusenus within fiue daies after his departure from Cesar,
returned vnto him with his gallie, and declared what he had séene
touching the view which he had taken of the coasts of Britan. Cesar
[Sidenote: Cesar with two legions of souldiers passeth ouer into
hauing got togither so manie saile as he thought sufficient for the
transporting of two legions of souldiers, after he had ordered his
businesse as he thought expedient, and gotten a conuenient wind for
his purpose, did embarke himselfe and his people, and departed from
Calice in the night about the third watch (which is about three or
foure of the clocke after midnight) giuing order that the horssemen
should take ship at an other place 8 miles aboue Calice, and follow
him. Howbeit when they somewhat slacked the time, about ten of the
clocke in the next day, hauing the wind at will, he touched on the
[Sidenote: The Britans readie to defend their countrie.]coast of
Britaine, where he might behold all the shore set and couered
with men of warre. For the Britains hearing that Cesar ment verie
shortlie to come against them, were assembled in armour to resist him:
and now being aduertised of his approch to the land, they prepared
themselues to withstand him.

[Sidenote: Cesar calleth a councell.]
Cesar perceiuing this, determined to staie till the other ships
were come, and so he lay at anchor till about 11 of the clocke, and
then called a councell of the marshals and chiefe capteines, vnto
whome he declared both what he had learned of Volusenus, and also
further what he would haue doone, willing them that all things might
be ordered as the reason of warre required. And because he perceiued
that this place where he first cast anchor was not méete for the
landing of his people, sith (from the heigth of the cliffes that
closed on ech side the narrow créeke into the which he had thrust) the
Britains might annoy his people with their bowes and dartes, before
they could set foote on land, hauing now the wind and tide with him,
he disanchored from thence, and drew alongst the coast vnder the
[Sidenote: This was about day.]
downes, the space of 7 or 8 miles, and there finding the shore more
flat and plaine, he approched néere to the land, determining to come
to the shore.

The Britains perceiuing Cesars intent, with all spéed caused their
horssemen and charets or wagons, which Cesar calleth _Esseda,_ out of
the which in those daies they vsed to fight, to march forth toward the
place whither they saw Cesar drew, and after followed with their maine
armie. Wherefore Cesar being thus preuented, inforced yet to land with
his people, though he saw that he should haue much a doo. For as the
Britains were in redinesse to resist him, so his great and huge ships
could not come néere the shore, but were forced to kéepe the déepe,
[Sidenote: The Romans put to their shifts.]
so that the Romane soldiers were put to verie hard shift; to wit, both
to leape forth of their ships, and being pestered with their heauie
armour and weapons, to fight in the water with their enimies, who
knowing the flats and shelues, stood either vpon the drie ground, or
else but a little waie in the shallow places of the water; and being
not otherwise encumbred either with armour or weapon, but so as they
might bestir themselues at will, they laid load vpon the Romans with
their arrowes and darts, and forced their horsses (being thereto
inured) to enter the water the more easilie, so to annoy and distresse
the Romans, who wanting experience in such kind of fight, were not
well able to helpe themselues, nor to keepe order as they vsed to doo
on land: wherfore they fought nothing so lustilie as they were woont
to doo. Cesar perceiuing this, commanded the gallies to depart from
the great ships, and to row hard to the shore, that being placed ouer
against the open sides of the Britains, they might with their shot
of arrows, darts, and slings, remoue the Britains, and cause them to
withdraw further off from the water side.

[Sidenote: The Britans astonied.]
This thing being put in execution (according to his commandement)
the Britains were not a little astonied at the strange sight of those
gallies, for that they were driuen with ores, which earst they had not
séene, and shrewdlie were they galled also with the artillerie which
the Romans discharged vpon them, so that they began to shrinke and
[Sidenote: The valiant courage of an ensigne bearer.]
retire somewhat backe. Herewith one that bare the ensigne of the
legion surnamed Decima, wherein the eagle was figured, as in that
which was the chiefe ensigne of the legion, when he saw his fellowes
nothing eager to make forward, first beséeching the gods that his
enterprise might turne to the weale, profit, and honor of the legion,
he spake with a lowd voice these words to his fellowes that were about
him; "Leape forth now euen you woorthie souldiers (saith he) if you
will not betraie your ensigne to the enimies: for surelie I will
acquit my selfe according to my duetie both towards the common wealth,
and my generall:" and therewith leaping forth into the water, he
marched with his ensigne streight vpon the enimies. The Romans douting
to lose their ensigne, which should haue turned them to great reproch,
leapt out of their ships so fast as they might, and followed their
standard, so that there ensued a sore re-encounter: and that which
troubled the Romans most, was because they could not keepe their
order, neither find anie sure footing, nor yet follow euerie man his
owne ensigne, but to put themselues vnder that ensigne which he first
met withall after their first comming forth of the ship.

The Britains that were inured with the shelues and shallow places of
the water, when they saw the Romans thus disorderlie come out of their
[Sidenote: The fiercenesse of the Britains.]
ships, ran vpon them with their horsses, and fiercelie assailed
them, and now and then a great multitude of the Britains would
compasse in and inclose some one companie of them: and other also from
the most open places of the shore bestowed great plentie of darts vpon
the whole number of the Romans, and so troubled them verie sore.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Romans get to land on the English coast, the Britains send to
Cæsar for a treatie of peace, they staie the Romane ambassadour as
prisoner, Cæsar demandeth hostages of the Britains, the Romane nauie
is driuen diuers waies in a great tempest, the British princes steale
out of Cæsars campe and gather a fresh power against the Romans,
their two armies haue a sharpe encounter._


Caesar perceiuing the maner of this fight, caused his men of warre to
enter into boates and other small vessels, which he commanded to go
to such places where most néed appeared. And relieuing them that
[Sidenote: The Romans get to land.]
fought with new supplies, at length the Romans got to land, and
assembling togither, they assailed the Britains a fresh, and so at
last did put them all to flight. But the Romans could not follow
[Sidenote: The want of horssemen.]
the Britains farre, because they wanted their horssemen which were yet
behind, & through slacking of time could not come to land. And this
one thing séemed onelie to disappoint the luckie fortune that was
accustomed to follow Cesar in all his other enterprises.

[Sidenote: The Britans send to Cesar.]
The Britains after this flight were no sooner got togither, but
that with all speed they sent ambassadours vnto Cesar to treat with
him of peace, offering to deliuer hostages, and further to stand vnto
that order that Cesar should take with them in anie reasonable sort.
[Sidenote: Comius of Arras.]
With these ambassadours came also Comius, whome Cesar (as you haue
heard) had sent before into Britaine, whome notwithstanding that
he was an ambassadour, and sent from Cesar with commission and
instructions sufficientlie furnished, yet had they staied him as
a prisoner. But now after the battell was ended, they set him at
libertie, and sent him backe with their ambassadours, who excused the
matter, laieng the blame on the people of the countrie; which had
imprisoned him through lacke of vnderstanding what apperteined to the
law of armes and nations in that behalfe.

Cesar found great fault with their misdemenor, not onelie for
imprisoning his ambassador, but also for that contrarie to their
promise made by such as they had sent to him into Gallia to deliuer
hostages, in lieu thereof they had receiued him with warre: yet in
the end he said he would pardon them, and not séeke anie further
[Sidenote: Cesar demandeth hostages.]
reuenge of their follies. And herewith required of them hostages, of
which, part were deliuered out of hand, and made promise that the
residue should likewise be sent after, crauing some respit for
performance of the same, bicause they were to be fetched farre off
within the countrie.

