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Title: Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. - Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, Etc. to Which Is Added the Account of Mr. E.B. Kennedy's Expedition for the Exploration of the Cape York Peninsula. By John Macgillivray, F.R.G.S. Naturalist to the Expedition. — Volume 2
Author: MacGillivray, John, 1822-1867
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. - Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, Etc. to Which Is Added the Account of Mr. E.B. Kennedy's Expedition for the Exploration of the Cape York Peninsula. By John Macgillivray, F.R.G.S. Naturalist to the Expedition. — Volume 2" ***

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Distribution of Aboriginal tribes of Cape York and Torres Strait.
Mode of warfare illustrated.
Their social condition.
Treatment of the women.
Prevalence of infanticide.
Education of a child.
Mode of scarifying the body.
Initiation to manhood.
Their canoes, weapons, and huts.
Dress of the women.
Food of the natives.
Mode of fishing.
Capture of the turtle and dugong described.
Yams and mode of culture.
Edible roots, fruits, etc.
No recognised chieftainship.
Laws regarding property in land.
Belief in transmigration of souls.
Their traditions.
Diseases and modes of treatment.
Burial Ceremonies.


Sail from Cape York.
Mount Ernest described.
Find Kalkalega tribe on Sue Island.
Friendly reception at Darnley Island, and proceedings there.
Bramble Cay and its turtle.
Stay at Redscar Bay.
Further description of the natives, their canoes, etc.
Pass along the South-east coast of New Guinea.
Call at Duchateau Islands.
Passage to Sydney.
Observations on Geology and Ethnology.
Origin of the Australians considered.


Death of Captain Stanley.
Sail for England.
Arrive at the Bay of Islands.
Falls of the Keri-Keri.
Passage across the South Pacific.
Oceanic birds.
Stay at the Falkland Islands.
Settlement of Stanley.
Call at Berkeley Sound.
Lassoing cattle.
Resume our homeward voyage.
Call at Horta in the Azores.
The caldeira of Fayal.
Arrive in England.


Narrative of Mr. W. Carron.
Statement of Jackey-Jackey.
Dr. Vallack's statement.
Extracts from Mr. T.B. Simpson's Log.












Tab. 2.
Fig. 1. Helix brumeriensis.
Fig. 2. Helix franklandiensis.
Fig. 3. Helix inconspicua.
Fig. 4. Helix iuloides.
Fig. 5. Helix divisa.
Fig. 6. Helix yulei.
Fig. 7. Helix dunkiensis.
Fig. 8. Helix louisiadensis.
Fig. 9. Balea australis.
Fig. 10. Pupina grandis.

Tab. 3.
Fig. 1. Helix macgillivrayi.
Fig. 2. Pupina Thomsoni.
Fig. 3. Helicina gouldiana.
Fig. 4. Helicina stanleyi.
Fig. 5. Helicina louisiadensis.
Fig. 6. Ranella pulchra.
Fig. 7. Scalaria jukesiana.
Fig. 8. Macgillivrayia pelagica.
Fig. 9. Cheletropis huxleyi.

Tab. 4.
Fig. 1, 2. Pachyrhynchus stanleyanus, White.
Fig. 3, 4. Drusilla myloecha, Westwood.
Fig. 5. Eusemia mariana, White.

Fig. 1. Ommatocarcinus macgillivrayi, White.
Fig. 2. Porcellanella triloba, White.





Distribution of Aboriginal tribes of Cape York and Torres Strait.
Mode of warfare illustrated.
Their social condition.
Treatment of the women.
Prevalence of infanticide.
Education of a child.
Mode of scarifying the body.
Initiation to manhood.
Their canoes, weapons, and huts.
Dress of the women.
Food of the natives.
Mode of fishing.
Capture of the turtle and dugong described.
Yams and mode of culture.
Edible roots, fruits, etc.
No recognised chieftainship.
Laws regarding property in land.
Belief in transmigration of souls.
Their traditions.
Diseases and modes of treatment.
Burial Ceremonies.


There are at least five distinct tribes of natives inhabiting the
neighbourhood of Cape York. The Gudang people possess the immediate
vicinity of the Cape: the Yagulles* stretch along the coast to the
southward and eastward beyond Escape River: the Katchialaigas and
Induyamos (or Yarudolaigas as the latter are sometimes called) inhabit
the country behind Cape York, but I am not acquainted with the precise
localities: lastly, the Gomokudins are located on the South-West shores
of Endeavour Strait, and extend a short distance down the Gulf of
Carpentaria. These all belong to the Australian race as unquestionably as
the aborigines of Western or South Australia, or the South-East coast of
New South Wales; they exhibit precisely the same physical characteristics
which have been elsewhere so often described as to render further
repetition unnecessary.

(*Footnote. This is the tribe concerned in the murder of the unfortunate
Kennedy. The circumstances were related by some of the Yagulles to an old
woman at Cape York of the name of Baki, who, when questioned upon the
subject through Giaom, partially corroborated the statement of
Jackey-Jackey. She further stated that a few years ago a Yagulle woman
and child had been shot by some white men in a small vessel near Albany
Island, and that the tribe were anxious to revenge their death. Whether
this was a story got up as a palliative for the murder, or not, I cannot

On the other hand, the tribes inhabiting the islands of Torres Strait
differ from those of the mainland in belonging (with the exception of the
first) to the Papuan or frizzled-haired race. Besides, probably, a few
others of which I cannot speak with certainty, these tribes are
distributed in the following manner. The Kowraregas inhabit the Prince of
Wales group: the Muralegas and Italegas divide between them Banks Island:
the Badulegas possess Mulgrave Island, and the Gumulegas the islands
between the last and New Guinea: the Kulkalegas have Mount Ernest and the
Three Sisters: The Massilegas* reside on the York Isles and others
adjacent: and the Miriam** tribe hold the north-easternmost islands of
Torres Strait, including Murray and Darnley Islands.

(*Footnote. I do not know what name is given to the tribe or tribes
inhabiting the space between the Miriam and the Kulkalaig. Dzum (a
Darnley islander) told me of a tribe called Gamle inhabiting Owrid, Uta,
Zogarid, Sirreb, Mekek, and Wurber; at all events the natives of Massid
belong to a distinct tribe, judging from their language, and are known as
the Massilegas by the Kowraregas. They occasionally (as in 1848) come
down to Cape York on a visit to the Australians there, often extending
their voyage far to the southward, visiting the various sandy islets in
search of turtle and remaining away for a month or more.)

(**Footnote. Is so named from a place in Murray Island. The possessions
of this tribe are Mer, Dowar, Wayer, Errub, Ugar, Zapker, and Edugor,
all, except the two last, permanently inhabited.

The junction between the two races, or the Papuan from the north and the
Australian from the south, is effected at Cape York by the Kowraregas,
whom I believe to be a Papuanized colony of Australians, as will
elsewhere be shown. In fact, one might hesitate whether to consider the
Kowraregas* as Papuans or Australians, so complete is the fusion of the
two races. Still the natives of the Prince of Wales Islands rank
themselves with the islanders and exhibit a degree of conscious
superiority over their neighbours on the mainland and with some show of
reason; although themselves inferior to all the other islanders, they
have at least made with them the great advance in civilisation of having
learned to cultivate the ground, a process which is practised by none of
the Australian aborigines.

(*Footnote. Dr. Latham informs me that the Kowrarega language is
undeniably Australian, and has clearly shown such to be the case: and
although the Miriam language does not show any obvious affinity with the
continental Australian dialects, yet the number of words common to it and
the Kowrarega, I find by comparison of my vocabularies to be very
considerable, and possibly, were we at all acquainted with the grammar of
the former, other and stronger affinities would appear.)


The Kowraregas speak of New Guinea under the name of Muggi (little)
Dowdai, while to New Holland they apply the term of Kei (large) Dowdai.
Their knowledge of the former island has been acquired indirectly through
the medium of intervening tribes. The New Guinea people are said to live
chiefly on pigs and sago; from them are obtained the cassowary feathers
used in their dances, and stone-headed clubs. They trade with the
Gumulegas, who exchange commodities with the Badulegas, from whom the
Kowrarega people receive them. These last barter away to their northern
neighbours spears, throwing-sticks, and mother-of-pearl shells for bows,
arrows, bamboo pipes, and knives, and small shell ornaments called
dibi-dibi. They have friendly relations with the other islanders of
Torres Strait, but are at enmity with all the mainland tribes except the


Occasionally hostilities, frequently caused by the most trivial
circumstances, arise between two neighbouring tribes, when incursions are
made into each other's territories, and reprisals follow. Although timely
notice is usually given prior to an aggression being made by one tribe
upon another, yet the most profound secrecy is afterwards practised by
the invaders. As an illustration of their mode of warfare, in which
treachery is considered meritorious in proportion to its success, and no
prisoners are made, except occasionally, when a woman is carried
off--consisting chiefly in a sudden and unexpected attack, a short
encounter, the flight of one party and the triumphant rejoicings of the
other on their return--I may state the following on the authority of

About the end of 1848, an old Kowrarega man went by himself in a small
canoe to the neighbourhood of Cape Cornwall, while the men of the tribe
were absent turtling at the eastern end of Endeavour Strait. He was
watched by a party of Gomokudin blacks or Yigeiles, who, guided by his
fire, surprised and speared him. Immediately returning to the mainland,
the perpetrators of this savage deed made a great fire by way of
exultation. Meanwhile the turtling party returned, and when it became
known that the old man had been missing for several days, they were
induced by his two sons to search for him, and found the body horribly
mutilated, with many spears stuck into it to show who had been the
murderers. This explained the fire, so another was lit in reply to the
challenge, and at night a party of Kowraregas in six canoes, containing
all the men and lads of the tribe, crossed over to the main. They came
upon a small camp of Yigeiles who had not been at all concerned in the
murder, and enticed one of them to come out of the thicket where he had
concealed himself by the offer of a fillet of cassowary feathers for
information regarding the real murderers. As soon as the man stepped out,
he was shot down with an arrow, his head cut off, and pursuit made after
the rest. Towards morning their second camping-place was discovered and
surrounded, when three men, one woman, and a girl were butchered. The
heads of the victims were cut off with the hupi, or bamboo knife, and
secured by the sringi, or cane loop, both of which are carried slung on
the back by the Torres Strait islanders and the New Guinea men of the
adjacent shores, when on a marauding excursion;* these Papuans preserve
the skulls of their enemies as trophies, while the Australian tribes
merely mutilate the bodies of the slain, and leave them where they fall.

(*Footnote. See Jukes' Voyage of the Fly Volume 1 page 277.)


The Kowraregas returned to their island with much exultation, announcing
their approach by great shouting and blowing on conchs. The heads were
placed on an oven and partially cooked, when the eyes were scooped out
and eaten with portions of flesh cut from the cheek;* only those,
however, who had been present at the murder were allowed to partake of
this; the morsel was supposed to make them more brave. A dance was then
commenced, during which the heads were kicked along the ground, and the
savage excitement of the dancers almost amounted to frenzy. The skulls
were ultimately hung up on two cross sticks near the camp, and allowed to
remain there undisturbed.

(*Footnote. The eyes and cheeks of the survivors from the wreck of a
Charles Eaton (in August 1834) were eaten by their murderers--a party
consisting of different tribes from the eastern part of Torres Strait.
See Nautical Magazine 1837 page 799.)

In the beginning of 1849 a party of Badulegas who had spent two months on
a friendly visit to the natives of Muralug treacherously killed an old
Italega woman, married to one of their hosts. Two of her brothers from
Banks Island were staying with her at the time, and one was killed, but
the other managed to escape. The heads were carried off to Badu as
trophies. This treacherous violation of the laws of hospitality was in
revenge for some petty injury which one of the Badu men received from an
Ita black several years before.


When a large fire is made by one tribe it is often intended as a signal
of defiance to some neighbouring one--an invitation to fight--and may be
continued daily for weeks before hostilities commence; it is answered by
a similar one. Many other signals by smoke are in use: for example, the
presence of an enemy upon the coast--a wish to communicate with another
party at a distance--or the want of assistance--may be denoted by making
a small fire, which, as soon as it has given out a little column of
smoke, is suddenly extinguished by heaping sand upon it. If not answered
immediately it is repeated; if still unanswered, a large fire is got up
and allowed to burn until an answer is returned.


Polygamy is practised both on the mainland and throughout the islands of
Torres Strait. Five is the greatest number of wives which I was credibly
informed had been possessed by one man--but this was an extraordinary
instance, one, two, or three, being the usual complement, leaving of
course many men who are never provided with wives. The possession of
several wives ensures to the husband a certain amount of influence in his
tribe as the owner of so much valuable property, also from the nature and
extent of his connections by marriage. In most cases females are
betrothed in infancy, according to the will of the father, and without
regard to disparity of age, thus the future husband may be and often is
an old man with several wives. When the man thinks proper he takes his
wife to live with him without any further ceremony, but before this she
has probably had promiscuous intercourse with the young men, such, if
conducted with a moderate degree of secrecy, not being considered as an
offence, although if continued after marriage it would be visited by the
husband (if powerful enough) upon both the offending parties with the
severest punishment.

Occasionally there are instances of strong mutual attachment and
courtship, when, if the damsel is not betrothed, a small present made to
the father is sufficient to procure his consent; at the Prince of Wales
Islands a knife or glass bottle are considered as a sufficient price for
the hand of a lady fair, and are the articles mostly used for that

According to Giaom puberty in girls takes place from the tenth to the
twelfth year, but few become mothers at a very early age. When
parturition is about to take place the woman retires to a little distance
in the bush, and is attended by an experienced matron. Delivery is
usually very easy, and the mother is almost always able on the following
day to attend to her usual occupations. The infant is laid upon a small
soft mat which the mother has taken care to prepare beforehand, and which
is used for no other purpose.


The life of a married woman among the Kowrarega and Gudang blacks is a
hard one. She has to procure nearly all the food for herself and husband,
except during the turtling season, and on other occasions when the men
are astir. If she fails to return with a sufficiency of food, she is
probably severely beaten--indeed the most savage acts of cruelty are
often inflicted upon the women for the most trivial offence.


Considering the degraded position assigned by the Australian savages to
their women, it is not surprising that the Prince of Wales Islanders
should, by imitating their neighbours in this respect, afford a strong
contrast to the inhabitants of Darnley and other islands of the
North-East part of Torres Strait, who always appeared to me to treat
their females with much consideration and kindness. Several instances of
this kind of barbarity came under my own notice. Piaquai
(before-mentioned) when spoken to about his wife whom he had killed a
fortnight before in a fit of passion, seemed much amused at the idea of
having got rid of her unborn child at the same time. One morning at Cape
York, Paida did not keep his appointment with me as usual; on making
inquiry, I found that he had been squabbling with one of his wives a few
minutes before, about some trifle, and had speared her through the hip
and groin. On expressing my disapproval of what he had done, adding that
white men never acted in that manner, he turned it off by jocularly
observing that although _I_ had only one wife, HE had two, and could
easily spare one of them. As a further proof of the low condition of the
women, I may state that it is upon them that the only restrictions in
eating particular sorts of food are imposed. Many kinds of fish,
including some of the best, are forbidden on the pretence of their
causing disease in women, although not injurious to the men. The
hawksbill turtle and its eggs are forbidden to women suckling, and no
female, until beyond child bearing, is permitted to eat of the Torres
Strait pigeon.

Among other pieces of etiquette to be practised after marriage among both
the Kowraregas and Gudangs, a man must carefully avoid speaking to or
even mentioning the name of his mother-in-law, and his wife acts
similarly with regard to her father-in-law. Thus the mother of a person
called Nuki--which means water--is obliged to call water by another name;
in like manner as the names of the dead are never mentioned without great
reluctance so, after the death of a man named Us, or quartz, that stone
had its name changed into nattam ure, or the thing which is a namesake,
although the original will gradually return to common use.

The population of Muralug is kept always about the same numerical
standard by the small number of births, and the occasional practice of
infanticide. Few women rear more than three children, and besides, most
of those born before marriage are doomed to be killed immediately after
birth, unless the father--which is seldom the case--is desirous of saving
the child--if not, he gives the order marama teio (throw it into the
hole) and it is buried alive accordingly. Even of other infants some,
especially females, are made away with in a similar manner when the
mother is disinclined to support it.


An infant is named immediately after birth: and, on Muralug, these names
for the last few years have been chosen by a very old man named Guigwi.
Many of these names have a meaning attached to them: thus, two people are
named respectively Wapada and Passei, signifying particular trees, one
woman is called Kuki, or the rainy season, and her son Ras, or the
driving cloud. Most people have several names, for instance, old Guigwi
was also called Salgai, or the firesticks, and Mrs. Thomson was addressed
as Kesagu, or Taomai, by her (adopted) relatives, but as Giaom by all
others. Children are usually suckled for about two years, but are soon
able, in a great measure, to procure their own food, especially
shellfish, and when strong enough to use the stick employed in digging up
roots, they are supposed to be able to shift for themselves.


A peculiar form of head, which both the Kowrarega and Gudang blacks
consider as the beau ideal of beauty, is produced by artificial
compression during infancy. Pressure is made by the mother with her
hands--as I have seen practised on more than one occasion at Cape
York--one being applied to the forehead and the other to the occiput,
both of which are thereby flattened, while the skull is rendered
proportionally broader and longer than it would naturally have been.*

(*Footnote. Precisely the same form of skull as that alluded to in volume
1: hence it is not unreasonable to suppose that the latter might have
been artificially produced.)

When the child is about a fortnight old the perforation in the septum of
the nose is made by drilling it with a sharp-pointed piece of
tortoise-shell, but the raised artificial scars, regarded as personal
ornaments by the Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, are not made
until long afterwards. According to Giaom, who states that among the
Kowraregas this scarification is purely voluntary, the patient is laid
upon the ground and held there, while the incisions are made with a piece
of glass by some old man famous for his skill in performing the
operation. The chewed leaf of a certain plant (which, however, I could
not identify) is introduced into the wound to prevent the edges from
uniting, and a daub of wet clay is then placed over all, and kept there
until the necessary effect has been produced. The principal
scarifications among women at Cape York and Muralug are in the form of
long lines across the hips. Among the men, however, there is considerable

The characteristic mode of dressing the hair among the Torres Strait
Islanders is to have it twisted up into long pipe-like ringlets, and wigs
in imitation of this are also worn. Sometimes the head is shaved, leaving
a transverse crest--a practice seldom seen among the men but not uncommon
among women and children, from Darnley Island down to Cape York. At the
last place and Muralug the hair is almost always kept short--still
caprice and fashion have their sway, for at Cape York I have at times for
a week together seen all the men and lads with the hair twisted into
little strands well daubed over with red ochre and turtle fat.


The Torres Strait Islanders are distinguished by a large complicated oval
scar, only slightly raised, and of neat construction. This, which I have
been told has some connection with a turtle, occupies the right shoulder,
and is occasionally repeated on the left. At Cape York, however, the
cicatrices were so varied, that I could not connect any particular style
with an individual tribe--at the same time something like uniformity was
noticed among the Katchialaigas, nearly all of whom had, in addition to
the horned breast-mark, two or three long transverse scars on the chest,
which the other tribes did not possess. In the remaining people the
variety of marking was such that it appeared fair to consider it as being
regulated more by individual caprice than by any fixed custom. Many had a
simple two-horned mark on each breast, and we sometimes saw among them a
clumsy imitation of the elaborate shoulder mark of the islanders.


The custom of undergoing a certain mysterious ceremony prior to being
admitted to the privileges of manhood, supposed to be an institution
peculiar to the Australians, is found among the Kowraregas, but whether
it extends throughout Torres Strait is uncertain. This initiation is not
at Cape York and Muralug accompanied by the performance either of
circumcision or the knocking out of a tooth, as in many parts of
Australia. The boys, usually three or four in number, are chased about in
the bush during the day by some of the men decked out with feathers and
other ornaments, and at night retire to the men's camp, for, during the
whole time of their novitiate--or about a month--they must on no account
be seen by a woman; in fact, as Giaom informed me, a woman coming upon
these kernele--as they are called--no matter how accidentally, would be
immediately put to death. When all is over the lads return to their
parents, decorated with a profusion of ornaments which are worn until
they drop off, and wearing in front a small triangular piece of shell as
a distinguishing mark.


The same kind of canoe which is found throughout Torres Strait has been
seen to extend from Cape York along the eastern coast as far south as
Fitzroy Island,* a distance of 500 miles. It essentially consists of a
hollowed-out log, a central platform, and an outrigger on each side. The
largest canoes which I have seen are those of the Murray and Darnley
Islanders, occasionally as much as sixty feet long; those of the
Australians are small, varying at Cape York between fifteen and thirty
feet in length. Even the Kowraregas have much finer canoes than their
neighbours on the mainland; one which I measured alongside the ship was
forty-five feet long and three and a half in greatest width, and could
carry with ease twenty-five people.

(*Footnote. At the latter place we found a small canoe with two
outriggers concealed on shore among some bushes. The bark canoes of
Rockingham Bay have already been described. About Whitsunday Passage the
canoes, also of bark, are larger and of neater construction: one which I
examined at the Cumberland Isles was made of three pieces of bark neatly
sewn together; it was six feet long and two and a half feet wide, sharp
at each end, with a wooden thwart near the stem and stern, and a cord
amidships to keep the sides from stretching. In the creeks and bays of
the now settled districts of New South Wales another kind of canoe was
once in general use. At Broken Bay, in August 1847, a singular couple of
aborigines whom I met upon a fishing excursion had a small canoe formed
of a single sheet of bark tied up at each end; on the floor of this they
were squatted, with the gunwale not more than six inches above the
water's edge. Yet this frail bark contained a fire, numbers of spears,
fishing lines and other gear. The woman was a character well known in
Sydney--Old Gooseberry--said to be old enough to have remembered Cook's
first visit to these shores.)


The construction of a canoe in the neighbourhood of Cape York is still
looked upon as a great undertaking, although the labour has been much
lessened by the introduction of iron axes, which have completely
superseded those of stone formerly in use. A tree of sufficient size free
from limbs--usually a species of Bombax (silk-cotton tree) or
Erythrina--is selected in the scrub, cut down, hollowed out where it
falls, and dragged to the beach by means of long climbers used as ropes.
The remaining requisites are now added; two stout poles, fourteen to
twenty feet in length, are laid across the gunwale, and secured there
from six to ten feet apart, and the projecting ends are secured by
lashing and wooden pegs to a long float of light wood on each side,
pointed, and slightly turned up at the ends. A platform or stage of small
sticks laid across occupies the centre of the canoe, extending on each
side, several feet beyond the gunwale, and having on the outside a sort
of double fence of upright sticks used for stowing away weapons and other
gear. The paddles are five feet long, with a narrow rounded blade, and
are very clumsily made. The cable is made of twisted climbers--often the
Flagellaria indica--and a large stone serves for an anchor.

When desirous of making sail, the first process is to set up in the bow
two poles as masts, and on the weather side a longer and stouter one is
laid across the gunwale, and projects outwards and backwards as an
outrigger. These are further supported by stays and guys, and, together
with another long pole forked at the end, serve as a frame to support the
pressure of the sails, which are usually two in number, made of matting
of pandanus leaves, and average four and a half feet in width and twelve
in height. The sails have a slender pole on each side to which the
matting is secured by small pegs; when set, they are put up on end side
by side, travelling along the backstay by means of a cane grommet. When
blowing fresh it is usual to keep a man standing on the temporary
outrigger to counteract by his weight the inclination of the canoe to
leeward. From the whole sail being placed in the bow these canoes make
much leeway, but when going free may attain a maximum speed of seven or
eight knots an hour. Except in smooth water they are very wet, and the
bailer (a melon shell) is in constant requisition.


The inhabitants of the mainland and Prince of Wales Islands use the spear
and throwing-stick, but throughout the remainder of Torres Strait bows
and arrows are the chief weapons. The bows, which are large and powerful,
are made of split bamboo, and the arrows of a cane procured from New
Guinea, afterwards headed with hard wood variously pointed and sometimes
barbed. The Kowraregas obtain bows and arrows from their northern
neighbours, and occasionally use them in warfare, but prefer the spears
which are made by the blacks of the mainland. We saw three kinds of spear
at Cape York; one is merely a sharpened stick used for striking fish, the
two others, tipped and barbed with bone, are used in war. The principal
spear (kalak or alka) measures about nine feet in length, two-thirds of
which are made of she-oak or casuarina, hard and heavy, and the remaining
third of a soft and very light wood; one end has a small hollow to
receive the knob of the throwing-stick, and to the other the leg-bone of
a kangaroo six inches long, sharpened at each end, is secured in such a
manner as to furnish a sharp point to the spear and a long barb besides.
Another spear, occasionally used in fighting, has three or four heads of
wood each of which is tipped and barbed with a smaller bone than is used
for the kalak.

The throwing-stick in use at Cape York extends down the North-East coast
at least as far as Lizard Island; it differs from those in use in other
parts of Australia in having the projecting knob for fitting into the end
of the spear parallel with the plane of the stick and not at rightangles.
It is made of casuarina wood, and is generally three feet in length, an
inch and a quarter broad, and half an inch thick. At the end a double
slip of melon shell, three and a half inches long, crossing diagonally,
serves as a handle, and when used, the end rests against the palm of the
right hand, the three last fingers grasp the stick, and the forefinger
and thumb loosely retain the spear. With the aid of the powerful leverage
of the throwing-stick a spear can be thrown to a distance varying
according to its weight from 30 to 80 yards, and with considerable
precision; still, if observed coming, it may easily be avoided.

The only other weapon which I have seen in Torres Strait is a peculiar
kind of club procured from New Guinea, consisting of a quoit-like disk of
hard stone (quartz, basalt, or serpentine) with a sharp edge, and a hole
in the centre to receive one end of a long wooden handle.

The huts which the Kowraregas and Cape York people put up when the rains
commence are usually dome-shaped, four to six feet high, constructed of
an arched framework of flexible sticks, one end of each of which is stuck
firmly in the ground, and over this sheets of tea-tree (Melaleuca)
bark--and sometimes an additional thatch of grass--are placed until it is
rendered perfectly watertight.


Not only at Cape York but throughout Torres Strait the males use no
clothing or covering of any kind. At Cape York and the Prince of Wales
Islands grown up females usually wear a covering in front, consisting of
a tuft of long grass, or flag (Philydrum lanuginosum) or split pandanus
leaves, either hanging loosely or passed between the legs and tied to
another behind; over this a short petticoat of fine shreds of pandanus
leaf, the ends worked into a waistband, is sometimes put on, especially
by the young girls, and when about to engage in dancing. This petticoat,
varying only in the materials from which it is made, is in general use
among the females of all the Torres Strait tribes except the Kowrarega,
and much labour is often expended upon its construction. The large mats
used as sails, also for sleeping under in wet weather, are made by the
women from the fallen leaves of the pandanus--the common basket from the
rush-like leaves of Xerotes banksii ? --and the water basket from the
sheath of the leaf of the Seaforthia palm.

The food of these blacks varies with the season of the year, and the
supply is irregular and often precarious. Shellfish and fish are alone
obtainable all the year round--collecting the former is exclusively a
female occupation, but fishing is chiefly practised by the men. Fish are
either killed with a plain pointed spear, often merely a stick sharpened
at the end, or are taken in deep water with the hook and line. Their
hooks are made of a strip of tortoise-shell so much curved as to form
three-fourths of a circle, but from their shape and the absence of a barb
they cannot be so effective as those of European make: indeed these last
were at Cape York preferred by the natives themselves. The line is neatly
made from the tough fibres of the rattan, which are first scraped to the
requisite degree of fineness with a sharp-edged Cyrena shell, then
twisted and laid up in three strands.

Turtle forms an important article of food, and four different kinds are
distinguished at Cape York and the Prince of Wales Islands. Three of
these can be identified as the Green, the Hawksbill, and the Loggerhead
species, and the fourth is a small one which I never saw. This last, I
was informed by Giaom, is fished for in the following extraordinary


A live sucking-fish (Echeneis remora) having previously been secured by a
line passed round the tail, is thrown into the water in certain places
known to be suitable for the purpose; the fish while swimming about makes
fast by its sucker to any turtle of this small kind which it may chance
to encounter, and both are hauled in together!

The green turtle is of such consequence to the natives that they have
distinguished by a special name taken from the animal itself (sulangi
from sulur) the season of the year when it is most plentiful; this, at
Cape York, usually extends from about the middle of October until the end
of November, but the limits are not constant. During the season they are
to be seen floating about on the surface of the water, often in pairs,
male and female together. A few are caught at night on the sandy beaches,
but the greater number are captured in the water. The canoes engaged in
turtling, besides going about in the day, are often sent out on calm
moonlight nights. When a turtle is perceived, it is approached from
behind as noiselessly as possible--when within reach, a man in the bow
carrying the end of a small rope jumps out, and, getting upon the
animal's back, with a hand on each shoulder, generally contrives to turn
it before it has got far and secure it with the rope. This operation
requires considerable strength and courage, in addition to the remarkable
dexterity in diving and swimming possessed by all the blacks of the
north-east coast and Torres Strait.


There are some favourite lookout stations for turtle where the tide runs
strongly off a high rocky point. At many such places, distinguished by
large cairns* of stones, bones of turtle, dugongs, etc., watch is kept
during the season, and, when a turtle is perceived drifting past with the
tide, the canoe is manned and sent in chase.

(*Footnote. One of these on Albany Rock is a pile of stones, five feet
high and seven wide, mixed up with turtle and human bones, and, when I
last saw it, it was covered with long trailing shoots of Flagellaria
indica placed there by a turtling party to ensure success, as I was told,
but how, was not explained. The human bones were the remains of a man
killed there many years ago by a party of Kowraregas who took his head
away with them. The mounds described and figured in Jukes' Voyage of the
Fly (Volume 1 pages 137 and 138) and considered by us at the time to be
graves, are merely the usual cairns at a lookout place for turtle.)

With their usual improvidence, the Australians, when they take a turtle,
feast upon it until all has been consumed and the cravings of hunger
induce them to look out for another; but the Torres Strait Islanders are
accustomed to dry the flesh to supply them with food during their
voyages. The meat is cut into thin slices, boiled in a melon shell, stuck
upon skewers, and dried in the sun. Prepared in this manner it will keep
for several weeks, but requires a second cooking before being used, on
account of its hardness and toughness. The fat which rises to the surface
during the boiling is skimmed off and kept in joints of bamboo and turtle
bladders, being much prized as food; I have even seen the natives drink
it off in its hot fluid state with as much gusto as ever alderman enjoyed
his elaborately prepared turtle soup.


The hawksbill turtle (Caretta imbricata) that chiefly producing the
tortoise-shell of commerce, resorts to the shores in the neighbourhood of
Cape York later in the season than the green species, and is
comparatively scarce. It is only taken at night when depositing its eggs
in the sand, as the sharpness of the margin of its shell renders it
dangerous to attempt to turn it in the water--indeed even the green
turtle, with a comparatively rounded margin to the carapace,
occasionally, in struggling to escape, inflicts deep cuts on the inner
side of the leg of its captor, of which I myself have seen an instance.
Of the tortoise-shell collected at Cape York and the Prince of Wales
Islands a small portion is converted into fishhooks, the rest is bartered
either to Europeans or to the Island blacks, who fashion it into various


Another favourite article of food is the dugong (Halicore australis) of
which a few are killed every year. Although it extends along the east
coast of Australia from Moreton Bay to Cape York, it appears to be
nowhere very common. About Cape York and Endeavour Strait, the dugong is
most frequently seen during the rainy season, at which time it is said by
the natives to bring forth its young. When one is observed feeding close
inshore* chase is made after it in a canoe. One of the men standing up in
the bow is provided with a peculiar instrument used solely for the
capture of the animal in question. It consists of a slender peg of bone,
four inches long, barbed all round, and loosely slipped into the heavy,
rounded, and flattened head of a pole, fifteen to sixteen feet in length;
a long rope an inch in thickness, made of the twisted stems of some
creeping plant, is made fast to the peg at one end, while the other is
secured to the canoe. When within distance, the bowman leaps out, strikes
the dugong, and returns to the canoe with the shaft in his hand. On being
struck, the animal dives, carrying out the line, but generally rises to
the surface and dies in a few minutes, not requiring a second wound, a
circumstance surprising in the case of a cetaceous animal, six or eight
feet in length, and of proportionate bulk. The carcass is towed on shore
and rolled up the beach, when preparations are made for a grand feast.
The flesh is cut through to the ribs in thin strips, each with its share
of skin and blubber, then the tail is removed and sliced with a sharp
shell as we would a round of beef. The blubber is esteemed the most
delicate part; but even the skin is eaten, although it requires much
cooking in the oven.

(*Footnote. A slender, branchless, cylindrical, articulated seaweed, of a
very pale green colour, was pointed out to me by a native as being the
favourite food of the dugong.)


This oven is of simple construction--a number of stones, the size of the
fist, are laid on the ground, and a fire is continued above them until
they are sufficiently hot, the meat is then laid upon the bottom layer
with some of the heated stones above it, a rim of tea-tree bark banked up
with sand or earth is put up all round, with a quantity of bark, leaves,
or grass on top, to retain the steam, and the process of baking goes on.
This is the favourite mode of cooking turtle and dugong throughout Torres
Strait, and on the east coast of the mainland I have seen similar
fireplaces as far south as Sandy Cape.


A great variety of yam-like tubers are cultivated in Torres Strait.
Although on Murray and Darnley and other thickly peopled and fertile
islands a considerable extent of land in small patches has been brought
under cultivation, at the Prince of Wales Islands the cleared spots are
few in number, and of small extent--nor does the latter group naturally
produce either the coconut or bamboo, or is the culture of the banana
attempted. On the mainland again I never saw the slightest attempt at

The principal yam, or that known by the names of kutai and ketai, is the
most important article of vegetable food, as it lasts nearly throughout
the dry season. Forming a yam garden is a very simple operation. No
fencing is required--the patch of ground is strewed with branches and
wood, which when thoroughly dry are set on fire to clear the surface--the
ground is loosely turned up with a sharpened stick, and the cut pieces of
yam are planted at irregular intervals, each with a small pole for the
plant to climb up. These operations are completed just before the
commencement of the wet season, or in the month of October.

When the rains set in the biyu becomes the principal support of the Cape
York and Muralug people. This is a grey slimy paste procured from a
species of mangrove (Candelia ?) the sprouts of which, three or four
inches long, are first made to undergo a process of baking and
steaming--a large heap being laid upon heated stones, and covered over
with bark, wet leaves, and sand--after which they are beaten between two
stones, and the pulp is scraped out fit for use. It does not seem to be a
favourite food, and is probably eaten from sheer necessity. Mixed up with
the biyu to render it more palatable they sometimes add large quantities
of a leguminous seed, the size of a chestnut, which has previously been
soaked for a night in water, and the husk removed, or the tuber of a wild
yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) cut into small pieces, and well steeped in
water to remove its bitter taste.

Among the edible fruits of Cape York I may mention the leara, a species
of Anacardium or cashew nut (the lurgala of Port Essington) which, after
being well roasted to destroy its acridity has somewhat the taste of a
filbert--the elari (a species of Wallrothia) the size of an apricot, soft
and mealy, with a nearly insipid but slightly mawkish taste--wobar, the
small, red, mealy fruit of Mimusops kaukii--and the apiga (a species of
Eugenia) a red, apple-like fruit, the pericarp of which has a pleasantly
acid taste. The fruit of two species of pandanus yields a sweet mucilage
when sucked, and imparts it to water in which it has been soaked, after
which it is broken up between two stones, and the kernels are extracted
and eaten.


Throughout Australia and Torres Strait, the existence of chieftainship,
either hereditary or acquired, has in no instance of which I am aware
been clearly proved: yet in each community there are certain individuals
who exercise an influence over the others which Europeans are apt to
mistake for real authority. These so-called chiefs, are generally elderly
men, who from prowess in war, force of character, or acknowledged
sagacity, are allowed to take the lead in everything relating to the
tribe. In Torres Strait such people are generally the owners of large
canoes, and several wives; and in the northern islands, of groves of
coconut-trees, yam grounds, and other wealth. Among the Kowraregas, there
are, according to Giaom, three principal people, Manu, Piaquai, and Baki,
all old men, but among the Gudangs, a young man of twenty-five of the
name of Tumagugo appeared to have the greatest influence, and next to him
Paida, not more than six or eight years older.


It seems curious to find at Cape York and the Prince of Wales Islands a
recognised division and ownership of land, seeing that none of it by
cultivation has been rendered fit for the permanent support of man.
According to Giaom, there are laws regulating the ownership of every inch
of ground on Muralug and the neighbouring possessions of the Kowraregas,
and I am led to believe such is likewise the case at Cape York. Among
these laws are the following: A person has a claim upon the ground where
both himself and his parents were born, although situated in different
localities. On the death of parents their land is divided among the
children, when both sexes share alike, with this exception, that the
youngest of the family receives the largest share. Marriage does not
affect the permanency of the right of a woman to any landed property
which may have come into her possession. Lastly, an old man occasionally
so disposes of his property that a favourite child may obtain a larger
proportion than he could afterwards claim as his inheritance.

Neither at Cape York, nor in any of the Islands of Torres Strait, so far
as I am aware, do the aborigines appear to have formed an idea of the
existence of a Supreme Being; the absence of this belief may appear
questionable, but my informant, Giaom, spoke quite decidedly on this
point, having frequently made it the subject of conversation with the
Kowrarega blacks.


The singular belief in the transmigration of souls, which is general
among the whole of the Australian tribes, so far as known, also extends
to the islands of Torres Strait. The people holding it imagine that,
immediately after death, they are changed into white people or Europeans,
and as such pass the second and final period of their existence; nor is
it any part of this creed that future rewards and punishments are
awarded. It may readily be imagined that when ignorant and superstitious
savage tribes, such as those under consideration, were first visited by
Europeans, it was natural for them to look with wonder upon beings so
strangely different from themselves, and so infinitely superior in the
powers conferred by civilisation, and to associate so much that was
wonderful with the idea of supernatural agency. At Darnley Island, the
Prince of Wales Islands, and Cape York, the word used at each place to
signify a white man, also means a ghost.* The Cape York people even went
so far as to recognise in several of our officers and others in the ship,
the ghosts of departed friends to whom they might have borne some fancied
resemblance, and, in consequence, under the new names of Tamu, Tarka,
etc. they were claimed as relations, and entitled to all the privileges
of such.

(*Footnote. Frequently when the children were teasing Giaom, they would
be gravely reproved by some elderly person telling them to leave her, as
"poor thing! she is nothing, only a ghost!" (igur! uri longa, mata


Among many superstitions held by the Prince of Wales islanders, they are
much afraid of shooting-stars, believing them to be ghosts which in
breaking up produce young ones of their own kind. After sneezing, they
make violent gestures with the hands and arms; if a joint cracks, they
imagine that someone is speaking of them or wishing them well in the
direction in which the arm is pointing.

The only tradition which I heard of occurs among the Kowraregas, and is
worth mentioning for its singularity. The first man created was a great
giant named Adi, who, while fishing off Hammond Island, was caught by the
rising tide and drowned, Hammond Rock springing up immediately after to
mark the spot. His wives, who were watching him at the time, resolved to
drown themselves, and were changed into some dry rocks upon an adjacent
reef named after them Ipile, or the wives.


According to Giaom ague is prevalent in Muralug during the rainy season,
but is not much dreaded, as it is supposed to remove former complaints,
such as the sores prevalent among children. At Cape York I have seen
people affected with this complaint, but to what extent it occurs in that
neighbourhood I cannot state. One day some people from the ship saw our
friend Tumagugo under treatment for ague. He was laid upon the ground
while several men in succession took his head between their knees and
kneaded it with their hands. After this they placed him close to a fire
and sprinkled water over him until a copious perspiration broke out,
denoting the third and last stage of the attack. Boils on various parts
of the body, even on the head, are prevalent, especially during the rainy
season, when the food is of a poorer description than at other times.
Children are most subject to them, and I have more than once seen them so
covered with offensive sores as to be rendered most disgusting objects.
In old people callosities frequently form on the hip and elbows, the
effect, probably, of sleeping on the ground. Scarification of the
affected part is a common mode of treating local inflammatory complaints.
Ligatures are also used, as for example, one across the forehead to
remove headache. A singular mode of treating various complaints consists
in attaching one end of a string to the patient, while the other is held
in the mouth of a second person, who scarifies his own gums at the same
time until they bleed, which is supposed to indicate that the bad blood
has passed from the sick to the sound person.


With regard to the curious burial ceremonies of the Kowraregas, I regret
that I cannot be so explicit as might otherwise have been the case, as
Giaom's information on this subject, and on this only, was not written
down at the time. When the head of a family dies at Muralug, the body is
laid out upon a framework of sticks raised a foot from the ground, and is
there allowed to rot. A small hut is raised close by, and the nearest
relative of the deceased lives there, supplied with food by his friends,
until the head of the corpse becomes nearly detached by the process of
putrefaction, when it is removed and handed over to the custody of the
eldest wife. She carries it about with her in a bag during her widowhood,
accompanying the party of the tribe to which she belongs from place to
place. The body, or rather the headless skeleton, is then interred in a
shallow grave over which a mound is raised ornamented by wooden posts at
the corners painted red, with sometimes shells, and other decorations
attached to them, precisely such a one as that figured in the Voyage of
the Fly, volume 1 page 149. On the occasion of our visiting the grave in
question (at Port Lihou, on Muralug) Giaom told me that we were closely
watched by a party of natives who were greatly pleased that we did not
attempt to deface the tomb; had we done so--and the temptation was great
to some of us, for several fine nautilus shells were hanging up, and some
good dugong skulls were lying upon the top--one or more of the party
would probably have been speared.


Sail from Cape York.
Mount Ernest described.
Find Kalkalega tribe on Sue Island.
Friendly reception at Darnley Island, and proceedings there.
Bramble Cay and its turtle.
Stay at Redscar Bay.
Further description of the natives, their canoes, etc.
Pass along the South-east coast of New Guinea.
Call at Duchateau Islands.
Passage to Sydney.
Observations on Geology and Ethnology.
Origin of the Australians considered.


December 3rd.

At length we have bade a final adieu to Cape York, after a stay of
upwards of two months, which have passed away very pleasantly to such of
us as were in the habit of making excursions in the bush, or who spent
much of their time on shore. We are now on our way to Sydney, by way of
Torres Strait, New Guinea and the Louisiade, chiefly for the purpose of
running another set of meridian distances, the position of Cape York
being now sufficiently well determined to serve as a secondary meridian,
one of the starting points of the survey. The natives learned at daylight
that we were to leave them in a few hours, so in order to make the most
of their last opportunity of getting bisiker and choka, they hauled a
large canoe across the dry sands after much trouble, and under the
direction of Baki, who affected great grief at the prospect of parting
with us, went off to the ship.


We sailed at 8 A.M. for Mount Ernest--at which place a round of
theodolite angles was required--and in the afternoon anchored off its
south-western side in nine fathoms, one mile off shore. A solitary native
was seen at work upon a canoe near the beach, but when a boat approached
the shore he withdrew. The canoe was about half finished, and close by
was a small shed of bamboo thatched with grass. After crossing a small
sandy plain covered with short grass growing in tufts, we met the native
on the edge of a brush to which he had slowly retired in order to pick up
his spears and throwing-stick, both of which were precisely similar to
those of Cape York, from which place they had probably been procured. He
was a quiet, sedate, good-natured old man, and although at first rather
shy he soon laid aside his fears on receiving assurances in the Kowrarega
language, which he understood, that markai poud Kulkalaig Nagir (the
white men are friends of the Kulkalega tribe of Mount Ernest) backed by a
present of some biscuit and a knife. On subsequent occasions, when
accompanying us from place to place, the quiet listless apathy of the old
fellow was a source of some amusement. He did what was told him, and
exhibited little curiosity, and scarcely any surprise at the many
wonderful things we showed him--such as shooting birds with a gun, and
procuring a light from a lucifer match.


On the following day I had an opportunity of examining the whole of the
northern or inhabited side of the island. Mount Ernest is little more
than a mile in greatest length, of a somewhat triangular shape, its
eastern and larger portion hilly, rising gradually to an elevation of 751
feet, and its western part low and sandy. The rock is grey sienite, and
from the striking similarity of aspect, it appeared to me pretty certain
that Pole, Burke, and Banks Islands are of the same formation; they agree
in exhibiting massive peaks, respectively 409, 490, and 1,246 feet in

Mount Ernest is the headquarters of the Kulkalega tribe of Torres Strait
Islanders who are now absent on one of their periodical migrations,
leaving in possession only the old man whom we met yesterday, and his
family, among whom is a daughter of rather prepossessing appearance for a
female of her race. The village consists of a single line of huts, which
would furnish accommodation for, probably, 150 people. It is situated on
the north-west, or leeward side of the island, immediately behind the
beach, and in front of a belt of jungle. The huts are long and low, with
an arched roof, and vary in length from ten to twenty feet, with an
average height of five feet, and a width of six. They consist of a neat
framework of strips of bamboo, thatched with long coarse grass. Each hut
is usually situated in a small well-fenced enclosure, and opposite to it
on the beach is the cooking place, consisting of a small shed, under
which the fire is made. We saw indications of many turtle having lately
been cooked here upon a framework of sticks over a small fire, precisely
as is practised by the natives of New Guinea and the Louisiade


The strip of forest behind the village is traversed in every direction by
well beaten paths, chiefly leading to the back part of the island, where,
on the slope of a hill in good soil, we found many patches of rude
cultivation. The chief plant is a broad-leaved species of yam, trained
upon tall poles kept in position by cross bamboos, forming a framework
divided into little squares, each of which contains a plant. A species of
Calladium with an esculent root is also much cultivated; it is planted in
regular rows with the earth heaped up in ridges, as in a potato or turnip
field at home. I noticed some small plots of ground prepared with more
than usual care for the growth of what Giaom told me was a herb used as
tobacco; the young plants were protected from the sun with pieces of


Not far from the village, under the shade of an aged mimusops tree on the
outskirts of the wood, we observed a cleared oval space where ten human
skulls--of former members of the tribe, as we were informed--were
arranged upon a plank raised on stones a foot or so from the ground. The
skulls were mostly old and weather-worn, and some of them had pandanus
seeds stuck in the orbits by way of eyes. In front was a large smooth
stone painted red and black, and partially embedded in the earth, and
beside it were some painted human leg and arm bones, shells and other
ornaments. Behind, some thirty or forty skulls of turtle were arranged on
the ground in several rows forming a triangle.


In a beautiful opening among the trees behind the village we saw an
extraordinary screen--named wows--the purpose of which, so far as we
could understand, had some connection with the memory of the dead. It
extended fifty-six feet in length, with a slight outward curvature, and
measured five feet and a half in height. It was formed of a row of poles
stuck in the ground, crossed in front by three horizontal strips of
bamboo, and covered with cross latticework. The bars of the screen were
daubed over with red paint, and hung with rows of spider-shells also
painted red. Some poles projecting above the others two to four feet had
painted jaws of the dugong and large conch shells (Fusus proboscidiferus)
fixed to the top, and numerous other dugong bones and shells were
scattered along the front. On the ground along the foot of the screen was
a row of stones painted with black and red in imitation of grotesque
faces, and to several of these the old man who acted as cicerone attached
the names of persons who were dead. In some the painting was
comparatively recent, and the stones appeared to have been placed there
singly at different periods to commemorate the death of the heads of
families of the tribe. We saw another of these curious funeral
screens--like the first one it was situated in a little glade in the
forest, but unlike it the front was covered or thatched with coconut
leaves, and it had a small door-like opening in the centre.

The natives must have left the island either on account of its being now
the turtling season, or else from the want of water. A small deep well
behind the village, apparently the only one in the place, was almost
entirely dried up. From the old man I procured the names of some of the
neighbouring islands, and also a few other Kulkalega words which are so
similar to those of the Kowrarega language as to corroborate Giaom's
assertion that both have many words in common. By way of illustration I
may give a few examples. Thus muto, small bird; kudulug, dove; geinow,
pigeon; kakur, egg; burda, grass; waraba, coconut; moda, enclosure round
the huts.

At one place I saw indications of an upheaval of the northern side of the
island in a bed of coral conglomerate six feet thick, with its raised
wall-like edge towards the hill as if tilted up, and the remainder
sloping down towards the sea. A similar appearance on a small scale
exists on most of the coral islands which I have visited, but I had not
before seen these sloping beds above the influence of the salt water, or
at least beyond reach of the spray, still less supporting luxuriant
vegetation, consisting in the present instance of a large extent of
jungle, with trees often of great size, and a dense growth of underwood.


Among the natural productions of the island I may first allude to the
large thickets of bamboo scattered along the base of the hill as the
first new feature in the vegetation, and secondly, to the small Eucalypti
growing between the hill and the brushes, as this is the most northerly
limit of that Australian genus known to me. Among the trees of the
brushes I may mention the Anacardium, or cashew nut, with large red acrid
fruit, Mimusops kaukii, often attaining a great size, and a species of
Bombax, or silk-cotton tree, from the trunk of one of which the canoe we
saw upon the beach was being constructed.

Of birds the Australian quail, Torres Strait pigeon, and brown dove were
plentiful, and afforded good sport to the shooters; Pitta strepitans (a
handsome thrush-like bird of gaudy colours--red, green, blue and black)
was heard calling in every brush and thicket. Several large lizards were
seen; one of these, about four feet in length, perched upon the fence of
one of the deserted huts, at first took so little notice of my approach
that I refrained from shooting it, thinking it had been tamed. The colour
of this lizard (Monitor gouldii) is a dull bluish green, spotted and
variegated with yellow. It is much esteemed as food, and the skin is used
for covering the warup or New Guinea drum.


December 7th.

In the morning a canoe, with seven men in it, came off to the ship from
Sue Island, near which we were at anchor. At first they approached
cautiously, holding up pieces of tortoise-shell, and making a great
noise, shouting out, "kaisu (tortoise-shell)
kapo-bue--kapo-buai--poud--poud," etc., besides other words which were
unintelligible, pointing at the same time to the island (which they
called Waraber) as if inviting us to land.


These blacks belonged to the Kulkalega or Kulkalaig tribe, as was
ascertained by Giaom, who was well-known to some of them, and understood
enough of their language to keep up a conversation. Nearly the whole
tribe, she was informed, are now upon Sue Island, although their
headquarters are, as mentioned before, at Mount Ernest. The men in the
canoe differed in no material respect from the natives of the Prince of
Wales Islands on one hand, and those of Darnley Island on the other. Many
had the characteristic faint oval scar on one shoulder, some wore the
hair in moderately long pipe-like ringlets, while others had it cut
close. All were perfectly naked, and the only ornaments worn were the
large round pearl-shell on the breast. The canoe was rather singular in
form, with greater beam than I had ever seen in one, nor did the sides
tumble home as usual; the bow was sharp, but the stern square, as if
effected by cutting a very large canoe in halves, and filling up the open
end. We saw several bamboo bows and bundles of arrows, stowed away under
the platform; these the natives would not part with, but a large quantity
of very fine tortoise-shell was obtained, chiefly in exchange for leaf
tobacco, which they know by the name of sugub.

When the tide slackened we got underweigh, and the natives returned to
their island. Sue, although the largest of the Three Sisters, is not more
than the third of a mile in length. Like all the islands of the eastern
side of Torres Strait, with the exception of the Darnley and Murray
Islands, this is of the coral sand formation, low and thickly wooded.
Some coconut-trees grow at the west end of the island, where there is a
native village which we approached close enough to have a good view of it
with the spy-glass. It consisted of several long huts, thatched with
grass, which apparently are not much used during the daytime, as we saw
no one entering or coming out of them. Many of the people, both men and
women, ran down to the beach, waving green branches to induce us to land;
others were sitting down under temporary sheds made by stretching large
mats--the sails of their canoes--over a framework of sticks. The inside
of one large enclosure was concealed by a fence six feet high, and an
adjacent shed, under which some cooking was going on, was completely
covered with some recent shells of turtle, apparently about thirty in
number. Three very large canoes were hauled up on the beach, protected
from the sun by matting, and two smaller ones were kept afloat. There
appeared to be about 60 people upon the island, from which, and other
circumstances, I do not suppose the Kulkalega tribe to consist of more
than 100 souls. The women whom we saw wore loose petticoats of leaves
reaching to below the knees.

The ship worked up through the channel between Bet and Sue Islands, and
anchored for the night off the eastern extreme of the reef running out
from the former. Four large canoes coming from the northward passed over
the reef at high-water, going towards Sue Island.


Next day we passed Coconut Island on our right, and Dove Island on our
left, and anchored near Arden Island, where we landed on the following
morning before daylight with a seining party. The place is scarcely more
than a quarter of a mile in length, low and sandy, covered with tall
bushes and a few clumps of trees (Pisonia grandis). We saw traces--but
none very recent--of visits paid by the natives, indicated by remains of
fires, turtle bones, a large pit dug as a well, and two old graves. As
usual a coral reef extends from the shore, without leaving a clear spot
of sufficient size to admit of the seine being hauled. Species of Cissus
and two or three Capparidae constituted the bulk of the vegetation, and
rendered the low scrub almost impervious in many places. A number of
Torres Strait pigeons, chiefly young birds, and some stone-plovers and
other waders, were shot, and one rare bird was obtained for the
collection, a male of Pachycephala melanura. Soon after our return we got
underweigh, passed on our right Rennel, Marsden, and Keat Islands, and
anchored three miles to the northward of the last of these.


December 10th.

While getting underweigh, a canoe with a party of natives from Stephens
Island came off to us in a very confident manner, and at once called out
for a rope (laga) with which they made fast to the ship. Among them were
two of the natives of Darnley Island, one of whom, Dzum, soon recognised
me as an old acquaintance, under the name of Dzoka, by which I had
formerly been known on shore during the Fly's visits. They had a few
coconuts, and a little tortoise-shell for barter, and were very urgent
that the ship should go to Campbell Island on her way to Darnley,
promising us abundance of water, coconuts, yams, and tortoise-shell, of
the first of which at least they could have had none to spare. In the
evening they left us, after spending the greater part of the day on
board, with their canoe towing astern. I found the native names of at
least three of the islands to differ from those given in the Admiralty's
chart of Torres Strait from the Fly's survey. Thus Nepean Island is
Edugor, not Oogar--Stephens Island is Ugar and not Attagor--and Campbell
Island is Zapker (nearly as Lewis makes it) and not Jarmuth. These names
were obtained under circumstances which obviated the possibility of
mistake. Dzum also gave much information regarding other matters, and
enabled me to fix the limits of the tribe to which he belonged, a matter
which had frequently puzzled me before. In the afternoon the Bramble--as
told to us by the natives--appeared in sight, but we could not reach
Darnley Island, so anchored after dark in forty-five fathoms, mud, seven
miles to the northward of it.

December 11th.

A light air from the North-West carried us up to the anchorage in
Treacherous Bay about noon. A canoe from the village of Kiriam came off
to us, and lay under our stern bartering tortoise-shell for knives, axes,
and tobacco, and when we shoved off in the first cutter to communicate
with the shore, one of the natives, on being asked to accompany us,
jumped into the water without a moment's hesitation, and swam to the
boat. We landed at Kiriam, and were received by a crowd of people on the
rocks and in the water.


My old friend Siwai, with whom I had gone through the ceremony of
exchanging names nearly five years ago, showed much joy at seeing me
again, and made many enquiries regarding Jukes and others then in the
Fly. But these five years have sadly altered him--he now presents the
appearance of a feeble emaciated man prematurely old, with a short cough
and low voice--his back is bowed down, and even with the aid of a stick
he can scarcely totter along. He is now the man in most authority in the
island, his rival Mamus having been killed in New Guinea in company with
several other Darnley Islanders whose names were mentioned to me; they
had been on a visit to a friendly tribe, one of whose quarrels they
espoused, and only a few returned to Errub to tell the tale. The natives
wished us to stay at Kiriam, but as the principal object of the ship's
coming to the island was to procure water, we were anxious to know
whether it could be obtained in sufficient quantity at Bikar, where the
Fly and Bramble had watered before. As Siwai told us that there was none
at Bikar, but plenty at Mogor--his own village--we pulled along to the
latter place, accompanied by himself and three of his sons. In passing
along the south-west side of the island, we were struck with the superior
richness of vegetation and apparent fertility, compared with what we had
seen in New Guinea and the Louisiade Archipelago during the previous part
of the cruise. Some portions reminded one of English park scenery--gently
sloping, undulating, grassy hills, with scattered clumps and lines of


On landing at the village, which consists of two or three houses only, we
were taken a quarter of a mile--by a path leading along a small valley
through a grove of coconut-trees, bananas, and various cultivated plants
(among which I observed the Mango in full bearing) to a pool of water in
the dried-up bed of a small rivulet. But the quantity of water was not
enough for our purpose, even had it been situated in a place more easy of
access. Some magnificent Sago palms overhung the water with their large
spreading fronds; these we were told had been brought from Dowde or New
Guinea, many years ago. Siwai and his sons, at their own urgent request,
were allowed a passage with us to the ship, and remained all night there,
sleeping among the folds of a sail upon the poop.

December 12th.

In the morning a party landed at Bikar (abreast of the ship) to look for
water, but the pool which on several occasions supplied the Fly, Bramble,
and Prince George, was now dry. At this season too, during the prevalence
of North-West winds, landing is difficult on account of the surf, and we
had much trouble in keeping our guns dry while up to the waist in water.
In the afternoon both cutters were sent to Mogor to procure vegetables
for the ship's company by barter with the natives, and I accompanied the
party, but, contrary to expectation, no one was allowed to land, the
person in authority having seen something on shore to alarm him, the
nature of which continued to us a mystery. The second cutter laid off,
and the first remained in water about knee-deep, surrounded by a crowd of
unarmed natives. The scene was at that time very animated--groups of men,
women, and children, were to be seen staggering under a load of coconuts,
wading out to the boats, scrambling to be first served, and shouting out
to attract attention to their wares, which in addition included some
tortoise-shell, a few yams, bananas and mangos. Siwai was present in the
boat, and by exercising his authority in our behalf, matters went on more
smoothly than otherwise might have been the case. A large supply of
coconuts and a few vegetables having been obtained for axes, knives,
calico, and red cloth, we returned to the ship.


December 13th.

Three boats were sent to Kiriam to procure more coconuts. There being no
prohibition of landing, I remained onshore during the bartering, sitting
in a shady place among a group of women and children, and employed in
procuring materials for a vocabulary. Most of them remembered me of old,
and in consequence fancied they had a claim upon my tobacco, the stock of
which was quickly exhausted.


The huts of Darnley Island--together with the inhabitants--have been so
fully described in the voyage of the Fly, that it is unnecessary for me
to enter upon the subject. The natives always objected to show to us the
inside of their huts, many of which we knew were used as dead houses--but
Mr. Huxley today was fortunate enough to induce one of them to allow him
to enter his house, and make a sketch of the interior, but not until he
had given him an axe as an admission fee. These huts resemble a great
beehive in shape--a central pole projects beyond the roof, and to this is
connected a framework of bamboo, thatched with grass, leaving a single
small low entrance to serve as door and window.


Several human skulls were brought down for sale, also a little shrivelled
mummy of a child. Some of the former had the skin quite perfect, the nose
artificially restored in clay mixed with a resinous substance, and the
orbits occupied by a diamond-shaped piece of mother-of-pearl, with a
black central mark. Towards the end of the bartering the natives had
become very noisy, and even insolent, and everything seemed to indicate
that some at least of them were dissatisfied, and inclined to resent some
injury or cause of offence, for which purpose apparently they had their
bows and arrows ready, and their gauntlets upon the left forearm. Some of
them desired me to get into the boat and be off, intended as I understood
for a friendly caution, while Dzum came up with an air of profound
mystery, wishing me to come with him (now that I was alone) to a
neighbouring hut to see a barit which he had brought over for me from
Stephens Island. This name is applied to the opossums of the genus Cuscus
which the Torres Strait Islanders occasionally procure from New Guinea.
However it was time for me to be off, so I contented myself with
promising a large reward for the animal if taken off to the ship. The
produce of our barter on this and previous occasions amounted to 467
coconuts, 388 pounds of yams* (then very scarce) and 159 pounds of

(*Footnote. Not less than nine different kinds of yams and yam-like
tubers--including the sweet-potato--are cultivated in Torres Strait, and
are specially distinguished by name.)


While at dinner news was brought that Dzum was under the stern in a
canoe, shouting out loudly for Dzoka, and, on going up I found that he
had brought off the barit, which, after a great deal of trouble, I struck
a bargain for, and obtained. It was a very fine specimen of Cuscus
maculatus, quite tame, and kept in a large cage of split bamboo. Dzum
seemed very unwilling to part with the animal, and repeatedly enjoined me
to take great care of it and feed it well, which to please him I promised
to do, although I valued it merely for its skin, and was resolved to kill
it for that purpose at my first convenience. He had also brought a
basketful of yams of an inferior quality, as sea stock for the barit
during the voyage, and promised more on the following morning.


December 16th.

