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Title: Illustrated Catalogue of a Portion of the Collections Made During the Field Season of 1881 - Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881-82, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1884, pages 427-510
Author: Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of a Portion of the Collections Made During the Field Season of 1881 - Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881-82, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1884, pages 427-510" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at
http://gallica.bnf.fr and by First-Hand History at
http://www.1st-hand-history.org)



       *       *       *       *       *

  Smithsonian Institution--Bureau Of Ethnology.

             ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE
                      of a
           Portion of the Collections
        Made by the Bureau of Ethnology
                  During the
             Field Season of 1881.

               WILLIAM H. HOLMES.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.
                                                        Page.
Introductory                                             433
Collections from Jackson County, North Carolina          434
  From the Cherokee Indians                              434
    Articles of stone                                    434
    Articles of clay                                     434
    Vegetal substances                                   435
    Animal substances                                    437
Collections from Cocke County, Tennessee                 438
  From the fields at Newport                             438
    Articles of stone                                    438
  From a mound on Pigeon River                           440
    Articles of clay                                     440
Collections from Sevier County, Tennessee                442
  The McMahan Mound                                      442
    Articles of stone                                    442
    Articles of clay                                     443
    Objects of metal                                     446
    Objects of shell                                     446
    Animal substances                                    453
  From the fields of Sevierville                         453
    Articles of stone                                    453
    Articles of clay                                     456
Collections from Roane County, Tennessee                 457
  Mound at Taylor's Bend                                 457
    Articles of stone                                    457
    Articles of clay                                     457
    Objects of shell                                     458
  From field at Taylor's Bend                            458
    Articles of stone                                    458
  Vicinity of Kingston                                   460
  Mound at Niles' Ferry                                  461
  Mounds near Paint Rock Ferry                           461
    Fragments of pottery                                 461
    Objects of shell                                     462
Collections from Jefferson County                        463
  Mound on Fain's Island                                 463
    Articles of clay                                     463
  From the fields of Fain's Island                       465
    Articles of stone                                    465
    Objects of shell                                     466
    Animal substances                                    466
Collections from Mississippi County, Arkansas            468
  Pemissicott Mound                                      468
  Chickasawba Mound                                      468
  Mounds in Carson Lake Township                         468
  Mounds at Pecan Point                                  469
    Articles of clay                                     469
  Field graves and fields in vicinity of Pecan Point     470
    Articles of stone                                    470
    Articles of clay                                     471
Collections from Arkansas County, Arkansas               476
  Mounds at Arkansas Post                                476
    Articles of clay                                     476
  Field graves about Menard mounds                       477
    Articles of stone                                    477
    Articles of clay                                     479
    Objects of metal                                     485
    Animal substances                                    485
Collection from Monroe County, Arkansas                  486
  Mound at Lawrenceville                                 486
    Articles of clay                                     486
  Mounds at Indian Bay                                   487
    Articles of clay                                     488
Collections from Ohio                                    490
  From mounds and fields                                 490
    Articles of stone                                    490
    Articles of clay                                     491
    Human remains                                        491
Collections from Oregon                                  492
    Articles of stone                                    492
Collections from Kentucky                                493
Collections from Missouri                                495
    Articles of clay                                     495
Collections from other States                            507
Collections from Peru                                    508


ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig. 116.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    439
     117.--Sections of earthen vessels, Tennessee        440
     118.--Earthen vessel, Tennessee                     444
     119.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     447
     120.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     447
     121.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     448
     122.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     448
     123.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     449
     124.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     449
     125.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     450
     126.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     450
     127.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     451
     128.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     452
     129.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    454
     130.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    454
     131.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    455
     132.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    455
     133.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    456
     134.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    459
     135.--Stone implement, Tennessee                    459
     136.--Shell bead, Tennessee                         462
     137.--Shell bead, Tennessee                         462
     138.--Shell bead, Tennessee                         462
     139.--Earthen vessel, Tennessee                     464
     140.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     466
     141.--Shell ornament, Tennessee                     466
     142.--Stone implement, Arkansas                     470
     143.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      471
     144.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      472
     145.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      473
     146.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      473
     147.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      474
     148.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      474
     149.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      475
     150.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      476
     151.--Stone implement, Arkansas                     477
     152.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      478
     153.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      479
     154.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      479
     155.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      480
     156.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      480
     157.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      481
     158.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      482
     159.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      482
     160.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      482
     161.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      482
     162.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      483
     163.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      483
     164.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      484
     165.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      484
     163.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      485
     167.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      486
     168.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      487
     169.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      488
     170.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      489
     171.--Earthen vessel, Arkansas                      489
     172.--Method of plaiting sandals                    493
     173.--Method of plaiting mat                        493
     174.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      495
     175.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      496
     176.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      497
     177.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      497
     178.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      498
     179.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      498
     180.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      499
     181.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      499
     182.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      500
     183.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      500
     184.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      501
     185.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      501
     186.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      502
     187.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      502
     188.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      502
     189.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      503
     190.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      504
     191.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      504
     192.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      505
     193.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      505
     194.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      505
     195.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      506
     196.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      506
     197.--Earthen vessel, Missouri                      506
     198.--Wooden mask, Peru                             509
     199.--Stone net-sinker, Peru                        510
     200.--Copper fish-hooks, Peru                       510


       *       *       *       *       *


   ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF A PORTION OF THE
     ETHNOLOGIC AND ARCHÆOLOGIC COLLECTIONS
        MADE BY THE BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY
             DURING THE YEAR 1881.

             By William H. Holmes.


       *       *       *       *       *


COLLECTION MADE BY EDWARD PALMER, IN NORTH CAROLINA,
  TENNESSEE, AND ARKANSAS.


INTRODUCTORY.

Mr. Palmer began his explorations early in July, 1881, and continued
with marked success until the end of the year.

He first paid a visit to the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, and
collected a large number of articles manufactured or used by this
people, besides a number of antiquities from the same region.

From Carolina he crossed into Tennessee, and began work by opening
a number of mounds in Cocke County. In September he opened a very
important mound, which I have named the McMahan Mound. It is located
in the vicinity of Sevierville, Sevier County. Afterwards mounds were
opened on Fain's Island, at Dandridge, and at Kingston.

In September he crossed into Arkansas and made extensive explorations at
Osceola, Pecan Point, Arkansas Post, and Indian Bay.

It has devolved upon the writer to examine and catalogue this fine
collection.

In preparing the catalogue the plan of arrangement already adopted by
the Bureau has been carried out; that is, a primary classification by
locality and a secondary by material.

The descriptions of specimens are taken from the card catalogue prepared
by the writer on first opening the collection, and will be given in
full, excepting in cases where detailed descriptions have been furnished
in separate papers, either in this or the preceding Annual Report. Cuts
have been made of a number of the more interesting specimens. The
localities are named in the order of their exploration.



COLLECTIONS FROM JACKSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA.


OBTAINED CHIEFLY FROM THE CHEROKEE INDIANS.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62953. A small disk of dark-gray slate, 1¼ inches in diameter and 1½
  inches in thickness. The form is symmetrical and the surface well
  polished. The sides are convex, slightly so near the center and
  abruptly so near the circumference. The rim or peripheral surface is
  squared by grinding, the circular form being accurately preserved.
  This specimen was obtained from an aged Cherokee, who stated that it
  had formerly been used by his people in playing some sort of game.
  It seems not improbable that this stone has been used for polishing
  pottery.

62952. A small subglobular pebble used as a polishing stone for pottery.

62954. A polishing stone similar to the above. This implement was seen
  in use by the collector.

62947. A hemispherical stone, probably used as a nut-cracker.

62944. A stone implement somewhat resembling a thick, round-pointed
  pick, 4½ inches in length and 1 inch in diameter. It is perforated
  exactly as an iron pick would be for the insertion of a handle. The
  perforation has been produced by boring from opposite sides; at the
  surface it is five-eighths of an inch in diameter, and midway about
  three-eighths. The material seems to be an indurated clay or soft
  slate.

The collector suggests that this specimen was probably used for
smoothing bow-strings or straightening arrow-shafts.

62949. Eight arrow points of gray and blackish chalcedony.

62950. Pipe of gray, indurated steatite, of modern Cherokee manufacture.

62951. Pipe of dark greenstone, highly polished. It is well modeled, but
  of a recent type.

62888. Grooved ax of compact greenish sandstone; found near Bakersville,
  N.C.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

Obtained from the Southern Band of Cherokees, Jackson County, North
Carolina.

The manufacture of pottery, once so universally practiced by the
Atlantic coast Indians, is still kept up by this tribe, rather, however,
for the purpose of trade than for use in their domestic arts. The
vessels are, to a great extent, modeled after the ware of the whites,
but the methods of manufacture seem to be almost wholly aboriginal.

63070. A handled mug or cup of brownish ware. The form is not
  aboriginal. It is composed of clay, tempered, apparently, with
  pulverized shell. The surface has a slight polish produced by a
  polishing implement. The height is 4½ inches and the width nearly the
  same.

63068. Large flat-bottomed bowl, 6 inches in height, 11 inches in
  diameter at the top, and 8 at the base. Although made without a wheel,
  this vessel is quite symmetrical. The thickness is from one-fourth to
  one-half of an inch. The material has been a dark clay paste with
  tempering of powdered mica.

63066. A three-legged pot, with spherical body, resembling very closely
  in appearance the common iron cooking pot of the whites. The rim is
  6 inches in diameter, and 1 inch high. The body is 9 inches in
  diameter. Two handles are attached to the upper part of the body. The
  form is symmetrical and the surface highly polished. The polishing
  stone has been used with so much skill that the effect of a glaze is
  well produced. The materials used were clay and pulverized mica. The
  color is dark brown.

63067. A strong, rudely made vessel shaped like a half cask. The walls
  are about one-half an inch in thickness. The surface is rough, the
  polishing stone having been very carelessly applied.

63068. A flat-bottomed bowl symmetrical in shape but rudely finished.

VEGETAL SUBSTANCES.

63063. Basket sieve said to be used to separate the finer from the
  coarser particles of pounded corn. The coarse meal thus obtained is
  boiled and allowed to ferment. This is used as food and is called
  _connawhana_. The sieve is made of split cane carefully smoothed;
  some of the strips are dyed red and others brown. A simple ornamental
  design is worked in these colors. The opening is square, with rounded
  corners, the sides measuring 14 inches. The depth is 5 inches. The
  bottom is flat and loosely woven.

63072. A bottle-shaped basket, with constricted neck and rectangular
  body, used by the Cherokees for carrying fish. Height, 11 inches;
  width of mouth, 4 inches; diameter of body, 6 inches. It is made of
  strips of white oak or hickory, one-fourth of an inch in thickness.

63073. Basket made of strips of white oak intended for the storage
  of seeds and for other household uses. The rim is about 5 inches in
  diameter; the body is 8 inches in diameter, the base being rectangular
  and flat.

63074. Basket, made of cane, used for storing seed.

63076. Two baskets, made of cane, probably used for household purposes.
  They are neatly ornamented with simple designs, produced by the use of
  colored strips. The rims are oval in shape, and the bases rectangular.
  The larger will hold about half a bushel, the smaller about a gallon.

63077. Small basket with a handle, made of splints of white oak. Yellow
  strips of hickory bark are used to ornament the rim. Other colors are
  obtained by using bark of different trees, maple, walnut, etc.

63078. Small cup or dish carved from laurel or cucumber wood. It is very
  neatly made. The depth is about 1 inch; the width 5 inches.

63064. Large spoon, carved from laurel or cucumber wood, used by the
  Cherokees in handling the _connawhana_, or fermented meal. The carving
  is neatly done. The heart-shaped bowl is 6 inches in length, 4 in
  width, and about 2 in depth. The handle is 12 inches long, and is
  embellished at the end by a knob and ring. The knob is carved to
  represent a turtle's or snake's head.

63065. A smaller spoon similar in shape to the above.

63087. A large, five-pronged fork carved from the wood of the _Magnolia
  glauca_ (?). It resembles the iron forks of the whites.

63088. A small, three-pronged fork of the same pattern and material as
  the above.

63080. A wooden comb made in imitation of the shell combs used by white
  ladies for supporting and ornamenting the back hair. The carving is
  said to have been done with a knife. Considerable skill is shown in
  the ornamental design at the top. The wood is maple or beech.

63089. A walnut paddle or club, used to beat clothes in washing.

63059. Bow of locust wood, 5 feet long, one-half an inch thick, and 1½
  inches wide in the middle, tapering at the ends to 1 inch. The back of
  the bow is undressed, the bark simply having been removed. The string,
  which resembles ordinary twine, is said to be made of wild hemp. The
  arrows are 40 inches in length. The shafts are made of hickory wood
  and have conical points. Stone and metal points are not used, as the
  country abounds in small game only, and heavy points are considered
  unnecessary. In trimming the arrow two feathers of the wild turkey are
  used; these are close clipped and fastened with sinew.

