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Title: Bagh O Bahar, or Tales of the Four Darweshes
Author: Mīr Amman Dihlavī
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bagh O Bahar, or Tales of the Four Darweshes" ***

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Translated from the Hindustani of Mir Amman of Dihli

By Duncan Forbes, LL.D.,

_Professor of Oriental Languages in King's College, London; Member
of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, author of
several works on the Hindustani and Persian Languages._



The _Bagh O Bahar_, or "Garden and Spring," has, for the last half
century, been held as a classical work throughout our Indian empire. It
highly deserves this distinguished fate, as it contains various modes
of expression in correct language; and displays a great variety of
Eastern manners and modes of thinking. It is an excellent introduction
not only to the colloquial style of the _Hindustani_ language, but
also to a knowledge of its various idioms and popular phrases.

The tale itself is interesting, if we bear in mind the fact, that no
Asiatic writer of romance or history has ever been consistent, or free
from fabulous credulity. The cautious march of undeviating truth, and
a careful regard to _vraisemblance_, have never entered into their
plan. Wildness of imagination, fabulous machinery, and unnatural
scenes ever pervade the compositions of Oriental authors,--even in
most serious works on history and ethics. Be it remembered, that
_jinns_, demons, fairies, and angels, form a part of the _Muhammadan_
creed. The people to this day believe in the existence of such beings
on the faith of the _Kur,an_; and as they are fully as much attached
to their own religion as we are to ours, we ought not to be surprised
at their credulity.

I have rendered the translation as literal as possible, consistent
with the comprehension of the author's meaning. This may be considered
by some a slavish and dull compliance; but in my humble opinion we
ought, in this case, to display the author's own thoughts and ideas;
all we are permitted to do, is to change their garb. This course has
one superior advantage which may compensate for its seeming dulness; we
acquire an insight into the modes of thinking and action of the people,
whose works we peruse through the medium of a literal translation,
and thence many instructive and interesting conclusions may be drawn.

To the present edition numerous notes are appended; some, with a
view to illustrate certain peculiarities of the author's style, and
such grammatical forms of the language as might appear difficult to a
beginner; others, which mainly relate to the manners and customs of the
people of the East, may appear superfluous to the Oriental scholar who
has been in India; but in this case, I think it better to be redundant,
than risk the chance of being deficient. Moreover, as the book may
be perused by the curious in Europe, many of of whom know nothing of
India, except that it occupies a certain space in the map of the world,
these notes were absolutely necessary to understand the work. Finally,
as I am no poet, and have a most thorough contempt for the maker of
mere doggerel rhymes, I have translated the pieces of poetry, which
are interspersed in the original, into plain and humble prose.


_July_, 1857.


_Which was Presented to the Gentlemen Managers of the College [of
Fort William]._

May God preserve the gentlemen of great dignity, and the appreciators
of respectable men. This exile from his country, on hearing the command
[issued by] proclamation, [1] hath composed, with a thousand labours
and efforts, the "Tale of the Four Darweshes," [entitled] the _Bagh
O Bahar_ [2] [i.e. Garden and Spring,] in the _Urdu, e Mu'alla_
[3] tongue. By the grace of God it has become refreshed from the
perusal of all the gentlemen [4] [of the college]. I now hope I may
reap some fruit from it; then the bud of my heart will expand like a
flower, according to the word of _Hakim Firdausi_, [5] who has said
[of himself] in the _Shahnama_,

    "Many sorrows I have borne for these thirty years;
    But I have revived Persia by this Persian [History.] [6]
    I having in like manner polished the _Urdu_ tongue,
    Have metamorphosed _Bengal_ into _Hindustan_." [7]

You gentlemen are yourselves appreciators of merit. There is no need
of representation [on my part]. O God! may the star of your prosperity
ever shine!


"_The Name of God, Most Merciful and Gracious_."

The pure God! what an [excellent] Artificer he is! He who, out of a
handful of dust, hath created such a variety of faces and figures
of earth. Notwithstanding the two colours [of men], one white and
one black, yet the same nose and ears, the same hands and feet,
He has given to all. But such variety of features has He formed,
that the form and shape of one [individual] does not agree with the
personal appearance of another. Among millions of created beings,
you may recognise whomsoever you wish. The sky is a bubble in the
ocean of his [eternal] unity; and the earth is as a drop of water
in it; but this is wonderful, that the sea beats its thousands of
billows against it, and yet cannot do it any injury. The tongue of
man is impotent to sound the praise and eulogy of Him who has such
power and might! If it utter any thing, what can it say? It is best
to be silent on a subject concerning which nothing can be said.


    "From earth to heaven, He whose work this is,
    If I wish to write his praise, then what power have I;
    When the prophet himself has said, 'I do not comprehend Him.'
    After this, if any one pretends to it, he is a great fool.
    Day and night the sun and moon wander through their course, and behold
        his works--
    Yea, the form of every individual being is a sight of surprise:
    He, whose second or equal is not, and never will be;
    No such a unique Being, Godhead is every way fit.
    But so much I know, that He is the Creator and Nourisher.
    In every way his favour and beneficence are upon me."

And blessings on his friend, for whose sake He created the earth and
heavens, and on whom He bestowed the dignity of prophet.


    "The pure body of _Mustafa_ is an emanation of Divine light,
    For which reason, it is well known that his body threw no shadow. [8]
    Where is my capacity, that I should sufficiently speak his praise;
    Only with men of eloquence this is an established rule." [9]

And blessings and salvation be on his posterity, who are the twelve
_Imams_. [10]


    "The praise of God and the eulogy of the prophet having here ended;
    Now I begin that which is requisite to be done.
    O God! for the sake of the posterity of thy prophet, [11]
    Render this my story acceptable to the hearts of high and low."

The reasons for compiling this work are these, that in the year of the
_Hijra_, 1215, A.D. 1801, corresponding to the [12] _Fasli_ year 1207,
in the time of his Excellency the noble of nobles, Marquis Wellesley,
Lord Mornington, Governor-general, (in whose praise the judgment is at
a loss, and the understanding perplexed, and in whom God has centred
all the excellent qualities that great men ought to possess. In short,
it was the good fortune of this country that such a chief came here,
from whose happy presence multitudes enjoy ease and happiness. No one
can now dare to injure or wrong another; and the tiger and the goat
drink at the same _ghat_; [13] and all the poor bless him and live,)
[14] the pursuit of learning came into vogue, and the gentlemen of
dignity perceived that by acquiring the _Urdu_ tongue, they might
hold converse with the people of India, and transact with perfect
accuracy the affairs of the country; for this reason many books were
compiled during this same year, according to orders.

To those gentlemen who are learned, and speak the language of
_Hindustan,_ [15] I address myself, and say, that this "Tale of the
Four Darwesh" was originally composed by _Amir Khusru,_ [16] of _Dihli_
[17] on the following occasion; the holy _Nizamu-d-Din Auliya_,
surnamed _Zari-Zar-bakhsh_, [18] who was his spiritual preceptor,
(and whose holy residence was near _Dilli_, three _Kos_ [19] from the
fort, beyond the red gate, and outside the _Matiya_ gate, near the red
house), fell ill; and to amuse his preceptor's mind, _Amir Khusru_ used
to repeat this tale to him, and attend him during his sickness. God,
in the course of time, removed his illness; then he pronounced
this benediction on the day he performed the ablution of cure: [20]
"That whoever will hear this tale, will, with the blessing of God,
remain in health:" since which time this tale, composed in Persian,
has been extensively read.

Now, the excellent and liberal gentleman, the judge of respectable
men, Mr. John Gilchrist, (may his good fortune ever increase as
long as the _Jamuna_ and _Ganges_ flow!) with kindness said to me,
"Translate this tale into the pure _Hindustani_ tongue, which the
_Urdu_ people, both _Hindus_ and _Musalmans_, high and low, men,
women and children, use to each other." In accordance with his
honour's desire, I commenced translating it into this same dialect,
just such as any one uses in common conversation.

But first this guilty being, _Mir Amman_, of _Dilli_, begs to relate
his own story: "That my forefathers, from the time of King _Humayun_,
served every king, in regular descent, with zeal and fidelity; and they
[21] also (i.e. the kings), with the eye of protection, ever justly
appreciated and rewarded our services. _Jagirs_, titles and rewards,
were plentifully bestowed on us; and we were called hereditary [22]
vassals, and old servants; so that these epithets were enrolled
in the royal archives. [23] When such a family (owing to which all
other families were prosperous) dwindled to such a point! which is too
well [24] known to require mention, then _Suraj Mal_, the _Jat_, [25]
confiscated our _Jagir_, and _Ahmad Shah_ the _Durrani_, [26] pillaged
our home. Having sustained such various misfortunes, I abandoned that
city, which was my native land, and the place of my birth. Such a
vessel, whose pilot was such a king, was wrecked; and I began to sink
in the sea of destitution!  a drowning person catches at a straw,
and I sustained life for some years in the city of _'Azim-abad_,
[27] experiencing both good and bad fortune there. At length I left
it also--the times were not propitious; leaving my family there,
I embarked alone in a boat, and came in quest of a livelihood [28]
to Calcutta, the chief of cities. I remained unemployed for some time,
when it happened that _Nawwab Dilawar Jang_  sent for me, and appointed
me tutor to his younger brother, _Mir Muhammad Kazim Khan_. I stayed
with him nearly two years; but saw not my advantage [in remaining there
any longer.] Then, through the assistance of _Mir Bahadur 'Ali Munshi_,
I was introduced to Mr. John Gilchrist (may his dignity be lasting.) At
last, by the aid of good fortune, I have acquired the protection of
so liberal a person, that I hope better days; if not, even, this is
so much gain, that I have bread to eat, and having stretched my feet,
I repose in quiet; and that ten persons in my family, old and young,
are fed; and bless that patron. May God accept [their prayers!]

"The account of the _Urdu_ tongue I have thus heard from my
ancestors;--that the city of _Dilli_, according to the opinion of
the _Hindus_, was founded in the earliest times, [29] and that their
_Rajas_ and subjects lived there from the remotest antiquity, and
spoke their own peculiar _Bhakha_. [30] For a thousand years past,
the _Musalmans_ have been masters there. _Mahmud_ of _Ghazni_ [31] came
[there first]; then the _Ghori_ and _Lodi_ [32] became kings; owing to
this intercourse, the languages of the _Hindus_ and _Musalmans_ were
partially blended together. At last _Amir Taimur_ [33] (in whose family
the name and empire remain to this day), conquered _Hindustan_. From
his coming and stay, the _bazar_ of his camp was settled in the city;
for which reason the _bazar_ of the city was called _Urdu_. [34] Then
King _Humayun_, annoyed by the _Pathans_, went abroad [to Persia]; and
at last, returning from thence, he punished the surviving [_Pathans_],
and no rebel remained to raise strife or disturbance.

When King _Akbar_ ascended the throne, then all tribes of people, from
all the surrounding countries, hearing of the goodness and liberality
of this unequalled family, flocked to his court, but the speech and
dialect of each was different. Yet, by being assembled together,
they used to traffic and do business, and converse with each other,
whence resulted the common _Urdu_ language. When his majesty _Shahjahan
Sahib Kiran_ [35] built the auspicious fort, and the great mosque, [36]
and caused the walls of the city to be built; and inlaid the peacock
throne [37] with precious stones, and erected his tent, made of gold
and silver brocade; and _Nawwab' Ali Mardan Khan_ cut the canal [38]
[to _Dilli_]; then the king, being pleased, made great rejoicings, and
constituted the city his capital. Since that time it has been called
_Shajahan-abad_, (although the city of _Dilli_ is distinct from it,
the latter being called the old city, and the former the new,) and
to the bazar of it was given the title of _Urdu-e Mu'alla_. [39]

From the time of _Amir Taimur_ until the reign of _Muhammad Shah_,
and even to the time of _Ahmad Shah_, and _Alamgir_ the Second, the
throne descended lineally from generation to generation. In the end,
the _Urdu_ language, receiving repeated polish, was so refined, that
the language of no city is to be compared to it; but an impartial
judge is necessary to examine it. Such a one God has at last, after
a long period, created in the learned, acute and profound Mr. John
Gilchrist, who from his own judgment, genius, labour and research,
has composed books of rules [for the acquisition of it]. From this
cause, the language of _Hindustan_ has become general throughout the
provinces, and has been polished anew; otherwise no one conceives
his own turban, language and behaviour, to be improper. If you ask
a countryman, he censures the citizen's idiom, and considers his own
the best; "well, the learned only know [what is correct]." [40]

When _Ahmad Shah Abdali_, came from _Kabul_ and pillaged the city of
_Dilli, Shah 'Alam_ was in the east. [41] No master or protector of the
country remained, and [42] the city became without a head. True it is,
that the city only flourished from the prosperity of the throne. All at
once it was overwhelmed with calamity: its principal inhabitants were
scattered, and fled wherever they could. To whatever country they went,
their own tongue was adulterated by mixing with the people there; and
there were many who, after an absence of ten to five years, from some
cause or other, returned to _Dilli_, and stayed there. How can they
speak the pure language of _Dilli_? somewhere or other they will slip;
but the person who bore all misfortunes, and remained fixed at _Dilli_
and whose five or ten anterior generations lived in that city, and who
mixed in the company of the great, and the assemblies and processions
of the people, who strolled in its streets for a length of time,
and even after quitting it, kept his language pure from corruption,
his style of speaking will certainly be correct. This humble being
[viz. _Mir Amman_], wandering through many cities, and viewing their
sights, has at last arrived at this place.


I now commence my tale; pay attention to it, and be just to its
merits. In the "Adventures of the Four Darwesh, [43]" it is thus
written, and the narrator has related, that formerly in the Empire of
_Rum_ [44]  there reigned a great king, in whom were innate justice
equal to that of _Naushirwan_, [45] and generosity like that of
_Hatim_. [46] His name was _Azad-Bakht_, and his imperial residence
was at Constantinople, [47] (which they call Istambol.) In his reign
the peasant was happy, the treasury full, the army satisied, and the
poor at ease. They lived in such peace and plenty, that in their
homes the day was a festival, and the night was a _shabi barat_
[48]. Thieves, robbers, pickpockets, swindlers, and all such as
were vicious and dishonest, he utterly exterminated, and no vestige
of them allowed he to remain in his kingdom. [49] The doors of the
houses were unshut all night, and the shops of the _bazar_ remained
open. The travellers and wayfarers chinked gold as they went along,
over plains and through woods; and no one asked them, "How many teeth
have you in your mouth," [50] or "Where are you going?"

There were thousands of cities in that king's dominions, and many
princes paid him tribute. Though he was so great a king, he never for
a moment neglected his duties or his prayers to God. He possessed
all the necessary comforts of this world; but male issue, which is
the fruit of life, was not in the garden of his destiny, for which
reason he was often pensive and sorrowful, and after the five [51]
regulated periods of prayer, he used to address himself to his Creator
and say, "O God! thou hast, through thy infinite goodness blest thy
weak creature with every comfort, but thou hast given no light to
this dark abode. [52] This desire alone is unaccomplished, that I
have no one to transmit my name and support my old age. [53] Thou hast
everything in thy hidden treasury; give me a living and thriving son,
that my name and the vestiges of this kingdom may remain."

In this hope the king reached his fortieth year; when one day he had
finished his prayers in the Mirror Saloon, [54] and while telling his
beads, he happened to cast his eyes towards one of the mirrors, and
perceived a white hair in his whiskers, which glittered like a silver
wire; on seeing it, the king's eyes filled with tears, and he heaved a
deep sigh, and then said to himself, "Alas! thou hast wasted thy years
to no purpose, and for earthly advantages thou hast overturned the
world. And all the countries thou hast conquered, what advantage are
they to thee? Some other race will in the end squander these riches.

Death hath already sent thee a messenger; [55] and even if thou
livest a few years, the strength of thy body will be less. Hence,
it appears clearly from this circumstance, that it is not my destiny
to have an heir to my canopy and throne. I must one day die, and
leave everything behind me; so it is better for me to quit them now,
and dedicate the rest of my days to the adoration of my Maker."

Having in his heart made this resolve, he descended to his lower
garden. [56] Having dismissed his courtiers, he ordered that no one
should approach him in future, but that all should attend the Public
Hall of Audience, [57] and continue occupied in their respective
duties. After this speech the king retired to a private apartment,
spread the carpet of prayer, [58] and began to occupy himself in
devotion: he did nothing but weep and sigh. Thus the king, _Azud
Bakhht_ passed many days; in the evening he broke his fast with a
date and three mouthfuls of water, and lay all day and night on the
carpet of prayer. Those circumstances became public, and by degrees
the intelligence spread over the whole empire, that the king having
withdrawn his hand from public affairs, had become a recluse. In every
quarter enemies and rebels raised their heads, and stepped beyond the
bounds [of obedience]; whoever wished it, encroached on the kingdom,
and rebelled; wherever there were governors, in their jurisdictions
great disturbance took place; and complaints of mal-administration
arrived at court from every province. All the courtiers and nobles
assembled, and began to confer and consult.

At last it was agreed, "that as his Highness the _Wazir_ is wise and
intelligent, and in the king's intimacy and confidence, and is first in
dignity, we ought to go before him, and hear what he thinks proper to
say on the occasion," All the nobles went to his Highness the _Wazir_,
and said: "Such is the state of the king and such the condition of the
kingdom, that if more delay takes place, this empire, which has been
acquired with such trouble, will be lost for nothing, and will not be
easily regained." The _Wazir_ was an old, faithful servant, and wise;
his name was _Khiradmand,_ a name self-significant. [59] He replied,
"Though the king has forbidden us to come into his presence, yet go
you: I will also go--may it please God that the king be inclined to
call me to his presence." After saying this, the _Wazir_ brought
them all along with him as far as the Public Hall of Audience,
and leaving them there, he went into the Private Hall of Audience,
[60] and sent word by the eunuch [61] to the royal presence, saying,
"this old slave is in waiting, and for many days has not beheld the
royal countenance; he  is in hopes that, after one look, he may kiss
the royal feet, then his mind will be at ease." The king heard this
request of his _Wazir_, and inasmuch as his majesty knew his length
of services, his zeal, his talents, and his devotedness, and had
often followed his advice, after some consideration, he said, "call
in _Khiradmand_."  As soon as permission was obtained, the _Wazir_
appeared in the royal presence, made his obeisance, and stood with
crossed arms. [62] He saw the king's strange and altered appearance,
that from extreme weeping and emaciation his eyes were sunk in their
sockets, [63] and his visage was pale.

_Khiradmand_ could no longer restrain himself, but without choice,
ran and threw himself at [the king's] feet. His majesty lifted up
the _Wazir's_ head with his hands, and said, "There, thou hast at
last seen me; art thou satisfied? Now go away, and do not disturb
me more--do thou govern the empire." _Khiradmand_, on hearing this,
gnashing his teeth, wept said, "This slave, by your favour and welfare,
can always possess a kingdom; but ruin is spread over the empire from
your majesty's such sudden seclusion, and the end of it will not be
prosperous. What strange fancy has possessed the royal mind! If to this
hereditary vassal your majesty will condescend to explain yourself, it
will be for the best--that I may unfold whatever occurs to my imperfect
judgment on the occasion. If you have bestowed honours on your slaves,
it is for this exigency, that your majesty may enjoy yourself at your
ease, and your slaves regulate the affairs of the state; for if your
imperial highness is to bear this trouble, which God forbid! of what
utility are the servants of the state?" The king replied, "Thou sayest
true; but the sorrow which preys on my mind is beyond cure.

"Hear, O _Khiradmand!_ my whole age has been passed in this vexatious
career of conquest, and I am now arrived at these years; there is
only death before me; I have even received a message from him, for my
hairs are turned white. There is a saying; 'We have slept all night,
and shall we not awake in the morning?' Until now I have not had a
son, that I might be easy in mind; for which reason my heart is very
sorrowful, and I have utterly abandoned everything. Whoever wishes,
may take the country and my riches. I have no use for them. Moreover,
I intend some day or other, to quit everything, retire to the woods and
mountains, and not show my face to any one. In this manner I will pass
this life of [at best but] a few days' duration. If some spot pleases
me, I shall sit down on it; and by devoting my time in prayers to God,
perhaps my future state will be happy; this world I have seen well,
and have found no felicity in it." After pronouncing these words,
the king heaved a deep sigh, and became silent.

_Khiradmand_ had been the _Wazir_ of his majesty's father, and when
the king was heir-apparent he had loved him; moreover, he was wise
and zealous. He said (to _Azad Bakht_,) "It is ever wrong to despair
of God's grace; He who has created the eighteen thousand species
of living beings [64] by one fiat, can give you children without
any difficulty. Mighty sire, banish these fanciful notions from
your mind, or else all your subjects will be thrown into confusion,
and this empire,--with what trouble and pains your royal forefathers
and yourself have erected it!--will be lost in a moment, and, from
want of care, the whole country will be ruined; God forbid that you
should incur evil fame! Moreover, you will have to answer to God,
in the day of judgment, when he will say, 'Having made thee a king,
I placed my creatures under thy care; but thou hadst no faith in my
beneficence, and thou hast afflicted thy subjects [by abandoning thy
charge.'] What answer will you make to this accusation? Then even your
devotion and prayers will not avail you, for the heart of man is the
abode of God, and kings will have to answer only for the justice [65]
of their conduct. Pardon your slave's want of respect, but to leave
their homes, and wander from forest to forest, is the occupation of
hermits, [66] but not that of kings. You ought to act according to
your allotted station: the remembering of God, and devotion to him,
are not limited to woods or mountains: your majesty has undoubtedly
heard this verse, 'God is near him, and he seeks him in the wilderness;
the child is in his arms, and there is a proclamation [of its being
lost] throughout the city.'

"If you will be pleased to act impartially, and follow this slave's
advice, in that case the best thing is, that your Majesty should
keep God in mind every moment, and offer up to him your prayers. No
one has yet returned hopeless from his threshold. In the day, arrange
the affairs of state, and administer justice to the poor and injured;
then the creatures of God will repose in peace and comfort under the
skirt of your prosperity. Pray at night; and after beseeching blessings
for the pure spirit of the Prophet, solicit assistance from recluse
_Darweshes_ and holy men, [who are abstracted from worldly objects
and cares;] bestow daily food on orphans, prisoners, poor parents
of numerous children, and helpless widows. From the blessings of
these good works and benevolent intentions, if God please, it is to
be fervently hoped that the objects and desires of your heart will
all be fulfilled, and the circumstances for which the royal mind is
afflicted, will likewise be accomplished, and your noble heart will
rejoice! Look towards the favour of God, for he can in a moment do
what he wishes." At length, from such various representations on the
part of _Khiradmand_ the _Wazir, Azad Bakht's_ heart took courage,
and he said, "Well, what you say is true; let us see to this also;
and hereafter, the will of God be done."

When the king's mind was comforted, he asked the _Wazir_ what the other
nobles and ministers were doing, and how they were. He replied, that
"all the pillars of state are praying for the life and prosperity
of your majesty; and from grief for your situation, they are all
in confusion and dejected. Show the royal countenance to them, that
they may be easy in their minds. Accordingly, they are now waiting
in the _Diwani Amm_." On hearing this, the king said, "If God please,
I will hold a court to-morrow: tell them all to attend." _Khiradmand_
was quite rejoiced on hearing this promise, and lifting up his hands,
blessed the king, saying, "As long as this earth and heaven exist,
may your majesty's crown and throne remain. Then taking leave [of the
king,] he retired with infinite joy, and communicated these pleasing
tidings to the nobles. All the nobles returned to their homes with
smiles and gladness of heart. The whole city rejoiced, and the subjects
became boundless [in their transports at the idea] that the king would
hold a general court the next day. In the morning, all the servants of
state, noble and menial, and the pillars of state, small and great,
came to the court, and stood each according to his respective place
and degree, and waited with anxiety to behold the royal splendour.

When one _pahar_ [67] of the day had elapsed, all at once the
curtain drew up, and the king, having ascended, seated himself on the
auspicious throne. The sounds of joy struck up in the _Naubat-Khana_,
[68] and all the assembly offered the _nazars_ [69] of congratulation,
and made their obeisance in the hall of audience. Each was rewarded
according to his respective degree and rank, and the hearts of all
became joyful and easy. At midday [70] his majesty arose and retired
to the interior of the palace; and after enjoying the royal repast,
retired to rest. From that day the king made this an established rule,
viz., to hold his court every morning, and pass the afternoons in
reading and in the offices of devotion; and after expressing penitence,
and beseeching forgiveness from God, to pray for the accomplishment
of his desires.

One day, the king saw it written in a book, that if any one is so
oppressed with grief and care as not to be relieved by [any human]
contrivance, he ought to commit [his sorrows] to Providence, visit
the tombs of the dead, and pray for the blessing of God on them, [71]
through the mediation of the Prophet; and conceiving himself nothing,
keep his heart free from the thoughtlessness of mankind; weep as a
warning to others, and behold [with awe] the power of God, saying,
"Anterior to me, what mighty possessors of kingdoms and wealth have
been born on earth! but the sky, involving them all in its revolving
circle, has mixed them with the dust." It is a bye-word, that, "on
beholding the moving handmill, _Kabira_, [72] weeping, exclaimed,
'Alas! nothing has yet survived the pressure of the two millstones.'"

"Now, if you look [for those heroes], not one vestige of them
remains, except a heap of dust. All of them, leaving their riches
and possessions, their homes and offsprings, their friends and
dependants, their horses and elephants, are lying alone! All these
[worldly advantages] have been of no use to them; moreover, no one by
this time, knows even their names, or who they were; and their state
within the grave cannot be discovered; (for worms, insects, ants, and
snakes have eaten them up;) or [who knows] what has happened to them,
or how they have settled their accounts with God? After meditating on
these words in his mind, he should look on the whole of this world
as a perfect farce; then the flower of his heart will ever bloom,
and it will not wither in any circumstance." When the king read this
admonition in the book, he recollected the advice of _Khiradmand_
the _Wazir_, and found that they coincided. He became anxious in his
mind to put this in execution; "but to mount on horseback, [said his
majesty to himself,] and take a retinue with me, and go like a king,
is not becoming; it is better to change my dress, and go at night
and alone to visit the graves of the dead, or some godly recluse,
and keep awake all night; perhaps by the mediation of these holy men,
the desires of this world and salvation in the next, may be obtained."

Having formed this resolution, the king one night put on coarse and
soiled clothes, and taking some money with him, he stole silently out
of the fort, and bent his way over the plain; proceeding onwards,
he arrived at a cemetery, and was repeating his prayers with a
sincere heart. At that time, a fierce wind continued blowing,
and might be called a storm. Suddenly the king saw a flame at a
distance which shone like the morning star; he said to himself,
"In this storm and darkness this light cannot shine without art,
or it may be a talisman; for if nitre and sulphur be sprinkled in
the lamp, around the wick, then let the wind be ever so strong,
the flame will not be extinguished--or may it not be the lamp of
some holy man which burns? Let it be what it may, I ought to go and
examine it; perhaps by the light of this lamp, the lamp of my house
also may be lighted, [73] and the wish of my heart fulfilled." Having
formed this resolution, the king advanced in that direction; when
he drew near, he saw four erratic _fakirs_, [74] with _kafnis_ [75]
on their bodies, and their head reclined on their knees; sitting in
profound silence, and senselessly abstracted. Their state was such as
that of a traveller, who, separated from his country and his sect,
friendless and alone, and overwhelmed with grief, is desponding and
at a loss. In the same manner sat these four _Fakirs_, like statues,
[76] and a lamp placed on a stone burnt brightly; the wind touched it
not, as if the sky itself had been its shade, [77] so that it burnt
without danger [of being extinguished.]

On seeing this sight, _Azad Bakht_ was convinced [and said to himself]
that "assuredly thy desires will be fulfilled, by the blessing
[resulting from] the footsteps of these men of God; and the withered
tree of thy hopes shall revive by their looks, and yield fruit. Go into
their company, and tell thy story, and join their society; perhaps
they may feel pity for thee, and offer up for thee such a prayer as
may be accepted by the Almighty." Having formed this determination,
he was about to step forward, when his judgment told him, O fool,
do not be hasty! Look a little [before thee.] What dost thou know
as to who they are, from whence they have come, and where they are
going? How can we know but they may be _Devs_ [78] or _Ghuls_ [79]
of the wilderness, who, assuming the appearance of men, are sitting
together? In every way, to be in haste, and go amongst them and
disturb them, is improper. At present, hide thyself in some corner,
and learn the story of these _Darweshes_." At last the king did so,
and hid himself in a corner with such silence, that no one heard
the sound of his approach; he directed his attention towards them to
hear what they were saying amongst themselves. By chance one of the
_Fakirs_ sneezed, and said, "God be praised." [80] The other three
_Kalandars_, [81] awakened by the noise he made, trimmed the lamp;
the flame was burning bright, and each of them sitting on his mattrass,
lighted their _hukkas_, [82] and began to smoke. One of these _Azads_
[83] said, "O friends in mutual pain, and faithful wanderers over
the world! we four persons, by the revolution of the heavens, and
changes of day and night, with dust on our heads, have wandered for
some time, from door to door. God be praised, that by the aid of our
good fortune, and the decree of fate, we have to-day met each other
on this spot. The events of to-morrow are not in the least known,
nor what will happen; whether we remain together, or become totally
separated; the night is a heavy load, [84] and to retire to sleep so
early is not salutary. It is far better that we relate, each on his
own part, the events which have passed over our heads in this world,
without admitting a particle of untruth [in our narrations;] then
the night will pass away in words, and when little of it remains,
let us retire to rest." They all replied, "O leader, we agree to
whatever you command. First you begin your own history, and relate
what you have seen; then shall we be edified."


The first _Darwesh_, sitting at his ease, [85] began thus to relate
the events of his travels:

    "Beloved of God, turn towards me, and hear this helpless one's
    Hear what has passed over my head with attentive ears,
    Hear how Providence has raised and depressed me.
    I am going to relate whatever misfortunes I have suffered; hear
        the whole narrative."

O my friends, the place of my birth, and the country of my
forefathers, is the land of Yaman; [86] the father of this wretch was
_Maliku-t-Tujjar_, [87] a great merchant, named _Khwaja Ahmad_. At
that time no merchant or banker was equal to him. In most cities
he had established factories and agents, for the purchase and sale
(of goods); and in his warehouses were _lakhs_ of _rupis_ in cash,
and merchandise of different countries. He had two children born to
him; one was this pilgrim, who, clad in the _kafni_ [88] and _saili_,
[89] is now in your presence, and addressing you, holy guides; the
other was a sister, whom my father, during his life time, had married
to a merchant's son of another city; she lived in the family of her
father-in-law. In short, what bounds could be set to the fondness
of a father, who had an only son, and was so exceedingly rich! This
wanderer received his education with great tenderness under the shadow
of his father and mother; and began to learn reading and writing,
and the science and practice of the military profession; and likewise
the art of commerce, and the keeping of accounts. Up to [the age of]
fourteen years, my life passed away in extreme delight and freedom
from anxiety; no care of the world entered my heart. All at once,
even in one year, both my father and mother died by the decree of God.

I was overwhelmed with such extreme grief, that I cannot express [its
anguish.] At once I became an orphan! No elder [of the family] remained
to watch over me. From this unexpected misfortune I wept night and day;
food and drink were utterly disregarded. In this sad state I passed
forty days: on the fortieth day, [90] [after the death of my parents,]
my relations and strangers of every degree assembled [to perform the
rites of mourning.] When the _Fatiha_ [91]  for the dead was finished,
they tied on this pilgrim's head the turban of his father; [92]
they made me understand, that, "In this world the parents of all have
died, and you yourself must one day follow the same path. Therefore,
have patience, and look after your establishment; you are now become
its master in the room of your father; be vigilant in your affairs
and transactions." After consoling me [in this friendly manner,]
they took their leave. All the agents, factors and employés [of my
late father] came and waited on me; they presented their _nazars_,
and said, "Be pleased to behold with your own auspicious eye the cash
in the coffers, and the merchandise in the warehouses." When all at
once my sight fell on this boundless wealth, my eyes expanded. I gave
orders for the fitting up of a _diwan-khana_; [93] the _farrashes_
[94] spread the carpets, and hung up the _pardas_ [95]  and magnificent
_chicks_. [96] I took handsome servants into my service; and caused
them to be clothed in rich dresses out of my treasury. This mendicant
had no sooner reposed himself in [the vacant] seat [of his father]
than he was surrounded by fops, coxcombs, "thiggars [97] and sornars,"
liars and flatterers, who became his favourites and friends. I began
to have them constantly in my company. They amused me with the gossip
of every place, and every idle, lying tittle tattle; they continued
urging me thus. "In this season of youth, you ought to drink [98] of
the choicest wines, and send for beautiful mistresses to participate
in the pleasures thereof, and enjoy yourself in their company."

In short, the evil genius of man is man: my disposition changed from
listening constantly [to their pernicious advice.] Wine, dancing,
and gaming occupied my time. At last matters came to such a pitch,
that, forgetting my commercial concerns, a mania for debauchery
and gambling came over me. My servants and companions, when they
perceived my careless habits, secreted all they could lay hand on;
one might say a systematic plunder took place. No account was kept of
the money which was squandered; from whence it came, or where it went:

    "When the wealth comes gratuitously, the heart has no mercy on
        it." [99]

Had I possessed even the treasures of _Karun_, [100] they would
not have been sufficient to supply this vast expenditure. In the
course of a few years such became all at once my condition, that,
a bare skull cap for my head, and a rag about my loins, were all that
remained. Those friends who used to share my board, and [who so often
swore] [101] to shed their blood by the spoonful for my advantage,
disappeared; yea, even if I met them by chance on the highway, they
used to withdraw their looks and turn aside their faces from me;
moreover, my servants, of every description, left me, and went away;
no one remained to enquire after me, and say, "what state is this
you are reduced to?" I had no companion left but my grief and regret.

I now had not a half-farthing's worth of parched grain [to grind
between my jaws,] and give a relish to the water I drank: I endured
two or three severe fasts, but could no longer bear [the cravings
of] hunger. From necessity, covering my face with the mask of
shamelessness, I formed the resolution of going to my sister; but
this shame continued to come into my mind, that, since the death of
my father, I had kept up no friendly intercourse with her, or even
written her a single line; nay, further, she had written me two or
three letters of condolence and affection, to which I had not deigned
to make any reply in my inebriated moments of prosperity. From this
sense of shame my heart felt no inclination [to go to my sister,]
but except her house, I had no other [to which I could resort.] In
the best way I could, on foot, empty-handed, with much fatigue and
a thousand toils, having traversed the few [intervening] stages, I
arrived at the city where my sister lived, and reached her house. My
sister, seeing my wretched state, invoked a blessing upon me, embraced
me with affection, and wept bitterly; she distributed [the customary
offerings to the poor] on the occasion of my safe arrival, such as
oil, vegetables, and small coins, [102] and said to me, "Though my
heart is greatly rejoiced at this meeting, yet, brother, in what sad
plight do I see you?" I could make her no reply, but shedding tears,
I remained silent. My sister sent me quickly to the bath, after
having ordered a splendid dress to be sewn for me. I having bathed
and washed, put on these clothes. She fixed on an elegant apartment,
near her own, for my residence. I had in the morning _sharbat_, [103]
and various kinds of sweetmeats for my breakfast; in the afternoon,
fresh and dried fruits for my luncheon; and at dinner and supper she
having procured for me _pulaos_, [104] _kababs_, [105] and bread of the
most exquisite flavour and delicious cookery; she saw me eat them in
her own presence; and in every manner she took care of me. I offered
thousands upon thousands of thanksgivings to God for enjoying such
comfort, after such affliction [as I had suffered.] Several months
passed in this tranquillity, during which I never put my foot out of
my apartment.

One day, my sister, who treated me like a mother, said to me, "O
brother, you are the delight of my eyes, and the living emblem of the
dead dust of our parents; by your arrival the longing of my heart is
satisfied; whenever I see you, I am infinitely rejoiced; you have made
me completely happy; but God has created men to work for their living,
and they ought not to sit idle at home. If a man becomes idle and stays
at home, the people of the world cast unfavourable reflections on him;
more especially the people of this city, both great and little, though
it concerns them not, will say, on your remaining [with me and doing
nothing,] 'That having lavished and spent his father's worldly wealth,
he is now living on the scraps from his brother-in-law's board.' This
is an excessive want of proper pride, and will be our ridicule, and
the subject of shame to the memory of our parents; otherwise I would
keep you near my heart, and make you shoes of my own skin, and have
you wear them. Now, my advice is that you should make an effort at
travelling; please God the times will change, and in place of your
present embarrassment and destitution, gladness and prosperity may be
the result." On hearing this speech my pride was roused; I approved
of her advice, and replied, very well, you are now in the place of
my mother, and I will do whatever you say. Having thus received my
consent, she went into the interior of her house, and brought out, by
the assistance of her female slaves and servants, fifty _toras_ [106]
of gold and laid them before me, saying, "A caravan of merchants is on
the point of setting out for Damascus. [107] Do you purchase with this
money some articles of merchandise. Having put them under the care
of a merchant of probity, take from him a proper receipt for them:
and do you also proceed to Damascus. When you arrive there in safety,
receive the amount sales of your goods, and the profit which may accrue
[from your merchant,] or sell them yourself [as may be most convenient
or advantageous."] I took the money and went to the _bazar_; [108]
and having bought articles of merchandise, I delivered them over in
charge to an eminent merchant, and set my mind at ease on receiving a
satisfactory receipt from him. The merchant embarked with the goods
on board a vessel, and set off by sea, [109] and I prepared to go
by land. When I took leave of my excellent sister, she gave me a
rich dress and a superb horse with jewelled harness; she put some
sweetmeats in a leather bag and hung it to the pummel of my saddle,
and she suspended a flask of water from the crupper; she tied a sacred
rupee on my arm, [110] and having marked my forehead with _tika_, [111]
"Proceed," said she, suppressing her tears, "I have put thee under the
protection of God; thou showest thy back in going, in the same happy
state show me soon your face." I also said, after repeating the prayer
of welfare, "God be your protector also. I obey your commands." Coming
out from thence, I mounted my horse, and having placed my reliance
on the protection of the Almighty, I set forward, and throwing two
stages into one, I soon reached the neighbourhood of Damascus.

In short, when I arrived at the city gate, the night was far advanced,
and the door-keepers and guards had shut them. I made much entreaty,
and added, "I am a traveller, who has come a long journey, at a great
rate; if you would kindly open the gates, I could get into the city
and procure some refreshment for myself and my horse." They rudely
replied from within, "There is no order to open the gates at this
hour; why have you come so late in the night?" When I heard this
plain answer of theirs, I alighted from my horse under the walls of
the city, and spreading my housing, I sat down; but to keep awake,
I often rose up and walked about. When it was exactly midnight, [112]
there was a dead silence. What do I see but a chest descending slowly
from the walls of the fortress! When I beheld this [strange sight], I
was filled with surprise, thinking what talisman is this! perhaps God,
taking pity on my perplexity and my misfortunes, has sent me here some
bounty from his hidden treasure. When the chest rested on the ground, I
approached it with much fear, and perceived it was of wood. Instigated
by curiosity, I opened it; I beheld in it a beautiful lovely woman (at
the sight of whom the senses would vanish), wounded and weltering in
her blood, with her eyes closed, and in extreme agonies. By degrees
her lips moved, and these sounds issued slowly from her mouth, "O
faithless wretch! O barbarous tyrant! Is this deed which thou hast
done, the return I merited for all my affection and kindness! Well,
well! give me another blow [and complete thy cruelty]: I entrust to God
the executing of justice between myself and thee." After pronouncing
these words, even in that insensible state, she drew the end of her
_dopatta_ [113] over her face; she did not look towards me.

Gazing on her, and hearing her exclamations, I became torpid. It
occurred to me, what savage tyrant could wound so beautiful a
lady! what [demon] possessed his heart, and how could he lift
his hand against her! she still loves him, [114] and even in this
agony of death, she recollects him! I was muttering this to myself;
the sound reached her ear; drawing at once her veil from her face,
she looked at me. The moment her looks met mine, I nearly fainted,
and my heart throbbed with difficulty; I supported myself by a strong
effort, and taking courage, I asked her, "tell me true, who art you,
and what sad occurrence is this I see; if you will explain it, then it
will give ease to my heart." On hearing these words, though she had
scarce strength to speak, yet she slowly uttered, "I thank you! how
can I speak? my condition, owing to my wounds, is what you see; I
am your guest for a few moments only; when my spirit shall depart,
then, for God's sake, act like a man, and bury unfortunate me in some
place, in this chest; then I shall be freed from the tongue of the
good and bad, and you will earn for yourself a future reward." After
pronouncing these words, she became silent.

In the night I could apply no remedy; I brought the chest near me, and
began to count the _gharis_ [115] of the remaining night. I determined,
when the morning came, to go into the city and do all in my power
for the cure [of this beautiful woman]. The short, remaining night
became so heavy [116] a load, that my heart was quite restless. At
last, after suffering much uneasiness, the morning approached--the
cock crowed, and the voices of men were heard. After performing
the morning prayer, I inclosed the chest in a coarse canvas sack,
and just as the gates opened, I entered the city. I began to inquire
of every man and shop-keeper where I could find a mansion for hire;
and after much search, I found a convenient, handsome house, which I
rented. The first thing I did, was to take that beautiful woman out
of the chest, and lay her on a soft bed made up of flocks of cotton,
which I had removed to a corner. I then placed a trusty person near
her, and went in search of a surgeon. I wandered about, asking of
every one I met who was the cleverest surgeon in the city, and where
he lived. One person said, "There is a certain barber who is unique
in the practice of surgery, and the science of physic; and in these
arts is quite perfect. If you carry a dead person to him, by the help
of God, he will apply such remedies as will bring him to life. He
dwells in this quarter [of the city,] and his name is _'Isa_." [117]

On hearing this agreeable intelligence, I went in search of him, and
after several inquiries, I found out his abode from the directions
I had received. I saw a man with a white beard sitting under the
portico of his door, and several men were grinding materials for
plasters beside him. For the sake of complimenting him, I made him
a respectful _salam_, [118] and said,--"having  heard of your name
and excellent qualities, I am come [to solicit your assistance.] The
case is this: I set out from my country for the purpose of trade,
and took my wife with me, from the great affection I had for her;
when I arrived near this city, I halted at a little distance, as the
evening had set in. I did not think it safe to travel at night in an
unseen country; I therefore rested under a tree on the plains. At the
last quarter of the night, I was attacked by robbers; they plundered
me of all the money and the property they could find, and wounded my
wife, from avidity for her jewels. I could make no resistance, and
passed the remainder of the night as well as I could. Early in the
morning I came into this city, and rented a house; leaving her there,
I am come to you with all speed. God has given you this perfection
in your profession; favour this [unfortunate] traveller, and come to
his humble dwelling; see my wife, and if her life should be saved,
then you will acquire great fame, and I will be your slave as long
as I live." _'Isa_, the surgeon, was very humane and devout; he took
pity on my misfortune, and accompanied me to my house. On examining
the wounds, he gave me hopes, and said, "By the blessing of God, this
lady's wounds will be cured in forty days; and I will then cause to
be administered to her the ablution of cure."

In short, the good man having thoroughly washed all the wounds with the
decoction of _nim_, [119] he cleansed them; those that he found fit for
stitching, he sewed up; and on the others he laid lint and plasters,
which he took out of his box, and tied them up with bandages, and
said with much kindness, "I will continue to call morning and evening;
be thou careful that she remain perfectly quiet, so that the stitches
may not give way; let her food be chicken broth administered in small
quantities at a time, and give her often the spirit of _Bed-Mushk_,
[120] with rose water, so that her strength may be supported." After
giving these directions, he took his leave. I thanked him much with
joined hands, [121] and added, "From the consolation you have bestowed,
my life also has been restored; otherwise, I saw nothing but death
before me; God keep you safe." And after giving him _'Itr_ [122]
and _betel_, I took leave of him. Night and day I attended on that
beautiful lady with the utmost solicitude; rest to myself I renounced
as impious, and in the threshold of God I daily prayed for her cure.

It came to pass that the merchant [who had charge of my merchandise,]
arrived, and delivered over to me the goods I had entrusted to
his care. I sold them as occasion required, and began to spend the
amount in medicines and remedies. The good surgeon was regular in his
attendance, and in a short time all the wounds filled up, and began
to heal; a few days after she performed the ablution of cure. Joy of
a wonderful nature arose [in my heart]! A rich _khil'at_, [123] and
[a purse of] gold pieces I laid before _'Isa_, the surgeon. I ordered
elegant carpets to be spread for that fair one [124], and caused her
to sit upon the _masnad_. [125] I distributed large sums to the poor
[on the joyous occasion,] and that day I was as happy as if I had
gained possession of the sovereignty of the seven climes. [126] On
that beautiful lady's cure, such rosy, pure colour appeared in her
complexion, that her face shone like the sun, and sparkled with the
lustre of the purest gold. I could not gaze on her without being
dazzled with her beauty. [127] I devoted myself entirely to her
services, and zealously performed whatever she commanded. In the
full pride of beauty and consciousness of high rank, if ever she
condescended to cast a look on me, she used to say, "Take care, if
my good opinion is desirable to you, then never breathe a syllable in
my affairs; whatever I order, perform without objection; never utter
a breath in my concerns, otherwise you will repent." It appeared,
however, from her manners, that the return due to me for my services
and obedience, was fully impressed on her mind. I also did nothing
without her consent, and executed her commands with implicit obedience.

A certain space of time passed away in this mystery and submission--I
instantly procured for her whatever she desired. I spent all the money
I had from the sale of my goods, both principal and interest. In
a foreign country [where I was unknown], who would trust me? that
by borrowing, affairs might go on. At last, I was distressed for
money, even for our daily expenses, and thence my heart became much
embarrassed. With this anxious solicitude I pined daily, and the
colour fled from my face; but to whom could I speak [for aid]? What
my heart suffered, that it must suffer. "The grief of the poor man
[preys] on his own soul." [128] One day the beautiful lady, from
her own penetration, perceived [my distressed state] and said, "O
youth! my obligations [to you] for the services [you have rendered]
me are engraven on my heart as indelible as on stone; but their return
I am unable to make at present. If there be any thing required for
necessary expenses, do not be distressed on that account, but bring me
a slip of paper, pen, and ink." I was then convinced that this fair
lady must be a princess of some country, or else she would not have
addressed me with such boldness and haughtiness. I instantly brought
her the writing materials, [129] and placed them before her--she having
written a note in a fair hand, delivered it to me, and said, "There
is a _Tirpauliya_ [130] near the fort; in the adjoining street is a
large mansion, and the master of that house is called _Sidi Bahar_;
[131] go and deliver this note to him."

I went according to her commands, and by the name and address she had
given me, I soon found out the house; by the porter I sent word of
the circumstance [of my having brought] a letter. The moment he heard
[my message,] a handsome young negro, with a flashy turban on his
head, came out to me; though his colour was dark, his countenance was
full of animation. He took the note from my hand, but said nothing,
asked no questions, and at the same pace [without a pause] entered
the house. In a short time he came out, accompanied by slaves, who
carried on their heads eleven sealed trays covered with brocade. He
told the slaves, "Go with this young man, and deliver these trays." I,
having made my salutation, took my leave of him, and brought [the
slaves with their burdens] to our house. I dismissed the men from
the door, and carried in the trays entrusted to me to the presence
of the fair lady. On seeing them she said, "Take these eleven bags
of gold pieces and appropriate the money to necessary expenses;
God is most bountiful." I took the gold, and began to lay it out in
immediate necessaries. Although I became more easy in my mind, yet
this perplexity continued in my heart. "O God, [said I to myself,]
what a strange circumstance is this! that a stranger, whose person
is unknown to me, should, on the mere sight of a bit of paper, have
delivered over to me so much money without question or inquiry. I
cannot ask the fair lady to explain the mystery, as she has beforehand
forbidden me." Through fear, I was unable to breathe a syllable.

Eight days after this occurrence, the beloved fair one thus addressed
me:--"God has bestowed on man the robe of humanity which may not be
torn or soiled; and although tattered clothes are no disparagement to
his manhood, yet in public, in the eyes of the world he has no respect
paid to him [if shabbily clothed]. So take two bags of gold with thee,
and go to the _chauk_, [132] to the shop of _Yusuf_ the merchant,
and buy there some sets of jewels of high value, and two rich suits
of clothes, and bring them with thee." I instantly mounted my horse,
and went to the shop described. I saw there a handsome young man,
clothed in a saffron-coloured dress, seated on a cushion; his beauty
[133] was such, that a whole multitude stopped in the street from
his shop as far as the _bazar_ to gaze at him. I approached him with
perfect pleasure, having made my "_salam 'alaika_." I sat down, and
mentioned the articles required. My pronunciation was not like that
of the inhabitants of that city. The young merchant replied with great
kindness, "Whatever you require is ready, but tell me, sir, from what
country are you come, and what are the motives of your stay in this
foreign city? If you will condescend to inform me on these points,
it will not be remote from kindness." It was not agreeable to me to
divulge my circumstances, so I made up some story, took the jewels
and the clothes, paid their price, and begged to take my leave. The
young man seemed displeased and said, "O sir, if you wished to be so
reserved, it was not necessary to show such warmth of friendly greeting
in your first approach. Amongst well-bred people these [134] amicable
greetings are of much consideration." He pronounced this speech with
such elegance and propriety, that it quite delighted my heart, and I
did not think it courteous to be unkind and leave [135] him so hastily;
therefore, to please him, I sat down again and said, I agree to your
request with all my heart, [136] and am ready [to obey your commands.]

He was greatly pleased with my compliance, and smiling he said,
"If you will honour my poor mansion [with your company] to-day, then
having a party of pleasure, we shall regale our hearts for some hours
[in good cheer and hilarity."] I had never left the fair lady alone
[since we first met,] and recollecting her solitary situation,
I made many excuses, but that young man would not accept any; at
last, having extorted from me a promise to return as soon as I had
carried home the articles I had purchased, and having made me swear
[to that effect,] he gave me leave to depart. I, having left the
shop, carried the jewels and the clothes to the presence of the fair
lady. She asked the price of the different articles, and what passed
at the merchant's. I related all the particulars of the purchase,
and the teasing invitation I had received from him. She replied, "It
is incumbent on man to fulfil whatever promise he may make; leave me
under the protection of God, and fulfil your engagement;  the law of
the prophet requires we should accept the offers of hospitality." I
said, "My heart does not wish to go and leave you alone, but such are
your orders, and I am forced to go; until I return, my heart will be
attached to this very spot." Saying this, I went to the merchant's:
he, seated on a chair, was waiting for me. On seeing me, he said,
"Come, good sir, you have made me wait long." [137]

He instantly arose, seized my hand, and moved on; proceeding along,
he conducted me to a garden; it was a garden of great beauty; in
the basons and canals fountains were playing; fruits of various
kinds were in full bloom, and the branches of the trees were bent
down with their weight; [138] birds of various species were perched
on the boughs, and sung their merry notes, and elegant carpets were
spread in every apartment [of the grand pavilion which stood in the
centre of the garden]. There on the border of the canal, we sat down
in an elegant saloon; he got up a moment after and went out, and
then returned richly dressed. On seeing him, I exclaimed, "Praised
be the Lord, may the evil eye be averted!" [139] On hearing this,
exclamation, he smiled, and said, "It is fit you, too, should change
your dress." To please him, I also put on other clothes. The young
merchant, with much sumptuousness, prepared an elegant entertainment,
and provided every article of pleasure that could be desired; he was
warm in his expressions of attachment to me, and his conversation was
quite enchanting. At this moment a cupbearer appeared with a flask
[of wine] and a crystal cup, and delicious meats of various kinds were
served up. The salt-cellars were set in order, and the sparkling cup
began to circulate. When it had performed three or four revolutions,
four young dancing boys, very beautiful, with loose, flowing tresses,
entered the assembly, and began to sing and play. Such was the
scene, and such the melody, that had _Tan-Sen_ [140] been present
at that hour, he would have forgot his strains; and _Baiju-Ba,ora_
[141] would have gone mad. In the midst of this festivity, the young
merchant's eyes filled suddenly with tears, and involuntarily two or
three drops trickled down [his cheeks]; he turned round and said to me,
"Now between us a friendship for life is formed; to hide the secrets of
our hearts is approved by no religion. I am going to impart a secret
to you, in the confidence of friendship and without reserve. If you
will give me leave I will send for my mistress into our company,
and exhilarate my heart [with her presence]; for in her absence,
I cannot enjoy any pleasure."

He pronounced these words with such eager desire, that though I had
not seen her, yet my heart longed for her. I replied, your happiness
is essential to me, what can be better [than what you propose]; send
for her without delay; nothing, it is true, is agreeable without the
presence of the beloved one. The young merchant made a sign towards
the _chick_ and shortly a black woman, as ugly as an ogress, on seeing
whom one would die without [the intervention of] fate, approached the
young man and sat down. I was frightened at her sight, and said within
myself, is it possible this she-demon can be beloved by so beautiful
a young man, and is this the creature he praised [142] so highly,
and spoke of with such affection! I muttered the form of exorcism,
[143] and became silent. In this same condition, the festive scene
of wine and music continued for three days and nights; on the fourth
night, intoxication and sleep gained the victory; I, in the sleep
of forgetfulness, involuntarily slumbered; next morning the young
merchant wakened me, and made me drink some cups of a cooling and
sedative nature. He said to his mistress, "To trouble our guest any
longer would be improper."

He then took hold of both my hands, and we stood up. I begged leave to
depart; well pleased [with my complaisance], he gave me permission [to
return home]. I then quickly put on my former clothes, and bent my way
homewards, waited on the angelic lady. But it had never before occurred
in my case, to leave her by herself and remain out all night. I was
quite ashamed of myself for being absent three days [and nights], and
I made her many apologies, and related the whole circumstances of the
entertainment, and his not permitting me [to come home sooner]. She
was well acquainted with the manners of the world, and smiling said,
"What does it signify, if you had to remain to oblige your friend;
I cheerfully pardon you, where is the blame on your part; when a man
goes on occasions of this sort to any person's house, he returns when
the other pleases to let him. But you having eaten and drunk at his
entertainments for nothing, will you remain silent, or give him a
feast in return? Now I think it proper you should go to the young
merchant, and bring him with you, and feast him two-fold greater
than he did you. Give yourself no concern about the materials [for
such an entertainment]; by the favour of God, all the requisites will
soon be ready, and in an excellent style, the hospitable party will
obtain splendour." According to her desire, I went to the jeweller,
and said to him, "I have complied with your request most cheerfully,
now do you also in the way of friendship, grant my request." He said,
"I will obey you with heart and soul."

Then I said, "If you will honour your humble servant's house with a
visit, it will be the essence of condescension. That young man made
many excuses and evasions, but I would not give up the point. When [at
length] he consented, I brought him with me to my house; but on the way
I could not avoid making the reflection, that "if I had had the means,
I could receive my guest in a style which would be highly gratifying
to him. Now I am taking him with me, let us see what will be the
result." Absorbed in these apprehensions, I drew near my house. Then
how was I surprised to see a great crowd and bustle at the door; the
street had been swept and watered; silver mace and club bearers [144]
were in waiting. I wondered greatly [at what I saw], but knowing it
to be mine own house, I entered, and perceived that elegant carpets
befitting every apartment, were spread in all directions, and rich
_masnads_ were laid out. _Betel_ boxes, _gulab-pashes, 'itr-dans,
pik-duns_ [145] flower pots, narcissus-pots, were all arranged in
order. In the recesses of the walls, various kinds of oranges and
confectionery of various colours were placed. On one side variegated
screens of _talk_, with lights behind them were displayed, and on
the other side tall branches of lamps in the shape of cypresses
and lotuses, were lighted up. In the hall and alcove camphorated
candles were placed in golden candlesticks, and rich glass shades were
placed over thorn; every attendant waited at his respective post. In
the kitchen the pots continued jingling; and in the _abdar-khana_
[146] there was a corresponding preparation; jars of water, quite
new, stood on silver stands, with percolators attached, and covered
with lids. Further on, on a platform, were placed spoons and cups,
with salvers and covers; _kulfis_ [147] of ice were arranged, and
the goglets [148] were being agitated in saltpetre.

