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Title: Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Forty-Second Annual Meeting - Urbana, Illinois, August 28, 29 and 30, 1951
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
|                                                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+



  Northern Nut Growers

  Association

  Incorporated


  AFFILIATED WITH THE AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY



  _42nd Annual Report_



  _Annual Meeting at_

  URBANA, ILLINOIS

  August 28, 29 and 30, 1951


       *       *       *       *       *


    [Illustration: Jacobs Persian Walnut Genoa, Ohio (see pages 86-87)]

    The above picture shows a view made last winter of the original
    Jacobs Persian walnut in Elmore, Ohio. Member Malcolm R. Bumler of
    Detroit stands under the tree. The picture was made by Mr. W. G.
    Schmidt and the engraving is by courtesy of Gilbert Becker, our
    Michigan vice president and president of the Michigan Nut Growers
    Association.

    The Jacobs variety, a second generation seedling of a German walnut,
    was brought to the attention of the NNGA by Sylvester Shessler,
    Genoa, Ohio, who has been regularly taking prizes with it and
    another seedling he found growing at Clay Center. The Jacobs was
    fourth in the 1950-51 NNGA contest, having a good nut with 47.1%
    kernel. The tree, now over seventy years old, bears regularly,
    having 200 pounds of nuts in one recent year. Several members in
    Ohio, Michigan, and other states are propagating the Jacobs, and it
    appears to be one of the most promising non-Carpathian Persian
    varieties for the Midwest.--J. C. McDaniel


       *       *       *       *       *


  Table of Contents


  Foreword                                                             4

  Officers and Committees, 1951-52                                     5

  State and Foreign Vice-Presidents                                    6

  Attendance at the 1951 Meeting                                       7

  Constitution                                                         9

  By-Laws                                                              9

  Proceedings of the Forty-Second Annual Meeting. Starting on         13

  Talk by George Hebden Corsan                                        13

  Address of Welcome--C. J. Birkeland                                 14

  Response--H. L. Crane                                               14

  President's Address--William M. Rohrbacher                          15

  Control of Spittle Bugs on Nut Trees--S. C. Chandler                18

  Preliminary Results from Training Chinese Chestnut Trees to
    Different Heights of Head--J. W. McKay and H. L. Crane            22

  The Filbert and Persian Walnut in Indiana--W. B. Ward               29

  Nut Growing in Eastern Iowa--Ira M. Kyhl                            31

  Secretary's Report--J. C. McDaniel                                  34

  Discussion and Resolution on Securing New Members                   35

  Treasurer's Report--Sterling A. Smith                               37

  Reports of Committees                                               38

  Announcement of Tour--R. B. Best                                    39

  Status of the Northern Pecan--W. W. Magill, leading discussion      39

  Pecans in Northern Virginia--J. Russell Smith                       45

  Pecans in the Vicinity of St. Paul, Minnesota--Carl Weschcke        47

  Preliminary Report on Growth, Flowering, and Magnesium Deficiency
    of Reed and Potomac Filbert Varieties--H. L. Crane
    and J. W. McKay                                                   50

  Bunch Disease of Black Walnut--J. W. McKay and H. L. Crane          56
    (Above paper given at the 41st Annual Meeting. See discussion
    on page 80 of 1950 Report.)

  A Forester Looks at the Timber Value of Nut Trees--C. S. Walters    62

  Symposium on Nut Tree Propagation--F. L. O'Rourke, leader           68

  Factors Affecting Nut Tree Propagation--F. L. O'Rourke              78

  Nut Rootstock Material in Western Michigan--H. P. Burgart           82

  Hudson Valley Experience with Nut Tree Understocks--Gilbert
    L. Smith                                                          83

  Results of 1950 Carpathian Walnut Contest--Spencer B. Chase         86

  Colby, a Hardy Persian Walnut for the Central States--J. C.
    McDaniel                                                          87

  Resolutions                                                         90

  List of Members of Northern Nut Growers Association                 91


       *       *       *       *       *


Foreword


This volume is going to press somewhat later than was anticipated, and
in order to expedite its publication, a few papers which were
contributed in 1951 are being held over for the 1952 Report. Two of
these will incorporate new data to be presented at the 1952 meeting, Mr.
E. A. Curl's discussion on the status of the oak wilt disease and Mr. W.
W. Magill's talk on top working of native pecans in southwestern
Kentucky. Also deferred are Mr. L. Walter Sherman's "Final Selections in
the Five-Year Ohio Black Walnut Contest", the vice-presidents' round
table discussion led by Mr. H. F. Stoke, on "What Black Walnut Varieties
Shall We Recommend for Planting?" and two short papers from the Ohio
section.

"Bunch Disease of Black Walnut" by Drs. McKay and Crane in this volume
was read at the 1950 Pleasant Valley Meeting, and the discussion on it
will be found in last year's Report. Other "Extras" are the propagation
papers by Mr H. P. Burgart and Mr. Gilbert L. Smith, Dr. J. Russell
Smith's and Mr Carl Weschcke's papers on pecans, and the reprinted
article on Colby Persian walnut by the secretary. (The original tree has
a big crop of nuts now maturing.)



Officers of the Association 1951-1952


=President:= Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Floriculture Department, Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York

=Vice-President=: Richard B. Best, Columbiana Seed Co., Eldred, Illinois

=Secretary:= J. C. McDaniel, University of Illinois, Dept. of
Horticulture, Urbana, Ill.

=Treasurer:= Carl F. Prell, 825 J. M. S. Bldg., South Bend 1, Indiana

  =Directors=: The officers and the following past presidents:
  Mildred Jones Langdoc, P. O. Box 136, Erie, Illinois
  Dr. William Rohrbacher, 811 E. College St., Iowa City, Iowa


COMMITTEES 1951-1952

=Program Committee:=

Royal Oakes, Chairman (Ill.); J. Ford Wilkinson (Ind.); Spencer Chase
(Tennessee); Ira M. Kyhl (Iowa); A. S. Colby (Ill.); W. D. Armstrong
(Kentucky); and J. C. McDaniel (Ill.) ex-officio.

=Publications--Editorial Section:=

Lewis E. Theiss, Chairman (Penn.); W. C. Deming (Conn.); John Davidson
(Ohio), Arthur H. Graves (Conn.); and Mrs. Herbert Negus (Md.).

=Publications--Printing Section=:

G. L. Slate, Chairman (N.Y.); Carl F. Prell (Ind.); and J. C. McDaniel
(Ill.) ex-officio.

=Place of Meeting:=

R. P. Allaman, Chairman (Penn.); George Salzer (N.Y.); John Rick
(Penn.); Arthur H. Graves (Conn.); and Elton E. Papple (Ontario,
Canada).

=Varieties and Contest--Survey=:

H. F. Stoke, Chairman (Va.); A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); L. W. Sherman
(Mich.); Sylvester Shessler (Ohio); F. L. O'Rourke (Mich.).

=Standards and Judging:=

Spencer Chase, Chairman (Tenn.); Gilbert L. Smith (N.Y.); Raymond E.
Silvis (Ohio).

=Research:=

H. L. Crane, Chairman (Md.); G. F. Gravatt (Md.); Paul E. Machovina
(Ohio); George L. Slate (N.Y.).

=Membership:=

R. B. Best, Chairman (Ill.); Gilbert L. Smith (N.Y.); Sterling Smith
(Ohio); Dr. Clyde Gray (Kans.); Louis Gerardi (Ill.); Carl F. Prell
(Ind.) ex-officio.

=Exhibits:=

Sylvester Shessler (Ohio), Chairman; A. G. Hirschi (Okla.); Fayette
Etter (Penn.); J. U. Gellatly (B. C., Canada); Carl Weschcke (Minn.).

=Auditing:=

Sterling A. Smith (Ohio); Carl Weschcke (Minn.).

=Legal Adviser:=

Sargent Wellman (Mass).

=Official Journal:=

American Fruit Grower, Willoughby, Ohio

  State and Foreign Vice-Presidents


  Alabama, Edward L. Hiles, Loxley
  Alberta, Canada A. L. Young, Brooks
  Belgium R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, Korbeek-Lo
  British Columbia, Canada J. U. Gellatly, Box 19, Westbank
  California Thos. R. Haig, M.D., 3021 Highland Ave., Carlsbad
  Connecticut A. M. Huntington, Stanerigg Farms, Bethel
  Delaware Lewis Wilkins, Route 1 Newark
  Denmark Count F. M. Knuth, Knuthenborg, Bandholm
  District of Columbia Edwin L. Ford, 3634 Austin St., S.E., Washington 20
  Florida C. A. Avant, 960 N.W., 10th Avenue, Miami
  Georgia William J. Wilson, North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley
  Hong Kong P. W. Wang, 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central
  Idaho Lynn Dryden, Peck
  Illinois Royal Oakes, Bluffs (Scott County)
  Indiana Ford Wallick, Route 4, Peru
  Iowa Ira M. Kyhl, Box 236, Sabula
  Kansas Dr. Clyde Gray, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton
  Louisiana Dr. Harald E. Hammar, 608 Court House, Shreveport
  Maryland Blaine McCollum, White Hall
  Massachusetts S. Lathrop Davenport, 24 Creeper Hill Rd., North Grafton
  Michigan Gilbert Becker, Climax
  Minnesota R. E. Hodgson, Southeastern Exp. Station, Waseca
  Mississippi James R. Meyer, Delta Branch Exper Station, Stoneville
  Missouri Ralph Richterkessing, Route 1, Saint Charles
  Nebraska Harvey W. Hess, Box 209, Hebron
  New Hampshire Matthew Lahti, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro
  New Jersey Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter, Route 1, Flemington
  New Mexico Rev. Titus Gehring, P. O. Box 177, Lumberton
  New York George Salzer, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9
  North Carolina Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College, Greensboro
  North Dakota Homer L. Bradley, Long Lake Refuge, Moffit
  Ohio A. A. Bungart, Avon
  Oklahoma A. G. Hirschi, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City
  Ontario, Canada Elton E. Papple, Cainsville
  Oregon Harry L. Pearcy, Route 2, Box 190, Salem
  Pennsylvania R. P. Allaman, Route 86, Harrisburg
  Prince Edward Island, Canada Robert Snazelle, Forest Nursery, Rt. 5,
    Charlottetown
  Rhode Island Philip Allen, 178 Dorance St., Providence
  South Carolina John T. Bregger, P. O. Box 1018, Clemson
  South Dakota Herman Richter, Madison
  Tennessee W. Jobe Robinson, Route 7, Jackson
  Texas Kaufman Florida, Box 154, Rotan
  Utah Harlan D. Petterson, 2076 Jefferson Avenue, Ogden
  Vermont Joseph N. Collins, Route 3, Putney
  Virginia H. R. Gibbs, Linden
  Washington Carroll D. Bush, Grapeview
  West Virginia Wilbert M. Frye, Pleasant Dale
  Wisconsin C. F. Ladwig, 2221 St. Laurence, Beloit



Attendance Register

Urbana Meeting, August 28-29, 1951


  Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Allaman, 803 N. 16th St., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  Dr. H. W. Anderson, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  Professor W. D. Armstrong, Western Kentucky Exp. Substation, Princeton,
    Kentucky
  Mr. Adin Baber, Kansas, Illinois
  Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Baker, Troy, Kansas
  Mr. Richard Barcus, Massillon, Ohio
  Mr. Paul J. Bauer, 123 S. 29th, Lafayette, Indiana
  Mr. Gilbert Becker, Climax, Michigan
  Mr. W. M. Beckert, Jackson, Michigan
  Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Bernath, Rt. 3, Poughkeepsie, New York
  Mr. Charles B. Berst, Erie, Pennsylvania
  Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Best, Eldred, Illinois
  Dr. C. J. Birkeland, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  Mr. A. S. Brock, 1733 N. McVicker Avenue, Chicago 30, Illinois
  Mr. Morrison Brown, Ickesburg, Pennsylvania
  Mr. S. C. Chandler, Carbondale, Illinois
  Mr. Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tennessee
  Mr. William S. Clarke, Jr., Box 167, State College, Pennsylvania
  Dr. and Mrs. A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  Mr. George Hebden Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18, Canada
  Mrs. Lilian V. Corsan, Echo Valley, Toronto 18, Canada
  Mr. George E. Craig, Dundas, Ohio
  Dr H. L. Crane, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland
  Mrs. Harley L. Crane, Washington, D. C.
  Mr. and Mrs. John Davidson, Xenia, Ohio
  Mr. Roy H. Degler, Jefferson City, Missouri
  Dr. Oliver D. Diller, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio
  Mr. Kenneth A. Dooley, Rt. 2, Marion, Indiana
  Dr. L. L. Dowell, 529 North Avenue, N.E., Massillon, Ohio
  Mr. Ralph Emerson, Detroit, Michigan
  Mr. A. B. Ferguson, Center Point, Iowa
  Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Frey, 2315 W. 108th Place, Chicago, Illinois
  Mr. Wilbur S. Frey, 820 W 72nd St., Kansas City, Missouri
  Mr. O. H. Fuller, Joliet, Illinois
  Mr. Louis Gerardi, Caseyville, Illinois
  Mr. Charles Gerstenmaier, 13 Pond St., S.W., Massillon, Ohio
  Mr. John A. Gerstenmaier, 13 Pond St., S.W., Massillon, Ohio
  Dr. Edward A. Grad and family, 1506 Chase St., Cincinnati 23, Ohio
  Mr. G. A. Gray, Bartlesville, Oklahoma
  Mr. H. W. Guengerich, Stark Bros. Nursery, Louisiana, Missouri
  Mr. H. C. Helmle, 526 South Grand Avenue, W., Springfield, Illinois
  Dr. V. W. Kelley, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Kintzel, 2506 Briarcliffe, Cincinnati 13, Ohio
  Ralph Kreider, Jr., Rt. 1, Hammond, Illinois
  Mr. and Mrs. Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula, Iowa
  Mr. Clarence F. Ladwig, Rt. 2, Beloit, Wisconsin
  Jeanne Ellen Langdoc, Erie, Illinois
  Mr. and Mrs. Wesley W. Langdoc, Erie, Illinois
  Mr. Michael Lee, Milford, Michigan
  Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, 422 Chestnut St., Ithaca, New York
  Mr. P. E. Machovina, 1228 Northwest Blvd., Columbus 12, Ohio
  Professor W. W. Magill, University of Kentucky, Lexington 25, Kentucky
  Mr. J. C. McDaniel, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  J. C. McDaniel, Jr., Urbana, Illinois
  Mr. J. W. McKay, U.S.D.A. Beltsville, Maryland
  Mr. J. Warren McKay, 4815 Osage St., College Park, Maryland
  Mr. A. J. Metzger, Toledo 6, Ohio
  Mr. Elwood Miller, 450 E. Chapel St., Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Mrs. Elwood Miller, 450 E. Chapel St., Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Negus, 5031-56th Ave., Roger Heights, Hyattsville,
    Maryland
  Mr. and Mrs. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois
  Mrs. E. N. O'Rourke, Tipton, Michigan
  Mr. and Mrs. F. L. O'Rourke, Hidden Lake Gardens, Tipton, Michigan
  Mr. John H. Page, Dundas, Ohio
  Mr. Edward W. Pape, Rt. 2, Marion, Indiana
  Mr. Christ Pataky, Jr., Mansfield, Ohio
  Mr. Carl F. Prell, 825 J.M.S. Bldg., South Bend 1, Indiana
  Mrs. C. A. Reed, 7309 Piney Branch Road, Washington 12, D.C.
  Mr. John Renken, St. Charles, Missouri
  Mr. Ralph Richterkessing, Rt. 1, St. Charles, Missouri
  Mr. John Rick, Reading, Pennsylvania
  Dr. and Mrs. W. M. Rohrbacher, 811 E. College St., Iowa City, Iowa
  Mr. E. T. Rummel, 16613 Laverne Avenue, Cleveland 11, Ohio
  Mr. and Mrs. George Salzer, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9, N. Y.
  Mr. Rodman Salzer, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9, N.Y.
  Mr. L. Walter Sherman, 220 Fairview Avenue, Canfield, Ohio
    (New address for Sherman)
  Mr. Sylvester Shessler, Genoa, Ohio
  Mr. Raymond E. Silvis, 59 First St., S.E., Massillon, Ohio
  Mr. Douglas A. Smith, 630 W. South St., Vermilion, Ohio
  Mr. and Mrs. Sterling A. Smith, 630 W. South St., Vermilion, Ohio
  Mr. D. C. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa
  Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Sonnemann, Vandalia, Illinois
  Miss Elizabeth Ann Sonnemann, Vandalia, Illinois
  Mr. Alfred Szego, 77-15a 37th Ave., Jackson Hgts., New York, N. Y.
  Mr. Ford Wallick, Peru, Indiana
  Prof. W. B. Ward, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
  Mrs. Harry R. Weber, Box 42, Miamitown, Ohio
    (Now Mrs. Herbert Krone of Rt. 1, Lancaster, Pa.)
  Mr. A. M. Whitford, Farina, Illinois
  Mr. Gordon Zethmayr, Rt. 1, West Chicago, Illinois
  Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Rt. 1, Linglestown, Pennsylvania



CONSTITUTION

of the

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED

(As adopted September 13, 1948)


NAME

ARTICLE I. This Society shall be known as the Northern Nut Growers
Association, Incorporated. It is strictly a non-profit organization.

PURPOSES

ARTICLE II. The purposes of this Association shall be to promote
interest in the nut bearing plants; scientific research in their
breeding and culture; standardization of varietal names; the
dissemination of information concerning the above and such other
purposes as may advance the culture of nut bearing plants, particularly
in the North Temperate Zone.

MEMBERS

ARTICLE III. Membership in this Association shall be open to all persons
interested in supporting the purposes of the Association. Classes of
members are as follows: Annual members, Contributing members, Life
members, Honorary members, and Perpetual members. Applications for
membership in the Association shall be presented to the secretary or the
treasurer in writing, accompanied by the required dues.

OFFICERS

ARTICLE IV. The elected officers of this Association shall consist of a
President, a Vice-president, a Secretary and a Treasurer or a combined
Secretary-treasurer as the Association may designate.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

ARTICLE V. The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the
Association who shall be the officers of the Association and the two
preceding elected presidents. If the offices of Secretary and Treasurer
are combined, the three past presidents shall serve on the Board of
Directors.