63057. Blow-gun used by the Cherokees to kill small game. This specimen
  is 7 feet in length, and is made of a large cane, probably the
  _Arundinaria macrosperma_. These guns are made from 5 to 15 feet in
  length, the diameter in large specimens reaching 1½ inches.

63058. Arrows used with the blow-gun. The shafts, which are made of
  hickory wood, are 2 feet in length and very slender. The shooting end
  has a conical point; the feather end is dressed with thistle-down,
  tied on in overlapping layers with thread or sinew. The tip of down
  completely fills the barrel of the gun; and the arrow, when inserted
  in the larger end and blown with a strong puff, has a remarkable
  carrying and penetrating power.

63085. Thistle-heads, probably the _Cnicus lanceolatus_, from which the
  down is obtained in preparing the arrows of the blow-gun.

63061. Ball-sticks or racquets made of hickory wood. Rods of this tough
  wood, about 7 feet long, are dressed to the proper shape, the ends
  having a semicircular section, the middle part being flat. Each is
  bent and the ends united to form a handle, leaving a pear-shaped loop
  6 inches in width by about 12 in length, which is filled with a
  network of leather or bark strings sufficiently close to hold the
  ball.

63061. Ball, 1½ inches in diameter, covered with buckskin, used with the
  racquets in playing the celebrated ball game of the Cherokee, Choctaw,
  Creek, and Seminole Indians.

ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

63071. Shell, probably a _Unio_, used by potters to scrape the surface
  of clay vessels; seen in use.

63081. Comb made of horn. The teeth are 2 inches in length, and have
  been made with a saw. It is used in dressing the hair.

63085. Charm made of feathers and snake rattles; worn on the head or on
  some part of the costume.

63082. Awl of iron set in a handle of deer's horn.



COLLECTIONS FROM COCKE COUNTY, TENNESSEE.


FROM FIELDS NEAR NEWPORT.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62752. Grooved ax, 8 inches in length, 3½ in width, and about 1 in
  thickness; one side is quite flat, the other convex. The material is a
  banded schistose slate.

62758. A fine specimen of grooved ax, 7 inches in length, 4 in width,
  and 1½ in thickness. The groove is wide and shallow, and is bordered
  by two narrow ridges, which are in sharp relief all the way around.
  The material appears to be a greenish-gray diorite.

62759. A grooved ax, 6 inches long, 3½ inches wide, and 1 inch thick.
  This specimen is similar to the preceding, the groove being deeper on
  the lateral edges of the implement, and the upper end less prominent.
  It is made of a fine-grained gray sandstone.

62753. Fragment of a grooved ax, of gray slate. The groove is shallow
  and irregular.

62754. Celt of compact gray sandstone, somewhat chipped at the ends. It
  is 6½ inches in length by 2½ in width and 1½ in thickness. One face is
  flat, the other convex. The sides are nearly parallel. A transverse
  section would be sub rectangular.

62755. Fragment of celt, 3 inches in length by 2 in width and about 1½
  in thickness. The material is a fine grained sandstone or a diorite.

62756. A long, slender celt, very carefully finished, 7 inches in
  length, 2 in width, and less than 1 in thickness. The material is a
  very compact gray slate. It has apparently been recently used as a
  scythe-stone by some harvester.

62757. Fragment of a small, narrow celt, both ends of which are lost.
  Material, gray diorite.

62760. Heavy celt of gray diorite, 8 inches in length by 3 in width and
  2½ in thickness.

62762. A pestle of gray diorite, with enlarged base and tapering top,
  5½ inches in length and 3 inches in diameter at the base.

62751. A pestle of banded schistose slate, 15 inches in length, and 2½
  inches in diameter in the middle, tapering symmetrically toward the
  ends, which terminate in rounded points.

62763. A ceremonial (?) stone resembling somewhat a small broad-bladed
  pick, the outline being nearly semicircular. It is pierced as a pick
  is pierced for the insertion of a handle. It is 2½ inches in length,
  1½ in width, and three-fourths of an inch in thickness. The material
  is a soft greenish mottled serpentine, or serpentinoid limestone.
  Fig. 116.

  [Illustration: Fig. 116.]

62761. A pierced tablet of gray slate, 4½ inches long, 1½ inches wide,
  and half an inch thick. The two perforations are 2½ inches apart;
  they have been bored from opposite sides, and show no evidence of use.
  Nine notches have been cut in one end of the tablet. It has been much
  injured by recent use as a whetstone.

62764. Cup stone of rough sandstone, having seventeen shallow cup-like
  depressions, from 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The stone is of irregular
  outline, about 10 inches in diameter and 4 in thickness.

62765. A large pipe of gray steatite; the bowl is square and about 3
  inches in length, by 1 in diameter. The stem end is 4 inches in length
  and three-fourths of an inch in diameter. The bowl has a deep, conical
  excavation. The same is true of the stem-end also.


MOUND AT THE JUNCTION OF THE PIGEON AND FRENCH BROAD RIVERS.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

62870. The mound from which these fragments were obtained was located
  3 miles from Newport. It was 12 feet square and 6 feet high. The
  original height was probably much greater. The pottery was mixed with
  ashes and _débris_ of what appeared to be three fire-places. No human
  remains were found. The fragments are not numerous, nor do they
  indicate a great variety in form. There is, however, considerable
  variety in decoration.

_Material._--The clay is generally gray or dark-reddish gray in the
mass, and is apparently quite siliceous or sandy, numerous grains of
quartz being visible. There is generally a sprinkling of finely-powdered
mica, but no shell matter can be detected. When much weathered the
surface is quite gritty.

_Form._--The leading form is a round-bodied, pot-shaped vase. There is
one small hemispherical bowl. The outlines have been quite symmetrical.
The mouths of the pots are wide, and the necks deeply constricted.
The lip or rim exhibits a number of novel features. That of the larger
specimen, of which a considerable segment remains, is furnished on the
upper edge with a deep channel, nearly one-half an inch wide, and more
than one-fourth of an inch deep. First section, Fig. 117. Others have
a peculiar thickening of the rim, a sort of collar being added to the
outside. This is about 1 inch in width, and is thicker below, giving a
triangular section. Third section, Fig. 117.

  [Illustration: Fig. 117.]

The walls of the vessels are usually quite thin. The bottoms were
probably round, or nearly so. No fragments, however, of the lower parts
of the vessels were collected. There is but one example of handle, and
this presents no unusual features. Middle section, Fig. 117.

_Ornamentation._--The ornamentation is in some respects novel. The
double or channeled rim of the larger specimen, the mouth of which
has been 13 or 14 inches in diameter, is embellished with a line of
flutings, which seem to be the impressions of a hollow bone or reed. The
whole exterior surface is embellished with a most elaborate ornamental
design, which resembles the imprint of some woven fabric. If a woven
fabric has not been used, a pliable stamp, producing the effect of a
fabric, has been resorted to. The fact that the sharply concave portions
of the neck are marked with as much regularity as the convex body of the
vessel, precludes the idea of the use of a solid or non-elastic stamp.

The pattern consists of groups of parallel indented lines, arranged at
right angles with one another, the puzzling feature being that there is
no evidence of the passing of the threads or fillets over or under each
other, such as would be seen if a woven fabric had been used. The outer
surface of the triangular collar peculiar to many of the pots has been
decorated with a herring-bone pattern, made by impressing a sharp
implement. The handle in one case is similarly ornamented. This handle
has been added _after_ the figure previously described was impressed
upon the neck of the vessel. One small fragment shows another style of
indented or stamped pattern, which consists of series of straight and
curved lines, such as are characteristic of many of the vessels obtained
from the Gulf States.

A small fragment of coal-black ware is entirely smooth on the outside,
and indicates an unusually well finished and symmetrical vessel. Another
shows the impression of basket-work, in which a wide fillet or splint
has served as the warp and a small twisted cord as the woof. One
interesting feature of this vessel is that from certain impressions on
the raised ridges we discover that the vessel has been taken from the
net mold while still in a plastic state.

Still another reddish porous fragment has a square rim, which is
ornamented with a series of annular indentations.



COLLECTIONS FROM SEVIER COUNTY, TENNESSEE.


THE McMAHAN MOUND.

On the west fork of the Little Pigeon River, at Sevierville, on a rich
bottom, 125 yards from the river, is a celebrated mound, the owners of
which have for years refused to have it opened.

Mr. Palmer spent several days in trying to obtain permission to open it,
and was about leaving in despair, when the owners finally yielded, not,
however, without requiring a number of concessions on the part of the
collector, which concessions were put in the form of a legal document.

This mound is 16 feet high and 240 feet in circumference.

Three feet below the surface, a stratum of burnt clay, 15 feet wide by
30 long, was reached. This has probably formed part of the roof of a
dwelling.

Beneath this was a bed of charcoal 4 inches thick. In this bed remnants
of cedar posts from 2 to 4 inches thick and 1 to 2 feet in length were
found.

Below this was a stratum of ashes, covering a limited area to the depth
of 4 feet. Surrounding this, the earth contained fragments of numerous
articles used by the inhabitants, while beneath came 4½ feet of earth,
in which numerous skeletons had been deposited.

The bodies had been interred without order, and the bones were so
intermingled, and so far decayed, that no complete skeletons could be
collected. Beneath the layer of bones came a second deposit of ashes,
2 feet thick by 2½ feet in diameter, and beneath this a mass of red
clay, 18 inches in thickness. In the earth surrounding the ashes and
clay, a number of skeletons were found; these were in such an advanced
stage of decomposition that only a few fragments of skulls could be
preserved.

Three feet below the second layer of bones, the undisturbed soil was
reached.

Two boxes of bones were collected, the well-preserved crania numbering
about twenty.

A great many interesting specimens of the implements, utensils, and
ornaments of the mound-builders were obtained.

The following catalogue includes everything of interest:

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62787, 62792, 62778, 62769, 62784, 62788. Numerous specimens of
  arrow-points, flakes, cores, and rough masses of gray and black
  chalcedony, obtained partly from the mound, and partly from the soil
  surrounding it.

62793. A somewhat conical object of black compact graphite. The flattish
  base is rubbed off in an irregular way, as if in grinding down for use
  as a pigment.

62790. Fragment of hammerstone of gray micaceous sandstone, 5 inches
  long by 3 inches in diameter. It was found associated with the upper
  layer of skeletons.

62808. Pipe carved from gray marble. The bowl is symmetrically shaped,
  and resembles a common clay pipe. It is about 1½ inches in height and
  1 in diameter. The stem part is about one-fourth of an inch in length.
  Found with the upper layer of skeletons.

62786. A perforated stone tube, 1¼ inches long and three-fourths of an
  inch in diameter. It is probably the upper part of a pipe bowl.

62794. A large number of minute quartz pebbles, probably used in a
  rattle or in playing some game of chance. Found with the skeletons
  in the mound.

62798. Three glass beads, found 4 feet below the surface of the mound.
  One is a bright blue bead of translucent glass. One is opaque,
  resembling porcelain. The third is of blue-gray glass, and has three
  longitudinal stripes of brown, underlaid by bands of white. All are
  cylindrical in shape, and are from three-eighths to half an inch in
  length, and about one-fourth of an inch in diameter.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

The collection of pottery from this mound is of much interest. There
is but one entire vessel, but the fragments are so plentiful and well
preserved that many interesting forms can be restored, and a very good
idea of the ceramic work of this locality be formed.

_Form._--I have spent much time in the examination of these fragments,
and have assigned each to the form of vessel to which it belonged. Where
large pieces are preserved, especially if the rim is included, we have
little trouble in reconstructing the entire vessel, without fear of
being seriously wrong. The lower parts of the bodies of all forms are
round or slightly flattened, and but a small fragment of the rim is
needed to tell whether the vessel was a bottle, pot, or bowl.

I find, however, that the forms merge into each other in such a way that
a complete graduated series can be found. Of first importance, are the
round or globular vases with more or less constricted necks.

_Ornamentation._--The inside of all forms is plain with the exception of
accidental markings of the fingers. The rim is square, sharp, or round
on the edge, and sometimes slightly enlarged or beaded on the outer
margin. A collar is attached to many forms, which at the lower edge
overhangs. It is added to the body with the rim, or as a strip afterward
attached. It is often notched or indented with a stick, bone, or reed,
or with the fingers.

The necks of vases and pot-shaped vessels have a great variety of
handles, knobs, and ornaments. Some of the latter seem to be atrophied
handles. In some cases a low horizontal ridge, from 1 to 4 or more
inches in length is placed near the rim, in place of the continuous
collar. In other cases a narrow, crescent-shaped ridge is attached,
the points reaching down on the shoulder, the arch lying upon the neck.
Still others have one or more handles which connect the rim with the
neck or shoulder of the vessel, leaving a round or oblong passage for
a cord or vine.

These handles were added after the vessel was completed. They are never
ornamented. In one case an arched handle, like the handle of a basket,
connects the opposite sides of the rim. This is the only entire vessel
recovered from the mound. It was associated with the upper layer of
skeletons. Diameter 4½ inches. Fig. 118.

  [Illustration: Fig. 118.]