Peace being thus established after the fourth day of the Romans
arriuall in Britaine, the 18 ships which (as ye haue heard) were
appointed to conuey the horssemen ouer, loosed from the further hauen
with a soft wind. Which when they approched so néere the shore of
Britaine, that the Romans which were in Cesars campe might see them,
suddenlie there arose so great a tempest, that none of them was able
to kéepe his course, so that they were not onelie driuen in sunder
(some being caried againe into Gallia, and some westward) but also the
other ships that lay at anchor, and had brought ouer the armie, were
so pitifullie beaten, tossed and shaken, that a great number of them
did not onelie lose their tackle, but also were caried by force of
wind into the high sea; the rest being likewise so filled with water,
that they were in danger by sinking to perish and to be quite lost.
For the moone in the same night was at the full, & therefore caused a
spring tide, which furthered the force of the tempest, to the greater
perill of those ships and gallies that lay at anchor. There was no way
for the Romans to helpe the matter: wherefore a great number of those
ships were so bruised, rent and weather-beaten, that without new
reparation they would serue to no vse of sailing. This was a great
discomfort to the Romans that had brought ouer no prouision to liue by
in the winter season, nor saw anie hope how they should repasse againe
into Gallia.

In the meane time the British princes that were in the Romane armie,
perceiuing how greatlie this mishap had discouraged the Romans, and
again by the small circuit of their campe, gessing that they could be
no great number, and that lacke of vittels sore oppressed them, they
stale priuilie away one after another out of the campe, purposing
to assemble their powers againe, and to forestall the Romans from
vittels, and so to driue the matter off till winter: which if they
might doo (vanquishing these or closing them from returning) they
trusted that none of the Romans from thencefoorth would attempt
eftsoones to come into Britaine. Cesar mistrusting their dealings,
because they staid to deliuer the residue of their hostages, commanded
vittels to be brought out of the parties adioining, and not hauing
other stuffe to repaire his ships, he caused 12 of those that were
vtterlie past recouerie by the hurts receiued through violence of the
tempest, to be broken, wherewith the other (in which some recouerie
was perceiued) might be repaired and amended.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The maner of the Britains fighting in charets, the Romans giue a
fresh sallie to the Britains and put them to flight, they sue to
Cæsar for peace; what kings and their powers were assistants to
Cassibellane in the battell against Cæsar, and the maner of both
peoples encounters by the report of diuers Chronologers._


Whilest these things were a dooing, it chanced that as one of the
Romane legions named the seuenth, was sent to fetch in corne out of
the countrie adioining (as their custome was) no warre at that time
being suspected, or once looked for, when part of the people remained
abroad in the field, and part repaired to the campe: those that warded
before the campe, informed Cesar, that there appeared a dust greater
than was accustomed from that quarter, into the which the legion was
gone to fetch in corne. Cesar iudging therof what the matter might
meane, commanded those bands that warded to go with him that way
foorth, and appointed other two bands to come into their roomes, and
the residue of his people to get them to armor, and to follow quicklie
after him.

He was not gone anie great way from the campe, when he might sée where
his people were ouermatched by the enimies, and had much a doo to
beare out the brunt: for the legion being thronged together, the
Britains pelted them sore with arrowes and darts on ech side: for
sithens there was no forrage left in anie part of the countrie about,
but onelie in this place, the Britains iudged that the Romans would
come thither for it: therefore hauing lodged themselues within the
woods in ambushes the night before; on the morrowe after when they saw
the Romans dispersed here & there, and busie to cut downe the corne,
they set vpon them on a sudden, and sleaing some few of them, brought
the residue out of order, compassing them about with their horssemen
and charets, so that they were in great distresse.

The maner of fight with these charets was such, that in the beginning
of a battell they would ride about the sides and skirts of the enimies
host, and bestow their darts as they sate in those charets, so that
oftentimes with the braieng of the horsses, and craking noise of the
charet whéeles they disordered their enimies, and after that they had
woond themselues in amongst the troops of horssemen, they would leape
out of the charets and fight on foot. In the meane time those that
guided the charets would withdraw them selues out of the battell,
placing themselues so, that if their people were ouermatched with the
multitude of enimies, they might easilie withdraw to their charets,
and mount vpon the same againe, by meanes wherof they were as readie
to remooue as the horssemen, and as stedfast to stand in the battell
as the footmen, and so to supplie both duties in one. And those
charetmen by exercise and custome were so cunning in their feat, that
although their horsses were put to run and gallop, yet could they stay
them and hold them backe at their pleasures, and turne and wind them
to and fro in a moment, notwithstanding that the place were verie
stéepe and dangerous: and againe they would run vp and downe verie
nimblie vpon the cops, and stand vpon the beame, and conuey themselues
quicklie againe into the charet.

Cesar thus finding his people in great distresse and readie to be
destroied, came in good time, and deliuered them out of that danger:
for the Britains vpon his approch with new succors, gaue ouer to
assaile their enimies any further, & the Romans were deliuered out of
the feare wherein they stood before his comming. Furthermore, Cesar
considering the time serued not to assaile his enimies, kept his
ground, and shortlie after brought backe his legions into the campe.

While these things were thus a dooing, & all the Romans occupied, the
rest that were abroad in the fields got them away. After this there
followed a sore season of raine and fowle weather, which kept the
Romans within their campe, and staid the Britains from offering
battell. But in the meane time they sent messengers abroad into all
parts of the countrie, to giue knowledge of the small number of the
Romans, and what hope there was both of great spoile to be gotten, and
occasion to deliuer themselues from further danger for euer, if they
might once expell the Romans out of their campe. Herevpon a great
multitude both of horssemen and footmen of the Britains were spéedilie
got togither, and approched the Romane campe.

Cesar although he saw that the same would come to passe which had
chanced before, that if the enimies were put to the repulse, they
would easilie escape the danger with swiftnesse of foot; yet hauing
now with him thirtie horssemen (which Comius of Arras had brought
ouer with him, when he was sent from Cesar as an ambassador vnto the
Britains) he placed his legions in order of battell before his campe,
and so comming to ioine with the Britains, they were not able to
susteine the violent impression of the armed men, and so fled. The
Romans pursued them so farre as they were able to ouertake anie of
them, and so slaieng manie of them, & burning vp all their houses all
about, came backe againe to their campe. Immediatlie wherevpon, euen
the same day, they sent ambassadors to Cesar to sue for peace, who
gladlie accepting their offer, commanded them to send ouer into
Gallia, after he should be returned thither, hostages in number duble
to those that were agréed vpon at the first.

After that these things were thus ordered, Cesar because the moneth
of September was well-neare halfe spent, and that winter hasted on (a
season not méet for his weake and bruised ships to brooke the seas)
determined not to staie anie longer, but hauing wind and weather for
his purpose, got himselfe aboord with his people, and returned into

[Sidenote: _Cæsar de bello Gallico. lib._ 4.]
¶ Thus writeth Cesar touching his first iournie made into
Britaine. But the British historie (which Polydor calleth the new
historie) declareth that Cesar in a pitcht field was vanquished at the
first encounter, and so withdrew backe into France. Beda also writeth,
that Cesar comming into the countrie of Gallia, where the people then
called Morini inhabited (which are at this day the same that inhabit
the diocesse of Terwine) from whence lieth the shortest passage ouer
into Britaine, now called England, got togither 80 saile of great
ships and row gallies, wherewith he passed ouer into Britaine, & there
at the first being wearied with sharpe and sore fight, and after taken
with a grieuous tempest, he lost the greater part of his nauie, with
no small number of his souldiers, and almost all his horssemen: and
therwith being returned into Gallia, placed his souldiers in stéeds
to soiourne there for the winter season. Thus saith Bede. The British
historie moreouer maketh mention of thrée vnder-kings that aided
Cassibellane in this first battell fought with Cesar, as Cridiorus
alias Ederus, king of Albania, now called Scotland: Guitethus king of
Venedocia, that is Northwales: and Britaell king of Demetia, at this
day called Southwales.