There shall be a State Vice-president for each state, dependency, or
country represented in the membership of the Association, who shall be
appointed by the President.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE VI. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the
members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having
been read at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed
amendments having been mailed by the Secretary, or by any member to each
member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.


BY-LAWS

(Revised and adopted at Norris, Tennessee, September 13, 1948)


SECTION I.--MEMBERSHIP

Classes of membership are defined as follows:

ARTICLE I. ANNUAL MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who pay annual dues of Three Dollars ($3.00).

ARTICLE II. CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the
purposes of the Association who pay annual dues of Ten Dollars ($10.00)
or more.

ARTICLE III. LIFE MEMBERS. Persons who are interested in the purposes of
the Association who contribute Seventy Five Dollars ($75.00) to its
support and who shall, after such contribution, pay no annual dues.

ARTICLE IV. HONORARY MEMBERS. Those whom the Association has elected as
honorary members in recognition of their achievements in the special
fields of the Association and who shall pay no dues.

ARTICLE V. PERPETUAL MEMBERS. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any
one who leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such
membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the
name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as
"Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received
therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing
securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the
interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in
the treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event
the Association becomes defunct or dissolves, then, in that event, the
Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose
for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at
the time he makes the bequest of the donation.


SECTION II.--DUTIES OF OFFICERS

ARTICLE I. The President shall preside at all meetings of the
Association and Board of Directors, and may call meetings of the Board
of Directors when he believes it to be the best interests of the
Association. He shall appoint the State Vice-presidents; the standing
committees, except the Nominating Committee, and such special committees
as the Association may authorize.

ARTICLE II. Vice-president. In the absence of the President, the
Vice-president shall perform the duties of the President.

ARTICLE III. Secretary. The Secretary shall be the active executive
officer of the Association. He shall conduct the correspondence relating
to the Association's interests, assist in obtaining memberships and
otherwise actively forward the interests of the Association, and report
to the Annual Meeting and from time to time to meetings of the Board of
Directors as they may request.

ARTICLE IV. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive and record
memberships, receive and account for all moneys of the Association and
shall pay all bills approved by the President or the Secretary. He shall
give such security as the Board of Directors may require or may legally
be required, shall invest life memberships or other funds as the Board
of Directors may direct, subject to legal restrictions and in accordance
with the law, and shall submit a verified account of receipts and
disbursements to the Annual meeting and such current accounts as the
Board of Directors may from time to time require. Before the final
business session of the Annual Meeting of the Association, the accounts
of the Treasurer shall be submitted for examination to the Auditing
Committee appointed by the President at the opening session of the
Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE V. The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of the
association between meetings. Four members, including at least two
elected officers, shall be considered a quorum.


SECTION III.--ELECTIONS

ARTICLE I. The Officers shall be elected at the Annual Meeting and hold
office for one year beginning immediately following the close of the
Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE II. The Nominating Committee shall present a slate of officers
on the first day of the Annual Meeting and the election shall take
place at the closing session. Nominations for any office may be
presented from the floor at the time the slate is presented or
immediately preceding the election.

ARTICLE III. For the purpose of nominating officers for the year 1949
and thereafter, a committee of five members shall be elected annually at
the preceding Annual Meeting.

ARTICLE IV. A quorum at a regularly called Annual Meeting shall be
fifteen (15) members and must include at least two of the elected
officers.

ARTICLE V. All classes of members whose dues are paid shall be eligible
to vote and hold office.


SECTION IV.--FINANCIAL MATTERS

ARTICLE I. The fiscal year of the Association shall extend from October
1st through the following September 30th. All annual memberships shall
begin October 1st.

ARTICLE II. The names of all members whose dues have not been paid by
January 1st shall be dropped from the rolls of the Society. Notices of
non-payment of dues shall be mailed to delinquent members on or about
December 1st.

ARTICLE III. The Annual Report shall be sent to only those members who
have paid their dues for the current year. Members whose dues have not
been paid by January 1st shall be considered delinquent. They will not
be entitled to receive the publication or other benefits of the
Association until dues are paid.


SECTION V.--MEETINGS

ARTICLE I. The place and time of the Annual Meeting shall be selected by
the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at
this time, the Board of Directors shall choose the place and time for
the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem
desirable may be called by the President and Board of Directors.


SECTION VI.--PUBLICATIONS

ARTICLE I. The Association shall publish a report each fiscal year and
such other publications as may be authorized by the Association.

ARTICLE II. The publishing of the report shall be the responsibility of
the Committee on Publications.


SECTION VII.--AWARDS

ARTICLE I. The Association may provide suitable awards for outstanding
contributions to the cultivation of nut bearing plants and suitable
recognition for meritorious exhibits as may be appropriate.


SECTION VIII.--STANDING COMMITTEES

As soon as practical after the Annual Meeting of the Association, the
President shall appoint the following standing committees:

  1. Membership
  2. Auditing
  3. Publications
  4. Survey
  5. Program
  6. Research
  7. Exhibit
  8. Varieties and Contests


SECTION IX.--REGIONAL GROUPS AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES

ARTICLE I. The Association shall encourage the formation of regional
groups of its members, who may elect their own officers and organize
their own local field days and other programs. They may publish their
proceedings and selected papers in the yearbooks of the parent society
subject to review of the Association's Committee on Publications.

ARTICLE II. Any independent regional association of nut growers may
affiliate with the Northern Nut Growers Association provided one-fourth
of its members are also members of the Northern Nut Growers Association.
Such affiliated societies shall pay an annual affiliation fee of $3.00
to the Northern Nut Growers Association. Papers presented at the
meetings of the regional society may be published in the proceedings of
the parent society subject to review of the Association's Committee on
Publications.


SECTION X.--AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS

ARTICLE I. These by-laws may be amended at any Annual Meeting by a
two-thirds vote of the members present provided such amendments shall
have been submitted to the membership in writing at least thirty days
prior to that meeting.


       *       *       *       *       *


  Forty-Second Annual Meeting
  Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc.
  August 28, 29 and 30, 1951
  Urbana, Illinois

At the evening session on August 27, Dr. William Rohrbacher presented
Dr. Arthur S. Colby, of the University of Illinois, who informally
welcomed the gathering and set forth in detail the plans for the
convention, with directions for finding different buildings, and
suggestions concerning the several scheduled events. Dr. Colby concluded
his talk by calling for a few remarks from one of our Canadian members,
George H. Corsan, of Toronto, who is probably (with Dr. Deming) one of
two nonagenarians in the association.

Mr. Corsan spoke as follows:

MR. CORSAN: My neck is still stiff. On the 27th of May I was up looking
at a budding and I was coming down a 40-foot ladder, and when I was 22
feet from the ground the ladder had a bad rung and I took a head-first
dive for the earth. I believe my tissues were made out of nuts, fruit,
honey, and grain and I was able to survive. I looked exactly like a man
in the gallows. They said, "You will be in the hospital for eight weeks
or more." In two weeks and two days I was hoeing corn.

On the way here I dropped into various places that were of interest.
Jack Miners. The place is really better than when their father was
alive. I came over across the river and dropped into Battle Creek.

I spent a good time hunting for Kellogg and I couldn't find him. One
person told me he was dead. He was quite peppy over the telephone and I
was amazed because he had been ill and well, then ill and then well. He
says, "Come on over. I am ready and looking for you." He wrote me a
letter scolding me. He asked where I was going and I told him. I asked
him, "Do you know you are a life member of that association?"

He has a monster dog descended from Rin-Tin-Tin and that dog is clean,
intelligent and looks like a human being. He is on the shore of Gull
Lake, a seven-mile-long, one-mile-wide lake. Marvelous looking. He had
abandoned his big house and he gave that to soldiers and sailors and
sick men. I had asked for him and they have never heard of him. That's
how he hides himself. He is back on the lake again. So I hunted and
found a house so unique that no one but he could have a house like that
built. There he was and he was peppy as ever. He has a new man on the
bird sanctuary. He was fully alive.

I don't want to take up any more of your time. I have had call on me an
enormous number of people who are more interested in nut growing than
ever. I can't blame them, with the price of meat so high, and so many
doctors advising the displacement of animal foodstuff by the eating of
nuts.

It was on my 94th birthday that I got a plaster cast and was in it two
weeks and two days. I will tell you a little secret. I was supposed to
have a diet. They had a dietician and I said I didn't need to eat
anything. I drank orange juice and pineapple juice and apple juice and
grapefruit juice. I ate some European black bread with carroway seeds;
it tasted bitter. I don't eat so much as I did before the accident. I am
trying to be careful of myself.

I want to have a talk with Wilkinson on the black walnut. I have four
big trees of Stabler, and hardly a nut grows on them. Down there they
behave themselves and have big crops. How do they have such big crops? I
like them. I don't believe there is a tastier nut in the world. Even my
hybrid Asiatic butternut cross. I have got quite a lot of them here to
show you and the biggest filberts in the world and they are all
seedlings.

Not a hickory nut, butternut or black walnut. I had a ton of black
walnuts. There is a good crop of hybrids, filberts, English walnuts, and
there are some other nuts. I am north of Lake Ontario. When any of you
are going across, drop in and see me.


TUESDAY MORNING SESSION

DR. ROHRBACHER: Will you please come to order. My gavel is in Iowa City,
so I will use my pocket knife. We have to make a little change in our
program. Our leader, Mr. Magill, is not yet here.

First on our program this morning will be Dr. C. J. Birkeland, head of
the Department of Horticulture at the University of Illinois. It's
wonderful to have such a splendid response so early in the morning.

DR. BIRKELAND: It is certainly nice to see such a big turnout and we
certainly welcome you to Illinois. We have been interested in nuts for a
long time and probably will be more interested in the future. We have
one man on our staff who has for years been interested. Now that we have
two, we will be twice as interested. In the past, years ago, the
Endicotts probably pioneered in a new variety of nuts. Later on, the
Caspers and Gerardis and Whitfords and now the Oakes and Best families
are doing a lot of work in the propagation of new and better varieties.
We have a lot of areas in Illinois suitable for nut propagation, with
the Wabash, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers, and we have been working
with farm advisers and other groups to increase nut production and now
we have a new horticultural experimental station in the southern part of
the state. There is a lot of land suitable for that type of production.

Out on the horticultural farm we have, I guess, several hundred
seedlings and varieties of nuts which you will probably see. I hope your
stay here will be a lot of fun as well as profitable.

DR. CRANE: It is a great pleasure for me, and I know from the expression
that I have had from those with whom I have talked, also for the members
of the Northern Nut Growers Association who are here to be able to meet
in Urbana as guests of the University of Illinois. As a matter of fact,
we have tried and wanted to come out here for quite a long while, but
we didn't have a good invitation and we are glad to accept--here we are!

The members of the Northern Nut Growers Association are all good people
and they are very much interested in nut growing, not so much from the
standpoint of making a fabulous income and being able to retire on an
unlimited bank account on ten acres of land in nut trees, but they get a
lot of pleasure out of fooling with them as a hobby, and in order that
they might more or less through their trees respond under God's loving
care.

This is the 42nd annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association,
so it is no longer a baby. It is growing up. I don't know what the
membership is at the present time. The secretary is going to tell us
what the membership is this afternoon. It has gotten to be quite a
sizable organization. We welcome the opportunity of coming out here to
Illinois to see some of the nut orchards and nut trees in this great
state, particularly pecans, although we do see quite a lot of hickories
and also walnuts.

We certainly thank you, Dr. Birkeland, for your welcome and I know that
our pleasure here is going to be unlimited. We thank you.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Thank you, Dr. Crane. We had them bring up some water to
take care of our whistles.

At this time I'd like to present our address.



President's Address


I want to say it is a real privilege and pleasure for me to visit with
you today and to have the honor of serving as your president for the
past year. I have always been impressed with the enthusiasm and optimism
of this group. You know enthusiasm and optimism are highly contagious,
and I look forward each year with great anticipation to my regular
inoculation.

It is particularly fitting that we assemble here with a common goal and
purpose and also with the common knowledge that there is much work to be
done. This society, which was formed 42 years ago, has enjoyed great
progress and I wish to commend the men who had the vision to conceive
this association and nurture it to manhood. Their accomplishments were
indeed fruitful. However, there is still room and need for a program of
expansion. It is our responsibility and obligation to see that this
growth continues. The rings of growth on a tree trunk push outward and
continually expand and grow--so must our association. Sometimes we
become so deeply engrossed in what we are doing or trying to do that it
is advisable to back up and take a broadside view of our objectives and
purpose. In other words, we sometimes cannot see the forest for the
trees.

I should like at this time to review the real intent and purpose of the
Northern Nutgrowers Association. The defined purpose of this
association, as stated in the Constitution, is to promote: (1) Interest
in nut bearing plants; (2) Scientific research in their breeding and
culture; (3) Standardization of varietal names; (4) The dissemination of
information concerning the above and such other purposes as may advance
the culture of nut bearing plants.

We are very happy that the 1951 convention has come to Illinois, which
represents the western rim of this group. Only one meeting was held
farther west, and that was held in Iowa in 1915, when my good friend and
fellow Iowan, D. C. Snyder's brother, was active and contributed so much
to nut culture in this country. The late Sam Snyder's, as well as D.
C.'s untiring efforts, did much to originate and develop some of the
finest named walnut and hickory nuts in Iowa. Through the years many
other good nuts of the black walnut, hickory, pecan, Persian walnut and
chestnut have been added to the ever-growing list. It is my considered
opinion that one of the real questions that must be answered and
answered intelligently, based on actual experience, is what nut trees
shall I plant now?

It is only natural that the list of different varieties has grown so
long in nearly every variety that we should concern ourselves
particularly with point three of our objectives, which I have reviewed
with you--that being the standardization and selection of varietal
names. In order that nut culture be extended and expanded for profit, as
well as satisfaction, I feel this is a real problem. It is my considered
judgment that a definite culling must be done. Those of us who find our
favorite nut tree meeting the axe may propagate it on a personal basis.
The fact remains however that a definite list of approved varieties,
based on actual experience and performance, is needed. We will save many
a heartache, much time, work, and money by knowing more definitely what
to plant. This would enable the nurseryman or the propagator of nut
trees to reduce the number of varieties it has been necessary to carry
in the past. It is imperative that any growing business have a broad
commercial base. The nurseryman is seeking information on the most
desirable varieties because it is unprofitable for him to carry a huge
inventory of varieties he feels are most desirable, yet are called for
the least. It has been my experience that the nurserymen in Iowa are
limiting the number of species for propagating purposes. They are making
a selection of varieties based on their own judgment, which may be good
or perhaps could be better. If more standardization and selection could
be obtained, the nurseryman could and would propagate more of the
varieties that are recommended for their particular localities. In my
opinion, it is our responsibility to help furnish this information.

With this in mind, we have named a committee to work on this important
problem during the past year. The very capable and efficient Mr. H. F.
Stoke has been working with the vice-presidents of our organization to
survey the black walnut through the black walnut belt. I am sure we all
are anxious to learn about their findings and accomplishments later in
this conference. It is my sincere hope that this report and the forum
round table discussion will give all of us a better understanding of
which black walnut to plant in each respective locality. If we can
accomplish this one problem at this meeting, I feel this conference
would be most worthwhile and be a contributing factor to an
ever-expanding production of good black walnuts in this country.

If we can make real progress on the black walnut, and I am confident we
can, the other varieties such as the hickory, Persian walnut, chestnut,
and the lesser grown nuts, can be dealt with in the future.

This matter of selecting the best variety of black walnuts for a
particular locality has been of interest to me ever since I became
interested in the fascinating subject and practice of growing nut trees.
Furthermore, I have become increasingly interested in this during each
succeeding year. If you will pardon a personal reference, we started out
by planting some of each variety that appealed to me that was being
propagated or sold by nurserymen. In the beginning years we experienced
difficulty with two factors: namely, cattle and flood waters. We still
have a number of varieties but have discarded many for a number of
reasons. However, in the next few years the trees will be ready to bear
and will furnish many of the answers concerning production in our own
locality. This single project may save future planters of nut trees many
heartaches and, more important, loss of time--because they will know
what to plant.

That sentence in essence is my main thought for the day--and year. And
as a final example we could read the parable from the book of Matthew of
the man who sowed seed but an enemy sowed tares and the servants asked
if they should pull the tares. But Jesus said, "No, because in so doing
they might uproot the wheat. Rather," said He, "wait until the harvest,
then separate the tares from the wheat."

Earlier it was mentioned that we all like to be identified with a
growing or expanding business or project. It is my firm conviction that
we all should do more to promote more and better nut trees. We need more
planters of a few nut trees as well as a few planters with many trees.

We have recently seen a tremendous rebirth of interest in grassland
farming in this country. This is constructive and sound for the long
pull. Livestock and proper land use are natural companions. Another ally
and companion in this whole movement should be good walnut trees in
every pasture, a few nut trees in every farm lot, in the fence row and
corner of the farm. I am sure that our educational agencies would be
very receptive to putting more emphasis on this sound and fundamental
practice. Good pasture lands, clear streams, plenty of trees for shade
are all important and real assets to any farm. Shade produced by a tree
is incomparable to any man-made structure. Instead of compromising with
any shade tree let us all accept it as our mission to educate the people
to know that nut trees are the most economical and useful. Then, after a
summer of furnishing the finest shade from the summer heat, fall would
bring an abundant harvest of highly desirable edible nuts for the
household and perhaps a few more for a city neighbor who may not have
been so fortunate.

Thus, in closing, may I again emphasize that it is my sincere hope that
the survey, which has been completed by Mr. Stoke through the good
cooperation of the vice presidents, will result in a more intelligent
selection of the best black walnuts for the respective communities and
localities. This will enable the beginner, as well as others, to
purchase black walnut trees with a reasonable assurance that the returns
will be a source of satisfaction rather than a disappointment.

It is a real pleasure to come to Urbana and partake of the gracious
hospitality of people like Dr. Colby, J. C. McDaniel, and others who
have contributed so much to the success of this association. This is a
great fraternity and it is my sincere hope that we continue from here to
a most successful meeting. This common bond and mutual objective of
better nut culture gives us pleasure, profit, pleasant association,
healthful enjoyment, and at the same time renders a genuine service to
our community and country.