Two days ago we left Darnley Island for Bramble Cay, distant about thirty
miles North-East, but owing to calms and light winds had to anchor twice.
A strong North-West breeze which came on last night, and caused us to
drag the stream anchor, at length brought us up to our destination, near
which we anchored in 25 fathoms, sand, the island bearing North-West 1/2
West distant a mile and a quarter. In the afternoon I landed for an hour,
passing many turtles on the water both going and returning. As usual the
islet was covered with seabirds, only two species, however, of which were
breeding. The Brown Booby (Sula fusca) and a large tern (Thalasseus
pelecanoides) existed in about equal numbers; the latter, in one great
colony, had laid their solitary large speckled eggs in a slight
excavation in the sand, the former were scattered all over the island,
and had regular nests of weed, containing either two eggs, or a single
young bird covered with white down. Well does the booby deserve its name.
The grotesque and stupid look of the old bird standing by its eggs or
young--irresolute whether to defend them or not, and staring with an
intensely droll expression at the intruders--is very amusing; at length
on being too closely approached, it generally disgorges the contents of
its stomach--consisting at this time of very fine flying-fish--and after
some half shuffling, half flying movements, manages to get on wing and be
off. As the tern's eggs were within a short time of being hatched we
broke all we saw in order to ensure some newly-laid ones in a day or two.


We remained at this anchorage for the two following days, during which
time the weather was generally gloomy and unsettled, with occasional
heavy rain. As numerous recent tracks of turtles upon the sandy beach
indicated that the season had not yet ended, parties were sent on shore
to watch for them after dark, and although only one was taken on the
first night, yet on the following not less than eighteen were secured and
brought off: fifteen of them were of the green, and three of the
hawksbill kind. The last, I believe, is undescribed: it is certainly not
the one (Caretta imbricata) producing the greater part of the
tortoise-shell of commerce, and which is not rare in Torres Strait,
distinguished by having the posterior angle of each dorsal plate
projecting, so as to give a serrated appearance to the margin of the
carapace which, in the present species is quite smooth. The green turtle
averaged 350 pounds each, and the hawksbills about 250 pounds. Although a
strong prejudice existed against the hawksbill as an article of food, we
all found reason to change our minds, and pronounce it to be at least
equal to the other. The newly-hatched turtles (all hawksbills) were
running about in every direction, and among their numerous enemies, I was
surprised to see a burrowing crab (Ocypoda cursor) which runs with great
swiftness along the sandy beaches. These crabs even carried off a plover
which I had shot, not allowing more than ten minutes to elapse before one
of them had it safely (as it thought) stowed away in its burrow.

The golden plover was plentiful on the island during our visit, and one
afternoon I killed fifteen in about an hour. Two days after the terns'
eggs had been broken we found a small colony of laying birds, and picked
up some dozens of eggs; and had we remained a few days longer, doubtless
a very great number might have been procured. The weed which in the Fly
we used to call spinach (a species of Boerhaavia, apparently B. diffusa)
being abundant here, was at my suggestion collected in large quantity for
the use of the ship's company as a vegetable, but it did not seem to be
generally liked.

December 21st.

Two days ago we left Bramble Cay for Cape Possession in New Guinea, with
a fine breeze from the North-West, and next morning at daylight saw the
land about the Cape on the weather-beam. The wind, however, died away in
the afternoon, but this morning a light north-westerly breeze sprang up,
before which we bore up and were brought in the afternoon to an anchorage
in 11 fathoms, mud, half a mile to leeward of the Pariwara Islands.


Meanwhile Lieutenant Yule, upon our destination being changed, was
ordered by signal to proceed to Cape Direction and survey the
intermediate space between that and Redscar Bay, in order to connect his
former continuation of the Fly's work with ours, and thus complete the
coastline of the whole of the south-east part of New Guinea.

We remained at this anchorage for upwards of a week, during which a rate
for the chronometers was obtained, and the Bramble returned.


The weather during our stay was very variable and unsettled; rain fell on
several occasions. The wind was usually from the westward, varying
between North-West and South-West, and on one occasion during the night
we had a sudden and very violent squall from the westward, which for a
time was thought to be the beginning of a hurricane, but the gale
moderated very gradually next day. When the wind during the day was light
and from seaward, a land breeze generally came off at night, occasionally
with rain. The cause of this last seems to be the influence exerted upon
the winds here by Mount Owen Stanley and the ranges connected with it,
from which the clouds accumulated during the prevalence of the seabreeze,
are reflected after its subsidence. The low and well wooded district
between the mountains and the sea receives the passing influence of these
clouds surcharged with moisture, and the climate there and in all the low
maritime districts of the south-east part of New Guinea backed by high
land, is probably always a moist one, little affected by the prevalence
of either the North-West or South-East monsoon. The observations made
during our last visit to determine the height of Mount Owen Stanley and
not considered very satisfactory, were repeated under more favourable
conditions, but with nearly the same result. This mountain, the highest
of the range of the same name, is somewhat flat-topped (as viewed from
our anchorage) about six miles in length, and the mean of five
observations from different stations gave 13,205 feet as the height of
the highest part above the level of the sea.


On the largest Pariwara Island, although abundance of rain had fallen
lately, there was no water left in any pool or hole in the rock. Nor
although the soil, from the additional moisture, looked darker and richer
than during my former visit in September, was there any perceptible
improvement in the vegetation. A few fork-tailed red-fronted swallows
(Hirundo neoxena) were hawking about, and a large yellow and black
butterfly (Papilio epius, common in collections from India and China) was
abundant. Many Torres Strait pigeons were observed from the ship to
resort nightly to the second largest of the group, which is covered with
trees and seems quite inaccessible from the steepness of its low cliffs.
On several successive evenings about sunset, and until it became too dark
to distinguish them, immense numbers of frigate-birds were observed
flying over Redscar Head, and going out to the North-North-East. This
being a gregarious bird only when associated at a breeding place, and
there being no known sandbank or islet in the direction which they were
pursuing, rendered their object a subject for much conjecture.


We were occasionally visited by parties of natives, chiefly coming from
the northward, probably from some of the large rivermouths known to exist
there. Although in bringing their women and children off to see the ship
they indicated little suspicion or fear, yet on one occasion only could
we induce any of the men to come on board, and the two who did so would
not be persuaded to go below, and made their stay very short. As I had
better opportunities of making observations upon these natives than
during our former visit, some additional information regarding them may
be given here. The inhabitants of Redscar Bay, judging from what was seen
alongside the ship, are rather smaller in stature than those seen at
Dufaure and Brumer Islands and the Louisiade, but perhaps more frequently
show handsome features and good expression. Neither were there any men
exceeding the rest in height by even three inches, as had often been the
case in other places. They are usually of a very light copper colour, but
one man was of a very pale yellow and much resembled a Chinaman in hue;
although it may at first appear strange, yet this pale-skinned individual
by his very colour excited feelings of disgust in the minds of some of
us, such as would be created by the sight of a person whose body was
covered with a loathsome eruption and who still publicly exposed it. And
why should not our pale faces be regarded by these savages in a similar
light? Some had perfect Malayan features, but none seen on this occasion
appeared to practice betel-chewing--a remarkable circumstance, since the
men who on our former visit came off to the ship, then only about fifteen
miles to the north-west, had their teeth discoloured.


None of the natives had any hair upon the face; various ways of dressing
that of the head were practised, the most singular of which has already
been described in Volume 1. The hair was usually of its natural dark
colour at the base, with the remainder dyed reddish brown and frizzled
out into a mop with long-toothed combs of wood or tortoise-shell. One
child had the head so shaved as to leave a long tuft on the forehead, and
another on the back of the head--precisely in the same manner as is
sometimes practised in Java. Nor must I omit noticing a singular
appendage formerly alluded to--analogous to the pigtail once in
vogue--worn by many of these people; it is formed of human hair wrapped
round with twine, and ends in one or more bunches of shells, dogs' teeth,
and tails of pigs--the longest one which I saw measured twenty-one inches
in length. Among numerous ornaments the most common is a large round
concave portion of melon shell, sometimes beautifully inlaid with
filagree work of tortoise-shell, worn on the breast. Fillets of cassowary
feathers, fur of the spotted bare-tailed opossum, or woven stuff studded
with shells, were often seen.

Painting the face or body does not seem to be practised here, but the men
are usually tattooed on the breast, cheeks, forehead, and arms, also
occasionally on other places. Their tattooing, however, is much fainter
and less profuse than among the women, every visible part of whose skin
is generally marked with a great variety of patterns, the most usual
style among them consisting in series of double parallel or converging
lines an inch or more apart, the intervals being occupied by small
figures, or irregular lines, with detached rectilinear figures fancifully
filled up.


The women wear a petticoat of shreds of pandanus leaf, plaited above into
a waistband and below reaching nearly to the knee.

They brought off little with them for barter besides bows and arrows, and
as before appeared perfectly ignorant of the use of iron. A few coconuts,
plantains, and mangos were obtained from them, but they had no yams.
Nearly every canoe which came alongside contained several large baked
earthen pots of good construction, some with wide, others with narrow
mouths, and a third sort shaped like a saucer. Besides bows and arrows,
we saw many spears, mostly of small size and usually finely jagged or
barbed towards the end, but of very inferior workmanship, also some
shields, one of which may be described.* It measures 33 inches in length
by 14 in width, and in shape resembles a fiddle, being rounded at the
ends and slightly contracted in the middle; it is made of wood,
three-fourths of an inch thick, neatly covered with fine cane matting,
fitting very tightly.

(*Footnote. Figured in volume 1.)


The canoes seen here are either single or double, in the latter case
consisting merely of two lashed together, usually without an outrigger.
The single canoes vary in length from 20 to 30 feet, and carry from five
to a dozen people. Each end tapers to a sharp projecting point longer at
the bow. The outrigger frame consists of five poles laid across the
gunwale in grooves, and the float, which is rather less than half the
length of the body of the canoe, is secured to the ends of each by three
pegs, a foot in length. The opposite ends of the outrigger poles project
beyond the side only a few inches, and are secured by lashing of cane to
a piece crossing them; the gunwale is further strengthened by slender
poles running along it from end to end. A small portion only of the
outrigger frame is converted into a platform by a few loose poles or a
plank or two: some of the latter were as much as two feet in width, and
only an inch in thickness, and must have been cut with stone axes out of
a log of wood. The largest canoe seen was judged to be thirty-five feet
in length, with a width at the bow of four and a half feet, but this far
exceeded in bulk any of the other single ones. Like the rest it
essentially consisted of the hollowed-out trunk of a tree. All the heavy
canoes are pulled with oars, working in cane grommets, the others are
propelled with paddles. Both oars and paddles have lanceolate blades and
thick handles, without any attempt at ornament or even neatness of

The sail (of pandanus matting) is a long parallelogram, twelve feet by
three, its sides secured by two tough slender poles, between which it is
stretched, and which serve both as masts and yards. In making sail one of
the poles is shipped, two stays from the centre leading fore and aft are
then set up, after which the second pole is fixed and secured by stays,
so as to give the sail the requisite inclination. We frequently saw a
second smaller sail set before the first, at the distance of eight or ten
feet, and managed precisely in the same way, but, even with both sails
set, owing to the disproportion between the spread of canvas and the bulk
of the canoe, the latter moves slowly at all times, and on a wind makes
much leeway.


December 31st.

We sailed yesterday from our anchorage in Redscar Bay, but did not clear
the sunken ridge of coral in the offing--a submarine extension of the
Barrier Reef, stretching between Low Island and the vicinity of
South-west Cape--until this forenoon, when we got out of soundings. The
Bramble is to remain behind for three or four weeks upon the coast, to
fill up various blanks in the chart between this and Rossel Island, while
we are to make the best of our way to the Duchateau Islands, to obtain a
meridian distance, and thence proceed direct to Sydney.

January 6th, 1850.

Our passage to the Duchateau Isles, a distance of less than 400 miles,
has been protracted by the prevalence of light winds, although these were
generally favourable, or from the westward. Occasional calms, squalls,
and rain occurred, but the weather generally was finer than during the
South-East monsoon.


As an instance of the clearness of the atmosphere, so different from what
we had usually experienced during our former visit to these shores, it
may be mentioned, that on one occasion during a light breeze from the
north-west we clearly saw Mount Yule (10,046 feet high) and the summit of
Mount Owen Stanley, distant respectively, one hundred and twenty, and
eighty miles from the ship. On this occasion also we had a full view of
the whole of Mount Astrolabe, which although 3,824 feet in greatest
height, and appearing to D'Urville as he ran past to be the highest land
on this portion of the coast, is rendered quite insignificant by the
lofty though distant range behind. Mount Astrolabe differs in character
from any other of the New Guinea mountains seen by us, indicating a
different geological formation. The summit extends thirteen miles,
running parallel with the coastline and distant from it about eight
miles. Viewed from the south-westward the outline is regular, exhibiting
a series of nearly flat tops with slight interruptions, but from the
southward it appears as a succession of terraces or projecting cliffs,
precipitous in front near the summit, with a long steep slope below,
probably of debris, while the flat top slopes backwards with a very
gentle declivity. Owen Stanley Range again presented quite a different
aspect as seen on the occasion alluded to, when nearly one half of its
whole length (300 miles) from Mount Yule to Heath Bay was in full view:
the outline was irregular but never suddenly so, and no peaks or other
remarkable points were seen.

I may mention here in relation to this part of New Guinea, though not in
continuance of the narrative, that the Barrier Reef, beginning (or
ending) at Low Island, is continued to the southward and eastward for 150
miles, as far as Cape Colombier, generally following the trend of the
coast, at a distance off it from three to fifteen miles. A long strip of
apparently navigable water is thus enclosed between the reef and the
shore, with numerous passages, many of which appeared to be clear to
Lieutenant Yule as he passed along close to the outer margin of the reef.


Some good harbours doubtless exist here; the Bramble passed through
Roundhead Entrance and found good anchorage in fifteen fathoms
immediately inside. The whole of this extent of coast appeared to be well
peopled. On the western side of Mount Astrolabe, for instance, numerous
villages and patches of cultivated land were seen from the Bramble.


Both in Redscar Bay and for the first two or three days after leaving it
numbers of sago palms, some quite recent, were observed on the water,
occasionally with boobies and noddies perched upon them. These trees had
probably grown upon the banks of the rivers of the bay, and been washed
away by the undermining of the low alluvial banks on which they grow, and
carried out to sea by the current. Along several of the freshwater
channels on the western side of the Great Bight examined by the Fly's
boats in 1844, I had seen this palm growing on the margin of the stream
in great profusion, and according to Giaom, the bisi tree (as she called
it) is occasionally carried by the winds and currents as far south as the
Prince of Wales Islands, when the natives scoop out the soft spongy inner
wood, wash it well with fresh water, beat it up into a pulp, separate the
farinaceous substance which falls to the bottom of the vessel, and bake
it as bread. On no part of the coast of New Guinea, however, did we ever
see any of this sago bread, which is known to constitute the principal
food of the inhabitants of the north-west coast of that great island.*

(*Footnote. Forrest endeavours to show that an acre of ground planted
with 300 sago palms will maintain fourteen men, as each tree produces 300
pounds of sago flour, when arrived at full maturity in its seventh year.
Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas in 1774 to 1776 by Captain Thomas
Forrest second edition page 44.)

On one occasion lately the water was discoloured by a conferva resembling
the sea-sawdust of Captain Cook, with which it was found to agree
generically in consisting of long filaments joined together by a softer
gelatinous-looking substance. The present species, however, is six times
larger than the more common sort, some of which was mixed up with it,
their diameters as ascertained by Mr. Huxley, being respectively 8 1/2
over 5000 and 1 1/8 over 5000 of an inch.

Today we stood in for the Duchateau Isles, and, rounding them to the
westward, anchored in the afternoon in seventeen fathoms, with the
central island bearing south, distant one mile.


January 7th.

Along with a shooting party I landed soon after daylight on the
westernmost Duchateau Island. Numbers of Nicobar pigeons left the island
as we approached, having apparently used it merely as a roosting-place.


Heavy showers and thunderclouds passed over at intervals during the whole
morning, rendering our shooting not quite so successful as it might have
been; still we procured about fifty pigeons and a few of Duperrey's
megapodius. In habits this last bird resembles the Australian species,
especially in constructing enormous mounds for the reception of its eggs.
Those which I saw averaged five feet in height and fifteen in diameter,
and were composed of the sandy soil of the neighbourhood, mixed up with
rotten sticks and leaves, but without any shells or coral. Some were
placed on the outer margin of the thickets close to the beach, and others
were scattered about more inland. As several of these mounds showed
indications of having lately been opened by the birds, I entertained
hopes of being able to procure an egg, but after digging several pits
three feet in depth, with no more efficient implements than my hands, I
had to give up the work from sheer exhaustion. This bird is apparently
very pugnacious at times, as I frequently saw them chasing each other
along the ground, running with great swiftness, and uttering their cry
more loudly than usual, stopping short suddenly and again starting off in
pursuit. The cry consists of one or two shrill notes, uttered at
intervals and ending in a hurried tremulous cry repeated five or six
times. The noise made by this megapodius while scratching among the dead
leaves for food may sometimes be imitated with such success as to bring
the bird running up within gunshot. When suddenly forced to rise from the
ground it flies up into a tree, and remains there motionless, but
exceedingly vigilant, ready to start on the approach of anyone, but on
other occasions it trusts to its legs to escape. Its food is entirely
procured on the ground, and consists of insects and their larvae
(especially the pupae of ants) small snails, and various fallen seeds and
fruits. Although a great number of the Nicobar pigeons had left, many yet
remained, and the whole island resounded with their cry mixed up with the
cooing of the Nutmeg pigeon. Little skill is required in shooting these
birds, for they generally admit of very close approach, as if trusting to
the chance of being overlooked among the dense foliage.


January 8th.

During the night a party of natives in five canoes came over from the
Calvados Group, and first attracted our attention by making several fires
on the middle and easternmost islands. Soon after daybreak they came
alongside in their usual boisterous manner. A few words of their language
which were procured proved to be of great interest by agreeing generally
with those formerly obtained at Brierly Island, while the numerals were
quite different and corresponded somewhat with those of my Brumer Island
vocabulary. Two of the canoes--one of which carried sixteen people--were
large and heavy and came off under sail, tacking outside of us and
fetching under the ship's stern. In these large canoes the paddles are of
proportionate size and very clumsy--they are worked as oars with the aid
of cane grommets--the sail is of the large oblong shape formerly
described. One of the canoes was furnished with a small stage above the
platform for the reception of a large bundle of coarse mats, six feet
long and two and a half broad, made by interlacing the leaflets of the
cocoa-palm; these mats are probably used in the construction of temporary
huts when upon a cruise.

Although rather a better sample of the Papuan race than that which we had
lately seen at Redscar Bay, there was no marked physical distinction
between these inhabitants of the Louisiade and the New Guinea men. The
canoes, however, are as different as the language; here, as throughout
the Archipelago, the canoes have the semblance of a narrow coffin-like
box, resting upon a hollowed-out log, the bow having the two
characteristic ornaments of the tabura, or head-board, and the crest-like
carved woodwork running out along the beak. Some of the natives were
recognised as former visitors to the ship. Nearly all were painted,
chiefly on the face, the favourite pattern being series of white bars and
spots on a black ground. Except their ornaments and weapons, they had
little to give us for the iron hoop so much in request with them; only a
few coconuts, and scarcely any yams were obtained, and to the latter they
attached a much higher value than formerly.


At length the natives left us, three canoes making to the northward, and
two returning to the Duchateau Isles. Morning observations for rating the
chronometers having been obtained, we got underweigh soon afterwards,
and, bidding farewell to the Louisiade Archipelago, commenced our voyage
to Sydney.

Our daily average progress during the passage to Sydney (which occupied a
period of twenty-eight days) was less than fifty miles. The winds for the
first few days, or until beyond the influence of the land, were light and
variable, shifting between South-West and North-East by the northward,
and accompanied by occasional squalls and rain. It became a matter of
difficulty to determine when we got into the south-east trade; it was not
until we had reached latitude 20 degrees South that the wind--light on
the preceding day, but on this strong, with squalls and rain--appeared
steady between East-South-East and South-South-East and this carried us
down to Sandy Cape.


In traversing the Coral Sea, the numerous detached reefs were so
carefully avoided that we saw none of them--thus in one sense it is to be
regretted that the passage through them of a surveying vessel, with
seventeen chronometers on board, was productive of no beneficial result
by determining the exact position of any one of these dangerous reefs,
most of which are only approximately laid down upon the charts.*

(*Footnote. About this time a new reef was discovered during the passage
from Cape Deliverance to Sydney of H.M.S. Meander, Captain the Honourable
H. Keppel. While this sheet was passing through the press, I saw an
announcement of the total wreck upon Kenn Reef--one of those the position
of which is uncertain--of a large merchant ship, the passengers and crew
of which, 33 in number, fortunately however, succeeded in reaching
Moreton Bay in their boat--a distance of 400 miles.)


The most important practical result of Captain Stanley's survey of the
Louisiade Archipelago and the south coast of New Guinea, was the
ascertaining the existence of a clear channel of at least 30 miles in
width along the southern shores of these islands, stretching east and
west between Cape Deliverance and the north-east entrance to Torres
Strait--a distance of about 600 miles. This space was so traversed by the
two vessels of the expedition without any detached reefs being
discovered, that it does not seem probable that any such exist there,
with the exception of the Eastern Fields of Flinders, the position and
extent of which may be regarded as determined with sufficient accuracy
for the purposes of navigation, and the reefs alluded to in Volume 1,
which, if they exist at all, and are not merely the Eastern Fields laid
down far to the eastward of their true position, must be sought for
further to the southward. The shores in question may now be approached
with safety, and vessels may run along them either by day or night under
the guidance of the chart--without incurring the risk of coming upon
unknown reefs, such as doubtless exist in other parts of the Coral Sea
further to the southward--judging from the occasional discovery of a new
one by some vessel which had got out of the beaten track. Whalers will no
doubt find it worth their while--with the characteristic enterprise of
their class--to push into those parts of the Coral Sea now first thrown
open to them, and, although we have not as yet sufficient grounds to
warrant the probability of success in the fishery, yet I may mention that
whales were seen on several occasions from both of our vessels.


This naturally originates the question--to what extent do the Louisiade
Archipelago and the south-east coast of New Guinea afford a field for
commercial enterprise? What description of trade can be established there
by bartering European goods for the productions of these countries?
Unfortunately at present most of the evidence on this point is of a
negative kind. Besides articles of food, such as pigs, yams, and
coconuts, and weapons and ornaments of no marketable
value--tortoise-shell, flax, arrowroot, massoy bark, and feathers of the
birds of paradise were seen by us, it is true, but in such small
quantities as to hold out at present no inducement for traders to resort
to these coasts for the purpose of procuring them. That gold exists in
the western and northern portions of New Guinea has long been known, that
it exists also on the south-eastern shores of that great island is
equally true, as a specimen of pottery procured at Redscar Bay contained
a few small laminar grains of this precious metal. The clay in which the
gold is embedded was probably part of the great alluvial deposit on the
banks of the rivers, the mouths of which we saw in that neighbourhood,
doubtless originating in the high mountains behind, part of the Owen
Stanley Range.

It is evident, however, that our acquaintance with the productions of a
great extent of coastline upon which we never once landed must be very
slight, but with that little we must be content until some more complete
exploration of the shores, which were only cursorily examined, and
especially of the rivers of the Great Bight--which seem to offer a ready
means of penetrating far into the interior of New Guinea--shall have been
effected. That an expedition with this end in view will soon be
undertaken is, however, highly improbable, the survey of the Rattlesnake
having completed all that was requisite for the immediate purposes of
navigation in those parts.


The fact of the existence of several active volcanoes on islands
immediately adjacent to the north coast of New Guinea (first made known
by Dampier) and the circumstance of volcanic bands traversing the length
of many of the great islands of the Malayan Archipelago, and others as
far to the southward as New Caledonia and New Zealand, rendered it
extremely probable that we should have found indisputable signs of
comparatively recent volcanic action in the south-east part of New
Guinea. We saw no volcanoes, however, and the great central mountain
chain appeared to me to be probably granitic. The large Brumer Island is
composed of igneous rocks as formerly mentioned; and at Dufaure Island I
obtained from some canoes which came off to us a few smooth water-worn
pieces of hornblendic porphyry. Some specimens of obsidian, or volcanic
glass, were also procured from the natives at the latter place, where
sharp-edged fragments are used for shaving with; one variety is black,
another of a light reddish-brown, with dark streaks. Mount Astrolabe is
apparently of trap formation, as I have already stated. Some conical
hills scattered along the coast may possibly be of volcanic origin,
especially one of that form rising to the height of 645 feet from the
lowland behind Redscar Head. It is in this neighbourhood also that we
find the upraised calcareous rocks of modern date exhibited by the
Pariwara Islands and the neighbouring headland, with which they were
probably once continuous; near this, too, the barrier reef of the coast
ceases at Low Island, which it encloses, although its line is continued
under water, as a ridge of coral, as far as the South-west Cape, where
the coral ends, unless the shoals apparently blocking up the channel
south of Yule Island are of the same formation.


Reference to the outline chart will enable the reader to follow me in
some general remarks which did not properly enter into the narrative. The
Louisiade Archipelago, reduced to what I conceive to be its natural
limits, includes that extensive group of islands comprised between the
parallels of 10 degrees 40 minutes and 11 degrees 40 minutes South
latitude, and the meridians of 151 degrees and 154 degrees 30 minutes
East longitude. About eighty are already known, and probably many others
remain yet to be discovered in the north-west, a large space there being
as yet a blank upon the chart. All the islands of the group, with the
exception of the low ones of coral formation to the westward, appear to
be inhabited, but probably nowhere very densely, judging from the
comparatively small number of natives which we saw, and the circumstance
of the patches of cultivation being small and scattered, while the
greater part of the large islands is either covered with dense forest, or
exhibits extensive grassy tracts with lines and clumps of trees. Such of
the islands as were examined consisted of mica slate, the line of
direction of the beds of which is nearly the same as that of the
Archipelago itself, and the physical appearance of the other islands
leads me to believe that the same rock prevails there also.


One of the most remarkable features connected with the Louisiade
Archipelago is the manner in which its shores are protected by the coral
reefs which have frequently been alluded to above. The principal of these
are good examples of that kind distinguished by the name of barrier
reefs. Rossel Reef has already been described, and the only other large
one of this description which we saw more than a portion of, is that
partially encircling South-east Island at a variable distance from the
land, then passing to the westward as far as longitude 152 degrees 40
minutes, where it ceases to show itself above water; thence, however, the
edge of a bank of soundings (represented on the chart by a dotted line)
which is suddenly met with in coming from the deep blue unfathomed water
to the southward, can be traced in a continued line to the westward as
far as the Jomard Isles, whence it turns round to the northward for ten
miles further, where our examination ended. This last may be considered
as a submarine extension of the barrier, which probably reappears again
above water, and passing to the northward of the Calvados Group, reaches
as far as the northern entrance to Coral Haven, enclosing nearly all the
high islands of the Archipelago. The expanse of water inside when not
occupied by land usually exhibits a depth of from 15 to 30 fathoms, with
numerous sunken patches of coral, and several reefs which partially dry
at low-water. The shores of the islands also are generally protected by
fringing coral reefs, the largest of which is that extending off the west
and south side of Piron Island to a distance of seven or eight miles,
with a well defined border towards Coral Haven.

At the western portion of the Louisiade Archipelago the reefs seen by us
exhibit great irregularity of outline, continuity, and width. Some are
linear reefs, others atolls* more or less distinct in character, and the
remainder are usually round or oval. Viewed as a whole they form an
interrupted chain, with numerous deepwater channels, which terminates in
the West Barrier Reef of the chart but is connected with the coast of New
Guinea by a bank of soundings, with, probably, a well-defined margin.
Many low, wooded islands are scattered along this line. I know of no
distinguishing feature presented by the coral reefs of the Louisiade
compared with those which I have seen elsewhere. One remarkable
occurrence, however, connected with them, may be mentioned. While passing
in the ship the most northern point of Rossel Island, I observed upon the
reef, about a hundred yards inside its outer border, a series of enormous
insulated masses of dead coral rising like rocks from the shallow water.
The largest of these, examined through a good telescope from the distance
of half a mile, was about twenty feet in length and twelve in height,
with a well-defined high-water mark. It formed quite a miniature island,
with tufts of herbage growing in the clefts of its rugged sides, and a
little colony of black-naped terns perched upon the top as if incubating.

(*Footnote. "An atoll differs from an encircling barrier reef only in the
absence of land within its central expanse; and a barrier reef differs
from a fringing reef in being placed at a much greater distance from the
land with reference to the probable inclination of its submarine
foundation, and in the presence of a deep water lagoon-like space or moat
within the reef." The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs by
Charles Darwin page 146.)


I had only once before seen a similar exhibition of such great and
permanently elevated masses of dead coral upon a living reef--a
phenomenon of much interest in connection with Mr. Darwin's theory of the
mode of formation of coral reefs. This was on a portion of the Great
Barrier Reef of Australia, visited in company with Mr. Jukes, who has
published a detailed account of it.* In both cases the only obvious
explanation is that these huge blocks--too massive to have been hove up
from deep water into their present position by any storm--reached their
present level by the elevation of the sea bottom on which they were

(*Footnote. Voyage of H.M.S. Fly by J.B. Jukes volume 1 page 340.)

Before quitting the subject of the coral reefs of the Louisiade I may be
permitted to express my conviction of the perfect manner in which many,
perhaps all of the appearances which they present may be satisfactorily
accounted for by the application of Mr. Darwin's theory. We have only to
presume the whole of the Archipelago to have once formed part of New
Guinea--a supposition highly probable in itself (suggested even by a
careful examination of the large charts) and strengthened by the total
absence of signs of volcanic agency in what the theory in question would
require to be an area of subsidence as opposed to those of elevation,
such as are known to exist in parts of New Guinea.


The ethnology of New Guinea is involved in so much confusion and
obscurity for the want of sufficient data, that even with the aid of some
additional recently acquired information bearing upon the subject, I wish
the following brief remarks to be regarded more as probable assumptions
than as views the correctness of which admits of demonstration. Besides,
to give all the proofs, such as they are, would cause much repetition of
what has been already stated above.

I must premise that most of our previous definite information regarding
the inhabitants of New Guinea applies only to a small portion of the
north-west coast of that great island in the neighbourhood of Port Dorey,
which is known to be peopled by several distinct varieties of mankind, of
which one (with which, as occupying the coast, we are best acquainted) is
designated the Papuan, or Papua, as generally understood by that
appellation when used in its restricted signification. These Papuans,
according to Dumont D'Urville,* compose the principal part of the
population of Port Dorey, and, judging from his description, I have no
hesitation in referring to them also the inhabitants of the Louisiade
Archipelago and the South-East coast of New Guinea, and agree with
Prichard (in opposition to the views of others) that they "constitute a
genuine and peculiar tribe."**

(*Footnote. Voyage de l'Astrolabe tome 4 page 603.)

(**Footnote. Researches into the Physical History of Mankind volume 5
page 227.)


Another variety among the inhabitants of Port Dorey, spoken of by M.
d'Urville as the Harfours, is supposed by him to include, along with
another race of which little is known--named Arfaki--the indigenous
inhabitants of the north-west part of New Guinea. The Harfours,
Haraforas, or Alforas, for they have been thus variously named, have
often been described as inhabiting the interior of many of the large
islands of the Malayan Archipelago, but, as Prichard remarks, "nothing
can be more puzzling than the contradictory accounts which are given of
their physical characters and manners. The only point of agreement
between different writers respecting them is the circumstance that all
represent them as very low in civilisation and of fierce and sanguinary
habits."* Their distinctness as a race has been denied with much apparent
reason by Mr. Earl, and they are considered by Prichard to be merely
various tribes of the Malayo-Polynesian race retaining their uncivilised
and primitive state. Be this as it may, of these Harfours D'Urville
states, that they reminded him of the ordinary type of the Australians,
New Caledonians, and the black race of Oceania, from their sooty colour,
coarse but not woolly hair, thick beards, and habit of scarifying the
body. I mention these Harfours for the purpose of stating that no people
answering to the description of them given above were seen by us in New
Guinea or the Louisiade Archipelago.

(*Footnote. Ibid page 255.)


It appears to me that there are two distinct varieties of the Papuan race
inhabiting the south-east portion of New Guinea. The first occupies the
western shores of the Great Bight, and probably extends over the whole of
the adjacent country, along the banks of Aird River, and the other great
freshwater channels. Judging from the little that was seen of them during
the voyage of the Fly, these people appear to agree with the Torres
Strait Islanders--an offshoot, there is reason to believe, of the same
stock--in being a dark and savage race, the males of which go entirely

The second variety occupies the remainder of the south-east coast of New
Guinea and the Louisiade Archipelago. Their characteristics have already
been given in this work, as seen at intermediate points between Cape
Possession and Coral Haven; they agree in being a lighter-coloured people
than the preceding, and more advanced in civilisation: mop-headed,
practising betel-chewing, and wearing the breech-cloth. Without entering
into the question of their supposed origin, I may state that, in some of
their physical, intellectual, and moral characters, and also partially in
their language, they seem to me to show indications of a
Malayo-Polynesian influence, probably acquired before their arrival in
New Guinea, along the shores of which they seem to have extended,
colonising the Louisiade during their progress, which at Cape Possession
was finally arrested by their meeting with the other section of the race
alluded to in the preceding paragraph.

It would be curious to see the effects produced at the point of junction
of these two sections of the same race, probably somewhere between Aird
River and Cape Possession. It is not unlikely that the Papuans of Redscar
Bay and its vicinity derived the use of the bow and arrow from their
neighbours to the westward--and that the kind of canoe in use in Torres
Strait was an introduction from the eastward, is rendered
probable--setting aside other considerations--by a circumstance suggested
by the vocabularies, i.e. that the name for the most characteristic part
of the canoe in question--the outrigger float--is essentially the same
from the Louisiade to Cape York.*

Louisiade: Sama.
Darnley Island: Charima.
Dufaure Island: Sarima.
Prince of Wales Islands: Sarima.
Redscar Bay: Darima.
Cape York: Charima.)

I have alluded in a preceding part of this work (Volume 1) to the
circumstance that the small vocabulary obtained at the Louisiade may,
along with others, throw some light upon the question: whence has
Australia been peopled?


It may safely be assumed that the aborigines of the whole of Australia
(exclusive of Van Diemen's Land) have had one common origin; in physical
character the natives of Cape York seem to me to differ in no material
respect from those of New South Wales, South or Western Australia, or
Port Essington,* and, I believe I am borne out by facts in stating that
an examination of vocabularies and grammars (more or less complete) from
widely remote localities, still further tends to prove the unity of the
Australian tribes as a race.

(*Footnote. M. Hombron (attached to D'Urville's last expedition as
surgeon and naturalist) considers--as the result of personal
observation--that the aborigines of New South Wales exhibit certain
points of physical difference from those of the North Coast of Australia,
meaning, I suppose, by the latter, those natives seen by him at Raffles
Bay and Port Essington. I may also mention that M. Hombron considers the
Northern Australians to be a distinct subdivision of the Australian race,
in which he also classes the inhabitants of the smaller islands of Torres
Strait (as Warrior Island for instance) attributing the physical
amelioration of the latter people to the fact of their possessing
abundant means of subsistence afforded by the reefs among which they
live, and the necessity of possessing well constructed canoes as their
only means of procuring fish and dugong, stated by him to constitute the
chief food of the Torres Strait islanders. Voyage au Pole Sud, etc.
Zoologie tome 1 par M. Hombron pages 313, 314 et 317.)

The two places from one of which the Australian population may be
supposed to have been more IMMEDIATELY derived, are Timor on the one hand
and New Guinea on the other: in the former case the first settlers would
probably have landed somewhere on the north-west coast, in the latter, at
Cape York.

Mr. Eyre believes that there are "grounds sufficient to hazard the
opinion that Australia was first peopled on its north-western coast,
between the parallels of 12 and 16 degrees South latitude. From whence we
might surmise that three grand divisions had branched off from the parent
tribe, and that from the offsets of these the whole continent has been
overspread."* Proceeding still further Mr. Eyre has very ingeniously
attempted to explain the gradual peopling of Australia, and even indicate
the probable routes taken by the first settlers during the long periods
of years which must have elapsed before the whole continent was overrun
by the tribes now collectively forming the Australian race. Dr. Prichard,
when alluding to the probable mode of dispersion of the black tribes of
the Indian Archipelago, conjectures that one of the branches during the
migratory march probably passed from Java to Timor, and from thence to
Australia.** Dr. Latham also inclines to the belief that Australia was
peopled from Timor and not from New Guinea, judging, in the absence of
positive proof, from the probability that "occupancy had begun in
Australia before migration across Torres Strait had commenced in New
Guinea," inferred "from the physical differences between the Australian
and the Papuan, taken with the fact that it is scarcely likely that the
Papuans of Torres Strait would have failed in extending themselves in
Australia had that island been unoccupied." Timor also is much nearer
than New Guinea to the REMOTE source--assumed to be the continent of
Asia--whence the Australians have been derived.***

(*Footnote. Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia
etc. by E.J. Eyre Volume 2 page 405.)

(**Footnote. Researches into the Physical History of Mankind Volume 5
page 214.)

(***Footnote. Natural History of the Varieties of Man by R.G. Latham,
M.D. pages 257 and 253.)

The unity of the Australian race being admitted implies one common
origin, and that such was not derived from New Guinea, can scarcely, I
think, be doubted. Upon examining the neighbourhood of the point of
contact between the New Guinea-men and the Australians, we find Cape York
and the neighbouring shores of the mainland occupied by genuine and
unmixed Australians, and the islands of Torres Strait with the adjacent
coast of New Guinea by equally genuine Papuans; intermediate in position
between the two races, and occupying the point of junction at the Prince
of Wales Islands we find the Kowrarega tribe of blacks. At first I was
inclined to regard the last more as degraded Papuans than as improved
Australians: I am now, however, fully convinced that they afford an
example of an Australian tribe so altered by contact with the Papuan
tribes of the adjacent islands as at length to resemble the latter in
most of their physical, intellectual and moral characteristics. Thus the
Kowraregas have acquired from their island neighbours the art of
cultivating the ground, and their superior dexterity in constructing and
navigating large canoes, together with some customs--such as that of
preserving the skulls of their enemies as trophies: while they retain the
use of the spear and throwing-stick, practise certain mysterious
ceremonies connected with the initiation of boys to the rights of
manhood--supposed to be peculiar to the Australian race--and hold the
females in the same low and degraded position which they occupy
throughout Australia.

That the Kowraregas settled the Prince of Wales Islands either prior to
or nearly simultaneously, with the spreading downwards from New Guinea of
the Papuans of the islands, scarcely admits of absolute proof: but that
the former have existed as a tribe for a long period of years is shown by
the changes which I presume to have taken place in their language. While
this last unquestionably belongs to the Australian class, as clearly
indicated by Dr. Latham's analysis of the pronouns,* one of the
characteristic parts of the language, and, therefore, least liable to
change, yet the occurrence in the Kowrarega of a considerable number of
words resembling and often identical with those of the known Papuan
languages of Torres Strait,** and which I believe to have been derived
from the latter, seems to indicate a degree of long-continued intercourse
between the two races: for changes in language to so great an extent are
not effected in a short space of time any more than the nearly complete
fusion of two different races which has evidently taken place at the
Prince of Wales Islands. Scarcely opposible to this supposition is the
extreme improbability that the Papuans, who had nothing to gain from so
comparatively inferior a race as the Australian, should be indebted to
the latter for the words common to both found to exist in the Kowrarega
and Miriam languages.

(*Footnote. See the Appendix.)

(**Footnote. As means of comparison I used the Darnley and Murray Island
vocabulary given in Jukes' Voyage of the Fly, also a manuscript one of my
own, which furnishes some additional particulars; some words from Massid
given by Jukes; and a few from Mount Ernest procured by myself.)

Another mode of procedure suggests itself to one endeavouring to trace
the proximate origin of the Australians--and that is, to search the
records of voyagers and others for any traces of such customs, the use of
certain implements, etc., as are supposed to be most characteristic of
these people. Yet, taking, for example, the boomerang* and
throwing-stick,** we find nothing approaching to either of these
instruments in any part of New Guinea yet visited by Europeans: in the
absence of any evidence to the contrary from Timor, they may be
considered as true Australian inventions; and assuming the Australians to
be the descendants of a colony from Timor, the circumstance of the
natives of Melville Island--a part of Australia distant only 200 miles
from their presumed place of origin--being ignorant of the use of the
throwing-stick, is in favour of part of this supposition. But a thorough
investigation of the question of the origin of the Australian race, and
their dispersion over the continent, although NOW I believe rendered
quite practicable by the great mass of additional information contributed
by voyagers and travellers since Mr. Eyre wrote upon the subject, is not
consistent with the objects of this work.

(*Footnote. Some of the fowling-sticks of the ancient Egyptians closely
resemble the boomerang in form and appear to have been used in a similar
manner, but I am not aware that anything approaching it has been seen
elsewhere. A specimen which suggested this remark is exhibited in the
British Museum Egyptian Room Case 36, 37 Number 5646.)

(**Footnote. The throwing-stick is completely represented in the Aleutian
Islands (See in Ethnographical Room of British Museum, a specimen in case
16): in shape it differs from the Australian ones (which themselves vary
in different localities) but the principle of construction and mode of
use are precisely the same. In the islands of Tanna and New Caledonia a
contrivance is in use to produce the same effect as the throwing-stick in
propelling the spear; but, apart from other considerations, the nature of
the instrument (a piece of stiff plaited cord six inches long, with an
eye in one end and a knot at the other) is such as quite to preclude the
probability of the Australians having derived their throwing-stick from
this source.)


Death of Captain Stanley.
Sail for England.
Arrive at the Bay of Islands.
Falls of the Keri-Keri.
Passage across the South Pacific.
Oceanic birds.
Stay at the Falkland Islands.
Settlement of Stanley.
Call at Berkeley Sound.
Lassoing cattle.
Resume our homeward voyage.
Call at Horta in the Azores.
The caldeira of Fayal.
Arrive in England.

Soon after our arrival in Sydney we had to lament the loss of our much
respected commander, who died suddenly on March 13th, while apparently
convalescent from a severe illness contracted during our last
cruise--induced, I understand, by long continued mental anxiety, and the
cares necessarily devolving upon the leader of an expedition such as
ours, of which probably no one who has not been similarly situated can
ever fully comprehend the responsibility. Thus died at the early age of
thirty-nine, but after the successful accomplishment of the chief objects
of his mission, Captain Owen Stanley, who had long before won for himself
an honourable name in that branch of the naval service to which he had
devoted himself, and whose reputation as a surveyor and a man of science
stood deservedly high. Although it would ill become me as a civilian
attached to the expedition to enter upon the services* and professional
character of my late captain, yet in common with many others, I cannot
refrain from adding my humble testimony to his worth, by recording my
deep sense of many personal favours, and the assistance which was always
liberally rendered me during my natural history investigations throughout
the voyage, whenever the more important objects of the survey permitted.

(*Footnote. See O'Byrne's Naval Biographical Dictionary page 1109.)

By this unfortunate event all previous arrangements regarding our future
proceedings were anulled. It had been intended by Captain Stanley to
return to England by way of Singapore and the Cape of Good Hope, adding
to the charts of the Inner Passage as we went along the east coast of
Australia, and making a careful survey of the Strait of Alass, between
the islands of Lombock and Sumbawa. Captain the Honourable Henry Keppel
of H.M.S. Meander, as senior naval officer present, having appointed
Lieutenant Yule to the vacancy in the command of the Rattlesnake, with
orders to proceed direct to England, we left Sydney for that purpose on
May 2nd. The Bramble was left behind in the colony, and in addition to
her former crew, the limited accommodations of our ship were still
further crowded with the greater number of the Port Essington marines,
some invalids, and other passengers, making up the number on board to
upwards of 230 persons.

A course was steered to pass to the northward of New Zealand without
calling there, but shortly after leaving Sydney some defects in the ship
were found out, which rendered it necessary to put into the nearest port,
as the principal one, causing a leak in the after gunroom, could not be
repaired at sea. It was also considered expedient to get rid of the Asp
in order to lessen the straining of the ship during the prospective
passage round Cape Horn, which so much top weight was considered
materially to increase. On May 14th the land about Cape Maria Van Diemen
and the North Cape of New Zealand was in sight at daylight, appearing
high and mountainous, with steep maritime cliffs. On our passage across
from Australia we had seen few seabirds, but now albatrosses of three or
four species were very numerous, together with a few petrels, chiefly
Procellaria cookii. Next morning we found ourselves to leeward of Cape
Brett, having experienced a southerly current during the night of two
knots an hour; it took us the whole day to work up into the Bay of
Islands, and after dark we anchored in 28 fathoms, about six miles from
the entrance of the Kawa-Kawa.

May 16th.

The view from our anchorage, although under the favourable conditions of
fine weather, struck me as being dull and cheerless. The surface of the
country is hilly and undulating, showing patches of wood more or less
extensive, and large tracts of fern of a dull greenish hue. The shores of
the mainland and the numerous islands exhibit every here and there
argillaceous cliffs, and banks of a brown, reddish, or yellow colour,
from their steepness almost devoid of vegetation. In the morning it was a
dead calm, but at length a light air sprang up and carried us into the
bay of Kororareka, when we anchored in 4 1/2 fathoms, mud and sand, off
the village of the same name, also known as the township of Russell.

May 17th.

On landing at Kororareka, one finds that what from a distance appear neat
and comfortable cottages lose much by close inspection. The township
consists of about thirty small wooden houses, mixed up with many native
hovels. It extends along the shore of a small bay, with a shingly beach
in front and a swamp behind. The number of houses was formerly much
greater, most of those now existing having been built since May 1845,
when the greater part of the town was burnt down by the natives. Even now
it supports two public houses, and several general stores, where
necessaries may be procured at double the Sydney prices. At one time much
trade was done here, before the duties imposed on the occasion of New
Zealand becoming a British colony drove away the whalers which used to
resort in great numbers to the Bay of Islands to refit; at present,
besides the Rattlesnake, the only vessel here is a brig from Hobart,
bound to California, which put in to this place to get a new rudder.
Livestock is plentiful and the prices are moderate.

There are many natives living in the settlement. They afford a striking
contrast to the wretched specimens of Australian aborigines one
occasionally sees in the streets of Sydney. Many of the men are athletic
and well made, and in their gait and expression exhibit much manliness of
character. The faces of some of the principal people present good
specimens of elaborate tattooing. The women appear strange figures from
their ungainly modern dress, consisting merely of a loose smock of
calico, fastened at the neck and wrists. Some were tolerably handsome
(according to our notions of female beauty) and among them were several
halfcastes. Their fashion of dressing the hair is curious--in front it is
cut short in a line across the forehead, but is allowed to grow long
behind. We met Waka Nene, a Maori chief, possessing considerable
influence, especially in the neighbouring district of Hokianga, who, by
siding with the English during the war, rendered such important services
that the Government rewarded him with a pension of 100 pounds per annum,
and a house in Kororareka. Besides this he owns a small vessel or two
employed in the coasting trade. I peeped into the hut of one of his
people. A small entrance served the combined purposes of door, window,
and chimney, the roof was so low as to preclude one from standing upright
inside, a small fire was burning in the centre of the earthen floor, and
a heap of mats and blankets in one corner pointed out a sleeping-place.

Behind Kororareka one of a series of hills overlooking the town is
memorable as the site of the flagstaff, the cutting down of which by Heke
was one of the first incidents of the Maori war. On March 11th, 1845, an
attack was made upon the place before daylight, by three of the
disaffected chiefs. Kawiti with one division entered the town from the
southward by a pass between two hills, and after a short conflict forced
a party of marines and seaman from H.M.S. Hazard to retire with the loss
of seven killed and many wounded. While this work was going on, a small
detachment of soldiers occupying a blockhouse on the flagstaff hill was
surprised by Heke and his party, who killed four men, and drove away the
remainder, and levelled the flagstaff to the ground. The English
residents took refuge on board the shipping, and two days afterwards the
Maoris sacked and burned the town with the exception of the two churches,
and a few houses contiguous to the property of the Roman Catholic

The greater part of the country about the town is covered with fern and
the manuka bush (Leptospermum scoparium) the latter a low shrub with
handsome white or pinkish flowers. In some of the ravines two species of
tree-ferns of the genus Cyathea grow luxuriantly in the moist clayey
soil. Everywhere one sees common English weeds scattered about,
especially the sow-thistle and common dock, and a British landshell
(Helix cellaria) has even found its way to New Zealand and is to be met
with in some of the gardens.

Much rain had lately fallen, and many of the paths were partially
converted into watercourses. I walked across to a neighbouring bay, and
employed myself in searching for shells in the mud at low-water. Some
bivalves, common there--various Cythereae and Mesodesma
chemnitzii--constitute an important article of food to the natives, who
knew them by the name of pipi. A marshy place, at the mouth of a small
stream, was tenanted by a curious wrinkled univalve, with a notch on the
outer lip, Amphibola avellana of conchologists.

May 18th.

I joined a party made up to visit the falls of the Keri-Keri river, and
we started, after an early breakfast, in one of the ship's boats. The
morning was dull and rainy, and we had occasional showers during the
forenoon. In an hour after leaving the ship we entered the estuary of the
river, a large arm of the sea, which we followed for several miles. The
scenery reminded me of that of some of the sea lochs on the west coast of
Scotland, and although fern was here substituted for heath, the Scotch
mist was perfectly represented at the antipodes. The country is scantily
wooded, and the muddy shores are occasionally fringed with a small
mangrove (Avicennia tomentosa). Here and there were a few settlers'
houses, with the accompanying signs of cultivation. One of the small
islands, and also a hilltop on the northern shore, had an artificial
appearance, their summits being leveled and the sides scarped--they were
the remains of former fortified villages or pahs. At length the estuary
narrowed, and assumed the appearance of a winding river, with low hilly
banks covered with fern and bushes. One and a half miles from this
brought us to a rocky ledge across the stream, preventing further
progress in the boat, and marking the junction of the fresh and salt

Here Mr. Kemp, a schoolmaster of the Church Mission Society, has been
located for upwards of thirty years. A well built store, a neat cottage
and garden, and residences for a few Maoris, complete the establishment.
From this place a dray-road leads to the extensive Missionary
establishment at Waimate, distant about ten miles. Crossing the river, we
started for the falls, in charge of a sharp little urchin who acted as
guide. After leaving the narrow valley which the river has cut for itself
through a superstratum of yellowish clay, the country becomes nearly
level--a dreary plain, covered with fern and the manuka bush. The
extensive tract of country now in sight is said to have once been a great
kauri forest--a few of these noble trees (Dammara australis) were pointed
out to me from a distance. When about halfway we left the road, and
within the distance of a mile our guide contrived to lead us into five or
six bogs, where we were up to our knees in water, besides entangling us
in several thickets nearly as bad to penetrate as an Australian scrub. At
length we arrived in sight of the waterfall, then in full force from the
quantity of rain which had lately fallen.

The Keri-Keri, after a long course through a country composed chiefly of
upland moors and gently undulating hills, here suddenly precipitates
itself over a rocky wall into a large circular pool eighty feet below,
then continues its course for a while between steep and densely wooded
banks. Behind the fall the rock is hollowed out into a wide and deeply
arched cave, formed by the falling out of masses of columnar rock. A
winding path leads to the foot of the fall, whence the view is very
grand. Some of the party crept over the slippery rocks, and reached the
cave behind the fall, where they were much gratified with the novelty of
the scene. The luxuriant and varied vegetation in the ravine affords a
fine field for the botanist. The variety of cryptogamic plants is very
great--every rock, and the trunk of each tree, being covered with ferns,
lichens, and mosses. Among the trees I noticed the pale scarlet flowers
of the puriri or New Zealand Teak (Vitex littoralis) the hardest* and
most durable of all the woods of the country. A short search among the
damp stones and moss brought to light some small but interesting
landshells, consisting of a pupiform Cyclostoma, a Carocolla, and five
species of Helix. This leads me to mention, that although the number of
New Zealand landshells hitherto described scarcely exceeds a dozen, this
does not imply any scarcity of such objects in the country, as an
industrious collector from Sydney, who spent nine months on the northern
and middle islands, obtained nearly a hundred species of terrestrial and
fluviatile mollusca. The scarcity of birds during our walk surprised me,
for the only one which I saw on shore was a solitary kingfisher (Halcyon
vagans): during our ascent of the Keri-Keri, however, many ducks (Anas
superciliosa) flew past the boat, and gulls, terns, and two kinds of
cormorants were numerous.

(*Footnote. This wood was much used in the construction of the pahs
which, in 1845, under the Maori chiefs Heke and Kawiti, long resisted the
attacks of disciplined forces, aided by artillery. In reference to the
puriri wood used in the palisading of one of these, it was officially
stated, that "many of our six-pound shot were picked out of the posts,
not having actually entered far enough to hide themselves.")

Returning to the road by a path which avoided the swamps our guide had
taken us through, in little more than half an hour we reached Mr. Kemp's
house, and after partaking of that gentleman's hospitality returned to
the ship. On our way we landed at sunset for an hour upon a small island,
which will probably long be remembered by some of the party as having
furnished us with a supper of very excellent rock-oysters.

Having effected the necessary repairs, and disposed of the decked boat,
we left New Zealand on May 22nd on our homeward passage. On July 5th
having passed to the eastward of Cape Horn we bore up for the Falkland
Islands, having taken forty-three days to traverse a direct distance of a
little more than 5000 miles. During this period the wind was usually
strong from the south-west, but on various occasions we experienced calms
and easterly winds, the latter varying between North-East and
South-South-East and at times blowing very hard with snow squalls. The
lowest temperature experienced by us off Cape Horn was on the day when we
doubled the Cape in latitude 57 degrees South when the minimum
temperature of the day was 21 and the maximum 26 degrees. This reminded
some of us that we had now passed through not less than 75 degrees of
temperature in the ship, the thermometer in the shade having indicated 96
degrees during a hot wind in Sydney harbour.

A passage such as ours, during which at one time we were further from
land than if placed in any other portion on the globe, must almost of
necessity be a monotonous one. We saw no land, not even an iceberg, and
very few vessels. For five or six successive evenings when in the
parallels of 40 and 41 degrees South between the meridians of 133 and 113
degrees West we enjoyed the fine sight of thousands of large Pyrosomae in
the water, each producing a greater body of light than I ever saw given
out by any other of the pelagic-luciferous mollusca or medusae. The
towing net was put over on several occasions but produced little or
nothing to repay Mr. Huxley for his trouble: so that even a naturalist
would here find his occupation gone were it not for the numbers of
oceanic birds daily met with, the observation of whose habits and
succession of occurrence served to fill up many a leisure hour. It being
the winter of the southern hemisphere, the members of the petrel family,
at other times so abundant in the South Pacific, were by no means so
numerous as I had expected to find them, and in the higher southern
latitudes which we attained before rounding Cape Horn, albatrosses had
altogether disappeared, although they had been abundant as far to the
southward as 41 degrees South. The most widely dispersed were Daption
capensis--the pintado or Cape-pigeon of voyagers--Procellaria hasitata,
P. coerulea, P. lessonii, and P. gigantea, of which the first and second
were the most numerous and readily took a bait towing astern. It is
probable that all these species make the circuit of the globe, as they
are equally distributed over the South Indian Ocean. Some interesting
additions were made to the collection of Procellariadae (commenced near
the equator with Thalassidroma leachii) and before leaving the Falklands
I had captured and prepared specimens of twenty-two species of this
highly interesting family, many members of which until the publication of
Mr. Gould's memoir* were either unknown or involved in obscurity and
confusion. Among these is one which merits special notice here, a small
blue petrel, closely resembling P. coerulea, from which it may readily be
distinguished by wanting the white tips to the central tailfeathers. It
turns out to be the P. desolata, known only by a drawing in the British
Museum made more than half a century ago, from which this species was
characterised. When in latitude 50 degrees 46 minutes South and longitude
97 degrees 47 minutes West I saw P. antarctica for the first time; one or
two individuals were in daily attendance while rounding Cape Horn and
followed the ship until we sighted the Falkland Islands. I had long been
looking out for P. glacialoides, which in due time made its appearance--a
beautiful light grey petrel, larger than a pigeon; it continued with us
between the latitudes of 40 and 58 degrees South and occasionally pecked
at a baited hook towing astern.

(*Footnote. Magazine and Annals of Natural History for 1844 page 360.)

One may naturally wonder what these petrels can procure for food in the
ocean to the southward of 35 degrees south latitude, where they are
perhaps more numerous than elsewhere, and where the voyager never sees
any surface-swimming fishes which they might pick up? It is, of course,
well known that they eagerly pounce upon any scraps of animal matter in
the wake of a vessel, hence it is reasonable to suppose that they follow
ships for the purpose of picking up the offal, but they may also be seen
similarly following in the wake of whales and droves of the larger
porpoises. Almost invariably I have found in the stomach of the many
kinds of albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters, which I have examined,
the undigested horny mandibles of cuttlefish, which would thus appear to
constitute their principal food; and, as all the petrel family are to a
certain extent nocturnal, it seems probable that the small cuttlefish on
which they feed approach the surface only at night.

July 8th.

Yesterday at noon we passed close to Beauchene Island, a dreary, bushless
place, half covered with snow. Vast numbers of pintados were about, also
some albatrosses, the first that had made their appearance for several
weeks back. In hopes of reaching an anchorage before dark we stood in for
Bull Road, East Falkland Island, but after running fourteen miles, and
sighting Sealion Islands, this was found impracticable. The ship was kept
away to the eastward, and, after wearing several times during the night
to avoid closing the land, a course was shaped to take us to the
settlement. Passing inside of the Seal Rocks we rounded Cape Pembroke, on
which is a tall beacon, and anchored at dark inside the entrance to Port

July 9th.

The thermometer fell to 18 degrees during the night, and the water froze
on the decks during the holystoning. A cold dreary aspect was presented
when the sun rose upon the snow-clad country around, but the sight of a
herd of cattle on shore conjured up visions of fresh beef and made ample
amends. We beat up Port William, and, passing by a narrow channel from
the outer to the inner harbour, or Port Stanley, anchored off the
settlement. We found a solitary vessel lying here--an English brig bound
to California.

The settlement of Stanley was formed in July, 1844, by the removal
thither of the former establishment at Port Louis--Port William being
considered preferable as a harbour, besides being easier of access and
more conveniently situated for vessels calling there for supplies. The
inner harbour, which communicates with the outer one by a passage not
more than 300 yards wide, is four and a half miles in length by half a
mile in width, with anchorage everywhere. The township extends along the
centre of the south shore, as a small straggling village of wooden
houses, the uncompleted residence of the Lieutenant-Governor being the
only one built of stone. The population, I was told, is about 300: of
these thirty are pensioned soldiers, many of whom with their families are
temporarily lodged in a large barrack, which curiosity one day led me to
visit. Its inmates are all Irish, and appeared to be in anything but
comfortable circumstances, although such as work as labourers receive
three shillings per diem, and mechanics are paid in proportion. One of
them, who had served in Van Diemen's Land, said he often envies the lot
of a convict there, for "sure we are fretting to death to think that we
have come to this in our old age after serving our king and country so
long." They all bitterly complained of having been deluded at home by
highly-coloured reports of the productiveness of a country where grain
will not ripen, and which has not yet been found capable of producing a
tolerable potato. Of the remainder of the place little can be said. There
are two good stores where we procured nearly everything we wanted at very
moderate prices: beef of very fair quality is sold at 2 pence per pound,
wild geese at 1 shilling 3 pence each, and rabbits at four shillings a
dozen. The only vegetables, however, were some small Swedish turnips,
which we got by favour. Lastly, a ship may obtain water here with great
facility from a small reservoir from which a pipe leads it down to the

We had to remain at Port Stanley for thirteen days before the necessary
observations for determining the rates of the chronometers could be
obtained. During this period a thaw occurred, followed by hard frost and
another fall of snow, making the country as bleak and desolate as before.
By all accounts the winter has been unusually severe. The ground had been
covered with snow for four weeks previous to our arrival, and many cattle
the horses had perished; I also observed at the head of the harbour some
beds of mussels, most of which were dead, having doubtless been frozen
when uncovered at low water. The average mean temperature on board ship
during our stay was 33 degrees, the maximum and minimum being
respectively 37 and 25 degrees.

I was obliged to content myself with short excursions, for the inclemency
of the weather would not permit of camping out at night. The appearance
of the surrounding country may briefly be described: ridges and peaks of
grey quartz rock of moderate elevation form boundaries to shallow
valleys, or become the summits of slopes extending with gentle declivity
towards the shore. The ground almost everywhere, even on the hills, is
boggy, with numerous swamps, rivulets and pools. The peat in some places
is as much as six feet in thickness; it forms the only fuel on the
island, for not a single tree occurs to diversify the landscape, and few
of the bushes exceed a foot in height. The general tint of the grass and
other herbage at this season is a dull brownish-green. Bays and long
winding arms of the sea intersect the country in a singular manner, and
the shores are everywhere margined by a wide belt of long wavy seaweed or
kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) which on the exposed coasts often forms
immense beds of various species, some of which attain to gigantic

On my first walk I was surprised at the extraordinary tameness of the
smaller landbirds: a thrush (Turdus magellanicus) almost allowed me to
knock it down with my cap, and some other birds were quite as familiar as
our robin in winter--a pair of loggerhead ducks (Brachypterus
micropterus) were quietly pluming themselves on the jetty at government
house, and others were swimming along shore within pistol shot of a
public road; at first I thought they were domesticated, and refrained
from firing. The loggerhead is a large and heavy bird for a duck: one
which I shot weighed eighteen pounds, and it has been recorded as
sometimes weighing as much as twenty-nine pounds. From the
disproportionate smallness of its wings it is incapable of flight, but
employs these members as paddles in hurrying along the surface of the
water when alarmed, using its feet at the same time with much splashing
and apparent awkwardness, leaving a broad wake behind it on the
water--hence the not inappropriate name of steamer which is sometimes
applied to it. Not being fit to eat, and moreover from its strength and
the closeness of its plumage difficult to kill, it is not much molested
by sportsmen. Another bird very likely to attract attention is the kelp
goose (Bernicla antarctica) generally seen in pairs along the rocky
coasts: the plumage of the male is of a beautiful white, that of the
female is dark and glossy, variously speckled and barred.

