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Title: Daemonologie.
Author: James I, King of England, 1566-1625
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Daemonologie." ***

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                          In Forme of a Dialogie

                        Diuided into three Bookes.

                               By James RX

                      Printed by Robert Walde-graue,

                 Printer to the Kings Majestie. An. 1597.

                          Cum Privilegio Regio.


The Preface. To The Reader.
First Booke.
   Chap. I.
   Chap. II.
   Chap. III.
   Chap. IIII.
   Chap. V.
   Chap. VI.
   Chap. VII.
Seconde Booke.
   Chap. I.
   Chap. II.
   Chap. III.
   Chap. IIII.
   Chap. V.
   Chap. VI.
   Chap. VII.
Thirde Booke.
   Chap. I.
   Chap. II.
   Chap. III.
   Chap. IIII.
   Chap. V.
   Chap. VI.
Newes from Scotland.
   To the Reader.


The fearefull aboundinge at this time in this countrie, of these
detestable slaues of the Deuill, the Witches or enchaunters, hath moved me
(beloued reader) to dispatch in post, this following treatise of mine, not
in any wise (as I protest) to serue for a shew of my learning & ingine,
but onely (mooued of conscience) to preasse thereby, so farre as I can, to
resolue the doubting harts of many; both that such assaultes of Sathan are
most certainly practized, & that the instrumentes thereof, merits most
severly to be punished: against the damnable opinions of two principally
in our age, wherof the one called SCOT an  Englishman, is not ashamed in
publike print to deny, that ther can be such a thing as Witch-craft: and
so mainteines the old error of the Sadducees, in denying of spirits. The
other called VVIERVS, a German Phisition, sets out a publick apologie for
al these craftes-folkes, whereby, procuring for their impunitie, he
plainely bewrayes himselfe to haue bene one of that profession. And for to
make this treatise the more pleasaunt and facill, I haue put it in forme
of a Dialogue, which I haue diuided into three bookes: The first speaking
of Magie in general, and Necromancie in special. The second of Sorcerie
and Witch-craft: and the thirde, conteines a discourse of all these kindes
of spirits, & Spectres that appeares & trobles persones: together with a
conclusion of the whol work. My intention in this labour, is only to proue
two things, as I haue alreadie said: the one, that such diuelish artes
haue bene and are. The other, what exact trial and seuere punishment they
merite: & therefore reason I, what kinde of things are possible to be
performed in these arts, & by what naturall causes they may be, not that I
touch every particular thing of the Deuils power, for that were infinite:
but onelie, to speak scholasticklie, (since this can not bee spoken in our
language) I reason vpon _genus_ leauing species, _and differentia_ to be
comprehended therein. As for example, speaking of the power of Magiciens,
in the first book & sixt Chapter: I say, that they can suddenly cause be
brought vnto them, all kindes of daintie disshes, by their familiar
spirit: Since as a thiefe he delightes to steale, and as a spirite, he can
subtillie & suddenlie inough transport the same. Now vnder this _genus_
may be comprehended al particulars, depending thereupon; Such as the
bringing Wine out of a Wall, (as we haue heard oft to haue bene practised]
and such others; which particulars, are sufficientlie proved by the
reasons of the general. And such like in the second booke of Witch-craft
in speciall, and fift Chap. I say and proue by diuerse arguments, that
Witches can, by the power of their Master, cure or cast on disseases: Now
by these same reasones, that proues their power by the Deuil of disseases
in generally is aswell proued their power in speciall: as of weakening the
nature of some men, to make them vnable for women: and making it to abound
in others, more then the ordinary course of nature would permit. And such
like in all other particular sicknesses; But one thing I will pray thee to
obserue in all these places, where I reason upon the deuils power, which
is the different ends & scopes, that God as the first cause, and the
Devill as his instrument and second cause shootes at in all these actiones
of the Deuil, (as Gods hang-man:) For where the deuilles intention in them
is euer to perish, either the soule or the body, or both of them, that he
is so permitted to deale with: God by the contrarie, drawes euer out of
that euill glorie to himselfe, either by the wracke of the wicked in his
justice, or by the tryall of the patient, and amendment of the faithfull,
being wakened vp with that rod of correction. Hauing thus declared vnto
thee then, my full intention in this Treatise, thou wilt easelie excuse, I
doubt not, aswel my pretermitting, to declare the whole particular rites
and secretes of these vnlawfull artes: as also their infinite and
wounderfull practises, as being neither of them pertinent to my purpose:
the reason whereof, is giuen in the hinder ende of the first Chapter of
the thirde booke: and who likes to be curious in these thinges, he may
reade, if he will here of their practises, BODINVS Dæmonomanie, collected
with greater diligence, then written with judgement, together with their
confessions, that haue bene at this time apprehened. If he would know what
hath bene the opinion of the Auncientes, concerning their power: he shall
see it wel described by HYPERIVS, & HEMMINGIVS, two late Germaine writers:
Besides innumerable other neoterick Theologues, that writes largelie vpon
that subject: And if he woulde knowe what are the particuler rites, &
curiosities of these black arts (which is both vnnecessarie and perilous,)
he will finde it in the fourth book of CORNELIVS Agrippa, and in VVIERVS,
whomof I spak. And so wishing my pains in this Treatise (beloued Reader}
to be effectual, in arming al them that reades the same, against these
aboue mentioned erroures, and recommending my good will to thy friendly
acceptation, I bid thee hartely fare-well.




_The exord of the whole. The description of Magie in speciall._

Chap. I.


_Proven by the Scripture, that these vnlawfull artes in_ genere, _haue
bene and may be put in practise._

PHILOMATHES and EPISTEMON reason the matter.


I am surely verie glad to haue mette with you this daye, for I am of
opinion, that ye can better resolue me of some thing, wherof I stand in
great doubt, nor anie other whom-with I could haue mette.

EPI. In what I can, that ye like to speir at me, I will willinglie and
freelie tell my opinion, and if I proue it not sufficiently, I am heartely
content that a better reason carie it away then.

PHI. What thinke yee of these strange newes, which now onelie furnishes
purpose to al men at their meeting: I meane of these Witches?

EPI. Surelie they are wonderfull: And I think so cleare and plaine
confessions in that purpose, haue neuer fallen out in anie age or cuntrey.

PHI. No question if they be true, but thereof the Doctours doubtes.

EPI. What part of it doubt ye of?

PHI. Even of all, for ought I can yet perceaue: and namelie, that there is
such a thing as Witch-craft or Witches, and I would pray you to resolue me
thereof if ye may: for I haue reasoned with sundrie in that matter, and
yet could never be satisfied therein.

EPI. I shall with good will doe the best I can: But I thinke it the
difficiller, since ye denie the thing it selfe in generall: for as it is
said in the logick schools, _Contra negantem principia non est
disputandum_. Alwaies for that part, that witchcraft, and Witches haue
bene, and are, the former part is clearelie proved by the Scriptures, and
the last by dailie experience and confessions.

PHI. I know yee will alleadge me _Saules Pythonisse_: but that as appeares
will not make much for you.

EPI. Not onlie that place, but divers others: But I marvel why that should
not make much for me?

PHI. The reasones are these, first yee may consider, that _Saul_ being
troubled in spirit, (M1) and having fasted long before, as the text
testifieth, and being come to a woman that was bruted to have such
knowledge, and that to inquire so important news, he having so guiltie a
conscience for his hainous offences, and specially, for that same vnlawful
curiositie, and horrible defection: and then the woman crying out vpon the
suddaine in great admiration, for the vncouth sicht that she alledged to
haue sene, discovering him to be the King, thogh disguysed, & denied by
him before: it was no wounder I say, that his senses being thus
distracted, he could not perceaue hir faining of hir voice, hee being
himselfe in an other chalmer, and seeing nothing. Next what could be, or
was raised? The spirit of _Samuel_? Prophane and against all Theologie:
the Diuell in his likenes? as vnappeirant, that either God would permit
him to come in the shape of his Saintes (for then could neuer the Prophets
in those daies haue bene sure, what Spirit spake to them in their
visiones) or then that he could fore-tell what was to come there after;
for Prophecie proceedeth onelie of GOD: and the Devill hath no knowledge
of things to come.

EPI. Yet if yee will marke the wordes of the text, ye will finde clearely,
that _Saul_ saw that apparition: for giving you that _Saul_ was in an
other Chalmer, at the making of the circles & conjurationes, needeful for
that purpose (as none of that craft will permit any vthers to behold at
that time) yet it is evident by the text, that how sone that once that
vnclean spirit was fully risen, shee called in vpon _Saul_. For it is
saide in the text, that _Saule knew him to be Samuel_, which coulde not
haue bene, by the hearing tell onely of an olde man with an mantil, since
there was many mo old men dead in _Israel_ nor _Samuel_: And the common
weid of that whole Cuntrey was mantils. As to the next, that it was not
the spirit of _Samuel_, I grant: In the proving whereof ye neede not to
insist, since all Christians of whatso-ever Religion agrees vpon that: and
none but either mere ignorants, or Necromanciers or Witches doubtes
thereof. And that the Diuel is permitted at som-times to put himself in
the liknes of the Saintes, it is plaine in the Scriptures, where it is
said, that _Sathan can trans-forme himselfe into an Angell of light_. (M2)
Neither could that bring any inconvenient with the visiones of the
Prophets, since it is most certaine, that God will not permit him so to
deceiue his own: but only such, as first wilfully deceiues them-selves, by
running vnto him, whome God then suffers to fall in their owne snares, and
justlie permittes them to be illuded with great efficacy of deceit,
because they would not beleeue the trueth (as _Paul_ sayth). And as to the
diuelles foretelling of things to come, it is true that he knowes not all
things future, but yet that he knowes parte, the Tragicall event of this
historie declares it, (which the wit of woman could never haue
fore-spoken) not that he hath any prescience, which is only proper to God:
or yet knows anie thing by loking vpon God, as in a mirrour (as the good
Angels doe) he being for euer debarred from the fauorable presence &
countenance of his creator, but only by one of these two meanes, either as
being worldlie wise, and taught by an continuall experience, ever since
the creation, judges by likelie-hood of thinges to come, according to the
like that hath passed before, and the naturall causes, in respect of the
vicissitude of all thinges worldly: Or else by Gods employing of him in a
turne, and so foreseene thereof: as appeares to haue bin in this, whereof
we finde the verie like in _Micheas_ propheticque discourse to King
_Achab_. (M3) But to prooue this my first proposition, that there can be
such a thing as witch-craft, & witches, there are manie mo places in the
Scriptures then this (as I said before). As first in the law of God, it is
plainely prohibited: (M4) But certaine it is, that the Law of God speakes
nothing in vaine, nether doth it lay curses, or injoyne punishmentes vpon
shaddowes, condemning that to be il, which is not in essence or being as
we call it. Secondlie it is plaine, where wicked _Pharaohs_ wise-men
imitated ane number of _Moses_ miracles, (M5) to harden the tyrants heart
there by. Thirdly, said not _Samuell_ to _Saull_, (M6) that _disobedience
is as the sinne of Witch-craft_? To compare to a thing that were not, it
were too too absurd. Fourthlie, was not _Simon Magus_, a man of that
craft? (M7) And fiftlie, what was she that had the spirit of _Python_?
(M8) beside innumerable other places that were irkesom to recite.

Chap. II.


_What kynde of sin the practizers of these vnlawfull artes committes. The
division of these artes. And what are the meanes that allures any to
practize them._


Bvt I thinke it very strange, that God should permit anie man-kynde (since
they beare his owne Image) to fall in so grosse and filthie a defection.

EPI. Although man in his Creation was (M9) made to the Image of the
Creator, yet through his fall having once lost it, it is but restored
againe in a part by grace onelie to the elect: So all the rest falling
away from God, are given over in the handes of the Devill that enemie, to
beare his Image: and being once so given over, the greatest and the
grossest impietie, is the pleasantest, and most delytefull vnto them.

PHI. But may it not suffice him to haue indirectly the rule, and procure
the perdition of so manie soules by alluring them to vices, and to the
following of their own appetites, suppose he abuse not so many simple
soules, in making them directlie acknowledge him for their maister.

EPI. No surelie, for hee vses everie man, whom of he hath the rule,
according to their complexion and knowledge: And so whome he findes most
simple, he plaineliest discovers himselfe vnto them. For hee beeing the
enemie of mans Salvation, vses al the meanes he can to entrappe them so
farre in his snares, as it may be vnable to them thereafter (suppose they
would) to rid themselues out of the same.

PHI. Then this sinne is a sinne against the holie Ghost.

EPI. It is in some, but not in all.

PHI. How that? Are not all these that runnes directlie to the Devill in
one Categorie.

EPI. God forbid, for the sin against the holie Ghost hath two branches:
The one a falling backe from the whole service of GOD, and a refusall of
all his preceptes. The other is the doing of the first with knowledge,
knowing that they doe wrong against their own conscience, and the
testimonie of (M10) the holie Spirit, having once had a tast of the
sweetnes of Gods mercies. Now in the first of these two, all sortes of
Necromancers, Enchanters or Witches, ar comprehended: but in the last,
none but such as erres with this knowledge that I haue spoken of.

PHI. Then it appeares that there are more sortes nor one, that are
directlie professors of his service: and if so be, I pray you tell me how
manie, and what are they?

EPI. There are principallie two sortes, wherevnto all the partes of that
vnhappie arte are redacted; whereof the one is called _Magie_ or
_Necromancie_, the other _Sorcerie_ or _Witch-craft_.

PHI. What I pray you? and how manie are the meanes, whereby the Devill
allures persones in anie of these snares?

EPI. Even by these three passiones that are within our selues: Curiositie
in great ingines: thrist of revenge, for some tortes deeply apprehended:
or greedie appetite of geare, caused through great pouerty. As to the
first of these, Curiosity, it is onelie the inticement of _Magiciens_, or
_Necromanciers_: and the other two are the allureres of the _Sorcerers_,
or _Witches_, for that olde and craftie Serpent, being a spirite, hee
easilie spyes our affections, and so conformes himselfe thereto, to
deceaue vs to our wracke.

Chap. III.


_The significations and Etymologies of the words of_ Magie _and_
Necromancie. _The difference betuixt_ Necromancie _and_ Witch-craft: _What
are the entressis, and beginninges, that brings anie to the knowledge


I Would gladlie first heare, what thing is it that ye call _Magie_ or

EPI. This worde _Magie_ in the _Persian_ toung, importes as muche as to be
ane contemplator or Interpretour of Divine and heavenlie sciences: which
being first vsed amongs the _Chaldees_, through their ignorance of the
true divinitie, was esteemed and reputed amongst them, as a principall
vertue: And therefore, was named vnjustlie with an honorable stile, which
name the _Greekes_ imitated, generally importing all these kindes of
vnlawfull artes.

And this word _Necromancie_ is a Greek word, compounded of Νεκρων &
μαντεια, which is to say, the Prophecie by the dead. This last name is
given, to this black & vnlawfull science by the figure _Synedoche_,
because it is a principal part of that art, to serue them selues with dead
carcages in their diuinations.

_Phi._ What difference is there betwixt this arte, and Witch-craft.

EPI. Surelie, the difference vulgare put betwixt them, is verrie merrie,
and in a maner true; for they say, that the Witches ar servantes onelie,
and slaues to the Devil; but the Necromanciers are his maisters and

PHI. How can that be true, yt any men being specially adicted to his
service, can be his commanders?

EPI. Yea, they may be: but it is onelie _secundum quid_: For it is not by
anie power that they can haue over him, but _ex pacto_ allanerlie: whereby
he oblices himself in some trifles to them, that he may on the other part
obteine the fruition of their body & soule, which is the onlie thing he
huntes for.

PHI. An verie in-æquitable contract forsooth: But I pray you discourse
vnto mee, what is the effect and secreets of that arte?