At this time, we have to make a change in our program, due to the fact
that our leader W. W. Magill, of the University of Kentucky, is not here
with us. We have asked that S. C. Chandler, of Carbondale, Illinois,
speak on the Control of Spittle Bugs on Nut Trees.



Control of Spittle Bugs on Nut Trees

S. C. CHANDLER, _Illinois Natural History Survey, Carbondale, Ill._


When Dr. Crane spoke about the fact that so many of you grow nuts for
pleasure rather than for profit, I thought that probably explained why I
just knew about this pecan spittle bug June 27 of this year. I never
even heard of it before, although it has been quite serious in and
around Union County, 200 miles south of here. The firm which owns the
orchard where these tests were conducted, Conrad Casper and Son, has 75
magnificent pecan trees besides an apple and a peach orchard. Mr. Casper
didn't say anything about the trouble until then. He lays much of the
loss of his crop to the pecan spittle bug. I want you to know what it is
like. It is a little out of season. The meadow spittle bug works on
grasses and weeds. This is, we have found, a different species. This one
I brought up doesn't show as much as it would if I had collected it
three weeks ago. There is a little nymph of a sucking insect which spits
as it feeds. It doesn't chew tobacco fortunately. I got it from down
here in the bottoms of the Little Wabash River.

I first want to tell you a little of what the grower, Mr. Conrad Casper,
considers the importance of it. Now, as I say, I don't pretend to be a
specialist on nut insects. My work has been mostly with fruit insects.
Whatever I know about this insect I have learned this year, and I am
just passing on that information to you.

Mr. Casper says that in the year represented by this growth here the
spittle bug worked right into the base, and that is the one that would
have produced buds. So, instead of bearing nuts, it acts as if you have
pruned it. It didn't stop the growth, but it stopped the bearing of
nuts. That was attacked by spittle bugs, but at any rate it didn't
produce nuts. That has gone on four or five years and his neighbors all
say the same thing. Here is one year, two, three, in the twig growth.
This year it did make some nuts, in that particular branch. I am not
prepared to back everything he says. Here is a growth here, then
another, and finally had a few nuts all over the tree. So much then for
the importance of it.

My problem was three-fold. I wanted to find out what species was
involved. I found out it was not the same species that works on the
grasses, and I sent in some adults for identification. They told me the
right genus, but couldn't tell me the species. They are either in the
process of determining it or on vacation. It is a different thing from
the Meadow spittle bug and has two broods instead of one. I wanted to
learn something about the life history. All of you know that it is very
important to get the life history of the insect, because then you know
the stages in which they are most likely to be most easily killed. We
know something of the stages and when it would be of use to spray or do
something for them. In order to learn the species, I had to rear it out
and to attempt some control measures when it was first called to my
attention by the farm advisers. This first brood was about over, and I
thought our work was about over. The spittle was drying up. It is
interesting to note that unless it is actually feeding, you can carry it
around in a car for only a short time. The insect seems to stop working
and you can't get a very good sample.

MR. McDANIEL: We have some out there on our pecan trees and on the
walnuts also.

MR. CHANDLER: Down there we found where walnut was interplanted with
pecan, it would be very light on a walnut then. So I thought that maybe
our observations and tests were over before they ever started, but by
July 8 or 10, a new brood had started. Dr. G. C. Decker could hardly
believe it. There is only one brood of the Meadow spittle bug with which
he was familiar, but this was a different species. It was very much more
numerous than the first brood. Ninety-five per cent of the terminals
were infested. If that does anything to nut production it is bound to
reduce the bearing. Now that brood lasted until late August. The adults
continued to emerge for about a month, starting August third, and as far
as I know they were still emerging on Sunday afternoon, August 26.

Now, just before telling about that and showing some of the pictures and
spraying test, I might wind up this part of it by saying something about
the distribution. I wondered if it is in Gallatin County. I found it
abundant there. Mac already says we have some in Urbana. I was wondering
if it was down in the so-called pecan orchards. These orchards are
really just seedling groves. Immense things. I went down there on my way
and they do have it. The first man I met said I think we haven't been
getting pecans because of that spittle bug. It did seem funny to stumble
on the thing. Mr. Casper was really an apple grower. It took him four
years to suffer enough to complain about his pecan insects.

I want to show you some slides. Dr. Kelly will start showing the
pictures.

I tried to take a picture of one of the worst infested branches. Really,
later I found I had taken it a little too soon. This thing actually
hangs down in bags.

This was my attempt to show some of these previous year's growth that
was killed, and there it was. You can see some of this whitish material
here. This was taken after we had sprayed. The new growth is coming
through here.

I must have gotten my finger in the way here. This is the dead part and
the new growth and something working on it.

Another thing that Mr. Casper says is that sometimes it gets bad enough
so that some of these nuts are caused to drop off. They seem to be
pretty well established.

Now there are small things I am attempting to show here. I think our
official photographer is on vacation. He has some that are larger than I
was able to take. I tried to take a picture when the spittle was dried
up, but I don't know whether you can see them.

I wanted to show you some of the cages. They were emergence cages that
cover a branch. The nymphs would develop into the adults inside that.

Here again I wished for my official photographer. These are the adults,
darkish up here and light in the other end. They are about three-eighths
of an inch long and they are a hopper. They have wings with which they
can fly, but mostly you see them jumping about. They look like your tree
hoppers.

I just wanted you to take a look down this magnificent orchard of Mr.
Casper's. He has 75 of those trees. They are 31 years old, planted 55
feet apart. They are 75 feet high. I am going to have to use some of my
boy scout ability and measure by proportion. He claims to have sprayed
at least the lower three-fourths of the tree.

MEMBER: He uses a speed sprayer, doesn't he?

MR. CHANDLER: No, it's another kind. With all the pressure on one gun,
he can get a long way up. One of the materials we used was too strong
and we got a crinkling on the leaves. After that he cut it down to what
I told him.

My data slide. I want to tell you about this. He sprayed first on July
16 in the orchard which I showed you. He sprayed the whole thing with
parathion. He had been using it with his apples and he thought of that
as being such a deadly poison that that must be the thing to do. We
thought so the first day afterward. He sprayed in the evening. At nine
the next morning we could find practically none of those terminals that
seemed to have live spittle bugs, but in about two days we could see
some were surviving that treatment so we came in again. That spray was
applied July 23. At any rate, we sprayed one row with lindane, 1-1/4 lb.
per 100 gallons. When I went through the original parathion sprayed plot
there was well over half that had some live nymphs.

We started our tests over again. On July 30 we sprayed with lindane (25%
wettable powder) with one pound to one hundred gallons of water. Only
three terminals with any live nymphs out of a hundred were left in the
lindane. The parathion has 38 per cent alive. TEPP which is teta ethyl
pyrophosphate is a very quick acting material but doesn't last. Whatever
it does, it has to do in an hour or two's time. It has lost its
efficiency after that. But we know it might kill everything in a big
hurry. There was still ten per cent. We could rule out parathion. We
went back to this one row and sprayed on July 23 and on August 2 and 3.
That would be nine days. There still were only four infested terminals.
That lindane is a refined BHC, which is that material that stinks. It
has been known to produce an off flavor in peaches, and it could very
easily make an off flavor in pecans. In tests before this on Meadow
spittle bugs on crops which might be used for food they did not use BHC,
which would be cheaper. There are four or five different forms of the
molecule that are important in making that and this gamma is the most
important. We used a pound of this 25% gamma lindane and that apparently
was the most successful. I didn't get this idea out of a clear sky. I
talked to Dr. G. C. Decker and read one or two articles showing where
they had been using dieldrin and lindane with the most success.

I guess that is all the slides now.

MEMBER: Do you get away from the bad effects of BHC by using lindane?

MR. CHANDLER: Yes. Now we feel that at any rate in the very short time
in which we have known anything about the thing we have at least learned
something about the pest and the distribution and the species and
apparently we have got a lead on control. Mr. Casper thinks there is no
reason why he shouldn't start in the first brood, although he has had
about four years build up of the thing and no wonder it is bad. If we
should try that another year, I would say we should start about the
middle of June, because when he looked on the 27th of June the show was
about over.

MEMBER: Your lattitude is about the same as Evansville?

MR. CHANDLER: Yes, Carbondale is almost on the due west line with
Henderson, Kentucky, and Anna is 20 miles south of Carbondale.

MEMBER: One hundred miles north would be about two weeks later.

MR. CHANDLER: Yes, I wouldn't be surprised if it wouldn't be later. We
thought maybe you might have to spray when the adults were out. We
didn't know whether any material would go through that spittle. We
thought you might have to spray and envelop the tree when the adults
were around.

MEMBER: I saw some spittle bugs in Northern Michigan on wild hazel, and
I am wondering if they are a pest on filberts.

MEMBER: We have no damage on filberts and I think we have spittle bugs
in St. Louis. Our first brood comes between the first of June and the
tenth, and in the last eight years they have been very serious.

MEMBER: Did you say Northern Peninsula of Michigan?

MEMBER: We have reports from Illinois and Missouri and Mr. Armstrong
found it over at Princeton, Kentucky, and I know it is in Indiana.

MR. McDANIEL: I have seen some on pecans in Tennessee, but not as
abundant as in Union County.

MEMBER: English walnuts in Ohio.

H. F. STOKE: I am in southwestern Virginia. I can say that we have
spittle bug in the South. I am not sure it is the same species. When I
get it determined, I will let you know.

DR. CHASE: That occurs in all the southern states. It is quite bad in
Georgia and Florida and Alabama and in fact all the southern states.

MR. McKAY: It is very bad on weeds and grass in our orchards.

MR. CHANDLER: That's another species.

MR. McKAY: I have never seen any on our nut trees.

MEMBER: Just before this attack on the nut trees it was real bad on
clover and grasses in our area.

MEMBER: That comes a little earlier. We ought to be sure that we get
that determined. Dr. Milton W. Sanderson has had to send some specimens
to a specialist in this group in Lawrence, Kansas.[1]

MEMBER: Are there just two broods?

MR. CHANDLER: There might possibly be three. I have another cage in my
check block in which I collected the live ones, and I am going to find
out whether they produce or don't.

MEMBER: There are two broods in Iowa.

MEMBER: Do I understand the common spittle bug is an enemy to nut trees?

MEMBER: That is for young nursery seedlings.

MR. CHANDLER: Did you see these big trees where I told you about having
the crop? I explained for several minutes that there must be two
varieties.

MR. FERGUSON: There is a spittle bug that bothers the June berries.

DR. ROHRBACHER: We have a spittle bug we had a year or two in Iowa on
the elm trees.

At this time Dr. Colby would like to make a few announcements.

DR. COLBY: I just had a call from Tubby Magill. He is over in Danville
and he has burned out a bearing and he is going to get over here for
this afternoon. We will have to pinch-hit the rest of the morning.

DR. ROHRBACHER: We will now have a presentation by Dr McKay on the
Preliminary Results of the Training of Chinese Chestnut Trees.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Dr. Kathleen G. Doering, at the University of Kansas
identified the spittle bug from the Illinois pecans as _Clastoptera
achatina_, a species not hitherto recognized as an important pecan pest.
Spittle bugs from southeastern pecans have been referred to a different
species.--Ed.]



Preliminary Results from Training Chinese Chestnut Trees to Different
Heights of Head

J. W. MCKAY AND H. L. CRANE[2]


Introduction

Many growers of Chinese chestnut (_Castanea mollissima_) want to know
how soon their young trees may be expected to bear their first crops of
nuts. This is determined by several factors, but perhaps one of the most
important is the amount and kind of pruning the trees receive during the
first four or five years they are in the orchard. One reason for the
importance of type of pruning is the characteristic habit of the species
to form branches low on the trunk, so that low-headed and spreading tops
result if trees are left unpruned.

It has long been accepted by most horticulturists that any kind of
pruning of fruit trees tends to be a dwarfing process. Hence, pruned
trees would be smaller than similar unpruned trees. Pruning of young
fruit trees, though reducing the size of the top and the number of
growing points, tends to stimulate the growth of the remaining shoots.
This has a marked tendency to delay the formation of fruit buds. Hence,
unpruned trees come into bearing earlier than even lightly pruned trees.
Tufts (2)[3] reported that lightly pruned deciduous fruit trees, such as
apple, pear, apricot, and peach, came into bearing one to three years
earlier than similar trees that had been heavily pruned. Crane (1) found
that height of head in apple trees had little effect on yield for the
first nine years in the orchard, but at the time the experiment was
terminated the trees were still too young for him to expect much fruit
production. He found, however, that the low-headed trees made more shoot
growth and a larger gain in trunk diameter than the high-headed ones,
and thus the bearing area was larger. Because the tree form of the
horticultural varieties of Chinese chestnut is somewhat comparable to
that of apple varieties, it would be expected that the two might give
similar growth and yield responses to pruning or training procedures.
The experiment described in this paper was initiated for the purpose of
determining the response made by trees of Chinese chestnut varieties
pruned and trained to three heights of head.


Experimental Procedure

The three varieties used in the experiment are Meiling, Nanking, and an
unnamed variety carried under the accession number 7916. The last
variety is characterized by dwarf, heavy-bearing trees that mature their
crops very early in the fall, whereas Meiling and Nanking are vigorous,
fast-growing varieties that mature their nuts in midseason. In the early
spring of 1948 thirty-six two-year-old grafted trees were planted 25
feet apart in the orchard in four short rows of nine trees each. The
three treatments consisted of (1) no pruning; (2) pruning to a 2-foot
head; and (3) pruning to a 4-foot head. Three trees, one of each
variety, were included in a plot or treatment. Thus, the experiment was
arranged in a randomized block design with the three treatments
randomized in each row and the four rows serving as replications. Each
spring the trees received a liberal application of a 10-6-5 fertilizer.
Strips six to eight feet wide on each side of the contoured rows
received frequent cultivation each growing season, while strips of
orchard grass sod were left between the rows to prevent erosion. The
soil is Riverdale (tentative series) sandy loam that had been in orchard
grass sod for ten years before the experiment was begun. It has been
necessary to spray the trees each year with DDT, parathion, or both to
control Japanese beetles and mites.

Pruning of the trees was begun during the first winter following the
planting in the orchard, but only a few of the lower limbs were removed
in order not to dwarf the pruned trees severely. The second winter a few
more lower limbs were removed and at this time the two-foot-head
treatments were complete. A third pruning was necessary before the heads
of the trees in treatment three could be raised to four feet. Detailed
records and measurements were made of the diameter of each tree trunk
one foot above the ground, and of the weight and number of nuts produced
(yield).


Experimental Results

=Table 1. Effects of training to different heights of head on the average
diameter of tree trunk and yield of nuts of three varieties of Chinese
chestnuts at the end of the third season (1950) after transplanting=

  ===========+=============================+==============================+
             |                             |                              |
             |   Average diameter of tree  |                              |
             |     trunk (millimeters)     |    Yield of nuts (pounds)    |
  Treatment  +-----------------------------+------------------------------+
             |                             |                              |
             | Meiling No.  Nanking Tree   | Meiling No.  Nanking Tree    |
             |         7916         average|         7916         average |
 ------------+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
             |                             |                              |
 No pruning  |   43    43[1]   47    45    |  .19   .43[1]   .05   .16    |
 2-foot heads|   25    19      21    22    |    0   .12        0   .04    |
 4-foot heads|   27    22      25    25    |    0   .03        0   .01    |
 ------------+-----------------------------+------------------------------+

  =============+==============================+
               |                              |
               |                              |
               |      Number of Nuts          |
    Treatment  +------------------------------+
               |                              |
               | Meiling No.  Nanking Tree    |
               |         7916         average |
  -------------+------------------------------+
               |                              |
  No pruning   |   11    22[1]    2    10     |
  2-foot heads |    0     7       0     2     |
  4-foot heads |    1     4       0     2     |
  -------------+------------------------------+

  [1] 2 trees missing.

Data on the diameters of the tree trunks and yields of nuts at the end
of the third year in the orchard are given in table 1. It should be
pointed out first that these grafted trees produced some nuts the third
growing season they were in the orchard. This is very much earlier than
seedling trees ordinarily could be expected to bear nuts. It will be
noted that trees of Number 7916 developed a somewhat smaller trunk on
the average than the other varieties did, but Number 7916 outyielded
them about two to one, both in weight and in number of nuts produced.
The tendency of Number 7916 to bear nuts earlier and on smaller trees
than other varieties may prove to be a valuable characteristic that will
justify naming and releasing this clone as a new variety. The fact that
it matures its nuts early may also make it suitable for growing in more
northerly areas than other varieties, because the length of season
required for maturing the crop presumably is shorter than for other
varieties. However, this cannot be determined without extensive tests in
the North, which are now being made by a number of growers.

It will be noted also in table 1 that the trunk diameters of the
unpruned trees were about twice as great as were those of trees trained
to two-and four-foot heads; and furthermore, the yield of nuts was more
than four times as great. This means that cutting off the limbs that
formed below the 2-foot level checked growth so that the bearing surface
of the tops was greatly reduced as compared with that of unpruned trees.
Also, growth of the tops of these trees was etiolated and spindly, and
the shoots produced few or no catkins as compared with the abundant
catkins produced by the unpruned trees. Several of the trees with
four-foot heads became so top-heavy that staking was necessary, and
nearly all the pruned trees leaned to some extent. At the end of the
third year in the orchard, the unpruned trees were much taller than
trees headed at two and four feet, and the spread of branches was also
much greater. Preliminary results from this experiment indicate that
early pruning of young Chinese chestnut trees causes severe dwarfing and
consequent delay in the formation of catkins and the bearing of nuts.
All pruning operations should, therefore, be delayed until the trees
reach bearing age, and from that time on low limbs may be removed
gradually from year to year until the trees are trained to the proper
height.


Literature Cited

  (1) Crane, H. L.
  The effect of height of head on young apple tree growth and yield
  West Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 214. 1928

  (2) Tufts, Warren P.
  Pruning young deciduous fruit trees
  California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 313: 111-153. 1919


Discussion

MR. McDANIEL: What age and height were these trees when planted?

DR. McKAY: These trees were grafted on two year old stock and allowed to
grow a year. They were three years old. They have grown in the orchard
three years, so they are now six years old and about five feet high.

They were grafted about a foot from the ground and they grew three feet
or so. They were a good size grafted tree.

MEMBER: May I ask the time of the year when you pruned?