In short, every requisite becoming a prince was displayed. Dancing
girls and boys, singers, musicians and buffoons, in rich apparel,
were in waiting, and singing in concert. I led the young merchant in,
and seated him on the _masnad_; [149] I was all amazement [and said
to myself] "O God, in so short a time how have such preparations been
made?" I was staring around and walking about in every direction,
but I could nowhere perceive a trace of the beautiful lady; searching
for her, I went into the kitchen, and I saw her there, with an upper
garment on her neck, slippers on her feet, and a white handkerchief
thrown over her head, plain and simply dressed, and without any jewels.

    "She on whom God hath bestowed beauty has no need of ornaments;
    Behold how beautiful appears the moon, without decorations."

She was busily employed in the superintendence of the feast, and was
giving directions for the eatables, saying, "have a care that [this
dish] may be savoury, and that its moisture, its seasoning and its
fragrance, may be quite correct." In this toil that rose-like person
was all over perspiration.

I approached her with reverence, and having expressed my admiration of
her good sense, and the propriety of her conduct, I invoked blessings
upon her. On hearing my compliments, she was displeased, and said,
"various deeds are done on the part of human beings which it is not
the power of angels [to perform]: what have I done that thou art so
much astonished? Enough, I dislike much talk; but say, what manners is
this to leave your guest alone, and amuse yourself by staring about;
what will he think of your behaviour? return quickly to the company,
and attend to your guest, and send for his mistress, and make her sit
by him." I instantly returned to the young merchant, and shewed him
every friendly attention. Soon after, two handsome slaves entered
with bottles of delicious wine, and cups set with precious stones,
and served us the liquor. In the meantime, I then observed to the
young merchant, I am in every way your friend and servant; it were
well that your handsome mistress, to whom your heart is attached,
should honour us with her presence; it will be perfectly agreeable to
me, and if you please, I will send a person to call her. On hearing
this, he was extremely pleased, and said, "Very well, my dear friend,
yon have [by your kind offer] spoken the wish of my heart." I sent a
eunuch [to bring her]. When half the night was past, that foul hag,
mounted on an elegant _chaudol,_ [150] arrived like an unexpected evil.

To please my guest I was compelled to advance, and receive her with
the utmost kindness, and place her near the young man. On seeing her,
he became as rejoiced as if he had received all the delights of the
world. That hag also clung round the neck of that angelic youth. The
[ludicrous] sight appeared, in plain truth, such as when over the
moon of the fourteenth night, an eclipse comes. As many people as
were in the assembly began to put their fore-fingers between their
teeth, [151] saying [to themselves] "How could such a hag subdue the
affections of this young man!" The eyes of all were turned in that
direction. Disregarding the amusements of the entertainment, they
began to attend only to this strange spectacle. Some apart observed, "O
friends, there is an antagonism between love and reason! what judgment
cannot conceive, this cursed love will show. You must behold _Laili_
with the eyes of _Majnun._ [152] All present exclaimed, "Very true,
that is the fact."

According to the directions of the lady, I devoted myself to
attending on my guests; and although the young merchant pressed me
to eat and drink equally with himself, yet I refrained from fear of
the fair [one's displeasure], and did not give myself up to eating
and drinking, or the pleasures of the entertainment. I pleaded the
duties of hospitality as my excuse for not joining him [in the good
cheer]. In this scene of festivity three nights and days passed
away. On the fourth night, [153] the young merchant said to me with
extreme fondness, "I now beg to take my leave; for your good sake I
have utterly neglected my affairs these three days, and have attended
you. Pray do you also sit near me for a moment, and rejoice my heart,"
I in my own heart imagined that "if I do not comply with his request
at this moment, then he will be grieved; and it is necessary I should
please my new friend and guest;" on which account I replied, "it is
a pleasure to me to obey the command of your honour;" for "a command
is paramount to ceremony" [154]. On hearing this, the young merchant
presented me a cup of wine, and I drank it off; then the cup moved in
such quick successive rounds, that in a short time all the guests in
the assembly became inebriated and stupefied; I also became senseless.

When the morning came, and the sun had risen the height of two spears,
[155] my eyes opened, but I saw nothing of the preparations, the
assembly, or the beautiful lady--only the empty house remained--but
in a corner [of the hall] something lay folded up in a blanket;
I unfolded it, and saw the corpses of the young merchant and of his
[black] woman, with their heads severed from their bodies. On seeing
this sight, my senses forsook me, and my judgment was of no avail [in
explaining to me] what this was and what had happened. I was staring
about me, in every direction with amazement, when I perceived a eunuch
(whom I had seen in the preparations of the entertainment). I was
somewhat comforted on seeing him, and asked him an explanation of
these strange events. He replied briefly, "What good will it do thee
to hear an explanation of what has happened, that thou askest it?"

I also reflected in my mind, that what he said was true; however,
after a short pause, I said to the eunuch, well, do not tell it to
me; but inform me in what apartment is the beloved lady. He answered,
"Certainly; whatever I know I will relate to thee; but [I am surprised]
that a man like thee, possessed of understanding, should, without her
ladyship's permission, and without fear or ceremony, have indulged
in a wine-drinking party after an intimacy of only a few days. [156]
What does all this mean?"

I became much ashamed of my folly [and felt the justice] of the
eunuch's reprobation. I could make no other reply than to say,
"indeed I have been guilty, pardon me." At last the eunuch, becoming
gracious, pointed out the beloved lady's abode, and took his leave;
he himself went to bury the two beheaded bodies. I was free from any
participation in that crime, and was anxious to meet the beautiful
lady. After a painful and difficult search, I arrived at eventide
in that street, [where she then was] according to (the eunuch's)
direction; and in a corner near the door I passed the whole night
in a state of agitation. I did not hear the sound of any person's
footsteps, nor did any bne ask me about my affairs. In this forlorn
state the morning came; when the sun rose, the lovely fair one looked
at me from a window in the balcony of the house. My heart only knows
the state of joy I felt at that moment. I praised the goodness of God.

In the meanwhile, an eunuch came up to me, and said, "Go and
stay in this [adjoining] mosque; perhaps your wishes may, in that
place, be accomplished, and you may yet gain the desires of your
heart." According to his advice I got up from the place [where
I had passed the night], and went to the mosque; but my eyes
remained fixed in the direction of the door of the house, to see
what might appear from behind the curtain of futurity. 1 waited for
the arrival of evening with the anxiety of a person who keeps the
fast [of _Ramazan_]. [157] At last the evening came, and the heavy
day was removed from my heart. All at once the same eunuch who had
given me the directions to find out the lady's house, came to the
mosque. After finishing the evening prayer, having come up to me,
that obliging person, who was in all my secrets, gave me much comfort,
and taking me by the hand, led me along with him, proceeding onwards
at last having made me sit down in a small garden, he said: "Stay here
until your desire [of seeing your mistress] be accomplished." Then he
himself having taken his leave, went, perhaps, to impart my wishes to
the beautiful lady. I amused myself with admiring the beauty of the
flowers of the garden, and the brightness of the full moon, and the
play of the fountains in the canals and rivulets, a display like that
of the mouths of _Sawan_ and _Bhadon_; but when I beheld the roses,
I thought of the beautiful rose-like angel, and when I gazed on the
bright moon, I recollected her moon-like face. All these delightful
scenes without her were so many thorns in my eyes.

At last God made her heart favourable to me. After a little while
that lovely fair one entered from the [garden] door adorned like the
full moon, wearing a rich dress, enriched with pearls, and covered
from head to feet with an embroidered veil; she stepped along the
garden walk, and stood [at a little distance from me]. By her coming,
the beauties of that garden, and the joy of my heart revived. After
strolling for a few minutes about the garden, she sat down in the
alcove on a richly-embroidered _masnad_. I ran, and like the moth
that flutters around the candle, offered my life as a sacrifice to
her, and like a slave stood before her with folded arms. At this
moment the eunuch appeared, and began to plead for my pardon and
restoration to her favour. Addressing myself to him, I said, I am
guilty, and culpable; whatever punishment is fixed on me, let it be
executed. The lady, though she was displeased, said with _hauteur_,
"The best thing that can be done for him now is that he should receive
a hundred bags of gold pieces, and having got his property all right,
let him return to his native country."

On hearing these words, I became a block of withered wood; if any
one had cut my body, not a drop of blood would have issued; all the
world began to appear dark before my sight; a sigh of despair burst
involuntarily from my heart, and the tears flowed from my eyes. I had
at that time no hope from any one except God; driven to utter despair,
I ventured to say, "Well, [cruel fair,] reflect a moment, that if to
this unfortunate wretch there had been a desire for worldly wealth,
he would not have devoted his life and property to you. Are the
acknowledgments due to my services, and my having devoted my life
to you, flown all of a sudden from this world, that you have shown
such disfavour to a wretch like me? It is all well; to me life is
no longer of any use; to the helpless, half-dead lover there is no
resource against the faithlessness of the beloved one."

On hearing these words, she was greatly offended, and frowning with
anger, she exclaimed, "Very fine indeed! What, thou art my lover! Has
the frog then caught cold? [158] O fool, for one in thy situation to
talk thus is an idle fancy; little mouths should not utter big words:
no more--be silent--repeat not such presumptuous language; if any other
had dared to behave so improperly, I vow to God, I would have ordered
his body to be cut in pieces, and given to the kites [of the air];
but what can I do?--Your services ever come to my recollection. Thou
hadst best now take the road [to thy home;] thy fate had decreed
thee food and drink only until now in my house!" I then weeping,
said, if it has been written in my destiny that I am not to attain
the desires of my heart, but to wander miserably through woods and
over mountains, then I have no remedy left. On hearing these words,
she became vexed and said, "These hints and this flattering nonsense
are not agreeable to me; go and repeat them to those who are fit to
hear them." Then getting up in the same angry mood, she returned to
her house. I beseeched her to hear me, but she disregarded what I
said. Having no resource, I likewise left the place, sad and hopeless.

In short, for forty days this same state of things continued. When I
was tired of pacing the lanes of the city, I wandered into the woods,
and when I became restless there, I returned to the lanes of the
city like a lunatic. I thought not of nourishment during the day,
or sleep at night; like a washerman's dog, that belongs neither to
the house nor the _ghat_ [159] The existence of man depends on eating
and drinking; he is the worm of the grain. Not the least strength
remained in my body. Becoming feeble, I went and lay down under the
wall of the same mosque; when one day the eunuch aforementioned came
there to say his Friday prayers, and passed near me; I was repeating
at the time, slow from weakness, this verse:

    "Give me strength of mind to bear these pangs of the heart, or
        give me death;
    Whatever may have been written in my destiny, O God! let it come

Though in appearance my looks were greatly altered, and my face was
such that whoever had seen me formerly would not have recognised me
to be the same person; yet the eunuch, hearing the sounds of grief,
looked at me, and regarding me with attention, pitied me, and with
much kindness addressed me, saying, "At last to this State thou hast
brought thyself." I replied, what was to occur has now happened;
I devoted my property to her welfare, and I have sacrificed my life
likewise; such has been her pleasure; then what shall I do?

On hearing this, he left a servant with me, and went into the mosque;
when he finished his prayers, and [heard] the _Khutba_, [160] he
returned to me, and putting me into a _miyana_ [161] had me carried
along to the house of that indifferent fair, and placed me outside the
_chik_ [of her apartment]. Though no trace of my former self remained,
yet as I had been for a long while constantly with the lovely fair one,
[she must have recognised me]; however, though knowing me perfectly,
she acted as a stranger, and asked the eunuch who I was. That excellent
man replied, "This is that unfortunate, ill-fated wretch who has fallen
under the displeasure and reprehension of your highness; for this
reason his appearance is such; he is burning with the fire of love; how
much soever he endeavours to quench the flame with the water of tears,
yet it burns with double force. Nothing is of the least avail; moreover
he is dying with the shame of his fault." The fair lady jocosely
said, "Why dost thou tell lies? I received from my intelligencers,
[162] many days ago, the news of his arrival in his own country;
God knows who this is of whom you speak." Then the eunuch, putting
his hands together, said, "If security be granted to my life, [163]
then I will be so bold as to address your highness." She answered,
"Speak; your life is secure." The eunuch said, "Your highness is
by nature a judge of merit; for God's sake lift up the screen from
between you, and recognise him, and take pity on his lamentable
condition. Ingratitude is not proper. Now whatever compassion you
may feel for his present condition is amiable and meritorious--to
say more would be [to outstep] the bounds of respect; whatever your
highness ordains, that assuredly is best."

On hearing this speech [of the eunuch], she smiled and said, "Well,
let him be who he will, keep him in the hospital; when he gets well,
then his situation shall be inquired into." The eunuch answered,
"If you will condescend to sprinkle rose-water on him with your own
royal hands, and say a kind word to him, then there may be hopes
of his living; despair is a bad thing; the world exists through
hope." Even on this, the fair one said nothing [to console me]. Hearing
this dialogue, I also continued becoming more and more tired of
existence. I fearlessly said, "I do not wish to live any longer on
these terms; my feet are hanging in the grave, and I must soon die;
my remedy is in the power of your highness; whether you may apply
it or not, that you only know." At last the Almighty [164] softened
the heart of that stony-hearted one; she became gracious and said,
"Send immediately for the royal physicians." In a short time they came
and assembled [around me]; they felt my pulse and examined my urine
with much deliberation; at last it was settled in their prægnosis,
that "this person is in love with some one; except the being united
with the beloved object, there is no other cure; whenever he possesses
her he will be well." When from the declaration of the physicians my
complaint was thus confirmed, the fair lady said, "Carry this young
man to the warm bath, and after bathing him and dressing him in fine
clothes, bring him to me." They instantly carried me out, and after
bathing me and clothing me well, they led me before the lovely angel;
then that beautiful creature said with kindness, "Thou hast constantly,
and for nothing, got me censured and dishonoured; now what more dost
thou wish? Whatever is in thy heart, speak it out quite plainly?"

O, _Darweshes!_ [165] at that moment my emotions were such that
[I thought] I should have died with joy, and- swelled so greatly
with pleasure, that my _jama_ [166] could hardly contain me,
and my countenance and appearance became changed; I praised God,
and said to her, this moment all the art of physic is centered in
you, who have restored a corpse like me to life with a single word;
behold, from that time to this, what a change has taken place in my
circumstances [by the kindness you have shewn]." After saying this,
I went round her three times, [167] and standing before her, I said,
"your commands are that I should speak whatever I have in my heart;
this boon is more precious to your slave than the empire of the seven
climes; then be generous and accept this wretch! keep me at your feet
and elevate me," On hearing this ejaculation, she became thoughtful
for a moment; then regarding me askance, she said, "Sit down; your
services and fidelity have been such that whatever you say becomes you;
they are also engraven on my heart. Well; I comply with your request."

The same day, in a happy hour, and under a propitious star the _kazi_
[168] quite privately performed the marriage rites. After so much
trouble and afflictions, God shewed me this happy day, when I gained
the desires of my heart; but in the same degree that my heart wished
to possess this angelic lady, it felt equally anxious and uneasy to
know the explication of those strange events [which had occurred];
for, up to that day I knew nothing about who she was; or who was
that brown, handsome negro, who on seeing a bit of paper, delivered
to me so many bags of gold; and how that princely entertainment was
prepared in the space of one _pahar_; and why those two innocent
persons were put to death after the entertainment; and the cause
of the anger and ingratitude she showed me after all my services
and kindnesses; and then all at once to elevate this wretch [to
the height of happiness.]. In short, I was so anxious to develop
these strange circumstances and doubts, that for eight days after
the marriage ceremonies, notwithstanding my great affection for her,
I did not attempt to consummate the rites of wedlock. I merely slept
with her at night, and got up in the morning "re non effectâ."

One morning I desired an attendant to prepare some warm water in order
that I might bathe. [169] The princess smiling, said, "Where is the
necessity for the hot water?" I remained silent; but she was perplexed
[to account] for my conduct; moreover, in her looks the signs of anger
were visible; so much so, that she one day said to me, "Thou art indeed
a strange man; at one time so warm before, and now so cold! what do
people call this [conduct]? If you had not manly vigour, then why did
you form so foolish a wish? I then having become fearless, replied,
"O, my darling, justice is a positive duty; no person ought to deviate
from the rules of justice. She replied, "What further justice remains
[to be done]? whatever was to happen has taken place." I answered,
in truth, that which was my most earnest wish and desire I have
gained; but, my heart is uneasy with doubts, and the man whose mind
is filled with suspicions is ever perplexed; he can do nothing, and
becomes different from other human creatures. I had determined within
myself that after this marriage, which is my soul's entire delight,
I would question your highness respecting sundry circumstances which
I do not comprehend, and which I cannot unravel; that from your own
blessed lips I might hear their explanation; then my heart would be at
ease." The lovely lady frowning, said, "How pretty! you have already
forgotten [what I told you]; recollect, many times I have desired you
not to search into my concerns, or to oppose what I say; and is it
proper in you to take, contrary to custom, such liberties?" I laughing
replied, as you have pardoned me much greater liberties, forgive this
also. That angelic fair, changing her looks and getting warm, became a
whirlwind of fire, and said; "You presume too much; go and mind your
own affairs; what advantage can you derive from [the explanation of)
these circumstances?" I answered, "the greatest shame in this world
is the exposure of our person; but we are conversant with one another
[in that respect], hence as you have thought it right to lay aside
this repugnance with me, then why conceal any other secrets from me?"

Her good sense made her comprehend my hint, and she said, "This is
true; but I am very apprehensive if I, wretched, should divulge
my secrets; it may be the cause of great trouble." I answered,
what strange apprehensions you form! do not conceive in your heart
such an idea of me, and relate without restraint all the events of
your life; never, never, shall they pass from my breast to my lips;
what possibility, then, of their reaching the ear of another?" When
she perceived that, without satisfying my curiosity she should have
no rest, being without resource, she said, "Many evils attend the
explanation of these matters, but you are obstinately bent upon
it. Well, I must please you; for which reason I am going to relate
the events of my past life--take care; it is equally necessary for you
to conceal them [from the world]; my information is on this condition."

In short, after many injunctions, she began the relation [of her life]
as follows:--"The unfortunate wretch before you is the daughter of the
King of Damascus; he is a great sovereign among sultans; he never had
any child except me. From the day I was born I was brought up with
great delicacy and tenderness, in joy and happiness under the eye
of my father and mother. As I grew up I became attached to handsome
and beautiful women; so that I kept near my person the most lovely
young girls of noble families, and of my own age; and handsome female
servants of the like age, in my service. I ever enjoyed the amusements
of dancing and singing, and never had a care about the good or evil
of the world. Contemplating my own condition thus free from care,
except the praises of God, nothing else occupied my thoughts.

"It so happened that my disposition became suddenly of itself so
changed, that I lost all relish for the company of others, nor did the
gay assembly afford me any pleasure; my temper became melancholic,
and my heart sad and confused; no one's presence was agreeable to
me, nor did my heart feel inclined for conversation. Seeing this sad
condition of mine, all the female servants were overwhelmed with sorrow
and fell at my feet [begging to know the cause of my gloom]. This
faithful eunuch, who has long been in my secrets, and from whom no
action of my life is concealed, seeing my melancholy, said, 'If the
princess would drink a little of the exhilarating lemonade, [170]
it is most probable that her cheerful disposition would be restored;
and gladness return to her heart.' On hearing him say so, I had a
desire [to taste it], and ordered some to be prepared immediately.

"The eunuch went out [to make it up], and returned, accompanied by a
young boy, who brought a goblet of the lemonade, carefully prepared and
cooled in ice. I drank it, and perceived it produced the good effect
ascribed to it; for this piece of service I bestowed on the eunuch
a rich _khil'at_, [171] and desired him to bring me a goblet of the
same every day at the same hour. From that day it became a regular
duty, that the eunuch came, accompanied by the boy who brought the
lemonade, and I drank it. When its inebriating quality took effect,
I used in the elevation of my spirits to jest and laugh with the boy,
and beguile my time. When his timidity wore off, he began to utter very
agreeable speeches, and related many pleasant anecdotes;  moreover,
he began to heave sighs and sobs. His face was handsome and worth
seeing; I began to like him beyond control. I, from the affections
of my heart, and the relish I felt for his playful humour, every
day gave him rewards and gratuities; but the wretch always appeared
before me in the same clothes that he had been accustomed to wear,
and they even were dirty and soiled.

"One day I said to him, you have received a good deal [of money] from
the treasury, but your appearance is as wretched as ever; what is the
cause of it? have you spent the money, or do you amass it?" When the
boy heard these encouraging words, and found that I enquired into
his condition, he said with tears in his eyes, 'Whatever you have
bestowed on this slave, my preceptor has taken from me; he did not
give me one _paisa_ [172] for myself; with what shall I make up other
clothes, and appear better dressed before you? it is not my fault,
and I cannot help it.' At this humble statement of his, I felt pity
for him; I instantly ordered the eunuch to take charge of the boy from
that day, to educate him under his own eye, and give him good clothes,
and not to allow him to play and skip about with other boys; moreover,
that my wish was, he should be taught a respectful mode of behaviour,
to fit him for my own princely service, and to wait on me. The eunuch
obeyed my orders, and perceiving how my inclinations leaned, he took
the utmost care of him. In a little time, from ease and good living,
his colour and sleekness changed greatly, like a snake's throwing
off its slough; I restrained my inclinations as much as I could, but
the [handsome] form of that rogue [173] was so engraven on my heart,
that I fondly wished to keep him clasped to my bosom, and never take
my eyes off him for a moment.

"At last, I made him enter into my companionship, and dressing him in
a variety of rich clothes and all kinds of jewels, I used to gaze at
him. In short, by being always with me, my longing eyes were satisfied
and my heart comforted; I every moment complied with his wants and
wishes; at last, my condition was such, that if on any urgent occasion
he was absent for a moment from my sight, I became quite uneasy. In a
few years he became a youth, and the down appeared on his cheeks; his
body and limbs were well formed! then there began to be a talk about
him out of doors among the courtiers. The guards of all descriptions
began to forbid him from coming and going within the palace. At length,
his entrance into it was quite stopped, and without him I had no rest;
a moment [of absence on his part,] was an age [of pain on mine]. When
I heard these tidings of despair, I was as distracted as if the
day of judgment had burst over me; and such was my condition that I
could not speak a word [to express my wishes]: nor yet could I live
separated from him. I had no means of relief; O God, what could I do;
a strange kind of uneasiness came over me, and in consequence of my
distraction I addressed myself to the same eunuch [who was in all my
secrets], and said to him, 'I wish to take care of this youth. In
fact, the best plan is for you to give him a thousand gold pieces,
to set him up in a jeweller's shop in the _chauk_, that he may from
the profit of his trade live comfortably; and to build him a handsome
house near my residence; to buy him slaves, and hire him servants and
fix their pay, that he may in every way live at his ease.' The eunuch
furnished him with a house, and set up a jeweller's shop for him to
carry on the traffic, and prepared everything that was requisite. In a
short time, his shop became so brilliant and showy, that whatever rich
_khil'ats_ or superb jewels were required for the king and his nobles,
could only be procured there; and by degrees his shop so flourished,
that all the rarities of every country were to be found there; and
the daily traffic of all other jewellers became languid in comparison
with his. In short, no one was able to compete with him in the city,
nor was his equal [to be found] in any other country.

"He made a great deal of money [174] by his business; but [grief
for his] absence daily preyed on my mind, and injured my health;
no expedient could be hit upon by which I might see him, and console
my heart. At last, for the purpose of consultation, I sent for the
same experienced eunuch, and said to him, 'I can devise no plan by
which I may see the youth for a moment, and inspire my heart with
patience. There remains only this method, which is to dig a mine from
his house and join the same to the palace.' I had no sooner expressed
my wish, than such a mine was dug in a few days, so that on the
approach of evening the eunuch used to conduct the young man through
that same passage, in silence and secrecy [to my apartment]. We used
to pass the whole night in eating and drinking, and every enjoyment;
I was delighted to meet him, and he was rejoiced to see me. When the
morning star appeared, and the _muwazzin_ [175] gave notice [of the
time for morning prayers], the eunuch used to lead the youth by the
same way to his house. No fourth person had any knowledge of these
circumstances; [it was known] only to the eunuch and two nurses who
had given me milk, and brought me up.

"A long period passed in this manner; but it happened one day that when
the eunuch went to call him, according to custom, then he perceived
that the youth was sitting sorrowful and silent. The eunuch asked him,
'Is all well to-day? why are you so sad? Come to the princess; she has
sent for you.' The youth made no reply whatever, nor did he move his
tongue. The eunuch returned alone with a similar face, and mentioned
to me the young man's condition. As the devil was about to ruin me,
even after this conduct I could not banish him from my heart; if I
had known that my love and affection for such an ungrateful wretch
would have at last rendered me infamous and degraded, and would have
destroyed my fame and honour; then I should have at that moment
shrunk back from such a proceeding, and should have done penance;
I never again should have pronounced his name, neither should I have
devoted my heart to the shameless [fellow]. But it was to happen so;
for this reason I took no heed of his improper conduct, and his not
coming I imagined to be the affectation and airs of those [who are
conscious of being] beloved; its consequences I have sadly rued, and
thou art now also informed of these events without hearing or seeing
them; or else where were you, and where was I? Well, what has happened
is past. Bestowing not a thought on the conceited airs of that ass,
I again sent him word by the eunuch, saying, 'if thou wilt not come
to me now, by some means or other I will come to thee; but there is
much impropriety in my coming there;--if this secret is discovered,
thou wilt have cause to rue it; so do not act in a manner that will
have no other result than disgrace; it is best that thou comest quickly
[to me], otherwise imagine me arrived [near thee]. When he received
this message, and perceived that my love for him was unbounded,
he came with disagreeable looks and affected airs.

"When he sat down by me, I asked him, 'what is the cause of your
coolness and anger to-day; you never showed so much insolence
and disrespect before, you always used to come without making any
excuses.' To this he replied, 'I am a poor nameless wretch; by your
favour, and owing to you, I am arrived to such power, and with much
ease and affluence I pass my days. I ever pray for your life and
prosperity; I have committed this fault in full reliance on your
highness's forgiveness, and I hope for pardon. As I loved him from
my soul and heart, I accepted his well-turned apology, and not only
overlooked his knavery, but even asked him again with affection,
what great difficulty has occurred that you are so thoughtful?
mention it, and it shall be instantly removed.'

"In short, in his humble way, he replied, 'Everything is difficult to
me; before your highness, all is easy,' At last, from the purport of
his discourse and conversation, it appeared that an elegant garden,
with a grand house in it, together with reservoirs, tanks and wells,
of finished masonry, was for sale, situated in the centre of the
city and near his house; and that with the garden a female slave was
to be sold, who sung admirably and understood music perfectly. But
they were to be sold together, and not the garden alone, 'like the
cat tied to the camel's neck;' [176] and that whoever purchased
the garden must also buy the slave; the best of it was, the price
of the garden was five thousand rupees, and the price of the slave
five hundred thousand. [He concluded saying], 'Your devoted slave
cannot at present raise so large a sum.' I perceived that his heart
was greatly bent on buying them, and that for this reason he was
thoughtful, and embarrassed in mind; although he was seated near me,
yet his looks were pensive and his heart sad: as his happiness every
hour and moment was dear to me, I that instant ordered the eunuch to
go in the morning and settle the price of the garden and the slave,
get their bills of sale drawn up, and deliver them to this person,
and pay the price to their owner from the royal treasury.

"On hearing this order, the young man thanked me, tears of joy
came upon his face; and we passed the night as usual in laughing
and delight; in the morning he took leave. The eunuch, agreeably
to my orders, bought and delivered over to him the garden and the
slave. The youth continued his visits at night, according to custom
[and retired in the morning]. One day in the season of spring, when
the whole place was indeed charming, the clouds were gathering low,
and the rain drizzling fell, the lightning also continued to flash
[through the murky clouds], and the breeze played gently [through
the trees]--in short, it was a delightful scene. When in the _taks_
[177] the liquors of various colours, arranged in elegant phials,
fell upon my sight; my heart longed to take a draught. After I
had drank two or three cupfulls, instantly the idea of the newly
purchased garden struck me. An irrepressible desire arose within me,
when in that state, that for a short time I should enjoy a walk in that
[garden]. When the stream of misfortune flows against us, we struggle
in vain against the tide. [178] I involuntarily took a female servant
with me, and went to the young man's house by the way of the mine;
from thence I proceeded to the garden, and saw that the delightful
place was in truth equal to the Elysian fields. As the raindrops fell
on the fresh green leaves of the trees, one might say they were like
pearls set in pieces of emerald, and the carnation of the flowers,
in that cloudy day, appeared as beautiful as the ruddy crepuscle
after the setting sun; the basons and canals, full of water, seemed
like sheets of mirrors, over which the small waves undulated.

"In short, I was strolling about in every direction in that garden,
when the day vanished and the darkness of night became conspicuous. At
that moment, the young man appeared on a walk [in the garden]; and on
seeing me, he approached with respect and great warmth of affection,
and taking my hand in his, led me to the pavilion. [179] On entering
it, the splendour of the scene made me entirely forget all the beauty
of the garden. The illuminations within were magnificent; on every
side, gerandoles, in the shape of cypresses, and various kinds of
lights in variegated lamps were lighted up; even the _shabi barat_,
with all its moonlight and its illuminations, would appear dark
[in comparison to the brightness which shone in the pavilion]; on
one side, fire-works [180] of every description were displayed.

"In the meantime, the clouds dispersed, and the bright moon appeared
like a lovely mistress clothed in a lilac-coloured robe, who suddenly
strikes our sight. It was a scene of great beauty; as the moon burst
forth, the young man said, 'Let us now go and sit in the balcony which
overlooks the garden.' I had become so infatuated, that whatever the
wretch proposed I implicitly obeyed; now he led me such a dance, that
he dragged me up [to the balcony.] That building was so high, that all
the houses of the city and the lights of the _bazar_, appeared as if
they were at the foot of it. I was seated in a state of delight, with
my arms round the youth's neck; meanwhile, a woman, quite ugly, without
form or shape, entered as it were from the chimney, with a bottle of
wine in her hand; I was at that time greatly displeased at her sudden
entrance, and on seeing her looks, my heart became alarmed. Then,
in confusion, I asked the young man, 'who is this precious hag;
from whence have you grubbed her up?' Joining his hands together, he
replied, 'This is the slave who was bought with the garden through your
generous assistance.' I had perceived that the simpleton had bought
her with much eager desire, and perhaps his heart was fixed on her;
for this reason, I, suppressing my inward vexation, remained silent;
but my heart from that moment was disturbed and displeasure affected
my temper; moreover, the wretch had the impudence to make this harlot
our cup-bearer. At that moment I was drinking my own blood with rage,
and was as uneasy as a parrot shut up in the same cage with a crow:
I had no opportunity of going away, and did not wish to stay. To
shorten the story, the wine was of the strongest description, so
that on drinking it a man would become a beast. She plied the young
man with two or three cups in succession of that fiery liquor, and
I also bitterly swallowed half a cupfull at the importunity of the
youth; at last, the shameless harlot likewise got beastly drunk,
and took very unbecoming liberties with that vile youth; and the
mean wretch also, in his intoxication, having become regardless,
began to be disrespectful, and behave indecently.

"I was so much ashamed, that had the earth opened at the moment I
would have willingly jumped into it; but in consequence of my passion
for him, I, infatuated, even after all these circumstances, remained
silent. However, he was completely a vile wretch, and did not feel the
value of my forbearance. In the fervour of intoxication, he drank off
two cups more, so that his little remaining sense vanished, and he
completely drove from his heart all respect for me. Without shame,
and in the rage of lust, the barefaced villain consummated before
me his career of infamous indecency with his hideous mistress, who,
in that posture, began to play off all the blandishments of love, and
kissing and embracing took place between the two. In that faithless
man no sense of honour remained; neither did modesty exist in that
shameless woman; 'As the soul is, so are the angels.' [181] My state
[of mind] at the time was like that of a songstress who having [lost
the musical time,] sings out of tune. I was invoking curses on myself
for having come there, saying that I was properly punished for my
folly. At last, how could I bear it? I was on fire from head to foot,
and began to roll on live coals. In my rage and wrath I recollected
the proverb, that 'It is not the bullock that leaps, but the sack;
[182] whoever has seen a sight like this?' in saying this to myself,
I came away thence.

"That drunkard in the depravity of his heart thought, if I was
offended now, what then would be his treatment the next day, and
what a commotion I should raise. So he imagined it best to finish
my existence [whilst he had me in his power.] Having formed this
resolution in his mind with the advice of the hag, he put his _patka_
[183] round his neck and fell at my feet, and taking off his turban
from his head, began to supplicate [my forgiveness] in the humblest
manner. My heart was infatuated towards him; whithersoever he turned
I turned; and like the handmill I was entirely under his control. I
implicitly complied with all he desired; some way or other he pacified
me, and persuaded me to retake my seat. He again took two or three
cupfulls of the fiery liquor, and he induced me to drink some also. I,
in the first place, was already inflamed with rage, and secondly,
after drinking such strong liquor I soon became quite senseless--no
recollection remained. Then that unfeeling, ungrateful, cruel wretch
wounded me with his sword; yea, further, he thought he had completely
killed me. At that moment, my eyes opened, and I uttered these words,
'Well, as I have acted, so I have been rewarded; but do thou screen
thyself from the consequences of shedding unjustly my blood. Let it
not so happen that some tyrant should seize thee; do thou wash off
my blood from thy garment; what has happened is past.'

"Do not divulge this secret to any one; I have not been wanting to
thee even with loss of life. Then placing him under the protection
of God's mercy, I fainted [from the loss of blood], and knew nothing
of what afterwards happened. Perhaps, that butcher, conceiving me
dead, put me into the chest, and let me down over the walls of the
fortress, the same as you yourself saw, I wished no one ill; but these
misfortunes were written in my destiny, and the lines of fate cannot
be effaced. My eyes have been the cause of all these calamities: if
I had not had a strong desire to behold beautiful persons, then that
wretch would not have been my bane. [184] God so ordained that He made
thee arrive there; and, He made thee the means of saving my life. After
undergoing these disgraces, I am ashamed to reflect that I should yet
live and show my face to any one. But what can I do? the choice of
death is not in our hands; God, after killing me, hath restored me to
life; let us see what is written in my future fate. In all appearance,
your exertions and zeal have been of use, so that I have been cured
of such wounds. Thou hast been ready to promote my wishes with thy
life and property, and whatever were thy means, thou hast offered
[them cheerfully]. In those days, seeing thee without money and sad,
I wrote the note to _Sidi Bahar_, who is my cashier. In that note, I
mentioned that I was in health and safety in such a place, and I said,
"convey the intelligence of me unfortunate to my excellent mother."

"The _Sidi_ sent by thee those trays of gold for my expenses; and
when I sent thee to the shop of _Yusuf_  the merchant, to purchase
_khil'ats_ and jewels, I felt confident that the weakminded wretch, who
soon becomes friends with every one, conceiving you a stranger, would
certainly form an intimacy with you, and indulging his conceit, invite
you to a feast and entertainment. This stratagem of mine turned out
right, and he did exactly what I had imagined in my heart. Then, when
you promised him to return, and came to me and related the particulars
of his insisting upon it, I was heartily pleased with the circumstance;
for I knew that if you went to his house, and there ate and drank,
you would invite him in return, and that he would eagerly come; for
this reason, I sent thee back quickly to him. After three days, when
you returned from the entertainment, and, quite abashed, made me many
apologies for staying away so long, to make you easy in your mind,
I replied, 'it is of no consequence; when he gave you leave then you
came away; but to be without delicacy is not proper, and we should not
bear another's debt of gratitude without an idea of paying it; now do
you go and invite him also, and bring him along with you.' When you
went away to his house, I saw that no preparations could be got ready
for the entertainment at our house, and if he should all at once come,
what could I do? but it fortunately happened that from time immemorial,
the custom of this country has been for the kings to remain out for
eight months in the year, to settle the affairs of the provinces, and
collect the revenues, and for four months, during the rains, to stay
[in the city] in their auspicious palaces. In those days, the king,
this unfortunate wretch's father, had gone into the provinces some
two or four months previously to arrange the affairs of the kingdom.

"Whilst you were gone to bring the young merchant [to the
entertainment], _Sidi Bahar_ imparted the particulars of my present
situation to the queen (who is the mother of me impure). Again I,
ashamed of my guilty conduct, went to the queen and related to her
all that happened to me. Although she, from motherly affection and
good sense, had used every means to conceal the circumstance of
my disappearance, saying, 'God knows what may be the end of it;'
she conceived it wrong to make public my disgrace for the present,
and for my sake she had concealed my errors in her maternal breast;
but she had all along been in search of me.

"When she saw me in this condition, and heard all the circumstances
[of my misfortune], her eyes filled with tears, and she said,
'O unfortunate wretch! thou hast knowingly destroyed the honour and
glory of the throne; a thousand pities that thou hadst not perished
also; if instead of thee I had been brought to bed of a stone, I
should have been patient; even now [it is not too late to] repent;
whatever was in thy unfortunate fate has happened; what wilt thou do
next? Wilt thou live or die?' I replied, with excessive shame, that
in this worthless wretch's fate it was so written, that I should live
in such disgrace and distress after escaping such various dangers; it
would have been better to have perished; though the mark of infamy is
stamped on my forehead, yet I have not been guilty of such an action
as can disgrace my parents.

"The great pain I now feel is, that those base wretches should escape
my vengeance, and enjoy their crime in each other's company, whilst
I have suffered such affliction from their hands: it is a pity that
I can do nothing [in order to punish them]. I hope one favour [from
your majesty], that you would order your steward to prepare all the
necessary articles for an entertainment at my house, that I may, under
the pretence of an entertainment, send for those two wretches, and
punish them for their deeds and also inflict vengeance for myself. In
the same manner that he lifted his hand upon me and wounded me, may
I be enabled to cut them to pieces; then my heart will be soothed;
otherwise I must continue glowing in this fire of resentment, and
ultimately I must be burnt to cinders. On hearing this speech, my
excellent mother became kind from maternal fondness, and concealed
my guilt in her own breast, and sent all the necessaries for the
entertainment by the same eunuch who is in my secrets. Every necessary
attendant came also, and each was ready in his own appropriate
occupation. In the time of evening, you brought the [base villain
who is now dead]; I wished the harlot should likewise come.

"For this reason I earnestly desired you to send for her; when she
also came and the guests were assembled, they all became thoroughly
intoxicated and senseless by drinking largely of wine; you also got
drunk along with them, and lay like a corpse. I ordered a _Kilmakini_
[185] to cut off both their heads with a sword; she instantly drew
her sword and cut off both their heads, and dyed their bodies with
their blood. The cause of my anger towards thee was this, that I
had given thee permission for the entertainment, but not to become an
associate in wine-drinking, with people thou hadst only known for a few
days. Assuredly this folly on thy part was anything but pleasing to
me; for when you drank till you became senseless, then what hopes of
aid from you remained? But the claims of thy services so cling around
my neck, that, notwithstanding such conduct, I forgive thee. And now,
behold, I have related to thee all my adventures from the beginning to
the end; do you yet desire in your heart any other [explanations]? In
the same manner that I have, in compliance with your wishes, granted
all you requested, do you also in like manner perform what I desire;
my advice on this occasion is, that it is no longer proper either
for you or me to remain in this city. Henceforward you are master."

O devoted to God! [186] the princess having spoken thus far, remained
silent. I, who with heart and soul considered her wishes paramount to
everything, and was entangled in the net of her affections, replied,
"whatever you advise, that is best, and I will without hesitation carry
the same into effect." When the princess found me obedient, and her
servant, she ordered two swift and high-mettled horses (which might
vie with the wind in speed), to be brought from the royal stables,
and kept in readiness. I went and picked out just such beautiful and
high spirited horses as she required, and had them saddled and brought
[to our house]. When a few hours of the night remained, the princess
put on men's clothes, and arming herself with the five weapons, [187]
mounted on one of the horses; I got on the other, completely armed,
and we set out in the same direction.

When night was over, and the dawn began to appear, we arrived on the
banks of a certain lake; alighting from our horses, we washed our
hands and faces; having breakfasted in great haste, we mounted again
and set off. Now and then the princess spoke, and said, "I have for
your sake left fame, honour, wealth, country and parents all behind me;
now, may it not so happen, that you also should behave to me like that
faithless savage." Sometimes I talked of different matters to beguile
the journey, and sometimes replied to her questions and doubts, saying
"O princess, all men are not alike; there must have been some defect
in that base villain's parentage, that by him such a deed was done;
but I have sacrificed my wealth and devoted my life to you, and you
have dignified me in every way. I am now your slave without purchase,
and if you should make shoes of my skin and wear them, I will not
complain." Such conversation passed between us, and day and night
to travel onward was our business. If through fatigue we sometimes
dismounted somewhere, we then used to hunt down the beasts and birds of
the woods, and having lawfully slain them, and applied salt from the
salt-cellar, and having struck fire with steel [188] (from a flint),
we used to broil and eat them. The horses we let loose [to graze],
and they generally found sufficient to satisfy their hunger from the
grass and leaves.

One day we reached a large even plain, where there was no trace of
any habitation, and where no human face could be seen; even in this
[solitary and dreary scene], owing to the princess's company, the day
appeared festive and the nights joyful. Proceeding on our journey,
we came suddenly to a large river, the sight of which would appal
the firmest heart. [189] As we stood on its banks, as far as the eye
could reach, nothing was to be seen but water; no means of crossing
was to be found. O God [cried I], how shall we pass this sea! we stood
reflecting on this sad obstacle for a few moments, when the thought
came into my mind to leave the princess there, and to go in search
of a boat; and that until I could find some means to pass over, the
princess would have time to rest. Having formed this plan, I said,
"O princess, if you will allow me, I will go and look out for a ferry
or ford." She replied, "I am greatly tired, and likewise hungry and
thirsty; I will rest here a little, whilst thou findest out some
means to pass over [the river]."

On that spot was a large _pipal_ [190] tree, forming a canopy [of
such extent], that if a thousand horsemen sheltered themselves under
its wide-spread branches, they would be protected from the sun and
rain. Leaving there the princess, I set out, and was looking all around
to find somewhere or other on the ground, or the river, some trace of
a human being. I searched much, but found the same nowhere. At last,
I returned hopeless, but did not find the princess under the tree; how
can I describe the state of my mind at that moment! my senses forsook
me, and I became quite distracted. Sometimes I mounted the tree,
and looked for her in every individual leaf and branch; sometimes,
letting go my hold, I fell on the ground, and went round the roots
of the tree as one who performs the _tasadduk_ [191]. Sometimes I
wept and shrieked at my miserable condition; now I ran from west
to east, then from north to south. In short, I searched everywhere,
[192] but could not find any trace of the rare jewel [I had lost];
when, at last, I found I could do nothing, then weeping and throwing
dust over my head, I looked for her everywhere.

This idea came into my mind, that perhaps some of the _jinns_ had
carried her away, and had inflicted on me this wound; or else that
some one had followed her from her country, and finding her alone, had
persuaded her to return to Damascus. Distracted with these fancies,
I threw off and cast away my clothes, and becoming a naked _fakir_,
I wandered about in the kingdom of Syria from morn until eve, and
at night lay down to rest in any place [I could find]. I wandered
over the whole region, but could find no trace of my princess, nor
hear any thing of her from any one, nor could I ascertain the cause
of her disappearance. Then this idea came into my mind, that since
I could find no trace of that beloved one, even life itself was a
weariness. I perceived a mountain in some wilderness; I ascended it,
and formed the design of throwing myself headlong [from its summit],
that I might end my wretched existence in a moment, by dashing my
head to pieces against the stones, then would my soul be freed from
a state of affliction.

Having formed this resolution within myself, I was on the point of
precipitating myself [from the mountain], and had even lifted up my
foot, when some one laid hold of my arm. In the meanwhile, I regained
my senses, and looking round, I saw a horseman clothed in green,
with a veil thrown over his face, who said to me, "Why dost thou
attempt to destroy thy life; it is impious to despair of God's mercy;
whilst there is breath, so long there is hope. Three _Darweshes_
will meet thee a few days hence, in the empire of _Rum_, who are
equally afflicted with thyself, entangled in the same difficulties,
and who have met with adventures similar to thine; the name of the
king of that country is _Azad Bakht_; he is also in great trouble;
when he meets you and the other three _Darweshes_, then the wishes
and desires of the heart of each of you will be completely fulfilled."

I instantly laid hold of the stirrup [of this guardian angel,]
and kissed it, and exclaimed, "O messenger of God, the few words
you have pronounced have consoled my afflicted heart; but tell me,
for God's sake, who you are, and what is your name." He replied,
"My name is _Murtaza 'Ali_, [193] and my office is this, that to
whomsoever there occurs a danger or difficulty, I am at hand to afford
relief." Having said this much, he vanished from my sight. In short,
having set my heart at ease from the happy tidings I received from
my spiritual guide _[Murtaza 'Ali_], "the remover of difficulties,"
I formed the design of [proceeding to] Constantinople. On the road I
suffered all those misfortunes which were decreed me by fate; with
the hopes of meeting the princess. Through the assistance of God,
I am come here, and by good fortune I have become honoured by your
presence. The promised meeting has taken place between us, and we have
enjoyed each other's society and conversation; now it only remains
for us to be known to, and acquainted with, the king _Azad Bakht_.

Assuredly after this, we five shall attain the desires of our
hearts. Do you also beseech the blessings of God, and say amen. O
ye holy guides! such have been the adventures which have befallen
this bewildered wanderer, which have been faithfully related in your
presence; now let us look forward [to the time] when my trouble and
sorrows will be changed into joy and gladness by the recovery of the
princess. _Azad Bakht_, concealed in silence in his corner, having
heard with attention the story of the first _Darwesh_, was greatly
pleased; then he betook himself to listen to the adventures of the
next _Darwesh_.


When it came to the turn of the second _Darwesh_ to speak, he placed
himself at his ease, [194] and said--

    "O friends, to this _fakir's_ story listen a little;--
    I will tell it to you,--from first to the last, listen;
    Whose cure no physician can perform;
    My pain is far beyond remedy,--listen."

O ye clothed in the _dalk!_ [195] this wretch is the prince of the
kingdom of Persia; men skilled in every science are born there, for
which reason the [Persian] proverb "_Isfahan nisfi Jahan_," [196] or
"_Ispahan_ is half the world," has become well known. In the seven
climes, there is no kingdom equal to that ancient kingdom; the star
of that country is the sun, and of all the seven constellations it
is the greatest. [197] The climate of that region is delightful,
and the inhabitants are of enlightened minds, and refined in their
manners. My father (who was the king of that country), in order to
teach me the rules and lessons of government, made choice of very
wise tutors in every art and science, and placed them over me for my
instruction from my infancy. So, having received complete instruction
in every kind [of knowledge], I am now learned. With the favour of God,
in my fourteenth year I had learned every science, polite conversation,
and polished manners;  and I had acquired all that is fit and requisite
for kings to know; moreover, my inclinations night and day, led me to
associate with the learned, and hear the histories of every country,
and of ambitious princes and men of renown.

One day, a learned companion, who was well versed in history, and
had seen [a great deal of] the world, said to me, "That though there
is no reliance on the life of man, yet such excellent qualities are
often found in him, that owing to them, the name of some men will be
handed down with praise on people's tongues to the day of judgment." I
begged of him to relate circumstantially a few instances on that score,
that I might hear them, and endeavour to act accordingly. Then that
person began to relate as follows, some of the adventures of _Hatim
Ta'i_. "That there lived in the time of _Hatim_, a king of Arabia,
named _Naufal_, who bore great enmity towards _Hatim_, on account of
his renown, and having assembled many troops, he went up to give him
battle. _Hatim_ was a God-fearing and good man; he thus conceived,
that, "If I likewise prepare for battle, then the creatures of God
will be slaughtered, and there will be much bloodshed; the punishment
of heaven for which will be recorded against my name." Reflecting on
this, he quite alone, taking merely his life with him, fled and hid
himself in a cave in the mountains. When the news of _Hatim's_ flight
reached _Naufal_, he confiscated all the property and dwellings of
_Hatim_, and proclaimed publicly, that whoever would look out for him
and seize him, should receive from the king's treasury five hundred
pieces of gold. On hearing this [proclamation], all became eager,
and began to make diligent search for _Hatim_.

"One day, an old man and his wife, taking two or three of their young
children with them, for the purpose of picking up wood, strayed near
the cave where _Hatim_ was concealed; and began to gather fuel in
that same forest. The old woman remarked, 'If our days had been at all
fortunate, we should have seen and found _Hatim_ somewhere or other,
and seizing him, we should have carried him to _Naufal_; then he would
give us five hundred pieces of gold, and we should live comfortably,
and be released from this toil and care,' The old woodman said,
'What art thou prating about? it was decreed in our fate, that we
should pick up wood every day, place it on our heads, and sell it in
the _bazar_, and [with its produce] procure bread and salt; or one
day the tiger of the woods will carry us off: peace, mind thy work;
why should _Hatim_ fall into our hands, and the king give us so much
money?' The old woman heaved a cold sigh, and remained silent.

"_Hatim_ had heard the words of the two [old people], and conceived it
unmanly and ungenerous to conceal himself to save his life, and not
to conduct those helpless ones to the object of their desire. True
it is, that a man without pity is not a human being, and he in whose
heart there is no feeling is a butcher.

    'Man was created to exercise compassion,
    Otherwise, angels were not wanting for devotion.'

In short, _Hatim's_ manly mind would not allow him to remain concealed,
after what he had with his own ears heard [from the woodman]; he
instantly came out, and said to the old man, 'O friend, I myself
am _Hatim_, lead me to _Naufal_; on seeing me, he will give thee
whatever amount of money he has promised.' [198] The old woodman
replied, 'It is true that my welfare and advantage certainly consist
in doing so, but who knows how he will treat thee; if he should put
thee to death, then what shall I do? This, on my part, can never
be done--that I should deliver over thee to thine enemy for the
sake of my own avarice. In a few days I shall spend the [promised]
wealth, and how long shall I live? I must die at last; then what
answer shall I give to God?' _Hatim_ implored him greatly, and said,
'Take me along with thee--I say so of my own pleasure; I have ever
desired that, should my wealth and life be of use to some one or other
[of my fellow creatures], then so much the better.' But the old man
could not in any way be persuaded to carry _Hatim_ along with him, and
receive the [proclaimed reward. At last, becoming hopeless, _Hatim_
said, 'If you do not carry me in the way I wish, then I will go of
myself to the king, and say, this old man concealed me in a cave
in the mountains,' The old man smiled and said, 'If I am to receive
evil for good, then hard will be my fate.' During this conversation,
other men arrived, and a crowd assembled [around them]; perceiving the
person they saw to be _Hatim_, they instantly seized him and carried
him along; the old man also, a little in the rear, followed them in
silent grief. When they brought _Hatim_ before _Naufal_, he asked,
'Who has seized and brought him here?' A worthless, hard-hearted
[boaster] answered, 'Who could have performed such a deed except
myself? This achievement belongs to my name, and I have planted the
standard [of glory] in the sky.' Another vaunting fellow clamoured,
'I searched for him many days in the woods, and caught him at last,
and have brought him here; have some consideration for my labour,
and give me what has been promised.' In this manner, from avidity
for the [promised] pieces of gold, every one said he had done the
deed. The old man, in silence, sat apart in a corner, and heard all
their boastings, and wept for _Hatim_. When each had recounted his
act of bravery and enterprise, then _Hatim_ said to the king, 'If you
ask for the truth, then it is this; that old man, who stands aloof
from all, has brought me here; if you can judge from appearances,
then ascertain the fact, and give him for my seizure what you have
promised; for in the whole body the tongue [199] is a most sacred
[member]. It is incumbent upon a man to perform what he has promised;
for in other respects God has given tongues to brutes likewise; then
what would have been the difference between a man and other animals?'

"_Naufal_ called the old wood-cutter near him, and said, 'Tell the
truth; what is the real state of the matter; who has seized and
brought _Hatim_ here?' The honest fellow related truly all that had
occurred from beginning to end, and added, '_Hatim_ is come here of
his own accord for my sake.' _Naufal_, on hearing this manly act of
_Hatim's_, was greatly astonished, and exclaimed, 'How surprising
is thy liberality! even thy life thou hast not feared to risk [for
the good of others]!' With regard to all those who laid false claims
to having seized _Hatim_, the king ordered them to have their hands
tied behind their backs, and instead of five hundred pieces of gold,
to receive each five hundred strokes of a slipper on their heads,
so that their lives might perish [under the punishment]. Instantly,
the strokes of the slippers began to be laid on in such a style, that
in a short time their heads became quite bald. True it is, that to tell
an untruth is such a guilt, that no other guilt equals it; may God keep
every one free from this calamity, and not give him a propensity for
telling lies; many people persevere in uttering falsehoods, but at
the moment of detection they meet with their dessert.

"In short, _Naufal_ having rewarded all of them according to their
desserts, thought it contrary to gentlemanly conduct and manliness
of character to harbour enmity and strife towards a man like _Hatim_,
from whom multitudes received happiness, and who, for the sake of the
necessitous, did not even spare his own life, and was entirely devoted
to the ways of God. He instantly seized _Hatim's_ hand with great
cordiality and friendship, and said to him, 'Why should it not be the
case? [200] such a man as you are can perform such an action.' Then
the king, with great respect and attention, made _Hatim_ sit down
near him, and he instantly restored to him the lands and property,
and the wealth and moveables, he had confiscated; and bestowed on him
anew the chieftainship of the tribe of _Ta,i_, and ordered the five
hundred pieces of gold to be given to the old man from the treasury,
who, blessing [the king], went away."

When I had heard the whole of this adventure of _Hatim's_, a spirit
of rivalry came into my mind; and this idea occurred to me, viz.,
"_Hatim_ was the only chief of his own tribe [of Arabs]. He, by
one act of liberality has gained such renown, that to this day it
is celebrated; whilst I am, by the decree of God, the king of all
_Iran_; and it would be a pity if I were to remain excluded from this
good fortune. It is certain that in this world no quality is greater
than generosity and liberality; for whatever a man bestows in this
world, he receives its return in the next. If any one sows a single
seed, then how much does he reap from its produce! With these ideas
impressed upon my mind, I called for the lord of the buildings, and
ordered him to erect, as speedily as possible, a grand palace without
the city, with forty high and wide gates. [201] In a short time, even
such a grand palace as my heart wished for, was built and got ready,
and in that place every day at all times, from morning till night,
I used to bestow pieces of silver and gold on the poor and helpless;
whoever asked for anything in charity, I granted it to the utmost of
his desire.

In short, the necessitous entered [daily] through the forty gates,
and received whatever they wanted. It happened one day that a _fakir_
came in from the front gate and begged some alms. I gave him a gold
piece; then the same person entered through the next gate, and asked
two pieces of gold; though I recollected him [to be the same _fakir_],
I passed over [the circumstance] and gave them. In this manner he came
in through each gate, and increased a piece of gold in his demand
each time; and I knowingly appeared ignorant [of the circumstance],
and continued supplying him according to his demand. At last he
entered by the fortieth gate, and asked forty pieces of gold--this
sum I likewise ordered to be given him. After receiving so much,
the _fakir_ re-entered from the first gate and again begged alms:
his conduct appeared to me highly impudent, and I said, hear, O
avaricious man, what kind of a _fakir_ art thou, that dost not even
know the meaning of the three letters which compose the word [Arabic:
faqr] _fakr_ (poverty); a _fakir_ ought to act up to them. He replied,
"Well, generous soul, explain them yourself." I answered, "[Arabic:
f] _fe_ means _faka_ (fasting); [Arabic: q] _kaf_ signifies _kina'at_
(contentment); and [Arabic: r] _re_ means _riyazat_ (devotion); [202]
whoever has not these three qualities, is not a _fakir_. All this
which you have received, eat and drink with it, and when it is done,
return to me, and receive whatever thou requirest. This charity is
bestowed on thee to relieve immediate wants and not for the purpose
of accumulation. O avidious! from the forty gates thou hast received
from one piece of gold up to forty; add up the amount, and see by the
rule of arithmetical progression how many pieces of gold it comes to;
and even after all this, thy avarice hath brought thee back again
through the first gate. What wilt thou do after having accumulated so
much money? A [real] _fakir_ ought only to think [of the wants] of the
passing day; the following day the great Provider [of necessaries]
will afford thee a new pittance. Now evince some shame and modesty;
have patience, and be content;  what sort of mendicity is this that
thy spiritual guide hath taught thee?"