July 24th.

We sailed from Port Stanley yesterday at daylight, and after entering
Berkeley Sound beat up as far as Hog Island, off which we anchored at
sunset, at a distance from the old settlement of Port Louis of about two
miles and a half. As the sole object in coming here was to obtain
magnetic observations at the spot used for that purpose in 1842 by the
Antarctic Expedition under Sir James Ross, for which one day would
suffice, we had little time to make excursions in the neighbourhood. Two
parties were made up to shoot rabbits in some large warrens which have
long been established on the shores of Johnson Harbour and at the head of
Port Darlington, but they met with very little success. I preferred
accompanying Captain B.J. Sulivan for the purpose of seeing his gauchos
use the lasso and bolas in catching some cattle required for the ship.
This officer, who formerly commanded H.M.S. Philomel, employed for
several years upon the survey of the Falklands, has been one of the first
to avail himself of the proposals made by Government to develop the
resources of these islands by throwing them open to private enterprise;
in association with several gentleman in England he has set on foot an
establishment for the purpose of curing beef, hides, and tallow, which,
it is expected, will be in full operation in the course of next year. The
terms upon which settlers of the better class are invited to East
Falkland are, I believe, the following: the purchaser of a block of land
of a quarter of a square mile at the minimum price of eight shillings an
acre (64 pounds) is entitled to a lease of 10,000 acres of contiguous
land for the period of twenty years, at the rent of 10 pounds per annum,
with right of pre-emption. Also, according to part of an agreement
between Government and Mr. Lafone (an Englishman residing at Montevideo)
by which the latter has acquired a right to all the wild cattle on the
island (estimated at 30,000 head) until the year 1860, he is bound to
reclaim annually a certain number, and supply them to purchasers at the
fixed rate of thirty shillings a head.

We landed on Hog Island where Captain Sulivan's herd of eleven hundred
cattle (besides a number of horses) had been kept during the winter,
supported chiefly by the tussock grass fringing the shore, which they had
cropped so closely that, being a perennial plant of slow growth, two
years' rest would be required to enable it to regain its former vigour.
Large patches of this magnificent grass*--Dactylis caespitosa of
botanists--along the shores of the mainland have been destroyed by the
cattle in their fondness for the nutritious base of the stem, a small
portion of which, as thick as the little finger, has a pleasant taste and
may be eaten by man, to whom it has occasionally furnished the principal
means of subsistence when wandering in the wilds of these inhospitable
islands. Great numbers of upland geese (Chloephaga magellanica) chiefly
in small flocks, were feeding on various berries and the tender grass.
Although seldom molested on this island, they became rather wary after a
few shots had been fired--still a sufficient number to answer our purpose
were procured without much difficulty. Unlike the kelp goose, which has a
very rank taste, derived from its feeding chiefly upon the filmy seaweeds
covering the tidal rocks, the upland goose is excellent eating, and
formed a welcome addition to our fare on board. Loggerheads and other
ducks, cormorants, and grebes, were swimming about among the beds of
kelp, and oyster-catchers of two kinds, gulls, kelp-geese, and many other
birds frequented the shores.

(*Footnote. For a full account of this useful plant, the growth of which
in Britain in certain favourable maritime situations has been attempted
on a large scale, I would refer to Botany of the Antarctic Voyage by Dr.
J.D. Hooker page 384 and plates 136 and 137.)

Meanwhile one of the gauchos rode over from Captain Sulivan's
establishment on the main by a ford passable at low-water, and was sent
back for a companion to assist him in catching the cattle. He was an old
weather-beaten half-bred Pampas Indian of the name of Escalante, whose
capability of enduring fatigue and privations of every kind were
described as being remarkable even in a gaucho. At length the cattle were
collected and driven up, and although eight hundred out of those
composing the herd had been reclaimed only three months, yet the whole
were easily managed by the two men on horseback, who rounded them in
without difficulty upon the summit of a low hill close to the
slaughtering-place. A fine dun heifer four years old was the first
selected; it was detached from the herd after some trouble, and pursued
by both gauchos who, throwing off their ponchos, untwisted the bolas from
round the waist, and, after swinging them round the head several times,
threw them in succession at the beast's hind legs but without taking
effect, as each time the animal stumbled for an instant and the bolas
slipped off the legs without becoming entangled. Stooping as he passed to
pick up the bolas from the ground, Escalante uncoiled his lasso, and
getting upon the cow's left flank, drove her at full speed towards the
foot of the hill; when distant about twelve yards from the chase, he
threw the lasso which he had kept swinging horizontally and slowly round
his head for a few minutes back--the noose fell over the animal's head
and neck, catching one of the forelegs, which was instantly doubled up
under the throat by the drawing of the noose, when the beast staggered
and fell, but rose again immediately on three legs, and attempted to
charge the horse and rider. Catching one of the forelegs and neck in this
manner is considered the master-stroke in lassoing, being the most
difficult of execution: Captain Sulivan told me that a one-armed man at
Montevideo, famous for his skill in lassoing, on one occasion for a wager
caught nine out of ten bullocks in succession after this fashion. It was
admirable to observe the manner in which the horse eased off the shock of
bringing up an animal much heavier than itself, and by keeping a strain
upon the lasso urged the furious beast onwards to a triangle which had
been put up. The other gaucho, Andrez Pelaluya by name, meanwhile was
riding up behind, and at length threw his lasso over the heifer's flanks,
the slack of the noose falling down upon the ground--in throwing up her
heels the hind legs were dexterously caught, when in a moment the beast
was dragged over on one side and firmly moored. Leaving the horses to
keep up the strain--for the lasso is made fast to an iron ring in the
saddle--the riders dismounted, and Escalante drawing out a long knife
from his belt and renewing the edge upon a steel which he carried in one
boot, quickly despatched the beast. A second heifer was afterwards picked
out from the herd and caught by the horns; as the animal, maddened with
terror, was galloped past with the lasso at full strain, I must confess
that being a novice I did not feel quite comfortable, and instinctively
clutched my gun, not being altogether sure that the lasso might not
break--but, although no thicker than the little finger, it is of immense
strength, being made of plaited hide. This beast was secured and
butchered pretty much as in the former instance; the bolas had been
thrown at the hind legs, but caught only one, round which the three
thongs and balls were so tightly interlaced as to require some patience
in extricating them.

While slaughtering the cattle it was amusing to notice the familiarity of
the carrion hawks, hundreds of which were collected about, perched upon
the little hillocks all round, watching every movement of ours, or
hovering overhead within the distance of a few yards. They are the
Milvago australis, a bird of which the sexes differ so much in
appearance, that they were pointed out to me as distinct species. The
settlers and others call them rooks, and another very common carrion bird
of the vulture family (Cathartes aura) is known here as the john-crow. On
board the ship the sight of some quarters of beef secured to the mizen
cross-trees had attracted numbers of these hawks, and upwards of a dozen
might have been seen at one time perched upon the rigging, including one
on each truck; on shore they made several attacks upon a pile of geese
lying near the boat, and although repeatedly driven off with stones, they
returned as often to make a fresh attempt.

July 25th.

Yesterday afternoon some of our people employed in cutting grass upon a
small island close to the ship, stumbled upon a huge sealion asleep in
one of the pit-like recesses among the tussocks. At first it was supposed
to be a dead bullock, but the beast on being disturbed rose upon his fore
flippers, and, displaying a formidable array of teeth, roared loudly* at
the disturbers of his rest, who, being unarmed, rushed helter-skelter to
the boat and went off to the ship. They returned immediately with an
assortment of pikes, muskets, and pistols sufficient to ensure the
destruction of a host of sealions; but after cautiously investing the
place, it was discovered that the beast had very prudently got out of the
way, nor this morning could he be found by a person who went to make a
second search.

(*Footnote. "Sometimes when we came suddenly upon them, or waked them out
of their sleep (for they are a sluggish sleepy animal) they would raise
up their heads, snort and snarl, and look as fierce as if they meant to
devour us; but as we advanced upon them, they always ran away; so that
they are downright bullies." Cook's Voyages Volume 4 page 187.)

On this--Peat Islet of the chart--the tussock grass grows in great
luxuriance, and to a stranger presents a most singular appearance. Its
clusters of stems--frequently upwards of a hundred or more in a
bunch--are raised from the ground upon a densely matted mass of old and
decayed roots, two or three feet high, from the summit of which the
leaves, frequently six feet in length, arch gracefully outwards. The
tussock grass has been likened to a palm on a small scale, but altogether
it reminded me more of the Xanthorrhoea, or grass-tree of Australia. We
saw many seals swimming about among the kelp, and on the shore found the
carcases of several which had lately been killed with clubs, each of the
skulls having been fractured by a blow at the root of the nose. They were
of the kind known here as the hair-seal, the skin of which is of little
value. It is still very abundant; but the fur-seal, from the
indiscriminate slaughter of old and young for many years back has become
scarce, and is now confined to a few favourite localities--rookeries as
they are called, a name also applied at the Falklands to any great
breeding place of penguins or other seafowl. A few days ago a party of
five sealers returned to the settlement after a short absence, with the
skins of no less than 120 fur-seals, worth, I was told, twenty-five
shillings each.

Here I found two pairs of the sheathbill (Chionis alba) a bird whose
place in the system has puzzled ornithologists. It has been variously
considered as being one of the galinaceous birds, the pigeons, the
waders, and even as belonging to the web-footed order. Its habits are
those of the oyster-catchers,* however different the form of the beak,
which in the sheathbill is short, stout, and pointed, and enveloped at
the base by a waxy-looking sheath. Its feet are like those of a
gallinaceous bird, yet one which I wounded took voluntarily to the water
and swam off to a neighbouring point to rejoin its mate. Cuvier, besides
erroneously mentioning that it is a native of New Holland, states that it
feeds on carrion; the stomachs of two which I examined contained seaweed,
limpets, and small quartz pebbles. The people here call it the rock-dove,
and from its snow-white plumage it forms a conspicuous object along the

(*Footnote. When the above was written I had not seen the remarks on
Chionis by M. Blainville, whose anatomical investigation assigns to it
precisely the same position in the system--or next the
oyster-catchers--which appeared to me to have been indicated by its
habits. Voyage de la Bonite Zoologie tome 1 page 107 plate (oiss.) 9.)

We resumed our homeward voyage on July 25th, and thirty-six days
afterwards crossed the equator in 24 degrees west longitude. The last
pintado left us 240 miles within the tropics to follow an outward-bound
vessel. Another petrel much resembling it--a new species with longer
wings and different markings, the head, neck, and upper surface being
dark chocolate, and the lower parts white--was abundant between the
latitude of 46 and 40 degrees South, and between the parallels of 36 and
35 degrees South, Procellaria conspicillata was numerous, but
unfortunately I had no opportunity of procuring specimens of either.

Five days after leaving the Falkland Islands, we encountered a very heavy
gale, commencing at south-east, and blowing hardest at east, when the
barometer was down to 29.264--next day the wind went round to the
south-west and moderated. From the latitude of the entrance of the River
Plate up to latitude 15 degrees South, we experienced northerly winds
between East-North-East and West-North-West, after which we got winds
commencing at South-West and merging into the South-East trade, which we
may be said to have fairly got in 13 1/2 degrees South latitude and 23
1/2 degrees West longitude, and lost in 6 degrees North latitude, and 22
degrees West longitude. We picked up the North-East trade in latitude 13
degrees North and longitude 24 degrees West and carried it up to latitude
29 degrees North and longitude 37 1/2 degrees West. I mention these
particulars as the limits of the trade-winds as experienced by us were
considered to differ considerably from what was to be expected at this
season of the year. Gulf weed made its first appearance in latitude 24
degrees North and longitude 35 1/2 degrees West but in small quantity,
and was last seen in latitude 38 degrees North and longitude 33 1/2
degrees West in detached pieces, mostly dead. About 31 1/2 degrees North
and 37 3/4 degrees West it was very plentiful, occurring in long lines
from one to fifty yards in width, extending in the direction of the wind.
Some pieces which were hooked up furnished on being shaken numbers of a
minute univalve shell (Litiopa) many small fish--especially pipe-fish
(Syngnathus) and numerous crustacea (of which Planes minuta was the most
plentiful) while several delicate zoophytes were encrusted or attached to
the weed. In short each little patch of gulf weed seemed a world in
itself, affording the shelter of a home to hundreds of minute and
wonderful animals.*

(*Footnote. The gulf weed is still regarded as of questionable origin.
Has it--unlike all other seaweeds--always existed as a floating plant, or
has it been detached by storms from the bottom of the sea and carried by
the currents of the ocean into the well defined region it now occupies
and out of which it is never met with in any great quantity? Without
entering into proofs, the principal of which are its not yet having been
found attached to the shore, and the invariable absence of
fructification--it seems probable that those botanists are in the right
who consider the gulf weed (Sargassum bacciferum) to be merely an
abnormal condition, propagating itself by shoots, of S. vulgare, which in
its normal state grows upon the shores of the Atlantic and its islands.
See note by Dr. J.D. Hooker in Memoirs of Geological Survey of Great
Britain volume 1 page 349.)

September 29th.

With only another day's supply of fresh water on board, we were glad this
morning to have the islands of Pico and Fayal in sight. The view, as we
closed the land, standing in from the south-westward for the roadstead of
Horta, was very fine--on our left we had the beautiful island of Fayal
rising to the height of 3000 feet, its sides gradually sloping towards a
range of maritime cliffs, while the lower grounds, in full cultivation,
indicated--along with numbers of neat white-washed cottages and
occasional villages--a well peopled and fertile country, contrasting
strongly with those from which we had lately returned. To the right was
Pico--with the summit of its peak (stated to be 7,613 feet in height)
peeping out from a mass of snowy clouds descending almost to the
shore--and the centre was occupied by the more distant island of St.
Jorge with a portion of Graciosa dimly seen projecting beyond its western

After having been for two months cooped up on board ship, I was glad to
have a quiet walk on shore. In a ravine at one end of the town it was
pleasing to see numbers of old acquaintances among the birds, bringing
vividly to my recollection that home which we had now approached so
closely. Martins were hawking about, the whitethroat warbled his short
snatches of song among the bushes, and blackbirds and starlings flew
past. And although engaged in the matter-of-fact occupation of searching
for landshells, by turning over the stones, I could not help being struck
with the beauty of the terraced walks and overhanging gardens; the
beautiful belladonna lily--here run wild in great abundance--made a fine
show. At Point Greta the rock pigeons--the original stock of the
domesticated race--were flying about in large flocks or sunning
themselves on the sea cliffs. A heavy shower of rain, by bringing out the
landshells, enabled me to pick up half-a-dozen species of Helix, Bulimus,
and Pupa, at the foot of the hedgerows; I was anxious to procure some to
ascertain whether any were non-European forms; one was even quite a new
species. On a white-flowered convolvulus with succulent leaves, I found
numbers of the caterpillars of a large hawk-moth (Sphinx convolvuli)
which some ragged urchins who followed me showed great dread of, running
away when I picked one up and shouting to me to throw it away, else I
should die. One was afterwards brought on board by an English
resident--as a very venomous reptile, which had caused three or four
deaths during his stay on the island. The recurved horn on the tail has
been regarded as a sting, and the poor harmless creature, having once got
a bad name, is now by the Fayalese, in the absence of snakes or
scorpions, made to supply their place.

The town of Horta contains, I was told, upwards of 10,000 inhabitants. It
is prettily situated on the shores of a small bay, extending between two
rocky headlands. The landing-place is at the remains of a mole under the
walls of Fort Santa Cruz, the only one of numerous ruinous fortifications
where a few guns are mounted; even these are in so wretched a condition
that the commandant admitted that it would require several hours'
preparation before they would be fit to return our expected salute, and
seemed glad when told that as a surveying ship we were exempted from
saluting the flags of other nations. A sea wall runs along the face of
the town; parallel with this is the principal street, with others at
rightangles extending up the hill, the narrow streets are clean and well
paved--the houses, generally of one storey, are built of tough grey

Almost every inch of available ground upon the island of Fayal has been
turned to good account: Indian corn is the chief agricultural product.
With our usual bad fortune in this respect we were too late for the
grapes and the oranges had not yet come in. The lower grounds are divided
into small enclosures by stone walls, and subdivided by rows of a tall
stout reed (Arundo donax) resembling sugarcane. Although taxes and other
burdens are heavy, and wages very low, yet to a mere visitor like myself
there appeared none of those occasional signs of destitution which strike
one in walking through a town at home, nor did I see a single beggar.

In Fayal and Pico the most careless observer from the anchorage of Horta
can scarcely fail to associate the number of smooth conical hills with
former volcanic activity; and in looking over Captain Vidal's beautiful
charts of the Azores, nearly all the principal hills throughout the group
are seen to have their craters or caldeiras. Fayal exhibits a fine
specimen of one of these caldeiras in the central and highest part of the
island. At an elevation of a little more than 3000 feet, we reached the
ridge forming the margin of a circular crater, rather more than a mile in
diameter, and 700 feet deep. The outer slope is gradual, but the inner
walls are steep, deeply furrowed by small ravines and watercourses, and
covered with grass, fern and heath-like bushes. The bottom contains a
considerable extent of swampy meadowland, a shallow lagoon, and a small
hill with a crater also partially filled with water. The view here is
magnificent, enhanced, too, at times by the rolling volumes of mist
overhead, at one moment admitting of a peep at the blue sky above, in the
next concealing the rim of the crater and increasing in idea the height
of its wall-like sides. The caldeira, I may add in conclusion, is said to
have been formed during the last eruption of Fayal in 1672, but this
statement appears to be very doubtful.

We resumed our homeward voyage on October 5th, and on November 9th, the
Rattlesnake was paid off at Chatham, after having been in commission
upwards of four years.



In addition to the brief account which already forms part of the
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, I have thought it would
add to the interest of this work and the gratification of its readers,
were I to give under a distinct head a detailed history of the exploring
expedition conducted by the late Mr. Edmund B. Kennedy, derived from a
pamphlet printed in Sydney, and scarcely procurable in this country. It
includes the interesting narrative of Mr. W. Carron, the botanist
attached to the expedition in question; also the statements of the
aboriginal black who witnessed the death of his gallant master--of Dr.
Vallack who took an active part in rescuing the survivors--and of Mr.
T.B. Simpson who proceeded in search of the remainder of the party, whose
fate was still in a measure uncertain, and succeeded in recovering some
of Mr. Kennedy's papers.


We left Sydney on the 29th of April, 1848, in the barque Tam O'Shanter
(Captain Merionberg) in company with H.M.S. Rattlesnake.

Our party consisted of the following persons: Mr. E.B. Kennedy (leader),
Mr. W. Carron (botanist), Mr. T. Wall (naturalist), Mr. C. Niblet
(storekeeper), James Luff, Edward Taylor, and William Costigan (carters),
Edward Carpenter (shepherd), William Goddard, Thomas
Mitchell, John Douglas, Dennis Dunn (labourers), and Jackey-Jackey, an
aboriginal native of the Patrick's Plains tribe, of the Hunter River

Our supplies and equipment for the journey had been most fully
considered, and were estimated by Mr. Kennedy as amply sufficient for a
journey so short as what we then anticipated. Our livestock consisted of
twenty-eight horses, one hundred sheep, three kangaroo dogs, and one
sheep dog. Our dry provisions comprised one ton of flour, ninety pounds
of tea, and six hundred pounds of sugar. Besides these necessary supplies
for subsistence on the road, we took with us twenty-four pack-saddles,
one heavy square cart, two spring carts, with harness for nine horses,
four tents, a canvas sheepfold, twenty-two pounds gunpowder, one hundred
and thirty pounds shot, a quarter cask of ammunition, twenty-eight tether
ropes (each twenty-one yards long) forty hobble chains and straps,
together with boxes, paper, etc., for preserving specimens, firearms,
cloaks, blankets, tomahawks, and other minor requisites for such an
expedition, not forgetting a supply of fish-hooks and other small
articles, as presents for the natives.

After a tedious passage of twenty-two days, we arrived at Rockingham Bay
on the 21st May; and even here, at the very starting point of our
journey, those unforeseen difficulties began to arise, which led us
subsequently to hardships so great and calamities so fatal.

On casting anchor, Mr. Kennedy, in company with Captain Merionberg,
proceeded in a boat to examine the shores of the Bay, and to determine on
a suitable landing-place for the horses, but returned in the evening
without having been able to discover one.

The attempt was renewed the next morning, and continued during the entire
day; and on the morning of the 23rd of May Mr. Kennedy and Captain
Merionberg returned to the ship with the intelligence that they had
discovered a spot where the horses might be landed with tolerable safety,
and where, too, there was plenty of grass and water. This was an
important desideratum, as we had lost one horse and eleven sheep on the

The water round the shores of the bay was very shallow, in consequence of
which the vessel could not approach close inshore, but was compelled to
cast anchor about a quarter of a mile off, and this distance the horses
had to swim.

In the afternoon the vessel was anchored off the landing-place, and early
on the following morning (May 24th) the tents, tether ropes, and
sheepfold were taken ashore, with a party to take care of the horses when
landed. At ten o'clock A.M., slings having been prepared, we commenced
hoisting the horses out of the hold, and lowering them into the water
alongside a boat, to the stern of which the head of each horse was
secured, as it was pulled ashore. One horse was drowned in landing, but
all the others were safely taken ashore during the day. The weather this
day was very cold, with occasional showers of rain.

During the time occupied by landing the horses, a number of aboriginal
natives assembled on the beach; they evinced no symptom of hostility, but
appeared much surprised at our horses and sheep. White men they had
frequently seen before, as parties have landed on the beach from
surveying vessels.

We found no difficulty in making them comprehend that we desired to be
friendly with them, and they advanced towards us with green boughs in
their hands, which they displayed as emblems of peace. We met them with
our arms extended and our hands open, indicating that we had no
implements of war with us. We made them a present of two circular tin
plates, with Mr. Kennedy's initials stamped upon them, and chains to hang
them round the neck; we also gave them a few fish-hooks, and they
accepted our presents with great demonstrations of pleasure. We made
signs for them to sit down about 200 yards from the spot where the horses
and sheep were being landed, and marking a line upon the sand we made
them understand that they were not to cross it to approach us. One of our
party was placed amongst them to enforce this regulation, which he did
with little difficulty, although they expressed great curiosity as to
various articles brought on shore from the ship.

These natives appeared to be very fine strong men, varying much in
intelligence and disposition. I entered into such conversation with them
as we were enabled to hold, and I soon found that while some were eagerly
anxious to learn the names of different articles and their uses, others
were perfectly indifferent about them.

We pitched our tents about two hundred yards from the beach, forming a
square, with the sheepfold in the centre. Mr. Kennedy came on shore in
the morning to superintend the arrangements, and after giving the
necessary directions and instructions, returned to the ship. The party
left ashore in charge consisted of myself, Wall, Dunn, Carpenter, and
Douglas. Our provisions were supplied from the ship, in order that no
time might be lost in getting all our stores and implements in proper
order for starting.

A few yards from our camp was a freshwater creek, from which, although
the tide ran into it about one hundred yards--where it was stopped by a
small bank--we could obtain excellent water. The grass around was very
long, and mostly of very coarse descriptions, consisting chiefly of a
species of Uniola growing in tufts, and an Agrostis with creeping roots
and broad blades; the horses seemed to like the Uniola best. A little to
the northward of our camp were very high and almost perpendicular rocks,
composed mostly of micaceous schist, covered with various epiphytal
orchides and ferns.

The labour of the day being ended, and most of our stores landed, the
greater number of our party came ashore to pass the night; and after
having tethered the horses in fresh places, we assembled at supper, the
materiel of which (beef and biscuit) was sent from the ship. We then took
possession of our tents, one square tent being allotted to Mr. Kennedy;
Niblet, Wall, and myself occupied a small round one; Taylor, Douglas,
Carpenter, Mitchell, and Jackey, a large round tent; and Luff, Dunn,
Goddard, and Costigan, the other.

Mr. Kennedy's tent was 8 feet long, by 6 feet, and 8 feet high, and in it
were placed a compact table, constructed with joints so as to fold up, a
light camp stool, his books and instruments. The two larger round tents
were pyramidal in shape, seven feet in diameter at the least, and nine
feet high. The small tent was six feet in diameter, and eight feet high.

Every man was then supplied with one pair of blankets, one cloak, a
double-barrelled gun or carbine, a brace of pistols, cartridge box, small
percussion-cap pouch, and six rounds of ammunition. The arrangement for
preserving the safety of the camp from attack was, that every man, with
the exception of Mr. Kennedy, should take his turn to watch through the
night--two hours being the duration of each man's watch--the watch
extending from 8 P.M. till 6 A.M. During the night the kangaroo-dogs were
kept chained up, but the sheepdog was at large.

The position of this our first encampment was near the northern extremity
of Rockingham Bay, being in latitude 17 degrees 58 minutes 10 seconds
south, longitude 146 degrees 8 minutes east. The soil, where our cattle
and sheep were feeding, was sandy and very wet. The land, from the beach
to the scrub in the swamp beyond, was slightly undulating, and very
thickly strewed with shells, principally bivalves.

On the morning of the 25th May, a party commenced landing the remainder
of our stores; and it being a fine morning, I went out to collect
specimens and seeds of any new and interesting plants I might find. On
leaving the camp I proceeded through a small belt of scrub to the rocks
on the north; the scrub was composed of the genera Flagellaria, Kennedya,
Bambusa (bamboo), Smilax, Cissus, Mucuna, and various climbing plants
unknown to me: the trees consisted principally of Eugenia, Anacardium,
Castanospermum (Moreton Bay chestnut), a fine species of Sarcocephalus,
and a large spreading tree belonging to the natural order Rutaceae, with
ternate leaves, axillary panicles of white flowers, about the size of
those of Boronia pinnata. At the edge of the rocks were some fine
treeferns (Dicksonia) with the genera Xiphopteris, and Polypodium; also
some beautiful epiphytal Orchideae; among others a beautiful Dendrobium
(rock lily,) with the habit of D. speciosum, but of stronger growth,
bearing long spikes of bright yellow flowers, the sepals spotted with
rich purple. I found also another species with smaller leaves, and more
slender habit, with spikes of dull green flowers, the column and tips of
the sepals purple: and a very fine Cymbidium, much larger than C. suave,
with brown blossoms, having a yellow column.

I proceeded along the edge of a mangrove swamp for a short distance, and
entered a freshwater swamp about a mile from the beach, covered with very
thick scrub, composed of large trees of the genus Melaleuca, running for
the most part from forty to fifty feet high. Here also I first found a
strong-growing climbing palm (Calamus australis) throwing up a number of
shoots from its roots, many of them 100 feet long, and about the
thickness of a man's finger, with long pinnatifid leaves, covered with
sharp spines--and long tendrils growing out of the stem alternately with
the leaves, many of them twenty feet long, covered with strong spines
slightly curved downward, by which the shoots are supported in their
rambling growth. They lay hold of the surrounding bushes and branches of
trees, often covering the tops of the tallest, and turning in all
directions. The seed is a small hard nut, with a thin scaly covering, and
is produced in great abundance.

The shoots, which are remarkably tough, I afterwards found were used by
the natives in making their canoes. These canoes are small, and
constructed of bark, with a small sapling on each side to strengthen
them, the ends of which are tied together with these shoots.

The growth of this plant forms one of the greatest obstacles to
travelling in the bush in this district. It forms a dense thicket, into
which it is impossible to penetrate without first cutting it away, and a
person once entangled in its long tendrils has much difficulty in
extricating himself, as they lay hold of everything they touch. On
entering the swamp to examine plants, I was caught by them, and became so
much entangled before I was aware of it, that it took me nearly an hour
to get clear, although I had entered but a few yards. No sooner did I cut
one tendril, than two or three others clung around me at the first
attempt to move, and where they once clasp they are very difficult to
unloose. Abundance of the shoots, from fifteen to twenty feet long, free
from leaves or tendrils, could be obtained, and would be useful for all
the purposes to which the common cane is now applied.

At this spot also I met with Dracontium polyphyllum, a beautiful plant,
belonging to the natural order Aroideae, climbing by its rooting stems to
the tops of the trees, like the common ivy. This plant has narrow pointed
leaves, four inches long, and produces at the ends of the shoots a red
spatha, enclosing a cylindrical spadix of yellow flowers.

In many parts the swamp was completely covered with a very strong-growing
species of Restio (rope-grass). On the open ground, between the beach and
the swamp, were a few large flooded-gums, and a few Moreton Bay ash
trees, and near the beach I found the Exocarpus latifolia.

On the beach, too, just above high-water mark, was a beautiful spreading,
lactescent tree, about twenty feet high, belonging to the natural order
Apocyneae, with alternate, exstipulate, broad, lanceolate leaves, six to
eight inches long, and producing terminal spikes of large, white,
sweet-scented flowers, resembling those of the white Nerium oleander, but
much larger. I also met with a tree about twenty feet high belonging to
the natural order Dilleniaceae, with large spreading branches, producing
at the axilla of the leaves from three to five large yellow flowers, with
a row of red appendages surrounding the carpels, and a fine species of
Calophyllum, with large dark green leaves, six to eight inches long, two
and a half to three inches broad, beautifully veined, and with axillary
racemes of white, sweet-scented flowers; the seed being a large round nut
with a thin rind, of a yellowish-green colour when ripe. There were many
other interesting plants growing about, but the afternoon turning out
wet, I left their examination to stand over till finer weather.

Growing on the beach was a species of Portulaca, a quantity of the young
shoots of which I collected, and we partook of them at our supper, boiled
as a vegetable.

In the evening after watering our horses, we took them to the camp and
gave each of them a feed of corn which we had brought with us for the
purpose of strengthening them previous to our starting from Rockingham
Bay, on our expedition; but although the grass on which they had been
depasturing was coarse, they were with difficulty induced to eat the
corn, many of them leaving it almost all behind them. We then tethered
them and folded our sheep, one of which we killed for food. The ration
per week on which the party was now put, was one hundred pounds of flour,
twenty-six pounds of sugar, three and a half pounds of tea, with one
sheep every alternate day.

This night too we commenced our nightly watch, the whole of the stores
being landed and packed in the camp. During nearly the whole of the day a
tribe of natives was watching our movements, but they seemed to be quite
peaceably inclined; the weather was very cold, and at night the rain set
in and continued to fall, almost without intermission, till morning.

The next morning (May 26th) was very wet and cold; but after securing our
horses, I again went out to search for, and examine plants, although it
was too rainy to collect seeds or specimens. On a Casuarina near the
swamp, I saw a beautiful Loranthus with rather small oval leaves,
panicles of flowers, with the tube of the corolla green; segments of the
limbs dark red; of a dwarf bushy habit. This beautiful parasite covered
the tree, and was very showy. The afternoon turning out fine and warm, I
collected several specimens and sorts of seeds. In the open ground grew a
beautiful tree producing large terminal spikes of yellow flowers, with
broad, and slightly cordate leaves; it belongs to the natural order

The open ground between the beach and the swamp varied in width from half
a mile to three or four miles; it was principally covered with long
grass, with a belt of bushy land along the edge of the beach; the bush
consisting principally of Exocarpus, with dark green oval leaves, near an
inch long; two dwarf species of Fabricia, one with white, the other with
pink flowers; a species of Jasminum, with rather large, white,
sweet-scented flowers; and a few acacia trees, with long, linear,
lanceolate, phyllodia, racemose spikes of bright yellow flowers. There
also grew the genera Xanthorrhoea, Xerotes, and Restio (rope-grass.)

There were a great many wallabies near the beach, but they were very
wild. While returning to the camp in the evening, I met several natives
who had been fishing. Most of the fish they had taken had been speared,
only a few having been caught with hooks. I remained with them some time,
and learned some of their expressions. Fresh water they call hammoo,*
salt water, mocull; their dogs--the same species as the native dogs found
near Sydney--they call taa-taa. We had not as yet seen any of their
women, as they were encamped at some distance from us.

(*Footnote. Kamo, at Goold Island, only a few miles distant.)

Near the beach, by the side of the saltwater creek, I saw a beautiful
species of Ruellia with terminal spikes of blue flowers, and
spiny-toothed leaves, and a bushy shrub eight or ten feet high, with
alternate exstipulate, simple, oval leaves, bearing a solitary, axillary,
round fruit, resembling a greengage plum; the fleshy pulp covering the
hard round stone has rather a bitter taste, but it is not disagreeable
when ripe. It acts as a laxative if eaten in any quantity, and is
probably Maba laurina.

On the following morning, May 27th, when the horses were watered and fed,
I commenced digging a piece of ground, in which I sowed seeds of cabbage,
turnip, leek, pumpkin, rock and water melons, pomegranate, peach stones,
and apple pips. On the two following days, May 28th and 29th, I remained
in the camp all day.

The next morning, May 30th, Mr. Kennedy and three others of the party
rode out to examine the surrounding country, and to determine in what
direction the expedition should start, the remainder staying at the camp,
busily occupied with preparations for our departure into the wilderness.
The flour was put into canvas bags, holding 100 pounds each, made in the
shape of saddlebags, to hold 50 pounds weight on each side. The sugar we
put into two large tin canisters, made to fit into one of the carts, and
the tea was packed in quarter-chests. The surplus stores, comprising
horse shoes, clothes, specimen boxes, etc., which would not be required
before our arrival at Cape York, were sent on board H.M.S. Rattlesnake,
which it was arranged should meet us at Port Albany. During the day one
of the party shot a wallaby on the beach, which made very good soup.

During the morning of the next day (May 31st) I was employed in procuring
specimens and seeds of various plants, and in the afternoon we all
resumed our preparations for starting, as we expected Mr. Kennedy back
next day. He however did not arrive in the camp, and on the following
afternoon I obtained specimens of a very pretty plant of the natural
order Onagrariae, with opposite, oblong, simple leaves, and large purple

The following day (June 3rd) Mr. Kennedy and his party returned to the
camp, with the intelligence that it was impossible to proceed in a north
or north-westerly direction, in consequence of the swamps. Mr. Kennedy
had penetrated them in some places, where the scrub was not too thick;
but could not get through them in any place, on account of the water, and
the dense scrub. He informed us that he found we should be obliged to
cross a river on the beach to the south-west of the camp before we could
hope to make any progress.

The two following days were occupied with completing our arrangements for
starting; as it was determined on the following morning to strike our
tents and proceed at once on our expedition.

As I may now consider our expedition as fairly begun, it may, for the
sake of clearness and arrangement, be advisable to continue my narrative
in the form of a journal; detailing from day to day the various
occurrences which took place. It must be remembered, however, that in
narrating the particulars of our journey, I am obliged to trust largely
to memory, and to very imperfect memoranda; and to these difficulties
must I refer, in excuse for the defects, with which I am well aware this
narrative abounds.

Up to the present time, the whole of the party, and especially its
unfortunate leader, had remained in good spirits, and, buoyed up with
sanguine hopes of success, were eager to set out on their pilgrimage of

June 5.

We breakfasted at an early hour this morning, and proceeded at once to
harness our horses to the carts, three to each cart. The carts contained
about seven hundredweight each. This business having been completed, and
the packhorses saddled and loaded, we started at nine o'clock A.M., and
proceeded along the beach. Mr. Kennedy and Jackey rode in front, followed
by the three carts. After Wall, riding one horse and leading two
packhorses, came Goddard, Douglas, Mitchell, and Dunn, leading three
packhorses, then Niblet in the rear, riding one and leading two horses,
followed by Carpenter driving the sheep, and myself on foot, carrying Mr.
Kennedy's mountain barometer, which he had given into my charge during
the journey; and I was also to take the time for that gentleman, in his

After travelling in this order about two miles, we came to a large
river,* emptying itself into Rockingham Bay. This river was about one
hundred and fifty yards wide, and although the tide ran up it about a
mile, fresh water was procurable from it considerably nearer the sea.

(*Footnote. Mackay River of the Admiralty chart of Rockingham Bay.)

At nearly high-water I tasted fresh water on one side of the river, and
salt on the other, and about two hours after high-water, there was no
difficulty in obtaining plenty of excellent water on either side of the
river, in different places. There is a great deal of fresh water running
into the sea here, and at the same distance from the sea as the mouth of
the river, it is in some places mixed with salt water, whilst in others
it is quite fresh. The banks of this river are low and sandy, and a short
distance above where we joined it, it is skirted on either side by a
thick mangrove swamp, for the distance of about a mile, where it joins
the freshwater swamps, covered with thick scrub. On my proceeding up the
river, it became narrower in its channel as it approached the swamps,
from which it appeared to be principally supplied. It had a tortuous
course, and when I left it, was turning to the westward.

A boat was sent to us by Captain Stanley of H.M.S. Rattlesnake to assist
us in carrying our stores across, which we effected with some difficulty
by ten o'clock P.M., the horses and some of the sheep swimming across,
while the remainder of the latter were taken in the boat. We pitched Mr.
Kennedy's tent on sand, at the side of the river, and it being dark, and
not knowing where to obtain water on that side of the river, I and five
others recrossed it, and went back about three-quarters of a mile to a
small creek running parallel to the beach. We filled our kegs, and
returned to the camp in time to have supper by twelve o'clock, after
which we rolled ourselves in our blankets, and, wearied by the fatigues
we had undergone, slept soundly till daylight.

This was a very harassing day to us, as we were all constantly in the
water, loading and unloading the boat. It is but just to state, that
Captain Stanley of the Rattlesnake, both in landing our horses and
stores, and in crossing this river, rendered us every assistance in his
power, and seemed throughout to take a strong interest in the expedition,
and its object.

While landing our things at the other side of the river, the natives
assembled in great numbers about our luggage. As they appeared to be
friendly, we permitted them to come within about 150 yards of our
landing-place; with some few we had a little difficulty, but for the most
part they would sit down quietly as soon as a sign was made for them to
do so.

June 6.

Early this morning Lieutenant Simpson of the Rattlesnake left us, he
having stayed all night at the camp, and we were now left entirely to our
own resources. We loaded our carts and packhorses, and proceeded about
three miles inland, but again finding it impossible to cross the swamps,
we returned to the beach, and about dusk came to another river, also
emptying itself into Rockingham Bay, about two miles south-west of the
first we had to cross. This river was much wider than the first, being
about two hundred yards wide where we crossed it near the mouth. At the
mouth of this river is a sandbank, over which the water is about four
feet deep. Inside the bank the water is ten feet deep. The tide flows up
for about a mile; there appears to be a great quantity of fresh water
discharged into the sea from the river, which, I think, is principally
supplied from the swamps. These swamps lie at the foot of a high mountain
range, and probably the rivulets descending from the range spread over
the flat ground, and form channels by which they reach the sea. Fresh
water can be obtained on either side the river very near the sea. I
tasted fresh water on one side, salt in the middle, and slightly brackish
on the other side, as we crossed over it. Small boats only can enter this
river, on account of the sandbank at the mouth. Its course turned to the
south-west about two miles up. Its banks were sandy and barren, at least
close to the water; on the north side of the river there is a mangrove
swamp, extending some distance up the stream; on the south side the banks
are higher, and are covered with Casuarinas and Acacias, the soil being
sandy and pretty well covered with grass, the land slightly undulating,
for about one and a half or two miles up the river. It being too late to
think of crossing the river to-night, we hobbled our horses, and having
pitched Mr. Kennedy's tent, slept on the sand till morning.

June 7.

As soon as we had breakfasted this morning, we prepared to cross, to
assist us in which undertaking we contrived to construct a sort of punt
by taking the wheels and axletrees off one of the carts. We then placed
the body of the cart on a large tarpaulin, the shafts passing through
holes cut for them, the tarpaulin tightly nailed round them. The
tarpaulin was then turned up all round, and nailed inside the cart; by
this means it was made almost water-tight. We then fastened our
water-bags, filled with air, to the sides of the cart, six on each side,
and a small empty keg to each shaft. We tied our tether ropes together,
and made one end fast on each side of the river, by which means our punt
was easily pulled from one side to the other. By this contrivance we
managed to get most of our things over during the day, and at night a
party slept on either side, without pitching the tents.

June 8.

One party continued employed in getting the remainder of the things
across the river, whilst the others went in search of the horses, which
had rambled to some distance to seek for better grass. The grass had
hitherto continued plentiful in places all the way. The horses were
brought up to the river by eleven A.M., and were with some difficulty got
across; after which they were hobbled, and we camped for the night near
the beach, in good grass.

June 9.

Mr. Kennedy, with Jackey and three others, left the camp this morning for
the purpose of ascertaining the most practicable route for our carts.
During the day a great number of natives came around our camp, but
appeared very friendly; they are a finer race of men than those usually
seen in the southern districts of the colony, but their habits and mode
of life seem very similar. They left us before dark, without making any
attempt at plunder.

June 10.

Mr. Kennedy returned to the camp this evening; he still found the swamps
were impassable, the water and mud lying on them in many parts, from
three to four feet deep; there were patches of dry land here and there
covered with good but coarse grass.

We saw here large flocks of black and white ducks, making a whistling
noise similar to some I have seen near Port Macquarie; Mr. Wall shot
three of them, and they proved very good to eat, but they were not new,
belonging to the genus Dendrocygna eytoni.

June 11.

We started early this morning and proceeded along the beach for three or
four miles, when we came to another river, similar in its character to
the one we crossed on the 8th, with low sandy banks, and dry bushy land
on each side. We unloaded and hobbled our horses, and prepared our punt
as before.

Near to this spot we came to a native encampment, consisting of eighteen
or twenty huts of an oval form, about seven feet long, and four feet
high; and at the southern end of the camp, was one large hut eighteen
feet long, seven feet wide, and fourteen feet high. All of them were
neatly and strongly built with small saplings stuck in the ground, arched
over, and tied together at the top with small shoots of the climbing
palm, which I have already described. They were covered with the bark of
the large Melaleucas which grow in the swamps, fastened to the saplings
with palm shoots. A small opening is left at one end, from the ground to
the top, and the floors were covered with long dried grass.

The natives being absent from the camp, I entered the large gunyah, and
found in it a large shield of solid wood, two feet in diameter, convex on
one side, and flat on the other. The convex side was curiously painted
red, in circular rings and crosses. On the flat side was a handle, cut
out of the solid wood. In the same hut I found four wooden swords, three
and a half feet long, and four inches broad, sharp at both edges, and
thick in the centre, with a slightly curved, round handle, about six
inches long. They were made of very hard wood, and were much too heavy to
wield with one hand. I also found a number of fishing lines, made from
grass, with hooks attached of various sizes, made from mussel shells.

After I had carefully examined all these things, I left them where I
found them. In the centre of the camp were four large ovens, for cooking
their food. These ovens were constructed by digging a hole in the ground,
about three feet in diameter, and two feet deep. The hole is then filled
to within six inches of the top with smooth, hard, loose stones, on which
a fire is kindled, and kept burning till the stones are well heated.
Their food, consisting principally of shell and other fish, is then
placed on the stones and baked.

There were no vessels in the camp in which they could boil anything, and
it is my opinion, from what I afterwards saw of their habits, that their
cookery is confined to roasting and baking. In the camp were several
large shells for holding water, and some calabashes, made by taking out
the inside of a gourd, which grows plentifully near the camp. These
calabashes would hold from one to three pints each.

June 12.

This morning Taylor endeavoured to cross the river with the rope for
working our punt, but although an expert swimmer, and a very strong man,
he was unable to do so, from the strength of the tide which was running
out. We saw several natives fishing in the river from their canoes, which
are about five feet long and one and a half feet wide, made of bark, with
small saplings tied along the side, and are paddled with small pieces of
bark held in either hand. We made signs to them to come to us, with which
three of them complied. We made them understand that if they would take
our rope across, and make it fast to a dead tree on the other side of the
river, we would give them a tomahawk. They consented to undertake the
task, and after great exertion succeeded in performing it, and received
their reward, with which they seemed quite satisfied and highly pleased.
We succeeded in getting everything across this river by ten o'clock P.M.,
for the moon being up we would not stop till we had finished. Our horses
we took about a quarter of a mile up the river, and they crossed where it
was narrower and not so deep. Several natives, who had not yet seen our
horses, assembled on the banks of the river to see them cross, and when
they came out of the water commenced shouting to frighten them,
continuing their noise for about twenty minutes. Seeing at length,
however, that the beasts submitted to be led quietly along the beach,
they came near the camp, and we made them a present of a few fish-hooks.
They returned to their camp before sunset.

The river we crossed this day was not so deep as either of the former
ones. There is, apparently, a sandbank across all the rivers emptying
themselves into Rockingham Bay, near the mouth, and this one formed no
exception to the rule. The tide runs up very strongly, I should think
from a mile and a half to two miles.

There is a mangrove swamp running up some distance on the northern side
of the river, till it joins the freshwater swamps. There is not so much
fresh water running out of this river as from the last, and fresh water
is only procurable from the south side near the swamp--it being
impossible to penetrate the scrub on the northern side to obtain it. At
low-water the river is very shallow, with a muddy bottom.

June 13.

On our mustering this morning, Carpenter was missed from the camp. It was
discovered that he had absconded during the night, carrying off with him
a damper weighing about eleven pounds, two pounds of tea, and ten pounds
of sugar. We had breakfast as quickly as possible, and Mr. Kennedy sent
four men on horseback to scour the country around in search of him. They
returned from an unsuccessful search, but had received intelligence from
the blacks that he was not far off.

June 14.

A party went out early this morning, in search of Carpenter, and caught
sight of him about two miles from the river, sharing his damper with the
blacks. As soon, however, as he saw the party approaching, he decamped
into the bush, and was again lost sight of. On coming up to the spot
where he was seen, the bags in which he had carried away the tea and
sugar were found; the sugar was nearly consumed, but the tea appeared
untouched. In the evening Carpenter returned, and on begging Mr.
Kennedy's pardon, he was forgiven. Throughout the expedition he was of
very little service, being, in fact, little better than an idiot.

This evening we saw a large alligator, about twenty feet long, rising to
the surface of the water, close to our camp. He appeared to be
attentively watching our sheep, which were feeding by the side of the
river, on the Dolichos and Ipomoeas which were growing on the sand. The
natives here had a great many dogs, which, towards evening, rushed on our
sheep and drove them among the bushes in all directions. We had great
difficulty in getting them together before dark.

June 15.

We proceeded inland two or three miles to the edge of the freshwater
swamps, and camped there. Mr. Kennedy went with a party into the swamps
to ascertain if it were possible to make a road for the carts to pass
through. Wall and myself went out collecting specimens.

I found a beautiful species of Loranthus, growing on acacia trees, and
producing on its long pendulous shoots abundance of beautiful scarlet
flowers; the tube of the corolla was two inches long, with a very short
limb, and the plant has lanceolate, glossy leaves. This most interesting
parasite--covering the acacia trees--when in flower forms a most gorgeous
sight; presenting a beautiful contrast to the dull foliage of the
surrounding trees. I also found a scarlet passionflower,* very beautiful,
with three-lobed glaucous leaves; and a Nymphaea, (waterlily) growing in
the waterholes and small creeks, producing large purple flowers, and
peltate leaves; besides a number of other new and interesting plants. Mr.
Wall succeeded in obtaining a specimen of a beautiful little marsupial
animal, resembling an opossum in form, but not larger than the common
rat, the colour pure white, with very small black spots.

(*Footnote. Disemma coccinea. See Volume 1.)

Mr. Kennedy and party returned in the evening, after having been in the
water up to their knees all day. He reported that it was altogether
impossible to make a road.

June 16.

Mr. Kennedy and party proceeded again this morning to enter the swamps,
but in a different direction, in the hope of finding some spot where a
road might be made, but returned with no better success. This day we
killed the best sheep we had yet slaughtered; it weighed 53 pounds, those
we had previously killed weighed from 40 to 48 pounds; they did not keep
fat, but up to this time we were enabled to fry all the meat, which mode
of cookery was more speedy and convenient for us than boiling or any
other way.

June 17.

We proceeded this evening along the edge of the swamps, crossing several
small creeks. In many places the wheels of the carts sank to the
axletrees in consequence of the rottenness of the ground near the creeks.
At length we camped, after travelling about five miles.

June 18.

This day was Sunday, and at eleven o'clock Mr. Kennedy assembled the
whole party under the shade of some large trees and read prayers. This
was a practice always persevered in when practicable, and unless for some
very pressing reason, we uniformly set apart the Sabbath as a day of
rest, such an interval from our toils being in fact absolutely necessary.

June 19.

Again Mr. Kennedy started this morning, accompanied by five men, into the
swamps, determined, if possible, to find a road by which we might cross
them, and get to the foot of the mountain ranges on the south. He
remained out during this and the two following days. The natives appear
to be very numerous in the neighbourhood of Rockingham Bay. There was an
old camping-place with twelve or fourteen old huts near our camp, but it
was not visited by the natives during our stay there. They generally came
to look at us every day, but always kept at a distance; on some days we
saw as many as from eighty to a hundred. The women and children always
kept farther from us than the men; I think more from fear of our dogs and
horses than of ourselves. The weather was cool, with showers occasionally
during the day, and at night steady rain set in.

June 20.

The rain continued throughout the day.

June 21 and 22.

The rain still continued. Two of our horses were found bogged in a creek
near the camp, but were soon released without injury; they had strayed
into the creek to eat the aquatic grass, which is plentiful on almost all
the creeks between the swamps and the sea. The soil here was rather
stiffer than we had found it before, being a light sandy loam, and in
places clayey. There were not so many shells to be seen, and what there
were, were principally bivalves.

Mr. Kennedy returned this evening, and having again found it impossible
to cross the swamps, we were obliged to return to the beach, where the
travelling was far better than among the trees. While travelling inland a
man was always obliged to walk before the carts, to cut down small trees.

At this time we had only two meals per day; breakfast at daylight, and
dinner when we had completed our day's work, and camped. The time for
dinner was therefore irregular, depending on the nature of the country
over which we travelled. Some days we dined at one o'clock, on others not
till dark. Whenever any birds were shot, they were boiled for supper; but
as yet we had killed very few.

Mr. Kennedy appeared to be, in every respect, admirably fitted for the
leader of an expedition of this character. Although he had innumerable
difficulties and hardships to contend with, he always appeared cheerful,
and in good spirits. Travelling through such a country as we were in,
such a disposition was essential to the success of the expedition. He was
always diverting the minds of his followers from the obstacles we daily
encountered, and encouraging them to hope for better success; careful in
all his observations and calculations, as to the position of his camp,
and cautious not to plunge into difficulties, without personal
observation of the country, to enable him to take the safest path. But
having decided, he pursued his deliberate determination with steady
perseverance, sharing in the labour of cutting through the scrub, and all
the harassment attendant on travelling through such a wilderness, with as
much (or greater) alacrity and zeal as any of his followers. It was often
grievous to me to hear some of the party observe, after we had passed
over some difficult tract, that a better road might have been found, a
little to the right or to the left. Such observations were the most
unjust and vexatious, as in all matters of difficulty and of opinion, he
would invariably listen to the advice of all, and if he thought it
prudent, take it. For my own part, I can safely say, that I was always
ready to obey his orders, and conform to his directions, confident as I
then was of his abilities to lead us to the place of our destination as
speedily as possible.

June 23.

We started early this morning, and proceeded along the beach till we came
to a small river, which was narrow and shallow, but the bottom being
muddy, and it being low-water, we diverged towards the sea, where the
sand was firmer, and there crossed it with little difficulty, without
unloading the packhorses or carts. The tide runs but a short distance up
this river, and as far as the tide goes it is fringed with a belt of
mangroves. The banks are muddy, and so soft that a man sinks up to his
knees in walking along them. A little above the mangroves the river
divides into several small creeks, in swampy ground, covered with small
melaleucas so thickly, that although they are not at all bushy below, but
have straight trunks of from three to five inches in diameter, and from
ten to twenty feet high, a man can scarcely walk between them.

After crossing this river we again turned inland for a short distance,
and camped by the side of a small river south of the last; with steep
grassy banks on the north side, overhung by Tristanias and arborescent
Callistemons. On the south side grew mangroves, and the large
blue-flowered Ruellia seen at our first camp. The tide ran up to our
camp, the fresh water coming from the north-west. There were plenty of
waterholes in the valley, between the river and the higher sandy ground.
The grass here consisted principally of Agrostis, near the river, where
the land is occasionally inundated, and of Uniola, a little further back,
growing in tufts. On the sandy ridges, however, there was little else
than Xanthorrhoea, Xerotes, and Restio (rope grass). Here we saw a great
many native companions (Grus antigone), and swamp pheasants (Centropus

June 24.

Mr. Kennedy and a party of five men again proceeded to examine the
swamps, but returned without finding any practicable way of crossing.

June 25.

We started early this morning, proceeding towards the beach in a
southerly direction, the river turning again south by west, and camped
after travelling over five or six miles of rotten and rather sandy

June 26.

We proceeded along the beach till we came to a small river, most probably
the same we left yesterday, which we attempted to cross in the same
manner as we had done the one on the 23rd, but unfortunately the horses
and carts sank so deeply into the mud that they were completely set fast.
We were now obliged to unload, and carry the goods ashore. Some of the
flour-bags fell into the water, but were quickly taken out--very little
damaged. We had great difficulty in getting the carts out of the mud.

A number of natives had accompanied us all day, and pointed out to us the
best place to cross the river. Some of them also assisted us in carrying
our things across, while one or two attempted petty thefts. I caught one
with two straps belonging to a saddle, and a pair of Mr. Kennedy's spurs
in his basket, which I took from him and sent him away. Many of these
natives were painted all over with a sort of red earth, but none of them
had visited us armed with spears for several days past. Some of them had
learned to address several of our party by name, and seemed pleased when
they received an answer. We frequently made them small presents, and
endeavoured to impress upon them the anxiety we felt to remain on
friendly terms with them.

After having crossed the river we turned inland; cutting our way through
a belt of mangrove scrub, about half a mile wide; we got the carts
through with comparative ease, the ground being harder than usual. We
camped on a rising ground, with good grass around us, by the side of a
small creek running here almost parallel with the beach, and coming from
the westward. At this camp I obtained seeds of a dwarf spreading tree,
with alternate, exstipulate, pinnate leaves, and axillary racemes of a
round flattened fruit, similar in size and shape to the small blue fig
cultivated in gardens, of a dark purple colour, and possessing a flavour
similar to an Orleans plum when hardly ripe, with a hard rough stone

June 27.

We proceeded about five miles in a westerly direction, passing over two
small creeks running to the south-east. The country here appeared to be
gradually rising, and the land to be growing drier; and we now hoped to
be enabled to prosecute our journey without any great obstruction from
the swamps.

June 28.

Proceeding on the same course as on the previous day, we crossed two
small creeks, running rapidly to the eastward. The bottoms of these
creeks were covered with granite pebbles, of various sizes. The first
creek we crossed at the entrance, and the other near the middle of a
thick scrub, extending nearly three miles, and through which we had to
cut a road. The various plants of which this scrub was composed
corresponded with those described as forming the scrub near our first
camp in the Bay. The greatest obstacles to our progress through these
scrubs were the long shoots of the Flagellaria, and climbing palm. We
camped in an open patch of forest land, covered with grass, and the trees
consisted principally of Moreton Bay ash, (a species of eucalyptus),
Casuarina, and a rather large-growing Acacia, with broad, rhomboidal,
sericeous phyllodia, and very broad, flat legumes.

Luff and Douglas were this day taken very ill with the ague.

June 29.

We found that some of our horses had strayed into the scrub, and we did
not succeed in finding them until nearly twelve o'clock, and Luff and
Douglas being no better, Mr. Kennedy with three others proceeded to
examine the country in advance of us.

June 30.

This morning Luff was a little better, but Douglas was able to eat but
little. In the scrub near our camp I found a species of Musa, with leaves
as large, and the plants as high, as the common banana (M. paradisiaca)
with blossoms and fruit, but the fruit was not eatable. I also found a
beautiful tree belonging to the natural order Myrtaceae, producing on the
trunk and large branches only abundance of white, sweet-scented flowers,
larger than those of the common rose-apple (Jambosa vulgaris), with long
stamens, a very short style, slightly two-cleft stigma, five very small
semi-orbicular petals, alternate with the thick fleshy segments of the
calyx, broad lanceolate leaves, the fruit four to six inches in
circumference, consisting of a white fleshy, slightly acid substance,
with one large round seed (perhaps sometimes more), the foot-stalk about
one inch long. This is a most beautiful and curious tree. Some specimens
which I saw measured five feet in circumference, and were sixty feet
high, the straight trunks rising twenty or thirty feet from the ground to
the branches, being covered with blossoms, with which not a leaf mingled.
There were ripe and unripe fruit mingled with the blossoms, the scent of
the latter being delightful, spreading perfume over a great distance
around; I had frequently noticed the fragrance of these blossoms while
passing through the scrub, but could not before make out from whence it
arose. It resembles the scent of a ripe pineapple, but is much more
powerful. There are not many of these trees to be found, and those only
in the scrub, in a stiff loamy soil. The small animals eat the fruit, and
I tasted some, but it was not so good as the rose-apple; we called it the
white-apple. It is a species of Eugenia.

A short distance to the south-west of our camp, is a range of round
hills, of moderate height, covered with grass, and thinly timbered with
box and other species of eucalyptus, resembling the ironbark. These hills
are composed of huge blocks of coarse granite, with a stiff soil, and
appear to stretch a long distance to the west.

July 1.

Mr. Kennedy returned this morning, having explored the country for about
forty miles, over which he thought we might travel safely. There being
plenty of grass however at the camp, and the men no better, he determined
to defer our advance till Monday.

July 2.

Being Sunday, prayers were read at eleven o'clock.

July 3.

Early this morning we prepared to start, but Luff and Douglas being
seized with a fit of ague, we were compelled to stop. Although our horses
had all the way had abundance of feed, they began to grow very
thin--several of them very weak, and one getting very lame, from bad
feet. The sheep also had fallen away very much, which I attributed to the
wet journey they had had; being almost always wet, from crossing rivers
and creeks.

July 4.

Mr. Kennedy and three others roamed this morning to some distance from
the camp, when they were followed by a tribe of natives, making
threatening demonstrations, and armed with spears; one spear was actually
thrown, when Mr. Kennedy, fearing for the safety of his party, ordered
his men to fire upon them; four of the natives fell, but Mr. Kennedy
could not ascertain whether more than one was killed, as the other three
were immediately carried off into the scrub.

July 5.

Luff and Douglas now began to get better, but being still unable to walk,
we could not break up our camp.

July 6.

We started early this morning, and crossed two creeks with narrow belts
of scrub on each side, running north-east. I have little doubt these
creeks run into the river we crossed on the 8th of June. The banks of the
second creek were nearly twenty feet high, so that we were obliged to
lower down the carts into its bed by means of ropes and pulleys, fastened
to the branches of the trees which overhung the creek. The horses were
got into the creek with a great deal of difficulty, then harnessed to the
carts, and we proceeded along the bed of the creek till we arrived at a
spot where the banks on the opposite side were not so steep. At this
place by harnessing six horses to each of the carts, we managed to get
them all out of the creek without any accident. The bed of the creek was
composed of granite pebbles. We encamped on the northern side of it, the
soil being a strong clayey loam, well covered with grass two or three
feet high, so thick that it was difficult to walk through it. The country
here was hilly open forest-land, with a high range before us, running
north-east. The trees were principally Moreton Bay ash, box, and another
species of eucalyptus, resembling the common ironbark, but with long
narrow leaves. I also found a magnificent species of Grevillea, with fine
pinnatifid silvery leaves, and beautiful racemes of orange-coloured
flowers; also another tree belonging to the same natural order, rivalling
the Grevillea in the beauty of its flowers, producing an abundance of
cream-coloured blossoms, on compound, terminal racemes. In the scrub by
the side of the creek, I found a most beautiful Scitamineos plant, the
foliage, root, and habit of which resembled Hedychium. The beauty of the
plant consisted in its large, stiff, shining bracteae, which continue to
grow after the small pink blossoms have fallen. The bracteae are about
half an inch broad at the base, slightly curved inwards, and tapering to
a point. The heads of the flowers, resembling a pineapple in shape and
size, and of a beautiful crimson colour, are produced on the top of a
strong flower-stem, 18 inches high, and they will retain their shape and
colour a month after being cut. This plant appears to be very local in
its habits, as I only caught sight of it by the side of three creeks, and
always in moist, shady places. I obtained seeds, and also packed some of
its fleshy, tuberous roots in a tin case.

We saw but few wallabies; and not one kangaroo or emu had as yet been
seen by any of the party. The country was not open enough for them to

July 7.

We started at daylight, proceeding over open forest ground covered with
long grass, very thick and luxuriant. Travelling was rendered still more
difficult by the large logs of dead wood which strewed the ground in
every direction, and which much impeded the progress of the carts. We
camped by the side of a creek, with a narrow belt of scrub on the
south-east side, but apparently a wide extent of it on the other. This
creek had a large sandy bed; with large Castanospermums, Tristanias, and
Sarcocephali growing on its banks, which were rather steep. It had a very
tortuous course, coming from south-west and turning east a little below
our camp, which was in a bend of the creek.

