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Title: Chronicles (1 of 6): The Historie of England (8 of 8) - The Eight Booke of the Historie of England
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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THE EIGHT BOOKE

OF THE

HISTORIE OF ENGLAND.


       *       *       *       *       *



_Edward the third of that name is chosen king of England by a generall
consent, ambassadours are sent to attend him homewardes to his
kingdome, and to informe him of his election, William duke of
Normandie accompanieth him, Edward is crowned king, the subtill
ambition or ambitious subtiltie of earle Goodwine in preferring Edward
to the crowne and betraieng Alfred; the Danes expelled and rid out of
this land by decree; whether earle Goodwine was guiltie of Alfreds
death, king Edward marieth the said earles daughter, he forbeareth to
haue carnall knowledge with hir, and why? he useth his mother
queene Emma verie hardlie, accusations brought against hir, she is
dispossessed of hir goods, and imprisoned for suffering bishop Alwine
to haue the vse of hir bodie, she purgeth and cleareth hir selfe after
a strange sort, hir couetousnesse: mothers are taught (by hir example)
to loue their children with equalitie: hir liberall deuotion to
Winchester church cleared hir from infamie of couetousnesse, king
Edward loued hir after hir purgation, why Robert archbishop of
Canturburie fled out of England into Normandie._

THE FIRST CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: EDWARD. _Hen. Hunt._]
Immediatlie vpon the deth of Hardiknought, and before his corps was
committed to buriall, his halfe brother Edward, sonne of king Egelred
[Sidenote: _Polydor_]
begotten of quéene Emma, was chosen to be K. of England, by
the generall consent of all the nobles and commons of the realme.
Therevpon were ambassadours sent with all spéed into Normandie, to
signifie vnto him his election, and to bring him from thence into
England in deliuering pledges for more assurance, that no fraud nor
deceit was ment of the Englishmen, but that vpon his comming thither,
he should receiue the crowne without all contradiction. Edward then
aided by his coosine William duke of Normandie, tooke the sea, &
with a small companie of Normans came into England, where he was
[Sidenote: _Henr. Hunt._ _Wil. Malm._ The third of Aprill. 1043.]
receiued with great ioy as king of the realme, & immediatlie after was
crowned at Winchester by Edsinus then archbishop of Canturburie, on
Easter day in the yeare of our Lord 1043, which fell also about the
fourth yeare of the emperour Henrie the third, surnamed Niger, in the
12 yeare of Henrie the first of that name king of France, and about
the third yeare of Macbeth king of Scotland.

This Edward the third of that name before the conquest, was of nature
more méeke and simple than apt for the gouernement of the realme, &
therefore did earle Goodwine not onelie séeke the destruction of his
elder brother Alfred, but holpe all that he might to aduance this
Edward to the crowne, in hope to beare great rule in the realme vnder
him, whome he knew to be soft, gentle, and easie to be persuaded. But
whatsoeuer writers doo report hereof, sure it is, that Edward was the
elder brother, and not Alfred: so that if earle Goodwine did shew his
furtherance by his pretended cloake of offering his friendship vnto
Alfred to betraie him, he did it by king Harolds commandement, and yet
it may be that he meant to haue vsurped the crowne to him selfe, if
each point had answered his expectation in the sequele of things, as
he hoped they would; and therfore had not passed if both the brethren
had béene in heauen. But yet when the world framed contrarie
(peraduenture) to his purpose, he did his best to aduance Edward,
trusting to beare no small rule vnder him, being knowen to be a man
more appliable to be gouerned by other than to trust to his owne wit:
and so chieflie by the assistance of earle Goodwine (whose authoritie,
as appeareth, was not small within the realme of England in those
daies) Edward came to atteine the crowne: wherevnto the earle of
Chester Leofrike also shewed all the furtherance that in him laie.

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd. ex Mariano_. _Alb. Crantz_.]
Some write (which seemeth also to be confirmed by the Danish
chronicles) that king Hardiknought in his life time had receiued this
Edward into his court, and reteined him still in the same in most
honorable wise. But for that it may appeare in the abstract of the
Danish chronicles, what their writers had of this matter recorded,
we doo here passe ouer, referring those that be desirous to know the
diuersitie of our writers and theirs, vnto the same chronicles, where
they may find it more at large expressed. This in no wise is to be
[Sidenote: _Polydor_. Danes expelled.]
left vnremembred, that immediatlie after the death of Hardiknought,
it was not onelie decreed & agreed vpon by the great lords & nobles of
the realme, that no Dane from thenceforth should reigne ouer them, but
also all men of warre and souldiers of the Danes, which laie within
anie citie or castell in garrison within the realme of England, were
then expelled and put out or rather slaine (as the Danish writers
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._]
doo rehearse.) Amongst other that were banished, the ladie Gonild
[Sidenote: Gonill néece to K. Swaine.]
néece to king Swaine by his sister, was one, being as then a widow,
and with hir two of hir sonnes, which she had then liuing; Heming
and Turkill were also caused to auoid. Some write that Alfred the
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
brother of king Edward, came not into the realme till after the death
of Hardiknought, and that he did helpe to expell the Danes, which
being doon, he was slaine by earle Goodwine and other of his
complices. But how this may stand, considering the circumstances of
the time, with such things as are written by diuers authors hereof, it
may well be doubted. Neuerthelesse, whether earle Goodwine was guiltie
to the death of Alfred, either at this time, or before, certeine it
is, that he so cleared himselfe of that crime vnto king Edward the
brother of Alfred, that there was none so highlie in fauour with him
as earle Goodwine was, insomuch that king Edward maried the ladie
[Sidenote: K. Edward marieth the daughter of earle Goodwine.]
Editha, the daughter of earle Goodwine, begotten of his wife Thira
that was sister to king Hardiknought, and not of his second wife, as
some haue written. Howbeit, king Edward neuer had to doo with hir in
fleshlie wise. But whether he absteined because he had happilie
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
vowed chastitie, either of impotencie of nature, or for a priuie hate
[Sidenote: K. Edward absteineth from the companie of his wife.]
that he bare to hir kin, men doubted. For it was thought, that he
estéemed not earle Goodwine so greatlie in his heart, as he outwardlie
made shew to doo, but rather for feare of his puissance dissembled
with him, least he should otherwise put him selfe in danger both of
losse of life and kingdome.

Howsoeuer it was, he vsed his counsell in ordering of things
[Sidenote: K. Edward dealeth strictlie with his mother quéene Emma.]
concerning the state of the common wealth, and namelie in the hard
handling of his mother queene Emma, against whome diuers accusations
were brought and alledged: as first, for that she consented to marie
with K. Cnute, the publike enimie of the realme: againe, for that she
did nothing aid or succour hir sons while they liued in exile, but
that woorse was, contriued to make them away; for which cause she
[Sidenote: Quéene Emma despoiled of hir goods.]
was despoiled of all hir goods. And because she was defamed to be
[Sidenote: She is accused of dissolute liuing.]
naught of hir bodie with Alwine or Adwine bishop of Winchester, both
she and the same bishop were committed to prison within the citie of
Winchester (as some write.) Howbeit others affirme, that she was
[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ She purgeth hir selfe by the law Ordalium.]
strictlie kept in the abbie of Warwell, till by way of purging hir
selfe, after a maruellous manner, in passing barefooted ouer certeine
hot shares or plough-irons, according to the law _Ordalium,_ she
cleared hir selfe (as the world tooke it) and was restored to hir
first estate and dignitie.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
Hir excessiue couetousnesse, without regard had to the poore,
caused hir also to be euill reported of. Againe, for that she euer
shewed hir selfe to be more naturall to the issue which she had by hir
second husband Cnute, than to hir children which she had by hir first
husband king Egelred (as it were declaring how she was affected toward
the fathers, by the loue borne to the children) she lost a great péece
of good will at the hands of hir sonnes Alfred and Edward: so that now
the said Edward inioieng the realme, was easilie induced to thinke
euill of hir, and therevpon vsed hir the more vncurteouslie. But hir
great liberalitie imploied on the church of Winchester, which she
furnished with maruellous rich iewels and ornaments, wan hir great
commendation in the world, and excused hir partlie in the sight of
manie, of the infamie imputed to hir for the immoderate filling of hir
coffers by all waies and meanes she could deuise. Now when she had
purged hir selfe, as before is mentioned, hir sonne king Edward
[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]
had hir euer after in great honor and reuerence. And whereas Robert
archbishop of Canturburie had béene sore against hir, he was so much
abashed now at the matter, that he fled into Normandie, where he was
borne. But it should séeme by that which after shal be said in the
next chapter, that he fled not the realme for this matter, but bicause
he counselled the king to banish earle Goodwine, and also to vse the
Englishmen more strictlie than reason was he should.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Why Robert archbishop of Canturburie (queene Emmas heauie friend)
fled out of England, the Normans first entrance into this countrie,
dearth by tempests, earle Goodwines sonne banished out of this land,
he returneth in hope of the kings fauour, killeth his coosen earle
Bearne for his good will and forwardnes to set him in credit againe,
his flight into Flanders, his returne into England, the king is
pacified with him; certeine Danish rouers arriue at Sandwich, spoile
the coast, inrich themselues with the spoiles, make sale of their
gettings, and returne to their countrie; the Welshmen with their
princes rebelling are subdued, king Edward keepeth the seas on
Sandwich side in aid of Baldwine earle of Flanders, a bloudie fraie in
Canturburie betwixt the earle of Bullongne and the townesmen, earle
Goodwine fauoureth the Kentishmen against the Bullongners, why he
refuseth to punish the Canturburie men at the kings commandement for
breaking the kings peace; he setteth the king in a furie, his suborned
excuse to shift off his comming to the assemblie of lords conuented
about the foresaid broile, earle Goodwine bandeth himselfe against
the king, he would haue the strangers deliuered into his hands, his
request is denied; a battell readie to haue bene fought betweene him
and the king, the tumult is pacified and put to a parlement, earle
Goodwines retinue forsake him; he, his sonnes, and their wiues take
their flight beyond the seas._

THE SECOND CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: Robert archbishop of Canturburie. Frenchmen or Normans
first entered into England.]
Ye must vnderstand, that K. Edward brought diuerse Normans ouer
with him, which in time of his banishment had shewed him great
friendship, wherefore he now sought to recompense them. Amongst other,
the forenamed Robert of Canturburie was one, who before his comming
ouer was a moonke in the abbeie of Gemeticum in Normandie, and being
by the king first aduanced to gouerne the sée of London, was after
made archbishop of Canturburie, and bare great rule vnder the king, so
that he could not auoid the enuie of diuerse noble men, and speciallie
of earle Goodwine, as shall appéere. About the third yéere of king
Edwards reigne, Osgot Clappa was banished the realme. And in the
[Sidenote: 1047]
yéere following, that is to say, in the yeere 1047, there fell
a maruellous great snow, couering the ground from the beginning of
Ianuarie vntill the 17 day of March. Besides this, there hapned the
[Sidenote: A great death. _Ran. Higd._]
same yéere such tempest and lightnings, that the corne vpon the
earth was burnt vp and blasted: by reason whereof, there followed a
great dearth in England, and also death of men and cattell.

[Sidenote: Swain Goodwines sonne banished.]
About this time Swaine the sonne of earle Goodwine was banished
the land, and fled into Flanders. This Swaine kept Edgiua, the abbesse
of the monasterie of Leoffe, and forsaking his wife, ment to
[Sidenote: Edgiua abbesse of Leoffe.]
haue married the foresaid abbesse. Within a certeine time after his
banishment, he returned into England, in hope to purchase the kings
peace by his fathers meanes and other his friends. But vpon some
[Sidenote: This Bearne was the sonne of Vlfusa Dane, vncle to this
Swaine by his mother, the sister of K. Swaine. _H. Hunt._]
malicious pretense, he slue his coosen earle Bearne, who was about
to labour to the king for his pardon, and so then fled againe into
Flanders, till at length Allered the archbishop of Yorke obteined his
pardon, and found meanes to reconcile him to the kings fauour.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._]
In the meane time, about the sixt yéere of king Edwards reigne,
certeine pirats of the Danes arriued in Sandwich hauen, and entring
the land, wasted and spoiled all about the coast. There be that write,
that the Danes had at that time to their leaders two capteins,
[Sidenote: The Danes spoile Sandwich.]
the one named Lother, and the other Irling. After they had béene at
Sandwich, and brought from thence great riches of gold and siluer,
they coasted about vnto the side of Essex, and there spoiling the
countrie, went backe to the sea, and sailing into Flanders, made
sale of their spoiles and booties there, and so returned to their
countries. After this, during the reigne of king Edward, there chanced
no warres, neither forren nor ciuill, but that the same was either
with small slaughter luckilie ended, or else without anie notable
[Sidenote: Rise & Griffin princes of Wales.]
aduenture changed into peace. The Welshmen in déed with their
princes Rise and Griffin wrought some trouble, but still they were
subdued, and in the end both the said Rise and Griffin were brought
vnto confusion: although in the meane time they did much hurt, and
namelie Griffin, who with aid of some Irishmen, with whome he was
alied, about this time entred into the Seuerne sea, and tooke preies
about the riuer of Wie: and after returned without anie battell to him
offered.

[Sidenote: 1049. _Simon Dun_.]
About the same time, to wit, in the yéere 1049, the emperor Henrie
the third made warres against Baldwine earle of Flanders, and for that
he wished to haue the sea stopped, that the said earle should not
escape by flight that waie foorth, he sent to king Edward, willing him
to kéepe the sea with some number of ships. King Edward furnishing a
[Sidenote: _Hermanus_. _Contractus_. _Ia. Meir._]
nauie, lay with the same at Sandwich, and so kept the seas on that
side, till the emperor had his will of the earle. At the same
time, Swaine, sonne of earle Goodwine came into the realme, and
traitorouslie slue his coosen Bearne (as before is said) the which
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._]
trauelled to agrée him with the king. Also Gosipat Clappa, who
had left his wife at Bruges in Flanders, comming amongst other of the
Danish pirats, which had robbed in the coasts of Kent & Essex, as
before ye haue heard, receiued his wife, and departed backe into
Denmarke with six ships, leauing the residue, being 23 behind him.