The same historie also maketh mention of one Belinus that was
generall of Cassibellanes armie, and likewise of Nenius brother to
Cassibellane, who in fight happened to get Cesars swoord fastened in
his shield by a blow which Cesar stroke at him. Androgeus also and
Tenancius were at the battell in aid of Cassibellane. But Nenius died
within 15 daies after the battell of the hurt receiued at Cesars hand,
although after he was so hurt, he slue Labienus one of the Romane
tribunes: all which may well be true, sith Cesar either maketh the
best of things for his owne honour, or else coueting to write but
commentaries, maketh no account to declare the néedeles circumstances,
or anie more of the matter, than the chiefe points of his dealing.

[Sidenote: _Hector Boet._]
Againe, the Scotish historiographers write, that when it was first
knowne to the Britains, that Cesar would inuade them, there came from
Cassibellane king of Britaine an ambassador vnto Ederus king of Scots,
who in the name of king Cassibellane required aid against the common
enimies the Romains, which request was granted, and 10 thousand Scots
sent to the aid of Cassibellane. At their comming to London, they were
most ioifullie receiued of Cassibellane, who at the same time had
knowledge that the Romans were come on land, and had beaten such
Britains backe as were appointed to resist their landing. Wherevpon
Cassibellane with all his whole puissance mightilie augmented, not
onlie with the succours of the Scots, but also of the Picts (which in
that common cause had sent also of their people to aid the Britains)
set forward towards the place where he vnderstood the enimies to be.

At their first approch togither, Cassibellane sent foorth his
horssemen and charets called _Esseda_, by the which he thought to
disorder the araie of the enimies. Twice they incountred togither with
doubtfull victorie. At length they ioined puissance against puissance,
and fought a verie sore and cruell battell, till finally at the sudden
comming of the Welshmen and Cornishmen, so huge a noise was raised
by the sound of bels hanging at their trappers and charets, that
the Romans astonied therewith, were more easilie put to flight. The
Britains, Scots, and Picts following the chase without order or araie,
so that by reason the Romans kept themselues close togither, the
Britains, Scots, & Picts did scarse so much harme to the enimies as
they themselues receiued. But yet they followed on still vpon the
Romans till it was darke night.

Cesar after he had perceiued them once withdrawne, did what he could
to assemble his companies togither, minding the next morning to
séeke his reuenge of the former daies disaduantage. But forsomuch as
knowledge was giuen him that his ships (by reason of a sore tempest)
were so beaten and rent, that manie of them were past seruice, he
doubted least such newes would incourage his enimies, and bring his
people into despaire. Wherfore he determined not to fight till time
more conuenient, sending all his wounded folks vnto the ships, which
he commanded to be newlie rigged and trimmed. After this, kéeping
his armie for a time within the place where he was incamped without
issuing foorth, he shortlie drew to the sea side, where his ships laie
at anchor, and there within a strong place fortified for the purpose
he lodged his host, and finallie without hope to atchieue anie other
exploit auaileable for that time, he tooke the sea with such ships as
were apt for sailing, and so repassed into Gallia, leauing behind him
all the spoile and baggage for want of vessels and leisure to conueie
it ouer. ¶ Thus haue the Scots in their chronicles framed the matter,
more to the conformitie of the Romane histories, than according to
the report of our British and English writers: and therefore we haue
thought good to shew it héere, that the diuersitie of writers and
their affections may the better appéere.

Of this sudden departing also, or rather fléeing of Iulius Cesar out
of Britaine, Lucanus the poet maketh mention, reciting the saieng
of Pompeius in an oration made by him vnto his souldiers, wherin he
reprochfullie and disdainfullie reprooued the dooings of Cesar in
Britaine, saieng:

  Territa quæsitis ostendit terga Britannis.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cæsar taketh a new occasion to make warre against the Britains, he
arriueth on the coast without resistance, the number of his ships,
both armies incounter, why Cæsar forbad the Romans to pursue the
discomfited Britains, he repaireth his nauie, the Britains choose
Cassibellane their cheefe gouernour, and skirmish afresh with their
enimies, but haue the repulse in the end._


Now will we returne to the sequele of the matter, as Cesar himselfe
reporteth. After his comming into Gallia, there were but two cities
[Sidenote: _Dion Cassius_.]
of all Britaine that sent ouer their hostages according to their
couenant, which gaue occasion to Cesar to picke a new quarrell against
them, which if it had wanted, he would yet (I doubt not) haue found
some other: for his full meaning was to make a more full conquest of
that Ile. Therefore purposing to passe againe thither, as he that had
a great desire to bring the Britains vnder the obedience of the Romane
estate, he caused a great number of ships to be prouided in the winter
season and put in a readinesse, so that against the next spring there
were found to be readie rigged six hundred ships, beside 28 gallies.
[Sidenote: _Cæsar de bello Gal. lib. 5._]
Héerevpon hauing taken order for the gouernance of Gallia in his
absence, about the beginning of the spring he came to the hauen of
Calice, whither (according to order by him prescribed) all his ships
were come, except 40 which by tempest were driuen backe, and could not
as yet come to him.

After he had staied at Calice (as well for a conuenient wind, as for
other incidents) certeine daies, at length when the weather so changed
that it serued his purpose, he tooke the sea, & hauing with him fiue
legions of souldiers, and about two thousand horssemen, he departed
out of Calice hauen about sun setting with a soft southwest wind,
directing his course forward: about midnight the wind fell, & so by
a calme he was carried alongst with the tide, so that in the morning
when the day appéered, he might behold Britaine vpon his left hand.
Then following the streame as the course of the tide changed, he
forced with oares to fetch the shore vpon that part of the coast,
which he had discouered, and tried the last yeere to be the best
landing place for the armie. The diligence of the souldiers was shewed
héere to be great, who with continuall toile droue foorth the heauie
ships, to kéepe course with the gallies, & so at length they landed in
Britaine about noone on the next day, finding not one to resist his
comming ashore: for as he learned by certeine prisoners which were
taken after his comming to land, the Britains being assembled in
purpose to haue resisted him, through feare striken into their harts,
at the discouering of such an huge number of ships, they forsooke the
shore and got them vnto the mountaines. There were in deed of vessels
one and other, what with vittellers, & those which priuat men had
prouided and furnished foorth for their owne vse, being ioined to the
ordinarie number, at the least eight hundred saile, which appeering in
sight all at one time, made a wonderfull muster, and right terrible in
the eies of the Britains.