DR. McKAY: In the dormant season.

MR. SHERMAN: I have been pruning some Persian walnuts. Just as the side
branch starts I rub that bud off and I can't see that I am dwarfing it
any.

MEMBER: Maybe you aren't pruning enough to do any dwarfing. We have
removed whole limbs.

MEMBER: I have taken it off and allowed the center to go up.

DR. McKAY: It may have different effects. We actually removed wood from
the tree.

MEMBER: Is that 7916 a pretty good sized nut?

DR. McKAY: It is a smaller nut. The 7916 is a potentially high bearer.
It bears quickly after it is planted and that is one of the things a lot
of us are interested in.

MEMBER: How about eating quality?

DR. McKAY: It is just as good.

Our preliminary conclusion is that early pruning in this species causes
severe dwarfing and delay in the fruiting of Chinese chestnuts. Just let
them alone. Plant them and forget about pruning them until they come
into bearing. Let them alone and you will get nuts two or three years
sooner than if you start taking those lower limbs off. Once you get it
into bearing then start in and take off a few limbs on the bottom. You
could still over-do the thing. The point is to wait at least three or
four years. We will have some recommendations in another year when we
shall know more ourselves.

MEMBER: What do you disinfect those cuts with?

DR. McKAY: We don't figure it is necessary to be too particular about
painting the wounds. Those wounds heal over very quickly. Use an asphalt
tree wound compound.

MR. SILVIS: Personally it appears to me that Walter Sherman's method of
rubbing off the buds or very young shoots just as they start growth is
to be preferred. Your method of cutting off limbs is destructive
pruning. Though you say pruning dwarfs the tree, actually the root is
still there and given enough time will not the tree recover?

DR. CRANE: I carried on pruning experiments for many, many years, with
apples, peaches, pears and cherries. Since then I have been working on
nut trees. As for this debudding, the reason he doesn't know he was
injuring, was that he didn't have checks and experiments. When you have,
you will see that debudding or even pinching the terminals will actually
dwarf the tree, although not as badly if it is not done in the summer
time. If you do it in the springtime, and if you keep on debudding along
in June and July, you are dwarfing your trees.

MR. McDANIEL: In the University orchard you will see some Chinese
chestnuts which have been pruned heavily, and the results aren't good.

MR. CORSAN: I visited a sweet chestnut orchard in Michigan, and the
grower told me that there were two types of Chinese chestnut trees, one
that grew tall and the other squatty. The one that grew shorter was much
later than the tall one. Then I would like to tell you about an
experience I had years ago. I imported from this state of Illinois from
Miss Amelia Riehl, and I also planted about a bushel of seed of Chinese
chestnut trees grown in the Niagara district. These Niagara seedlings
are quite large and the amazing thing is they didn't grow any nuts. So I
came across another orchard in the Niagara district where they were
growing that large pointed type of nut and I got some grafts from that
and I put them on these non-bearing trees and they all took at once. A
bunch of them would all grow up without any failure. That was easy and
now they are growing fine. I just thought I would tell you that peculiar
experience, and that knocked me cold. The trees from Illinois and the
trees from the seeds of the large good sized nuts were equally good.

MEMBER: Did they bear after you grafted them?

MR. CORSAN: They sent out sprouts that far. [Indicating.] The trees were
all right.

MR. STOKE: I think you are both wrong. I think you will take the tree
and plant it without pruning and then it starts and then in the summer
after it is in full leaf pinch off the leader in the lower branches.
That will retain the value of those lower leaves. By doing that and
suppressing the lower you will get better results than either of the
other ways. Nature will remove and make unfruitful the lower ones. You
can help nature in forcing the upper growth and removing the lower.

DR. McKAY: That is one way of doing it. A lot of people want to get
ahead of nature. If you wait for those lower limbs to die, the tree will
have to be pretty large. Lots of people want to get under their trees
before that. You sometimes want to get there after three or four years.
I think it would take ten years for the shade to do it.

MR. STOKE: I didn't mean to let the shade do it. We after three or four
years can remove the limbs ourselves with less shock and much better
results. That will work on any tree.

DR. McKAY: I don't see how you can remove.

MEMBER: You force stronger leaders at the top and hasten the growth of
the top.

MEMBER. You will get a delay of fruiting.

MEMBER: I think you make up for it.

DR. CRANE: That may be true. We have seen very conclusively that when
you prune even a little you are going to destroy fruiting.

MR. STOKE: You will have a larger tree in five years by my method than
by yours.

MR. A. M. WHITFORD: I have trees of that very spreading type of Chinese
chestnut, that are lying on the ground and I should have removed those
limbs five or eight years ago. You should remove them in not more than
five years after planting.

DR. McKAY: I want to make a comment. Some grafted trees are not bearing.
This to us shows the importance of varieties. This difference between
7916 and the two others is so striking it means in the future we have to
pay more attention to the varieties. There is no question that some
varieties will bear sooner than others. We have to talk about grafted
trees because that is the only thing that can be developed. Every
grafted tree is potentially like every other of the same variety.

MEMBER: What factors suppress them? In pinching back, do you mean that
the actual growth rate is changed, or that debudding will suppress the
entire tree?

DR. McKAY: We mean the amount of the top itself. Usually it is the
spread and the height together. When you prune, you tend to hold back
the total amount of the fruiting area of the tree. If you allow it to
develop untouched you have a greater fruiting area.

MEMBER: The chestnut tree often will sprout from the trunk. What are the
processes to check that?

DR. CRANE: It is very largely root pressure. When you have a tree that
is uninjured, all of your water and soluble minerals are going up to the
top. When you have the tree trunk killed or cut off you still have water
in your root system. In some trees you have a lot of adventitious buds
that are still there and never forced out. Nitrogen will force those
dormant buds into growth. At each walnut node or leaf we have as many as
seven buds, all of which are capable of producing growth. Normally it is
only the major bud that grows, but propagators sometimes get a patch bud
back to life even though the primary bud dries up. Keep on forcing it
and you are bound to get a sprout out of that bud. That is just the way
it is with a lot of dormant buds. There are so many that when we cut off
the top these dormant buds are forced into growth. Some trees don't have
them. Tung does not form dormant buds, but will form those adventitious
buds. They will form numerous buds even in a very small area of callus.
It is just a safeguard that some plants have developed to keep the
individuals alive.

MR. McDANIEL: I think what Mr. Craig had in mind was the tendency there
is in Chinese chestnut to form multiple trunks.

DR. CRANE: That is due to these dormant buds and the ability to produce
callus. Chestnut is one of the species that produces abundant callus
very readily. That is one of the reasons this Chinese chestnut is so
blight resistant. When it has an injury it will form callus at the point
of the injury.

MEMBER: Would you tell me how you would start a blind bud growing. It
will not break. It doesn't form. When I come to a wood which is blind I
cut it off.

MR. CHASE: We have had such buds and find if that bud is blind you can
force all you want to but you won't get any new buds to grow from that
bud patch.

DR. McKAY: It does on two-year wood. Perhaps on one-year wood you have
no adventitious buds. When the bud dies, that patch is through. On
two-year wood frequently small adventitious buds will grow.

MEMBER: If you rub the main bud off, it will start on the side.

MEMBER: Do you recommend two year wood for budding?

DR. McKAY: We recommend one year if it is large and vigorous. If you
have to use chestnut wood smaller than a pencil the results will be
indifferent.

MEMBER: What time do you recommend budding?

DR. McKAY: We graft in spring, the first week in May, using dormant wood
the size of your little finger. We wait until the first leaves are open,
usually in May.

MEMBER: Do I understand that most any place along that tree trunk there
are adventitious buds?

DR. McKAY: Particularly next to the root.

MEMBER: Have you had any success in bench grafting of the chestnuts?

DR. McKAY: We have had some success and other times failures. We can't
recommend bench grafting. Perhaps you can do it, but we haven't yet
worked out a satisfactory method.

MEMBER: Wouldn't it do better if you dipped the top in paraffin or
something?

DR. McKAY: Ask Mr. Bernath. He is the authority.

MR. BERNATH: No, none whatever. No, it wouldn't help.

MR. CORSAN: In New York they had weevils. That is the most terrible
thing I ever saw. Has the weevil disappeared entirely?

MEMBER: No, indeed, we have weevils over a large area. It is a very
important pest in the East and in the Ozark Chinkapin range around
chestnut plantings. There is a very satisfactory and easy way of
control. DDT, two pounds per 100 gallons of spray solution or a dust of
one per cent. The trees are sprayed once or twice or three times from
about the last of August on until shortly before harvest.

MR. McDANIEL: That is discussed in last year's annual report.

MR. CORSAN: I fumigated my seed nuts for the weevils and killed them all
effectively, and we have no weevils of hickory or chestnuts now. That
is, as far as southern Canada is concerned. It would matter terribly if
we had any weevils of any kind. Anyone hear about the hickory and
chestnut weevil?

MEMBER: Standard directions are available for the control of weevils
both in chestnut and hickories.

MEMBER: There are practically no weevils in New York. The boundary line
would be about southern New Jersey. It doesn't make much progress
farther north. It's also absent toward the Southeastern and Gulf coasts.

MEMBER: That is an interesting discussion, but it is off the current
subject.

DR. ROHRBACHER: I am sure your project is interesting, manifested by the
questions you have been asked.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 2: Horticulturist and Principal Horticulturist, respectively.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau Plant Industry, Soils and
Agricultural Engineering, Beltsville, Md.]

[Footnote 3: Number in parenthesis refer to literature cited, p. 25.]



The Filbert and Persian Walnut in Indiana

W. B. WARD, _Department of Horticulture, Purdue University_


The soils and climatic conditions in Indiana are, for the most part,
favorable to the growing of nut trees. There are various types of soils,
ranging from light sand to heavy clay, soils high and low in organic
material and natural fertility. The annual rainfall, 35 to 40 inches, is
fairly well distributed throughout the year. The length of the growing
season is about 150 frost-free days and, oftentimes, another 20 to 30
days of non-killing temperature. The summer and winter temperatures are
average, thus providing good conditions for the development of fruit and
growth to the trees.

There are always exceptions to the normal conditions, and a good test
season broadens the experience of those who want to go to the extreme in
planting nut trees. This past year, 1950-51 season, was a good test
year. The temperature early in November was as high as 85°, tomatoes,
peppers, beans, and sweet corn were growing in the gardens. During
mid-November the temperature quickly dropped to near zero. The cold
later went down to -20° and even -35°, as recorded at Greensburg. This
cold weather, not only killed much of the tender short growth and
pistillate flower possibilities, but destroyed many of the catkins. The
filbert and Persian (including Carpathian) walnuts, suffered and in some
instances the plants were killed to ground level. All of the damaged
plants have survived, and where the top of the tree was killed, new
growth came up from the root. As only seedling Persian walnut trees were
under observation and included in the Purdue plantation, their sucker
growth will be used to form new tops.

The native walnut, hazelnut, hickory, and butternut had little or no
winter injury and many trees are very fruitful all over Indiana. The
improved strains of filberts and the Persian walnuts have only a few
fruits this year. Seedling Persians grafted or budded on native black
walnut survived, but there was some damage to the top growth due to
immaturity of the wood and bud last fall. Before general planting
recommendations can be made, other than for the hobbyist or home-owner
with a few trees, further testing will be required.

Filbert and Hazelnut

The native hazelnut thickets are not as common now as in years past.
Most of the nuts were small and of little commercial value. When
hybridizers and other nut enthusiasts started improving the size and
quality of the native hazelnut and bringing in filberts from other
countries, some impetus was added to the filbert planting program. Only
a few took advantage of these new and promising seedlings, and aside
from a few small plantings throughout the state the filbert is placed in
the ornamental grouping of plants. Several areas in Indiana are suitable
for more extensive plantings. The Jones hybrids have proven satisfactory
and are found growing from the northern part to the Ohio River.

Several crosses were made four years ago using pollen from the Rush and
large fruited seedlings on the native hazel. There are 35 or 40 such
plants, two years old, now growing in the Purdue plot. They came through
the winter in excellent condition. Many of the catkins on the older
plants were killed during the early cold spell, and the nut crop this
year is very spotty. The filbert does have a place around the home as an
ornamental, as a fruit tree, or when used as a hedge for screening.

The Carpathian Persian Walnut

The Carpathian Persian walnuts in Indiana are practically all seedlings.
Many of these seedling trees show great promise, while others under
observation for the past few years are being discarded because of lack
of hardiness and production. Some few seedlings made vigorous growth and
produced fair to good yields for the past 10 years, but some weakness
was evident after the 1950-51 winter. It appears now that those trees
that have survived and are in production this year are worthy of further
study and propagation.

The oldest known Persian walnut in our state is the Haderle seedling. A
few nuts, from a friend in California, were planted in 1924 and 10 years
later fruited. This tree has produced as many as 350 pounds of nuts in a
single year and has survived all test winters since planting. The nut
from the Haderle tree averages 32 nuts per pound, medium shell, good
quality and 44.6 per cent of the total weight is edible. The nut cracks
well. Several other such Persian seedlings have been classified as
existing prior to the general distribution of Carpathian nuts from the
Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1936 to 1938 and later.

Several individuals in Indiana took advantage of the nut sale and
importation from Poland during the years mentioned and about 10 per cent
of the original seedlings are now alive. Many of the trees planted 10 to
15 years ago are fruiting and classified. Outstanding groups of
seedlings, which are referred to by name, such as Bolten, Fateley,
Eagles, Barnhart, Kraning, Behr, Zollman, and others are found from the
extreme northern area to the Ohio River, and are distributed over nearly
one-half of the 92 counties in Indiana.

The use of eastern black walnut as understock has been practised by
several orchardists and nurserymen, and a few will have trees for sale
in the near future. The fruits from these trees compare with the best.

The largest nut is in the Fateley #1., with some fruits two inches in
diameter, and averaging 23 nuts per pound. The nut is high in quality,
has an appealing taste, and a well formed kernel. It cracks easily and
has a very thin shell for such a large nut. This tree has borne 50
pounds of nuts or more annually for the past few years and has a nice
crop this year after the severe test winter. The Fateley #1 seedling as
well as the #2, #3 and #4 seedlings, are grown on a city lot, under
crowded conditions and provided with only moderate care.

Several crosses have been made at Purdue with the Persian walnut, and
approximately 100 seedlings have been distributed to various persons
throughout a large area of the state. The trees do not seem as
susceptible to insect and disease damage as the native black walnut, and
growing well in sod should make good lawn trees. Some of the nut trees
were sprayed with "Nu Green"--five pounds per 100 gallons of spray
material was used on the orchard crops, and great growth response was
noted for the sprayed over unsprayed trees. As the home owner is forever
looking for new trees to plant, and trees with clean habits, the Persian
and particularly the Carpathian selections may be the answer.

       *       *       *       *       *

The speaker exhibited photographs to illustrate his talk. They pictured
several of the different trees he had mentioned. The photographs showed
the conditions under which the trees grew, the effects of fertilizing,
and the injuries resulting from the winter cold. The reading of the
paper was followed by a short discussion, after which Dr. Rohrbacher
called upon Mr. Ira Kyhl, of Sabula, Iowa, who talked on the subject
"Nut Growing in Eastern Iowa."



Nut Growing in Eastern Iowa

IRA KYHL, _Sabula, Iowa_


About five years ago, I became very much interested in nut trees and
having hundreds of wild black walnuts and hickories I attempted to
graft, or rather top work, the black walnuts to Persian walnuts and
heartnuts, and the hickories to pecans and hicans.

My favorite, of course, is the Persian walnut, and in addition to top
working them on blacks I planted several grafted trees and several
hundred seed nuts. To my surprise and pleasure, nearly every seed grew
and the seedlings are still doing very well. I now have 35 to 40
varieties.

I have had very little winter injury, except with the Broadview variety.
The tops froze back a little and I had a little trouble with the bark
splitting on the larger trees. I covered the splits with tree wound
dressing and they are all doing well now. I consider the Schafer about
the best and most promising variety I have and the grafts take very
well. Most of the Carpathian varieties are also growing nicely and
especially the Illinois number 10,[4] which is a very rapid grower.

In top working, I use the bark slot method, usually setting two to three
grafts on a three inch stock, as at least one scion is almost sure to
start. These scions are fitted and nailed in place with a seven-eighth
or one inch nail and then well wrapped with one-inch industrial adhesive
tape. This seems to break or deteriorate with the growth of the graft.
I then thoroughly wax the taped part as well as all of the scion,
covering the buds rather lightly. After the scion has started to grow
well, a one by one strip is nailed to the stock. This extends from two
to three feet above the top of the stock. The growth is then tied to the
stick with soft cord. If growths are not tied this way, most of them are
broken off by the wind. After the grafts are set, I cover with a paper
milk bottle, or rather, container, and cut four small holes in it for
ventilation. It sheds the rain well. I use a small tack on two sides.
The containers usually stay there until removed when the graft starts.
This method works much better than paper bags, as they are easily
water-soaked and the wind blows them against the scion, which is easily
loosened and therefore fails to start.

I am also well pleased with the results I have had with heartnuts on
black walnuts. I consider them the most rapid-growing of any of the nut
trees. I have had grafts bear a few nuts the next year after being set.
I now have seven or eight varieties, of which I consider Fodermaier,
Aloka, Rival, Mitchell, and Wright as the most promising, along with
Goettler. Squirrels seem to prefer heartnuts to all other sorts. I have
eliminated this trouble by tacking a length or two of stove pipe around
the trees.

Last summer my attention was called to a tree about 30 miles from my
home, which bore a very large crop of heartnuts. The man that owned the
tree called them filberts. The tree is about 40 feet tall with a spread
of 40 or 50 feet and is 18 inches in diameter. It is perhaps 20 to 25
years old and bears from three to four bushels a year, I am told. I have
heard that the tree grew from a seed brought over from Germany. I have
named the tree Goettler, in honor of the man bringing it to my
attention. The nut seems to resemble the Wright and is one of the best
cracking nuts I have found. I received permission to get scion wood from
the tree and have a few grafts growing well.

Hickories are, of course, a native of this section as is pecan, which
grows wild on the Mississippi River bottoms about as far north as the
mouth of the Maquoketa River. The pecan grafts take off nicely on
hickory stocks but the graft seems to outgrow the stock. I have found,
however, that hican, being half hickory and half pecan, works much
better on a hickory stock. My pecan grafts which seem the most promising
are Major, Indiana and Greenriver, and of the hican grafts the
Burlington and Wapello.