EPI. That is over large an fielde ye giue mee: yet I shall doe good-will,
the most summarlie that I can, to runne through the principal points
thereof. As there are two sorts of folkes, that may be entysed to this
arte, to wit, learned or vnlearned: so is there two meanes, which are the
first steerers vp & feeders of their curiositie, thereby to make them to
giue themselves over to the same: Which two meanes, I call the Divels
schoole, and his rudimentes. The learned haue their curiositie wakened
vppe; and fedde by that which I call his schoole: this is the _Astrologie_
judiciar. For divers men having attained to a great perfection in
learning, & yet remaining overbare (alas) of the spirit of regeneration
and frutes thereof: finding all naturall thinges common, aswell to the
stupide pedants as vnto them, they assaie to vendicate vnto them a greater
name, by not onlie knowing the course of things heavenlie, but likewise to
cling to the knowledge of things to come thereby. Which, at the first face
appearing lawfull vnto them, in respect the ground therof seemeth to
proceed of naturall causes onelie: they are so allured thereby, that
finding their practize to prooue true in sundry things, they studie to
know the cause thereof: and so mounting from degree to degree, vpon the
slipperie and vncertaine scale of curiositie; they are at last entised,
that where lawfull artes or sciences failes, to satisfie their restles
mindes, even to seeke to that black and vnlawfull science of _Magie_.
Where, finding at the first, that such diuers formes of circles &
conjurations rightlie joyned thereunto, will raise such divers formes of
spirites, to resolue them of their doubts: and attributing the doing
thereof, to the power inseparablie tyed, or inherent in the circles: and
manie words of God, confusedlie wrapped in; they blindlie glorie of
themselves, as if they had by their quicknes of ingine, made a conquest of
_Plutoes_ dominion, and were become Emperours over the _Stygian_
habitacles. Where, in the meane time (miserable wretches) they are become
in verie deede, bond-slaues to their mortall enemie: and their knowledge,
for all that they presume thereof, is nothing increased, except in knowing
evill, and the horrors of Hell for punishment thereof, as _Adams_ was by
the eating of the forbidden tree. (M11)

Chap. IIII.


_The Description of the Rudiments and Schoole, which are the entresses to
the arte of_ Magie: _And in speciall the differences betwixt_ Astronomie
_and_ Astrologie: _Diuision of_ Astrologie _in diuers partes._


Bvt I pray you likewise forget not to tell what are the Deuilles

EPI. His rudimentes, I call first in generall, all that which is called
vulgarly the vertue of worde, herbe, & stone: which is vsed by vnlawful
charmes, without naturall causes. As likewise all kinde of practicques,
freites, or other like extraordinarie actiones, which cannot abide the
true toutche of naturall reason.

PHI. I would haue you to make that playner, by some particular examples;
for your proposition is verie generall.

EPI. I meane either by such kinde of Charmes as commonlie dafte wiues
vses, for healing of forspoken goodes, for preseruing them from euill
eyes, by knitting roun-trees, or sundriest kinde of herbes, to the haire
or tailes of the goodes: By curing the Worme, by stemming of blood, by
healing of Horse-crookes, by turning of the riddle, or doing of such like
innumerable things by wordes, without applying anie thing, meete to the
part offended, as Mediciners doe; Or else by staying maried folkes, to
haue naturallie adoe with other, (by knitting so manie knottes vpon a
poynt at the time of their mariage). And such-like things, which men vses
to practise in their merrinesse: For fra vnlearned men (being naturallie
curious, and lacking the true knowledge of God) findes these practises to
prooue true, as sundrie of them will doe, by the power of the Devill for
deceauing men, and not by anie inherent vertue in these vaine wordes and
freites; & being desirous to winne a reputation to themselues in such-like
turnes, they either (if they be of the shamefaster sorte) seeke to bee
learned by some that are experimented in that Arte, (not knowing it to be
euill at the first) or else being of the grosser sorte, runnes directlie
to the Deuill for ambition or desire of gaine, and plainelie contractes
with him thereupon.

PHI. But me thinkes these meanes which yee call the Schoole and rudimentes
of the Deuill, are thinges lawfull, and haue bene approoued for such in
all times and ages: As in special, this science of _Astrologie_, which is
one of the speciall members of the _Mathematicques_.

EPI. There are two thinges which the learned haue obserued from the
beginning, in the science of the Heauenlie Creatures, the Planets,
Starres, and such like: The one is their course and ordinary motiones,
which for that cause is called _Astronomia_: Which word is a compound of
νομος & αστερων that is to say, the law of the Starres: And this arte
indeed is one of the members of the _Mathematicques_, & not onelie lawful,
but most necessarie and commendable. The other is called _Astrologia_,
being compounded of αστερων & λογος which is to say, the word, and
preaching of the starres: Which is deuided in two partes: The first by
knowing thereby the powers of simples, and sickenesses, the course of the
seasons and the weather, being ruled by their influence; which part
depending vpon the former, although it be not of it selfe a parte of
_Mathematicques_: yet it is not vnlawful, being moderatlie vsed, suppose
not so necessarie and commendable as the former. The second part is to
truste so much to their influences, as thereby to fore-tell what
common-weales shall florish or decay: what persones shall be fortunate or
vnfortunate: what side shall winne in anie battell: What man shall obteine
victorie at singular combate: What way, and of what age shall men die:
What horse shall winne at matche-running; and diuerse such like incredible
things, wherein _Cardanus_, _Cornelius Agrippa_, and diuerse others haue
more curiouslie then profitably written at large. Of this roote last
spoken of, springs innumerable branches; such as the knowledge by the
natiuities; the _Cheiromancie_, _Geomantie_, _Hydromantie_, _Arithmantie_,
_Physiognomie_: & a thousand others: which were much practised, & holden
in great reuerence by the _Gentles_ of olde. And this last part of
_Astrologie_ whereof I haue spoken, which is the root of their branches,
was called by them _pars fortunæ_. This parte now is vtterlie vnlawful to
be trusted in, or practized amongst christians, as leaning to no ground of
natural reason: & it is this part which I called before the deuils schole.

PHI. But yet manie of the learned are of the contrarie opinion.

EPI. I grant, yet I could giue my reasons to fortifie & maintaine my
opinion, if to enter into this disputation it wold not draw me quite off
the ground of our discours; besides the mis-spending of the whole daie
thereupon: One word onely I will answet to them, & that in the Scriptures
(which must be an infallible ground to all true Christians) That in the
Prophet _Ieremie_ (M12) it is plainelie forbidden, to beleeue or hearken
vnto them that Prophecies & fore-speakes by the course of the Planets &

Chap. V.


_How farre the vsing of Charmes is lawfull or vnlawfull: The description
of the formes of Circkles and Coniurationes. And what causeth the_
Magicianes _themselues to wearie thereof_.


Wel, Ye haue said far inough in that argument. But how prooue ye now that
these charmes or vnnaturall practicques are vnlawfull: For so, many honest
& merrie men & women haue publicklie practized some of them, that I thinke
if ye would accuse them al of Witch-craft, ye would affirme more nor ye
will be beleeued in.

EPI. I see if you had taken good tent (to the nature of that word, whereby
I named it,) ye would not haue bene in this doubt, nor mistaken me, so
farre as ye haue done: For although, as none can be schollers in a schole,
& not be subject to the master thereof: so none can studie and put in
practize (for studie the alone, and knowledge, is more perilous nor
offensiue; and it is the practise only that makes the greatnes of the
offence.) the cirkles and art of _Magie_, without committing an horrible
defection from God: And yet as they that reades and learnes their
rudiments, are not the more subject to anie schoole-master, if it please
not their parentes to put them to the schoole thereafter; So they who
ignorantly proues these practicques, which I cal the deuilles rudiments,
vnknowing them to be baites, casten out by him, for trapping such as God
will permit to fall in his hands: This kinde of folkes I saie, no doubt,
ar to be judged the best of, in respect they vse no invocation nor help of
him (by their knowledge at least) in these turnes, and so haue neuer
entred themselues in Sathans seruice; Yet to speake truely for my owne
part (I speake but for my selfe) I desire not to make so neere riding: For
in my opinion our enemie is ouer craftie, and we ouer weake (except the
greater grace of God) to assay such hazards, wherein he preases to trap

PHI. Ye haue reason forsooth; for as the common Prouerbe saith: They that
suppe keile with the Deuill, haue neede of long spoones. But now I praie
you goe forwarde in the describing of this arte of _Magie_.

EPI. Fra they bee come once vnto this perfection in euill, in hauing any
knowledge (whether learned or vnlearned) of this black art: they then
beginne to be wearie of the raising of their Maister, by conjured
circkles; being both so difficile and perilous, and so commeth plainelie
to a contract with him, wherein is speciallie conteined formes and

PHI. But I praye you or euer you goe further, discourse me some-what of
their circkles and conjurationes; And what should be the cause of their
wearying thereof: For it should seeme that that forme should be lesse
fearefull yet, than the direct haunting and societie, with that foule and
vncleane Spirite.

EPI. I thinke ye take me to be a Witch my selfe, or at the least would
faine sweare your selfe prentise to that craft: Alwaies as I may, I shall
shortlie satisfie you, in that kinde of conjurations, which are conteined
in such bookes, which I call the Deuilles Schoole: There are foure
principall partes; the persons of the conjurers; the action of the
conjuration; the wordes and rites vsed to that effect; and the Spirites
that are conjured. Ye must first remember to laye the ground, that I tould
you before: which is, that it is no power inherent in the circles, or in
the holines of the names of God blasphemouslie vsed: nor in whatsoeuer
rites or ceremonies at that time vsed, that either can raise any infernall
spirit, or yet limitat him perforce within or without these circles. For
it is he onelie, the father of all lyes, who hauing first of all
prescribed that forme of doing, feining himselfe to be commanded &
restreined thereby, wil be loath to passe the boundes of these
injunctiones; aswell thereby to make them glory in the impiring ouer him
(as I saide before:) As likewise to make himselfe so to be trusted in
these little thinges, that he may haue the better commoditie thereafter,
to deceiue them in the end with a tricke once for all; I meane the
euerlasting perdition of their soul & body. Then laying this ground, as I
haue said, these conjurationes must haue few or mo in number of the
persones conjurers (alwaies passing the singuler number) according to the
qualitie of the circle, and forme of apparition. Two principall thinges
cannot well in that errand be wanted: holie-water (whereby the Deuill
mockes the _Papistes_) and some present of a liuing thing vnto him. There
ar likewise certaine seasons, dayes and houres, that they obserue in this
purpose: These things being all readie, and prepared, circles are made
triangular, quadrangular, round, double or single, according to the forme
of apparition that they craue. But to speake of the diuerse formes of the
circles, of the innumerable characters and crosses that are within and
without, and out-through the same, of the diuers formes of apparitiones,
that that craftie spirit illudes them with, and or all such particulars in
that action, I remit it to ouer-manie that haue busied their heades in
describing of the same; as being but curious, and altogether vnprofitable.
And this farre onelie I touch, that when the conjured Spirit appeares,
which will not be while after manie circumstances, long praiers, and much
muttring and murmuring of the conjurers; like a _Papist_ priest,
dispatching a hunting _Masse_: how sone I say, he appeares, if they haue
missed one iote of all their rites; or if any of their feete once slyd
ouer the circle through terror of his feareful apparition, he payes
himselfe at that time in his owne hande, of that due debt which they ought
him; and other-wise would haue delayed longer to haue payed him: I meane
hee carries them with him bodie and soule. If this be not now a just cause
to make them wearie of these formes of conjuration, I leaue it to you to
judge vpon; considering the long-somenesse of the labour, the precise
keeping of dayes and houres (as I haue said), the terriblenesse of
apparition, and the present perrell that they stande in, in missing the
least circumstance or freite, that they ought to obserue: And on the other
parte, the Deuil is glad to mooue them to a plaine and square dealing with
him as I said before.

Chap. VI.


_The Deuilles contract with the Magicians: The diuision thereof in two
partes: What is the difference betwixt Gods miracles and the Deuils._


Indeede there is cause inough, but rather to leaue him at all, then to
runne more plainlie to him, if they were wise he delt with. But goe
forwards now I pray you to these turnes, fra they become once deacons in
this craft.

EPI. From time that they once plainelie begin to contract with him: The
effect of their contract consistes in two thinges; in formes and effectes,
as I began to tell alreadie, were it not yee interrupted me (for although
the contract be mutuall; I speake first of that part, wherein the Deuill
oblishes himselfe to them) by formes, I meane in what shape or fashion he
shall come vnto them, when they call vpon him. And by effectes, I
vnderstand, in what special sorts of seruices he bindes himselfe to be
subject vnto them. The qualitie of these formes and effectes, is lesse or
greater, according to the skil and art of the _Magician_. For as to the
formes, to some of the baser sorte of them he oblishes him selfe to
appeare at their calling vpon him, by such a proper name which he shewes
vnto them, either in likenes of a dog, a Catte, an Ape, or such-like other
beast; or else to answere by a voyce onlie. The effects are to answere to
such demands, as concernes curing of disseases, their own particular
menagery: or such other base things as they require of him.

But to the most curious sorte, in the formes he will oblish himselfe, to
enter in a dead bodie, and there out of to giue such answers, of the euent
of battels, of maters concerning the estate of commonwelths, and such like
other great questions: yea, to some he will be a continuall attender, in
forme of a Page: He will permit himselfe to be conjured, for the space of
so many yeres, ether in a tablet or a ring, or such like thing, which they
may easely carrie about with them: He giues them power to sel such wares
to others, whereof some will bee dearer, and some better cheape; according
to the lying or true speaking of the Spirit that is conjured therein. Not
but that in verie deede, all Devils must be lyars; but so they abuse the
simplicitie of these wretches, that becomes their schollers, that they
make them beleeue, that at the fall of _Lucifer_, some Spirites fell in
the aire, some in the fire, some in the water, some in the lande: In which
Elementes they still remaine. Whereupon they build, that such as fell in
the fire, or in the aire, are truer then they, who fell in the water or in
the land, which is al but meare trattles, & forged by the author of al
deceit. For they fel not be weight, as a solide substance, to stick in any
one parte: But the principall part of their fal, consisting in qualitie,
by the falling from the grace of God wherein they were created, they
continued still thereafter, and shal do while the latter daie, in wandring
through the worlde, as Gods hang-men, to execute such turnes as he
employes them in. And when anie of them are not occupyed in that, returne
they must to their prison in hel (as it is plaine in the miracle that
CHRIST wrought at _Gennezareth_) (M13) therein at the latter daie to be
all enclosed for euer: and as they deceiue their schollers in this, so do
they, in imprinting in them the opinion that there are so manie Princes,
Dukes, and Kinges amongst them, euerie one commanding fewer or mo Legions,
and impyring in diuers artes, and quarters of the earth. For though that I
will not denie that there be a forme of ordour amongst the Angels in
Heauen, and consequentlie, was amongst them before their fall; yet, either
that they bruike the same sensine; or that God will permit vs to know by
damned Deuils, such heauenlie mysteries of his, which he would not reueale
to vs neither by Scripture nor Prophets, I thinke no Christiane will once
thinke it. But by the contrarie of all such mysteries, as he hath closed
vp with his seale of secrecie; it becommeth vs to be contented with an
humble ignorance, they being thinges not necessarie for our saluation. But
to returne to the purpose, as these formes, wherein Sathan oblishes
himselfe to the greatest of the _Magicians_, are wounderfull curious; so
are the effectes correspondent vnto the same: For he will oblish himselfe
to teach them artes and sciences, which he may easelie doe, being so
learned a knaue as he is: To carrie them newes from anie parte of the
worlde, which the agilitie of a Spirite may easelie performe: to reueale
to them the secretes of anie persons, so being they bee once spoken, for
the thought none knowes but GOD; except so far as yee may ghesse by their
countenance, as one who is doubtleslie learned, inough in the
_Physiognomie_: Yea, he will make his schollers to creepe in credite with
Princes, by fore-telling them manie greate thinges; parte true, parte
false: For if all were false, he would tyne credite at all handes; but
alwaies doubtsome, as his Oracles were. And he will also make them to
please Princes, by faire banquets and daintie dishes, carryed in short
space fra the farthest part of the worlde. For no man doubts but he is a
thiefe, and his agilitie (as I spake before) makes him to come suche
speede. Such-like, he will guard his schollers with faire armies of
horse-men and foote-men in appearance, castles and fortes: Which all are
but impressiones in the aire, easelie gathered by a spirite, drawing so
neare to that substance himselfe: As in like maner he will learne them
manie juglarie trickes at Gardes, dice, & such like, to deceiue mennes
senses thereby: and such innumerable false practicques; which are prouen
by ouer-manie in this age: As they who ar acquainted with that _Italian_
called SCOTO yet liuing, can reporte. And yet are all these thinges but
deluding of the senses, and no waies true in substance, as were the false
miracles wrought by King _Pharaoes_ Magicians, for counterfeiting
_Moyses_: For that is the difference betuixt Gods myracles and the Deuils,
God is a creator, what he makes appeare in miracle, it is so in effect. As
_Moyses_ rod being casten downe, was no doubt turned in a natural Serpent:
where as the Deuill (as Gods Ape) counterfetting that by his _Magicians_,
maid their wandes to appeare so, onelie to mennes outward senses: as
kythed in effect by their being deuoured by the other. For it is no
wonder, that the Deuill may delude our senses, since we see by common
proofe, that simple juglars will make an hundreth thinges seeme both to
our eies and eares otherwaies then they are. Now as to the _Magicians_
parte of the contract, it is in a word that thing, which I said before,
the Deuill hunts for in all men.