On hearing these reproaches of mine, he became displeased and angry,
and threw down on the ground all [the money] he had received from me,
and said, "Enough, sir, do not be so warm; take back your gifts and
keep them, and do not again pronounce the word generosity. It is very
difficult to be generous; you are not able to support the weight of
generosity, when will you attain to that station? [203] you are as
yet very far from it. The word [Arabic: sakhy] _Sakhi_ (generous),
is also composed of three letters; first act up to the meaning of
those three letters, then you will be called generous." On hearing
this I became uneasy, and said to the _fakir_, well, holy pilgrim,
explain to me the meaning of those three letters. He replied, "from
[Arabic: s] _sin_ is derived _sama,i_ (endurance); from [Arabic: kh]
_khe_ comes _khaufi Ilahi_ (fear of God); and from [Arabic: y]_ye_
proceeds _yad_ (remembrance of one's birth and death). Until one
is possessed of these three qualities, he should not mention the
name of generosity; and the generous man has also this happiness,
that although he acts amiss [in other points], yet he is dear to
his Maker [on account of his generosity]. I have travelled through
many countries, but except the princess of _Basra_, I have not seen a
[person really] generous. The robe of generosity God hath shaped out on
[the person] of that woman; all others desire the name, but do not act
up to it." On hearing this, I made much entreaty, and conjured him
[by all that was sacred] to forgive my rebuke, and take whatever he
required. He would not, on any account, accept my proffered gifts,
but went away repeating these words, "Now if thou wert to give all
thy kingdom, I would not spit upon it, nor would I even **." [204]
The pilgrim went away, but having heard such praises of the princess
of _Basra_, my heart became quite restless, and no way could I be
easy. Now this desire arose within me, that by some means or other
I must go to _Basra_ and take a look at her.

In the meantime, the king, my father, died, and I ascended the
throne. I got the empire, but the idea [I had formed of going to
_Basra]_] did not leave me. I held a consultation with the _wazir_
and nobles, who were the support of the throne, and the pillars of
the empire, saying, I wish to make a journey to _Basra_. Do ye remain
steady in your respective stations; if I live, then the duration of
the journey will be short; I will soon be back. No one seemed pleased
at the idea of my going; in my helplessness, my heart continued to
become more and more sorrowful. One day, without consulting any one,
I privately sent for the resourceful _wazir_, and made him regent
and plenipotentiary [during my absence], and placed him at the head
of the affairs of the empire. I then put on the ochre-coloured habit
[of a pilgrim], and, assuming the appearance of a _fakir_, I took the
road to _Basra_  alone. In a few days, I reached its boundaries, and
[constantly] began to witness this scene; wherever I halted for the
night, the servants of the princess advanced to receive me, and made me
halt at some elegant house, and they used to provide me in perfection
with all the requisites of a banquet, and to remain in attendance on
me all night with the utmost respect. The following day, at the next
stage, I experienced the same reception. In this comfort I journeyed
onwards for months; at last I entered [the city of] _Basra_. I had
no sooner entered it, than a good-looking young man, well dressed,
and well-behaved, who carried wisdom in his looks, came up to me, and
said with extreme sweetness of address, "I am the servant of pilgrims;
I am always on the look out to conduct to my house all travellers,
whether pilgrims or men of the world, who come to this city; except
my house alone, there is no other place here for a stranger to put
up at; pray, holy sir, come with me, bestow honour on my abode,
and render me exalted.

I asked him, "what is the noble name of your honour?" He replied,
"they call the name of this nameless one _Bedar Bakht_." Seeing his
good qualities and affable manners, I went along with him and came to
his house. I saw a grand mansion fitted up in a princely style--he
led me to a grand apartment, and made me sit down; and sending for
warm water, he caused [the attendants] to wash my hands and feet;
and having caused the _dastar-khwan_ [205] to be spread, the steward
placed before me alone a great variety of trays  and dishes, and large
quantities of fruit and confectionery. [206] On seeing such a grand
treat, my very soul was satiated, and taking a mouthful from each dish,
my stomach was filled; I then drew back my hand from eating. [207]

The young man became very pressing, and said, "Sir, what have you
eaten? all the dinner remains as it were for a deposit; [208] eat
some more without ceremony." I replied, there is no shame in eating;
God prosper your house, I have eaten as much as my stomach can
contain, and I cannot sufficiently praise the relish of your feast,
and even now my tongue smacks with their flavour, and every belch
[209] I make is absolutely perfumed, now pray take them away. "When
the _dastar-khwan_ was removed, they spread a carpet of _kashani_
velvet, and brought to me ewers and basins of gold, with scented soap
and warm water, wherewithal I might wash my hands; then _betel_ was
introduced, in a box set with precious stones, and spices of various
kinds; whenever I called for water to drink, the servants brought
it cooled in ice. When the evening came, camphorated candles were
lighted up in the glass shades; and that friendly young man sat down
near me and entertained me with his conversation. When one watch of
the night had elapsed, he said to me, "be pleased to sleep in this
bed, in front of which are curtains and screens." I said, O, Sir,
for us pilgrims a mat or a deer-skin is sufficient; this [luxury]
God has ordained for you men of the world.

He replied, "All these things are for pilgrims; they do not in the
least belong to me." On his pressing me so urgently, I went and lay
down on the bed which was softer than even a bed of flowers. Pots
of roses and baskets of flowers were placed on both sides of the
bedstead, and aloes and other perfumes were burning; to whichever
side I turned, my senses were intoxicated with fragrance; in this
state I slept. When the morning came, [the attendants] placed before
me for breakfast, almonds, pistachio nuts, grapes, figs, pears,
pomegranates, currants, dates, and _sharbat_  made of fruit. In this
festive manner I passed three days and nights. On the fourth day I
requested leave to depart. The young man said, with joined hands,
"Perhaps I have been deficient in my attentions to you, for which
reason you are displeased." I replied with astonishment, for God's
sake, what a speech is this? the rules of hospitality [require one
to stay] three days--these have I fulfilled; to remain longer would
be improper; and besides this, I have set out to travel, and if I
remain merely at one place, then it will not suit; for which reason
I beg leave to depart; in other respects, your kindness is such that
my heart does not wish to be separated from you.

He then said, "Do as you please; but wait a moment, that I may go to
the princess and in her presence mention [the circumstance]; and as you
wish to depart [be it known to you], that all the wearing apparel and
bedding, also the vessels of silver and gold, and the jewelled vessels
in this guest's apartment, are your property; whatever directions
you may give for the purpose of taking them away, an arrangement [to
that effect] shall be made." I answered, "cease [210] to talk in this
manner; I am a pilgrim, and not a strolling bard; if such avarice had
a place in my heart, then why should I have turned pilgrim; and where
would be the evil of [my leading] a worldly life?" That kind young
man replied, "If the princess should hear of this circumstance [of
your refusal], she will discharge me from my employment, and God knows
what other punishment I shall receive; if you are so indifferent [to
possess them], then lock up all these articles in a room, and put your
seal on the door, and you may hereafter dispose of them as you please."

I would not accept [his offer], and he would not submit [to me]. At
last, this plan was adopted, I locked them all up in a room, and
put my seal on the door, and waited [with impatience] for leave
of departing. In the meantime a confidential eunuch, having on his
head an aigrette, and a short robe round his loins, and a golden mace
studded with gems in his hand, accompanied by several other respectable
attendants, filling [various] offices, came near me with this splendour
and pomp. He addressed me with such kindness and complaisance that
I cannot express it, and added, "O, sir, if shewing kindness and
benevolence, you do me the favour to dignify my humble dwelling with
your presence, then it will not be far from courtesy and condescension.

Perhaps the princess will hear that a traveller had been here, and no
one had received him with courtesy and politeness; and that he had
gone away as he came; for this reason God knows what punishment she
will inflict on me, or how far her displeasure will be raised; yea
more, it is a matter affecting my life," I refused to listen to his
request, but through dint of solicitations he overcame my resistance,
and conducted me to another house, which was better than the first
Like the former host, he entertained me twice a day for three days and
nights, with the same kind of meals, and in the morning and afternoon
sherbet, and fruits for passing away the time, and he told me that I
was the master of all the rich gold and silver dishes, carpets, &c,
and that I might do with them whatever I pleased.

On hearing these strange proposals, I was quite confounded, and
wished that I might by some means take my leave and escape from this
place. On perceiving my [embarassed] countenance, the eunuch said,
"O creature of God, whatever your wants or wishes may be, impart them
to me, that I may lay them before the princess." I replied, "in the
garb of a pilgrim, how can I desire the riches of this world, which
you offer me unasked, and which I refuse?" He then said, "The desire
of worldly goods forsakes the heart of no one, for which reason some
poet has composed these verses:--

    "I have seen [ascetics] with nails unpared;
    I have seen [others] with hair thickly matted;
    I have seen _jogis_ [211] with their ears split,
    Having their bodies covered with ashes;
    I have seen the _maunis_ [212] who never speak;
    I have seen the _sevras_ [213] with heads shaved;
    I have seen [the people] sporting,
    In the forest of _Ban-khandi_;
    I have seen the brave, I have seen heroes;
    I have seen the wise and the foolish, all;
    I have seen those filled with delusion,
    Continuing in forgetfulness amidst their wealth;
    I have seen those [who were] happy from first to last.
    I have seen those [who were] afflicted from their birth;
    But never have I seen those [men]
    In whose minds avarice did not exist."

On hearing these [lines], I replied, what you say is true, but I
want nothing; if you will permit, I will write out a note and send it
which will express my wish, and which you will convey to the presence
of the princess, it will be [doing me] a great favour, as if I had
received all the riches in the world. The eunuch said, "I will do it
with pleasure, there is no difficulty in it." I immediately wrote a
note to the following purport:--first, I began with the praise of
God; I then related my circumstances and situation, saying, "that
this creature of God had, some days since, arrived in the city,
and from the munificence of her government, had been taken care
of in every way; that I had heard such accounts of her highness's
generosity and munificence, as had raised in me an ardent desire
to see her, and that I had found those qualities four-fold greater
than they had been represented. Your nobles now tell me to set forth
before you whatever wants or wishes I may have; for this reason I
beg to represent to you without ceremony the wishes of my heart. I
am not in want of the riches of this world. I am also the king of
my own country; my sole reason for coming so far and undergoing such
fatigues, was the ardent desire I had to see you, which motive only
has conducted me here in this manner quite alone. I now hope through
your benevolence to attain the wishes of my heart; I shall then be
satisfied. Any further favours will rest with your pleasure; but if the
request of this wretch is not granted, then he will wander about in
this same manner, encountering hardships, and sacrifice his restless
life to the passion he feels for you. Like _Majnun_ and _Farhad_,
[214] he will end his life in some forest or mountain."

Having written my wishes, I gave the note to the eunuch; he carried
it to the princess. After a short while, he returned and called me,
and conducted me to the door of the seraglio. On arriving there,
I saw an elderly and respectable woman dressed in jewels, sitting on
a golden stool, and many eunuchs and other servants richly clothed,
were standing before her with arms across. I imagining her to be the
superintendent of affairs, and regarding her as a venerable [person],
made her my obeisance; the old lady returned my salute with much
civility, and said, "Come and sit down, you are welcome; it is you
who wrote an affectionate note to the princess." I feeling ashamed,
hung down my head and remained sitting silent.

After a short pause, she said, "O, young man, the princess has sent
you her _salam_, [215] and said thus, 'There is nothing wrong in my
taking a husband; you have solicited me [in marriage]; but to speak
of your kingdom, and to conceive yourself a king in this mendicant
state, and to be proud of it, is quite out of place; for this reason,
that all men among each other are certainly equal; although superior
consideration ought to be due to those who are of the religion of
_Muhammad_. I also have wished for a long while to marry, and as you
are indifferent to worldly riches, to me likewise God has given such
wealth as cannot be counted. But there is one condition, that first
of all you procure my marriage portion.' [216] The marriage-gift of
the princess," added the old lady, "is a certain task to perform,
if yon can fulfil it." I replied, "I am ready in every way, and I
shall not be sparing of my wealth or life; tell me what the task is,
that I may hear it. The old woman then said, "Remain here to-day,
and tomorrow I will tell it to you." I accepted [her proposal] with
pleasure, and taking my leave, I came out.

The day had in the meantime passed away, and when the evening came, a
eunuch called upon me, and conducted me to the seraglio. On entering,
I saw that the nobles, the learned, the virtuous, and the sages of
the divine law were present. I likewise joined the assembly and sat
down. In the meantime the cloth for the repast was spread, and eatables
of every variety, both sweet and salt, were laid out. They all began
to eat, and with courtesy solicited me to join them. When dinner was
over, a female servant came out from the interior [of the seraglio]
and asked, "Where is _Bahrawar_? call him." The servants in waiting
brought him immediately; his appearance was very respectable, and many
keys of silver and gold were suspended from his waist. After saluting
me, he sat down by me. The same female servant said, "O, _Bahrawar_,
whatever thou hast seen, relate it fully [to this stranger]."

_Bahrawar_, addressing himself to me, began the following
narration:--"O, friend! our princess possesses thousands of slaves,
who are established in trade; among them I am one of the humblest of
her hereditary servants. She sends them to different countries with
goods and merchandise, worth _lakhs_ of rupees, of which they have
the charge; when these return [from the respective countries to which
they were sent to trade], then the princess, in her own presence,
inquires of them the state and manners of such country, and hears
[their different accounts]. Once it so happened that this meanest
[of her slaves] went to the country and city of _Nimroz_ [217] to
trade, and perceiving that all the inhabitants were dressed in black,
and that they sighed and wept every moment, and it appeared to me
that some sad calamity had befallen them. From whomsoever I asked
the reason [of these strange circumstances], no one would answer my
inquiry. One day, the moment the morning appeared, all the inhabitants
of the city, little and great, young and old, poor and rich, issued
forth. They went out and assembled on a plain; the king of the country
went there also mounted on horseback, and surrounded by his nobles;
then they all formed a regular line, and stood still.

"I also stood among them to see the strange sight, for it clearly
appeared that they were waiting for [the arrival of] some one. In an
hour's time a beautiful young man, of an angelic form, about fifteen or
sixteen years of age, uttering a loud noise, and foaming at the mouth,
and mounted on a dun bull, holding something in one hand, approached
from a distance, and came up in front of the people; he descended from
the bull, and sat down [oriental fashion] on the ground, holding the
halter of the animal in one hand, and a naked sword in the other;
a rosy-coloured, beautiful [attendant] was with him; the young man
gave him that which he held in his hand; the slave took it, and went
along showing it to all of them from one end of the line to the other;
but such was the nature [of the object], that whoever saw it, the same
involuntarily wept aloud and bitterly [at the strange sight]. In this
way he continued to show it to every one, and made every one weep; then
passing along the front of the line, he returned to his master again.

"The moment he came near him, the young man rose up, and with the
sword severed the attendant's head [from his body], and having again
mounted his bull, galloped off towards the quarter from whence he had
come. All [present] stood looking on. When he disappeared from their
sight, the inhabitants returned to the city. I was anxiously asking
every one I met the real meaning of this strange occurrence; yea, I
even held out the inducement of money and beseeched and flattered them
to get an explanation, who the young man was, and why he committed
the deed [I had seen], and from whence he came, and where he went,
but no one would give me the slightest information on the subject,
nor could I comprehend it. When I returned here, I related to the
princess the astonishing circumstance I had seen. Since then, the
princess herself has been amazed [at the strange event], and anxious
to ascertain its real cause. For which reason she has been fixed
on this very point as her marriage portion, that whatever man will
bring her a true and particular account of that strange circumstance,
she will accept him [in marriage]; and he shall be the master of all
her wealth, her country, and herself."

[_Bahrawar_ concluded by saying], "You have now heard every
circumstance; reflect within yourself if you can bring the intelligence
[which is required] respecting the young man, then undertake the
journey towards the country of _Nimroz_, and depart soon, or else
refuse [the conditions and the attempt], and return to your home." I
answered, "If God please, I will soon ascertain all the circumstances
[relating to the strange event], and return to the princess with
success; or if my fate be unlucky, then there is no remedy; but the
princess must give me her solemn promise she will not swerve from what
she engages [to perform]. And now an uneasy apprehension arises in
my heart; if the princess will have the benevolence to call me before
her, and allow me to sit down outside the _parda_, and hear with her
own ears the request I have made, and favour me with an answer from
her own lips; then my heart will be at ease, and every thing will be
possible for me." These my requests the female servant related to the
fairy-formed princess. At last, by way of condescension, she ordered
me to be called before her.

The same female returned, and conducted me to the apartment where the
princess was; what [a display of beauty] I saw! Handsome female slaves
and servants, and armed damsels, from _Kilmak, Turkistan, Abyssinia,
Uzbak Tartary and Kashmir_, were drawn up in two lines, dressed in
rich jewels, with their arms folded across, and each standing in her
appropriate station. Shall I call this the court of Indra? or is it
a descent on the part of the fairies? an involuntary sigh of rapture
escaped [from my breast], and my heart began to palpitate; but I
forcibly restrained myself. Regarding them all around, I advanced on;
but my feet became each as heavy as a hundred _mans_. [218] Whenever I
gazed on one of those lovely women, my heart was unwilling to proceed
farther. On one side [of the saloon] a screen was suspended, and a
stool set with precious stones was placed near it, as well as a chair
of sandal-wood; the female servant made me a sign to sit down on the
[jewelled] stool; I sat down upon it, and she seated herself on the
[sandal-wood chair]; she said, "Now, whatever you have to say, speak
it fully and from the heart."

I first extolled the princess's excellent qualities, also her justice
and liberality; I then added, that "ever since I have entered the
limits of this country, I saw at every stage accommodations for
travellers and lofty buildings; and found everywhere servants of all
grades appointed to attend upon travellers and necessitous persons. I
have likewise spent three days at every halting place, and the fourth
day, when I wished to take my leave, no one said with good will, "You
may depart;" and whatever articles and furniture had been [applied to
my use] at those places, such as chequered carpets, [219] &c., &c.,
I was told that they were all mine, and that I might either take
them away or lock them up in a room, and put my seal on it; that,
should it be my pleasure, whenever I came back I might take them
away. I have done so; but the wonder is, that if a lonely pilgrim
like me has met with such a [princely] reception, then there must
be thousands of such pilgrims who will resort to your dominions; and
if every one is hospitably received in the same manner [as myself],
sums incalculable must be spent. Now, whence comes the great wealth
of which there is such an expenditure, and of what nature is it? The
treasures of _Karun_ would not be equal to it; and if we look at the
princess's territories, it would appear that their revenues would
hardly suffice to defray the kitchen charges, setting the other
expenses aside. If the princess would condescend to explain this
[seeming wonder] with her own lips, then, my mind being set at ease,
I shall set out for the country of _Nimroz_; and reaching it by some
means or other, after having learned all the particulars [of the
strange circumstance], I will return, if God should spare my life,
to the presence of the princess, and attain the desires of my heart."

On hearing these words, the princess herself said, "O youth, if you
have a strong desire to know the exact nature of these circumstances,
then stay here to-day also. I will send for you in the evening,
and the account of my vast riches shall be unfolded to you without
any reservation." After this assurance, I retired to my place of
residence, and waited anxiously, (saying,) "when will the evening
arrive, that my curiosity may be gratified?" In the meantime a eunuch
brought some covered trays on the heads of porters, and laid them
before me, and said, "The princess has sent you a dinner [220] from
her own table; partake of it." When he uncovered the trays before
me, the rich fragrance [of the meats] intoxicated my brains, and my
soul became satiated. I ate as much as I could, and sent away the
rest, and returned my grateful thanks [to the princess.] At last,
when the sun, the traveller of the whole day, wearied and fatigued,
reached his home, and the moon advanced from her palace, attended by
her companions, then the female servant came to me and said, "Come,
the princess has sent for you."

I went along with her; she led me to the private apartment; the
effect of the lights was such that the _shabi kadr_ [221] was nothing
to it. A _masnad_, covered with gold, was placed on rich carpets,
with a pillow studded with jewels; over it an awning of brocade was
stretched, with a fringe of pearls on [silver] poles studded with
precious stones; and in front of the _masnad_ artificial trees formed
of various jewels, with flowers and leaves attached, (one would say
they were nature's own production,) were erected in beds of gold; and
on the right and left, beautiful slaves and servants were in waiting
with folded arms and down-cast eyes, in respectful attitude. Dancing
women and female singers, with ready-tuned instruments, attended to
begin their performances. On seeing such a scene and such splendid
preparations, my senses were bewildered. I asked the female servant
[who came with me] "there is here such gay splendour in the scene
of the day, and such magnificence in that of the night, that the
day may very justly be called _'Id_, and the night _shabi barat_;
moreover, a king who possessed the whole world could not exhibit
greater splendour and magnificence. Is it always so at the princess's
court? The servant replied, "The princess's court ever displays the
same magnificence you see now; there is no abatement [or difference],
except that it is sometimes greater: sit you here; the princess is
in another apartment,--I will go and inform her of your arrival."

Saying this, the nurse went away and quickly returned;  he desired
me to come to the princess. The moment I entered her apartment I was
struck with amazement. I could not tell where the door was, or where
the walls, for they were covered with Aleppo mirrors, of the height
of a man, all around, the frames of which were studded with diamonds
and pearls. The reflection of one fell on the other, and it appeared
as if the whole room was inlaid with jewels. At one end a _parda_
was hung, behind which the princess sat. The female servant seated
herself close to the _parda_,  and desired me to sit down also;
then she began the following narrative, according to the princess's
commands--"Hear,  O intelligent youth! The sultan of this country was
a potent king; he had seven daughters born in his house. One day, the
king held a festival, and these seven daughters were standing before
him [superbly dressed], with each sixteen jewels, twelve ornaments,
and in every hair an elephant pearl. Something came into the king's
mind, and he looked towards his daughters and said, 'If your father
had not been a king, and you had been born in the house of some poor
man, then who would have called you princesses? Praise God that you
are called princesses; all your good fortune depends on my life.'

"Six of his daughters being of one mind, replied, 'Whatever your
majesty says, is true, and our happiness depends on your welfare
alone.' But the princess now present, though she was younger [than
all her sisters], yet even in sense and judgment, even at that age,
she was superior to them, all. She stood silent, and did not join her
sisters in the reply they made; for this reason, that to say so was
impious. The king looked towards her with anger, and said, 'Well, my
lady, you say nothing; what is the cause of this?' Then the princess,
tying both her hands with a handkerchief, humbly replied, 'If your
majesty will grant me safety [of my life], and pardon my presumption,
then this humble slave will unfold the dictates of her heart.' The
king said, 'Speak what thou hast to say.' Then the princess said,
'Mighty king, you must have heard, that the voice of truth is bitter;
for which reason, disregarding life at this moment, I presume to
address your majesty; whatever the great Writer has written in
[the book of] my destiny, no one can efface, and in no way can it
be evaded. "Whether you bruise your feet [by depending on your own
exertions], or lay your head on the carpet [in prayer], your fate
[written] on the forehead, whatever it be, shall come to pass."

"'That Almighty Ruler, who has made you a king, He indeed also has
made me a princess. In the arsenal of his omnipotence, no one has
power. You are my sovereign and benefactor, and if I should apply the
dust which lies under your auspicious feet, as a colyrium [for my
eyes], then it would become me; but the destinies of every one are
with every one.' The king, on hearing this [speech], became angry;
the reply displeased him highly, and he said with wrath, 'What great
words issue from a little mouth! Now let this be her punishment, that
you strip off whatever jewels she has on her hands and feet, and let
her be placed in a sedan-chair, and set down in such a wilderness,
where no human traces can be found; then we shall see what is written
in her destinies.'

"According to the king's commands, at that midnight hour, when it
was the very essence of darkness, the princess (who had been reared
with such delicacy and tenderness), and had seen no other place
except her own apartments, was carried by the porters in a litter,
and set down in a place where not even a bird ever flapped its wing,
much less did human creatures there exist; they left her there and
returned. The princess's heart was all at once in such a state [as
cannot be conceived]; reduced to what she was, from what she had
been! Then in the threshold of God, she offered up her prayers, and
said, "Thou art so mighty [O Lord], that what thou hast wished, Thou
hast done; and whatever Thou willest, Thou dost; and whatever Thou
mayest wish, that Thou wilt do: whilst life remains in my nostrils,
I shall not be hopeless of [thy protection']. Impressed with these
thoughts, she fell asleep. When the morn appeared, the eyes of the
princess opened; she called for water to perform her ablutions. Then,
all at once, the occurrences of last night came to her recollection;
she said to herself, 'Where art thou, and where this speech?' [222]
Saying this to herself, she got up, and performed the _tayammum_,
[223] said her prayers, and poured forth the praises of her Maker! O
youth, the heart is torn with anguish to reflect on the princess's
sad condition at that time. Ask that innocent and inexperienced heart
what it felt.

"In short, she sat in the litter, and putting her trust in God,
she repeated to herself at that moment these verses:--

    "When I had no teeth, then thou gavest milk;
    When thou hast given teeth, wilt thou not grant food!
    He who takes care of the fowls of the air,
    And of all the animals of the earth,
    He will also take care of thee.
    Why art thou sad, simple-minded one!
    By being sorrowful thou'lt get nothing;
    He who provides for the fool, for the wise, and for the whole world,
    Will likewise provide for thee.'

"It is true, that when no resource remains, then God is remembered,
or else every one in his own plans, thinks himself a _Lukman_, and a
_Bu' Ali Sina_. [224]  Now listen to the surprising ways of God. In
this manner three days clear passed away, during which a grain of
food did not enter the princess's mouth; her flower-like frame became
quite withered as a [dry] thorn; and her colour, which hitherto
shone like gold, became yellow as turmeric; her mouth became rigid,
and her eyes were petrified, but still a faint respiration remained
passing and re-passing. Whilst there is life, there is hope. In the
morning of the fourth day, a hermit appeared of bright countenance,
in appearance like _Khizr_, [225] and of an enlightened heart. Seeing
the princess in that state, he said, 'O daughter, though your father
is a king, yet these [sorrows] were decreed in thy destiny. Now,
conceive this old hermit your servant, and think day and night of
your Maker. God will do what is right.' And whatever morsels the
hermit had in his wallet, he laid them before the princess; then
he went in search of water; he saw a well, but where were the wheel
and bucket by means of which he might draw the water? He pulled off
some leaves from a tree, and made a cup, and taking off his sash,
he fastened the cup to it, and drew up some water, and gave it to the
princess. At last she regained her senses. The holy man, seeing her
helpless and solitary state, gave her every consolation, and cheered
her heart; and he himself began to weep. When the princess saw his
sympathetic grief, and [heard] his kind assurances, she became easy in
her mind. From that day, the old man made this an established rule,
that in the morning he went to the city to beg, and brought to the
princess whatever scraps or morsels he received.

"In this way a few days passed. One day the princess designed to put
some oil in her hair, and comb it; just as she opened the plaits of her
hair a pearl round and brilliant dropped out. The princess gave it to
the hermit, and desired him to sell it in the city, and bring her the
amount. He sold that pearl, and brought back the money received for
it to the princess. Then the princess desired that a habitation fit
for her residence might be erected on that spot. The hermit replied,
'O daughter, do you dig the foundation for the walls, and collect some
earth; I will, some of these days, bring some water, knead the clay
[for the bricks], and erect a room for you.' The princess, on his
advice, began to dig the ground; when she had dug a yard in depth,
behold, under the soil a door appeared. The princess cleared away the
earth [which lay before it]; a large room filled with jewels and gold
pieces appeared: she took four or five handfuls of gold and closed
the door, and having filled up the place with earth, made level its
surface. In the meantime the hermit returned. The princess said to him,
"bring good masons and builders, and workmen of every kind, expert
and masters in their craft, so that a grand palace may be erected on
this spot equal to the palace of _Kasra_, [226] and superior to the
palace of _Ni'man_; [227] and that the fortifications of the city,
a fort, a garden, a well, and an unrivalled caravanserai [be built
as soon as possible]; but first of all, draw out the plans on paper
and bring them to me for approval."

"The hermit brought clever, skilful, intelligent workmen, and had
them ready. The erection of the different buildings was soon begun
according to the princess's directions, and clever and trusty servants
for every office were chosen and entertained. The news of the erection
of such princely buildings by degrees reached the king, the shadow of
Omnipotence, who was the princess's father. On hearing it, he became
greatly surprised, and asked every one, 'Who is this person who has
begun to erect such edifices?' No one knew anything of the matter to
be able to give a reply. All put their hands on their ears and said,
'No one of your slaves knows who is the builder of them.' Then the king
sent one of his nobles with this message, 'I wish to come and see those
buildings, and to know also of what country you are the princess, and
of what family; for I wish much to ascertain all these circumstances.'

"When the princess received this agreeable intelligence, she was
greatly pleased in her mind, and wrote the [following letter]: 'To
the protector of the world, prosperity! On hearing the intelligence of
your majesty's visit, to my humble mansion, I am infinitely rejoiced;
and it has been the cause of respect and dignity to me, the meanest
[of your slaves]. How happy is the fate of that place where your
majesty's footsteps are impressed, and on the inhabitants of which
the shadow of the skirt of your prosperity is cast; may they both be
dignified with the look of favour! This slave hopes that to-morrow,
being Thursday, is a propitious day, and to me, it is more welcome than
the day of _Nau Roz_, [228] your majesty's person resembles the sun;
by condescending to come here, be pleased to bestow, with your light,
value and dignity on this worthless atom, and partake of whatever
his humble slave can provide; this will be the essence of benevolence
and courtesy, on the part of your majesty: to say more would exceed
the bounds of respect.' To the nobleman who brought the message she
made some presents, and dismissed him [with the above reply.]

"The king read the letter, and sent word, saying, 'We have accepted
your invitation, and will certainly come.' The princess ordered the
servants and all the attendants to get ready the necessary preparations
for an entertainment, with such propriety and elegance, that the king,
on seeing [the banquet] and eating thereof, might be highly pleased;
and that all who came with the king, great and little, should be well
entertained and return content. From the princess's strict directions,
the dishes, of every kind, both salt and sweet, were so deliciously
prepared, that if the daughter of a _Brahman_ [229] had tasted them,
she would have become a _Musalman_. [230] When the evening came, the
king went to the princess's palace, seated on an uncovered throne; the
princess, with her ladies in waiting, advanced to receive him; when
she cast her eyes on the king's throne, she made the royal obeisance
with such proper respect, that on seeing it, the king was still more
surprised; with the same profound respect she accompanied the king
to the throne, set with jewels, which she had erected for him. The
princess had prepared a platform of 125,000 pieces of silver; [231] a
hundred and one trays of jewels and of gold pieces, and woollen shiffs,
shawls, muslins, silk and brocades; two elephants and ten horses, of
_'Irak_ and _Yaman_, with caparisons set with precious stones, were
likewise prepared [for the royal acceptance]. She presented these to
his majesty, and stood before him herself with folded arms. The king
asked with great complacency, 'Of what country are you a princess,
and for what reasons are you come here?'

"The princess, after making her obeisance, replied, 'This slave is
that offender who in consequence of the royal anger was sent to this
wilderness, and all these things which your majesty sees are the
wonderful works of God.' On hearing these words, the king's blood
glowed (with paternal warmth), and rising up, he pressed the princess
fondly to his bosom, and seizing her hand, he ordered her to be seated
on a chair that he had placed near the throne; but still the king was
astonished and surprised [at all he saw], and ordered that the queen,
along with the princesses, should come thither with all speed. When
they arrived, the mother and sisters recognised [the princess], and,
embracing her with fondness, wept over her, and praised God. The
princess presented her mother and sisters with such heaps of gold
and jewels, that the treasures of the world could not equal them in
the balance. Then the king, having made them all sit in his company,
partook of the feast [which had been prepared].

"As long as the king lived, the time passed in this manner; sometimes
the king came [to visit the princess], and sometimes carried the
princess with him to his own palaces. When the king died, the
government of the kingdom descended to this princess; for, except
herself, no other person [of her family] was fit for this office. O,
youth, the history [of the princess] is what you have heard. Finally,
heaven-bestowed wealth never fails, but the intentions of the possessor
must [at the same time] be just; moreover, how much soever is spent
[out of this providential wealth] so much also is the increase: to be
astonished at the power of God, is not right in any religion." The
female servant, after finishing this narrative, said, "Now if you
still intend to proceed to the country of _Nimroz_, and if you are
determined in your mind to bring the requisite intelligence, then
depart soon." I replied, I am going this moment, and if God pleases
I shall be back very soon. At last, taking leave [of the princess]
and relying on the protection of God, I set out for that quarter.

In about a year's time, after encountering many difficulties, I
arrived at the city of _Nimroz_. All the inhabitants of that place
that I saw, noble or common, were dressed in black, and whatever
I had heard, that I fully perceived. After some days the evening
[232] of the new moon occurred. On the first day of the month, all
the inhabitants of the city, little and great, children, nobles,
prince, women and men, assembled on a large plain. I also, bewildered
and distracted in my condition, went along with the vast concourse;
separated from my country and possessions, in the garb of a pilgrim,
I was standing to behold the strange sight, and to see what might
result from the mysterious scene. In the meantime, a young man
advanced from the woods, mounted on a bull, foaming at the mouth,
and roaring and shouting [in a frightful manner]. I, miserable, who
had undergone such labour, and overcome so many dangers, and had come
there to ascertain the circumstances, yet on seeing the young man I was
quite confounded and stood silent with astonishment. The young man,
according to his usual custom, did what he used to do, and returned
[to the woods]; and the concourse of people from the city likewise
returned thither. When I had collected my senses, I then repented
[saying to myself], "What is this you have done? Now it is your lot to
wait anxiously for another whole month." Having no remedy, I returned
with the rest; and I passed that month like the month of _Ramazan_,
[233] counting one day after another. At last the new moon appeared,
and was hailed by me as _'Id_. [234] On the first of the month, the
king and the inhabitants again assembled on that same plain; then I
determined, that this time, let what will happen, I would be resolute,
and propound this mysterious circumstance.

Suddenly the young man appeared, mounted, according to custom, on a
yellow bull, and, dismounting, sat down [on the ground]; in one hand
he held a naked sword, and in the other the bull's halter; he gave
the vase to his attendant, who, as usual, showed it to every one,
and carried it back [to his master]. The crowd, on seeing the vase,
began to weep; the young man broke the vase, and struck such a blow on
the slave's neck as to sever his head from his body, and, he himself
remounting the bull, returned [towards the woods]. I began to run
after him, with all speed, but the inhabitants laid hold of my hand,
and exclaimed, "What is this you are going to do? why, knowingly, art
thou about to perish? If thou art so tired of life, there are a great
many ways of dying, by which thou mayest end thy existence." How much
soever I beseeched them [to let me go], and even had recourse to main
force, in order that by some means I might escape from their hands,
yet I could not release myself. Three or four men clung fast to me,
and having seized me, led me towards the city. I again suffered for
another whole month in a strange state of disquietude.

When that month passed also, and the last day of it had elapsed, all
the inhabitants assembled on the plain on the following morning in
the same manner. I, apart from all, arose at the hour of [morning]
prayer. I went before all the others [were astir] into the woods,
and there lay concealed, exactly on the road by which the young man
was to pass; for no one could there restrain me [from executing my
project]. The young man came in the usual manner, performed the same
acts [already described], re-mounted, and was returning. I followed
him, and eagerly running up, I joined him. The young man, from the
noise of my steps, perceived that some body was coming after him. All
at once, turning round the halter of his bull, he gave a loud shout,
and threatened me; then drawing his sword, he advanced towards me,
and was about to strike. I bent down with the utmost respect, and
made him my _salam_, and joining both my hands together, I stood in
silence. That person being a judge of respectful behaviour [restraining
his blow], said to me. "O pilgrim, thou wouldest have been killed for
nothing, but thou hast escaped--thy life is prolonged; get away. Where
art thou going?" He then drew a jewelled dagger, having a tassel set
with pearls, from his waist, and threw it towards me, and added, "At
this moment I have no money about me to give thee; carry this [dagger]
to the king, and thou wilt get whatever thou askest." To such a degree
did my fear and dread of him prevail, that I had not power to speak
or ability to move; my voice was choked, and my feet became heavy.

After saying this, the brave young man, roaring aloud, went on. I said
to myself, "let what will happen, to remain behind now is, in thy case,
folly thou wilt never again get such an opportunity [to execute thy
project]. Regardless, therefore, of my life, [235] I also went on. He
again turned round and forbade me in great wrath [to follow him],
and seemed determined to put me to death. I stretched forth my neck,
and conjuring him [by all that was sacred], I said, "_O Rustam_ [236]
of these days, strike such a blow that I may be cut clean in two;
let not a fibre remain together, and let me be released from this
wandering and wretched state; I pardon you my blood." He replied,
"O demon-faced! why dost thou for nothing bring thy blood on my head,
and makest me criminal; go thy own way; what! is thy life become a
burden to thee?" I did not mind what he said, but advanced; then he
knowingly appeared not to regard me, and I followed him. Proceeding
on about two _kos_, we passed the wood, and came to a square building;
the young man went up to the door and gave a frightful scream; the door
opened of itself; he entered, and I remained altogether outside. O God,
[said I] what shall I now do? I was perplexed; at last, after a short
delay, a slave came out and brought a message, saying, "Come in, he
has called you to his presence; perhaps the angel of death hovers
over your head; what evil fortune has befallen you?" I replied,
"Verily it is good fortune;" and without fear, I entered along with
him into the garden.

At last, he led me to a place where [the young man was sitting]; on
seeing him, I made him a very low [237] _salam_; he beckoned me to sit
down; I sat down with respect. What do I see but the young man sitting
alone on a _masnad_, with the tools of a goldsmith lying before him;
and he had just finished a branch of emeralds. When the time came for
him to rise up, all the slaves that were around the place concealed
themselves in [different] rooms; I also from fear hid myself in a
small closet. The young man rose up, and having fastened the chains
of all the apartments, he went towards the corner of the garden, and
began to beat the bull he usually rode. The noise of the animal's
roaring reached my ear, and my heart quaked [with fear]; but as I
had ran all these risks to develop this mystery, I forced the door,
though trembling with fear, and under the screen of the trunk [238]
of a tree, I stood and saw [what was going on]. The young man threw
down the club with which he was beating [the bull], and unlocked
a room and entered it. Then, instantly coming out, he stroked the
bull's back with his hand, and kissed its mouth; and having given
it some grain and grass, he came towards me. On perceiving this,
I ran off quickly, and hid myself in the room.

The young man unfastened the chains of all the rooms, and the whole
of the slaves came out, bringing with them a small carpet, a wash-hand
basin, and a water pot. After washing his hands and face, he stood up
to pray; when he had finished his prayers, he called out, "Where is the
pilgrim?" On hearing myself called, I ran out and stood before him;
he desired me to sit down; after making him a _salam_, I sat down;
the dinner was served; he partook of it, and gave me some, which I
also ate. When the dishes were removed, and we had washed our hands,
he dismissed his slaves and told them to go to rest. When no one
[except ourselves] remained in the apartment, he then spoke to me,
and asked, "O friend, what great misfortune has befallen thee that
thou goest about seeking thy death?" I related in full detail all the
adventures of my life, from beginning to end, and added, that, "from
your goodness, I have hopes of obtaining my wishes." On hearing this,
he heaving a deep sigh, went raving mad, and began to say, "O God! who
except thee is acquainted with the tortures of love! He whose chilblain
has not yet broken out, how can he know the pains of others? he only
knows the degree of this pain who has felt the pangs of love!

    'The anguish of love, you must ask of the lover,
    Not of him who feigns, but of the true lover.'"

A moment after, coming to himself, he heaved a heart-burning sigh;
the room resounded with it; then I perceived that he was likewise
tortured with the pangs of love, and was suffering from the same
malady [as myself]. On this discovery, I plucked up courage and said,
"I have related to you all my own adventures;  now do me the favour to
impart to me the past events [of your life]; I will then first of all
assist you as far as I can, and by exerting myself obtain for you the
desires of your heart." In short, that true lover, conceiving me his
companion and fellow-sufferer, began the relation of his adventures
in the following manner. "Hear, O friend! I whose heart is tortured
with anguish, am the prince of this country of _Nimroz_; the king,
that is to say, my father, at my birth, collected together all the
fortune tellers, astrologers and learned men, and ordered them to cast
and examine my horoscope, to fix my nativity, and to state in full
to his majesty whatever was to befall me every individual moment, and
hour, and _pahar_, and day, and month, and year, [of my life]. They all
assembled according to the king's order, and consulting together, they,
from their mystical science, ascertained my future fate, and said,
'By the blessing of God, the prince has been begotten and born under
such a propitious planet, and in such a lucky moment, that he ought
to be equal to Alexander in extent of dominion, and in justice equal
to _Naushirwan_. He will be, moreover, proficient in every science,
and every [branch of] learning, and towards whatever subject his
heart is inclined, he will accomplish it with perfection. He will
in generosity and bravery acquire such renown, that mankind will no
longer remember _Hatim_ and _Rustam_; but until [he attains] the age
of fourteen, he is exposed to great danger if he sees the sun or moon;
yea, it is to be feared he may become a mad demoniac, and shed the
blood of many; and restless [of living in society], he will fly to
the woods, and associate with beasts and birds; great and strict
pains must be taken that he should never behold the sun by day or
the moon by night, or cast a look even towards the heavens. If this
period [of fourteen years] pass away without danger and in safety,
then for the rest of his life he will reign in peace and prosperity.'

"On hearing this [prognostication], the king ordered this garden to
be laid out, and caused to be built in it many apartments of various
kinds. He gave an order for me to be brought up in a vault, lined
[on the inside] with felt, so that not a single ray of light from the
sun or moon might penetrate [into my apartment]. I had a wet nurse and
all other kinds of female servants and attendants attached to me, and
was brought up in this grand palace with this [imagined] security. A
learned tutor, who was skilled in public affairs, was appointed to
[superintend] my education; so that I might acquire every science
and art, and the practice of the seven varieties of penmanship; and
my father always looked after me; the occurrences of every day and
every moment were told to the king. I considered that same place as
the whole world, and amused myself with toys and flowers; and I had
procured for me every delicacy the world [could produce] for my food;
whatever I desired I had. By the age of ten years, I had acquired
every species of learning, and every useful accomplishment.

"One day, beneath that dome, an astonishing flower appeared from
the sky-light, which increased in size as I gazed upon it; I wished
to seize it with my hands, but as I stretched them towards it, it
ascended [and eluded my grasp]. I, having become astonished, was
looking steadfastly at it, when the sound of a loud laugh reached my
ear; I raised my head to look [towards the dome from which the noise
proceeded]. Then I saw that a face, resplendent as the full moon,
having rent the felt, continued issuing forth. On beholding it, my
reason and senses vanished. On coming to myself, I looked up, and
saw a throne of jewels raised on the shoulders of fairies; a person
was seated on it, with a crown of precious stones on her head, and
clothed in a superb dress; she held in her hand a cup made of ruby,
and seated, was drinking wine. The throne descended by slow degrees
from its height, and rested on [the floor of] the dome. Then the
fairy called me, and placed me beside her [on the throne]; she began
to make use of expressions of endearment, and having pressed her
lips to mine, she made me drink a cup of rosy wine, and said, 'The
human race is faithless, but my heart loves thee.' The expressions
she uttered were so endearing and so fascinating, that in a moment
my heart was enraptured, and I felt such pleasure as if I had tasted
the supreme joys of life, and thus I conceived that I had only on
that day entered the world [of enjoyment].

"The result is my present state! but no one [on earth] hath ever seen,
or heard such ecstatic pleasure! In that zest, with our hearts at
ease, we both were seated, when all at once our joys were dashed to
pieces! Now listen to the unlooked-for circumstance [which produced
this sudden change]. At the moment, four fairies descended from
the heavens, and whispered something in that beloved one's ear. On
hearing it, her colour changed, and she said to me, 'O my beloved,
I fondly wished to pass some moments with you, and regale my heart,
and to repeat my visits in the same manner, or to take thee with
me. But fate will not permit two persons [like us] to remain in one
place in peace and felicity; farewell, my beloved! may God protect
you!' On hearing these [dreadful words], my senses vanished, and my
bliss fled from my grasp. [239] I cried, 'O my charmer, when shall
we meet again? what dreadful words of wrath are these which you have
made me hear? If you will return quickly, then you will find me alive,
otherwise you will regret the delay; or else tell me your name and
place of residence, that I may from those directions, by diligent
search, conduct myself to you.' On hearing this she said, 'God forbid
[you should do so]; may the ears of Satan be deaf; may your age amount
to a hundred and twenty years; [240] if we live we shall meet again;
I am the daughter of the king of the _Jinns_, and I dwell in the
mountain of _Kaf_. [241] On saying this, she caused the throne to
ascend, [242] and it ascended in the same manner as it had descended.

"Whilst the throne was in sight, our eyes were fixed on each other;
when it disappeared from my eyes, my state became such as if the
shadow of a fairy had fallen on me; a strange sort of gloom was
spread over my heart, and my understanding and consciousness left
me; the world appeared dark under my eyes; distracted and confused,
I wept bitterly, and scattered dust over my head, and tore my clothes;
I became regardless of food and drink, nor cared for good or evil.

    'What various evils result from this same love!
    In the heart are produced sadness and impatience.' [243]

"My misfortune was soon known to my nurse and preceptor; with fear
and trembling they went before the king, and said, 'Such is the
state of the prince of the people of the world; we do not know how
this disaster has suddenly and of itself fallen upon him, so that
rest, food, and drink have all [on his part] been abandoned.' [On
hearing these sad tidings] the king immediately came to the garden
[where I resided], accompanied by the _wazir_, intelligent nobles,
wise physicians, true astrologers, learned _mullas_, holy devotees,
and men abstracted from worldly affairs. On seeing my distracted,
sighing, weeping condition, his mind became also distracted; he wept,
and with fond affection clasped me to his breast, and gave orders for
my proper treatment. The physicians wrote out their prescriptions, in
order to strengthen my heart and cure my brain, and the holy priests
wrote out charms [244] and amulets, some to be swallowed, and others to
be worn on my person, and having each repeated prayers [of exorcism],
they began to blow upon me; the astrologers said this misfortune had
happened owing to the revolution of the stars [for the averting] of
it, give pious donations. In short, every one advised according to his
science; but what was passing within me, my heart alone experienced;
no one's assistance or remedy was of avail to my evil destiny; day
after day my lunacy increased, and my body became emaciated from the
want of nourishment. There remained for me only to shriek and moan,
day and night. Three years passed away in this state. In the fourth
year, a merchant, who was on his travels, arrived, and brought with
him into the royal presence rare and valuable articles of different
countries; he met with a gracious reception.

"The king favoured him greatly, and after inquiries respecting
his health, he said to him, 'You have seen many countries; have you
anywhere seen a truly learned physician, or have heard of such from any
one?' The merchant replied, 'Mighty sire, this slave has travelled a
great deal; in the middle of the [Ganges] river in _Hindustan_ there
is a small mountain; there a _Jata-dhari Gusa,in_ [245] has built a
large temple to _Mahadev_, [246] together with a place of worship,
and a garden of great beauty, and in that [mountain-island] he lives;
and his custom is this, that once a year on the day of _Shevrat_,
[247] he comes out of his dwelling, swims in the river, and enjoys
himself. After washing himself, when he is returning to his abode, then
the sick and afflicted of various countries and regions, who come there
from afar, assemble near his door. Of these a numerous crowd is formed.

"'The holy _Gusa,in_ (who ought to be called the Plato [248] of these
days), moves along examining the urine, and feeling the pulse of each,
and giving each a recipe. God has given him such healing power,
that, on taking his medicines, their effects are instantaneous,
and the disease utterly vanishes. These circumstances I have seen
with my own eyes, and adored the power of God which has created such
beings! If your majesty orders it, I will conduct the prince of the
people of the world to that [wonderful man], and show the prince
to him; I firmly hope he will soon be completely cured; moreover,
this scheme is externally beneficial, for from inhaling the air of
various places, and from the diet and drink of different countries
[through which we shall pass], the prince's mind will be restored
to cheerfulness.' The merchant's advice seemed very proper to the
king, and being pleased, he said, 'Very well; perhaps the holy man's
treatment may prove efficacious, and this melancholy may be removed
from my son's mind.' The king appointed a confidential nobleman,
who had seen the world, and had been tried on [various] occasions,
together with the merchant, to attend me, and he furnished us with the
requisite equipment. Having seen us embark on boats of every variety,
together with our baggage, he dismissed us. Proceeding onwards,
stage after stage, we arrived at the place [where the holy _Gusa,in_
lived]. From change of air, and from living on a different diet,
my mind became somewhat composed; but there still remained the same
state of silence; and I wept incessantly. The recollection of the
lovely fairy was not for a moment effaced from my mind; if I spoke
sometimes, it was only to repeat these lines:--

    'I know not what fairy-faced one has glanced over me,
    But my heart was sound and tranquil not long ago.'

At last, when two or three months had passed away, nearly four
thousand sick had assembled on the rock, and all said, 'If God please,
the _Gusa,in_ will shortly come out of his abode, and bestow on us
his advice, and we shall be perfectly cured.' In short, when that
day arrived, the _Gusa,in_ appeared in the morning, like the sun,
and bathed and swam in the river; he crossed over it and returned,
and rubbed ashes of cow-dung over his body, and hid his fair form
like a live coal under the ashes. He made a mark with sandal wood on
his forehead, girded on his _langoti_, [249] threw a towel over his
shoulders, tied his long hair up in a knot, twisted his mustachios,
and put on his shoes. It appeared, from his looks, that the whole
world possessed no value to him. Having put a small writing desk set
with gems under his arm, and looking at each [patient] in turn, he
gave them his recipes, and came to me. When our looks met, he stood
still, paused for a moment, and then said to me, 'Come with me.' I
went along with him.

"When he had done with all the rest, he led me into the garden, and
into a neat and richly-ornamented private apartment, and he said
to me, 'Do you make your residence here,' and went himself to his
abode. When forty days had elapsed, he came to me, and found me better
comparatively with [what I had been] before. He then, smiling, said,
'Amuse yourself by walking about in this garden, and eat whatever
fruits you like.' He gave me a china pot filled with _ma'jun_, [250]
and added, 'Take without fail six _mashas_ [251] from this pot every
morning, fasting.' Saying this, he went away, and I followed strictly
his prescription. My body perceptibly gained strength daily, and my
mind composure, but mighty love was still triumphant; that fairy's
form ever wandered before my eyes.

"One day I perceived a book [252] in a recess in the wall; I took it
down, and saw that all the sciences relating to the future and the
present world were comprised in it, as if the ocean had been compressed
into a vase. I used to read it at all times; I acquired great skill
in the science of physic, and the mystical art of philters. A year
passed away in the meantime, and again that same day of joy returned;
the _Gusa,in_, having arisen from his devotional posture, came out
[of his abode]; I made him my _salam_; he gave me the writing case, and
said, 'Accompany me.' I [accordingly] went along with him. When he came
out of the gate a vast crowd showered blessings on him. The nobleman
and the merchant, seeing me with the _Gusa,in_, fell at his feet, and
began to pour forth their blessings on him, saying, "by the favour of
your holiness, this much at least has been effected." The _Gusa,in_
went to the _ghat_ of the river, according to custom, and performed
his ablutions and devotions, as he was wont to do every year; returning
[from thence], he was proceeding along the line and examining the sick.

"It happened, that in the group of lunatics, a handsome young man,
who had scarce strength to stand up, attracted the _Gusa,in's_
attention. He said to me, 'Bring him with you.' After delivering his
prescriptions of cure to all, he went into his private apartment and
opened a little of the young lunatic's skull; he attempted to seize
with his forceps the centipede which was curled on his brain. An idea
struck me, and I spoke out, saying, 'If you will heat the forceps
in the fire, and then apply it to the centipede's back, it will be
better, as it will then come out of its own accord; but if you thus
attempt to pull it off, it will not quit its grasp on the brain, and
[the patient's] life will be endangered.' [253] On hearing this, the
_Gusa,in_ looked towards me; silently he rose up, and, without saying
a word, he went to the corner of the garden, and seizing a tree in his
grasp, he formed his long hair into a noose, and hanged himself. I went
to the spot, and saw, alas! alas! that he was dead. I became quite
afflicted at the strange and astonishing sight; but being helpless,
I thought it best to bury him. The moment I began to take him down
from the tree, two keys dropt from his locks; I took them up, and
interred that treasure of excellence in the earth. Having taken with
me the two keys, I began to apply them to all the locks. By chance
I opened the locks of two rooms with these keys, and perceived that
they were filled from the floor to the roof with precious stones;
in one place I saw a chest covered with velvet, with clasps of gold,
and locked. When I opened it, then I saw in it a book, in which was
written the "Most awful of Names," [254] and the mode of invoking the
genii, and the fairies, and the holding of intercourse with spirits,
and how to subdue them, also the mode of charming the sun.

"I became quite delighted at the idea of having acquired such a
treasure, and began to put those [charms] in practice. I opened the
garden door, and said to the nobleman, and to those who had come
with me, 'Send for the vessels [which had brought us, and embark in
them all these jewels, specie, merchandise, and books,' and having
embarked myself in a small vessel, I proceeded from thence to the
main ocean. When sailing along, I approached my own country. The
intelligence reached my father. He mounted his horse, and advanced to
meet us; with anxious affection he clasped me to his bosom; I kissed
his feet, and said, 'May this humble being be allowed to live in the
former garden?'

"The king replied, 'O my son, that garden appears to me calamitous,
and I have therefore forbidden its being kept up; that spot is not
at present fit for the abode of man; reside in any other abode which
your heart may desire. You had best choose some place in the fort, and
live under my eyes; and having there formed such a garden as you wish,
continue to walk about and to amuse yourself.' I strenuously resisted
and caused the former garden to be repaired once more, and having
embellished it like a perfect paradise, I went to reside in it. There,
at my ease, I fasted forty days for the purpose of subduing the _jinns_
to my will; and having abandoned living creatures, I began to practise
[my spells] on the world of spirits.

"When the forty days were completed, such a terrible storm arose at
midnight, that the very strongest buildings fell down, and trees
were uprooted and scattered in all directions; an army of fairies
appeared. A throne descended from the air, on which a person of
dignified appearance was seated, richly dressed, with a crown of
pearls on his head. On seeing him, I saluted him with great respect;
he returned my salutation, and said, 'O friend, why hast thou raised
this commotion for nothing? what dost thou want with me?' I replied,
'This wretch has been long in love with your daughter, and for her
I have every where wandered about wretched, distracted, and am dead,
though alive; I am now sick of existence, and have staked my life on
this deed which I have done. All my hopes now rest on your benevolence,
that you will exalt this unfortunate wanderer with your favour, and
that you will bestow on me life and happiness, by allowing me to behold
[your fair daughter]; it will be an act of great merit.' [255]

"On hearing my wishes he said, 'Man is made of earth, and we are formed
of fire; connection between two such [classes] is very difficult.' I
swore an oath, saying, 'I only desire to see her, and have no other
purpose.' Again the king [of the fairies] replied, 'Man does not
adhere to his promises; in time of need he promises everything, but
he does not keep it in recollection. I say this for thy good; for if
ever thou formest other wishes, then she and thou wilt be ruined and
undone; moreover, it will endanger your lives.' I repeated my oaths,
and added, that whatever could injure both of us, I would never do, and
that all I desired was to see her sometimes. These words were passing
[between us], when suddenly, the fairy (of whom we were talking)
appeared before us, with much splendour, and completely adorned;
and the throne of the king [of the fairies] remounted thence. I then
embraced the fairy with fond eagerness, and repeated this verse:--

    'Why should not she of the arched eyebrows come [to my house],
    She for whose sake I have fasted for forty days.'