The body of these vessels is sometimes quite plain, but is more
frequently covered with cord markings. These, with one or two
exceptions, seem to be made by a series of fine cords, approximately
parallel, but without cross-threads of any kind. There is little
uniformity of arrangement. In the upper part, and about the base of the
neck, the indented lines are generally vertical. On the bottom they are
quite irregular, as if the vessel, in making, had been rolled about on a
piece of netting or coarse cloth. The cords have been about the size of
the ordinary cotton cord used by merchants. One exception is seen in a
fragment of a large, rudely-made vase, in which we have the impression
of a fabric, the warp of which, whether wood or cord, has consisted of
fillets more than one-fourth of an inch in width, the woof being fine
cord.

This is what is frequently spoken of as the ear-of-corn impression.
No incised or excavated lines have been noticed in these fragments of
pot-shaped vessels. Some of the most elegant vessels are without upright
necks. The upper or incurved surface of the body is approximately flat,
forming, with the lower part of the body a more or less sharp peripheral
angle. The base is rounded, and, so far as we can judge from the
examples, the bottom is slightly flattened. Vessels having vertical
or flaring rims are generally somewhat more shallow.

The incurved upper surface is often tastefully ornamented with patterns
of incised or excavated lines which are arranged in groups, in vertical
or oblique positions, or encircle the vessel parallel with the border.
One specimen has a row of stamped circles, made by a reed or hollow
bone.

Bowls of the ordinary shape are variously decorated. In one case we
have on the outside of the rim, and projecting slightly above it, a
rudely-modeled grotesque face. A notched fillet passes around the rim,
near the lip, connecting with the sides of this head.

In another case a rude node is added to the rim. The only bowl having a
flaring rim is without ornament.

We have only one fragment of a bowl in which the body has been marked
with cords.

_Composition._--The clay used in the pottery from this mound is
generally fine in texture, and of a light-gray color. Many of the
fragments have been blackened by burning subsequently to their original
firing, and some may have been originally blackened with graphite. The
prevailing colors seen in the fragments are yellowish and reddish grays.
The percentage of powdered shell used in tempering has usually been very
large, forming at times at least half the mass. The flakes of shell are
very coarse, being often as much as one-fourth of an inch in diameter.
In many cases they have been destroyed by burning, or have dropped out
from decay, leaving a deeply pitted surface.

_Pipes._--There are a number of pipes in the collection, most of which
were found near the surface of the mound. In some cases they resemble
modern forms very closely. The most striking example is made of a
fine-grained clay, without visible admixture of tempering material.
The color is a reddish gray. It is neatly and symmetrically formed,
the surface being finished by polishing with a smooth, hard implement,
and shaving with a knife. The bowl is 2 inches high, and the rim is
bell-shaped above, with a smooth, flat lip, one-fourth of an inch wide.
The diameter of the opening is nearly 2 inches. The base is conical.
The stem part is one-half an inch long and one-half an inch in diameter.
The bowl and stem are both conically excavated.

Another specimen is made of clay mixed with powdered shell. The bowl is
cylindrical, being a little larger at the rim, which is ornamented with
rows of punctures. The elbow is ornamented by a rosette of indented
lines. The mouth piece has been broken away.

OBJECTS OF METAL.

62797. One of the most instructive finds in this mound is a pair of
  brass pins, of undoubted European manufacture. The collector makes the
  statement, with entire confidence in its correctness, that they had
  been encased in the earth at the time of the interment of the bodies.
  One was associated with the upper and the other with the lower layer
  of bones. In size and shape they resemble our ordinary brass toilet
  pin. The head is formed of a spiral coil of wire, the diameter of
  which is about one-half that of the shaft of the pin. It is also
  stated by the collector that an iron bolt was found in the lower
  stratum of bones. This object was unfortunately lost.

62795. A small brass cylinder, found 3 feet 7 inches below the surface
  of the mound. The thin sheet of which the coil is made is about 1 inch
  square. The edges are uneven. It was probably used as a bead.

OBJECTS OF SHELL.

Few mounds have rivaled this in its wealth of shell ornaments. Engraved
gorgets cut from the body of the _Busycon perversum_ and large pins
from the columellæ of the same shell are especially numerous and
well-preserved. Large numbers of beads and unworked shells were also
found. All were intimately associated with the skeletons.

While many of the specimens are well-preserved, we find that many are in
an advanced stage of decay, and unless most carefully handled, crumble
to powder.

Similar shell ornaments are found in mounds in other parts of Tennessee,
as well as in neighboring States. These have been pretty fully described
in the Second Annual Report.

62830-62839. These pins are all made from the _Busycon perversum_.
  The entire specimens range from 3 to 6 inches in length; two are
  fragmentary, having lost their points by decay. The heads are from
  one-half to 1 inch in length, and are generally less than 1 inch in
  diameter. They are somewhat varied in shape, some being cylindrical,
  others being conical above. The shaft is pretty evenly rounded, but is
  seldom symmetrical or straight. It is rarely above one-half an inch in
  diameter, and tapers gradually to a more or less rounded point. The
  groove of the canal shows distinctly in all the heads, and may often
  be traced far down the shaft. In a number of cases the surface retains
  the fine polish of the newly finished object, but it is usually
  somewhat weathered, and frequently discolored or chalky. These
  specimens were found in the mounds along with deposits of human
  remains, and generally in close proximity to the head; this fact
  suggests their use as ornaments for the hair.

62840-62843. A number of saucer-shaped shell gorgets, the upper edge
  being somewhat straightened, the result of the natural limit of the
  body of the shell. Two small holes, for suspension occur near the
  upper margin. The diameter ranges from 3 to 6 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 119. 62831]

  [Illustration: Fig. 120. 62831]

In studying the design the attention is first attracted by an eye-like
figure near the left border. This is formed of a series of concentric
circles, and is partially inclosed by a looped band about one-eighth
of an inch in width, which opens downward to the left. This band is
occupied by a series of conical dots or depressions, the number of which
varies in the different specimens. The part of the figure inclosed by
this band represents the head and neck of the serpent. To the right of
the eye we have the mouth, which is usually shown in profile, the upper
jaw being turned upward exhibiting a double row of notches or teeth. The
body encircles the head in a single coil, which appears from beneath the
neck on the right, passes around the front of the head, and terminates
at the back in a pointed tail armed with well-defined rattles. The spots
and scales of the serpent are represented in a highly conventionalized
manner.

  [Illustration: Fig. 121. Fig. 122.
  Shell gorgets with engraved designs representing the rattlesnake.]

62841-62845. The handsome specimen given in Fig. 124 is in a very good
  state of preservation. It is a deep, somewhat oval plate, made from a
  _Busycon perversum_. The surface is nicely polished and the margins
  neatly beveled. The marginal zone is less than half an inch wide
  and contains at the upper edge two perforations, which have been
  considerably abraded by the cord of suspension. Four long curved slits
  or perforations almost sever the central design from the rim; the four
  narrow segments that remain are each ornamented with a single conical
  pit. The serpent is very neatly engraved and belongs to the chevroned
  variety. The eye is large and the neck is ornamented with a single
  rectangular intaglio figure. The mouth is more than usually well
  defined. The upper jaw is turned abruptly backward and is ornamented
  with lines peculiar to this variety of the designs.

  [Illustration: Fig. 123. (62841.) Fig. 124. (62845.)
  Shell gorgets with engraved designs representing the rattlesnake.]

The body of the serpent opposite the perforations for suspension is
interrupted by a rather mysterious cross band, consisting of one broad
and two narrow lines. As this is a feature common to many specimens,
it probably had some important office or significance.

62847-62848. Mask-like shell ornaments. By a combination of engraving
  and sculpture a rude resemblance to the human features is produced.
  The objects are generally made from large pear-shaped sections of the
  lower whorl of marine univalves. The lower portion, which represents
  the neck and chin, is cut from the somewhat constricted part near the
  base of the shell, while the broad outline of the head reaches the
  first suture at the noded shoulder of the body whorl. The simplest
  form is shown in Fig. 125. A more elaborate form is given in Fig. 126.

  [Illustration: Fig. 125. (62348.) Mask-like object of shell.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 126. (62347.) Mask-like object of shell.]

These objects are especially numerous in the mounds of Tennessee, but
their range is quite wide, examples having been reported from Kentucky,
Virginia, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, and smaller ones of a
somewhat different type from New York. In size they range from 2 to 10
inches in length, the width being considerably less. They are generally
found associated with human remains in such a way as to suggest their
use as ornaments for the head or neck. There are, however, no holes for
suspension except those made to represent the eyes, and these, so far as
I have observed, show no abrasion by a cord of suspension. Their shape
suggests the idea that they may have been used as masks, after the
manner of metal masks by some of the oriental nations.

  [Illustration: Fig. 127.--Shell gorget with engraving of a curious
  human figure.]

62846. Engraved shell, Fig. 127. This very interesting object has been
  fully described in the Second Annual Report of the Bureau. The figure
  is so obscure that considerable study is necessary in making it out.

62930. Engraved shell, Fig. 128. This remarkable specimen has already
  been described in the Second Annual Report of the Bureau. The engraved
  design is certainly of a very high order of merit, and suggests the
  work of the ancient Mexicans.

62816-62822, 62824, 62826, 62828, 62829. Shell beads discoidal and
  cylindrical in form, made chiefly from the columellæ and walls of
  marine univalves.

62825. Shell bead made by grinding off the apex of a large _Oliva
  biplicata_. (?)

62827. Beads made from _Marginella_ (?) shells.

62825, 62827, 62850-62857, 62782. Species of shell found in the mound,
  some with the skeletons, others near the surface.

  [Illustration: Fig. 128.--Shell gorget with engraved design
  representing two fighting figures.]

The following genera and species are provisionally determined:

  _Unio multiplicatus._
  _Uhio ovatus._
  _Unio crassidens._
  _Unio victorum._
  _Marginella (?)._
  _Oliva (?)._
  _Io spinosa._
  _Trypanostoma anthonyi._
  _Anculosa subglobosa._
  _Busycon perversum._

62823. A tooth-shaped fresh-water pearl, found with the skeletons.

ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

62861. Fragments of deer-horn found near the surface of the mound.

62858. An implement of unusual form, made from a flat piece of bone,
  found with the skeletons in the mound.

62859, 62860. Bone implements, needles and perforators, some of which
  are well preserved and retain the original polish; others are in a
  very advanced stage of decay.

Three boxes of human bones (not numbered).


FROM THE FIELDS AT SEVIERVILLE.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62770. A small grooved ax, formed of a coarse textured stone, resembling
  diorite. It is 4½ inches in length and 2½ in width. The head is
  rounded and the cutting edge much battered. The groove is wide and
  shallow, and the bordering ridges prominent. The blade thins out quite
  abruptly. Presented by J. B. Emert.

62772. A celt 6¾ inches long, 2½ inches wide, and 1 inch thick. The
  material is a compact, blue-gray, banded slate. The sides are straight
  and a transverse section is somewhat rectangular. Both edges are
  sharpened, and are very neatly beveled and polished. Presented by
  W. P. Mitchell.

62771. A small celt of compact greenish slate; one face is flat, the
  other convex. It is neatly made and perfectly preserved, the broader
  end being oblique and sharp. It is 3-1/8 inches in length.

62777. A rude, much-battered celt of coarse sandstone or diorite. It is
  4 inches in length by 2 in width near the cutting edge. The top is
  somewhat conical.

62774. A large unsymmetrical celt made of coarse yellowish sandstone;
  one side is much battered. The cutting edge is round and dull. It is
  9 inches in length by 5 in width near the broad end and is 1½ inches
  thick.

62785. A knife-blade-shaped object, apparently a fragment of a winged
  ceremonial stone. The whole surface is smooth and shows no evidence of
  use. It is made of fine-grained gray slate. It is 2 inches in length
  by five-eighths in width.

62775. A bell-shaped pestle made of yellowish gray quartzite. The
  surface has been evenly roughened by picking, but has become slightly
  polished on parts most exposed when in use. The base part is
  subrectangular in section, and the bottom is slightly but evenly
  convex. The upper part, which has been shaped for convenient grasping
  by the hand, is evenly rounded at the top. Height, 4½ inches; width,
  of base, 3½ inches.

62766. A well-formed globe of gritty sandstone. The surface is roughened
  or granular. It is 2½ inches in diameter.

62789. Portion of an oblong hammer stone, 4 inches in length by 3 in
  diameter in the middle part. One end has been much reduced by use.
  It is made of some dark, much decomposed, crystalline rock.

62768. Asymmetrical sandstone ring, 2 inches in diameter and
  three-fourths of an inch in thickness. The perforation is about
  five-eighths of an inch in diameter. The surface is roughened by
  picking.

  [Illustration: Fig. 129.]

62767. A symmetrical, neatly finished disk of light gray quartzite.
  It is 4¼ inches in diameter and 1¼ inches in thickness at the
  circumference, and less than 1 inch thick at the center.

62869. An hour-glass shaped tube made of gray hydro-mica schist, which
  resembles very compact steatite. It is 5½ inches long, 2 inches in
  diameter at the widest part and 1¼ inches at the narrowest part. The
  most restricted part near the middle is girdled by a ridge or ring, on
  the circumference of which seventy or eighty shallow notches have been
  cut.