PHI. Surelie ye haue said much to me in this arte, if all that ye haue
said be as true as wounderfull.

EPI. For the trueth in these actiones, it will be easelie confirmed, to
anie that pleases to take paine vpon the reading of diuerse authenticque
histories, and the inquiring of daily experiences. And as for the trueth
of their possibilitie, that they may be, and in what maner, I trust I haue
alleaged nothing whereunto I haue not joyned such probable reasons, as I
leaue to your discretion, to waie and consider: One word onlie I omitted;
concerning the forme of making of this contract, which is either written
with the _Magicians_ owne bloud: or else being agreed vpon (in termes his
schole-master) touches him in some parte, though peraduenture no marke
remaine: as it doth with all Witches.

Chap. VII.


_The reason why the art of_ Magie _is unlawfull. What punishment they
merite: And who may be accounted guiltie of that crime._


Svrelie Ye haue made this arte to appeare verie monstruous & detestable.
But what I pray you shall be said to such as mainteines this art to be
lawfull, for as euill as you haue made it?

EPI. I say, they sauour of the panne them selues, or at least little
better, And yet I would be glad to heare their reasons.

PHI. There are two principallie, that euer I heard vsed; beside that which
is founded vpon the common Prouerb (that the _Necromancers_ commands the
Deuill, which ye haue already refuted). The one is grounded vpon a
receiued custome: The other vpon an authoritie, which some thinkes
infallible. Vpon custome, we see that diuerse Christian Princes and
Magistrates seuere punishers of Witches, will not onelie ouer-see
_Magicians_ to liue within their dominions; but euen some-times delight to
see them prooue some of their practicques. The other reason is, that
_Moyses_ being brought vp (as it is expreslie said in the Scriptures) _in
all the sciences of the Ægyptians_; whereof no doubt, this was one of the
principalles. And he notwithstanding of this arte, pleasing God, as he
did, consequentlie that art professed by so godlie a man, coulde not be

EPI. As to the first of your reasones, grounded vpon custome: I saie, an
euill custome can neuer be accepted for a good law, for the ouer great
ignorance of the worde in some Princes and Magistrates, and the contempt
thereof in others, moues them to sinne heavelie against their office in
that poynt. As to the other reasone, which seemes to be of greater weight,
if it were formed in a Syllogisme; it behooued to be in manie termes, and
full of fallacies (to speake in termes of _Logicque_) for first, that that
generall proposition; affirming _Moyses_ to be taught _in all the sciences
of the Ægyptians_, should conclude that he was taught in _Magie_, I see no
necessity. For we must vnderstand that the spirit of God there, speaking
of sciences, vnderstandes them that are lawfull; for except they be
lawfull, they are but _abusiuè_ called sciences, & are but ignorances
indeede: _Nam homo pictus, non est homo_. Secondlie, giuing that he had
bene taught in it, there is great difference, betwixt knowledge and
practising of a thing (as I said before). For God knoweth all thinges,
being alwaies good, and of our sinne & our infirmitie proceedeth our
ignorance. Thirdlie, giuing that he had both studied and practised the
same (which is more nor monstruous to be beleeued by any Christian) yet we
know well inough, that before that euer the spirite of God began to call
_Moyses_, he was fled out of _Ægypt_, being fourtie yeares of age, for the
slaughter of an _Ægyptian_, and in his good-father _Iethroes_ lande, first
called at the firie bushe, hauing remained there other fourtie yeares in
exile: so that suppose he had beene the wickeddest man in the worlde
before, he then became a changed and regenerat man, and very litle of olde
_Moyses_ remained in him. _Abraham_ was an Idolater in _Vr_ of
_Chaldææa_, before he was called: And _Paule_ being called _Saule_, was a
most sharp persecutor of the Saintes of God, while that name was changed.

PHI. What punishment then thinke ye merites these _Magicians_ and

EPI. The like no doubt, that _Sorcerers_ and _Witches_ merites; and rather
so much greater, as their error proceedes of the greater knowledge, and so
drawes nerer to the sin against the holy Ghost. And as I saye of them, so
saye I the like of all such as consults, enquires, entertaines, & ouersees
them, which is seene by the miserable endes of many that askes councell of
them: For the Deuill hath neuer better tydings to tell to any, then he
tolde to _Saule_: neither is it lawfull to vse so vnlawfull instrumentes,
were it neuer for so good a purpose: for that axiome in Theologie is most
certaine and infallible: (M14) _Nunquam faciendum est malum vt bonum inde



_The description of Sorcerie and Witchcraft in speciall._

Chap. I.


_Proued by the Scripture, that such a thing can be: And the reasones
refuted of all such as would call it but an imagination and Melancholicque


Now since yee haue satisfied me nowe so fullie, concerning _Magie_ or
_Necromancie_ I will pray you to do the like in _Sorcerie_ or

EPI. That fielde is likewise verie large: and althought in the mouthes and
pennes of manie, yet fewe knowes the trueth thereof, so wel as they
beleeue themselues, as I shall so shortely as I can, make you (God
willing) as easelie to perceiue.

PHI. But I pray you before ye goe further, let mee interrupt you here with
a shorte digression: which is, that manie can scarcely beleeue that there
is such a thing as Witch-craft. Whose reasons I wil shortely alleage vnto
you, that ye may satisfie me as well in that, as ye haue done in the rest.
For first, whereas the Scripture seemes to prooue Witchcraft to be, by
diuerse examples, and speciallie by sundrie of the same, which ye haue
alleaged, it is thought by some, that these places speakes of _Magicians_
and _Necromancers_ onlie, & not of Witches. As in special, these wise men
of _Pharaohs_, that counterfeited _Moyses_ miracles, were _Magicians_ say
they, & not Witches: As likewise that _Pythonisse_ that _Saul_ consulted
with: And so was _Simon Magus_ in the new Testament, as that very stile
importes. Secondlie, where ye would oppone the dailie practicque, &
confession of so manie, that is thought likewise to be but verie
melancholicque imaginations of simple rauing creatures. Thirdly, if
Witches had such power of Witching of folkes to death, (as they say they
haue) there had bene none left aliue long sence in the world, but they: at
the least, no good or godlie person of whatsoeuer estate, coulde haue
escaped their deuilrie.

EPI. Your three reasons as I take, ar grounded the first of them
_negativè_ vpon the Scripture: The second _affirmativè_ vpon Physicke: And
the thirde vpon the certaine proofe of experience. As to your first, it is
most true indeede, that all these wise men of _Pharaoh_ were _Magicians_
of art: As likewise it appeares wel that the _Pythonisse_, with whom
_Saul_ consulted, was of that same profession: & so was _Simon Magus_. But
yee omitted to speake of the Lawe of God, wherein are all _Magicians_,
Diuines, Enchanters, Sorcerers, Witches, & whatsouer of that kinde that
consultes with the Deuill, plainelie prohibited, and alike threatned
against. And besides that, she who had the Spirite of _Python_, in the
Actes, (M15) whose Spirite was put to silence by the Apostle, coulde be no
other thing but a verie Sorcerer or Witch, if ye admit the vulgare
distinction, to be in a maner true, whereof I spake in the beginning of
our conference. For that spirit whereby she conquested such gaine to her
Master, was not at her raising or commanding, as she pleased to appoynt,
but spake by her toung, aswel publicklie, as priuatelie: Whereby she
seemed to draw nearer to the sort of _Demoniakes_ or possessed, if that
conjunction betwixt them, had not bene of her owne consent: as it appeared
by her, not being tormented therewith: And by her conquesting of such
gaine to her masters (as I haue alreadie said.) As to your second reason
grounded vpon Physick, in attributing their confessiones or
apprehensiones, to a naturall melancholicque humour: Anie that pleases
Physicallie to consider vpon the naturall humour of melancholie, according
to all the Physicians, that euer writ thereupon, they shall finde that
that will be ouer short a cloak to couer their knauery with: For as the
humor of Melancholie in the selfe is blacke, heauie and terrene, so are
the symptomes thereof, in any persones that are subject therevnto,
leannes, palenes, desire of solitude: and if they come to the highest
degree therof, mere folie and _Manie_: where as by the contrarie, a great
nomber of them that euer haue bene convict or confessors of Witchcraft, as
may be presently seene by manie that haue at this time confessed: they are
by the contrarie, I say, some of them rich and worldly-wise, some of them
fatte or corpulent in their bodies, and most part of them altogether giuen
ouer to the pleasures of the flesh, continual haunting of companie, and
all kind of merrines, both lawfull and vnlawfull, which are thinges
directly contrary to the symptomes of Melancholie, whereof I spake, and
further experience daylie proues how loath they are to confesse without
torture, which witnesseth their guiltines, where by the contrary, the
Melancholicques neuer spares to bewray themselues, by their continuall
discourses, feeding therby their humor in that which they thinke no crime.
As to your third reason, it scarselie merites an answere. For if the
deuill their master were not bridled, as the scriptures teacheth vs,
suppose there were no men nor women to be his instrumentes, he could finde
waies inough without anie helpe of others to wrack al mankinde: wherevnto
he employes his whole study, and _goeth about like a roaring Lyon_ (as
PETER saith) (M16) to that effect, but the limites of his power were set
down before the foundations of the world were laid, which he hath not
power in the least jote to transgresse. But beside all this, there is ouer
greate a certainty to proue that they are, by the daily experience of the
harmes that they do, both to men, and whatsoeuer thing men possesses,
whome God will permit them to be the instrumentes, so to trouble or
visite, as in my discourse of that arte, yee shall heare clearelie proued.

Chap. II.


_The Etymologie and signification of that word of_ Sorcerie. _The first
entresse and prentishippe of them that giues themselues to that craft._


Come on then I pray you, and returne where ye left.

EPI. This word of _Sorcerie_ is a _Latine_ worde, which is taken from
casting of the lot, & therefore he that vseth it, is called _Sortiarius à
sorte_. As to the word of _Witchcraft_, it is nothing but a proper name
giuen in our language. The cause wherefore they were called _sortiarij_,
proceeded of their practicques seeming to come of lot or chance: Such as
the turning of the riddle: the knowing of the forme of prayers, or such
like tokens: If a person diseased woulde liue or dye. And in generall,
that name was giuen them for vsing of such charmes, and freites, as that
Crafte teacheth them. Manie poynts of their craft and practicques are
common betuixt the _Magicians_ and them: for they serue both one Master,
althought in diuerse fashions. And as I deuided the _Necromancers_, into
two sorts, learned and vnlearned; so must I denie them in other two, riche
and of better accompt, poore and of basser degree. These two degrees now
of persones, that practises this craft, answers to the passions in them,
which (I told you before) the Deuil vsed as meanes to intyse them to his
seruice, for such of them as are in great miserie and pouertie, he allures
to follow him, by promising vnto them greate riches, and worldlie
commoditie. Such as though riche, yet burnes in a desperat desire of
reuenge, hee allures them by promises, to get their turne satisfied to
their hartes contentment. It is to be noted nowe, that that olde and
craftie enemie of ours, assailes none, though touched with any of these
two extremities, except he first finde an entresse reddy for him, either
by the great ignorance of the person he deales with, ioyned with an euill
life, or else by their carelesnes and contempt of God: And finding them in
an vtter despair, for one of these two former causes that I haue spoken
of; he prepares the way by feeding them craftely in their humour, and
filling them further and further with despaire, while he finde the time
proper to discouer himself vnto them. At which time, either vpon their
walking solitarie in the fieldes, or else lying pansing in their bed; but
alwaies without the company of any other, he either by a voyce, or in
likenesse of a man inquires of them, what troubles them: and promiseth
them, a suddaine and certaine waie of remedie, vpon condition on the other
parte, that they follow his advise; and do such thinges as he wil require
of them: Their mindes being prepared before hand, as I haue alreadie
spoken, they easelie agreed vnto that demande of his: And syne settes an
other tryist, where they may meete againe. At which time, before he
proceede any further with them, he first perswades them to addict
themselues to his seruice: which being easely obteined, he then discouers
what he is vnto them: makes them to renunce their God and _Baptisme_
directlie, and giues them his marke vpon some secreit place of their
bodie, which remaines soare vnhealed, while his next meeting with them,
and thereafter euer insensible, how soeuer it be nipped or pricked by any,
as is dailie proued, to giue them a proofe thereby, that as in that doing,
hee could hurte and heale them; so all their ill and well doing
thereafter, must depende vpon him. And besides that, the intollerable
dolour that they feele in that place, where he hath marked them, serues to
waken them, and not to let them rest, while their next meeting againe:
fearing least otherwaies they might either forget him, being as new
Prentises, and not well inough founded yet, in that fiendlie follie: or
else remembring of that horrible promise they made him, at their last
meeting, they might skunner at the same, and preasse to call it back. At
their thirde meeting, he makes a shew to be carefull to performe his
promises, either by teaching them waies howe to get themselues reuenged,
if they be of that sort: Or els by teaching them lessons, how by moste
vilde and vnlawfull meanes, they may obtaine gaine, and worldlie
commoditie, if they be of the other sorte.

Chap. III.


_The_ Witches _actiones diuided in two partes. The actiones proper to
their owne persones. Their actiones toward others. The forme of their
conuentiones, and adoring of their Master._


Ye haue said now inough of their initiating in that ordour. It restes then
that ye discourse vpon their practises, fra they be passed Prentises: for
I would faine heare what is possible to them to performe in verie deede.
Although they serue a common Master with the _Necromancers_, (as I haue
before saide) yet serue they him in an other forme. For as the meanes are
diuerse, which allures them to these vnlawfull artes of seruing of the
Deuill; so by diuerse waies vse they their practises, answering to these
meanes, which first the Deuill, vsed as instrumentes in them; though al
tending to one end: To wit, the enlargeing of Sathans tyrannie, and
crossing of the propagation of the Kingdome of CHRIST, so farre as lyeth
in the possibilitie, either of the one or other sorte, or of the Deuill
their Master. For where the _Magicians_, as allured by curiositie, in the
most parte of their practises, seekes principallie the satisfying of the
same, and to winne to themselues a popular honoure and estimation: These
Witches on the other parte, being intised ether for the desire of reuenge,
or of worldly riches, their whole practises are either to hurte men and
their gudes, or what they possesse, for satisfying of their cruell mindes
in the former, or else by the wracke in whatsoeuer sorte, of anie whome
God will permitte them to haue power off, to satisfie their greedie desire
in the last poynt.

EPI. In two partes their actiones may be diuided; the actiones of their
owne persones, and the actiones proceeding from them towardes anie other.
And this diuision being wel vnderstood, will easilie resolue you, what is
possible to them to doe. For although all that they confesse is no lie
vpon their parte, yet doubtlesly in my opinion, a part of it is not
indeede, according as they take it to be: And in this I meane by the
actiones of their owne persones. For as I said before, speaking of _Magie_
that the Deuill illudes the senses of these schollers of his, in manie
thinges, so saye I the like of these Witches.

PHI. Then I pray you, first to speake of that part of their owne persons,
and syne ye may come next to their actiones towardes others.