In that state of felicity we resided together in the garden. I
dreaded through fear to think of other joys; I only tasted the
superficial pleasure [of her roseate lips], and constantly gazed
upon her charms. The lovely fairy, seeing me so true to my oath, was
surprised within herself, and used sometimes to say, 'O my beloved,
you are indeed strictly faithful to your promise; but I will give you,
by the way of friendship, a piece of advice; take care of your mystical
book; for the _jinns_, seeing you off your guard, will purloin it
some day or other.' I replied, 'I guard this book as I would my life.'

"It so happened, that one night Satan led me astray; in a fit of
overpowering passion, I said to myself, 'Let happen what will, how long
can I restrain myself?' I clasped the [lovely fairy] to my bosom, and
attempted to revel in ecstatic joys. Instantly, a voice came forth,
saying, 'Give me the book, for the great name of God is written in
it; do not profane it.' In that fervour of passion, I was insensible
[to every other consideration];  I took the book from my bosom and
delivered it, without knowing to whom I gave it, and plunged myself
into the fervid joys of love. The beautiful fairy, seeing my foolish
conduct, said, 'Alas! selfish man, thou hast at last transgressed,
and forgotten my admonition.'

"On saying this, she became senseless, and I perceived a _jinn_
standing at the head of the bed, who held the magical book in his
hand; I attempted to seize him, and beat him severely, and snatch
away the book, when in the meantime another appeared, took the book
from his hand, and ran off. I began to repeat the incantations I had
learnt. The _jinn_, who was still standing near me, became a bull; but,
alas! the lovely fairy had not in the least recovered her senses, and
that same state of stupor continued. Then my mind became distracted,
and all my joys were turned into bitterness. From that day, man became
my aversion. I live in a corner of this garden; and for the sake of
agreeably occupying my mind, I made this emerald vase, ornamented
with flowers, and every month I go to the plain, mounted on that same
bull, break the vase, and kill a slave, with the hope that every one
may see my sad state and pity me; perhaps some creature of God may
so far favour me and pray for me, that I even may regain the desire
[of my heart]. O faithful friend, such as I have related to thee is
the sad tale of my madness and lunacy."

I wept at hearing it, and said, "O prince, you have truly suffered
greatly from love; but I swear here by God, that I will abandon my own
wishes, and will now roam among woods and mountains for your good,
and do all I can [to find out your beloved fairy]. Having made this
promise, I took leave of the prince, and for five years wandered
through the desert, sifting the dust, like a mad man, but found no
trace [of the fairy]. At last, desponding of success, I ascended a
mountain, and wished to throw myself down [from its summit], so that
neither bone nor rib [in my frame] might remain entire. The same veiled
horseman, [who saved you from destruction], came up to me and said,
"Do not throw away thy life; in a few days thou wilt be in possession
of the desires of thy heart." O holy _Darweshes_! I have at last seen
you. I have now hopes that joy and happiness will be our lot, and
all of us, now affected as we are, may attain our wished-for objects.


When the second _Darwesh_ had likewise finished telling the relation
of his adventures, the night ended, and the time of morning was just
beginning. The king, _Azad Bakht_, silently proceeded towards his own
kingly abode. On arriving at his palace, he said his prayers. Then,
having gone to the bathing-house, and dressed himself superbly,
he proceeded to the _Diwani 'Amm_ and mounted his throne; and he
issued an order, saying, "Let a messenger go and bring along with him,
with respect, to our presence, four _Darweshes_  who have [recently]
arrived at such a place." The messenger went there according to orders,
and perceived that the four _Darweshes_, after performing the necessary
calls, and washed their hands and faces, were on the point of setting
out on [their peregrinations], and take their different roads. The
messenger said to them, "Reverend sirs, the king has called you
four personages; come along with me." The four _Darweshes_ began
to stare at each other, and said to the messenger, "Son, we are the
monarchs of our own hearts; what have we to do with a king of this
world?" The messenger answered, "Holy sirs, there is no harm in it,
and it is better you should go."

The four _Darweshes_ then recollected that what _Maula Murtaza_
[256] had said to them, that same had now come to pass; they were
pleased at the recollection], and went along with the messenger. When
they reached the fort and went before the king, the four _Kalandars_
gave a benediction, saying, "Son, may it be well with thee." The king
then retired to the _Diwani khass_, and having called two or three
of his confidential nobles near him, he ordered the four _Darweshes_
to be brought in. When they went there [before his majesty], he
commanded them to sit down, and asked them their adventures, saying,
"From whence come you, where do you intend to go, and where is the
residence of your worships?"

"They replied, "May the king's age and wealth be always on the
increase! we are _Darweshes_, and have in this very manner for
a long while wandered and roamed about; we bear our homes on our
shoulders. There is a saying, that 'a pilgrim's home is where the
evening overtakes him;' and all we have seen in this versatile world
is too long a tale to relate."

_Azad Bakht_ gave them every confidence and encouragement, and
having sent for refreshment, he made them breakfast before him. When
they finished [their meal] the king said to them, "Relate all your
adventures to me, without the least reserve; whatever services I can
render you, I will not fail to do." The _Darweshes_ replied that,
"whatever has happened to us, we have not the strength to relate,
nor will any pleasure result to the king from hearing it; therefore
pardon us." The king then smiled, and said, "Where you were sitting
on your couches last night and relating each his own adventures,
there I was likewise present; moreover, I have heard the adventures
of two of you; I now wish that the two who remain would also relate
theirs; and stay with me a few days in perfect confidence, for 'the
footsteps of the _Darwesh_ scare away evil.'" [257] On hearing these
words from the king, they began to tremble in consequence of their
fear; and having hung down their heads, they remained silent--they
had not the power to speak.

When _Azad Bakht_ perceived that now through fear their senses no
longer remained with them, so as to enable them to tell anything,
he said [to revive their spirits] "There is no person in this world
to whom rare and strange incidents have not occurred; although I am
a king, yet I have even seen strange scenes, which I will first of
all relate to you [to inspire you with confidence and remove your
fears]; do you listen to it with your minds at ease," The _Darweshes_
replied, "O king, peace be on thee! such are your kindnesses towards
us darweshes, condescend to relate them."

_Azad Bakht_ began his adventures, and said,

    "Hear, O pilgrims, the adventures of the king.
    Whatever I have heard or seen, O hear!
    I will relate to ye every thing, from end to end.
    My story with heartfelt attention hear."

When my father died, and I ascended the throne, it was in the
very season of youth, and all this kingdom of _Rum_ was under my
dominion. It happened one year, that some merchant from the country
of _Badakhshan_ [258]  came [to my capital] and brought a good deal
of merchandise. The reporters of intelligence [259] sent notice to
me to this effect, that so considerable a merchant had never visited
our city before: I sent for him.

"He came, and brought with him the rarities of every country, which
were worthy of being offered to me, as presents. Indeed, every article
appeared to be of inestimable value; above all, there was a ruby
in a box, of an exceedingly fine colour, very brilliant, perfect in
shape and size, and in weight [amounting to] five _miskals_. [260]
Though I was a king, I had never seen such a precious stone, nor had
I heard of such from any other person. I accepted it, and bestowed
upon the merchant many presents and honours; I gave him passports
for the roads, that throughout my empire no one should ask him any
duties; that they should treat him with kindness wherever he went;
that he should be waited on, and have guards for his protection,
and that they should consider any loss he might experience as their
own. The merchant attended at the time of audience, and was well
versed in the forms of respect due to royalty; his conversation and
eloquence were worth hearing. I used to send for the ruby daily from
the jewel office, and look at it at the time of public audience.

One day I was seated in the _diwani 'amm,_ and the nobles and
officers of state were in waiting in their respective places, and the
ambassadors of different sovereigns, who had come to congratulate me
[on my accession to the throne], were likewise present. I then sent for
the ruby, according to custom; the officer of the jewel office brought
it; I took it in my hand and began to praise it, and gave it to the
ambassador of the Franks [to look at it]. On seeing it, he smiled,
and praised it by way of flattery; in the same manner it passed from
hand to hand, and every one looked at it, and all said together,
"The preponderance of your majesty's good fortune has procured you
this; for otherwise, even unto this day, no monarch has ever acquired
so inestimable a jewel." At that moment my father's _wazir_, who
was wise, and held the same station under me, and was standing in
his place, made his obeisance and said, "I wish to impart something
[to the royal ear], if my life be granted."

I ordered him to speak; he said, "Mighty sire, you are king, and it
is very unbecoming in kings to laud so highly a stone; though it is
unique in colour, in quality, and in weight, yet it is but a stone;
and at this moment the ambassadors of all countries are present in
the court; when they return to their respective countries, they will
assuredly relate this anecdote, saying, 'What a strange king he is,
who has got a ruby from somewhere, and makes such a rarity of it,
that he sends for it every day, and praising it himself the first,
shows it to every one present.' Then whatever king or _raja_ [261]
hears this anecdote, the same will certainly laugh at it in his own
court. Great sire, there is an insignificant merchant in _Naishapur_,
[262] who has twelve rubies, each weighing seven _miskals_, [263]
which he has sewed on a collar, and put it round his dog's neck." On
hearing this, I became greatly displeased, and said with anger,
put this _wazir_ to death.

The executioners immediately seized hold of his hands, and were
going to lead him out [to execution]. The ambassador of the king
of the Franks, joining his hands [in humble supplication] stood
before me. I asked him what he wanted; he replied, "I hope I may
become informed of the _wazir's_ fault," I answered, what can be
a greater fault than to lie, especially before kings. He replied,
"His falsehood has not yet been confirmed; perhaps what he has said
may be true; now, to put an innocent person to death is not right." I
said to him in reply, "It is not at all consistent with reason, that
a merchant, who, for the sake of gain, wanders disconsolate from city
to city and from country to country, and hoards up every farthing
[he can save], should sew twelve rubies, which weigh seven _miskals_
each, on the collar of a dog." The ambassador in answer said,
"Nothing is surprising before the power of God; perhaps it may be
the case; such rarities often fall into the hands of merchants and
pilgrims. For these two [classes of people] go into every country,
and they bring away with them whatever they find rare in [their
travels]. It is most advisable for your majesty to order the _wazir_
to be imprisoned, if he is as guilty [as you suppose]; for _wazirs_
are the intelligencers of kings, and such conduct as this appears
unhandsome in the latter, that in a case, the truth and falsehood
of which is as yet unascertained, to order them to be put to death,
and that the services and fidelity of a whole life should be forgotten.

"Mighty sire, former kings have erected prisons for this very reason,
that when the kings or chiefs may be in wrath towards any one, then
they might confine him. In a few days their anger will have entirely
subsided, and [the suspected one's] innocence will become manifest,
and the king will be exempt from the stain of shedding innocent blood,
and not have to answer for it on the day of judgment." Though I wished
ever so much to refute him, yet the ambassador of the Franks [264]
gave such just replies, that he reduced me to silence. Then I said,
well, I agree to what you say, and I pardon him his life. But he shall
remain imprisoned; if in the space of a year his words are proved to
be true, that such rubies are round the neck of a dog, then he shall
be released; otherwise, he shall be put to death with many torments. I
accordingly ordered the _wazir_ to be carried to prison. On hearing
this order, the ambassador made me his humble obeisance, [265] and
performed his parting salute.

When this news reached the _wazir's_ family, weeping and lamentations
took place, and it became a house of mourning. The _wazir_ had a
daughter of the age of fourteen or fifteen years, very handsome
and accomplished, perfect in writing and reading. The _wazir_ loved
her greatly, and was extremely fond of her; so much so, that he had
erected an elegant apartment for her behind his own _diwan khana;_
and had procured for her the daughters of noblemen as her companions,
and handsome female servants waited on her; with these she passed
her time in laughter and joy, and playing and romping about.

It happened that on the day the _wazir_ was sent to prison, the girl
was sitting with her young companions, and was celebrating with
[infantile] pleasure the marriage of her doll; and with a small
drum and timbrel she was making preparation for the night vigils;
and having put on the frying pan, she was busy making up sweetmeats,
when her mother suddenly ran into her apartment, lamenting and beating
[her breasts], with dishevelled tresses and naked feet. She struck
a blow on her daughter's head, and said, "Would that God had given
me a blind son instead of thee; then my heart would have been at
ease, and he would have been the friend of his father." The _wazir's_
daughter asked, "What use would a blind son have been to you? whatever
he could do, I can do likewise." The mother replied, "Dust be on thy
head! such a calamity hath fallen on thy father, that he is confined
in the prison for having used some improper expressions before the
king." The daughter asked, "What were the expressions? let me hear
them." Then her mother answered, "Your father said that there is
a merchant in _Nishapur_, who has fixed twelve inestimable rubies
on his dog's collar: the king would not believe him, but conceived
him a liar, and has imprisoned him. If he had had to-day a son, he
would have exerted himself by every means to ascertain the truth of
the circumstance;  he would have assisted his father, besought the
king's forgiveness, and have got my husband released from prison."

The _wazir's_ daughter said [in reply], "O mother, we cannot combat
against fate; man under sudden calamity ought to be patient, and place
his hopes in the bounty of God. He is merciful, and does not hold any
one's difficulties to be irremovables; weeping and lamentations are
improper. God forbid that our enemies should misrepresent [the motive
of our tears] to the king, and the teller of tales calumniate us, for
that would be the cause of farther displeasure. On the contrary, let
us offer up our prayers for the king's welfare; we are his born slaves,
and he is our master; even as he is wroth, so will he be gracious." The
girl, from her good sense, thus made her mother comprehend these
things, so that she became somewhat patient and tranquil, and returned
in silence to her palace. When the night arrived, the _wazir-zadi_
[266] sent for her foster father, [or nurse's husband], and fell at
his feet and beseeched him greatly, and weeping, said, "I have formed
a resolution to wipe off the reproach my mother has cast on me, so
that my father may regain his freedom. If you will be my companion,
then I will set out for _Niashapur_, and having seen the merchant
[who has such rubies round his dog's neck], I will do all in my power
[to the end that] I may release my father."

The man indeed made some excuses at first; at length after much
discussion, he agreed [to her request]. Then the _wazir-zadi_ said,
"Make the preparations for the Journey in secrecy and silence, and buy
some articles of trade fit to be presented as offerings to kings, and
procure as many slaves and servants as may be required; but do not let
this circumstance be revealed to any one." The foster father agreed
[to the project], and set about [the necessary] preparations. When
all the materials were got ready, he loaded the camels and mules,
and set out; the _wazir's_ daughter also put on the dress of a man,
and joined him. No one in the house knew anything whatever [of the
departure]. When the morning came, it was mentioned in the _wazir's_
family, that the _wazir-zadi_,  had disappeared, and that it was
uncertain where she was gone.

At last, the mother, from fear of scandal, concealed the circumstance
of her daughter's disappearance; and there [on the journey] the
_wazir-zadi_ gave herself out as a "young merchant." Travelling onwards
stage by stage, they arrived at _Naishapur_; and with great pleasure
they went and put up at the _caravan-serai_  and unloaded all their
merchandise. The _wazir-zadi_ I remained there that night; in the
morning she went to the bath; and put on a rich dress, according to the
costume of the inhabitants of _Rum_, and went out to ramble through the
city. Proceeding along, she reached the _chauk,_ and stood where the
four great streets crossed each other; and a jeweller's shop appeared
on one side, where a great deal of jewels were exposed [for sale],
and slaves wearing rich dresses were in waiting, with crossed arms;
and a man, who was their chief, of about fifty years [267] of age,
dressed like rich persons in a short-sleeved jacket, was seated there,
with many elegant companions near him, seated likewise on stools,
and conversing among themselves.

The _wazir-zadi_ (who had represented herself as a merchant's
son, [268]) was greatly surprised at seeing the jeweller; and,
on reflection, she became pleased in her own heart, saying,
"God grant this be no delusion!  it is most probable that this
is the very merchant, the anecdote of whom my father mentioned to
the king. O, great God, enlighten me as to his circumstances." It
happened, that on looking around her, she saw a shop, in which two
iron cages were suspended, and two men were confined in them. They
looked like _majnun_ in appearance, only skin and bones remained;
the hair of their heads and their nails were quite overgrown,
and they sat with their heads reclined on their breasts; two
ugly negroes, completely armed, were standing on each side [of the
cages]. The young merchant was struck with amazement, and exclaimed,
"God bless us." When she looked round the other way, she saw another
shop, where carpets were spread, on which an ivory stool was placed,
with a velvet cushion, and a dog sat thereon, with a collar set with
precious stones around his neck, and chained by a chain of gold;
and two young handsome servants waited on the dog. One was shaking
[over him] a _morchhal_ [269] with a golden handle, set with precious
stones, and the other held an embroidered handkerchief in his hand,
with which he [from time to time] wiped the dog's mouth and feet.
The young merchant, having looked at the animal with great attention,
perceived on its collar the twelve large rubies, as she had heard
[them described]. She praised God, and began to consider thus: "By
what means can I carry those rubies to the king, and show them to
him, and get my father released?" She was plunged in these perplexing
reflections; meanwhile, all the people in the square and on the road,
seeing her beauty and comeliness, were struck with astonishment,
and remained utterly confounded. All the people said one to another,
"Even unto this day, we have never seen a human being of this form
and beauty." The _khwaja_ [270] also perceived her, and sent a slave,
saying, "Go thou and entreat that young merchant to come to me."

The slave went up to her and delivered his master's message, and
said, "If you will have the kindness, then my master is desirous of
[seeing] your honour; pray come and have an interview with him." The
young merchant indeed wished this very thing, and said in reply,
"Very well." [271] The moment she came near the _khwaja_, and he had
a full view of her, the dart of attachment pierced his breast; he rose
up to receive her respectfully, but his senses were utterly bewildered.
The young merchant perceived that "now he is entangled in the net" [of
my charms]. They mutually embraced one another; the _khwaja_ kissed the
young merchant's forehead, and made him sit down near him; and asked
with much kindness, "inform me of your name and lineage? whence have
you come, and where do you intend to go?" The young merchant replied,
"This humble servant's country is _Rum_, and Constantinople has been
for ages the birth-place [of my ancestors.] My father is a merchant;
and as he is now from old age unable to travel [from country to country
on his mercantile concerns] on this account he has sent me abroad to
learn the affairs of commerce. Until now I had not put my foot out of
our door; this is the very first journey that has occurred to me. I had
not courage [272] to come here by sea, I therefore travelled by land;
but your excellence and good name is so renowned in this country of
_'Ajam_ [273] that to have the pleasure only of meeting you I have
come so far. At last, by the favour of God, I have had the honour of
[sitting in] your noble presence, and have found your good qualities
exceed your renown; the wish of my heart is accomplished; God preserve
you in safety, I will now set out from hence."

On hearing these [last words], the _khwaja's_ mind and senses were
quite discomposed, and he exclaimed, "O, my son, do not speak to me of
such a thing;" stay some days with me in my humble abode; pray tell me
where are your goods, and your servants?" The young merchant replied,
"The traveller's abode is the _sara,e_; [274] leaving them there, I
came to see you." The _khwaja_ said, "It is unbecoming [a person of
your consideration] to dwell in the _sara,e_ I have some reputation
in this city, and much celebrity; send quickly for your baggage, &c.;
I will prepare a house for your goods; let me see whatever commodities
you have brought; I will so manage it, that you will get here great
profit on them. At the same time, you will be at your ease, and saved
the danger and fatigue [of travelling any farther for a market], and
by staying with me a few days you will greatly oblige me." The young
merchant pretended [275] to make some excuses, but the _khwaja_ would
not accept them, and ordered one of his agents, saying, "Send quickly
some burden-bearers, and bring the goods, &c., from the _caravanserai_
and lodge them in such a place."

The young merchant likewise sent a slave of his own with [the agent]
to bring the property and merchandise; and he himself remained with
the _khwaja_ until the evening. When the time of [the afternoon]
market had elapsed, and the shop was shut, the _khwaja_ went towards
his house. Then one of the two slaves took the dog up under his arm,
and the other took up the stool and carpet; and the two negro slaves
placed the two cages on the heads of porters, and they themselves,
accoutred with the five weapons, [276] went alongside of them. The
_khwaja_ took hold of the young merchant's hand, and conversing with
him, reached his house.

The young merchant saw that the house was grand, and fit for kings or
nobles [to reside in]. Carpets were spread on the border of a rivulet,
and before the _masnad_ the different articles for the entertainment
were laid out. The dog's stool was placed there also, and the _khwaja_
and young merchant took their seats; he presented to him some wine
without ceremony; they both began to drink. When they got merry, the
_khwaja_ called for dinner; the _dastar-khwan_ [277] was spread, and
the good things of the world were laid out. First they put some meat
in a dish, and having covered it with a cover of gold, they carried
it to the dog, and having spread an embroidered _dastar-khwan_, they
laid the dish before him. The dog descended from his stool, ate as
much as he liked, and drank some water out of a golden bowl, then
returned and sat on his stool. The slaves wiped his mouth and feet
with a napkin, and then carried the dish and bowl to the two cages,
and having asked for the keys from the _khwaja_, they opened the locks.

They took out the two men [who were confined in the cages], gave
them many blows with a great stick, and made them eat the leavings
of the dog and drink the same water; they again fastened the doors
[of the cages] and returned the keys to their master. When all this
was over, the _khwaja_ began to eat himself. The young merchant was
not pleased at these circumstances, and did not touch the victuals
from disgust. How much soever the _khwaja_ pressed him, yet he flatly
refused. Then the _khwaja_ asked the reason of this, saying, "Why
do you not eat?" The young merchant replied, "This conduct of yours
appears disgusting to me, for this reason that man is the noblest
of God's creatures, and the dog is decidedly impure. So to make two
of God's own creatures eat the leavings of a dog, in what religion
or creed is it lawful? Do not you think it sufficient that they are
your prisoners? otherwise they and you are equal. Now, I doubt if you
are a _Musulman_; who knows what you are? Perhaps you worship the dog;
it is disgusting to me to eat your dinner, until this doubt is removed
from my mind."

The _khwaja_ answered, "O, son, I comprehend perfectly all that you
say, and am generally censured for these reasons; for the inhabitants
of this city have fixed upon me the name of dog-worshipper, and call
me so, and have published it [everywhere]; but may the curse of God
alight on the impious and the infidel!" The _khwaja_ then repeated the
_kalima_, [278] and set the young merchant's mind at ease. Then the
young merchant asked, thus, "If you are really a _Musalman_ in your
heart, then what is the reason of this? By so acting, get yourself
generally censured?" The _khwaja_ said in reply, "O, son, my name is
reprobated, and I pay double taxes in the city, that no one may know
this secret [motive of my conduct]. It is a strange circumstance,
which, whoever hears, will get nothing by the recital but grief and
indignation. You must likewise pardon me [from relating it]; for I
shall not have strength of mind to recount it, nor will you have the
composure of mind to listen to it." The young merchant thought within
himself, "I have only to mind my own business; why should I to no
purpose press him further on the subject?" She accordingly replied
to the _khwaja_, "Very well; if it is not proper to be related, do
not mention it." He then began to partake of the dinner, and having
lifted a morsel, began to eat. The space of about two months [279]
the young merchant passed with the _khwaja_, with such prudence and
circumspection, that no one found out by any chance that he was a
woman [in disguise]. All thought that this [individual] was a male,
and the _khwaja's_ affection for him increased daily, so that he
could not allow him to be a moment absent from his sight.

One day, in the midst of a drinking feat, the young merchant began
to weep. On seeing it, the _khwaja_ comforted her, and began to
wipe away his tears with his handkerchief, and asked him the cause
of his weeping. He answered, "O, father, what shall I say? would to
God that I had never attained access to your presence, and that your
worship had never shown me that kindness which you are shewing. I
am now distressed between two difficulties; I have no heart to be
separated from your presence, nor is there a possibility of my staying
here. Now, it is necessary for me to go; but in separating from you,
I do not perceive hopes of life."

On hearing these words, the _khwaja_ involuntarily wept so loudly,
that he was nearly choked, and exclaimed, "O, light of my eyes! are
you so soon tired of your old friend, that you think of going away
and leaving him in such affliction? banish from your heart the idea
of departing; as long as I have to live, remain here; I shall not
live a day in your absence, and must [in such case] die before my
appointed hour. The climate of this kingdom of Persia is very fine
and congenial [to your health], you had best despatch a confidential
servant, and send for your parents and property here; I will furnish
whatever equipages and conveyances you require; when your parents and
all their household come here, you can pursue your commercial concerns
at your ease. I also have in my life gone through many hardships, and
have wandered many countries. I am now old and have no issue; I love
you dearer than a son, and make you my heir and head manager. Be you,
on the other hand, careful and attentive to my concerns. Give me a
bit of bread to eat whilst I live; when I die, be pleased to bury me,
and then take [possession of] all my wealth and effects."

To this the young merchant replied, "It is true, you have, more than a
father, shewn to me kindness and affection, so that I have forgotten my
parents; but this humble culprit's father only allowed a year's leave;
if I exceed it, then he in his extreme old age will weep himself to
death; finally, a father's approbation is meritorious before God, and
if mine should be displeased with me, then I fear he may curse me, and
I shall be an outcast from God's grace in this world and the next. Now
such is your worship's kindness, that you will give me leave to obey my
father's commands, and fulfil the duties [of a son] towards a parent;
I shall, while life lasts, bear on my neck the gratitude I owe for your
kindness. If I am ever [so fortunate as] to reach my native country,
I will still ever think of your goodness with my heart and soul. God is
the Causer of causes; perhaps some such cause may again occur, that I
may have occasion to pay you my respects. In short, the young merchant
urged such persuasive and feeling arguments to the _khwaja_, that he,
poor man, being helpless, yielded to their force. [280] Inasmuch as
he was now completely fascinated, he began to say in reply, "Well,
if you will not stay here, I will myself go with you. I consider you
equivalent to my own life: hence, if my life goes with you, of what
use is a lifeless body? If you are determined to go, then proceed,
and take me with you." Saying this to the young merchant, he began
his preparations likewise for the journey, and gave orders to his
agents to get ready quickly the necessary conveyances.

When the news of the _khwaja's_ departure became public, the merchants
of that city on hearing it, began likewise their preparations to
set out with him. The dog-worshipping _khwaja_ took with him specie
and jewels to a great amount, servants and slaves without number,
and rich rarities and property worthy of a king, and having pitched
his tents of various sorts outside of the city, he went to them. All
the other merchants took articles of merchandise with them according
to their means, and joined the _khwaja_; they became for themselves a
[regular] army.

One day, having fixed on a lucky moment for departure, they set
out thence on their journey. Having laden thousands of camels with
canvas sacks filled with goods, and the jewels and specie on mules,
five hundred slaves from the steppes of _Kapchak_, from _Zang_, and
from _Rum_, [281] completely armed, men used to the sword, mounted
on horses of Arabia, of Tartary, and of _Irak_, accompanied [the
caravan]. In the rear of all came the _khwaja_ and the young merchant,
richly dressed, and mounted on sedans; a rich litter was lashed on the
back of a camel, in which the dog reposed on a cushion, and the cages
of the two prisoners were slung one on each side of another, across
a camel, and thus they marched onwards. At every stage they came to,
all the merchants waited on the _khwaja_ and on his _dastar-khwan_
they ate of his food and drank of his wine. The _khwaja_ offered up
his grateful thanks to the Almighty for the happiness of having the
young merchant with him, and proceeded on, stage by stage. At last,
they reached the environs of Constantinople in perfect safety, and
encamped without the city. The young merchant said [to the _khwaja_],
"O, father, if you grant me permission, I will go and see my parents,
and prepare a house for you, and when it is agreeable to you, you
will be pleased to enter the city."

The _khwaja_ replied, "I am come so far for your sake, well, go
quickly and see [your parents], and return to me, and give me a place
to live in near your own." The young merchant having taken leave [of
the _khwaja_], came to his own house. All the people of the household
of the _wazir_ were surprised, and exclaimed, "What man has entered
[the house]!" The young merchant, that is, the _wazir's_ daughter, ran
and threw herself at her mother's feet, and wept and said, "I am your
child." On hearing this, the _wazir's_ wife began to reproach her,
by saying, "O, wanton girl, thou hast greatly dishonoured thyself;
thou hast blackened thine own face, and brought shame on thy family;
we had imagined thee lost, and, after weeping for thee, had with
resignation given thee up; be gone hence."

Then the _wazir-zadi_ threw the turban off her head and said, "O, dear
mother, I did not go to an improper place, and have done nothing wrong;
I have contrived the whole of this scheme according to your wishes to
release my father from prison. God be praised, that through the good
effect of your prayers, and through His grace, I, having accomplished
the entire object, am now returned; I have brought that merchant with
me from _Naishapur_, along with the dog (around whose neck are those
rubies), and have returned with the innocence you bestowed [282] on
me. I assumed the appearance of a man for the journey; now one day's
work remains; having done that, I will get my father released from
prison, and return to my home; if you give me leave, I will go back
again, and remain abroad another day, and then return to you." When the
mother thoroughly comprehended that her daughter had acted the part of
a man, and had preserved herself in all respects pure and virtuous,
she offered up her grateful acknowledgments to God, and, rejoicing
[at the event], clasped her daughter to her bosom and kissed her lips;
she prayed for her and blessed her, and gave her leave to go, saying,
"Do what thou thinkest best, I have full confidence in thee."

The _wazir-zadi_ having again assumed the appearance of a man,
returned to the dog-worshipping _khwaja_. He had been in the meantime
so much distressed at her absence, that through impatience he had
left his encampment. It so happened, that as the young merchant was
going out in the vicinity of the city, the _khwaja_ was coming from
the opposite direction; they met each other in the middle of the
road. On seeing him, the _khwaja_ exclaimed, "O, my child! leaving
this old man by himself, where wast thou gone?" The young merchant
answered, "I went to my house with your permission, but the desire
I had to see you again would not allow me to remain [at home], and I
am returned to you." They perceived a shady garden close to the gate
of the city on the sea shore; they pitched their tents and alighted
there. The _khwaja_  and the young merchant sat down together, and
began to eat their _kababs_, and drink their wine. When the time of
evening arrived, they left their tents, and sat out on high seats to
view the country. It happened that a royal chasseur passed that way;
he was astonished at seeing their manners and their encampment, and
said to himself, "Perhaps the ambassador of some king is arrived;"
he stood [and amused himself by] looking on.

One of the _khwaja's_ messengers called him forward, and asked him who
he was. He replied, "I am the king's head chasseur." The messenger
mentioned him to the _khwaja_, who ordered a negro slave, saying,
"Go and tell the chasseur that we are travellers, and if he feels
inclined to come and sit down, the coffee and pipe are ready." [283]
When the chasseur heard the name of merchant, he was still more
astonished, and came with the slave to the _khwaja's_ presence;
he saw [on all sides] the air of propriety and magnificence, and
soldiers and slaves. To the _khwaja_ and the young merchant he made
his salutations, and on seeing the dog's state and treatment, his
senses were confounded, and he stood like one amazed. The _khwaja_
asked him to sit down, and presented him coffee; the chasseur asked the
_khwaja's_ name and designation. When he requested leave to depart, the
_khwaja_ having presented him with some pieces [of cloth] and sundry
rarities, dismissed him. In the morning, when the chasseur attended
the king's audience, he related to those present the circumstances
of the _khwaja_; by degrees it came to my knowledge; I called the
chasseur before me, and asked about the merchant.

He related whatever he had seen. On hearing of the dog's exalted state,
and the two men's confinement in the cage, I was quite indignant, and
exclaimed, that reprobate of a merchant deserves death! I ordered some
of my executioners, saying, "Go immediately, and cut off and bring me
the heretic's head." By chance, the same ambassador of the Franks was
present at the audience; he smiled, and I became still more angry,
and said, "O, disrespectful; to display one's teeth [284] without
cause in the presence of kings, is remote from good manners; it is
better to weep than laugh out of season." The ambassador replied,
"Mighty sire, several ideas came across my mind, for which reason I
smiled; the first was, that the _wazir_ had spoken truth, and would
now be released from prison; secondly, that your majesty will be
unstained with the innocent blood of the _wazir_; and the third was,
that the asylum of the universe, without cause or crime, ordered
the merchant to be put to death. At all these circumstances I was
surprised, that without any inquiry your majesty should, on the tale
of an idle fellow, order people to be put to death. God in reality
knows what is the merchant's real case; call him before the royal
presence and inquire into his antecedents; if he should be found
guilty, then your majesty is master; whatever treatment you please,
that you can administer to him.

When the ambassador thus explained [the matter to me], I also
recollected what the _wazir_ had said, and ordered the merchant,
together with his son, the dog, and the cages, to be brought in my
presence immediately. The messengers set off quickly [on the errand],
and in a short time brought them all. I summoned them before me. First
came the _khwaja_  and his son [the young merchant], both richly
dressed. All present were astonished and bewildered on beholding the
young merchant's extreme beauty; he brought in his hand a golden
tray, loaded with precious stones, (the brilliancy of every one
of which illuminated the room,) and laid it before my throne, made
his obeisance and stood [in respectful silence]. The _khwaja_  also
kissed the ground, and offered up his prayers [for my prosperity];
he spoke with such sweet modulation, as if he were the nightingale
of a thousand melodies. I greatly admired his elegant and decorous
speech; but, assuming a face of anger, I exclaimed, "O, you Satan
in human form! what net is this that thou hast spread, and in thine
own path what pit hast thou dug? What is thy religion, and what rite
is this I see? Of what prophet's sect are thou a follower? If thou
wast an infidel, even then what sense is there in thy conduct? what
is thy name, that thou actest thus?

The _khwaja_ calmly replied, "May your majesty's years and prosperity
ever increase; this slave's religious creed is this, that God is one:
he has no equal, and I repeat the confession of faith of _Muhammad_
the pure (the mercy of God be shown to him and his posterity; may he
be safe!) After him, I consider the twelve _Imams_ as my guides; and
my rite is this, that I say the five regulated prayers and I observe
fasts, and I have likewise performed the pilgrimage, and from my
wealth, I give the fifth in alms, and I am called a _Musalman_. But
there is a reason, which I cannot disclose, that I appear to possess
all those bad qualities which have raised your majesty's indignation,
and for which I am condemned by every one of God's creatures. Though I
am [ever so much] called a dog-worshipper, and pay double taxes, all
this I submit to; but the secrets of my heart I have not divulged to
any one." On hearing this excuse, my anger became greater, and I said,
thou art beguiling me with words; I will not believe them until thou
explainest clearly the reasons which have made thee deviate from the
right path, that my mind may be convinced of their truth; then thy life
will be saved; or else, as a retribution [for what thou hast done], I
will order thy belly to be ripped up, that the exemplary punishment may
deter others in future from transgressing the religion of _Muhammad_.

The _khwaja_ replied, "O king, do not spill the blood of this
unfortunate wretch, but confiscate all the wealth I have, which
is beyond counting or reckoning, and having made me and my son a
votive offering to your throne, release us, and spare us our lives." I
smiled, and said, O fool! dost thou exhibit to me the temptation of thy
wealth? Thou canst not be released, except thou speakest the truth. On
hearing these words, the tears streamed profusely from the _khwaja's_
eyes; he looked towards his son and heaved a deep sigh, and said
[to him] "I am criminal in the king's eyes; I shall be put to death;
what shall I do now? to whom shall I entrust thee?" I threatened
him, and said, O dissembler! cease; thou hast made too many excuses
[already]; what thou hast to say, say it [quickly].

Then, indeed, that man having advanced forward, came near the throne
and kissed the foot of it, and poured forth my praise and eulogy,
and said, "O king of kings, if the order for execution had not been
issued in my case, I would have borne every torture, and would not
have disclosed my story; but life is dear above every [consideration];
no one of his own accord jumps into a well; to preserve life, then, is
right; and the abandoning of what is right is contrary to the mandates
of God. Well, if such is the royal pleasure, then be pleased to hear
the past events of this feeble old man. First, order the two cages,
in which the two men are confined, to be brought and placed before
your majesty. I am going to relate my adventures; if I falsify any
circumstance, then ask them to convict me, and let justice be done." I
approved of his proposal and sent for the cages, took them both out,
and made them stand near the _khwaja_.

The _khwaja_ said, "O king! this man, who stands on the right hand of
your slave is my eldest brother, and he who stands on my left is my
second [285] brother. I am younger than they; my father was a merchant
in the kingdom of Persia, and when I was fourteen years of age, he
died. After the burial ceremony was over, and the flowers had been
removed [from the corpse on the _Siyum_], [286] my two brothers said
to me one day, 'Let us now divide our father's wealth, whatever there
is, and let each do [with his share] what he pleases.' On hearing
[this proposal], I said, O brothers! what words are these! I am
your slave, and do not claim the rights of a brother. Our father,
on the one hand, is dead, but you both are alive and in the place
of that father. I only want a dry loaf [daily] to pass through life,
and to remain alert in your service. What have I to do with shares or
divisions? I will fill my belly with your leavings, and remain near
you. I am a boy, and have not learnt even to read or write? what am
I able to do? At present do you confer instruction upon me.

"On hearing this, they replied, 'Thou wishest to ruin and beggar us
also along with thyself.' I was silent, and retired to a corner and
wept; then I reasoned with myself and said, my brothers, after all,
are my elders; they are reproving [me for my good, and] with a view to
my education, that I may learn some [profession]. In these reflections
I fell asleep. In the morning, a messenger from the _kazi_ came and
conducted me to the court of justice; I saw that both my brothers were
there in waiting. The _kazi_ asked me, 'Why dost not thou accept thy
share of thy father's property?' I repeated to him what I had at home
said [to my brothers]. The latter said, 'If he speaks this sentiment
from his heart, then let him give us a deed of release, saying he has
no claims on our father's wealth and property.' Even then I thought,
that as they both were my elders, they advised for my good; that if I
got my share of my father's property I might improperly spend it. So,
according to their desire, I gave them a deed of release, with the
_kazi's_  seal. They were satisfied, and I returned home.

"The second day after this, they said to me, 'O brother, we require
the apartment in which you live; do you hire another place for your
residence, and go and stay there.' 'Twas then I perceived that they
were not pleased that I should even remain in my father's house; I had
no remedy, and determined to leave it. O protector of the world! when
my father was alive, whenever he returned from his travels, he used to
bring the rarities of different countries, and give them to me by way
of presents; for this reason, that every one loves most the youngest
child. I from time to time sold these [presents], and raised a small
capital of my own; with this [sum] I carried on some traffic. Once,
my father brought for me a female slave from Tartary, and he once
brought thence some horses, from which he gave me also a promising
young colt; and I used to feed it from my own little property.

"At last, seeing the inhumanity of my brothers, I bought a house, and
went and resided there; this dog also went along with me. I purchased
the requisite articles for housekeeping, and bought two slaves for
attendance; with the remainder of my capital I opened a shop as a cloth
merchant, and placing my confidence in God, I sat down quietly [in
it], and felt contented with my fate. Though my brothers had behaved
unkindly to me, yet, since God was gracious, my shop in three years'
time increased so greatly, that I became a man of credit. Whatever
rarities [in the way of clothes or dresses] were required in every
great family, went from my shop only. I thereby earned large sums
of money, and began to live in affluent circumstances. Every hour
I offered up my prayers to the pure God, and lived at my ease; and
often used to repeat these verses on my [prosperous] circumstances:--

    'Why should not the prince be displeased?
    I have nothing to do with him.
    Except thyself, O, mighty Prince, [287]
    What other [sovereign] can I praise?
    Why should not my brother be displeased?
    Nothing can he do [to harm me];
    Thou alone art my help;
    Then to whom else should I go?
    Why should not the friend or foe be displeas'd,
    During the whole [eight] watches,
    Let me fix my affections on thy feet only.
    Let the world be wrathful [with me],
    But thou dost far transcend [the world];
    All others may kiss my thumb,
    Only it is my wish that thou be not displeased.'

"It happened, that on a Friday I was sitting at home, when a slave
of mine had gone to the _bazar_ for necessaries; after a short time,
he returned in tears. I asked him the reason, and what happened to
him. He replied with anger, 'What business is it to you? do you enjoy
yourself; but what answer will you give on the day of judgment?' I
said, O, you Abyssinian, what demon has possessed thee? He answered,
'This is the calamity, that the arms of your two elder brothers have
been tied behind their backs in the _chauk_ by a Jew; he is beating
them with a whip, and laughs and says, 'If you do not pay my money,
I will beat you even unto the death [and if I lose my money by the
act], it will be at least a meritorious deed on my part.' Such is your
brother's treatment, and you are indifferent; is this right? and what
will the world say?' On hearing these circumstances from the slave,
my blood glowed [288] [with fraternal warmth]; I ran towards the
_chauk_ with naked feet, and told my slaves to hasten with money. The
instant I arrived there, I saw that all that the slave had said was
true; blows continued to fall on my brothers. I exclaimed to the
magistrate's guards, for God's sake forbear awhile; let me ask the
Jew what great fault [my brothers] have committed, in retaliation
for which, he so severely punishes them.

"On saying this, I went up to the Jew and said, to-day is the
sabbath day; [289] why dost thou continue to inflict stripes on
them? The Jew replied, 'If you wish to take their part, do it fully,
and pay me the money in their stead; or else take the road to your
house.' I said, 'what is the amount? produce the bond, and I will
count thee out the money.' He replied, 'that he had just given the
bond to the magistrate.' At this moment, my slaves brought two bags
of money. I gave a thousand pieces of silver to the Jew, and released
my brothers. Such was their condition, naked, hungry, and thirsty,
I brought them with me to my own house, and caused them instantly to
be bathed in the bath, and dressed in new clothes, and gave them a
hearty meal. I never asked them what they had done with our father's
great wealth, lest they might feel ashamed.

"O king, they are both present; ask them if I tell truth, or falsify
any of the circumstances. Well, after some space of time, when they had
recovered from the bruises of the beating [they had suffered], I said
to them one day, 'O brothers, you have now lost your credit in this
city, and it is better you should travel for some days.' On hearing
this, they were both silent; but I perceived they were satisfied
[with my proposal]. I began to make preparations for their journey,
and having procured tents and all necessary conveyance, I purchased
for them merchandise to the amount of 20,000 rupees. A _kafila_ [290]
of merchants was going to _Bukhara_; [291] I sent them along with it.

"After a year, that caravan returned, but I heard no tidings of my
brothers; at last, putting a friend on his oath, I asked him [what
had become of them]. He replied, 'When they went to _Bukhara_, one
of them lost all his property at the gambling house, and is now a
sweeper at the same house, and keeps clean and plastered the place
of gambling, and waits on the gamblers who assemble there; they,
by way of charity, give him something, and he remains there as a
scullion. The other brother became enamoured of a _boza-vendor's_
[292] daughter, and squandered all his property [on her], and now he
is one of the waiters at the _boze-khana_. [293] The people of the
_kafila_ do not mention these circumstances to you for this reason,
that you would become ashamed [at hearing them].

"On hearing these circumstances from that person, I was in a strange
state; hunger and sleep vanished through anxiety; taking some money for
[the expenses of] the road, I set out instantly for _Bukhara_. When
I arrived there, I searched for them both, and I brought them to the
house [I had taken]. I had them bathed and clothed in new dresses,
and, from fear of their being abashed with shame, I said not a word
to them [of what had happened]. I again purchased some goods for
merchandise for them, and returned with them home. When we arrived
near _Naishapur_, I left them in a village with all the goods and
chattels, and came [secretly] to my house, for this reason, that
no one might be informed of my return. After two days, I gave out
publicly that my brothers were returned from their journey, and that
I would go out tomorrow to meet them. In the morning, as I wished to
set out, a peasant of that village came to me, and began to make loud
complaints; on hearing his voice I came out, and seeing him crying,
I asked, why dost thou make a lamentation? He answered, 'Our houses
have been plundered, owing to your brothers; would to God that you
had not left them there!'

"I asked, what misfortune has occurred? He replied, 'A gang of robbers
came at night and plundered their property and goods, and they at
the same time robbed our houses.' I pitied him, and asked, where are
these two now? He answered, 'They are sitting without the city, stark
naked and utterly distressed.' I instantly took two suits of clothes
with me and went [to them], and having clothed them, brought them to
my house. The people [of the city], hearing [the circumstances of the
robbery], continued coming to see them, but they did not go out through
shame. Three months passed in this same manner; at last I reflected
within myself, 'how long will they thus remain squatted in a corner? If
it can be brought about, I will take them with me on some voyage.'

"I proposed it to my brothers, and added, 'if you please, I will go
with you.' They were silent. I again made the necessary preparations
for the voyage, purchased some goods for the trade, and set out and
took them with me. After I had distributed the customary alms [for a
prosperous voyage], and loaded the merchandise on the ship, we weighed
anchor, and the vessel set sail. This dog was sleeping on the banks
[of the river]; when he awoke, and saw the ship in the middle of the
stream, he was surprised, and having barked and jumped into the river,
he began to swim [after us]. I sent a skiff for him, at last having
seized [the faithful animal], they conveyed him into the ship. One
month passed in safety on the river; somehow, my second brother became
enamoured of my slave girl. One day, he thus spoke to our eldest
brother, that, 'to bear the load of our younger brother's favours is
very shameful; what remedy shall we apply to this [evil]?' The eldest
answered, 'I have formed a plan in my mind; if it can be executed, it
will be a great thing.' Both at last consulted together, and settled
it between them to destroy me, and seize all my property and goods.

"One day, I was asleep in the cabin, and the female slave was
_shampooing_ [294] me, when my second brother came in hastily and
awaked me. I started up in a hurry, and came forth [on deck]. This
dog also followed me. I saw my eldest brother leaning on his hands
against the vessel's side, and intensely looking at the wonders
of the river, and calling out to me. I went up to him and said,
'is all well?' He answered, 'Behold this strange sight; mermen are
dancing in the stream, with pearl, oysters, and branches of coral in
their hands.' If any other had related this circumstance so contrary
to reason, I should not, indeed, have believed it. I imagined what
my brother said to be true, and bent down my head to look at it. How
much soever I looked, I perceived nothing, and he kept saying, 'Do
you now see it?' Now, had there been anything, I should have seen
it. Perceiving me [by this trick] off my guard, my second brother came
behind me, unperceived, and gave me such a push that, without choice,
I tumbled into the water, and they began to scream and cry aloud,
'Run, run, our brother has fallen into the river.'

"In the meantime the ship went on, and the waves carried me away from
it; I was plunging in the water, and drifting amidst the waves. I
became at last quite exhausted; I invoked the aid of God, but nought
was of any avail. All of a sudden my hand touched something; I looked
at it, and saw this dog. Perhaps, when they pushed me into the river,
he also jumped after me, and kept swimming close by my side. I took
hold of his tail, and God made him the cause of my salvation. Seven
days and nights passed in this manner; the eighth day we reached
the shore. I had no strength whatever left, but throwing myself on
my back, I rolled along as well as I could, and threw myself on the
land. I remained senseless for one whole day; the second day the dog's
barking reached my ears; I came to myself, and I thanked God [for my
salvation], I began looking around me, and perceived at a distance the
environs of a city; but where had I strength, that I should attempt
to reach it? Having no other resource, I continued crawling along
about two paces, and then rested; in this way I had finished a _kos_
[295] of the road by the evening.

"Half way [to the city] I reached a mountain, and lay there all night;
the next morning I reached the city; when I came to the _bazar_ and saw
the shops of the bakers and confectioners, my heart began to palpitate,
for I had not money to buy, nor did I feel inclined to beg. In this
way, I went along, saying to myself, I will ask something in the next
shop. At last, strength had failed me, and my stomach [296] yearned
with extreme hunger; life was nearly quitting my body. By chance,
I saw two young men dressed like Persians, walking along hand in
hand. On seeing them, my spirits revived, as they seemed [by their
dress] to be my countrymen--perhaps some of my acquaintance--to whom,
therefore, I might relate my circumstances. When they drew near,
[I perceived] they were of a verity, my brothers; and on perceiving
this, I was extremely rejoiced, and praised God, saying, 'God has
preserved my reputation; and I have not stretched forth my hands to
strangers [for subsistence].' I went up to them and saluted them,
and kissed my eldest brother's hand. Immediately on seeing me, they
made a great noise, and my second brother struck me so forcibly that
I staggered and fell down. I seized my eldest brother's robe, thinking
that he would perhaps take my part; but he gave me a violent kick.

"In short, they both thoroughly pounded me, and behaved to me as
Joseph's brothers [did to him]. Though I besought them in God's name
[to desist] and implored mercy, yet they felt no pity. A crowd
assembled [round us]; and every one asked, 'What is this man's
crime?' Then my brothers replied, 'This rascal was our brother's
servant and pushed him over into the sea, and seized all his treasure
and property. We have been long in search of him, and to-day he has
appeared [to us] in this guise.' They then continued questioning me,
saying, 'O villain! what [infernal idea] entered thy mind, that thou
murderedst our brother? What injury had he done to thee? Had he
behaved ill to thee, that he had made thee superintendent [of his
affairs]?' They both then tore their own clothes, and wept loudly
with sham grief for their brother, and continued to beat and kick me.

"In the meantime, the soldiers of the governor arrived, and having
spoken to them threateningly, said, 'Why do you beat him?' And taking
hold of my hand, they carried me to the magistrate. These two [297]
also went with us, and repeated to the magistrate the same [tale which
they had told the crowd], and having given him something by way of
bribe, they demanded justice, and insisted on blood for blood. The
magistrate asked me [what I had to say for myself].  Such was my
condition from hunger and the blows [I had received], that I had
not strength to speak; hanging down my head, I remained standing
[in silence]; no answer issued from my mouth. The magistrate also
became convinced that I was assuredly a murderer; he ordered me to
be led to the plain, and placed on the stake. [298] O, protector of
the world, [299] I had paid money, and got these [two here] released
from the Jew's bondage; in return for which, they having given money,
endeavoured to take away my life. They are both present; ask them
if [in all I have related] I have varied a hair's breadth [from the
truth]. Well, they led me out [to the plain]; when I saw the stake,
I washed my hands of life.

"Except this dog, I had no one else to weep for me; his state was
such that he rolled on every one's feet and barked. Some beat him
with sticks, and others with stones, but he would not stir from
that place. I stood with my face towards the _kibla_, [300] and
addressing myself to God, I said, 'At this moment I have no one except
Thee to intervene and save the innocent! Now, if Thou savest, I am
saved.' After this address, I repeated the prayer of _shahadat_, [301]
staggered, and then fell. By the dispensation of God, it so happened,
that the king of that country was attacked with the cholic; the nobles
and physicians assembled; whatever remedies they applied, produced no
good. One holy man said, 'The best of all remedies is, that alms be
given to the destitute, and that all prisoners should be released;
for in prayer there is greater efficacy than in physic.' Instantly
the royal messengers went off running towards the prisons.

"By chance, some one came to that plain [where I was], and seeing
a crowd, he ascertained [from a bystander] that they were placing
some person on the stake. Immediately on hearing this, he galloped
up to the stake, and cut the ropes with his sword. He threatened
and chastised the magistrate's soldiers, and said, "At such a time,
when the king is in such a state, are you going to put a creature of
God to death?' and he got me released. Upon which, these two brothers
went again to the magistrate, and urged him to put me to death. As
this official had already taken a bribe from them, he [readily]
acquiesced to do whatever they dictated.

"The magistrate said to them, 'Rest satisfied; I will now confine him
in such a way, that he will of himself, from want of food and drink,
die of sheer exhaustion, and no one will know anything about it.' They
re-seized me, and kept me In a corner. About a _kos_ without the city
was a mountain, in which, in the time of Solomon, the _divs_ had dug
a deep and narrow well; it was called Solomon's prison. Whoever fell
greatly under the king's wrath, was confined in that well, where he
perished of himself [from hunger and thirst]. To shorten my story,
these two brothers and the magistrate's soldiers carried me at night,
in silence, to the mountain, and having cast me into that pit, and
thus set their own minds at ease, they returned. O king, this dog
went with me, and when they put me into the well, he remained lying
on its brink. I lay some time senseless in the inside, and then a
little consciousness returned to me; I conceived myself to be dead,
and that place my grave At this time I heard the sounds of two men's
voices, who were saying something to each other; I concluded that
these were _Nakir_ and _Munkir_, [302] who were come to question me;
and I likewise heard the rustling of a rope, as if some one had let it
down there. I was wondering, and began to feel about me on the ground,
when some bones came into my gripe.

"After a moment, a noise like that made by the mouth when some one
is masticating, struck my ears. I exclaimed, 'O creatures of God,
who are ye; tell me for God's sake?' They laughed, and said, 'This
is the great Solomon's prison, and we are prisoners.' I asked them,
'Am I really alive?' They again laughed heartily, and replied,
'You are as yet alive, but will soon die.' I said, 'You are eating;
what would it be if you were to give me some?' They then got angry,
and gave me a dry answer, but nothing else. After eating and drinking,
they fell asleep. I through faintness and weakness, fell into a swoon,
and wept and dreamed of God. Mighty sire, I had been seven days in
the sea, and so many days since without food, owing to my brothers'
false accusation; yea, instead of food, I had got a beating, and
was now ingulfed in such a prison, that not the least appearance of
release came even into my imagination.

"At last, life was leaving me; sometimes it came, and sometimes it
left me. From time to time some person used to come at midnight, and
let down by a rope some bread tied up in a handkerchief, and a jar
of water, and used to call out. Those two men who were confined near
me used to seize it and eat and drink. The dog constantly witnessing
this circumstance, exerted his intelligence, thus, 'In the way in which
this person lets down water and bread into the pit, do thou also make
some contrivance whereby some food may reach this destitute one, who
is thy master, then may his life be saved.' Thus having reflected,
he went to the city, [and saw that] round cakes of bread piled up
on the counter at a baker's shop; leaping up, he seized a cake in
his mouth, and ran off with it; the people pursued him, and pelted
him with clods, but he would not quit the cake; they became tired
[of pursuing him], and returned; the dogs of the city ran after him;
he fought arid struggled with them, and having saved the cake, he
came to the well, and threw in the bread. There was sufficient light
for me to see the cake lying near me, and I heard, moreover, the dog
bark. I took up the cake; and the dog, after throwing down the bread,
went to look for water.

"On the outskirts of a certain village, there was an old woman's hut;
jars and pots filled with water stood [at the door], and the old woman
was spinning. The dog went up to the pot, and attempted to seize it;
the old woman made a threatening noise, and the pot slipped from the
dog's mouth and fell upon an earthenware jar which was broken; the rest
of the vessels were upset and the water spilt. The old woman seized
a stick, and rose up to beat [the animal]; the dog seized the skirt
of her clothes, and began to rub his mouth on her feet, and wag his
tail; then he ran towards the mountain; again having returned to her,
he sometimes seized a rope, and sometimes having taken up a bucket
in his mouth, he shewed it [to her]; and he rubbed his face against
her feet, and seizing the hem of her garment, he continued pulling
her. The Almighty inspired the old woman's heart with compassion,
so that she took up the rope and bucket and went along with him. He
keeping hold of the end of her clothes, after coming out of the hut,
kept going on before her.

"At last, he guided her to the very mountain; the old woman imagined,
from the dog's conduct, that his master was confined in the well,
and that he, perhaps, wanted water for him. In short, conducting the
old woman, he came to the mouth of the well. The old woman filled the
bucket with water and let it down by a rope. I seized the vessel and
ate a morsel of the cake. I drank two or three gulps of the water,
and satisfied my hunger and thirst. [303] I thanked God [for this
timely supply], and retired to a corner, and waited with patience
for the interference of the Almighty, saying, "Now let us see what
is to come about." In this manner, this dumb animal used to bring
me bread, and by means of the old woman, he used to supply me with
water to drink. When the bakers perceived that the dog always carried
off bread [in this way], they took compassion on him, and made it a
rule to throw him a cake whenever they saw him; and if the old woman
neglected to carry the water, he used to break her pots; so that she,
being helpless, used to let down a bucket of water every day. This
faithful companion removed all my apprehensions for bread and water,
and he himself always lay at the mouth of the prison. Six months
passed in this manner;  but what must be the condition of the man
who was confined so long in such a prison, where the air of heaven
could never reach him? Only my skin and bones remained; life became
a torment to me, and I used to say in my heart, 'O God, it would be
better if my life became extinct!'