[Sidenote: _Fabian_. 1051.]
About the tenth yéere of king Edwards reigne, Eustace earle of
Bullongne, that was father vnto the valiant Godfrey of Bullongne,
& Baldwin, both afterward kings of Hierusalem, came ouer into
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ The earle of Flanders commeth into England.
_Ran. Higd._ _Wil. Malm._]
England in the moneth of September, to visit his brother in law king
[Sidenote: Goda sister to K. Edward. _Wil. Malm._]
Edward, whose sister named Goda, he had maried, she then being the
widow of Gualter de Maunt. He found the king at Glocester, and being
there ioifullie receiued, after he had once dispatched such matters
for the which he chieflie came, he tooke leaue, and returned
[Sidenote: Douer saith _Matth. West._]
homeward. But at Canturburie one of his herbingers, dealing roughlie
with one of the citizens about a lodging, which he sought to haue
rather by force than by intreatance, occasioned his owne death.
Whereof when the erle was aduertised, he hasted thither to reuenge the
slaughter of his seruant, and slue both that citizen which had killed
his man, and eightéene others.

[Sidenote: A fraie in Canturburie betwixt the earle Bullongne and the
townsmen.]
The citizens héerewith in a great furie, got them to armor, and
set vpon the earle and his retinue, of whom they slue twentie persons
out of hand, & wounded a great number of the residue, so that the
earle scarce might escape with one or two of his men from the fraie,
[Sidenote: The earle complaineth to the king.]
& with all spéed returned backe to the king, presenting gréeuous
information against them of Canturburie, for their cruell vsing of
him, not onlie in sleaing of his seruants, but also in putting him in
danger of his life. The king crediting the earle, was higlie offended
against the citizens, and with all speed sending for earle Goodwine,
declared vnto him in greeuous wise, the rebellious act of them of
Canturburie, which were vnder his iurisdiction.

The earle who was a man of a bold courage and quicke wit, did perceiue
that the matter was made a great deale woorse at the first in the
beginning, than of likelihood it would prooue in the end, thought it
reason therefore that first the answere of the Kentishmen should
be heard, before anie sentence were giuen against them. Héerevpon,
although the king commanded him foorthwith to go with an armie into
Kent, and to punish them of Canturburie in most rigorous maner, yet
he would not be too hastie, but refused to execute the kings
[Sidenote: Earle Goodwine offended with the king for fauouring
strangers.]
commandement, both for that he bare a péece of grudge in his mind,
that the king should fauour strangers so highlie as he did; and
againe, bicause héereby he should séeme to doo pleasure to his
countriemen, in taking vpon him to defend their cause against the
rough accusations of such as had accused them. Wherefore he declared
to the king that it should be conuenient to haue the supposed
offenders first called afore him, and if they were able to excuse
themselues, then to be suffered to depart without further vexation:
and if they were found faultie, then to be put to their fine, both as
well in satisfieng the king, whose peace they had broken, as also the
earle, whom they had indamaged.

Earle Goodwine departed thus from the king, leauing him in a great
[Sidenote: A councel called at Glocester. Siward earle of Northumberland,
Leofrike earle of Chester, Rafe earle of Hereford. _Will. Malmes._]
furie: howbeit he passed litle thereof, supposing it would not
long continue. But the king called a great assemblie of his lords
togither at Glocester, that the matter might be more déepelie
considered. Siward earle of Northumberland, and Leofrike earle of
Chester, with Rafe earle of Hereford, the kings nephue by his sister
Goda, and all other the noble men of the realme, onlie earle Goodwine
and his sonnes ment not to come there, except they might bring with
them a great power of armed men, and so remained at Beuerstane, with
such bands as they had leauied, vnder a colour to resist the Welshmen,
whome they bruted abroad to be readie to inuade the marches about
Hereford. But the Welshmen preuenting that slander, signified to the
king that no such matter was ment on their parties, but that earle
Goodwine and his sonnes with their complices went about to mooue a
commotion against him. Héerevpon a rumor was raised in the court, that
the kings power should shortlie march foorth to assaile earle Goodwine
in that place where he was lodged. Wherevpon the same earle prepared
himselfe, and sent to his friends, willing to sticke to this quarrell,
and if the king should go about to force them, then to withstand him,
rather than to yéeld and suffer themselues to be troden vnder foot
[Sidenote: Earle Goodwine meaneth to defend himself against the king.]
by strangers. Goodwine in this meane time had got togither a great
[Sidenote: Swaine. _Ran. Higd._ _Matth. West._ _Simon Dun._]
power of his countries of Kent, Southerie, and other of the west
parts. Swaine likewise had assembled much people out of his countries
of Barkeshire, Oxfordshire, Summersetshire, Herefordshire,
[Sidenote: Harold. _Simon Dun._]
and Glocestershire. And Harold was also come to them with a great
multitude, which he had leuied in Essex, Norffolke, Suffold,
Cambridgeshire, & Huntingtonshire.

On the other part, the earles that were with the king, Leofrike,
Siward, and Rafe, raised all the power which they might make, and
the same approching to Glocester, the king thought himselfe in more
suertie than before, in so much that whereas earle Goodwine (who lay
with his armie at Langton there not farre off in Glocestershire) had
sent vnto the king, requiring that the earle of Bullongne, with the
other Frenchmen and also the Normans which held the castell of Douer,
might be deliuered vnto him. The king, though at the first he stood in
great doubt what to doo, yet hearing now that an armie of his friends
was comming, made answere to the messingers which Goodwine had sent,
that he would not deliuer a man of those whome Goodwine required, and
héerewith the said messengers being departed, the kings armie entered
into Glocester, and such readie good wils appéered in them all to
fight with the aduersaries, that if the king would haue permitted,
they would foorthwith haue gone out and giuen battell to the enimies.

Thus the matter was at point to haue put the realme in hazard not
onelie of a field, but of vtter ruine that might thereof haue insued:
for what on the one part and the other, there were assembled the
chiefest lords and most able personages of the land. But by the
wisedome and good aduise of earle Leofrike and others, the matter
was pacified for a time, and order taken, that they should come to a
parlement or communication at London, vpon pledges giuen and receiued
as well on the one part as the other. The king with a mightie armie
of the Northumbers, and them of Mercia, came vnto London, and earle
Goodwine with his sonnes, and a great power of the Westsaxons, came
into Southwarke, but perceiuing that manie of his companie stale awaie
and slipt from him, he durst not abide anie longer to enter talke with
the king, as it was couenanted, but in the night next insuing fled
awaie with all spéed possible.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ Swaine eldest sonne to Goodwine banished.]
Some write, how an order was prescribed that Swanus the eldest
sonne of Goodwine should depart the land as a banished man to qualifie
the kings wrath, and that Goodwine and one other of his sons, that
is to say, Harold should come to an other assemblie to be holden at
London, accompanied with 12 seruants onelie, & to resigne all his
force of knights, gentlemen and souldiers vnto the kings guiding and
gouernment. But when this last article pleased nothing earle Goodwine,
and that he perceiued how his force began to decline, so as he
[Sidenote: Earle Goodwine fled the realme.]
should not be able to match the kings power, he fled the realme,
and so likewise did his sonnes. He himselfe with his sonnes Swanus,
Tostie, and Girth, sailed into Flanders: and Harold with his brother
Leofwine gat ships at Bristow, and passed into Ireland. Githa the wife
of Goodwine, and Judith the wife of Tostie, the daughter of Baldwine
earle of Flanders went ouer also with their husbands.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Goodwine and his sonnes are proclaimed outlawes, their lands are
giuen from them, king Edward putteth awaie the queene his wife who was
earle Goodwines daughter, she cleareth hir selfe at the houre of hir
death from suspicion of incontinencie and lewdnesse of life, why king
Edward forbare to haue fleshlie pleasure with hir; earle Goodwine and
his sonnes take preies on the coasts of Kent and Sussex; Griffin king
of Wales destroieth a great part of Herefordshire, and giueth his
incounterers the ouerthrow; Harold and Leofwine two brethren inuade
Dorset and Summersetshires, they are resisted, but yet preuaile,
they coast about the point of Cornwall and ioine with their father
Goodwine, king Edward maketh out threescore armed ships against them,
a thicke mist separateth both sides being readie to graple and fight,
a pacification betweene the king and earle Goodwine, he is restored
to his lands and libertie, he was well friended, counterpledges of
agreement interchangablie deliuered; Swanus the eldest sonne of
Goodwine a notable rebell and pirat, his troubled conscience, his
wicked life and wretched death._

THE THIRD CHAPTER.


The king hauing perfect knowledge, that earle Goodwine had refused to
come to the court in such order as he had prescribed him, and that
[Sidenote: Goodwine and his sonnes proclaimed outlawes.]
he was departed the realme with his sonnes: he proclaimed them
outlawes, and gaue the lands of Harold vnto Algar, the sonne of earle
Leofrike, who guided the same verie woorthilie, and resigned them
againe without grudging vnto the same Harold when he was returned out
of exile. Also vnto earle Oddo were giuen the counties of Deuonshire
and Summersetshire.

[Sidenote: The king put awaie his wife Editha.]
Moreouer, about the same time the king put his wife queene Editha
from him, and appointed hir to streict keeping in the abbeie of
Warwell. This Editha was a noble gentlewoman, well learned, and expert
in all sciences, yet hir good name was stained somewhat, as though
she had not liued so continentlie as was to be wished, both in hir
husbands life time, and after his deceasse. But yet at the houre
of hir death (which chanced in the daies of William Conqueror) she
cleared hir selfe, in taking it vpon the charge of hir soule, that she
had euer liued in perfect chastitie: for king Edward (as before is
mentioned) neuer touched hir in anie actuall maner. By this streict
dealing with the quéene that was daughter to earle Goodwine, now in
time of hir fathers exile, it hath séemed to manie, that king Edward
forbare to deale with hir in carnall wise, more for hatred of hir kin,
than for anie other respect. But to proceed.

[Sidenote: 1052. _Hen. Hunt._]
In the second yéere of Goodwines banishment, both he and his sonnes
hauing prouided themselues of ships and men of warre conuenient for
the purpose, came vpon the coasts of England, and after the maner of
rouers, tooke preies where as they espied aduantage, namelie on the
[Sidenote: Griffin king of Wales destroieth Herefordshire.]
coasts of Kent and Sussex. In the meane time also Griffin the K. of
Wales destroid a great part of Herefordshire, against whom the power
of that countrie, & also manie Normans that lay in garrison within the
castell of Hereford, comming to giue battell, were ouerthrowne on the
same day, in the which about two and twentie yéeres before, or (as
some copies haue) thirtéene yéeres, the Welshmen had slaine Edwine,
[Sidenote: Harold inuadeth the shires of Dorset and Summerset.]
the brother of earle Leofrike. Shortlie after, earle Harold and his
brother Leofwine returning out of Ireland, entered into the Seuerne
sea, landing on the coasts of Summersetshire and Dorsetshire, where
falling to spoile, they were incountred by a power assembled out of
the counties of Deuonshire and Summersetshire: but Harold put his
aduersaries to flight, and slue thirtie gentlemen of honor, or thanes
(as they called them) with a great number of others. Then Harold and
his brethren, returning with their preie and bootie to their ships,
and coasting about the point of Cornwall, came and ioined with their
father & their other brethren, then soiorning in the Ile of Wight.

King Edward to withstand their malice, had rigged and furnished foorth
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._]
sixtie ships of warre, with the which he himselfe went to the
water, not sticking to lie aboord at that season, although he had
appointed for capteines and admerals two earles that were his coosins,
Odo and Rafe, who had charge of the whole armie. Rafe was his nephue,
as sonne to his sister Goda by hir first husband Gualter de Maunt. But
although they were knowne to be sufficient men for the ordering of
such businesse, yet he thought the necessitie to be such, as his
person could not be presentlie spared. Therefore he was diligent in
foreséeing of things by good aduise, although age would not giue him
leaue to execute the same by his owne hand and force of bodie. But as
the nauies on both parts were readie to haue ioined, they were seuered
by reason of a thicke mist that then rose, wherby their furious rage
was restreined for that time: and immediatlie therevpon, Goodwine
and his complices were forced by a contrarie wind, to returne to the
places from whence they came. Shortlie after by mediation of friends,
a peace was made, and earle Goodwine restored home, and obteined
againe both the kings fauour, and all his former liuings: for he was
such an eloquent & wise man, that he clered and purged himselfe of all
such crimes and accusations, as in anie sort had béene laid against
him. Thus haue some written concerning this agréement betwixt king
Edward and erle Goodwine, where other make somewhat larger report
thereof, as thus.

At the same time that the two sonnes of erle Goodwine Harold and
Leofwine came foorth of Ireland, and inuaded the west countrie, king
Edward rigged foorth fortie ships, the which throughlie furnished with
men, munition, and vittels, he sent vnto Sandwich, commanding the
capteines there to wait for the comming of erle Goodwine, whom
he vnderstood to be in a readinesse to returne into England: but
notwithstanding, there wanted no diligence in them to looke to their
charge, erle Goodwine secretlie with a few ships which he had
got togither, ariued in Kent; and sending foorth his letters and
messengers abroad to the citizens of Canturburie, to them of Sussex,
Southerie, & others, required aid of them, who with one consent
promised to liue and die with him.