EPI. To the effect that they may performe such seruices of their false
Master, as he employes them in, the deuill as Gods Ape, counterfeites in
his seruantes this seruice & forme of adoration, that God prescribed and
made his seruantes to practise. For as the seruants of GOD, publicklie
vses to conveene for seruing of him, so makes he them in great numbers to
conveene (though publickly they dare not) for his seruice. As none
conueenes to the adoration and worshipping of God, except they be marked
with his scale, the Sacrament of _Baptisme_: So none serues Sathan, and
conueenes to the adoring of him, that are not marked with that marke,
wherof I alredy spake. As the Minister sent by God, teacheth plainely at
the time of their publick conuentions, how to serue him in spirit & truth:
so that vncleane spirite, in his owne person teacheth his Disciples, at
the time of their conueening, how to worke all kinde of mischiefe: And
craues compt of all their horrible and detestable proceedinges passed, for
aduancement of his seruice. Yea, that he may the more viuelie counterfeit
and scorne God, he oft times makes his slaues to conveene in these verrie
places, which are destinat and ordeined for the conveening of the
servantes of God (I meane by Churches). But this farre, which I haue yet
said, I not onelie take it to be true in their opiniones, but euen so to
be indeede. For the forme that he vsed in counterfeiting God amongst the
_Gentiles_, makes me so to thinke: As God spake by his Oracles, spake he
not so by his? As GOD had aswell bloudie Sacrifices, as others without
bloud, had not he the like? As God had Churches sanctified to his seruice,
with Altars, Priests, Sacrifices, Ceremonies and Prayers; had he not the
like polluted to his seruice? As God gaue responses by _Vrim_ and
_Thummim_, gaue he not his responses by the intralls of beastes, by the
singing of Fowles, and by their actiones in the aire? As God by visiones,
dreames, and extases reueiled what was to come, and what was his will vnto
his seruantes; vsed he not the like meanes to forwarne his slaues of
things to come? Yea, euen as God loued cleannes, hated vice, and
impuritie, & appoynted punishmentes therefore: vsed he not the like
(though falselie I grant, and but in eschewing the lesse inconuenient, to
draw them upon a greater) yet dissimuled he not I say, so farre as to
appoynt his Priestes to keepe their bodies cleane and vndefiled, before
their asking responses of him? And feyned he not God to be a protectour of
euerie vertue, and a iust reuenger of the contrarie? This reason then
moues me, that as he is that same Deuill; and as craftie nowe as he was
then; so wil hee not spare a pertelie in these actiones that I haue spoken
of, concerning the witches persones: But further, Witches oft times
confesses not only his conueening in the Church with them, but his
occupying of the Pulpit: Yea, their forme of adoration, to be the kissing
of his hinder partes. Which though it seeme ridiculous, yet may it
likewise be true, seeing we reade that in _Calicute_, he appearing in
forme of a _Goate_-bucke, hath publicklie that vn-honest homage done vnto
him, by euerie one of the people: So ambitious is he, and greedie of
honour (which procured his fall) that he will euen imitate God in that
parte, (M17) where it is said, that _Moyses_ could see but the _hinder
partes of God, for the brightnesse of his glorie_: And yet that speache is
spoken but ανθρωπωπαθειαν.

Chap. IIII.


_What are the waies possible, wherby the witches may transport themselues
to places far distant, And what ar impossible & mere illusiones of Sathan.
And the reasons therof._


Bvt by what way say they or think ye it possible that they can com to
these vnlawful cõuentiõs?

EPI. There is the thing which I esteeme their senses to be deluded in, and
though they lye not in confessing of it, because they thinke it to be
true, yet not to be so in substance or effect: for they saie, that by
diuerse meanes they may conueene, either to the adoring of their Master,
or to the putting in practise any seruice of his, committed vnto their
charge: one way is natural, which is natural riding, going or sayling, at
what houre their Master comes and aduertises them. And this way may be
easelie beleued: an other way is some-what more strange: and yet is it
possible to be true: which is by being carryed by the force of the Spirite
which is their conducter, either aboue the earth or aboue the Sea
swiftlie, to the place where they are to meet: which I am perswaded to be
likewaies possible, in respect that as _Habakkuk_ was carryed by the
Angell in that forme, to the denne where _Daniell_ laie; (M18) so thinke
I, the Deuill will be reddie to imitate God, as well in that as in other
thinges: which is much more possible to him to doe, being a Spirite, then
to a mighty winde, being but a naturall meteore, to transporte from one
place to an other a solide bodie, as is commonlie and dailie seene in
practise: But in this violent forme they cannot be carryed, but a shorte
boundes, agreeing with the space that they may reteine their breath: for
if it were longer, their breath could not remaine vnextinguished, their
bodie being carryed in such a violent & forceable maner, as be example: If
one fall off an small height, his life is but in perrell, according to the
harde or soft lighting: But if one fall from an high and stay rocke, his
breath wilbe forceablie banished from the bodie, before he can win to the
earth, as is oft seen by experience. And in this transporting they say
themselues, that they are inuisible to anie other, except amongst
themselues; which may also be possible in my opinion. For if the deuil may
forme what kinde of impressiones he pleases in the aire, as I haue said
before, speaking of _Magie_, why may he not far easilier thicken & obscure
so the air, that is next about them by contracting it strait together,
that the beames of any other mans eyes, cannot pearce thorow the same, to
see them? But the third way of their comming to their conuentions, is,
that where in I think them deluded: for some of them sayeth, that being
transformed in the likenesse of a little beast or foule, they will come
and pearce through whatsoeuer house or Church, though all ordinarie
passages be closed, by whatsoeuer open, the aire may enter in at. And some
sayeth, that their bodies lying stil as in an extasy, their spirits wil be
rauished out of their bodies, & caried to such places. And for verefying
therof, wil giue euident tokens, aswel by witnesses that haue seene their
body lying senseles in the meane time, as by naming persones, whom-with
they mette, and giuing tokens what purpose was amongst them, whome
otherwaies they could not haue knowen: for this forme of journeing, they
affirme to vse most, when they are transported from one Countrie to

PHI. Surelie I long to heare your owne opinion of this: For they are like
old wiues trattles about the fire. The reasons that moues me to thinke
that these are meere illusiones, ar these. First for them that are
transformed in likenes of beastes or foules, can enter through so narrow
passages, although I may easelie beleeue that the Deuill coulde by his
woorkemanshippe vpon the aire, make them appeare to be in such formes,
either to themselues or to others: Yet how he can contract a solide bodie
within so little roome, I thinke it is directlie contrarie to it selfe,
for to be made so little, and yet not diminished: To be so straitlie
drawen together, and yet feele no paine; I thinke it is so contrarie to
the qualitie of a naturall bodie, and so like to the little
transubstantiat god in the _Papistes Masse_, that I can neuer beleeue it.
So to haue a quantitie, is so proper to a solide bodie, that as all
Philosophers conclude, it cannot be any more without one, then a spirite
can haue one. For when PETER _came out of the prison, _(_M19_)_ and the
doores all locked_: It was not by any contracting of his bodie in so
little roome: but by the giuing place of the dore, though vn-espyed by the
Gaylors. And yet is there no comparison, when this is done, betuixt the
power of God, and of the Deuill. As to their forme of extasie and
spirituall transporting, it is certaine the soules going out of the bodie,
is the onely difinition of naturall death: and who are once dead, God
forbid wee should thinke that it should lie in the power of all the Deuils
in Hell, to restore them to their life againe: Although he can put his
owne spirite in a dead bodie, which the _Necromancers_ commonlie practise,
as yee haue harde. For that is the office properly belonging to God; and
besides that, the soule once parting from the bodie, cannot wander anie
longer in the worlde, but to the owne resting place must it goe
immediatlie, abiding the conjunction of the bodie againe, at the latter
daie. And what CHRIST or the Prophets did miraculouslie in this case, it
cannot in no Christian mans opinion be maid common with the Deuill. As for
anie tokens that they giue for proouing of this, it is verie possible to
the Deuils craft, to perswade them to these meanes. For he being a
spirite, may hee not so rauishe their thoughtes, and dull their sences,
that their bodie lying as dead, hee may object to their spirites as it
were in a dreame, & (as the Poets write of _Morpheus_) represente such
formes of persones, of places, and other circumstances, as he pleases to
illude them with? Yea, that he maie deceiue them with the greater
efficacie, may hee not at that same instant, by fellow angelles of his,
illude such other persones so in that same fashion, whome with he makes
them to beleeue that they mette; that all their reportes and tokens,
though seuerallie examined, may euerie one agree with an other. And that
whatsoeuer actiones, either in hurting men or beasts: or whatsoeuer other
thing that they falselie imagine, at that time to haue done, may by
himselfe or his marrowes, at that same time be done indeede; so as if they
would giue for a token of their being rauished at the death of such a
person within so shorte space thereafter, whom they beleeue to haue
poysoned, or witched at that instante, might hee not at that same houre,
haue smitten that same person by the permission of GOD, to the farther
deceiuing of them, and to mooue others to beleeue them? And this is
surelie the likeliest way, and most according to reason, which my
judgement can finde out in this, and whatsoeuer vther vnnaturall poyntes
of their confession. And by these meanes shall we saill surelie, betuixt
_Charybdis_ and _Scylla_, in eschewing the not beleeuing of them
altogether on the one part, least that drawe vs to the errour that there
is no Witches: and on the other parte in beleeuing of it, make vs to
eschew the falling into innumerable absurdities, both monstruouslie
against all Theologie diuine, and Philosophie humaine.

Chap. V.


_Witches actiones towardes others. Why there are more women of that craft
nor men? What thinges are possible to them to effectuate by the power of
their master. The reasons thereof. What is the surest remedie of the
harmes done by them._


Forsooth your opinion in this, seemes to carrie most reason with it, and
sence yee haue ended, then the actions belonging properly to their owne
persones: say forwarde now to their actiones vsed towardes others.

EPI. In their actiones vsed towardes others, three thinges ought to be
considered: First the maner of their consulting thereupon: Next their part
as instrumentes: And last their masters parte, who puts the same in
execution. As to their consultationes thereupon, they vse them oftest in
the Churches, where they conveene for adoring: at what time their master
enquiring at them what they would be at: euerie one of them propones vnto
him, what wicked turne they would haue done, either for obteining of
riches, or for reuenging them vpon anie whome they haue malice at: who
granting their demande, as no doubt willinglie he wil, since it is to doe
euill, he teacheth them the means, wherby they may do the same. As for
little trifling turnes that women haue ado with, he causeth them to ioynt
dead corpses, & to make powders thereof, mixing such other thinges there
amongst, as he giues vnto them.

PHI. But before yee goe further, permit mee I pray you to interrupt you
one worde, which yee haue put mee in memorie of, by speaking of Women.
What can be the cause that there are twentie women giuen to that craft,
where ther is one man?

EPI. The reason is easie, for as that sexe is frailer then man is, so is
it easier to be intrapped in these grosse snares of the Deuill, as was
ouer well proued to be true, by the Serpents deceiuing of _Eua_ at the
beginning, which makes him the homelier with that sexe sensine.

PHI. Returne now where ye left.

EPI. To some others at these times hee teacheth how to make Pictures of
waxe or clay: That by the rosting thereof, the persones that they beare
the name of, may be continuallie melted or dryed awaie by continuall
sicknesse. To some hee giues such stones or poulders, as will helpe to
cure or cast on diseases: And to some he teacheth kindes of vncouthe
poysons, which Mediciners vnderstandes not (for he is farre cunningner
then man in the knowledge of all the occult proprieties of nature) not
that anie of these meanes which hee teacheth them (except the poysons
which are composed of thinges naturall) can of them selues helpe any thing
to these turnes, that they are employed in, but onelie being Gods Ape, as
well in that, as in all other thinges. Even as God by his Sacramentes
which are earthlie of themselues workes a heavenlie effect, though no
waies by any cooperation in them: And (M20) as CHRIST by clay & spettle
wrought together, _opened the eies of the blynd man_, suppose there was no
vertue in that which he outwardlie applyed, so the Deuill will haue his
out-warde meanes to be shewes as it were of his doing, which hath no part
of cooperation in his turnes with him, how farre that euer the ignorantes
be abused in the contrarie. And as to the effectes of these two former
partes, to wit, the consultationes and the outward meanes, they are so
wounderfull as I dare not allege anie of them, without ioyning a
sufficient reason of the possibilitie thereof. For leauing all the small
trifles among wiues, and to speake of the principall poyntes of their
craft. For the common trifles thereof, they can do without conuerting well
inough by themselues: These principall poyntes I say are these: They can
make men or women to loue or hate other, which may be verie possible to
the Deuil to effectual, seing he being a subtile spirite, knowes well
inough how to perswade the corrupted affection of them whom God will
permit him so to deale with: They can lay the siknesse of one vpon an
other, which likewise is verie possible vnto him: For since by Gods
permission, he layed siknesse vpon IOB, why may he not farre easilier lay
it vpon any other: For as an old practisian, he knowes well inough what
humor domines most in anie of vs, and as a spirite hee can subtillie
walken vp the same, making it peccant, or to abounde, as he thinkes meete
for troubling of vs, when God will so permit him. And for the taking off
of it, no doubt he will be glad to reliue such of present paine, as he may
thinke by these meanes to perswade to bee catched in his euerlasting
snares and fetters. They can be-witch and take the life of men or women,
by rosting of the Pictures, as I spake of before, which likewise is verie
possible to their Master to performe, for although, (as I saide before)
that instrumente of waxe haue no vertue in that turne doing, yet may hee
not verie well euen by that same measure that his conjured slaues meltes
that waxe at the fire, may he not I say at these same times, subtilie as a
spirite so weaken and scatter the spirites of life of the patient, as may
make him on th’one part, for faintnesse to sweate out the humour of his
bodie: And on the other parte, for the not concurrence of these spirites,
which causes his digestion, so debilitat his stomak, that his humour
radicall continually, sweating out on the one parte, and no new good suck
being put in the place thereof, for lack of digestion on the other, hee at
last shall vanish awaie, euen as his picture will doe at the fire. And
that knauish and cunning woorkeman, by troubling him onely at some times,
makes a proportion so neare betuixt the woorking of the one and the other,
that both shall ende as it were at one time. They can rayse stormes and
tempestes in the aire, either vpon Sea or land, though not vniuersally,
but in such a particular place and prescribed boundes, as God will
permitte them so to trouble: Which likewise is verie easie to be discerned
from anie other naturall tempestes that are meteores, in respect of the
suddaine and violent raising thereof, together with the short induring of
the same. And this is likewise verie possible to their master to do, he
hauing such affinitie with the aire as being a spirite, and hauing such
power of the forming and moouing thereof, as ye haue heard me alreadie
declare: For in the Scripture, that stile of _the Prince of the aire_
(M21) is giuen vnto him. They can make folkes to becom phrenticque or
Maniacque, which likewise is very possible to their master to do, sence
they are but naturall sicknesses: and so he may lay on these kindes,
aswell as anie others. They can make spirites either to follow and trouble
persones, or haunt certaine houses, and affraie oftentimes the
inhabitantes: as hath bene knowen to be done by our Witches at this time.
And likewise they can make some to be possessed with spirites, & so to
becom verie Dæmoniacques: and this last sorte is verie possible likewise
to the Deuill their Master to do, since he may easilie send his owne
angells to trouble in what forme he pleases, any whom God wil permit him
so to vse.

PHI. But will God permit these wicked instrumentes by the power of the
Deuill their master, to trouble by anie of these meanes, anie that
beleeues in him?

EPI. No doubt, for there are three kinde of folkes whom God will permit so
to be tempted or troubled; the wicked for their horrible sinnes, to punish
them in the like measure; The godlie that are sleeping in anie great
sinnes or infirmities and weakenesse in faith, to waken them vp the faster
by such an vncouth forme: and euen some of the best, that their patience
may bee tryed before the world, as IOBS was. For why may not God vse anie
kinde of extraordinarie punishment, when it pleases him; as well as the
ordinarie roddes of sicknesse or other aduersities.

PHI. Who then may be free from these Deuilish practises?

EPI. No man ought to presume so far as to promise anie impunitie to
himselfe: for God hath before all beginninges preordinated aswell the
particular sortes of Plagues as of benefites for euerie man, which in the
owne time he ordaines them to be visited with, & yet ought we not to be
the more affrayde for that, of any thing that the Deuill and his wicked
instrumentes can do against vs: For we dailie fight against the Deuill in
a hundreth other waies: And therefore as a valiant Captaine, affraies no
more being at the combat, nor stayes from his purpose for the rummishing
shot of a Cannon, nor the small clack of a Pistolet: suppose he be not
certaine what may light vpon him; Euen so ought we boldlie to goe forwarde
in fighting against the Deuill without anie greater terrour, for these his
rarest weapons, nor for the ordinarie whereof wee haue daily the proofe.

PHI. Is it not lawfull then by the helpe of some other Witche to cure the
disease that is casten on by that craft?

EPI. No waies lawfull: For I gaue you the reason thereof in that axiome of
Theologie, which was the last wordes I spake of _Magie_.

PHI. How then may these diseases be lawfullie cured?