"One night, the two prisoners were asleep; my heart overflowed
[with sorrow], and I began to weep bitterly, and supplicate [304]
the Almighty [to end my woes]. At the last quarter [of the night],
what do I see! that, by the dispensation of God, a rope was hanging
down in the well, and I heard [some one] in a low voice saying, 'O,
unfortunate wretch! tie the end of the rope tightly to thy hands,
and escape from this place.' On hearing these words, I in my heart
imagined that my brothers had at last felt compassion for me, and,
from the ties of blood, had come in person to take me out. With much
joy I tied the rope tightly to my waist; some one pulled me up. The
night was so dark, that I could not recognise the person who had
hauled me up. When I was out, he said, 'Come, be quick; this is no
place to tarry.' I had no strength whatever left; but from fear I
rolled down the hill as well as I could. Then I saw at the bottom two
horses standing, ready saddled; that person mounted me one of them,
and he mounted the other himself, and took the lead. Proceeding on,
we reached the banks of a river.

"The morning appeared, and we had gone forth ten or twelve _kos_ from
the city. I then saw the young man [very clearly]; he was completely
armed, having on a coat of mail, together with back, front, and
sidepieces [of burnished steel], [305] and with iron armour on his
horse; he was looking at me with great rage, and biting his lips,
he drew his sword from the scabbard, and springing his horse towards
mine, he made a cut at me. I threw myself off my horse [on the ground],
and called out for mercy, and said, 'I am faultless; why are you about
to kill me? O, kind sir, from such a prison you have taken me out,
and now wherefore this unkindness?' He replied, 'Tell me the truth,
who art thou.' I answered, I am a traveller, and have been involved
in unmerited calamity; by your humane assistance, I have at last come
out alive. And I addressed to him many other flattering expressions.

"God inspired his heart with pity. He sheathed his sword, and said,
'Well, what God wills, he does; go, I spare thee thy life; remount
quickly; this is no place to delay.' We put our horses to their speed,
and went forward; on the road he continued to sigh and show signs of
regret. By the time of mid-day, [306] we reached an island. There the
young man got off his horse, and made me also dismount; he took off
the saddles and pads from the horses' backs, and let them loose to
graze; he also took off his arms from his own person, and sat clown
and said to me, 'O you of evil destiny, relate now your story, that
I may know who you are,' I told him my name and place of residence,
and whatever various misfortunes had befallen me, I related to the end.

"When the young man had heard all my history, he wept, and addressing
himself to me, he said, 'O youth, hear now my story. I am the daughter
of the _raja_ of the land of _Zerbad_, [307] and that young man who is
confined in the prison of Solomon, his name is _Bahramand_; he is the
son of my father's prime minister. One day the _Maharaj_ [my father]
ordered that all the _rajas_ and _kunwars_ [308] should assemble on the
plain, which lay under the lattices [of the seraglio] to shoot arrows,
and play at _chaugan_, [309] so that the horsemanship and dexterity of
every individual might be displayed. I was seated near the _rani_ [310]
my mother, behind one of the lattices of the highest story, and the
female servants and slaves were in waiting around; there I was looking
at the sport. The minister's son was the handsomest [man] among them;
and having caracoled his horse, he performed his exercises with much
address. He appeared very agreeable [in my eyes], and my heart became
enamoured of him. I kept this circumstance concealed for a long while.

"'At last, when I became quite restless, I mentioned it to my
hand-maid, and gave her many presents [to gain her assistance]. She
contrived, by some means or other, to introduce the youth in secrecy
into my apartment; he then began to love me likewise. Many days passed
in these love interviews. In short, the sentinels saw him one midnight
going armed into my apartment, and seized him, and informed the _raja_
of the circumstance. The _raja_ ordered him to be put to death; through
the solicitations of all the officers of state, his life was pardoned,
but he was ordered to be thrown into the prison of Solomon; and the
other young man, who is a fellow-prisoner with him, is his brother, and
was with him the night [he was seized]. Both were put into the well,
and it is now three years since they were confined, but no one has yet
found out why the youth entered the _raja's_ palace. God has preserved
my character [from public exposure], and in return for his goodness,
I conceived it my duty to continue to supply the two prisoners with
bread and water. Since their confinement I go there every eight days,
and let them down eight days' provisions at once.

"'Last night, I saw in a dream that somebody advised me, saying, "arise
quickly and take a horse, a dress, a rope-ladder, and some money for
expenses, and go to that pit, and deliver from thence the unfortunate
prisoners." On hearing this, I started up [from my sleep], and being
greatly rejoiced, I dressed myself like a man, filled a casket with
jewels and gold pieces, and taking this horse and some clothes with
me, I went to the prison to draw them out with the rope-ladder. It was
in your fate to be delivered from such a confinement in this manner;
no one knows what I have done; perhaps he was some protecting angel
who sent me to enlarge you. Well, whatever was in my destiny, the same
has come to pass.' After finishing this relation, she took out some
cakes fried in butter, some wheaten bread, some pulse, and meat curry
from her handkerchief; but first, she dissolved some sugar in a cup of
water, and put some spirit of _bed-mushk_ in it, and gave it to me. I
took it from her hand and drank it, and then ate some breakfast. After
a short while, she made me wrap a piece of cloth round my waist, and
led me to the river, and with scissors she cut my hair and nails and
bathing me, dressed me in the clothes [she had brought], and made a
new man of me. I, having turned my face to the _kibla_ offered up a
prayer of thanksgiving; the beautiful girl regarded what I was doing.

"When I had finished from praying, she asked me, 'What hast thou been
thus doing?' I answered, 'I have been worshipping the Almighty God who
has created the whole world, and who has effected my relief through a
being lovely as thou art, and who has inclined thy heart to kindness
towards me, and caused me to be released from such a prison. His person
is without an equal, [311] to Him I have performed my devotions,
and obeisance, and rendered my thanks.' On hearing these words she
said, 'You are a _Musalman_.' I replied, 'Thanks be to God, I am,'
'My heart,' said she, 'is delighted with your pious expressions;
instruct me also, and teach me to recite your _kalima_.' I said
in my own heart, 'God be praised that she is inclined to embrace
our faith.' In short, I recited [our creed], viz., 'There is no God
but God, and _Muhammad_ is the apostle of God,' and made her repeat
it. Then mounting our horses, we two set out from thence. When we
halted at night, she talked of [nothing else but] our religion and
faith; and she listened and felt delighted [with my words]. In this
way we journeyed on incessantly day and night, for two months.

"At last, we arrived in a country which lay between the boundaries
of the kingdoms of _Zerbad_ and _Sarandip_; [312] a city appeared,
which was more populous than Constantinople, and the climate very
fine and agreeable. On finding that the king of that country was more
renowned for his justice than _Naushirwan_ [313], and also for being
the protector of his subjects; my heart was greatly rejoiced. Having
there bought a house, we took up our residence. After some days,
when we had got over the fatigues of the journey, I purchased some
necessary articles, and married the young lady according to the
law of _Muhammad_, and lived with her. In the space of three years,
I having freely associated with the great and small of that place,
established my credit, and entered into an extensive trade. At last,
I surpassed all the merchants of that place. One day, I went for the
purpose of paying my respects to the first _wazir_, and saw a great
crowd of people assembled on a plain. I asked some one, 'Why is there
such a crowd here?' I learnt that two persons had been caught in the
act of adultery and theft; and perhaps they had even committed murder;
they were brought here to be stoned [to death].

"On hearing this [circumstance], I recollected my own case; that once
upon a time I had likewise been led in the same manner to be empaled,
and that God preserved me. 'Who can these be,' [I said to myself],
'that they should have become involved in such calamity? I do not
even know if they are justly [punished], or, like me, the victims
of a false accusation.' Pressing through the crowd, I reached [the
spot where the culprits stood], and perceived they were my brothers,
who were led along with their hands tied behind their backs, and with
bare heads and feet. On seeing their sad state, my blood boiled, and
my liver was on fire. I gave the guards a handful of gold pieces, and
besought them to delay [the execution] for a moment; and from thence,
having put my horse to his utmost speed, I went to the governor's
house. I presented to him, as a _nazar_, a ruby of inestimable value,
and made intercession for them. He replied, 'A person has a plaint
against them, and their crimes have been fully proved; the king's
mandate has been issued, and I have no alternative.'

"At last, after much entreaty and supplication [on my part], the
governor sent for the complainant, and made him consent that for
five thousand pieces of silver he should withdraw his charge of
murder. I counted out the money, and got his written engagement
[not to prosecute them again], and had them released from their
dire calamity. O protector of the world! ask them if I tell truth
or falsehood." Here the two brothers stood in silence, and hung down
their heads like those who are ashamed. "Well, [to proceed], I got them
released, and brought them to my house, had them bathed and dressed,
and gave them apartments for their residence in the _diwan-khana_. I
did not at that time introduce my wife to them; I myself attended
to all their wants, and ate [and drank] with them, and at the hour
of sleep returned to my apartment. For the space of three years [the
time] thus passed in my kind treatment of them, and on their part, no
evil action took place, so as to be the cause of my displeasure. When
I used to go out riding any where, they remained at home.

"It happened, that my good wife went one day to the bath; when she
came to the _diwan-khana,_ seeing no male person there, she took off
her veil; perhaps my second brother was lying down there awake, and
immediately on seeing her, he became enamoured of her. He imparted [the
circumstance] to our eldest brother, and they formed a plan together
for murdering me. I had no knowledge whatever of this circumstance;
on the contrary, I used to say to myself, 'God be praised, that this
time, as yet, they have done nothing such [as they formerly did];
their conduct is now correct; perhaps they have felt the effects of
shame.' One day, after dinner, my eldest brother began to weep, and
to praise our native country, and to describe the delights of _Iran._
[314] On hearing this, the other brother began to sigh. I said, 'If
you wish to return to] our native land; then it is well; I am devoted
to your pleasure, and it is also my own wish. Now, if it please God,
I will go along with you.' I mentioned the circumstance of my brothers'
afflictions to my wife, and also my own intentions. That sensible woman
replied, 'You may think so; but they again design to perpetrate some
villany [towards you]; they are the enemies of your life; you have
fostered [a brace of] serpents in your sleeve, and you still place
reliance on their regard. Act as you please, but beware of those
who are noxious.' At all events, the preparations for the journey
were completed in a short time, and the tents pitched on the plain. A
great _kafila_ assembled, and they agreed to confer on me the rank of
leader and _kafila-bashi._ [315] A propitious hour being ascertained,
[the _kafila_] set out; but on my part, I was on my guard against
my brothers, though in every way I obeyed their commands, and made
everything agreeable to them.

"One day [when we arrived] at our stage, my second brother said that,
'one _farsakh_ [316] from this place is a running fountain like
_salsabil_ [317] and in the [circumjacent] plain, for miles around,
lilies, and tulips, and narcissuses, and roses, grow spontaneously. In
truth, it is a delightful spot to walk in; if we had our will, we
would go there to-morrow, and enliven our hearts [with the sight],
and recover from our fatigues.' I said, 'you are masters here; if
you command it, we will halt to-morrow, and having gone to that spot,
we will stroll about [and amuse ourselves].' They replied, 'what can
we do better?' I gave orders, saying, 'advertise the whole _kafila_
that to-morrow there will be a halt,' and I told my cook to prepare
breakfast, of every variety [of dishes] for next day, as we should
go on an excursion [of pleasure]. When the morning came, these two
brothers put on their clothes, and having armed themselves, they
reminded me to make haste, that we might arrive there in the cool
[of the morning] and enjoy our walk. I ordered my horse, but they
observed thus, 'The pleasure which results by viewing [the place]
on foot, can the same be felt in riding? [318] Give orders to the
grooms that they may lead the horses after us.'

Two slaves carried the _kaliyan_ [319] and coffee-pot, and went
along with us. On the road, as we proceeded, we amused ourselves
by shooting arrows, and when we had gone some distance from the
_kafila_, they sent one of the slaves on some errand. Advancing a
little farther, they sent the other slave also to call back [the
former]. My unfortunate fate would have it [that I remained silent]
as if some one had put a seal on my lips, and they did what they
wished, and having occupied my attention in talk, they continued to
lead me on; this dog, however, remained with me. When we had advanced
a considerable distance, I saw neither fountains nor gardens, but a
plain covered with thorns. There I had a call for making water, and sat
me down to perform it. I saw behind me a flash like that of a sword;
and, on looking back, my second brother struck me such a sword-cut,
that my skull was cleft in twain. [320] Before I could call out, O
savage! why dost thou murder me; my eldest brother gave me [a blow]
on the shoulder. Both wounds were severe, and I staggered and fell;
then these two pitiless ones mutilated me at their ease, and left me
weltering in my blood. This dog, on seeing my condition, flew at them,
and they wounded him likewise. After this, they gave themselves some
slight wounds, and ran back to the encampment with naked feet and
heads, and gave out, that 'some robbers have murdered our brother on
that plain, and we ourselves also in a close encounter with them,
have been wounded. Move off quickly, or else they will immediately
fall on the caravan, and utterly plunder us all.' When the people
of the _kafila_ heard the name of robbers, they immediately became
alarmed, and marched off and made  their escape.

"My wife had [already] heard of the [former] conduct and precious
qualities of these [brothers of mine,] and of all the treachery they
had practised towards me; hearing now from these liars the events
[that had occurred], she instantly stabbed herself to death with
her dagger, and restored her soul to her Maker." O _darweshes!_
[321] when the dog-worshipping _khwaja_ had thus far told us of the
adventures and misfortunes, I wept involuntarily on hearing them. The
merchant having perceived [my grief,] said, "Lord of the world! if
it were not a want of respect, I would strip myself naked, and show
the whole of my body." Even on this, to [prove] the truth [of what he
had related,] he tore his dress off his shoulders, and showed to us
[his person]. In truth, there was not the space of four fingers on it
free from wounds; and he took off his turban before me from his head,
and there was such a great dint in his skull, that a whole pomegranate
might be put into it. All the officers of state who were present shut
their eyes, they had not the power of beholding [the shocking sight].

The _khwaja_ then continued his narrative, saying, "O blessed
majesty! when these brothers, as they thought, had finished their work
and went away; on the one side, I lay wounded, and on the other side,
this dog lay wounded near me. I lost so much blood from my body,
that I had not the least strength or sensation left, and I cannot
conceive how life remained. The spot where I lay was on the boundary
of the kingdom of _Sarandip_, and a very populous city was situated
near the place; in that city there was a great pagoda, and the king
of that country had a daughter extremely well-favoured and beautiful.

"Many kings and princes were desperately in love with her. There,
the custom of [wearing] the veil was unknown; for which reason the
princess used to roam about, hunting all day with her companions. Near
[the spot where I lay] was a royal garden; she had on that day got
leave from her father, and had come to that same garden. Walking
about by way of recreation,  she chanced to pass over that plain; some
female attendants also accompanied her on horseback. They came to the
spot where I lay, hearing my groans, they stopped near me. Seeing me
in this condition, they rode off to the princess, and said, that 'a
miserable man and a dog are lying weltering in their blood.' On hearing
this from them, the princess herself came near me, and, afflicted
[at the sight,] she said, 'See if any life still remains.' Two or
three of the attendants dismounted and having examined me, replied,
'He still breathes.' The princess instantly ordered them to lay me
carefully on a carpet and carry me to the garden.

"When they brought me there, [the princess] having sent for the royal
surgeon, gave him many injunctions respecting the cure both of myself
and of my dog, and gave him hopes of a reward and a gratuity. The
surgeon having thoroughly wiped my whole body, cleaned it from dust and
blood, and having washed the wounds with spirits, he stitched them and
put on plasters; and he ordered the extract of the musk-willow [322]
to be dropped down my throat in lieu of water. The princess herself
used to sit at the head [of my bed], and see that I was attended to;
and two or four times during the day and night she made me swallow,
from her own hands, some broth or _sharbat_. At last, when I came to
myself, I heard the princess say with sorrow, 'What bloody tyrant hath
used thee so cruelly? did he not fear even the great idol?' [323]
After ten days, with the efficacy of the spirit of _bed-mushk_,
and _sharbats_, and electuaries, I opened my eyes; and saw as if the
whole court of _Indra_ were standing around me, and the princess at
the head of my bed. I heaved a sigh and wished to move myself, but had
not sufficient strength. The princess said with kindness, 'O Persian,
be of good cheer, and do not grieve; though some cruel oppressor hath
used thee thus; yet the great idol has made me favourable towards thee,
and thou wilt now recover.'

"I swear by that God who is one, and without a partner, that on
beholding her I again became senseless;  the princess also perceived
it, and sprinkled me with rose water out of a phial held by her
own fair hand. In twenty days my wounds filled up and granulated;
the princess used to come [regularly] at night when all were asleep,
and she then supplied me with food and drink. In short, after forty
days, I performed the ablution [of perfect recovery]; [324] the
princess was extremely rejoiced, and rewarded the surgeon largely,
and clothed me richly. By the grace of God, and the care and attentions
of the princess, I became quite stout and healthy, and my constitution
became sound; the dog also grew fat. She made me drink wine every day,
listened to my conversation, and was pleased. I used also to amuse
her by relating some agreeable stories and brief narratives.

"One day she asked to me, 'pray relate thy adventures, and tell me
who you are, and how this accident has happened to you,' I related to
her my whole history from beginning to end. On hearing this, she wept
and said, 'I will now behave to thee in such a manner that thou wilt
forget all thy [past] misfortunes,' I replied, 'God preserve you; you
have bestowed on me a second existence, and I am now wholly yours; for
God's sake, be pleased ever to regard me in this favourable manner.' In
short, she used to sit all night with me alone; sometimes the nurse
likewise stayed with her and heard my stories, and related [others
herself.] When the princess used to go away and I remained alone,
I used to perform my ablutions, and concealing myself in a corner,
I used to say my prayers.

"Once it so happened, that the princess had gone to her father, and I
was repeating my prayers in perfect security, after having performed
my ablutions, when suddenly the princess, conversing with her nurse,
entered, saying, 'Let us see what the Persian is now doing; whether
he be asleep or awake!' But seeing that I was not in my place, she was
greatly surprised, and exclaimed, 'Hey day! where is he gone? I hope he
has not formed an attachment with some one else.' She began to examine
every hole and corner in search of me, and at last came to where I was
saying my prayers. She had never seen any one perform his prayers;
[325] she stood in silence, and looked on. When I had finished my
prayers, and lifted up my arms to bless God, and prostrated myself,
she laughed loudly, and said, 'What! is this man become mad? what
various postures does he assume?'

"On hearing the sound of her laughter, I became alarmed. The princess
advanced, and asked me, 'O Persian, what wast thou doing?' I could make
no reply, on which the nurse said, 'May I take [the responsibility of]
thy evils, and become thy sacrifice, it appears to me that this man is
a _Musalman_, and the enemy of _Lat_ and _Manat_; [326] he worships an
unseen God. The princess immediately on hearing this struck her hands
together, and said in great wrath, 'I did not know he was a Turk,
[327] and an unbeliever in our gods, for which reason he had fallen
under the wrath of our idol. I have erroneously saved him and kept
him in my house,' Saying this she went away. On hearing [her words]
I became disturbed, [and alarmed to know] how she would now behave
to me. Through fear, sleep was driven from me, and until morning I
continued to weep, and to bathe my face with tears.

"I passed three days and nights, weeping in this fear and hope. I never
shut an eye [during this time.] The third night, the princess came to
my apartment flushed with the intoxication of wine, and the nurse along
with her. She was full of anger; and with a bow and arrows in her hand,
she sat down outside of the room, on the border of the _chaman_;
[328] she asked the nurse for a cup of wine, and after drinking
it off, she said, 'O nurse! is that Persian who is involved in our
great idol's wrath, dead, or does he yet live?' The nurse answered,
'May I bear your evils! some life still remains,' The princess said,
'He has now fallen in my estimation; but tell him to come out.' The
nurse called me; I ran forth and perceived that the princess's face
glowed through anger, and had become quite red. My soul remained not in
my body; I saluted her, and having joined both my hands together, stood
before her [in silent respect.] Giving me a look of anger, she said to
the nurse, 'If I kill this enemy of our faith with an arrow, will the
great idol pardon my guilt or not? I have already committed a great
crime by having kept him in my house, and by supplying [his wants.]'

"The nurse answered, 'What is the princess's guilt? you did not in the
least know him to be an enemy when you kept him [in your house;] you
took compassion upon him, and you will receive good for the good you
have done; and this man will receive from the great idol the reward of
the evil which he has done.' On hearing these words, the princess said,
'Nurse, tell him to sit down.' The nurse made me a sign to sit down;
I accordingly sat down. The princess drank another cup of wine, and
said to the nurse, 'Give this wretch also a cup, then he will take
his killing with more ease.' The nurse presented me a cup of wine;
I drank it without hesitation, and made my _salam_ [to the princess;]
she never looked at me directly, but continued all along to give me
furtive side glances. When I became elevated [with the effects of
the wine,] I began to repeat some pieces of poetry; among others,
I recited the following couplet:

    'I am in thy power, and if alive yet, what then?
    Under the dagger, if one breathes awhile, what then?'

On hearing this verse, she smiled, and turning towards the nurse,
she said, 'What art thou sleepy?' The nurse, guessing her motive,
replied, 'Yes, sleep over-comes me.' She then took her leave, and
went away. [329] After a short pause, the princess asked me for a cup
of wine; I quickly filled it, and presented it to her; she took it
gracefully from my hand and drank it off; I then fell at her feet; she
passed her hand kindly over me, and said, 'O ignorant man! what hast
thou seen bad in our great idol that thou hast betaken thyself to the
worship of an unseen God?' I answered, 'Pray, be just, and reflect a
little, whether that God [and He only,] is worthy of adoration, who,
out of a drop of water, hath created a lovely creature like thee,
and hath given such beauty and perfection, that in one instant thou
canst drive into distraction the hearts of thousands of men. What a
[contemptible] thing is an idol that any one should worship it? The
stone-cutters have shaped a block of stone into a figure, and have
spread it as a net to entangle fools. Those whom the devil beguiles,
confound the Creator with the created; and they prostrate themselves
before that which their own hands have formed. We are _Musalmans_, and
we worship him who hath created us. For those [misguided idolaters], He
hath created hell; for us [true believers], He hath destined paradise;
if you will place your faith in God, you will experience the delights
[of heaven], and distinguish truth from error, and you will find that
your [present] devotion is false.'

"At length, on hearing these pious admonitions, the heart of that
stony-hearted one became softened, and through the favour and mercy of
God she began to weep, and said, 'Well, teach me thy faith,' I taught
her the _kalima_, which she repeated with sincerity of heart, and
having expressed penitence, and prayed for pardon, she became a [true]
_Musalman_. I then threw myself at her feet [and thanked her]. Until
the morning she continued reciting the _kalima_, and praying for
pardon. Again she said, 'Well, I have embraced your faith, but my
parents are idolators; what remedy is there for them?' I replied, 'what
is that to thee? as any one acts, so will he be treated.' She said,
'They have betrothed me to my uncle's son, and he is an idolator; if I
should be married to him tomorrow, which God forbid, he, an idolator,
would cohabit with me, and I should bear issue, which would be a
dreadful misfortune. We ought immediately to think of some remedy for
this, so that I may be freed from such a calamity,' I replied, 'what
you say is indeed reasonable; do whatever you think proper.' She said,
'I will remain here no longer, but go forth somewhere else.' I asked,
'by what means can you escape, and where will you go?' She answered,
'In the first place, do you leave me here, and go and abide with
the _Musalmans_ in the _sarai_, so that every one may hear of it,
and not suspect you. You will there continue on the look out for
[the departure of] vessels, and if any vessel sails for Persia, let
me know; for which reason I will send the nurse to you frequently,
and when you send me word [that all is ready,] I will come to you,
and having embarked in the vessel, I will effect my escape and obtain
my release from the hands of these ill-fated heathens,' I replied,
'I will devote myself as a sacrifice for your life and safety,
but what will you do with the nurse?' She answered, 'Her case can
be easily settled; I will give her a cup of strong poison. [330] The
plan was fixed upon, and when the day appeared, I went to the _sarai_,
and hired a private apartment and went and resided therein. During
this absence, I only lived in the hopes of meeting again. Two months
[331] [after this event,] when the merchants of _Rum_, of Syria, and of
_Isfahan_ were assembled together, they formed the project of returning
by water, and began to embark their merchandise on vessels. From
residing together I had formed acquaintances with most of them, and
they said to me, 'Well, sir, will you not also come [along with us];
how long will you stay in this country of infidels?' I answered,
'what have I wherewith I can return to my country? I have as my
property this only, a female slave, a chest, and a dog; if you could
give me a little room to stay in and fix its price, I shall then be
at ease in my mind, and embark likewise.'

"The merchants allotted me a cabin, and I paid the money for the hire
of it. Having set my heart at ease, I went to the nurse's house under
some pretext, and said, 'O mother, I am come to take leave of thee,
and am now returning to my country; if I could through your kindness
see the princess for a moment, it would be a great satisfaction to
me.' At last, the nurse complied [with my request]. I said, 'I will
return at night, and wait in such a place;' she replied, 'Very well,'
Having settled [this point], I returned to the _sarai_, and carried my
chest and bedding on board the vessel and delivered them in charge to
the master, and added, 'I will bring my female slave on board to-morrow
morning.' The master said, 'Come speedily, as we shall weigh anchor
to-morrow early,' I answered, 'Very well.' When the night came, I
went to the place I had fixed upon with the nurse, and waited. After
a watch of the night had passed, the gate of the seraglio opened,
and the princess came out dressed in soiled and dirty clothes, with
a casket of jewels in her hand; she delivered the casket to me, and
went along with me. As soon as it was morning, we reached the seaside,
and embarking on a skiff we went on board the vessel; this faithful
dog also went with me. When it was broad daylight, we weighed anchor
and set sail. We were sailing along in perfect security, when the
report of a cannon was heard from one of the ports. All [on board]
were surprised and alarmed; the ship was anchored, and a consultation
was held among us [to know] if the governor of the port intended some
foul play, and what could be the cause of the firing of cannon.

"It happened, that all the merchants had some handsome female slaves
[on board], and for fear lest the governor of the port might seize
them, they locked them up in chests. I did so likewise, and having
shut up my princess in my chest, I locked it. In the meanwhile,
the governor and his suite appeared on board a swift sailing vessel,
and constantly nearing us, he came and boarded our ship. Perhaps the
cause of his coming to us was this: that when the news of the nurse's
death and the princess's disappearance became known to the king, in
consequence of his being ashamed to mention the [princess's] name,
he sent orders to the governor of the port, saying, 'I have heard
that the Persian merchants have very handsome slaves with them, and
as I wish to buy some for the princess, you will stop them, and send
all the slaves that may be in the vessel to the royal presence. On
seeing them, I will pay the full value for such as may be approved of,
and the remainder shall be returned.'

"According to the king's orders, the governor of the port came himself
on board our vessel for this purpose. Near my cabin was [the berth of]
another person; he also had a handsome female slave locked up in his
chest. The governor sat down on that chest, and began to collect all
the female slaves [that could be found]; I praised God, and said,
'Well, no mention has been made of the princess.' In short, the
governor's people put into their own vessel all the female slaves that
were to be found; and the governor, laughing, asked the owner of the
chest on which he was sitting, 'Thou hadst also a female slave?' The
blockhead was frightened, and answered, 'I swear by your Honour's feet,
I alone have not acted in this manner; all of us from fear of you have
concealed our [handsome] female slaves in our chests.' The governor,
on hearing this confession, began to search all the chests. He opened
my chest also, and having taken out the princess, he carried her away
with the rest. I fell into a strange state of despair, and said to
myself, 'such a [dreadful] circumstance has occurred that thy life is
gone for nothing; and now we must see how he will treat the princess.'

"In my anxiety for her, I forgot all fear for my own life; the whole
day and night I spent in prayers to God [for her safety]. When the
next early morn arrived, they brought back all the female slaves in
their own vessel. The merchants were well pleased, and each took
back his own. All returned, but the princess alone was not among
them. I asked, 'What is the reason that my slave is not come back
[with the rest]?' They answered, 'We do not know; perhaps the king
may have chosen her.' All the merchants began to console and comfort
me, and said, 'Well, what has happened is past; do not afflict
yourself; we will all subscribe and make up her price, and give
it to you.' My senses were utterly confounded; I said, 'I will not
now go to Persia.' Then I addressed myself saying to the boatmen,
'O friends, take me with you, and land me on the shore.' They agreed,
and I left the vessel and stepped into the boat; this dog likewise
came along with me.

"When I reached the port, I kept to myself only the casket of jewels
which the princess had brought with her; all my other property I
gave to the governor's servants. I wandered everywhere in the way of
search, that perhaps I might get some intelligence of the princess;
but I could find no trace of her, nor could I get the smallest hint
respecting that affair. One night I entered the king's seraglio
by a trick, and searched for her, but got no intelligence. For
nearly the space of a month I sifted every lane and house in the
city; and through sorrow I reduced myself almost to death's door,
and began to wander about like a lunatic. At last, I fancied that
'my princess must, in all probability, be in the governor's house,
and nowhere else.' I went round and inspected the governor's house,
to the intent that should I discover any passage I might enter it.

"I perceived a sewer high enough to allow a man to go in and out,
but there was an iron grating at its mouth; I formed the resolution
to enter [the house] by the way of this sewer; I took off my clothes,
and descended into that filthy channel. After a thousand toils, I
broke the grating, and entered the _chor-mahall_ [332]   through the
sewer. Then, having put on the dress of a woman, I began to search
and examine all around me. From one of the apartments a sound reached
my ear, as if some one was praying fervently. Advancing towards
the place, I saw it was the princess, who was weeping bitterly and
was prostrating herself before her Maker, and praying to him thus,
'For the sake of thy prophet and his pure offspring, [333] deliver me
from this country of infidels; and restore me once more in safety to
the person who taught me the faith of _Islam_.' On seeing her, I ran
and threw myself at her feet; the princess clasped me to her bosom,
and upon us both a state of insensibility fell. When our senses
were restored, I asked her what had happened to her; she answered,
'When the governor of the port carried all the female slaves on shore,
I was offering up this prayer to God that my secret might not any how
be known, and that I might not be recognised, and that your life might
not be endangered. He is so great a concealer [of our shame], that
no one knew I was the princess. The governor was examining every one
with a view to purchase [some for himself]; when it came to my turn,
he chose me, sent me secretly to his house; the rest he forwarded to
the king.

"'When my father did not see me among those [slaves], he sent them
all back. The whole of this artifice was had recourse to on my
account. He now gives out, that the princess is very ill, and if I
do not soon appear, then in a few days the news of my death will
fly through the whole country; then the king's shame will not be
[divulged]. But I am now greatly distressed, as the governor has
other designs upon me, and always urges me to cohabit with him;
I do not agree [to his desires]. Inasmuch as he [really] loves me,
he has as yet waited for my acquiescence, and therefore he remains
silent and quiet. But I dread [to think] how long matters can go on
in this way; for which reason I have determined within myself, that
when he attempts anything further, I will put myself to death. But
now that I have met thee, another thought has arisen in my mind;
if God is willing, except this mode, I see no other for escape.'

"I replied, 'Let me hear it; what sort of scheme is it?' She said,
'If you assist and exert yourself, it can be accomplished.' I said,
'I am ready to obey your commands; if you order me, I will leap
into the burning flames, and if I could find a ladder, I would for
your sake ascend to the sky; [in short], I will perform whatever you
command.' The princess said, 'Go, then, to the temple of the great
idol; and in the place where [the people take off [334] their shoes,
there lies a piece of black canvas. The custom of this country is,
that whoever becomes poor and destitute, he having wrapt himself up
in that piece of canvas, sits down in that spot. The people of this
country who go there to worship, give him something, each according
to his means.

"'In three or four days, when he collects some money, the head priests
give him a _khil'at_ on the part of the great idol, and dismiss him;
having thus become rich, he goes away, and no one knows who he was. Go
thou also, and sit under that canvas, and hide well thy hands and face,
and speak to no one. After three days, when the priests and idolaters
shall have given thee a _khil'at_, and [wish greatly to] dismiss thee;
do not thou on any account get up from thence. When they entreat thee
greatly, then tell them, "I do not want money nor am I avaricious
of riches. I am an injured person, and am come to complain; if the
mother of the _Brahmans_ does me justice, it is well; otherwise the
great idol will do me justice; and this same great idol will attend
to my complaint against my oppressor." As long as the mother of the
_Brahmans_ does not come herself to thee, let any one entreat thee
ever so much, consent thou not. At last, being compelled to it, she
will come to thee herself; she is very old, for she is two hundred and
forty years of age, and six and thirty sons, that have been born of
her, are the chief priests of the temple; and she is highly respected
by the great idol. For this reason she possesses such vast power that
all the little and great of this country deem her command [a matter
of] felicity; whatever she orders, that they perform with all their
heart and soul. Lay hold of the skirt of her garment, and say to her,
"O mother, if you do not exact justice from the oppressor to this
injured traveller, I will dash my head on the ground before the great
idol; he will at last pity me, and intercede for me with you."

"'When, after this, she asks thee all the particulars of thy complaint,
tell her, "I am an inhabitant of Persia; I am come here from a great
distance, both to perform a pilgrimage to the great idol, and in
consequence of having heard of your justice. For some days I lived
here in peace; my wife also came with me; she is young, her form and
figure are excellent, and her features perfect. I do not know how the
governor of the port saw her, but he forcibly took her away from me,
and shut her up in his house. With us _Musalmans_ it is a rule, that if
a stranger sees one of our wives, or takes her away, it is right that
the stranger be put to death by whatever means it may be accomplished,
and the wife be taken back; and otherwise,  we must abandon food and
drink; for whilst the stranger lives, that wife is forbidden to the
husband. Now, having no other resource, I am come hither; let us see
what justice you do to me."' When the princess had fully instructed
me in all these circumstances, I took my leave, and came out by the
same sewer, and once more replaced the iron grating.

"As soon as the morning came, I went to the temple, and, having
covered myself with the black canvas, I sat down. In three days'
time so many pieces of gold, and silver, and articles of apparel were
heaped up near me, that it appeared a regular store. On the fourth
day, the priests, performing their devotion, and singing and playing,
came to me with a _khil'at_, and wished to dismiss me. I would not
agree to it, and called on the great idol for protection, and said,
'I am not come to beg, but to get justice from the great idol and the
mother of the _Brahmans_; and until I get justice I shall not stir from
hence.' On hearing this [determination],  they went to the presence
of the old woman, and related what I had said; after which a _Brahman_
came to me and said, 'Come, the mother calls you.' I instantly wrapped
myself up in the black canvas from head to foot, and went to the
threshold [of her apartment]. I saw that the great idol was placed
on a jewelled throne in which were set rubies, diamonds, pearls and
coral; and a rich covering was spread on a golden chair, on which was
seated, with great pomp and dignity, an old woman dressed in black,
with cushions and pillows [around her], and near her stood two boys,
ten or twelve years old, one on her right and one on her left. She
called me before her; I advanced towards her with profound respect,
and kissed the foot of the throne, and then took hold of the skirt
[of her garments]. She asked me my story; I related it exactly as
the princess had instructed mo to do.

"On hearing it, she said, 'Do _Musalmans_ keep their wives
concealed?' I replied, 'Yes, may it fare well with your children; it
is an ancient custom of ours.' She said, 'Thine is a good religion;
I will instantly give orders that the governor of the port, together
with your wife, shall appear here, and I shall punish that ass in
such a manner that he will not act so another time, and all shall
prick up their ears and tremble.' She asked her attendants, 'Who is
the governor of the port? How dares he take away by force the wife of
another man?' They answered, 'He is such a one.' On hearing his name,
she told the two boys who were standing near her, 'Take this man along
with you instantly, and go to the king, and say, "That the mother
declares, that this is the command of the great idol, that whereas
the governor of the port commits excessive violence on the people;
for instance, he has carried off [by force] this poor man's wife,
and his guilt is proved to be great; therefore let an inventory be
quickly taken of the delinquent's effects and property, and let them be
delivered to this Turk, whom I esteem, otherwise you will be destroyed
to-night, and you will fall under our wrath.' The two boys rose up,
came out of the place, and mounted their horses; all the priests,
blowing their shells, and singing hymns, went in their retinue.

"In short, the great and little of that country having conceived the
dust of the spot where the feet of those boys trod as holy, used to
take it up and put it to their eyes. In this manner, they went to the
palace of the king. He heard of it, and came forth with naked feet for
the purpose of their reception, and having conducted them with great
respect, he placed them on the throne near himself, and asked them,
'What has given me the honour of your visit to-day?' The two young
_Brahmans_ repeated on the part what they had heard from the mother,
and threatened him with the great idol's anger.

"On hearing it the king said, 'Very well,' and issued an order to
his attendants, saying, 'Let some officers of justice go, and let
them immediately bring the governor of the port, along with that
woman into our presence, then shall I, having investigated his crime,
inflict upon him deserved punishment.' On hearing [this order], I was
greatly alarmed in my own heart, [and said to myself], 'This affair
indeed is not quite so well; for if they bring the princess with the
governor of the port, the matter will be discovered; what then will
be my situation?'  Being extremely fear-stricken in my mind, I looked
up to God, but my countenance was overcast with anxiety, and my body
began to tremble. The boys seeing my colour change, perhaps observed
that this order was not agreeable to my wish; they instantly rose with
vexation and anger, and said harshly to the king, 'O wretch, art thou
become mad, that thou steppest aside from the great idol's obedience,
and conceivest what we said to be untrue, that thou wishest to send
for them both and verify [the circumstance]? Now, take care, thou hast
fallen under the great idol's wrath; we have delivered our orders,
now do thou look [to it], or the great idol will look [to thee].'

"On hearing these words, the king was so greatly alarmed, that,
joining both his hands together, he stood [before the boys] and
trembled from head to foot. Having made humble supplication, he
endeavoured to appease them; but they would not sit down, and they
remained standing. In the meantime, all the nobles who were present,
began with one voice to speak ill of the governor, saying, 'He is
indeed such a wicked man, and so tyrannical, and commits such offences,
that we cannot relate the same before the royal presence. Whatever
the mother of the _Brahmans_ has sent word of, is all true; inasmuch
as it is the great idol's decision; how can it be false?' When the
king heard the very same story from all, he was much ashamed and
regretful of what he had said. He instantly gave me a rich _khil'at_;
and having written an order with his own hand, and sealed [335] with
his sign manual, he consigned it to me; he also wrote a note to the
mother of the _Brahmans_, and having laid trays of gold and jewels
before the boys as presents, he dismissed them. I returned to the
temple highly pleased, and went to the old woman.

"The contents of the king's letter which had arrived were as
follows. After the usual compliments and tenders of service and
devotion, [the king] had written, 'That according to the orders of your
highness, the situation of governor of the fort has been conferred upon
this _Musalman_, and a _khil'at_ [336] has been bestowed on him. He
is now at liberty to put the former governor to death; and all his
effects and money now belong to this _Musalman_; he may do with him
what he pleases. I hope my fault will be forgiven.' The mother of the
_Brahmans_ was pleased with the letter, and said, 'Let the music strike
up in the _naubat-khana_ of the _pagoda_.' Then she sent with me five
hundred well-armed soldiers, who were good marksmen [337] with the
musket, to go with me, and gave them orders to go to the port, seize
its governor, and deliver him up to this _Musalman_, in order that he
may put him to death with what torture he pleases. Also let them take
care that, except this honoured [_Musalman_], no one be permitted to
enter the [governor's] seraglio, and let them deliver over his money
and effects [untouched to the new governor]. When he sends them back
with his own accord, let them get a letter of approbation from him,
and return to me.' She then gave me a complete dress from the wardrobe
of the great idol, and having caused me to mount, she dismissed me.

"When I reached the port, one of my men proceeded before me, and
informed the governor [of my arrival]. He was sitting like one in
great perplexity, when I arrived my heart was already filled with
rage; on seeing the harbour-master, I drew my sword, and struck
him such a blow on the neck, that his head flew off like a stalk
of Indian corn. Then having ordered the agents, the treasurers,
the superintendants and other officials to be seized, I took full
possession of the records; and then I entered the seraglio. There
I met the princess; we embraced each other most tenderly, and wept,
and praised the goodness of God; we wiped each other's tears; I then
came out and sat on the _masnad_, and gave _khil'ats_ to the officers
[of the port], and re-established them in their respective situations;
to the servants and slaves I gave promotion. To those people who had
come as an escort from the temple, I gave presents and gratuities,
and having bestowed dresses on their officers, I dismissed them. Then
having taken with me jewels of great value, and pieces of fine cloth,
and shawls, and brocaded stuffs and goods, and rarities of every
region, and a large sum of money as a _nazar_ [338] for the king,
and for the nobles, according to their respective ranks, and for the
priests and priestesses, to be divided among them, after one week I
went to the idol-temple and laid the presents before the old woman.

"She gave me another _khil'at_ of dignity, and a title. I then went to
the audience of the king, and presented my _pesh-kash_. I addressed his
majesty [on the best means] to remove the evil consequences of whatever
acts of tyranny and injustice the [former] governor of the port had
committed. For this reason, the king, the nobles, and the merchants
were all well pleased with me, and the king showered many favours on
me, and having given me a _khil'at_ and a horse, he bestowed on me a
title and a _ja-gir_, [339] with other dignities and honours. When I
came out from the royal presence, I gave the servants and attendants
so much, that they all began to pray [for my welfare]. In short,
I became very happy in my condition; and I passed my days in that
country in extreme ease and felicity, after marrying the princess;
and I offered up thanks to God [for the happiness I enjoyed]. The
inhabitants were quite happy through the equity of my administration;
and once a month I used to go to the temple and the king's levee;
his majesty, from time to time, conferred on me additional promotion.

"At last, he enrolled me as one of his privy counsellors, and did
nothing without my advice; my life began to pass in extreme delight;
but God only knows that I often thought on these two brothers [and was
anxious to know] where they were and how they were. After the space
of two years, a _kafila_ of merchants arrived at the port from the
country of _Zerbad_, and they were all bound for Persia; they wished
to return to their own country by sea. It was the rule at that port,
that whenever a _karavan_ arrived there, the chiefs of the _karavan_
used to present to me as a _nazar_ some rare presents and curiosities
of different countries. On the day following, I used to go to [the
chief's] place of residence, and to levy ten per cent. on the value
of his goods by way of duty; after which, I gave him permission to
depart. In the same manner, those merchants from _Zerbad_ likewise
came to wait on me, and brought with them presents beyond value; the
second day I went to their tents. There I perceived two men dressed in
tattered old clothes, who bore packages and bundles on their heads,
right into my presence. After I had examined [the packages], they
carried them back; they laboured hard, and attended constantly.

"I looked at them with great attention, and perceived they were,
indeed, my two brothers. At that time, shame and pride would not allow
me to see them in such servitude. When I returned home, I desired my
servants to bring those two men to me; when they brought them, I had
clothes made up for them, and kept them near me. But these incorrigible
villains again laid a plan to murder me. One day at midnight, [340]
finding all off their guard, they came like thieves to the head of
my bed. I had maintained a guard at my door from apprehensions for
my life, and this faithful dog was asleep at the side of my bed;
but the moment they drew their swords from the scabbard, the dog
first barked, then flew at them; the noise he made awaked all; I,
also alarmed, started up. The guards seized them, and I knew them to
be themselves all over. Every one began to execrate them, [and said]
'notwithstanding all this kindness, how infamously they have behaved!'

"O king, peace be upon you, I also became at last alarmed [for my
life]. There is a common saying, 'That the first and second fault
may be pardoned, but the third punished.' [341] I determined then,
in my own heart, to confine them; but if I had put them in the prison,
who would have taken care of them? They might have perished from want
of food and drink, or they might have contrived more mischief. For
this reason, I have confined them in a cage, that they may be always
under my own eye, then my mind will be at rest; lest being absent
from my sight, they may hatch further wickedness. The honour and
esteem which I evince towards this dog, are on account of his loyalty
and fidelity. O, great God, a man without gratitude is worse than a
faithful brute! These were the past events of my life, which I have
related to your majesty, now, either order me to be put to death,
or grant me my life; to the king command belongs."

On hearing this narrative, [342] I praised that man of honour,
and said, your kindness has been uninterrupted, and there has been
no limits to these fellows' shameless and villainous conduct; so
true is it, "That if you bury a dog's tail for twelve years, it
will still remain crooked as ever." [343] After this, I asked the
_khwaja_ the history of those twelve rubies which were in the dog's
collar? He replied, "May the age of your majesty be a hundred and
twenty years! After I had been three or four years governor of that
port, I was sitting one day on the top of my house, which was high,
for the purpose of viewing and enjoying the sea and plain beneath. I
was looking in all directions, when suddenly, I perceived two human
figures, who were coming along from one side of the wood, where there
was no high road. Having seized a telescope, I looked at them, and saw
they were of a strange appearance: I speedily sent some mace-bearers
to call them [to my presence.]

"When they came, I perceived they were a man and a woman. I sent the
woman into the seraglio to the princess, and called the man before
me; I saw he was a youth of twenty or twenty-two years of age, whose
beard and mustaches had commenced [growing;] but the colour of his
face had become black as that of the _tawa_. [344] The hair of his
head, and the nails of his fingers owing to the heat of the sun were
greatly grown, and he looked like a man of the woods. He held on his
shoulder a boy of about three or four years old, and two sleeves of a
garment, filled [with something], were suspended like a collar round
his neck; he cut a strange appearance, and was oddly dressed, I was
greatly surprised, and asked him, 'O, friend, who art thou, and of
what country art thou the inhabitant, and in what a strange condition
do I see thee?' The young man began to weep bitterly, and taking off
the two filled sleeves from around his neck, he laid them before me,
and cried out, 'Hunger, hunger! for God's sake give me something to
eat; I have subsisted for a long while on roots and herbs, and there
is not a particle of strength remaining in me.' I instantly ordered
him some bread, meat, and wine; he began to devour them.

"In the meantime, the eunuch brought from my haram several other bags
which he found on [the stranger's wife.] I ordered them all to be
opened, and saw that they contained precious jewels of every kind, each
of which was equal in value to the amount of the king's revenue; each
one was more valuable than another in weight, shape and brilliancy;
and the whole apartment was illuminated with variegated colours, from
the reflection of their different coloured rays. When the young man
had eaten something, and drank a cup of wine, his senses returned;
I then asked him, 'where did you get these stones?' He answered,
'My native country is _Azurbaijan_; [345] Having separated from my
home and parents in my infancy, I have undergone many hardships;
I was for a long while buried alive, and have often escaped from the
claws of the angel of death.' I said, 'pray, young man, give me the
details that I may fully comprehend [your story].' Then he began
to relate his adventures as follows:--'My father was a merchant,
and he used to travel constantly to _Hindustan_, China, _Khata,
Rum,_ and Europe. When I was ten years of age, my father set out for
_Hindustan_, and wished to take me with him. Although my mother and
various aunts remarked that I was yet a child, and not old enough to
travel; my father did not mind them, and said, "I am now old; if he
is not instructed under my own eye, I will carry the regret with me
to my grave; he is the son of a man, and if he does not learn now,
when will he learn?"

"'Saying this, he took me with him, in spite of their entreaties,
and we set out. The journey was performed in health and safety, and
when we arrived in _Hindustan_, we sold some of our goods there,
and taking some rarities with us from thence, we set out for the
country of _Zerbad_. This journey was likewise performed in safety;
there also we sold and bought goods, and embarked on board a ship,
to return the quicker to our country. One day, about a month after,
we were overtaken by a storm and hurricane, and the rain began to fall
in torrents; the whole earth and sky became dark as a mass of smoke,
and the rudder broke; the pilot and master began to beat their heads;
for ten days the winds and waves carried us where they pleased; the
eleventh day the ship having struck against a rock, went to pieces. I
did not know what became of my father, our servants and our goods.

"'I found myself on a plank, which floated for three days and nights
beyond any control [of mine]. On the fourth day it reached the shore. I
had just life enough remaining. I got off the plank, crawled along on
my knees. I some how or other reached the dry land. I saw some fields
at a distance, and many people were assembled there; but they were all
black, and as naked as the day they were born; they said something
to me; but I did not understand their language in the least. It was
a field of the _chana_ [346] pulse; the men, having lighted a large
fire were parching the ears [of _chana_] and eating them; and some
houses also appeared [near the spot]. Perhaps this was their usual
food, and that they lived in those houses; they made signs to me
also that I should eat. I plucked up some of the _graum_, roasted it,
and began to toss it into my mouth; and having drank a little water,
I laid down to sleep in a corner of the field.

"'After some time, when I awoke, a man, from among them came to me,
and began to show me [by signs] the road; I plucked up some more of the
_graum_, and followed the road [he pointed out]. A great level plain
appeared before me, vast as the plain of the day of judgment. [347] I
proceeded, eating the _graum_ as I went; after four days, I perceived
a fort; when I went near it, then I saw it was a very high fort,
all built of stone, and each side of which was two _kos_ in length,
and the door was cut out of a single stone, and had a large lock
attached; but I could see no trace of any human being. I proceeded on
from thence and saw a hillock, the earth of which was in colour black
as _surma_; [348] when I passed over the hillock, I saw a large city,
surrounded with a rampart with bastions at regular intervals; and a
river of great width flowed on one side of the city. Proceeding on, I
reached a gate, and invoking God, I entered it. I saw a person who was
dressed in the garment of the people of Europe, and seated on a chair;
the moment he saw I was a foreign traveller, and heard me invoke God,
he desired me to advance. I went up to him, and made him a _salam_;
he returned my salutation with great kindness, and laid on the table
instantly some bread and butter, and a roast fowl and wine, and said,
"Eat thy belly full." I ate a little, and drank [some of the wine],
and fell sound asleep. When the night came, I opened my eyes, and
washed my hands and face; he gave me again something to eat, and said,
"O son, relate thy story." I told him all that had happened to me. He
then said, "Why art thou come here?" I became vexed, and replied,
"Perhaps thou art mad; after hardships of long duration, I have at
last seen the appearance of [human] dwellings. God has conducted me
so far, and thou askest me why I am come here." He answered, "Go and
rest thyself now; I will tomorrow tell thee what I have to say."

"'When the morning came he said to me, "There are in this room a
spade, a sieve, and a leather bag; bring them out." I said to myself,
God knows what labour he will make me undergo because he has made me
eat of his bread; having no help for it, I took up those articles and
brought them to him. He then ordered me to go to the black hillock [I
had passed] and dig a hole a yard deep, and "whatever you find in it
pass it through this sieve; whatever cannot pass through, put it in the
leather bag, and bring it to me." I took all those implements and went
there, and having dug as much [as I was ordered], I passed it through
the sieve, and put what remained into the bag, [as directed]; I then
saw they were all precious stones of different colours, and my eyes
were dazzled with their brilliancy. In this manner I filled the bag up
to the mouth, and carried it to that person; on seeing it, he said,
"Whatever is in the bag take it for thyself, and go away from hence;
for thy stay in this city will not do thee good." I gave for answer,
"Your worship has, on your part, done me a great favour by giving
me these stones and pebbles; but of what use are they to me? When I
become hungry, I shall not be able to eat them nor to fill my belly;
and if you give me more of them, what use will they be to me?? That
person smiled, and said, "I pity thee, for thou, like me, art an
inhabitant of the kingdom of Persia; for this reason I advise thee
[against remaining here], otherwise it rests with thee. If thou
art determined, at all hazards, to enter this city, then take my
ring with thee; when thou reachest the centre of the market place,
thou wilt find sitting there a man with a white beard--his face and
general appearance are very like mine--he is my eldest brother--give
him this ring--he will then take care of thee; act conformably to what
he says, otherwise thou wilt lose thy life for nothing; my authority
only extends as far as this; I have no entrance into the city."

"'I took the ring from him, and, saluting him, took my leave. I
entered the city, and saw it was a very elegant place; the streets
and market-places were clean and the men and women without concealment
were buying and selling among themselves, and were all well dressed. I
continued advancing on, and viewing sights. When I reached the four
cross roads of the market place, such a crowd there was, that if you
threw a brass plate, it would have skimmed over the heads of the
people. The multitude were so close to each other, that one could
with difficulty make his way through. When the concourse became less,
I, pushing and jostling, advanced forward. I saw at last the person
[described], seated on a chair, and a _chummak_ [349] set with precious
stones lay before him. I approached him, made him my _salam_, and
gave him the ring; he looked at me with a look of anger, and said,
"Why hast thou come here, and plunged thyself in calamity? Did not
my foolish brother forbid thee?"

"'I replied, "he did forbid me, but I did not mind him." I then
related to him all my adventures from beginning to end. That person
got up, and taking me with him, he went towards his own house; his
residence appeared like the abode of a king, and he had many servants
and attendants. When he had retired to his private apartment and sat
down, he said with mildness, "O son! what folly hast thou committed,
that on thine own feet thou hast walked to thy grave? What unfortunate
blockhead ever comes to this enchanted city?" I answered, I have
already fully related to you my history; now indeed fate has brought
me here; but do me the kindness to enlighten me on the customs and
ways of this place, then shall I know for what reasons you and your
brother have dissuaded me from staying here." The good man answered,
"The king and all the nobles of this city have been excommunicated;
strange are their manners and religion! In an idol temple here there is
an idol, from whose belly the devil tells the name, sect, and faith of
every individual; so, whatever poor traveller arrives here, the king
has information of it; and he conveys the stranger to the pagoda,
and makes him prostrate himself before the idol. If he prostrates
himself, it is well; otherwise, they cause the poor wretch to be
immersed in the river; and if he attempts to escape from the river,
his private parts [350] become elongated to such a degree that he has
to drag them along the ground. Such enchantment [has God] ordained in
this city. I feel pity for thee on account of thy youth; but for thy
sake I am going to execute a scheme I have formed that thou mayest
be able to live at least a few days, and be saved from this calamity."

"'I asked, "What is the nature of the project [you have formed]? impart
it to me." He replied, "I mean to have thee married; and to get thee
the _wazir's_ daughter for thy wife." I gave for answer, "How can
the _wazir_ give his daughter to a wretch so poor and destitute as
myself? Will it be when I embrace his faith? This is what I never can
do." He replied, "The custom of this city is, that whoever prostrates
himself before the idol, if he be a beggar and demand the king's
daughter, the king must deliver her up to him in order to gratify
his wish, and that they may not grieve him. Now I am in the king's
confidence, and he esteems me, for which reason all the nobles and
officers of state of this place respect me. In the course of every
week, they go twice to the pagoda on a pilgrimage, and there they
perform their worship; so they will all assemble there to-morrow,
and I will carry thee with me." Saying this, he gave me something
to eat and drink, and sent me away to sleep. When the morning came,
he took me with him to the pagoda; when we arrived there, I saw that
people were going to and fro, and performing their devotions.

"'The king and nobles in front of the idol, near the priests, with
heads uncovered, were respectfully seated; also unmarried girls
and handsome boys, like _Hur_ and _Ghilman_ [351] were drawn up
in lines on the four sides. The good old man spoke to me and said,
"Now do whatever I say." I agreed, and said, "Whatever you command,
that I will perform." He said, "First, kiss the king's hands and feet,
then, lay hold of the _wazir's_ dress." I did so. The king asked, "Who
is this, and what has he to say?" The man replied, "This young man is
my relation, and he is come from far to have the honour to kiss your
majesty's feet, and with this expectation, that the _wazir_ will exalt
him by [admitting him] into his service, if the order of the great
idol and your majesty's approbation be [to that effect]." The king
said, "If he will embrace our faith and sect, and adopt our customs,
then it will be auspicious [for him]." Immediately, [the drums of]
the _nakkar-khana_ [352] of the pagoda struck up; and I was invested
with a rich _khil'at_; they then put a black rope round my neck, and
dragged me before the seat of the idol, and having made me prostrate
myself before it, they lifted me up.

"'A voice issued from the idol, saying, "O respected youth, thou hast
done well to enter into my service; rely on my mercy and favour." On
hearing these words, all the people prostrated themselves, and began to
roll on the ground, and exclaimed, "Long  may you prosper! why should
it not be!" When the evening came, the king and the _wazir_ mounted,
and went to the _wazir's_ house, and they made over to me the _wazir's_
daughter according to their rites and ceremonies;  they gave a great
dowry and presents with her, and expressed themselves highly obliged,
saying, that according to the commands of the great idol, they had
given her to me. They settled us both in one house; when I saw that
beauty, then [I perceived that] in truth her beauty was equal to
that of a fairy, perfect from top to toe. All the beauties we have
heard of, as peculiar to _Padmini_ [353] females, were centred in
her. I cohabited with her without ceremony, and experienced great
delight. In the morning, after having bathed, I waited on the king;
he bestowed on me the _khil'at_ of marriage, and ordered that I should
always attend his levee; at last, after some days, I became one of
his majesty's counsellors.