But to procéed: Cesar being got to land, incamped his armie in a place
conuenient: and after learning by the prisoners, into what part the
enimies were withdrawne, he appointed one Quintus Atrius to remaine
vpon the safegard of the nauie, with ten companies or cohorts of
footmen, and thrée hundred horssemen: and anon after midnight marched
foorth himselfe with the residue of his people toward the Britains,
and hauing made 12 miles of way, he got sight of his enimies host,
who sending downe their horssemen and charets vnto the riuer side,
skirmished with the Romans, meaning to beate them backe from the
higher ground: but being assailed of the Romane horssemen, they were
repelled, & tooke the woods for their refuge, wherein they had got a
place verie strong, both by nature and helpe of hand, which (as was to
be thought) had béene fortified before, in time of some ciuill warre
amongst them: for all the entries were closed with trées which had
béene cut downe for that purpose. Howbeit the souldiers of the 7
legion casting a trench before them, found meanes to put backe the
Britains from their defenses, and so entring vpon them, droue them
out of the woods. But Cesar would not suffer the Romans to follow the
Britains, bicause the nature of the countrie was not knowne vnto them:
and againe the day was farre spent, so that he would haue the residue
thereof bestowed in fortifieng his campe.

The next day, as he had sent foorth such as should haue pursued the
Britains, word came to him from Quintus Atrius, that his nauie by
rigour of a sore and hideous tempest was gréeuouslie molested, and
throwne vpon the shore, so that the cabels and tackle being broken and
destroied with force of the vnmercifull rage of wind, the maisters and
mariners were not able to helpe the matter. Cesar calling backe those
which he had sent foorth, returned to his ships, and finding them in
such state as he had heard, tooke order for the repairing of those
that were not vtterlie destroied, and caused them so to be drawne vp
to the land, that with a trench he might so compasse in a plot of
ground, that might serue both for defense of his ships, and also for
the incamping of those men of warre, which he should leaue to attend
vpon the safegard of the same. And bicause there were at the least a
fortie ships lost by violence of this tempest, so as there was no hope
of recouerie in them, he saw yet how the rest with great labour and
cost might be repaired: wherefore he chose out wrights among the
legions, sent for other into Gallia, and wrote ouer to such as he had
left there in charge with the gouernment of the countrie, to prouide
so manie ships as they could, and to send them ouer vnto him. He spent
a ten daies about the repairing of his nauie, and in fortifieng the
campe for defense thereof, which done, he left those within it that
were appointed there before, and then returned towards his enimies.

At his comming backe to the place where he had before incamped, he
found them there readie to resist him, hauing their numbers hugelie
increased: for the Britains hearing that he was returned with such a
mightie number of ships assembled out of all parts of the land, and
had by general consent appointed the whole rule and order of all
things touching the warre vnto Cassiuellane or Cassibelane, whose
dominion was diuided from the cities situat néere to the sea coast,
by the riuer of Thames, 80 miles distant from the sea coast.
[Sidenote: Cassibellane as should séeme, ruled in the parties of
Oxfordshire, Barkshire, Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire.]
This Cassibellane before time had bin at continuall warre with other
rulers, and cities of the land: but now the Britains moued with the
comming of the Romans, chose him to be chiefe gouernour of all their
armie, permitting the order and rule of all things touching the
defense of their countrie against the Romans onelie to him. Their
horssemen and charets skirmished by the waie with the Romans, but so
as they were put backe oftentimes into the woods and hills adioining:
yet the Britains slue diuers of the Romans as they followed anie thing
egerlie in the pursute.

Also within a while after, as the Romans were busie in fortifieng
their campe, the Britains suddenlie issued out of the woods, and
fierselie assailed these that warded before the campe, vnto whose aid
Cesar sent two of the chiefest cohorts of two legions, the which being
placed but a little distance one from another, when the Romans began
to be discouraged with this kind of fight, the Britains therewith
burst through their enimies, and came backe from thence in safetie.
That daie Quintus Laberius Durus a tribune was slaine. At length Cesar
sending sundrie other cohorts to the succour of his people that were
in fight, and shrewdlie handled as it appéered, the Britains in
the end were put backe. Neuerthelesse, that repulse was but at the
pleasure of fortune; for they quited themselues afterwards like men,
defending their territories with such munition as they had, vntill
such time as either by policie or inequalitie of power they were
vanquished; as you shall sée after in the course of the historie.
Howbeit in fine they were ouer-run and vtterlie subdued, but not
without much bloudshed and slaughter.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Romans heauie armor their great hinderance, the maner of the
Britains fighting in warre, their incounter with their enimies,
their discomfiture, the worthie stratagems or martiall exploits of
Cassibellane, the Troinouants submission to Cæsar, and their sute
touching Mandubratius, manie of the Britains are taken and slaine of
the Romans_.


In all this maner of skirmishing and fight which chanced before the
campe, euen in the sight and view of all men, it was perceiued that
[Sidenote: The Romans heauie armor.]
the Romans, by reason of their heauie armour (being not able
either to follow the Britains as they retired, or so bold as to depart
from their ensignes, except they would runne into danger of casting
themselues awaie) were nothing méete to match with such kind of
enimies: and as for their horssemen, they fought likewise in great
hazard, bicause the Britains would oftentimes of purpose retire, and
when they had trained the Romane horssemen a litle from their legions
of footmen, they would leape out of their charrets and incounter with
them on foot. And so the battell of horssemen was dangerous, and like
in all points whether they pursued or retired.

[Sidenote: The manner of Britains in the warres.]
This also was the maner of the Britains: they fought not close
togither, but in sunder, and diuided into companies one separated from
another by a good distance, and had their the troopes standing in
places conuenient, to the which they might retire, and so reléeue one
another with sending new fresh men to supplie the roomes of them that
were hurt or wearie. The next day after they had thus fought before
the campe of the Romans, they shewed themselues aloft on the hills,
and began to skirmish with the Romane horssemen, but not so hotlie as
they had doone the day before. But about noone, when Cesar had sent
foorth thrée legions of footemen and all his horssemen vnder the
[Sidenote: Caius Trebonius.]
leading of his lieutenant Caius Trebonius to fetch in forrage,
they suddenlie brake out on euerie side, and vpon the forragers. The
[Sidenote: _Dion Cassius_ saith, that the Britains vanquished
the Roman footmen at this time, but were put to the worst by the
Romans so far foorth as they might, not breaking their arraie, nor
going from their ensignes or guidons, gaue the charge on them, and
fiercelie repelled them, so that the horssemen hauing the legions of
footemen at their backs, followed the Britains so long as they might
haue the said legions in sight readie to succour them of néed were: by
reason whereof, they slue a great number of the Britains, not giuing
them leasure to recouer themselues, nor to staie that they might haue
time to get out of their charrets. After this chase and discomfiture,
all such as were come from other parties to the aid of their fellowes
departed home, & after that day the Britains aduentured to fight
against Cesar with their maine power; and withdrawing beyond the riuer
[Sidenote: *(which is to be supposed was at Kingston) or not far from
of *Thames, determined to stop the enimies from passing the same, if
by anie meanes they might: and whereas there was but one foord by the
which they might come ouer, Cassibellane caused the same to be set
full of sharpe stakes, not onlie in the middest of the water, but also
at the comming foorth on that side where he was lodged with his
armie in good order, readie to defend the passage. Cesar learning by
relation of prisoners which he tooke, what the Britains intended to
doo, marched foorth to the riuer side, where the foord was, by the
which his armie might passe the same on foot though verie hardlie. At
his comming thither, he might perceiue how the Britains were readie on
the further side to impeach his passage, and how that the banke at the
comming foorth of the water was pight full of sharpe stakes, and
so likewise was the chanell of the riuer set with piles which were
couered with the water.