Chestnuts seem to do very well here, as well as filberts and native
hazels. Of the chestnut varieties I have growing I prefer the Nanking,
Kuling and Meiling. Most of my Persian walnut plantings I have
interplanted with dwarf fruit trees and have clover and alfalfa growing
between the rows. This is cut twice a year and used for mulch. The
following spring it is spaded in and a small amount of high test
nitrogen applied at the same time and the trees all seem to respond to
this treatment very well.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Any questions or remarks?

MEMBER: Mr. Kyhl mentioned the Schafer. That is the one for the boys and
girls in a hurry to get nuts. In three years you get nuts. I have
experimented with it and that is the only tree that will do it.

MR. CORSAN: I would like to ask the convention if they have had the
experience with the black walnut and the Persian. Down the valley would
come a good strong wind and break off the tops. I had one that grew 20
feet from a little graft. When I put this on, it had three buds. One bud
threw six feet and 20 feet of wood from that one seeding. I barricaded
it so the ice wouldn't break it. The ice broke through my barricade and
I have one that is growing as high as I can reach. Black walnut broke
off with the wind. Sometime, the whole tree broke down. Not a twig was
broken off the English walnut. The black walnuts worry me to pieces.

MR. DAVIDSON: In connection with this rapid growth, is there any
difference in the quality of the wood? We have some that grow so much
more rapidly. When the wood matures, will it have the same value for
furniture and so on as the slower growing ones? Would they be more like
the softwood?

MR. CRANE: Our highest grade native woods are those which grow more
slowly. We haven't made any studies on the wood in black walnut, in
relation to the growth rate.

DR. MacDANIELS: The strength and value of the wood depends on the
proportion of large and small cells. In a very slow-growing tree you
have a large proportion of the big cells. In rapid-growing wood you also
have an undesirable result. It is between the very slow and very rapid
that you get the best. If you get a rapid growth the cells are thin,
even though they may be small. It is the in-between condition that makes
for good timber. That is based on actual strength tests and evaluation.

MEMBER: Mr. Corsan wrote me about the wind damage. I never had that
experience. I saw the cyclone in southeastern Iowa. Elms were up-rooted
and torn to pieces and I didn't see any black walnut damage. Even the
hickories were damaged and some snapped off. I have never seen any
walnut give away.

MR. McDANIEL: We have wind damage in Urbana, and we can show you some
places where black walnut trees were removed.

MR. CORSAN: Many years ago I was in a train going from Toronto to
Montreal, and this is a section that is full of hickory trees. The
Indians must have planted them. That is the only nut except butternut. I
looked out the window and we had a six-inch ice storm and the oaks were
stripped. Most of the other soft trees were down to the ground. There
wasn't even a twig killed on the hickories. The shagbark hickory. They
were just as sound.

DR. ROHRBACHER: The ladies who want to take a little walk and end up at
Mrs. Colby's home where she is going to serve hot coffee meet at 1.30 in
the main lobby. This is the regular time on which you are eating and
sleeping now. The remainder of the group will meet here at one o'clock.
If we go down to the cafeteria and get in before 11:40 we have a better
chance.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 4: Now named Colby, this variety is a seedling of Crath No.
10.--ED.]



TUESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

(meeting called to order at 1:00)


DR. ROHRBACHER: We will have the secretary's report.

MR. McDANIEL: By count last Saturday, we had 568 paid members plus 21
subscribers--a total of 589, compared with 575 members and a total list
of 596 a year ago and 653 in 1949. Maybe you need a new secretary who is
a more successful salesman, to push the membership higher. Actually we
still have more members than at any time before the late 1940's, but we
need more salesmanship to double or triple the present number. The
planting of hardy named nut trees is going up by leaps and bounds (ask
any nut nurseryman) but membership in the leading organization to
promote their culture is lagging. We need more members among the new nut
planters, and I think we have plenty to offer them for their $3.00, but
we are not getting the point over to enough of them. There are thousands
that we helped to get started. If anyone has some new ideas on the
subject, let him speak up in the discussion period, and we will try to
put the ideas into operation if they don't cost too much--in money or
time of the organization's officers.

Ohio still has the most members, and I think we can say the Ohio group
is the most closely knit and active one in any state at present. There
are 82 members in Ohio now. Several of them are new ones. Ohio is
keeping up its membership percentage and it is always well represented
at the meeting. How many here from Ohio today? Not _quite_ half the
group.

It is nip and tuck between New York and Pennsylvania for membership down
through the years. This year Pennsylvania is one man ahead of New York,
unless George Salzer has brought another new member's name with him.
Pennsylvania is 58, New York 57. Two years ago it was New York 62,
Pennsylvania 57. Then we had the meeting in New York state last year.
Maybe some of the New Yorkers took a good look at us and decided it
wasn't the crowd they wanted to be associated with! We haven't met in
Pennsylvania recently, so the membership there is very steady. Dr.
Colwell moved back home from Ecuador, so Pennsylvania moves from 57 to
58 members.

Will the members from these two states rise briefly? Pennsylvania
first--at least three from Pennsylvania; then New York--three from New
York State.

I might say the decline in New York members is _not_ in the Rochester
area. Mr. Salzer is seeing to it that they don't drop out in Western New
York. A lady in his county won our $25.00 first prize for her Persian
walnut, and George relieved her of $3.00 of it for 1952 dues. We need
more members like Mr. Salzer, and Mrs. Metcalfe, too.

Illinois is fourth now with 38 members. I don't know what it'll drop to
after this meeting. One member changed his address from Chicago to
Indiana, but we are still seven up from the 31 of two years ago. Maybe
Illinois is going to become a nut growing state after all, in spite of
oak wilt, walnut bunch, spittle bugs, and the 1950 Thanksgiving freeze.

Will the Illinois people rise, both members and visitors? Not quite a
fourth of the group is from Illinois.

Michigan is still fifth--32 members now, 30 in 1949. Take a bow, all you
Michiganders--five or six from Michigan. We could afford to take a
chance on a meeting there again before long.

Indiana is going up slowly in membership. It is now sixth with 27,
supplanting Tennessee. It had 18 members in 1947 and 25 in 1949. How
many Hoosiers here? Six or seven from Indiana.

Canada has 26 members listed now, putting it seventh. (There were 26 in
1949 also). Who's here from Canada--at least two.

Iowa is one of only two other states with more than 20 members, having
22 in the book now, compared with 26 two years ago and 30 in 1947. How
many Iowans here?--three besides our President.

New Jersey has 21, Massachusetts has 17, Tennessee has 16, Virginia and
Washington 14 each, Missouri, 13, California and Maryland 12 each,
Connecticut and Oklahoma, 11 each, Kentucky and Kansas 10 each, West
Virginia 8 and Georgia 5. There are fewer than five each in all the
other states, except seven states with no members. Arkansas is a good
nut producing state, but membership dropped from four to none. There are
no members and seldom have been in Arizona, Colorado,[5] Maine, Montana,
Nevada, and Wyoming. I believe we never had one in either Arizona or
Nevada, but the others have occasionally had one.

Hong Kong is a new territory on our list of foreign members, though Mr.
Wang, who now lives there, joined the NNGA from China around 30 years
ago.

We are a _little_ better off on the annual report now than we were a
year ago. It is printed and members who are here can take their copies.
The story is the same as usual with the printers, although they are new
ones this time. Our job got behind some others which moved slowly and
then was put aside for work on school annuals in which this company does
a lot of business. With some more volunteer editorial assistants and
proof readers maybe we can get the copy to the printers earlier, so as
really to get the book printed in the winter I agree with all the
members who said that a year between the meeting and the publication is
too long.

Looking toward this the November 1 cut-off for accepting papers should
still apply, with the suggested addition that no long ones will be
accepted which were not read at the meeting. Composition is too
expensive to permit publication of a book with unnecessary wordage, so I
hope we can avoid as much as possible the duplication of material which
appeared in recent reports. Boil it down, and please, for the sake of
the editor's eyesight, don't try to put too much on a page. The editors
appreciate some space between the lines. But if you have something new
to report, don't hesitate to send it in.

The 1950 report is here. I think it's a good one. In the hope of having
a still better one for this meeting, I'll stop now.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Thank you for your report. Any discussion and criticism
both destructive and constructive?

MEMBER: I thought this 1951 circular of information was a handy thing to
have. I was wondering if more are available.

MR. McDANIEL: Yes, we run off a surplus each year and any member may
have more upon request.

MEMBER: If you were to mail two instead of one to each member, that
member could give the extra copy to a prospective member.

MEMBER: I would like to make a suggestion on that card business. Why not
follow the system of the _National Geographic's_ recommendation
card--you can't become a Geographic Society member any other way.

MR. McDANIEL: We will put a card or blank for nominations of members in
the next issue of the _Nutshell_.

DR. ROHRBACHER: This is the time the secretary would like to have
comments on this to give him help if he gets his job back.

MEMBER: It seems to me it would be a help in not only attracting new
members but a help in stimulating attendance in our meetings if the
annual report of the preceeding meeting could be gotten out something
like two months ahead of the following meeting.

MR. McDANIEL: I believe we can do better than that this year.

MR. DAVIDSON: I do think it has quite an influence in stimulating
interest not only on the part of our members but stimulating attendance
at our meeting. I do think also that the suggestion of following the
example of the _National Geographic_ should be put in the form of a
motion and the Secretary instructed to remind each member to please
nominate his or her friends for membership in the Association. I would
be glad to make that motion.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Do I hear it seconded? (Motion seconded). It has been
moved by Mr. Davidson and seconded by Mr. Wallick from Indiana that we
carry through this new project of securing membership. Any further
discussion?

MEMBER: Please repeat the motion.

MR. DAVIDSON: I would move then that the secretary be instructed to send
to each member a reminder of his duty to nominate friends for membership
in this Association.

MEMBER: What do you mean by membership--members or officers?

MR. McDANIEL: Members first, officers later. If you stay a member long
enough you probably get to be an officer.

MEMBER: I'd like to amend that resolution that the secretary send a card
to each member in which he can nominate a new member. With the secretary
just reminding the members nothing ever happens. I think the card has to
go with the reminder.

MR. DAVIDSON: I accept that amendment.

MEMBER: I think this whole thing clarifies itself if you bear in mind
that the application form and the nomination are one and the same thing.
A card which says in effect "I apply for membership in the NNGA" and the
blank for his name, occupation and address. The card says that
remittance of the annual dues is made herewith and this applicant has
been nominated by the current member of the Association. It is one card.
I receive a couple of these from the secretary and write my name for a
nominee. His name and address and that is sent in to the treasurer
together with his dues and an application of someone who has been
nominated. It is a good screening because you have people interested
definitely in the work of this organization.

MEMBER: I would fear that too many barriers put in the way of it might
tend to decrease the number of new members. It is hard enough to get
people interested.

MEMBER: Mr. President, I don't see how that can be a barrier since one
doesn't know unless a member tells him. One doesn't become a member
until a member said "Look, you should belong, let me nominate you for
membership."

DR. ROHRBACHER: If I want to become a member, this is just another
source.

MEMBER: The _National Geographic_ psychology is good. They have a
circulation of one million, seven hundred thousand. If you want the
_National Geographic_, some member has to sign a card. The psychology of
that is that it makes it a little hard to get in and it works.

MR. RUMMEL: If there is a motion on the floor, I will second the
amendment.

DR. ROHRBACHER: All in favor say "aye"--opposed "no". Motion carried.

Is there anything further to take up under the heading of helping our
secretary? If not, we will go on and have a report from our treasurer.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 5: A Colorado walnut grower joined later.--Ed.]



Treasurer's Report


MR. SMITH: Ladies and gentlemen of the NNGA, our good secretary awhile
ago made the remark that perhaps he wasn't a very good salesman. Perhaps
it is more the treasurer's fault for not being a good collector. The
treasurer's report for August 26, 1940 to August 25, 1941. Annual
membership dues--$1655.00. Among these there are two contributing
members, Arp Nursery and Mr. Howard Thompson. I have two sustaining
members, Mrs. Herbert Negus and Mr. Alfred Szego. Sale of
Reports--$240.51; Interest on U. S. bonds--$37.50; contributions toward
the rental of the hall--$47.25; contributions for the Persian walnut
contest $35. I had hoped that some other states would come forward, but
they didn't. Total receipts--$2,015.26.

Disbursements: Rich Printing Company for the 1949 annual report,
$1,529.26, including the mailing and envelope charges and also the cost
of printing. _American Fruit Grower_ subscriptions--$221.20;
supplies--$65.38; Secretary's 50 cent per member--$270.00; secretary's
expenses--$37.49; treasurer's expense--$96.37. My expenses rose due to
the fact I sent out two notices that dues were due. The two years
previously I had depended upon The Nutshell to let the members know and
a lot of the members don't read the notice. The editor had it up there
in the front lines, but it didn't bring them in too well. That made the
postage bill $37 more than it was the year before. Prizes for the
Persian walnut contest--$75.00; rent of hall, $60.00. You will notice
above the rent was more of a donation. They gave us strong hints that is
what they wanted. G. R. Grubb and Company $47.25 for cuts for the annual
report you just got. We owe $19.00 on the cut that appears on the front
cover. 1000 copies of Ford Times--$10.00. This is their March, 1951
issue with Dr. J. Russell Smith's color-illustrated article.

MR. McDANIEL: I told you about it in _The Nutshell_ and I have ten or
more requests. I still have a large stack and will try to bring some
over. [Still available for 3¢ stamp at the secretary's office.]

MR. SMITH: Membership affiliation with American Horticultural
Society--$5.00; Bank service charges--$1.72; Miscellaneous--$16.50;
Total--$4,320.93. Cash on deposit as of the present time--$1,730.99.
There are still a couple of checks outstanding. One was for a walnut
prize winner. He probably just framed his check. He has had it over a
month. We have $1.97 in petty cash on hand. Disbursements of $2,587.97.
Total on hand--$4,320.93. On hand August 26, 1950--$2,305.67; the
receipts this year to August 25, 1951--$2,015.26 which makes the total
of $4,320.93. U. S. bonds--$3,000.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Thank you, Mr. Treasurer.

MEMBER: I'd like to speak about the pamphlet from the Ford people, an
article by Smith, very interesting. I believe the secretary said he has
a number of copies in his possession. It is well worth having.

DR. ROHRBACHER: I think the treasurer will welcome a vote of thanks for
his report and work. I move his report be accepted with thanks for his
work. It has been moved and seconded that we offer a vote of acceptance
and thanks for this report. So passed.

MEMBER: Mr. O'Rourke has a report and he has a pamphlet. He would like
each of you to have a copy to read and study, so when he comes on the
program it will save a lot of time if you read this pamphlet which he
has provided.

MR. SILVIS: As chairman of the auditing committee, I find two
discrepancies in the report issued by Sterling Smith. The checks that
are uncashed of course I don't believe are found, and while the cash
seems to be going down, in the face of mounting printing costs and
mailing costs, this committee in auditing the books believe they are in
good shape.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Thank you. Shall we have a motion?

(Motion made, seconded and passed)

I have appointed Dr. Crane on the Resolutions Committee. At this time we
will go along with our program.

MEMBER: Mr. Chairman, I believe that a report on our constitution and
by-laws provide that the nominating committee must make a report on the
first day of the meetings. Now, I am not sure about that.

MR. McDANIEL: The nominating committee doesn't have the legal number of
members. We overlooked a careful reading of the constitution and it
should have five instead of three. I think the constitution says it has
to report on the first day.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Is the committee ready to report?

MR. CRANE: I think the nominating committee makes its report as to the
slate of officers that they suggest for the next year. However, the
election of the officers takes place at the closing sessions. That is in
order to give the membership the opportunity to study the
recommendations. Nominations for any office may be presented from the
floor now or immediately preceding the election, if you disagree with
the choice, so you have an opportunity to present additional nominations
just before the election takes place.

Mr. President, the nominating committee desires to nominate our Dr. L.
H. MacDaniels to be our president for the coming year. And for vice
president, Mr. Richard Best of Eldred, Illinois. Our very loyal,
faithful, hardworking secretary has agreed to fill the post for another
year again, so we will nominate J. C. McDaniel to that position. I am
sorry to say our present treasurer has asked and insisted upon being
relieved from his duties, so the nominating committee has reluctantly
agreed to that, feeling that we should not work an officer too long and
too hard. We ought to pass these things around, and we now take Carl F.
Prell of South Bend, who has kindly agreed to serve. This, Mr.
President, is the report of the nominating committee.

DR. ROHRBACHER: Thank you, Mr. Crane. This board looks very good.
Understand that it is open for any further nominations from the floor at
any time, either now or preceding the election. If you wish to present
any other names to this list, you may do so at our meeting tomorrow
evening.

Mr. Best, we haven't heard about your problem, about your project.
Before we make this trip I think we should have a little response.

MR. BEST: You want me to tell you what the trip consists of at Eldred.
After getting through with the Persian walnuts at Royal's, we will
proceed down the Illinois River about 30 miles to our place at Eldred.
We are along the Illinois River. We have a large planting of all the
nuts we can think of, but what we are particularly interested in showing
you folks is our pecan trees, 5,000 pecan trees. Those are grafted
varieties. We have 47 varieties. We are doing some work with seedlings.
We have taken Mr. Wilkinson's Major and Greenriver and then a few of the
hickory-pecan hybrids and we have planted nuts with the idea we will
grow those nuts and let them bear. We will exhaust all the
possibilities. This year we have treated a number of seedlings with
colchicine. We don't plan to show you very much of anything but pecans.
We do have some Persian walnuts.

We should have some notice for reservations. Everyone who has written to
us we have taken care of in the best possible way. If any more of you
want to come, be sure and let us know so we can handle that.



Status of the Northern Pecan

W. W. MAGILL, _University of Kentucky, Leader of Discussion_


MR. MAGILL: I offer no apologies for being late. My car broke down. Mr.
Armstrong is with the car and will be up here most any time. Since three
o'clock this morning I have been trying to get here by bus. I was
stranded over in Danville.

This is the first round table discussion I ever tried to lead without
previously talking to some members of the panel. Mr. Best, Mr. Crane,
Mr. Gerardi, Mr. Weschcke, Mr. Snyder, Mr. Wilkinson.