"'The king used to be much pleased with my society, and often gave
me presents and rich _khil'ats_,  although I was rich in worldly
treasures, for my wife possessed so much gold property and precious
stones, that they exceeded all bounds and limits. Two years passed in
extreme delight and ease. It happened that [my wife] the _wazir's_
daughter, became pregnant; when the seventh and eighth months had
passed, and she entered her full time, the pains came on; the nurse
and midwife came, and a dead child was brought forth; its poison
infected the mother, and she also died. I became frantic with grief,
and exclaimed, what a dreadful calamity has burst upon me! I was
seated at the head of the bed, and weeping; all at once the noise
of lamentations spread through the whole house, and women began to
pour in [upon me] from all sides. Each as she entered, struck one
or two blows with her hands on my head, and stood before my face,
and began to weep. So many women were assembled [round me], that I
was perfectly hidden among them, and nearly expiring.

"'In the mean time, some one from behind seized me by the collar,
and dragged me along; I looked up, and saw it was the same man of
Persia who had married me [to the _wazir's_ daughter]. He exclaimed,
"O blockhead! for what art thou weeping?" I replied, "O cruel! what
a question thou askest! I have lost my empire, and the repose of my
house is utterly gone, and thou demandest why I weep!" He said, with
a smile, "Now weep on account of thy own death; I told thee at first,
that perhaps thine evil fate had led thee here [to perish]; so it
has turned out; now, except death, thou hast no release." At last,
the people seized me, and led me to the pagoda; I saw that the king,
the nobles, and thirty-six tribes of his subjects were assembled
there; the wealth and property of my wife were all collected there;
whatever article any one's heart desired, he took; and put down its
price in cash.

"'In short, all her property was converted into specie; with this
specie precious stones were purchased,  and locked up in a small
box; they then filled a chest with bread, sweetmeats, roast meat,
dried and green fruits, and other eatables; and they put the corpse
of my wife into another chest, and slung both the chests across a
camel; they mounted me on it, and put the box of precious stones in
my lap. All the _Brahmans_ went before me singing hymns and blowing
their shells, and a crowd for the purpose of wishing me joy came on
behind. In this manner I was conducted out of the city, through the
same gate by which I entered the first day. The moment when the same
keeper of the gate saw me, he began to weep, and said, "O unfortunate,
death-seized [wretch]! thou wouldst not listen to me, but by entering
this city thou hast lost thy life for nothing! It is not my fault;
I did dissuade thee." He said this to me; but I was so confounded,
that I could not use my tongue to reply to him; nor were my senses
in their right place, to foresee what would become of me at last.

"'They conducted me at last to the same fort, the door of which I
had seen shut the first day [I entered this country]. The lock was
opened with the assistance of many people united, and they carried in
the corpse and the chest of food. A priest came up to me, and began
to console me, saying, "Man is born one day, and one day dies; such
is the [mode of] transmigration in this world; now these, thy wife,
thy son, thy wealth, and forty days' food are placed here; take them,
and remain here until the great idol is favourable to thee." In my
wrath I wished to curse the idol, the inhabitants of that place,
and their manners and customs, and to inflict blows and buffets on
that priest. That same man of Persia in his own tongue, forbade me,
and said, "Take care, do not on any account utter a word; if you
should say anything whatever, they will burn you immediately. Well,
whatever was in your destiny, that has taken place: rely now on the
mercy of God; perhaps He will deliver you alive from this place."

"'In short, all of them, having left me by myself, went out of that
fortress, and shut the door. At that moment I wept bitterly at my
solitary and helpless state, and began to kick the corpse of that
woman, saying, "O cursed corpse, if thou wast to perish in child-birth,
why didst thou marry and become pregnant?" After thoroughly beating
her, I again sat silent. In the meantime, the day advanced, and the
sun became very hot; my brains began to boil, and I was dying by reason
of the stench. On whatever side I looked, I saw the bones of the dead,
and boxes of precious stones in heaps. I then, having gathered some old
chests together, placed them over each other, so that there might be a
shed against the heat of the day, and the dews of the night. I began
to search for water, and on one side I saw something like a cascade,
which was cut out of stone in the wall of the inclosure, and had a
mouth like a pot. In short, my life was [sustained] for some time on
the food [they had left with me], and the water [I had found.]

"'At last, the victuals were exhausted, and I became alarmed and
complained to God. He is so beneficent that the door of the inclosure
opened and another corpse was brought in; an old man accompanied
it. When, having left him also, they went away, it came into my head to
kill the old man, and take possession of his chest of provisions. So,
having taken up the leg of an old chest, I went up to him; he was,
poor wretch, sorely perplexed, seated with his head resting on his
knees. I came behind him, and struck him such a blow, that his skull
was fractured and his brains came out, and he instantly resigned his
soul to God. I seized his stock of provisions, I began to live on
it. For a long while this was my way, that whatever living beings
came in with the dead, I used to kill the former, and having taken
their provisions, I fared plentifully.

"'After some time, a young girl once came with a corpse; she was very
handsome, and I had not the hard heart to kill her [as had hitherto
been my practice]. She espied me, and swooned away through fear. I
took up her stock of provisions, and carried it to where I lived; but
I did not eat it alone; when I was hungry, I used to carry her some
victuals, and we ate together. When the young girl perceived that
I did not molest her, her timidity lessened daily and she became
more familiar, and used to come to my shed. One day I asked her
her story, and who she was; she replied, "I am the daughter of the
king's _wakili mutlak_, [354] and had been betrothed to my uncle's
son. On the day of the marriage night he was attacked with a colic,
and was in such agonies from the pain, that he expired in an instant;
[355] they brought me here with his corpse and have left me." She then
asked to hear my story; I also related the whole to her, and said,
"God hath sent thee here for my sake." She smiled and remained silent.

"'In this way mutual affection increased between us in a short time;
I taught her the principles of the _Musalman_ faith, and made her
repeat our _kalima_. I then performed the marriage ceremony, and
cohabited with her; she also became pregnant and brought forth a
son. Nearly three years passed in this manner. When she weaned the
child, I said to my wife, "How long shall we remain here, and how
shall we get out from hence?" She replied, "If God takes us out,
then we shall get out; otherwise we shall some day die here." I wept
bitterly at what she said, and at our confinement, and continuing
to weep, I fell asleep. I saw a person in my dream, who said to me,
"There is an outlet through the drain; go thou forth." I started up
with joy, and said to my wife, "Collect and bring with you all the
old nails and bolts which belonged to the rotten chests, that I may
[with their help] widen [the mouth of the drain]." In short, I having
applied a large nail to the mouth of that drain, used to strike it with
a stone until I became quite tired; however, after a year's labour,
I widened the opening so much that a man could get through it.

"'I then put the very finest of the precious stones into the sleeves
of the habits of the dead, and taking them with us, we three got out
through the opening [I had made]. I offered up thanks to God [for
our deliverance], and placed the boy on my shoulders. It is a month
since we quitted the high road from fear, and have travelled through
bye-paths of the woods and mountains; when hunger attacked us, we fed
on grass and leaves. I have not strength left to say a word more;
these are my adventures which you have just heard,' O mighty king,
[356] I took pity on his condition, and having sent him to the bath,
I had him well dressed, and made him my deputy. In my own house I
had had several children by the princess, but they died one after
another, when young; one son lived to five years of age, and then
died; from grief for him my wife died also. I was greatly afflicted,
and that country became disagreeable to me after her loss; my heart
became quite sad, and I determined to return to Persia. I solicited
the king's leave to depart, and got the situation of the governor
of the port transferred to the young man [whose story I have just
related]. In the meantime the king died also; I took this faithful
dog and all my jewels and money with me, and came to _Naishapur_, in
order that no one should know the story of my brothers. I have become
well-known as the dog-worshipper; and owing to this evil fame, I to
this day pay double taxes into the exchequer of the king of Persia.

"It so happened that this young merchant went to _Naishapur_, and
owing to him I have had the honour to kiss your majesty's feet." I
asked [357] the _khwaja_ Is not this [young merchant] your son? He
answered, "Mighty sire, he is not my son; he is one of your majesty's
own subjects; but he is now my master or heir, or whatever you
choose to call him." On hearing this, I asked the young merchant,
"what merchant's son art thou, and where do thy parents reside?" The
youth kissed the ground, and beseeching pardon for his life, replied,
"This slave is the daughter of your majesty's _wazir_; my father came
under the royal anger on account of this very _khwaja's_ rubies, and
your majesty's orders were, that if in one year my father's words
should not be verified, he should be put to death. On hearing [the
royal mandate], I assumed this disguise and went to _Naishapur_;
God has conducted the _khwaja_, together with the dog and rubies,
before your majesty, and you have heard all the circumstances; I now
am hopeful that my aged father may be released."

On hearing these circumstances from the _wazirzadi_, the _khwaja_ gave
a groan, and helplessly fell down. When rose water was sprinkled over
his face, he recovered his senses, and exclaimed, "O, dire mishap! that
I should have come from such a distance, with such toil and sorrows, in
the hope that, having adopted the young merchant for my son, I should
make over to him by a deed of gift, all my wealth and property, that
my name might not perish, and every one should call him _khwaja-zada_;
[358] but now my imaginations have proved vain, and the affair has
turned out quite the contrary. He, by becoming a woman, has ruined the
old man. I fell into female snares, and now the saying may be applied
to me, 'Thou remainedst at home, and didst not go to pilgrimage;
yet thy head was shaved, and thou art scoffed by all.'" [359]

To shorten my story, I took pity on agitation, and groans and
lamentations, and called him near me, and whispered in his ear some
glad tidings, and added, "do not grieve; I will marry thee to her, and,
if God pleaseth, thou shalt have children from her, and she shall [now]
be thy master." On hearing these welcome words, he became altogether
comforted. I then ordered them to conduct the _wazirzadi_ to the
seraglio, and to take the _wazir_ out of prison, bathe him in the bath,
dress him in the _khil'at_ of restoration to favour, [360] and bring
him quickly before me. When the _wazir_ arrived, I went to the end
of the _farsh_ [361] to receive him, and conceiving him my superior,
I embraced him, and bestowed on him anew the writing case of the
_wazirship_. [362] I conferred also titles _jagirs_ on the _khwaja_,
and fixing on a happy hour, I married him to the _wazir's_ daughter.

In a few years, he had two sons and a daughter born to him. In short,
the eldest son is now _Malikut-Tujjar_, and the youngest, the chief
manager of my household. O _Darweshes_, I have related these adventures
to you for this reason, that last night, I heard the adventures of two
of your number; now you two who remain, fancy to yourselves that I am
still where I was last night, and think me your servant, and my house
your _takiya_; [363] relate your adventures without fear and stay
some days with me. When the _Darweshes_ perceived that the king was
very kind to them, they said, "Well, as your majesty condescends to
form amity with _Darweshes_, we both will also relate our adventures:
be pleased to hear them."


The third _Darwesh_, having sat down at his ease, [364] began thus
to relate the events of his travels.

    "O friends, the story of this pilgrim hear;
    That's to say, hear the tale of what has happened to me;
    How the king of love hath behaved to me,
    I am going to relate it in full detail, O, hear."

This humble being is the prince of Persia; my father was king of that
country, and had no children except myself. In the season of my youth,
I used to play with my companions at _chaupar_ [365] cards, chess,
and backgammon; or mounting my horse, I used to enjoy the pleasures of
the chase. It happened one day, that I ordered my hunting party, and
taking all my friends and companions with me, we sallied forth over
the plains. Letting loose the hawks [of various sorts] on ducks and
partridges, we followed [them] to a great distance. A very beautiful
piece of land appeared in sight; as far as the view extended, for
miles around, what with the verdure and the red flowers, the plain
seemed like a ruby. Beholding this delightful scene, we dropped the
bridles of our horses and moved on at a slow pace [admiring the
charming prospect]. Suddenly, we saw a black deer on the plain,
covered with brocade, and a collar set with precious stones, and
a bell inlaid with gold attached to its neck; fearless it grazed,
and moved about the plain, where man never entered, and where bird
had never flapped a wing. Hearing the sound of our horses' hoofs, it
started, and lifting up its head, looked at us, and moved slowly away.

On perceiving it, such became my eagerness that I said to my
companions, remain where you are, I will catch it alive, take care
you do not advance a step, and do not follow me. I was mounted on
such a swift horse, that I had often gallopped him after deer,
and confounding their bounds, had seized them one after another
with my hand. I pushed after it; on seeing me, it began to bound,
and swiftly fled away; my horse also kept pace with the wind, but
could not overtake the very dust it raised. The horse streamed with
sweat, and my tongue also began to crack from thirst; but there was
no alternative. The evening was approaching, and I did not know how
far I had come, or where I was. Having no other chance [of getting
the animal], I employed stratagem towards it, and having taken out
an arrow from the quiver, I adjusted my bow, drew the arrow to its
full length, aimed it at its thigh, and pronouncing the name of God,
I let it fly. The very first arrow entered its leg, and, limping away,
it went towards the foot of the mountain. I dismounted from my horse,
and followed it on foot; it took to the mountain, and I at the same
time gave it chase. After many ascents and descents, a dome appeared;
when I got near it, I perceived a garden and a fountain; but the deer
disappeared from my sight. I was greatly fatigued, and began to wash
my hands and feet [in the fountain].

All at once the noise of weeping struck my ears, as issuing from the
dome, and as if some one was exclaiming, "O, child, may the arrow of
my grief stick in the heart of him who hath struck thee; may he derive
no fruit from his youth, and may God make him a mourner like me." On
hearing these words, I went to the dome, and saw a respectable old
man, with a white beard, and well dressed, seated on a _masnad_, and
the deer lying before him; he was drawing the arrow from its thigh,
and uttering imprecations [on the shooter]. I made him my _salam_, and
joining my hands together, I said, "Respectable sir, I have unknowingly
committed this fault; I did not know it [was your deer]; for God's
sake pardon me." He answered, "You have hurt a dumb animal; if you
have committed this cruel act through ignorance, God will forgive
you." I sat down near him, and assisted him in extracting the arrow;
we pulled it out with great difficulty; and having put some balsam to
the wound, we let [the deer] go. We then washed our hands, and the old
man gave me some food to eat, which was then ready; after satisfying
my hunger and thirst, I stretched myself out on a four-footed bedstead.

After having fed well, I slept soundly through fatigue. In that sleep,
the noise of weeping and lamentation struck my ears; rubbing my eyes,
when I looked round, then neither the old man nor any one else was
in that apartment. I lay alone on the bed, and the room was quite
empty. I began to look with alarm in all directions, and perceived a
_parda_ in a corner which was down; going to it, I lifted it up, and
saw that a throne was placed there, on which was seated an angelic
woman of about fourteen years of age; her face was like the moon,
and her ringlets on both sides [of her head] hung loose; she had a
smiling countenance; and she was dressed like a European, and with
a most charming air; she was seated [on the throne] and looking
forward. The venerable old man lay prostrate before her, with his
head on her feet, and he was weeping bitterly, and he seemed to have
lost his senses. On seeing the old man's condition, and the woman's
beauty and perfection, I was quite lost, and having become lifeless,
I fell down like a corpse; the old man seeing my senseless state,
brought a bottle of rose water, and began to sprinkle it over my
face; when I recovered, I got up, and went up to the angelic woman
and saluted her; she did not in the least return my salute, nor did
she open her lips. I said, "O lovely angel, in what religion is it
right to be so proud, and not to return a salute.

    "'Although to speak little is becoming, yet not so much so;
    If the lover is dying, even then she would not open her lips.'

For the sake of Him who hath created thee, pray give me an answer;
I am come here by chance, and the pleasing of a guest is a requisite
duty." I talked much to her, but it was of no use; she heard me, and
sat silent like a statue. I then advanced, and laid my hand on her
feet; when I touched them, they felt quite hard; at last, I perceived
that this beautiful object was formed of stone, and that _Azur_ [366]
had formed this statue. I then said to the idol-worshipping old man,
"I struck an arrow in thy deer's leg, but thou hast with the dart of
love pierced my heart through and through; your curse has taken place;
now tell me the full particulars of these [strange circumstances]; why
hast thou made this talisman, and why, having left [human] habitations,
dost thou dwell in woods and mountains? Tell me all that has happened
to thee."

When I pressed him greatly, he said, "This affair has indeed ruined
me; dost thou also wish to perish by hearing it?" I exclaimed, "Hold,
thou hast already made too many evasions; answer to the purpose,
or else I will kill thee." Seeing me very urgent, he said, "O youth,
may God the Almighty keep every person safe from the scorching flame
of love; see what calamities this love hath produced; for love, the
woman burns herself with her husband, and sacrifices her life; [367]
and all know the story of _Farhad_ and _Majnun_; what wilt thou gain
by hearing my story? Wilt thou leave thy home, fortune and country,
and wander for nothing?" I gave for answer, "Cease, keep thy friendship
to thyself; conceive me now thy enemy, and if life is dear to thee,
tell me plainly [thy story]." Perceiving there was no alternative,
his eyes filled with tears, and he began to say, "The following
is this miserable wretch's story:--This humble servant's name is
_Ni'man Saiyah_. I was a great merchant; arrived to these years,
I have traversed all parts of the world for the purpose of trade,
and have been admitted to the presence of all kings.

"Once the fancy came into my mind that I had wandered over the
regions of the four corners [of the world], but never went to the
Island of the Franks, [368] and never saw its king, citizens and
soldiers--I knew nothing of its manners and customs--so that I ought
to go there also for once. I took the advice of my acquaintances and
friends, and resolved [on the voyage]; I took with me some rarities
and presents from various places, such as were fit for that country,
and collecting a _kafila_ of merchants, we embarked on board a ship
and set sail. Having favourable winds, we reached the island in
a few months and put up in the city. I saw a magnificent city, to
which no city could be compared for beauty. In all the _bazars_ and
streets the roads were paved and watered; such was the cleanliness
that a bit of straw could not be seen; why then make mention of
dirt? The buildings were of every variety, and at night the streets
were lighted, at intervals, by two rows of lamps; without the city
were delightful gardens, in which rare flowers and shrubs and fruits
were seen [in rich profusion], such as no where else could be [seen]
except in Paradise. In short, whatever I may say in praise of this
[magnificent city] would not exceed [the truth].

"The arrival of our merchants was much talked of. A confidential eunuch
[369] mounted on horseback, and attended by many servants, came to
our _kafila_, and asked the merchants, "Who is your chief?" They all
pointed to me; the eunuch came to my place; I rose up to receive
him with respect, and we saluted each other; I seated him on the
_masnad_, and offered him the pillow; after which I asked him to tell
me what was the occasion which afforded me the honour of his visit;
he replied, 'The princess has heard that some merchants are arrived,
and have brought much merchandise, for which reason she has desired
me to bring them to her presence; so come, and take along with you
whatever merchandise may be fit for the courts of kings, and gain
the happiness of kissing her threshold.'

"I gave for answer, 'To-day, indeed, I am greatly fatigued; to-morrow
I will attend her with my life and property; whatever I have by me,
I will present as a _nazar_ [to the princess], and whatever pleases
her, the same is her majesty's property.' Having made this promise,
I gave him rosewater and _betel_, and dismissed him. I called all
the merchants near me, and whatever rarities each had, we collected
together, and those of my own I took also, and went in the morning
to the door of the royal seraglio. The door-keeper sent word of my
arrival, and orders came to bring me to the presence; the same eunuch
came out, and taking my hand in his, he led me along, whilst we talked
in friendly converse. Having passed the apartments of the female
attendants of the princess, he conducted me into a noble apartment. O
friend, you will not believe it, but so beautiful was the scene, that
you might say the fairies had been let loose there with their wings
shorn. On whatever side I looked, there my sight became transfixed,
and my limbs were torn away [from under me]; I supported myself
with difficulty, and reached the royal presence. The moment I cast
my eyes upon the princess, I was ready to faint, and my hands and
feet trembled.

"I contrived, with some difficulty, to make my salutation. Beautiful
women were standing in rows to the right and left, with their arms
folded. I laid before the princess the various kinds of jewels,
fine clothes, and other rich rarities that I had brought with me;
from these she selected some, (inasmuch as they were all worthy
of choice). She was greatly pleased, and delivered them to her
head-servant, and he said to me, that their prices should be paid
the next day, according to the invoice. I made my obeisance, and
was pleased within myself that under this pretext I should have to
come again the next day. When I took my leave and came out, I was
speaking and uttering words like those of a maniac. In this state
I came to the _serai_, but my senses were not right; all my friends
began to ask what was the matter with me; I replied, that from going
and returning so far, the heat had affected my brain.

"In short, I passed that night in tossing and tumbling [about in my
bed]. In the morning, I went again and presented myself [to wait on
the princess], and entered the seraglio along with the confidential
servant, and saw the same scene I had seen the day before. The princess
received me kindly, and sent every one [present] away, each to his own
occupation. When there became a dispersion of them, she retired to a
private apartment, and called me to her. When I entered, she desired
me to sit down; I made her my obeisance, and sat down. She said,
'As you have come here, and have brought these goods with you, how
much profit do you expect on them?' I replied, 'I had an ardent desire
to see your highness, which God hath granted, and now I have got all
I wished; I have acquired the prosperity of both worlds. Whatever
prices are marked in the invoice, half is the prime cost, and half
profit.' She replied, 'No, whatever price you have marked down shall
be paid; moreover, you shall receive presents besides, on condition
that you will do one thing, which I am about to order you.'

"I replied, 'This slave's life and property are at your service,
and I shall think as the happiness of my destinies if they can
be of any use to your highness; I will perform [what you desire]
with my life and soul.' On hearing these words, she called for a
_kalam-dan_, wrote a note, put it into a small purse made of pearls,
wrapped the purse in a fine muslin handkerchief, and gave it to me;
she gave me likewise a ring which she took from off her finger, as
a mark [by which I might make myself known]; she then said to me,
'On the opposite side [of the city] is a large garden, its name is
_Dil-kusha_, or "Delight of the Heart." Go you there. A person named
_Kaikhusru_ is the superintendent [of the garden]; deliver into his
hands the ring, and bless him for me, and ask a reply to this note,
but return quick, as if you ate your dinner there and drank your
wine here; [370] you will see what a reward I shall give you for this
service.' I took my leave, and went along inquiring my way. When I had
gone about two _/kos_, I saw the garden. When I reached it, an armed
man seized me, and led me into the garden gate. I saw there a young
man with the looks of a lion; he was seated on a stool of gold, with
an air of state and dignity, having on an armour [forged] by _Da,ud_,
[371] with breast plates, and a steel helmet. Five hundred young men,
holding each in his hands a shield and sword, and equipped with bows
and arrows, were drawn up in a line, and ready [to execute his orders].

"I made him my _salam_, and he called me to him; I delivered him the
ring, and, paying him many compliments, I showed him the handkerchief,
and mentioned also the circumstance of having brought him a note. The
moment he heard me, he bit his finger with his teeth, and slapping his
head, he said, 'Perhaps your evil destiny hath brought you here. Well,
enter the garden; an iron cage hangs on a cypress tree, in which
a young man is confined; give him this note, receive his answer,
and return quickly.' I immediately entered the garden; what a garden
it was! you might say that I had entered alive into Paradise. Every
individual parterre bloomed with variegated flowers; the fountains
were playing, and the birds were warbling [on the trees]. I went
straight on, and saw the cage suspended from the tree, in which I
perceived a very handsome young man. I bent my head with respect,
and saluted him, and gave him the sealed and enveloped note through
the bars of the cage. That young man opened the note and read it,
and inquired of me about the princess with great affection.

"We had not yet done speaking, when an army of negroes appeared,
and fell on me on all sides, and began to attack me without delay
with their swords and spears; what could one single unarmed man
do? In a moment they covered me with wounds; I had no sensation or
recollection of myself. When I recovered my senses, I found myself on
a bed, which two soldiers were carrying along [on their shoulders];
they were speaking to each other; one said, 'Let us throw the corpse
of this dead man on the plain; the dogs and crows will soon eat
it up.' The other replied, 'If the king should make investigation,
and learn this circumstance, he will bury us alive, and grind our
children to paste; what! are our lives become a burthen to us, that
we should act so rashly?'

"On hearing this conversation, I said to the two [ruffians] Gog and
Magog, 'for God's sake take some pity on me, I have still a spark of
life left; when I die, do with me what you please; the dead are in
the hands of the living; [372] but tell me what has happened to me;
why have I been wounded, and who are you? pray explain thus much to
me.' They then having taken pity on me, said, 'The young man who is
confined in the cage is the nephew of the king of this country; and
his father was previously on the throne. At the time of his death he
gave this injunction to his brother: 'My son, who is heir to my throne,
is as yet young and inexperienced; do you continue to guide the affairs
of state with zeal and prudence; when he is of age, marry your daughter
to him, and make him master of the whole empire and treasury.'

"After saying this his majesty died, and the younger brother became
king; he did not attend to the [late king's] last injunctions; on
the contrary, he gave it out that [his nephew was] mad and insane,
and put him into a cage, and has placed such strict guards on the four
sides of the garden that no bird can there flap its wing; and many a
time he has administered to [his nephew] the poison called _halahal_;
[373] but his life is stronger and the poison has had no effect. Now
the princess and this prince are lover and mistress; she is distracted
at home, and he in the cage; she sent him a love-letter by your hands;
the spies instantly conveyed intelligence [of this circumstance]
to the king; a body of Abyssinians were ordered out and treated you
thus. The king has consulted his _wazir_ on the means of putting to
death this imprisoned prince, and that ungrateful wretch has persuaded
the princess to kill the innocent prince with her own hands in the
king's presence.'

"I said, 'Let us go, that I may see this scene even in my dying
moments.' They at last agreed [to my request], and the two soldiers
and myself, though wounded, went to the scene and stood in silence in
a retired corner. We saw the king seated on his throne; the princess
held in her hand a naked sword; the prince was taken out of the iron
cage, and made to stand before [the king]; the princess, becoming an
executioner, advanced with the naked sword to kill her lover. When
she drew near the prince, she threw away the sword and embraced
him. Then that lover said to her, 'I am willing to die thus; here,
indeed, I desire thee,--there, also, I shall wish for thee.' [374] The
princess said, 'I have come, under this pretext to behold thee.' The
king, on seeing this scene, became greatly enraged, and reproached the
_wazir_, and said, 'Hast thou brought me here to see this sight?' The
[princess's] confidential servant separated the princess from the
prince, and conducted her to the seraglio. The _wazir_ took up the
sword, and flew with rage at the prince to end with one blow his
unfortunate existence. As he lifted up his arm to strike, an arrow
from an unknown hand pierced his forehead, so that [his head] was
cleft in twain, and he fell down.

"The king, seeing this mysterious event, retired into his palace;
and they put the young prince again into the cage, and carried him
to the garden; I likewise came out from where I was. On the road,
a man called me and conducted me to the princess; seeing me severely
wounded, she sent for a surgeon, and enjoined him very strictly, 'cure
this young man quickly, and perform the ablution of recovery. Your
welfare depends on it; as much care and attention as you bestow on
him, so many presents and favours you will receive from me.' In short,
the surgeon used his skill and assiduity according to the princess's
injunctions, and at the end of forty days, having caused me to be
bathed and washed, he presented me to the princess. She asked me,
'Is there now anything else left to be done.' I replied, that through
her humanity I was quite recovered. The princess then gave me a
rich _khil'at_ and a large sum of money, as she had promised; yea,
she even gave me as much more, and then dismissed me.

"I took all my friends and servants with me, and set out from that
country [to return home]. When I reached this spot, I desired all of
them to return to their native country, and I erected on this hill
this building, and got a statue made of the princess. I took up my
residence here, and having rewarded my servants and slaves according
to their respective merits, I dismissed them, saying, whilst I live,
I leave it to you to provide me with food; beyond this act, you are
your own masters. They supply me with subsistence from gratitude,
and I, with heart at ease, worship this statue; whilst I live,
this will be my sole [care and] employment; these are my adventures
which you have just heard." O, _Darweshes_! on hearing his story, I,
having thrown the _kafni_ over my shoulders, and having put on the
habit of a pilgrim, set out with extreme desire to see the country
of the Franks. After long wandering over mountains and through woods,
I began to resemble _Majnun Farhad_.

At last, my strong desire carried me to the same [European] city
[where the old statue-worshipper had been]; I wandered through
its streets and lanes like a lunatic, and I often remained near
the seraglio of the princess; but I could get no opportunity to
have an introduction to her. I was greatly vexed that I should not
obtain the object for which I had undergone such misery and toil,
and come so far. On day, I was standing in the _bazar_ when all at
once the people began to run away, and the shopkeepers having shut
up their shops, also fled. What crowds there were [a moment before],
and how desert the place became [all of a sudden]! I soon perceived
a young man rushing forward from a side street; he was like _Rustam_
in appearance, and roared like a lion; he flourished a naked sword in
each hand; he was in armour, with a pair of pistols in his girdle,
and kept muttering something to himself like an inebriated maniac;
two slaves followed him, clothed in woollen, and bearing on their
heads a bier covered with velvet of _Kashan_.

On seeing this sight, I determined to proceed with it; those I met
dissuaded me from it, but I would not hear them. Pushing forward,
the young man went towards a grand mansion; I also went along with
him. He looked back, and perceiving me, he wished to give me a blow
and cut me in two; I swore to him that this was the very thing I
wished, saying, "I forgive you my blood; relieve me by some means or
other from the misery of life, for I am grievously afflicted; I have
knowingly and voluntarily put myself in your way; do not delay [my
execution]." Setting me determined to die, God infused compassion into
his heart, and his anger cooled, and he asked me with much kindness
and gentleness, "Who art thou and why art thou tired of life?"

I replied, "Sit down awhile that I may tell you; my story is very
long and tedious. I am caught in the claws of love, for which reason
I am desperate." On hearing this, he unfastened his waist band, and
having washed his hands and face, he took some food and gave me some
likewise. When he finished his meal, he said, "Say what has befallen
thee?" I related all the adventures of the old man and the princess,
and the cause of my going there, [i. e. to Europe]. On hearing them he
wept at first, and then said, "What numbers of homes this unfortunate
[princess] has ruined! Well, thy cure is in my hands; it is probable
that through the means of this guilty being thou wilt attain thy
wishes; do not give way to anxiety; be confident." He then ordered
the barber to shave me, and to apply to me the bath;  [375] his slave
brought me a suit of clothes and dressed me: then the young man said
to me, "This bier which thou seest is that of the late young prince,
who was confined in the iron cage; another _wazir_ murdered him at last
through treachery; he indeed has obtained release though he has been
wrongfully slain. I am his foster brother; I put that _wazir_ to death
with a blow of my sword, and made the attempt to kill the king; but
he entreated mercy, and swore that he was innocent; I having spurned
him as a coward, allowed him to escape. Since then, my occupation has
been this, to carry the bier, in this manner, through the city, on the
first Thursday of every moon, and to mourn for the [murdered prince]."

On hearing these circumstances, from his mouth, I attained some
consolation, saying, "If he should wish it, then my desires will be
accomplished; God has favoured me greatly, since he has made such
a mad man well inclined towards me; so true is it, that if God is
favourable, all goes well." When the evening came, and the sun set,
the young man took up the bier, and instead of one of the slaves,
he put it on my head and took me along with him. He said, "I am
going to the princess, and will plead for thee as much as I am able;
do not thou open thy lips, but remain silent and listen." I replied,
"Whatever you advise, I will strictly do; God preserve you, for you
feel pity on my case." That young man proceeded towards the royal
garden, and when we entered it, I perceived a marble platform of eight
sides, in an open space of the garden, on which was spread an awning
of silver tissue with pearl fringe, and erected on poles set with
diamonds; a rich brocade _masnad_, with pillows, was spread under
the awning. The bier was placed there, and we were both ordered to
go and sit under a tree [which he pointed out].

In a short time, the lights of flambeaux appeared, and the princess
herself arrived, accompanied by some female attendants before and
behind her; melancholy and anger were visible in her looks; she mounted
the platform and sat down [on the _masnad_]. The foster-brother
stood before her with folded arms, then sat down at a respectable
distance on a corner of the _farsh_. The prayer for the dead was read;
then the foster-brother said something; I having applied my ear, was
listening with attention. At last, he said, "O princess of the world,
peace be upon you! The prince of the kingdom of Persia, hearing, in
your absence, of your beauty and excellence, has abandoned his throne,
and becoming a pilgrim like _Ibrahim Adham_; [376] he is arrived here,
after overcoming many difficulties and undergoing great fatigue. The
pilgrim hath quitted _Balkh_ [377] for thee; he hath wandered for
some time through this city in distress and misery; at last, forming
the resolution to die, he joined me; I attempted to alarm him with my
sword; he presented his neck, and conjured me to strike without delay,
adding, that was his wish. In short, he is firmly in love with you;
I have proved him well, and have found him perfect in every way. For
this reason I have mentioned him to you; if you take pity on his case
and be kind to him, as he is a stranger, it would not be doing too much
[on the part] of one who fears God and loves justice."

On hearing this speech, the princess said, "Where is he? if he
is really a prince, then it does not signify, let him come before
us." The foster-brother got up and came [to where I was] and took me
with him. I, on seeing the princess, became exceedingly overjoyed,
but my reason and my senses departed. I became dumb; I had not power
to speak. The princess shortly after returned [to her palace], and the
foster-brother came to his own residence. When we reached his house,
he said, "I have related all the circumstances [you mentioned] to the
princess from beginning to end, and have likewise interceded for you;
now do you go there every night without fail and indulge in pleasure
and joy." I fell at his feet; [he lifted me up and] clasped me to his
bosom. All the day, I continued counting the hours until the evening
came, that I might go and see the princess. When the night arrived,
I took leave of that young man, and went to the princess's lower
garden; I sat down on the marble platform, reclining on my pillow.

A hour after, the princess came slowly, attended by one female servant
only, and sat down on the _masnad;_ it was through my happy destinies
that I lived to see this day! I kissed her feet; she lifted up my head,
and embraced me, and said, "Conceive this opportunity as fortunate;
mind my advice; take me from hence, and go to some other country." I
replied, "Come along." After having thus spoken, we both got out of
the garden, but we were so confused, through wonder and joy, that we
could not use our hands and feet, and we lost our road; we went along,
in another direction, but found not a place of rest. The princess
got angry, and said, "I am now tired, where is your house? hasten to
get there; otherwise what do you mean to do? My feet are blistered;
I shall [be obliged to] sit down somewhere on the road."

I replied, "My slave's house is near; we have now reached it; be easy
in your mind, and march on." I indeed told a falsehood, but I was
at a loss where to take her. A locked door appeared on the road; I
quickly broke the lock, and we entered the place; it was a fine house,
laid out with carpets, and flasks full of wine were arranged in the
recesses, and bread and roast meat were ready in the kitchen. We were
greatly fatigued, and drank each of us, a glass of Portugal wine with
our meat, and passed the whole night together in mutual bliss. In this
scene of felicity when the morning dawned, an uproar was raised in the
town that the princess had disappeared. Proclamations were issued in
every district and street; and bawds and messengers were despatched
with orders, that wherever she was to be found, she might be seized
[and brought to the king]; and guards of royal slaves were posted at
all the gates of the city. Those guards received orders not to let
an ant pass without the royal permission; and that whoever would
bring any intelligence of the princess should receive a _khil'at_
and a thousand pieces of gold as a present. The bawds roamed through
the whole city and entered every house.

I, who was ill fated, did not shut the door. An old hag, the aunt
of Satan (may God make her face black), with a string of beads in
her hand, and covered with a mantle, finding the door open, entered
without fear, and standing before the princess, lifted up her hands
and blessed her, saying, "I pray to God that he may long preserve you a
married woman, and that thy husband's turban may be permanent! I am a
poor beggar woman, and I have a daughter who is in her full time and
perishing in the pains of child-birth; I have not the means to get
a little oil which I may burn in our lamp; food and drink, indeed,
are out of the question. If she should die, how shall I bury her? and
if she is brought to bed, what shall I give the midwife and nurse,
or how procure remedies for the lying-in woman? it is now two days
since she has lain hungry and thirsty. O, noble lady! give her, out
of your bounty, a morsel of bread that she may eat the same along
with a drink of water."

The princess took pity on her, and called her near her, and gave
her four loaves, some roast meat, and a ring from her little finger,
saying, "having sold this, make jewels [for your daughter] and live
comfortably; and come occasionally to see me, the house is yours." The
old hag having completely gained the object she came in search of,
poured heartfelt blessings on the princess, saluted her and trotted
off. She threw away the loaves and meat at the door, but kept the
ring snug, saying to herself, "the clue to trace the princess is now
in my possession." As God wished to preserve us from this calamity,
just then the master of the house arrived; he was a brave soldier,
mounted on an Arab horse, with a spear in his hand, and a deer hanging
by the side of his saddle. Finding the door of his house open, the
lock broken, and the old hag coming out of it, he was enraged, and
seized her by the hair and dragged her to the house. He tied both
her feet with a rope, and hung her on the branch of a true with her
head down and her feet uppermost; so that in a short time the old
devil died in agonies. The moment I saw the soldier's looks, I was
overcome with such fear that I turned quite pale, and my heart began
to tremble with dread. That brave man seeing us both alarmed, gave
us assurances of safety, and added, "You have acted very imprudently;
you have done the deed and left the door open."

The princess, smiling, said, "The prince said it was the house
of his slave, and brought me here under a deception." The soldier
observed, "The prince said truly, for all the people are the slaves
and servants of princes; all are reared and fed from their favour
and protection. This slave is yours without purchase; but to conceal
secrets is consonant to good sense. O, prince, you and the princess's
coming to this humble roof, and honouring me with your presence,
will be a source of happiness to me in both worlds; and you have thus
dignified your slave. I am ready to sacrifice my life for you; in no
way will I withhold either it or my property [from your service];
you may repose here in confidence; there is now no danger. If this
vile bawd had gone away in safety, she would have brought calamity
[upon you]; remain here now as long as you please, and let this
servant know whatever you require; he will procure it. What is
the king! angels themselves shall have no tidings of your being
here." The brave fellow spoke such words of comfort, and gave such
confidence, that we became more easy in our mind. Then I spoke,
"Well said, you are a brave fellow; when I am able, I will show
you the return for this kindness; what is your name?" He answered,
"This slave's name is _Bihzad Khan_. In short, for the space of six
months, he performed from his heart and soul all the duty required,
and we passed our time very comfortably.

One day, my country and my parents recurred to my recollection,
which made me pensive and melancholy. Seeing my thoughtful looks,
_Bihzad Khan_ joined his hands together, and stood before me, [378] and
began to say, "If on the part of this slave any failure has occurred
in performing his duty, then let the same be stated." I said, "For
God's sake, why mention this? you have behaved to us in such a manner,
that we have lived in this city as comfortably as any one does in his
mother's womb; for I had committed such an act that every individual
straw had become my enemy. Who was such a friend to us, that we could
have tarried here a moment? May God preserve you in happiness! You are
a brave man." _Bihzad Khan_ then said, "If you are tired of this place,
I will conduct you in safety wherever you wish to go." I then said,
"If I could reach my own country, I should see my parents; I am in
this state; Lord knows what may have been their condition. I have
attained the object for which I quitted my country; and it is proper
I should now return [to my relations]; they have no tidings of me,
whether I am dead or alive; [God knows] what sorrow they may feel in
their hearts." That brave man replied, "It is very proper,--let us
go." Saying this, he brought a Turkish horse for me, which could travel
a hundred _kos_ a-day, and a swift quiet mare of unclipped wings [379]
for the princess, and made us both mount; then putting on his cuirass
and arming himself completely, he mounted on his horse and said,
"I will go before, do you follow me with full confidence."

When we came to the city gate, he gave a loud cry, and with his mace
broke the bolt, and frightened the guards; he vociferated to them, "Ye
rascals, go and tell your master that _Bihzad Khan_ is carrying off the
princess _Mihrnigar_, and the prince _Kamgar,_ who is his son-in-law;
if he has any spark of manhood, then let him come out and rescue her;
do not you be saying that I carried her off in silence and by stealth,
otherwise let him stay in the fort and enjoy his repose." This news
soon reached the king; he ordered the _wazir_ and general to seize the
three rebellious ones, and bring them tied neck and heels to the royal
presence, and cut off their heads and lay them before the throne. After
a short time, a numerous body of troops appeared, and the heavens and
earth were darkened by a whirlwind of dust. _Bihzad Khan_ placed the
princess and me on the abutment of an arch of the bridge which, like
the bridge of _Jaunpur_, consisted of twelve arches, and he himself
turned about, and pushed his horse towards the troops; he rushed in
among them like a growling lion; the whole body was dispersed like a
flock of sheep, [380] and he penetrated to the two chiefs and cut off
both their heads. When the chiefs were killed, the troops dispersed,
as the saying is, that "All depends on the head; when it is gone,
all is lost." The king came immediately to their assistance, with a
body of armed troops; _Bihzad Khan_ completely defeated them also.

The king fled; so true it is that "God alone gives victory;"
but _Bihzad Khan_ behaved so bravely, that perhaps even _Rustam_
himself could not have equalled his valour. When he saw that the
field of battle was cleared, and that no one remained to pursue him,
and that there was nothing to apprehend, he came confidentially to
the place where we were, and taking the princess and me along with
him, he pushed forward. The duration of the journey is rendered
short; we reached the boundaries of my country in a short time. I
despatched a letter to the king, (who was my father), mentioning my
safe arrival; he was quite rejoiced on reading it, and thanked God
[for His goodness]. As the withered plant revives by water, so the
joyful tidings renovated his drooping spirits; he took all his _amirs_
with him, and advanced for the purpose of receiving me as far as the
banks of a large river, and an order for boats [to cross us over]
was issued to the superintendent of rivers. I saw the royal train
from the opposite bank; from eagerness to kiss my father's feet,
I plunged my horse into the river, and swimming over, I rode up to
the king; he clasped me with eager fondness to his [paternal] bosom.

At this moment, another unforeseen calamity overwhelmed us. The horse
on which I was mounted was perhaps the colt of the mare on which the
princess rode, or they had been perhaps always together, for seeing
my horse plunge into the river, the mare became restive, followed
my horse, and likewise plunged into the river with the princess,
and began to swim. The princess being alarmed, pulled the bridle;
the mare was tender mouthed and turned over; the princess struggled,
and sank with the mare, so that not a trace of either was ever seen
again. On seeing this circumstance, _Bihzad Khan_ dashed into the
river on horseback to afford assistance to the princess; he got into
a whirlpool and could not extricate himself; all his efforts with
his hands and feet were vain, and he also sank. The king seeing these
sad circumstances, sent for nets and had them thrown into the river,
and ordered the boatmen and divers [to look for the bodies]; they
swept the whole river, but could find nothing. [381] O _Darweshes!_
this dreadful occurrence affected me so much that I became mad and
frantic; I became a pilgrim, and wandered about, ever repeating these
words,--"Such has been the fate of these three; that you have seen, now
view the other side." If the princess had vanished or died anywhere,
I should then have some kind of consolation for my heart, for I would
have gone in search of her, or have borne the loss with patience;
but when she perished before my eyes [in this dreadful manner], I
could not support [the shock]. At last, I determined to perish with
her in the stream, that I might perhaps meet my beloved one in death.

I according plunged into that same river one night in order to drown
myself, and went up to the neck in the water; I was on the point of
stepping forward and diving down, when the same veiled horseman who
saved you two, [382] came up and seized my arm; he consoled me, and
said to me, "Be comforted; the princess and _Bihzad Khan_ are alive;
why do you uselessly throw away your life? such events do occur in
the world. Do not despair of the help of God; if you live, you will
some day or other meet the two persons [for whom you are going to
sacrifice your life]. Proceed now to the empire of _Rum_; two other
unfortunate _Darweshes_ are gone there already; when you meet them,
you will attain your wishes." O _Darweshes!_ I am come here to you,
according to the advice of my heavenly Mentor; I firmly hope that
each of us will gain the desires of his heart. These have been this
pilgrim's adventures, which he hath related to you fully and entirely.


The fourth _Darwesh_ began with tears the relation of his adventures
in the following manner:--

    "The sad tale of my misfortunes now hear,
    Pay some attention, and my whole story hear;
    From what causes I distressed have come thus far,
    I will relate it all,--do you the reason hear."

O, guides [to the path] of God, [383] bestow a little attention. This
pilgrim, who is reduced to this wretched state, is the son of the king
of China; I was brought up with tenderness and delicacy, and well
educated. I was utterly unacquainted with the good and evil of this
world, and imagined [my life] would ever pass in the same manner. In
the midst of this extreme thoughtlessness this sad event took place;
the king, who was the father of this orphan, departed [this life]. In
his last moments, he sent for his younger brother, who was my uncle,
and said to him, "I now leave my kingdom and wealth behind me, and
am going to depart; but do you perform my last wishes, and act the
part of an elder. Until the prince, who is the heir to my throne,
has become of age, and has sense to govern his kingdom; do you act as
regent, and do not permit the army and the husbandmen to be injured
or oppressed. When the prince has arrived at the years of maturity,
give him advice, and deliver over to him the government; and having
married him to your daughter, _Roshan Akhtar,_ retire yourself from
the throne. By this conduct, the sovereignty will remain in my family,
and no harm will accrue to it."

After this speech, [the king] himself expired; my uncle became ruler,
and began to regulate the affairs of government. He ordered me to
remain in the seraglio, and that I should not come out of it until I
reached [the years of] manhood. Until my fourteenth year I was brought
up among the princesses and female attendants, and used to play and
frisk about. Having heard of [my intended] marriage with my uncle's
daughter, I was quite happy, and on this hope I became thoughtless,
and said to myself, that I shall now in a short time ascend the
throne and be married; "the world is established on hope." [384] I
used often to go and sit with _Mubarak_, a negro slave, who had been
brought up in my late father's service, and in whom much confidence was
[placed], as he was sensible and faithful. He also had a great regard
for me, and seeing me advancing to the years of manhood, he was much
pleased, and used to say, "God be praised, O prince, you are now a
young man, and, God willing, your uncle, the shadow of Omnipotence,
will shortly fulfil the injunctions [of your late father], and give
you his daughter, and your father's throne."

One day, it happened that a common female slave gave me, without cause,
such a slap, that the marks of her five fingers remained on my cheek. I
went, weeping, to _Mubarak_; he clasped me to his bosom, and wiped away
my tears with his sleeve, and said, "Come, I will conduct you to-day to
the king; he will perhaps be kind to you on seeing yon, and, conceiving
you qualified [in years], he may give up to you your rights." He led me
immediately to my uncle's presence; my uncle showed me great affection
before the court, and asked me, "why are you so sad, and wherefore
are you come here to-day?" _Mubarak_ replied, "He is come here to say
something [to your majesty]." On hearing this, he said of himself,
"I will shortly marry the young prince." _Mubarak_ answered, "It will
be a most joyful event." The king immediately sent for the astrologers
and diviners into his presence, and with feigned interest asked them,
"In this year what month, what day, and what hour is auspicious, that I
may order the preparations for the prince's marriage?" They perceiving
what were [the king's real wishes], made their calculations, and said,
"Mighty sire, the whole of this year is unpropitious; no day in any
of the lunar months appears happy; if this whole year pass in safety,
then the next is most propitious for a happy marriage."

The king looked towards _Mubarak_, and said, "Reconduct the prince to
the seraglio, if God willing, after this year is over, I will deliver
up my trust to him; let him make himself perfectly easy, and attend to
his studies," _Mubarak_ made his _salam_, and taking me along with him,
reconducted me to the seraglio. Two or three days after this, I went
to _Mubarak_; on seeing me, he began to weep; I was surprised, and
asked him, saying, "My father, is all well? what is the cause of your
weeping?" Then, that well wisher, (who loved me with heart and soul),
said, "I conducted you the other day to that tyrant; if I had known it,
I would not have carried you there," I was alarmed, and asked him,
"What harm has occurred from my going? pray tell me truly," He then
said, "All the nobles, ministers, and officers of state, small and
great, of your father's time, were greatly rejoiced on seeing you,
and began to offer up thanks to God, saying, 'Now, our prince is of
age, and fit to reign. Now, in a short time, the right will devolve
upon the rightful [heir]; then he will do justice to our merits,
and appreciate the length of our services.' This news reached the
ears of that faithless wretch, [385] and entered his breast like a
serpent. He sent for me in private, and said, 'O _Mubarak_, act now
in such a manner, that by some stratagem or other the prince may be
destroyed; and remove the dread of his [existence] from my heart,
that I may feel secure.' Since then I am quite confounded, for your
uncle is become the enemy of your life." When I heard this dreadful
news from _Mubarak,_ I was dead without being murdered, and fell at
his feet from fear of my life, and said, "For God's sake, I relinquish
my throne; by any means, let my life be saved." That faithful slave
lifted up my head, clasped me to his breast, and said, "There is no
danger, a thought has struck me; if it turns out well, then there
is nothing to fear; whilst we have life, we have everything. "It is
probable that, by this scheme [of mine] your life will be preserved,
and you will attain your wishes."

Giving me these hopes, he took me with him, and went to the apartment
where the deceased king, my father, used to sit and sleep; and gave
me every confidence. There a stool was placed; he told me to lay
hold of one of its legs, and taking hold of the other himself, we
removed the stool, and he lifted up the carpet that was beneath it,
and began to dig the floor. A window appeared suddenly, to which were
attached a chain and lock. He called me near him; I apprehended within
myself that he wished to butcher me, and bury me in the place he had
dug. Death appeared [in all its horrors] before my eyes; but having
no other alternative, I advanced slowly and in silence towards him,
repeating within myself my prayers to God. I then saw a building
with four rooms inside of that window, and in every room ten large
vases of gold were suspended by chains; on the mouth of each vase was
placed a brick of gold, on which was set the figure of a monkey inlaid
with precious stones. I counted thirty-nine vases of this kind in the
four rooms, and saw one vase filled with pieces of gold, on the mouth
of which there was neither the brick, nor the figure of the monkey,
and I also saw a vat filled to the brim with precious stones. I asked
_Mubarak,_ "O my father, what talisman is this? whose place is this,
and for what use are those figures?" He replied, "The following is
the story of those figures of monkeys which you see:--Your father
from his youth formed a friendship and kept up an intercourse with
_Maliki Sadik_, who is the king of the _jinns_.

"Accordingly, once every year, [his late majesty] used to visit _Maliki
Sadik_ and stay near a month with him, having carried thither with
him many kinds of essences, [386] and the rarities of this country,
[as a present]. When he took his leave, _Maliki Sadik_ used to give
him the figure of a monkey made of emerald, and our king used to
bring it and place it in these lower rooms; no one but myself knew
the circumstance. Once I observed to your father, O mighty king, you
carry with you thousands of rupees'-worth of rarities, and you bring
back from thence the figure of a lifeless monkey in stone; what is
the advantage of this [exchange] in the end? In answer to my question,
he smiling, said, 'Beware, and do not, in any way divulge this secret;
the information [you receive] is on this condition. Each one of these
lifeless monkeys which thou seest has a thousand powerful demons [387]
at his command, ready to obey his orders; but until I have the number
of forty monkeys complete, so long are all these of no use, and will
be of no service to me.' So one monkey was wanting [to complete the
efficient number] in that very year, when the king died.

"All this toil then has been of no avail, nor has the advantage of it
been displayed. O prince, I recollected this circumstance on seeing
your forlorn situation, and determined within myself to conduct you
by some means or other to _Maliki Sadik_, and mention to him your
uncle's tyranny. It is most likely that he, recollecting your father's
friendship for him, may give you the one monkey which is wanting [to
complete the number]; then, with their aid, you may get your empire,
and reign peaceably over China and _Machin,_ [388] and your life, at
least, will be secured by this proceeding, if nothing else can be done;
I see no other way to escape from the hands of this tyrant, except
the plan I propose." On hearing all these consoling circumstances
from _Mubarak_, I said to him, "O friend, you are now the disposer
of my life; do whatever is best with regard to me." Giving me every
confidence, he went to the _bazar_ to buy some _'itr_ and _bukhur_,
[389] and whatever he deemed fit to be carried [as a present for
_Maliki Sadik_].

The next day, he went to my impious uncle, who was a second
_Abu-Jahal_, [390] and said, "Protector of the world, I have formed
a plan in my heart for destroying the prince, and if you order me,
I will relate it." That wretch was quite pleased, and said, "What
is the plan?" Then _Mubarak_ said, "By putting him to death [here],
your majesty will be highly censured in every way; but I will take
him out to the woods, finish him, bury him, and return; no one will
be conversant [of the fact]." On hearing this plan of _Mubarak's_, the
king said, "It is an excellent [plan]; I desire this, that he may not
live in safety; I am greatly afraid of him in my heart, and if thou
relievest me from this anxiety, then in return for that service thou
shalt obtain much; take him where thou wilt, and make away with him,
and bring me the welcome tidings."

Being in this manner at ease with regard to the king, _Mubarak_ took
me with him, and having also taken the presents, he set out from
the city at midnight, and proceeded towards the north. For a whole
month he went on without stopping; one night we were trudging along,
when _Mubarak_ observed, "God be praised, we are now arrived at the
end of our journey." On hearing this exclamation, I said, "O friend,
what dost thou say?" He replied, "O prince, do not you see the army
of the _jinns_?" I answered, "I see nothing except you." _Mubarak_
then took out a box containing _surma_, and with a needle applied
to both my eyes the _surma_ of _Sulaiman_. I instantly began to see
the host of the _jinns_ and the tents and encampments of their army;
they were all handsome, and well dressed. Recognising _Mubarak_,
they all embraced him, and spake to him facetiously.

Proceeding onwards, we at length reached the royal tents, and entered
the court. I saw they were well lighted, and stools of various kinds
were arranged in double rows, on which were seated men of learning,
philosophers, _darweshes_, nobles, and the officers of state; servants
of various grades with their arms across were in waiting, and in the
centre was placed a throne set with precious stones, on which was
seated with an air of dignity, the king, _Maliki Sadik_, with a crown
of his head, and clothed in a tunic set with pearls. I approached
him and made my salutation; he desired me with kindness to sit down,
and then ordered dinner; after having finished [our repast], the
_dastar-khwan_  was removed, and he having looked towards _Mubarak_,
asked my story. _Mubarak_ replied, "This prince's uncle now reigns
in the room of his father, and is become the enemy of his life, for
which reason I have run off with him from thence, and have conducted
him to your majesty; he is an orphan, and the throne is his due;
but no one can do anything without a protector; with your majesty's
assistance, this injured [youth] may get his rights; recollect the
return due for his father's services, afford him your assistance,
and give him the fortieth monkey, that the number may be completed,
and the prince, having gained his rights [with their aid], [391]
will pray for your majesty's long life and prosperity; he has no
other visible resource except your majesty's protection."

On hearing all these circumstances, _Maliki Sadik_, after a pause,
said, "In truth, the return for the deceased king's services,
and his friendship for me, are great; and, considering that this
helpless prince is overwhelmed with misfortunes, that he has quitted
his lineal throne to save his life, and is come as far as this, and
has taken shelter under the shadow of our protection, I shall in no
way be wanting [to afford him my assistance] as far as I am able,
nor will I pass him over; but I have an affair in hand; if he can do
it and does not deceive me--if he executes it properly, and acquits
himself fully in the trial, I then promise that I will be a greater
friend to him than I was to the late king, his father, and that I
will grant him whatever he asks." I joined my hands, and replied,
"This servant will most cheerfully perform as far as he is able,
whatever services your majesty may require; he will execute them with
prudence and vigilance, and without deceit, and think it a happiness to
him in both worlds." The king of the _jinns_ observed, "You are as yet
a mere boy, for which reason I warn you so repeatedly, that you may
not deceive me, and plunge yourself in calamity." I answered, "God,
through the good fortune of your majesty, will make it easy to me,
and I will, as far as in me lies, exert myself to your satisfaction."