The capteines of the nauie at Sandwich aduertised hereof, made towards
the place where they thought to haue found earle Goodwine: but he
being warned of their comming, escaped by flight, and got him out of
their danger, wherevpon they withdrew to Sandwich, and after returned
to London. Earle Goodwine aduertised thereof, sailed to the Ile of
Wight, and wafted vp and downe those seas, till his sonnes Harold
and Leofwine came and ioined their nauie with his, and ceassing from
spoile, onlie sought to recouer vittels to serue their turne. And
incresing their power by such aid as they might any where procure, at
length they came to Sandwich, wherof king Edward hauing knowledge,
being then at London, he sent abroad to raise all the power he might
[Sidenote: It séemeth that earle Goodwine was well friended.]
make. But they that were appointed to come vnto him, lingred time,
in which meane while earle Goodwine comming into the Thames, & so vp
the riuer, arriued in Southwarke, on the day of the exaltation of the
crosse in September, being monday, and their staieng for the tide,
solicited the Londoners, so that he obteined of them what he could
desire.

Afterwards, without disturbance, he passed vp the riuer with the tide
through the south arch of the bridge, & at the same instant, a mightie
armie which he had by land, mustered in the fields on that south side
the same riuer, and herewith his nauie made towards the north side of
the riuer, as if they ment to inclose the kings nauie, for the king
had also a nauie & an armie by land: but yet sith there were few
either on the one part or the other, that were able to doo anie great
feat except Englishmen, they were loth to fight one against another,
wherevpon the wiser sort on both sides sought meanes to make an
atonement: and so at length by their diligent trauell, the matter was
taken vp, and the armies being dismissed on both parts, earle Goodwine
was restored to his former dignitie. Herevpon were pledges deliuered
on his behalfe, that is to say, Wilnotus one of his sonnes, and Hacun
the sonne of Swanus the eldest sonne of Goodwine. These two pledges
were sent vnto William duke of Normandie, to be kept with him for more
assurance of Goodwines loialtie.

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ _Matth. West._ _Simon Dun._
_Wil. Malm._]
Some write that Swanus the eldest sonne of Goodwine was not
reconciled to the kings fauour at this time; but whether he was or
not, this is reported of him for a truth, that after he had attempted
sundrie rebellions against king Edward, he lastlie also rebelled
against his father Goodwine, and his brother Harold, and became a
pirate, dishonouring with such manifold robberies as he made on the
seas, the noble progenie whereof he was descended. Finallie vpon
remorse of conscience (as hath béene thought) for murthering of
his coosine (or as some say his brother) erle Bearne, he went on
pilgrimage to Hierusalem, and died by the way of cold which he
[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._ _Will. Malms._]
caught in returning homeward (as some write) in Licia: but others
affirme, that he fell into the hands of Saracens that were robbers by
the high waies, and so was murthered of them.

       *       *       *       *       *



_At what time William duke of Normandie came ouer into England, king
Edward promiseth to make him his heire to the kingdom and crowne, the
death of queene Emma, earle Goodwine being growne in fauor againe
seeketh new reuenges of old grudges, causing archbishop Robert and
certeine noble Normans his aduersaries to be banished; Stigand
intrudeth himselfe into archbishop Roberts see, his simonie and lacke
of learning; what maner of men were thought meet to be made bishops
in those daies, king Edward beginneth to prouide for the good and
prosperous state of his kingdome, his consideration of lawes made in
his predecessours times and abused; the lawes of S. Edward vsuallie
called the common lawes, how, whereof, and wherevpon instituted; the
death of earle Goodwine being sudden (as some say) or naturall (as
others report) his vertues and vices, his behauiour and his sonnes
vpon presumption and will in the time of their authorities; his two
wiues and children; the sudden and dreadfull death of his mother; hir
selling of the beautifull youth male and female of this land to the
Danish people._

THE FOURTH CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: William duke of Normandie commeth ouer into England.]
The foresaide William duke of Normandie (that after conquered this
land) during the time of Goodwines outlawrie, came ouer into this land
with a faire retinue of men, and was ioifullie receiued of the king,
and had great chéere. Now after he had taried a season, he returned
into his countrie, not without great gifts of jewels and other things,
[Sidenote: _Polydor_. K. Edwards promise to duke William.]
which the king most liberallie bestowed vpon him. And (as some
write) the king promised him at that time, to make him his heire to
the realme of England, if he chanced to die without issue. ¶ Shortlie
after, or rather somewhat before, queene Emma the kings mother died,
and was buried at Winchester.

After that earle Goodwine was restored to the kings fauour, bicause he
knew that Robert the archbishop of Canturburie had beene the chéefe
procurer of the kings euill will towards him, he found means to weare
him out of credit, and diuers other specially of the Normans, bearing
the world in hand, that they had sought to trouble the state of the
realme, & to set variance betwixt the king and the lords of the
English nation: whereas the Normans againe alledged, that earle
Goodwine and his sonnes abused the kings soft and gentle nature,
& would not sticke to ieast and mocke at his curteous and mild
[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie banished.]
procéedings. But howsoeuer the matter went, archbishop Robert was
glad to depart out of the realme, and going to Rome, made complaint
in the court there, of the iniuries that were offred him: but in
returning through Normandie, he died in the abbeie of Gemmeticum,
where he had bene moonke before his comming into England.

Diuerse others were compelled to forsake the realme at the same time,
[Sidenote: Normans banished the realme.]
both spirituall men and temporall, as William bishop of London,
and Vlfe bishop of Lincolne. Osberne named Pentecost, and his
companion Hugh, were constreined to surrender their castels, and
by licence of earle Leofrike withdrew thorough his countrie into
Scotland, where, of king Mackbeth they were honorablie receiued. These
were Normans: for (as partlie ye haue heard) king Edward brought
with him no small number of that nation, when he came from thence to
receiue the crowne, and by them he was altogither ruled, to the great
offending of his owne naturall subiects the Englishmen, namelie
earle Goodwine and his sonnes, who in those daies for their great
possessions and large reuenues, were had in no small reputation with
the English people.

After that Robert the archbishop of Canturburie, was departed the
[Sidenote: Stigand archbishop of Canturburie.]
realme, as before ye haue heard, Stigand was made archbishop of
Canturburie, or rather thrust himselfe into that dignitie, not being
lawfullie called, in like manner as he had doone at Winchester: for
whereas he was first bishop of Shireborne, he left that church,
and tooke vpon him the bishoprike of Winchester by force, and now
atteining to be archbishop of Canturburie, he kept both Winchester
[Sidenote: _Ranul. Hig._ _Fabian_. Stigand infamed of simonie.]
and Canturburie in his hand at one instant. This Stigand was greatlie
infamed for his couetous practises in sale of possessions apperteining
to the church. He was nothing learned: but that want was a common
fault amongest the bishops of that age, for it was openlie spoken
[Sidenote: What maner of men méet to be bishops in those daies.]
in those daies, that he was méet onelie to be a bishop, which could
vse the pompe of the world, voluptuous pleasures, rich raiment, and
set himselfe foorth with a iollie retinue of gentlemen and seruants on
horsse-backe, for therein stood the countenance of a bishop, as the
world then went; and not in studie how to haue the people fed with the
word of life, to the sauing of their soules.

King Edward now in the twelfth yeare of his reigne, hauing brought
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
the state of the realme quite from troubles of warre both by sea and
land, began to foresée as well for the welth of his subiects, as for
himselfe, being naturallie inclined to wish well to all men. He
therefore considered, how by the manifold lawes which had beene made by
Britaines, Englishmen and Danes within this land, occasion was ministred
to manie, which measured all things by respect of their owne priuate
gaine and profit, to peruert iustice, and to vse wrongfull dealing in
stead of right, clouding the same vnder some branch of the lawe
naughtilie misconstrued. Wherevpon to auoid that mischiefe, he picked
out a summe of that huge and vnmesurable masse and heape of lawes, such
as were thought most indifferent and necessarie, & therewith ordeined a
few, & those most wholesome, to be from thenceforth vsed; according to
whose prescript, men might liue in due forme and rightfull order of
[Sidenote: The lawes of S. Edward instituted.]
a ciuill life. These lawes were afterwards called the common lawes, and
also saint Edward his lawes; so much esteemed of the Englishmen, that
after the conquest, when the Normans oftentimes went about to abrogate
the same, there chanced no small mutinies and rebellions for retaining
of those lawes. But heére is to be noted, that although they were called
saint Edwards lawes, they were for the more part made by king Edgar; but
now by king Edward restored, after they had bin abrogated for a time by
the Danes.

[Sidenote: 1053 or 1054. _Hector Boet._ _Polydor_.
_Will. Malmes._ _Matth. West._ _Ran. Higd._
_ex Mariano_. _Simon Dun._]
About this time, earle Goodwine died suddenlie (as some haue
recorded) as he sat at table with the king: and vpon talke ministred
of the death of Alfred the kings brother, to excuse himselfe, he tooke
a peece of bread, and did eate it, saieng; God let me neuer swallow
this bread downe into my chest, but that I may presentlie be choked
therewith, if euer I was weetting or consenting vnto Alfreds death!
and immediatlie therewith he fell downe starke dead. Other say,
[Sidenote: This is the likeliest tale.]
that he ended his life at Winchester, where being suddenlie surprised
with sicknesse, as he sat at the table with the king vpon an Easter
monday; yet he liued till the Thursday following, and then died. His
earledome was giuen vnto his sonne Harold; and Harolds earledome,
which was Oxford, was giuen vnto Algar the sonne of Leofrike.

This Goodwine, as he was a man of great power, wise, hardie, and
politike; so was he ambitious, desirous to beare rule, and loth that
anie other person should passe him in authoritie. But yet, whether
all be true that writers report of his malicious practises to bring
himselfe and his sonnes to the chiefe seat of gouernement in the
kingdome, or that of hatred such slanders were raised of him, it may
of some perhaps be doubted; because that in the daies of king
Edward (which was a soft and gentle prince) he bare great rule and
authoritie, and so might procure to himselfe euill report for euerie
thing that chanced amisse: as oftentimes it commeth to passe in such
cases, where those that haue great dooings in the gouernement of the
common wealth, are commonlie euill spoken of, and that now and
then without their guilt. But truth it is, that Goodwine being in
authoritie both in the daies of king Edward and his predecessors, did
manie things (as should appeare by writers) more by will than by
[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._]
law, and so likewise did his sonnes; vpon presumption of the great
puissance that they and their father were of within the realme.

He had to wife Editha, the sister of king Cnute, of whome he begat
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
thrée sonnes (as some write) that is to say, Harold, Biorne, &
Tostie: also his daughter Editha, whome he found meanes to bestow in
mariage vpon K. Edward, as before ye haue heard. But other write,
[Sidenote: _Will. Malm._]
that he had but one son by Cnutes sister, the which in riding of a
rough horsse was throwen into the riuer of Thames, and so drowned. His
mother also was stricken with a thunderbolt, & so perished worthilie
(as is reported) for hir naughtie dooings. She vsed to buy great
numbers of yoong persons, and namelie maids that were of anie
excellent beautie and personage, whome she sent ouer into Denmarke,
and there sold them to hir most aduantage. After hir deceasse (as the
same authors record) Goodwine maried another woman, by whome he had
issue six sonnes, Swanus or Swaine, Harrold, Tostie or Tosto, Wilnot,
Girth, and Leofrike; of whom further mention is & shall be made, as
places conuenient shall serue thereto.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Edward earle of Northumberland discomfiteth Mackbeth the usurper of
the Scotish kingdome and placeth Malcolme in the same, a controuersie
whether Siward were at this discomfiture or no; his stout words when
he heard that one of his sonnes was slaine in the field, bishop Aldred
is sent to fetch home Edward the sonne of K. Edmund Ironside into
England; earle Algar being banished ioineth with the Welshmen against
the English and Normans, and getteth the victorie; Harold the son of
earle Goodwine putteth earle Algar & his retinue to their shifts by
pursute, pacification betweene the generals of both armies, their
hosts, Siward earle of Northumberland dieth; his giantlike stature,
his couragious heart at the time of his deceasse, why Tostie one of
Goodwins sonnes succeeded him in the earledome._

THE FIFT CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ 1054. _Hector Boet._]
About the thirteenth yeare of king Edward his reigne (as some
write) or rather about the ninetéenth or twentith yeare, as
should appeare by the Scotish writers, Siward the noble earle of
Northumberland with a great power of horssemen went into Scotland,
and in battell put to flight Mackbeth that had vsurped the crowne of
Scotland, and that doone, placed Malcolme surnamed Camoir, the sonne
of Duncane, sometime king of Scotland, in the gouernement of that
realme, who afterward slue the said Mackbeth, and then reigned in
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _M. West._]
quiet. Some of our English writers say, that this Malcolme was king
of Cumberland, but other report him to be sonne to the king of
Cumberland. But héere is to be noted; that if Mackbeth reigned till
the yeare 1061, and was then slaine by Malcolme, earle Siward was not
at that battell; for as our writers doo testifie, he died in the yeare
1055, which was in the yeare next after (as the same writers affirme)
that he vanquished Mackbeth in fight, and slue manie thousands of
Scots, and all those Normans which (as ye haue heard) were withdrawen
into Scotland, when they were driuen out of England.

It is recorded also, that in the foresaid battell, in which earle
Siward vanquished the Scots, one of Siwards sonnes chanced to be
slaine, whereof although the father had good cause to be sorowfull,
yet when he heard that he died of a wound which he had receiued in
fighting stoutlie in the forepart of his bodie, and that with his face
towards the enimie, he greatlie reioised thereat, to heare that he
died so manfullie. But here is to be noted, that not now, but a little
before (as Henrie Hunt. saith) that earle Siward went into Scotland
himselfe in person, he sent his sonne with an armie to conquere the
land, whose hap was there to be slaine: and when his father heard the
newes, he demanded whether he receiued the wound whereof he died, in
the forepart of the bodie, or in the hinder part: and when it was told
him that he receiued in the forepart; "I reioise (saith he) euen with
all my heart, for I would not wish either to my sonne nor to my selfe
any other kind of death."