These things yet staied not Cesar, who appointing his horssemen to
passe on before, commanded the footemen to follow. The souldiers
entring the water, waded through with such spéed and violence (nothing
appéering of them aboue water but their heads) that the Britains were
constreined to giue place, being not able to susteine the brunt of the
Romane horssemen, and the legions of their footemen, and so abandoning
the place betooke them to flight. Cassibellane not minding to trie the
matter anie more by battell, sent awaie the most part of his people,
but yet kept with him about a foure thousand charretmen or wagoners,
and still watched what waie the Romans tooke, coasting them euer as
they marched, and kept somewhat aside within the couert of woods, and
other combersome places. And out of those quarters through which he
vnderstood the Romans wold passe, he gathered both men and cattell
into the woods & thicke forrests, leauing nothing of value abroad in
the champion countrie. And when the Roman horssemen did come abroad
into the countrie to séeke booties, he sent out his charrets vnto the
knowne waies and passages to skirmish with the same horssemen, so much
to the disaduantage of the Romans, that they durst not straie farre
from their maine armie. Neither would Cesar permit them (least they
might haue béene vtterlie distressed by the Britains) to depart
further than the maine battels of the footemen kept pace with them, by
reason whereof the countrie was not indamaged by fire and spoile, but
onlie where the armie marched.

[Sidenote: Troinouants where they inhabited.]
In the meane time, the Troinouants which some take to be Middlesex
& Essex men, whose citie was the best fensed of all those parties, and
thought to be the same that now is called London, sent ambassadours
vnto Cesar, offering to submit themselues vnto him, and to obeie his
ordinances, and further besought him to defend Mandubratius from the
iniuries of K. Cassibellane, which Mandubratius had fled vnto Cesar
into France, after that Cassibellane had slaine his father named
[Sidenote: Imanuentius.]
Imanuentius, that was chiefe lord and king of the Troinouants, and so
now by their ambassadors the same Troinouants requested Cesar, not
onelie to receiue Mandubratius into his protection, but also to send
him vnto them, that he might take the gouernment and rule of their
citie into his hands. Cesar commanded them to deliuer vnto him
40 hostages, and graine for his armie, and therewith sent
[Sidenote: Some take the Troinouants to be Londoners.]
Mandubratius vnto them. The Troinouants accomplished his commandements
with all spéed, sending both the appointed number of hostages, and
also graine for the armie. And being thus defended and preserued from
iniurie of the souldiers, the people called Cenimagni, Segontiaci,
Ancalites, Bibroci, and Cassi, submitted themselues vnto Cesar, by
whom he vnderstood that the towne of Cassibellane was not far from the
place where he was then incamped fensed with wooddes and marishes,
into the which a great number of people with their cattell and other
substance was withdrawne. The Britains in those daies (as Cesar
writeth) called that a towne or hold, which they had fortified with
anie thicke combersome wood, with trench and rampire, into the which
they vsed to get themselues for the auoiding of inuasion.

Cesar with his legions of souldiers therfore marched thither, and
finding the place verie strong both by nature and helpe of hand,
assaulted it on two partes. The Britains defending their strength
a while, at length not able longer to endure the impression of the
Romans, fled out on the contrarie side of the towne where the enimies
were not. Within this place a great number of cattell was found, and
manie of the Romans taken by the Britains that followed them in chase,
and manie also slaine.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cassibellane dooth send vnto the foure kings of Kent for aid against
Cæsars host, he offereth submission to Cæsar, the Britains become his
tributaries, he returneth into Gallia with the remnant of his armie:
the differing report of Cæsars commentaries and our historiographers
touching these warlike affaires; of a sore fray with bloudshed and
manslaughter vpon a light occasion; Cæsar taketh opportunitie to get
the conquest of the land by the division betweene Cassibellane and
Androgeus, the time of the Britains subiection to the Romans._


Now whilest these thinges passed on this sort in those parts,
[Sidenote: Foure kings in Kent]
Cassibellane sent messengers into Kent vnto foure kings (which
ruled that side of the land in those daies) Cingetorix, Caruilius,
Taximagulus, and Segonax, commanding them, that assembling togither
their whole puissance, they should assaile the campe of the Romans by
the sea side where certeine bands lay (as ye haue heard) for safegard
of the nauie. They according to his appointment came suddenlie
thither, and by the Romans that sailed forth vpon them were sharplie
fought with, and lost diuers of their men that were slaine and taken,
and amongst the prisoners that the Romans tooke, Cingetorix was one.
When Cassibellane heard these newes, being sore troubled for these
losses thus chancing one in the necke of an other, but namelie most
discouraged, for that diuers cities had yéelded vnto the Romans: he
sent ambassadours by means of Romius of Arras vnto Cesar, offering to
submit himselfe.

Cesar meaning to winter in Gallia, and therefore because summer drew
towards an end, willing to dispatch in Britaine, commanded that
hostages should be deliuered, and appointed what tribute the Britains
should yéerelie send vnto the Romans. He also forbad and commanded
Cassibellane, that he should not in anie wise trouble or indamage
Madubratius or the Londoners. After this, when he had receiued the
hostages, he brought his armie to the sea, and there found his ships
well repaired, decked, and in good point: therefore he commanded that
they should be had downe to the sea. And because he had a great number
of prisoners, and diuers of his ships were lost in the tempest, he
appointed to transport his armie ouer into Gallia at two conueies,
which was doone with good successe about the middest of September,
though the ships returning for the residue of the armie, after the
first conueie, were driuen so with force of weather, that a great
number of them could not come to land at the place appointed: so
that Cesar was constreined to fraught those that he could get with
a greater burden, and so departed from the coast of Britaine, and
safelie landed with the remnant of his people in Gallia with as good
[Sidenote: _Dion Cassius_.]
spéed as he could haue desired. He thought not good to leaue anie
of his people behind him, knowing that if he should so doo, they were
in danger to be cast awaie. And so because he could not well remaine
there all the winter season for doubt of rebellion in Gallia, he
was contented to take vp, and returne thither, sith he had doone
sufficientlie for the time, least in coueting the more, he might haue
come in perill to lose that which he had alreadie obteined.

Thus according to that which Cesar himselfe and other autentike
authors haue written, was Britaine made tributarie to the Romans by
[Sidenote: _Gal. Mon. Matt. West._]
the conduct of the same Cesar. ¶ But our histores farre differ
from this, affirming that Cesar comming the second time, was by the
Britains with valiancie and martiall prowesse beaten and repelled, as
he was at the first, and speciallie by meanes that Cassibellane had
pight in the Thames great piles of trées piked with yron, through
which his ships being entred the riuer, were perished and lost.
And after his comming a land, he was vanquished in battell, and
constrained to flee into Gallia with those ships that remained. For
ioy of this second victorie (saith Galfrid) Cassibellane made a great
feast at London, and there did sacrifice to the gods.

At this feast there fell variance betwixt two yoong gentlemen, the
one named Hirilda, nephew to Cassibellane, and the other Euelie or
Eweline, being of aliance to Androgeus earle of London. They fell at
discord about wrestling, and after multiplieng of words, they came to
dealing of blowes, by meanes whereof parts were taken, so that there
ensued a sore fraie, in the which diuerse were wounded and hurt, and
amongst other Hirilda the kings nephew was slaine by the hands of
Eweline. The king sore displeased herewith, meant to punish Eweline
according to the order of his lawes, so that he was summoned to
appeare in due forme to make answer to the murder: but Eweline by the
comfort of Androgeus disobeied the summons, & departed the court with
Androgeus, in contempt of the king and his lawes. The king to be
reuenged vpon Androgeus, gathered a power, and began to make warre
vpon him.