In leading a discussion on northern pecans, I don't know how well this
group of nut enthusiasts agree. I think we should have an understanding
of what a northern variety is. About all I picked up I got from Ford
Wilkinson, introducer of many of our leading varieties. He knows where
every one of them is standing. I don't know how many times he has been
up there. We owned two of the most valuable. During the floods of '37
when water was over Louisville, Paducah and the original Major and
Greenriver trees the farm hands were sent out to clean up the debris so
they worked it out and ended those two trees. Now this Niblack, that is
from up here around Vincennes, the Posey originated in Gibson County,
Indiana, the Busseron is from southern Indiana. The Goforth is from New
Haven, near Shawneetown, Illinois. The Tissue (Tissue Paper), the Giles
and Johnson are from Kansas. Gerardi has a few from Southwest Illinois.
We can't say north of the Mason-Dixon line; we say "close to the Mason
Dixon."--Is that north or south out there in Kansas?

MEMBER: It's Republican.

MR. MAGILL: I'm not counting that. West of the Mason-Dixon line.

I assume that this group would be interested in certain factors and
maybe we can get it out to the crowd in a more interesting way by asking
questions. What factors would you take into consideration in trying to
make a decision? We recognize the southern varieties would be more
easily killed by certain temperatures. You're from Illinois. Read off
your contribution. What is your observation on these northern pecans?

MR. GERARDI: The varieties that we introduced around our particular area
I could give as much for as any. These others have all been tried and
with close observation there is not so much difference in the varieties
I can see. I will name three or four of those varieties. The Gildig
pecan is a little longer than the Indiana, but the same shape. This
variety I tasted. I think the flavor is better in the Gildig. Soil
variations will make a difference and it is a little longer. That is the
one variety I like very well. A little slow in bearing, the trees in the
nursery have no nuts before five years. After that time, it began to
build up, until we had spittle bug infestation and that has been a
battle. It suddenly appeared. The first I noticed was the native
seedlings with spittle bug and then it moved into these plantings of
these better varieties and it is very bad. In the last four years it is
noticeable on the amount of nuts taken off. Because of killing that
latter twig growth, it destroyed the crop of the future years. We have
had the trees bear at four years old. They have a wonderful set until
the spittle bug gets hold of them. From the first to the tenth of June,
it's around until the 25th of July. And the second brood was active and
of course it doesn't take the nut off. Most of the damage is on the
twig. The first brood insect gets right around where the cluster of nuts
set and it drops off. It seems to girdle the tree. The insect bores into
it. I had a little difficulty telling just what quantity was on this
Gildig pecan.

The next variety is the Fisher pecan, very much like the Major. The fact
is I think it is a little more elongated. The youngness of bearing is
the same. The Major started at three years old. The three-year tree had
several sets of nuts. It keeps building on and the bearing isn't getting
less.

MR. MAGILL: Do you find your bearing earlier? In top working a seedling
tree?

MR. GERARDI: Top working will gain at least two years. Then again
depending on the size of your root stock. You will gain at least two
years. Under adverse soil conditions at least five years.

MR. MAGILL: Do you plant seedlings where you want them to grow and then
later top work?

MR. GERARDI: I haven't because I have been producing them in a nursery.
I don't think we have time for pre-planting these pecan seeds where you
want the tree to grow. I think it is advisable in many areas. If you can
plant a nut tree you can go right ahead and there is no further care to
be given it. After the Fisher and the Gildig is one called the Queens
Lake. (This was called Gildig number 2.) It is a little more round. It
is stubby and heavy in diameter something like the Money-maker among the
southern varieties only not as large. It is a little smaller.

Another variety is the Duis. He had named two or three, including the
Swagler and Duis variety. I noticed two years ago after he had died, the
ground had changed hands. I saw the tree but it had very few nuts. The
tree was apparently ten years old. I don't believe there are more than a
dozen nuts. It was in a creek bottom, growing very rapidly. The Duis
pecan is a nice size. It is a little larger than any of the commercial
northern varieties. As for the bearing, I am a little skeptical. The
Swagler variety I have practically abandoned. It is very much like the
Norton. Clarksville I like very well. The Norton (parent of Clarksville)
does not bear at all for me. I have ruled that one out. The Swagler
gives a little trouble with late growth and winter trouble, winter
damage, from the late growth in the fall. Consequently I haven't had any
fruit until the present time.

MR. MAGILL: We'll come back to you later. I want to present some points
in a letter from Dr. Frank B. Cross, of Oklahoma A.&M. College. They
spent a lot of time on pecans in Oklahoma. They don't all have oil
wells. He makes two or three statements I hadn't thought of. I will just
throw these in to carry this discussion along.

"In comparing the two groups of nuts, namely, northern and southern, we
find that practically all northern nuts require a longer rest period,
than do the southern nuts. This means that the northern nuts for the
most part begin growth later in the spring and begin to mature leaves
and shed leaves and drop nuts before the southern varieties. The Major
and the Greenriver are perhaps somewhat different from others of the
northern varieties in that their maturity date usually falls with the
earlier southern varieties.

"In order of production, I would rate the northern varieties as follows
from highest to lowest: Major, Greenriver, Busseron, Indiana, Niblack,
Kentucky, Warwick, Posey, Coy, Tissue, Johnson. Perhaps a little broader
classification and grouping should be made. In my judgment, the Major,
Greenriver, Busseron, Indiana, and Niblack compose one group which may
be depended upon for fairly satisfactory production. The Kentucky,
Warwick, Posey, Coy, Tissue, and Johnson have consistently been much
lighter producers than those named in the first group.

"In order of desirability for planting I would make a list about as
follows: Niblack, Major, Greenriver, Busseron, Indiana. I list the
Niblack as first choice because it seems to be about as productive as
any of the other varieties, and because of its excellence as a cracking
nut and the quality of the kernel. The Niblack is really a very
desirable nut for cracking, when it is cracked by such devices as the
Squirrel cracker which applies pressure to both ends. The kernel comes
free from the shell. In a good many varieties, such as the Indiana and
Busseron the kernel and shell do not drop free, but the kernel
frequently is wedged in furrows in the shell so that the two must be
pulled apart. This is not true of the Niblack. When they are cracked by
end to end crackers, the shell and kernel drop free. I list Major as
second choice because of its good production. It is a little bit late in
maturing for a variety of the northern group, and will sometimes get
caught by frosts in many northern localities. The nut is not a desirable
one for cracking because of its shape. A good cracking nut must be oval.
The Major is comparatively round and many of the kernels will be crushed
when they are cracked. The Greenriver is a good producer but it is a
little bit late. The Indiana and Busseron are both proved to be good
producers.

"Comparing the general production of the northern varieties and the
southern varieties, as groups, the northern varieties seem never to be
so productive in Oklahoma as are the southern varieties. Much more
dependable production may be obtained from the southern varieties.

"Some data on cracking percentage of nuts and size of nuts might be
desirable. This list is not complete, but contains several different
varieties.

  Variety   No. Nuts per Pound   Kernel Percentage
  Busseron             62                47
  Greenriver           80                49
  Major                57                45
  Posey                53                54
  Warrick              63                48

"Of the nuts mentioned, the Posey is definitely larger than any of the
others. It is a very fine type of nut, having a high kernel percentage.
It is rather flat in shape, but is attractive in appearance. Were it not
for the fact that the trees are consistently light producers, it would
be a very desirable nut."

MR. BEST: They bear all right up here.

MEMBER: Where would it rank in the ability to bear?

MR. GERARDI: I would say third or fourth. Gildig, Major, Greenriver and
Posey.

MR. BEST: I'd want to put Indiana and Busseron pretty close to the top.
Major as one, probably Busseron and Indiana as second. Then I'd come
along with probably Posey as third or fourth because, while Posey may
not be the best bearer in our section, it does make a wonderful quality
of nut which always matures. This matter of maturity in pecans is
important.

MEMBER: How about Niblack?

MR. BEST: We haven't had too many trees that produce too many nuts. It
is a high quality nut. It would be somewhere near the top. You wouldn't
call it a relatively heavy producer. It hasn't fruited as early as the
rest. We have had trees as old as 15 years. There is another good pecan.
That is the Stevens.

MR. MAGILL: You and I will have to have Ford Wilkinson do our climbing.
You find that to be a good producer. It's early. Getting back to our
first consideration, we are pretty close to the north line. We have
these Cass County pecans. We are just getting our first nuts. Close to
Cass County--Champaign-Urbana still is the United States--not all
Republicans.

MEMBER: How does that compare in Missouri?

MR. GUENGERICH: What little observation I have had about west central
Missouri, it has been satisfactory. I would pick out Major from my
observations. Then probably the Indiana, Greenriver. Beyond that there
is some question.

MR. MAGILL: I have an idea about that Major I have been a crank of
pollination on apples. We had many orchards planted in Kentucky. The
Major for pollination is what Jonathans are to apples.

A week ago we had a couple hundred people at a field day down in
Kentucky. We were going around over the ground and we got five pecan
trees and a lot of the records were lost. I don't know how old these
pecans are. I think they were planted in '17 I don't know what variety
they are. We think there is one Greenriver. We really don't know what
they are. There is many a pecan planting in Kentucky that was a failure
because there wasn't anything to pollinate. If you were to judge the
value of the tree, two and a half feet in diameter, big enough to make a
world of pecans, you would have to remember that just because we didn't
have something to pollinate we didn't have any pecans. I got a few to
graft in Greenriver and they do fine bearing. So things like that lead
me to believe there is something in pollination. We plant them out there
on the bank of the west fork of the Kentucky River. We got the Major,
Greenriver, the Busseron, and one other, and the Major had more crop
every year. The Greenriver is about two years later. I don't know which
are the best pollinaters.

MR. SNYDER: I better tell you where the Iowa trees are. They are
approximately 300 miles from here. We are 150 miles north. We are also
180 miles west. We have temperatures up there too that we have to figure
on. The temperature in most years gets to minus 20 and the coldest we
ever had was minus 42, but that was only for an hour, but temperature is
only one factor. An old professor of the University of Iowa, regarded
wind as more important than temperature. The more I see of wind killing,
the more I believe he is right. Wind is more important than temperature.
If you have your trees surrounded, you don't get wind injury. The trees
I am reporting on were planted from 1920 to 1930. Some of them now are
16 to 18 inches in diameter and 30 feet high and the varieties are such
as we got from Mr. Wilkinson. Indiana, Busseron, and one other which Mr.
White--he is a wholesale druggist interested in horticulture--selected
and he knows the nut trees probably better than any other one man. He
kept in contact with these river rats and they would always bring
anything to him they thought was of interest. We have a bunch of
seedling trees about the same age and size which never bloom at all and
of course they are ready for cutting out. I don't know why there would
be a number of seedling trees that would never bloom.

DR. CRANE: In extensive breeding work, Mr. Clarence A. Reed started in
at Albany, Georgia, with 4,000 seedlings and out of 4,000 about half
that many came into production and bore fruit enough so we could tell
what the fruit was like in about 15 years. The other half just never did
bear. Those trees had grown and made large trees and in a lot of cases
they carried large leaves but there was no way we could predict anything
about fruiting. It was discouraging for that reason. We quit, in our
breeding work, growing the seedlings beyond one year. We make our
crosses now and grow them one year in the nursery. We plant nuts at
harvest and grow them until they form leaf buds and graft from the
seedlings on old trees cut back. We can save anywhere from one to three,
four, or five years. There are a great per cent that will not bear.

MR. MAGILL: In Iowa, out there, what varieties are making good?

MR. SNYDER: There aren't any. As nut producers they aren't worth
anything. Why not plant the hicans? They ripen better but don't bear.
The hicans make one of the prettiest trees but they don't bear.

We make no plans for pecans unless we have a season with no freezing
until the middle of November. So that is where the pecans are that far
north, except as shade trees.

MR. H. W. GUENGERICH: I feel that I am out of my territory in talking
about nut growing to this Association, but I have had a few things
forced on my attention that may be of interest.

When I first joined Stark Brothers Nursery, Paul Stark asked me to look
into the possibilities of locating a pecan variety that would be
satisfactory north of the southern pecan belt. I talked to our Missouri
extension horticulturist, Bill Martin, and he informed me that a lot of
pecans are being grown around Brunswick, Missouri, on the Missouri
River. The Missouri flows northeast from Kansas City for about 75 miles
and then swings toward the south again. Brunswick is located at the
northernmost point on the river, between Kansas City and St. Louis. It
is about 150 miles west of Louisiana, and in general the weather becomes
more severe as you travel West. So pecans that thrive and mature at
Brunswick are pretty rugged.

I went over to Brunswick to see a friend who introduced me to some pecan
growers. One of these men has an interesting story and I wish he were
here. I tried to bring him along but he could not get away from his
farming operations. He operates several hundred acres of farm land in
the Missouri River bottoms and his house stands in a grove of native
pecans. When he went into his house he pointed to a hook on the door
post where he tied his boat the previous spring when he moved his family
out because of high water. That year, 1947, all his grain crops were
destroyed by the flood but that fall he harvested 50,000 lbs. of pecans.
They sold for 25¢ a pound and the total expense was for picking them,
off the ground. In a year like that, $12,000.00 would come in handy. It
rained again in Kansas this year and I called him and asked about the
flood. He said he had a couple of inches of land that wasn't covered
with water, but he expects to gather 40,000 lbs. of pecans this fall.
That is interesting because there are thousands of acres in the middle
west where crops have been destroyed by floods. Yet here is a crop that
grows on native trees with very little care, that will pay off despite
high water.

I asked my friend what effect the high water would have on the pecan
foliage and he replied that the leaves would fall, but that the trees
will produce new leaves and the nuts will mature. He has been through
this before and knows what he is talking about.

Reference was made a short while ago to the pecan as a shade tree. I
think this is one of the big opportunities in pecan growing. Recently I
drove from Louisiana, Missouri, to central Ohio and saw a string of dead
elms along the entire route. Now the oaks are threatened in the same
way. We don't know what to do about shade trees. Some scientists from
Holland visited us several weeks ago and they weren't very enthusiastic
about their disease resistant elm selections. We had hoped that these
selections might provide the answer to the elm tree problem.

Now pecans make very attractive shade trees. I used to live near Kansas
City on a place where someone had planted 18 or 20 pecans right along
the side of a golf course. When the trees were about 20 years old a
fairway was laid out through this pecan grove and now blue grass grows
right up to the tree trunks. A lot of other shade trees are shallow
rooted and lawns do not grow well under them. I think there is a
tremendous opportunity to plant pecans as shade trees.

There is just one other point I want to make. Undoubtedly we need better
varieties. The nurseryman realizes this better than anyone else. But
when my friend from Brunswick sold his native pecans he got just about
as much for them per pound as the southern growers got for their much
larger southern seedlings. Several commercial pecan crackers that I
asked about this stated that the northern nuts have a better flavor and
they produce more kernels per pound. So the size of the kernel doesn't
make too much difference, although we all prefer the larger nuts.



Pecans in Northern Virginia

J. RUSSELL SMITH, _Swarthmore, Pennsylvania_

(Extracts from a letter to the NNGA secretary, November 26, 1951)


Having sold my Virginia cabin and the nursery business [Sunny Ridge] I
have been down to the nursery for the last month getting rid of trees. A
job of digging is one thing and that of packing and shipping is another.
The man I had could do one but not both, and competent persons to pick
up for either job are not available, so I have been standing in the gap,
getting calluses on my hands and getting rid of $16,000 worth of trees.

Now as to facts on northern pecans:

I find the Busseron bears with regularity at Round Hill, Virginia, in a
tight bluegrass sod. This pasture is not of high fertility and has had a
small amount of commercial fertilizer. It is on a hillside that has
probably lost all of its topsoil once or twice in the last hundred
years, though not for the last twenty because it has been in grass.

My neighbor, Henry B. Taylor, Hamilton, Virginia, has Busseron,
Butterick, Greenriver, Indiana, and Major, all bearing well to heavily.

Unfortunately this year the Greenriver hulls did not open, although the
nuts were well filled. Ordinarily I believe they have been dropping
their nuts, but not all at once.

Twenty-five years ago I planted some Butterick and Busseron along a
stream on a dairy farm on which I was born. There was no regular record
of their performance, but I have observed that the Buttericks have had a
good crop in 1950 and also in 1951.[6]

I had previously concluded that the Butterick was almost a non-fruiter,
and quit propagating it years ago. These especially productive
Buttericks are on alluvium near the barn in a permanent pasture where
the cattle congregate while waiting for the gate to open to let them
into the barn. It is therefore fertilized over and over again with cow
drippings.

Mr. Taylor's excellent yields are also produced on trees that are on
unusually fertile soil.

My conclusion is that the pecan is a very active feeder, and what it
needs is about three times as much fertilizer as is required for any
ordinary crop.

It is time somebody better placed than I am made a systematic experiment
as follows:

     1. Feed pecan trees at least five times as much plant food as the
     nuts and leaves use.

     2. Injure the trees by hacking the bark to make them bear, and see
     how much they can be made to produce by this means.

A Busseron tree in the town of Round Hill stands in a backyard of a
friend of mine and they use it, I think, to tie clotheslines to and
maybe the boys have had a little fun driving nails into it and it bears
every year.[7]

The real find of my observations is a pecan known as All State, which
has been wonderfully advertised by one of your fellows.[8] On a catalog
it produces a nut two inches long--wonderful. On Mr. Henry Taylor's tree
in Hamilton, Virginia, it produces a tiny, symmetrical, pointed nut too
small to be contemptible, except for squirrel feed. They might have time
to handle the crop.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 6: In the NNGA Report for 1935, Mr. C. A. Reed told of studies
of blossoming habits of pecan varieties at Rockport, Indiana, conducted
for four seasons in co-operation with Mr. J. F. Wilkinson. There the
Busseron was found to be a protandrous variety, shedding most of its
pollen, and in some years all of it, before the period of receptivity of
its pistillate flowers. "With Butterick ... the order was reversed, as
the period of receptivity began first," and it was classified,
therefore, as regularly protogynous. "... Furthermore, upon close
observation it has been found," he said, that trees of the Butterick
variety "develop very few pistillate flowers, and that many of these
wither up and drop off, apparently because of inherent weakness. From
this, it would appear that light bearing is not necessarily due to lack
of suitable or adequate pollen." The Butterick had a record of
practically non-bearing performances during the four years (1931, 1932,
1934 and 1935) at Rockport, which is duplicated by its performance
records at other locations and other years, so it is generally on the
discard list. But when it does bear and mature its nuts it is a good
pecan. Mr. P. W. Wang rated it his first choice of northern pecans
fruited in China.