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ 1057.]
Shortlie after, Aldred the bishop of Worcester was sent vnto
the emperour Henrie the third, to fetch Edward the sonne of Edmund
Ironside into England, whome king Edward was desirous to sée, meaning
to ordeine him heire apparant to the crowne: but he died the same
[Sidenote: _Henr. Hunt._ 1055.]
yeare after he came into England. This Edward was surnamed the outlaw:
his bodie was buried at Winchester, or (as an other saith) in the
church of S. Pauls in London.

¶ About the same time K. Edward by euill counsell (I wot not vpon what
occasion, but as it is thought without cause) banished Algar the
sonne of earle Leofrike: wherevpon he got him into Ireland, and there
prouiding 18 ships of rouers, returned, & landing in Wales, ioined
himselfe with Griffin the king or prince of Wales, and did much hurt
on the borders about Hereford, of which place Rafe was then earle,
that was sonne vnto Goda the sister of K. Edward by hir first
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ _Simon Dun._]
husband Gualter de Maunt. This earle assembling an armie, came forth
to giue battell to the enimies, appointing the Englishmen contrarie to
their manner to fight on horssebacke, but being readie (on the two &
twentith of October) to giue the onset in a place not past two miles
from Hereford, he with his Frenchmen and Normans fled, and so the
rest were discomfited, whome the aduersaries pursued, and slue to the
[Sidenote: The Welshmen obteine the victorie against Englishmen and
Normans.]
number of 500, beside such as were hurt and escaped with life.
Griffin and Algar hauing obteined this victorie, entered into the
towne of Hereford, set the minster on fire, slue seuen of the canons
that stood to defend the doores or gates of the principall church, and
finallie spoiled and burned the towne miserablie.

The king aduertised hereof, gathered an armie, ouer the which Harold
the sonne of earle Goodwine was made generall, who followed vpon the
enimies that fled before him into Northwales, & staied not, till
[Sidenote: Stratcluid.]
hauing passed through Stratcluid, he came to the mountaines of
[Sidenote: Snowdon.]
Snowdon, where he pitched his field. The enimies durst not abide him,
but got them into Southwales, whereof Harold being aduertised, left
the more part of his armie in Northwales to resist the enimies
there, & with the residue of his people came backe vnto Hereford,
[Sidenote: The citie of Hereford fortified by Harold.]
recouered the towne, and caused a great and mightie trench to be cast
round about it, with an high rampire, and fensed it with gates and
other fortifications. After this, he did so much, that comming to a
communication, with Griffin and Algar at a place called Biligelhage, a
peace was concluded, and so the nauie of earle Algar sailed about, and
came to Chester, there to remaine, till the men of warre and marriners
had their wages, while he went to the king, who pardoned his offense,
& restored him to his earledome.

[Sidenote: The decease of Siward earle of Northumberland.
_Ran. Higd._]
After this, in the verie same yeare, being the 15 of king
Edwards reigne, as some writers affirme, Siward the noble earle of
Northumberland died of the flix, of whom it is said, that when he
perceiued the houre of death to be néere, he caused him selfe to be
put in armour, & set vp in his chaire, affirming that a knight and a
man of honour ought to die in that sort, rather than lieng on a couch
like a féeble and fainthearted creature: and sitting so vpright in
his chaire armed at all points, he ended his life, and was buried at
Yorke. [O stout harted man, not vnlike to that famous Romane remembred
by Tullie in his "Tusculane questions," who suffered the sawing of his
leg from his bodie without shrinking, looking vpon the surgeon all the
while, & hauing no part of his bodie bound for shrinking.] The said
Siward earle of Northumberland was a man of a giantlike stature, &
thereto of a verie stout and hardie courage, & because his sonne
Walteif was but an infant, and as yet not out of his cradell, the
earledome was giuen vnto earle Tostie one of Goodwins sonnes.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Edward the sonne of Edmund Ironside is sent for to be made heire
apparant to the crowne, his death, the deceasse of Leofrike earle
of Chester, the vertues and good deeds of him and his wife Gudwina,
Couentrie free from custome and toll, churches and religious places
builded and repared, Algar succeedeth his father Leofrike in the
earledome, he is accused of treason and banished, he recouereth his
earledome by force of armes; Harold is sent with a power against
Griffin king of Wales; the countrie wasted, and the people forced to
yeeld, they renounce Griffin their king, kill him, and send his head
to Harold, Griffins brethren rule Wales after him by grant of king
Edward; Harolds infortunate going ouer into Normandie, the earle of
Ponthieu taketh him prisoner, and releaseth him at the request of
William duke of Normandie, for whose vse Harold sweareth to keepe
possession of the realme of England, the duke promiseth him his
daughter in mariage._

THE SIXT CHAPTER.


Not long after, in the yeare 1057, Aldred bishop of Worcester, was
sent ouer vnto the emperour Henrie the third, to fetch Edward the
sonne of Edmund Ironside into England, whome king Edward was desirous
to sée, meaning to ordeine him heire apparant to the crowne: but he
died the same yeare, after that he was returned into England.
[Sidenote: Edward the outlaw departed this life. 1057.]
This Edward was surnamed the outlaw: his bodie was buried at
Westminster, or (as others say) in the church of S. Paule within
London. The same yeare, that is to say, in the seuentéenth yeare
[Sidenote: Leofrike earle of Chester departed this life.
_Ran. Higd._ _Mat. West._]
or in the sixtéenth yeare of king Edwards reigne (as some write)
Leofrike the noble earle of Chester, or Mercia, that was sonne to duke
Leofwine, departed this life in his owne towne of Bromelie on the last
day of August, and was buried at Couentrie in the abbeie there which
he had builded. This earle Leofrike was a man of great honor, wise and
discréet in all his dooings. His high wisdome and policie stood the
realme in great stéed whilest he liued.

[Sidenote: Couentrie made frée of toll and custome.]
He had a noble ladie to his wife named Gudwina, at whose earnest
sute he made the citie of Couentrie frée of all manner of toll, except
horsses: and to haue that toll laid downe also, his foresaid wife rode
naked through the middest of the towne without other couerture, saue
onlie hir haire. Moreouer, partlie moued by his owne deuotion, and
partlie by the persuasion of his wife, he builded or beneficiallie
augmented and repared manie abbeies & churches, as the said abbeie
or priorie at Couentrie, the abbeies of Wenlocke, Worcester, Stone,
Euesham, and Leof besides Hereford. Also he builded two churches
[Sidenote: Churches in Chester built.]
within the citie of Chester, the one called S. Iohns, and the
other S. Werbrough. The value of the iewels & ornaments which he
bestowed on the abbeie church of Couentrie, was inestimable.

After Leofriks death, his sonne Algar was made earle, and intituled
[Sidenote: _Henr. Hunt._ Algar earle of Chester exiled. 1058.]
in all his lands and seigniories. In the yeare following, to
wit, 1058, the same Algar was accused againe (through malice of some
enuious persons) of treason, so that he was exiled the land, wherevpon
he repaired againe vnto his old friend Griffin prince of Northwales,
of whome he was ioifullie receiued, & shortlie after by his aid, &
also by the power of a nauie of ships that by chance arriued in
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ 1063.]
those parts at that selfe same season vnlooked for out of Norwaie, the
said Algar recouered his earledome by force, as some haue written.
King Edward about the twentith yeare of his reigne, as then
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Mat. West._]
remaining at Glocester, appointed earle Harold to inuade the dominions
of Griffin king of Wales. Harold taking with him a power of horssemen,
made spéed, and came to Rutland, and there burned Griffins palace, and
also his ships, and then about Midlent returned againe into England.

After this, about the Rogation wéeke, Harold eftsoones by the kings
commandement went against the Welshmen, and taking the sea, sailed by
Bristow, round about the coast, compassing in maner all Wales. His
brother Tostie that was earle of Northumberland, met him by
[Sidenote: Wales destroied and harried by the Englishmen.]
appointment with an host of horssemen, and so joining togither, they
destroied the countrie of Wales in such sort, that the Welshmen
were compelled to submit themselues, to deliuer hostages, and
[Sidenote: The Welshmen agrée to pay their accustomed tribute.]
conditioned to paie the ancient tribute which before time they had
paied. And moreouer, they renounced their prince the forenamed
Griffin, so that he remained as a banished person: and finallie, about
the fift day of August, they slue him, and sent his head to earle
[Sidenote: 1064.]
Harold. Afterwards king Edward granted the rule of Wales vnto Blengent
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Simon Dun._]
or Blethgent, & Riuall, Griffins two brethren, which did homage
vnto him for the same, and had serued vnder Harold against their
brother the foresaid Griffin. There be which write, that not onelie
Griffin, but also another of his brethren called Rice, was brought
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
to his death by the manfull meanes and politike order of earle
Harold, & all the sauage people of Wales reduced into the forme of
good order vnder the subiection of king Edward.

[Sidenote: Harold goeth ouer into Normandie. _Polydor_.]
Shortlie after, earle Harold chanced to passe ouer into Normandie,
whither of hap or of purpose it is hard to define, writers doo varie
so much in report thereof. Some write that he made earnest sute to
king Edward, to haue licence to go ouer to sée his brother Wilnot,
[Sidenote: _Edmerus_.]
and his nephue Hacune, which (as ye haue heard) were deliuered as
pledges to king Edward, & sent into Normandie to remaine there with
duke William, and at length with much adoo, got leaue: but yet he was
told aforehand of the king, that he would repent his iournie, and
[Sidenote: _Mat. West._ _Wil. Malm._]
doo the thing that should be preiudiciall to the realme. Other write
that Harold lieng at his manor of Bosham, went aboord one day into his
fishers boat or craier, and caused the same to lanch forth to the sea
for his pleasure: but by misfortune at the same time, a contrarie wind
suddenlie came about, and droue the vessell on land into France vpon
the coast of Ponthieu, where he was taken by the countrie people, &
presented to the earle of Ponthieu named Guie or Guido, who kept him
as prisoner, meaning to put him to a grieuous ransome. But Harold
remembring himselfe of a wile, dispatched a messenger forth with all
spéed vnto William, duke of Normandie, signifieng vnto him, that he
being sent from king Edward to confirme such articles, as other meane
men that had béene sent vnto him afore had talked of, by chance he was
fallen into the hands of the earle of Ponthieu, and kept as prisoner
against all order of law, reason, or humanitie. Duke William thus
informed by the messenger, sent to the earle of Ponthieu, requiring
him to set earle Harold at libertie, that he might repaire to him
according to his commission. The earle of Ponthieu at the dukes
[Sidenote: Harold is presented to William duke of Normandie.]
request, did not onelie restore Harold to his libertie, but also
brought him into Normandie, and presented him there to the duke, of
whome he was most ioifullie receiued.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._]
There be that agrée partlie with this report, and partlie varie:
for they write, that earle Harold tooke the sea vpon purpose to haue
sailed into Flanders, and that by force of wind he was driuen to the
coast of Ponthieu, and so after came into Normandie in maner as before
is mentioned. But by what means or occasion soeuer he came thither,
[Sidenote: Harold was highly welcomed of Duke William.]
certeine it is, that he was ioifullie receiued, and had great
chéere made him by the said duke William, who at that time was readie
to make a iournie against the Britains, and tooke earle Harold with
him to haue his companie in armes in that iournie, that he might haue
the better triall of his valiancie. Earle Harold behaued himselfe so,
that he shewed good proofe both of his wisedome and policie, and also
of his forwardnesse to execute that with hand, which by wit he had
deuised, so that duke William had him in high fauour, and (as it hath
béene said) earle Harold (to procure him more friendship at the dukes
hands) declared vnto him, that king Edward had ordeined him his heire
if he died without issue, and that he would not faile to kéepe the
realme of England to the dukes vse, according to that ordinance, if
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ Duke William promised to Harold his
daughter in mariage.]
K. Edward died without issue. And to performe this promise, he
receiued a corporall oth, whether willinglie to win the more credit,
or forced thereto by duke William, writers report it diuerslie. At the
same time, duke William promised vnto him his daughter in marriage,
whom Harold couenanted in like maner to take to wife.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Harold at his returne into England reporteth to K. Edward what he
had doone beyond the seas, and what the king said vnto him in that
behalfe, who foresaw the comming of the Normans into this land to
conquer it; when and why king Edward promised to make duke William
his heire, (wherein note his subtiltie) dissention betwixt Harold and
Tostie two brethren the sonnes of earle Goodwine, their vnnaturall and
cruell dealing one with another, speciallie of the abhominable and
merciles murthers committed by Tostie, against whome the Northumbers
rebell vpon diuerse occasions, and reward him with answerable
reuengement; Harold is sent against them, but preuaileth not; they
offer to returne home if they might haue a new gouernor; they renounce
Tostie and require Marchar in his roome, Tostie displeased getteth
him into Flanders; king Edward dieth, his manners and disposition
note-woorthie, his charitie and deuotion, the vertue of curing the
maladie called the kings euill deriued from him to the succeeding
kings of this land, he was warned of his death by a ring, he is
canonized for a saint, the last woords that he spake on his death-bed,
wherein he vttered to the standers by a vision, prophesieng that
England should be inhabited with strangers, a description of the kings
person, of a blasing starre fore-telling his death, the progenie of
the Westsaxon kings, how long they continued, the names of their
predecessors and successors; whence the first kings of seuen kingdoms
of Germanie had their pedegree, &c._

THE SEUENTH CHAPTER.