Androgeus perceiuing himselfe not able to withstand the kings
puissance, sent letters to Iulius Cesar, exhorting him to returne
into Britaine, and declaring the whole matter concerning the variance
betwixt him and the king, promising to aid the Romans in all that he
might. Iulius Cesar ioifull of this message, prepared his nauie, and
with all spéed with a mightie host imbarked in the same, came toward
Britaine: but yer he would land, doubting some treason in Androgeus,
he receiued from him in hostage his sonne named Scena, and thirtie
other of the best and most noble personages of all his dominion. After
this he landed, and ioining with Androgeus, came into a vallie néere
to Canturburie, and there incamped. Shortlie after came Cassibellane
with all his power of Britains, and gaue battell to the Romans. But
after the Britains had long fought and knightlie borne themselues
in that battell, Androgeus came with his people on a wing, and so
sharplie assailed them, that the Britains were constrained to forsake
the field, and tooke themselues to flight. The which flight so
discomforted them, that finallie they all fled, and gaue place to
the Romans, the which pursued and slue them without mercie, so that
Cassibellane with the residue of his people withdrew to a place of
suertie, but being enuironed about with the puissance of the Romans,
and of Androgeus, who had with him seuen thousand men there in the aid
[Sidenote: So saith _Campion_, but _Galfrid Monu_. saith fiue thousand.]
of the Romans, Cassibellane in the end was forced to fall to
a composition, in couenanting to paie a yearelie tribute of thrée
thousand pounds. When Cesar had ordered his businesse as he thought
conuenient, he returned and with him went Androgeus, fearing the
displeasure of Cassibellane.

The reuerend father Bede writing of this matter, saith thus: After
that Cesar being returned into Gallia, had placed his souldiors abroad
in the countrie to soiorne for the winter season, he caused ships to
be made readie, to the number of 600, with the which repassing into
Britaine, whilest he marched foorth with a mightie armie against the
enimies, his ships that lay at anchor being taken with a sore tempest,
were either beaten one against another, or else cast vpon the flats
and sands, and so broken; so that fortie of them were vtterlie
perished, and the residue with great difficultie were repaired. The
horssemen of the Romans at the first encounter were put to the worsse,
and Labienus the tribune slaine. In the second conflict he vanquished
the Britains, not without great danger of his people. After this, he
marched to the riuer of Thames, which as then was passable by foord
onelie in one place and not else, as the report goeth. On the further
banke of that riuer, Cassibellane was incamped with an huge multitude
of enimies, and had pitcht and set the banke, and almost all the
[Sidenote: The stakes remained to be séene in Bedes daies.]
foord vnder the water full of sharpe stakes, the tokens of which vnto
this day are to be séene, and it séemeth to the beholders that euerie
of these stakes are as big as a mans thigh, sticking fast in the
bottome of the riuer closed with lead. This being perceiued of the
Romans, and auoided, the Britains not able to susteine the violent
impression of the Roman legions, hid themselues in the woods, out of
the which by often issues, they gréeuouslie and manie times assailed
the Romans, and did them great damage. In the meane time the strong
citie of Troinouant with hir duke Androgeus deliuering fortie
hostages, yéelded vnto Cesar, whose example manie other cities
following, allied themselues with the Romans, by whose information
Cesar with sore fight tooke at length the towne of Cassibellane,
situat betwixt two marches, fensed also with the couert of woods,
& hauing within it great plentie of all things. After this Cesar
returned into France, and bestowed his armie in places to soiorne
there for the winter season.

The Scotish writers report, that the Britains, after the Romans were
the first time repelled (as before ye haue heard) refused to receiue
the aid of the Scotish men the second time, and so were vanquished, as
in the Scotish historie ye may sée more at length expressed. Thus much
touching the war which Iulius Cesar made against the Britains, in
bringing them vnder tribute to the Romans. But this tributarie
subiection was hardlie mainteined for a season.

¶ Now here is to be noted, that Cesar did not vanquish all the
Britains: for he came not amongst the northerne men, onlie discouering
and subduing that part which lieth towards the French seas: so that
sith other of the Roman emperors did most earnestlie trauell to
[Sidenote: _Cornelius Tacitus. In vit. Agr. Dion Cassius._]
bring the Britains vnder their subiection (which were euer redie to
rebell so manie sundrie times) Cesar might séeme rather to haue shewed
Britaine to the Romans, than to haue deliuered the possession of the
same. This subiection, to the which he brought this Ile (what maner of
one soeuer it was) chanced about the yeare of the world 3913, after
the building of Rome 698, before the birth of our sauior 53, the first
and second yeare of the 181 Olympiad, after the comming of Brute 1060,
before the conquest made by William duke of Normandie 1120, and 1638
yeres before this present yere of our Lord 1585, after Harisons

       *       *       *       *       *

_The state of Britaine when Cæsar offered to conquer it, and the maner
of their gouernement, as diuerse authors report the same in their
bookes: where the contrarietie of their opinions is to be obserued._


After that Iulius Cesar had thus made the Britains tributaries to the
Romans, and was returned into Gallia, Cassibellane reigned 7 yeares,
and was vanquished in the ninth or tenth yeare after he began first
to reigne so that he reigned in the whole about 15 or as some haue 17
yeares, and then died, leauing no issue behind him. There hath bin an
[Sidenote: _Fabian_.]
old chronicle (as Fabian recordeth) which he saw and followeth
much in his booke, wherein is conteined, that this Cassibellane was
not brother to Lud, but eldest sonne to him: for otherwise as may be
thought (saith he) Cesar hauing the vpper hand, would haue displaced
him from the gouernement, and set vp Androgeus the right heire to the
crowne, as sonne to the said Lud. But whatsoeuer our chronicles or
the British histories report of this matter, it should appere by that
which Cesar writeth (as partlie ye haue heard) that Britaine in those
[Sidenote: _Cæsar_.]
daies was not gouerned by one sole prince, but by diuers, and that
diuers cities were estates of themselues, so that the land was diuided
into sundrie gouernements, much after the forme and maner as Germanie
and Italie are in our time, where some cities are gouerned by one
onelie prince, some by the nobilitie, and some by the people. And
whereas diuers of the rulers in those daies here in this land were
called kings, those had more large seigniories than the other, as
[Sidenote: Cassibellane a King.]
Cassibellane, who was therefore called a king.

And though we doo admit this to be true, yet may it be, that in the
beginning, after Brute entered the land, there was ordeined by him a
monarchie, as before is mentioned, which might continue in his
posteritie manie yeares after, and yet at length before the comming of
Cesar, through ciuil dissention, might happilie be broken, and diuided
into parts, and so remained not onelie in the time of this Cassibellane,
but also long after, whilest they liued as tributaries to the Romans,
till finallie they were subdued by the Saxons. In which meane time,
through the discord, negligence, or rather vnaduised rashnes of writers,
hard it is to iudge what may be affirmed and receiued in their writings
for a truth; namelie, concerning the succession of the kings that are
said to haue reigned betwixt the daies of Cassibellane, and the comming
[Sidenote: _Cor. Tacit. in uita. lib. Agr._]
of the Saxons. The Roman writers (and namelie Tacitus) report, that
the Britains in times past were vnder the rule of kings, and after
being made tributaries, were drawne so by princes into sundrie
factions, that to defend and kéepe off a common ieopardie, scarselie
would two or thrée cities agrée togither, and take weapon in hand
with one accord, so that while they fought by parts, the whole was
ouercome. And after this sort they say that Britaine was brought into
the forme of a prouince by the Romans, from whom gouernors vnder the
name of legats and procurators were sent that had the rule of it.