July 8.

We were employed nearly all this day in cutting through very thick scrub
on the other side of the creek. Whilst doing so we had to cross several
other smaller ones, all turning east, and in the evening we camped on a
small patch of open forest land, covered with long coarse grass, and
large blocks of coarse granite rock jutting out here and there.

July 9.

This being Sunday we halted for the day, and prayers were read at eleven

July 10 and 11.

We continued throughout these days cutting through belts of scrub and
crossing small creeks, running from the west and north-west, and turning
east. During the latter day we were visited by a small tribe of natives,
who appeared very friendly and did not stop long. I found a large
quantity of Castanospermum seeds in one of the creeks, apparently put
there to steep by the natives, who use them for food. They informed me
that they steep them in water for five days, and then cut them into thin
slices and dry them in the sun; they are then pounded between two large
stones, and the meal being moistened with water is baked on a flat stone,
raised from the ground a few inches, with a small fire burning beneath. I
afterwards saw some of the meal baked, but it was not very palatable.

July 12 and 13.

Our journey still continued through scrub, intersected by small creeks,
which we had to cross, and by patches here and there of open forest
ground, covered with long grass, the soil a stiff loam. We were not able
to make much progress, travelling on the average from three to five miles
a day. We were compelled to cut away the scrub, and the banks of some of
the creeks, before we were able to cross them, and frequently obliged to
run a creek up and down some distance before we could find a place where
it was passable at all.

July 14.

We started very early this morning, and commenced travelling over very
uneven ground, full of small hillocks, and having the appearance of being
frequently inundated, the grass growing very high and luxuriantly over
it. Owing to the irregularities of the surface the axletree of one of our
carts gave way this day. We were forced to leave the cart and harness
behind, and load the horses with the spare pack-saddles we had brought
with us, covering the load of each horse over with a piece of tarpaulin.
We travelled on till dusk, when we arrived at a small creek, overgrown
with grass, which we imagined we should cross with little difficulty; but
the carts were set fast in the mud, and some of the horses got bogged. We
were forced to carry the loading of our carts and saddle-horses over on
our shoulders, a task of no small difficulty and labour, the mud giving
way up to the knee at every step. The horses were then safely taken
across, and we lifted out the carts and carried them to the other side,
finding that it was useless to attempt to draw them out. It was ten
o'clock at night before we had got the things over, and as soon as we had
partaken of our late dinner we made a large fire to dry our clothes,
which had become completely saturated by the labours of the day.

Mr. Kennedy arrived at the determination this day, to leave the carts
behind at this camp, as they caused so much extra labour and delay in

July 16.

Sunday, we halted, and had prayers read at eleven o'clock.

July 17.

We got up early, and prepared all the loads ready for starting, but we
were obliged to leave many things behind, that would have been very
essential to the successful prosecution of all the objects of the
expedition; my specimen box, a cross-cut saw, pickaxes, and various other
articles which it was considered were too heavy to be carried on
horseback. We however took good care that not an ounce of provisions of
any description should be left behind. The sugar and tea were more
compactly packed than heretofore, and the packages in which they had
formerly been carried were left behind. Near this camp a large swamp
extended south-westward, but it was clear of scrub, containing nothing
but Melaleucas of moderate size.

July 18.

Having loaded the horses, we started at eight o'clock this morning, in
good hope and high spirits, rejoicing to have got rid of one great
impediment to our progress. The blacks regarded us with curious interest
as we proceeded on our way, forming a train of twenty-six horses,
followed by the sheep, and Mitchell occasionally sounding a horn he had
brought with him.

We all felt the inconvenience of leaving the carts behind, and I in
particular. I was now obliged to make two strong bags to fit my specimen
boards, and to hang them over a horse's back, one bag on each side, a
very inconvenient method, as it rendered them liable to much damage going
through the scrub. The sheep at this time had grown very thin and poor,
not averaging more than thirty pounds when skinned and dressed; they had,
however, become so habituated to following the horses that they cost us
very little trouble in driving them.

After travelling about six miles through open forest land we camped near
a creek on the skirts of a thick scrub.

July 19.

We were cutting through scrub all day, skirting numerous small creeks
which we met with here, most of them running to the eastward. The soil
was rather stiff, and indicated a rocky formation, blocks of granite
projecting from it in various directions.

July 20, 21, and 22.

During these three days we travelled over an irregular, mountainous
country, intersected by numerous creeks, running in every direction, but
all of them with belts of scrub on each side. We sometimes crossed the
same creeks two or three times a day, owing to the tortuous directions
they took, and our clothes were kept wet all the day; some of them too
had very steep banks, which presented another obstacle to the progress of
our horses. Between the creeks, small patches of open forest land
intervened, with large blocks of rock scattered over them; most of the
creeks had a rocky bottom, and were running to the eastward.

July 23.

Sunday, we had prayers read as usual at eleven o'clock, and halted for
the day.

July 24.

We resumed our journey through the same description of country, cutting
through scrub, and occasionally travelling through open land, timbered
principally with Moreton Bay ash, box, and flooded-gum, and covered with
very long grass. We crossed two creeks running to the northward, on the
side of the last of which we camped. We were here compelled to shoot one
of our horses, which had fallen lame. During the week we had made very
little progress, being forced to turn in every direction to avoid the
deep gulleys, and the scrub which invariably prevailed in the bends of
the creeks. A tribe of natives visited us at this camp, and appeared very
friendly; they did not stop with us long. I saw to-day several trees of
the white-apple, as we called it, and which I have before described.

July 25.

We entered the scrub on the side of the creek, and proceeded along its
banks with difficulty, being obliged to cut our way through, but it grew
less dense after we had skirted the creek a short distance. We found the
creek to be the branch of a river, which here divided, one branch running
to the south-east (by which we had camped yesterday)the other running
east. It is rocky, and shallow where it divides, but grows deeper in its
course towards the coast. It is about two hundred yards wide, and its
banks are overhung with trees on each side. After following it about a
mile up, it grew much more shallow and narrow, and had a rocky bottom.

On the opposite side were patches of open forest ground, but they did not
extend to any distance. After skirting the river about three miles, we
crossed it in a shallow place, the bed of it being composed of blocks of
water-worn granite. The impediment offered by these blocks rendered it
very difficult for our horses to pass, although the water was only from
one to three feet deep. Several of the horses fell in crossing this
river; the one carrying my specimens fell three times, and my specimens
and seeds received much damage, if they were not entirely spoiled.

The river here runs from the north-west. We crossed it and entered the
scrub, but not being able to get through it before dark, we tied our
horses to trees, and slept by them all night.

July 27.

We were cutting through scrub nearly all day, and having recrossed the
river, cut our way to the top of a high hill, which we could not avoid.
We found a patch of open ground on the hill, with grass for our horses
and sheep. The trees growing on the hill were casuarinas, and acacias,
with a few box-trees. Here we camped and tethered our horses, for fear
they should fall down the steep bank of the river. At the foot of the
hill, on the opposite side of this river, the rocks were of great height,
and almost perpendicular. The river runs through a range of hills coming
from the eastward, joining a very high range, over which our journey now
lay. This range is composed of a dark-coloured granite, very hard; near
the water was a vein of talc schist, running north-west and south-east.
On the top of the hill we found large pebbles of quartz.

July 28.

This morning, having loosed our horses from the tether, one of them fell
down from the hill upon a ledge of hard rock at the edge of the river, a
descent of thirty feet; he was so much injured by the fall that he died
during the day. We came down the hill through the scrub towards the
mountains, and camped but a short distance from where we rested the
previous evening. We were now at the foot of the range.

July 29.

Mr. Kennedy proceeded to explore the range, to ascertain the best spot to
cross it, it being covered with thick scrub. It runs from the southward
and turns eastward. I dug up a piece of ground here near the edge of the
scrub, and sowed seeds of cabbage, turnip, rock and water melons,
parsley, leek, pomegranate, cotton, and apple pips.

I here found a beautiful orchideous plant, with the habit of Bletia
tankervilliae, flowering in the same manner, with flower-stems about
three feet high, and from twelve to twenty flowers on each stem. The
sepals were much larger than those of Bletia, and of a rich purple
colour; the column yellow, with a spur at the base of the flower about
three-fourths of an inch long. I packed some of its thick fleshy roots in
a tin case. I also here obtained specimens of a beautiful Hovea, with
long lanceolate leaves, a much finer shrub than H. celsii. Also a species
of Hibiscus, with rough palmate leaves, large bright sulphur-coloured
flowers, with a rich purple spot at the base of each petal, the stamens
and stigma bright red, the blossoms when fully expanded eight inches in
circumference; the plant has a very erect habit. Also another Hibiscus,
with obcordate tomentose leaves, and pink flowers; both these last were
very handsome shrubs. The trees on the open ground were casuarinas and
flooded-gums, with a few Balfourias. Although we had a very difficult
task before us--the ascent of the hills-our spirits did not fail us; but
the horses began to look very poor and weak, although they had always had
plenty of grass.

July 31.

Early this morning Mr. Kennedy, Jackey, and four others left the camp,
and began clearing a way up the mountain. They remained out the whole of
the day.

August 1.

Mr. Kennedy and his party returned to the camp, having determined on a
route by which we should proceed up the mountain. Mr. Kennedy spoke very
highly of Jackey, and thought him one of the best men of the party for
cutting away scrub and choosing a path; he never seemed tired, and was
very careful to avoid deep gullies.

August 3.

We started early this morning, and proceeded up a spur of the range, in a
north-westerly direction, but could not get so far as they had cleared.
We managed to get twenty-three horses and their loads up to a flat place
on the range, but, after several efforts, being unable to drive or lead
the other horse up, we left him tied to a tree in the scrub. We found him
all right the next morning, but as there was nothing but scrub before us,
Mr. Kennedy thought it prudent to send the horses back to where there was
grass and water for them, whilst some of the party cleared a path. After
we had entered the scrub, we crossed a small creek, running rapidly, and
which joined another running from the north-eastward, and which at their
junction, form the river we had been camped at for the last few previous

The creeks ran over precipitous rocky falls, and it was Mr. Kennedy's
opinion, that all the creeks we have met with on this side (coast side)
the range, run into the swamps, and there spread, and gathering again,
form into channels and run into Rockingham Bay. There is a large tract of
land opposite Rockingham Bay which is occupied by swamps, intersected by
patches of open ground, and a few peaked hills. The swamps extend about
forty-five miles, to about 145 degrees 20 minutes east longitude. It
seemed that a great deal of rain had fallen over this country, and it
rained at intervals all the time we were in the vicinity of Rockingham
Bay--from the 21st May to the middle of August. It was Mr. Kennedy's
opinion that the rainy season occurred very late this year. The whole
peninsula seemed to fall from the east towards the west.

August 4.

Mitchell, Dunn, and myself, took the horses and sheep to grass and water,
and having hobbled the former, we made ourselves a small hut with
saplings, and covered it with a small tarpaulin. We divided the night
watch into three parts, being four hours each.

August 5.

We mustered the horses morning and evening, and drove the sheep close to
the fire, having one of our kangaroo dogs chained up beside them, and the
other one with the sheep dog loose. We were apprehensive that the natives
might attack us.

August 6.

Shortly after we had mustered the cattle this morning, seven or eight
natives appeared at the edge of the scrub, in the direction from which we
had come. Just as they approached, an Australian magpie perched upon a
tree, and I shot it to show the effect of our firearms. On hearing the
report of the gun they all ran into the scrub, and we saw them no more.
On all occasions it was Mr. Kennedy's order--not to fire on the blacks,
unless they molested us. I was anxious on this occasion not to let the
natives know how few we were, and was glad to send them away in so quiet
a manner. One of our sheep died this day, and as we had lost several
before, and had but little to employ us, we opened it to see if we could
ascertain the cause of its death. We found its entrails full of water.
Our party was now divided into three bodies: Mr. Kennedy, Jackey, and
four others, clearing a way up the mountain; Niblett and three others
guarding the stores; whilst myself, Dunn, and Mitchell, had charge of the
sheep and horses. It was necessary, therefore, for us to keep a good
lookout, and two of us watched together.

August 7.

Early this morning a man came down to help us with the horses and sheep.
We loaded our horses, with the exception of one, which was too weak and
too much bruised from falling to travel. We turned him toward the open
ground, and having packed our horses went on till dark, when we tied our
horses to a tree and lay down for the night beside them, although it
rained all night. We had each of us a water can which held five pints,
which we filled, and our two water kegs, at the foot of the range,
fearing we might not find water in the journey over.

August 8.

At daylight we were afoot and breakfasted, and started immediately after.
We travelled up the hills all day, but made very little progress, owing
to the great labour of clearing, and the numerous steep ascents we met
with. We fortunately found water in a low place, and with difficulty
lighted a fire, everything being saturated with rain. We then laid down
and endeavoured to sleep, but were unable to do so from the number of
small leeches which attacked us. I was obliged to get up several times in
the night, and in the morning I found myself covered with blood.

August 9.

We started at daylight, although it was raining, and continued to do so
all day; about six o'clock in the evening we reached a small river,
running rapidly over rocks, and deep in some places. Its course was
north-easterly, but it turned north, a little below where we first came
upon it. We camped by the side of it, it being too late to cross,
although there was open forest ground on the other side. The open ground
on the coast side of the range was considerably lower than that on the
other, the highest part of our track being, according to Mr. Kennedy's
barometrical observations, upwards of two thousand feet above the level
of the sea. The soil was a strong loam of a dark colour, owing to the
admixture of a great deal of decomposed vegetable matter; rock projected
in many places, and in those parts where the rocks were near the surface,
Callitris (cypress pine) grew. In the deeper soil were large trees of the
genera Castanospermum, Lophostemon, and Cedrela, mingled with Achras
australis, Calamus (climbing palm), Seaforthia, Dicksonia, Osmunda, large
shrubs of Alyxia; several very interesting Orchideae were also found in
this place. We also discovered a great many snails, with very large
shells of a greyish colour. One I found on the bushes with an
operculum--this I gave to Wall.

August 10.

This morning we took the sheep and horses to a spot in the river where
the current was not so strong, and drove them across. The sheep followed
the horses like dogs. We then cut down three small straight trees, and
made a bridge across a deep channel which ran between two rocks which
projected out of the water, across which we carried our stores on our
backs. All the things were got over before dark, after which we made a
large fire to dry ourselves, having been wet to the waist all day.
Niblett, who had been very unwell for three or four days, was taken much
worse to-day. The position of our camp here was about 17 degrees 48
minutes South latitude, 145 degrees 20 minutes East longitude. We this
day crossed the range, and prepared to commence our journey on the other

August 11.

We remained this day at the camp to give the horses a rest after their
harrassing journey over the range.

August 12.

Proceeding about five miles over uneven open forest ground, with isolated
blocks of rock, we camped by a chain of rocky waterholes. The trees
growing here were casuarina, box, apple-gum, and ironbark.

August 13.

Sunday. Prayers as usual at eleven o'clock.

August 14.

Complaint was made to Mr. Kennedy of the waste and extravagant use of the
flour and sugar by Niblett, who had the charge of the stores. Mr. Kennedy
immediately proceeded to examine the remainder of the stores, when he
found that Niblett had been making false returns of the stores issued
weekly. Up to this time Mr. Kennedy, Niblett, and Douglas (who waited on
Mr. Kennedy) had messed together, apart from the other ten. Niblett took
charge of the ration for the smaller mess, and usually cooked it himself,
the ration being taken out weekly from that weighed for the whole party.
Besides issuing a larger ration to his own mess, Niblett had taken a
great deal from the stores for himself.

On finding this out, Mr. Kennedy requested me to take charge of the
stores, and issue them to the cook for the week, and from this date we
all messed together. We had at this time about seven hundred pounds flour
left. Everything was weighed in the presence of the whole party before I
took charge, and I always weighed out every week's ration in the presence
of the cook and two other parties. At this camp it was found necessary to
reduce our ration to the following scale per week; fifty pounds flour,
twelve pounds sugar, two and three-quarter pounds tea, and the sheep as
before--one every second day. After the ration was cooked, it was divided
by the cook at every meal. We this day burned our sheepfold to lighten
our loads a little.

August 15.

We were cutting through scrub nearly all day, and crossed several small
creeks running westward. This day the horse carrying my specimens had
become so poor and weak that he fell five different times, and we were
obliged to relieve him of his load, which was now placed on one of Mr.
Kennedy's horses; but we soon found that even without a load he could not
travel. We took off his saddle, bridle, and tether rope, and left him
behind on a spot of good grass, where plenty of water was to be found.

The country here had a rugged and broken appearance; huge blocks of rock
were lying on the open ground, sometimes one irregularly placed on the
top of another, and of curious shapes. The hills as well as the valleys
were generally covered with good grass, excepting in the scrub. On some
of the hills the rocks were shivered into irregular pieces, and displayed
crystals of quartz, small laminae of mica, and occasionally hornblende.
This evening we camped by the side of a fine casuarina creek, coming from
the north-east. Immediately over our camp its waters ran over a very hard
trap-rock of a black colour, the soil a stiff loam.

August 16.

We travelled on for the most part of this day over irregular, barren,
stony ridges, and gullies, intersected by numerous small creeks, and
abounding in rocky holes, all containing plenty of water.

Two more of our horses fell several times this day; one of them being
very old, and so weak that we were obliged to lift him up. We now made up
our minds for the first time, to make our horses, when too weak to
travel, available for food; we therefore killed him, and took meat enough
from his carcass to serve our party for two days, and by this means we
saved a sheep. We boiled the heart, liver, and a piece of the meat to
serve us for our breakfast next day. We camped in the evening in the
midst of rocky, broken hills, covered with dwarf shrubs and stunted
gumtrees; the soil in which they grew appearing more sandy than what we
had yet passed on this side of the range. The shrubs here were Dodonaea,
Fabricia, Daviesia, Jacksonia, and two or three dwarf species of acacia,
one of which was very showy, about three feet high, with very small
oblong, sericeous phyllodia, and globular heads of bright yellow flowers,
produced in great abundance on axillary fascicles; also a very fine
leguminous shrub, bearing the habit and appearance of Callistachys, with
fine terminal spikes of purple decandrous flowers, with two small
bracteae on the foot-stalk of each flower, and with stipulate, oval,
lanceolate leaves, tomentose beneath, legumes small and flattened, three
to six-seeded, with an arillus as large as the seed; these were flowering
from four to twelve feet high. There was plenty of grass in the valleys
of the creeks. To the South-West on the hills the grasses were Restio,
Xerotes, and a spiny grass, which neither the horses nor the sheep would

August 17.

This morning we commenced to prepare our breakfast of horse-flesh. I
confess we did not feel much appetite for the repast, and some would not
eat it at all; but our scruples soon gave way beneath the pangs of
hunger, and at supper every man of the party ate heartily of it, and
afterwards each one claimed his share of the mess with great avidity. The
country to the north and north-west--the course we intended to
pursue--looking very rugged and broken, we were discouraged from
proceeding further this day, as the weak state of our horses prevented us
making almost any progress. We therefore camped by the side of a small
rocky creek, winding through the mountains in all directions.

August 18.

Shortly after starting this morning we crossed a creek, running
south-west, with a few arborescent Callistemons growing out of the rocks
here and there. The horse which Mr. Wall had been riding had grown so
weak that it was unable to travel, even with nothing to carry but the
saddle. As we were passing along the side of a hill, he fell and rolled
down into a gully. Being quite a young horse we thought he might regain
strength, and did not like to kill him, so we left him and proceeded to
find a good place for camping, which we did after travelling about four
miles in the north-west direction, by the side of a fine river, with
steep reedy banks, lined with large casuarinas and flooded-gum trees, and
abundance of grass growing in the valley of the river. At this camp the
feet of our horses were all carefully examined by Costigan, who was a
blacksmith: it was also his duty to mark the number of each of our camps
on some adjacent tree.

August 19.

Wall rode back to see if he could bring up the horse we had left behind,
but on reaching the spot found him dead; one of our kangaroo-dogs had
also stopped behind by the horse, being unable to follow us to the camp.
We had the good luck to succeed in catching several fish in the river,
and, what was better, shot a fine wallaby, which saved us another sheep.
We had all along been particularly unfortunate in getting anything from
the bush to add to our mess, not having been able either to shoot or
catch anything for some time past except a few pigeons and two or three
brown hawks.

The river by which we were camped was running west by south: below our
camp it was not nearly so wide as at the spot where we came upon it.
Where it turned through the hills its banks were rocky and steep, and the
bed narrow, but running rapidly. The hills here, as well as the valley of
the river, were well covered with grass. The position of the camp was
about 17 degrees 30 minutes south latitude, 145 degrees 12 minutes east

August 20, 21, and 22.

During the whole of these three days we travelled over undulating open
land, wooded pretty thickly with stringy-bark, box, and apple-gum,
interspersed with occasional sandy flats, producing a broad-leafed
Melaleuca, and a pretty species of Grevillea, with pinnatifid, silvery
leaves. Neither the Melaleuca nor the Grevillea grew more than twenty
feet high. On the flats we found a great number of ant-hills, remarkable
for their height and size; they were of various forms, but chiefly
conical, some of them rose ten feet high. From the appearance of the
ant-hills I should take the sub-soil to be of a reddish clay.

August 23.

We camped by the side of a creek running to the westward, with rather a
broad bed, and steep banks of strong clay. There was no water in the
creeks except in holes.

A tribe of natives, from eighteen to twenty in number, were seen coming
down the creek, each carrying a large bundle of spears. Three of our
party left the camp and went towards them, carrying in their hands green
boughs, and making signs to the blacks to lay down their spears and come
to us. After making signals to them for some minutes, three or four of
them laid down their spears and approached us. I went back to the camp
and fetched a few fish-hooks, and a tin plate marked with Mr. Kennedy's
initials; having presented them with these they went away and appeared
quite friendly. Shortly after we had camped, Goddard and Jackey went out
for the purpose of shooting wallabies; they parted company at the base of
a hill, intending to go round and meet on the other side, but missing
each other, Jackey returned to the camp without his companion. To our
great alarm Goddard did not return all night, although we kept up a good
fire as a beacon to show him where we were camped, and fired a pistol
every five minutes during the night.

August 24.

Three of our party, accompanied by Jackey, rode to the spot where the
latter had left Goddard on the previous day, intending, if possible, to
track him, and succeeded in doing so for some distance to the eastward,
but then coming to some stony ground, they lost the track.

They returned in about six hours, hoping to find him at the camp, but
were disappointed. We now began to fear that our companion was lost, and
poor Jackey displayed great uneasiness, fearing that he might be blamed
for leaving him, and repeatedly saying that he did not wish Goddard to
leave the camp at all, and that he had waited for him some time on the
opposite side of the hill, where they were to meet. Four fresh horses
were saddled, and Jackey, with Mr. Kennedy, Wall, and Mitchell, were just
on the point of starting to renew the search, when to our great joy we
observed him at a distance, approaching the camp. It would have been
sadly discouraging to the whole party to have lost one of our companions
in so wild and desolate a spot. We made but a short stage to-day in a
northerly direction, and camped by the side of a creek running west by
south, which, with the last two creeks we had passed, we doubted not,
from the appearance of the country, ran into the river we had crossed on
the 20th instant. The country appeared to fall considerably to the
westward. All the rivers and large creeks we had seen on this side the
range (that crossed on the 10th instant) rose in or near the coast range,
and appeared to run westerly across the peninsula into the Gulf of

Although few of them appeared to be constantly running, yet there is an
abundance of water to be found in holes and reaches of the rivers and
creeks. Where there was any scrub by the side of the creeks, it was
composed principally of the climbing palm (Calamus), Glyceria, Kennedya,
Mucuna, and a strong growing Ipomoea, with herbaceo-fibrous roots and
palmate leaves; and in a few places bamboos were growing.

The trees were, Eugenias, Terminalias, Castanospermums, with two or three
kinds of deciduous figs, bearing large bunches of yellowish fruit on the
trunks. Although we frequently partook of these figs I found they did not
agree with us; three or four of the party who frequently ate a great
quantity, although advised not to do so, suffered severely from pain in
the head and swelling of the eyes. The forest trees on the ironstone
ridges were stringy-bark, and on the grassy hills box, Moreton Bay ash,
and a tree belonging to the natural order Leguminosae, with axillary
racemes of white apetalous flowers, long, broad, flat, many-seeded
legumes, large, bipinnate leaves, leaflets oval, one inch long, and
having dark fissured bark; on the flat stiff soil grew ironbark,
apple-tree, and another species of Angophora, with long lanceolate
leaves, seed vessels as large as the egg of a common fowl and a smooth
yellow bark.

August 27.

This day being Sunday we had prayers at eleven o'clock. We saved the
blood of the sheep we had killed for today's food, and having cut up the
heart, liver, and kidneys, we mixed it all with a little flour and boiled
it for breakfast. By this means we made some small saving, and it was a
dish that we were very fond of. We saved all the wool that we could get
from our sheep, for the purpose of stuffing our saddles, a process which
was frequently required, owing to the poor condition of our horses.

August 28.

We started early this morning, but had not travelled far when one of our
horses fell from weakness; we placed him on his legs four times during
the day, but finding the poor animal could not walk, we shot him and took
sufficient meat from him with us to last us two days. After making but a
short stage, over ironstone ridges, covered with stringy-bark, and loamy
flats, producing Melaleucas and Grevilleas, we camped beside a small
creek, in the sandy bed of which there was no water, but from which we
soon obtained some by digging a hole about two feet deep. We afterwards
found there was plenty of water in the creek higher up to the eastward.

August 29.

We were obliged to leave another horse behind us this morning as he was
quite unable to travel. We camped by the sandy bed of a very broad river,
with water only in reaches and holes. There is, however, evidently a
great deal of water running here occasionally, as the bed of the river
was six or seven hundred yards wide, with two or three channels. The
flood-marks on the trees were fifteen feet high; it has a north-easterly
course; its bed was composed in places of large blocks of granite and
trap-rock, which was very difficult to walk upon, being very slippery.
Fine melaleucas were growing on each side, which with their long
pendulous shoots and narrow silvery leaves, afforded a fine shade from
the heat of the sun. There was plenty both of grass and water for the
horses, but most of them continued to grow weaker.

August 30 and 31.

The country was very mountainous and so full of deep gullies, that we
were frequently obliged to follow the course of a rocky creek, the
turnings of which were very intricate; to add to our difficulties, many
of the hills were covered with scrub so thickly that it was with much
difficulty that we could pursue our course through it. We had intended to
have kept along the bank of the river, thinking it might lead us to
Princess Charlotte's Bay, and although unable to do so, we did not as yet
lose sight of the river altogether.

September 1.

All this day we continued travelling over very uneven country, full of
precipitous rocks and gullies, until we came to a bend of the river: we
now followed it in its tortuous course through the rocks, till we came to
a flat country where its channels were divided by high green banks, on
which were growing large drooping tea-trees (melaleucas); growing on
these I found a beautiful species of Loranthus, with large fascicles of
orange coloured flowers, the leaves cordate, and clasping the stem. On
the hills I found a Brachychiton, with crimson flowers; the tree had a
stunted growth, with deciduous leaves. I collected as much of the gum as
I could, and advised the others to do the same; we ate it with the
roasted seeds, but were unable to find much of the gum or of the seeds.

September 2.

We travelled over uneven rocky ground, and crossed several gullies, and
camped by the bed of a river, at a spot where there were fine reaches of
water, full of Nymphaea and Villarsia. There was plenty of good grass in
the valley of the river, which was not very wide here, but on the hills
many parts had been recently burned, and the grass was just springing up.

September 3.

Sunday. We had prayers at eleven o'clock, and afterwards, during the day,
we shot a small emu and a kangaroo. Being camped by the side of the
river, we were able to catch a few fish, which were a most acceptable
change to us.

The country through which we had passed for the last two days consisted
of a good stiff soil, well covered with grass, openly timbered and well

September 4 and 5.

The country continued much the same, making travelling most difficult and
laborious. We were now in the vicinity of Cape Tribulation. While
traversing the bed of the river, in which we were in many places obliged
to travel, we passed two very high peaked hills to the westward.

September 6.

We now found the river beginning to run in all directions through the
hills, over which it was impossible to travel. We were consequently
forced to keep the bed of the river, our horses falling every few
minutes, in consequence of the slippery surface of the rocks over which
they were obliged to pass--consisting of dark granite.

The sterility of the hills here is much relieved by the bunches of
beautiful large yellow flowers of the Cochlospermum Gossypium,
interspersed with the large balls of white cotton, just bursting from the
seed-vessels. I collected a bag full of this cotton, wherewith to stuff
our pack-saddles, as our sheep did not supply us with wool enough for
that purpose. On these hills, too, I saw a beautiful Calythrix, with pink
flowers, and two or three very pretty dwarf acacias. As Mr. Kennedy and
myself were walking first of the party, looking out for the best path for
the horses to travel in, I fell with violence, and unfortunately broke
Mr. Kennedy's mountain barometer, which I carried. I also bruised one of
my fingers very much, by crushing it with my gun.

September 7 and 8.

We continued following the river through its westward course, through a
very mountainous country. On the hills I saw a very handsome Bauhinia, a
tree about twenty feet high, with spreading branches covered with
axillary fascicles of red flowers, long broad flat legumes, pinnate
leaves, leaflets oval, about one inch long; an Erythrina, with fine
racemes of orange-coloured flowers, with long narrow keel, and broad
vexillum, leaves palmate, and three to five lunate leaflets, long, round,
painted legumes, red seeds; also a rose-coloured Brachychiton, with
rather small flowers, a deciduous tree of stunted habit, about twenty
feet high. We also passed narrow belts of low sandy loam, covered with
Banksias, broad-leafed Melaleucas, and the orange-coloured Grevillea I
have before spoken of. On these flats we again met with large ant-hills,
six to ten feet high, and eight feet in circumference; the land at the
base was of a reddish colour.

September 9.

We had a fine view of the surrounding country from the top of a high
hill, in the midst of a range over which we passed. To the west and round
to the south the country appeared to be fine undulating forest land,
intersected by numerous creeks and small rivers falling considerably to
the westward, as in fact all the water had been running for some days
past. Doubtless there must be plenty of water in the holes and reaches of
these rivers and creeks at all seasons, but in the rainy season many of
them must be deep and rapid streams, as the flood-marks on the trees were
from fifteen to twenty feet high. The river along the course of which we
had been so long travelling varied in width from two hundred to eight
hundred yards. It has two, or, in some places, three distinct channels,
and in the flat country through which it passes these are divided by
large drooping melaleucas.

It is singular that the country here should be so destitute of game; we
had seen a few wallabies and some ducks, but were seldom able to shoot
any of them; we had not seen more than four or five emus altogether since
we started; a few brown hawks which we occasionally shot, were almost the
only addition we were enabled to make to our small ration. To-day we got
an iguana and two ducks, which with the water in which our mutton was
boiled, would have made us a good pot of soup, had there been any
substance in the mutton. Even thin as it was, we were very glad to get
it. The rivers also seemed to contain but few fish, as we only caught a
few of two different kinds, one of which without scales, resembled the
catfish, caught near Sydney;* the other was a dark thick fish with

(*Footnote. Plotosus macrocephalus.)

September 10.

Finding that the river continued running to the westward, and not as we
had hoped towards Princess Charlotte's Bay, we left it and turned in a
northerly direction, travelling over very rocky ridges covered with
cochlospermums and acacias, interspersed with occasional patches of open
forest land, and strewed with isolated blocks of course granite
containing crystals of quartz and laminae of white mica. Prayers as usual
at eleven o'clock.

We had not seen natives for several days, but this night, whilst one of
the party was keeping watch, a short distance from the fire, about eleven
o'clock, he heard the chattering of the blacks. Three spears were almost
immediately thrown into the camp and fell near the fire, but fortunately
without injuring any of the party. We fired a few shots in the direction
from which the spears came; the night being so dark that we could not see
them. We entertained fears that some of our horses might be speared, as
they were at some distance from the camp, but fortunately the blacks
offered us no further molestation.

September 11 and 12.

We pursued our northern course, the ground becoming very rotten; by the
sides of small creeks in sandy flats were belts of broad-leafed
Melaleucas and Grevilleas. We met with scrubs of Leptospermum, Fabricia,
and Dodonaea. By the creeks, when the ground was sandy, we saw Abrus
precatorius, and a small tree about fifteen feet high, with bi-pinnate
leaves, the leaflets very small, with long flat legumes containing ten or
twelve black and red seeds, like those of Abrus precatorius, but rather

September 13 and 14.

Most part of these days we travelled over a country of stiff soil,
covered with iron-bark, and divided at intervals by belts of sandy
ground, on which grew Banksias, Callitris, and a very pretty Lophostemon,
about twenty feet high, with long narrow lanceolate leaves, and a very
round bushy top. By the side of the small streams running through the
flat ground, I saw a curious herbaceous plant, with large pitchers at the
end of the leaves, like those of the common pitcher-plant (Nepenthes
distillatoria). It was too late in the season to find flowers, but the
flower-stems were about eighteen inches high, and the pitchers would hold
about a wine-glass full of water. This interesting and singular plant
very much attracted the attention of all our party.

We here fell in with a camp of natives. Immediately they saw us they ran
away from their camp, leaving behind them some half-cooked food,
consisting of the meal of some seeds (most likely Moreton Bay chestnuts)
which had been moistened, and laid in small irregular pieces on a flat
stone with a small fire beneath it. We took a part of this baked meal,
leaving behind some fish-hooks as payment. In the camp we also found a
considerable quantity of Pandanus fruit, which grows very plentifully
here. Although, however, it is sweet and pleasant to the taste, I found
that the natives did not eat largely of it, as it possessed very relaxing
qualities, and caused violent headache, with swelling beneath the eyes.

Some narrow belts of land we passed here betrayed indications of having
been frequently inundated by fresh water. The ground was very uneven,
full of small hillocks which were hidden by long grass, which caused our
weak horses to fall very frequently.

September 15.

This day we had better travelling, the soil becoming a strong greyish
loam; the forest land open and free from scrub, the trees principally
consisting of iron-bark, box, and the leguminous tree, with bi-pinnate
leaves, and dark fissured bark I have before alluded to. We saw here a
great many pigeons of various kinds; Mr. Wall shot one pair of Geophaps
plumifera, which he preserved; also a pair of small pigeons of a greyish
colour, with red round the eyes, which he considered new. I also saw a
large tree and obtained specimens of it, belonging to the natural order
Bignoniaceae, with terminal spikes of yellow flowers, and rough cordate
leaves; and a Proteaceous plant with long compound racemes of white
flowers, and deeply cut leaves, resembling a tree with true pinnate
leaves. The large-seeded Angophora mentioned by me before, also grew in
this district.

About ten o'clock we came upon the banks of a very fine river, with a
very broad bed, and steep banks on both sides. No doubt this was the
river we had seen to the eastward from our camp on the 9th instant. Mr.
Kennedy considered this stream to rise somewhere near Cape Tribulation,
and after running northward about thirty miles, to turn to the
south-west, the way it was running when we came upon it. In this place it
appeared a fine deep river, and we followed it in its south-west course,
at a short distance from its banks, for six or seven miles. The
south-east bank was, for the last three or four miles we traced it,
covered with a narrow belt of scrub, composed of Flagellaria, Jasminum,
Phyllanthus, and a rambling plant, belonging to the natural order
Verbenaceae, with terminal spikes of white, sweet-scented flowers. The
trees were principally Castanospermum, Melia, Rulingia, and
Sarcocephalus, and a beautiful tree belonging to the natural order
Bombaceae, probably to the genus Eriodendron, with large spreading
branches, which, as well as the trunk, were covered with spines. These
trees are from thirty to fifty feet in height, and produce large crimson
campanulate flowers, composed of five large stiff petals, about two
inches long; stamens numerous, all joining at the base, and divided again
into five parcels; the filaments are the same length as the petals; five
cleft stigma; large five-celled capsule, many-seeded cells, the seeds
being wrapped in a white silky cotton. This tree was deciduous, the
leaves being palmate, and grew on stiff soil: its large crimson flowers
attracted universal admiration.

We crossed the river at a spot where its banks were not so steep, and
where there was but from one to three feet of water; in some places the
bottom was sandy and in others rocky, but we could see rock only in the
bed of the river. We camped on the side of the river, on some recently
burned grass; five of the party went fishing a short distance up the
river, and caught a few fish. The country here to the west and the
south-west was open undulating forest land, which had been burned some
short time before, and the grass just growing again, formed beautiful
feed for our horses and sheep.

Towards evening about six or eight natives made their appearance, on the
same side of the river as our camp; when about two hundred yards from us
they shipped their spears in their throwing-sticks, and with other
warlike gestures gradually drew near to us, making a great noise,
doubtless thinking to frighten us. There being a wide deep gully between
the natives and our camp, we drew up along the edge of it, with our
firearms all ready to give them a warm reception should they endeavour to
approach to closer hostilities. We endeavoured to make them understand
that our intentions were friendly, and that we wished them to be
peaceable; but they seemed to construe our signals to make them
comprehend this, into indications of fear on our part; this increased
their courage, and strengthened their determination to drive us away if
possible, although they would not come within reach of our guns. We
however fired at them, and although none were hurt, they appeared much
frightened at the report of the firearms. They left us and went in the
direction taken by the five of our party who had gone fishing, and for
the safety of whom we began to be alarmed; our fears were increased, by
hearing the report of a gun a few minutes afterwards. It seemed they had
seen our party fishing by the side of the river, and instantly ran at
them, to attack them; but one of the party placed on the bank as a
lookout, fired at them as they came up, just as they were preparing to
throw their spears, on which they turned their backs, and took to flight
as fast as they could.

September 16.

This morning after breakfast, Mitchell and myself took two horses and
re-crossed the river. We went about two miles back to a spot where I had
seen some Portulaca, intending to bring some of it back to the camp to
boil as a vegetable, it being the only description of food of the kind
that we had been able to obtain throughout our journey. We filled a bag
with it and returned to the camp, when I found half a damper, one meal's
bread had been stolen from the stores during my absence. This was not the
first theft of the kind that had been committed, and it was found
necessary to watch the provisions night and day. Mr. Kennedy was anxious
to discover the thief in this instance, as it was stolen in open daylight
while Mr. Kennedy himself was keeping a lookout in his tent, not twenty
yards from where the provisions were stolen; every man's load was
searched, but in vain, and Mr. Kennedy, knowing that a party left the
camp for the purpose of fishing a short distance up the river, and
another party a few yards down the river to wash some clothes--took
Jackey with him, who, by detecting some crumbs on the ground, discovered
that the damper had been eaten at the place where the clothes were

So careless were some of the party of the fatal consequences of our
provisions being consumed before we arrived at Cape York, that as soon as
we camped and the horses were unpacked, it was necessary that all the
provisions should be deposited together on a tarpaulin, and that I should
be near them by day and by night, so that I could not leave the camp at
all, unless Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Wall undertook to watch the stores. I was
obliged to watch the food whilst cooking; it was taken out of the boiler
in the presence of myself and two or three others, and placed in the
stores till morning.

It was seldom that I could go to bed before nine or ten o'clock at night,
and I had to be up at four in the morning to see our tea made and
sweetened, and our breakfast served out by daylight. The meals we cut up
in thirteen parts, as nearly equal as possible, and one person touched
each part in succession; whilst another person, with his back turned,
called out the names of the party, the person named taking the part
touched. The scrupulous exactness we were obliged to practise with
respect to our provisions was increased by our misfortune in getting next
to nothing to assist our scanty ration; while the extreme labour to which
we were subjected increased our appetites. Two of the party always went
out at daylight to fetch the horses in, and it was necessary we should
start at early morning on account of the great heat in the middle of the
day. We always endeavoured to make a fair stage by ten o'clock, and then,
if in a convenient place, to halt: sometimes we were obliged to halt at
nine o'clock, but we started again generally about three or four o'clock
P.M., and travelled on till six.

Twelve or fourteen natives made their appearance at the camp this
evening, in the same direction as on the previous day. Each one was armed
with a large bundle of spears, and with boomerangs. Their bodies were
painted with a yellowish earth, which with their warlike gestures, made
them look very ferocious. The grass in the position they had taken up was
very long and very dry, quite up to the edge of the gully; they set it on
fire in three or four places, and the wind blowing from them to us, it
burned very rapidly. Thinking we should be frightened at this display
they followed the fire with their spears shipped, making a most hideous
noise, and with the most savage gestures. Knowing the fire could not
reach us, as there was nothing to burn on our side the gully, we drew up
towards them with our firearms prepared. They approached near enough to
throw three spears into our camp, one of which went quite through one of
our tents. No one was hurt, but a few of our party fired at them; we
could not tell whether any were wounded, as they disappeared almost
immediately. We kept three on watch this night for fear of the natives.

September 17 to 21.

Leaving the river, we turned north-west, and had occasionally fair
travelling over stiff soil, intersected by many creeks, most of them dry,
but were everywhere able to find water at intervals of a few miles. We
passed over some ironstone ridges, and rocky hills, covered with
Callitris, Cochlospermum, and Sterculias. On the stiff soil the trees
were ironbark, box, apple-gum, and some large acacias, with long
lanceolate phyllodia, and large spikes of golden-coloured flowers. The
grass here in the valleys between the hills had been burned, and was
grown up again about eight or ten inches high.

September 22.

We crossed a creek running eastward, overhung by Melaleucas and
arborescent callistemons, with plenty of grass on both sides; the soil
appeared to become more sandy than that over which we had hitherto

September 23.

We proceeded in our course, travelling over sandy ridges covered with
Eugenia, Exocarpus, and a very pretty Eucalyptus, with rose-coloured
flowers and obcordate leaves, and yellow soft bark, also a dwarfish tree
with dark green leaves, and axillary racemes of round monospermons, fruit
of a purple colour, with a thin rind of a bitter flavour; also a great
many trees of moderate size, from fifteen to twenty feet high, of rather
pendulous habit, oval lanceolate exstipulate leaves, loaded with an
oblong yellow fruit, having a rough stone inside; the part covering the
stone has, when ripe, a mealy appearance, and very good flavour. I
considered from its appearance it was the fruit which Leichhardt called
the nonda, which we always afterwards called it; we all ate plentifully
of it.

The weather for the last few days had been very hot, the thermometer
ranging in the shade from 95 to 100 degrees at noon; still there was
generally a breeze in the morning from the eastward, and in the evening
from the west. We camped by the same creek as on the previous day, but in
our present position it was running South-West, with several lagoons in
the valley, full of Nymphaea and Villarsia; our latitude here was 15
degrees 33 minutes south.

September 24.

We crossed the creek and proceeded northward, till we camped by a dry
creek, from the bed of which we obtained water by digging. During the
day's journey, we passed over some flats of rotten honeycomb ground, on
which nothing was growing but a few stunted shrubs, and a blue herbaceous
plant belonging to the order Boragineae. We also passed over other sandy
flats covered with broad-leafed Melaleucas and Grevillias, and a few
Banksias. On these flats ant-hills occurred, and in their vicinity there
was seldom much grass. The grasses generally growing there were annual
kinds. It was Mr. Kennedy's opinion that the creek we crossed this
morning joined the river we left on the 16th, and formed the Mitchell,
although the country hereabouts did not resemble the banks of the
Mitchell, as described by Leichhardt; but the appearance of the country
varies so much every few miles, particularly to the westward, that it is
impossible to support an opposite opinion on this ground.

September 25.

As three of the horses could not be found this morning, four men were
left behind to search for them while the rest of the party travelled on.
They had not come up with us at about four o'clock, and being anxious to
find water before dark, we proceeded along a narrow open valley covered
with long grass and large pandanus trees, skirted on each side by rather
scrubby forest land. At dark we reached a large waterhole. One of the men
left behind shortly arrived, and stated that the rest had halted for the
night. Mr. Kennedy being anxious to bring all the horses to water, and to
have the party together, sent me back to conduct them to the camp, which
I very soon did, even though it was dark, the track being very plain. We
collected a great many nondas to-day and baked some of them with our
bread, which was the only way we could eat them cooked; they were much
better fresh from the trees, but we found them rather astringent. Spring,
our best kangaroo dog, was unable to come up to the camp this day, being
overpowered by the heat of the sun, a circumstance we all regretted, as
he was a most excellent watchdog.

September 26.

We travelled a good stage this morning before we found water--in a sandy
creek, where the country seemed to fall slightly to the north-east. We
still hoped to find a river running into Princess Charlotte's Bay.

September 27.

We proceeded North-East over alternating sandy ridges and marshy flats;
the latter, though dry where we passed over them, presented the
appearance of being generally inundated. We camped by the side of a rocky
creek, containing very little water.

September 28.

Just as we were about to start this morning, two natives, carrying a
bundle of reeds and a basket, passed within a short distance of our camp,
and seemed to take no notice of us. Our sheep were not to be found,
having rambled to a distance: although without a sheepfold, this was the
first instance in which the sheep had strayed; they generally remained by
the fire, towards which they were driven at night, till morning.

We had never seen a wild native dog during the journey. Our dog that we
had left behind came into the camp to-night, very much exhausted, having
travelled about thirty miles; he must have subsisted on nondas, as it was
impossible he could have caught anything, and we had seen him eat them
before. He died the following morning.

September 30.

After travelling a short distance we crossed a small river running
eastward: for some distance down it, the water was brackish, and at
spring-tide the salt water came up to our camp; but we obtained good
water from a small lagoon near the camp. We proceeded over a large plain
well covered with good grass, the soil stiff clay. We proceeded about
five or six miles on this plain, turning westward towards a lagoon
surrounded by Stravadiums and a few very large palms. We hoped to find
water in it, but it was dry, and fearing we should not be able to reach
water before dark if we proceeded in this direction, we thought it better
to return to our camp.

October 1.

We had prayers this day as usual on Sundays, at eleven o'clock. We saw
native fires at a distance to the north-east of our camp, but the natives
did not come near us. I went up what we fancied was the river by which we
had camped, but found it only a creek; but it had plenty of water in it
at this season. There were several small lagoons near it. There were
large drooping tea-trees (Melaleucas) growing on its banks, and large
palm trees, of the same kind as those I had seen in the plain the day
before, and which were by far the finest palms I had ever seen; the
trunks were not very high, from fifteen to thirty feet in height, but
very large in bulk, varying from six to eight feet in circumference: they
had large fan-shaped leaves, with slightly curved spines on the
footstalk. It is a dioecious palm, the female plants bearing an immense
quantity of round fruit, about the size of a greengage plum, of a purple
colour, and rather disagreeable flavour; the pulp covering the seed was
very oily, and not a leaf to be seen on any of the fruit-bearing plants;
the whole top consists of branches full of ripe and unripe seeds. Bushels
of seeds were lying beneath some of the trees, it seeming that but few
were eaten by birds or small animals. One of our party suffered severely
from eating too freely of them as they brought on diarrhoea. I measured
two or three of the leaves of the male plants, and those not of the
largest size, and found them to measure six feet in the widest part, and
four feet and half in the narrowest. These leaves were split by the wind
into segments of various widths. The grass growing to the westward of our
camp was not so high as that to the eastward, and appeared to consist of
a larger proportion of annual grasses, the perennial grass growing only
in tufts; near the river it was covered with an annual Ipomoea, of very
strong growth; the leaves and blossoms were withered, but I obtained
seeds. We shot three ducks to-day, and Wall killed a wallaby of a light
grey colour, long soft fur, and rather bushy tail; he thought it new, and
preserved the skin. I also obtained specimens of a beautiful plant, a
shrub about two feet high, with white sweet-scented blossoms, belonging
to the natural order Rubiaceae, and several other interesting plants.
Lately, however, my specimens had been very much spoiled, being torn from
the horse's back so frequently, that I grew disheartened to see all the
efforts I had made, made in vain, although I still took every method to
preserve them from injury.

October 2.

This morning we proceeded across the plain, and when we had advanced
about two miles upon it, we discovered that the natives had set the grass
on fire behind us, and the wind blowing from the eastward, and the grass
growing thick and high, it rapidly gained upon us; we made all possible
haste to some burned ground which we had seen on Saturday, and reached it
only a few minutes before the fire. We were enveloped in smoke and ashes,
but fortunately no one was burned. The natives did not come near us,
although no doubt they watched us, and saw us proceeding to the part of
the plain that was burned. The plain extended a great distance to the
westward, and in crossing it one of our horses knocked up and could
travel no longer; Mr. Kennedy ordered him to be bled, and we not liking
to lose the blood, boiled it as a blood-pudding with a little flour, and
in the situation we were, we enjoyed it very much.

October 3.

We killed the horse this morning as he was not able to stand, and dried
the meat to carry with us; we made a small stage of saplings on which to
dry the meat, which was cut off close to the bone as clean as possible,
and then cut in thin slices, and laid on the stage in the sun to dry, and
the sun being very hot, it dried well; the heart, liver, and kidneys were
parboiled, and cut up fine, and mixed with the blood of the horse and
about three pounds of flour; they made four puddings, with which, after
they had boiled about four hours, we satisfied our appetites better than
we had been able to do for some time: it was served up in the same manner
as our usual rations, in equal parts, and each man had a right to reserve
a portion of his mess till the next day, but very little was saved. Mr.
Kennedy found that it was even necessary to have the horseflesh watched
whilst drying, finding that two or three of the party had secreted small
quantities amongst their clothes; such precautions were quite necessary,
as well in justice to the whole of the party, as to keep up the strength
of all, which seemed to be very fast declining. At night we made a fire
to smoke the meat, and to destroy the maggots, which were very numerous
in it; we packed the meat in empty flour bags.

October 4.

We proceeded northward over small sandy plains, covered with annual
grass, which was now very much withered, and through belts of dwarf bushy
Melaleucas and Banksias. We were not far from Princess Charlotte's Bay,
Jane's Table Land being in sight. We came to the side of a salt lagoon,
very nearly dry; we found it covered with salt, of which we took about 20
pounds, which was as much as we could carry, but even this was a very
seasonable help; we rubbed about two pounds of it into our meat. We
encamped by a small creek, but the water was brackish, and not being able
to find any other we were obliged to make use of it. One of our horses
was slightly hurt by a stump of a mangrove tree. All we got from the
horse we last killed was sixty-five pounds of meat.

October 5 and 6.

We travelled over sandy soil, but with little grass, meeting frequently
with salt lagoons, surrounded by various salsolaceous plants. Near the
edge of a saltwater creek we found a native camp, composed of about seven
or eight huts, curiously and neatly built of a conical form; all very
nearly of the same size, about five and a half feet in diameter at the
base, and six and a half feet high. They were made by placing saplings in
the ground in a slanting position, which were tied together at the top
and woven inside like wickerwork, with strips of small bamboo canes. The
whole was then covered with palm leaves, over which was a coating of
tea-tree bark, very neatly fastened by strips of cane. They were
substantially built, and would no doubt keep out the wet effectually.
They seemed to be occupied by the natives only in the rainy season, as,
from their appearance, they had not been inhabited for some time. I
entered one of them through a small arched opening of about twenty inches
or two feet high, and found three or four nets, made with thin strips of
cane, about five feet long, with an opening of about eight inches in
diameter at one end, getting gradually smaller for about four feet, where
there was a small opening into a large round sort of basket. These nets
were laid by the natives in narrow channels to catch fish, as well as in
the tracks of small animals, such as rats and bandicoots, for the purpose
of trapping them. There were also some pieces of glass bottle in the hut,
carefully wrapped in bark and placed in a very neat basket, made in the
shape of a lady's reticule. The glass is used by the natives in marking
themselves: all of them being scarred on the arms and breast, while some
were marked on the cheeks and forehead.

In the camp we thus discovered were small stone ovens, similar to those
we had found in the camp at Rockingham Bay, as well as one with a large
flat stone raised six or eight inches from the ground, and a fireplace of
loose stones beneath. Near to one of the tents was a large stone hollowed
out in the middle, and two or three round pebbles for pounding dried
seeds, etc.

October 7 and 8.

Flat sandy ground, with occasional patches of scrub, composed of bushy
Melaleucas, Hibiscus, Banksia, and several rambling plants, with a few
large palms scattered in places; there was not much grass, except at

October 9.

This morning we came to a river, running into Princess Charlotte's Bay,
in latitude 14 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 143 degrees 56
minutes. It was deep, and about 100 yards wide, the water salt, and the
tide was flowing up fast, and the banks were high. A few scattered
mangroves, and a leguminous tree, with rough cordate leaves, and large
one or two-seeded legumes, were growing on the banks. We were obliged to
turn southerly for a short distance, and found what we had fancied to be
a river to be only a small creek. We crossed it about twelve or fourteen
miles from the sea, but the water was brackish. The trees on the sandy
ground were broad-leafed Melaleucas, Grevilleas, and nondas, and by the
waterholes which we occasionally saw, were Stravadiums and drooping
Melaleucas. I also saw a species of Stravadium with racemes of white
flowers, much longer than the others, with leaves ten inches long by four
inches broad, and the trees thirty feet high. Keeping at a distance from
the sea-coast to avoid the saltwater creeks, and to obtain good grass for
our horses, we halted in the middle of the day, and were visited by a
great many natives, coming in all directions, and making a great noise.
They appeared to have been collecting nondas, as a great many of their
women were carrying large basketfuls away. After the women were out of
sight they made signs to us to go away. We got our horses together, and
endeavoured to make them friendly, but our entreaties were disregarded,
and the presents we offered them were treated with contempt. When we
found they would not allow us to come near them, we packed our horses and
prepared to start. They followed us at some distance, continually
throwing spears after us for some time; one was thrown into the thigh of
a horse, but fortunately not being barbed it was taken out, and the horse
was not much injured. We then rode after them in two or three directions
and fired at them, and they left us, and we saw no more of them.

October 11.

To-day, when halting in a place where there was no water, but good grass,
a tribe of natives made their appearance, and appeared disposed to be
friendly. We carefully collected our horses, and shortly after the
natives drew near to us. We made them presents of a few fish-hooks and
tin plates, and made signs to them that we wanted water. Several of them
ran off, and in a few minutes returned with water in a vessel (if it may
be so called) composed of pieces of bark tied together at each end, and
they continued going backwards and forwards until they had brought enough
to fill our cans, besides what we drank. They left us quite quietly.

October 12.

We proceeded along the creek by which we had encamped the night before;
the water was brackish. We attempted to go through some mangroves to the
beach, but did not succeed.

October 13.

Jackey, Taylor, and myself took three horses, and tried to get to the
beach more to the northward than yesterday. We passed through a belt of
mangroves, where the ground was pretty firm, the tide coming up only
occasionally; we then proceeded along a sandy ridge to the northward,
when we found it succeeded by a saltwater lagoon, surrounded by
salsolaceous plants and mangroves, which it was impossible to get
through. We returned to our camp, and here Mr. Kennedy abandoned the
thought of going to the beach, as he felt sure H.M.S. Bramble (which was
to have met us at the beginning of August) would have gone; our journey
having occupied so much longer time than we could have possibly
anticipated. This consideration, combined with the great difficulty which
seemed likely to ensue in obtaining water and feed for our horses,
determined him to take a different direction.

October 15.

We had prayers as usual this day, being Sunday, at 11 o'clock; today we
finished the consumption of all our sugar, except a very small quantity,
which was reserved for any particular case of sickness.

October 16.

This morning a horse fell into a rocky waterhole, and finding it
impossible to get him out alive, we killed him, and cured the flesh as
before, drying it in the sun on a stage; the blood, heart, and liver
furnished us with a good day's food. Our meat being well dried by five
o'clock in the afternoon, we sprinkled some salt upon it, and put it in
bags for the convenience of carrying. We left one of our round tents, and
such other things as we could possibly spare behind us at the camp, as
our horses were now so weak they could not carry their loads.

October 17 and 18.

Our travelling was very uneven, our horses giving us continual trouble
from their frequent falls; we had a few narrow belts of scrub to cut
through, but they were not very thick.

October 19.

Several of our horses were now quite unable to carry anything but the
saddle; we passed through open forest land, with a light soil, sub-soil
clay, with isolated blocks of granite rock scattered about. We encamped
by a rocky creek, with water in holes only; it ran westerly, and had
fresh green feed on each side, the grass having been burned shortly
before, and now growing up again.

October 20.

We passed over a piece of stiff ground about two miles in extent, which
appeared to have been the scene of a devastating hurricane. It was
covered with fallen timber, which rendered it very difficult to cross.
The wind must have swept from the south-west to the north-east, and from
the appearance of the saplings which were growing from the stumps of some
of the trees which had been broken, this terrific storm appeared to have
taken place about two years ago. Not a tree had been left standing in the
part where we crossed, nor could we tell how far the devastation had
extended to the south-west; but the ground to the north and east being
swampy, and covered only with small Melaleucas and Banksias, the wind had
not taken much effect. Many of the trees in the middle of the fallen
timber measured two feet in diameter. Some were torn up by the roots, and
the trunks of others were snapped off at various heights from the ground.
The latitude of our camp here was 13 degrees 35 minutes South.

October 21.

We killed another of our horses to-day, as he was too weak to stand.

October 22.

We got our meat well dried to-day, and having smoked it a little, packed
it as before. Our stock of flour was now reduced to two hundred pounds
weight, and many of the men growing very weak, we were obliged to
increase our weekly ration a little. Three of the party, Douglas, Taylor,
and Costigan, were suffering from diarrhoea, in consequence of having
eaten too freely of the pandanus fruit. Their spirits began to fail them,
and they frequently complained despairingly to Mr. Kennedy that they
should never be able to reach Cape York. Although our horses were so very
weak, these men were obliged to ride, being quite unable to walk far at a
time. The country before us was very mountainous, but between the hills
we found plenty of grass and water: to the south the whole country
appeared to be on fire.

October 23 to 25.

We travelled during these days over a rocky mountainous country,
interspersed with deep gullies and creeks, fringed with belts of scrub.
In these scrubs I saw the white-apple and the crimson scitamineous plant
seen near Rockingham Bay; scattered over the country were a few cedar
trees and Moreton Bay chestnuts, and some very fine timber trees
belonging to the natural order Myrtaceae, upwards of sixty feet high, and
three to four feet in diameter, with fine straight trunks.

October 26 to 28.

We travelled over stony hills, the tops of which were occasionally
composed of white flint (?), with rusty veins running through it. On the
sides of the hills were broken rocks containing mica, hornblende, and
crystals of quartz. The grass on these hills had all been newly burned.

October 29.

Sunday; prayers at eleven o'clock. We this day shot three small
wallabies, which were a great treat to us.

October 30.

This day Luff was taken very lame, being seized with severe pain and
stiffness in the right leg; he was quite unable to walk, so we burned the
other two round tents to enable him to ride.

November 1 and 2.

We again had to kill a horse which was too weak, and disposed of it as we
had our former ones.

November 3.

We were cutting through scrub all day, intersected by deep gullies and
rocky hills; we crossed a small river, with very uneven rocky bottom,
about three feet deep; where we crossed it, it was running southerly, and
as there had been a heavy storm a few days previously, the current was
rapid; five of our horses fell in crossing it--the one carrying my
specimens in a very bad place; we were obliged to cut the girths, and
before I could secure his load two bags of seeds were washed away; we
tied our horses to trees, and encamped in a thick bamboo scrub by the
side of the river.

November 4.

This morning Jackey went to examine a scrub through which we wanted to
pass, and while out, shot a fine cassowary; it was very dark and heavy,
not so long on the leg as the common emu, and had a larger body, shorter
neck, with a large red, stiff, horny comb on its head; Mr. Wall skinned
it, but from the many difficulties with which he had to contend, the skin
was spoiled before it could be properly preserved.

November 5.

We travelled a short distance to the top of a hill, from which Jackey had
seen grass from a tree. We were obliged to kill another horse to-day, and
cured the flesh as usual.

November 6.

We were compelled to shoot two other horses to day, and as we had no
other means of taking the meat with us, we skinned one of them, and made
the skin into bags, in which we each carried a few pounds of meat on our

November 7 and 8.

We were travelling these two days over very rough rocky ground,
intersected with gullies and belts of scrub.

November 9.

We were obliged this morning to start without our breakfast, having no
bread baked, and being unable to find water. We followed the course of a
creek at the foot of a low range of hills running northward, the range
being to the westward. In the evening we found water in the creek.

November 10.

We proceeded along the valley of the creek, which was very uneven, and
full of small hillocks. Near the spot where we camped a great number of
Pandanus trees were growing. On each side of the creek there were a few
scattered trees and a thick scrub to the westward. The soil was stiff,
with plenty of grass in the valley.

Mr. Kennedy, here, finding from the weak state of some of the men, that
it would be impossible for us to reach Cape York before our provisions
were exhausted, resolved to form an advance party, consisting of himself,
Jackey, Costigan, Luff, and Dunn.

We had but nine horses left, of which number it was proposed that they
should take seven, and proceed to Cape York as quickly as possible, to
obtain provisions for the rest of the party from the vessel waiting with
supplies for our homeward journey.

November 11.

We proceeded along the valley a short distance, with the view of forming
our depot as near to Weymouth Bay as possible. We crossed the creek where
it turned eastward, on a kind of bank, which intercepted its course, up
to which, from the east, the tide came sometimes, so that on that side
the creek the water was brackish, but very good water was obtainable on
the other side the bank.