Now when Harold should returne into England, duke William deliuered
[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
him his nephue Hacune, but kept his brother Wilnote with him still
as a pledge. Then went earle Harold into England, and declared vnto
king Edward what he had doone, who said vnto him; "Did not I tell thee
that thou wouldest doo the thing whereof thou shouldest repent thee,
and procure a mischiefe to follow vnto thy countrie? But God of his
mercie turne that euill hap from this realme, or at the least, if it
be his pleasure, that it must needs come to passe, yet to staie
it till after my daies!" Some by Harolds purposed going ouer into
Normandie, doo gather, that king Edward foresaw the comming of the
Normans; and that he meant nothing lesse, than to performe the
[Sidenote: When the promise was made by king Edward to make duke
William his heire.]
promise made vnto duke William, as to adopt him his heire, which
promise should séeme to be made in time or his banishment, when he
stood in néed of friendship; as the maner of men in such cases is, to
promise much, how so euer they intend to fulfill. But rather it maie
be thought, that king Edward had made no such promise at all, but
perceiued the ambitious desire of duke William, and therefore would
not that anie occasion should be ministred unto him to take hold of.
Wherefore, he was loth that Harold should go ouer vnto him, least that
might happen, which happened in déed.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._ _Matth. West._ _Fabian_.
Falling out between brethren. The cruell dealing of earle Tostie.]
In the foure and twentieth and last yéere of king Edward his
reigne, or therabout, there fell variance betwixt the two brethren,
earle Harold and earle Tostie at Windsor, where the court then lay, in
so much that earle Harold caught Tostie by the haire of the head in
the kings presence, and stroke him. Heervpon, Tostie departing from
the court in great anger, came to Hereford in the marches of Wales,
where Harolds seruants were preparing for the kings comming to their
maisters house, which seruants he tooke and slue, chopping them in
péeces, and threw into this hogshead of wine a leg, into that barrell
of sider an arme, into this vessell of ale an head: and so into the
lomes of meth and tubs of brine and other liquor he bestowed the parts
of the dead carcasses of his brothers seruants, sending the king woord
that he had prouided at his brothers manor, against his coming, good
plentie of sowse & powdred meat, whatsoeuer he should find beside.

The rumor of this cruell deed sprang ouer all the realme, wherevpon
the Northumbers, whome he had gouerned for the space of ten yéeres
verie cruellie, tooke occasion to rebell against him, and slue his
[Sidenote: The Northumbers rebell against Tostie their earle.]
seruants both Englishmen and Danes, spoiled his houses, and tooke
awaie his horsses, his armour, and all other his goods and houshold
stuffe. The chiefest cause (as is remembred by some writers) that
mooued the Northumbers thus to rise and rebell against Tostie, was
for the detestable murther of certeine gentlemen of their countrie,
seruants unto Gospatrike, whom the queene in behalfe of hir brother
had caused to be slaine in the court by treason, in the fourth night
of Christmas last past, and also in reuenge of other noble men, which
in the last yéere Tostie himselfe had commanded to be murthered in
his owne chamber at Yorke, whither he had allured them to come vnder
colour of concluding a peace with them. Also the gréeuous paiments,
wherewith he charged the people of that countrie, set them in a great
rage against him.

But the king aduertised héereof, liked not their dooings, for that
they had doone it without commandement or commission, and therefore
sent earle Harold with an armie to chastise them, but they were
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
strong inough to withstand him, as those which were assembled in
armour togither with the people of Lincolnshire, Notinghamshire, and
Darbishire, and hauing with them Marcharus or Malcharus, the sonne of
earle Algar, were come as farre as Northhampton, doing much hurt in
the parts therabouts. Howbeit to haue the kings peace, they offered to
returne home, so that they might haue an other earle appointed them,
for that they plainlie protested, that they being freemen, borne and
bred out of bondage, might not suffer anie cruell gouernor to rule
ouer them, being taught by their ancestors, either to liue in
libertie, or to die in defense thereof. If therefore it might please
the king to assigne Marcharus the son of earle Algar to be their
ruler, he should see how obedient subiects they would prooue & shew
themselues to be, when they should be vsed after a reasonable and
courteous manner. All things considered, their request seemed
[Sidenote: Marcharus made earle of Northumberland.]
reasonable, or at least it was thought necessarie that it should
be granted. And so was Marcharus or Malcherus made earle of
Northumberland. Tostie in great displeasure with his wife and children
sailed ouer into Flanders, and there remained till after the deceasse
of king Edward.

[Sidenote: K. Edward departed this life. _Simon Dun._]
Finallie, after that this courteous prince king Edward had reigned
thrée and twentie yéeres, seuen moneths, and od daies, he departed
this life at London the fourth of Ianuarie, and was buried in the
church of Westminster, which he had in his life time roiallie repared,
after such a statelie sort as few churches in those daies were like
[Sidenote: K. Edvard his maners and disposition of mind described.]
therevnto within this realme, so that afterwards the same was a
paterne for other to be built after the same forme. This Edward was
a prince of such a vertuous disposition of mind, that his fame of
holinesse sprang ouer all. He abhorred warres and shedding of bloud,
in so much that when he liued as a banished man in Normandie, he had
this saieng oftentimes in his mouth, that he had rather liue a priuate
life for euer, than to obteine the kingdome by the slaughter and death
of anie man. He could not abide to haue the people oppressed with
tributes or exactions, in so much that he caused the paiement called
Danegilt (which had continued for the space almost of fortie yéeres)
to ceasse. It hath beene said, that when the collectors of this
monies or some other subsidie, had got an huge quantitie of treasure
[Sidenote: A diuell fetching gambols.]
togither, they brought it vnto him, and laid it altogither vpon an
heape, so to delight his eies: but he declaring that he saw a diuell
plaieng and fetching gambols about that heape of monie, commanded that
it should be had awaie, and restored againe to them of whome it was
leauied.

In diet and apparell he was spare and nothing sumptuous: and although
on high feasts he ware rich apparell, as became the maiestie of his
roiall personage; yet he shewed no proud nor loftie countenance,
rather praising God for his bountifull goodnesse towards him extended,
than estéeming heerein the vaine pompe of the world. The pleasure
that he tooke chieflie in this world for the refreshing of his wits,
consisted onelie in hawking and hunting, which exercises he dailie
vsed, after he had first beene in the church at diuine seruice.
In other things he seemed wholie giuen to a deuout trade of life,
charitable to the poore, and verie liberall, namelie to hospitals and
houses of religion in the parties of beyond the sea, wishing euer that
the moonks and religious persons of his realme would haue followed the
vertue and holinesse of life vsed amongst them of forren parties. As
hath béene thought he was inspired with the gift of prophesie, and
also to haue had the gift of healing infirmities and diseases. He vsed
to helpe those that were vexed with the disease, commonlie called the
kings euill, and left that vertue as it were a portion of inheritance
vnto his successors the kings of this realme.

[Sidenote: A tale of a ring.]
He was warned (as hath béene reported) of his death certeine daies
before he died, by a ring that was brought him by certeine pilgrims
comming from Hierusalem, which ring he had secretlie giuen to a poore
man that asked his charitie in the name of God and saint Iohn the
[Sidenote: King Edward canonized for a saint. _Wil. Malms._
_Matt. Westm._]
Euangelist. But to conclude, such was the opinion conceiued of his
holinesse of life, that shortlie after his decease, he was canonized
amongst the number of saints, and named Edward the Confessor. Whilest
he lay sicke of that sicknesse, whereof at length he died, after he
had remained for two daies speechlesse, the third day after when he
had laine for a time in a slumber or soft sléepe, at the time of
his waking, he fetched a déepe sigh, and thus said; "Oh Lord God
almightie, if this be not a vaine fantasticall illusion, but a true
vision which I haue séene, grant me space to vtter the same vnto these
that stand héere present, or else not." And herewith hauing his speech
perfect, he declared how he had séene two moonks stand by him as he
thought, whome in his youth he knew in Normandie to haue liued godlie,
and died christianlie. "These moonks (said he) protesting to me that
they were the messengers of God, spake these words; Bicause the chéefe
gouernors of England, the bishops and abbats, are not the ministers of
God, but the diuels, the almightie God hath deliuered this kingdome
for one yéere and a day into the hands of the enimie, and wicked
spirits shall walke abroad through the whole land. And when I made
answer that I would declare these things to the people, and promised
on their behalfe, that they should doo penance in following the
example of the Niniuites: they said againe, that it would not be, for
neither should the people repent, nor God take anie pitie vpon them.
And when is there hope to haue an end of these miseries said I? Then
said they; When a grene trée is cut in sunder in the middle, and
the part cut off is caried thrée acres bredth from the stocke, and
returning againe to the stoale, shall ioine therewith, and begin
to bud & beare fruit after the former maner, by reason of the sap
renewing the accustomed nourishment; then (I say) may there be hope
that such euils shall ceasse and diminish." ¶ With which words of
the king, though some other that stood by were brought in feare, yet
archbishop Stigand made but a ieast thereof, saieng, that the old
man raued now in his sickenesse, as men of great yéeres vse to doo.
Neuerthelesse the truth of this prophesie afterwards too plainlie
appeared, when England became the habitation of new strangers, in such
wise, that there was neither gouernor, bishop, nor abbat remaining
therein of the English nation. But now to make an end with king
Edward, he was of person comelie, & of an indifferent stature, of
white haire, both head and beard, of face ruddie, and in all parts of
his bodie faire skinned, with due state and proportion of lims as was
thereto conuenient. In the yéere before the death of king Edward, a
blasing starre appeared, the which when a moonke of Malmesburie
named Eilmer beheld, he vttered these words (as it were by way of
prophesieng:) Thou art come (saith he) thou art come, much to be
lamented of manie a mother: it is long agone sith I saw thée, but now
I doo behold thee the more terrible, threatening destruction to this
countrie by thy dreadfull appearance. In the person of king Edward
ceased by his death the noble progenie of the Westsaxon kings, which
had continued from the first yeare of the reigne of Cerdike or
Cerdicius, the space of 547 yeeres complet. And from Egbert 266
yéeres.

Moreouer, sith the progenie of the Saxon kings seemeth wholie to take
end with this Edward surnamed the Confessor, or the third of that name
before the conquest, we haue thought good for the better helpe of
memorie to referre the reader to a catalog of the names as well of
those that reigned among the Westsaxons (who at length, as ye haue
heard, obteined the whole monarchie) as also of them which ruled in
the other seuen kingdomes before the same were vnited vnto the said
kingdome of the Westsaxons, which catalog you shall find in the
description of Britaine, pag. 31, 32, 33.

Here is to be remembred, that as partlie before is expressed, we find
[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]
in some old writers, how the first kings of seuen kingdomes of the
Germane nation that bare rule in this Ile, fetcht their pedegrées from
one Woden, who begat of Frea his wife seuen sonnes, that is to say, 1
Vecta, of whome came the kings of Kent, 2 Fethelgeta, or Frethegeath,
from whome the kings of Mercia descended, 3 Balday, of whose race the
kings of the Westsaxons had their originall, 4 Beldagius, ancestor to
the kings of Bernicia, and the Northumbers, 5 Wegodach or Wegdagus,
from whome came the kings of Deira, 6 Caser, from whome procéeded the
kings of the Eastangles, 7 Nascad alias Saxuad, of whome the kings
of the Eastsaxons had their beginning. And here you must note, that
although the kings of the eight kingdome, that is, of the Southsaxons
or Sussex, were descended of the same people, yet were they not of the
same line. By other it should séeme, that Woden had but fiue sonnes:
as Vecta, great grandfather to Hengist; Wepedeg, ancestor to the kings
of the Eastangles; Viclac, from whome procéeded the kings of Mercia;
Saxuad, from whom the kings of Essex came; and Beldag, of whose
generation proceeded the kings of the Southsaxons, Westsaxons, and
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ _Io. Textor_.]
the Northumbers. Moreouer, there be that bring the genealogie from
Noe to Noah, the sonne of Lamech, which Noe was the 9 in descent from
Adam, and Woden the 15 from Noe, as you shall find in the historie of
England, lib. 6. pag. 663. Noe was the father to Sem the father of
Bedwi, the father of Wala, the father of Hatria or Hathra, the father
of Itermod, the father of Heremod, the father of Sheaf or Seaf, the
father of Seldoa or Sceldua, the father of Beatu or Beau, the father
of Teathwij aliàs Tadwa or Teathwy, the father of Geta, reputed for a
god among the gentiles, the father of Fingodulph otherwise Godulph,
the father of Fritwolfe otherwise Friuin, the father of Freolaf aliàs
Freolater, the father of Frethwold or Friderwald, the father of the
aforenamed Woden or Othen.

       *       *       *       *       *



_The peeres are in doubt to whome the rule of the land should be
committed, why they durst not that Edgar Edeling should vndertake it
though he was interested to the same, how William duke of Normandie
pretended a right to the crowne, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine
crowned, proclaimed, and consecrated king; his subtill and adulatorie
meanes to win the peoples fauour; duke William sendeth ambassadors to
Harold to put him in mind of a promise passed to the said duke for his
furtherance to obteine the crowne; Harolds negatiue answer to the said
ambassage, as also to the marieng of the dukes daughter which was
Harolds owne voluntarie motion; he prouideth against the inuasions of
the enimie as one doubting afterclaps, a blasing starre of seuen daies
continuance._

THE EIGHT CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: HAROLD. K. Edward departed this life. An. Christi.]
King Edward being thus departed this life, the péeres of the land
were in great doubt & perplexitie to whome they might best commit the
roiall gouernement of the realme.
[Sidenote: 1065, after the account of the church of England.
_Matth. West._ _Polydor_. Edeling, that is, a noble man,
and such one as is come of the kings blood.]
For there was not anie among them that had iust title thereto, or
able and apt to take the charge vpon him. For although Edgar surnamed
Edeling, the sonne of Edward the outlaw, that was sonne of Edmund
Ironside, was at the same time latelie come into England, with his
mother and sisters out of Hungarie where he was borne: yet for that he
was but a child, & not of sufficient age to beare rule, they durst not
as then commit the gouernement of the realme vnto him, least (as some
haue thought) his tendernesse of age might first bréed a contempt of
his person, and therewith minister occasion to ciuill discord, wherby
a shipwracke of the estate might ensue, to the great annoie and
present ouerthrow of such as then liued in the same. But what
consideration soeuer they had in this behalfe, they ought not to haue
defrauded the yoong gentleman of his lawfull right to the crowne. For
as we haue heard and séene, God, whose prouidence and mightie power is
shewed by ouerthrowing of high and mightie things now and then, by the
weake and féeble hath gouerned states and kingdomes oftentimes in as
good quiet and princelie policie by a child, as by men of age and
great discretion.