But yet the same authors make mention of certeine kings (as hereafter
shall appeare) who while the Romane emperors had the most part of the
earth in subiection, reigned in Britaine. The same witnesseth
[Sidenote: _Gildas in epist._]
Gildas, saieng: Britaine hath kings, but they are tyrants: iudges it
hath, but the same are wicked, oftentimes spoiling and tormenting the
innocent people. And Cesar (as ye haue heard) speaketh of foure kings
that ruled in Kent, and thereabouts. Cornelius Tacitus maketh mention
[Sidenote: Some take Prasutagus and Aruiragus to be one man.]
of Prasutagus, and Cogidunus, that were kings in Britaine: and Iuuenal
speaketh of Aruiragus: and all the late writers, of Lucius. Hereby it
appeareth, that whether one or mo, yet kings there were in Britain,
bearing rule vnder the Romane emperors.

[Sidenote: _Gal. Mon._]
On the other part, the common opinion of our chronicle-writers is,
that the chiefe gouernment remained euer with the Britains, & that the
Romane senat receiuing a yearelie tribute, sent at certeine times (_Ex
officio_) their emperors and lieutenants into this Ile, to represse
the rebellious tumults therein begun, or to beat backe the inuasion of
the enimies that went about to inuade it. And thus would these writers
inferre, that the Britains euer obeied their king, till at length they
were put beside the gouernement by the Saxons. But whereas in the
common historie of England, the succession of kings ought to be kept,
so oft as it chanceth in the same that there is not anie to fill the
place, then one while the Romane emperors are placed in their steads,
and another while their lieutenants, and are said to be created kings
of the Britains, as though the emperors were inferiors vnto the kings
of Britaine, and that the Romane lieutenants at their appointments,
and not by prescript of the senat or emperours, administred the

This may suffice here to aduertise you of the contrarietie in writers.
Now we will go foorth in following our historie, as we haue doone
heretofore, sauing that where the Romane histories write of things
done here by emperors, or their lieutenants, it shall be shewed as
reason requireth, sith there is a great appearance of truth oftentimes
in the same, as those that be authorised and allowed in the opinion of
the learned.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Theomantius, the tearme of yeares that he reigned, and where he
was interred; of Kymbeline, within the time of whose gouernment
Christ Iesus our sauiour was borne, all nations content to obeie the
Romane emperors and consequentlie Britaine, the customes that the
Britaines paie the Romans as Strabo reporteth._


[Sidenote: THEOM[=A]DEUS ]
AFTER the death of Cassibellane, Theomantius or Tenantius the
yoongest sonne of Lud was made king of Britaine in the yéere of the
[Sidenote: _Fabian_]
world 3921, after the building of Rome 706, & before the comming
of Christ 45. He is named also in one of the English chronicles
Tormace: in the same chronicle it is conteined, that not he, but his
[Sidenote: _Gal. Mon._]
brother Androgeus was king, where Geffrey of Monmouth & others
testifie, that Androgeus abandoned the land clerelie, & continued
still at Rome, because he knew the Britains hated him for treason he
had committed in aiding Iulius Cesar against Cassibellane. Theomantius
ruled the land in good quiet, and paid the tribute to the Romans which
Cassibellane had granted, and finallie departed this life after he had
reigned 22 yeares, and was buried at London.

[Sidenote: KYMBELINE]
Kymbeline or Cimbeline the sonne of Theomantius was of the
Britains made king after the deceasse of his father, in the yeare of
the world 3944, after the building of Rome 728, and before the
[Sidenote: _Fabian_ out of _Guido de Columna_.]
birth of our Sauiour 33. This man (as some write) was brought vp at
Rome, and there made knight by Augustus Cesar, vnder whome he serued
in the warres, and was in such fauour with him, that he was at
libertie to pay his tribute or not. Little other mention is made of
his dooings, except that during his reigne, the Sauiour of the world
[Sidenote: Christ our saviour borne.]
our Lord Iesus Christ the onelie sonne of God was borne of a virgine,
about the 23 yeare of the reigne of this Kymbeline, & in the 42 yeare
of the emperour Octauius Augustus, that is to wit, in the yeare of
[Sidenote: 3966.]
the world 3966, in the second yeare of the 194 Olympiad, after the
building of the citie of Rome 750 nigh at an end, after the vniuersall
floud 2311, from the birth of Abraham 2019, after the departure of the
Israelits out of Egypt 1513, after the captiuitie of Babylon 535, from
the building of the temple by Salomon 1034, & from the arriuall of
Brute 1116, complet. Touching the continuance of the yeares of
Kymbelines reigne, some writers doo varie, but the best approoued
affirme, that he reigned 35 years and then died, & was buried at
London, leauing behind him two sonnes, Guiderius and Aruiragus.

¶ But here is to be noted, that although our histories doo affirme,
that as well this Kymbeline, as also his father Theomantius liued in
quiet with the Romans, and continuallie to them paied the tributes
which the Britains had couenanted with Iulius Cesar to pay, yet we
find in the Romane writers, that after Iulius Cesars death, when
[Sidenote: _Cor. Tacitus. in uita lu. Agr. Dion Cassius_.]
Augustus had taken vpon him the rule of the empire, the Britains
refused to paie that tribute: whereat as Cornelius Tacitus reporteth,
Augustus (being otherwise occupied) was contented to winke; howbeit,
through earnest calling vpon to recouer his right by such as were
desirous to sée the vttermost of the British kingdome; at length, to
wit, in the tenth yeare after the death of Iulius Cesar, which was
about the thirtéenth yeare of the said Theomantius, Augustus made
[Sidenote: _Dion Cassius._]
prouision to passe with an armie ouer into Britaine, & was come
forward vpon his iournie into Gallia Celtica: or as we maie saie, into
these hither parts of France.

But here receiuing aduertisements that the Pannonians, which inhabited
the countrie now called Hungarie, and the Dalmatians whome now we call
Slauons had rebelled, he thought it best first to subdue those rebells
neere home, rather than to séeke new countries, and leaue such in
hazard whereof he had present possession, and so turning his power
against the Pannonians and Dalmatians, he left off for a time the
warres of Britaine, whereby the land remained without feare of anie
inuasion to be made by the Romans, till the yeare after the building
of the citie of Rome 725, and about the 19 yeare of king Theomantius
reigne, that Augustus with an armie departed once againe from Rome to
passe ouer into Britaine, there to make warre. But after his comming
into Gallia, when the Britains sent to him certeine ambassadours to
treat with him of peace, he staied there to settle the state of things
among the Galles, for that they were not in verie good order. And
hauing finished there, he went into Spaine, and so his iournie into
Britaine was put off till the next yeare, that is, the 726 after the
building of Rome, which fell before the birth of our sauiour 25, about
which time Augustus eftsoons meant the third time to haue made a
voiage into Britaine, because they could not agrée vpon couenants. But
as the Pannonians and Dalmatians had aforetime staied him, when
[Sidenote: He kept not promise with the Romans. Those of Calice and
(as before is said) he meant to haue gone against the Britans: so euen
now the Salassians (a people inhabiting about Italie and Switserland)
the Cantabrians and Asturians by such rebellious sturrs as they
raised, withdrew him from his purposed iournie. But whether this
controuersie which appeareth to fall forth betwixt the Britains and
Augustus, was occasioned by Kymbeline, or some other prince of
the Britains, I haue not to auouch: for that by our writers it is
reported, that Kymbeline being brought vp in Rome, & knighted in the
court of Augustus, euer shewed himselfe a friend to the Romans, &
chieflie was loth to breake with them, because the youth of the
Britaine nation should not be depriued of the benefit to be trained
and brought vp among the Romans, whereby they might learne both to
behaue themselues like ciuill men, and to atteine to the knowledge of
feats of warre.