EPI. Onelie by earnest prayer to GOD, by amendement of their liues, and by
sharp persewing euerie one, according to his calling of these instrumentes
of Sathan, whose punishment to the death will be a salutarie sacrifice for
the patient. And this is not onely the lawfull way, but likewise the most
sure: For by the Deuils meanes, _can neuer the Deuill be casten out_,
(M22) as Christ sayeth. And when such a cure is vsed, it may wel serue for
a shorte time, but at the last, it will doubtleslie tend to the vtter
perdition of the patient, both in bodie and soule.

Chap. VI.


_What sorte of folkes are least or most subiect to receiue harme by
Witchcraft. What power they haue to harme the Magistrate, and vpon what
respectes they haue any power in prison: And to what end may or will the
Deuill appeare to them therein. Vpon what respectes the Deuill appeires in
sundry shapes to sundry of them at any time._


Bvt who dare take vpon him to punish them, if no man can be sure to be
free from their vnnaturall inuasiones?

EPI. We ought not the more of that restraine from vertue, that the way
wherby we climbe thereunto be straight and perrilous. But besides that, as
there is no kinde of persones so subject to receiue harme of them, as
these that are of infirme and weake faith (which is the best buckler
against such inuasiones:) so haue they so smal power ouer none, as ouer
such as zealouslie and earnestlie persewes them, without sparing for anie
worldlie respect.

PHI. Then they are like the Pest, which smites these sickarest, that flies
it farthest, and apprehends deepliest the perrell thereof.

EPI. It is euen so with them: For neither is it able to them to vse anie
false cure vpon a patient, except the patient first beleeue in their
power, and so hazard the tinsell of his owne soule, nor yet can they haue
lesse power to hurte anie, nor such as contemnes most their doinges, so
being it comes of faith, and not of anie vaine arrogancie in themselues.

PHI. But what is their power against the Magistrate?

EPI. Lesse or greater, according as he deales with them. For if he be
slouthfull towardes them, God is verie able to make them instrumentes to
waken & punish his slouth. But if he be the contrarie, he according to the
iust law of God, and allowable law of all Nationes, will be diligent in
examining and punishing of them: GOD will not permit their master to
trouble or hinder so good a woorke.

PHI. But fra they be once in handes and firmance, haue they anie further
power in their craft?

EPI. That is according to the forme of their detention. If they be but
apprehended and deteined by anie priuate person, vpon other priuate
respectes, their power no doubt either in escaping, or in doing hurte, is
no lesse nor euer it was before. But if on the other parte, their
apprehending and detention be by the lawfull Magistrate, vpon the iust
respectes of their guiltinesse in that craft, their power is then no
greater then before that euer they medled with their master. For where God
beginnes iustlie to strike by his lawfull Lieutennentes, it is not in the
Deuilles power to defraude or bereaue him of the office, or effect of his
powerfull and reuenging Scepter.

PHI. But will neuer their master come to visite them, fra they be once
apprehended and put in firmance?

EPI. That is according to the estaite that these miserable wretches are
in: For if they be obstinate in still denying, he will not spare, when he
findes time to speake with them, either if he finde them in anie comfort,
to fill them more and more with the vaine hope of some maner of reliefe:
or else if hee finde them in a deepe dispaire, by all meanes to augment
the same, and to perswade them by some extraordinarie meanes to put
themselues downe, which verie commonlie they doe. But if they be penitent
and confesse, God will not permit him to trouble them anie more with his
presence and allurementes.

PHI. It is not good vsing his counsell I see then. But I woulde earnestlie
know when he appeares to them in Prison, what formes vses he then to take?

EPI. Diuers formes, euen as he vses to do at other times vnto them. For as
I told you, speking of _Magie_, he appeares to that kinde of craftes-men
ordinarily in an forme, according as they agree vpon it amongst
themselues: Or if they be but prentises, according to the qualitie of
their circles or conjurationes: Yet to these capped creatures, he appeares
as he pleases, and as he findes meetest for their humors. For euen at
their publick conuentiones, he appeares to diuers of them in diuers
formes, as we haue found by the difference of their confessiones in that
point: For he deluding them with vaine impressiones in the aire, makes
himselfe to seeme more terrible to the grosser sorte, that they maie
thereby be moued to feare and reuerence him the more: And les monstrous
and vncouthlike againe to the craftier sorte, least otherwaies they might
sturre and skunner at his vglinesse.

PHI. How can he then be felt, as they confesse they haue done him, if his
bodie be but of aire?

EPI. I heare little of that amongst their confessiones, yet may he make
himselfe palpable, either by assuming any dead bodie, and vsing the
ministrie thereof, or else by deluding as wel their sence of feeling as
seeing; which is not impossible to him to doe, since all our senses, as we
are so weake, and euen by ordinarie sicknesses will be often times

PHI. But I would speere one worde further yet, concerning his appearing to
them in prison, which is this. May any other that chances to be present at
that time in the prison, see him as well as they.

EPI. Some-times they will, and some-times not, as it pleases God.

Chap. VII.


_Two formes of the deuils visible conuersing in the earth, with the
reasones wherefore the one of them was communest in the time of Papistrie:
And the other sensine. Those that denies the power of the Deuill, denies
the power of God, and are guiltie of the errour of the Sadduces._


Hath the Deuill then power to appeare to any other, except to such as are
his sworne disciples: especially since al Oracles, & such like kinds of
illusiones were taken awaie and abolished by the cumming of CHRIST?

EPI. Although it be true indeede, that the brightnesse of the Gospell at
his cumming, scaled the cloudes of all these grosse errors in the
Gentilisme: yet that these abusing spirites, ceases not sensine at
sometimes to appeare, dailie experience teaches vs. Indeede this
difference is to be marked betwixt the formes of Sathans conuersing
visiblie in the world. For of two different formes thereof, the one of
them by the spreading of the Euangell, and conquest of the white horse, in
the sixt Chapter of the Reuelation, is much hindred and become rarer there
through. This his appearing to any Christians, troubling of them
outwardly, or possessing of them constraynedly. The other of them is
become communer and more vsed sensine, I meane by their vnlawfull artes,
whereupon our whole purpose hath bene. This we finde by experience in this
Ile to be true. For as we know, moe Ghostes and spirites were seene, nor
tongue can tell, in the time of blinde _Papistrie_ in these Countries,
where now by the contrarie, a man shall scarcely all his time here once of
such things. And yet were these vnlawfull artes farre rarer at that time:
and neuer were so much harde of, nor so rife as they are now.

PHI. What should be the cause of that?

EPI. The diuerse nature of our sinnes procures at the Iustice of God,
diuerse sortes of punishments answering thereunto. And therefore as in the
time of _Papistrie_, our fathers erring grosselie, & through ignorance,
that mist of errours ouershaddowed the Deuill to walke the more
familiarlie amongst them: And as it were by barnelie and affraying
terroures, to mocke and accuse their barnelie erroures. By the contrarie,
we now being sounde of Religion, and in our life rebelling to our
profession, God iustlie by that sinne of rebellion, as _Samuel_ calleth
it, accuseth our life so wilfullie fighting against our profession.

PHI. Since yee are entred now to speake of the appearing of spirites: I
would be glad to heare your opinion in that matter. For manie denies that
anie such spirites can appeare in these daies as I haue said.

EPI. Doubtleslie who denyeth the power of the Deuill, woulde likewise
denie the power of God, if they could for shame. For since the Deuill is
the verie contrarie opposite to God, there can be no better way to know
God, then by the contrarie; as by the ones power (though a creature) to
admire the power of the great Creator: by the falshood of the one to
considder the trueth of the other, by the injustice of the one, to
considder the Iustice of the other: And by the cruelty of the one, to
considder the mercifulnesse of the other: And so foorth in all the rest of
the essence of God, and qualities of the Deuill. But I feare indeede,
there be ouer many _Sadduces_ in this worlde, that denies all kindes of
spirites: For convicting of whose errour, there is cause inough if there
were no more, that God should permit at sometimes spirits visiblie to



_The description of all these kindes of Spirites that troubles men or
women. The conclusion of the whole Dialogue._

Chap. I.


_The diuision of spirites in foure principall kindes. The description of
the first kinde of them, called __Spectra & vmbræ mortuorum__. What is the
best way to be free of their trouble._


I pray you now then go forward in telling what ye thinke fabulous, or may
be trowed in that case.

EPI. That kinde of the Deuils conuersing in the earth, may be diuided in
foure different kindes, whereby he affrayeth and troubleth the bodies of
men: For of the abusing of the soule, I haue spoken alreadie. The first
is, where spirites troubles some houses or solitarie places: The second,
where spirites followes vpon certaine persones, and at diuers houres
troubles them: The thirde, when they enter within them and possesse them:
The fourth is these kinde of spirites that are called vulgarlie the
Fayrie. Of the three former kindes, ye harde alreadie, how they may
artificiallie be made by Witch-craft to trouble folke: Now it restes to
speake of their naturall comming as it were, and not raysed by
Witch-craft. But generally I must for-warne you of one thing before I
enter in this purpose: that is, that although in my discourseing of them,
I deuyde them in diuers kindes, yee must notwithstanding there of note my
Phrase of speaking in that: For doubtleslie they are in effect, but all
one kinde of spirites, who for abusing the more of mankinde, takes on
these sundrie shapes, and vses diuerse formes of out-ward actiones, as if
some were of nature better then other. Nowe I returne to my purpose: As to
the first kinde of these spirites, that were called by the auncients by
diuers names, according as their actions were. For if they were spirites
that haunted some houses, by appearing in diuers and horrible formes, and
making greate dinne: they were called _Lemures_ or _Spectra_. If they
appeared in likenesse of anie defunct to some friends of his, they wer
called _vmbræ mortuorum_: And so innumerable stiles they got, according to
their actiones, as I haue said alreadie. As we see by experience, how
manie stiles they haue given them in our language in the like maner: Of
the appearing of these spirites, wee are certified by the Scriptures,
where the Prophet ESAY 13. (M23) and 34. cap. threatning the destruction
of _Babell_ and _Edom_: declares, that it shal not onlie be wracked, but
shall become so greate a solitude, as it shall be the habitackle of
Howlettes, and of ZIIM and IIM, which are the proper Hebrewe names for
these Spirites. The cause whie they haunte solitarie places, it is by
reason, that they may affraie and brangle the more the faith of suche as
them alone hauntes such places. For our nature is such, as in companies
wee are not so soone mooued to anie such kinde of feare, as being
solitare, which the Deuill knowing well inough, hee will not therefore
assaile vs but when we are weake: And besides that, GOD will not permit
him so to dishonour the societies and companies of Christians, as in
publicke times and places to walke visiblie amongst them. On the other
parte, when he troubles certaine houses that are dwelt in, it is a sure
token either of grosse ignorance, or of some grosse and slanderous sinnes
amongst the inhabitantes thereof: which God by that extraordinarie rod

PHI. But by what way or passage can these Spirites enter in these houses,
seeing they alledge that they will enter, Doore and Window being steiked?

EPI. They will choose the passage for their entresse, according to the
forme that they are in at that time. For if they haue assumed a deade
bodie, whereinto they lodge themselues, they can easely inough open
without dinne anie Doore or Window, and enter in thereat. And if they
enter as a spirite onelie, anie place where the aire may come in at, is
large inough an entrie for them: For as I said before, a spirite can
occupie no quantitie.

PHI. And will God then permit these wicked spirites to trouble the reste
of a dead bodie, before the resurrection thereof? Or if he will so, I
thinke it should be of the reprobate onely.

EPI. What more is the reste troubled of a dead bodie, when the Deuill
carryes it out of the Graue to serue his turne for a space, nor when the
Witches takes it vp and joyntes it, or when as Swine wortes vppe the
graues? The rest of them that the Scripture speakes of, is not meaned by a
locall remaining continuallie in one place, but by their resting from
their trauelles and miseries of this worlde, while their latter
conjunction againe with the soule at that time to receaue full glorie in
both. And that the Deuill may vse aswell the ministrie of the bodies of
the faithfull in these cases, as of the vn-faithfull, there is no
inconvenient; for his haunting with their bodies after they are deade, can
no-waies defyle them: In respect of the soules absence. And for anie
dishonour it can be vnto them, by what reason can it be greater, then the
hanging, heading, or many such shameful deaths, that good men will suffer?
for there is nothing in the bodies of the faithfull, more worthie of
honour, or freer from corruption by nature, nor in these of the
vnfaithful, while time they be purged and glorified in the latter daie, as
is dailie seene by the vilde diseases and corruptions, that the bodies of
the faythfull are subject vnto, as yee will see clearelie proued, when I
speake of the possessed and Dæmoniacques.

PHI. Yet there are sundrie that affirmes to haue haunted such places,
where these spirites are alleaged to be: And coulde neuer heare nor see
anie thing.

EPI. I thinke well: For that is onelie reserued to the secreete knowledge
of God, whom he wil permit to see such thinges, and whome not.

PHI. But where these spirites hauntes and troubles anie houses, what is
the best waie to banishe them?

EPI. By two meanes may onelie the remeid of such things be procured: The
one is ardent prayer to God, both of these persones that are troubled with
them, and of that Church whereof they are. The other is the purging of
themselues by amendement of life from such sinnes, as haue procured that
extraordinarie plague.

PHI. And what meanes then these kindes of spirites, when they appeare in
the shaddow of a person newlie dead, or to die, to his friendes?

EPI. When they appeare vpon that occasion, they are called Wraithes in our
language. Amongst the _Gentiles_ the Deuill vsed that much, to make them
beleeue that it was some good spirite that appeared to them then, ether to
forewarne them of the death of their friend; or else to discouer vnto
them, the will of the defunct, or what was the way of his slauchter, as is
written in the booke of the histories Prodigious. And this way hee easelie
deceiued the _Gentiles_, because they knew not God: And to that same
effect is it, that he now appeares in that maner to some ignorant
Christians. For he dare not so illude anie that knoweth that, neither can
the spirite of the defunct returne to his friend, or yet an Angell vse
such formes.

PHI. And are not our war-woolfes one sorte of these spirits also, that
hauntes and troubles some houses or dwelling places?

EPI. There hath indeede bene an old opinion of such like thinges; For by
the _Greekes_ they were called λυκανθρωποι which signifieth men-woolfes.
But to tell you simplie my opinion in this, if anie such thing hath bene,
I take it to haue proceeded but of a naturall super-abundance of
Melancholie, which as wee reade, that it hath made some thinke themselues
Pitchers, and some horses, and some one kinde of beast or other: So
suppose I that it hath so viciat the imagination and memorie of some, as
_per lucida interualla_, it hath so highlie occupyed them, that they haue
thought themselues verrie Woolfes indeede at these times: and so haue
counterfeited their actiones in goeing on their handes and feete,
preassing to deuoure women and barnes, fighting and snatching with all the
towne dogges, and in vsing such like other bruitish actiones, and so to
become beastes by a strong apprehension, (M24) as _Nebucad-netzar_ was
seuen yeares: but as to their hauing and hyding of their hard & schellie
sloughes, I take that to be but eiked, by vncertaine report, the author of
all lyes.

Chap. II.


_The description of the next two kindes of Spirites, whereof the one
followes outwardlie, the other possesses inwardlie the persones that they
trouble. That since all Prophecies and visiones are nowe ceased, all
spirites that appeares in these formes are euill._


Come forward now to the reste of these kindes of spirites.

EPI. As to the next two kindes, that is, either these that outwardlie
troubles and followes some persones, or else inwardlie possesses them: I
will conjoyne them in one, because aswel the causes ar alike in the
persons that they are permitted to trouble: as also the waies whereby they
may be remedied and cured.

PHI. What kinde of persones are they that vses to be so troubled?

EPI. Two kindes in speciall: Either such as being guiltie of greeuous
offences, God punishes by that horrible kinde of scourdge, or else being
persones of the beste nature peraduenture, that yee shall finde in all the
Countrie about them, GOD permittes them to be troubled in that sort, for
the tryall of their patience, and wakening vp of their zeale, for
admonishing of the beholders, not to truste ouer much in themselues, since
they are made of no better stuffe, and peraduenture blotted with no
smaller sinnes (as CHRIST saide, (M25) speaking of them vppon whome the
Towre in _Siloam_ fell:) And for giuing likewise to the spectators, matter
to prayse GOD, that they meriting no better, are yet spared from being
corrected in that fearefull forme.