After we had camped, we killed our last sheep, and Mr. Kennedy proceeded
to the top of a high hill to view the country over which he would have to
pass. Shortly after his return to the camp several natives made their
appearance, to whom we made a present of a tin plate and a few
fish-hooks, which made them quite friendly. While they were looking at
us, a great many brown hawks came hovering over the camp. Wall and Jackey
shot fourteen or fifteen of them, in the presence of the natives, who
retired to the edge of the scrub, and seemed very much surprised to see
the hawks fall as soon as they heard the report of the guns. They went
into the scrub at dark, but a good watch was kept all night; though the
natives did not again make their appearance. One of our dogs killed a
young dog belonging to the natives during the night, which I afterwards
ascertained was eaten by Dunn, Luff, Costigan, and Goddard.

November 12.

Sunday: prayers at eleven; Jackey and I went to the beach to see if we
could find any salt, as our stock was getting very low, but we could not
succeed in finding any.

November 13.

This morning everything was prepared for the departure of Mr. Kennedy and
his party, and the last of our mutton was served out equally to each of
the party.

Mr. Kennedy gave me written instructions how to act during our stay at
Weymouth Bay, it being his intention to send for us by water, if
possible, as he expected to meet H.M.S. Bramble at Port Albany. He
calculated that he should be from ten to fifteen days before he reached
that place, and directed me to keep a sharp lookout from the hill for a
vessel; and should I see one, to hoist a flag on the hill. If the natives
were friendly I was to put a ball beneath the flag, and above it should
they be hostile. In the evening I was to fire three rockets, at intervals
of about twenty minutes.

The party left at the depot under my charge were eight in number. The
provisions consisted of two horses and twenty-eight pounds of flour, the
former being very poor and weak.

Not knowing whether he could send for us by water or not, Mr. Kennedy
directed me to make my provisions last at least six weeks, saying that it
was possible I might get relief fourteen days after his departure, and to
keep a very sharp lookout after that time.

I packed up all the dried meat we had left (75 pounds) and 18 pounds of
flour for Mr. Kennedy to take with him, and about one pound of tea was
divided between the two parties. These, with their firearms, and a few
necessaries of a light description, were all the party took with them.
Mr. Kennedy requested me to register the height of the thermometer during
my stay at the Bay. The whole of the party left at the camp were very
weak, Luff being the weakest man that proceeded with the party to Cape

Before leaving Mr. Kennedy told me that he expected to meet with some
difficulties for the first few days, from the nature of the country he
had seen from the hill. I did not mention this to the rest of the party,
for fear it might still further tend to depress their spirits, as three
or four of them even now seemed to despair of ever reaching our
destination. I did all in my power to keep them in good heart, but they
were saddened and depressed from long suffering.

We removed our camp back across the creek to the side of the high bare
hill on which I was to hoist a flag, and from which I could look out for
a vessel. It also afforded us a security from the natives, as we could
see them at a greater distance. The latitude of this camp was 12 degrees
35 minutes South.

And thus we settled down in the spot which was to be the burial place of
so many of our party--which was fated to be the scene of so much intense
suffering, and of such heart-sickening hope deferred. Wearied out by long
endurance of trials that would have tried the courage and shaken the
fortitude of the strongest, a sort of sluggish indifference prevailed,
that prevented the development of those active energies which were so
necessary to support us in our critical position. The duties of our camp
were performed as if by habit, and knowing how utterly useless complaint
must be, the men seldom repined aloud.

November 14.

We killed the smallest horse early this morning, and had all the meat cut
up and on the stage to dry by nine o'clock. I made the blood, heart,
liver, kidneys, and tripe last us three days, as they would not keep
longer, and we mixed our allowance of flour with them. We had no salt to
season them with, as all our salt was required to put in the blood to
prevent it turning sour. The heat during this day was very great, the
thermometer at noon in the shade standing at 110 degrees. Douglas was
very weak. The natives came this afternoon, but did not stay long.

November 16.

The natives this day brought us a few small pieces of fish, but they were
old and hardly eatable. I would not allow them to come near the camp, but
made signs to them to sit down at a distance, and when they had done so I
went to them and distributed a few fish-hooks. Douglas died this morning,
and we buried him at dusk when the natives were gone, and I read the
funeral service over him. He was the first of our party we had lost, and
his death, the sad precursor of so many more, cast an additional gloom
over us.

November 18.

The natives came and brought some of their gins (women) with them. They
would only allow one of us at a time to go near them. The women wore very
neatly fringed girdles hanging loose about their loins, and shaded
themselves with large fan-palm leaves. The girdles were made of the
leaves of the Cordyline. Both men and women were very stout, strong,
well-made people--some of the men standing six feet high. They brought us
some fish, which they called mingii, but it was such as they would not
even eat themselves; also a kind of paste, made of different kinds of
leaves and roots, mixed with the inside of the roasted mangrove seeds,
all pounded up together, then heated over a fire in a large shell. This
paste they call dakiaa.* Although we did not much like the taste of the
paste, and it was very full of sand, we ate some of it as a vegetable.

(*Footnote. This is identical with the biyu of Cape York. See Volume 2.)

November 19.

This morning about fifty or sixty natives, all strongly armed with
spears, made their appearance, and by their gestures and manner it was
quite evident they intended to attack us if opportunity offered. As we
always kept our firearms in readiness, we stood out in a line, with our
guns in our hands. I made signs to them to keep back, but they pretended
not to understand us, holding up pieces of fish, crying out mingii,
mingii (fish, fish) to induce us to come for them, but their designs upon
us were too transparent for that. They kept us standing a good while, for
I was anxious to refrain from firing on them if possible, and at length
they left us without any actually hostile demonstration. Being Sunday, I
read prayers to-day.

November 20.

Taylor died this morning, and we buried him in the evening, by the side
of Douglas, and I read the funeral service over him.

November 21.

About sixty natives came to the camp this morning, well armed with
spears, and pieces of fish, which they held up to us, to entice us to
come to them. We took no notice, however, of their invitations, but
preparing our firearms, we turned out. They were now closing round us in
all directions, many of them with their spears in their throwing-sticks,
ready for use--pointing them to their own necks and sides, and showing us
by their postures how we should writhe with pain when they struck us.
Then they would change their tactics and again endeavour to persuade us
that they meant us no harm, but they would not lay down their spears.
Some of them seemed inclined to go away, but others appeared determined
to attack us. After keeping us standing about an hour, eleven spears were
thrown at us. Three of my party then fired, slightly wounding one of
them, when they all immediately ran away as fast as they could. Some of
them, however, remained hovering in sight for some time after. Three of
the spears that were thrown fell short of us, the rest passing very
close, but fortunately no one was hurt; the three spears which passed us
were barbed with bone, and were very heavy.

November 26.

Carpenter died this morning; the poor fellow did not suffer acutely on
the approach of death, but the animal energies were destroyed, and they
withered away one after another, without pain or struggle. At eleven
o'clock, being Sunday, I read prayers, and in the evening we buried our
late companion in the bed of the creek, and I read the funeral service
over him. The natives came again this morning, leaving their spears at a
distance, and brought us a few small fish; but remembering their former
treachery, we took very little notice of them and showed them they could
only expect kind treatment from us, so long as they themselves continued
peaceable. During the last few days we shot a few pigeons and parrots,
also a small blue heron.

November 27.

We killed another horse this morning, and had the meat all cut up and on
the stage by nine o'clock, with all the appearance of a fine day to dry
it. But about eleven o'clock a heavy thunderstorm came on, and it rained
all day. I kept a fire burning near the stage all night.

November 28.

We were very uneasy at the continued wet weather, as it threatened to
destroy the scanty remains of our provision, the flesh already beginning
to smell very badly.

November 29.

It was raining heavily all day, and our meat became almost putrid.

November 30.

This day a fresh breeze blew, and there was no rain; I cut up all the
meat that would hold together into thin slices, but a great deal of it
was quite rotten. The blood-puddings, tripe, feet, and bones, lasted us
till this day. I saved the hide of this horse for ourselves, the other I
had fed our dogs on; Mr. Kennedy having requested me to keep them alive
if possible, so that we had to spare a little from our scanty meals for

December 1.

The wind was blowing strong from the south-east this morning. On going up
the hill in the afternoon I saw a schooner from the northward beating to
the southward. I supposed her to be the Bramble, as it was about the time
Mr. Kennedy had given me expectation of being relieved by water, and I
afterwards found I was right in this supposition.

I naturally concluded she had come for us; and full of hope and joy I
immediately hoisted a flag on a staff we had previously erected, on a
part of the hill where it could be seen from any part of the bay. We
placed a ball above the flag to put the crew on their guard against the
natives. We then collected a quantity of wood, and at dusk lighted a
fire, and kept it burning till about half-past seven or eight o'clock. I
then fired off three rockets one after the other, at intervals of about
twenty minutes. I also took a large pistol up the hill, and stood for
some time firing it as quickly as I could load it, thinking they might
perhaps see the flash of that, if they had not seen the rockets.

December 2.

Early this morning I was up, straining my eyes to catch a view of the
bay, and at length saw the schooner standing in to the shore; and during
the forenoon a boat was lowered. I now made quite certain they were
coming for us, and thinking they might come up the creek in the boat for
some distance, I hastened down the hill, and began to pack up a few
things, determined to keep them waiting for our luggage no longer than I
could help. I looked anxiously for them all the afternoon, wondering much
at their delay in coming, until at last I went up the hill, just in time
to see the schooner passing the bay. I cannot describe the feeling of
despair and desolation which I in common with the rest of our party
experienced as we gazed on the vessel as she fast faded from our view. On
the very brink of starvation and death--death in the lone wilderness,
peopled only with the savage denizens of the forest, who even then were
thirsting for our blood--hope, sure and certain hope, had for one brief
moment gladdened our hearts with the consoling assurance, that after our
many trials, and protracted sufferings, we were again about to find
comfort and safety. But the bright expectancy faded; and although we
strove to persuade ourselves that the vessel was not the Bramble, our
hearts sank within us in deep despondency.

December 4.

We yesterday finished our scanty remnant of flour; and our little store
of meat, which we had been able to dry, could have but very little
nourishment in it. Goddard and I went to the beach and got a bag of
shellfish, but found it very difficult to get back to the camp through
the mangroves, we were in so weak a state.

December 7.

This day I took Mitchell with me to the beach, and procured another bag
of shellfish. During the last few days we shot a very small wallaby and
three or four Torres Strait pigeons. These afforded us some relief, as
our horse-flesh was so very bitter, that nothing but unendurable hunger
could have induced us to eat it. A number of small brown beetles were
generated from it, which ate it, and we were also much annoyed by flies.
We all suffered more or less from bad eyes.

December 9.

The natives visited us this morning, and brought with them a few pieces
of turtles' entrails and a few nondas. I gave them an old shirt and a
knife, the latter of which was highly prized by them. They call turtle
mallii, and the sun youmboll. Goddard had a fit of ague to-day, followed
by fever.

December 10.

We all of us had fits of ague this morning, and none of us could get up
till the afternoon, when, being Sunday, I read prayers.

December 11.

The natives came this morning, and brought us a little vegetable paste,
and some pieces of turtles' entrails, with some sharks' liver. The latter
was fresh, but one could not eat it, as it all melted into a yellowish
oil, when boiled for a few minutes. I gave them a few fish-hooks, but
found it very difficult to get them to leave the camp.

December 13.

This morning Mitchell was found dead by the side of the creek, with his
feet in the water. He must have gone down at night to get water, but too
much exhausted to perform his task, had sat down and died there. None of
us being strong enough to dig a grave for him, we sewed the body in a
blanket, with a few stones to sink it, and then put it into the brackish

December 15.

The thermometer fell this morning and was broken. It was raining heavily
all day, and two bags of my seeds, and several other little things, were
washed out of the tent by the water which ran down the hill. We were all
very ill and weak.

December 16.

It was raining this morning, and we remained in the tent. Hearing one of
our dogs barking, however, I went out and saw several natives with pieces
of fish and turtle, which I took from them, when they left us. The
natives also brought us some roasted nymphaea roots, which they call
dillii. During the last few days we shot seven pigeons. Wall and Goddard
used to go into the scrub and sit beneath a tree, to which they used to
come for berries to feed their young, and watching their opportunity,
shoot them.

December 21.

Our kangaroo dog being very weak, and unable to catch anything, we
killed, and lived on him for two days. There was very little flesh on his
bones, but our dried meat was so bad, that we very much enjoyed the
remains of our old companion, and drank the water in which we boiled him.

December 24.

The natives took a tin case from Wall whilst he was talking to them, he
not being able to resist them. My legs had swelled very much, and I was
able to walk but a very short distance.

December 26.

The natives brought us a few pieces of fish and turtle, but both were
almost rotten; they also gave us a blue-tongued lizard, which I opened
and took out eleven young ones, which we roasted and ate. There was
nothing but scales on the old one, except in its tail.

We always equally divided whatever we got from the natives, be it what it
might; but they brought us very little that was eatable. I could easily
perceive that their pretended good feeling towards us was assumed for the
sake of fulfilling their own designs upon us. Although they tried to make
us believe they were doing all in their power to benefit us, their object
was to obtain an opportunity of coming upon us by surprise and destroying
us. They had at many times seen the fatal effects of our firearms, and I
believe that it was only the dread of these, that prevented them from
falling upon us at once, and murdering us. They were a much finer race of
men than the natives we had seen at Rockingham Bay, most of the men being
from five feet ten to six feet high. The general characteristics of the
race were different from those of the other aborigines I had ever seen,
and I imagined that they might be an admixture of the Australian tribes
and the Malays, or Murray Islanders. Some of them had large bushy
whiskers, with no hair on their chins or upper lips, having the
appearance of being regularly shaved. It would be almost impossible for
any class of men to excel these fellows in the scheming and versatile
cunning with which they strove to disguise their meditated treachery. In
fine weather I always had our firearms standing out for them to see, and
once or twice every night I fired off a pistol, to let them know we were
on the lookout by night as well as by day.

December 28.

Niblett and Wall both died this morning; Niblett was quite dead when I
got up, and Wall, though alive, was unable to speak; they were neither of
them up the day previous. I had been talking with them both, endeavouring
to encourage them to hope on to the last, but sickness, privation, and
fatigue had overcome them, and they abandoned themselves to a calm and
listless despair. We had got two pigeons the day before, which in the
evening were boiled and divided between us, as well as the water they
were boiled in. Niblett had eaten his pigeon, and drank the water, but
Wall had only drank the water and eaten part of his half pigeon. About
eleven o'clock, as many as fifty natives, armed with spears, and some of
them painted with a yellowish earth, made their appearance in the
vicinity of our camp. There were natives of several strange tribes
amongst them. They were well aware that neither Niblett nor Wall was able
to resist them, if they did not know they were dead. They also knew that
we were very weak, although I always endeavoured as much as possible to
keep that fact from them. This morning when I made signs to them to lay
down their spears they paid no attention, with the exception of two, who
had been in the habit of coming very frequently to the camp. These two
came running up quite close to us, without their spears, and endeavoured
to persuade one of us to go across a small dry creek, for a fish which
another of the rascals was holding up to tempt us. They tried various
methods to draw our attention from the rest, who were trailing their
spears along the ground, with their feet, closing gradually round us, and
running from tree to tree, to hide their spears behind them. Others lay
on their backs on the long grass, and were working their way towards us,
unnoticed, as they supposed. Goddard and myself stood with our guns in
readiness and our pistols by our sides for about two hours, when I fell
from excessive weakness. When I got up we thought it best to send them
away at once, or stand our chance of being speared in the attempt, both
of us being unable to stand any longer. We presented our guns at the two
by our side, making signs to them to send the others away, or we would
shoot them immediately. This they did, and they ran off in all directions
without a spear being thrown or a shot fired. We had many times tried to
catch fish in the creek during our stay at Weymouth Bay, with our fishing
lines, but never could get as much as a bite at the bait.

As the evening came on, there came with it the painful task of removing
the bodies of our unfortunate companions who had died in the morning. We
had not strength to make the smallest hole in the ground as a grave; but
after great exertion we succeeded in removing the bodies to a small patch
of phyllanthus scrub, about four feet high, and eighty yards from the
tent. We then laid them side by side, and covered them with a few small
branches, and this was all the burial we were enabled to give them.

December 29.

Goddard went into the scrub, and shot three pigeons. We ate one of them
at night, and the others we reserved till next day. Our bowels were
greatly relaxed, which was partly stayed by eating a few nondas, which we
got occasionally.

The six weeks having expired, which Mr. Kennedy had led me to expect
would be the longest period we should have to wait, I now began to fear
the rainy season had set in, and filled the creeks to the northward, so
that his party had been unable to cross them, or that some untoward
accident had happened, which prevented us being relieved.

I did not quite despair, but I knew that we could not live long. Our shot
was almost consumed, not having more than eight or ten charges left, and
although we had plenty of ball, we were too weak to attempt to form any
plan to make shot. Our sole remaining companion, the sheepdog, I intended
to kill in a day or two, but he would not last long, as he was nothing
but skin and bone.

December 30.

Early this morning we ate the two pigeons left yesterday, and boiled each
a quart of tea, from the leaves we had left; but we had not had any fresh
tea to put into the pot for some time. Goddard then went into the bush,
to try to get another pigeon or two, and if the natives made their
appearance, I was to fire a pistol to recall him to the camp. After he
had been gone, I saw natives coming toward the camp, and I immediately
fired a pistol; but before Goddard could return they came into the camp,
and handed me a piece of paper, very much dirtied and torn. I was sure,
from the first, by their manner, that there was a vessel in the Bay. The
paper was a note to me from Captain Dobson, of the schooner Ariel, but it
was so dirtied and torn that I could only read part of it.

For a minute or two I was almost senseless with the joy which the hope of
our deliverance inspired. I made the natives a few presents, and gave
them a note to Captain Dobson, which I made them easily understand I
wanted them to take to that gentleman. I was in hopes they would then
have gone, but I soon found they had other intentions. A great many
natives were coming from all quarters well armed with spears. I had given
a shirt to the one who had brought the note, and put it on him; but I saw
him throw down the note and pull off the shirt, and picking up his spear
he joined the rest, who were preparing to attack us. We were expecting
every moment to be attacked and murdered by these savages, our newly
awakened hope already beginning to fail, when we saw Captain Dobson and
Dr. Vallack, accompanied by Jackey and a man named Barrett (who had been
wounded a few days before in the arm by a barbed spear) approaching
towards us, across the creek. I and my companion, who was preserved with
me, must ever be grateful for the prompt courage with which these
persons, at the risk of their own lives, came to our assistance, through
the scrub and mangroves, a distance of about three miles, surrounded as
they were all the way by a large number of armed natives.

I was reduced almost to a skeleton. The elbow bone of my right arm was
through the skin, as also the bone of my right hip. My legs also were
swollen to an enormous size. Goddard walked to the boat, but I could not
do so without the assistance of Captain Dobson and Dr. Vallack, and I had
to be carried altogether a part of the distance. The others, Jackey and
Barrett, kept a lookout for the blacks. We were unable to bring many
things from the camp. The principal were, the firearms and one parcel of
my seeds, which I had managed to keep dry, containing eighty-seven
species. All my specimens were left behind, which I regretted very much:
for though much injured, the collection contained specimens of very
beautiful trees, shrubs, and orchideae. I could also only secure an
abstract of my journal, except that portion of it from 13th November to
30th December, which I have in full. My original journal, with a
botanical work which had been kindly lent me by a friend in Sydney for
the expedition, was left behind. We got safely on board the Ariel; and
after a very long passage, arrived in Sydney.

I am confident that no man could have done more for the safety of the
party than was done by Mr. Kennedy, nor could any man have exerted
himself more than he, in the most distressing circumstances of our
perilous journey. He walked by far the greater part of the distance,
giving his own horses for the use of the weak men, and the general
service of the expedition. I never rode but two hours all through the
journey, and that was on two successive days when we were in the vicinity
of Cape Sidmouth, and I was suffering from bad feet.

The unfortunate death of our brave and generous leader, deeply and
extensively as I know it to have been lamented, can have no more sincere
mourner than myself.

The tale of his sufferings and those of his party has already been read
and sympathised over by hundreds, and it would ill become me to add
anything to the artless narrative of the faithful and true-hearted
Jackey, who having tended his last moments, and closed his eyes, was the
first, perhaps the most disinterested, bewailer of his unhappy fate.




I started with Mr. Kennedy from Weymouth Bay for Cape York, on the 13th
November, 1848, accompanied by Costigan, Dunn, and Luff, leaving eight
men at the camp, at Weymouth Bay. We went on till we came to a river
which empties itself into Weymouth Bay. A little further north we crossed
the river; next morning a lot of natives camped on the other side of the
river. Mr. Kennedy and the rest of us went on a very high hill and came
to a flat on the other side and camped there; I went on a good way next
day; a horse fell down a creek; the flour we took with us lasted three
days; we had much trouble in getting the horse out of the creek; we went
on, and came out, and camped on the ridges; we had no water. Next morning
went on and Luff was taken ill with a very bad knee; we left him behind,
and Dunn went back again and brought him on; Luff was riding a horse
named Fiddler; then we went on and camped at a little creek; the flour
being out this day we commenced eating horse-flesh, which Carron gave us
when we left Weymouth Bay; as we went on we came on a small river, and
saw no blacks there; as we proceeded we gathered nondas, and lived upon
them and the meat; we stopped at a little creek and it came on raining,
and Costigan shot himself; in putting his saddle under the tarpaulin, a
string caught the trigger and the ball went in under the right arm and
came out at his back under the shoulder; we went on this morning all of
us, and stopped at another creek in the evening, and the next morning we
killed a horse named Browney, smoked him that night and went on next day,
taking as much of the horse as we could with us, and went on about a mile
and then turned back again to where we killed the horse, because Costigan
was very bad and in much pain; we went back again because there was no
water; then Mr. Kennedy and I had dinner there, and went on in the
afternoon leaving Dunn, Costigan, and Luff at the creek. This was at
Pudding-pan Hill, near Shelburne Bay. Mr. Kennedy called it Pudding-pan
Hill. We left some horse-meat with the three men at Pudding-pan Hill, and
carried some with us on a packhorse. Mr. Kennedy wanted to make great
haste when he left this place, to get the doctor to go down to the men
that were ill. This was about three weeks after leaving Weymouth Bay. One
horse was left with the three men at Pudding-pan Hill, and we (Kennedy
and myself) took with us three horses. The three men were to remain there
until Mr. Kennedy and myself had gone to and returned from Cape York for
them. Mr. Kennedy told Luff and Dunn when he left them that if Costigan
died to come along the beach till they saw the ship, and then to fire a
gun; he told them he would not be long away, so it was not likely they
would move from there for some time. They stopped to take care of the man
that was shot, we (me and Mr. Kennedy) killed a horse for them before we
came away; having left these three men, we camped that night where there
was no water; next morning Mr. Kennedy and me went on with the four
horses, two packhorses and two saddle-horses; one horse got bogged in a
swamp. We tried to get him out all day, but could not, we left him there,
and camped at another creek. The next day Mr. Kennedy and I went on
again, and passed up a ridge very scrubby, and had to turn back again,
and went along gulleys to get clear of the creek and scrub. Now it
rained, and we camped; there were plenty of blacks here, but we did not
see them, but plenty of fresh tracks, and camps, and smoke. Next morning
we went on and camped at another creek, and on the following morning we
continued going on, and camped in the evening close to a scrub; it rained
in the night. Next day we went on in the scrub, but could not get
through, I cut and cleared away, and it was near sundown before we got
through the scrub--there we camped. It was heavy rain next morning, and
we went on in the rain, then I changed horses and rode a black colt, to
spell the other, and rode him all day, and in the afternoon we got on
clear ground, and the horse fell down, me and all; the horse lay upon my
right hip. Here Mr. Kennedy got off his horse and moved my horse from my
thigh; we stopped there that night, and could not get the horse up; we
looked to him in the morning and he was dead; we left him there; we had
some horse-meat left to eat, and went on that day and crossed a little
river and camped. The next day we went a good way; Mr. Kennedy told me to
go up a tree to see a sandy hill somewhere; I went up a tree, and saw a
sandy hill a little way down from Port Albany. That day we camped near a
swamp; it was a very rainy day. The next morning we went on, and Mr.
Kennedy told me we should get round to Port Albany in a day; we travelled
on all day till twelve o'clock (noon) and then we saw Port Albany; then
he said "There is Port Albany, Jackey--a ship is there--you see that
island there," pointing to Albany Island; this was when we were at the
mouth of Escape River; we stopped there a little while; all the meat was
gone; I tried to get some fish but could not; we went on in the afternoon
half a mile along the riverside, and met a good lot of blacks, and we
camped; the blacks all cried out "powad, powad," and rubbed their
bellies; and we thought they were friendly, and Mr. Kennedy gave them
fish-hooks all round; every one asked me if I had anything to give away,
and I said no; and Mr. Kennedy said, give them your knife, Jackey; this
fellow on board was the man I gave the knife to; I am sure of it; I know
him well; the black that was shot in the canoe was the most active in
urging all the others on to spear Mr. Kennedy; I gave the man on board my
knife; we went on this day, and I looked behind, and they were getting up
their spears, and ran all round the camp which we had left; I told Mr.
Kennedy that very likely those blackfellows would follow us, and he said,
"No, Jackey, those blacks are very friendly;" I said to him "I know those
blackfellows well, they too much speak;" we went on some two or three
miles and camped; I and Mr. Kennedy watched them that night, taking it in
turns every hour all night; by-and-by I saw the blackfellows; it was a
moonlight night; and I walked up to Mr. Kennedy, and said to him there is
plenty of blackfellows now; this was in the middle of the night; Mr.
Kennedy told me to get my gun ready; the blacks did not know where we
slept, as we did not make a fire; we both sat up all night; after this,
daylight came, and I fetched the horses and saddled them; then we went on
a good way up the river, and then we sat down a little while, and we saw
three blackfellows coming along our track, and they saw us, and one
fellow ran back as hard as he could run, and fetched up plenty more, like
a flock of sheep almost; I told Mr. Kennedy to put the saddles on the two
horses and go on, and the blacks came up, and they followed us all the
day; all along it was raining, and I now told him to leave the horses and
come on without them, that the horses made too much track. Mr. Kennedy
was too weak, and would not leave the horses. We went on this day till
towards evening, raining hard, and the blacks followed us all the day,
some behind, some planted before; in fact, blacks all around following
us. Now we went on into a little bit of a scrub, and I told Mr. Kennedy
to look behind always; sometimes he would do so, and sometimes he would
not look behind to look out for the blacks. Then a good many blackfellows
came behind in the scrub, and threw plenty of spears, and hit Mr. Kennedy
in the back first. Mr. Kennedy said to me, "Oh! Jackey, Jackey! shoot
'em, shoot 'em." Then I pulled out my gun and fired, and hit one fellow
all over the face with buckshot; he tumbled down, and got up again and
again and wheeled right round, and two blackfellows picked him up and
carried him away. They went away then a little way, and came back again,
throwing spears all around, more than they did before; very large spears.
I pulled out the spear at once from Mr. Kennedy's back, and cut out the
jag with Mr. Kennedy's knife; then Mr. Kennedy got his gun and snapped,
but the gun would not go off. The blacks sneaked all along by the trees,
and speared Mr. Kennedy again in the right leg, above the knee a little,
and I got speared over the eye, and the blacks were now throwing their
spears all ways, never giving over, and shortly again speared Mr. Kennedy
in the right side; there were large jags to the spears, and I cut them
out and put them into my pocket. At the same time we got speared, the
horses got speared too, and jumped and bucked all about, and got into the
swamp. I now told Mr. Kennedy to sit down, while I looked after the
saddlebags, which I did; and when I came back again, I saw blacks along
with Mr. Kennedy; I then asked him if he saw the blacks with him, he was
stupid with the spear wounds, and said "No;" then I asked him where was
his watch? I saw the blacks taking away watch and hat as I was returning
to Mr. Kennedy; then I carried Mr. Kennedy into the scrub, he said,
"Don't carry me a good way;" then Mr. Kennedy looked this way, very bad
(Jackey rolling his eyes). I said to him, "Don't look far away," as I
thought he would be frightened; I asked him often, "Are you well now?"
and he said, "I don't care for the spear wound in my leg, Jackey, but for
the other two spear wounds in my side and back," and said, "I am bad
inside, Jackey." I told him blackfellow always die when he got spear in
there (the back); he said, "I am out of wind, Jackey;" I asked him, "Mr.
Kennedy; are you going to leave me?" and he said, "Yes, my boy, I am
going to leave you;" he said, "I am very bad, Jackey; you take the books,
Jackey, to the captain, but not the big ones, the Governor will give
anything for them;" I then tied up the papers; he then said, "Jackey,
give me paper and I will write;" I gave him paper and pencil, and he
tried to write, and he then fell back and died, and I caught him as he
fell back and held him, and I then turned round myself and cried: I was
crying a good while until I got well; that was about an hour, and then I
buried him; I digged up the ground with a tomahawk, and covered him over
with logs, then grass, and my shirt and trousers; that night I left him
near dark; I would go through the scrub, and the blacks threw spears at
me, a good many, and I went back again into the scrub; then I went down
the creek which runs into Escape River, and I walked along the water in
the creek very easy, with my head only above water, to avoid the blacks,
and get out of their way; in this way I went half a mile; then I got out
of the creek, and got clear of them, and walked on all night nearly, and
slept in the bush without a fire; I went on next morning, and felt very
bad, and I spelled for two days; I lived upon nothing but salt water;
next day I went on and camped one mile away from where I left, and ate
one of the pandanus fruits; next morning I went on two miles, and sat
down there, and I wanted to spell a little there, and go on; but when I
tried to get up, I could not, but fell down again very tired and cramped,
and I spelled here two days; then I went on again one mile, and got
nothing to eat but one nonda; and I went on that day and camped, and on
again next morning, about half a mile, and sat down where there was good
water, and remained all day. On the following morning, I went a good way,
went round a great swamp and mangroves, and got a good way by sundown;
the next morning I went and saw a very large track of blackfellows; I
went clear of the track and of swamp or sandy ground; then I came to a
very large river, and a large lagoon; plenty of alligators in the lagoon,
about ten miles from Port Albany. I now got into the ridges by sundown,
and went up a tree and saw Albany Island; then next morning at four
o'clock, I went on as hard as I could go all the way down, over fine
clear ground, fine ironbark timber, and plenty of good grass; I went on
round the point (this was towards Cape York, north of Albany Island) and
went on and followed a creek down, and went on top of the hill and saw
Cape York; I knew it was Cape York, because the sand did not go on
further; I sat down then a good while; I said to myself, this is Port
Albany, I believe inside somewhere; Mr. Kennedy also told me that the
ship was inside, close up to the mainland; I went on a little way, and
saw the ship and boat; I met close up here two black gins and a good many
piccanninies; one said to me "powad, powad;" then I asked her for eggs,
she gave me turtles' eggs, and I gave her a burning-glass; she pointed to
the ship which I had seen before; I was very frightened of seeing the
black men all along here; and when I was on the rock cooeying, and murry
murry glad when the boat came for me.



A full account of proceedings taken by the Ariel, from the time of
Jackey's arrival at Cape York, on the 23rd December, 1848, up to the time
of her departure from Weymouth Bay, on the 31st December, 1848.

Saturday, 23rd December, 1848.

About eight o'clock A.M., Captain Dobson called down to me, saying that
he thought Mr. Kennedy was arrived, as there was a black on shore with a
shirt on and trousers. On going upon deck, the Captain had left in the
dinghy for the mainland, where the black was standing, I observed with
the glass and the naked eye, the black first standing, then walking very
lame, then sitting down on a rock on the mainland. The dinghy made there,
and took him on board. It turned out to be Jackey, of Mr. Kennedy's
party, who looked very haggard and told a woeful tale. After being on
board I wished to take down depositions, fearing anything might happen to
him from over-excitement. Depositions were taken, before which he became
faint, and a glass of wine revived him, which he told us afterwards, made
him budgeree (that is, well again.) I consulted with the Captain as to
what should be done, and it was immediately determined upon to leave Port
Albany with all possible speed, to save the surviving parties at
Pudding-pan Hill and Weymouth Bay, three men at the former place, and the
rest at the latter. It being necessary to take the sheep with us, they
were all but three shipped in the evening, and prompt orders given for
the vessel to be got ready for a start in the morning the first thing. In
the meantime I went on shore with the Captain to get the bullock in to
kill, Barrett, as well, on horseback, and we found it was impossible to
get him in--he was so wild: he was therefore shot at the far and south
end of the island, with the intention of bringing as much as possible of
the carcass away. It getting late in the evening, however, none was taken
away, nor is there time now to do so, and to do also an act of duty and
humanity to the yet living human beings.

Sunday, 24th December.

Before ten A.M., a dead calm; at turn of tide or rather before, weighed
anchor, but the tide took us towards Cape York a mile; the tide now
turned, and a gentle breeze took us through the strait. The breeze
continued, and at sundown we anchored five miles south of Point Shadwell,
Mount Adolphus bearing North-North-West, seven leagues; employed during
the day conversing with Jackey, taking down in pencil what he had to say,
changing the subject now and then by speaking of his comrades at Jerry's
Plains. I did so as he told me what kept him awake all last night was
thinking about Mr. Kennedy. Saw three native fires on our voyage here,
one on this south end of Albany Island, one between it and here, and one
on shore abreast of us.

December 25th, Monday.

At daylight in the morning a dead calm, and the hottest day we have had,
the sun was so glaring that the altitude could not be taken. At about a
quarter before ten A.M. a light breeze came on and we left our anchorage,
the breeze increased a little, before eleven; saw what appeared to be an
island at first; on nearing, found it to be a canoe, about fifteen feet
long, with seven or eight natives in it, shearing about, sometimes in one
direction, sometimes in another. After a little we heard them calling
out, "paoud," "whappee," "chauca," some of them standing up. I named to
the Captain that I thought they must be from Cape York, from their words,
and that it would be at least desirable to glean information from them,
if possible, concerning Mr. Kennedy. The Captain said, "We will not call
out paoud," (which means peace) but occasionally the words chauca
(tobacco) biskey (biscuit) were called out from the ship. They from this
drew close to the vessel, very wary, however, in doing so. Jackey was
placed in the fore-top, and word came that Jackey knew all these fellows,
that they were the party who speared Mr. Kennedy. One black was allowed
to come on board, and whilst he was partly in the ship, word came to me
by Parker (a seaman) that Jackey wanted to speak to me. On going to
Jackey, he said, "That fellow," pointing to the one named, "is the fellow
that speared Mr. Kennedy; I gave him a knife, keep him, bale (don't) let
him go. All those fellows threw spears at Mr. Kennedy." This native was
immediately secured. He struggled hard, and it was as much as three men
could do to secure him. The other blacks in the canoe now jumped
overboard, and observing now that the native secured had a part of a
bridle round his arm, and a piece of sinew, or tendon of a horse, and
Jackey being so positive as to identity, it was determined to examine the
canoe, and an order was given to fire over their heads, whilst they (the
blacks) were endeavouring to recover their canoe. The ship's long-boat
was sent after the canoe, but in the meantime the blacks had recovered
it, and a hard chase took place, the blacks paddling away towards the
shore. The boat overhauled them, when a shot was fired from the boat, and
as the boat closed upon them I saw the blacks jump overboard again, and
afterwards the ship's boat bring back the canoe. During this time several
shots were fired over them, and near them, from the ship. The boat
returned in about twenty minutes from the time of leaving, with the
canoe. Barrett said to me when alongside that he was speared, and that he
had shot the black who had speared him, and who was now in the canoe
nearly dead. It appears that one black had stuck to his canoe, and on the
ship's boat nearing it, had thrown a spear into Barret's arm, and was on
the eve of throwing another at him, when Barrett shot him. I went into
the canoe, and examined the black, and found the ball had gone through
his body, entering on the one side and coming out on the other side. The
ball must have gone through the stomach, from its direction. He was now
dying--nearly dead. The canoe was chopped up, and, with the black,
disappeared a short time afterwards. I dressed Barrett's wounds, three of
them, of a triangular shape, in the lower and fleshy part of the forearm.
From the canoe were brought the leg part of a pair of trousers, three
spears, a piece of iron of a saddle, hooks and lines, etc.; and a piece
of moleskin was taken off the native's leg, which Jackey says was part of
his trousers, which he tied round Mr. Kennedy's head when he buried him,
Jackey being sure that they had dug up Mr. Kennedy. I observed at the
time that the native was nearly on board, the moment the blacks saw
Jackey, they looked at each other as if everything was not right.
Previously to their jumping overboard, when Jackey showed the native the
spear wound over his eye, he would quickly turn away and not look him in
the face. Whilst the native was being secured, after being removed to the
fore part of the vessel, a mutton bone with meat was offered him which he
grappled at and ate voraciously, saying, "paoud, paoud." The wind
increased and was fair, and Jackey pointed out a hill ahead of us which
he said was like Pudding-pan Hill, near which the three men were left.
This Hill was Pudding-pan Hill, according to the chart. As we neared
Pudding-pan Hill, Jackey said, that is not the place, that he had been
mistaken, and, on continually looking at it, he became the more confirmed
and positive, and said it was no use whatever to land there, but that we
must go further on; we passed the hill; in the meantime, the Captain and
I consulted as to what should be done, knowing this was the only
Pudding-pan Hill on the chart; but Jackey, who had been placed on the
fore-top, became more and more positive, saying at length, "Do you think
I am stupid?--Mr. Kennedy sent me from the camp to look out the coast, so
that I might know it again when I came back in the ship, and I will tell
you when we come to it, the ship must go on that way further," pointing
to the south. Proceeding on, towards evening, off Hannibal Bay, we saw
numerous native fires, and in one spot I observed about forty natives.
Before sundown a canoe was making off to us, but after sunset we
gradually lost sight of it, and some time after this we anchored.

Tuesday, 26th December, 1848.

At twenty minutes to six A.M., got underweigh with a light breeze; in the
centre of Hannibal Bay, Risk Point ahead. In about ten minutes we struck
on a coral reef, and soon got off again; we anchored this day in
Shelburne Bay, opposite where Jackey wished us to proceed to recover the
three men; he was sure this was the place, seeing the mountain which Mr.
Kennedy called Pudding-pan Hill, and other mountains there, which were
wanting at the Pudding-pan Hill of the chart; he was perfectly confident
as to this being the right place and it may be here stated that this hill
is the very facsimile of the Pudding-pan Hill of the chart. In sailing in
the bay we found the water getting very shallow, from three to four, and
lastly, when we anchored, two and a half fathoms, and this unfortunately,
was a long way off from the land, say three or four miles; after
consultation with the Captain and Jackey, our main guide, we determined
on going on shore at the place pointed out by Jackey before daylight on
the following morning; during this afternoon several fires, about five,
were in sight along the coast in the bay, and not many natives seen; I
saw five; after a time it had been determined who should be the party to
go to recover the three men. The Captain, Jackey, Barrett, Thomas (the
sailor), and myself, formed the party. The evening was employed in
getting our guns in good order for the morrow. The Captain thought he
observed on shore natives with wearing apparel on.

Wednesday, 27th December, 1848.

At three o'clock A.M., the Captain called me, and such had been the
preparation last night that in a quarter of an hour we were in the
longboat, steering for the shore, and just as daylight was peeping we
were near the shore in shallow water, and a fire sprung up nearly in
front of us a little way in from the beach. The boat struck on the
ground, and we waded through the water for about a hundred yards or more
knee deep. Jackey took the lead, the Captain and I following, Barrett and
Tom behind, and mounted the low scrubby cliff about two hundred yards
from where we saw the fire. On we trudged through dense scrub inland for
about an hour, When Jackey said we must go further up that way, pointing
more in the south part of the bay; that is where I want to go, said he,
and that we had better cross there in the boat and recommence the trip.
On reaching the coast we hailed the boat, which was anchored off a
little, and waded out to it. Having seen a great smoke last evening and
apparently one this morning, some distance beyond where Jackey wished us
to land, he was asked if we should go first to this native fire and camp,
and see if they have anything there belonging to the three men, and
Jackey said, yes. We proceeded there, a distance of about four miles to
the southernmost part of the bay, and landed, but could discover only the
remains of a bushfire and no camp; we now left this part and proceeded to
exactly where Jackey pointed out on the beach, more in the central part
of the bay, some three miles across, and landed, telling the men in the
boat to anchor a little higher up to the north, where Jackey said we
should come out at by-and-bye. We left word with the men in the boat that
we might be away for three hours or more, and that we should fire a gun
on our return, which was to be answered by them.

Jackey was now head and leading man in every sense of the word, and away
we went in a westerly direction, for about, say, five or six miles;
Jackey telling us to look out behind and all about for the blacks. After
proceeding some four miles of the distance, we came to a creek where we
stopped for a few minutes; Jackey was evidently tired, not recovered, and
could not walk fast, and although we went off at first at a good pace,
Jackey was getting lame, and had been obliged to sit down three times on
the journey. About two miles beyond this creek Jackey got up into a tree,
and returned saying he could see the mountain near which the camp was,
but that it was a long way off, that we could not get there to-night, but
that we must camp in the bush, and get there to-morrow. It here became
necessary to pause. The ship was left with two hands only in her,
anchored in shallow water, and the Captain said promptly that he could
not proceed farther without great risk of losing the ship, either from
its coming on to blow, or that natives may attack her in their canoes;
(here I may say what has been omitted, namely, that in the early part of
the morning we saw and examined a canoe close to where we first landed,
and found part of a cloak in it, which Jackey immediately pronounced as
belonging to the white men at the camp) and it was determined, well
considering all circumstances, to return to the ship, which we did,
coming out on the beach under mangroves, at the very spot we told Jackey
to come out at on our leaving. We arrived at the ship at twelve minutes
before four P.M. During our absence the men in the boat had seen on the
beach from fifty to one hundred natives. We saw none. The day has been
very hot, and we are in a fix, surrounded by reefs, and some little
anxiety is existing as to how we shall get out again. We have determined
to proceed to Weymouth Bay, and in so doing I have taken everything into
consideration. We have eight men to attend to at Weymouth Bay. In all
probability the three men here are dead, for when Jackey left them,
Costigan was nearly dead, and Luff was very ill. The cloak taken from the
canoe shows that the blacks have found their camp, and had we gone on
there, which would have taken a day or two at least more, we should only
have found, I verily believe, as Jackey says, "bones belonging to
whitefellows." After getting on board, Jackey went to sleep, thoroughly
done up. He fell asleep also in coming off in the boat.

Thursday, December 28.

This has been a day of anxiety. We left a little after daylight, not
without feelings of disappointment and dissatisfaction at not having been
successful in rescuing the men, who it was possible might be yet alive.
We were surrounded by reefs, a light breeze, and fair depth of
water--called out by the leadsman, 2, 2 1/2, 2, 3 fathoms, until after
some time we got into deeper water, and passed out of the Bay in safety.
Not a fire had been seen on the shore all night, nor was there a native
to be seen this morning from the vessel. We passed numerous islands,
until the Piper Islands came in sight. We calculated upon making them for
our anchorage, but a squall came on, and the wind shifted, and we were
compelled to anchor at half-past seven P.M., in fifteen fathoms water,
near a reef. Some native fires were seen on the coast to-day. I find the
native on board understands and speaks the same language as the Port
Albany blacks, and repeats all their names to me. He eats and drinks
heartily, and lends apparently a most willing hand towards securing
himself with the leather straps.

Friday, 29th December.

Left our anchorage at daylight in the morning; passed between the Piper
Islands and Bald Head. When off Fair Cape saw a smoke on the shore, and
three natives, who immediately disappeared in the scrub and were seen no
more. On rounding the Cape it became a dead calm, and it was intensely
hot; we saw a smoke and a large fire ahead of us. Jackey recognised the
land and said the smoke was at the mouth of a river which Mr. Kennedy and
he had crossed after leaving the camp. The land where the camp and eight
men were Jackey pointed out ahead of us, opposite to Weymouth Bay; a
heavy squall and thunderstorm with rain came on very suddenly, and beyond
the mouth of the river, with the camping-hill ahead of us, we came to an
anchor, between two and three o'clock P.M.; could not see any flagstaff
on the hill pointed out by Jackey, and which hill is very conspicuous and
bald, nor could we see any symptom of living beings along the coast in
the bay. It was too great a distance to land to-night, and the Captain
said if it came on to blow the boat could not be got back again. Employed
the other part of the day in looking through the glass and with the naked
eye to see the flagstaff and flag, or any other sign (Jackey having
informed us they would have a flag on the top of the hill) but none was
to be seen, not a native, and I have reason to believe every one of the
eight have been sacrificed; it looks suspicious not seeing a native, for
Jackey says they used to bring fish to the camp, and there were plenty of
them. The Captain is to take the ship in as near as possible to the hill,
and it is determined to go on shore with the same party who assisted us
at Shelburne Bay, and go up to the camp to-morrow well armed. All this
evening a solemn, silent, inexpressible gloom; no rockets, no gun, no
fire, to-morrow will tell a tale.

Saturday, 30th December, 1848.

At daylight this morning the ship was got underweigh, and sailed nearer
in towards the hill which Jackey had pointed out as being the hill where
"camp sit down," and anchored in about two fathoms of water about half a
mile off the land. Five canoes were now seen creeping off towards us from
under the mangroves, with from five to ten natives in each (there was yet
no flag or any token of white people on the hill); the canoes gradually
neared in a string, and one came cautiously alongside, making signs and
saying "ferraman, ferraman," "white man, white man," and pointing towards
Jackey's mountain. We were at first doubtful whether they were disposed
to be friendly or not, and afterwards seeing some children with them and
one or two females, we concluded they were disposed to be friendly, and
that they knew the parties at the camp. A few lines were written to the
party at the camp, stating a vessel was in the bay, and the bearer, one
of the natives, would take them to it. This was given to one of the
natives in the first canoe, and Jackey, whom the natives recognised,
beckoned and motioned to them to take the note to the camp. In the
meantime the Captain and I had determined as soon as the boat could be
got ready, to proceed according to Jackey's instructions to the camp. The
boat left with our party, and Jackey directed us some distance off in the
wake of the canoes, there being nothing but a mangrove swamp on the shore
near us. We landed beside of a creek knee-deep in water, among some
mangroves. Here we got out of the boat, Jackey, the Captain, Barrett, and
myself, Tom, the sailor, who had accompanied us before, saying he could
not go, that he had a bad leg. We were a little disappointed here, but
said nothing, and proceeded, Jackey leading, myself, the Captain, and
Barrett following, through a mangrove swamp, for some considerable
distance, all well armed. Getting out of the swamp we came upon a
beautiful flat, and followed up a creek which Jackey said would lead up
to the camp. After getting on (keeping a good lookout) for about two
miles, Jackey doubled his pace, and all at once said with great emphasis,
"I see camp." "Well done, Jackey," I think was exclaimed by all of us at
the same moment. Jackey, still going on at a sharp pace, stopped for a
moment and said, "I not sure, I believe it is hole through tree," and
suddenly, with greater excitement than before, he exclaimed, "See two
whitefellows sit down, and camp." We were now on one side of the creek:
down the creek we went, and up on the other side in double-quick time,
and a scene presented itself. On the side of the hill, not two hundred
yards from us, were two men sitting down, looking towards us, the tent
and fire immediately behind them; and on coming up to them, two of the
most pitiable creatures imaginable were sitting down. One had sufficient
strength to get up; the other appeared to be like a man in the very last
stage of consumption. Alas! alas! they were the only two left of the
eight, the remainder having died from starvation. Whilst here we were
considering what was best to be done, when natives in great numbers were
descried watching our movements. Jackey said, "Doctor," calling me aside,
"now I tell you exactly what to do, you see those blackfellows over
there" (and in pointing to them I saw a great number, some eight hundred
yards away, peeping from behind trees) "you leave him tent, everything,
altogether there, and get the two whitefellows down to the boat quick."
Jackey was exceedingly energetic, and grave as well. Get away as quick as
possible, was resounded by all, but what was to be done--two men almost
dead to walk two or three miles. We looked over the tent, asked Carron
for what important things there were, and each laid hold of what appeared
to be of most value, the Captain taking two sextants, other parties
firearms, etc., etc. "Come along," again and again Jackey called out, and
the Captain too, whilst they were halfway down towards the creek, and
Barrett and I loaded ourselves. I took a case of seeds, some papers of
Carron's, a double gun and pistol, which, together with my own double gun
and brace of pistols, thermometer, and my pockets full of powder and
shot, was as much as I could manage. Seeing Carron could not get along, I
told him to put his hands on my shoulders, and in this way he managed to
walk down, as far as nearly through the mangrove swamp, towards the
water's edge, when he could not in that way possibly get any further, and
Barrett, with his disabled arm, carried him down to the edge of the
water. Goddard, the other survivor, was just able to walk down, spoke,
and looked exceedingly feeble. They were brought on board at noon, and
attended to according to my instructions. Carron's legs were dreadfully
swollen, about three times their natural size, from oedema. In the
afternoon both reviving and thanking God for their deliverance. I was for
some time afraid of Carron. At ten P.M.--they are both doing well, and, I
trust, will be enabled to tell their own tale, which renders it
unnecessary for me to write it down here. I told the Captain to proceed
direct on to Sydney. Jackey, Carron, and Goddard, and the Captain,
stating it would be running too great a risk to go to recover anything
from the tent, moreover, with so small a party as the Captain, Jackey,
and myself (Barrett really being unfit to go) and the sailors all
refusing to go. I consider the Captain deserves considerable credit for
his actions throughout in exerting himself to rescue the survivors.

Sunday, December 31.

At daylight got underweigh and took our departure from Weymouth Bay for
Sydney. Carron and Goddard were some considerable time in getting better;
the former being subject to daily fits of ague, etc., etc.

Thursday, January 11, 1849.

The black native had made his escape during the night, whilst it was
raining and blowing hard; we were at this time anchored about one and a
half or two miles from Turtle Reef, and a distance of eight miles from
Cape Bedford, the nearest part of the mainland; made search on the reef,
but saw no marks of him; a strong current was making towards Cape
Bedford, and he might have taken that direction. Two large sharks were
seen about the ship this morning; it is our impression the man can never
have reached the land; the black was seen by Parker, on deck, at two
A.M., whilst it was thundering, lightning, and raining, but was never
seen afterwards.



From the private log of T. BECKFORD SIMPSON, master of the brig Freak,*
giving an account of her proceedings when employed in searching for the
papers, etc., connected with the late Mr. Kennedy's exploring party.

(*Footnote. Under contract with the Colonial Government to call (on her
way to Port Essington) at Shelburne Bay and Escape River, to ascertain,
if possible, the fate of the three men left at the former place, and
recover the papers of Mr. Kennedy secreted by Jackey-Jackey, who went in
the Freak to point out the localities.)

Wednesday, May 2, 1849.

In the night fresh breezes from North-East with rain; at daylight weighed
and made sail, the Harbinger in company; shaped a course to pass between
Cape Direction and the low sandy island which lies off it; passed close
to the latter; I observed the reef extending from the North-East end
further than laid down on the chart; after passing it, and giving Cape
Direction a good berth, shaped a course for Restoration Island. At 9 A.M.
dense masses of rain-clouds to the east and north-east. The weather
became thick and rainy, shortened sail to the topsails. At 10.30 A.M.,
the weather clearing a little, saw Restoration and Cape Weymouth; when
close to the former we had heavy squalls with rain, which prevented our
seeing the land; hove-to with the vessel's head to the North-East;
shortly after the weather clearing a little so as to enable us to see the
land, bore up and stood in for Weymouth Bay. The rain now descended in
torrents, lowered topsails on the cap, feeling our way cautiously with
the lead; finding the water shoaling, anchored in twelve fathoms; at 0.30
P.M., the weather clearing a little, saw Restoration, bearing
South-South-East 1/2 East, and a small island distant about a mile west.

At 3.30 P.M. fine, and finding we were a long distance out, weighed and
ran in under the jib, the Harbinger following our example; as we
approached the bottom of the bay the water shoaled gradually, and when
the haze lifted Jackey pointed out the hill at the foot of which was the
camp where Mr. Kennedy had left eight of the party, and from whence
Carron and Goddard had been rescued. We stood into five fathoms, and at 5
P.M. anchored about 1 1/2 miles from the shore; the Harbinger brought up
close to us. Made up my mind to visit the camp in the morning, and
endeavour to find if there were any papers which might have been left and
not destroyed.

Thursday, May 3.

During the night moderate breeze from the south with light showers. At
five A.M., Captain Sampson came alongside, he wishing to join our party,
and visit the camp. Having well manned and armed the large whaleboat,
pulled on shore, and landed at the entrance of a small river, on a little
sand patch, the place having been pointed out by Jackey; it was the only
clear landing-place I saw. A dense mangrove swamp extended some distance
beyond high-water mark. We had no sooner landed than the rain fell in
torrents, and continued for three hours, so much so that we could not
load our guns. It was about high-water when we landed, and in the
mangrove scrub through which we had to go, the water was nearly up to our
waists. We had, therefore, no alternative but to remain patiently until
the tide fell, and the rain ceased.

On searching the place where we landed, part of a blanket was found,
marked B (arrow pointing up) O, a part of a tarpaulin, a piece of canvas,
apparently a portion of a tent, and a small tin dish, with a name
scratched on its back. These articles were evidently part of the pillage
from the camp. A little way up the creek we found three canoes, very
rudely made, with outriggers on both sides. We searched and found some
small pieces of iron, which we took, being also pillage from the
exploring party. At ten A.M., less rain, got some of our pieces blown off
with difficulty, they being drenched with rain.

At eleven A.M., having some of our guns in a state to be trusted, we took
to our boats and pulled a short distance up the creek in order to avoid
in some measure the crossing of the mangrove swamp. We started, Jackey
taking the lead, leaving a party to look after the boats. We walked for a
short distance in the mangrove swamp, and came out on an open spot where
we found a native camp, which from appearances had been but recently
abandoned, the ashes of the fire being still warm: we made a strict
search, but found nothing; we proceeded, passed through a small belt of
mangroves, and came on an open plain; here Jackey and Tommy being the
leading men, saw five natives, about fifty yards from us, planted behind
trees, each had a bundle of spears, they were evidently watching us,
Jackey levelled his gun at the nearest, and off they ran and disappeared
immediately; Jackey seemed very desirous to shoot them, but I told him
not to fire, as I wished to speak to them.

From the recent heavy rain the plain was very nearly knee-deep with
water, nearly the whole distance we travelled the water was over our
ankles, making walking very fatiguing. After crossing the plain we came
to a band of trees and bushes, among them I was surprised to find some
very fine banana plants; I observed also a fine specimen of the red cedar
(the only tree I had hitherto seen was the Melaleuca) here we crossed a
small creek, and came on fine forest land. After proceeding some
distance, Jackey pointed out the place where the party first camped, and
where Mr. Kennedy left the eight men; they subsequently removed to the
opposite side of the creek; near this place on a tree was carved in large
letters K. LXXX., which I suppose meant the eightieth station. On coming
to the creek found it running too strong for us to ford it; went along by
its side a short distance, and were fortunate to find a tree extending
across it, upon which we got over; found the grass as high as our
shoulders, crossed a small gully and ascended a slight acclivity, which
brought us to the site of the camp; a bare spot of ground indicated the
exact locality; this spot was strewed with portions of books, all of a
religious or scientific character; found no manuscripts; parts of
harness, leather belts, pieces of cedar boxes in leather covers were also
found; one or two tins for carrying water, a camp stool, and part of a
table, and piece of a tent pole, the bones, skulls, and part of the
feathers of birds, etc.; specimens of natural history, all destroyed. I
observed the bones of a horse, and the skull of a dog; a piece of torn
calico with a portion of a chart adhering to it was picked up; I thought
I could make out the words River Mitchell on it. I found among the pieces
of books, a portion of Leichhardt's journey overland.

I was some time before I could find the remains of Wall and Niblet, who
were the last men that died, and had not been buried, the survivors being
too weak. I placed myself at the camp, and looked about for the likeliest
place to which a corpse would be taken under the circumstances. I went
down into a small gully, about sixty yards from the camp; under some
small bushes, in about two feet of water, I found their bones, two skulls
and some of the larger bones, the smaller ones having most probably been
washed away by the flood; the bones were all carefully collected and
taken on board. From the position in which these bones were found,
agreeing with the description given me by Mr. Carron, I feel confident
they are the remains of Wall and Niblet.

I was rather surprised to find some cabbage-palm trees growing in the
vicinity of the camp; the tops are very nutritious, and would be very
desirable for men in a starving state, had they been aware of it. I
picked up part of a key belonging to a chronometer. After having a good
look round, we returned to the boats, all tired, from our drenching and
wading through so much mud and water, and we unfortunately had no
provisions of any kind, and had eaten nothing all day. When we pulled to
the entrance of the river it was low-water, and there was a bank dry
outside of us for upwards of half a mile; we had no alternative but to
wait until the tide flowed. At half past three P.M., got on board,
hoisted the boat in, and prepared to start in the morning.

Friday, May 4.

At daylight, weighed, with a light breeze from the southward; steered to
give Fair Cape a berth. I observed the entrance of a large river at the
north end of Weymouth Bay. At half-past ten A.M., passed Piper's Islands,
and steered for Young Island; could not make it out for some time, when
we did see it, found it only a small reef above water, not worthy the
name of an island; such a misnomer is likely to mislead; hauled up for
the reef M. At noon, abreast of Haggerstone Island, steered to give Sir
Everard Home's Isles a berth; saw natives on Cape Grenville; hauled in
for Sunday Island; the wind light from the eastward; passed Thorpe Point,
and hauled in for Round Point. At five P.M., anchored in six fathoms,
mud. Bearings at anchor, North Sand Hill, D (conical hill) South-East 1/2
East; South Wind Hillock (a saddle hill) South 3/4 East; the remarkable
sand patch, South-West 1/2 West; Jackey's Pudding-pan Hill, West 1/4
North. Got the whaleboat and crew ready to start at daylight for
Shelburne Bay.

On consulting Jackey about going to the camp where the three men were
left, he said it was no use going there; the distance was great, and the
country scrubby, and that he was sure if any of the men were alive, they
would be on the seacoast. Dunn, one of the men, told him, if Costigan
died, he should come down to the beach directly. I therefore considered
all that we could do would be to thoroughly examine the coast with the
whaleboat, close in shore, and the brig as near as she prudently could

At daylight despatched the whaleboat, in charge of the second officer,
with four seamen, Jackey, and his two companions, with particular orders
to keep close to the beach, and to land occasionally, to examine all the
native camping places and canoes; to make strict search for anything that
might tend to point out the fate of the unfortunate men. At 6.30 A.M.
weighed, with a light breeze from the southward, and steered to pass
between the Bird and Macarthur Islands; at noon abreast of the latter;
P.M., after passing Hannibal Isles, hauled in for the shore, for the
purpose of picking up the whaleboat. At 5.30 P.M., having shoaled our
water rather suddenly to 3 1/2 fathoms, hard bottom, anchored about a
mile off shore. Saw a canoe and a few natives on the beach. Bearings at
anchor--Risk Point, South 1/2 East; the centre of the Hannibal Isles,
South-East by East 1/2 East. At eight P.M. the boat returned. The second
officer made the following Report:

I kept close along the beach all day, landed three times; first, near the
creek where the Ariel's boat landed, saw no indication there of
Europeans. I landed again some distance further on, where I saw a native
camp and a canoe. In the latter I found a leather pistol holster, marked
34, which Jackey recognised as belonging to the party. Three natives were
seen by Jackey, who, on perceiving the boat, ran into the bush. At the
third place I landed I saw no indication of men. I was close to the beach
all along, and occasionally fired a musket.

Jackey appears confident that the men left have been killed by the
blacks. He said he had hopes of finding Dunn, he being a man that "knew
blackfellow well, and used to go along blackfellow."

Sunday, May 6th, 1849.

At daylight sent the boat on shore, manned as before, with instructions
to land at the place where I saw natives last night. At 6.30 A.M.,
weighed and set the topsail to a light breeze from the southward, steered
North by East 1/2 East, hauling out a little from the land. At seven
heard a rumbling noise, looked over the vessel's side and saw we were in
shoal water, the vessel gradually losing her way, but still continued
forging ahead a little; lowered the boat and sounded round, found more
water ahead, thirteen and fourteen feet; inshore, about half a cable's
length found five and six fathoms; to seaward, eleven and eleven and a
half feet. Set the foresail: having a flowing tide the vessel went ahead
and deepened our water; after going ahead about two or three ship's
lengths touched again slightly, and immediately after got into five and
six fathoms. The sea being smooth at the time, and the after part of the
keel being the only part of the vessel that touched, she cannot have
received any material damage. This shoal appeared to be of small extent,
composed of sand and coral; it is not laid down in the chart, but is very
dangerous, not being visible from the masthead. I went aloft after
crossing it, and could perceive no indication of shoal water. The
bearings I got when on the shoal were, the outer or larger Hannibal
Island, South-East 1/2 East, the inner one (only a solitary tree visible)
South by East 1/2 East.

At eleven A.M. passed Cairncross Island, running under easy sail and
keeping as near the shore as prudent to keep the boat in sight. I have
given instructions to the officers in charge to make a signal if anything
was discovered. At half-past four hauled in for Fern Island; at five
anchored under the lee in three fathoms, mud; bearings, the highest part
of Fern Island South by East, the entrance to Escape River, North-West by
West 1/2 West, hoisted the recall for the boat, on the return of which
the officer reported as follows:

I ran along close to the shore all day. I landed a little to the
southward of Orfordness. We met about thirty natives on the beach, who
came up to us without hesitation, and appeared very friendly; they shook
hands with all of us, and brought us water. Jackey at first thought he
recognised the native who escaped from the Ariel among them; he got a
little excited, and wanted to shoot him, when he approached nearer he was
satisfied he was not the same individual. At another place where I landed
I found part of the lower mast of a vessel about 400 tons, and pieces of
wreck; saw no natives or indication of them on the beach.