But to the purpose, beside the doubt which rested among the lords, how
to bestow the crowne, the manifold and strange woonders, which, were
séene and heard in those daies, betokening (as men thought) some
change to be at hand in the state of the realme, made the lords
afraid, and namelie bicause they stood in great doubt of William duke
of Normandie, who pretended a right to the crowne, as lawfull heire
appointed by king Edward, for that he was kin to him in the
[Sidenote: Dukes of Normandie.]
second and third degree. For Richard the first of that name duke of
Normandie, begot Richard the second, and Emma; which Emma bare Edward
by hir husband Ethelred. Richard the second had also issue Richard
the third, and Robert, which Robert by a concubine had issue William,
surnamed the bastard, that was now duke of Normandie, and after the
death of his coosine king Edward, made claime (as is said) to the
crowne of England.

Whilest the lords were thus studieng and consulting what should be
[Sidenote: Harold proclaimed king of England.]
best for them to doo in these doubts, Harold, the son of Goodwine
earle of Kent, proclaimed himselfe king of England: the people being
not much offended therewith, bicause of the great confidence and
opinion which they had latelie conceiued of his valiancie. Some write
[Sidenote: Edmerus.]
(among whome Edmerus is one) how king Edward ordeined before his
death, that Harold should succéed him as heire to the crowne, and
that therevpon the lords immediatlie after the said Edwards deceasse,
crowned Harold for their king, and so he was consecrated by Aldred
archbishop of Yorke, according to the custom and maner of the former
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
kings, or (as other affirme) he set the crowne on his owne head
without anie the accustomed ceremonies, in the yéere after the birth
of our sauiour 1066, or in the yéere of Christ 1065, after the account
of the church of England (as before is noted.)

But how and whensoeuer he came to the seat roiall of this kingdome,
certeine it is, that this Harold in the begining of his reigne,
considering with himselfe how and in what sort he had taken vpon him
the rule of the kingdome, rather by intrusion than by anie lawfull
[Sidenote: Harold séeketh to win the peoples hearts. _Sim. Dunel._]
right, studied by all meanes which way to win the peoples fauour, and
omitted no occasion whereby he might shew anie token of bountious
liberalitie, gentlenesse and courteous behauiour towards them. The
gréeuous customes also and taxes which his predecessors had raised, he
either abolished or diminished: the ordinarie wages of his seruants
and men of warre he increased, and further shewed himselfe verie well
bent to all vertue and goodnesse, whereby he purchased no small fauor
among such as were his subiects.

[Sidenote: An ambassage from Normandie.]
Whilest Harold went about thus to steale the peoples good willes,
there came ouer vnlooked for sundrie ambassadours from William the
bastard duke of Normandie, with commission to require him to remember
his oth sometime made to the said William in the time of his
extremitie, which was, that he the said Harold should aid him in the
obteining of the crowne of England, if king Edward should happen to
die without issue. This couenant he made (as it is supposed) in king
Edwards daies, when (by licence of the same Edward, or rather (as
Edmerus writeth) against his will) he went ouer into Normandie to
visit his brethren, which laie there as pledges.

[Sidenote: K. Harolds answer.]
Howbeit at this present, Harolds answer to the said ambassadors
was, that he would be readie to gratifie the duke in all that he could
demand, so that he would not aske the realme, which alreadie he
[Sidenote: _Eadmerus_.]
had in his full possession. And further he declared vnto them (as some
write) that as for the oth which he had made in times past vnto duke
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
William, the same was but a constreined & no voluntarie oth, which
in law is nothing; since thereby he tooke vpon him to grant that which
was not in his power to giue, he being but a subiect whilest king
Edward was liuing. For if a promised vow or oth which a maid maketh
concerning the bestowing of hir bodie in hir fathers house, without
his consent, is made void; much more an oth by him made that was
a subiect, and vnder the rule of a king, without his souereignes
consent, ought to be void and of no value. He alledged moreouer, that
as for him to take an oth to deliuer the inheritance of anie realme
without the generall consent of the estates of the same, could not be
other than a great péece of presumption, yea although he might haue
iust title therevnto; so it was an vnreasonable request of the duke
at this present to will him to renounce the kingdome, the gouernance
whereof he had alreadie taken vpon him, with so great fauor and good
liking of all men.

[Sidenote: Duke William eftsoones sendeth to king Harold.]
Duke William hauing receiued this answer, and nothing liking
thereof, sent once againe to Harold, requiring him then at the
least-wise, that he would take his daughter to wife, according to his
former promise; in refusing whereof he could make no sound allegation,
bicause it was a thing of his owne motion, and in his absolute power,
both to grant and to performe. But Harold being of a stout courage,
with proud countenance frowned vpon the Norman ambassadors, and
declared to them that his mind was nothing bent as then to yéeld
therevnto in any maner of wise. And so with other talke tending to
the like effect he sent them away without anie further answer. The
daughter of duke William whome Harold should haue maried, was named
Adeliza, as Gemeticensis saith, and with hir (as the same author
[Sidenote: _Gemeticensis_.]
writeth) it was couenanted by duke William, that Harold should inioy
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
halfe the realme in name of hir dower. Howbeit some write that
this daughter of duke William was departed this life before the
comming of these ambassadors, and that Harold therevpon thought
himselfe discharged of the oth and couenants made to duke William, and
therefore sent them away with such an vntoward answer.

[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]
But howsoeuer it was, after the departure of these ambassadors,
king Harold (doubting what would insue) caused his ships to be newlie
rigged, his men of warre to be mustered, and spéedilie put in a
readinesse, to the end that if anie sudden inuasion should be made and
attempted by his enimie, he might be able to resist them. ¶ About the
same time also, and vpon the 24 of Aprill (whilest Harold was making
prouision to withstand the Norman force) there appeared a blasing
starre, which was séene not onelie here in England, but also in other
parts of the world, and continued the space of seuen daies. This
[Sidenote: _Rog. Houed._ _Simon Dun._]
blasing starre might be a prediction of mischéefe imminent &
hanging ouer Harolds head; for they neuer appeare but as prognosticats
of afterclaps. To be resolutelie instructed herein, doo but peruse a
treatise intituled; A doctrine generall of comets or blasing starres
published by a bishop of Mentz in Latine, and set foorth in English by
Abraham Fleming vpon the apparition of a blasing starre séene in the
southwest, on the 10 of Nouember 1577, and dedicated to the right
worshipfull sir William Cordell knight, then maister of hir maiesties
rolles, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Earle Tostie afflicteth his brother Harold on sea and land, he taketh
the repulse, and persuadeth Harfager king of Norweie to attempt the
conquest of England against Harold, Harfager & Tostie with their
powers arriue at Humber, they fight with the Northumbers vnder the
conduct of Edwine and Marchar, and discomfit them; Harold leuieth
an armie against them, the rare valiantnes of a Norwegian souldior;
Harfager and Tostie slaine in battell; the Norwegians are foiled and
flie; Harolds vnequall and parciall dividing of the spoile, he goeth
to Yorke to reforms things amisse._

THE NINTH CHAPTER.


Whilest Harold desirous to reteine, and verie loth to let go his
vsurped roialtie, had crackt his credit with the duke of Normandie,
and by his lewd reuolting from voluntarie promises ratified with
solemne othes, had also kindled the fire of the dukes furie against
him; it came to passe, that the proud and presumptuous man was (to
[Sidenote: Tostie séekes to disquiets his brother.]
begin withall) vexed in his owne flesh, I meane his owne kinred.
For Tostie the brother of king Harold (who in the daies of king
Edward for his crueltie had béene chased out of the realme by the
Northumbers) returning out of Flanders, assembled a nauie of ships
from diuers parts to the number of 60, with the which he arriued in
[Sidenote: _Matt. West._ saith but 40. _Polydor_. _Ran Higd._
_Sim. Dun._]
the Ile of Wight, & there spoiled the countrie, and afterward sailing
about by the coasts of Kent, he tooke sundrie preies their[a] also, and
came at the last to Sandwich: so that Harold was now constreined to
appoint the nauie which he had prepared against the Normans, to go
against his brother earle Tostie. Whereof the said Tostie being
aduertised, drew towards Lindsey in Lincolnshire, and there taking
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ Tosties repelled. _Polydor_. _Ran. Higd._]
land did much hurt in the countrie, both with sword and fire, till
at length Edwine earle of Mercia, and Marchar earle of Northumberland,
aided with the kings nauie, chased him from thence, and caused him to
flie into Scotland, not without some losse both of his men and ships.

This trouble was scarse quieted, but streightwaies another came in
the necke thereof, farre more dangerous than the first. For Tostie,
perceiuing that he could get no aid in Scotland to make anie
[Sidenote: Harold Harfager king of Norweie.]
acccount of, sailed forth into Norweie, and there persuaded Harold
Harfager king of that realme, to saile with an armie into England,
persuading him that by meanes of ciuill dissention latelie kindled
betwixt the king and his lords (which was not so) it should be an
easie matter for him to make a conquest of the whole realme, and
reigne ouer them as his predecessors had done before. Some authors
affirme, that Harold king of Norwey tooke this enterprise in hand
[Sidenote: _Matt. West._ _Simon Dun._]
of his owne mind, and not by procurement of Tostie, saieng, that
Tostie méeting with him in Scotland, did persuade him to go forward
in his purposed busines, and that the said Harold Harfager with all
conuenient spéed passed foorth, & with a nauie of 300 saile entered
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._ saith 500.]
into the riuer of Tine, where after he had rested a few daies to
refresh his people, earle Tostie came also with his power (according
to an appointment which should be made betweene them.) They ad
furthermore, that they sailed forth alongst the coast, till they
[Sidenote: The Norwegians arriue in Humber. Richall. _Hen. Hunt._]
arriued in the mouth of Humber, & then drawing vp against the streame
of the riuer Owse, they landed at length at a place called Richhall,
from whence they set forward to inuade the countrie, & néere vnto
Yorke on the northside of the citie, they fought with the power of the
[Sidenote: The English men discomfited.]
Northumbers, which was led by the earls Edwine and Marchar (two
brethren) and there discomfited and chased them into the citie, with
great slaughter and bloudshed.

[Sidenote: This battell was fought on the even of S. Mattew the
apostle, as saith _Si. Dun._]
Harold king of England being aduertised of this chance, made the
more hast forward (for he was alreadie in the field with his armie,
intending also to come towards his enimies) so that vpon the fift day
after he came to Stamford bridge, finding there the said king Harfager
and Tostie readie imbattelled, he first assailed those that kept the
bridge, where (as some writers affirme) a Norwegian souldier with
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Hen. Hunt._ _Matt. West._]
his axe defended the passage, mauger the whole host of the Englishmen,
and slue fortie of them or more with his axe, & might not be ouercome,
till an Englishman went with a boat vnder the said bridge, and through
an hole thereof thrust him vp into the bodie with his speare: yet
Matt. West, saith that he was slaine with a dart which one of king
Harold his seruants threw at him, & so ended his life. Which bridge
[Sidenote: The Norwegians discomfited.]
being woone, the whole host of the Englishmen passed ouer, and
ioined with their enimies, and after a verie great and sore battell
put them all to flight.

[Sidenote: The king of Norwaie and Tostie slaine.]
In this conflict Harold Harfager king of the Norwegians was
slaine, & so was Tostie the king of England his brother, besides a
great number of other, as well in the battell as in the chase: neither
did the Englishmen escape all frée, for the Norwegians fought it out a
[Sidenote: This battell was fought on the 25 of September as saith
_Si. Dun._]
long time verie stoutlie, beating downe and killing great numbers
of such as assailed them with great courage and assurance. The residue
of the Norwegians that were left to kéepe their ships vnder the
guiding of Olaue sonne to the king of Norwaie, and Paule earle of
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
Orkneie, after they vnderstood by their fellowes that escaped from
the field, how the mater went with Harfager and Tostie, they hoised vp
their sailes and directed their course homewards, bearing sorowfull
newes with them into their countrie, of the losse of their king and
[Sidenote: _Simon Dun._]
ouerthrow of all his people. Some write, that the king of England
permitted them franklie to depart with 20 ships, hauing first caused
them to deliuer such hostages as they had receiued of the citizens
of Yorke. Harold reioising in that he had atteined so glorious a
victorie, and being now surprised with pride and couetousnesse
togither, he diuided the spoile of the field nothing equallie, but
[Sidenote: _M. West._ Vnequall diuiding of the spoile.]
to such as he fauored he distributed liberallie, and to other (though
they had much better deserued) he gaue nothing at all, reteining still
the best part of all to himselfe, by reason whereof he lost the fauor
of manie of his men, who for this his discourtesie, did not a little
alienate their good willes from him. This doone, he repaired to
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
Yorke, and there staied for a time to reforme the disordered state
of the countrie, which by reason of these warres was greatlie out of
frame.

¶ But Harold being more presumptuous and foole-hardie, than prouident
and wise in his enterprise; bending all his force to redresse
enormities in those quarters of Yorkeshire (much like vnto him, whom
the Comediographer marketh for a foole, "Ea tantùm quæ ad pedes iacent
contemplans, non autem ventura præuidens") neglected the kinglie care
which he should haue had of other parts of his realme, from the which
he had withdrawen himselfe, and (as it is likelie) had not left
sufficientlie prouided of a conuenient vicegerent to gouerne the same
by his warranted authoritie, and such fortifications as might expell
and withstand the enimie. Which want of foresight gaue occasion to the
enimie to attempt an inuasion of the English coasts, as in the next
chapt. shall be shewed.

       *       *       *       *       *



_William duke of Normandie prepareth to inuade England and to conquere
it, the earle of Flanders and the French king assist him, the number
of his ships, hir arriuall at Peuensey in Sussex, vpon what occasions
he entred this realme; the pope liked well duke Williams attempt, why
king Harold was hated of the whole court of Rome; why duke William
would not suffer his souldiers to wast the countries where they came;
Harold goeth towards his enimies, why his vnskilfull espials tooke the
Normans (being old beaten souldiers) for priests; Girth dissuadeth his
brother Harold from present incountering with the duke; where note
the conscience that is to be had of an oth, and that periurie can not
scape vnpunished._

THE TENTH CHAPTER.