PHI. These are good reasones for the parte of GOD, which apparantlie
mooues him so to permit the Deuill to trouble such persones. But since the
Deuil hath euer a contrarie respecte in all the actiones that GOD employes
him in: which is I pray you the end and mark he shoots at in this turne?

EPI. It is to obtaine one of two thinges thereby, if he may: The one is
the tinsell of their life, by inducing them to such perrilous places at
such time as he either followes or possesses them, which may procure the
same: And such like, so farre as GOD will permit him, by tormenting them
to weaken their bodie, and caste them in incurable diseases. The other
thinge that hee preases to obteine by troubling of them, is the tinsell of
their soule, by intising them to mistruste and blaspheme God: Either for
the intollerablenesse of their tormentes, as he assayed to haue done with
IOB; (M26) or else for his promising vnto them to leaue the troubling of
them, incase they would so do, as is knowen by experience at this same
time by the confession of a young one that was so troubled.

PHI. Since ye haue spoken now of both these kindes of spirites
comprehending them in one: I must nowe goe backe againe in speering some
questions of euerie one of these kindes in speciall. And first for these
that followes certaine persones, yee know that there are two sortes of
them: One sorte that troubles and tormentes the persones that they haunt
with: An other sort that are seruiceable vnto them in all kinde of their
necessaries, and omittes neuer to forwarne them of anie suddaine perrell
that they are to be in. And so in this case, I would vnderstande whither
both these sortes be but wicked and damned spirites: Or if the last sorte
be rather Angells, (as should appeare by their actiones) sent by God to
assist such as he speciallie fauoures. For it is written in the
Scriptures, (M27) that _God sendes Legions of Angels to guarde and watch
ouer his elect_.

EPI. I know well inough where fra that errour which ye alleage hath
proceeded: For it was the ignorant _Gentiles_ that were the fountaine
thereof. Who for that they knew not God, they forged in their owne
imaginationes, euery man to be still accompanied with two spirites,
whereof they called the one _genius bonus_, the other _genius malus_: the
Greekes called them ευδαιμονα & κακοδαιμονα: wherof the former they saide,
perswaded him to all the good he did: the other entised him to all the
euill. But praised be God we that are christians, & walks not amongst the
_Cymmerian_ conjectures of man, knowes well inough, that it is the good
spirite of God onely, who is the fountain of all goodnes, that perswads vs
to the thinking or doing of any good: and that it is our corrupted fleshe
and Sathan, that intiseth vs to the contrarie. And yet the Deuill for
confirming in the heades of ignoraunt Christians, that errour first
mainteined among the Gentiles, he whiles among the first kinde of spirits
that I speak of, appeared in time of _Papistrie_ and blindnesse, and
haunted diuers houses, without doing any euill, but doing as it were
necessarie turnes vp and down the house: and this spirit they called
_Brownie_ in our language, who appeared like a rough-man: yea, some were
so blinded, as to beleeue that their house was all the sonsier, as they
called it, that such spirites resorted there.

PHI. But since the Deuils intention in all his actions, is euer to do
euill, what euill was there in that forme of doing, since their actions
outwardly were good.

EPI. Was it not euill inough to deceiue simple ignorantes, in making them
to take him for an Angell of light, and so to account of Gods enemie, as
of their particular friend: where by the contrarie, all we that are
Christians, ought assuredly to know that since the comming of Christ in
the flesh, and establishing of his Church by the Apostles, all miracles,
visions, prophecies, & appearances of Angels or good spirites are ceased.
Which serued onely for the first sowing of faith, & planting of the
Church. Where now the Church being established, and the white Horse
whereof I spake before, hauing made his conqueste, the Lawe and Prophets
are thought sufficient to serue vs, or make vs inexcusable, (M28) as
Christ saith in his parable of _Lazarus_ and the riche man.

Chap. III.


_The description of a particular sort of that kind of following spirites,
called __Incubi__ and __Succubi__: And what is the reason wherefore these
kindes of spirites hauntes most the Northeme and barbarous partes of the


The next question that I would speere, is likewise concerning this first
of these two kindes of spirites that ye haue conjoyned: and it is this; ye
knowe how it is commonly written and reported, that amongst the rest of
the sortes of spirites that followes certaine persons, there is one more
monstrous nor al the rest: in respect as it is alleaged, they converse
naturally with them whom they trouble and hauntes with: and therefore I
would knowe in two thinges your opinion herein: First if suche a thing can
be: and next if it be: whether there be a difference of sexes amongst
these spirites or not.

EPI. That abhominable kinde of the Deuils abusing of men or women, was
called of old, _Incubi_ and _Succubi_, according to the difference of the
sexes that they conuersed with. By two meanes this great kinde of abuse
might possibly be performed: The one, when the Deuill onelie as a spirite,
and stealing out the sperme of a dead bodie, abuses them that way, they
not graithlie seeing anie shape or feeling anie thing, but that which he
so conuayes in that part: As we reade of a Monasterie of Nunnes which were
burnt for their being that way abused. The other meane is when he borrowes
a dead bodie and so visiblie, and as it seemes vnto them naturallie as a
man converses with them. But it is to be noted, that in whatsoeuer way he
vseth it, that sperme seemes intollerably cold to the person abused. For
if he steale out the nature of a quick person, it cannot be so quicklie
carryed, but it will both tine the strength and heate by the way, which it
could neuer haue had for lacke of agitation, which in the time of
procreation is the procurer & wakener vp of these two natural qualities.
And if he occupying the dead bodie as his lodging expell the same out
thereof in the dewe time, it must likewise be colde by the participation
with the qualities of the dead bodie whereout of it comes. And whereas yee
inquire if these spirites be diuided in sexes or not, I thinke the rules
of Philosophie may easelie resolue a man of the contrarie: For it is a
sure principle of that arte, that nothing can be diuided in sexes, except
such liuing bodies as must haue a naturall seede to genere by. But we know
spirites hath no seede proper to themselues, nor yet can they gender one
with an other.

PHI. How is it then that they say sundrie monsters haue bene gotten by
that way.

EPI. These tales are nothing but _Aniles fabulæ_. For that they haue no
nature of their owne, I haue shewed you alreadie. And that the cold nature
of a dead bodie, can woorke nothing in generation, it is more nor plaine,
as being already dead of it selfe as well as the rest of the bodie is,
wanting the naturall heate, and such other naturall operation, as is
necessarie for woorking that effect, and incase such a thing were possible
(which were all utterly against all the rules of nature) it would breed no
monster, but onely such a naturall of-spring, as would haue cummed betuixt
that man or woman and that other abused person, in-case they both being
aliue had had a doe with other. For the Deuilles parte therein, is but the
naked carrying or expelling of that substance: And so it coulde not
participate with no qualitie of the same. Indeede, it is possible to the
craft of the Deuill to make a womans bellie to swel after he hath that way
abused her, which he may do, either by steiring vp her own humor, or by
herbes, as we see beggars daily doe. And when the time of her deliuery
should come to make her thoil great doloures, like vnto that naturall
course, and then subtillie to slippe in the Mid-wiues handes, stockes,
stones, or some monstruous barne brought from some other place, but this
is more reported and gessed at by others, nor beleeued by me.

PHI. But what is the cause that this kinde of abuse is thought to be most
common in such wild partes of the worlde, as _Lap-land_, and _Fin-land_,
or in our North Iles of _Orknay_ and _Schet-land_.

EPI. Because where the Deuill findes greatest ignorance and barbaritie,
there assayles he grosseliest, as I gaue you the reason wherefore there
was moe Witches of women kinde nor men.

PHI. Can anie be so vnhappie as to giue their willing consent to the
Deuilles vilde abusing them in this forme.

EPI. Yea, some of the Witches haue confessed, that he hath perswaded them
to giue their willing consent thereunto, that he may thereby haue them
feltred the sikarer in his snares; But as the other compelled sorte is to
be pittied and prayed for, so is this most highlie to be punished and

PHI. It is not the thing which we cal the _Mare_, which takes folkes
sleeping in their bedds, a kinde of these spirites, whereof ye are

EPI. No, that is but a naturall sicknes, which the Mediciners hath giuen
that name of _Incubus_ vnto _ab incubando_, because it being a thicke
fleume, falling into our breast vpon the harte, while we are sleeping,
intercludes so our vitall spirites, and takes all power from vs, as maks
vs think that there were some vnnaturall burden or spirite, lying vpon vs
and holding vs downe.

Chap. IIII.


_The description of the Dæmoniackes & possessed. By what reason the
__Papistes__ may haue power to cure them._


Wel, I haue told you now all my doubts, and ye haue satisfied me therein,
concerning the first of these two kindes of spirites that ye haue
conjoyned. Now I am to inquire onely two thinges at you concerning the
last kinde, I meane the Dæmoniackes. The first is, whereby shal these
possessed folks be discerned fra them that ar trubled with a natural
Phrensie or Manie. The next is, how can it be that they can be remedied by
the Papistes Church, whome wee counting as Hereticques, (M29) it should
appeare that one Deuil should not cast out an other, for then would _his
kingdome be diuided in it selfe_, as CHRIST said.

EPI. As to your first question; there are diuers symptomes, whereby that
heauie trouble may be discerned from a naturall sickenesse, and speciallie
three, omitting the diuers vaine signes that the _Papistes_ attributes
vnto it: Such as the raging at holie water, their fleeing a back from the
Croce, their not abiding the hearing of God named, and innumerable such
like vaine thinges that were alike fashious and feckles to recite. But to
come to these three symptomes then, whereof I spake, I account the one of
them to be the incredible strength of the possessed creature, which will
farre exceede the strength of six of the wightest and wodest of any other
men that are not so troubled. The next is the boldning vp so far of the
patients breast and bellie, with such an vnnaturall sturring and vehement
agitation within them: And such an ironie hardnes of his sinnowes so
stiffelie bended out, that it were not possible to prick out as it were
the skinne of anie other person so far: so mightely works the Deuil in all
the members and senses of his body, he being locallie within the same,
suppose of his soule and affectiones thereof, hee haue no more power then
of any other mans. The last is, the speaking of sundrie languages, which
the patient is knowen by them that were acquainte with him neuer to haue
learned, and that with an vncouth and hollowe voice, and al the time of
his speaking, a greater motion being in his breast then in his mouth. But
fra this last symptome is excepted such, as are altogether in the time of
their possessing bereft of al their senses being possessed with a dumme
and blynde spirite, whereof Christ releiued one, in the 12. of _Mathew_.
And as to your next demande, it is first to be doubted if the _Papistes_
or anie not professing the the onelie true Religion, can relieue anie of
that trouble. And next, in-case they can, vpon what respectes it is
possible vnto them. As to the former vpon two reasons, it is grounded:
first that it is knowen so manie of them to bee counterfite, which wyle
the Clergie inuentes for confirming of their rotten Religion. The next is,
that by experience we finde that few, who are possessed indeede, are
fullie cured by them: but rather the Deuill is content to release the
bodelie hurting of them, for a shorte space, thereby to obteine the
perpetual hurt of the soules of so many that by these false miracles may
be induced or confirmed in the profession of that erroneous Religion: euen
as I told you before that he doth in the false cures, or casting off of
diseases by Witches. As to the other part of the argument in-case they
can, which rather (with reuerence of the learned thinking otherwaies) I am
induced to beleeue, by reason of the faithfull report that men sound of
religion, haue made according to their sight thereof, I think if so be, I
say these may be the respectes, whereupon the _Papistes_ may haue that
power. CHRIST gaue a commission and power to his Apostles to cast out
Deuilles, which they according thereunto put in execution: The rules he
bad them obserue in that action, was fasting and praier: & the action it
selfe to be done in his name. This power of theirs proceeded not then of
anie vertue in them, but onely in him who directed them. As was clearly
proued by _Iudas_ his hauing as greate power in that commission, as anie
of the reste. It is easie then to be vnderstand that the casting out of
Deuilles, is by the vertue of fasting and prayer, and in-calling of the
name of God, suppose manie imperfectiones be in the person that is the
instrumente,(M30) as CHRIST him selfe teacheth vs of the power that false
Prophets sall haue to caste out Devils. It is no wounder then, these
respects of this action being considered, that it may be possible to the
_Papistes_, though erring in sundrie points of Religion to accomplish
this, if they vse the right forme prescribed by CHRIST herein. For what
the worse is that action that they erre in other thinges, more then their
Baptisme is the worse that they erre in the other Sacrament, and haue
eiked many vaine freittes to the Baptisme it selfe.

PHI. Surelie it is no little wonder that God should permit the bodies of
anie of the faithfull to be so dishonoured, as to be a dwelling place to
that vncleane spirite.

EPI. There is it which I told right now, would prooue and strengthen my
argument of the deuils entring in the dead bodies of the faithfull. For if
he is permitted to enter in their liuing bodies, euen when they are ioyned
with the soule: how much more will God permit him to enter in their dead
carions, which is no more man, but the filthie and corruptible caise of
man. For as CHRIST sayth, (M31) _It is not any thing that enters within
man that defiles him, but onely that which proccedes and commeth out of

Chap. V.


_The description of the fourth kinde of Spirites called the_ Phairie:
_What is possible therein, and what is but illusiones. How far this
Dialogue entreates of all these thinges, and to what end._


Now I pray you come on to that fourth kinde of spirites.

EPI. That fourth kinde of spirites, which by the Gentiles was called
_Diana_, and her wandring court, and amongst vs was called the _Phairie_
(as I tould you) or our good neighboures, was one of the sortes of
illusiones that was rifest in the time of _Papistrie_: for although it was
holden odious to Prophesie by the deuill, yet whome these kinde of
Spirites carryed awaie, and informed, they were thought to be sonsiest and
of best life. To speake of the many vaine trattles founded vpon that
illusion: How there was a King and Queene of _Phairie_, of such a iolly
court & train as they had, how they had a teynd, & dutie, as it were, of
all goods: how they naturallie rode and went, eate and drank, and did all
other actiones like naturall men and women: I thinke it liker VIRGILS
_Campi Elysij_, nor anie thing that ought to be beleeued by Christians,
except in generall, that as I spake sundrie times before, the deuil
illuded the senses of sundry simple creatures, in making them beleeue that
they saw and harde such thinges as were nothing so indeed.

PHI. But how can it be then, that sundrie Witches haue gone to death with
that confession, that they haue ben transported with the _Phairie_ to such
a hill, which opening, they went in, and there saw a faire Queene, who
being now lighter, gaue them a stone that had sundrie vertues, which at
sundrie times hath bene produced in judgement?

EPI. I say that, euen as I said before of that imaginar rauishing of the
spirite foorth of the bodie. For may not the deuil object to their
fantasie, their senses being dulled, and as it were a sleepe, such hilles
& houses within them, such glistering courts and traines, and whatsoeuer
such like wherewith he pleaseth to delude them. And in the meane time
their bodies being senselesse, to conuay in their hande any stone or such
like thing, which he makes them to imagine to haue receiued in such a

PHI. But what say ye to their fore-telling the death of sundrie persones,
whome they alleage to haue scene in these places? That is, a sooth-dreame
(as they say) since they see it walking.

EPI. I thinke that either they haue not bene sharply inough examined, that
gaue so blunt a reason for their Prophesie, or otherwaies, I thinke it
likewise as possible that the Deuill may prophesie to them when he
deceiues their imaginationes in that sorte, as well as when he plainely
speakes vnto them at other times for their prophesying, is but by a kinde
of vision, as it were, wherein he commonly counterfeits God among the
Ethnicks, as I told you before.

PHI. I would know now whether these kindes of spirites may only appeare to
Witches, or if they may also appeare to anie other.

EPI. They may do to both, to the innocent sort, either to affraie them, or
to seeme to be a better sorte of folkes nor vncleane spirites are, and to
the Witches, to be a cullour of safetie for them, that ignorant
Magistrates may not punish them for it, as I told euen now. But as the one
sorte, for being perforce troubled with them ought to be pittied, so ought
the other sorte (who may bee discerned by their taking vppon them to
Prophesie by them,) That sorte I say, ought as seuerely to be punished as
any other Witches, and rather the more, that that they goe dissemblingly
to woorke.

PHI. And what makes the spirites haue so different names from others.