The schooner remained at anchor, and from the fact of her doing so, I
came to the conclusion it could be no other vessel than the Coquette;*
seeing her so far from her station, I imagined there was something wrong,
or that she had heard the unfortunate termination of the expedition, and
was preparing to leave; I determined to communicate with her before
proceeding up Escape River; at half-past eight A.M., saw four natives on
the beach.

(*Footnote. Which had been sent from Sydney to await the arrival of
Kennedy's Expedition at Port Albany, the period for which the Ariel had
been chartered for that purpose having expired.)

At nine A.M., I left in the whaleboat for the schooner--the small boat
employed watering. At half past eleven A.M. I boarded the Coquette;
Captain Elliott had heard by the Sea Nymph, from Hobart Town, the fate of
the expedition, and was about leaving for Sydney. She reported the ship
Lord Auckland, from Hobart Town, with horses, having been aground on the
X reef for several days; she subsequently got off, and had proceeded on
her voyage, not having sustained any very material damage; she had lost
four anchors, and the Coquette was going to try to pick them up. Having
explained to Captain Elliott my intention of proceeding up the Escape
River in the morning, he volunteered to accompany me, and to supply two
hands, which enabled me to man my two boats, thus making a most
formidable party.

At daylight made preparations for starting. I took the five-oared
whaleboat, and the second officer, accompanied by Captain Elliott, went
in the small boat, both well armed and manned. At half-past six A.M. we
left and ran before a strong breeze from the South-East, and stood in for
the entrance of Escape River. At half-past seven hauled in round the
south head (Point Shadwell): in crossing the bar, least water three
fathoms, the tide being about first quarter spring flood.

After entering the river perceived a bay, with small sandy beaches, one
of which Jackey pointed out as the place where Mr. Kennedy first met the
hostile natives; from this place we observed some of them launching a
canoe for the purpose of speaking us, but as we could not afford to lose
either the time or the tide I deferred communicating with them until our
return. After steering west about five or six miles, the river began
gradually to wind to the northward, and afterwards South-South-East; the
river six or seven miles from the entrance was upwards of a mile in
width, both banks were covered by a dense impenetrable mangrove swamp;
after the river trended to the southward we had to lower our sail and
pull; after pulling some four or five miles the river became gradually
narrower. I observed several branches of it trending to the northward and
westward; we remained on the southernmost branch, the principal one; as
we proceeded on the left hand side of the river we came to a clear place
free of mangroves, the only one we had seen; here we landed, and Jackey
pointed it out as the place where Mr. Kennedy had come down on the
morning of the day when he was killed; it was here Jackey advised him to
abandon the horses and swim the river, about thirty yards wide. Jackey
pointed out the tree where he made the horses fast whilst they went down
to the river and searched in vain for oysters, they having had nothing to
eat all that day.

We again proceeded, the river becoming gradually narrower as we advanced,
and the water perfectly fresh. After going about two or three miles, the
river became so narrow that our oars could not be used. We were compelled
to haul the boats along, against a strong stream, by the overhanging
branches of the trees, frequently coming across fallen trees, over which
we had to launch our boats, running the risk of staving them; and again
obliged to force them under others. A better spot could not have been
selected by the natives for cutting us off, had they been so disposed--a
narrow creek, and a dense scrub on either side. We still proceeded till
the boats could get no further. We had traced the Escape River to its
source--a small freshwater creek. As we advanced the belt of mangroves
became thinner. We landed on a clear place, on the right of the creek. We
went a short distance inland; saw an extensive plain, with numerous large
ant-hills on it, which Jackey knew as the place he had crossed the day
Mr. Kennedy was killed. Jackey went a short distance further to
reconnoitre, and presently returned, having perfectly satisfied himself
as to our locality.

After making a hasty meal we proceeded, leaving four hands in charge of
the boats; we walked some distance across a swamp, still following the
course of the creek. In the swamp I saw a great many of the Nepenthes
distillatoria, or pitcher-plant; they were not exactly of the same
description I have seen on the Pellew Islands, and other places; nearly
all of them wanted the graceful turn in the stem, for which those elegant
plants are so justly celebrated. We traced the creek for nearly a mile,
looking out for a crossing-place, when Jackey pointed out on the other
side the place where he had secreted the saddlebags. At length we came to
a tree which had fallen and formed a kind of bridge, over which we passed
with difficulty, and returned to the place where Jackey said the
saddlebags were planted. Jackey then showed us the place where "horse
tumble down creek" after being speared. Some horse-dung was found on the
top of the bank close to this place, which confirmed Jackey's statement;
he then took us a few yards into the scrub to look for the saddlebags,
and told us to look about for a broken twig, growing over a thick bush;
the place was found, but the saddlebags were gone; on searching under the
bush among the leaves, the horizon glass of a sextant was found, a strong
proof that Jackey had found the right place.

Jackey then took us through a dense scrub for some distance, when we came
on open swampy ground about half a mile wide; on the opposite side there
was more scrub, close to which there were three large ant-hills; Jackey
took us up to the centre one, five yards from which poor Kennedy fell;
against this ant-hill Jackey placed him when he went after the
saddlebags. Jackey told us to look about for broken spears; some pieces
were found; he then took us to a place about sixty yards from the
ant-hill, where he put Mr. Kennedy, who then told him not to carry him
far. About a quarter of a mile from this place, towards the creek, Jackey
pointed out a clear space of ground, near an angle of a very small
running stream of fresh water, close to three young pandanus trees, as
the place where the unfortunate gentleman died. Jackey had taken him here
to wash his wounds and stop the blood. It was here, when poor Kennedy
found he was dying, that he gave Jackey instructions about the papers,
when Jackey said, "Why do you talk so: you are not going to leave me?"

Jackey then led the way to a dense tea-tree scrub, distant about three or
four hundred yards, where he had carried the body and buried it. When we
came to the edge of the scrub, Jackey was at a loss where to enter, as he
said when he was carrying the corpse he did not look behind--all the
objects in front being nearly alike he did not get a good mark. Into the
midst of this scrub we went, divided ourselves and searched in every
direction, but could not find the place: Jackey had not made the spot too
conspicuous, fearing the blacks might find it, he had only bent down two
twigs across each other; the scrub was not very extensive but exceedingly

Jackey led the way to a creek, and pointed out the place where he had
crossed. Jackey said "I threw him down one fellow compass somewhere
here." It was immediately found, it was one of Kater's prismatic
compasses, the name Chislett, London, engraved on the back. Jackey then
went to a place where he "plant him sextant," but the flood had been over
the spot and washed it away. When returning I found the trough for an
artificial horizon washed upon the banks of the creek, this had been left
with the sextant. Jackey crossed the creek, and found a small wooden
bottle of quicksilver in the same place where he had left it.

We returned to the scrub where Mr. Kennedy was buried, when we came to it
I placed the party (eleven in number) five yards asunder, and traversed
it this way in all directions, but without success. I then took Jackey to
the plain where the poor gentleman died, and told him to go towards the
scrub in the same manner he did when he was carrying the corpse, and not
to look back, which he did, telling me the manner in which he carried it,
and where he shifted it from one shoulder to the other. In this manner he
entered the scrub, and I have no doubt he took us very near the exact
place where the body was buried; we sounded the ground all round with our
ramrods, but without success. After taking another good look we
reluctantly gave up the search, as the night was rapidly approaching, and
returned to the boats.

My opinion is, that the remains of the unfortunate gentleman have not
been exhumed; if they had, we should have seen some indication of them;
the natives would not have taken the trouble to fill the grave, or take
away the bones. The soil where he was buried was of a light sandy nature,
and the small mound Jackey rose over the grave had been washed down by
the heavy rains. The only clue that gave rise to the supposition that the
natives had found the body, was the fact that part of Mr. Kennedy's
trousers was found in the canoe taken by the schooner Ariel. Jackey said
there were other trousers in the saddlebag, exactly like those he had on
at the time of his death. The saddlebags, there is not the slightest
doubt, have been found by the natives. Poor Jackey was very quiet, but
felt, and felt deeply, during the day. When pointing out the spot where
Mr. Kennedy died, I saw tears in his eyes, and no one could be more
indefatigable in searching for the remains. His feelings against the
natives were bitter, and had any of them made their appearance at the
time, I could hardly have prevented him from shooting them.

When we got back to the boats, we immediately proceeded down the creek,
being anxious to get clear of the intricate navigation before dark. We
succeeded in getting into the open river with difficulty, the numerous
snags and branches of trees in the creek, together with the strong
current, requiring great precaution to prevent our boats being stove.

A few yards above the place pointed out by Jackey in the morning, where
Mr. Kennedy came down to the river for the purpose of crossing, we found
the water very shallow, not ankle deep, right across, and had they waited
until low-water they might have crossed without difficulty; as we pulled
down the river we found numerous shoals, our boat constantly grounding;
in fact Escape River is not a river, but an estuary, terminating in

At eleven we arrived at the entrance of the river, where I camped for the
night, on a sandy beach not far from Point Shadwell, having determined to
examine the native camp at daybreak. Set a watch, but made no fire, as I
wanted to take the natives by surprise.

Wednesday, May 9th, 1849.

Blowing very hard all night from South-East; passed a miserable
night--the mosquitoes devouring us. At break of day launched our boats
and pulled towards the camp where we had seen natives the day before.
Some of the party went along the beach. On arriving at the camp found it
had very recently been abandoned; one of Jackey's companions saw one
native, who ran into the bush and was seen no more.

I went with Jackey some distance into the bush, he showed me the place
where a native threw a spear at him the day before Mr. Kennedy's death;
Jackey fired, but missed him. I forgot to mention that the master of the
Coquette had seen a native at Port Albany, who had, apparently, been
wounded in the face with large shot, and as he answered the exact
description given by Jackey, there is little doubt that he was the same
individual mentioned in his statement as shot by him.

We searched the camp, found a small piece of red cloth, which Jackey
recognised as part of the lining of Mr. Kennedy's cloak, also a piece of
painted canvas; a canoe on the beach we destroyed. Finding nothing more
could be done, we pulled out of the river, and got on board about ten
A.M., after a very hard pull against both a head wind and tide.

Found the brig riding very uneasy in consequence of the heavy sea, and as
Jackey said the other papers, called by him the small ones, and which I
conceive to be the most important, as he was particularly instructed to
take them to the Governor, were secreted at the head of another river,
about eight miles further to the northward, and finding the vessel could
not ride any longer here with safety, I determined, when the tide ceased,
to weigh and seek some more secure anchorage.

At half-past twelve P.M. weighed, the Coquette in company, and stood to
the northward. At half-past four hard squalls and heavy rain; rounded the
Tree Island Reef and anchored in five fathoms, about one and a half miles
from the north end of Albany Island.

I do not intend going into Port Albany, as the tides run very strong
there; outside is quite as safe at this season. In the evening went on
shore on Albany Island. Saw four or five natives, who knew Captain
Elliott; they were very anxious to get biscuit and tobacco. They seem to
be the same class of men as those at Port Essington, but the language is,
I think, different.

Thursday, May 10.

All night blowing hard, and squally. At daylight same weather; no chance
of the boat getting to the southward today. At ten went on shore, for the
purpose of selecting a spot to inter the remains of Messrs. Wall and
Niblet. Saw the horse left by the Ariel; he seemed in good condition, but
rather shy; no chance, I fear, of catching him. Took some corn and meal
in a bucket for him.

At three P.M. the weather rather more moderate. Both vessels got
underweigh, and worked close inshore. At 4.30 anchored in three and
three-quarters fathoms, mud: Tree Island North-East by East half East;
Pile Island West half South; north extreme of Albany Island South by East
half East; within a short half mile of the shore.

Got all ready for a start in the morning, should the weather be moderate.
Should the weather continue bad, I proposed to Jackey to try the overland
route. He said the distance was too great, and the country very bad to
travel through; that it would take several days.

Friday, May 11th, 1849.

All night fresh breeze and squally, at daylight rather more moderate, at
half-past six despatched the whaleboat, fully manned and armed and
provisioned for two days, and Jackey and his two companions. I gave
charge of the boat to Macnate, my chief officer. I did not think there
was any necessity to go myself, as Jackey said they were not likely to
fall in with any natives. Captain Elliot volunteered his services and
accompanied the party. Employed watering ship, found water very abundant
all over Albany Island.

Saturday, May 12th, 1849.

At half-past one P.M. the whaleboat returned, having got the papers,
etc., secreted by Jackey in a hollow tree. A rat or some animal had
pulled them out of the tree, and they were saturated with water, and I
fear nearly destroyed; they consisted of a roll of charts and some
memorandum books. The charts with care may be deciphered. The following
is Mr. Macnate's statement:

May 11.

At eight A.M. we rounded Fly Point, set sail and steered South by West,
the boat going about five knots, just laying along the shore. At ten A.M.
crossed a bank with only nine feet of water on it, passed a reef about
three miles from Fly Point, and half a mile from the shore; from former
shoal had three and four fathoms to the entrance of the river. At
half-past eleven A.M. entered the mouth of a river, near the centre of
Newcastle Bay; here we lost sight of Albany Island, making the distance
from it about fourteen miles; the entrance of this river is about one
mile and a half wide; on the northern half of the entrance the water is
deep, three fathoms; on the southern side there is a sandbank, nearly dry
at low-water.

From the entrance we went South-South-West five miles, when the river
narrowed to about the third of a mile, we had from six to two and a half
fathoms all the way in. From here we went into the branch of the river
that ran about south, the main river going west. The entrance to the
branch is about two cables' lengths wide, we went in a southerly
direction about six miles, when the river narrowed to forty feet; here we
landed at half-past three P.M. Leaving two hands in charge of the boat,
walked about two and a half miles, where Jackey found the papers, they
had been pulled out of the hollow trunk where he had placed them, and
were much damaged, being saturated with water. We then went half a mile
to where Jackey had camped, to look for a pair of compasses he had left;
could not find them, but found a notebook that Jackey had been drawing
sketches in; from here we went to another camp to look for the compasses,
but did not find them. At half-past five came back to the boat and camped
for the night, none of us could sleep on account of the mosquitoes and
flies, etc.

At six A.M. started down the river; at eight calm, got into the main
river, had breakfast. At half-past eight, a light breeze from the
eastward. At eleven passed within half a mile of two native canoes with
seven men in each, stood towards them, they immediately paddled away. At
one rounded Fly Point, and at half-past one got alongside the brig.

Sunday, May 13, 1849.

Fresh breeze from South-East and fine all day. At eight A.M. both vessels
hoisted the ensign half-mast. At three P.M. having put the remains of
Messrs. Wall and Niblet in a coffin, left the ship in the two boats with
nearly all the ship's crew cleaned, and pulled to the southern end of
Albany Island, landed and went up to the highest hill on that part of the
island, and on the top, a clear open place, we dug a grave and interred
the remains of the unfortunate individuals Thomas Wall and Charles
Niblet, reading the funeral service over them; about ten or twelve of the
natives were present, and we fully explained to them what we were doing,
they conducted themselves with propriety when the funeral service was
being read. Poor Jackey was much affected, and could not refrain from

The spot I selected is the most conspicuous on the island, and would be
an excellent site for the erection of a monument to the memory of the
unfortunate men who perished on the late ill-fated expedition.* At each
end of the grave I planted two large bushes, and on the top were placed
several large stones. A bottle was suspended over the grave, with a paper
in it, stating who was interred, with the date, etc.; and at sunset we
returned on board.

(*Footnote. A tombstone with suitable inscription was afterwards erected
by Captain Stanley, and two young coconut trees were planted near the

I cannot close my extracts without mentioning the exemplary conduct of
Jackey-Jackey. Since he came on board I have always found him quiet,
obliging, and very respectful; when on shore he was very attentive,
nothing could abstract him from his object; the sagacity and knowledge he
displayed in traversing the trackless wilderness were astonishing; when
he found the places he went in search of, he was never flushed with
success, but invariably maintained his quiet, unobtrusive behaviour; he
was much concerned at not being able to find the remains of his late
unfortunate master, to whom he was sincerely attached; his two
companions* also conducted themselves well, and were very useful on

(*Footnote. Aboriginal blacks of his own tribe.)




A few words procured at Cape York and Port Lihou are given in the Voyage
of the Fly, and most of those which I have been able to identify belong
to the language spoken by the Kowrarega tribe, inhabiting the Prince of
Wales Islands, and frequently visiting Cape York.

For the materials composing the present Kowrarega Vocabulary, I am almost
entirely indebted to Mrs. Thomson. Unfortunately, however, her total want
of education prevented her from acquiring any idea of the construction of
the language; nor could she always be made to understand the meaning of a
question--however simple in its form--framed to elicit information on
this point. Even by carefully sifting at leisure hours the mass of crude
materials obtained from her and written down at each interview, day by
day, I did not make sufficient progress in the grammar of the language to
enable me to pursue the subject further, until her value as an authority
had so far declined that it was prudent to reject it altogether. Nearly
all the words originally procured from Mrs. Thomson were subsequently
verified either by herself or by our Kowrarega visitors.

The Gudang Vocabulary was formed at Cape York, and the chief contributor
to it was the black named Paida, mentioned above, to whom I latterly was
able to make myself tolerably well understood upon most subjects, through
the medium of the Kowrarega language, which he knew thoroughly. As
several dialects are spoken at this place,* I took care to reject all
such words as were not given me expressly as Gudang.

(*Footnote. Two examples will suffice to show the differences in the five
languages which I have heard spoken at Cape York.

Dog = ing-godinya (Gudang and Yagulle), ngyomo (Kachialaiga), Inyomo
(Induyamo), umai (Kowrarega).

Smoke = ekura (Gudang and Induyamo), rong-gura (Yagulle and Kachialaiga),
tuo (Kowrarega).)

The following rules have been adopted in the Vocabularies:

[The vowels are sounded as follows:

a as in hard.
a as in hat.
e as in there.
e as in bet.
e as in French meme.
i as in eel.
i as in bit.
o as in hole.
o as in not.
u as in cool.
u as in cut.
ai as in eye.
ei not represented in English.]

G is always hard, as in get; ch soft, as in church.

The letters in italics are sometimes omitted.

The numbers appended to some words point out similarities and



(*Footnote. To form the plural of a noun or adjective, the rule appears
to be to add le as a postfix, sometimes previously supplying a terminal
vowel if required: Example: geta = hand becomes getale in the plural:
kuku = foot, kukule: kutai = yam, kutaile: ipi = wife, ipile: kerne = lad
undergoing a certain ceremony, kernele: makaow = mat, makaowle: bom =
fruit of pandanus, bomale. There are exceptions however; mari = shell
ornament, makes marurre in the plural: gul = canoe, gulai: tawpei =
short, tawpeingh: all nouns ending in ra have the plural in re, as kowra
= ear, kowrare and all ending in kai gain jille in the plural, as ipikai
= woman, ipikaijille.

Regarding the allusion to a terminal vowel, it may be mentioned here that
as most Kowrarega words end in a vowel, its absence when a vowel
commences the following word is commonly owing to elision. Example: udzu
umai = my dog becomes udz'umai. When the last consonant in a word is the
same as the first in the following word, one of the letters is omitted.
Example: apa pirung = soft ground becomes ap'irung. There are numerous
other contractions, as ai for aidu = food: aiye for aiyewel = come here:
mue utsem = the fire has gone out, for mue utsimem etc.)


1 : Sky : je : -.
2 : Sun : gariga : inga.
3 : Cloud : dapar : otera.
4 : Cloud, heavy, cumulus : markei : -.
5 : Cloud, driving, scud : ras : -.
6 : Moon : kissuri : aikana.
7 : Moon, new : kainidung (634) : kichia.
8 : Moon, full : mullpal : ichara.
9 : Moonlight : kapi kissurri (612.6) : -.
10 : Star : titure : onbi, unbi.
11 : Star, falling : titure udzarizhe (10.745) : -.
12 : Star, morning : gariga titure (2.10) : -.
13 : Jupiter ? : dogei : -.
14 : Pleiades : kusali* : -.

(*Footnote. The frequency of words having different meanings may perhaps
lead some to suppose that they may have originated in error on my part.
Some have a figurative connexion as upu = a series of waterholes, also a
blister; kusali = the constellation of the Pleiades, also a plant with
bunches of seeds which become white and glittering by exposure to the
sun: others have no obvious community of meaning, as ari = rain, also a
louse; gi = laughter, also ripe, &tc.)

15 : Darkness, night : inur : yulpalga.
16 : Shadow, shade : yirada : moda.
17 : Wind : guba : alba.
18 : Rain : ari : apura.
19 : Rainbow : oripara : ung-gebanya.
20 : Dew : urma : -.
21 : Fog : wunu : -.
22 : Thunder : duyuma : wagel (526).
23 : Lightning : baguma : omba.
24 : Heat, steam : kaman : -.
25 : Sea : wur : -.
26 : Salt water : adabu : ung-onya.
27 : Saltwater creek : kassur : -.
28 : Saltwater swamp : gowada : gawata.
29 : Deep water : mal : -.
30 : Shoal water : gata : -.
31 : Wave : baow : -.
32 : Foam : tsika : -.
33 : High-water : wur pusakuradun (746) : -.
34 : Low-water : wur nuremizinghi : -.
35 : Tide, flood : wur kamizinghi : -.
36 : Tide, ebb : wur nurezinghi : -.
37 : Salt : - : ? bawa.
38 : Fresh water : nuki : epi.
39 : Spring : dana nuki (443) : -.
40 : Well, hole dug in ground : marama : akanya.
41 : Stream of fresh water : bubbu : epitaba (38).
42 : Stream, bed of : kassa : artaba.
43 : Chain of ponds : upu (529) : -.
44 : Land : laga (370) : -.
45 : Sand, sandy beach : butu : aigi.
46 : Island : kowra (455) : unbonya.
47 : Reef : madji : -.
48 : Flat, plain : bowa : -.
49 : Hill, wooded : pada : pada.
50 : Hill, stony : baradi (56) : -.
51 : Ground, soil : apa : ampa.
52 : Mud : barrudder : -.
53 : Mangrove swamp : tugga : -.
54 : Stone, rock : kula, kola : olpa.
55 : Cave, hole in rock : sakai : -.
56 : Any remarkable rock : adi : -.
57 : Cliff : thi : -.
58 : Sandstone : iba-eba : -.
59 : Quartz : us : elpowa.
60 : Pumice : maat : meta.
61 : Ochre, red : parma : anto.
62 : Ochre, yellow : daoma : -.
63 : Fire, wood : mue : yoko.
64 : Flame : buyeli : -.
65 : Smoke : tuo : ekora, ekura.
66 : Ashes : kunur : buro-buro.
67 : Charcoal : burker : onta.
68 : Path : yabu : alka.
69 : Summer, dry season : aibow : -.
70 : Winter, rainy season : kuki* : adara.

(*Footnote. Also applied to north-west wind then prevailing.)

71 : Spring and Autumn : malgui : -.
72 : Turtling season : sulangi : -.


73 : Tail of quadruped : koba : opo.
74 : Bat, large : sapur : -.
75 : Bat, young of : kugi : -.
76 : Bat, harpy : - : tumidumi.
77 : Bat, small : ararapa : mali.
78 : Native cat : - : kute.
79 : Dog : umai : ing-godinya.
80 : Bandicoot : - : walkundunya.
81 : Kangaroo : usur* : epama.

(*Footnote. The sounds of s and z are wanting in Gudang, and when
occurring in a foreign language are represented by ch or ty. Example: The
Kowrarega words usur = kangaroo, makutz = mouse, surka = megapodius, susu
= breasts, if pronounced by a Gudang black are rendered by uchur,
makutcha, tyurka, tyu-tyu.)

82 : Opossum : barit : -.
83 : Mouse : makutz : makutcha.
84 : Whale : bidu : -.
85 : Dugong : dung-ula : wattei.
86 : Dugong, tail of : sun-na (149) : -.


87 : Bird, insect, shell, etc. : ure : wuroi.
88 : Wing : buta : ngaga.
89 : Tail : kupa-luba (478) : kopagoba.
90 : Quill : kai-kai : aikunya, eikunya.
91 : Down : palissa : -.
92 : Nest : padama : untinya (242).
93 : Egg (or of reptile) : kakuru (499) : achina (499).
94 : Eagle : agaleg : -.
95 : Eagle, quill of : baba* (418) : -.

(*Footnote. Literally the father (of feathers); it is much prized as an
ornament both for the persan and to deck graves with.)

96 : Hawk : - : kartam.
97 : Owl : - : tuitru.
98 : Goatsucker : biya : ngoko.
99 : Laughing jackass : kowru : unbunya.
100 : Kingfisher, long-tailed : - : quatawur.
101 : Kingfisher, yellow-billed : - : poditti.
102 : Swamp pheasant : - : pura-pura.
103 : Swift : - : ebundyara.
104 : Parson-bird, thrush : - : weya.
105 : Bower-bird : - : yewinya.
106 : Dragoon-bird : - : eipura.
107 : Fork-tailed flycatcher : - : trokaru.
108 : Small thrush : - : chechurri.
109 : Rifle-bird : - : yagunya.
110 : Starling : - : muter.
111 : Wood swallow : - : kartaquiko.
112 : Small flycatcher : - : kopota.
113 : Sun-bird : - : teredirri.
114 : Many small birds : - : inchanya.
115 : Leather-head : quako : kakua.
116 : Black macaw : - : peuntu.
117 : Cockatoo : weama : aira.
118 : Cockatoo, crest of : yelai (493) : -.
119 : Parrot, blue mountain : kerissa : inbere.
120 : Parrot, rosella : - : wong-inya.
121 : Pigeon, white : gainowa : gainowa.
122 : Pigeon, green : waranis : belbucku.
123 : Dove, ground : ku-u-rug : kudrogo.
124 : Dove, green : - : waraba (257).
125 : Cassowary of New Guinea : sam (597) : -.
126 : Emu : - : nichulka.
127 : Brush turkey : raon : araunya.
128 : Megapodius : surka : utema.
129 : Megapodius, mound of : surka pada (49) : -.
130 : Quail : - : gururu.
131 : Native companion : aporega : aporega.
132 : Heron, night : - : wang-go.
133 : Heron, blue : karbai : -.
134 : Heron, white : krem : -.
135 : Godwit : - : ku-urri.
136 : Sandpiper : - : tyuri.
137 : Frigate-bird : - : owmer.
138 : Gull : keki : keake.
139 : Tern : - : chara.
140 : Teal : - : ropagama.
141 : White duck : diggi-diggi : -.


142 : Turtle (general) : waru : waru.
143 : Turtle, soft eggs : oebada : -.
144 : Turtle, hawksbill : unao : -.
145 : Turtle, green : sulur : -.
146 : Turtle, logger-head : urza : -.
147 : Turtle, small kind : kidu : waru.
148 : Turtle, fore fin : puye : -.
149 : Turtle, hind fin : suna suro (86).
150 : Turtle, : belly atta : -.
151 : Turtle, back : agu : -.
152 : Tortoiseshell : todi : wanawa.
153 : Frog : kang-gu : kartakutta.
154 : Crocodile : ibara : -.
155 : Lizard, large : gang-ura : murunya.
156 : Lizard, middle-sized : - : rauntinya.
157 : Lizard, small : indyura : dudyuroko.
158 : Snake, brown : karomat : kanurra.
159 : Snake, black : piroan : -.
160 : Snake, green : - : wachi.


161 : Fish : wawpi : wawpi.
162 : Fin : - : merta.
163 : Tail : mabi : chana.
164 : Breast : pel : -.
165 : Gills : - : ananaji.
166 : Shark : beidum : wandi.
167 : Sting-ray : aona : waki.
168 : Pelates : dzaram : -.
169 : Diacope 8 lineata : tanigi : -.
170 : Scatophagus multifasciatus : karmoi : tora.
171 : Lethrinus : djaga, dyaga : -.
172 : Parrot-fish : bila : uburu.
173 : Mullet : piwer : -.
174 : Whiting (Silago) : kopuru (475 ?) : -.
175 : Flathead : - : tobu.
176 : Freshwater herring : wila : anburo.
177 : Toad-fish : badar (530): -.
178 : Sucking-fish : gapu : -.


179 : Crab, blue : kowturri : paka.
180 : Crab, small : gurba : -.
181 : Crab, large : getalli : getalla.
182 : Crayfish : kayer : lang-gunya.
183 : Beetle, small : - : orona.
184 : Beetle, water : - : neke.
185 : Humble bee : - : boro.
186 : Honey* : utu : untere.

(*Footnote. This and the next are made by a small stingless bee which
builds its nest in hollow trees.)

187 : Wax : yerka : alpanya.
188 : Small wasp : garur : elpiri.
189 : Ant-hill and ant : mugu : mong-go.
190 : Ant, bronzed : dupu (532) : -.
191 : Ant, small black : tumi : -.
192 : Ant, green : musu : eipunya.
193 : Ant, large red : kaguda.
194 : Ant, small, white, wood : - : benje.
195 : Cicada : edyena : intere.
196 : Fly : buli : wampa.
197 : Fly, horse (Haematopoda) : burugo : burogo.
198 : Mosquito : iwi : uma, oma.
199 : Butterfly : - : tewinya, tawinya.
200 : Grub in dead wood : oka : etimunya.
201 : Grub in living wood : tolo.
202 : Louse : ari (18) : ako.
203 : Scorpion : idi-idi, diwi : -.
204 : Spider : enti : tamburra.
205 : Worm : kurtur : -.


206 : Cuttlefish : sug-gu : -.
207 : Barnacle on turtle : yetu : yetu.
208 : Clamshell (Tridacna) : miya : miya.
209 : Cyrena : akula : onti.
210 : Oyster : ita : umpeda.
211 : Sanguinolaria : tiki : teki.
212 : Fusus proboscidiferus : boa : mabur.
213 : Melon-shell : alopa : ang-kowa.
214 : Murex : - : weloro.
215 : Egg-cowrie : buboam : -.
216 : Olive : - : waraji.
217 : Ear-shell : - : tepur.
218 : Periwinkle, small : budi : budi.
219 : Periwinkle, large : - : yarawura.
220 : Natica : - : modul.
221 : Auricula judae : - : ngaanbamedi.
222 : Snail, large : - : tetuka.
223 : Snail, small : - : keno.
224 : Coral : yammar (branched) : wardyo-orge (massive).


225 : Tree (general term) : prue : pure.
226 : Log : watur : -.
227 : Driftwood : bete : -.
228 : Touchwood* and its charcoal : kubi : -.

(*Footnote. The charcoal used for painting the body is made from this.)

229 : Small stick : saragi : cheragi.
230 : Bark : purur : rang-a.
231 : Branch : mang : -.
232 : Leaf : nissa : etrara.
233 : Flower : kowsur : erora.
234 : Seed : kawp : -.
235 : Root : quiku (433) : -.
236 : Root, of grass : - : nontya.
237 : Root, of a tree : - : yalida (493 ?).
238 : Seaweed : - : tawar.
239 : Seaweed (food of dugong) : - : purada.
240 : Mushroom : - : achari.
241 : Fern : - : ganda.
242 : Grass : burda : untinya (92).
243 : Grass, coarse : - : bagudda.
244 : Sugarcane : garu : -.
245 : Bamboo : marapi ? : marapi.
246 : Calladium esculentum : bua : -.
247 : Pandanus spiralis : gara : burwa.
248 : Pandanus, cluster of fruit : bom : -.
249 : Pandanus, fruit, singly : abul, abal : -.
250 : Pandanus, kernel : abul dan' (443) : -.
251 : Pandanus pedunculata : kowsar : quatyerra.
252 : Seaforthia palm, large : lulko : akarinya.
253 : Seaforthia palm, small : utu : -.
254 : Caryota palm : - : damaraba.
255 : Rattan : kuchi : -.
256 : Cabbage palm (Corypha) : muru, moro : watu (251 ?).
257 : Coconut : uraba : waraba.
258 : Sago palm of New Guinea : bisi : -.
259 : White lily (Crinum) : ? gurabi : korobo.
260 : Banana : - : katamurra.
261 : Hellenia coerulea* : - : kera-kera.

(*Footnote. The root of this is eaten raw.)

262 : Flag (Philydrum) : tagur : dyaimura.
263 : Rush : - : akomba.
264 : Rush, ? (with edible roots) : - : rewino.
265 : Sedge : - : opolga.
266 : Sedge : - : gwanda.
267 : Yam, wild (Dioscorea) : derabu : worng-ura.
268 : Yam, fibrous, (Dioscorea) : kutai : perut.
269 : Yam, (do.) : dawb : -.
270 : Yam, (do.) : sowar : -.
271 : Yam, purple (Convolvulus ?) : bizar : -.
272 : Yam, : sagu : -.
273 : Yam, (Convolvulus ?) : tapan : -.
274 : Sweet-potato : rugabu : -.
275 : Cane (Flagellaria) : buji : budya, bodya.
276 : Dracontium : - : epuanoma.
277 : Fig : - : atara.
278 : Fig, (with large edible fruit) : uguru.
279 : Fig : - : awida.
280 : She-oak (Casuarina) : gaibur : burbura.
281 : Cotton-tree (Cochlospermum) : - : paotu.
282 : Cotton-tree (Bombax) : wapada, goguta : wapada.
283 : Cotton-tree, cotton of : - : maye.
284 : Waterlily (Nymphaea) : ? rumbadi : rumbadi, rombadi.
285 : Wormia alata : - : maartitta.
286 : Cashew nut : dua : leara, liara.
287 : Grevillea : - : yuwurra.
288 : Parinarium : wibu : elari.
289 : Acacia : - : garragurra.
290 : Large bean* : kalapi, kulapi : umpira, umbera.

(*Footnote. Eaten with Biyu--the produce of a vine-like climber with
legumes a foot in length.)

291 : Coral-tree (Erythrina) : - : pinura, penura.
292 : Abrus precatorius : timikapul : -.
293 : Blue pea-flower : - : waalkuda.
294 : Mimusops kaukii : ubur : wobar.
295 : Convolvulus (with edible roots) : chawur : atiar.
296 : Vitex macrophylla : - : oroida.
297 : Avicennia tomentosa ? : - : dyang-a.
298 : Scaevola koenigii : dela : dyara.
299 : Mangrove : taga : teang-gunya.
300 : Mangrove : - : korad-da.
301 : Mangrove : kuiyur : inchencheiya.
302 : Mangrove : biyu : biyu.
303 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : agura.
304 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : ubu, wobu : unera.
305 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : elembi.
306 : Tea-tree (Melaleuca) : - : adoya, aduya.
307 : Gumtree (Eucalyptus) : - : keru.
308 : Apple, red (Eugenia) : kuai : apiga, apega.
309 : Apple, white (Eugenia) : kupa : bang-gadi.
310 : Cherry (Eugenia) : - : arondyi.
311 : Sciadophyllum : - : lang-gula.
312 : Cedar (Cedrela) : - : kerum.
313 : Vine (Cissus) : - : mangko.
314 : Creeper* : wali : -.

(*Footnote. Used in making one kind of fishing line.)

315 : Heritiera* : meker : -.

(*Footnote. The leaf of this rolled up into a cylinder is used to distend
the hole in the lobe of the ear.)

316 : Tree : passei* : -.

(*Footnote. Large tree with very light wood used for making outrigger
floats and paddles.)

317 : Tree : - : ung-kunya.
318 : Tree : sira-sira* : -.

(*Footnote. The bark of this is made into large fishing lines.)

319 : Tree : koper : baguntinya.
320 : Resin : yirka* : -.

(*Footnote. Used in fixing the heads and joints of spears and

321 : Bark of which daje is made : mae : -.
322 : Xerotes banksii : walchi : noyo, noyu.
323 : Tobacco : suguba : choka.
324 : Wood, hard, used for spears : - : era.
325 : Wood, soft, used for spears : - : mang-ga.


326 : Iron : turika : gere.
327 : Glass, bottle : talpura : talpura.
328 : Gun : tarika : tida.
329 : Axe : aga : aga.
330 : Clothes : dumawk : dumawk.
331 : Hat : - : walapa.
332 : Knife : gi, gi-turik : -.


333 : Canoe : gul : ang-ganya.
334 : Bow : bua, buai : oimpa.
335 : Stern : menir : kona.
336 : Stern, ornaments of* : - : koikochupa.

(*Footnote. One central and two lateral poles ornamented with streamers
and feathers.)

337 : Raised gunwale : bada (530) : bada.
338 : Platform : tamu : tamo.
339 : Netting : sari : chari.
340 : Outrigger poles : togo : togo.
341 : Outrigger float : sarima : charima.
342 : Outrigger float, pegs of : sarim' pati : -.
343 : Paddle : karaba : karaba.
344 : Mast : raba : mulgoburra.
345 : Poles of sails, etc. : suru : malela.
346 : Backstays : buzu : -.
347 : Backstays, grommets on : queada : -.
348 : Sail, mat of any kind : rab'waku (344) waku : abara.
349 : Rope, cable : uro : chichaluro.
350 : Stone for anchor : yadi : -.
351 : Women's covering : awash : -.
352 : Petticoat : daje : -.
353 : Petticoat, band of : wakaow : -.
354 : Petticoat, small : mue-daje : -.
355 : Petticoat, long : urge-daje, tabom : -.
356 : Nose-stick : guba : taiko.
357 : Round shell ornament* : mari : meri.

(*Footnote. Of the mother-of-pearl shell--worn by a string round the

358 : Small* : dibi-dibi : -.

(*Footnote. The top of a cone ground flat.)

359 : Necklace of cordage : soger : -.
360 : Necklace of reeds : - : anchi.
361 : Fillet (general term) : quik'uro (438, 349) : -.
362 : Fillet of mother-of-pearl : - : karakopo.
363 : Armlet, bracelet (general) : musuri : petu.
364 : Armlet, narrow : - : ungkinya.
365 : Armlet, broad : - : maiagu.
366 : Leg ornaments* : maka : puara.

(*Footnote. Circular, narrow and twisted--worn round the leg above the
calf, from 5 to 30 together.

367 : Anklet : dana-kuk'uro (443, 438, 349) : -.
368 : Any painting on the body : menara : -.
369 : Camp, camping-place : mudu : -.
370 : Hut : laga (44) : eikuwa.
371 : Windbreak of bushes, etc. : maak : baalkulka.
372 : Basket : li, le : akomi.
373 : Basket, water : lulko (252) : rolko.
374 : Sticks for producing fire : salgai : -.
375 : Oven : ammai : yarte.
376 : Needle (of bone) : saka : -.
377 : Thread : ketal : -.
378 : Tobacco-pipe : suguba-marapi (323, 245) : marapi (245).
379 : Fishing line : ariga : -.
380 : Fish-hook : tudi, todi (152) : neang-gunya.
381 : Stick for digging : pottur : -.
382 : Spear (general) : kalaka : alka (68).
383 : Spear, plain (for fishing) : rada : ainti.
384 : Spear, large, barbed : tuna : tona.
385 : Spear, 3 or 4-headed : taku : tako.
386 : Throwing-stick : kobai : ekara.
387 : Shell handle : - : atara.
388 : Peg at top : kobai piti (386, 446) : ekar' eye (386, 446).
389 : Dugong peg : kuyur : -.
390 : Dugong shaft : wapu : -.
391 : Dugong line : amu : -.
392 : Bow : gugure : -.
393 : Arrow : terig : -.
394 : Gauntlet : kadik : kadik.
395 : Bamboo knife, large : upi : -.
396 : Bamboo knife, small : hupi : -.
397 : Cane loop : sringi : -.
398 : Stone-headed club : bagabogub : -.
399 : Drum : warup : warupa.
400 : Grave : kaga : -.
401 : Cairn of stones : agu : -.


402 : Man, white, ghost : markai : umboypu.
403 : Man, black : garkai* : amma.

(*Footnote. From this is derived garkaije = a tribe, or collection of
men, women, and children.)

404 : Man, a : turkekai : unbamo.
405 : Man, old : ke'turkekai (625, 405) : -.
406 : Man, young (until married) : kaowquiku (438) : -.
407 : Boy, male child : turkekai kaje (405, 412) : -.
408 : Woman : ipikai (431) : undamo. : -
409 : Woman, old : ke'ipikai (625, 408) : -.
410 : Woman, young (until married) : nerawkai : -.
411 : Girl, female child : ipikai kaje (408, 412) : -.
412 : Child : kaje : ang-gora, ung-kura.
413 : Infant : muggi' kaje (647, 412) : -.
414 : Son : netur kaje (412) : -.
415 : Grandchild : nep : -.
416 : Grandfather : bobata : bobata.
417 : Grandmother : kaieda : kaieda.
418 : Father (or his brother) : baba (addressing him) : epada.
419 : Father : tati* (speaking of him) : -.

(*Footnote. A father and his brothers are equally represented by this
word: distinctive appellations according to age are indicated by
prefixing the adjectives ke' = great and muggi' = small to tati.)

420 : Father's sister : rebata : -.
421 : Mother (or her sister) : amma (addressing her) : atinya.
422 : Mother (or her sister) : apu (speaking of her) : -.
423 : Mother brother : adoama : -.
424 : Brother, sister : barabata (if of one sex) : aigodinya elpowa,
425 : Brother, sister, addressing them : tukeap (if of different sexes) :
426 : Brother, sister, eldest : kukule.
427 : Brother, sister, second : quiquig.
428 : Brother, sister, third : dadaig.
429 : Brother, sister, fourth, or youngest : kutaig* : -.

(*Footnote. There may be several of this name at one time, distinguished
by ke' and muggi.)

430 : Husband : allai : anba.
431 : Wife : ipi : onda.
432 : Father- or mother-in-law : ira : -.
433 : Namesake : nattam : -.
434 : Sweetheart : rugeiga : -.
435 : Friend, associate : keimagi : -.
436 : Term expressing affection : kawki (if male to female) : -.
437 : Term expressing affection : kami (if female to male) : -.


438 : Head : quiku : pada.
439 : Head, fore : paru : epunya.
440 : Head, top of : ? quai : -.
441 : Head, back of : quateya : -.
442 : Temples : daka : aintra.
443 : Eye : dana : dana.
444 : Eyelashes : samudana : chamudana.
445 : Eyebrow : beibassam : emeri.
446 : Nose, bill of bird : piti : eye.
447 : Nostrils : ngursaka, karabu (55) : eye'pandya (446, 817).
448 : Hole in septum : piti-tarte (446, 817) : -.
449 : Mouth : guda : angka.
450 : Lips : ira-guda : angka.
451 : Tongue : nai, nei : untara.
452 : Teeth : danga : ampo, ampu.
453 : Cheek : baga : baga.
454 : Chin, lower jaws : ibu : ebu.
455 : Ear : kowra (46) : ewunya, ewonya.
456 : Ear, holes in margin* : kowra tarte (46, 817) : ewunya' pandya
(455, 817).

(*Footnote. Minute holes all round the margin of the ear, into which
short pieces of stick, grass, etc. are stuck.)

457 : Ear, pendulous portion : muti : -.
458 : Throat : karta : nanu.
459 : Neck : mudul : yuro.
460 : Shoulder : dzogo : wondo, wontu.
461 : Armpit : narang-i : amunya, amonya.
462 : Upper arm : ? udu : enta, enda.
463 : Elbow : kudulo : yurtu.
464 : Forearm, wrist : udu : terapi.
465 : Hand, finger : geta : arta.
466 : Hand, back : kal : art'onto (465, 476).
467 : Hand, palm : wier : art'apa (465, 477).
468 : Thumb : kaba-geta : -.
469 : Nails (of fingers or toes) and claws of bird : tara : tetur.
470 : Chest : - : rondura.
471 : Breasts : susu : yong-o.
472 : Nipple : susu nur (471) : yong' ampo (471, 452).
473 : Milk : ikai : -.
474 : Belly : maita : -.
475 : Navel : kupar : kopurra.
476 : Back, upper part : kibu : onto.
477 : Back, lower part : kibu : apa.
478 : Hip : kupa : openya.
479 : Thigh : kapi : etena.
480 : Popliteal space : - : ilkanya.
481 : Knee : kulu, kolu : eng-go.
482 : Leg, ankle : tirra, ngar : utronya.
483 : Leg, calf : bru-madu (508) : -.
484 : Shinbone : bru-rida (507) : -.
485 : Foot, toes : kuku : oquarra.
486 : Foot, upper part : - : oquar' onto (485, 476).
487 : Foot, sole : saan : oquar' apa (485, 477).
488 : Heel : pokoko : omo.
489 : Toes : - : dyuro.
490 : Great toe : kei' kuku (625, 485) : -.
491 : Beard : yeta : yeta.
492 : Moustache : guda mageda (449) : yeta.
493 : Hair of head : yal : odye.
494 : Hair of body : - : ang-a.
495 : Hair of groin : mageda : nadula.
496 : Anus : - : opinya.
497 : Penis : ini : achanya.
498 : Scrotum : - : untonya, ngtonya.
499 : Testicles : kakuru : achina.
500 : Pudendum : mada : mon-na.
501 : Skin : purra : equora.
502 : Cicatrices : us : guri.
503 : Cicatrices on shoulder : - : kaimai.
504 : Cicatrices, horned, on breast : sadeo : chedow.
505 : Cicatrices, straight, on breast : - : rondro guri (470, 502).
506 : Cicatrices on belly : - : kopur guri (475, 502).
507 : Bone : rida : atira.
508 : Flesh : madu : egondi.
509 : Fat : idi-idi : bujer.
510 : Vein : kerer : kerur.
511 : Blood : kulka : etyunya.
512 : Heart : nganakapo : epa.
513 : Liver : sibu : -.
514 : Stomach : wera : -.
515 : Intestines : akur : elpe.
516 : Brain : - : urua.
517 : Skull : - : pad' atira (438, 507).
518 : Spine : garu rida (244, 507) : -.
519 : Collarbone : kalum rida (507) : kanulu.
520 : Lungs : saaka (55) : chaka.
521 : Saliva : mawcha : agai.
522 : Tears : nudi : -.
523 : Perspiration : murrag : -.
524 : Dung : - : on-na.
525 : Urine : - : ombo.
526 : Abscess, boil : gaima : oro.
527 : Pus : bagur : -.
528 : Snot, white of an egg : nurse : -.
529 : Blister : upu (43) : kodje.
530 : Sore : bada (337) : unti, anti.
531 : Bunions in old people : kowruta : -.
532 : Ague : dupu (190) : -.
533 : Toothache : dangakikire (452, 635) : -.


534 : I, me : ngatu* ngai : eipana, yoba.

(*Footnote. These two sets of personal pronouns are not used
indiscriminately, but the examples of their use which I collected are too
few to generalize upon. However, ngatu and the three next under it,
appear to be used only with a certain class of verbs of which an example
is afforded by the sentence ngatu nudu matumina = I struck him; and the
use of the second set of these pronouns is illustrated by ngai nue (not
ngatu nudu) mulem', etc. = I told him, etc.)

535 : Thou, thee : ngidu ngi : untoba, doba.
536 : He, him : nudu nue : -.
537 : She, her : nadu na : -.
538 : We two, us two : albei : -.
539 : We, us : arri : aku.
540 : You two : ngipel (593) : -.
541 : You : ngi-tana : -.
542 : They two : pale : -.
543 : They : tana : inyaba.
544 : Me, my : ana* : -.

(*Footnote. I do not understand the EXACT meaning of this and the two
next, so give an example of each; ana gamu lupeipa = my body is shaking
(or I have the ague): aikeka mule = tell me: nu'abepa chena wir = give
that to him.)

545 : For myself : ngai-aikeka : -.
546 : For himself : nu'abepa : -.
547 : For ourselves : albi nipa, arri nipa : -.
548 : For themselves : pale nipa, tane nipa : -.
549 : Who? : ngadu, nga : -.
550 : Whose? : nganu : -.
551 : What? : eimi : -.
552 : What? which? : mida : -.
553 : This : ina : -.
554 : This, these : nabing : -.
555 : That, those : chena : noba.
556 : Let us two, shall we two? : aba* : -.

(*Footnote. Example: aba nudu gasumeipa = let us two seize him.)

557 : Let us, shall we? : alpa* : -.

(*Footnote. Example: alpa pongeipa? = shall we sail?)

558 : Mine : ngow (if a male) udzu (if a female) : -.
559 : Thine : yinu : -.
560 : His : nunue : -.
561 : Her : nanue : -.
562 : Our (dual) : abane (566)* : -.

(*Footnote. Includes the person addressed: the mother speaking to the
father of their child would say abane kaje = our child.)

563 : Our (dual) : albeine (538)* : -.

(*Footnote. Excludes the person addressed: in answer to kaje chena
ngipeine? = is that your child? the father or mother, BOTH BEING PRESENT,
and one pointing to the other, would say to a third person, albeine kaje
= the child is ours. These forms are Polynesian also as I have since
found recorded.)

564 : Our (plural) : arrien : -.
565 : Your (dual) : ngipeine (540) : -.
566 : Your (plural) : ngitanaman (541) (568) : -.
567 : Their (dual) : palaman (542) : -.
568 : Their (plural) : tanaman (543) : -.


569 : One : warapune (580) : epiamana.
570 : Two : quassur : elabaiu.
571 : Three : uquassur-warapune : dama*.

(*Footnote. After careful investigation I am inclined to think that the
Gudang blacks have no words to express definite numbers beyond three.
Dama is generally used for higher numbers, and occasionally unora.)

572 : Four : uquassur-uquassur : -.
573 : Five : uquassur-uquassur-warapune : -.
574 : Six : uquassur-warapune-uquassur-warapune : -.
575 : Seven : uquassur-warapune-uquassur-warapune-warapune : -.
576 : Eight : uquassur or ipel uquassur repeated 4 times : -.


(*Footnote. The formation of many adjectives can be clearly traced: in
fact, one of the most obvious features of the language--imperfectly as it
is understood--is the facility with which many nouns may be converted
into either adjectives or verbs. Thus, mapei = a bite, becomes mapeile =
capable of biting, and is the root of the verb mapeipa = to bite. The
positive adjunct leg, and its negative aige (802, 803), are also used to
convert nouns into adjectives: the former follows the same rules as those
before given for forming the plural: gizu = sharpness, becomes either
gizule = sharp, or gizuge = blunt, literally: sharpness-possessing, or,
possessing not : from nuki = water, we get the form nukile maram = the
well contains water, or, nukegi maram = the well is dry: danagi = blind,
literally means, eye-possessing not : as a further example, I may give,
ipikai ajirge wap' ina badale mapeip = the shameless woman eats this
sore-producing fish.)

577 : Afraid : akan : -.
578 : Alive : danaleg (443, 804) : anading.
579 : All, the whole : muro : -.
580 : Another : wara (569) : inyana.
581 : Ashamed : ajiran (823) : -.
582 : Bad, ugly : wate : -.
583 : Bad-smelling : wate ganule(826) : -.
584 : Bad-tasted : wate mitale (827) : -.
585 : Bald : guele : -.
586 : Bent : balbai : -.
587 : Bitter : tera : -.
588 : Black : kubi-kubi thung (228, 629) : -.
589 : Blind : danagi (443, 804) beagi (when addressing one blind) : -.
590 : Bloody : kulkale (511) : -.
591 : Blunt : dugung, gizuge (824) : -.
592 : Boiling : zurana : -.
593 : Both : ipal, ipel : -.
594 : Blue : mal-tha gamule (29) : -.
595 : Cold : sumai : -.
596 : Cooked : giung (641, 629) : -.
597 : Cylindrical : sam (125) : -.
598 : Dead : uma : etora, etolma.
599 : Deaf : wate kowrare (582, 455) : -.
600 : Dirty : tumitalle (812) : -.
601 : Drowned : sarupa : -.
602 : Dry, dried up : watang : -.
603 : Dumb : keigalein : -.
604 : Faced, pretty : kape parure (612, 439) : -.
605 : Faced, ugly : wate parure (582, 439) : -.
606 : Female : madale (500) : -.
607 : First : kul : -.
608 : Flat : attang : -.
609 : Flooded : budaman : ankgera.
610 : Forbidden, as food : adzar : -.
611 : Forious, vindictive : kerketale (806) : -.
612 : Good, pretty : kape : -.
613 : Good, perfect : min-na : -.
614 : Gorged : kekedi : murko.
615 : Greedy : ubile (816) : -.
616 : Green* : nis-thung (232, 629) : -.

(*Footnote. There are two forms of each adjective denoting colour, except
grey and white. Thus, black is rendered either kubi-kubi thung, or,
kubi-kubi tha gamule, both meaning like, or, the colour of the charcoal
procured from kubi-kubi = touchwood. Blue, green, and red, are denoted by
compounds signifying resemblance to deep water, a leaf, and blood,

617 : Grey, any light tint : miakula : -.
618 : Half, part of : tapi : -.
619 : Heavy : mapule (828) : -.
620 : Hollow : muile (685) : -.
621 : How many? : mida kubi (694) : -.
622 : Hungry : weragi (514) : awora, awura.
623 : Itchy : gamuji (807 ?) : -.
624 : Lame : wate ngarare (582, 482) : -.
625 : Large, very : keinga* : intonya.

(*Footnote. Generally used in its contracted form, as ke or kei : it is
also employed as a prefix to denote the superlative degree: thus, ke'
kamanale = very warm.)

626 : Last : wagel (22) : -.
627 : Left : kida : etamuna.
628 : Light : turong : -.
629 : Like, the same as : thung* : -.

(*Footnote. As an example of one of the modes of using this, I find,
gariga thung = like the sun, or, as bright as if daylight.

630 : Long, high, tall : kulalle, kotalle : -.
631 : Male : inile (497) : -.
632 : Many, plenty : putage, kubi : -.
633 : Noisy : nurile (822) : -.
634 : New, little used : kaining : -.
635 : Painful : kikire : -.
636 : Pregnant : maitaleg (474) : netari.
637 : Putrid : utzai : -.
638 : Quiet : nurage (822, 804) : -.
639 : Red : kulk-thung (511, 629) : -.
640 : Right : mina : metagoma.
641 : Ripe : gi : -.
642 : Rotten, full of holes : - : opera.
643 : Sharp : gizule (824, 802) : ung-garung-gare.
644 : Short, low : tawpei : -.
645 : Sick : soka, sali* : -.

(*Footnote. These two words appear to have the same meaning, but are used
differently: sok' atchin = sali mizzi, and both express having been

646 : Silent : arage* : -.

(*Footnote. Arage atzir = become silent, hold your tongue.)

647 : Small, a few, a portion of : muggingh : embowa.
648 : Soft, spongy, swampy : pirung : -.
649 : Sore-producing : badalle (530, 802) : -.
650 : Sorry : watekum : -.
651 : Sour : terari : -.
652 : Stony : kulalle (54, 802) : -.
653 : Sweet-smelling : kape ganule (612, 826) : -.
654 : Sweet-tasted : g'ru tha mitalle (244, 827) : -.
655 : Thirsty : nuk' enei (38) : -.
656 : Unable : karaweg : -.
657 : Unripe, uncooked : kobaris : -.
658 : Wanton : danule : -.
659 : Warm : kamanalle : imandinya.
660 : Wet : uleig, urge : -.
661 : White : uru : -.
662 : Withered : raji : -.
663 : Worn, old from use : kulbang : -.


664 : Now, immediately : kaibu : -.
665 : Presently, by-and-bye : tuma-tuma : -.
666 : To-morrow : batteingh : achunya.
667 : Two or three days hence : bang-al : ayere.
668 : A week (or so) hence : mata bang-al (675) : -.
669 : Yesterday : ngul : -.
670 : Two or three days ago : kul : narama.
671 : A week (or so) ago : mata kul (675) : -.
672 : A long time ago : korrekida* : -.

(*Footnote. Also denotes duration of time, and is = for a long time; it
may also be used as an adjective, as, korrekida gul ina = this is a very
old canoe.)

673 : Quickly : tari : -.
674 : Slowly : taregi (674, 804) : -.
675 : Constantly, always, only, still : mata* : -

(*Footnote. Expresses a continuance of the action: gul mata pongeipa =
the canoe is still under sail.)

676 : Morning : muggi' batteingh : -.
677 : About noon : kei gariga (625, 2) : -.
678 : Afternoon : kut : -.
679 : Hereabouts : kareki : -.
680 : Here : ina* : -.
681 : There : chena* : -.

(*Footnote. Both are also pronouns: perhaps, when translated as adverbs,
the term equivalent to place is omitted, rendering ina = (in) this
(place) and chena = (in) that (place.))

682 : Above, upwards : nakareipa : -.
683 : Below, downwards : malupa (29) : -.
684 : Below, (a very long way) : kara malupa : -.
685 : Inside : muye : -.
686 : Thus, in this manner : keda : keda.
687 : A long way off : kapi taig : -.
688 : Near, close to : logi : -.
689 : Again : laka : -.
690 : Completely, into pieces, etc. : palge : -.
691 : Well, much, etc. : purke : -.
692 : Where? : anaga : -.
693 : Why? : mipa : -.
694 : How, in what manner? : mida : -.
695 : Yes : wa, ua : ia.
696 : No : long-a, giure : untamo.
697 : Don't : wan-nur,* maige (804) : -.

(*Footnote. I suspect, from the termination, that this is the present
tense of the imperative mood of some verb = to do, to perform, etc.)

698 : Stop! enough! : china : -.
699 : Exclamation of surprise : ka! ka! ka! : -.
700 : Exclamation to arrest attention : qualli! qualli! (= I say!) : -.
701 : Exclamation of pity : igur (= poor thing!) : -.
702 : And* : ia.

(*Footnote. Example: uleip' Aburdia, Salallaia, Wagelia, Mania = Aburde
and Salalle and Wagel and Manu are approaching.)

10. VERBS.*

(*Footnote. After tabulating 100 Kowrarega verbs in all the different
forms in which they had occurred to me, I yet failed in arriving at a
knowledge of their mode of formation, owing to the deficiency of data on
one hand, and the presence of some apparently defective and irregular
verbs on the other. Still some of the results are worth recording.
Leaving out the consideration of the irregular verbs, I can speak with
certainty of only two Moods, the Indicative and the Subjunctive, of the
Present and the Past (probably really further divisible) Tenses of the
former, and the Present of the latter. As an example I may give the verb
to strike, of which the root is assumed to be matum = a stroke.

Indicative Present : nudu ngatu : matumeipa = I am striking him.
Indicative Perfect : nudu ngatu : matnmina = I struck him.
Indicative Future : nudu ngatu : matumeipakai = I shall strike him.
Imperative Present : nudu ngidu : matumur = strike him.

Assuming a root to each, I find 94 of the verbs under examination to
agree in having the present tense of the indicative terminating in pa: of
these 70 end in aipa, 14 in ipa, 6 in epa, and 1 in aipa.

The perfect tense (setting aside some inexplicable irregularities)
exhibits a great variety of terminations for the formation of which no
rule can yet be given: these are an, ana, ani; in, ina, ima: em, ema;
eima, eiun; and un.

The future tense alone is perfectly regular; it is simply formed by
adding kai to the present.

The present tense of the imperative mood in those verbs having the
present of the indicative ending in ipa terminates (with one exception in
i) in ir: in the others the terminations of this tense are ur (the most
frequent); ar (the next in order of frequency), ara, ari; ada, eada; e,
eio, eir, erur; and o.

After all I am inclined to suppose that the Kowrarega verb, although
apparently complicated, is of simple construction; and that its various
modifications are caused by the mere addition to its root of various
particles, the exact meaning of which (with one exception) is yet
unknown. That exception is the particle aige or ge (804) the mode of
employment of which is shown by the following examples :

Wawp' yinu ngai purteipaige = I am not eating your fish.
Wawp' yinu ngai purteiunaige = I did not eat your fish.
Wawp' yinu ngai purteipakaige = I shall not eat your fish.
Wawp' nanu ngi purtaige = Don't eat his fish.

A few examples may be given in illustration of the preceding remarks.


Eat : purteipa : purteiun : purteipakai : purtar.
Bite : mapeipa : mapana : mapeipakai : mapur.
Take away : meipa : mani : meipakai : mari.
Tell : mulepa : mulem : mulepakai : muleada.
Lie down : yuneipa : yunum : yuneipakai : yunur.
Leave behind : yuneipa : yunem : yuneipakai : yunur.
Shoot : uteipa : utun : uteipakai : utur.
Enter : uteipa : utema : uteipakai : uterur.)

703 : Word implying motion : ngapa* : -.

(*Footnote. This is a word which from the variety of its modes of
application long puzzled me. Careful examination of sentences in which it
occurred led to the following results. 1. It may be used as an
independent word to denote motion towards the speaker, the pronoun which
would otherwise be required being omitted. Example: adur = go out, but
ngap' adur = come out (towards the speaker), lak' ngapa = to come again,
to return. 2. It is also used as a postfix to denote motion towards the
object to which it is joined. Example: laga' p'(ngapa) aiyewel = come to
the hut, mue' pa teir = throw it into the fire. 3. It is used in a third
sense. Example: wawpi 'pa = to go fishing, kaba 'pa = to go to a dance.
4. It is often used as an equivalent to give me, the hand being held out
at the same time, Example: ngapa = let it come to me.)