William duke of Normandie hauing knowledge after what maner K. Harold
was busied in the north parts of his realme, and vnderstanding that
the south parts thereof remained destitute of due prouision for
necessarie defense, hasted with all diligence to make his purueiance
of men and ships, that he might vpon such a conuenient occasion set
forward to inuade his enimie. And amongest other of his friends, vnto
whome he laboured for aid, his father in law Baldwine earle of
[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir_. Baldwine earle of Flanders aided duke William
to conquere England. _Wil. Geme._]
Flanders was one of the chiefest, who vpon promise of great summes of
monie and other large offers made, did aid him with men, munition,
ships, and victuals, verie freelie. The French king also did as
much for his part as laie in him to helpe forwards this so high an
enterprise. Wherefore when all things were now in a readinesse, he
came to the towne of S. Valerie, where he had assembled togither an
huge nauie of ships, to the number (as some authors affirme) of
[Sidenote: The chronicles of Normandie haue 896 ships.]
three hundred saile; and when he had taried there a long time for a
conuenient wind, at length it came about euen as he himselfe desired.
Then shipping his armie which consisted of Normans, Flemings,
Frenchmen, and Britains, with all expedition he tooke the sea, and
[Sidenote: Duke William landed at Peuensey, now Pemsey.]
directing his course towards England, he finallie landed at a place in
Sussex, ancientlie called Peuensey, on the 28 day of September, where
he did set his men on land, & prouided all things necessarie to
incourage and refresh them.

At his going out of his ship vnto the shore, one of his féet slipped
as he stepped forward, but the other stacke fast in the sand: the
which so soone as one of his knights had espied, and séeing his hand
wherevpon he staied full of earth, when he rose, he spake alowd and
said: "Now sir duke, thou hast the soile of England fast in thy hand,
& shalt of a duke yer long become a king." The duke hearing this tale,
laughed merilie thereat, and comming on land, by and by he made his
proclamation, declaring vpon what occasion he had thus entered the
realme.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._]

[Sidenote: 1]
The first and principall cause which he alleged, was for to
chalenge his right, meaning the dominion of the land that to him was
giuen and assigned (as he said) by his nephue king Edward late ruler
of the same land.

[Sidenote: 2]
The second was, to reuenge the death of his nephue Alured or
Alfred the brother of the same king Edward, whome Goodwine earle of
Kent and his adherents had most cruellie murthered.

[Sidenote: 3]
The third was to be reuenged of the wrong doone vnto Robert
archbishop of Canturburie, who (as he was informed) was exiled by the
meanes and labor of Harold in the daies of king Edward.

Wherein we haue to note, that whether it were for displeasure that the
[Sidenote: _Wil. Lamb._ The pope fauored duke Williams enterprise.]
pope had sometime conceiued for the wrong doone to the archbishop,
or at the onlie sute of duke William, certeine it is that the pope, as
then named Alexander the second, fauored this enterprise of the duke,
and in token thereof sent him a white banner, which he willed him to
set vp in the decke of the ship, wherein he himselfe should saile.
In déed (as writers report) the pope with his cardinals, and all the
whole court of Rome had king Harold euer in great hatred and disdaine,
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
because he had taken vpon him the crowne without their consent,
or anie ecclesiasticall solemnitie or agréement of the bishops. And
although the pope and his brethren the said cardinals dissembled
the matter for the time, yet now beholding to what end his bold
presumption was like to come, with frowning fortune they shewed
themselues open aduersaries, inclining streightwaies to the stronger
part, after the manner of couetous persons, or rather of the réed
shaken with a sudden puffe of wind.

[Sidenote: _Gemeticensis_.]
Duke William at his first landing at Peuensey or Pemsey (whether
you will) fortified a péece of ground with strong trenches, and
leauing therein a competent number of men of warre to kéepe the same,
he sped him toward Hastings, and comming thither, he built an other
fortresse there with all spéed possible, without suffering his
souldiers to rob or harrie the countrie adioining, saieng that it
should be great follie for him to spoile that people, which yer
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._]
manie daies to come were like to be his subiects. K. Harold being as
yet in the north parts, and hearing that duke William was thus landed
in England, sped him southward, and gathering his people togither
out of the countries as he went forwards, at length came néere his
enimies: and sending espials into their campe to vnderstand of what
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
strength they were; the vnskilfull messengers regarding smallie
their charge, brought woord againe of nothing else, but that all
[Sidenote: Normans berds shauen. _Wil. Malm._ _Hen. Marle._]
duke Williams souldiers were priests. For the Normans had at that time
their vpper lips and chéekes shauen, whereas the Englishmen vsed to
suffer the haire of their vpper lips to grow at length. But Harold
answered, that they were not priests, but wether-beaten and hardie
souldiers, and such as were like to abide well by their capteine.

[Sidenote: Girth would not haue his brother king Harold fight himselfe.
_Gemeticensis_.]
In the meane season, Girth one of Harolds yoonger brethren
(considering that periurie is neuer left vnpunished) aduised his
brother not to aduenture himselfe at this present in the battell, for
so much as he had beene sometime sworne to duke William, but rather to
suffer him and other of the nobilitie to incounter with the said duke,
that were not bound to him by former oth, or otherwise: but Harold
answered that he was free from anie such oth, and that in defense
of his countrie he would fight boldly with him as with his greatest
enimie. ¶ Where (by the waie) would be noted the conscience which
Girth a yoonger brother made of an oth, not concerning himselfe
directlie, but his elder brother Harold, who had sworne the same;
meaning nothing lesse than the performance therof, as the sequele of
his dooings to his discredit and vndooing euidentlie declared, which
euents might séeme countable to him as due punishments and deserued
plagues inflicted vpon him and others, for his sake; sith he made no
reckoning of violating a vow ratified with an oth to a prince of
no small puissance, who afterwards became a whip vnto him for his
periurie; a sinne detested of the heathen, and whereof the poet
notablie speaketh, saieng:
[Sidenote: _Tibul, lib. 1_.]

  Ah miser, & si quis primò periuria celat,
  Sera tamen tacitis poena venit pedibus.

       *       *       *       *       *



_After peace offered & refused on each side, both armies meete in the
field, the order of the Englishmens attire & araie, the maner how the
Normans were placed to fight in battell; the dissolute and droonken
behauior of the Englishmen the night before the incounter farre
differing from the Normans deuout demenour; duke Williams speech vpon
occasion of wrong putting on his armour, the battell betwixt him and
king Harold is valiantlie tried, the English by duke Williams politike
stratagem are deceiued, king Harold slaine, his armie put to flight
and manie of them slaine after a long and bloudie incounter, manie
of the Normans pursuing the English ouerhastilie procure their owne
death, they take the spoile of the English, the dead bodies of both
armies are licenced to be buried; the differing reports of writers
touching the maner of Harolds death, a description of his person, his
ambition did him much hurt and hinderance, the number that were slaine
on both sides, his bodie buried at Waltham, nothing dispraisewoorthie
in him but his ambitious mind, a view of his valiantnesse in a
conflict against the Welshmen, his rigorous or rather pitilesse
handling of them, his seuere law or decree touching their bounds, they
are vtterlie subdued, and (by the kings leaue) the Welshwomen marrie
with the Englishmen, the Saxon line ceasseth, how long it lasted, and
how long it was discontinued by the inuasion of the Danes._

THE ELEUENTH CHAPTER.


[Sidenote: _Will. Malmes._]
Now it fortuned that both armies, as well the kings as the earles,
being prepared to battell, diuerse offers were made on each side
(before they fell to the conflict) for an vnitie to haue béene had
betwixt the two princes: but when no conditions of agreement could
take place, they forthwith prepared themselues to trie the matter by
dint of swoord. And so on the 14 day of October, being saturday,
both hosts met in the field, at a place in Sussex not farre from
[Sidenote: The order of the Englishmen.]
Hastings, whereas the abbeie of Battell was afterward builded. The
Englishmen were all brought into one entire maine batell on foot, with
[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]
huge axes in their hands, and paled a front with paueises, in such
wise that it was thought vnpossible for the enimie to breake their
arraie. On the other side, the Normans were diuided into seuerall
[Sidenote: The arraie of the Normans.]
battels, as first the footmen that were archers, and also those
that bare gleiues and axes were placed in the forefront, and the
horssemen diuided into wings stood on the sides in verie good order.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Hunt._ _Will. Malmes._]
All the night before the battell, the Englishmen made great noise
and slept not, but sang and fell to drinking and making of reuell &
pastime, as though there had beene no account to be made of the
next daies trauell. But the Normans behaued themselues warilie and
soberlie, spending all that night in praier and confessing their
sinnes vnto God; and in the morning earelie they receiued the
communion before they went foorth to the battell. Some write, that
when duke William should put on his armour to go to the field, the
backe halfe of his curasses by chance was set on before by such as
holpe to arme him: at which chance he tooke occasion of laughter,
saieng merrilie to them that stood by; "No force, this is good lucke,
for the estate of my dukedome shall be yer night changed into a
kingdome." Beside this, he spake manie comfortable woords vnto his
men, to incourage them to the battell. Neither was Harold forgetfull
in that point on his part. And so at conuenient time when both armies
were readie, they made forward each to incounter with other, on the
foresaid fouretéenth day of October, with great force and assurance.

[Sidenote: _Polydor_. The battell betwixt king Harold and duke
William is begun.]
In the beginning of the battell, the arrowes flue abroad freshlie
on both sides, till they came to ioine at hand strokes, and then
preassed each side vpon his counter part with swoords, axes, and other
hand weapons verie egerlie. Duke William commanded his horssemen
to giue the charge on the breasts of his enimies battels: but the
Englishmen kéeping themselues close togither without scattering,
receiued their enimies vpon the points of their weapons with such
fiercenesse and in such stiffe order, that manie of the Norman
horssemen were ouerthrowne without recouerie, and slaine at the first
brunt. When duke William perceiued this inconuenience (as he that well
and throughlie vnderstood the skilfull points of warre as well as the
best) he gaue a signe to his men (according to an order appointed
[Sidenote: The policie of duke William to disorder his enimies.
_H. Hunt._ _Wil. Malm._]
before hand vpon anie such occasion) that they should giue backe,
and make a countenance as though they did flée, which was quicklie
doone by the Normans, and withall they imbattelled their footmen in a
new order, so that their horssemen shifted themselues on the wings,
readie to rescue the footmen if their arraie should happen to be
disturbed.

By this wilie stratagem and policie of warre, the Englishmen were
deceiued: for they beholding the Normans somwhat shrinking backe to
bring themselues into the aboue said order, thought verelie that they
had fled, and therevpon meaning to pursue them before they should
recouer their ground, they brake their arraie, and began to follow the
chase: wherevpon the Normans (perceiuing now that all things came to
passe as they desired) spéedilie returned, and casting themselues
togither quicklie into arraie, began to charge them againe afresh, and
[Sidenote: A sore foughten battell. King Harold slaine.]
so hauing them at that aduantage, they slue them downe on euerie
side. The Englishmen on the other part fought sore, and though their
king was beaten downe among them and slaine, yet were they loth to
flée or giue ouer; so sharpe was the battell, that duke William
himselfe had thrée horsses slaine vnder him that day, and not without
great danger of his person.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Matth. West._]
Some of the Englishmen got them to the height of an hill, and beate
backe the Normans that forced themselues to win the hill of them, so
that it was long yer the Normans could preuaile, being oftentimes
driuen downe into the botome of the vallie beneath. At length the
[Sidenote: The Englishmen put to flight.]
Englishmen, perceiuing themselues to be ouermatched and beaten downe
on euerie side, and therevnto greatlie discouraged with slaughter of
their king, began first to giue ground, and after to scatter and to
run away, so that well was he that might then escape by flight. When
[Sidenote: _Chron. de bello_. _Wil. Geme._ The Normans fall
into a ditch.]
they had fought the most part of all that saturday, the Normans
followed the chase with such eger rashnesse, that a great number
of them falling with their horsses and armour into a blind ditch
(shadowed with reed and sedges which grew therein) were smouldered and
pressed to death, yer they could be succoured or get anie reliefe. The
next day the Normans fell to gathering in the spoile of the field,
burieng also the dead bodies of their people that were slaine at the
battell, giuing licence in semblable manner to the Englishmen to doo
[Sidenote: _Giral. Camb._]
the like. Of the death of Harold diuerse report diuerslie, in so
much that Girald Cambrensis saith, that after king Harold had receiued
manie wounds, and lost his left eie, he fled from the field vnto the
citie of Westchester, and liued there long after, an holie life, as an
anchoret in the cell of S. James, fast by S. Johns church, and there
made a godlie end. But the saieng of Girald Cambren. in that point
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _Hen. Hunt._ _Matth. West._]
is not to be credited, bicause of the vnlikelihood of the thing
it selfe, and also generall consent of other writers, who affirme
vniuersallie that he was killed in the battell, first being striken
thorough the left eie by the scull into the braine with an arrow,
wherevpon falling from his horsse to the ground, he was slaine in
[Sidenote: _Floriac._ _Simon Dun._]
that place, after he had reigned nine moneths and nine daies, as
Floriacensis dooth report. He was a man of a comelie stature, and of
a hawtie courage, & albeit that for his valiancie he was highlie
[Sidenote: _Henr. Hunt._ _Polydor_.]
renowmed and honored of all men, yet through his pride and
ambition he lost the harts of manie. There were slaine in this
[Sidenote: The chronicles of Normandie haue of English men slaine
67974, and of Normans 6013.]
battell, besides king Harold and his two brethren, Girth and Leofrike,
what on the one side and on the other, aboue twentie thousand men.