But whether for this respect, or for that it pleased the almightie
God so to dispose the minds of men at that present, not onlie the
Britains, but in manner all other nations were contented to be
obedient to the Romane empire. That this was true in the Britains,
[Sidenote: _Strab. Geog._]
it is euident enough by Strabos words, which are in effect as
followeth. "At this present (saith he) certeine princes of Britaine,
procuring by ambassadors and dutifull demeanors the amitie of the
emperour Augustus, haue offered in the capitoll vnto the gods
presents or gifts, and haue ordeined the whole Ile in a manner to be
appertinent, proper, and familiar to the Romans. They are burdened
with sore customs which they paie for wares, either to be sent foorth
into Gallia, or brought from thence, which are commonlie yuorie
vessels, shéeres, ouches, or earerings, and other conceits made of
amber & glasses, and such like manner of merchandize: so that now
there is no néed of anie armie or garrison of men of warre to kéepe
the Ile, for there néedeth not past one legion of footmen, or some
wing of horssemen, to gather vp and receiue the tribute: for the
charges are rated according to the quantitie of the tributes: for
otherwise it should be néedfull to abate the customs, if the tributes
were also raised: and if anie violence should be vsed, it were
dangerous least they might be prouoked to rebellion." Thus farre

       *       *       *       *       *

_Of Guiderius, who denied to paie tribute to the Romans, preparation
for war on both sides, of the ridiculous voiage of the Emperour
Caligula against the Britains, his vanitie and delight in mischiefe:
Aulus Plautius a Romane senator accompanied with souldiers arrive on
the British coasts without resistance, the Britains take flight and
hide themselues._


[Sidenote: GUIDERIUS.]
Guiderius the first sonne of Kymbeline (of whom Harison saieth
nothing) began his reigne in the seuententh yeere after th'
incarnation of Christ. This Guiderius being a man of stout courage,
gaue occasion of breach of peace betwixt the Britains and Romans,
denieng to paie them tribute, and procuring the people to new
insurrections, which by one meane or other made open rebellion, as
[Sidenote: Caligula.]
Gyldas saith. Wherevpon the emperour Caligula (as some thinke)
tooke occasion to leauie a power, and as one vtterlie misliking
the negligence (as he called it) of Augustus and Tiberius his
predecessors, he ment not onlie to reduce the Iland vnto the former
subiection, but also to search out the vttermost bounds thereof, to
the behoofe of himselfe, and of the Romane monarchie.

Great prouision therefore was made by the said Caligula to performe
that noble enterprise, and this was in the fourth yeere of his reigne.
The like preparation was made on the other side by Guiderius, to
resist the forren enimies, so that hauing all things in a readinesse,
he ceassed not dailie to looke for the comming of the emperour, whome
[Sidenote: _Dion Cassius. lib._ 59.]
he ment to receiue with hard enterteinment if he durst aduenture
to set toward Britaine. But see the sequele: the maine armie being
thus in a readinesse, departed from Rome in the 79 yeere after the
building of the citie, and marching foorth, at length came vnto the
Belgike shore, from whence they might looke ouer, and behold the
cliffes and coast of Britaine, which Caligula and his men stood gazing
vpon with great admiration and woonder.

Furthermore he caused them to stand in battell arraie vpon the coast,
where he heard how the Britains were in a redinesse to withstand his
entrance. But entring into his gallie, as nothing discouraged with
these newes, he rowed a flight shot or two from the shore, and
forthwith returned, and then going vp into an high place like a
pulpit, framed and set vp there for the nonce, he gaue the token to
fight vnto his souldiers by sound of trumpet, and therewith was ech
man charged to gather cockle shells vpon the shore, which he called
[Sidenote: The spoile of the Ocean.]
the spoile of the Ocean, and caused them to be laid vp vntill a
time conuenient. With the atchiuing of this exploit (as hauing none
other wherewith to beautifie his triumph) he séemed greatlie exalted,
thinking that now he had subdued the whole Ocean, and therefore
highlie rewarded his souldiers for their paines susteined in that
collection of cockle shells, as if they had doone him some notable
péece of seruice. He also caried of the same shells with him to Rome,
to the end he might there boast of his voyage, and brag how well he
[Sidenote: * _sic._]
had sped: and required therefore verie earnestlie haue of * a
triumph decreed vnto him for the accomplishment of this enterprise.

But when he saw the senat grudge at the free & liberall granting of
a grace in that behalfe, and perceiued how they refused to attribute
diuine honors vnto him, in recompense of so foolish an enterprise,
it wanted little that he had not slaine them euerie one. From thence
therefore he went vp into a throne or royall seate, and calling
therewith the common people about him, he told them a long tale what
aduentures had chanced to him in his conquest of the Ocean. And when
he had perceiued them to shout and crie, as if they had consented that
he should haue béene a god for this his great trauell and valiant
prowesse, he to increase their clamour, caused great quantities of
gold & siluer to be scattered amongst them, in the gathering whereof,
manie were pressed to death, and diuers also slaine with the inuenomed
caltrops of iron, which he did cast out with the same monie, of
purpose to doo mischiefe, the same caltrops being in forme small &
sharp, so that by reason of the prease of people, much hurt was
doone by them yer they were perceiued. And this was the end of the
ridiculous voiage of Caligula attempted against the Britains.

[Sidenote: _Suetonius._]
But after the death of this Caligula, the emperour Claudius (as
Suetonius saith) moued warre against the Britains, because of a sturre
and rebellion raised in that land, for that such fugitiues as were
fled from thence, were not againe restored when request was made for
the same.

[Sidenote: Dion Cassius.]
Dion Cassius writeth, that one Bericus, being expelled out of
Britaine, persuaded the emperour Claudius to take the warre in hand at
this time against the Britains, so that one Aulus Plautius a senatour,
and as then pretor, was appointed to take the armie that soiourned
in France then called Gallia, and to passe ouer with the same into
Britaine. The souldiers hearing of this voiage, were loth to go with
him, as men not willing to make warre in another world: and therefore
delaied time, till at length one Narcissus was sent from Claudius, as
it were to appease the souldiers, & procure them to set forward. But
when this Narcissus went vp into the tribunall throne of Plautius,
to declare the cause of his comming, the souldiers taking great
indignation therewith cried, _O Saturnalia,_ as if they should haue
celebrated their feast daie so called.

When the seruants apparelled in their maisters robes, represented the
roome of their maisters, and were serued by them, as if they had béene
their seruants, and thus at length constreined, through verie shame,
they agréed to follow Plautius. Herevpon being embarked, he diuided
his nauie into thrée parts, to the end that if they were kept off from
arriuing in one place, yet they might take land in another. The ships
suffered some impeachment in their passage by a contrarie wind that
droue them backe againe: but yet the marriners and men of warre taking
good courage vnto them, the rather because there was séene a fierie
leame to shoot out of the east towards the west, which way their
course lay, made forwards againe with their ships, and landed without
finding anie resistance. For the Britains looked not for their
comming: wherefore, when they heard how their enimies were on land,
they got them into the woods and marishes, trusting that by lingering
of time the Romans would be constreined to depart, as it had chanced
in time past to Iulius Cesar aforesaid.


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