EPI. Euen the knauerie of that same deuil; who as hee illudes the
_Necromancers_ with innumerable feyned names for him and his angels, as in
special, making _Sathan_, _Beelzebub_, & _Lucifer_, to be three sundry
spirites, where we finde the two former, but diuers names giuen to the
Prince of all the rebelling angels by the Scripture. As by CHRIST, the
Prince of all the Deuilles is called, _Beelzebub_ in that place, which I
alleaged against the power of any hereticques to cast out Deuils. By IOHN
in the Reuelation, the old tempter is called, _Sathan the Prince of all
the euill angels_. And the last, to wit, _Lucifer_, is but by allegoric
taken from _the day Starre_ (so named in diuers places of the Scriptures)
because of his excellencie (I meane the Prince of them) in his creation
before his fall. Euen so I say he deceaues the Witches, by attributing to
himselfe diuers names: as if euery diuers shape that he trans formes
himselfe in, were a diuers kinde of spirit.

PHI. But I haue hard many moe strange tales of this _Phairie_, nor ye haue
yet told me.

EPI. As well I do in that, as I did in all the rest of my discourse. For
because the ground of this conference of ours, proceeded of your speering
at me at our meeting, if there was such a thing as Witches or spirites:
And if they had any power: I therefore haue framed my whole discours, only
to proue that such things are and may be, by such number of examples as I
show to be possible by reason: & keepes me from dipping any further in
playing the part of a Dictionarie, to tell what euer I haue read or harde
in that purpose, which both would exceede fayth, and rather would seeme to
teach such vnlawfull artes, nor to disallow and condemne them, as it is
the duetie of all Christians to do.

Chap. VI.


_Of the tryall and punishment of Witches. What sorte of accusation ought
to be admitted against them. What is the cause of the increasing so far of
their number in this age._


Then to make an ende of our conference, since I see it drawes late, what
forme of punishment thinke ye merites these _Magicians_ and Witches? For I
see that ye account them to be all alike guiltie?

EPI. They ought to be put to death according to the Law of God, the ciuill
and imperial law, and municipall law of all Christian nations.

PHI. But what kinde of death I pray you?

EPI. It is commonly vsed by fire, but that is an indifferent thing to be
vsed in euery cuntrie, according to the Law or custome thereof.

PHI. But ought no sexe, age nor ranck to be exempted?

EPI. None at al (being so vsed by the lawful Magistrate) for it is the
highest poynt of Idolatrie, wherein no exception is admitted by the law of

PHI. Then bairnes may not be spared?

EPI. Yea, not a haire the lesse of my conclusion. For they are not that
capable of reason as to practise such thinges. And for any being in
company and not reueiling thereof, their lesse and ignorant age will no
doubt excuse them.

PHI. I see ye condemne them all that are of the counsell of such craftes.

EPI. No doubt, for as I said, speaking of _Magie_, the consulters,
trusters in, ouer-seers, interteiners or sturrers vp of these
craftes-folkes, are equallie guiltie with themselues that are the

PHI. Whether may the Prince then, or supreame Magistrate, spare or
ouer-see any that are guiltie of that craft? vpon som great respects
knowen to him?

EPI. The Prince or Magistrate for further tryals cause, may continue the
punishing of them such a certaine space as he thinkes conuenient: But in
the end to spare the life, and not to strike when God bids strike, and so
seuerelie punish in so odious a fault & treason against God, it is not
only vnlawful, but doubtlesse no lesse sinne in that Magistrate, nor it
was in SAVLES sparing of AGAG. And so comparable (M32) to the sin of
Witch-craft it selfe, as SAMVELL alleaged at that time.

PHI. Surely then, I think since this crime ought to be so seuerely
punished. Judges ought to beware to condemne any, but such as they are
sure are guiltie, neither should the clattering reporte of a carling serue
in so weightie a case.

EPI. Iudges ought indeede to beware whome they condemne: For it is as
great a crime (M33) (as SALOMON sayeth,) _To condemne the innocent, as to
let the guiltie escape free_; neither ought the report of any one infamous
person, be admitted for a sufficient proofe, which can stand of no law.

PHI. And what may a number then of guilty persons confessions, woork
against one that is accused?

EPI. The assise must serue for interpretour of our law in that respect.
But in my opinion, since in a mater of treason against the Prince, barnes
or wiues, or neuer so diffamed persons, may of our law serue for
sufficient witnesses and proofes. I thinke surely that by a far greater
reason, such witnesses may be sufficient in matters of high treason
against God: For who but Witches can be prooues, and so witnesses of the
doings of Witches.

PHI. Indeed, I trow they wil be loath to put any honest man vpon their
counsell. But what if they accuse folke to haue bene present at their
Imaginar conuentiones in the spirite, when their bodies lyes sencelesse,
as ye haue said.

EPI. I think they are not a haire the lesse guiltie: For the Deuill durst
neuer haue borrowed their shaddow or similitude to that turne, if their
consent had not bene at it: And the consent in these turnes is death of
the law.

PHI. Then SAMVEL was a Witch: For the Deuill resembled his shape, and
played his person in giuing response to SAVLE.

EPI. SAMVEL was dead aswell before that; and so none coulde slander him
with medling in that vnlawfull arte. For the cause why, as I take it, that
God will not permit Sathan to vse the shapes or similitudes of any
innocent persones at such vnlawful times, is that God wil not permit that
any innocent persons shalbe slandered with that vile defection: for then
the deuil would find waies anew, to calumniate the best. And this we haue
in proofe by them that are carryed with the _Phairie_, who neuer see the
shaddowes of any in that courte, but of them that thereafter are tryed to
haue bene brethren and sisters of that craft. And this was likewise proued
by the confession of a young Lasse, troubled with spirites, laide on her
by Witchcraft. That although shee saw the shapes of diuerse men & women
troubling her, and naming the persons whom these shaddowes represents: yet
neuer one of them are found to be innocent, but al clearely tried to be
most guilty, & the most part of them confessing the same. And besides
that, I think it hath ben seldome harde tell of, that any whome persones
guiltie of that crime accused, as hauing knowen them to be their marrowes
by eye-sight, and not by hear-say, but such as were so accused of
Witch-craft, could not be clearely tryed vpon them, were at the least
publickly knowen to be of a very euil life & reputation: so iealous is God
I say, of the fame of them that are innocent in such causes. And besides
that; there are two other good helpes that may be vsed for their trial:
the one is the finding of their marke, and the trying the insensiblenes
thereof. The other is their fleeting on the water: for as in a secret
murther, if the deade carcase be at any time thereafter handled by the
murtherer, it wil gush out of bloud, as if the blud wer crying to the
heauen for reuenge of the murtherer, God hauing appoynted that secret
super-naturall signe, for tryall of that secrete vnnaturall crime, so it
appeares that God hath appoynted (for a super-naturall signe of the
monstruous impietie of the Witches) that the water shal refuse to receiue
them in her bosom, that haue shaken off them the sacred Water of Baptisme,
and wilfullie refused the benefite thereof: No not so much as their eyes
are able to shed teares (thretten and torture them as ye please) while
first they repent (God not permitting them to dissemble their obstinacie
in so horrible a crime) albeit the women kinde especially, be able
other-waies to shed teares at euery light occasion when they will, yea,
although it were dissemblingly like the _Crocodiles_.

PHI. Well, wee haue made this conference to last as long as leasure would
permit: And to conclude then, since I am to take my leaue of you, I pray
God to purge this Cuntrie of these diuellishe practises: for they were
neuer so rife in these partes, as they are now.

EPI. I pray God that so be to. But the causes ar ouer manifest, that makes
them to be so rife. For the greate wickednesse of the people on the one
parte, procures this horrible defection, whereby God justlie punisheth
sinne, by a greater iniquitie. And on the other part, the consummation of
the worlde, and our deliuerance drawing neare, (M34) makes Sathan to rage
the more in his instruments, knowing his kingdome to be so neare an ende.
And so fare-well for this time.



Declaring the Damnable _life and death of Doctor Fian, a_ notable
Sorcerer, who was burned at Edenbrough in Ianuary last. 1591.

_Which Doctor was regester to the Diuell_ that sundry times preached at
North Barrick Kirke, to a number of notorious Witches.

With the true examinations of the saide Doctor and Witches, as they
vttered them in the presence _of the Scottish King_.

Discouering how they pretended _to bewitch and drowne his Maiestie in the
Sea_ comming from Denmark with such _other wonderfull matters as the like
hath not been heard of at any time_.

Published according to the Scottish Coppie.

Printed for William _Wright_.

                      [Illustration: Country Scene]

To the Reader.

The Manifolde vntruthes which is spread abroade, concerning the detestable
actions and apprehension of those Witches wherof this Historye following
truely entreateth, hath caused me to publish the same in print: and the
rather for that sundrie written Copies are lately dispersed therof,
containing, that the said witches were first discouered, by meanes of a
poore Pedler trauailing to the towne of _Trenent_, and that by a
wonderfull manner he was in a moment conuayed at midnight, from _Scotland_
to _Burdeux_ in _Fraunce_ (beeing places of no small distance between)
into a Marchants Seller there, & after, being sent from _Burdeux_ into
_Scotland_ by certaine Scottish Marchants to the Kinges Maiestie, that he
discouered those Witches and was the cause of their apprehension: with a
number of matters miraculous and incredible: All which in truthe are moste
false. Neuertheles to satisfie a number of honest mindes, who are desirous
to be enformed of the veritie and trueth of their confessions, which for
certaintie is more stranger then the common reporte runneth, and yet with
more trueth I haue undertaken to publish this short Treatise, which
declareth the true discourse of all that hath hapned, & aswell what was
pretended by those wicked and detestable Witches against the Kinges
Maiestie, as also by what meanes they wrought the same.

All which examinations (gentle Reader) I haue heere truelye published, as
they were taken and uttered in the presence of the Kings Maiestie, praying
thee to accept it for veritie, the same beeing so true as cannot be


A true discourse, of the apprehension of sundrye Witches lately taken in
Scotland, some are executed, and some are yet imprisoned.

With a particuler recitall of their examinations, taken in the presence of
the Kinges Maiestie.

God by his omnipotent power, hath at al times and daily doth take such
care, and is so vigillant, for the weale and preseruation of his owne,
that thereby he disapointeth the wicked practises and euil intents of all
such as by any meanes whatsoeuer, seeke indirectly to conspire any thing
contrary to his holy will: yea and by the same power, he hath lately
ouerthrown and hindered the intentions and wicked dealinges of a great
number of vngodly creatures, no better then Diuels: who suffering
themselues to be allured and inticed by the Diuell whom they serued, and
to whome they were priuatelye sworne: entered into the detestable Art of
witchcraft, which they studied and practised so long time, that in the end
they had seduced by their sorcery a number of other to be as bad as
themselues: dwelling in the boundes of _Lowthian_, which is a principall
shire or parte of _Scotland_, where the Kings Maiestie vseth to make his
cheefest residence or abode: and to the end that their detestable
wickednes which they priuilye had pretended against the Kings Maiestie,
the Common-weale of that Country, with the Nobilitie and subjects of the
same, should come to light: God of his vnspeakeable goodnes did reueale
and lay it open in very strange sorte, therby to make knowne vnto the
worlde, that there actions were contrarye to the lawe of God, and the
naturall affection which we ought generallye to beare one to another: the
manner of the reuealing wherof was as followeth.

Within the towne of _Trenent_ in the Kingdome of _Scotland_, there
dwelleth one _Dauid Seaton_, who being deputie Bailiffe in the saide
Towne, had a maide seruant called _Geillis Duncane_, who vsed secretly to
be absent and to lye foorth of her Maisters house euery other night: this
_Geillis Duncane_ took in hand to help all such as were troubled or
greeued with any kinde of sicknes or infirmitie: and in short space did
perfourme manye matters most miraculous, which thinges forasmuch as she
began to doe them vpon a sodaine, hauing neuer doon the like before, made
her Maister and others to be in great admiracion, and wondred thereat: by
meanes wherof the saide _Dauid Seaton_ had his maide in some great
suspition, that she did not those things by naturall and lawfull wayes,
but rather supposed it to be doone by some extraordinary and vnlawfull

Whervpon, her Maister began to growe very inquisitiue, and examined her
which way and by what meanes she were able to perfourme matters of so
great importance: whereat she gaue him no answere, neuerthelesse, her
Maister to the intent that he might the better trye and finde out the
trueth of the same, did with the helpe of others, torment her with the
torture of the Pilliwinckes vpon her fingers, which is a greeuous torture,
and binding or wrinching her head with a corde or roape, which is a most
cruell torment also, yet would she not confesse any thing, whereupon they
suspecting that she had beene marked by the Diuell (as commonly witches
are) made dilligent search about her, and found the enemies marke to be in
her fore crag or foreparte of her throate: which being found, she
confessed that all her dooings was doone by the wicked allurements and
inticements of the Diuell, and that she did them by witchcraft.

              [Illustration: Examination of several witches]

After this her confession, she was committed to prison, where she
continued for a season, where immediatly she accused these persons
following to be notorious witches, and caused them foorthwith to be
apprehended one after an other, vidz. _Agnis Sampson_ the eldest Witch of
them al, dwelling in Haddington, _Agnes Tompson_ of Edenbrough, Doctor
_Fian_, _alias Iohn Cunningham_, maister of the Schoole at Saltpans in
Lowthian, of whose life and strange actes, you shall heare more largely in
the ende of this discourse: these were by the saide _Geillis Duncane_
accused, as also _George Motts_ wife dwelling in Saltpans, _Robert
Griersonn_ skipper, and _Iennit Bandilandis_, with the Porters wife of
Seaton, the Smith at the brigge Hallis with innumerable others in that
partes, and dwelling in those bounds aforesaide: of whom some are alreadye
executed, the rest remaine in prison, to receiue the doome of Iudgement at
the Kings maiesties will and pleasure.

The said _Geillis Duncane_ also caused _Ewphame Meealrean_ to be
apprehended, who conspired and perfourmed the death of her Godfather, and
who vsed her art vpon a gentleman being one of the Lords and Iustices of
the Session, for bearing good will to her Daughter: she also caused to be
apprehended one _Barbara Naper_, for bewitching to death _Archibalde_,
last Earle of Angus, who languished to death by witchcraft and yet the
same was not suspected, but that he died of so strange a disease, as the
Phisition knew not how to cure or remedy the same: but of all other the
saide witches, these two last before recited, were reputed for as ciuill
honest women as any that dwelled within the Citie of Edenbrough, before
they were apprehended. Many other besides were taken dwelling in Lieth,
who are detayned in prison, vntill his Maiesties further will and pleasure
be known: of whose wicked dooings you shall particularly heare, which was
as followeth.

This aforeaside _Agnis Sampson_ which was the elder Witch, was taken and
brought to Haliciud house before the Kings Maiestie and sundry other of
the nobility of Scotland, where she was straitly examined, but all the
perswasions which the Kings maiestie vsed to her with the rest of his
counsell, might not prouoke or induce her to confesse any thing, but stood
stiffely in the deniall of all that was laide to her charge: whervpon they
caused her to be conueied awaye to prison, there to receiue such torture
as hath been lately prouided for witches in that country: and forasmuch as
by due examination of witchcraft and witches in Scotland, it hath latelye
beene found that the Deuill dooth generallye marke them with a priuie
marke, by reason the Witches haue confessed themselues, that the Diuell
dooth lick them with his tung in some priuy part of their bodie, before
hee dooth receiue them to be his seruants, which marke commonly is giuen
them vnder the haire in some part of their bodye, wherby it may not easily
be found out or scene, although they be searched: and generally so long as
the marke is not seene to those which search them, so long the parties
that hath the marke will neuer confesse any thing. Therfore by special
commaundement this _Agnis Sampson_ had all her haire shauen of, in each
parte of her bodie, and her head thrawen with a rope according to the
custome of that Countrye, beeing a paine most greeuous, which she
continued almost an hower, during which time she would not confesse any
thing vntill the Diuels marke was found vpon her priuities, then she
immediatlye confessed whatsoeuer was demaunded of her, and iustifying
those persons aforesaid to be notorious witches.

Item, the saide _Agnis Tompson_ was after brought againe before the Kings
Maiestie and his Counsell, and being examined of the meetings and
detestable dealings of those witches, she confessed that vpon the night of
_Allhollon_ Euen last, she was accompanied aswell with the persons
aforesaide, as also with a great many other witches, to the number of two
hundreth: and that all they together went by Sea each one in a Riddle or
Ciue, and went in the same very substantially with Flaggons of wine making
merrie and drinking by the waye in the same Riddles or Ciues, to the Kerke
of North Barrick in Lowthian, and that after they had landed, tooke handes
on the land and daunced this reill or short daunce, singing all with one

_Commer goe ye before, commer goe ye,_
_If ye will not goe before, commer let me._

At which time she confessed, that this _Geilles Duncane_ did goe before
them playing this reill or daunce vpon a small Trump, called a Iewes
Trump, vntill they entred into the Kerk of north Barrick.