The perforation is much enlarged at the ends, giving cup-like cavities.
The walls are thin near the ends and quite thick near the middle, the
passage being hardly more than one-quarter of an inch in diameter. The
markings on the inside indicate that the excavation has been made by a
gouging process, rather than by the use of a rotary perforator.

  [Illustration: Fig. 130.]

62776. A boat-shaped ceremonial stone of banded slate, 3 inches long,
  1 inch wide, and 1 inch deep. From the side the outline is triangular,
  the two lines of the keel forming almost a right angle. From the top
  the outline is a long, pointed oval, as seen in the illustration,
  Fig. 131.

  [Illustration: Fig. 131.]

The trough-shaped excavation is more rounded in outline, and is
three-fourths of an inch in depth. Perforations have been made near the
ends of this trough; these seem to be somewhat abraded on the outside by
a cord of suspension or attachment which has passed between them along a
groove in the apex or angle of the keel.

  [Illustration: Fig. 132. 62868]

62868. An amulet or charm of dark-greenish rock, probably a serpentine,
  carved to represent a bird's head. The more highly polished parts
  are quite dark, while freshly cut lines are whitish. The head is
  graphically represented, the bill, the eye, and nostril being well
  shown. A stand-like base takes the place of the body of the bird.
  Around this, near the bottom, a groove has been cut for the purpose of
  attaching a string or securing a handle. In dressing the surface some
  implement has been used that has left file-like scratches. Fig. 132
  represents this object natural size.

62773. Fragment of a stone disk or wheel that has lines cut upon it
  resembling in arrangement the grooves of an ordinary millstone.
  Diameter, 6 inches; thickness, 2 inches. This is probably not an
  aboriginal work.

  [Illustration: Fig. 133. 63186]

63186. A banner-stone of unusual shape, made of gray slate. The cut,
  Fig. 133, represents this object three-fourths natural size.
  The perforation is one-half an inch in diameter, and is quite
  symmetrical. The entire surface is well polished.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

A few specimens of potsherds were collected from the fields about
Sevierville.

Most of these are identical in every way with the pottery of the mound,
but three examples are of a totally different type. The material of
these is a fine sandy clay, tempered with a large percentage of finely
pulverized mica.

The forms of the vessels cannot be made out. The outer surfaces were
ornamented by a stamped pattern of small square or lozenge-shaped
figures, a number of these together were apparently formed by a single
stamp.

Among the fragments we have half a dozen disks, from 1 to 2 inches in
diameter, worked from ordinary potsherds. A small rudely modeled figure
of a bird was also found with these fragments. There were also masses of
indurated clay, which seem to have been used for chinking purposes.



COLLECTIONS FROM ROANE COUNTY, TENNESSEE.


MOUND AT TAYLOR'S BEND.

This mound is situated three hundred and fifty yards from the French
Broad River, on the farm of Mr. William Harris.

It is 10 feet high and nearly 50 feet in circumference. Its summit has
been cultivated for many years, and the height has doubtless been much
reduced. Immediately under the surface soil a heavy bed of ashes and
charcoal was reached, which at the border of the mound was only a few
inches thick, but at the center was about 3 feet thick.

In this stratum were found a few implements, and fragments of pottery,
and two very much decayed skeletons. A part of one cranium was
preserved. The mound beneath this stratum was composed chiefly of loam,
with some sand in the center, and contained nothing of interest.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62885. A needle-like implement, made of a soft black stone that may be
  cannel coal. It is 3½ inches in length, but is not entire. The shaft
  is a little more than one-fourth of an inch in diameter, is nearly
  round, and tapers to a symmetrical point. The surface is highly
  polished. It was found in the stratum of ashes.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

62890, 62892-6. A considerable number of fragments of pottery was found
  in the stratum of ashes.

_Form._--Vases of the wide-mouthed, round-bodied variety are
represented, also a number of hemispherical bowls. One large fragment
representing a vessel with rounded bottom was found.

_Size._--The pot-like vases have been quite large, the mouths being as
much as 14 inches in diameter. The larger bowls have been 10 inches or
more in diameter. Others are smaller. The walls of some of the larger
vessels have been half an inch in thickness.

_Material._--Classified by material, there are two varieties, one is
composed of the usual clay and pulverized shells, the latter being
coarse and exceedingly plentiful; the other has no shell material, but
in its place an admixture of sand and small quartz pebbles.

_Ornamentation._--The inside is plain as usual, and many of the
fragments have no exterior ornament. There are two varieties of surface
markings; one consists of impressions of basket work, which indicate a
broad series of fillets bound together by small twisted cords of grass
or bark; the other appears to have been made by an open net-work of fine
cords, which have been quite irregularly arranged.

OBJECTS OF SHELL.

62898. A shell pin made from the columella of a large univalve. The
  original polish is still preserved. The head is round and small, and
  the shaft 2 inches in length. Found in the stratum of ashes.

62899. Two species of shells, _Io spinosa_ and _Pleurocera conradii_
  (?), obtained from the stratum of ashes.


COLLECTIONS FROM THE FIELDS AT TAYLOR'S BEND.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62883. A lot of arrow points, spear points, and knives, having a wide
  range of shape and size. A serrated specimen is 3 inches in length,
  and is made of yellowish striped chalcedony. One is made of white
  translucent quartz, and others of dark gray and black chalcedony.

62881. A stone disk, 1¼ inches in diameter and three-eighths of an inch
  thick. It is of gray sandstone, nicely smoothed. The edge is rounded
  and the sides slightly convex.

62882. Two stone disks similar to the preceding, but smaller.

62878. A small, thick, nearly symmetrical celt, 2½ inches in length,
  1½ inches in width, and one-half of an inch thick. The edge is rounded
  in outline and well sharpened. The beveled areas are narrow and stand
  at an angle of 30° with each other. It is widest at the edge, tapering
  above to a conical point. The material is apparently a compact
  greenish diorite.

62877. A small celt similar to the preceding in form and material. It is
  3¼ inches long, and 1¾ inches in width near the cutting edge, which is
  considerably battered.

62875. A curved celt of considerable interest, made of a greenish
  diorite. It is 8 inches in length, 2½ inches wide near the cutting
  edge, and about 1 inch thick. It tapers toward the apex to 1½ inches
  in width. A transverse section would be a sharp oval. A longitudinal
  section showing the thickness of the implement gives a bow-like
  figure, the median line of which would deflect nearly half an inch
  from a straight line.

62876. A celt, 3½ inches in length, of the usual form, made of a
  greenish diorite.

62874. A grooved ax of gray sandstone, 5 inches long, 3 inches wide,
  and 1 inch thick. The groove is deep and well rounded, and has two
  bordering ridges in high relief. The head is low and conical, and the
  blade narrow and rectangular. The surface has originally been quite
  smooth, but is now somewhat battered.

  [Illustration: Fig. 134. 62879]

  [Illustration: Fig. 135. 62880]

62871. A cylindrical pestle of gray diorite (?), 11 inches long and
  2 inches in diameter. The general surface is rough, the points being
  smoothed by use.

62879. A perforated tablet, made of gray, chloritic schist, 2½ inches
  long by 1½ inches broad, illustrated in Fig. 134. The sides are
  notched in a way that gives a dumb-bell like outline. The ends are
  almost square. Series of notches have been cut in the terminal edges.
  On one of the lateral margins rude notches and zigzag lines have been
  engraved. In the middle of the plate there is a circular perforation
  one-fourth of an inch in diameter. Midway between this and the ends
  are two other perforations, one being circular and one-eighth of an
  inch in diameter, and the other lozenge or diamond shaped and nearly
  one-fourth of an inch in width. These show no evidence of wear. The
  surface is uneven, though somewhat polished. It has probably been used
  for straightening arrow shafts and shaping strings.

62880. Fragment of a perforated tablet carved from gray slate. It has
  been broken transversely near the middle, through a perforation which
  has been about one-eighth of an inch in diameter. The remnant is
  2 inches in length and 1½ inches in width at the perforation. One side
  is plain, the other has a design of plain and zigzag lines. The edges
  are beveled and notched. See Fig. 135.


VICINITY OF KINGSTON.

On the farm of Mr. M. Biss, three miles from Kingston, on the Tennessee
River, a mound was opened which was so located as to overlook the river,
and at the same time guard the approach from two pieces of projecting
wood. It was 11 feet high, 29 feet wide on the top, and 45 feet in
diameter at the base. It was composed entirely of clay.

Three feet from the surface six very much decayed skeletons were found,
no parts of which could be preserved. The bodies seem to have been
deposited without definite order.

No objects of art were obtained.

Opposite Kingston, on the Clinch River, are three mounds, located on the
farm of T. N. Clark. They are all small, and, with the exception of two
much decayed skeletons and a single arrow point, contained nothing of
interest.

On the farm of S. P. Evans, three miles below Kingston, are three groups
of mounds. The first contains five mounds; the second, a little higher
up, has the same number, while the third has but two. They are all built
of clay, and seem to be without remains of any sort.


MOUND AT NILES' FERRY.

On the farm of J. W. Niles, at this point, is a large mound that has the
appearance of a Creek or Cherokee ball-ground. It was flat on the top,
and had an area of 1¾ acres. The height was 15 feet. In outline it was
somewhat triangular. This mound was also constructed of clay, and
contained nothing of interest. In the fields, near by, human bones,
pottery, stone implements, beads, etc., are frequently plowed up. From
this locality the following specimens were collected:

62957. Arrow heads and knives of gray and black chalcedony.

62955. Unworked Unio shells.

62956. A number of shell beads of usual size and form.


MOUNDS NEAR PAINT ROCK FERRY.

About three hundred yards from the Tennessee River, at Paint Rock Ferry,
is a large mound 40 feet in height, and covering an area of about about
two acres.

Permission could not be obtained to open the mound, on account of the
crop of corn that covered it. Near its base, on opposite sides, were two
smaller mounds. One of these was 5 feet high and 10 in diameter, and
contained a stone grave. The body which it contained had been laid on
the ground and covered a foot deep with earth. A flat rock had been laid
upon this, and slabs of limestone set on edge all around. The inclosed
space was 4 feet in width by 5 in length. Earth had been used to cover
the cist and form the mound.

About this mound were scattered many slabs of stone which had been
plowed up during previous years; and it is stated that human bones and
various objects of art have, at different times, been brought to light.

A short distance from the large mound, and near the river bank, is
another mound on which a barn has been built.

Several hundred yards from the river, in a meadow, is a third mound,
less than half as large as that first mentioned. The owner would not
allow it to be disturbed. Still another mound, near by, was oval in
outline, 28 feet long, by 20 wide, and 12 high. It was composed of clay
and contained nothing but a few pieces of pottery.

62939, 62940, 62945. Fragments of pottery from the mounds at Paint Rock
  Ferry.

OBJECTS OF SHELL.

  [Illustration: Fig. 136. Fig. 137.]

62935, 62937. Shell beads, buttons, and pendants, made from marine
  shells. A neatly made pendant is 1 inch in diameter and one-sixth
  of an inch thick. Near the edge are two small perforations for
  suspension, and at the center is a conical pit, encircled by a shallow
  incised line. Beside this, there are a number of buttons of similar
  shape, which have single perforations at the center. Some of the
  smaller beads seem to have been painted red. Figs. 136, 137, and 138.

62936. Fragment of a large _Busycon perversum_.

62942. Teeth of the bear, and possibly of the horse found near the
  surface of one of the mounds.

  [Illustration: Fig. 138.]



COLLECTIONS FROM JEFFERSON COUNTY.


MOUND ON FAIN'S ISLAND.

This mound is located on the east end of the island. Although it has
been under cultivation for many years, it is still 10 feet in height.
The circumference at the base is about 100 feet. Near the surface a bed
of burned clay was encountered, in which were many impressions of poles,
sticks, and grass. This was probably the remains of the roof of a house,
which had been about 16 feet long by 15 feet in width. The bed of clay
was about 4 inches thick. Beneath this was a layer of charcoal and
ashes, with much charred cane. There were also indications of charred
posts, which probably served as supports to the roof. Four feet below
the surface were found the remains of thirty-two human skeletons. With
the exception of seventeen skulls, none of the bones could be preserved.
There seems to have been no regularity in the placing of the bodies.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

The fragments of pottery from this mound are unusually large and well
preserved, and exhibit a number of varieties of form and ornamentation.

_Forms._--The prevailing form is a pot-shaped vase, with wide mouth,
and rounded body; the neck is short and straight or but slightly
constricted. The handles or ears which connect the upper part of the
neck with the shoulder are in some cases as much as 3 inches wide. The
bowls are mostly hemispherical, but in a few cases have incurved lips,
the shoulder being rounded and the base somewhat flattened. The largest
specimens have been 11 or 12 inches in diameter. The vases have been
somewhat larger.