704 : Bail : salpumeipa : -.
705 : Be affected with : ameipa* : -.

(*Footnote. Apparently a contraction of ana and meipa. Example: ana
kobaki ameipa = (literally) me cough affects, or I have a cough. The word
mizzi, the exact meaning of which is unknown to me, is also used to
express the same thing. Example: quiku kikire ana mizzi = I have a sick
head, or a headache.)

706 : Become : atzipa : -.
707 : Bite : mapeipa : -.
708 : Bore a hole : tartepaleipa (817, 722) : -.
709 : Break (as a stick) : tideipa aterumbanya.
710 : Break wind backwards : - : penyaka.
711 : Build (as a hut) : mideipa (369 ?) : -.
712 : Bury, plant, sow : maramateipa (40, 791) : -.
713 : Call for : tureipa : untandurra.
714 : Carry, hold : ang-eipa : -.
715 : Choose, select : yapepa : -.
716 : Climb : waleipa : oquagamurra.
717 : Come here : pateipa, aiyewel : -.
718 : Come, approach : uleipa : impebino.
719 : Cook : gia paleipa (641 ?) : -.
720 : Copulate : lameipa : erorunya.
721 : Cover over : abeipa : -.
722 : Crush, pound with a stone : paleipa : akelgurra.
723 : Cry, howl like a dog : maierchipa : rong-gung-ga-murra.
724 : Cut : labaipa : utedung-gurra.
725 : Dance : kaba mineipa (811) : unchigulkamurra.
726 : Die : dadeipa : -.
727 : Dig : pideipa : -.
728 : Dive : penneipa : -.
729 : Dream : piki lalkeipa* (813, 755) : -.

(*Footnote. The pronoun ana is always used with this. Example: ana piki
lalkar = I had a dream.)

730 : Drink : wanipa : ung-gen-ga.
731 : Drown : delupeipa : -.
732 : Dry up : wata' pateipa (602) : -.
733 : Eat : purteipa, pratipa : atedurra.
734 : Enter (going out of sight) : uteipa : -.
735 : Fall down : pudeipa : -.
736 : Fill (with solids) : wangepa : -.
737 : Fill (with fluids) : maleipa (29) : -.
738 : Find : imeipa : angkanya.
739 : Finish (men's work) : min' atzipa (613, 706) : -.
740 : Finish (women's work) : palpagipa : -.
741 : Feces, to void : - : anabichung-ar.
742 : Forget : kekochipa : -.
743 : Get up : winipa : amamung-i.
744 : Give : pibeipa, wiepa* : utera.

(*Footnote. Ana is used with pibeipa only; the exact meaning of both is
to bestow, or cause the transfer of ownership; the actual HANDING OVER of
anything would be asked for by ngapa = let it come here, holding out the
hand at the same time, but this last may presume merely inspection or
temporary use of the article.)

745 : Go away : udzaripa : einpira.
746 : Go out, perforate : adeipa : -.
747 : Go out (as a fire) : utsimeipa : -.
748 : Hear, understand : krangipa : -.
749 : Hide, conceal : muye teipa (685, 791) : -.
750 : Jump, leap : katapulgipa : ralkagamurra.
751 : Kick : kukuna mapeipa (485, 707) : -.
752 : Kill : dadeima matameipa (598, 786) : -.
753 : Laugh : gi waleipa (819) : ung-garung-gari.
754 : Leave behind : yuneipa : -.
755 : Lie : lalkeipa (820) : -.
756 : Lie down : yuneipa : -.
757 : Make (men's work) : tatureipa : -.
758 : Make (women's work) : umeipa : -.
759 : Make a fire : muekemeipa : -.
760 : Paddle : karaba tapeipa (343, 787) : untyendyurra : -.
761 : Pull, drag : yuteipa : -.
762 : Rain : ari pudeipa (18, 735) : -.
763 : Return : mang-epa : -.
764 : Rise (as the sun) daneipa : -.
765 : Run* : - : ringa.

(*Footnote. In Kowrarega, the action of running is expressed by the
adverb tari = quickly, and the verb uleipa = to approach: Example: ngapa
tari uleipa expresses quick motion TOWARDS the speaker, and tari uleipa
quick motion FROM the speaker.)

766 : Sail : pong-eipa : reng-gamurra.
767 : Scold : ideipa : inyamung-urra.
768 : Scrape hands* : getapudeipa (465, 735) : -.

(*Footnote. A mode of salutation practised throughout Torres Strait, and
occasionally at Cape York.)

769 : Scratch, pinch : musiteipa : -.
770 : See, look after, watch : yaweipa : -.
771 : Sew : tarpeipa : belkagur.
772 : Shake : lupeipa : -.
773 : Sharpen : gizu paleipa (824, 722) : -.
774 : Shave : piniteipa : angkarung-gurra (449, 450).
775 : Shoot (with gun or bow) : uteipa : -.
776 : Seize, press, squeeze : gasumeipa : gipaburra.
777 : Sing : sagul piyepa (818) : -.
778 : Sleep : ute-ipa (825) : eremadin.
779 : Smoke : suguba wanipa (323, 730) : -.
780 : Sit down : tanureipa : engka.
781 : Speak, tell : mulepa : ekalkamurra.
782 : Spear, sting : pageipa : -.
783 : Stand : kadi (irregular) : -.
784 : Stand up : kadi tanure (783) : -.
785 : Steal : krameipa : -.
786 : Strike : matumeipa : untondunya.
787 : Swim : tapeipa : rolma, rulma.
788 : Take away : meipa : -.
789 : Tear : ladeipa : -.
790 : Thirst : nukineipa (655) : -.
791 : Throw into : teipa : umpanya.
792 : Tie : kunumeipa : -.
793 : Touch : tareipa : abeang-gang-urra.
794 : Turn over : tarteipa : -.
795 : Unloose, untie : ideipa : -.
796 : Waken : welmeipa : -.
797 : Wash : garwulgeipa : -.
798 : Water, make : ing-uje (irregular) : -.
799 : Wound : umaliza matumeipa (598, 786) : -.
800 : Wrap round, coil, twist : nureipa : -.


801 : Affix expressing article spoken of : dza* : -.

(*Footnote. Example: Nabi'dza = this thing.)

802 : Affix expressing possession : leg* : -.

(*Footnote. Leg or le, is to be possessed of, and, when used
independently, is placed after the noun which it refers to: ngai 'quassur
daje leg = I have two petticoats; ngi kutai leg? = have you (any) yams?)

803 : ---- : ki* : -.

(*Footnote. The meaning of this is to a certain extent doubtful; however
it enforces an affirmation: Example: ina muggi' ki = this is VERY little
: it is frequently used after pronouns: Example: arri ki kabspakai = we
SHALL go to the dance.)

804 : Affix of negation : aige* : -.

(*Footnote. Being the negative of leg, or le, as formerly stated, aige,
or ge = to have not: Example: ngai kalak' aige = I have no spears; nga
ajir'ge = she has no shame.)

805 : Any small article : zapu (fish-hook, etc.) : -.
806 : Anger, rage : kerket : -.
807 : Body of any creature : gamu : -.
808 : Cold : sumein : ekanba (? to shiver).
809 : Cough : kobaki : ulgene.
810 : Crack : pis : -.
811 : Dance : kaba : -.
812 : Dirt : tumit : -.
813 : Dream : piki : -.
814 : Dust in the eye : - : lopicha.
815 : Food : aidu* : -.

(*Footnote. As examples of various forms of this word, I may give, ana
pibur aidu = give me (some) food: ina aio? = is this eatable? ai = it is

816 : Greediness : ubi : -.
817 : Hole : tarte : apandya.
818 : Joke : sagul : -.
819 : Laughter : gi (641) : -.
820 : Lie : lalkai : -.
821 : Name : nel : -.
822 : Noise : nur : -.
823 : Shame : ajir : -.
824 : Sharpness : gizu : -.
825 : Sleep : ute : -.
826 : Smell : ganu : -.
827 : Taste : mita : -.
828 : Weight : mapu : -.


Males, Number 1 : Piaquai : Paida.
Males, Number 2 : Manu : Tumagugu.
Males, Number 3 : Wagel (626) : Waga.
Males, Number 4 : Salalle : Kuri.
Males, Number 5 : Boruto : Chamida (444).
Males, Number 6 : Gabua : Puroma.
Females, Number 1 : Aburde : Mamulla.
Females, Number 2 : Seibai : Ganulle.
Females, Number 3 : Yeza : Baki.



Mount Adolphus Island : Morilaga.
Mount Adolphus Hill : Begunkutche.
Small island to northward : Quiquichaga.
Island North-West from Mount Adolphus, larger : Wagilwane.
Island North-West from Mount Adolphus, smaller : Budye.
Rock South-East from ditto : Akoine.
Rock a : Kolapitchum.
The Brothers : Kurobi.
North Brother : Tarakar.
Albany Island : Pabaju.
Albany Island, north point : Tarung-i.
Bush Island : Marte.
Tree Island : Moebamunne.
North-East Point of Albany Island : Tolodinya.
Albany Rock : Manurre.
Albany Rock, islet East by South : Takunya.
Albany Rock, South-East : Eikoa.
York Island (Cape York) : Wamilag.
Eborac Island : Dyara.
Mount Bremer : Charua.
Evans Point : Maodinya.
Sextant Rock : Delua.
Beach at Evans Bay : Podaga.
Bramble Hill : Duyemil-pada.
South-East point of Evans Bay : Chechuri.
Ida Island : Robumo.
Beach East from Mew River : Paiera.
Beach East from Mew River, hill behind : Pochinya.
Bishop Point : Qualulga.
Osnaburg Point : Kalalurri.
Beach West from Cape York : Eintrang-o.
Islet West by South : Purang-i.
Peak Point : Karubowra.
Possession Island : Bedanug.
Woody Island, larger : Kei' Yellubi.
Woody Island, smaller : Muggi' Yellubi.
Entrance Island : Juna.
Entrance Island, islet to North-West : Cheruko.
Entrance Island, islet to West-South-West : Pipa.
Islet on East side of Port Lihou : Tarilug.
Islet off Port Lihou : Dumaralug.
West Prince of Wales Island : Muralug.
Cape Cornwall and neighbourhood : Morurpure.
Beach on West side of Port Lihou : Daaka.
Creek opposite Pipa and vicinity : Yet.
Beach on North-East side of Muralug : Marin.
Thursday Island : Gealug.
Black Rock : Gi'omanalug.
Green Island : Piwer.
Goode Island : Peilalug.
Goode Island, rocks on reef near this : Ipile.
Hammond Island : Keiriri.
Hammond Island, Rock : Adi.
Friday Island : Weibene.
East Prince of Wales Island : Narupai.
Horned Hill : Dyugubai.
Wednesday Island : Mowrurra.
Strait Island, larger : Kei Kudulug.
Strait Island, smaller : Muggi Kudulug.
Travers Island : Mukunaba.
Double Island : Nellgi.
Mount Ernest : Nagir.
Mount Ernest, islet next this : Pinakar.
Pole Island : Getullai.
Burke Island : Suaraji.
Banks Island, high portion : Mua.
Banks Island, low : Ita.
Mulgrave Island : Badu.
Hawkesbury Island : Warara.
Tobin, or North Possession Island : Kulbi.
Sue Island : Waraber.
Murray Island, largest : Mer.
Murray Island, middle : Dowar.
Murray Island, smallest : Wayer.
Darnley Island : Errub.
Nepean Island : Eddugor.
Stephens Island : Ugar.
Campbell Island : Zapker.
Dalrymple Island : Dzamud.
Keats Island : Umagur.
York Island, larger : Massid.
York Island, smaller : Kudala.
Bourke Isles, westernmost : Owrid.
Bourke Isles, northernmost : Purem.




The materials composing the following Vocabulary are arranged in three
columns, according to the localities where they were obtained.

1. Redscar Bay (on the South-East coast of New Guinea, in latitude 9
degrees 17 minutes South and longitude 146 degrees 53 minutes East) and
its neighbourhood.

2. Brumer Island (on the South-East coast of New Guinea, in latitude 10
degrees 45 minutes South and longitude 150 degrees 22 minutes East) and
its neighbourhood; also Dufaure Island (about 40 miles to the westward).
When the same word was given at both these places, I have indicated this
circumstance by the letter b placed after the word; those procured at
Dufaure Island only are marked by the letter D.

3. Brierly Island (Louisiade Archipelago, in latitude 11 degrees 20
minutes South and longitude 153 degrees 9 minutes East); also a few
words, distinguished by the letter D, procured at the Duchateau Isles
from natives of some neighbouring islands of the Calvados Group.



Sky : - : garewa : buru-buru.
Sun : diina* : mahana (b) : parai, parei.

(*Footnote. Since reading Dr. Latham's remarks, I am inclined to suppose
that in this vocabulary the common termination na is often no part of the
word, but merely a contraction of the relative pronoun = this (is).)

Cloud : - : budi-budi : -.
Moon : - : nowarai : -.
Wind : - : - : wiego.
Salt water : dawara, davara : arita (b) : soga.
Surf : - : bagodu : -.
Fresh water : ranu : goila (b) : wawei (D).
Sand : - : gera-gera : kera-kera.
Earth : - : batan : -.
Stone, rock : nati : weu, veu (b) : pak.
Cliff : - : padi-padi : -.
Quartz : - : karitao : -.
Obsidian : - : nabuka (b) : -.
Fire : lahi, rahi : kaiwa (b) : hiwo.

a. Mammalia.

Tail (of a dog) : - : derena : -.
Dog : sisia : wanuhe, daiasi : geiwo.
Pig : buroma : tuana, bawa (D) : bobo.
Opossum (Cuscus) : mowra, bowra : - : -.

b. Birds.

Bird : - : - : maan.
Wing : - : mabena, pepena : -.
Bill : - : esuna, kawana : -.
Feather : iduar : daguri : sao-sa.
Hornbill : pawporo : - : -.
White cockatoo : karai : rorowa : -.
Nicobar pigeon : - : korauto : -.
Cassowary : - : tyuaburo : -.
Noddy : - : maga : -.

c. Reptiles.

Green turtle : matabudi : wawnu : -.
Eggs : momo : - : -.
Shell : nakeme : - : -.
Hind flipper : ai : - : -.
Tortoise-shell : kipore, gebore : koma-koma : -.
Large lizard : - : makara : -.
Water-snake : - : mata : -.

d. Fishes.

Fish : - : yama : yeimai.
Bone : - : - : bebai.
Fry of a Caranx : - : - : muwota.
Mailed-perch : - : beirawa : -.

e. Insects, etc.

Sand-crab (Ocypoda) : - : gagaruki : -.
Small crab (Grapsus etc.) : - : karagi : wallo-quallo.
Fly : - : wuro-uro : -.
Butterfly : - : bebi : bebi (= moth).

f. Shells, etc.

Cuttle-fish bone : - : - : weinaga.
Nautilus : - : were-werigwa : -.
Ear-shell : - : woka-woka : -.
Snail : - : nin-nu : -.
Scarabus : - : wadiwa : -.
Small cowrie : - : - : dinga-dinga.
Small cowrie, white : - : mawto : -.
Egg-cowrie : lokol : dunari (b), dunai : du-ong-a.
Cypraea mauritiana : - : guna : -.
Arca : - : - : emoyamo.
Cyrena : keva : kiwai : -.
Cockle : - : kasepin.
Donax : - : bogadob (D) : -.
Pearl-oyster : meili : kepo, immaro : kepo.
Barnacle : - : - : tuwaraga.
Coral : - : puduri, buduri : sangoken = branched.

g. Vegetable Productions.

Wood : au : kaiwa : hiwo.
Charcoal, black paint : uma : dum : -.
Leaf : - : - : taiyu = yam leaf.
Grass : - : yawa-yawada : wirmwir.
Sea-weed : - : - : baan.
Tree : - : madyu : -.
Scented-herb : mura-mura : mura (b), kamura : -.
Yellow-flowered plant : - : - : tao-ta.
Erythrina indica : - : yowra : -.
Casuarina : - : - : dai.
Mangrove : - : - : tu-onga.
Coconut and tree : niu : niu (b) : pogia, niu (D).
Pandanus : - : duya : elegeli.
Areca-nut : - : beda (b) : ereka.
Banana : ani : kassaig, betu and beta (D) : pai-pai (D).
Bread-fruit : kunune : -.
Calladium esculentum ? : - : abaiya : piya = plant, poya = tuber, pihia
Yam : - : quateya : daha.
Nodulated tuber : - : - : saiwe.
Small yam-like tuber : - : nare : -.
Betel pepper : - : gugu, rugu = fruit, peipai = leaf (D) : -.
Mango : waiwai : gishoa : -.
Yellow plum : - : baowyobi : -.
Fig : - : baware : -.
Sugar-cane : - : garu : mon-mon (D).
Ginger : - : monewa : -.
Amaranth : - : popori : -.
Flax : - : yimone, taoc (D).


Iron : - : ropo-ropo (b) : kellumai.
Clothing : - : quama : -.


Catamaran : - : daow, raow : -.
Catamaran, lashing : - : owisu : -.
Canoe : wanagi : waga (b) : waga.
Bow : kura-kuro : - : hebagi.
Figure-head : - : - : tabura.
End-board : - : - : baragai, baragaiwi (D).
Stern : tareiya : - : waga-pakena.
Sides : - : - : badai, badaha (D).
Outrigger float : darima : sarima (D) : sama.
Diagonal supports : - : tuturi (D) : patuma.
Outrigger poles : ilava : sai-ira, and saeya (D) : maga, hemaga (D).
Lashing of poles : - : mamadi (D) (twisted) : wari (plain).
Pole along gunwale : eiwara : - : -.
Platform : - : - : piri-piritele.
Mast : aiwar (= masts) : - : mamarang.
Poles supporting mast : - : - : tuowo, towa (D).
Sticks across sail : - : - : pokiwi.
Sail : geda : doro : badiara, tun (D).
Rope (of bark) : panaow : barrai, barawara (D) : baiawa.
Streamers of pandanus leaf : - : - : kevara.
Paddle : hawte, hawta : wosi, reha (D) : patoma and lewa (D).
Bailer, wooden : dihu : aruma : -.
Bailer, shell : - : heko = ? melon shell (D) : -.
Hut : mahuta : maia : yuma.
Posts : - : - : kawkola.
Shelves on posts : - : - : gaga-gila.
Wooden pillow : - : unua (D) : -.
Earthen pot : uro : gudawa : uya.
Earthen saucer : nau : - : -.
Netted bag : vaina : hiwa : -.
Basket, round : - : kira-kira (b) : -.
Basket, small : - : - : nabo.
Petticoat : erua : noge (b) : -.
Breech-cloth, mat : - : daam : -.
Cloth of bark : - : - : watu : -.
Girdle, common : siehi (of tapa cloth) : turi-turi, toru.
Girdle, rattan : barikue, ue (D) : -.
Comb : tuari : suari (b) : sugo.
Nose-stick : mukora : wanipa : bubusi-yana.
Earring : - : kuratana (b) : puritana.
Plug in lobe of ear : - : beya : batiwan.
Queue : - : doyo : -.
Armlet, woven : kaana : sia-sia, harimani (b) : -.
Armlet, shell, solid : - : akassi : hiwe = Trochus niloticus.
Armlet, shell, of 3 pieces : popo (b) : -.
Armlet, rattan : - : wewessi : -.
Breast ornament Number 1 : kawko : - : -.
Breast ornament Number 2 : koiyu : - : -.
Necklace of small seeds : - : digo-digota : -.
Necklace of black seeds : - : ganogar, gudu-gudu (b) : -.
Necklace of dog's teeth : - : gugadoi : -.
Necklace of teeth and seeds : - : moka-moka : -.
Paint, black : - : garoka, garoa : -.
Paint, red : pai-ira : sabe : -.
Lime for betel-chewing : - : harigyu (b) : hawi.
Spatula : - : gahi : giang.
Bamboo knife : katiwa : - : -.
Stone-headed axe : kiram (also kelam* green jade) : -.

(*Footnote. Also the stone which heads it--probably the origin of
kelumai, understood to mean iron, or any iron implement, as an axe.)

Fish-hook : - : aowri (b) : - : -.
Seine : - : nine, tine : puakan.
Floats : - : uyawa : kuoto.
Wooden sword : - : kerepa (b) : kirapa.
Snout of saw-fish : - : gari-gari : -.
Shield : - : rigoane : -.
Club, wooden : - : putu-putu : -.
Club, stone-headed : kahi : - : -.
Spear of any kind : iyu : - : -.
Spear, fishing : - : kari : -.
Spear, plain : - : - : hemera.
Spear, polished : - : wawmerri : wama, manutu.
Spear, sword-pointed : arahia : -.
Spear, bamboo : - : - : didib (? = bamboo).
Bow : pewa : - : -.
Arrow : diba : - : -.
Drum : - : baiatu, boyatu (D) : -.
Conch : - : wage (Cassis or Triton) : -.
Pandean pipes : - : wererri : -.
Musical reed : - : bogigi : -.


Man : tau : tau : -.
Woman : ahine : sinadaow : daina, winakao.
Father : ? tama : sibawa : -.
Mother : - : ? bode : -.
Brother : - : boe, ? nigerra : -.
Sister : - : wadaiya : -.
Son : ? natu : ? yowboe : -.
Child, boy : mero : - : -.
Friend, adopted brother : - : damagai : -.


Head : quara : - : -.
Forehead : bagu : debada (b) : debada.
Top of head : tubua : - : -.
Back of head : ketu : - : -.
Temples : abati : - : -.
Eye : mata : matada : matara.
Eyelashes : auna, mata-una : matasinowa : matara pulupulura.
Eyebrow : bunimata : baia : -.
Nose : udu : ishuda (b) : bubusi, bushuda (D).
Nostril : - : - : bushuda-goina.
Mouth : mao : - : -.
Lips : pipina : sopada (b) : sepada.
Tongue : mata : mimenada, manada (D) : mimiada.
Teeth : isi : makada, mokada (b) : yingeda, yingida, nenin and nini (D).
Cheek : meta : paparida : yamada.
Chin : ate : laiagaiada : sewelida.
Ear : taiya : beadawa, teinada (D) : batida.
Throat : kato : garagaroda : dumuada.
Back of neck : - : omda : -.
Shoulder : paga : debearuda, daharada (D) : nemada.
Armpit : - : - : chigirida.
Upper arm : howow : - : nemada.
Elbow : diu : mimassiuda, nimasiuda (D) : nemurrapupli, paokona.
Fore-arm : ima : monaga = arm : nemada.
Hand : ima : nimada : nemada.
Hand, back of : - : murina : -.
Hand, palm of : - : karokarona : -.
Finger : dodori, wakiri : nimada gigida : nemadagigina.
Finger : dodori, wakiri: nima garada (D) : nima gigina (D).
Finger, little : pakeriga : - : -.
Thumb : chinapata, sinabadu : - : -.
Nails : kau : gibuda, nima gibuda (D) : kapuruna.
Sides : - : - : diyuda = ? ribs.
Breasts : rata : - : pididida (in man).
Nipple : rata : susuga, tyutyuda : -.
Belly : - : bogada : kineida.
Navel : hudu : poasida : pusuana.
Back : - : dagearada : muida, muina.
Hip : piya : pampada, uripunana.
Thigh : mamu : gotuda : -.
Knee : tui : turida : paoko.
Leg and ankle : dok : - : -.
Leg, calf of : - : kaibira, haibira : -.
Foot : - : kaida, goguda (D) : gegeda.
Heel : - : - : ujuna.
Beard : - : garagarada (b), gagaeda : baas.
Hair of head : hui : kuruda (b) : huluda.
Penis : usi: - : -.
Scrotum : abu : - : -.
Pudendum : konu : - : -.
Tattooing : kerawera, kevareva : yatuya, kurikuri, and kurimani (D) : -.
Blood : - : - : madibana.
Collarbone : - : - : bongida.
Jawbone : - : - : sewe.
Saliva : kanudi : - : walahai.
Dung : nian : - : tai.
Boil : - : bonu : -.
Leprosy : - : warilya (D) : -.

This : ena : aena, aina : -.


One : owtamona, ta : teya (b) : paihetia*.

(*Footnote. The numerals procured at the Duchateau Isles in January,
1850, are very different: One = etega, Two = erua, Three = eton, Four =
epate, Five = nemara-panu, Ten = erute.)

Two : owrua, rua : labui (b) : pahiwo.
Three : owtoi, toi : haiyona (b) : paihetuan.
Four : owhani, hani : haasi (b) : paihepak.
Five : owima, ima : harigigi (b) : paihelima.
Six : owtaratoi, towratoi : harigigi-karimoga : paihewona.
Seven : owkuta, hitu : harigigi-labui : paikepik.
Eight : owtarahani, towrahani : harigigi-haiyona : paihewan.
Nine : owsa, taa : harigigi-haasi : paihesiwo.
Ten : adarata, wauta : saorudoi (b) : paiheawata.
Eleven : - : - : paiheawata-paihetia.
Twelve : - : - : paiheawata-pahiwo.
Fifteen : - : saorudoi-harigigi : -.
Nineteen : - : saorudoi-harigigi-haasi : paiheawata-paihesiwo.
Twenty : ---- ruahui : taoi-mate : -.
Twenty-five : - : talabushi-mate : -.
Thirty : ---- toyahui : towkarimoga-mate : -.
Thirty-one : - : towkarimoga-mate-karimoga : -.


Another : - : nessao (b) : -.
More : patana : sagu : -.


Yes : - : ewa : -.
No, I have not, will not : - : nige : -.
No, I won't, don't! : laasi : besi (b) : -.
Presently, by and bye : - : tabu (h) : tabu.
Exclamations of surprise and astonishment : - : ao-o-o : -.
Exclamations of surprise and astonishment : - : dim-dim : -.

10. VERBS.

Break (a stick) : udumuan : - : -.
Come away : - : kurhama (D) : -.
Cough : huwa : oso (D) : keli-keli.
Cry : tai : - : -.
Dive : hetai : - : -.
Eat, eat it : - : oquai : -.
Give, give me : mahi : ureama (b) : -.
Go away, go back : - : - : tadubi.
Laugh : kiri : tanuwaraha : -.
Paddle : oawde : ow-wassi (b) : -.
Rise up : - : kotoro : -.
Sing : - : pediri (D) : -.
Sit down : - : kumturi : -.
Sleep : mahuta : - : -.
Sneeze : - : tatino (D) : -.
Strike (with fist) : hela : - : -.
Swim : nahu : - : -.
Whistle : - : ino : -.


Expressing friendship : - : magasugo (b) : -.
This is called : - : taina esana : -.


Males, Number 1 : Woro : Ihara : Wadai.
Males, Number 2 : Iripa : Nubaida : Maho.
Males, Number 3 : Kari (father and son) : Tubuda : Hewawo.
Males, Number 4 : Baguya : Eratao : Mao.
Females, Number 1 : - : Lataoma, Konaia (D) : -.
Females, Number 2 : - : Narumai, Tatarai (D) : -.
Females, Number 3 : - : Haraobi, Bonarua (D) : -.
Females, Number 4 : - : Perodi : -.
Females, Number 5 : - : Gubetta : -.




In the way of comparative philology the most important part of the
Grammar of the Australian languages is, generally, the Pronoun. That of
the Kowrarega language will, therefore, be the first point investigated.

In the tongues of the Indo-European class the personal pronouns are
pre-eminently constant, i.e., they agree in languages which, in many
other points, differ. How thoroughly the sound of m runs through the
Gothic, Slavonic, and Iranian tongues as the sign of the pronoun of the
first person singular, in the oblique cases; how regularly a modification
of t, s, or th, appears in such words as tu, su, thou, etc! Now this
constancy of the Pronoun exists in most languages; but not in an equally
palpable and manifest form. It is disguised in several ways. Sometimes,
as in the Indo-European tongues, there is one root for the nominative and
one for the oblique cases; sometimes the same form, as in the Finlandic,
runs through the whole declension; sometimes, as when we say you for thou
in English, one number is substituted for another; and sometimes, as when
the German says sie for thou, a change of the person is made as well.
When languages are known in detail, these complications can be guarded
against; but where the tongue is but imperfectly exhibited a special
analysis becomes requisite.

Generally, the first person is more constant than the second, and the
second than the third; indeed, the third is frequently no true personal
pronoun at all, but a demonstrative employed to express the person or
thing spoken of as the agent or object to a verb. Now, as there are
frequently more demonstratives than one which can be used in a personal
sense, two languages may be, in reality, very closely allied, though
their personal pronouns of the third person differ. Thus the Latin ego =
Greek ego; but the Latin hic and ille by no means correspond in form with
os, auto, and ekeinos. This must prepare us for not expecting a greater
amount of resemblance between the Australian personal pronouns than
really exists.

Beginning with the most inconstant of the three pronouns, namely, that of
the third person, we find in the Kowrarega the following forms:


Singular, masculine : nu-du = he, him.
Singular, feminine : na-du = she, her.
Dual, common : pale = they two, them two.
Plural, common : tana = they, them.

In the two first of these forms the du is no part of the root, but an
affix, since the Gudang gives us the simpler forms nue and na. Pale, the
dual form, occurs in the Western Australian, the New South Wales, the
South Australian, and the Parnkalla as foIlows: boola, bulo-ara, purl-a,
pudlanbi = they two.


Singular : ngi-du = thou, thee.
Dual : ngi-pel = ye two, you two.
Plural : ngi-tana = ye, you.

Here the root is limited to the syllable ngi, as shown not less by the
forms ngi-pel, and ngi-tana, than by the simple Gudang ngi = thou.

Ngi, expressive of the second person, is common in Australia: ngi-nnee,
ngi-ntoa, ni-nna, ngi-nte = thou, thee, in the Western Australian, New
South Wales, Parnkalla, and Encounter Bay dialects.

Ngi-pel is probably thou + pair; a priori this is a likely way of forming
a dual. As to the reasons a posteriori they are not to be drawn wholly
from the Kowrarega tongue itself. Here the word for two is not pel but
quassur. But let us look further. The root p-l, or a modification of it,
= two in the following dialects; as well as in the Parnkalla and others:
pur-laitye, poolette, par-koolo, bull-a, in the Adelaide, Boraipar,
Yak-kumban, and Murrumbidge. That it may stand too for the dual personal
pronoun is shown in the first of these tongues; since in the Adelaide
language purla = ye two. Finally, its appearance amongst the pronouns,
and its absence amongst the numerals, occurs in the Western Australian.
The numeral two is kardura; but the dual pronoun is boala. The same
phenomenon would occur in the present English if two circumstances had
taken place, namely, if the Anglo-Saxon dual wi-t = we two had been
retained up to the present time amongst the pronouns, and the word pair,
brace, or couple, had superseded two amongst the numerals.

Lastly, the Western Australian and the Kowrarega so closely agree in the
use of the numeral two for the dual pronoun, that each applies it in the
same manner. In the third person it stands alone, so that in Western
Australian boala, and in Kowrarega pale = they two, just as if in English
we said pair or both, instead of they both (he pair); whilst in the
second person, the pronoun precedes it, and a compound is formed; just as
if, in English, we translated the Greek sphoi by thou pair or thou both.

Singular : nga-tu = I, me.
Dual : albei = we two, us two.
Plural : arri = we, us.

Here the plural and dual are represented not by a modification of the
singular but by a new word; as different from nga as nos is from ego. The
tu, of course, is non-radical, the Gudang form being ngai.

Nga, expressive of the first person, is as common as ngi, equivalent to
the second. Thus, nga-nya, nga-toa, nga-i, nga-pe = I, me, in the Western
Australian, New South Wales, Parnkalla, and Encounter Bay dialects.

Now, the difference between the first and second persons being expressed
by different modifications (nga, ngi) of the same root (ng), rather than
by separate words, suggests the inquiry as to the original power of that
root. It has already been said that, in many languages, the pronoun of
the third person is, in origin, a demonstrative. In the Kowrarega it
seems as if even the basis of the first and second was the root of the
demonstrative also; since, by looking lower down in the list, we find
that i-na = this, che-na = that, and nga-du (nga in Gudang) = who. Ina
and chena also means here and there, respectively.

The dual form albei reappears in the Yak-kumban dialect of the River
Darling where allewa = we two. Arri = us, is also the first syllable in
the Western Australian form ar-lingul = we; or, rather it is ar-lingul in
a simpler and less compounded form. In a short specimen of Mr.
Eyre's from the head of the Great Australian Bight, the form in a appears
in the singular number, ajjo = I and me. The root tana = they, is not
illustrated without going as far as the Western Australian of Mr. Eyre.
Here, however, we find it in the compound word par-tanna = many. Its
original power is probably others; and it is most likely a widely
diffused Australian root.

The pronouns in question are compound rather than simple; i.e. instead of
nga = me, and ngi = thee, we have nga-tu and ngi-du. What is the import
and explanation of this? It may safely be said, that the termination in
the Australian is NOT a termination like the Latin met in ego- met,
inasmuch as this last is constant throughout the three persons (ego-met,
tute-met, se-met), whereas, the former varies with the pronoun to which
it is appended (nga-tu, and ngi-du). I hazard the conjecture that the two
forms correspond with the adverbs here and there; so that nga-tu = I
here, and ngi-du = thou there, and nu-du = he there. In respect to the
juxtaposition of the simple forms (ngai, ngi, and nue) of the Gudang with
the compound ones (nga-tu, ngi-du, and nu-du) of the Kowrarega, it can be
shown that the same occurs in the Parnkalla of Port Lincoln; where Mr.
Eyre gives the double form ngai and nga-ppo each = I or me.

Now, this analysis of the Kowrarega personals has exhibited the evolution
of one sort of pronoun out of another, with the addition of certain words
expressive of number, the result being no true inflexion but an
agglutination or combination of separate words. It has also shown how the
separate elements of such combinations may appear in different forms and
with different powers in different dialects of the same language, and
different languages of the same class, even where, in the primary and
normal signification, they may be wanting in others. The first of these
facts is a contribution to the laws of language in general; the second
shows that a great amount of apparent difference may be exhibited on the
surface of a language which disappears as the analysis proceeds.

In rude languages the Numerals vary with the dialect more than most other
words. We can understand this by imagining what the case would be in
English if one of our dialects counted things by the brace, another by
the pair, and a third by the couple. Nevertheless, if we bear in mind the
Greek forms Thalassa and Thalatta, we may fairly suppose that the
Kowrarega word for two, or quassur, is the same word with the Head of
Australian Bight kootera, the Parnkalla kuttara, and the Western
Australian kardura, having the same meaning.

The difference, then, between the numerals of the Australian
languages--and it is undoubtedly great--is no proof of any fundamental
difference of structure or origin. It is just what occurs in the
languages of Africa, and, in a still greater degree, in those of America.

The extent to which the numeration is carried, is a matter of more
importance. Possibly a numeration limited to the first three, four, or
five numbers is the effect of intellectual inferiority. It is certainly a
cause that continues it. As a measure of ethnological affinity it is
unimportant. In America we have, within a limited range of languages,
vigesimal systems like the Mexican, and systems limited to the three
first units like the Caribb. The difference between a vigesimal and
decimal system arises simply from the practice of counting by the fingers
and toes collectively, or the fingers alone, being prevalent; whereas the
decimal system as opposed to the quinary is referrible to the numeration
being extended to both hands, instead of limited to one. Numerations not
extending as far as five are generally independent of the fingers in
toto. Then as to the names of particular numbers. Two nations may each
take the name of the number two from some natural dualism; but they may
not take it from the name. For instance, one American Indian may take it
from a pair of skates, another from a pair of shoes. If so, the word for
two will differ in the two languages, even when the names for skate and
shoe agree. All this is supported by real facts, and is no hypothetical
illustration; so that the inference from it is, that, in languages where
a numeral system is in the process of formation, difference in the names
of the numbers is comparatively unimportant.

The extent to which the numerals vary, the extent to which they agree,
and the extent to which this variation and agreement are anything but
coincident with geographical proximity or distance, may be seen in the
following table:

English : one two three.
Moreton Bay : kamarah bulla mudyan.
Moreton Island : karawo poonlah madan.
Bijenelumbo : warat ngargark 2 + 1.
Limbakarajia : erat ngargark 2 + 1.
Terrutong : roka oryalk 2 + 1.
Limbapyu : immuta lawidperra 2 + 1.
Kowrarega : warapune quassur 2 + 1.
Gudang : epiamana elabaio 2 + 1.
Darnley Island : netat nes 2 + 1.
Raffles Bay : loca orica orongarie.
Lake Macquarie : wakol buloara ngoro.
Peel River : peer pular purla.
Wellington : ngungbai bula bula-ngungbai.
Corio : koimoil.
Jhongworong : kap.
Pinegorine : youa.
Gnurellean : lua.
King George Sound : keyen cuetrel murben.
Karaula : mal bular culeba.
Lachlan, Regent Lake : nyoonbi bulia bulongonbi.
Wollondilly River : medung pulla colluerr.

The Verb now requires notice. In languages in the same stage of
development with the Australian the usual analysis, as shown by the late
Mr. Garnett in his masterly papers on the structure of the verb, is as
follows: 1. The root. 2. The possessive pronoun. 3. A particle of
time--often originally one of place.

A rough illustration of this is the statement that such a word as dormur
== sleep-my-then (or there). To apply this doctrine to the Kowrarega with
our present data, is unsafe. Still, I am inclined (notwithstanding some
difficulties) to identify the pa of the Present tense with the bu in
kai-bu = now, and the n of the preterite with the n of che-na = there.

The double forms of the Past tense (one in n, and another in m) are at
present inexplicable. So are the double forms of the Imperative, namely
the one in r, and the one in e. It may, however, be remarked, that
wherever the Imperative ends in e, the Preterite has the form in m; thus,
pid-e = dig, pid-ema = dug. The only exception is the anomalous form
peneingodgi = dived. This prepares the future grammarian for a division
of the Kowrarega Verbs into Conjugations.

The last class of words that supply the materials of comment are the
Substantives. Herein, the formation of the plural by the addition of le,
probably occurs in several of the Australian tongues. I infer this from
many of those words which we find in the vocabularies of languages
whereof the grammar is unknown, and which are expressive of naturally
plural objects ending in li, la, or l.

1. Star (stars)--pur-le, pi-lle, poo-lle, in Parnkalla, Aiawong, and

2. Fire (flames)--ka-lla, gad-la, in Western Australian and Parnkalla.

3. Head (hair)--kur-le, Encounter Bay. Here we learn from the forms
kar-ga, from the Head of the Great Australian Bight, and ma-kar-ta, from
Adelaide, that the l is foreign to the root.

4. Hands--marrow-la in the Molonglo dialect; as contrasted with marra in
the Adelaide.

This, however, is merely a conjecture, a conjecture, however, which has a
practical bearing. It suggests caution in the comparison of vocabularies;
since, by mistaking an inflexion or an affix for a part of the root, we
may overlook really existing similarities.

Father Anjello's very brief grammatical sketch of the Limbakarajia
language of Port Essington* exhibits, as far as it goes, precisely the
same principles as Mr. Macgillivray's Kowrarega; indeed, some of the
details coincide.

(*Footnote. Given to Mr. Macgillivray by Mr. James Macarthur, and
prefixed to the manuscript Port Essington Vocabulary, alluded to in
Volume 1.)

Thus, the Limbakarajia personal pronouns are:

I = nga-pi.
We = ngari.
Thou = noie.
We two = arguri.
He, she, it = gianat.
Ye = noie.
They = ngalmo.

Here the pi in nga-pi is the po in the Aiawong nga-ppo; the gian in
gian-at being, probably, the in in the Kowrarega ina = that, this.
Ngalmo, also, is expressly stated to mean many as well as they, a fact
which confirms the view taken of tana.

As for the tenses of the verbs, they are evidently no true tenses at all,
but merely combinations of the verbal root, and an adverb of time. In
Limbakarajia, however, the adverbial element precedes the verbal one. In
Kowrarega, however, the equivalent to this adverbial element (probably a
simple adverb modified in form so as to amalgamate with its verb, and
take the appearance of an inflexion) follows it--a difference of order,
sequence, or position, upon which some philologists will, perhaps, lay
considerable stress. On the contrary, however, languages exceedingly
similar in other respects, may differ in the order of the parts of a
term; e.g. the German dialects, throughout, place the article before the
noun, and keep it separate: whereas the Scandinavian tongues not only
make it follow, but incorporate it with the substantive with which it
agrees. Hence, a term which, if modelled on the German fashion, should be
hin sol, becomes, in Scandinavian, solen = the sun. And this is but one
instance out of many. Finally, I may add that the prefix apa, in the
present tense of the verb = cut, is, perhaps, the same affix eipa in the
present tense of the Kowrarega verbs.

Another point connected with the comparative philology of Australia is
the peculiarity of its phonetic system. The sounds of f and s are
frequently wanting. Hence, the presence of either of them in one dialect
has been considered as evidence of a wide ethnological difference. Upon
this point--in the case of s--the remarks on the sound systems of the
Kowrarega and Gudang are important. The statement is, the s of the one
dialect becomes ty or tsh (and ch) in the other. Thus the English word
breast = susu, Kowrarega; tyu-tyu, Gudang, and the English outrigger
float = sarima, Kowrarega; charima, Gudang, which of these two forms is
the older? Probably the Gudang, or the form in ty. If so, the series of
changes is remarkable, and by attending to it we may see how sounds
previously non-existent may become evolved.

Thus--let the original form for breast be tutu. The first change which
takes place is the insertion of the sound of y, making tyu-tyu; upon the
same principle which makes certain Englishmen say gyarden, kyind, and
skyey, for garden, kind, and sky. The next change is for ty to become
tsh. This we find also in English, where picture or pictyoor is
pronounced pictshur, etc. This being the change exhibited in the Gudang
form tyutyu (pr. choochoo, or nearly so) we have a remarkable phonetic
phenomenon, namely the existence of a compound sound (tsh) wherein s is
an element, in a language where s, otherwise than as the element of a
compound, is wanting. In other words, we have a sound formed out of s,
but not s itself; or (changing the expression still further) we have s in
certain combinations, but not uncombined. Let, however, the change
proceed, and the initial sound of t be lost. In this case tsh becomes sh.
A further change reduces sh to s.

When all this has taken place--and there are many languages wherein the
whole process is exhibited--the sound of a hitherto unknown articulation
becomes evolved or developed by a natural process of growth, and that in
a language where it was previously wanting. The phenomenon, then, of the
evolution of new simple sounds should caution us against over-valuing
phonetic differences. So should such facts as that of the closely allied
dialects of the Gudang and Kowrarega differing from each other by the
absence or presence of so important a sound as that of s.

The comparative absence, however, of the sound of s, in Australian, may
be further refined on in another way; and it may be urged that it is
absent, not because it has never been developed, or called into
existence, but because it has ceased to exist. In the Latin of the
Augustan age as compared with that of the early Republic, we find the s
of words like arbos changed into r (arbor). The old High German, also,
and the Icelandic, as compared with the Meso-Gothic, does the same. Still
the change only affects certain inflectional sy1lables, so that the
original s being only partially displaced, retains its place in the
language, although it occurs in fewer words. In Australian, where it is
wanting at all, it is wanting in toto: and this is a reason for believing
that its absence is referrible to non-development rather than to
displacement. For reasons too lengthy to exhibit, I believe that this
latter view is NOT applicable to Australian; the s, when wanting, being
undeveloped. In either case, however, the phonetic differences between
particular dialects are the measures of but slight differences.

Now--with these preliminary cautions against the over-valuation of
apparent differences--we may compare the new data for the structure of
the Kowrarega and Limbakarajia with the reccived opinions respecting the
Australian grammars in general.

These refer them to the class of agglutinate tongues, i.e. tongues
wherein the inflections can be shown to consist of separate words more or
legs incorporated or amalgamated with the roots which they modify. It may
be said that this view is confirmed rather than impugned.

Now, what applies to the Australian grammars applies also to Polynesian
and the more highly-developed Malay languages, such as the Tagala of the
Philippines, for instance; and, if such being the case, no difference of
principle in respect to tkeir structure separates the Australian from the
languages of those two great classes. But the details, it may be said,
differ undoubtedly; and this is what we expect. Plural numbers, signs of
tense, and other grammatical elements, are evolved by means of the
juxtaposition of similar but not identical elements, e.g. one plural may
be formed by the affix signifying many; another, by the affix signifying
with or conjointly; one preterite may be the root plus a word meaning
then; another the root plus a word meaning there. Futures, too, may be
equally evolved by the incorporation or juxtaposition of the word meaning
after, or the word meaning to-morrow. All this makes the exact
coincidence of the details of inflection the exception rather than the

This doctrine goes farther than the mere breaking-down of the lines of
demarcation which separate classes of languages like the Australian from
classes of languages like the Malayo-Polynesian. It shows how both may be
evolved from monosyllabic tongues like the Chinese or Siamese. The proof
that such is really the case lies in the similarity of individual words,
and consists in comparative tables. It is too lengthy for the present
paper, the chief object of which is to bring down the inferences from the
undoubtedly great superficial differences between the languages of the
parts in question to their proper level.

In respect to the vocabularies, the extent to which the analysis which
applies to the grammar applies to the vocables also may be seen in the
following instance. The word hand in Bijenelumbo and Limbapyu is birgalk.
There is also in each language a second form--anbirgalk--wherein the an
is non-radical. Neither is the alk; since we find that armpit =
ingamb-alk, shoulder = mundy-alk, and fingers = mong-alk. This brings the
root = hand to birg. Now this we can find elsewhere by looking for. In
the Liverpool dialect, bir-il = hand, and at King George Sound, peer =
nails. The commonest root, = hand in the Australian dialects, is m-r,

Moreton Bay : murrah.
Corio : far-onggnetok.
Karaula : marra.
Jhongworong : far-okgnata.
Sydney : da-mora.
Murrumbidje : mur-rugan.
Mudje : mara.
Molonglo : mar-rowla.
Wellington : murra.
Head of Bight : merrer.
Liverpool : ta-mura.
Parnkalla : marra.

All this differs from the Port Essington terms. Elbow, however, in the
dialects there spoken, = waare; and forearm = am-ma-woor; wier, tao, =
palm in Kowrarega.

To complete the evidence for this latter word being the same as the m-r
of the other dialects and languages, it would be necessary to show, by
examples, how the sounds of m and w interchange; and also to show (by
example also) how the ideas of elbow, forearm, and hand do so. But as the
present remarks are made for the sake of illustrating a method, rather
than establishing any particular point, this is not necessary here; a few
instances taken from the names of the parts of the human body being
sufficient to show the general distribution of some of the commoner
Australian roots; and the more special fact of their existence in the
northern dialects:

English : hand.
Peel River : ma.
Terrutong : manawiye.
Raffles Bay : maneiya.


English : foot.
Moreton Bay : chidna.
Moreton Island : tenang.
Karaula : tinna.
Lake Macquarie : tina.
Peel River : tina.
Jhongworong : gnen-ong-gnat-a.
Mudje : dina.
Wellington : dinnung.
Corio : gen-ong-gnet-ok.
Liverpool : dana.
Bathurst : dina.
Colack : ken-ong-gnet-ok.
Boraipar : tchin-nang-y
Lake Hindmarsh : jin-nerr.
Bight Head : jinna.
Parnkalla : idna.
Murrumbidje : tjin-nuk.
Aiawong : dtun.
King George Sound : tian.
Molonglo : jin-y-gy.
Pinegorine : gena.
Goold Island : pinyun and pinkan.
Gnurellean : gen-ong-be-gnen-a.


English : hair, beard.
Goold Island : kiaram.
Moreton Island : yerreng.
Wellington : uran.
Karaula : yerry.
Bijenelumbo : yirka.
Sydney : yaren.
Regent's Lake : ooran.
Peel River : ierai.
Lake Macquarie : wurung.
Mudje : yarai.


English : eye.
Jhongworong : mer-ing-gna-ta.
Moreton Island : mel.
Pinegorine : ma.
Moreton Bay : mill.
Gnurellean : mer-e-gnen-a.
Gudang : emeri = eyebrow.
Boraipar : mer-ring-y.
Lake Hindmarsh : mer.
Bijenelumbo : merde = eyelid.
Regent's Lake : mil.
Lake Mundy : meer-rang.
Karaula : mil.
Murrumbidje : mil.
Mudje : mir.
Corio : mer-gnet-ok.
Bight Head : mail.
Colack : mer-gnen-ok.
King George Sound : mial.
Dautgart : mer-gna-nen.


English : tooth.
Sydney : yera.
Moreton Island : tiya.
Wellington : irang.
Murrumbidje : yeeran.
Moreton Bay : deer.
Lake Macquarie : tina.
Goold Island : eera.


English : tongue.
Lake Macquarie : talan.
Moreton Bay : dalan.
Regent's Lake : talleng.
Sydney : dalan.
Karaula : talley.
Peel River : tale.
Goold Island : talit.
King George Sound : talien.


English : ear.
Moreton Bay : bidna.
Kowrarega : kowra.
Karaula : binna.
Sydney : kure.
Peel River : bine.
Liverpool : kure.
Bathurst : benang-arei.
Lake Macquarie : ngureong.
Goold Island : pinna.

The Miriam Vocabulary belongs to a different class, namely the Papuan. It
is a dialect of language first made known to us through the Voyage of the
Fly, as spoken in the islands Erroob, Maer, and Massied. Admitting this,
we collate it with the North Australian tongues, and that, for the sake
of contrast rather than comparison. Here, the philologist, from the
extent to which the Australian tongues differ from each other,
notwithstanding their real affinity, is prepared to find greater
differences between an Australian and a Papuan language than, at the
first glance, exists. Let us verify this by reference to some words which
relate to the human body, and its parts.


Nose : pit : pichi : piti : -.
Lips : - : anka : - : angka.
Cheek : baag : - : baga : baga.
Chin, jaw : iba : ibu : ibu : ebu.
Navel : kopor, kupor : kupor : kupar : kopurra.
Eye : - : dana : dana : dana.
Skin : egur : - : - : equora.
Vein : kerer : kirer : kerur : kerur.
Bone : lid : - : rida : -.
Sore : bada : - : bada : -.

Few Australian vocabularies are thus similar--a fact which may be said to
prove too much; since it may lead to inference that the so-called Papuan
tongue of Torres Strait is really Australian. Nevertheless, although I do
not absolutely deny that such is the case, the evidence of the whole body
of ethnological fact--e.g. those connected with the moral, intellectual,
and physical conformation of the two populations--is against it.

And so is the philology itself, if we go further. The Erroob pronouns

Me = ka.
You = ma.
His = eta.
Mine = ka-ra.
Your = ma-ra.

All of which are un-Australian.

Are we then to say that all the words of the table just given are
borrowed from the Australian by the Papuans, or vice versa? No. Some
belong to the common source of the two tongues, pit = nose being,
probably, such a word; whilst others are the result of subsequent

Still, it cannot absolutely be said that the Erroob or Miriam iongue is
not Australian also, or vice versa. Still less, is it absolutely certain
that the former is not transitional between the New Guinea language and
the Australian. I believe, however, that it is not so.

The doubts as to the philological position of the Miriam are by no means
diminished by reference to the nearest unequivocally Papuan vocabulary,
namely that of Redscar Bay. Here the difference exceeds rather than falls
short of our expectations. The most important of the few words which
coincide are:


Head : quara : kerem.
Mouth : mao : mit = lips.
Testicles : abu : eba = penis.
Shoulder : paga : pagas = upper arm.

On the other hand, the Redscar Bay word for throat, kato, coincides with
the Australian karta of the Gudang of Cape York. Again, a complication is
introduced by the word buni-mata = eyebrow. Here mata = eye, and,
consequently, buni = brow. This root re-appears in the Erroob; but there
it means the eyeball, as shown by the following words from Jukes'

Eye : irkeep
Eyebrow : irkeep-moos = eye-hair.
Eyeball : poni.
Eyelid : poni-pow = eyeball-hair.

Probably the truer meaning of the Redscar Bay word is eyeball.

No inference is safer than that which brings the population of the
Louisiade Archipelago, so far, at least, as it is represented by the
Vocabularies of Brierly Island and Duchateau Island, from the eastern
coast of New Guinea. What points beyond were peopled from Louisiade is
another question.

For the islands between New Ireland and New Caledonia our data are
lamentably scanty; the list consisting of:

1. A short vocabulary from the Solomon Isles.
2. Short ones from Mallicollo.
3. The same from Tanna.
4. Shorter ones still from Erromanga and
5. Annatom.
6. Cook's New Caledonian Vocabulary.
7. La Billardiere's ditto.

The collation of these with the Louisiade has led me to a fact which I
little expected. As far as the very scanty data go, they supply the
closest resemblance to the Louisiade dialects, from the two New
Caledonian vocabularies. Now New Caledonia was noticed in the Appendix to
the Voyage of the Fly (volume 2 page 318) as apparently having closer
philological affinities with Van Diemen's Land, than that country had
with Australia; an apparent fact which induced me to write as follows: "A
proposition concerning the Tasmanian language exhibits an impression,
rather than a deliberate opinion. Should it, however, be confirmed by
future researches, it will at once explain the points of physical
contrast between the Tasmanian tribes and those of Australia that have so
often been insisted on. It is this--that the affinities of language
between the Tasmanian and the New Caledonian are stronger than those
between the Australian and Tasmanian. This indicates that the stream of
population for Van Diemen's Land ran ROUND Australia, rather than across
it." Be this as it may, the remark, with our present scanty matcrials,
is, at best, but a suggestion--a suggestion, however, which would account
for the physical appearance of the Tasmanian being more New Caledonian
than Australian.

The chief point of resemblance between the Louisiade and the New
Caledonian is taken from the numerals. In each system there is a prefix,
and in each that prefix begins with a labial letter--indeed the wa of New
Caledonia and the pahi of Louisiade seem to be the same roots.

Brierly Island : paihe-tia.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-geeaing.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-nait.

Brierly Island : pahi-wo.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-roo.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-dou.

Brierly Island : paihe-tuan.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-teen.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-tguien.

Brierly Island : paihe-pak.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-mbaeek.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-tbait.

Brierly Island : paihe-lima.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnim.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-nnaim.

Brierly Island : paihe-wona.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnim-geeek.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-naim-guik.

Brierly Island : pahe-pik.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnim-noo.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-naim-dou.

Brierly Island : paihe-wan.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnim-gain.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : ou-naim-guein.

Brierly Island : paihe-siwo.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnim-baeek.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-naim-bait.

Brierly Island : paihe-awata.
Cook's New Caledonia : wa-nnoon-aiuk.
La Billardiere's New Caledonia : oua-doun-hic.

The Redscar Bay numerals are equally instructive. They take two forms:
one with, one without, the prefix in ow, as recorded by Mr. Macgillivray.

This system of prefix is not peculiar. The Tanna and Mallicollo numerals
of Cook are:


One : r-eedee : tsee-kaee
Two : ka-roo : e-ry.
Three : ka-har : e-rei
Four : kai-phar : e-bats
Five : k-reerum : e-reeum
Six : ma-r-eedee : tsookaeee
Seven : ma-ka-roo : gooy
Eight : ma-ka-har : hoo-rey
Nine : ma-kai-phar : good-bats.
Ten : ma-k-reerum : senearn.

Here, although the formations are not exactly regular, the prefixion of
an initial syllable is evident. So is the quinary character of the
numeration. The prefix itself, however, in the Tanna and Mallicollo is no
labial, as in the Louisiade and New Caledonian, but either k or a

The next fact connected with the Louisiade vocabularies is one of greater
interest. Most of the names of the different parts of the body end in da.
In the list in question they were marked in italics; so that the
proportion they bear to the words not so ending was easily seen. Now it
is only the words belonging to this class that thus terminate. Elsewhere
the ending da is no commoner than any other.

What does this mean? If we look to such words as mata-da = eyes, sopa-da
= lips, maka-da = teeth, and some other naturally plural names, we should
infer that it was a sign of number. That this, however, is not the case
is shown by the equivalents to tongue, nose, and other single members
where the affix is equally common. What then is its import? The American
tongues help us here:


Head : na-guilo : ne-maiat : -.
Eye : ni-gecoge : na-toele : ni-cote.
Ear : na-pagate : - : -.
Nose : ni-onige : - : -.
Tongue : no-gueligi : - : -.
Hair : na-modi : ne-etiguic : na-ccuta.
Mand : ni-baagadi : na-pakeni : na-poguena.
Foot : no-gonagi : - : -.

COLUMN 2: MOXA (1).*

(*Footnote. These are three different dialects.)

Head : nu-ciuti : nu-chuti : nu-chiuti
Eye : nu-chi : - : nu-ki
Ear : nu-cioca : - : -.
Nose : nu-siri : nu-siri : -.
Tongue : nu-nene : nu-nene : nu-nene.
Hand : nu-bore : nu-boupe : nu-bore.
Foot : ni-bope : - : ni-bope.

Now in these, and in numerous other American tongues, the prefix is the
possessive pronoun; in other words, there is a great number of American
languages where the capacity for abstracting the thing possessed from the
possessor is so slight as to make it almost impossible to disconnect the
noun from its pronoun. I believe, then, the affixes in question have a
possessive power; and am not aware that possessive adjuncts thus
incorporated have been recognised in any of the languages for these
parts; indeed, they are generally considered as American characteristics.

How far does their presence extend? In the New Caledonian vocabulary of
La Billardiere we find it. The names of the parts of the body all take an
affix, which no other class of words does. This is gha, guai, or ghai, or
other similar combination of g with a vowel. In Van Diemen's Land, an
important locality, we find the following series of words, which are
submitted to the judgment of the reader.


Foot : lula.
Leg : peea = piya = posteriors, Brumer I.
Thigh : tula = turi = knee, Brumer I.
Belly : cawara-ny.
Neck : denia.
Ears : lewli-na.
Nose : me-na.
Eyes : pollatoola = matara-pulupulura = eyelashes, Brierly I.
Hair : pareata.
Hair : palani-na.
Face : manrable.
Mouth : ca-nia.
Teeth : yannalople = yinge-da, Brierly I.
Tongue : tulla-na.
Arm : alree.
Fist : reannema-na.
Head : pulbea-ny.

Here the termination na appears elsewhere, as in mema-na = fight,
nabagee-na = sun; but by no means so frequently, nor yet with such an
approach to regularity.


Hair : parba.
Hand : rabal-ga.
Foot : rabuc-ka.
Head : ewuc-ka.
Eyc : mameric-ca.
Nose : rowari-ga.
Tongue : mamana = mimena, Brumer I.
Teeth : cawna.
Ear : cowanrig-ga.

Here, however, it must not be concealed that the termination ka, or ga,
occurs in other words, such as tenal-ga = laugh, tar-ga = cry, teiri-ga =
walk, lamuni-ka = see. These, however, are verbs; and it is possible
(indeed probable) that the k or g is the same as in the preceding
substantives, just as the m in su-m, and ei-mi (Greek) is the m in meus,
me, and eme (Greek). Still, this will not apply throughout; e.g. the
words like lalli-ga = kangaroo, para-ka = flower, and others.


Eye : lepe-na
Ear : pelverata.
Elbow : rowella
Foot : langa-na
Fist : trew
Head : pathe-na-naddi
Hair : cetha-na
Hand : anama-na = nema-da, Brumer I.
Knee : nannabena-na.
Leg : lathana-ma
Teeth : yan-na = yinge-da, Brierly I.
Tongue : me-na = mime-na, Brumer I.
Chin : came-na.
Neck : lepera.
Breast : wagley.

Here, the number of other words ending in na is very considerable; so
considerable that, if it were not for the cumulative evidence derived
from other quarters, it would be doubtful whether the na could
legitimately be considered as a possessive affix at all. It MAY, however,
be so even in the present instance.

To these we may add two lists from the Lobo and Utanata dialects of the
south-western coast of New Guinea.


Arms : too : nima-ngo.
Back : urimi : rusuko-ngo.
Beard : - : minooro.
Belly : imauw : kanboro-ngo.
Breast, female : auw : gingo-ngo.
Breast, male : paiety : gingo-ngo
Cheeks : awamu : wafiwirio-ngo.
Ears : ianie : -.
Eyebrows : - : matato-ngo-wuru.
Eyes : mame : matatoto-ngo.
Fingers : - : nima-ngo-sori.
Foot : mouw : kai-ngo.
Hands : toe-mare : nima-ngo-uta.
Hair : oeirie : mono-ng-furu.
Head : oepauw : mono-ngo or umum.
Knee : iripu : kai-ngo-woko.
Mouth : irie : orie-ngo.
Nose : birimboe : sikaio-ngo.
Neck : ema : gara-ng.
Tongue : mare : kario-ngo.
Thigh : ai : willanima.
Teeth : titi : riwoto-ngo.
Toes : - : nisora.

Finally, we have the long, and evidently compound forms of p** in the
Corio, Colack, and other Australian dialects; long and evidently compound
forms which no hypothesis so readily explains as that of the possessive
adjunct; a phenomenon which future investigation many show to be equally
Oceanic and American.