The bodie of king Harold being found among other slaine in the field,
was buried at Waltham, within the monasterie of the holie crosse which
he before had founded, and indowed to the behoofe of such canons as
he had placed there, with faire possessions. Verelie (as some old
[Sidenote: _Ex 6. libro Polycraticon, side de nugis curialium_.
_John Sarisb._]
writers haue reported) there was nothing in this man to be in anie
wise dispraised, if his ambitious mind could haue beene staied from
coueting the kingdome, and that he could haue béene contented to
haue liued as a subiect. Among other manifest proofes of his high
valiancie, this is remembred of him, that being sent against the
Welshmen (as before is partlie mentioned) knowing their readie
nimblenesse in seruice, and how with their light armed men they were
accustomed to annoie and distresse those that should assaile them, he
likewise (to match them) prepared light armed men for the purpose, &
so being furnished with such bands of nimble men and light souldiers,
entered vpon the mounteins of Snowdon, and there remained amongst
the enimies for the space of two yéeres. He sore afflicted the Welsh
nation, tooke their kings, and sent their heads vnto the king that
sent him about his businesse, and proceeding in such rigorous maner as
might mooue the hearers to lament and pitie the case, he caused all
the male kind that might be met with, to be miserablie slaine: and
so with the edge of his swoord he brought the countrie to quiet, and
withall made this lawe; that if anie Welshman from thencefoorth should
presume to passe the limits ouer Offas ditch with anie weapon about
him, he should lose his right hand. To conclude, by the valiant
conduct of this chieftaine, the Welshmen were then so sore brought
vnder, that in maner the whole nation might séeme to faile, and to be
almost vtterlie destroied. And therefore by permission of the king
of England, the Women of Wales ioined themselues in marriage with
Englishmen. Finallie, héereby the bloud of the Saxons ceassed to
reigne in England after they had continued possession of the same,
from the first comming of Hengist, which was about the yéere of our
Sauiour 450, or 449, vntill that present yeere of king Harolds death,
[Sidenote: 1069.]
which chanced in the yéere 1069. So that from the beginning of
Hengist his reigne, vnto Harolds death, are reckoned 916 yéeres, or
(after some) 617, as by the supputation of the time will easilie
appeere. By all the which time there reigned kings of the Saxons bloud
within this land, except that for the space of twentie yéeres and
somewhat more, the Danes had the dominion of the realme in their
possession: for there are reckoned from the beginning of K. Swaines
reigne (which was the first Dane that gouerned England) vnto the last
yéere of K. Hardicnute (the last Dane that ruled heere) 28 yéeres, in
which meane space Egelred recouering the kingdome reigned 2 yéeres,
then after him his sonne Edmund Ironside continued in the rule one
yéere; so that the Danes had the whole possession of the land but 25
yéeres in all. Touching this alteration, and others incident to this
Iland, read a short aduertisement annexed (by waie of conclusion)
to this historie, comprising a short summarie of the most notable
conquests of this countrie one after an other, by distances of times
successiuelie.

       *       *       *       *       *



_The rule of this realme by Gods prouidence allotted to duke William,
his descent from Rollo the first duke of Normandie downewards to his
particular linage, he was base begotten vpon the bodie of Arlete duke
Roberts concubine, a pleasant speech of hirs to duke Robert on a time
when he was to haue the vse of hir person, a conclusion introductorie
for the sequele of the chronicle from the said duke of Normandies
coronation, &c: with a summarie of the notable conquests of this
Iland._

THE TWELFE CHAPTER.


Now, forsomuch as it pleased God by his hid and secret iudgement so
to dispose the realme of England, and in such wise, as that the
gouernance thereof should fall after this maner into the hands of
William duke of Normandie, I haue thought good before I enter further
into this historie (being now come to the conquest of the realme, made
by the foresaid duke of Normandie) to set downe his pedegrée, thereby
to shew how he descended from the first duke of that countrie, who was
named Rollo, and after by receiving baptisme called Robert.

The said Rollo or Rou, was sonne to a great lord in Denmarke called
Guion, who hauing two sons, the said Rou and Gourin, and being
appointed to depart the countrie, as the lots fell to him and other
(according to the maner there vsed, in time when their people were
increased to a greater number than the countrie was able to susteine)
refused to obeie that order, and made warre there against the king,
who yet in the end by practise found meanes to slea the foresaid
Guion, and his sonne Gourin; so that Rou or Rollo, hauing thus lost
his father and brother, was compelled to forsake the countrie, with
all those that had holpe his father to make warre against the king.
Thus driuen to séeke aduentures, at length he became a christian, and
was created duke of Normandie, by gift of Charles king of France,
surnamed le Simple, whose daughter the ladie Gilla he also maried: but
she departing this life without issue, he maried Popée daughter to the
earle of Bessin and Baileux, whome he had kept as his wife before he
was baptised, and had by hir a sonne named William Longespée, and a
daughter named Gerlota.

William Longespée or Longaspata, had to wife the ladie Sporta,
daughter to Hubert earle of Senlis, by whome he had issue Richard the
second of that name duke of Normardie, who married the ladie Agnes,
the daughter of Hugh le grand, earle of Paris, of whome no issue
procéeded: but after hir deceasse, he maried to his second wife a
gentlewoman named Gonnor, daughter to a knight of the Danish line,
by whom he had thrée sonnes, Richard that was after duke of
[Sidenote: Ye must note that there was one Richard duke of Normandie
before Rollo.]
Normandie, the third of that name, Robert and Mauger. He had also by
hir three daughters, Agnes otherwise called Emma, married first to
Egelred king of England, and after to K. Cnute: Helloie, otherwise
Alix, bestowed vpon Geffrey earle of Britaine: and Mawd coupled in
marriage with Euldes earle of Charters and Blais. Richard the third of
that name maried Iudith, sister to Geffrey earle of Britaine, by whome
he had issue thrée sonnes, Richard, Robert, and William, and as manie
daughters: Alix, married to Reignold earle of Burgogne, Elenor married
to Baldwine earle of Flanders; and the third died yoong, being
affianced to Alfonse king of Nauarre. Their mother deceassed after she
had beene married ten yéeres, and then duke Richard married secondlie
the ladie Estric, sister to Cnute king of England and Denmarke, from
whome he purchased to be diuorsed, and then married a gentlewoman
called Pauie, by whome he had issue two sonnes, William earle of
Arques, and Mauger archbishop of Rouen.

Richard the fourth of that name, duke of Normandie, eldest sonne to
Richard the third, died without issue, and then his brother Robert
succéeded in the estate, which Robert begat vpon Arlete or Harleuina
daughter to a burgesse of Felais, William surnamed the bastard,
afterward duke of Normandie, and by conquest king of England. Of
whose father duke Robert, & his paramour Arlete, take this pleasant
remembrance for a refection after the perusing of the former sad and
sober discourses.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm. lib. 3. cap. 1_. _Ranulph. lib. 6. cap. 19_.]
In the yéere of Christ 1030, Robert, the second sonne of Richard
the second duke of Normandie, and brother to Richard the third duke
of that name there hauing with great honour and wisedome gouerned his
dukedome seuen yéeres, for performance of a penance that he had set to
himselfe, appointed a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; leauing behind him this
[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm. lib. 3. cap. 1_. _Ranulph. lib. 6. cap. 19_.]
William a yoong prince, whome seuen yeeres before he had begotten
vpon his paramour Arlete (whom after he held as his wife) with whose
beautifull fauour, louelie grace and presence, at hir dansing on a
time then as he was tenderlie touched, for familiar vtterance of his
mind what he had further to say, would néeds that night she should be
his bedfellow, who else as wiuelesse should haue lien alone: where
when she was bestowed, thinking that if she should haue laid hir selfe
naked, it might haue séemed not so maidenlie a part: so when the duke
was about (as the maner is) to haue lift vp hir linnen, she in an
[Sidenote: _Ran. li. 6 ca. 19_.]
humble modestie staid hir lords hand, and rent downe hir smocke
asunder, from the collar to the verie skirt. Heereat the duke all
smiling did aske hir what thereby she ment? In great lowlines, with
a feate question she answerd againe; "My lord, were it méet that any
part of my garments dependant about me downeward, should presume to be
mountant to my souereignes mouth vpward? Let your grace pardon me." He
liked hir answer: and so and so foorth for that time.

[Sidenote: _Wil. Malm._ _lib. 3 cap. 1_. _Ran. ibid._]
This duke before his voiage, calling at Fiscam all his nobilitie
vnto him, caused them to sweare fealtie vnto his yoong sonne William,
whome he then at his iournie betooke vnto the gouernance of earle
Gilbert, and the defense of the gouernour vnto Henrie the French king.
So Robert passing foorth in his pilgrimage, shewed in euerie place and
[Sidenote: _Ran. ibid._]
in all points a magnanimitie and honour of a right noble prince,
and pleasant withall; who once in Iurie not well at ease, in a litter
was borne toward Ierusalem vpon Saracens shoulders, & méeting with a
subiect of his that was going home toward Normandie: Friend (quoth he)
if my people at thy returne aske after me, tell them that thou sawest
their lord carried to heauen by diuels. The Norman nobilitie
[Sidenote: _Ran. ibid._ _Wil. Mal. idem._ _Ran. idem._]
during duke Roberts life, did their dutie to the yoong prince
faithfullie, but after they heard of his fathers death, they slackened
apace, euerie one shifting for himselfe as he list, without anie
regard either of oth or obedience toward the pupill their souereigne.
Whereby not manie yéeres after, as Gilbert the gouernour, by Rafe the
childes coosine germane, was slaine; the dukedome anon, by murther and
fighting among themselues was sore troubled in all parts. Thus much a
little of duke Robert the father, and of prince William his sonne for
part of his tender yéeres.

       *       *       *       *       *



_A notable aduertisement touching the summe of all the foresaid
historie, wherin the foure great and notable conquests of this land
are brieflie touched, being a conclusion introductorie, as is said in
the argument._


In the former part of this historie it is manifest to the heedful
[Sidenote: Britaine inhabited by Brute.]
reader, that (after the opinion of most writers) Brute did first
inhabit this land; and called it then after his owne name, Britaine,
in the yéere after the creation of the world 2855, and in the yéere
[Sidenote: 1 Britaine conquered by the Romans.]
before the incarnation of Christ 1108. ¶ Furthermore the said land
of Britaine was conquered by C. Iulius Cesar, and made tributarie to
the Romans in the 50 yéere before the natiuitie of Christ, and so
continued 483 yéeres. So that the Britains reigned without tribute and
vnder tribute, from Brute, vntill the fourth yeere of the reigne of
king Cadwalladar, which was in the yéere of our Lord 686. And so the
Britains had continuance of the gouernement of this land the space of
1794 yéeres. Then was the realme of Britaine an heptarchie, that is,
diuided into seuen kingdoms. And Britaine receiued the faith of Christ
[Sidenote: 2 Britaine conquered and ouercome by the Saxons.]
in the 7 yéere of the reigne of king Lucius, which was in the 187
yéere after the birth of Christ. ¶ Next after the Britains entered the
Saxons, in the third yéere of king Vortiger; and in the yéere of our
Lord 450, and they gouerned vntill the last yéere of king Athelstane,
which was in the yéere of Christ 938. So that the time of the Saxons
first entrance into this realme, and the time of their regiment
[Sidenote: 3 Britaine conquered and ouercome by the Danes.]
was the space of 487 yéeres. ¶ Howbeit, in the time of their
gouernement, that is to say, in the 9 yéere of king Britricus, which
was in the yéere of our Lord 387, the Danes entred into this land,
spoiling and persecuting the people therin most gréeuouslie. At the
last, Sweno or Swaine the Dane obteined possession roiall, in the
yéere of Grace 1012, whose time of regiment lasted about three yéeres.
After whom his sonne Canutus succeeded, and reigned 19 yéeres. After
him Harold his sonne, who ruled thrée yeeres: and after him Hardicnute
the sonne of Canutus, whose gouernement continued but thrée yeeres.
This Hardicnute was the last king of the Danes, at which time the
Danes were expelled and hunted out of the realme, which was in the
yéere of our Lord 1042. So that it may appeare by this collection,
that the Danes ruled as kings in this land by the space of 28 yéeres.
Hereby also it is euident, that from the time of the first entrance
of the Danes into this realme, vntill their last expulsion &
[Sidenote: 4 Britaine conquered and possessed by the Normans.]
riddance, was 255 yéeres. ¶ Finallie the Normans entred this land
likewise, and conquered the same as before is expressed, in the yéere
of our Lord 1067, which is since, vntill this present yéere of our
Lord 1585, drawing néere to the number of 600 and od yéeres.

Now let these alterations of regiments be remembred [touching the
which read a notable animaduersion in the description of Britaine,
pag. 49, 50, 51] and teach vs that therein the iudgements of God
reuealed themselues to speciall purposes. And whatsoeuer hath béene
mentioned before, either concerning the subuersion of people, the
desolation of prouinces, the ouerthrow of nobles, the ruine of
princes, and other lamentable accidents diuerslie happening vpon
sundrie occasions; let vs (I say) as manie as will reape fruit by the
reading of chronicles, imagine the matters which were so manie yéeres
past to be present, and applie the profit and commoditie of the same
vnto our selues; knowing (as one wisely said) _Post sacram paginam
chronica vivum veritatis typum gerere,_ that next vnto the holie
scripture, chronicles doo carie credit. But now to the sequele, and
first to duke William of Normandie.


_Thus farre the historie of England from Noah and his sonnes, &c;
to William duke of Normandie. Hereafter followeth a chronologicall
continuation beginning at the first yeere of the said dukes reigne
ouer this land, vntill the 25 yeere of the Queenes most excellent
maiestie Elizabeth, &c; whose daies God in mercie prolong (like the
daies of heauen) in peace and prosperitie, &c._


END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.



[Transcriber's note: [a] 'their' in original is probably meant to be
'there'. Chapter nine, first paragraph.]





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