_Material._--Classified by material, there seem to be two varieties,
one with a very large percentage of coarsely pulverized shell material,
the other without visible _dégraissant_. The clay is usually fine and
apparently without admixture of sand or other impurities. A little
comminuted mica may be seen in some cases.

_Color._--The prevailing color is a reddish gray, more or less blackened
by use. A remarkable variety has a bright red surface, the mass being
gray.

_Ornamentation._--The ornamentation consists of cord and net
impressions, incised lines, stamped figures, indented fillets, and life
and fanciful forms modeled in relief.

The study of cord impressions is quite interesting. The cords are
twisted and as large as medium twine. These cords appear to have been
disconnected, at least, not woven into a fabric, and the impressions are
generally nearly vertical about the upper part of the vessel, but below
take all positions, the result being a sort of hatching of the lines.
This effect may be the result of placing the vessel upon a coarse fabric
while the rim was being finished or the handles added.

It seems possible that a loose net of cords, probably with fine
crossthreads, is used to suspend the vessel in during the process of
modeling. It appears, however, if this has been the case, that the
vessel has been taken out of this net before it was burned. Where
handles have been added, it will be found that the cord markings have
been destroyed by the touch of the fingers. But the body has impressions
of the net made after the addition of the handles and ornaments, as the
impressions appear on the outside or lower edges of these additions. The
lower part of the body may still have been supported by the net during
the process of drying; but as some vessels have no cord markings
whatever, it is evident that it was not difficult to complete the vessel
without the support of the net.

  [Illustration: Fig. 139.]

By making a clay impression of one of the fragments I have been able
to determine the character of the fabric used. It was loosely woven and
quite flexible, the clay often receiving finger impressions through it.
It was probably made of grasses or the fibre of bark.

Beside the net and cord marks, which may or may not be the result of an
attempt at ornament, there are ornaments made of fillets of clay. In a
number of cases a comb-like figure made of thin fillets has been added
to the shoulder of a vase. In other cases a fillet has been carried
around the neck of the vase and indented by the finger or an implement.

The rim of one bowl has been ornamented with three deeply incised
or excavated lines, which form a sort of embattled figure about the
incurved lip. Another has a series of shallow, vertical, incised lines
near the rim, and a circle of annular indentations, three-eighths of an
inch in diameter, about one-fourth of an inch from the lip.

There are also various forms of noded ornaments on the rims of bowls.
The handles of vases are in a few cases effectively ornamented. In one
case the handle has been elaborated into a life form, representing a
frog or human figure. The arms are attached to the upper part of the
handle and lie extended along the rim. The handle proper represents the
body, the breast being protruded. The legs lie flattened out upon the
shoulder of the vessel, the feet being bent back beneath the body;
height 3½ inches. This vessel is illustrated in Fig. 139.


FROM THE FIELDS OF FAIN'S ISLAND.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

62906. A very handsome specimen of grooved ax. It is made of a
  remarkable variety of porphyritic diorite that resembles breccia.

The matrix has the appearance of a gray speckled quartzite; the angular
inclusions being whitish feldspar, with dark-greenish patches of
hornblende. The surface is smooth and shows but little wear. The length
is 7 inches, the width 4, and the thickness 2 inches. The groove is
deep, and has two well-defined bordering ridges. The head is low and
rounded, and occupies about one-third of the length of the implement.
The blade is well-formed, the sides being parallel or nearly so. The
edge is slightly rounded in outline, and is polished and sharp.

62907. A grooved stone ax, 5 inches in length, 4½ inches in width,
  and 1¼ inches in thickness. The groove is placed as in the preceding
  example, but has a bordering ridge on the upper side only. The head is
  very large and narrow. The blade is rectangular in outline, and has a
  rounded, moderately sharp edge. The material is a compact graphic
  diorite (?).

62904. A grooved ax, 4 inches in length, 3½ inches in width, and
  three-fourths of an inch in thickness. The groove, which is well
  defined, has no lateral ridges. It seems to have been made from a
  flattish, oval, river pebble.

62902. Fragment of a pierced tablet of slate.

62903. A well shaped disk of translucent quartz, 1¾ inches in diameter
  and three-fourths of an inch in thickness. The sides are nearly flat,
  and the edge evenly rounded. The surface is quite smooth.

62905. Steatite pipe found on the surface of the mound. The bowl is
  about 6 inches in length and 1 inch in thickness. A section is nearly
  square. The cavities are roughly excavated.

OBJECTS OF SHELL.

62916. Well preserved specimen of _Io spinosa_.

62955. Specimens of _Unio probatus_.

62914. A large specimen of shell pin, made from the columella of a
  _Busycon perversum_. It is much discolored and in an advanced stage of
  decay. Length nearly 4 inches. Form as usual.

62913. A shell pin similar to the preceding.

  [Illustration: Fig. 140.--Shell gorget with an engraved cross.]

62931. A number of large shell beads, made from the columellæ of marine
  shells. The larger specimens are cylindrical in form, and are 1 inch
  in length and upwards of 1 inch in diameter.

  [Illustration: Fig. 141.--Shell gorget with the engraving of a
  spider.]

62932-62834. Shell beads of various sizes and shapes, made from the
  columellæ and walls of marine shells.

62928. A shell ornament, on the convex surface of which a very curious
  ornamental design has been engraved. The design, inclosed by a circle,
  represents a cross such as would be formed by two rectangular tablets
  or slips, slit longitudinally and interlaced at right-angles to each
  other. The lines are neatly and deeply incised. The edge of the
  ornament has been broken away nearly all around. It is represented
  natural size in the cut. Fig. 140.

62929. This disk is somewhat more convex on the front than is indicated
  in the engraving. It is 2½ inches in diameter, and is quite thin and
  fragile, although the surface has not suffered much from decay. The
  margin is ornamented with twenty-four very neatly-made notches or
  scallops. Immediately inside the border on the convex side are two
  incised circles, on the 3 outer of which two small perforations for
  suspension have been made; inside of these, and less than half an inch
  from the margin, is a circle of seventeen subtriangular perforations,
  the inner angle of each being much rounded. Inside of this again is
  another incised circle, about 1¼ inches in diameter, which incloses
  the highly conventionalized figure of an insect resembling a spider.
  The middle segment of the body is nearly round and has near the center
  a large conical perforation. This round portion corresponds to the
  thorax of the insect and has four pairs of legs attached to it. It is
  difficult to distinguish the anterior and posterior extremities of the
  body. It is probable that the subtriangular figure below is intended
  for the head, as the two circles with central dots are good
  representations of eyes. Fig. 141.

ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

62910, 62911, 62912. A number of bone implements, including needles,
  perforators, and paddle-shaped objects, found with the skeletons in
  the mound.



COLLECTIONS FROM MISSISSIPPI COUNTY, ARKANSAS.


PEMISSCOTT MOUND.

On Pemisscott Bayou, 22 miles northwest of Osceola, on the farm of
Samuel Hector, is a mound 20 feet in height, with a surface area of
about one-fourth of an acre. The sides have been dug into extensively,
but the central part remained untouched. It was composed of sand and
bluish clay, but contained no remains of interest. It is stated by the
proprietor that formerly there were three circular ditches extending
around the slopes of the mound. When the surface of the mound was first
plowed quantities of charcoal and potsherds were found.


CHICKASAWBA MOUND.

This mound is situated at Chickasawba Village, 24 miles north of
Osceola. It is 25 feet high, and covers an area of one-fourth of an
acre.

Collectors had already done much work on this mound, but obtained little
or nothing. The owner does not wish it disturbed further. A field of
several acres near by abounds in fragments of pottery, stone implements,
and the remains of houses and camp-fires.

The field contained originally many small mounds or heaps, which were
probably the sites of houses. In a number of cases skeletons have been
found beneath these heaps.


MOUNDS IN CARSON LAKE TOWNSHIP.

In Carson Lake township, 6 miles southwest of Osceola, on the farm
of Hugh Walker, are three mounds, which were much disturbed by the
earthquake that visited the New Madrid district in 1811.

The first one inspected is 59 feet wide by 75 feet long, but exhibits no
evidence of having been a dwelling or burial place.

The second mound is about 100 yards from the first, and is circular in
outline, having two ridge-like projections from opposite sides. It is 20
feet in height, and about 23 feet across at the top. A number of recent
interments have been made near the summit.

The third mound is 250 yards from the preceding, and is 6 feet high,
34 feet wide, and 35 feet long. Six skeletons were found in this mound.
A stratum of ashes, charcoal, and burned clay was associated with them.
One cranium and a few bones were collected.

63049. Burnt clay from the third mound just described.

63052. Fragment of a plain vase; interior, reddish; exterior,
  yellowish-gray. Other fragments are of ordinary undecorated ware.


MOUNDS AT PECAN POINT.

On the land of R. W. Friend, 1 mile west of the Mississippi River,
are two mounds. The one first examined is 5 feet high and 150 feet in
circumference. The other is 4 feet high and 75 feet in circumference.
Two skeletons were found near the surface of the latter mound.

Near these mounds is another, 4 feet high and 20 feet in diameter.
Formerly this mound was covered with large trees, and the roots have
penetrated the soil, causing much injury to the contents. It is the
opinion of the collector that this mound, as well as many others of the
same region, has been used as a dwelling site, and that when a death
occurred the dwelling was burned down over the body. Before building
again the site was covered with a few inches of earth. There was no
uniformity in the position of the graves or their contents. The
following objects were obtained from this mound:

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

63009. A jar-shaped vase, with low neck and much compressed body.
  Height, 4 inches; width, 5½ inches; surface, moderately smooth;
  color, almost black.

63022. A jar similar to the preceding, but somewhat taller.

63046. A rather unusual form of bottle-shaped vase. The neck is narrow
  and tapering. A fillet with finger indentations encircles the lip. The
  base of the neck is also ornamented with a collar or fillet. The body
  is globular, apparently a little pointed above. Whole height, 10½
  inches; width, 8 inches; color, gray.

63029. A small, large-necked vase, with globular body, and lip a little
  recurved. The body is ornamented with a number of indentations,
  probably made with the finger nail. Color, dark gray.

63008. A large, thick-bodied vase, modeled to represent a hunchbacked
  human figure. The head is missing. It is 9 inches in width, and has
  been about 12 inches in height. Ware of the ordinary dark variety.

62995. Fragments of steatite vessels which have been from 1 to 2 feet in
  diameter. The walls about the rims were quite thin.

62959. A large clay pipe, found in the soil near the banks of the
  Mississippi.


FIELD GRAVES AND FIELDS IN THE VICINITY OF PECAN POINT.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

63204. A large lot of arrow-points of yellow and gray jasper.

62966, 62976, 62979-62998, 63000-63006. Celts or knives made of jasper
  and yellowish jaspery slate, which range from 2 to 5 inches in length,
  and are less than 1 inch in width and half an inch in thickness. They
  have been chipped into the desired shape, and finished by grinding off
  the more prominent parts and producing in many eases sharp cutting
  edges. A good example is shown in Fig. 142.

  [Illustration: Fig. 142.]

62965. A flat pebble, with rudely-made notches at the side.

62967, 62968, 62974. Fragments of celts.

62970. Yellowish jasper pebble, resembling a celt.

62000. Fragment of a long, chipped, knife-like implement, the
  extremities of which are lost.

62975. Fragment of a steatite vessel.

62969, 62971. Sandstone pebbles.

62960. Hammer-stone, with conical points, made from a pebble of cherty
  sandstone.

62962. Slightly grooved fragment of rubbing-stone.

62964. Flat pebble, slightly hollowed by use; a sort of shallow mortar.

62961. Fragment of a stone similar to the preceding.

62972. Fragment of concretionary iron ore, concave on one side.

62973. Red paint.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

  [Illustration: Fig. 143.]

A large number of very fine vessels of clay was presented by Dr. J. M.
Lindsley. They were obtained from a field near Pecan Point, within half
a mile of the Mississippi River. In the fields is a large mound which
could not be opened on account of the crops. Years ago, when the timber
was cleared from this field, many small elevations or hillocks were
observed scattered irregularly over the surface. The plow has
obliterated these, but has brought to light many evidences of ancient
occupation, such as charcoal, ashes, burned clay, stone implements, and
human bones.

63207. A large, beautifully-formed jar has received this number. The
  neck is short and slender, and the rim slightly enlarged and recurved.
  The body is full and symmetrical, but greatly compressed vertically,
  the width being about twice the height. The ware is of the dark,
  porous variety. Full height, 8 inches; width, 10 inches.

63010. A bottle-shaped jar or vase, with long neck and globular body.
  The form is unusually graceful. Height is 10 inches. Diameter of body,
  6½ inches. This vessel is shown in Fig. 143.

63012. A well-formed jar, with plain neck and globular body. Seven and
  one-half inches in height, and 8½ in width.

  [Illustration: Fig. 144.]

63013. A medium sized, bottle-shaped vessel, of elegant proportions.
  A rudimentary foot or stand is added to the bottom. Height, 8 inches.
  Fig. 144.