Lists exhibiting the occurrence of Australian Birds in particular
districts are instructive, as showing the range of species over the
various parts of an extensive district, and as bearing upon, and to my
mind confirming, to a certain extent, the views of those geologists who
consider Australia to have formerly appeared as a cluster of three or
four islands, subsequently connected since the tertiary epoch so as to
form what may now be considered as a continent. With the kind assistance
in determining the species of Mr. Gould, who has elsewhere published
similar lists* of the birds of other parts of Australia, the annexed
Catalogue has been made out. All the species contained therein have
passed under my own observation, and I have distributed them in three
columns; the first includes that portion of the north-east coast of
Australia and its islands included between the Tropic of Capricorn and
latitude 17 degrees 45 minutes south, or the parallel of the bottom of
the Gulf of Carpentaria; the second comprises the remainder of the
north-east coast as far to the northward as Cape York; and the third is
devoted to the islands of Torres Strait, from Raine Islet to Bramble Cay.
The species marked with an ? (query) are those which are probably local
varieties, representatives of southern birds, showing slight differences
in size, etc., yet not decided enough to be of specific value.

(*Footnote. In the works of Strzelecki and Eyre, and Introduction to the
Birds of Australia. )

Ichthyaetus leucogaster 1 2 3.
Haliastur leucosternmus 1 2 3.
Pandion leucocephalus 1 2 3.
Falco frontatus 3.
Ieracidea berigora 2.
Astur novae hollandiae 1 3.
Astur approximans 1 2.
Accipiter torquatus 1 2 3.
Milvus affinis 1 2.
Circus jardinii 3.
Strix delicatula 1 2 3.
Athene boobook 1.
Athene maculata 1 2.
Podargus humeralis 1.
Podargus papuensis 2.
Podargus marmoratus 2.
Eurystopodus albogularis 2 3.
Eurystopodus guttatus 1 2 3.
Acanthylis caudacuta 2.
Cypselus australis 2 3.
Collocalia 1.
Chelidon arborea 1 3.
Merops ornatus 1 2 3.
Dacelo leachii 1 2.
Halcyon torotoro 2.
Halcyon sancta 1 2 3.
Halcyon sordida 1 2 3.
Halcyon macleayii 1 2 3.
Tanysiptera sylvia 2.
Alcyone azurea 2.
Alcyone pusilla 1 2.
Artamus leucopygialis 1 2 3.
Dicaeum hirundinaceum 1 2 3.
Cracticus nigrogularis 1 2.
Cracticus quoyii 1 2.
Grallina australis 2.
Grauculus melanops 1 2 3.
Grauculus hypoleucus 2.
Grauculus swainsonii 2.
Campephaga karu 1 2 3.
Pachycephala melanura 2 3.
Colluricincla brunnea 1 2 3.
Colluricincla harmonica 2.
Dicrurus bracteatus 1 2 3.
Rhipidura rufifrons 2.
Seisura inquieta 1 2 3.
Piezorhynchus nitidus 1 2 3.
Myiagra concinna 1 2 3.
Myiagra latirostris 1 2.
Monarcha trivirgata 1 2 3.
Monarcha leucotis 1 2.
Arses kaupii 2.
Petroica bicolor ? 2 3.
Machaerirhynchus flaviventris 2.
Drymodes superciliosa 2.
Malurus amabilis 2.
Malurus brownii 1.
Sphenoeacus galactotes 2 3.
Cysticola lineocapilla 1 2 3.
Sericornis maculata ? 2.
Anthus australis 1 2.
Estrelda bichenovii 1.
Donacola castaneothorax 2 3.
Pitta strepitans 1 2 3.
Chlamydera nuchalis 1.
Chlamydera cerviniventris 2 3.
Oriolus assimilis 2.
Oriolus flavocinctus 2.
Sphecotheres flaviventris 2.
Aplonis metallica 2.
Chalybaeus cornutus 2.
Corvus coronoides 1 2 3.
Ptilotis chrysotis 1 2 3.
Ptilotis filigera 2.
Ptilotis 2.
Entomophila 1.
Tropidorhynchus argenticeps 2.
Tropidorhynchus 2.
Myzomela erythrocephala 2 3.
Myzomela obscura 1 2 3.
Nectarinia australis 1 2 3.
Zosterops luteus 1 2 3.
Cuculus cineraceus 1.
Cuculus insperatus 1.
Chrysococcyx lucidus 1 2.
Endynamys flindersii 1 2 3.
Centropus phasianus 1 2 3.
Ptiloris victoriae 1.
Ptiloris magnifica 2.
Cacatua galerita 1 2 3.
Microglossus aterrimus 2.
Calyptorhynchus banksii 1.
Aprosmictus erythropterus ? 1 2.
Platycercus palliceps ? 2.
Melopsittacus undulatus 1.
Trichoglossus swainsonii 1 3.
Trichoglossus rubritorquis 2.
Ptilonopus ewingii 1 2.
Ptilonopus superbus 2 3.
Carpophaga luctuosa 1 2 3.
Carpophaga puella 2.
Lopholaimus antarcticus 2.
Chalcophaps chrysochlora 1 2.
Phaps elegans 1.
Geopelia humeralis 1 2 3.
Geopelia tranquilla 1 2 3.
Macropygia phasianella ? 1.
Talegalla lathami 1 2.
Megapodius tumulus 1 2 3.
Turnix melanota 1 2 3.
Coturnix pectoralis 2.
Synoicus australis 1 2 3.
Synoicus sinensis 3.
Dromaius novae hollandiae 1 2.
Otis australasiana 1.
Esacus magnirostris 1 2 3.
Oedicnemus grallarius 1.
Hoematopus longirostris 1 2 3.
Hoematopus fuliginosus 1 2 3.
Sarciophorus pectoralis 1.
Charadrius xanthocheilus 1 2 3.
Hiaticula bicincta 1.
Hiaticula ruficapilla 1 2 3.
Hiaticula inornata 2 3.
Limosa uropygialis 1 2 3.
Schoeniclus australis 1 2 3.
Schoeniclus albescens 1 2 3.
Actitis empusa 1 2.
Glottis glottoides 1 2 3.
Strepsilas interpres 1 2 3.
Numenius australis 1 2 3.
Numenius uropygialis 1 2 3.
Numenius minutus 2.
Threskiornis strictipennis 2.
Grus australasianus 1 2.
Mycteria australis 2.
Ardea Pacifica 2.
Ardea novae hollandiae 1.
Herodias jugularis 1 2 3.
Herodias greyii 1 2 3.
Herodias plumifera 2 3.
Herodias syrmatophora 3.
Nycticorax caledonicus 1 2 3.
Ardetta flavicollis 1 2.
Ardetta stagnatilis 2 3.
Porphyrio melanota 3.
Rallus pectoralis 1 2 3.
Porzana leucophrys 3.
Tadorna radjah 1 2.
Anas superciliosa 1.
Anas punctata 1 2.
Xema jamesonii ? 1 2 3.
Sylochelidon strennuus 1 2.
Thalasseus pelecanoides 1 2 3.
Sterna gracilis 2.
Sterna melanauchen 1 2 3.
Sternula nereis 2 3.
Hydrochelidon fluviatilis 2.
Onychoprion fuliginosus 1 2 3.
Onychoprion panaya 1 2 3.
Anous stolidus 1 2 3.
Anous leucocapillus 1 2 3.
Puffinus sphenurus 1 3.
Phalacrocorax carboides 1.
Phalacrocorax melanoleucus 1 2 3.
Attagen ariel 1 2 3.
Phaeton phoenicurus 3.
Pelecanus conspicillatus 1 2 3.
Sula personata.
Sula fusca 1 2 3.
Sula piscator 1 2 3.





As in every instance the exact locality, depth and character of habitat
of species of Mollusc taken were carefully noted of at the time of
capture, much more valuable information elucidating the distribution of
shellfish in the Australian seas has been collected during this
expedition than was ever before obtained. Whilst new species are usually
sought after by collectors with eagerness, the habits and range of the
commoner or less conspicuous forms are passed over without observation.*
Hence every note on the habitat and mode of life of marine creatures from
the southern hemisphere becomes of no small value. Indeed, there is no
information more desirable at this time for the illustration of
geological phenomena, than such as may throw light on the distribution in
range and depth of the creatures inhabiting the sea of the Tropics, and
those living around the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. The
following notes will serve to record the more prominent facts bearing
upon the Bathymetrical distribution of the Testacea collected on the
northern coast of Australia, at Port Essington, and on the eastern coast
from Cape York to Bass Strait, including the northern ports of Van
Diemen's Land.

(*Footnote. An extensive collection of landshells was made at Madeira.
They proved on examination to be all known species, including several of
the rarer forms, and not a few of those discovered by the Reverend Mr.
Lowe. They were compared with Madeiran specimens by Mr. Vernon Wollaston.
When the Rattlesnake touched at the Azores on the return voyage, a few
landshells were collected at Fayal. Among them was the Helix barbula, an
Asturian species, Helix pauperata, and Bulimus variatus, Madeiran or
Canarian forms. A considerable number of marine and terrestrial Testacea
were procured at Rio de Janeiro, not a few of them new and of great
interest. Terebratula rosea was dredged off Rio in thirteen fathoms
water, on a coarse sandy bottom. Collections were also made at the Cape
of Good Hope, at Mauritius and in the Falkland Isles. The radiata were
gathered with as much care and their habitats recorded with as much
attention as the Mollusca.)

It may here be remarked that the Molluscan fauna of the seas of North
Australia and of the north-east coast from Cape York southwards to Sandy
Cape, belongs to the great Indo-Pacific province, a zoological region
extending from the east coast of Africa (from Port Natal or a little
above, northwards to Suez) to Easter Island in the Pacific. But south of
Sandy Cape and onwards to Van Diemen's Land (and apparently including New
Zealand) we have a distinct (East)Australian province, marked by a
peculiar fauna in many respects, representative of the Senegal, and
perhaps also Lusitanian regions of the North Atlantic.

Proceeding in descending order we may first remark on the:


As in the Northern hemisphere, Melampus or Convolvulus is the genus
represented in such localities. Thus Auricula australis prevails in salt
marshes at Brisbane Water, and an allied species in similar places in New
Zealand. In both instances we find this form accompanied by members of a
curious genus characteristic of the Australian province--Ampullacera, the
Ampullacera quoyana being the Brisbane Water species, and A. avellana,
that of New Zealand. In the latter case an Assiminea is its companion. A
very curious fact noted during the expedition was the presence of a Unio
living within the influence of salt water, in the River Brisbane.


These belong to the Indo-Pacific province. Some are found on the
mangroves themselves. Such are the Littorina scabra, on the trunks and
branches of mangroves among islets in Trinity Bay; a Phasianella
inhabiting the trunks and branches of Rhizophora at the Percy Isles; a
Littorina on the leaves of Aigaeceras fragrans at Port Curtis, Auricula
angulata, and rugulata on the trunks of mangroves at Port Essington, and
Monodonta viridis on their roots at Night Island; a new and very
beautiful Ostrea was found on the roots of mangroves among Low Islets in
Trinity Bay. In the last-named locality a Cytherea inhabited the mud
around their roots. At the Three Islets several new species of Melampus,
a Nerita and a Cyrena lived in a like habitat, and at Port Essington
Cerithium kieneri, was found in the same situation. The fine Cyrena
cyrenoides lives among the roots of mangroves in the Louisiade


Of the many living Gasteropoda taken in this region, very few are new
species. Of Patelloid forms we have a new Fissurella and Parmophorus
convexus at Port Dalrymple, accompanied by Haliotis naevosa, and species
of Patella and Siphonaria. In the more tropical regions, Haliotis asinina
and varia, another and distinct Patella, two Fissurellae and a Scutella
were collected. Of convolute shells the littoral species gathered were
all Indo-Pacific and inhabitants of mostly the coral-reef region, such as
Cypraea arabica, annulus, isabella, errones and oryza, Conus magus,
arenatus, achatinus, etc., Oliva cruentata, tremulina and ericinus, those
of the last-named genus often living in sand. Bulla cylindrica occurred
in sandy pools on the reef at Claremont Isles. Of Volutes, V. turneri
lives on coral blocks at Port Essington, and V. undulata partially buried
in sandbanks at Port Dalrymple. Conus maculosus is an inhabitant of the
last-named locality. The Mitras found in the Littoral zone were all on
the north-east coast, and well-known Indo-Pacific forms. A new Murex was
taken on mud at Port Curtis. Fasciolaria coronata, Fusus alveolatus, and
Triton verrucosus were found on the reefs at Port Dalrymple. Many species
of Nassa, all known forms, were collected, mostly on mud in the Littoral
zone, chiefly in the north-eastern province. Phos cyanostoma lives on
muddy sand in the Trinity Bay islets, where also in similar situations is
Terebra maculata and Pyramidella maculosa. Pyramidella auriscati is a
littoral shell among the reefs of the Claremont Isles. Several Purpurae
were taken on reefs and rocks at low-water; among them was P. textiliosa,
a Port Dalrymple species. A Quoya lives on rocks being high-water mark in
Lizard Island. Several Terebrae, including T. crenulata dimidiata and
affinis, inhabit muddy sand among Pipon's Islets. The well-known Strombus
luhuanus lives on sand among the reefs at Eagle Island. A Cerithium
inhabits mud-flats at Port Molle and Pipon's Islets. Of the holostomatous
gasteropods inhabiting the Littoral zone, the Naticae, mostly well-known
species, were taken in sandy localities on the north-east coast, and the
Neritae in the same province, mostly on rocks or reefs. Littorina
pyramidalis and mauritiana are inhabitants of the rocky headlands of
Broken Bay; other forms were collected at Port Curtis and at Port
Dalrymple. At the last-named locality, Turbo undulatus, a new Risella,
Monodonta constricta and buccata, and Trochus reticularis were taken on
reefs. Littoral species of the same genera occurred on the north-east
coast. A New Rissoa was found under stones at Night Island. Turbo
squamosus and Trochus lentiginosus are inhabitants of the shore at Port
Essington. In Broken Bay species of Bankivia and Scalaria were collected,
cast dead on the shore.

The Acephala found living in the Littoral zone of the south-east
Australian province were Cleidotherus chamoides, under rocks at low-water
in Port Jackson; Mytilus erosus on the mud of zostera flats at Port
Dalrymple, several species of Venus, Tapes, Cytherea in similar
localities; Arca globata in the same habitat at Brisbane; Arca fuscata in
reefs at Port Dalrymple; a new Tellina on mud at Port Phillip; another
with Donax epidermia in sand at Broken Bay, and Clavagella australis on
rocks at low-water, Port Jackson. Species of Pectunculus, Nucula,
Pandora, Anatinella, Venus, Tellina (decussata and deltoidalis) and
Mesodesma are thrown dead on the shores.

In the north and north-east Australian province the living littoral
Acephala are Solens of which two new species were taken at Port
Essington, Anomia australis, Anatina olerina, and another, new, in the
same locality; species of Mytilus, Meleagrina and Pinna, Ostrea and
Pecten (pyxidatus) Lima fragilis and squamosa, Hippopus and Tridacna, the
former detached on coral reefs, the latter embedded in the coral, Corbis
fimbriatus in sand among coral reefs; species of Venus, Cytherea, Circe,
and Tapes in mud, Artemis sculpta at Port Essington on sand, Lucinae on
sand or reefs, Crassatella on mudflats at Port Curtis, where Cypricardia
vellicata occupies the fissures of rocks with Carditae; several species
of Cardium in mud or sand, including C. fragum, C. subrugosum, and C.
unedo; Sanguinolaria rugosa at Dunk Island; species of Mesodesma in sand,
and Mactrae and Tellinae in mud; a new Psammobia at Port Essington as
also a new Pholas that bores into coral. Other species, members of the
same genera, are cast on shore dead.


Some seventeen or eighteen localities in this Bathymetrical province were
explored by means of the dredge, varying in depth from one to seventeen
fathoms. In the south-east Australian province the principal Gasteropoda
procured were Bulla brevis, at Port Jackson, in 6 fathoms; Cyprea oryza,
at Port Phillip, in 5 fathoms; Calyptraea connata, in 6 fathoms, Port
Jackson, with Nassa suturalis, and another, a new Terebra, Monotigma
casta, Mitra sordida, a Marginella, a Columbella, and Struthiolaria
oblita. A Phasianella was dredged in from 3 to 5 fathoms on sandy mud, at
Port Phillip, with Elenchus rutilus, Marginella fornicata, and Cerithium
granarium. In the North-east Australian province, a different set of
shells was dredged in similar depths, such as a Sigaretus, possibly new,
Fissurella calyculata, Mitra obeliscus, a Turritella, a Murex, Columbella
versicolor, and a new species off Cape York, Ranella pulchella, new,
several Nassae, Phos senticosa and blainvillei, and sculptilis, in 3 and
5 fathoms, off Cape York; Strombus campbelli, in mud off Cape Upstart;
Cerithium obeliscus, and a new species of the genus Obeliscus. In the
deeper localities Cypraea fimbriata occurred, dead, off Cape Capricorn;
and two species of Ranella, one being R. pusilla, in 17 fathoms, off the
Percy Isles. The univalves dredged among the Louisiade Islands in this
region of depth were mostly known forms, such as Conus betulinus, Oliva
sanguinolenta, Mitra exasperata, Terebra maculata, consors and labiata;
these were all taken in less than six fathoms water.

The bivalves of this region were but few. In the South Australian
province species of Mactra, Psammobia, Venus, Tapes and Pecten, all
peculiar, were taken. This is the region of the peculiar genus Myadora,
of which five species were dredged on sand in 6 fathoms at Port Jackson,
along with Myochama anomioides, Trigonia margaritacea, Lima bullata, and
Cardium radiatum. In the North-east Australian province we have species
of Donax, Mactra and Corbula, all apparently new, from the shallower
localities; Corbula tunicata, Pectunculus tenuicostatus, and another,
from 8 to 11 fathoms, off Cumberland Islands; species of Arca,
Pectunculus, Avicula, Pecten, Venus, Circe, Cardium, Cardita, and
Erycina, mostly new, from 15 to 17 fathoms in a sandy and shelly bottom
off Cape Capricorn.


Some dredgings in both North and South-eastern provinces, in depths
between twenty-seven and forty-five fathoms, give a slight idea of the
fauna of this important region. In the South-eastern province we find in
forty and forty-five fathoms on a muddy bottom in Bass Strait, Turritella
sinuata, Trochus nebulosus, a Pleurotoma, an Emarginula, a Dentalium, two
species of Cardita, a Cypricardia, a Venus, a Nucula, and Pectunculus
holosericeus. In the North-eastern province we find off Cumberland Island
in 27 fathoms, also on a muddy bottom, species of Murex, Nassa,
Turritella, Ranella pusilla, a Fusus, Cancellaria antiquata, a Terebra,
two Dentalia, a Natica, a Terebellum, a Scalaria, a Cardium, a Venus, a
Nucula, a Pecten, and a Spondylus.

It is evident from the comparative paucity of undescribed species
procured in the Littoral zone and the large proportion of new or doubtful
forms among those taken by the dredge, that a rich harvest has yet to be
reaped in the deeper regions of the southern seas. In the lower zones,
however, just as much as in the upper, the distinctions of province are
maintained. The explanation of this complete separation of the
South-eastern marine fauna of Australia from that of the North-eastern or
Indo-Pacific portion, may be explained by reference to the distribution
of currents along the Australian shores. In both, as in the Bathymetrical
regions of the South Atlantic, the Testacea of the depths are generally
smaller and less brightly coloured than those inhabiting the shallows.

During this voyage notes of the habitats of considerably more than a
thousand species of Mollusca and Echinodermata were carefully registered.


The following Catalogue is founded on the monograph of Helicidae by Dr.
Pfeiffer. To the species therein described are added certain new ones,
announced by Pfeiffer since the publication of his work, and others,
recorded for the first time in this volume. It will be seen that a great
part of the Australian land-shells is as yet unfigured. The exact
localities of not a few have to be determined; a precise record was kept
of the place and circumstances under with each was found during the
voyage of the Rattlesnake. From all we yet know the genus Helix is fairly
represented in New Holland, and presents some very remarkable and
peculiar forms; Bulimus has but few, and those (with the sole exception
of B. atomatus) not remarkable Australian members; a single Pupa, closely
resembling one of our commonest European species, is the only recorded
Australian one; and a very remarkable addition to the terrestrial
conchology of the southern hemisphere has been made in a Balea of a type
unlike any other member of the genus.


1. H. falconari, Reeve. (Conch. Syst. t. 163, f. 4).
Locality: Bellingen River, in the brushes (Macgillivray).

2. H. irradiata, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.

3. H. australis, Menke.
Locality: Swan River.

4. H. georgiana, Quoy and Gaimard.
Locality: King George's Sound.

5. H. novae hollandiae, Gray.
Locality: Macquarie River.

6. H. jervisensis, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2 t. 10, f 26-30).
Locality: Jervis Bay (Quoy and Gaimard). Brisbane Water, under logs in
dry, stony, and scrubby ground (Macgillivray).

7. H. subgranosa, Le Guillou.
Locality: North Australia.

8. H. capillacea, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 82, f. 5).
Locality: Port Jackson (Ferussac).

9. H. jacksoniensis, Gray.
Locality: Port Jackson. May not this be H. nitida introduced ?

10. H. walkeri, Gray.
Locality: New Holland.

11. H. gilberti, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Darling Downs, East Australia (Gilbert). Brisbane Water, under
logs in the brushes (Macgillivray).

12. H. splendidula, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, ed. 2nd, t. 85, f. 1-3.)
Locality: Eastern Australia, near Torres Strait (Ince). Blackwood Bay,
and Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)

13. H. ziczac, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.

14. H. grayi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: East Australia.

15. H. macrodon, Menke. (Fer. as M. duclosiana. Hist. t. 51 A, f. 6).
Locality: New Holland.

16. H. vitracea, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 64, f. 5).
Locality: New Holland ? (Beck).

17. H. lessoni, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Under bark of Eucalypti, coming out after rain, at Port Curtis

18. H. tortulus, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 27, f. 3, 4).
Locality: New Holland. Port Essington and North-West coast of Australia
(Brit. Mus.)

19. H. Dringi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: East Coast of Australia, near Torres Strait (Dring).

20. H. sinclairi, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Van Diemen's Land (Sinclair).

21. H. semicastanea, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, t. 56, f. 3-5).
Locality: "Unknown, probably New Holland," Pfeiffer.

22. H. bipartita, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 75 A, f. 1).
Locality: At the roots of trees and bushes in Lizard Island, and at Cape
York (Macgillivray). Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)

23. H. pomum, Pfeiffer. (Phil. Icon. Helix, t. 2. f. 8).
Locality: Port Essington, about roots of trees (Macgillivray). This
appears to be H. sphaeroidea, Le Guillou (H. urvillei, Homb. et Jacq.
Voyage au Pole Sud. Moll. t. 3, f. 1-3) of which Pfeiffer remarks, "an
varietas praecedentis?"

24. H. janellei, Le Guillou.
Locality: North Australia.

25. H. leptogramma, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Cygnet Bay, in North Australia (Ince).

26. H. incei, Pfeiffer. (Phil. Icon. Helix, t. 7, f. 3).
Locality: Percy Isles, under bark; Port Molle, and Keppel's Isles, in
hollow trees (Macgillivray).

27. H. prunum, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 26, f. 7, 8).
Locality: Australia ?

28. H. pelodes, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, t. 58, f. 6, 7).
Locality: Port Essington, on trunks of melaleuca trees (Macgillivray).

29. H. pedestris, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.

30. H. similaris, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 25 B, f. 1-4).
Locality: Under decaying logs in the Frankland Isles, chiefly dead
(Macgillivruy). This species appears to be most widely diffused. It is
recorded from the West lndies and Brazil, Java, the Seychelles and
Mauritius, and Bengal and China! This is the first announcement of it as
an Australian shell. Does it make its way about on floating timber?

31. H. delessertiana, Le Guillou (H. torresii, Homb. et Jacq. Voyage au
Pole Sud. Moll. t. 4, f. 24-27).
Locality: Warrior Island, Torres Strait (Le Guillou, etc.) Nogo Island,
Endeavour Strait, at roots of grass (Macgillivray).

32. H. gulosa, Gould.
Locality: New South Wales.

33. H. tuckeri, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, Helix, t. 79, f. 10-12).
Locality: Under dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island
(Macgillivray). The original recorded habitat was Sir Charles Hardy's
Islands, where also Mr. Macgillivray round it in 1844. As Pfeiffer
suspects, H. cyclostomata of Le Guillou (H. strangulata, Homb. et Jacq.
Voyage au Pole Sud. Moll. t. 6, f. 1-4), is this species; from Warrior
Island, Torres Strait.

34. H. cunninghami, Gray. (Griffith, An. Kingd. t. 36, f. 4).
Locality: Darling Downs, New South Wales (Macgillivray); brushes near
Wide Bay (Strange).

35. H. taranaki, Gray. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2, t. 75, f. 4, 5).
Locality: Possession Island, Torres Strait (Ince).
The following are not enumerated as Australian in the first edition of
Pfeiffer's Monograph:

36. H. strangei, Pfeiffer.
Locality: At Brisbane Water, New South Wales, under logs in the brushes

37. H. dupuyana, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2nd, Helix, t. 124, f. 15, 16).
Locality: Bellingen River, in the brushes (Macgillivray).

38. H. pachystyla, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Facing Island, Port Curtis; Dunk Island; Cape Upstart, at roots
of bushes; Wide Bay, under bark of Eucalyptus resinifera (Macgillivray).
This fine species was originally recorded as a native of New Zealand; was
not the supposed habitat a mistake?

39. H. yulei, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 6).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).

40. H. iuloidea, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 4).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).

41. H. ptycomphala, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Roots of trees among dead leaves at Cape Upstart

42. H. dunkiensis, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 7.)
Locality: Dunk Island (Macgillivray).

43. H. macgillivrayi, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 3, f. 1).
Locality: Frankland Isles (Macgillivray).

44. H. franklandiensis, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 2).
Locality: Frankland Isles and Lizard Island (Macgillivray).

45. H. inconspicua, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 2, f. 3).
Locality: Islet in Trinity Bay (Macgillivray).

46. H. brevipila, Pfeiffer. (Chemnitz, Ed. 2, Helix t. 124, f. 28-30).
Locality: Under dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island

47. H. fraseri, Gray. (Beechey's Voyage Zool. t. 38, f. 6).
Locality: Wide Bay and Clarence River, New South Wales, in the scrubs
(Macgillivray). The true locality of this species--first given by
Beck--is thus verified.

48. H. gaertneriana, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Night Island, on trunks and branches of a Bombax

49. H. sericatula, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Port Jackson (Strange).


1. B. faba, Martyn. (Reeve Conch. Syst. t. 175, f. 13, 14).
Locality: Australian Isles ? A Polynesian species.

2. B. tuckeri, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Inhabits most of the islands on the North-East coast of
Australia. Among dead leaves at the roots of trees and bushes in Fitzroy,
Sunday, and Lizard Islands, and at roots of grass in Sir Charles Hardy's
Islands (Macgillivray).

3. B. dufresnii, Leach. (Fer. Hist, t. 3. f. 1-3).
Locality: Van Diemen's Land. Under logs and stones (Macgillivray).

4. B. atomatus, Gray. (Reeve Conch. Icon. Bulimus, t. 30, f. 184).
Locality: New South Wales (Macgillivray). Western Australia (Brit. Mus.)

5. B. kingii, Gray. (Wood, Suppl. t. 7, f. 27).
Locality: Bald Head, King George Sound (King).

6. B. trilineatus, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2, t. 9, f. 1-3).
Locality: Bald Head, King George Sound (Quoy and Gaimard). "Varietas
praecedentis esse videtur." Pfeiffer.

7. B. rhodostomus, Gray.
Locality: New Holland ?

8. B. indutus, Menke.
Locality: Darling Range and Mount Eliza, Swan River (Priess).

9. B. melo, Quoy and Gaimard. Voyage Astr. 2 t. 9, f. 4-7.)
Locality: Bald Head, King George's Sound (Quoy and Gaimard).

10. B. bulla, Menke.
Locality: Darling Range, Western Australia (Priess.)

11. B. inflatus, Lamarck. (Delessert Recueil. t. 28, f. 1).
Locality: New Holland (Lamarck.) New Zealand (Beck).

12. B. obtusus, Reeve. (Conch. Icon. t. 79, f. 583).
Locality: Australia.


1. P. pacifica, Pfeiffer.
Locality: "Sir Charles Hardy's Islands (Tucker)," Pfeiffer--where Mr.
Macgillivray also found it about roots of grass and bushes in 1844. Under
dead leaves at roots of trees in Sunday Island, and Lizard Island

1. B. australis, Forbes. (Voyage Ratt1esnake, t. 2, f. 9).
Locality: Port Molle (Macgillivray).


1. V. cuvieri, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 9, f. 8, and t. 9 A, f. 1, 2).
Locality: Australia.

2. V. freycineti, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 9 A, f. 3, 4, 9, and t. 9 B, f. 2).
Locality: Port Jackson.

3. V. robusta, Gould.
Locality: East coast of New Holland.

4. V. nigra, Quoy and Gaimard. (Voyage Astr. 2 t. 11, f. 8, 9).
Locality: Port Western and King George Sound (Quoy and Gaimard).

5. V. strangei, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Under logs in the brushes at Brisbane Water, New South Wales

6. V. verreauxii, Pfeiffer.
Locality: Australia (Verreaux).


1. S. australis, Ferussac. (Hist. t. 11, f. 11).
Locality: Australian Isles. Van Diemen's Land (Quoy and Gaimard). Mount
Eliza, Swan River (Priess, apud Menke).


1. H. gouldiana, Forbes. (Voyage Ratt1esnake, t. 3, f. 3).
Locality: In the Two Isles on the North-East coast of Australia

1. P. bilinguis, Pfeiffer.
Locality: About roots of trees among leaves at Cape York (Macgillivray).
Blackwood Bay, and Restoration Island (Brit. Mus.)

2. P. thomsoni, Forbes. (Voyage Rattlesnake, t. 3, f. 2).
Locality: Fitzroy Island (Macgillivray).


1. C. australe, Gray.
Locality: New Holland.

2. C. vitreum, Less. (Sowerby, Thes. Conch. t. 30, f. 252).
Locality: Dunk Island, Frankland Isles, Green Island, on leaves and
trunks of trees (Macgillivray). New Ireland (Hinds).

3. C. bilabre, Menke.
Locality: East coast of New Holland (Lehmann).

4. C. fimbriatum, Lamarck. (Delessert Receuil. t. 29, f. 12).
Locality: New Holland.

5. C. multilabris, Lamarck. (Delessert Receuil. t. 29, f. 14).
Locality: New Holland. Sowerby considers this to be a monstrosity (of



Relu brumeriensis. Tab. 2 fig. 1. a, b.

Testa imperforata, globosa-conoidea, crassa, laevigata (sub lente
granulato-striata) alba, ad aperturam nigra; spira obtusa, conoidea;
anfractus 4, convexiusculi, rapide accrescentes, ultimus basi
subcompressus; apertura per-obliqua, oblonga, intus alba; peristoma late
reflexum, nigrum. Diam. maj. 28, min. 23, alt. 23, millem. (Mus. Brit.)

This remarkable shell resembles a dwarf H. haemastoma in shape; it is of
a porcelain white except at the aperture, which has a broad reflexed lip
of a deep brown-black hue, both within and without. It is a very
interesting species, indicative of the Indian affinities of the New
Guinea fauna. A single specimen was taken in August 1849, on a breadfruit
tree in Brumer Island, South-East coast of New Guinea.

Helix divisa. Tab. 2 fig. 5. a, b.

Testa obtecte perforata, lenticulari-depressa, orbicularis, carinata,
crassiuscula, superne fulva, radiato-striata, minutissime granulata,
carina acuta, superne subcrenulata, basi convexa, nitidissima,
griseo-albida, radiatim substriata ad umbilicum declivens; spira
convexiuscula; anfractus 5, planulati; apertura angulato-lunaris, intus
margaritacea; peristoma simplex, basi incrassatum, ad columellam
expansiusculum. Diam. maj. 23, min. 20, alt. 11, mill. (Mus. Brit.)

A Helix of the Caracolla section, allied to the C. panayensis of
Broderip. Found on the ground at the roots of trees, in the South-East
Island of the Louisiade Archipelago.

Helix louisiadensis. Tab. i. fig. 8. a, b.

Testa imperforata, globoso-turbinata, solidiuscula, sub lente rugosa,
albida, fasciis variis purpureo-fuscis ornata; spira conoidea, rubescens;
anfrac. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus magnus, paululum deflexus; apertura
ovata, intus nitide livida, peristoma expansum, reflexum, sordide
violaceum, margine externo sinuato, columellari incrassato, dilatato,
subsulcato. Diam. maj. 26, min. 21, alt. 20, mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This remarkable snail has a tendency towards a trochi-form contour. The
ground colour appears as a white band on the body whorl marking its most
prominent portion just below the centre. The sinuation of the outer lip
and impression of the whorl behind the peristome, give a slightly ringent
aspect to the mouth. It is very distinct from any known species; its
affinities are more with Australian than with Philippine forms. It was
taken on a tree in the South-East Island of the Louisiade Archipelago.

Helix yulei. Tab. n. fig. 6. a, b.

Testa profunde umbilicata, depresso-globosa, solida, striata, sub
epidermide fulvo-alba, fasciis castaneis cingulata; spira sub-depressa,
obtusa; anfractus 6 convexiusculi; apertura subcircularis; peristoma
nigrum, expansum, margine basali reflexo, columellari dilatato, umbilicum
subtegente. Diam. maj. 37, min. 27, alt. 25, mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This handsome species is of a rich fulvous hue, with dark chestnut bands
and a deep chestnut umbilicus, partly covered by the reflexion of the
nearly black lip. It is allied to the H. incei, a well known north-east
Australian species. It was found in hollow trees, and under logs and
stones at Port Molle, in the same region.

Helix macgillivrayi. Tab. 3 fig. 1.

Testa imperforata, trochiformis, carinata, striis minutis spiralibus
ornata, pallide fusco-carnea, punctis nigris albo-occellatis sparsa;
spira conica; anfractus 6 planati, ultimus carinatus, basi subplanatus;
apertura oblique oblonga, intus brunnea, margine externo bisinuato;
peristoma album, incrassatum, infra reflexum; columella basi rufescens.
Diam. maj. 23, min. 19, alt. 21, mill. (Mus. Brit. and Geol.)

Of all Australian Helices, this is perhaps the most curious. Its outline
and aspect are singularly like those of a Trochus of the Ziziphinus
group. The colour is also very singular, being a yellowish flesh hue
deepening on the base to rich brownish-yellow, and speckled irregularly
with minute black dots which are areolated with white, the white ring
being largest on the side towards the mouth. The fine striae that
encircle the body are also very curious. The outer lip of the aperture
seems as if it had been dented in two places. Behind the white thickened
peristome, intemaily is a dark brown band, which is seen through the
shell as a dark blackish green stripe. The edge of the outer lip declines
to join the body whorl a little below the keel. It was found on trunks
and branches of trees in the Frankland Isles.

Helix dunkiensis. Tab. 2 fig. 7. a, b.

Testa umbilicata, depresso-globosa, subcarinata, solida, radiato striata
et subtilissime granulata, flavida; spira late depressa, convexiuscula,
apice obtusa; anfractus 6 convexiusculi, ultimo obsolete carinato;
apertura lunaris, intus alba; peristoma superne rectum, margine basali
margine columellarique sub-reflexis, umbilicus profundus, conspicuus, vix
obtectus. Diam. maj. 24, min. 21, alt. 16, mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This snail strikingly resembles some Illyrian forms. It has affinities
with H. coriaria, a species said to be from Ceylon. It was taken under
stones and about roots of trees in Dunk Island, on the North-East coast
of Australia.

Helix franklandiensis. Tab. 2 fig. 2. a, b.

Testa aperte-umbilicata, tumido-depressa, nitidissima, superne radiatim
striata, cornea, fasciis angustis transversis distantibus fulvis; spira
angusta; anfractus 5 planiusculi, ultimus rotundatus, antice vix
descendentes; apertura rotundata; peristoma simplex, vix acutum, rectum,
margine columellari non reflexo. Diam. maj. 26, min. 21, alt. 14 mill.
(Mus. Brit.)

This beautiful snail is of a brightly shining yellowish or greenish horn
colour. The whorls of its spire are small, but the body whorl, whilst
preserving a wide diameter throughout, gradually increases in
trumpet-like manner to the round mouth. It belongs to the same group with
H. olivetorum and H. nitida, and is allied to the Australian H.
ptycomphala. It occurs about the roots of trees in the Frankland and
Lizard Islands.

Helix iuloidea. Tab. 2 fig. 4. a, b, c, d.

Testa late et perspective umbilicata, orbicularis, superne depressa seu
subconcava, rufo-cornea, regulariter costulata; anfractus 4 1/2
convexiusculi, ultimus tumidus, rotundatus; apertura lunaris; peristoma
simplex, acutum. Diam. maj. 4 1/2, min. 4, alt. 3 mill. (Mus. Brit. &

This curious little snail, resembling a rolled-up Iulus, and reminding us
of our own H. rotundata and its allies, was found under a stone at Port

Helix inconspicua. Tab. 2 fig. 3. a, b, c.

Testa perforata, depresso-convexa, laevigata, nitidiuscula, pallide
cornea, basi subcompressa; anfractus 6, planiusculi; spira obtusa;
apertura lunaris; peristoma rectum, simplex, margine columellari reflexo:
umbilicus minutus, subobtectus. Diam. maj. 8--min. 7--alt. 5 mill. (Mus.

A very inconspicuous ordinary-looking little shell, its upper surface
recalling the aspect of H. alliaria but with more convexity and no
lustre, and its base that of H. crystallina. It was found, apparently
gregarious, under dead leaves in an islet in Trinity Bay.

Balea australis. Tab. 2 fig. 9. a, b.

Testa dextrorsa, rimata, subcylindracea, turrita, decollata, dense
capillaceo-costulata, corneo-lutea, maculis obscuris flavidis; sutura
impressa; anfractus 11, convexiusculi; apertura pyriformis, columella
triplicata, plica inferior maxima, conspicua, elevata, acuta, spiralis;
peristoma continuum, solutum. Long. 18--Diam. 4--Apert 4 mill. (Mus.
Brit. & Geol.)

This very remarkable shell, the first of its genus discovered in
Australia, differs from all its congeners. It has exactly the aspect of a
Clausilia, but the mouth is not furnished with a clausium. It was found
under stones at Port Molle.

Pupina grandis. Tab. 2 fig. 10. a, b, c, d.

Testa ovato-subcylindrica, superne laevigata, inferne rugulosa,
sordide-rufa; spira obtusa; anfractus 6, secundus tumidus, obliquus,
ultimus super aperturam planatus; apertura rotundata; peristoma laete
aurantiacum, rimatum, crassum, dorsaliter canaliculatum, infra
columellari, profunde sinuatum et in canali contorto excavatum; canalis
alter minutus ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae; callus
columellaris expansus, appressus. Long. 30, Diam. 15, Apert. 7 mill.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.).

This, the giant of its genus, is perhaps the most remarkable land-shell
discovered during the voyage. It differs from all other Pupinae in having
an unpolished surface. It was found in the South-East Island of the
Louisiade Archipelago, under dead leaves chiefly about the roots of

Pupina thomsoni. Tab. 3 fig. 2. a, b.

Testa ovata, polita, nitidissima, translucens, hyalina, solidiuscula;
spira obtusa; anfractus 5, duo ultimi majores; apertura orbicularis;
peristoma album, crassum, solutum, canalibus duobus interruptum; canalis
superior ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae, inferior major,
basalis, marginibus disjunctis et in dorsum anfractus prolongatis. Long.
7 1/2, diam. 4 1/2, apert. 2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This remarkable and beautiful little Pupina is most nearly allied to the
P. bilinguis of Cape York. From that species (which is larger) it
differs, however, very materially, most especially in the position of the
inferior or basal canal of the aperture which is here placed like the
canal of a whelk, but in P. bilinguis is very small and placed high up,
cutting as it were the columella. The curious manner in which the margins
of the canals are prolonged on the back of the body whorl like parallel
and somewhat diverging walls is also a singular feature of this species,
which is dedicated to Dr. Thomson, surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and an
excellent botanist. It was found among dead leaves at the roots of trees
in Fitzroy Island.

Helicina stanleyi. Tab. 3 fig. 4. a, b.

Testa lenticularis, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, acute
carinata, fusco-carnea, spiraliter striata; spira obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2
leviter convexiusculi; basis imperforata, centraliter laevigata, alba;
apertura oblique sublunata, angulata; peristoma simplex, tenue. Diam.
maj. 6 1/2, min. 6, alt. 5 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

Found on the leaves and trunks of trees and bushes (especially Scaevola
koenigii) in the Duchateau Isles, Louisiade Archipelago. Dedicated to the
late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N.

Helicina louisiadensis. Tab. 3 fig. 5. a, b.

Testa depresso-globosa, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, obsolete
sub-angulata, pallide aurantiaca, sub lente spiraliter striata; spira
obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2, vix convexiusculi; basis imperforata,
centraliter sub-impressa; apertura lunata, inferne subangulata; peristoma
incrassatum, aurantiacum, reflexum. Diam. maj. 4 1/2, min. 4, alt. 3
mill. (Mus. Brit.)

On Round Island in Coral Haven, Louisiade Archipelago, under stones. This
pretty little Helicina is nearly allied to some Philippine species.

Helicina gouldiana. Tab. 3 fig. 3. a, b.

Testa depresso-globosa, superne sub-conica, orbicularis, obsolete
subangulata, flava seu rufa, spiraliter striata; spira prominens;
anfractus 5, planati; basis imperforata; apertura sub-lunata, inferne
angulata; peristoma incrassatum, subreflexum, album. Diam. maj. 6, min. 5
1/4, alt. 4 1/2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

Under the bark of Mimusops kaukii, in the Two Isles, on the North-East
coast of Australia. Dedicated to the indefatigable illustrator of
Australian ornithology.

Ranella pulchella. Tab. 3 fig. 6. a, b.

Testa turrita, utroque alata, acute-caudata, alba; anfractus tumidi,
spiraliter striati, longitudinaliter noduloso-costati, costis crebris,
lateraliter varicosi, varices compressi, aliformes, crenulati, striati,
ad margines crenati; apertura ovato-rotunda, inferne longe-caudata;
peristoma solutum. Long. 20, diam. 14, apert. 4 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This beautiful shell was dredged in from 8 to 11 fathoms water, on a
bottom of sand and shells between Cumberland Island 1.i, and Point Slade
(Latitude 21 degrees South Longitude 149 degrees 20 minutes East).

The spiral striae that cross its whorls are grouped in pairs; their
interstices are raised, and more or less finely crenulated; as they pass
out on the expanded and wing-like varices they diverge, and the lobe-like
projections that scallop the margins of the wings are separated from each
other by each pair of diverging striae. The fine ribs that cross the
whorls are not present on the wings, nor on the back; they are nodulated
at their decussation with the raised striae. The wing-like varices of the
whorls overlap each other alternately on each side of the shell. The only
species to which it has affinity is the R. pulchra.

Scalaria jukesiana. Tab. 3 fig. 7.

Testa lanceolato-turrita, gracilis, alba, laevis, nitida,
longitudinaliter costata, costis lamellosis, reflexis, simplicibus,
nnmerosis (in ult. anfrac. 20); anfractus 11, tumidi; sutura profunde
impressa; varices nulli; apertura orbicularis, margine laevi. Long. 13,
Diam. max. 14, apert 3 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This beautiful little Scalaria is deserving of particular notice on
account of the analogy and representation which it exhibits with the S.
clathratulus of the seas of the Northern Hemisphere. It is dedicated to
the author of the Voyage of the Fly.

New Genus--MACGILLIVRAYIA, Forbes.

Shell spiral, dextral, globular, thin, corneous, transparent (in the only
known species smooth or marked by obscure lines of growth) imperforate;
spire not produced (with a sinistral nucleus ?). Aperture oblong, entire,
angulated below; peristome incomplete, thin, even-edged.

Operculum semicircular, horny, thin, composed of concentric layers with
faint traces of a spiral structure at the centro-lateral nucleus, which
is on the columellar side; from it there runs a strait rib or process
continued nearly to the outer margin, and indicated externally by a
depression or groove.

Animal ample, provided with four very long and rather broad linear rugose
(or ciliated ?) tentacula; mantle produced into a long siphon; foot very
large, expanded, truncate in front, bearing the operculum near its
posterior extremity, but not accompanied by filamentous processes or
lobes. A float. (Mus. Brit. and Geol.)

This very remarkable mollusk was taken in the towing net off Cape Byron,
on the east coast of Australia, in latitude 28 degrees 40 minutes South,
fifteen miles from the shore. It was floating and was apparently
gregarious. Mr. Macgillivray states that it is furnished with a float in
the manner of Ianthina. The largest specimens measure rather less than
two lines in diameter. The shell is of a yellow horn colour (as is also
the operculum) thin and transparent. It bears a striking resemblance to
our much more minute Jeffreysia opalina. The four tentacula and the form
of the very peculiar operculum also seem to indicate considerable
affinity with the genus Jeffreysia of Alder, and an examination of the
remains of the tongue extracted from a dried specimen showed an
arrangement and form of the lingual denticles very closely resembling
that exhibited by Jeffreysia. On the other hand, the very distinct and
long siphonal tube delineated in Mr. Macgillivray's drawing, taken when
the animal was alive, would seem to refer this genus to some family
probably near to Cancellaridae. It is certainly entirely distinct in
every respect from any known Gasteropod. It is a form of very great
interest to the geologist, for in it we see the nearest representation of
certain palaeozoic (especially Lower Silurian) univalves hitherto
referred to Littorina, but which, judging from their associates and the
indications afforded by the strata in which they are found, were
assuredly either inhabitants of deep water or floaters in a great ocean
like the Pacific.

I have dedicated this most interesting creature to my friend Mr.
Macgillivray, its discoverer, whose researches have been productive of so
much new and valuable contributions to all departments of zoological

I have named the species M. pelagica. Tab. 3 fig. 8. a, b, c, d. (Mus.
Brit. and Geol.)

New Genus--CHELETROPIS, Forbes.

Shell spiral, turbinate, dextral, imperforate, spirally ridged or
double-keeled and transversely wrinkled; spire prominent, its nucleus
sinistral; aperture ovate, canaliculated below, its outer margin
furnished with two claw-like lobes, the one central and formed by a
prolongation of the margin between the keels of the body whorl, the other
smaUer and nearer the canal; peristome thickened, reflexed, forming a
conspicuous margin.

Operculum none ?

Animal unknown, but certainly floating, and probably pteropodous. This I
infer from its habits, and from the analogy of the shell with Spirialis.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.)

The only known species, C. huxleyi (dedicated to Mr. Huxley, Assistant
Surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and now eminent for the admirable anatomical
researches among marine invertebrata which he conducted during the
voyage) is very minute, being not more than the 1/24th of an inch in
diameter. It is translucent and of a brownish-white hue. Its aspect is
that of a Turbo in miniature. The whorls are tumid, the spire prominent;
the body whorl is belted by two prominent keels, one of which is
continued on the whorls of the spire: between, above, and below these
keels are transverse membranous raised ridges, which in the central
division of the body whorl are curved forwards. This curvature
corresponds with the projection of the curious incurved claw-like lobe
that proceeds from thc central portion of the lower lip. Towards the base
of the aperture is a second and similar but smaller lobe, below which is
the short but broad and well-marked canal. The entire lip is marginated
by the thickened and reflected peristome. I believe this curious floating
shell will throw some light on the true nature and habits of several
palaeozoic types. It was taken in the towing net, gregarious, in the sea
off Cape Howe, the south-east corner of Australia. Tab. 3 fig. 9. a, b.


Tab. 2.

Fig. 1. Helix brumeriensis.
Fig. 2. Helix franklandiensis.
Fig. 3. Helix inconspicua.
Fig. 4. Helix iuloides.
Fig. 5. Helix divisa.
Fig. 6. Helix yulei.
Fig. 7. Helix dunkiensis.
Fig. 8. Helix louisiadensis.
Fig. 9. Balea australis.
Fig. 10. Pupina grandis.

Tab. 3.

Fig. 1. Helix macgillivrayi.
Fig. 2. Pupina Thomsoni.
Fig. 3. Helicina gouldiana.
Fig. 4. Helicina stanleyi.
Fig. 5. Helicina louisiadensis.
Fig. 6. Ranella pulchra.
Fig. 7. Scalaria jukesiana.
Fig. 8. Macgillivrayia pelagica.
Fig. 9. Cheletropis huxleyi.




Among the very numerous Insects and Crustacea, collected by Mr.
Macgillivray during the voyage of the Rattlesnake, the following have
been selected for illustration; references to and descriptions of some of
the Diptera, Homoptera, and Hemiptera, collected by him, have appeared in
the Catalogues of the British Museum drawn up hy Messrs. Walker and
Dallas, while the names and descriptions of others will appear in
catalogues in preparation. A fine species of the class Crustacea,
discovered by him, has been described and figured in the Illustrated
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. (Cancer [Galene] dorsalis, White.)


Chrysodema pistor, Laporte and Gory. Buprestidae, t. 6, f. 33.

Habitat: Australia (Cape Upstart). Mr. Macgillivray informs me, that the
specimens of this species were observed by him coming out of a dead tree

Pachyrhynchus stanleyanus.* Tab. 4 fig. 1, 2.

(*Footnote. In memoriam Owen Stanley, in classe Britannica Navarchi,
species haec distincta et peculiaris nominatur.)

Pachyrhynchus nigerrimus, maculis parvis squamosis plurimis

Habitat: Pariwara Islands, New Guinea. Four specimens.

Head between the eyes somewhat rugose, some of the rugose punctures with
pale greenish white scales; an abbreviated longitudinal impressed line
down the front. Beak short and thick (somewhat as in Pachyrhynchus
cumingii, Waterhouse). Thorax irregularly and somewhat coarsely
punctured, the sides somewhat wrinkled in front, the punctures scaled, a
triangular depression on the posterior part of thorax, the bottom is
covered with scales, at least in some specimens, and there are three
spots similarly scaled and placed somewhat transversely: the Elytra with
eight to ten punctured lines, running somewhat irregularly, especially
towards the sides, each elytra with ten, twelve, or more spots of scales,
arranged longitudinally in spots on the sides, and largest towards the
end. Underside of the mesothorax and metathorax with many greenish
scales. Legs thick, polished, and with scattered grey hairs proceeding
from the punctures.

I have named this somewhat mourning Pachyrhynchus after Captain Owen
Stanley and his father, the late venerable Bishop of Norwich and
President of the Linnean Society. Both of these gentlemen were fond of
natural history, especially the father, who was a good observer of the
habits of birds. The son, Captain Owen Stanley, was an accurate, though
not very practised draughtsman; and I recollect with pleasure his
pointing out to me, at one of the soirees at Brook Street, a volume of
sketches (coloured) made by him on one of his voyages, in which objects
of natural history were ably introduced. He encouraged natural history


Trigonalys compressus. Smith. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. 1. p. ----
pl. 16. f. 2.

Sphex compressa. De Geer. Mem. 3.

Trigonalys bipustulatus. Smith (olim) Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 1851.

Habitat: Nest of Polistes lanio. Brazil.

Among the Hymenoptera, few genera have created greater dispute than the
anomalous genus Trigonalys of Westwood. Mr. Macgillivray one day brought
to the British Museum the nest of a Brazilian Polistes. My friend, Mr.
Frederick Smith, is well known for his profound knowledge of the
Hymenoptera, Exotic and British, which, though he has studied them ONLY
fourteen years, are better known to him, perhaps, than to any other
living Entomologist; the instant that he looked at the nest, he
exclaimed, "Why, here is Trigonalys!" and certainly a large, black-headed
creature, not very like Polistes, protruded from one of the cells. Mr.
Smith, on the 7th April, 1851, communicated this piece of information to
the Entomological Society of London, and in their Transactions his brief
memoir was lately printed. I cannot do better than give it in Mr. Smith's
own words. Mr. Smith, subsequently to the reading of the paper,
ascertained that the species had been described in the great work of De
Geer, a book of which it would be well to have a condensed new edition.
Mr. Smith says:

"John Macgillivray, Esquire, Naturalist to Her Majesty's Ship
Rattlesnake, lately presented to the British Museum the nest of a South
American species of Polistes, which he says is very abundant at St.
Salvador, where even in the streets it attaches its nest under the eaves
of houses; the species is the Polistes lanio of Fabricius, and in all
probability the Vespa canadensis of Linnaeus; a specimen of the species
is preserved in the Banksian Cabinet. On examining the nest, I found it
consisted as usual of a single comb of cells, having in the centre at the
back a short footstalk, by which the nests are attached in their
position; the comb contained sixty-five cells, the outer ones being in an
unfinished state, whilst twenty-two of the central ones had remains of
exuviae in them, and one or two closed cells contained perfect insects
ready to emerge; about half a dozen of the wasps had the anterior portion
of their bodies buried in the cells, in the manner in which these insects
are said to repose. In one cell I observed the head of an insect
evidently of a different species, it being black and shining. On
extricating it, I discovered it to be a species of Trigonalys; I
subsequently carefully expanded the insect, and it proved to be the
Trigonalys bipustulatus, described by myself in the Ann. and Mag. of
Natural History, volume 7 2nd Series, 1851, from a specimen captured at
Para by Mr. Bates, now in the possession of William Wilson Saunders,
Esquire. The insect was not enveloped in any pellicle, nor had the cell
been closed in any way; the wings were crumpled up at its side, as is
usual in Hymenopterous insects which have not expanded them, proving
satisfactorily that it had never quitted the cell, and that Trigonalys is
the parasite of Polistes.

"This discovery is one of much interest, proving the relationship of the
insect to be amongst the pupivora, to which family it had been previously
assigned by Mr. Westwood, see Volume 3 Ent. Transactions page 270. The
specimen is seven lines in length, entirely black, the head shining, the
thorax and abdomen opaque, and having two white maculae touching the
apical margin of the basal segment above; the wings are smoky, the
antennae broken off. Of one of them I found subsequently seventeen
joints--the perfect insect in the possession of Mr. Saunders having
twenty joints."


Drusilla myloecha, Tab. 4 fig. 3, 4.

This fine butterfly* was found flying in considerable plenty in the woods
of one of the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago; it forms a very
interesting addition to a genus, of which but few species are known, and
is allied to the Drusilla catops of Dr. Boisduval, described and figured
in the Voyage de l'Astrolabe. The upper sides of the wings of the
Drusilla myloecha are of pure white with a silky lustre, the front edge
of the fore wings margined with deep brown both above and below; in the
male there is a slender white line on the upper side running close to the
edge, and extending beyond the middle of it; the two discoidal veins in
the male are brown on the upper side, and the edge of the upper side of
the lower wings is brown. The under side of the lower wings has a dark
brown band at the base, widest close to the attachment of the wing and
narrowing to a large ocellus which it surrounds in the form of a narrow
brown ring; the black ocellus has a very small white pupil with a slight
bluish crescent on the inside, and is surrounded by a fulvous ring; thcre
is a second black ocellus nearer the hind edge than the middle, with a
small white pupil and a wideish fulvous ring, separated from the white of
the wing by a narrow brown ring; head, antennae, legs, and thorax in
front brown; palpi fulvous.

The figures are of the size of nature, and carefully drawn by Mr. Wing.

(*Footnote. Described (but not figured) by Mr. Westwood, in the
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, New Series, Volume 1
page 175 1851, from Mr. M.'s specimens in the British Museum. Mr. W. felt
anxious to describe this striking Drusilla.)

Eusemia mariana, Tab. 4 fig. 5.

E. alis coerulescenti-nigris; anticis albo-fasciatis et maculatis,
posticis croceo-maculatis.*

(*Footnote. Filiae meae "Marian Frances White," speciem hanc pulchram
d.d. descriptor.)

Upper wings black, with a slight bluish tinge; a wide band extends across
the wing before the middle; it is white with a slight yellowish tint, at
the lower edge of the wing it is abruptly narrowed; behind the middle of
the wing, and between it and the tip, are from five to six pale yellowish
white spots, the four or five outermost the smallest, and one or two of
them sometimes obsolete; between the base and the band a narrow bluish
grey line extends across the wing, and behind the band, at an equal
distance, there is another short, waved, bluish grey line running down to
the inner margin. The margins of the band and spots are bluish grey. The
lower wing is narrowly black at the base, with a transverse band of a
king's yellow colour; this is the widest on the inner edge, near its
outer end there is an angular black spot; the apical half of the wing is
black, with numerous king's yellow spots arranged in two lines, two spots
about the middle connected and notched with black. Head, thorax, and base
of abdomen black, rest of abdomen of a king's yellow colour.

Mr. Macgillivray took two specimens of this fine species. One flew on
board when the ship was to the north of Cape Weymouth; the other was
taken at Cape York: the figure is of the natural size.

Cocytia durvillii, Boisd. Monog. des Zygenides, t. 1, fig. 1.

This is an abundant species in the Louisiade Archipelago, flying on shore
in the daytime among trees (as D'Urville remarked it did in New Guinea);
and it frequently came on board the Rattlesnake, even when distant from
the shore two or three miles. It flies heavily like a moth, and is easily
caught. This beautiful insect is one of the finest found by Mr.
Macgillivray. Only three specimens are recorded: those discovered by
Admiral d'Urville, and described by Dr. Boisduval; Mr. M. brought home
two, deposited with the rest of his collection in the British Museum.


Ommatocarcinus macgillivrayi. Tab. 5 fig. 1.

Carapace more than twice as wide as long; the sides in front extended
into a long slightly bent spine. The frontal portion between the pedicles
of the eyes is narrow, much as in Macrophthalmus, it slopes down towards
the mouth, and is deeply notched at the sides for the reception of the
eyes; the fore-edge is doubly notched in the middle, there being a slight
tooth between the emarginations. The epistome not so prominent as the
lower margin of the orbit; the inner antennae, with the basal joint, long
(the others broken off). The eye-pedicles very long and cylindrical,
thickest at the base, slightly bent, somewhat thickened towards the end,
so long, that, when bent back, the eye extends a little beyond the end of
the spine. Mouth formed nearly as in Gonoplax, the third joint of the
jaw-feet wider than long. Abdomen seven-jointed, the first joint scarcely
visible, shaped much as in Gonoplax, but rather wider, the base of the
terminal joint longer than the sides. Anterior legs two and a half times
as long as the Carapace, measuring it from spine to spine, the arm long
and triangular, the upper portion more or less thickly covered with small
papillae, and having a nearly obliterated spine about the middle; the
wrist smooth, roundish, with a large blunt tooth on the inside; hands
somewhat flattened, widest at the base of the claws, with a broad ridge
on the inside, the edge of it rough with small papillae; the upper edge
of hand rough with small papillae; the claws lap over each other at the
tips, and are irregularly toothed on the inside; the fixed claw of the
right hand bent at the base, so as to leave a considerable space when the
other is closed upon it; upper part of arm, hand, and movable claw pretty
thickly spotted with red, epistome orbits and greater part of the upper
surface of carapace spotted with red, sides and hind part of carapace
white; upper edge of the orbit covered with small papillae; a tolerably
prominent ridge extends across the carapace before the middle. Four hind
pairs of legs long, slender, compressed, the upper edges of the second
and third pairs fringed with hairs, as well as the lower edge of the two
terminal joints, the claws long, thin, and somewhat bent.

Habitat: Port Curtis. Shoal water, mudbanks.

This fine Crustacean is allied to Gonoplax and Curtonotus; and being one
of the most prominent species sent home by Mr. Macgillivray, is selected
for description here; the figure is of the size of nature.

Porcellanella triloba. Tab. 5 fig. 2.

Carapace somewhat flattened, the front produced into three large teeth or
lobes; the intermediate the widest and most prominent; the sides of the
outer lobes rounded before the eye; carapace longer than wide, widest a
little behind the insertion of the antennae, the upper surface smooth,
polished, with some transverse scratched lines, which are slight and
irregular, they are most observable in front and on the sides, behind it
is somewhat notched in the middle. External antennae long, longer than
twice the breadth of the carapace, inserted in a sinus behind the eye,
the basal portion formed of three joints, the first projecting beyond the
sides of the carapace, the second wider and longer than the first, third
short and thick at the end; the terminal part of antennae long,
thread-like, and formed of very numerous articulations; the eyes large,
and with a short pedicel. Anterior legs long and smooth, the pincers
overlapping each other at the end, their inner edge rough, scarcely
toothed; from before the base of the inside of the movable claw a
thickish line of hairs extends about halfway down the hands, which bulge,
and are rounded on the inside, but on the outside are straightish or
slightly waved, and rather sharply keeled; the second, third, and fourth
pairs of legs are somewhat compressed, and terminate in claws with four
longish hooks on the inside; posterior pair of legs folded over the back,
narrow, with the second joint somewhat bent upwards.

This curious species was dredged by Mr. Macgillivray off Cape Capricorn,
in latitude 23 degrees 25 minutes South longitude 151 degrees 12 minutes
East in 15 fathoms, the bottom being muddy sand and shells. It is allied
to the species of the second section of the genus Porcellana, as detailed
by Professor Milne Edwards in the second volume of the Histoire Naturelle
des Crustaces, but has characters sufficient to constitute a new
subgenus, to which may be applied the name Porcellanella. The figure
represents it of twice its natural size.

P.S. The figures have been carefully drawn from the originals by Mr.
William Wing, so well known as a Zoological Draughtsman, and will at once
explain my imperfect descriptions.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. - Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, Etc. to Which Is Added the Account of Mr. E.B. Kennedy's Expedition for the Exploration of the Cape York Peninsula. By John Macgillivray, F.R.G.S. Naturalist to the Expedition. — Volume 2" ***

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