_Maliki Sadik_, on hearing [these assurances], called me near him,
and taking out a paper from his pocket book, showed it to me, and said,
"Search where you think proper for the person whose portrait this is;
find her out and bring her to me; when you find out her name and
place, go before her, and express great affection to her from me;
if you perform this service, then whatever expectations you may have
from me, I will exceed them in the performance; otherwise you will
be treated as you deserve." When I looked on that paper, I perceived
such a beautiful portrait in it, that a faintness came over me; I
supported myself with difficulty through fear, and answered, "Very
well, I take my leave; if God favours me, I shall execute what your
majesty commands." Saying this, I took _Mubarak_ with me, and bent my
course towards the woods. I began to wander from city to city, from
town to town, from village to village, and from country to country,
and to inquire of every one [I met] the name and place [of the fair
one whose portrait I had]; but no one said "Yes, I know her," or
"I have heard of her from some one." I passed seven years in this
wandering state, and suffered every misery and perplexity;  at last,
I reached a city which was populous, and contained many grand edifices;
but every living creature there was repeating the great name, [392]
and worshipping God.

I saw a blind beggar of _Hindustan_ begging alms, but no one gave him
a _kauri_, or a mouthful; I wondered at it, and pitied him; I took
out a piece of gold from my pocket, and gave it to him; he took it,
and said, "O donor! God prosper you; you are perhaps a traveller,
and not an inhabitant of this city." I replied, "In truth, I have
wandered distractedly for seven years; I cannot find the smallest
trace of the object for which I set out, and have this day reached this
city. The old man poured blessings on me, and went on; I followed him;
a grand building appeared without the city; he entered it, and I also
followed, and saw that here and there the building had fallen down,
and was out of repair.

I said to myself, "This edifice is fit for princes; what an agreeable
place it will be when in repair? and now, through desolation, what
an appearance it has! but I cannot conceive why it is fallen into
ruin, and why this blind man lives in it." The blind man was going
on feeling his way with his stick, when I heard a voice, as if some
one was saying, "O father, I hope all is well; why have you returned
so early to-day?" The old man, on hearing this question, replied,
"Daughter, God made a youthful traveller have pity on my condition; he
gave me a piece of gold; it is many a-day since I have had a bellyful
of good food. So I have purchased meat, spices, butter, oil, flour, and
salt; and I have also procured such clothes for you as were necessary;
cut them out, sew them and wear them; and cook the dinner, that we
may partake of it, and then offer up our prayers for the generous man
[who has been kind to us]; although I do not know the desires of his
heart, yet God knows and sees all; and will grant the prayers of us
destitute ones." When I heard the circumstance of his severe fasting,
I wished much to give him twenty pieces of gold more; but looking
towards the quarter from whence the sounds came, I saw a woman who
resembled exactly the portrait I had. I drew it out and compared
it, and perceived that there was not a hairbreadth of difference. A
deep sigh escaped from my bosom, and I became senseless. _Mubarak_
took me in his arms and sat down, and began to fan me; I recovered
a little sensation, and was gazing at her, when _Mubarak_ asked,
"What is the matter with you?" I had not yet answered him, when the
beautiful female said, "O young man, fear God, and do not look at a
strange female; [393] shame and modesty are necessary to every one."

She spoke with such propriety that I became enchanted with her beauty
and manners. _Mubarak_ comforted me greatly, but he did not know
the state of my heart; having no alternative, I called out and said,
"O you creatures of God, and inhabitants of this place! I am a poor
traveller; if you call me near you, and give me some place to put
up in, it will be an important matter [for me]." The old man called
me to him, and recognising my voice, he embraced me, and conducted
me to where the lovely woman was seated; she went and hid herself
in a corner. The old man asked me thus: "Tell thy story; why hast
thou left thy home, and wandered about alone, and of whom are you
in search?" I did not mention _Maliki Sadik's_ name, nor did I say
anything about him; but thus told [my supposed tale]. "This wretch
is the prince of China and _Machin_; so that my father is still king;
he purchased from a merchant this picture for four _lakhs_ of rupees;
from the moment when I beheld it, my peace of mind fled, and I put
on the dress of a pilgrim; I have searched the whole world, and have
now found the object here; the same is in your power."

On hearing these words, the old man heaved a heavy sigh, and said,
"O friend, my daughter is entangled in great misfortunes; no man
can presume to marry her and enjoy her." I replied, "I am in hopes
you will explain more fully." Then that strange man related thus his
story;--"Hear, O prince! I am a chief and grandee of this unfortunate
city; my forefathers were celebrated, and of a great family; God the
Most High bestowed on me this daughter; when she became a woman, her
beauty and gracefulness and elegance of manners were celebrated; and
over the whole country it was said, that in such a person's house is a
daughter, before whose beauty even angels and fairies are abashed; how
can a human creature, therefore, be compared to her! The prince of this
city heard these praises, and became enamoured of her by report without
seeing her; he quitted food and drink, and became quite restless.

"At last, the king heard of this circumstance, and called me at night
in private and mentioned to me how matters stood; he coaxed me so
with fine speeches, that at last he got my consent to an alliance
[by marriage] with him. I likewise [naturally] reflected that as a
daughter was born to me, she must be married to some one or other;
then what can be better, than to marry her to the prince? this the
king also entreats. I accepted the proposal, and took my leave. From
that day the preparations for the marriage were begun by both
parties; and on an auspicious hour, all the _kazis_ and _muftis_,
[394] the learned men and the nobles were convened, and the marriage
rites were performed; the bride was carried away with great _eclat_,
and all the ceremonies were finished. At night, when the bridegroom
wished to consummate the nuptial rites, such a noise and uproar
arose in the palace, that the people without who mounted guard were
surprised. They wished that having opened the door of the room,
they might see what was the matter; but it was so fastened from
the inside, that they could not open it. A moment after, the noise
of lamentation became less; they then broke open the door from its
hinges, and saw the bridegroom with his head severed from his [body],
and [his limbs] still quivering; and the bride foamed at the mouth,
and rolled senseless in the dust mingled with [her husband's] blood.

"On seeing this horrible sight, the senses of all present forsook them;
that such grief should succeed such felicity! The dreadful intelligence
was conveyed to the king; he flew [to the spot], beating his head; all
the officers of state were soon assembled there, but no one's judgment
was of any use in ascertaining the [cause of] this [mysterious] affair;
at length the king, in his distracted state, ordered the ill-fated,
luckless bride's head to be cut off likewise. The moment this order
was issued from the king's lips, the same clamour arose; the king was
alarmed, and from fear of his life, he ran off, and ordered the bride
to be turned out of the palace. The female attendants conveyed this
[unfortunate] girl to my house. The account of this strange event soon
spread over the whole kingdom, and whoever heard it was amazed; and
owing to the prince's murder, the king himself and all the inhabitants
of the city became bitter enemies of my life.

"When the public mourning was over, and the fortieth day completed,
the king asked counsel of the officers of state, saying, 'What is next
to be done?' They all said, 'Nothing else can be done; but in order to
console your majesty's mind, and inspire it with patience, to put the
girl and her father to death, and confiscate their property.' When
this punishment of me and mine was determined on, the magistrate
received orders [to put it in execution]; he came and surrounded my
house [with guards] on all sides and sounded a trumpet at the gate,
and was about to enter in order to execute the king's orders. From
some hidden quarter, such showers of stones and bricks were poured
on them that the whole band could not stand against it, and covering
their faces, they were dispersed hither and thither; and these dreadful
sounds issued, which even the king himself heard in his palace; 'What
misfortune impels thee! what demon possesses thee! if thou desirest
thy welfare, molest not that fair one, or else the fate that thy son
met with by marrying her, thou shalt experience the like doom by being
her foe; if thou now molestest her, thou wilt rue its consequences.'

"The king fell into a fever through fear, and instantly ordered that
'No one should molest these evil-fated persons; to say nothing to them,
to hear nothing from them, but to let them remain in their house,
and that no one should injure or oppress them.' From that day, the
magicians, conceiving this mysterious event to be witchcraft, have
used all their exorcising arts and spells to destroy its effects;
and all the inhabitants of this city read [prayers] from the glorious
_Kur,an_, and pronounced the great name of God. It is a long while
since this awful scene took place, but to this day the mysterious
secret has  not been developed, nor do I know anything about it; I
once asked the girl what she had seen with her own eyes; she replied,
I know nothing more than that when my husband wished to consummate
our marriage, I saw the roof instantly open, and a throne set with
precious stones descended through the aperture, on which was seated
a handsome young man dressed in princely robes, and many persons
in attendance upon him, came into that apartment; and were ready
to put the prince to death. That young man came up to me and said,
"Well, my love, where to will you now escape from me?" They had the
appearance of men, but with feet like goats; my heart palpitated,
and I fainted through fear; I do not know what afterwards happened.'

"From that period we have both thus lived in this ruined place; and
from the fear of offending the king, all our friends have forsaken us;
when I go out to beg, no one gives me a _kauri_; moreover, it is not
allowed me even to stand before their shops; this unfortunate girl has
not a rag to cover her nakedness, nor sufficient food to satisfy her
hunger. From God I only pray for this, that our deaths should ensue,
or that the earth may open out and swallow this ill-fated girl:
death is better than such existence; God has perhaps sent thee here
for our good; so that thou tookest pity on us, and gave us a piece
of gold, which has enabled us to have good food and clothes for my
daughter. God be praised, and blessed be thou; if she was not under
the influence of some _jinn_ or fairy, then I would give her for thy
service like a slave, and think myself happy. This is my wretched
story; do not think of her, but abandon all thoughts on that head."

After hearing this sad narrative, I entreated the old man to accept me
as his son-in-law, and if evil be my future doom, then let it come; but
the old man would on no account agree to my request. When the evening
came, I took my leave of him, and went to the _sarai_. _Mubarak_ said,
"Well, prince, rejoice, God has favoured you, and your labours are not
thrown away." I answered, "I have to-day used many fair speeches, but
that infidel old man will not consent; God knows if he will give her
to me or not." My mind was in such a state that I passed the night in
great restlessness, and wished the morning was come that I might return
[and see her]; I sometimes fancied, that if the father should be kind
and agree to my wishes, _Mubarak_ would carry her away for _Maliki
Sadik_. I then said to myself, "Well, let us once get possession of
her; I will then get over _Mubarak_, and enjoy her." Again my heart
was filled with apprehensions, that even if _Mubarak_ should likewise
agree to my project, the _jinns_ would serve me as they had served
the prince; moreover the king of this city will never consent, that
after the murder of his son, another should enjoy [his bride].

I passed the whole night without sleep, agitated by this project. When
the day appeared, I issued forth, and went to the _chauk_, and
purchased some pieces of fine cloth and lace, and fresh and dried
fruits; and carried them to the old man. He was greatly pleased, and
said, "That to every one nothing is dearer than life, but even if my
life could be of any use to thee, I would not grieve to sacrifice
it, and give thee now my daughter; but I fear that by doing so, I
might endanger thy life, and the stain of this reproach would remain
upon me to the day of judgment." I answered, "I am now in this city,
helpless, it is true, and you are my father in every respect, temporal
and spiritual, but [consider] what pains, fatigues and miseries I
have undergone, and what buffetings I have for a long while suffered
to attain the object of my wishes, before I arrived here. God has
likewise made you kind towards me, since you consent to marry her to
me, and only hesitate on account of my safety; be just for a moment,
and reflect that to save our heads from the sword of love, and screen
our lives from its danger, is not commendable in any religion; let
what will happen, I have lost myself in every way; and to possess
the object of my love, I consider as my existence. I do not care if
I live or perish; moreover, despair will finish my days without the
assistance of fate, and I will stand forth as your accuser on the
day of judgment."

In short, in such altercations, in hesitations between refusal
and acquiescence, a tedious month passed heavily over my head,
accompanied with future hopes and fears; I used every day to devote
my services to the old man, and every day, with flattering speeches,
I entreated him [to grant my boon]. It came to pass, that the old
man fell sick; I attended him during his illness; I used always to
relate his case to the physician, and whatever medicine he ordered,
I used to get them, and administer them to him; I used to dress with
my own hand his rice and pulse and other light diet, and gave it to
him to eat. One day he was [uncommonly] kind, and said, "O young man,
thou art very obstinate; I have repeatedly told thee of all the evils
which will ensue if thou persistest in thy object, and have often
warned thee not to think of it. Whilst we have life, we have every
thing, but thou art determined to jump into the abyss; well, I will
to-day mention thee to my daughter; let us hear what she says." O
holy _Darweshes_, on hearing these enchanting words, I swelled so
with joy, that my clothes could scarce contain me; I fell at the old
man's feet, and exclaimed, "You have now laid the foundation of my
[future happiness and] existence." I then took my leave and returned
to my abode, I passed the whole night in talking of this circumstance
with _Mubarak_; where was sleep, and where was hunger! Early in the
morning I again went and saluted the old man; he said, "Well, I give
you my daughter--God bless you with her--I have put you both under his
protection--whilst I have life, stay with me; when my eyes are closed,
then do what you wish; you will then be master of your own actions."

A few days after [this conversation], the old man died; we mourned
for him and buried him. After the _tija_, [395] _Mubarak_ brought this
beautiful daughter to the _serai_ in a _doli_, [396] and said to me,
"She belongs, [pure and untouched], to _Maliki Sadik_; beware you do
not play false, and lose the fruits of your labour."

I replied, "O friend, what has _Maliki Sadik_ to do here? my heart
will not mind me, and how can I have patience? let what will happen,
whether I live or perish, let me now enjoy her." _Mubarak_, having
lost all patience, replied, with anger, "Do not act like a boy; now,
in an instant, matters will change dreadfully;  do you think _Maliki
Sadik_ far off, that you disregard his injunctions? He explained
every circumstance to you on taking leave, and warned you of the
consequences; if you act according to his directions, and convey
her safe and sound to him, he has a royal mind, and may regard the
toils you have undergone with a favourable eye, and give her to you;
how different will the case be then! you will preserve his unbounded
friendship, and gain the sincere affection [of your mistress]."

At last, [from the force of his] threats and admonitions, I remained
silent; I bought two camels, and mounting on _kajawas_, [397] we
set out for the country of _Maliki Sadik_. We pursued our journey,
and at last reached a plain, where loud noises were heard. _Mubarak_
exclaimed, "God be praised, our labours have turned out well, for
lo! the army of _jinns_ is here arrived." He met them at last, and
asked them where they intended to go. They replied, "The king has
sent us forward for the purpose of receiving you, and we are now under
your orders; if you command us, we will convey you in a moment to the
presence [of the king]." _Mubarak_, turning to me, said, "See how,
after all our toils and dangers, God has favoured us before the face
of the king; what is the need of haste now? if some misconduct should
occur, which God forbid, then the fruits of our labours would be lost,
and we should fall under the king's displeasure." They all answered,
"You are the sole master in this; proceed as you please." Although we
were comfortable in every way, yet we made it our business to march
day and night.

When we approached [the place where the king was], I, seeing _Mubarak_
asleep, fell at that beautiful woman's feet, and bewailing to her
the restless state of my heart, and my helpless condition, owing
to the threats of _Maliki Sadik_, and that from the day I had seen
her picture, I had forsworn sleep and food and repose; and now that
God had shewn to me this day, I still remained an utter stranger
to her. She replied, "My heart is also inclined towards you, for
what toils and dangers have you undergone for my sake, and with
what labour and difficulty have you brought me away; remember God,
and do not forget me; let us see what may be revealed from behind
the curtain of mystery." On saying this, she wept so loud that she
was nearly suffocated. Such was my state, and such was hers! In the
meantime, _Mubarak's_ slumbers were broken, and seeing us both in
tears, he was greatly affected, and said, "Be comforted; I have an
ointment which I will rub over the body of this fair one; from the
smell of it the heart of _Maliki Sadik_ will be disgusted, and he
will perhaps abandon her to you."

On hearing this plan of _Mubarak's_, my heart was greatly revived;
and, embracing him fondly, I said, "O friend, you are now in the place
of a father to me; owing to you my life was saved, now also act so
that I may still live on, otherwise I must perish in this grief." He
gave me every friendly assurance. When the day appeared, we heard the
noise of the _jinns_, and saw that many personal attendants of _Maliki
Sadik_  were arrived, and had brought two rich _khil'ats_ for us, and
a covered litter with a network of pearls accompanied them. _Mubarak_
rubbed the ointment over my beloved's body; and having caused her to be
richly dressed, he conveyed her to _Maliki Sadik_. On beholding her,
the king rewarded me greatly, and having honoured and dignified me,
he made me sit down [near himself], and said, "I will behave to thee
such as no one has as yet done to any one; the kingdom of thy father
awaits thee, besides which thou art in the place of a son to me." He
was talking to me in this gracious manner, when the beautiful woman
appeared before him, and suddenly at the smell of that ointment,
his brain became confused, and his mind distracted;  he could not
endure that smell; having got up, he went out and called _Mubarak_
and me; he addressed himself to _Mubarak_, and said, "Well, sir,
you have truly performed the injunctions [I gave].

"I had warned you, that if you deceived me, you would incur my
displeasure; what smell is this? now see how I will treat you." He
was very angry; _Mubarak_, from fear, opened his trowsers, and showed
his condition, [398] and said, "Mighty king, when I undertook this
business, according to your commands, I then cut off my privities,
and put them in a box, sealed it, and delivered it over in charge
to your treasurer, and putting some ointment of Solomon on the
mutilated parts, I set out on the errand." On hearing this reply from
_Mubarak_, the king of the _jinns_ looked sternly at me, and said,
"Then, this is thy doing;" and getting into a rage, he began to abuse
me. I immediately perceived from his words that he would put me to
death. When I felt convinced of this from his looks, despairing of
life, I became desperate, and snatching the dagger from _Mubarak's_
waist, I plunged it into the king's belly; on receiving the stab, he
bent down and staggered; I wondered, for I thought he must assuredly
have perished; I then perceived that the wound was not so effective as
I imagined, and could not account for it; I was staring [with surprise]
when he rolled on the ground, and assuming the appearance of a tennis
ball, he flew up to the sky. He ascended so high, that at last he
disappeared; a moment after, flashing like lightning, and vociferating
some meaningless words in his rage, he descended, and gave me such
a kick, that I swooned away, and fell flat on my back, and became as
one lifeless. God knows how long I remained ere I came to my senses;
but when I opened my eyes I saw that I was lying in such a wilderness,
where, except thorns and briars, nothing else was to be seen; at that
moment my understanding was of no avail to fix on what I should do,
or where I should go. In this state of despondence, I gave a sigh,
and followed the first path that offered; if I met any one any where,
I inquired after the name of _Maliki Sadik_; he, thinking me mad,
answered that he had not even heard his name.

One day, having ascended a mountain, I likewise determined to throw
myself [off its summit], and end my existence; just as I was ready to
jump off, the same veiled horseman, the possessor of _Zu-l-fakar_,
[399] appeared and said, "Why do you throw away your life; man is
exposed to every pain and misery; your unhappy days are now over, and
your propitious ones are coming; go quickly to _Rum_--three afflicted
persons like thee are gone there before thee--meet them, and see
the king of that country; the wishes of all five will be fulfilled
in the same place." This is my story which I have just related;
at last, from the happy tidings of our difficulty-solving guardian,
[400] I am come into the presence of your worships, and have also
been kindly received by the king, who is the shadow of Omnipotence;
we ought all now to be comforted."

This conversation was passing between the king _Azad Bakht_ and the
four _Darweshes_, when a eunuch came running from the royal seraglio
and with respectful salutation, wished his majesty joy, and added,
"This moment a prince is born, before whose refulgent beauty the sun
and moon are abashed." The king was surprised, and asked, "No one
was pregnant [401] in appearance; who has brought forth a son?" The
eunuch replied, "_Mahru_, the female slave, who for some time hath
lain under your majesty's displeasure, and lived like an outcast in
a corner [of the seraglio], and no one from fear ever went near her
or asked after her state; on her the grace of God hath been such,
that she hath borne a son like the moon."

The king was so rejoiced, that he nearly expired from excessive joy;
the four _Darweshes_ also blessed him, and said, "May thy house be
ever happy, and may thy son prosper; and may he grow up under thy
shadow." The king replied, "This is owing to your propitious arrival,
for otherwise I had no idea of such an event; if you give me leave,
I will go and see him." The _Darweshes_ answered, "In the name of God,
go." The king went to the seraglio, and took the young prince in his
lap, and thanked God; his mind became easy; pressing the infant to
his bosom, he brought it and laid it at the _Darweshes'_ feet; they
blessed it, and exorcised all evil spirits from approaching it. The
king commanded the preparations of a festival to be made [on the
happy occasion], and the royal music struck up, and the door of the
treasury was opened; with princely donations he made the poor [402]
rich; on all the officers of state he bestowed a two-fold increase
of lands and higher titles, and to the army he gave five years' pay
as a present; to the learned and holy he gave pensions and lands;
and the wallets of the beggars were filled with pieces of gold and
silver; and the _ryots_ [403] were excused from paying any revenue
for three years, and that whatever they cultivated during this period,
they should keep for themselves.

Throughout the whole city, in the houses of the high and the low,
wherever one looked, there were merry dances; in their joy, every
one, small and great, felt himself a prince. In the midst of these
rejoicings, the sounds of lamentation and weeping issued suddenly
from the seraglio; the female servants, of all descriptions, and
the eunuchs, ran out, scattering dust upon their heads, and said to
the king, "When we had washed and bathed the prince, and delivered
him to the bosom of the nurse, a cloud descended from the sky and
enveloped the nurse; a moment after, we saw the nurse prostrate and
senseless, and the little prince gone; what a dreadful calamity has
occurred!" The king was thunderstruck on hearing this wonderful
occurrence; and the whole country mourned [for the sad event];
for two days no one dressed any victuals, but fed on their grief,
and drank their own blood, for the prince's loss.

In short, they began to despair of their lives, living in this manner;
on the third day the same cloud appeared, and a cradle studded with
jewels, and with a covering of pearls, descended from it into the area
of the seraglio; the cloud then disappeared, and the servants found
the little prince in the cradle sucking his thumb; the royal mother
immediately invoking blessings upon him, took him up in her arms,
and pressed him fondly to her bosom; she saw that he was dressed in
a jacket of fine muslin embroidered with pearls, and had a child's
bib of brocade, and many ornaments set with jewels on his hands and
feet, and a necklace with nine gems on his neck, and there was a
child's rattle with golden balls placed by his side. Through joy all
[the female attendants] were transported; and they began to offer
up prayers, saying, "May all thy mother's wishes be gratified, and
mayest thou attain a period of mature old age."

The king ordered a new grand palace to be built and furnished with
carpets, and kept the four _Darweshes_  in it; when he was disengaged
from the affairs of state, he used to go there, sit with them, and
to provide everything for them and wait on them; but on the first
Thursday night of every month the same cloud descended, and took
away the prince, and after keeping him two days, it used to bring
him back, with such rich toys and rarities of every country, and of
every description, in his cradle, that on beholding them, the minds
of the spectators were confounded with astonishment. In this manner,
the prince reached in safety his seventh year; on the birthday the
king _Azad Bakht_ said to the _Darweshes_, "O holy men, I cannot
conceive who carries the prince away and brings him back; it is very
wonderful; let us see what will be the end of it." The _Darweshes_
said, "Do one thing; write a friendly note to this purport, and put
it into the prince's cradle, viz.:--'Having seen your friendship and
kindness [to my son], my heart wishes most anxiously to meet you,
and if by way of amity you favour me with your tidings, my heart will
be highly gratified, and my wonder will cease.'" The king, according
to the _Darweshes'_ advice, wrote a note to this purport on paper
sprinkled with gold, and put it in the golden cradle.

The prince, according to custom, disappeared; and in the evening _Azad
Bakht_ was sitting with the _Darweshes_ and conversing with them,
when a folded paper fell near the king; he opened it and read it,
and found that it was an answer to his note; these two lines were
written in it: "Conceive me likewise anxious to see you; a throne
goes for you; it is best that you should come now, that we may meet;
all the preparations  of enjoyment are ready; your majesty's place
alone is empty." The king _Azad Bakht_ took the _Darweshes_ with him,
and ascended the celestial throne; it was like the throne of Solomon,
and mounted into the air; proceeding on, it descended in a place where
grand edifices and sumptuous preparations appeared; but it could not
be perceived if any one was there or not. In the meantime some one
rubbed the eyes of all five with the _surma_ of _Sulaiman_; two drops
of tears fell from the eyes of each, and they saw an assembly of the
fairies, who were waiting to receive them, dressed in rich habits of
various colours, with vials of rose-water in their hands.

_Azad Bakht_ advanced amidst two rows consisting of thousands of
fairy-born creatures, standing in respectful order, and in the
centre was placed an elevated throne inlaid with emeralds, on which
was seated leaning on pillows, with an air of great dignity, _Malik
Shah Bal_, the son of _Shah-rukh;_ a beautiful little girl of the
fairy race was seated before him, and was playing with the young
prince _Bakhtiyar_. Chairs and seats were arranged in rows on both
sides of the throne, on which the nobles of the fairy race were
seated. _Malik Shah Bal_ stood up on seeing the king _Azad Bakht_
and descended from his throne and embraced him, and taking him by
the hand, he seated him on the throne by the side of himself, and
they began to converse together with much cordiality; the whole day
passed in feasting and hilarity, and music and dancing. The second day,
when the two kings met, _Shah Bal_ asked _Azad Bakht_ the reason for
bringing the _Darweshes_ with him.

_Azad Bakht_ related fully their adventures as he had previously
learned, and interceded for them, and asked [the king's] assistance,
saying, "These have undergone many hardships, and suffered great
misfortunes; and if now, through your favour, they attain their wishes,
it will be an act of great merit, and I also will be grateful for
it through life; by your kind assistance they will all reach the
summit of their desires." _Malik Shah Bal_, after hearing [these
adventures, replied, "Most willingly; I will not fail to obey your
commands." Saying this, he looked sternly at the _divs_ and fairies
[who were present], and he wrote letters to the great _jinns_, who
were chiefs in different places, and ordered them, that on receiving
his commands, they must repair speedily to the presence, and if any one
should delay in coming, he should be punished, and brought as captive;
and that whoever possessed any persons of the human species, male or
female, he must bring them along with him; that if [a _jinn_] having
concealed any one, should detain the same, and it be known hereafter,
the concealer and his wife and family shall be exterminated, and no
vestige of them will remain.

Receiving these written orders, the _divs_ were dispatched in all
directions. A great warmth of friendship arose between the two kings,
and they passed their time in amicable conversation, amidst which
_Malik Shah Bal_, turning round to the _Darweshes_, said, "I had a
great wish to have children, and had resolved, if God gave me a son
or a daughter, to marry it to the offspring of some king of the human
race. After this resolve, I learned that my wife was pregnant; at last,
after counting with anxiety each day and hour, the full period arrived,
and this girl was born. According to my determination, I ordered the
_jinns_ to search the four corners of the world, and that whatever king
had a prince born to him, to bring the child quickly to me with care;
agreeably to my orders, the _jinns_ flew instantly to the four corners
of the earth, and after some delay, brought this young prince to me.

"I thanked God, and took the child in my lap, and loved it dearer than
my own daughter; I could not bring myself to separate him from my sight
for a moment, but used to send him back for this reason, that if his
parents did not see him, they would be greatly afflicted. For this
reason I sent for him once every month, and after keeping him with me
a few days, I sent him back. If it please God the Most High, now that
we have met, I will marry them to each other; all are liable to death,
then let us, whilst we are alive, see their marriage performed."

The king _Azad Bakht_, on hearing this proposal of _Shah Bal's_,
and seeing his amiable qualities, was greatly pleased and said,
"At first the prince's disappearance and re-appearance raised
very strange aprehensions in my breast, but I am now, from your
conversation, easy in my mind, and perfectly satisfied; this son is
now yours; do with him whatever you please." In short, the intercourse
between the two kings was like that of sugar and milk, and they fully
enjoyed themselves. In the space of less than ten days, mighty kings
of the race of the _jinns_, from the rose garden of _Iram_, [404]
and from mountains and islands, (to call whom the fairies had been
dispatched) all arrived at the court [of _Shah Bal_]. In the first
place, _Maliki Sadik_ was ordered to produce the human creature
he had in his possession; he was much vexed at it, and sad, but
having no remedy, he produced the rosy-cheeked fair one [the blind
man's daughter]. Next, he demanded of the king of _'Umman_ [405]
the daughter of one of the _jinns_ for whom the prince of _Nimroz_,
the bull rider, went mad; he likewise made many excuses, but produced
her at last. When the daughter of the king of the Franks and _Bihzad
Khan_ were demanded, all present denied having any knowledge of them,
and swore by Solomon [to that effect].

At last, when the king of the sea of _Kulzum_ was asked if he knew
anything of them, he hung down his head, and remained silent. _Malik
Shah Bal_ had a deference for him, and entreated him to give them up,
and gave him hopes of future favour and even threatened him. Then
he also joined his hands together, and said, "Please your majesty,
the particulars of that circumstance are as follows:--When the king
[of Persia] came to the river _Kulzum_ to meet his son, and the
prince from eagerness plunged his horse into the flood, it chanced
that I had gone out that day to roam about and to hunt. I passed by
the place, and the cavalcade stopped to behold the scene. When the
princess's mare carried her also into the stream, my looks met hers,
and I was enchanted, and gave instant orders to the fairy race to
bring her to me, together with the mare. _Bihzad Khan_ plunged in
also after her on horseback; I admired his bravery and gallantry,
and had him seized likewise; I took him with me, and returned home;
so they are both safe, and with me."

Saying this, he sent for them both before _Malik Shah Bal_. Great
search had been made for the daughter of the king of Syria, and strict
inquiries were put to all present, but no one acknowledged having her,
or knowing anything about her. _Malik Shah Bal_ then asked if any king
or chief was absent, and if all were arrived; the _jinns_ answered,
"Mighty sire, all are present except one named _Musalsal Jadu_, who
has erected a fort on the mountain _Kaf_ by the means of magic; he,
from haughtiness, is not come, and we, your majesty's slaves, are not
able to bring him by force; the place is strong, and he himself also
is a great devil."

On hearing this, _Malik Shah Bal_ was very angry, and an army of
_jinns, 'afrits_ and fairies were sent with orders, that if he came
of his own accord, and brought the princess with him, well and good,
but otherwise subdue him, and bring him tied by the neck and heels,
and raze his fort to the ground, and drive the plough, drawn by an ass,
over it. Immediately, on the orders being given, such numbers of troops
flew to the place, that in a day or two the rebellious haughty chief
was brought in irons to the presence. _Malik Shah Bal_ repeatedly asked
about the princess, but the haughty rebel gave no reply. The king at
length got angry, and ordered him to be cut to pieces, and his skin
stretched and filled with chaff; [406] a body of fairies were ordered
to go to the mountain of _Kaf_, and search for the princess; they went
and found her, and brought her to _Malik Shah Bal_. All these prisoners
and the four _Darweshes_, seeing the strict orders and justice of
the king _Shah Bal_, were greatly rejoiced, and admired him highly;
the king _Azad Bakht_ was also much pleased. _Malik Shah Bal_ then
ordered the men to the palace, and the women to the royal seraglio;
the city was ordered to be illuminated, and the preparations for the
marriages to be quickly completed; [all was instantly made ready],
as if the order alone was wanted to be given.

One day, a happy hour being fixed upon, the prince _Bakhtiyar_
was married to the princess _Roshan Akhtar_; and the young merchant
of _Yaman_ [407] was married to the princess of _Dimashk_; and the
prince of Persia [408] was married to the princess of _Basra_; and the
prince of _'Ajam_ [409] was married to the princess of the Franks;
_Bihzad Khan_ was married to the daughter of the king of _Nimroz_;
and the prince of _Nimroz_ was married to the _jinn's_ daughter;
and the prince of China [410] was married to the daughter of the
old blind man of _Hindustan_; she who had been in the possession of
_Maliki Sadik_. Through the favour of _Malik Shah Bal_, every hopeless
person gained his desires, and obtained his wishes; afterwards,
they all enjoyed themselves for forty days, and passed their time,
night and day, in pleasures and festivity.

At last, _Malik Shah Bal_ gave to each prince rich and rare presents,
and dismissed them to their different countries. All were pleased and
satisfied, and set out and reached their homes in safety, and began
their reigns; but _Bihzad Khan_, and the merchant's son of _Yaman_,
of their own accord, remained with the king _Azad Bakht_, and in the
end the young merchant of _Yaman_ was made head steward to his majesty,
and _Bihzad Khan_ generalissimo of the army of the fortunate prince
_Bakhtiyar_; whilst they lived, they enjoyed every felicity. O God! as
these four _Darweshes_ and the king _Azad Bakht_ attained their wishes,
in like manner grant to all hopeless beings the wishes of their hearts,
through thy power and goodness, and by the medium of the five pure
bodies, [411] the twelve _Imams_, and the fourteen innocents, [412]
on all of whom be the blessing of God! Amen, O God of the universe.

When this book was finished, through the favour of God, I took it into
my mind to give it such a name, that the date should be thereby found
out. [413] When I made the calculation, I found that I had begun to
compose this work in the end of the year of the _Hijra_ 1215, and
owing to want of leisure, it was not finished until the beginning
of the year 1217; I was reflecting on this circumstance, when it
occurred to me that the words _Bagh O Bahar_ formed a proper title,
as it answered to the date of the year when the work was finished;
so I gave it this name. Whoever shall read it, he will stroll as it
were through a garden; moreover, the garden is exposed to the blasts
of winter, but this book is not; it will ever be in verdure.

When this _Bagh O Bahar_ was finished, the year was 1217; do you
now stroll through it night and day, as its name and date is _Bagh
O Bahar_; the blasts of winter can do it no injury; for this _Bahar_
[414] is ever green and fresh; it hath been nourished with the blood of
my heart, and its (the heart's) pieces are its leaves and fruits;--all
will forget me after death;--but this book will remain as a _souvenir_;
whoever reads it, let him remember me. This is my agreement with
the readers; if there is an error, excuse it; for amidst flowers lie
concealed the thorns; man is liable to faults and errors, and he will
fail, let him be ever so careful. I have no other wish except this,
and it is my earnest prayer. O my Creator, that I may ever remain
in remembrance of Thee, and thus pass my nights and days! That I
may not be questioned with severity on the night of death, and the
day of reckoning! O God, in both worlds shower thy favours on me,
through the mediation of the great prophet!


It must be allowed, that the author has displayed great adroitness in
the "denouement" of his tale.  In the course of a few pages all the
principal characters, male and female, are suddenly produced, safe
and unscathed, before the reader.  To be sure, this is done by the aid
of a little "diablerie," but then it is done very neatly,--much more
so than in some of the clumsy fictions of the late Ettrick Shepherd,
to say nothing of the edifying legends about the Romish saints which
the good people of southern Europe are taught to swallow as gospel.
Finally, be it remembered, that Oriental story-tellers have never
subscribed to Horace's precept,--

    "Nec deus interait, nisi digens vindice nodus

On the contrary, their rule is, when, by a free use of the
supernatural, you have got the whole of your characters into a regular
_fix_, it is but fair that you should get them off by the same means.



[1] The proclamation of the Marquis Wellesley, after the formation
of the college of Fort William; encouraging the pursuit of Oriental
literature among the natives by original compositions and translations
from the Persian, &c, into _Hindustani_.

[2] "The _Bagh O Bahar_," i.e. "The Garden and Spring;" which may be
better called, "The Garden of Spring," or the "Garden of Beauty." The
less appropriate title of "_Bagh O Bahar_" was chosen merely in
order that the Persian letters composing these words, might, by their
numerical powers, amount to 1217, the year of the Hijra in which the
book was finished.--Vide Hind. Gram., page 20.

[3] _Mir Amman_ himself explains the origin and derivation of these
words in his preface, and we cannot appeal to a better authority.

[4] Literally, "in consequence of its being traversed or walked over."

[5] _Hakim Firdausi_, the Homer of Persia, who wrote the history
of that country, in his celebrated epic entitled the "_Shah-nama,"_
or Book of Kings.

[6] I have translated into plain prose all the verses occurring in the
original. I have not the vanity to think myself a poet; and I have a
horror of seeing mere doggrel rhymes--such as the following--

    "Mighty toil I've borne for years thirty,
    I have revived Persia by this _Pursi_."

These elegant effusions are of the "Non hominies, non Dî,
&c." description.

[7] That is to say, he has introduced the elegance and correctness of
the _Urdu_ language, or that of the Upper Provinces, into _Bengal_. In
fact, the _Bengalis_ who speak a wretched jargon of what they are
pleased to call _Hindustani_, (in addition to their native tongue,)
would scarcely be understood at _Agra_ or _Dilli_; and those two
cities are the best sites to acquire the real _Urdu_ in perfection;
there the inhabitants speak it not only correctly but elegantly.

[8] The Muhammadans believe that the body of their prophet cast
no shadow. _Mustafa_ means "The Chosen," "The Elected," one of
Muhammad's titles.

[9] As a general rule, all Muhammadan books begin with a few sentences
devoted to the praise of God and the eulogy of the prophet Muhammad;
to which some add a blessing on the twelve _Imams_.

[10] The twelve _Imams_ are the descendants of the prophet, by his
daughter _Fatima_, who was married to her cousin-german _'Ali,_ who is
considered as the first _Imam_; the other eleven were the following,
viz., _Hasan_, the son of _'Ali; Husain_, the son of _'Ali_; _'Ali_,
surnamed _Zainu-l-'Abidin,_ son of _Husain; Muhammad_, son of the
last mentioned; _Ja'far Sadik_, son of  _Muhammad; Musa-l-Kazim,_ son
of _Ja'far; 'Al-i Raza_, son of _Musa; Muhammad_, son of _'Ali Raza;
'Ali 'Askari_, son of _Muhammad; Hasan 'Askari_: and lastly _Muhammad
Mahdi_. With regard to this last and twelfth _Imam_, some say, very
erroneously, that he is yet to appear. Now the fact is, the twelfth
_Imam_ has appeared. He lived and died like the rest of the sainthood;
otherwise what would be the use of praying for him? The Muhammadans
offer up prayers for the dead, but I never heard of their praying
for the unborn.


[12] Much nonsense has been written about this _Fasli_ aera. We are
told that "it dates from the Christian year 592 3/4"! but the fact is
that it was established no further back than the reign of Akbar. It
was engrafted on the Hijri aera in the first year of that monarch's
reign, with this proviso, that the _Fasli_ years should thenceforth
go on increasing by _solar_ calculation, and not by lunar; hence,
every century the Hijri aera gains three years on the _Fasli_, and
in Mir Amman's time the difference had amounted to nearly eight years.

[13] A _ghat_ is a long flight of steps, of stone or brick, leading
to a river for the purpose of bathing, drawing water, embarking or
disembarking. It is a high object of ambition in India, among the
wealthier classes of natives, to construct these _ghats_, and this
species of useful ostentation has produced some magnificent structures
of the kind on the rivers _Ganges_, and _Jumna_, which are of great
public utility.

[14] The reader will do well in the first place to pass over this
very clumsy parenthesis in the original; and return to it after he
has finished the rest of the paragraph.

[15] The Honourable Company's European servants, civil, military,
and medical.

[16] A celebrated Persian poet of _Dilli_; his odes are very elegant,
and have great poetical genius; he was, as a Persian poet, inferior
to none: he is the original author of this "Tale of the Four Darwesh."

[17] The author seems to use _Dilli_ or _Dihli_ indifferently for
the northern metropolis of India, vulgarly called _Delhi_.

[18] _Zari Zar-bakhsh_ means the bestower of gold; _Nizamu-d-Din
Auliya_ was a famous holy personage of Upper India, and holds the
first rank in the list of the saints of _Hindustan_. His shrine is at
_Dilli_, and resorted to by thousands of devotees, and many tales are
told of his inspired wisdom, his superior beneficence, his contempt
of the good things of this world, and his uncommon philanthropy.

[19] The _Kos_ is a measure of distance nearly equal to two English
miles, but varying in different provinces.

[20] The _Muhammadans_, after being cured of sickness or wounds,
also their women, after recovery from child-bed, always bathe in
luke-warm water; which is called the ablution of cure.

[21] A mere novice in the language would say that _Mir Amman_ writes
"bad grammar" here! He uses the singular pronoun "_wuh_" instead of
"_we_." Now _Mir Amman_ distinctly tells us that he gives us the
language _as it is_. He did not make it--and, furthermore, nothing
is more common among _Hindustani_ writers than to use the singular
for the plural, and "vice versâ."--Vide Grammar, page 114.

[22] Mr. Ferdinand Smith adds the following note: "How proud the
slave seems of his chains!--but such is the nature of Asiatic minds,
under the baneful influence of Asiatic despotism." Now, this criticism
is absurd enough. Have not we in England the titles of "Ladies in
waiting," "Grooms," &c., innumerable, which honours are borne by our
nobility and gentry?

[23] The family of _Taimur_, or Tamerlane; a pageant of which royal
race still sits on the throne of _Dilli_, under the protection of
the British government. He is happier, and has more comforts of life,
than his family have had for the last century.

[24] Literally, "why explain that which is self evident" a Persian

[25] The founder of the _Jut_ principality; they were once very
powerful in _Upper-Hindustan. Ranjit Sing, Raja_ of _Bhartpur_ at the
commencement of the present century, who so gallantly defended that
place against our arms, was a son of _Suraj Mal_, who was killed while
reconnoitring the _Mughal_ army. The _Jats_ are the best agriculturists
in India, and good soldiers in self defence; for since the spirit
which _Suraj Mal_ infused, evaporated, they have always preferred
peace to war. They built some of the strongest places in India.

[26] _Ahmad Khan_, the _Durrani_ or _Afghan_, became king of _Kabul_
after the death of _Nadir Shah_. He was the father of _Taimur Shah_,
who kept _Upper Hindustan_ in alarm for many years with threats of
invasion. _Shuja'u-l-Mulk_, whom we seated on the throne of _Kabul_
some fifteen years ago, was descended from him.

[27] _'Azim-abid_ is the _Muhammadan_ name of _Patna_. On the
_Muhammadan_ conquest, many of the _Hindu_ names of cities were changed
for _Muhammadan_ names, such as _Jahangir-abad_ or _Jahangir-nagar_
for _Dacca, Akbar-abad_ for _Agra, Shahjahan-abad_ for _Dilli_, &c.

[28] Literally, "water and grain."

[29] Literally, "has existed during the four _jugas_," or fabulous
ages of the _Hindus_, i.e., since the creation of the world.

[30] The _Bhakha_, or _Bhasha_, par excellence, is the _Hindu_ dialect
spoken in the neighbourhood of _Agra, Mathura_, &c. in the _Braj_
district; it is a very soft language, and much admired in _Upper
Hindustan_, and is well adapted for light poetry. Dr. Gilchrist has
given some examples of it in his grammar of the _Hindustani_ language,
and numerous specimens of it are to be found in the _Prem Sagar_,
and other works published more recently.

[31] _Mahmud_, the first monarch of the dynasty of _Ghazni_, was the
son of the famous _Sabaktagin_. Ha invaded _Hindustan_ in A.H. 392,
or A.D. 1002. The dynasty was called _Ghaznawi_, from its capital
_Ghazna_, or as now commonly written _Ghazni_.

[32] Two dynasties of kings who reigned in _Upper Hindustan_ before
the race of _Taimur_.

[33] _Timur_, (or _Taimur_ as it is pronounced in India) invaded
_Hindustan_ A.D. 1398.

[34] The _bazar_, that part of a city where there are most shops;
but the word is applied to various parts of a city, where various
articles are sold, as the cloth _bazar_, the jewel _bazar_, &c.

[35] _Shahjahan_ was the most magnificent king of _Dilli_, of the race
of _Taimur, Sahib Kiran_ was one of his titles, and means, Prince of
the Happy Conjunction; i.e. the conjunction of two or more auspicious
planets in one of the signs of the Zodiac at the hour of birth. Such
was the case at the birth of _Taimur_, who was the first we read of as
_Sahib-Kiran_. As a contradistinction, _Shahjahan_ is generally called
_Sahib Kirani Sani_, or the second _Sahib Kiran_. It never waw applied,
as Ferdinand Smith states, to _all_ the emperors of _Dilli_. It may
be mentioned, that a very extraordinary conjunction of the planets
in the sign Libra took place in A.D. 1185, just about the period of
_Jangis Khan's_ appearance as a conqueror; but I am not aware that he
was thence called a _Sahib Kiran_, as he did not happen to be _born_
under the said conjunction.

[36] The fort, or rather fortified place, of _Dilli_, and the great
mosque, called the _Juma' Masjid_.

[37] The famous _Takhti Ta,us_, or peacock throne, made by the
magnificent _Shahjahan_, the richest throne in the world; it was
valued at seven millions sterling. Tavernier, the French jeweller
and traveller, saw it and describes it in his work. It was carried
away by _Nadir Shah_ when he plundered _Dilli_ in 1739.

[38] The expensive and useless canal which brought fresh water
to _Dilli_, whilst the limpid and salutary stream of the _Jumna_
flowed under its walls. The advantages of irrigation to the country,
through which it passed, were nothing compared to the expense of
its construction.

[39] Literally, "the supreme camp or market."

[40] A Persian expression.

[41] _Shah 'Alam_ the emperor of _Dilli_, was then towards _Patna_
a tool in the hands of _Shuja'u-d-Daula, the Nawwab_ of _Lakhnau,
and Kasim 'Ala Khan, the Nawwab_ of _Murshid-abad._

[42] Alluding to the confusion which reigned in _Upper Hindustan_
after the assassination of _'Alamgir_ the Second, and the flight
of _Shah 'Alam. Upper Hindustan_ was then in a sad plight, ravaged
alternately by the _Abdalis_, the _Marhattas_, and the _Jats_--the
king a pageant, the nobles rebellious, the subjects plundered and
oppressed, and the country open to every invader--though this was
near 100 years ago, and although they had some government, justice,
and security from 1782 to 1802, yet the country had not even then
recovered from the severe shock.

[43] The word is used in the singular, both by _Mir Amman_ and the
original author, _Amir  Khusru_ according to a well-known rule in
Persian syntax, viz., "a substantive accompanied by a numerical
adjective dispenses with the plural termination," as "_haft roz_,"
"seven days," not "_haft rozha_. The Persian term _darwesh_, in
a general sense, denotes a person who has adopted what by extreme
courtesy is called a religious life, closely akin to the "mendicant
friar" of the middle ages; i.e., a lazy, dirty, hypocrital vagabond,
living upon the credulous public. The corresponding term in Arabic
is _Fakir_; and in _Hindi_, _Jogi_.

[44] The word _Rum_ means that empire of which Constantinople is
the capital, and sometimes called, in modern times, Romania. It was
originally applied to the Eastern Roman Empire, and, at present,
it denotes Turkey in Europe and Asia.

[45] _Naushirwan_ was a king of Persia, who died in A.D. 578. He is
celebrated in oriental history for his wisdom and justice. During his
reign _Muhammad_ the prophet was born. The Persian writings are full
of anecdotes of _Naushirwan's_ justice and wisdom.

[46] _Hatim_ or rather _Hatim Tai_, is the name of an Arab chief,
who is  celebrated for his generosity and his mad adventures, in
an elegant Persian work called _Kissae Hatim Tai_. This work was
translated into English for the Asiatic Translation Fund in 1830.

[47] Called also _Kustuntuniya_ by the Persians, and _Istambol_,
also _Islambol_, by the Turks.

[48] The _shabi barat_ is a Mahometan festival which happens on the
full moon of the month of _Sha'ban_; illuminations are made at night,
and fire-works displayed; prayers are said for the repose of the dead,
and offerings of sweetmeats and viands made to their manes. A luminous
night-scene is therefore compared to the _shabi barat_.

[49] I warrant you there were no "tickets of leave" granted in those
blessed days.

[50] This means an impertinent, or rather a _chaffing_, question,
like our own classic interrogation, "Does your mother know you'ra out?"

[51] It is incumbent on every good _Musalman_ to pray five times in
the  twenty-four hours. The stated periods are rather capriciously
settled:--1st.  The morning prayer is to be repeated between daybreak
and sunrise; 2nd. The prayer of noon, when the sun shows a sensible
declination from the meridian; 3rd. The afternoon prayer, when the sun
is near the horizon that the shadow of a perpendicular object is twice
it's length;  4th. The evening prayer, between sunset and close of
twilight; 5th. The prayer of night, any time during the darkness. The
inhabitants of Iceland  and Greenland would find themselves sadly
embarrassed in complying with these pious precepts, bequeathed by
_Muhammad_ to the _true believers_, as they call themselves.

[52] The Asiatics consider _male_ children as the light or splendour
of their house. In the original there is a play upon the word "_diya_"
which, as a substantive signifies "a lamp;" and as a verbal participle
it denotes "given," or "bestowed."

[53] The literal meaning is--"There is no one as the bearer of his
name, and the giver of water."

[54] The Mirror Saloon, called by the Persians, and from them by the
_Hindustanis, Shish Mahall_, is a grand apartment in all oriental
palaces, the walls of which are generally inlaid with small mirrors,
and their borders richly gilded. Those of _Dilli_ and _Agra_ are the
finest in _Hinduistan_.

[55] "The messenger was the white hair in his majesty's whiskers.

[56] Called in the original, _Pain Bagh_. Most royal Asiatic gardens
have a _Pain Bagh_ or lower terrace adorned with flowers, to which
princes descend when they wish to relax with their courtiers.

[57] The _Diwani' Amm_, or Public Hall of Audience in eastern palaces,
is a grand saloon where Asiatic princes hold a more promiscuous court
than in the _Diwani Khass_, or the Private Hall of Audience.

[58] The _Musalla_, is generally in Persia a small carpet, but
frequently a fine mat in _Hindustan_, which is spread for the
performance of prayer. The devotee kneels and prostrates himself
upon it in his act of devotion. It is superfluous to remark that the
_Muhammadans_ pray with their face turned towards _Mecca_, as far as
they can guess its direction. Jerusalem was the original point, but
the prophet, (it is said,) in a fit of anger, changed it to _Mecca_.

[59] _Khiradmand_ means wise; as a man's name it corresponds to our
"Mr. Wiseman," or as the French have it "Monsieur le Sage." It does
not  necessarily follow, however, that every Mr. Wiseman is a sage.

[60] The _Diwani Khass_, or Private Hall of Audience, is a grand
saloon, where only the king's privy councillors or select officers
of state are admitted  to an audience.

[61] As Asiatic princes in general pass the most part of their time
in the _haram_ or in seclusion, eunuchs are the usual carriers of
messages, &c.

[62] The posture of respect, as to stand motionless like a statue,
the eyes  fixed on the ground, and the arms crossed over the waist.

[63] Literally, "rings or circles had formed round his eyes, and
his visage had turned yellow." The term "yellow" is used among the
dark-complexioned people of the East in the same sense as our word
"pale," or the Latin "pallidus," to indicate fear, grief, &c.

[64] The Asiatics reckon the animal species at 18,000; a number which
even the fertile genius of Buffon has not attained. Yet the probability
is, that the orientals arc nearer the true mark; and the wonder is,
how they acquired such correct ideas on the subject.

[65] There is a well-known Eastern saying, that, "On the part of a
king, one hour's administration of justice will be of more avail to
him on the day of judgment than twenty years of prayer."

[66] Literally, "_Fakirs_ and _Jogis_;" either term denotes "hermit"
the former being applied to a _Musalman_, the latter to a _Hindu_.

[67] In India, the day was formerly divided into four equal portions,
called _pahars_ or watches, of which the second terminated at noon;
hence, _do-pahar-din_, mid-day. In like manner was the night divided;
hence, _do-pahar-rat_, midnight. The first _pahar_ of the day began at
sunrise, and of the night at sunset; and since the time from sunrise
to noon made exactly two _pahars_, it follows that in the north
of India the _pahar_ must have varied from three and a-half hours
about the summer solstice, to two and a-half in winter, the _pahars_
of the night varying inversely. A shallow commentator has said that
"the _pahar_ or watch is three hours, and that the day commences at
six a.m.," which is altogether incorrect.

[68] The _Naubat-khana_, or the royal orchestra, is, in general,
a large room over the outer gate of the palace for the martial music.

[69] _Nazars_, presents made to kings, governors, and masters, &c.,
on joyful occasions, and on public festivals, generally in silver
and gold.

[70] Literally, "when two _pahars_ had elapsed."--V. note on _pahar_,

[71] "On them," i.e., for the souls of the dead.

[72] A celebrated _Hindu_ poet of Upper _Hindustan_; his poetry is
of a sombre hue, but natural and sympathetic; the simile here is,
that no creature has yet survived the pressure of the heavens and the
earth; the heavens, being in motion, representing the upper millstone,
and the earth (supposed to be at rest), the lower millstone.

[73] A figurative expression, denoting, "I may yet have a son and

[74] _Fakirs_ are holy mendicants, who devote themselves to the
expected joys of the next world, and abstract themselves from those
of this silly transitory scene; they are generally fanatics and
enthusiasts--sometimes mad, and often hypocrites. They are much
venerated by the superstitious Asiatics, and are allowed uncommon
privileges, which they naturally often abuse.

[75] The _kafni_ is a kind of short shirt without sleeves, of the
colour of brick dust, which _Fakirs_ wear.

[76] Literally, "paintings on a wall."

[77] The _fanus_ is a large glass shade open at the top, placed over
a lamp or candle as a protection from wind, or bats, &c., when the
windows are all open, as is generally the case in hot weather.

[78] The _Dev_ is a malignant spirit, one of the class called _jinn_
by the Arabs, vide Lane's "Arabian Nights," vol. i. p. 30. The _jinn_
or genii, however, occasionally behave very handsomely towards the
human race, more especially towards those of the _Muhammadan_ faith.

[79] The _Ghul_ is a foul and intensely wicked spirit, of an order
inferior to the _jinn_. It is said to appear in the form of any living
animal it chooses, as well as in any other monstrous and terrific
shape. It haunts desert places, especially burying grounds, and is
said to feed on dead human bodies.

[80] This is a general exclamation when Asiatics sneeze, and with them,
as with the ancients, it is an ominous sign.

[81] _Kalandars_ are a more fanatic set of _Fakirs_.  Their vow is to
desert wife, children, and all worldly connexions and human sympathies,
and to  wander about with shaven heads.

[82] The introduction of the _hukka_ is an improvement of _Mir
Amman's_; as that luxury was unknown in Europe and Asia at the time
of _Amir Khusru_.

[83] The term _Azad_, "free, or independent," is applied to a class
of Darweshes  who shave the beard, eyelashes and eyebrows. They vow
chastity and a holy life, but consider themselves exempt from all
ceremonial observances of the _Muhammadan_ religion.

[84] Literally, "is an immense mountain."

[85] The phrase _do zanu ho baithna_ denotes a mode of sitting
peculiar, more especially, to the Persians. It consists in kneeling
down and sitting back on one's heels, a posture the very reverse of
_easy_, at least, so it appears to us good Christians, accustomed to
the use of chairs &c.

[86] Arabia Felix, the south-west province of the peninsula.

[87] _Maliku-t-Tujjar_ means the chief of merchants; it is a Persian
or Arab title. The first title the East India Company received from
the court of _Dilli_ was _'Umdatu-t-Tujjar_, or the noble merchants.
_Haji Khalil_, the ambassador from Persia to the Bengal government, who
was killed at Bombay, was _Maliku-t-Tujjar_; and after him _Muhammad
Nabi Khan_, who likewise was ambassador from the Persian court,
and came to Bengal; he has since experienced the sad uncertainty
of Asiatic despotism; being despoiled of his property, blinded,
and turned into the streets of _Shiraz_ to beg.

[88] The peculiar dress worn by _fakirs_. V. "_Qanooni Islam"_

[89] The _seli_, or _saili_, is a necklace of thread worn as a badge
of distinction by a certain class of _fakirs_.

[90] The fortieth day is an important period in _Muhammadan_ rites;
it is the great day of rejoicing after birth, and of mourning after
death. To dignify this number still more, sick and wounded persons are
supposed, by  oriental novelists, to recover and perform the ablution
of cure on the fortieth day. The number "forty" figures much in the
Sacred Scriptures,     for example, "The flood was forty days upon
the earth." The Israelites forty years in the wilderness, &c., &c.