63017. A small, much compressed, bottle-shaped vase. Height, 5 inches;
  width, 6½ inches.

63018. A bottle-shaped vase of reddish-gray color, resembling the
  preceding in shape and size.

63019. A large, bottle-shaped vase, with long neck and subglobular body.
  It is unique in having a stand or base which seems to have been added
  after the body was somewhat hardened. This stand has been perforated
  for ornament, as shown in Fig. 145. Height, 8 inches; diameter,
  6 inches.

63011. A small vase, ornamented with a series of ribs, which extend
  around the body from the neck to the base. This vessel is shown in
  Fig. 146. It is in a fragmentary state. Height, 4¼ inches; width,
  7 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 145.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 146.]

63016. A medium-sized vase with vertically compressed body. Height,
  6 inches; diameter, 8½ inches. Fig. 147.

63015. A plain bowl, with flattish bottom. Diameter, 9 inches; height
  5 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 147.]

63014. A well-made jar or vase, with globular body, 6 inches in width
  and 4½ in height. The surface of the vessel is completely covered with
  an irregular, bead-like ornamentation, made by pinching the soft clay
  between the thumb and fingers. Fig. 148. Diameter 5½ inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 148.]

63020. A much compressed vase, 4½ inches in height and 7½ in width. Four
  equi-distant protuberances are placed about the widest part of the
  body and rudely imitate the extremities of some animal.

63021. A small, jar-like vase, with globular body, 6 inches in height,
  and the same in diameter. The form is not quite symmetrical.

63022. A small vase, with large, high neck and much compressed body.
  Height, 5½ inches; width, 6½ inches.

63023. A vase similar to the preceding.

63024. A medium-sized bowl, 7½ inches in diameter and 3 inches in
  height. The rim has an exterior ornament of thumb indentations.

63025. A small, rudely-constructed jar, 4 inches in height and 4½ in
  width.

  [Illustration: Fig. 149.]

63026. A jar having a high, wide neck, and small, globular body. The
  bottom is flat. Height, 5 inches; width, 4½ inches.

63027. A small, rudely-constructed cup, of a reddish color. Height,
  1 inch; width, 1½ inches.

63045. A small, rudely-finished vase, with high, wide neck and short
  pedestal. The globular body is embellished with an encircling band of
  scroll-work of incised lines. The scrolls are bordered by triangular
  wings filled with reticulated lines, as shown in Fig. 149; height,
  4¾ inches. Nos. 63113, 63026, and 63099 are plain vessels of similar
  form.

Additional numbers have been given to numerous fragments from this
locality.



COLLECTION FROM ARKANSAS COUNTY.


MOUNDS AT ARKANSAS POST.

A group of well-known mounds is situated on the farm of the late Frank
Menard, 8 miles south-east of the village of Arkansas Post.

The largest mound is 965 feet in circumference at the top and
considerably larger at the base. The slopes are covered with trees
and bushes.

This mound had already been dug into quite extensively, and it was
thought useless to explore it further. Connected with this mound by a
ridge of earth 300 feet long and 20 feet across, is a small circular
mound, 15 feet high and 45 feet in diameter, which bore evidence of
having been occupied by houses.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

Near the middle of the connecting ridge, just under the soil, a layer
of burnt clay, about 5 or 6 feet in diameter, was found. At one side,
imbedded in the _débris_ of clay, a large quantity of fragments of
earthen vessels was discovered. They comprise a number of bowls of
various sizes, which are all quite new-looking, and are of a type of
ware quite distinct from that found in the fields and graves of the same
locality. Restorations of a large number have been made, and the
collection proves to be extremely interesting.

The collector argues, from the position of the fragmentary vessels, that
they had been placed by their owners upon the roof of the house, which,
he surmises, was destroyed by fire.

63040, 63034, 63170, 63421, 65412, 65409, 65422, 65405. Plain bowls of
  yellowish-gray ware, restored from fragments described above. They are
  wide and shallow, and somewhat conical below; hand-made, and without
  polish. Composed of clay, tempered with pulverized shell. The walls
  are usually quite thin. Diameter 10 to 13 inches. Height 3 to 6
  inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 150.]

63039, 63033, 63041-63043, 64045, 65406, 65401-65403, 65415,-65417,
  65408, 65410. Bowls corresponding in general character to those
  described above, but having tasteful designs of incised lines and
  indentations on the exterior surface. The most interesting of these
  designs consists of series of interlaced or of festooned lines. The
  exterior margin is encircled, in all cases, by ornaments consisting
  of parallel lines, groups of short incised lines, or rows of
  indentations.

  [Illustration: Fig. 151.]

The principal design encircles the body beneath this, as shown in Figs.
150 and 151.

63037, 63038, 63416. Bowls similar to the above having interior
  decorations consisting of curved lines.

63035, 63099, 65404, 65411, 65413, 65414, 65418-65420, 65423. Bowls
  corresponding to the above in general characters, but having flaring
  rims. They are mostly plain. A few have decorative designs of incised
  lines. Some have been blackened by use as cooking vessels.


FIELD GRAVES NEAR MENARD MOUND.

Surrounding the Menard mound is a field containing about twenty acres,
which appears at one time to have been the site of a great number of
dwellings, as, at a depth of from 1 to 2 feet, layers of burned clay are
found. This field seems also to have been a great cemetery, as the
remains of skeletons are found in great numbers.

Pottery is found in great abundance. It has, as a rule, been deposited
near the heads of the dead, but no ornaments or implements have been
discovered with the remains. The frequent plowing of the field has
destroyed many earthen vessels, the interments having been made quite
near the surface. It is a noticeable fact that the pottery from these
graves is of a character quite distinct from that of the mound. It is of
the class of ware so common in this region.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

63129, 63122, 63150. Arrow-points, spear-points, and knives of
  chalcedony, jasper, and quartz.

63132. Celt or chisel of Mack slate, 2½ inches long, and 1¼ wide at the
  wider end.

63133. Celt of gray diorite. The blade is quite smooth; the upper part
  is roughened. Length, 3 inches. Width, 1½ inches. Thickness, 1 inch.

63134. Celt of yellow limestone, 2½ inches long, and 1½ inches wide.

63135. A two-edged celt of gray quartzite, 2¼ inches long, and
  three-fourths of an inch wide.

  [Illustration: Fig. 152.]

63136. Celt of yellowish-gray jasper, chipped, and afterwards partially
  smoothed by grinding. Four and one-half inches long, and 1½ inches
  wide.

63137. Celt very similar to the preceding.

63138. Celt of dark-gray slate; edge nicely sharpened. Lower part
  smooth, upper part rough; 4½ inches long, 1½ inches wide, and nearly
  1 inch thick.

63123. Fragment of a large celt, with conical apex.

63124. A hammer-stone.

63131. A pebble of coarse sandstone, resembling a celt in shape.

63127. A quartz pebble, probably used as a polishing-stone.

63139. A boat-shaped implement of speckled volcanic rock, 3 inches long,
  1 inch wide, and three-fourths of an inch thick at the middle part.

63140. An implement of grayish-red sandstone similar to the above in
  size and shape. The ends are slightly squared.

63126. A small disk of gray quartzite, having a shallow circular
  depression in each face.

63128. A pendant of gray slate, somewhat pear-shaped in outline,
  1½ inches in diameter, and one-eighth of an inch thick. Near the
  pointed end, a neat, biconical perforation has been made.

63121. An implement or ceremonial stone of ferruginous slate, possibly a
  clay iron-stone, or limonite. It has a hatchet-like outline, the blade
  being semicircular, and the upper part elongated and narrow. A large
  biconical perforation has been made near the center of the implement;
  a smaller one, as if for suspension, at the upper end. It is 6¼ inches
  long, 5½ inches wide, and three-fourths of an inch thick. Fig. 152.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

63113. A small reddish cup or vase. The rim is low and wide and is
  ornamented with four ears placed at regular intervals on the exterior
  surface. Two of these are pierced as if for the insertion of a string.
  Height, 3 inches. Width, 5 inches. Fig. 153.

  [Illustration: Fig. 153.]

63111. A small bottle-shaped vase. The surface has been painted red.
  Height, 4 inches. Width, 3½ inches. Fig. 154.

  [Illustration: Fig. 154.]

63091. A small globular vase, with low neck of medium width, which has
  an ornament consisting of a band of clay, slightly raised and indented
  with oblique lines. Yellowish-gray ware with dark stains. Height,
  6 inches.

63108. A low bottle-shaped vase, of yellowish ware, with flaring rim and
  somewhat flattened body. Height, 5 inches; width 5 inches. Fig. 155.

  [Illustration: Fig. 155.]

63098. A well-made bottle shaped vase, with low neck and globular body,
  somewhat conical above. Color dark brownish. 7½ inches in height.
  Shown in Fig. 156.

  [Illustration: Fig. 156.]

63090. Fragments of vases corresponding in characters to the preceding.
  One example has been painted red.

63110. A small bottle-shaped vase of red ware. Height 6 inches, width 5½
  inches.

63102. The body of a small bottle-shaped vase, much flattened, the
  outline being quite angular at the most expanded part. Yellowish-gray
  in color and without polish. There are indications that a design in
  red has ornamented the body. Width 4 inches.

63092. The body of a small bottle-shaped vase, globular in form. Surface
  painted red and unusually well polished. Diameter 4½ inches.

63100. Neck and upper part of body of a vase resembling in form and
  color the example last described.

63120. A handsome bottle-shaped vase with flaring lip. The neck widens
  toward the base. The body is almost globular, being slightly pointed
  above, and expanded along the equatorial belt. The surface is only
  moderately smooth. The body is ornamented with a very handsome design
  of incised lines, which consists of a scroll pattern, divided into
  four sections by perpendicular lines. The design covers the upper part
  of the body, the lower part being plain. Height, 9½ inches. Fig. 157.

  [Illustration: Fig. 157.]

63112. A bottle-shaped vessel of dark, rudely finished ware. The body is
  modeled to represent a fish, the mouth and eyes appearing on one side,
  and the tail upon the other. Width 3¼ inches. Fig. 158.

63114, 63117. Two small vessels with globular bodies, which have a
  curious resemblance to an ordinary tea-pot. A spout has, in each case,
  been added to the side of the body. Figs. 159 and 160 show these
  vessels on a scale of one-half.

  [Illustration: Fig. 158.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 159.]

63115. An oblong, shallow basin. Wide, flat handles have been added to
  the rim at the ends of the vessel; one of these is pierced. Length 8¾
  inches, width 4 inches, depth 2 inches. Color dark gray. Fig. 161.

  [Illustration: Fig. 160.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 161.]

63103, 63101, 63169, 63176, 63116, 63199, 63098. Plain bowls of ordinary
  composition and appearance. Fig. 162 is a good example. Diameter
  9 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 162.]

63096. A handsome bowl of dark ware. The body is ornamented with an
  incised design, which consists of a somewhat disconnected running
  scroll. The bottom, is flat. Diameter 8¼ inches. Fig. 163.

  [Illustration: Fig. 163.]

63109. A bowl of dark porous ware, very nicely made. The rim is
  ornamented at one side with a grotesque head, representing some wild
  animal, probably a panther. The ornament on the opposite side takes
  the place of the tail of the animal. Diameter of bowl 8 inches.
  Fig. 164.

63028, 63046. Fragments of many vessels, chiefly of black porous ware,
  among which are a number of handles representing the heads of birds
  and quadrupeds, also the fragments of a vessel which restored give the
  vase shown in Fig. 165. The designs are red on a yellowish ground.
  Diameter 5½ inches.

63107. A large vase modeled to represent a grotesque human figure. It
  is painted with designs in red and white, the ground color being a
  reddish yellow. The figure has a kneeling posture. The hands are
  upraised against the shoulders, with palms turned forward. Height,
  10½ inches; width of shoulders, 8 inches. Fig. 166.

  [Illustration: Fig. 164.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 165.]

63090, 63054, 63095. Fragments of pottery having incised designs,
  similar to the dark ware already described. A few of these fragments
  have been worked into rude disks.

  [Illustration: Fig. 166.]

OBJECTS OF METAL.

62048. A thin plate of copper, probably intended for a pendent ornament,
  as two perforations have been made at one end. It is rectangular in
  outline, and has suffered much from corrosion.

63113. A fragment of galena ore.

ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

63142. Fragment of a needle-like perforator. A conical perforation has
  been made toward the larger end. The point has been lost.

63047. A cubical fragment of bone, the sides of which have been squared
  by cutting or grinding.



COLLECTION FROM MONROE COUNTY, ARKANSAS.


MOUND AT LAWRENCEVILLE.

On the farm of Daniel Thompson, near Lawrenceville, the remains of
ancient habitations are of frequent occurrence.

The fields have been cultivated for many years. In one case a bed of
clay 8 inches thick, and covering an area of many hundred feet, was
discovered near the surface; this is supposed to be the remains of the
roof of a house. Associated with it were a number of objects, among
which were five very interesting specimens of pottery.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

63151. A large bottle-shaped vase of red and white ware. The upper part
  of the neck is lost. The body is encircled by an ornamental design in
  white, upon a red ground, which resembles a rudely drawn Greek fret.
  The diameter of the body is 9 inches; the height has been 11 or 12
  inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 167.]