These confessions made the King in a woderful admiration, and sent for the
said _Geillis Duncane_, who vpon the like Trump did playe the said daunce
before the Kings Maiestie, who in respect of the strangenes of these
matters, tooke great delight to bee present at their examinations.

Item, the said _Agnis Tompson_ confessed that the Diuell being then at
North Barrick Kerke attending their comming in the habit or likenes of a
man, and seeing that they tarried ouer long, he at their comming enioyned
them all to a pennance, which was, that they should kisse his Buttockes,
in signe of duetye to him: which being put ouer the Pulpit barre, euerye
one did as he had enioyned them: and hauing made his vngodly exhortations,
wherein he did greatlye enveighe against the King of Scotland, he receiued
their oathes for their good and true seruice towards him, and departed:
which doone, they returned to Sea, and so home againe.

At which time the witches demaunded of the Diuel why he did beare such
hatred to the King, who answered, by reason the King is the greatest enemy
he hath in the worlde: all which their confessions and depositions are
still extant vpon record.

Item, the saide _Agnis Sampson_ confessed before the Kings Maiestie
sundrye thinges which were so miraculous and strange, as that his Maiestie
saide they were all extreame lyars, wherat she answered, she would not
wishe his Maiestie to suppose her woords to be false, but rather to
beleeue them, in that she would discouer such matter vnto him as his
maiestie should not any way doubt off.

And therupon taking his Maiestie a little aside, she declared vnto him the
verye woordes which passed betweene the Kings Maiestie and his Queene at
Vpslo in Norway the first night of their mariage, with their answere eache
to other: whereat the Kinges Maiestie wondered greatlye, and swore by the
liuing God, that he beleeued that all the Diuels in hell could not haue
discouered the same: acknowledging her woords to be most true, and
therefore gaue the more credit to the rest which is before declared.

Touching this _Agnis Tompson_, she is the onlye woman, who by the Diuels
perswasion should haue entended and put in execution the Kings Maiesties
death in this manner.

She confessed that she tooke a blacke Toade, and did hang the same vp by
the heeles, three daies, and collected and gathered the venome as it
dropped and fell from it in an Oister shell, and kept the same venome
close couered, vntill she should obtaine any parte or peece of foule
linnen cloth, that had appertained to the Kings Maiestie, as shirt,
handkercher, napkin or any other thing which she practised to obtaine by
meanes of one _Iohn Kers_, who being attendant in his Maiesties Chamber,
desired him for olde acquaintance betweene them, to helpe her to one or a
peece of such a cloth as is aforesaide, which thing the said _Iohn Kers_
denyed to helpe her too, saying he could not help her too it.

And the said _Agnis Tompson_ by her depositions since her apprehension
saith, that if she had obtained any one peece of linnen cloth which the
King had worne and fouled, she had bewitched him to death, and put him to
such extraordinary paines, as if he had beene lying vpon sharp thornes and
endes of Needles.

Moreouer she confessed that at the time when his Maiestie was in Denmarke,
she being accompanied with the parties before specially named, tooke a Cat
and christened it, and afterward bound to each parte of that Cat, the
cheefest partes of a dead man, and seuerall ioynts of his bodie, and that
in the night following the saide Cat was conueied into the midst of the
sea by all these witches sayling in their riddles or Ciues as is
aforesaide, and so left the saide Cat right before the Towne of Lieth in
Scotland: this doone, there did arise such a tempest in the Sea, as a
greater hath not beene seene: which tempest was the cause of the
perrishing of a Boate or vessell comming ouer from the towne of Brunt
Iland to the towne of Lieth, wherein was sundrye Iewelles and riche
giftes, which should haue been presented to the now Queen of Scotland, at
her Maiesties comming to Lieth.

Againe it is confessed, that the said christened Cat was the cause that
the Kinges Maiesties Ship at his comming foorth of Denmarke, had a
contrary winde to the rest of his Ships, then being in his companye, which
thing was most strange and true, as the Kings Maiestie acknowledgeth, for
when the rest of the Shippes had a faire and good winde, then was the
winde contrarye and altogither against his Maiestie: and further the saide
witche declared, that his Maiestie had neuer come safelye from the Sea, if
his faith had not preuailed aboue their ententions.

Moreouer the said Witches being demaunded how the Diuell would vse them
when he was in their company, they confessed that when the Diuell did
receiue them for his seruants, and that they had vowed themselues vnto
him, then he would Carnallye vse them, albeit to their little pleasure, in
respect of his colde nature: and would doo the like at sundry other times.

As touching the aforesaide Doctor _Fian, alias Iohn Cunningham_, the
examination of his actes since his apprehension, declareth the great
subtiltye of the diuell, and therfore maketh thinges to appeere the more
miraculous: for being apprehended by the accusation of the saide _Geillis
Duncane_ aforesaide, who confessed he was their Regester, and that there
was not one man suffered to come to the Diuels readinges but onlye he: the
saide Doctor was taken and imprisoned, and vsed with the accustomed paine,
prouided for those offences, inflicted vpon the rest as is aforesaide.

First by thrawing of his head with a roape, wherat he would confesse

Secondly, he was perswaded by faire means to confesse his follies, but
that would preuaile as little.

Lastly he was put to the most seuere and cruell paine in the world, called
the bootes, who after he had receiued three strokes, being enquired if he
would confesse his damnable acts and wicked life, his tung would not serue
him to speak, in respect wherof the rest of the witches willed to search
his tung, vnder which was found two pinnes thrust vp into the head,
whereupon the witches did laye, _Now is the Charme stinted_, and shewed
that those charmed Pinnes were the cause he could not confesse any thing:
then was he immediatly released of the bootes, brought before the King,
his confession was taken, and his owne hand willingly set ther-vnto, which
contained as followeth.

First, that at the generall meetinges of those witches, hee was alwayes
preasent: that he was Clarke to all those that were in subiection to the
Diuels seruice, bearing the name of witches, that alwaye he did take their
othes for their true seruice to the Diuell, and that he wrot for them such
matters as the Diuell still pleased to commaund him.

Item, he confessed that by his witchcrafte he did bewitch a Gentleman
dwelling neere to the Saltpans, where the said Doctor kept Schoole, onely
for being enamoured of a Gentlewoman whome he loued himselfe: by meanes of
which his Sorcerye, witchcraft and diuelish practises, he caused the said
Gentleman that once in xxiiij. howres he fell into a lunacie and madnes,
and so continued one whole hower together, and for the veritie of the
same, he caused the Gentleman to be brought before the Kinges Maiestie,
which was vpon the xxiiij. day of December last, and being in his
Maiesties Chamber, suddenly he gaue a great scritch and fell into a
madnes, sometime bending himselfe, and sometime capring so directly vp,
that his head did touch the seeling of the Chamber, to the great
admiration of his Maiestie and others then present: so that all the
Gentlemen in the Chamber were not able to holde him, vntill they called in
more helpe, who together bound him hand and foot: and suffering the said
gentleman to lye still vntill his furye were past, he within an hower came
againe to himselfe, when being demaunded of the Kings Maiestie what he saw
or did all that while, answered that he had been in a sound sleepe.

Item the said Doctor did also confesse that he had vsed means sundry times
to obtain his purpose and wicked intent of the same Gentlewoman, and
seeing himselfe disapointed of his intention, he determined by all waies
he might to obtaine the same, trusting by coniuring, witchcraft and
Sorcery to obtaine it in this manner.

It happened this gentlewoman being vnmaried, had a brother who went to
schoole with the said Doctor, and calling his Scholler to him, demaunded
if he did lye with his sister, who answered he did, by meanes wherof he
thought to obtaine his purpose, and therefore secretlye promised to teach
him without stripes, so he would obtain for him three haires of his
sisters priuities, at such time as he should spye best occasion for it:
which the youth promised faithfullye to perfourme, and vowed speedily to
put it in practise, taking a peece of coniured paper of his maister to
lappe them in when he had gotten them: and therevpon the boye practised
nightlye to obtaine his maisters purpose, especially when his sister was a

But God who knoweth the secrets of all harts, and reuealeth all wicked and
vngodlye practises, would not suffer the intents of this diuilish Doctor
to come to that purpose which he supposed it would, and therefore to
declare that he was heauilye offended with his wicked entent, did so
woorke by the Gentlewomans owne meanes, that in the ende the same was
discouered and brought to light: for she being one night a sleepe, and her
brother in bed with her, suddenlye cryed out to her mother, declaring that
her Brother would not suffer her to sleepe, wherevpon her mother hauing a
quick capacitie, did vehemently suspect Doctor _Fians_ entention, by
reason she was a witche of her selfe, and therefore presently arose, and
was very inquisitiue of the boy to vnderstand his intent, and the better
to know the same, did beat him with sundry stripes, wherby he discouered
the trueth vnto her.

The Mother therefore being well practised in witchcrafte, did thinke it
most conuenient to meete with the Doctor in his owne Arte, and therevpon
tooke the paper from the boy, wherein hee should haue put the same haires,
and went to a young Heyfer which neuer had borne Calfe nor gone to the
Bull, and with a paire of sheeres, clipped off three haires from the vdder
of the Cow, and wrapt them in the same paper, which she againe deliuered
to the boy, then willing him to giue the same to his saide Maister, which
he immediatly did.

The Schoolemaister so soone as he had receiued them, thinking them indeede
to bee the Maides haires, went straight and wrought his arte vpon them:
But the Doctor had no sooner doone his intent to them, but presentlye the
Hayfer or Cow whose haires they were indeed, came vnto the doore of the
Church wherein the Schoolemaister was, into the which the Hayfer went, and
made towards the Schoolemaister, leaping and dauncing vpon him, and
following him foorth of the church and to what place so euer he went, to
the great admiration of all the townes men of Saltpans, and many other who
did beholde the same.

The reporte whereof made all men imagine that hee did woorke it by the
Diuell, without whom it could neuer haue beene so sufficientlye effected:
and thervpon, the name of the said Doctor _Fian_ (who was but a very yong
man) began to grow so common among the people of Scotland, that he was
secretlye nominated for a notable Cuniurer.

           [Illustration: Country scene with cattle and church]

All which although in the beginning he denied, and would not confesse, yet
hauing felt the pain of the bootes (and the charme stinted, as aforesayd)
he confessed all the aforesaid to be most true, without producing anie
witnesses to iustifie the same, & thervpon before the kings maiesty he
subscribed the sayd confessions with his owne hande, which for truth
remaineth vpon record in _Scotland_.

After that the depositions and examinations of the sayd doctor _Fian Alias
Cuningham_ was taken, as alreadie is declared, with his owne hand
willingly set therevnto, hee was by the master of the prison committed to
ward, and appointed to a chamber by himselfe, where forsaking his wicked
wayes, acknowledging his most vngodly lyfe, shewing that he had too much
folowed the allurements and entisements of Sathan, and fondly practised
his conclusions by coniuring, witchcraft, inchantment, sorcerie, and such
like, hee renounced the deuill and all his wicked workes, vowed to leade
the life of a Christian, and seemed newly connected towards God.

The morrow after vpon conference had with him, he granted that the deuill
had appeared vnto him in the night before, appareled all in blacke, with a
white wand in his hande, and that the deuill demaunded of him if hee would
continue his faithfull seruice, according to his first oath and promise
made to that effect. Whome (as hee then sayd) he vtterly renounced to his
face, and sayde vnto him in this manner, _Auoide Satan, auoide_, for I
haue listned too much vnto thee, and by the same thou hast vndone mee, in
respect whereof I vtterly forsake thee. To whome the deuill answered,
_That once ere thou die thou shall bee mine_. And with that (as he sayde)
the deuill brake the white wande, and immediatly vanished foorth of his

Thus all the daie this Doctor Fian continued verie solitarie, and seemed
to haue care of his owne soule, and would call vppon God, shewing himselfe
penitent for his wicked life, neuerthelesse the same night hee founde such
meanes, that hee stole the key of the prison doore and chamber in the
which he was, which in the night hee opened and fled awaie to the Salt
pans, where hee was alwayes resident, and first apprehended. Of whose
sodaine departure when the Kings maiestie had intelligence, hee presently
commanded diligent inquirie to bee made for his apprehension, and for the
better effecting thereof, hee sent publike proclamations into all partes
of his lande to the same effect. By meanes of whose hot and harde
pursuite, he was agayn taken and brought to prison, and then being called
before the kings highnes, hee was reexamined as well touching his
departure, as also touching all that had before happened.

But this Doctor, notwithstanding that his owne confession appeareth
remaining in recorde vnder his owne hande writing, and the same therevnto
fixed in the presence of the Kings maiestie and sundrie of his Councell,
yet did hee vtterly denie the same.

Wherevpon the kinges maiestie perceiuing his stubbourne wilfulnesse,
concerned and imagined that in the time of his absence hee had entered
into newe conference and league with the deuill his master, and that hee
had beene agayne newly marked, for the which hee was narrowly searched,
but it coulde not in anie wise bee founde, yet for more tryall of him to
make him confesse, hee was commaunded to haue a most straunge torment
which was done in this manner following.

His nailes vpon all his fingers were riuen and pulled off with an
instrument called in Scottish a _Turkas_, which in England wee call a
payre of pincers, and vnder euerie nayle there was thrust in two needels
ouer euen up to the heads. At all which tormentes notwithstanding the
Doctor neuer shronke anie whit, neither woulde he then confesse it the
sooner for all the tortures inflicted vpon him.

Then was hee with all conuenient speed, by commandement, conuaied againe
to the torment of the bootes, wherein hee continued a long time, and did
abide so many blowes in them, that his legges were crushte and beaten
togeather as small as might bee, and the bones and flesh so brused, that
the bloud and marrowe spouted forth in great abundance, whereby they were
made unseruiceable for euer. And notwithstanding al these grieuous paines
and cruell torments hee would not confesse anie thing, so deepely had the
deuill entered into his heart, that hee vtterly denied all that which he
had before auouched, and woulde saie nothing therevnto but this, that what
hee had done and sayde before, was onely done and sayde for feare of
paynes which he had endured.

Upon great consideration therefore taken by the Kings maiestie and his
Councell, as well for the due execution of iustice vppon such detestable
malefactors, as also for example sake, to remayne a terrour to all others
heereafter, that shall attempt to deale in the lyke wicked and vngodlye
actions, as witchcraft, sorcery, cuniuration, & such lyke, the sayde
Doctor _Fian_ was soone after araigned, condemned, and adiudged by the law
to die, and then to bee burned according to the lawe of that lande,
prouided in that behalfe. Wherevpon hee was put into a carte, and beeing
first strangled, hee was immediatly put into a great fire, being readie
prouided for that purpose, and there burned in the Castle hill of
_Edenbrough_ on a saterdaie in the ende of Ianuarie last past. 1591. The
rest of the witches which are not yet executed, remayne in prison till
farther triall, and knowledge of his maiesties pleasure.

_This strange discourse before recited, may perhaps giue some occasion of
doubt to such as shall happen to reade the same, and thereby coniecture
that the Kings maiestie would not hazarde himselfe in the presence of such
notorious witches, least therby might haue insued great danger to his
person and the generall state of the land, which thing in truth might wel
haue bene feared. But to answer generally to such, let this suffice: that
first it is well knowen that the King is the child & seruant of God, and
they but seruants to the deuil, hee is the Lords annointed, and they but
vesselles of Gods wrath: he is a true Christian, and trusteth in God, they
worse than Infidels, for they onely trust in the deuill, who daily serue
them, till he haue brought them to vtter destruction. But heereby it
seemeth that his Highnesse carted a magnanimious and undanted mind, not
feared with their inchantmentes, but resolute in this, that so long as God
is with him, hee feareth not who is against him. And trulie the whole
scope of this treatise dooth so plainely laie open the wonderfull
prouidence of the Almightie, that if he had not bene defended by his
omnipotencie and power, his Highnes had neuer returned aliue in his voiage
frõ Denmarke, so that there is no doult but God woulde as well defend him
on the land as on the sea, where they pretended their damnable practise._

            [Illustration: Street scene: Two men and a woman]


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