[91] The _Fatiha_ is the opening chapter of the _Kur,an_, which,
being much read and repeated, denotes a short prayer or benediction
in general.

[92] This is the general mode of investiture in _Hindustan_ to offices,
places,  &c.; to which a _khil'at_, or honorary dress, is added.

[93] That part of a dwelling where male company are received.

[94] _Farrashes_ are servants whose duty it is to spread carpets,
sweep them and the walls; place the _masnads_, and hang up the _pardas_
and _chicks_, pitch tents, &c.

[95] _Pardas_ are quilted curtains, which hang before doors, &c.

[96] _Chicks_ are curtains, or hanging screens, made of fine slips
of _bamboos_, and painted and hung up before doors and windows, to
prevent the persons inside from being seen, and to keep out insects;
but they do not exclude the air, or the light from without. If there
is no light in a room, a person may sit close to the _chick_, and not
be seen by one who is without.--However, no description can convey
an adequate idea of _pardas_ and _chicks_ to the mere European.

[97] I hope the reader will pardon me for the use of this old-fashioned
Scottish expression which conveys the exact meaning of the original,
viz., "_muft par khane-pine-wale"_, i.e, "gentlemen who eat and drink
at another's cost." The English terms, "parasites," or "diners out,"
do not fully express the meaning, though very near it.

[98] Literally, "quaff the wine of the _Ketaki_, and pluck the flower
of the rose." The _Ketaki_, a highly odoriferous flower, was used in
giving fragrance to the wine.

[99] A Persian proverb, like our own "Lightly come, lightly go."

[100] A personage famed for his wealth, like the Croesus of the Greeks.

[101] The reader will observe, in the original, that the terms
_rah-bat_, a "highway," and  _bhent-mulakat_, "a meeting," consist
each of two nouns denoting precisely the same thing, only one of them
is of _Musalman_ usage, and the other _Hindu_. Such expressions are
very common in the language.

[102] Literally, "black _takas_," or copper coins, in opposition to
"white" or silver; an expression similar to what we, in the vernacular
call "browns."

[103] _Sharbat_ is a well-known oriental beverage, made in general
with vegetable acids, sugar and water; sometimes of sugar and rose
water only; to which ingredients some good _Musalmans_, on the sly,
add a _leettle_ rum or brandy.

[104] _Pulao_, (properly "_pilav_," as pronounced by the Persians and
Turks,) is a common dish in the East. It consists of boiled rice well
dried and mixed with eggs, cloves and other spices, heaped up on a
plate, and inside of this savoury heap is buried a well-roasted fowl,
or pieces of tender meat, such as mutton, &c.; in short, any good
meat that may be procurable.

[105] _Kabab_ is meat roasted or fried with spices; sometimes in
small pieces, sometimes minced, sometimes on skewers, but never in
joints as with us, though they make _kababs_ of a whole lamb or kid.

[106] The _tora_ is a bag containing a thousand pieces (gold or
silver). It is used in a collective sense, like the term _kisa_, or
"purse," among the Persians and Turks; only the _kisa_ consists of
five hundred dollars, a sum very nearly equal to 1000 _rupis_.

[107] The word in the original is _Damishk_, an Indian corruption
of the Arabic _Dimashk_, which latter mode of pronunciation I have
followed in my printed edition.

[108] The grand street where all the large shops are. In oriental
towns of considerable size, there is generally a distinct _bazar_
for each species of goods, such as "the cloth _bazar_," "the jewellery
_bazar_," &c.

[109] The merchant would have rather a puzzling voyage of it, if he
went by sea from Yaman to Damascus.

[110] The sacred rupee, or piece of silver, is a coin which is
dedicated to the _Imam Zamin,_ or "the guardian _Imam_, (a personage
nearly allied to the guardian saint of a good Catholic), to avert evils
from those who wear them tied on the arm, or suspended from the neck.

[111] To mark the forehead with _tika_, or curdled milk, is a
superstitious ceremony in _Hindustan_, as a propitious omen, on
beginning a voyage or journey. It is probable that the _Musulmans_ of
India borrowed this ceremony, among several others, from the _Hindus_.

[112] Literally, "when half the night was on this side, and half
on that."

[113] The _dopatta_ is a large piece of cloth worn by women, which
covers the head and goes round the body; the act of drawing her
_dopatta_ over her face is mentioned as a proof of her modesty. Men
likewise wear the _dopatta_  flung over the shoulders, or wrapped
round the waist. It is often of gauze and muslin.

[114] This is _Mir Amman's_ plain expression. Ferdinand Smith's
translation savours somewhat of the Hibernian, viz., "She still loves
him who has murdered her."

[115] "The _ghari_ is the 60th part of 24 hours, or 24 of our
minutes. It may be observed that the _ghari_ was a fixed quantity,
not subject to variation, like the _pahar_, which last, in the north
of India, was made to vary from seven to nine _gharies_, according to
the season of the year, or as it referred to the day or night in the
same season. Since the introduction of European watches and clocks,
the term _ghari_ is applied to the Christian hour of sixty minutes.

[116] Literally, "became such a mountain."

[117] _'Isa_ is the name of Jesus among the _Muhammadans_; who all
believe, (from the New Testament, transfused into the _Kuran_,)
in the resurrection of Lazarus, and the numerous cures wrought
by our Saviour. This, perhaps, induced _Mir Amman_ to call the
wonder-performing barber and surgeon _'Isa_.

[118] The Arabic expression is _salam 'alaikum_ or _'alaika_,
i.e. "Peace be on you" or "on thee." This mode of greeting is used
only towards _Musulmans_; and when it has passed between them, it is
understood to be a pledge of friendly confidence and sincere good will.

[119] The _nim_ is a large and common tree in India, the leaves of
which are very bitter, and used as a decoction to reduce contusions
and inflammations; also to cleanse wounds.

[120] The spirit drawn from the leaves of an aromatic tree which
grows in _Kashmir_, called _Bed-Mushk_; it is a tonic and exhilarating.

[121] A humble deportment when addressing superiors in India; and
through complaisance, used sometimes to equals.

[122] An act of ceremony ever observed amongst the well-bred in India,
when a visitor takes leave. _'Itr_ is the essence of any flower,
more especially of the rose (by us corruptly called "otto of roses");
and _betel_ is a preparation of the aromatic leaf so generally used
in the East, more especially in India. The moment they are introduced,
it is a hint to the visitor to take leave.

[123] The _khil'at_ is a dress of honour, in general a rich one,
presented by superiors to inferiors. In the zenith of the _Mughal_
empire these _khil'ats_ were expensive honours, as the receivers
were obliged to make rich presents to the emperor for the _khil'ats_
they received. The _khil'at_ is not necessarily restricted to a rich
dress; sometimes, a fine horse, or splendid armour, &c., may form an
item of it.

[124] The word _pari_, "a fairy," is frequently used figuratively to
denote a beautiful woman.

[125] _Masnad_ means literally a sort of counterpane, made of silk,
cloth, or brocade, which is spread on the carpet, where the master of
the house sits and receives company; it has a large pillow behind to
lean the back against, and generally two small ones on each side. It
also, metaphorically, implies the seat on which kings, _nawwabs_, and
governors sit the day they are invested with their royalty, &c. So
that to say that _Shah-'Alam_ sat on the _masnad_ on such a day,
means that he was on that day invested with royalty.

[126] Asiatics divide the world into seven climes; so to reign over
the seven climes means, metaphorically, to reign over the whole world;
king of the seven climes was one of the titles of the Mogul emperors.

[127] Literally, "it was not in the power of eyesight to dwell upon
her splendour."

[128] A Persian proverb, somewhat illustrative of a story told of a
West India "nigger," whom his master used to over-flog. "Ah, massa,"
said Sambo, "poor man dare not vex--him damned sorry though."

[129] The _Kalam-dan,_ literally "the pen-holder," means here the
small tray containing pens, inkstand, a knife, &c.

[130] _Tirpauliya_ means three arched gates; there are many such
which divide grand streets in Indian cities, and may be compared to
our Temple Bar in London, only much more splendid.

[131] Ethiopian, or Abyssinian slaves, are commonly called
_Sidis_. They are held in great repute for honesty and attachment.

[132] The _chauk_ is in general a large square in Asiatic cities, where
are situated the richest shops; it is sometimes a large wide street.

[133] In the original there is a play on the word _'alam_ which
signifies "beauty," "the world," also "a multitude of people," or
what the French call "tout le monde."

[134] Literally, "the observance of the [form of greeting] "_sahib
salamat_," or "_salam 'alaika_," by which he had been at first accosted
by his customer.--Vide note on this subject, page 41.

[135] The verb _uthna_ like the Persian  _bar-khastan_ is used
idiomatically in the sense of "to go away," to "vanish."

[136] Literally, "your command is on my head and eyes," a phrase
imitated from the Persian "_ba sar o chashm_."

[137] The phrase "_rah dekhna_," literally to look at the road,"
(by which a person is expected to come;) hence, very naturally and
idiomatically it signifies "to be anxiously waiting for one." Again,
_rah dikhana_ is the causal form, signifying "to make one wait," of
"keep one waiting."

[138] The word _janwar_ means "an animal," in general; but it is
frequently used in the more restricted sense of "a bird".

[139] The "evil eye" is a supersitious motion entertained by the
ignorant in _all_ countries even until this day.  The Asiatics
suppose that uncommon qualities of beauty, fortune or health, raise
an ominous admiration admiration, which injures the possessor. To tell
parents that their children are stout and healthy, is a _mal-à-propos_
compliment; also to congratulate women on their healthy appearance is
often unwelcome; the same ridiculous and supersitious accompany all
admiration of beauty, fortune, &c. For this reason the visitor, in this
case, do not compliment his host on the beauty of his person or the
splendour of his dress; but instead make use of the above exclamation.

[140] A celebrated musical performer in upper _Hindustan_, and
considered as the first in his art. He lived in the reign of _Akbar_,
somo 300 years ago.

[141] A celebrated singer in upper _Hindustan_, who lived about
600 years ago. _Tan-Sen_ and _Ba,ora_ are still held in the highest
reverence by singers and musical performers. In the original, there
is a play on the words to _tan_ and _ba,ora_ which scarcely needs to
be pointed out.

[142] The original is, "_jis Ki itni ta'rif aur ishtiyak zahir kiya_,"
where the word _kiya_ agrees with _ishtiyak_ only, being the noun
nearest. A shallow critic would be apt to say that this is bad grammar.

[143] "_La haul parhna_," to repeat or recite the "_La haul_," or more
fully, "_La haul wa la kuwwat illa b-Illahi;_" meaning, "there is no
power nor strength but in God." An exclamation used by _Musalmans_
in cases of sudden surprise, misfortune, &c.

[144] The insignia of state among the grandees of India.

[145] The _gulab-pash_ is a silver or gold utensil, like a French
bottle, to sprinkle rose water on the company; the _'itr-dan_ one
to hold essences, and _pik-duns_ are of brass or silver to spit in,
called by the French _crachoirs_.

[146] The _abdar-khana_ a room appropriated to the cooling of water
in ice  or saltpetre, by the servant called the _abdar_.

[147] Small leaden mugs with covers for the congelation of ice.

[148] To cool the water which they contain; they are made of pewter.

[149] The _masnad_ and its large back pillow are criterions of Asiatic
etiquette. To an inferior or dependant, the master of the house
gives the corner of the _masnad_ to sit on; to an equal or intimate
friend, he gives part of the large pillow to lean on; to a superior,
he abandons the whole pillow, and betakes himself to the corner of
the _masnad_.

[150] A kind of _palki_ or sedan, for the conveyance of the women of
people of rank in India.

[151] A sign of afflicting surprise.

[152] _Majnun_, a lover famed in eastern romance, who long pined
in unprofitable love for _Laili_, an ugly hard-hearted mistress. The
loves of _Yusuf_  and _Zulaikh@a, Khusru_ and _Shirin_, also of _Laili_
and _Majnun_, are the fertile themes of Persian romance.

[153] The _Muhammadans_ reckon their day from sunset.

[154] By sitting and drinking with the young merchant, when he ought
to wait on his guests, and attend to their entertainment.

[155] A figurative and highly poetic expression as old as Homer. In
this instance it is said to signify that the sun had been two _gharis_
above the horizon.

[156] Literally, "a friendship of two days," where the number two is
employed indefinitely to denote "few."

[157] The month of _Ramazan_ consisting of thirty days, is the Lent
of the _Muhammadans_. During tgat whole period, a good _Musalman_ or
"true believer," is not allowed either to eat, or drink, or smoke from
sunrise to sunset. This naturally explains the anxiety they must feel
for the arrival of evening; more especially in high latitudes, should
the _Ramazan_ happen in the middle of summer. As a mere religions
observance this same fast, enjoined by _Muhammad_, is the most absurd,
the most demoralizing, and the most hurtful to health that ever was
invented by priestcraft. The people are forced to starve themselves
during the whole day, and consequently they overeat themselves during
the whole night, when they ought to be asleep in their beds, as nature
intended. Hence they fall by thousands an easy prey to cholera,
as happened in Turkey a few years ago.  The fast of Lent among tho
followers of the Pope of Rome is, though in a less degree, liable to
the same censure.  Why, instead of these unwholesome observances, do
not the priests, whether of Mecca or of Rome, preach unto the people
temperance and regularity of living? Ah, I forgot, the priests both of
Mecca and of Rome can always grant _dispensations_ and _indulgences_
to such good people as can adduce _weighty_ reasons to that effect.

[158] As frogs live in wet, they are not supposed to be extremely
subject to catch cold; the simile is introduced to ridicule the
extravagant idea of a merchant's son presuming to be in love with a
princess. The simile is a  proverb.

[159] Washermen in India, in general, wash their linen at the _ghats_,
and their dogs of course wander thither from home after them, and
back again. This is one of their proverbs, and answers to ours of
"Kicked from piller to post."

[160] The _Khutba_ is a brief oration delivered after divine service
every Friday (the _Musalman_ Sabbath,) in which the officiating priest
blesses _Muhammad_, his successors, and the reigning sovereign.

[161] A kind of sedan chair, or _palki_.

[162] The _Khabar-dars_ are a species of spies stationed in various
parts of oriental kingdoms in order to forward intelligence to head

[163] A mode of humble address, when the inferior presumes to state
something contrary to what the superior maintains or desires; and
as human life in India was, in olden times, not only precarious,
but considered as insignificant, the oriental slave acts prudently
by begging his life before he presumes to be candid.

[164] Literally, "He who is the changer of hearts."

[165] Here the first _Darwesh_ addresses himself directly to the
other three, who were his patient listeners.

[166] The _jama_ is an Asiatic dress, something like a modern female
gown, only much more full in the skirts. It is made of white cloth
or muslin.

[167] A superstitious custom in India; it implies that the person who
goes round, sacrifices his life at the shrine of the love, prosperity
and health of the beloved object.

[168] The _kazi_ is the judge and magistrate in Asiatic cities; he
performs the rites of marriage, settles disputes, and decides civil
and criminal causes. As the _Muhammadan_ laws are derived from their
religious code, the _Kuran_, the _kazi_ possesses both secular and
ecclesiastical powers.

[169] All good _Musalmans_ bathe after performing the rites of Venus,
hence the purport of the princess's _simple question_ is obvious

[170] Called _warku-l-khiyal_; it is made from the leaves of the
_charas_, a species of hemp; it is a common inebriating beverage in
India; the different preparations of it is called _ganja, bhang_, &c.

[171] Literally a "weighty _khil'at_," owing to the quantity of
embroidery on it. The perfection of these oriental dresses is, to be
so stiff as to stand on the floor unsupported.

[172] The _paisa_ is the current copper coin of India; it is the
64th part of a rupee, and is in value as nearly as possible 3/4 of
our halfpenny, or a farthing and a-half.

[173] The word _kafir_ denotes literally, "infidel," or "heathen." It
is here used as a term of endearment, just as we sometimes use the word
"wicked  rogue."

[174] Literally, "_lakhs_ of rupees." In India money accounts are
reckoned by hundreds, thousands, _lakhs_ and _crores_, instead of
hundreds, thousands, and millions, as with us. A hundred thousands
make a _lakh_, and a hundred _lakhs_, a _crore_. As the Indian
mode of reckoning, though simple enough, is apt to perplex the
beginner, let us take for example the number 123456789, which we
thus point off,--123,456,789; but in India it would be pointed as
follows:--12,34,56,789, and read 12 _crores_, 34 _lakhs_, fifty-six
thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine.

[175] The _muwazzin_ is a public crier, who ascends the turret or
minaret of a mosque and calls out to the inhabitants the five periods
of prayers; more especially the morning, noon and evening prayers.

[176] This is a proverb, founded on a short story, viz.: "A certain
Arab lost his camel; he vowed, if he found it, to sell it for a dinar,
merely as a charitable deed. The camel was found, and the Arab sorely
repented him of his vow. He then tied a cat on the camel's neck, and
went through the city of _Baghdad,_ exclaiming, 'O, true believers,
here is a camel to be sold for a _dinar_, and a cat for a thousand
_dinars_; but they cannot be sold the one without the other.'"

[177] _Taks_ are small recesses in the walls of apartments in Asia,
for holding flower-pots, phials of wine, fruits, &c.

[178] In the original it is a proverb, "When evil comes, the dog will
bite even the man that is mounted on a camel," said of a person who
is extremely unfortunate.

[179] The term _barah-dari_ is applied either to a temporary pavilion,
or a permanent summer-house; it is so called from the circumstance
of its having "twelve doors," in honour of the twelve _Imams_.--Vide
note, page 4.

[180] The various kinds of fire-works here enumerated admit not of
translation.--Vide vocabulary.

[181] A proverb meaning that people or things are well matched; as
the soul, at the hour of death, is committed to the charge of good
or evil angels, according to its dessert.

[182] A proverb applied to those who act in a manner utterly at
variance with their condition.

[183] The _patka_ is a long and narrow piece of cloth or silk,
which is wrapped round the waist; among the rich a _shawl_ is the
general _patka_. The act of throwing one's _patka_ round the neck
and prostrating one's self at another's feet, is a most abject mark
of submission.

[184] Literally, "a collar or yoke, round my neck."

[185] The _Mughal_ princes in the days of their splendour had guards
of _Kalmuc_,  or _Kilmak_, women for their seraglios; they were chosen
for their size and courage, and were armed; other Tartar women were
likewise taken, but they all went by the general name of _Kilmakini_.

[186] Here the first _Darwesh_ resumes his address to his three

[187] In a note to my edition of Mr. F. Smith's translation of the
_Baghobahar_, 1851, I inserted the following "petition." "May I request
some friend in India, for auld lang syne, to ask any intelligent
_munshi_ the exact meaning of _panchon hathiyar bandhna_, showing him
at the same time the original where the expression occurs." To this
request I received, a few months ago, a very kind and satisfactory
reply from Lieut. J.C. Bayley, 36th Regt., M.N.I., which I have the
pleasure here to insert; and at the same time, I beg to return my
best thanks to that gentleman. "The _five weapons_ are, 1st, the
_talwar_ or sword; 2nd, the _pesh-kabz_ or dagger; 3rd, the _tabar_
or battle-axe; 4th, the _barchhi_ or lance; 5th, the _tir o kaman_
or the bow and arrows. The phrase, _panchon hathiyar bandhna_ is very
nearly equivalent to our expression, 'to be armed cap à pié.'" I
may add to Lieut. B.'s obliging account that in more recent times,
the "bow and arrows" are very naturally superseded by "a pair of
pistols." Still the meaning of the phrase is the same in either case.

[188] The word _chikmak_ or _chikmak_, is wrongly called "a flint"
in the dictionaries. It merely denotes the piece of steel used in
striking a fire. The flint is called _chikmak ka pathar_.

[189] Literally, "at the seeing of which the liver would be turned
into water."

[190] The _pipal_ or "ficus religiosa," is a large tree venerated by
the _Hindus_; it affords a most agreeable shade, as its leaves are
large, in the shape of a heart. Many writers confound it with the
"_ficus Indicus_" or "_baniyan_ tree," or rather, they devise an
imaginary tree compounded of the two species, investing it with the
heart-shaped leaves of the former, and the dropping and multiplying
stems of the latter.

[191] Respecting the ceremony called the _tasadduk_, vide note 3,
p. 66.

[192] Literally, "much dust did I sift the dust."

[193] _Murtaza 'Ali_, the son-in-law of the prophet; one of his
surnames is _Mushkil-kusha,_ or " the remover of difficulties." The
_Saiyids_, who pretend to be descended from _'Ali_, wear green dresses,
which is a sacred colour among the _Muhammadans_.

[194] The phrase _char-zanu ho-baithna_, signifies "to sit down with
the legs crossed in front as our tailors do when at work." It is the
ordnary mode of sitting among the Turks.

[195] The _dalk_, or _dilk_, is a garment made of patches and shreds
worn by _darweshes_; the epithet _dolk-posh_, "a _dalk_ wearer,"
denotes a "darwesh," or "mendicant."

[196] _Ispahan_ was once a fine city. In the time of the Chevalier
Chardin, nearly two centuries ago, it was pronounced by that traveller
to be the largest in the world. It is now about the size of Brighton;
yet a few weeks ago, we saw in the "Illustrated London News," an
account of it by a _Frenchman_ (a fire-side traveller), who declares
it to be, still, "the largest city in the world!"

[197] The _Muhammadans_ divide the world into seven climes, and
suppose that a constellation presides over the destiny of each clime.

[198] The Arabic phrase _lantarani_, a corruption of _la-an-tarani_,
literally signifies "egad, if you saw me [do so and so];" hence
_lantarani-wala_ is equivalent to our terms, "an egregious egotist,"
or "great boaster."

[199] A novice in the language would say, "Here a distinction seems to
be drawn between the words _zaban_ and _jibh_. Both signify 'tongue,'
but the former applies to men and the latter to animals." To this
profound bit of criticism I should reply--Not so fast, Mr. Novice; a
distinction there is, but that is not it. The word _zaban_ in Persian
and _Hindustani_ means both the fleshy member of the body, called the
tongue, and also language or speech, just like our word "tongue," which
has both significations. In the former sense it applies alike to man
and beast; in the latter it is mere truism to say that it applies to
man only. _Jibh_, in _Hindi_ and _Hindustani_, means the tongue only
in the sense of the member of the body, never in the sense of speech;
hence it is equally applicable to man or brute. Ask any physician
who has practised in India the _Hindustani_ for "show the tongue,"
he will tell you _jibh dikla,o_, or _zaban dikla,o_; and if he was a
man of discernment, he would use _jibh_ with a _Hindu_, and _zaban_
with a _Musalman_; but I believe he would be perfectly understood,
whichever word he used to either party.

[200] The case is _Hatim's_ philanthropy in respect to the old woodman,
which on the part of any other than _Hatim_ might seem super-human.

[201] It is related by grave historians, that _Hatim_ actually built
an alms-house of this description. On _Hatim_'s death, his younger
brother, who succeeded him, endeavoured to act the generous in the
above manner. His mother dissuaded him, saying, "Think not, my son,
of imitating _Hatim_: it is an effort thou canst not accomplish;"
and in order to prove what she said, the mother assumed the garb of
a _fakir_, and acted as above related. When she came to the first
door the second time, and received her son's lecture on the sin of
avarice; she suddenly threw off her disguise, and said, "I told thee,
my son, not to think of imitating _Hatim_. By _him_ I have been served
three times running, in this very manner, without ever a question
being asked."

[202] This and the following _jeu de mots_ cannot be easily explained
to a person who does not understand a little Arabic or Persian.

[203] The original is, "as yet _Dilli_ is a long way off," a proverb
like that of the Campbells--"It is a far cry to Loch Awe."

[204] The expression in the original is so _plain_ as to need no

[205] Some would-be knowing critics inform us that "_Dastar-khwan_"
literally signifies the "turband of the table"!!! How they manage
to make such a meaning out of it is beyond ordinary research;
and when done, it makes nonsense. They forget that the Orientals
never made use of tables in the good old times. The _dastar-khwan_
is, in reality, both table and table-cloth in one. It is a round
piece of cloth or leather spread out on the floor. The food is then
arranged thereon, and the company squat round the edge of it, and,
after saying _Bism-Illah_, fall to, with what appetite they may;
hence the phrase _dastar-khwan par baithna_, to sit on, (not _at_,)
the table. The wise critics seem to be thinking of our modern mahogany,
which is a very different affair.

[206] In the original, an infinite variety of dishes is enumerated,
which are necessarily passed over in the translation, simply, because
we have no corresponding terms to express them in any Christian
tongue. They would puzzle the immortal Ude himself, or the no less
celebrated Soyer, the present autocrat of the culinary kingdom. But
my chief reason for passing them over so lightly is the following,
viz.: I have fully ascertained from officers home on furlough,
that these passages are never read in India, nor is the student
ever examined in them. They can interest only such little minds as
are of the most contemptibly frivolous description. A man may be a
first-rate English or French scholar, yea, an accomplished statesman,
without being conversant with the infinite variety of dishes, &c.,
set down on the _carte_ of a first-rate Parisian restaurateur.

[207] The Asiatics eat with the right hand, and use no knives or forks;
so to draw back the hand from eating is to leave off eating. Of course,
spoons are used for broths, &c, which cannot be eaten by the hand.

[208] As it were intended to be stored up and not eaten.

[209] This exceedingly plain expression is, so far from seeming gross
or indelicate, considered as a very high compliment among Orientals.

[210] Literally, "recite the _la haul_," &c, vide note 2, p. 5.

[211] _Jogis_ are _Hindu_ ascetics, or fanatics; some of them let
the nails grow
through the palm of their hands by keeping their fists shut, &c.

[212] The _maunis_ are _Hindu_ ascetics who vow everlasting silence.

[213] The _sevras_ are mendicants of the _Jain_ sects.

[214] _Majnun_ is a mad lover of eastern romance, who pined in vain
for the cruel _Laili_. _Farhad_ is equally celebrated as an unhappy
_amant_ who perished for _Shirin_.

[215] The word _salam_, "salutation," is used idiomatically in the
sense of our terms "compliments" or "respects," &c. And in that sense
it has now become, in India, adopted into the English language.

[216] The marriage portion here alluded to is not to be taken in the
vague sense we attach to the term. The word _mahar_ denotes a present
made to, or a portion settled on, the wife at or before marriage.

[217] _Nimroz_ is that part of Persia which comprehends the provinces
of _Sijistan_ and _Mikran_, towards the south-east.

[218] The _man_, commonly called "maund," a measure of weight, about
eighty pounds avoirdupois.

[219] It is needless here to enumerate the stores of various articles
detailed in the original, as they will all be found in the vocabulary.

[220] Literally, "her own leavings." In the East it considered a very
high compliment on the part of a person of rank to present his guest
with the remnants of his own dish.

[221] Literally, "night of power or grandeur," would in that place
be "without grandeur." The _shabi kadr_, or as the Arabs have it,
_lailatu-l-kadri_, is a sacred festival held on the 27th of _Ramazan_,
being, according to the _Musalmans_, the night on which the _Kur,an_
was sent down from heaven.

[222] Meaning that, under present circumstances, her commands were
altogether out of place.

[223] It is incumbent on good Mussulmans to wash the hands and face
before prayers. Where water is not to be had, this ceremony, called
_tayammum_  is performed by using sand instead.

[224] _Lukman_ is supposed to be the Greek slave Æsop, the author
of the Fables. _Bu 'Ali Sina_ is the famous Arab physician and
philosopher, by mediæval writers erroneously called Avicenna.

[225] _Khizr_ or _Khwaja Khizr_ is the name of a saint or prophet,
of great notoriety among the _Muhammadans_. The legends respecting
his origin and life are as numerous as they are absurd and
contradictory. Some say he was grand _Vizir_ to Solomon, others to
Alexander the Great. They all agree, however, that he discovered the
water of immortality, and that in consequence of having drunk thereof,
he still lives and wanders about  on the earth.

[226] _Kasra_ is the title of the King of Persia, hence the Greek forms
Cyrus and Chosroes, and most probably the more modern forms Caesar,
Kaisar, and Czar.  The form _Kisra_ used in the text is generally
applied to _Naushirwan_.--Vide note 3, page 13.

[227] _Ni'man_, also _Nu'man_, the name of an ancient king of _Hirat_,
in Arabia.

[228] The first day of the new year, which is celebrated with great
splendour and rejoicings.

[229] The _Brahmans_, erroneously called Bramins, do not eat meat.

[230] Literally, "she would have repeated the _Kalima_," or "Confession
of Faith" of the followers of _Muhammad_, which is as follows:--"There
is no God but God, and _Muhammad_ is his prophet." Some profane wags
have  parodied this creed into a Jewish one, viz.--"There ish no God
but the monish, and shent per shent (cent. per cent.) ish hish prophet"

[231] The common mode to present large sums in specie to princely
visitors, is to form a platform with the money, spread the _masnad_
on it, and place the visitor on the rich seat. Mr. Smith states that
he had himself seen _Asafu-d-Daula_, the then _Nawwab_ of Lucknow,
receive a lack of rupees in this way from _Almas_, one of his eunuchs.

[232] _Chand-rat_, is applied to the night on which the new moon is
first visible, which night, together with the following day till
sunset, constitutes the _pahli tarikh_, or _ghurra_, that is the
first of the lunar month.

[233] _Ramazan_ is the ninth _Muhammadan_ month, during which they
keep Lent. Vide note, p. 59.

[234] The _'Id_ is the grand festival after the Lent of _Ramazan_ is
over. There is another _'Id_, called _Al-Kurban_, in commemoration of
Abraham's meditated sacrifice of his son Isaac, or as the _Muhammadans_
believe of his son Ishmael.

[235] Literally, "having washed my hands of my life."

[236] _Rustam_, a brave and famous hero of Persia, whose Herculean
achievements are celebrated in the _Shah-Nama_.

[237] Literally, "a _salam_ as low as the carpet;" or as we say,
"a bow to the ground."

[238] The various editions of the text read _tunna_, "a particular
kind of tree." In one of my MSS., however, the reading is _tane_, the
inflected form of _tana_, the "trunk of a tree," which is better sense.

[239] Literally, "the parrot of my hand flew away."

[240] The _Muhammadans_ reckon a hundred and twenty years as the
_'umri tabi'i_, or the natural period of man's life.

[241] The mountain of _Kaf_, is the celebrated abode of the _jinns_,
_paris_, and _divs_, and all the fabulous beings of oriental
romance. The _Muhammadans_,  as of yore all good Christians,
believe that the earth is a flat circular plane; and on the confines
of this circle is a ring of lofty mountains extending all round,
serving at once to keep folks from falling off, as well as forming a
convenient habitation for the _jinns_, &c., aforesaid. The mountain,
(I am not certain on whose trigonometrical authority) is said to be
500 _farasangs_ or 2000 English miles in height.

[242] With regard to the plain, simple sentence, "_yih kahkar takht
uthaya_," we have somewhere seen the following erudite criticism,
viz.:--"With deference to _Mir Amman_, this is bad grammar. The
nominative to _kahkar_ and _uthaya_ ought to be the same!!!" Now, it is
a great pity that the critic did not favour us here with his notions
of _good_ grammar. Just observe, O reader, how the expression stands
in the text: "_yih kahkar takht uthaya_,"  and you will naturally
ask, "where is the fault in the grammar?" The nominative, or rather
the agent, is _pari ne_, hence the translation, "the fairy, having
thus spoken, took up the throne." The poor critic seems to confound
"_uthaya_" with "_utha_."

[243] One of the would-be poets of our day has translated the above
most elegantly and literally, as follows:--

    "What mischiefs through this love arise!
    What broken hearts and miseries!"

[244] The _Muhammadans_ have great confidence in charms which
are written on slips of paper, along with numerous astrological
characters. They consist chiefly of quotations from the _Kuran_,
and are often diluted in water, and drank as medicine in various
distempers. As the Indian ink and paper can do no harm, and often
act as an emetic, they are probably more innocent than the physic
administered by eastern physicians, who are the most ignorant of their
profession. The fact is, that the soi disant "teachers" of mankind,
in all ages and countries--the African fetish, the American Indian
sachem, the _Hindu jogi_, the _Musalman mulla_, and the Romish
priest and miracle-monger--have all agreed on one point, viz., to
impose on their silly victims a multitude of unmeaning ceremonies,
and absurd mummeries, in order to conceal their own contemptible
vacuity of intellect.

[245] The _Jata-dhari Gusa,in_ is a sect of fanatic _Hindu_ mendicants,
who let their hair grow and matted, and go almost naked.

[246] _Mahadev_ is a _Hindu_ idol; the emblem of the creative power,
and generally and naturally represented by the Lingum.

[247] _Shevrat_ is a _Hindu_ festival, which corresponds nearly with
the Mahometan _shabi barat_.

[248] Plato is supposed by the _Muhammadans_ to have been not only
a profound philosopher, but a wise physician. In short, it is too
general an idea with them, that a clever man must be a good doctor.

[249] The _langot_ or _langoti_ is a piece of cloth wrapped or fastened
round the loins, and tucked in between the feet. It barely conceals
what civilization requires should be hid from the public view.

[250] _Ma'jun_ is the extract from the intoxicating plant called
_charas_ or _bhang_,  a species of hemp; it is mixed with sugar and
spices to render it palatable. The inebriation it produces fills the
imagination with agreeable visions, and the effects are different
from those of wine or spirits.

[251] Six _mashas_ amount to nearly a quarter of an ounce; a sicca
rupee weighs eleven _mashas_.

[252] Literally, "a volume of a book."

[253] This exceedingly absurd story is of Rabbinical origin. I have
a strong impression on my mind of having read something very like it
long ago in the works of Philo Judaeus, the contemporary of Josephus.

[254] The _Ismi A'zam_, or the "Most Mighty Name" [of God] is a
magic spell or incantation which the acquirer can apply to wonderful
purposes. God hath, among the _Muhammadans_, ninety-nine names or
epithets; the _Ismi A'zam_ is one of the number, but it is only the
initiated few who can say which of the ninety-nine it is.

[255] The word _sawab_ strictly means, "the reward received in the
next world for virtuous actions performed in the present state of

[256] The veiled horseman who rescued the first and second _Darweshes_
from self-destruction.

[257] A Persian proverb.

[258] _Badakhshan_ is a part of the grand province of _Khurasan_,
and the city of _Balkh_ is its metropolis, to the eastward of which
is a chain of mountains celebrated for producing fine rubies.

[259] All Asiatic princes, like others nearer home, have spies, called
"reporters of intelligence," who inform themselves of what passes
in public. They are, as a matter of course, the pest of society,
and generally corrupt.

[260] A _miskal_ is four and a half _mashas_; our ounce contains
twenty-four _mashas_. So the ruby weighed more than half an ounce.

[261] The word _raja_ is the _Hindu_ term for a prince or sovereign. In
more recent times it has become a mere empty title, conferred upon
rich _Hindus_ by the Emperor of _Delhi_.

[262] _Naishapur_ was once the richest and grandest city in the
province of _Khurasan_. It was utterly destroyed by _Tuli_, the son
of _Jenghis Khan_ (or more correctly, _Changis Ka,an_), in A.D. 1221.

[263] Seven _miskals_ are more than an ounce and a quarter.

[264] The term Farang, vulgarly Frank, was formerly applied to
Christian Europe in general, with the exclusion of Russia.

[265] Literally, "kissed the ground of obeisance," a Persian phrase,
expressive of profound respect.

[266] "The minister's daughter," afterwards called "the young

[267] The phrase _pachas ek_ means "about fifty." It is strange
that a certain critic on this work, (who has a prodigiously high
opinion of himself,) should have rendered the above passage, "whose
age was about forty or fifty years!" Most assuredly, the merest tyro
in _Hindustani_ can tell him that it cannot have such a latitude as
to mean "about forty or fifty." He might just as correctly have said
"about fifty or sixty." The phrase _pachas ek_, as I have stated,
means simply "about fifty," i.e., it may be _one_ year more or less.

[268] In the text, the _wazir-zadi_ is henceforth called
_saudagar-bacha_ or the young merchant, being the character under
which she, for some time, figures.

[269] _morchhals_, vulgarly called _chowrees_, are fly-flaps, to drive
away those troublesome companions; the best kind is made of the fine
white long tail of the mountain cow; the others of the long feathers
from, the peacock's tail, or the odoriferous roots of a species of
grass called _Khas_. They are likewise a part of the paraphernalia
of state in India.

[270] The title _khwaja _ means "chief," or "master;" it is generally
applied to rich merchants, &c., such as we would call "men of
respectability." The idiomatic London English for it is "governor,"
or (as it is pronounced) "guv'ner".

[271] Literally, "What difficulty" (is there in so doing).

[272] The city of _Naishapur_ being some 270 miles inland, it would
not be easy for the young merchant to reach it by sea. Asiatic
story-tellers are not at all particular in regard to matters of

[273] _'Ajam_ means, in general, Persia; the Arabs use it in the
same sense as the Greeks did the word "barbarian;" and all who are
not Arabs they call _'Ajami_; more especially the Persians.

[274] _Sara,e, sera,i_ or _caravanserai_, are buildings for the
accommodation of travellers, merchants, &c., in cities, and on the
great roads in Asia. Those in Upper _Hindustan_, built by the emperors
of _Dilli_, are grand and costly; they are either of stone or burnt
bricks. In Persia, they are mostly of bricks dried in the sun. In
Upper _Hindustan_ they are commonly sixteen to twenty miles distant
from each other, which is a _manzil_ or stage. They are generally
built of a square or quadrangular form with a large open court in
the centre, and contain numerous rooms for goods, men, and beasts.

[275] Literally, made excuses from the surface of his heart," i.e.,
not serious excuses.

[276] That is, "completely armed." Vide note 2, page 87.

[277] On the exact meaning of _dastar-khwan,_ see note, page 104.

[278] The _Musalman_ confession of faith, see note 3, page 156.

[279] The idiom "_do mahine ek_," about two months, similar to the
phrase, "_pachas ek baras_," _v._ note 1, page 161.

[280] Literally, "began to smack his lips;" denoting his satisfaction.

[281] Tartar, African, and Turkish slaves.

[282] Literally, "I have not proved false in what you have entrusted
to me."

[283] The coffee and pipe are always presented to visitors in Turkey,
Arabia, and Persia, and they are considered as indispensable in
good manners.

[284] "_dant kholne_" is fully explained in my Grammar, page 129. It
appears to have sadly puzzled a learned critic, to whom I have
occasionally alluded.

[285] Literally, "middle brother;" as there were three in number,
of course the "second" and "middle" are identical.

[286] The _Siyum_ are the rites performed for the dead on the third
day after demise; it is called the _tija_ in _Hinduwi_.

[287] Alluding to God.

[288] Or it may mean, "my blood boiled" [with resentment].

[289] The _Muhammadan_ sabbath is Friday.

[290] A _kafila_ means a company of merchants who assemble and travel
together for mutual protection. It is synonymous with caravan.

[291] _Bukhara_ is a celebrated city in Tartary; it was formerly the
capital of the province called _Mawaralnahr_, or _Transoxiana_, before
the Tartar conquerors fixed on _Samarkand_. It lies to the northward
of the river _Oxus_  or _Gihun_, which divides Tartary from Persia,
or as the Persian geographers term it, _Iran_, from _Turan_. _Bukhara_
is celebrated by Persian poets for its climate, its fruits, and its
beautiful women.

[292] The _boza_ is an intoxicating drink made of spirits, the leaves
of the _charas_ plant, _tari_, and opium. _Tari_, erroneously called
_todee_, is the juice of the palm tree.

[293] Literally, ale-house, or tippling-house. One is strongly led
to believe that this is the origin of our cant word _boozing-ken_,
imported from the East by the gipsies some four or five centuries ago.

[294] A grateful and luxurious operation in the warm climate of India,
more especially after the fatigue of travelling. _Shampooing_ is a word
of uncertain etymology; the French have a better term, _masser_. The
natives say it has a physical advantage, as it quickens their languid
circulation; perhaps they are right.

[295] A _kos_ is nearly two English miles, being about fifteen

[296] Literally, "the fire was kindled in my stomach."

[297] Pointing to his two brothers who were present, and heard
his tale.

[298] The stake was a common mode of punishment in India in
former days, and, until recently, was practised among the _Sikhs_,
_Marhattas_, and other Asiatic princes, who were independent of
our government.

[299] Addressing himself to the king _Azad Bakht_.

[300] The term _kibla_ signifies the "point of adoration," and is
generally applied to the _Ka'ba_, or holy edifice, situated in the
sacred inclosure of Mecca. To this point all _Muhammadans_ must turn
when they pray.

[301] The prayer of martyrdom among the _Musalmans._ It is often
repeated when they go into action against Christians and Pagans

[302] According to the _Muhammadan_ belief, _Nakir_ and _Munkir_
are two angels who attend at the moment of death, and call to an
account the spirit of the deceased.

[303] Literally, "satiated the dog of my stomach."

[304] Literally, to perform the act of "rubbing the nose on the earth,"
expressive of extreme humility.

[305] Literally, "having fastened [on his person] the four mirrors."

[306] The term _zuhr_ strictly denotes the period devoted to the
mid-day prayer, which is offered up after the sun has perceptibly
declined from the meridian. Vide note 4, in page 14.

[307] The name of the countries which lie, as the people of _Hindustan_
term it, below Bengal, i.e., to the south-east of it; the name includes
the kingdoms of Ava and Pegu.

[308] _Kunwar_ is the _Hindu_ name for the son of a _raja_.

[309] The _chaugan_ is a Persian sport performed on horseback, with a
large ball like a foot-ball, which is knocked about with a long stick
like a shepherd's crook; it is precisely the game called in Scotland
"shintey," and in England "hockey," only that the players are mounted.

[310] _Rani_ is the _Hindu_ name of a _raja's_ wife.

[311] Literally, "without a partner." The _Musalmans_ consider our
doctrine of the Trinity as a deadly error.

[312] _Sarandip_ is the name for the island of Ceylon among the Arabs
and Persians, as well as the _Musalmans_ of India. The ancient _Hindu_
name was _Lanka_, applied both to the island and its capital.

[313] The term _kisra_ is evidently applied here to _Naushirwan_,
not to Cyrus, as is stated in some books.

[314] _Iran_ is the ancient name of Persia in its more extended sense,
that is, the Persian Empire. _Fars_ is sometimes used in the same
sense. Strictly speaking, it denotes Persia proper, which is only a
province of _Iran_.

[315] The _kafila-bashi_ is the head man of the _kafila_, or company
of merchants, who travel in a body for mutual safety, and compose what
is commonly called a caravan, properly a _karwan_; the richest and
most respectable merchant of the party is generally elected _bashi_;
all the rest obey his orders, and he directs the movements, &c.,
of the whole company, and moreover, acts, in all cases of dispute,
as judge and magistrate.

[316] The _farsakh_, or _farsang_, or _parsang_, is a measure
of distance in Persia, and contains at the present day about 3 3/4
English miles. Herodotus reckoned the _[Greek: pasasaggaes]_; in his
time at 30 Grecian stadia.

[317] _Salsabil_ is the name of a fountain of Paradise, according to
_Muhammadan_ belief.

[318] The student is of course aware that in most languages a question
is frequently equivalent to a negative, as in this sentence. A
sapient critic, to whom I have more than once alluded, was pleased
to honour me with the following profound remark on the reading given
in the original, viz.--"There is a slip here in Forbes's edition,
as well as the Calcutta one. The word _nahin_, 'not,' is omitted,
which destroys the whole sense!!!"

[319] The _kaliyan_ (or as the moderns say, _kaliyun_) is the Persian

[320] This is, as the vulgate hath it, "coming it a little too
strong;" but be it remembered that Oriental story-tellers do not mar
the interest of their narrative by a slavish adherence to probability.

[321] Here the king _Azad Bakht_ speaks in his own person, and
addresses himself to the four _darweshes_.

[322] With regard to the essence of _bed-mushk_ vide note 2, page 42.

[323] The image of the Divine power in that country of Pagans.

[324] Vide note 3, page 30, respecting the _chilla_, or "period
of forty."

[325] That is to say, she had never seen a _Muhammadan_ at his prayers.

[326] _Lat_ and _Manat_ were the two great idols of _Hindu_ worship
in former times.

[327] In the languages of southern India, _Turk_ is the general
appellation for a _Musalman_.

[328] The _chaman_ is a small garden or _parterre_, which is laid out
before the sitting room in the interior of the women's apartments;
it means in general, _parterres_ of flowers.

[329] The original uses a much stronger expression.

[330] Literally, the poison of the _halahal_, as expression used
to denote poison of the strongest kind. The _halahal_ is a fabulous
poison, said to have been produced from the ocean on the churning of
it by the gods and _daityas._  Our critic says, on this word, that it
means "deadly!!!" will he favour us with some authority on that point,
better than his own?

[331] On the phrase, _do mahine men_, our critic comes out in great
force. He says, "Mir Amman here sins against grammar; it should be,
_do mahinon men!!!_" The critic is not aware, that when a noun follows
a numeral it never requires the inflection plural en, except when it
is to be rendered more definite? In reality, Mir Amman would be wrong
if he had employed the reading recommended by the sapient critic;
_do mahine men_ means "in two months;" _do mahinon men_ "in _the_
two months" (previously determined upon).

[332] The _chor-mahall_ is a private seraglio.

[333] The twelve _Imams_.--Vide note 3, page 4.

[334] The threshold of a pagoda or mosque. The oriental people uncover
their feet, as we do our heads, on entering a place of worship.

[335] Asiatics do not sign their names, but put their seals to letters,
bonds, paper, &c.; on the seal is engraven their names, titles, &c.;
which absurd practice has frequently given rise to much roguery, and
even bloodshed, as it is so easy, by bribes, to get a seal-cutter to
forge almost any seal, a notorious instance of which appeared some
twenty years ago in the case of the _Raja_ of _Sattara_. Though the
_Muhammadan_ laws punish with severe penalties such transgressions,
yet seal-cutters are not more invulnerable to the powers of gold
than other men. Kings, princes, _nawwabs_ &c., have a private mark,
as well as a public seal, to official papers; and a private seal and
mark for private or confidential papers.

[336] A _khil'at_ or honorary dress is generally bestowed on a person
when he is appointed to a new situation.

[337] Literally, "who could hit a _kauri_ suspended by a hair." The
_kauri_ is a small round shell used to denote the minutest denomination
of money. In Bengal it is about the hundredth part of a _paisa_.

[338] The _nazar_ or _pesh-kash_ is a sum of money, &c., which,
all oriental officials pay to the prince of the country, or to his
favourites, &c., when appointed to their situations. Some people
say that such things are done nearer home, with this difference,
that among us it is a private transaction; whereas, in the East,
it is an open one.

[339] _ja-girs_ are donations of lands, or, rather, of the revenues
arising from a certain portion of land; strictly speaking, such
a grant is a reward for military service, though it is sometimes
bestowed without that condition.

[340] As the _Musalmans_ reckon their day from sun-set, this is
no _bull_.

[341] Literally, "the third fault is that of the mother."

[342] The king here resumes his address to the four darweshes.

[343] A proverb synonymous to ours, of "What is bred in the bone,
will never come out of the flesh."

[344] The _tawa_ is a circular plate of malleable or cast iron,
used for baking cakes or bannocks. It is slightly convex, like a
watch-glass, on the upper side, where the bread is laid on; the under
or concave side being, of course perfectly black. In Scotland, and in
the northern counties of England, this domestic implement is called
"the girdle," and is still in common use in places remote from towns.

[345] Till recently a province of Persia; the northern part of ancient
Media. It is now, alas! fallen into the deadly grasp of the unholy

[346] A kind of pea common in India; it is the ordinary food of horses,
oxen, camels, &c., likewise of the native. By Europeans it is generally
called _grum_ or "_graum_."

[347] The _Muhammadans_ believe that on the day of judgment all who
have died will assemble on a vast plain, to hear their sentences from
the mouth of God; so the reader may naturally conceive the size of
the plain.

[348] The _surma_ is a black powder made of antimony, which the Asiatic
women use on their eyelids, to give a superior lustre to their black or
hazel eyes; when applied with taste, it certainly has that effect. It
is likewise used for sore eyes, but I cannot say with what success.

[349] _Chummak_ is the Turkish name for a kind of _baton_ set with
precious stones, and used by some of the officers of the palace as
an insignia of state, like our rods, wands, &c.

[350] This ludicrous idea is to be found in the veracious "Voiage and
Travaile" of Sir John Maundevile, Kt. Speaking of the "Yles abouten
Ynde," he says, "men fynden there an Ile that is clept Crues," where
"for the grete distresse of the hete, mennes ballokkes hangen down
to their knees, for the grete dissolucioun of the body."

[351] The _Hur_ are celestial females, and the _Ghilman_ beautiful
youths, who are to attend upon all good Mahometans in Paradise.

[352] The _nakkar-khana_ is the place at the portico of a temple or
palace where drums are beaten at stated intervals. It is somewhat akin
to the "belfry," of a Romish church, the childish and everlasting noise
of which is supposed to constitute an important part of Christianity.

[353] _Padmini_, the highest and most excellent of the four classes
of women among the _Hindus_.

[354] The prime minister, or first officers of state, under the
_Mughal_ emperors.

[355] Literally, "instant of an instant." With regard to this idiomatic
use of the genitive case, vide "Grammar," page 96, paragraph _b_.

[356] Here the _khwaja_ resumes his own story to _Azad Bakht_.

[357] The king, _Azad Bakht_, speaks in his own person.

[358] The son of a _khwaja_ or merchant of the highest grade.

[359] When _Musalmans_ go on pilgrimage to _Mecca_, they shave their
heads on their arrival there; the ridicule is, to have incurred the
shaving without the merit of the pilgrimage.

[360] Called the _khil'at sarafrazi_, i.e. of exaltation.

[361] The _farsh_ is the carpet or cloth which is spread in the room,
where company is received, or the king's audience is held; for the king
to advance to the end of the _farsh_ to receive the _wazir_, is a mark
of respect, which Asiatic princes seldom pay, even to their equals.

[362] The insignia of the _wazir's_ office in India and Persia,
is the _kalumdan._

[363] The abode of a _fakir_ is called a _takiya_.

[364] The phrase _kot bundh baithna_ signifies to squat down as a
person does when easing nature, the two hands being clasped together
round the legs a little below the knees.

[365] _Chaupar_ is a very ancient Indian game of the nature of
backgammon, played by four people, each having four men or pieces. A
full description of it is given in the Ayeeni Akbary, London, 1800,
vol. 1st, page 253.

[366] _Azur_, the father of Abraham, was a famous statuary and
idol-worshipper, according to the ideas of _Muhammadans_.

[367] Alluding to the _Hindu_ custom of the wife's burning herself
with the corpse of her husband; in these cases, perhaps, fear of the
priesthood, &c., is a stronger motive than love for the defunct.

[368] By the Island of the Franks, it is most probable that the
author means Britain. The description of the capital is more adapted
to London sixty years ago than to any other European city. This,
_Mir Amman_ might have learned from some of the resident Europeans,
while he filled up the rest from his own luxuriant imagination.

[369] The "eunuch" is of course out of place in a Christian city;
at least he does not hold the same rank as in the East.

[370] In the original it is water; the meaning is obvious enough.

[371] Most probably the name of some famous armourer.

[372] A Persian proverb.

[373] That is poison of the strongest kind.--Vide note on this word
in page 213.

[374] Meaning in this world and the next.

[375] Barbers in Asia not only shave but wash persons in the private
and public baths.

[376] A prince of _Khurasan_, who quitted a throne in order to lead
a life of piety.

[377] A celebrated city of _Khurasan_, famous in former times for
its riches.

[378] The attitude of respect, common in the East, when a servant
has a request to make of his master; or a very inferior person of
one who is greatly his superior.

[379] Meaning, "of surpassing speed."

[380] In the original, the word is _kai_, or the green scum that
floats on stagnant water. "_Bihzad Khan_, dispersed the enemy as _kai_
is dispersed when a stone is thrown into the water," is nearly the
original simile.

[381] Literally, "merely continued bringing up the soil from the

[382] The first and second _Darweshes_.

[383] One of the many epithets applied to _Darweshes_ in the East.

[384] A Persian proverb.

[385] The regent; the fourth _Darwesh's_ uncle.

[386] According to the fabulous system of _jinns, divs, paris, &c.,_
in Asia, it is supposed that the _jinns_ and _paris_ live on essences,
&c. The _divs_ are malignant spirits or beings, and live on less
delicate food.

[387] _Divs_ or demons; the malignant race of _jinns_.

[388] _Chin_ and _Machin,_ is the general name of China among the

[389] _Bukhur_ is a kind of frankincense.

[390] _Abu-Jahal_, or "the father of obstinacy," or "of brutality,"
was the name of an Arab. He was uncle to the prophet _Muhammad_,
and an inveterate opposer of the latter's new religion.

[391] The forty figures of monkeys would give the possessor a power
over the _divs_ and _jinns_, and having them at his command, he could
easily overset the usurper, _alias_ his uncle.

[392] The _Ismi A'zam_, or great name of God.--See note 2, p. 145.

[393] Alluding to the Asiatic custom of the women being concealed
from the view of all, except their husbands or very near relations.

[394] The _kazis_ and _muftis_ are the judges in Turkey, Arabia,
Persia and  _Hindustan_, of all civil and religious causes; they
likewise marry, divorce, &c.

[395] The _tija_ is the same as the _siyum_.--See note 2, page 187.

[396] A kind of litter for the conveyance of women and the sick.

[397] A kind of litter for travelling in Persia and Arabia; two
of them are slung across a camel or a mule; those for camels carry
four persons.

[398] Viz., his state of castration.

[399] _Zu-l-fakar_, the name of a famous sword that _'Ali_ used
to wear.

[400] The veiled horseman, _'Ali Mushkil-Kusha_.

[401] In the original there is a play on the words _haml_ and _hamal_.

[402] Literally, "he made the man in want of a _kauri_ the master of
a _lakh_  [of rupees].

[403] _Ryots_ (a corruption of the word _ra'iyat_) are the husbandmen
in India; the tillers of the soil who rent small parcels of land
from the government, through the medium of the _zamin-dar_, who
is a servant of government and not the proprietor of the land, as
some have erroneously supposed. The word means keeper of the land,
and not the proprietor. In fact, he is like the Irish middleman,
in every sense of the word.

[404] A famous garden in Arabia Felix; it is also applied to the garden
in Paradise, in which all good Mahometans, according to their belief,
are to revel after death.

[405] _'Umman_ is the name of the southern part of _Yaman_ or Arabia
Felix; the country which lies between the mouth of the Persian Gulf
and the mouth of the Red Sea; the sea which washes this coast is
called the sea of _'Umman_ in Persia and Arabia, as the Red Sea is
called the sea of _Kulzum_.

[406] A mode of punishment used in former times in Persia, India, and
Arabia, against great enemies or atrocious delinquents. Such treatment
the poor emperor Valerian experienced from the haughty _Shapur_
or _Shabar_ (the Sapores of the Greeks), king of Persia or Parthia.

[407] The first _darwesh_.

[408] The second _darwesh_.

[409] The third _darwesh_.

[410] The fourth _darwesh_.

[411] The five pure bodies are _Muhammad_, the prophet; _Fatima_, his
daughter; _Ali_, her husband; and _Hazan_ and _Husain_, their chidren.

[412] The fourteen innocents are the children of _Hazan_ and _Husain_.

[413] By an arithmetical operation called in Persian _Abjad_; as
Persian letters have arithmetical powers, the letters which compose
the words _Bagh O Bahar_ added up, produce the sum 1217. From the
inscription on most _Muhammadan_ tombs, and those on the gates of
mosques, the dates of demise and erection can be ascertained. We had
the same barbarous custom in Europe about the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries; see the Spectator (No. 60,) on this ridiculous subject,
which was considered as a proof of great ingenuity.

[414] A pun on the word _Bahar_, which means spring, when flowers are
in full bloom; but the French word _printemps_ conveys more exactly
the compound signification; for _Bahar_ not only means spring, but an
agreeable spring. The Persians are as fond of these _double entendres_
as any other people; their poetry is strewed with them, and so is their
prose. It is not, however, to be considered as a model of pure taste.

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