Mr. Reed listed as protandrous Busseron, Kentucky, Major, and Niblack
varieties, whereas Butterick, Indiana, and Posey were protogynous. He
did not specify in which class the Greenriver fell. Major during each of
the four years, had an interval of 1 to 3 days between the last shedding
of pollen and the first pistil receptivity; Warrick, an obsolete
variety, had some overlap each year as did Indiana and Posey. The
Kentucky, a discarded variety, had overlaps the three years it was
observed. In two years it was observed, Niblack had staminate and
pistillate flowering together one season, and staminate overlapping four
days into the period of pistillate receptivity the next. Busseron,
Butterick, and Greenriver sometimes had overlaps and sometimes
intervals. Reed's conclusion, that "northern varieties of pecan ...
appear to be partly or completely dependent upon other varieties for
pollen," still holds good, as does his second observation, that "all
varieties tend to vary, from year to year with respect to periods of
pollen shedding and pistil receptivity." But more records are needed,
and any members who have two or more varieties flowering in 1952 can
make valuable contributions by taking accurate notes on their
habits. There are now newer varieties for which such data are
completely lacking, and until more is known, no reliable basis can
be had for matching them with the best combinations for adequate
cross-pollination.--J. C. McD.]

[Footnote 7: I think the first phase of the suggested experiment has
more to recommend it than the second. Perhaps the Round Hill tree gets
needed zinc from clotheslines and roofing nails. A more scientific way
to apply zinc is to use zinc sulfate in sprays or ground applications,
and these are to be used on some trees at Urbana which Dr. Crane
diagnosed as zinc-deficient.--J. C. McD.]

[Footnote 8: The Bradley Brothers, who do not court anonymity, are no
fellows of the Association or of the University of Illinois. They have
been known to sell some kind of grafted pecan trees in recent years,
possibly the Stuart or some other variety available from southern
wholesale propagators. Mr. Taylor was lucky enough to have his order
filled with a southern Illinois seedling which at least is good for the
squirrels. We haven't yet seen any All State nuts from Maine or Montana.
The Bradley variety is an obsolete southern pecan.--J. C. McD.]



Pecans in the Vicinity of St. Paul, Minnesota

CARL WESCHCKE


About 25 years ago pecan seeds from the most northern natural habitat in
Iowa were planted in garden soil here in St. Paul. Most of them were
later transplanted in nursery rows at my farm seven miles east of River
Falls, Wisconsin. Out of approximately 300 trees, about 40 are still
living, of which 25 have grown well. The remainder probably have not
found soil conditions to accommodate their natural vigorous growth.
Where the trees are in deep soil with sufficient plant food, they have
done well, the largest tree being about 10 inches in diameter, and
several of these have been bearing nuts for five years. The nuts were
immature, however, but in the fall of 1949 about 70 of the best ones
were planted in a seed bed and today about 15 living trees of pure pecan
parentage represent the second generation.

This evidence is very important, for although the pecan has been almost
as hardy as any native tree (such as the bitternut hickory, the
butternut and the black walnut), yet the length of season required for
the maturing of nuts is a primary factor which would have to be
considered in recommending pecans for planting this far north. However,
it has been my observation that these pecans have slowly cycled their
way into our season, and it is gratifying to notice that this spring
many leafed out at nearly the same time that the black walnut vegetated,
which of course is much slower than the local butternut. This shows the
tremendous adaptability of the pecan, and it is hoped that this ability
to adapt itself to soil and climatic conditions will eventually cause it
to produce small but edible pecans here in the north.

It is my hope, also, that I can use our locally raised pecan seedlings
on which to graft our many successful varieties of hickories, which
heretofore have been limited to some extent in their usefulness because
we had only the local bitternut stocks on which to graft. Whereas the
bitternut is an excellent stock for some varieties of shagbark hickory
and even for shellbark, as well as pecans and hicans, there would no
doubt be an increase in the scope of hickory planting if we had hardy
pecan seedlings as understocks. At first, when comparing the growth of
the native bitternut seedlings with that of pecans, locally raised in
the same soil, it appeared that the pecan was a much more vigorous
grower; but experiments with different types of soil and fertilizers
indicate that we can get seedlings of certain bitternut hickories to
produce from two to three feet of growth in the first year. I have even
found several of these same hickory seedlings of two seasons' growth
which, when transplanted last fall, are large enough to graft this
spring. However, experiments have not proceeded far enough to verify the
practical side of this new idea of hickory propagation.

Only one variety of pecan which was among the original seedlings, and
which existed as a lawn tree for more than twenty years in St. Paul, was
compatible with the bitternut hickory root systems; but enough of this
variety of pecan has been grafted on local hickories to demonstrate that
this is perfectly feasible as far as the union is concerned. In fact,
several of these larger grafted trees have been bearing staminate bloom
for two or more years. No nuts have been produced of this Hope variety
as yet, and although it has been distributed on the market, it has
always been classed as an ornamental rather than a fruiting variety. Of
course, the pecan part over-grows the stock. In other words, there is a
larger diameter above the union than in the stock below the union. So
far, this has not interfered with good growth and hardiness, whereas the
black walnut grafted on butternut (which is a similar combination as far
as results go) more than thirty years ago in experimental work,
indicates that this is a wrong procedure. Very few nuts were ever
gathered from grafts of black walnut on butternut, although in most
instances they continue to live and thrive.

The pecan here is subject to much the same insect pests as the black
walnut, but suffers less from hickory borers and types of insects which
seem to be like oak pruners. This might be useful later on in
maintaining healthy pecan trunks with hickory tops. Probably the early
formation of rough bark, for which the pecan is noted, may be
responsible for this. The nuts that have been produced so far have been
extremely small, but here again the writer has observed an increase in
size over the original nuts that were produced. In some seasons, at
least one tree has produced nuts of sufficient size to be good enough
for home purposes. They are nothing, however, to compare with any named
northern pecans, such as the Major and the Indiana varieties.
Practically all of these northern pecans have been tried in our
environment, and some have lived for several years. Most of them have
died because there was no congenial union of the pecan grafted on our
local bitternut stocks. We do, however, have congenial grafts and good
living specimens of the Norton and the Burton, which are no doubt some
form of hybrid.[9] Hicans that graft well on local bitternut stocks are
the Rockville, first in hardiness and for bearing nuts of the usual size
for Rockville. They do not mature yet, but it is expected that favorable
years will mature these nuts.

Next in hardiness is the Green Bay, and next are Burlington, Des Moines,
Bixby, and McCallister. Although making good growth, these have seemed
to be too tender for our climate, although we have good living specimens
of them and believe that some have begun to bear, particularly the
Bixby, unless names of grafts have been mixed up. These latter trees are
mostly in the deep woods, and it is hard to get close data on their
behavior and bearing.

A Marquardt (which is supposed to be a lost variety of hican) I believe
exists on my place, and I have taken it out of the deep woods, where it
was grafted nearly thirty years ago from scions direct from J. F. Jones,
and have placed scions on stocks in the vicinity of the nursery, where
they can be watched. The differences between the scions freshly grafted
last spring and the known varieties of Rockville, Green Bay, and
Burlington are distinctive. Also the Marquardt (if it is a true
Marquardt) last winter indicated much greater hardiness than did grafts
made at the same time with Rockville and Burlington varieties. However,
it is too early to say for sure whether the Marquardt is represented
among my varieties of hicans. The Marquardt grafted on local stocks used
by Jones and purchased as individual trees, did not survive. It is
assumed in this paper that this discussion would naturally lead to pecan
hybrids, rather than staying with the pure blooded pecan this far north,
for some of the varieties come very close to being pure pecans, but
still, like Norton and Burton, probably are distinct hybrids.

When some of the original seedlings from Iowa were transplanted from the
nursery row they were already quite large trees and we did not get all
the roots. The portions that were cut off were left in the soil. One of
these roots sprouted three trees; one was subsequently moved into the
orchard and marked because of its vegetative nature, and a variety of
hickory known as the Weschcke was grafted on it. It makes a very good
growth, but in most instances our native bitternut stock produces an
equally good growth in unions with this particular variety. This
particular performance is indicative of things to be expected for this
combination in the future.

In conclusion I would say that the pecan is far from being a practical
nut tree for our vicinity, and is only a very hopeful dream. But so,
also, were the best hickory varieties 30 years ago when I first began my
experiments.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 9: The Norton name seems to be shared by a pecan and a hican.
The Burton hican from Owensboro, Ky., is presumably a pecan-shagbark
cross with an excellent nut, fruitful farther south.--Ed.]



Preliminary Report on Growth, Flowering, and Magnesium Deficiency of
Reed and Potomac Filbert Varieties

H. L. CRANE AND J. W. MCKAY[10]


During the course of filbert breeding investigations at the Plant
Industry Station, Beltsville, Md., covering a period of approximately 18
years, the leaves of certain seedlings scorched badly in mid or late
summer. Certain other trees showed little or no evidence of this
disorder. It was thought that, because filberts thrive best under
maritime climatic conditions of cool summers and mild winters, this
scorch was probably due to high temperatures accompanied by deficient
soil moisture.

This breeding work resulted in the introduction in 1951 of the Reed and
Potomac varieties, which were produced as a result of crosses between
the American filbert, _Corylus americana_, and the European filbert, _C.
avellana_. The original trees of these varieties had been under
observation for more than 10 years, and their performance had been such
as to indicate their suitability for home plantings under eastern
conditions. Furthermore, these varieties had shown little or no evidence
of scorch and had held their leaves well.

In early spring of 1948, an experimental orchard, consisting of 36
layered trees each of Reed and Potomac, was planted at Beltsville, for
the purpose of testing them more fully than had been possible before as
to their suitability for eastern conditions. The orchard was designed
also for study of their response in tree growth and fruiting to
differential fertilizer treatments. Although this experiment has been
underway now for only three years, certain of the findings are thought
to be of such importance that a preliminary report should be made at
this time.


Experimental Plan

The site selected for the orchard is a gentle slope varying from five to
15 percent and providing good air drainage. The soil is a Riverdale
(tentative series) sandy loam that had been in orchard grass sod for 10
years before the experiment was begun. Much of the land on the Plant
Industry Station farm is now known to be low in available magnesium and
potassium. Tree crops, including peaches, pears, and apples, have shown
deficiencies of one or both of these elements. The trees were planted 20
feet apart on the contour in pairs, one of each variety in a plot, with
six plots in a row. The 36 two-tree plots were in six rows. Thus, the
experiment was arranged in a 6 by 6 Latin square and six fertilizer
treatments were used. After planting, the trees received frequent
cultivation and a uniform application of one pound of 10-6-4 fertilizer.
The following spring differential fertilizer treatments were applied:
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, complete, nitrogen and potassium, and
check. The amounts applied per tree in fractions of a pound were
elemental nitrogen 0.2, phosphoric acid, 0.4, and potash 0.2. In the
spring of 1950, the amounts applied per tree were doubled; and these
same amounts were applied in the spring of 1951. Nitrogen was applied in
the form of nitrate of soda, phosphorus as 20 percent superphosphate,
and potassium as 50 percent muriate of potash. Strips about six to eight
feet wide on each side of the tree rows have been cultivated frequently,
but strips of orchard grass sod have been left in the tree row middles
to prevent soil erosion. The trees have been sprayed with DDT or
parathion or both to control Japanese beetles and mites.


Growth Responses

To determine the growth responses made by the two varieties to the
differential fertilizer treatments, diameters of the tree trunks one
foot above the soil were measured each spring before growth started.
These data are not given here because in 1949 and 1950 there were no
significant differences in the growth of the trees as a result of the
differential fertilizer treatments. However, trees of the Potomac
variety made more growth than those of the Reed variety. At the end of
the 1949 and 1950 growing seasons, the average diameters of the tree
trunks of the Potomac variety were 16.3 and 25.7 millimeters,
respectively; those of the Reed variety were 13.6 and 22.4 millimeters,
respectively. The differences 2.7 and 3.3 millimeters, are highly
significant. Under the conditions of this experiment, the trees of the
Potomac variety are much more vigorous than those of the Reed. The
greater vigor of the Potomac trees may account for the fact that they
produce suckers much more freely than do trees of the Reed variety. The
habit of producing abundant suckers is an advantage in propagating by
layering, but it is a disadvantage in orchard trees because the suckers
must be removed for optimum nut production. Whether the differences in
vigor and suckering habit of the two varieties shown thus far will
affect their performance as orchard trees will have to be determined by
future observations.


Flowering Response

Each year at the height of the flowering period, each tree in the
experiment was rated on the catkins it carried. So far, there has been
no effect of the differential fertilizer treatments on the production of
catkins. However, there have been very highly significant differences
between the Potomac and the Reed. In 1950, only four of the 36 Reed
trees produced catkins, whereas 32 of the 36 Potomac trees flowered, and
approximately half of them were heavily loaded. In 1951, the number of
Reed trees producing catkins was 12 of the 36, whereas 35 Potomac trees
flowered. The amount of pistillate flowering during the two years was
small on both varieties and not greatly different; this indicates that
their nut-bearing potentialities may be about the same. The amount of
pollen produced by the Reed variety has always been considered ample for
cross-pollinating the Potomac, even though the former has been a light
producer of catkins.

Records of dates of flowering of the two original trees over a 10-year
period, and of these young orchard trees over a 3-year period, show that
there is great variability in time of flowering, depending upon the
sequence of weather events each season. Fertilizer treatments have had
no measureable effect. The trees have shed pollen as early as January
and as late as April, and stigma receptivity sometimes has continued
intermittently for two months. The average period of flowering at
Beltsville is the last week of February to the first week in March. Both
varieties have flowered at the same time under all seasonal conditions
observed. This means that additional pollinators will not be necessary
when the varieties are planted together in an orchard.


Symptoms of Scorch

The visible symptoms of scorch do not begin to appear under conditions
at Beltsville until about the middle of July or later. The first symptom
is fading of the green color, especially around the margins of the leaf
blade. Sometimes this chlorosis results in blotches, which may extend
for a considerable distance from the margin towards the mid-rib. This
stage is of short duration, as the tissues of marginal chlorotic areas
or those of the blotches soon die, roll up, and turn brown. Some leaves
show yellow blotchiness over most, if not all, of the surface and this
may develop into brown patches of dead tissue or the yellow leaves may
fall before the tissues die. The older leaves, those at the base of a
shoot, are generally the first to show chlorosis and scorch, and the
terminal leaves are the last to show such symptoms. On severely affected
trees all the leaves on a shoot may be scorched at the time scorching is
observed. Severely affected trees drop part or all of their leaves
prematurely. The leaves dropped are those that are scorched or that show
yellow blotches. Such trees do not make satisfactory growth, they set
few nuts, and the nuts are usually poorly filled at harvest. The
symptoms of scorch on filbert leaves are similar in many respects to
magnesium-deficiency symptoms on apple (1, 5, 6)[11] and tung leaves
(3).


Leaf Analyses[12]

No differences in appearance of the trees as regards leaf scorch were
noticed the first year after the differential fertilizer treatments were
applied. However, in late July and early August of the second season,
severe leaf scorch developed on the trees that had received potassium
alone or nitrogen plus potassium, and scorch developed to some extent on
the check trees. On August 15, 1950, leaf samples for chemical analyses
were taken from each tree in all replications and composited by
treatments into six samples. The data on the chemical composition of the
leaves as affected by the differential fertilizer treatments are given
in table 1.

These data show that the fertilizers applied to the trees were taken up
by them and that the composition of the leaves was significantly
affected. The trees in treatments 2, 3, and 6, which did not receive
nitrogen in the fertilizer, had lower percentages of nitrogen in the
leaves than those from the other plots. Their light green color
indicated that in the middle of August they were deficient in nitrogen
when its concentration was 2.3 percent or less.

=Table 1. Chemical composition (oven-dry basis) of filbert leaves
collected August 15, 1950, from fertilizer experiment, Beltsville, Md.=

  _____________________________________________________________________
                  |                                  |
  Treatment       |    Composition of leaves         |       Mg (percent)
  ________________|__________________________________| Ratio ____________
                  |                                  |        K (percent)
                  |  Ash   N     P     K    Ca    Mg |
  ________________|__________________________________|
                  |   %    %     %     %    %      % |
  1. Nitrogen     | 6.68  2.52  .129  .945 1.30  .143|       .151
  2. Phosphorus   | 8.56  2.29  .160  .885 1.60  .186|       .210
  3. Potassium    | 9.39  2.31  .150 1.650 1.93  .155|       .094
  4. Complete     | 7.18  2.43  .133 1.175 1.63  .132|       .112
  5. Nitrogen and |                                  |
       potassium  | 7.62  2.49  .119 1.480 1.33  .110|       .073
  6. Check        | 7.38  2.32  .188  .890 1.70  .149|       .167

Potassium applications produced the greatest effect on leaf composition,
as they increased the concentration of that element in the leaves by
0.285 to 0.760 percentage unit over that in the leaves from the check
trees. In addition, it seems likely that this great increase in the
potassium content of the leaves was accompanied by a decrease in their
magnesium content, since this usually has been found to result. When
the ratios of the percentage of magnesium to the percentage of
potassium in the leaves were calculated, it was found that they were
rather low for the trees that had been fertilized with potassium. The
magnesium-potassium ratio was highest in the leaves from the trees
fertilized with phosphorus only, followed in order by the check and
nitrogen treatments.


Relation of Magnesium Deficiency to Leaf Scorch, Winter Injury, and
Fungus Infection

On August 15, 1950, at the time the leaf samples were taken, each tree
in the experiment was scored as to the degree of leaf scorch present. In
the winter of 1950-51 soil samples were taken from each plot receiving
potassium alone and the lime requirement was determined by the Division
of Soil and Management and Irrigation, of this Bureau. The lime
requirement was found to vary greatly, ranging from 1500 to 6700 pounds
per acre. In early spring of 1951, high-magnesium dolomitic lime was
applied uniformly at the rate of 1500 pounds per acre and in addition
each tree received 5 pounds of Epsom salt.