63152. A fine bottle-shaped vase, resembling the preceding; very
  handsome, and in a remarkably good state of preservation. It also has
  a design in red and white. The original color of the vase has been a
  dull reddish yellow. The neck is red, the body is ornamented with four
  red and four white figures, which extend from the neck to the base of
  the vessel. These belts of color are separated by bands of the
  ground-color of the vessel. Height 12 inches. Fig. 167.

63153. A small rude cup of gray clay, without decoration. Diameter
  4 inches.

63154. An egg-shaped vessel, made in imitation of a gourd. The mouth of
  this vessel is a small round opening on the side, near the pointed
  end. The base is somewhat flattened. Height 5 inches. Fig. 168.

  [Illustration: Fig. 168.]

63155. A minute cup, 1½ inches in diameter. The rim is encircled by a
  series of rude notches.


MOUNDS AT INDIAN BAY.

A large mound 30 feet high and 250 feet long is located on the farm
of Mr. A. Spencer, near Indian Bay. Our collector, however, could not
obtain permission to examine it. At the edge of Indian Bay corporation
is another large mound, used as a cemetery by the white residents. In a
field near by were two small mounds about 3 feet in height and 30 feet
in circumference. In one of these, two feet beneath the surface, a
skeleton was found, near the head of which three earthen vessels had
been placed. From the other small mound a very interesting collection of
pottery was procured, much of which was in a fragmentary condition. From
these fragments a number of vessels have been reconstructed. These are
given in the following list:

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

63046. A bottle-shaped vase of dart, grayish-brown ware. The neck is
  quite high and slender, and the body globular--a little elongated
  above. The rim and collar are ornamented with incised notches. Height,
  10 inches.

63171. A large symmetrically shaped vase or jug of a grayish yellow
  color. Restored from fragments. The body of the jug is globular, the
  neck slightly flaring, the rim being notched on the outer edge. The
  ware is coarse and rough. Height, 10½ inches.

63156, 63163, 63164, 63173, 63174. Fragments of vessels similar to that
  last described.

63191. A low wide-mouthed vase of dark gray compact ware. The neck is
  decorated by two series of lines, which cross and recross the neck
  in such a manner as to form diamond-shaped figures. They are deeply
  incised. The rim is notched, and has three small nodes on the outer
  margin. The body is covered with an ornament produced by pinching the
  clay while in a soft state. Height, 6½ inches; diameter, 9 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 169.]

63159. A very large wide-mouthed vase, the body of which is conical
  below. The rim and neck are ornamented in a manner very similar to the
  one last described. Height, 16 inches; diameter, 19 inches. Fig. 169.

63028, 63029, 63030, 63164, 63166, 63167. Fragments of vessels similar
  to the one last described.

63192, 63195, 63196. Three small vessels restored from fragments; two of
  these resemble deep bowls with flaring rims. The lip is notched on the
  outer margin. The other has an upright, slightly constricted neck,
  ornamented with a band of rude indentations. Diameter, 6¾ inches.
  Fig. 170.

63161. A shallow bowl of yellowish gray ware, ornamented with irregular
  notches about the rim. Diameter, 9 inches.

63197, 63162, 63185. Bowls similar to the preceding.

63194, 63160, 63168. Large bowls with flaring rims.

63176. A very deep bowl. Fragmentary.

63189. A large, handled cup or ladle of yellowish clay. The bowl part
  is 6 inches in diameter. The extremity of the handle has been lost.
  Fig. 171.

  [Illustration: Fig. 170.]

63157, 63,158. Large portions of the bodies of two vessels of unusual
  shape.

  [Illustration: Fig. 171.]



COLLECTION FROM OHIO.


FROM MOUNDS AND FIELDS.

During the year 1881 small collections of stone implements and articles
of pottery were forwarded to the Bureau by Dr. Wills De Haas.

Most of these are, however, without record, excepting of the most
general character.

The majority appear to have been obtained from Warren County, at or in
the vicinity of Fort Ancient.

ARTICLES OF STONE.

65613. Spear points or knives of gray chalcedony. Three are very sharply
  pointed, and have probably been used as perforators. Average width
  1 inch, average length 2½ inches.

65615. Lot of rudely chipped arrow or spear points of grayish,
  chalcedony. Notches quite shallow.

65616. A lot of medium-sized, rather heavy arrow points of gray
  chalcedony.

65617. Lot of neatly shaped, deeply notched spear and arrow points,
  averaging about 1 inch in width, and ranging from 2 to 3 inches in
  length. Made of gray chalcedony.

65618. Lot of arrow points, spear points, and knives of various sizes
  and shapes. Material same as the preceding.

65619. Lot of rudely finished knives and spear points, mostly wide and
  heavy, some being almost circular in outline. Material same as the
  preceding.

65620. Lot of large knives and spear points of variously colored
  chalcedony.

65621. Knives and flakes of chalcedony.

65722. Large lot of long, triangular knives or spear points, made of
  gray and reddish mottled chalcedony. They average about 2½ inches in
  length, and 1½ in width.

65623. Large lot of flakes and fragments of gray and dark chalcedony or
  flint, left from the manufacture of implements.

65434-65451. Celts and fragments of celts of greatly varied size and
  shape, made of a grayish, speckled rock, resembling diorite.

65429-65430, 65431. Medium-sized, grooved axes-of ordinary forms. One is
  made of diorite (?), the others of gray rock resembling sandstone.

65426-65428. Very large grooved axes of greenish diorite (?). The
  largest is 9½ inches long, 5 inches wide, and 3 inches thick.

65450. Short, heavy pestles with broad bases and conical tops, made of
  gray diorite or sandstone. Diameter of bases from 2½ to 4 inches.
  Height from 3 to 6 inches.

65448. A long, heavy, cylindrical pestle.

65464-65492. Bound, oblong, and flattish pebbles, comprising several
  varieties of stone, used as hammer-stones, nut-crackers, &c., varying
  from 1 to 6 inches in diameter. The sides of many are flattened or
  hollowed out by use.

65463. Fragment of cup stone, made of coarse sandstone. On one side two
  cavities remain; on the other, three. These are about 1¼ inches in
  diameter, and about one-half an inch in depth.

65449. A grooved stone implement, made from a large pebble of coarse
  gray stone. The groove about the middle has evidently been made for
  attaching a handle. The upper lobe has been considerably reduced by
  picking, and the base, which would correspond to the edge of an ax,
  has been worked quite flat. Length of lower part 4½ inches. Height of
  implement 3 inches.

ARTICLES OF CLAY.

65484. A number of small fragments of pottery of ordinary varieties.



COLLECTION FROM OREGON.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

The following articles were forwarded to the Bureau from John Day River,
Oregon, by Captain Bendire:

64102-64113. Arrow-points, knives, and flakes of obsidian, agate, etc.,
  from Indian graves on John Day River.

64125-64139. Fragments of stone implements, including celts, cylindrical
  pestles, etc., mostly of compact, eruptive rock.

64127. Pipe of gray sandstone, shaped very much like an ordinary
  straight cigar-holder; 3 inches long, and 1 inch in diameter at the
  larger end. Obtained from an Indian grave on John Day River.

64126. Fragment of a pipe-stem (?) made of soft black stone, apparently
  a chloritic slate. A very neat, ornamental design has been engraved
  upon the cylindrical stem.

64129. Fragment of an ornament carved from greenish sandstone.



COLLECTIONS FROM KENTUCKY.

A small collection of ancient relics, obtained from caves in the
vicinity of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, was presented to the Bureau by
Mr. Francis Klett.

With this collection were a number of articles of stone, some of which
were probably obtained from the fields of the same region.

87276. Fragments of gourds.

  [Illustration: Fig. 172.]

87277. Two very beautifully knit or plaited sandals. The fiber used has
  probably been obtained from the inner bark of trees. The combination
  of threads is shown in Fig. 172. A small piece of matting from the
  same place is shown in Fig. 173.

  [Illustration: Fig. 173.]

27278. Two bundles of charred sticks and reeds.

27280-27283. Spearheads of chert or flint.

27284. Stone knife.

27285. Flake knife.

27286. Small spearheads.

27287. Flint knife.

27288. Arrow heads.

27289. Same; small and thin.

27290-27293. Stone awls or perforators.

27294. Leaden bullet.

27295. Pieces of pottery.



COLLECTIONS FROM MISSOURI.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

A fine collection of earthen vessels was purchased for the Bureau from
Mr. J. T. Gouden, of Morrow, Ohio, through the agency of Dr. Wills De
Haas.

Few facts in regard to them have been furnished, excepting that they
were taken from graves in the vicinity of Charleston, Mo. They resemble
so closely the well-known types of Missouri pottery that it is safe to
conclude that they were obtained from ancient graves and mounds in the
locality named.

The numerous cuts accompanying this section are intended for subsequent
use in a general treatise on the works of the Moundbuilders.

  [Illustration: Fig. 174.]

This ware is generally of the dark gray or black variety, handsmoothed,
or but slightly polished, and tempered with pulverized shells.

A few examples are yellowish-red in color. Some of these have been
painted red or have been ornamented with designs in red. In one case
white paint has been used.

The prevailing form is a bottle-shaped vessel, the neck being frequently
high and slender, and the body globular or subglobular. The base is
nearly always slightly flattened.

65556. An effigy vase of unusual form. The body is subrectangular.
  The upper part or neck is lost, but has doubtless been modeled to
  represent the human figure, as the feet remain attached to the
  shoulder of the vessel. The color is yellowish gray. Diameter,
  5 inches. Fig. 174.

  [Illustration: Fig. 175.]

65603. An effigy vase of the dark ware. The body is globular. A kneeling
  human figure forms the neck. The mouth of the vessel occurs at the
  back of the head--a rule in this class of vessels. Is is finely made
  and symmetrical. 9¾ inches high and 7 inches in diameter. Fig. 175.

65595. Effigy vase representing a kneeling or squatting human figure,
  moderately well modeled. The exterior surface is painted red. Height,
  7 inches; diameter, 5 inches. The locality is not known with
  certainty.

65604-65607, 65611, 65612. Effigy vases of human figures. Sizes, medium
  to small. The body below the waist is hemispherical, and the legs are
  not indicated. Fig. 176.

  [Illustration: Fig. 176.]

65597. Effigy vase, representing an owl. The body is globular. The wings
  are indicated at the sides, and the legs and tail serve as a tripod
  when the vessel is placed in an upright position. The head is quite
  grotesque. This is a usual form in the Middle Mississippi district.
  Height, 8 inches; width, 5½ inches.

65608. Small example, resembling the preceding.

65601, 65596. Vases with globular bodies; the necks represent an owl's
  head. Size, medium.

65605. A small vase similar to the above, but having a human head.

65558. A minute vessel modeled to represent a bird, the opening or mouth
  being on the under side of the body; length, 2 inches. Fig. 177.

  [Illustration: Fig. 177.]

65599, 65602, 65604, 65610. Bottle-shaped vases, with globular or
  flattish bodies and grotesque tops. The rounded heads are armed with
  a number of nodes or horns, but no features are shown. The largest is
  7 inches in width by 7 in height. Fig. 178.

  [Illustration: Fig. 178.]

65598. Similar vase of medium size. The top is modeled to represent the
  curved stem and neck of a gourd. Fig. 179. Height 7 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 179.]

65600. Vase similar to the above. The top representing a gourd with
  short conical neck. Four lines are drawn from the stem down the sides
  which represent the natural markings of the gourd. Height, 5½ inches;
  diameter, 5½ inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 180.]

65555. A two-storied vessel, the lower part being a cup of flattened
  globular form. The upper part is similar in size and shape, but is
  modeled to represent a univalve shell, the apex being represented by a
  large node surrounded by six smaller nodes, and the base or spine by a
  graceful extension of the rim. The groove or depression that encircles
  the vessel between the upper and lower parts of the body is spanned by
  two minute handles. Height, 5 inches; width, 4½. Fig. 180.

  [Illustration: Fig. 181.]

65543, 65551, 65552, 65554, 65573. Small bowls or cups, made in
  imitation of shell vessels, the noded apex occurring at one side, and
  the more or less pointed beak at the opposite side Fig. 181. Another
  similar specimen with hemispherical body is given in Fig. 182. Length,
  6 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 182.]

65542, 65545, 65550. Small vases with wide mouths, the rim and shoulders
  of which have the heads and extremities of frogs, modeled in relief.
  Fig. 183. Diameter, 6 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 183.]

65539, 65541, 65544, 65546. Low, wide-mouthed vases or bowls, modeled
  about the rim to represent sunfish. A vertical view is given in
  Fig. 184. 5 inches in length.

65579. A small bowl, the rim of which is embellished on one side with
  the head of a panther, on the other side a flattish projection which
  resembles a tail.

65580. A small bowl, having upon the rim a human head, the face of
  which is turned inward. On the opposite side is the usual flattish
  projection. Fig. 185. Diameter of bowl 5 inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 184.]

65578. Small bowl, the rim of which is embellished with the head of a
  fox or wolf; at the opposite side is the usual tail.

  [Illustration: Fig. 185.]

65576, 65577, 65581, 65585. Bowls of various sizes, the rims of which
  are ornamented with the heads and tails of birds. No. 65576 is an
  unusually fine example. Besides the features described it has been
  farther embellished by four incised lines which encircle the rim,
  forming a loop on the opposite sides as seen in Fig. 186. Bowl
  9 inches in diameter.

65553. Small bowl, the rim of which has been embellished by four pairs
  of nodes. Fig. 187. Diameter, 6 inches.

65547. A small globular cup of dark ware which has four large nodes
  about the rim, Between these on the sides of the vessel, four
  ornamental figures have been painted in red, these consist of an
  inner circle occupied by a cross, and an exterior circle of rays or
  scallops. Height, 2½ inches; width, 3½ inches.

The rim has been perforated for the purpose of suspension. Fig. 188.

  [Illustration: Fig. 186.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 187.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 188.]

65487, 65512, 65514, 65519, 65521, 65523, 65525, 65531. Bottle-shaped
  vases. The bodies are generally globular. A few are conical above,
  while others are much compressed vertically. Some are slightly ridged
  about the greatest circumference, while all are slightly flattened on
  the bottom. The necks are slender and long, being about equal to the
  body in height. They are generally narrowest in the middle, expanding
  trumpet-like toward the mouth, and widening more or less abruptly
  toward the shoulder below. In a few cases a ridge or collar encircles
  the base of the neck. The exterior surface is generally quite smooth,
  but never polished, although a polishing implement seems to have been
  used.

The largest is 9 inches in height and 7 inches in diameter. No. 65501
has a very tasteful incised design, encircling the shoulder as shown in
Fig. 189. Diameter 6½ inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 189.]

65520. Vase similar to the above in form, but with the addition of a
  base or stand, 1 inch high and 3 inches in diameter at the base.

65486. Same, with the base divided into three parts, forming a kind of
  tripod, the legs being flat. Fig. 190. Height, 9 inches.

65513, 65526, 65530, 65532, 65539. Bottle or jug shaped vases,
  resembling the preceding, but having wide, short necks. Fig. 191
  illustrates a typical form. Height, 4¼ inches.

65485. A vase similar to the above, but of yellowish gray ware,
  decorated with a design in broad red and white lines. Height,
  6 inches; width, 6 inches. Height of neck, 2 inches; width, 3 inches.

65538. Similar to the above in shape, but with flattish body, and
  peculiar in having two small handles or ears at the base of the neck.
  Fig. 192. Diameter, 5 inches.

65548, 65561, 65562, 65564, 65569. Small caps, with low, wide necks,
  and globular or subglobular bodies, having two handles or ears which
  connect the lip with the shoulder.

  [Illustration: Fig. 190.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 191.]

65572. A cup like the above, with four handles.

65563, 65565, 65568. Small cups similar to the preceding, but having a
  variety of indented ornaments about the shoulder and upper part of the
  body; these ornaments consist of wide vertical lines, or of encircling
  scalloped lines. Figs. 193 and 194. Diameter of each, 4½ inches.

  [Illustration: Fig. 192.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 193.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 194.]

65570. Has six nodes about the circumference, and a scalloped figure of
  three incised lines encircling the vessel above them. The handles have
  oblique incised lines upon the outer surface.

65588, 65590. Bowls with scalloped rims. The largest is 9 inches in
  diameter and 3 inches in height. Fig. 195.

  [Illustration: Fig. 195.]

65574, 65575, 65586, 65587, 65591, 65593. Plain bowls, of various sizes,
  and somewhat varied shapes. Figs. 196 and 197. Drawn one-half the real
  size.

  [Illustration: Fig. 196.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 197.]



COLLECTIONS FROM OTHER STATES.


65447. Stone implement of unusual form. It may be described as a
  flattish cylinder tapering slightly toward the ends, which are
  truncated. In one end a hole has been bored one-half an inch in
  diameter and three-fourths of an inch deep. A narrow, shallow groove
  encircles the implement near the middle. The material is a grayish
  slate. The form is symmetrical and the surface quite smooth.

Found upon the surface in Hamilton County, Indiana.

65353. A copper knife or poinard, with bent point. Found by Edward
  Daniels while digging a cellar at Ripon, Wis.

65352. A handsome vase, shaped like a bowl with incurved rim, obtained
  from a mound on the farm of A. C. Zachary, in Morgan County, Georgia.
  The incurved surface above has an ornamental design of incised lines
  resembling the Greek fret. The most expanded portion of the vessel is
  encircled by a raised band, which is neatly ornamented with notches.
  The lower part of the body is shaped like a bowl with a flattened
  base. Diameter 9½ inches. Presented by J. C. C. Blackburn.



COLLECTION FROM PERU, SOUTH AMERICA.


A number of interesting articles were presented by Mr. G. H. Hurlbut.
These were obtained from ancient graves in the vicinity of Lima by an
agent sent out for the purpose by Mr. Hurlbut while the city was
invested by the Chilian army. Details of their occurrence were
consequently not obtained.

A study of this collection leads to the belief that all the specimens
are from one interment, that is, the grave of a single individual. The
fact that there is but one skull, one mask-like idol, and but a small
number of articles of each, of the classes represented, tends to confirm
this supposition.

65377. Skull retaining the scalp and hair. The latter is long, coarse,
  and black. The lower jaw is missing.

65376. A mask-like wooden figure, the face being somewhat above
  life-size. Fig. 198. It is of a form not unusual in Peruvian graves.
  The features are fairly well shown. The eyes are formed by excavating
  oval depressions and setting in pieces of shell. First, oval pieces
  of white clam-shell are inserted, which represent the whites of
  the eye; upon these small circular bits of dark shell are cemented,
  representing the pupils. Locks of hair have been set in beneath the
  shell, the ends of which project, forming the lashes of the eye.

The back head is formed by a neatly-rounded bundle of leaves, held in
place by a net-work of coarse cord. The edges of the wooden mask are
perforated in several places; by means of these the back head, some long
locks of fine flax which serve as hair, and a number of other articles
have been attached.

Upon the crown a large bunch of brilliantly colored feathers has been
fixed; behind this, extending across the top of the head, is a long
pouch of coarse white cloth in which a great number of articles have
been placed--little packages of beans and seeds, rolls of cloth of
different colors and textures, minute bundles of wool and flax and
cords, bits of copper and earth carefully wrapped in husks, bundles of
feathers, etc.

Encircling the crown are long, narrow bands or sashes, one of which is
white, the others having figures woven in brilliant colors. The ends of
these hang down at the sides of the face. Attached to one side of the
mask by long stout cords is a pouch of coarse cotton cloth resembling a
tobacco-bag. It is about 6 inches square. Attached to the lower edge of
this is a fringe of long, heavy cords. To the opposite side a net is
suspended, in which had been placed innumerable articles, probably
intended for the use of the dead--a sling, made of cords, very
skillfully plaited; bundles of cord and flax; small nets containing
beans, seeds, and other articles; copper fish-hooks, still attached to
the lines, which are wound about bits of cornstalk or cane; neatly-made
sinkers wrapped in corn-husks, together with a variety of other
articles.

  [Illustration: Fig. 198.]

65380, 65382. Sinkers of gray slate, shaped somewhat like a cigar, one
  or more groves partially encircling the ends. These were carefully
  wrapped in corn-husks. Fig. 199.

65383, 65384. Two copper fish-hooks and the cords to which they are
  attached. The hooks pierce the ends of the bit of cornstalk about
  which the cord is wound. Fig. 200.

  [Illustration: Fig. 199. 1/1]

  [Illustration: Fig. 200. 1/2]

65387. A sling, 4 feet long. The extremities consist of a single cord,
  the middle part of 4 heavy, compactly-plaited cords.

65389. Head-bands of coarse fabrication, having figures of red, yellow
  and white.

65391. A large piece of cloth, possibly a mantle, made by piecing
  together fragments of highly-colored cloths.

65390. A large piece of gauze-like white cotton fabric.

65385, 65386. Small nets containing a variety of articles.

65386. A head ornament of red feathers, skillfully attached to cords.



INDEX


Animal substances, Collection of objects of            437, 467, 485
Arkansas:
  Collections of pottery from                                476-478
  Arkansas County ancient pottery                            476-485
  Monroe County ancient pottery                              486-489

Bendire, Capt. G., sent stone relics from Oregon                 492
Blackburn, J. C. S., presented vase from mound                   507

Cocke County, Tennessee, Collection from                433, 438-441
Collections in 1881:
  bought of J. T. Couden                                     495-506
  by Capt. C. Bendire                                            492
     Dr. Willis De Haas                                          490
     G. H. Hurlbut                                           508-510
     Edward Palmer                                           483-489
  from Cherokee Indians                                      433-489
       Arkansas:
         Carson Lake township                                    468
         Chiokasawha mound                                       469
         Lawrenceville                                           486
         Menard mound                                            447
         Mounds at Arkansas Post                                 476
         Pecan Point                                        469, 470
         Pemiscott mound                                         468
       Georgia                                                   506
       Indiana                                                   506
       Missouri                                              495-509
       North Carolina                                       434, 437
       Ohio mounds                                           490-491
       Oregon                                                492-494
       Peru, South America                                   508-510
       Tennessee:
         Newport                                                 438
         Junction of Pigeon and French Broad Rivers              440
         Jefferson County                                    463-468
         Roane County                                        457-462
         Sevier County                                       442-456
       Wisconsin                                                 506
  articles of animal substances              437, 453, 458, 460, 467
              clay                           434, 443, 456, 463, 469,
                                          471-475, 476, 479-485, 487,
                                                   488, 491, 495-507
              metal                                         446, 485
              shell                 437, 446, 452-456, 458, 461, 466
              stone                          431, 442, 453, 457, 465,
                                                   470,478, 490, 492
              vegetal substances                                 435

De Haas, Dr. W., bought Indian relics                            490
  collected Indian relics                                    494-506

Fain's Island, Collection of relics from                         463
French Broad River, Relics from                                  440

Gorget, Shell                                               488, 466

Hurlbut, G. H., presented collection from
    ancient Peruvian graves                                  508-510

Indian Bay, Ark., Collection of Indian relics from               486

Jackson County, North Carolina, Indian relics from           434-437
Jefferson County, Tennessee,
    Collection of Indian relics from                         463-468

Lawrenceville, Ark., Collection of Indian relics from            486

Metal objects from Tennessee                                     446
Mississippi County, Arkansas, Collection from                    468
Missouri, Collection of Indian relics from                   495-507
Monroe County, Arkansas, Collection from                         495

Newport, Tenn., Collection of relics from                    438-441
Niles Ferry, Tenn., Collection of relics from                    462
North Carolina; Collections from Jackson County              434-437

Ohio, Collection of Indian relics from                           490
Oregon, collection of Indian relics from                     492-494

Paint Rock Ferry, Collection from                                461
Palmer, E., Collection of Indian relics by                   433-439
Peru, Collection of relics from                              508-510
Pigeon River, Tenn., Collection of relics from                   440

Roane County, Tenn., collection of relics from               457-462

Sevier County, Tenn., collection of relics from              441-456
Shell objects, Collection of                      437, 446, 448, 450,
                                              452-456, 458, 460, 466
Stone objects, Collection of                      431, 442, 453, 457,
                                                  465, 470, 478, 490

Tennessee, Collection of relics from--
  Cocke County                                          433, 438-441
  Jefferson County                                           463-468
  Newport                                                    438-441
  Roane County                                               457-462

Vegetal substances, Collections of                               435


       *       *       *       *       *

Errors and Anomalies:

Differences between table of contents and body text:
  _this list does not include trivial differences such as singular for
  plural, or inconsistent use of "the"_

  Collection made by Edward Palmer, in North Carolina, Tennessee, and
      Arkansas.
    _first heading in body text, before "Introductory": missing from
      table of contents_
  From the fields at Newport
    _body text has "near Newport"_
  From a mound on Pigeon River
    _body text has "Mound at the junction of the Pigeon and
    French Broad Rivers."_
  Mounds near Paint Rock Ferry // Fragments of pottery
    _printed heading not used in body text_
  Pemissicott Mound
    _body text reads "Pemisscott"_
  Collections from Ohio // Human remains
    _category does not appear in body text_
  Collections from Peru
    _body text reads "Peru, South America"_

63068 ... diameter
  _text reads "diamter"_
62793 ... flattish base
  _text reads "flatish"_
Collections from Jefferson County
  _state not named: Tennessee_
The vases have been somewhat larger.
  _text reads "somwhat"_
On Pemisscott Bayou
  _"o" in "Bayou" invisible_
A large number of very fine vessels
  _text reads "vessls"_
65353. A copper knife or poinard
  _so in original: "poniard"?_

[Index]
Peru, Collection of relics from ... 508-510
  _text reads "508-511"_





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of a Portion of the Collections Made During the Field Season of 1881 - Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881-82, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1884, pages 427-510" ***

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