Each tree in the experiment was scored for degree of winter injury on
May 10, 1951. By August 3, leaf scorch was evident on trees in certain
treatments and the trees were scored for leaf scorch. At this time it
was found in certain treatments that the trees that had not shown any
appreciable amount of scorch heretofore had some severely necrotic
leaves on them. Careful examination revealed many fruiting bodies of one
or more fungi in these necrotic areas. Each tree was, therefore, scored
for the presence of this disease, which has been tentatively identified
by Paul L. Lentz, of this Bureau, as being caused by _Labrella coryli_.
The data on leaf scorch, winter injury, and the fungus disease are given
in table 2.

Table 2. Relation of magnesium deficiency in filbert leaves to leaf
scorch, winter injury, and disease caused by _Labrella coryli_

  ______________________________________________________________________

                   Ratio     Scorch[1]  Winter[2]   Scorch[1] Disease[1]
  Treatment     Mg (percent)  score   injury score   score     score
                 K (percent) (1950)  (spring, 1951)  (1951)    (1951)
  ______________________________________________________________________
  1. Nitrogen      .151        1         4             7               9
  2. Phosphorus    .210        1         3             1              11
  3. Potassium     .094       21        22            24               3
  4. Complete      .112        2         5             8              11
  5. Nitrogen
     and potassium .073       13        19             9               5
  6. Check         .167       14         6             6               8

     Note 1: Total plot score for 12 trees; highest possible score 36.
     The scale for scoring was 0, none; 1, light; 3, severe.

     Note 2: Total plot score for 12 trees; highest possible score 48.
     The scale for scoring winter injury was 0, full leaf, no injury; 1,
     few dead twigs; 2, half of buds not growing; 3, very large amount
     of dead twigs; 4, only a few buds growing.

Trees that had received potassium alone had the most severely scorched
leaves and more of them on August 15, 1950, followed by those that had
received nitrogen plus potassium. The trees that had received nitrogen
or phosphorus alone showed practically no scorch, each having a total
score of 1; and the complete fertilizer trees a total score of only 2,
while those in the check had a total score of 6. These scores indicate
that scorch is related to magnesium deficiency or unbalance. There was a
close relation between the amount of leaf scorch in August, 1950, and
the amount of winter injury, the coefficient of correlation being 0.97,
which is very highly significant. This coefficient means that 94 percent
of the winter injury sustained could be accounted for by the leaf scorch
present the preceding summer and early fall.

The scorch scores of August, 1951, show that there had been no
consistent improvement from the magnesium-deficiency condition as a
result of the dolomite and Epsom salt applications. The scores for the
disease caused by _Labrella_ show that applications of phosphorus alone
increased the incidence of the disease and those of potassium alone or
potassium plus nitrogen decreased it.

In all cases, the incidence of leaf scorch, winter injury, and disease
were strikingly different on the Reed and Potomac varieties. In the
summer of 1950, the total scorch score of the Reed variety was 26 and
that of the Potomac 18, and in August, 1951, the scores were 36 and 19,
respectively. The total winter injury scores were 46 for the Reed
variety and 21 for the Potomac. Thus, it is clearly evident that under
the conditions of this experiment the Reed variety was much more
susceptible to leaf scorch and to the winter injury resulting from
magnesium deficiency or unbalance between magnesium and calcium plus
potassium than was the variety Potomac. Furthermore, the total score for
the incidence of the disease caused by _Labrella coryli_ on the variety
Reed was 38 as compared with 9 for the Potomac variety. It would,
therefore, seem that the Reed is about four times as susceptible to
infection by this fungus as is the Potomac. Its less vigorous tree
growth, susceptibility to leaf scorch, winter injury, and infection by
_L. coryli_ may be due to the differences between its nutritional
requirements and those of the Potomac variety.


Conclusions and Summary

The preliminary results of the experiment described show that there is a
great difference in vigor, growth, flowering habit, susceptibility to
leaf scorch, winter injury, and infection with a fungus disease
tentatively believed to be caused by _L. coryli_ between trees of the
Reed and Potomac filbert varieties. In all cases the Potomac variety has
been the superior.

It would appear that much of the leaf scorch on filberts experienced in
the past has been due to a magnesium deficiency or to an unbalanced
condition between magnesium and calcium plus potassium in their
nutrition. The symptoms of magnesium deficiency (scorch), which in
general are similar to those on apple and tung, are described. The data
presented show that liberal applications of potassium alone, or in
combination with nitrogen, resulted in a highly significant increase in
the incidence of leaf scorch due to magnesium deficiency. This in turn
resulted in susceptibility to winter injury, the coefficient of
correlation being 0.97, which means that the severity of the leaf scorch
in August, 1950, would account for 94 percent of the winter injury
sustained.

Applications of 1500 pounds per acre of high-magnesium dolomite,
together with five pounds of Epsom salt per tree in early spring of
1951, did not produce consistent improvement in leaf scorch. It seems
that recovery from magnesium deficiency in filberts is slow after
treatment, just as has been found to be the case in fruit trees (2, 4).


Literature Cited

  1. Boynton, Damon, Cain, Carlton J., and Van Geluwe, John
  Incipient Magnesium Deficiency in Some New York Apple Orchards.
  Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42:95-100. 1943.
  2.----
  Magnesium Nutrition of Apple Trees. Soil Sci. 63:53-58. 1947.
  3. Drosdoff, Matthew, and Kenworthy, Alvin L.
  Magnesium Deficiency of Tung Trees. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.
  Sci. 44:1-7 1944.
  4.----, and Lagasse, Felix S.
  The Effect of Some Magnesium and Calcium Fertilizers in a
  Magnesium Deficiency Bearing Tung Orchard. Proc. Amer. Soc.
  Hort. Sci. 56:5-11. 1950.
  5. Southwick, Lawrence
  Magnesium Deficiency in Massachusetts Apple Orchards. Proc.
  Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42:85-94. 1943.
  6. Wallace, T.
  Magnesium Deficiency of Fruit Trees. Jour. Pom. and Hort. Sci.
  17:150-166. 1939.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 10: Principal Horticulturist and Horticulturist, respectively,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau Plant Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering, Beltsville, Md.]

[Footnote 11: Numbers in parenthesis refer to Literature cited, p. 55.]

[Footnote 12: The authors take this opportunity to thank Dr. Harald E.
Hammar for making the chemical analyses of the leaf samples.]



Bunch Disease of Black Walnut


[Paper expanded from a talk given at the 41st annual meeting of NNGA in
1950.]

JOHN W. MCKAY, _horticulturist_, and HARLEY L. CRANE, _principal
horticulturist, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural
Research Administration, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and
Agricultural Engineering, Division of Fruit & Vegetable Crops and
Diseases, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland_


Introduction

For the past several years observations have been made on the
development and spread of the bunch (brooming)[13] disease on _Juglans
nigra_ and on other species of walnut growing in the orchards at Plant
Industry Station at Beltsville, Maryland. Because of the widespread
interest in growing walnuts a brief survey of these observations will be
given in this paper together with a summary of the history of the
disease and a discussion of its possible effect on walnut production.


History of the Disease

The bunch disease of walnut has been known for years. Waite[14] in 1932
said, "It turned up in Delaware several years ago, where quite a variety
of walnuts, including the Persian, the Japanese Group, and the American
Black Walnut, were found to be affected. At Arlington Farm, Virginia,
during the past 15 years it has boldly riddled the collection of nut
trees assembled in the grounds for study and ornamental purposes."
Photographs made in 1914 of Japanese walnut trees growing in Georgia and
thought to be affected by rosette (now known to be caused by zinc
deficiency) have been found in the files of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. Now that the symptoms of the two different disorders are
known, it seems clear that the bunch disease was present in those two
states at that early date.

Becker,[15] of Climax, Michigan in 1940 reported on his observation of
this disease in that area. He reports that he observed several cases of
it on Persian walnut, Japanese walnut, and butternut, in addition to
many diseased eastern black walnuts. He says, "My conclusions are that
in witches'-broom (bunch disease) we have a very bad disease that
threatens the black walnut trees everywhere".

In 1939, the late Howard E. Parsons, pathologist of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, made an inspection trip to Climax and other areas in
Michigan where he studied and photographed diseased trees. Parsons at
that time was working on a similar disease of pecan and water hickory
and was of the opinion that the disease found on the various species of
walnuts in Michigan was similar to the one he was studying.

For the past 20 years the bunch disease of walnuts has been under
observation by the writers and it seems clear that its incidence has
increased greatly during that time. In 1935 scions and buds were taken
from diseased eastern black walnut and butternut trees growing at
Arlington Farm and grafted or budded on eastern black walnut stock
growing in the original nut tree nursery at the Plant Industry Station
at Beltsville, Maryland. This was done in an attempt to determine
whether the disease was caused by a mineral deficiency or by a virus.
All buds and scions died, but the following year two of the seedling
rootstocks showed characteristic symptoms of the bunch disease. Since
this disease was already present on the station farm it was not
definitely known that it was transmitted to the stocks by budding or
grafting the diseased material on them.

In December of 1946 Hutchins and Wester[16] presented a paper before the
American Phytopathology Society giving the results of their studies on
the bunch disease. In this paper they reported that the disease was
transmitted by patch bark grafts performed in 1944 and 1945 and that the
incubation period varied from several months to two years. It was
concluded that since the disease was transmitted by grafting, and in the
absence of a visible pathogen, a virus causal agent was indicated.


Symptoms

The characteristic symptoms of the bunch disease are mainly the
production of brooms or sucker shoot growth on the tree trunk and main
branches and the tufting of terminals, profusion of small branches from
axillary buds, the dwarfing and narrowing of the leaflets, and the dying
back of the trees resulting sometimes in the death of the trees. The
principal symptom is the production during summer of bushy, wiry growth
caused by the breaking into growth of lateral buds that normally would
remain dormant over the winter. These buds produce shoots that again
branch from lateral buds and the process may be repeated for three or
four times, resulting in a tightly packed mass or bunch of small, wiry
twigs and undersized leaves. Another characteristic symptom is that this
growth proliferation continues unabated until the first frost, and,
since the wood of these shoots is thus not properly matured, killing
back of the diseased portions of the tree usually occurs with the first
hard freezes of winter.

As the disease progresses, the wood in the main branches becomes very
brittle and is easily broken by wind or ice. This condition is followed
by the dying back of branches and finally the death of the tree. Trees
even moderately affected soon become worthless for nut production, as
few nuts are set and those that mature are usually poorly filled.


Susceptibility of Species

Extended observations show that of the walnut species now grown in
eastern United States, the Japanese walnuts, i.e., the Siebold and
the heartnut, are by far the most subject to attack by this disease.
These walnuts are so susceptible that in localities where this disease
is present the planting of young trees is inadvisable, as they are
almost certain to be short lived. Once infected, will endanger other
walnut trees in the area.

Observations at Beltsville show that the butternut is almost as
susceptible to attack as is the Japanese walnut. Some workers are
inclined to believe that the rather serious decrease in numbers of
butternut trees in some areas is due to the bunch disease. The Persian
(English) walnut is also quite susceptible, although probably not so
much so as the butternut or the Japanese walnut. The eastern black
walnut seems to be the most resistant of all, although some evidence
indicates that at least certain trees of this species may have the
disease but not show symptoms of it. Gravatt and Stout[17] report that
walnut trees may be affected for a considerable length of time without
showing recognizable symptoms. Out of a lot of 300 healthy-appearing
trees, 37 per cent showed bunch disease symptoms following pruning. Only
four percent of the unpruned check trees developed similar symptoms
during the same period of time.


Distribution

At the present time bunch disease is quite widespread in eastern United
States, occurring in Maryland, District of Columbia, Delaware, New
Jersey, New York, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, West
Virginia, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee,
Alabama, and probably other States. No special surveys have been made
for bunch disease, and all distribution information has been obtained
from observations of U. S. Department of Agriculture or State workers or
from specimens submitted.


Damage Caused

Trees with bunch disease may live for several years in a stag-horned or
tufted condition. Affected trees generally set few nuts and the nuts
that mature are usually poorly filled and hence low in oil content. It
is likely that a part of the unsatisfactory growth and fruiting
performance of certain eastern black walnut trees may be due to the
disease, even though they do not show the symptoms as they are now
known. Severely affected trees are subject to cold injury, and in
addition the wood becomes very brittle and is easily broken by storms.
Although this disease has been known for several years, it is believed
that its seriousness has not been fully appreciated, as it does not
cause death as soon as symptoms appear. Several years must elapse before
the tree succumbs. In the nut tree plantings made at the Plant Industry
Station at Beltsville, Maryland, large numbers of butternut, Japanese
walnut, and Persian walnut trees were planted. During the following
years, although no records have been kept, several hundred of these
trees have become affected and have been removed. Consequently at the
present time we do not have any butternut or Japanese walnut
trees, and only a few Persian (English) walnut trees left in the
plantings. So far, not a single eastern black walnut tree has been
removed from the orchards because of the bunch disease. Some trees have
shown characteristic symptoms of the disease, but following the removal
of the entire diseased limbs the symptoms have not reappeared.


Possible Effects of Bunch Disease on the Walnut Industry

This disease is known to spread to nearby healthy walnut trees, but the
means by which it is spread or how infection occurs is not known. No
survey has been made to determine whether the disease is present in the
various regions in which walnut trees are grown, and hence it is not
known how widely it is distributed at present. Its spread is probably
associated with an insect vector, and the presence of the vector would
determine whether or not local spread would occur. Much more must be
learned about this disease before its importance and destructive nature
can be fully determined. It seems certain that in localities where the
disease is already present there is little use in planting young trees
of the most susceptible species unless trees in the vicinity that are
already diseased are destroyed. Nurserymen growing trees of the Japanese
walnut, butternut, and Persian walnut should be sure that no diseased
trees which might infect the nursery trees are close to their nurseries.
It is not known how far the inoculum may be carried, but at this time it
would seem that in order to be reasonably safe no diseased tree should
be allowed to grow within a mile radius of a nursery. Infected nursery
trees (or scions) probably constitute the most important means of
long-distance spread for a disease of this type.


Control

The only known method of control of the bunch disease is to prevent
healthy trees from becoming infected. This can be done only by
destroying completely all diseased trees. In the early stage of the
disease, sometimes only one branch on a tree may show symptoms; and
complete removal of this branch may result in the tree's not showing
additional symptoms for a year or more. Except in the case of black
walnut, the disease breaks out again; hence cutting out diseased limbs
cannot be considered a satisfactory control measure, except possibly on
the eastern black walnut.


Case Histories at Beltsville

As a part of walnut breeding work carried on during the past 14 years,
approximately 20 large _nigra_ trees of named horticultural varieties
have been topworked to seedlings of natural first-generation hybrids
between _J. regia_ and _J. nigra_ for the purpose of forcing the
seedling scions into early fruiting. Of these 20 trees, 3 have shown
such unusual behavior as to merit a description of each in the form of a
case history.

_Tree Number 838._ This tree was cut back severely in the spring of
1942, and on August 26, 1943 vigorous new shoots were budded to
47.11-P17, a second-generation seedling of the O'Conner natural
hybrid. The buds grew vigorously in 1944 and early in the season
developed symptoms of the bunch disease. By the end of the growing
season of 1944 the scion limbs were heavy with the typical proliferated
shoots characteristic of the disease. Also, a few vigorous sucker limbs
of the stock tree that grew out from below the point of union of the
scions showed typical symptoms of the disease, although these limbs were
later outgrown by normal shoots and are not now to be seen. In the early
spring of 1945 the diseased limbs were all removed from the tree to
prevent the further spread of the disease in the area.

At the same time that the above seedling was budded in the top of this
tree, a large lateral limb of the stock tree was budded to seedling
number 40.70-P1. This seedling originated from a nut of the Ohio
variety of black walnut that was only about 1/4 the size of nuts typical
of the variety. At the time it was thought that this nut resulted from a
cross of Ohio with pollen of the Persian walnut, as it was produced
under bag and following hand-pollination. Later growth of the seedling
indicated, however, that the pistillate flower was probably pollinated
by _J. nigra_ before the bagging occurred, since only _J. nigra_
characteristics have shown up in the seedling. In 1950, one bud of the
_nigra_ seedling 40.70-P1 has almost completely regenerated the top of
the tree and no symptom of the disease is evident. By contrast in 1944,
almost all of the top of the tree was occupied by diseased limbs, five
in number, of the O'Conner seedling.

_Tree Number 854._ This tree has shown behavior almost identical with
that of Number 838, but three seedlings were topworked instead of one.
All three originated from the Coye hybrid and all were budded on July
27, 1944. Less than one month later all buds had produced a foot or more
of growth, and one to two scions of each seedling reached sufficient
size and vigor to survive the following winter without damage. None of
the scions branched in 1944, and all failed to show symptoms of the
disease. Early in 1945 profuse branching occurred on the one surviving
scion of seedling number 39.03-P2, and by midsummer excessive
proliferation of the buds of primary shoots had resulted in the
formation of a mistletoe-like growth characteristic of the disease.
Scions of the two other seedlings, 39.03-P8 and 39.03-P11, were lost
by wind damage in midsummer, but at the time they showed no signs of the
disease. Most of the shoots of 39.03-P2 were killed during the
following winter, and in April, 1946, the remaining live portions were
removed by the Division of Forest Pathology for use in transmission
studies.

On August 18, 1944, four patch buds of the O'Conner natural hybrid were
placed on one of the main limbs of this tree. One of these buds grew,
and in 1950 has come to occupy more than half the top of the tree. The
remainder of the top is made up of the original stock tree. There is no
evidence of bunching in the tree at present.

_Tree Number 411._ This tree was budded to six seedlings of the Fox
natural hybrid on April 28, 1943. Only one of these lived, 40.45-P4,
and one scion of this seedling in 1950 comprises the entire crown. No
symptom of the disease has appeared in this scion, and the tree is
healthy at present.

On April 8, 1944, small lateral limbs of the tree were splice-grafted to
two Coye seedlings, 39.03-P8 and 41.26-P10. One scions of each grew
vigorously during the summer, and 41.26-P10 first became chlorotic,
then diseased. Seedling 39.03-P8 became chlorotic but at the end of the
season had not shown symptoms of the disease. Both were removed from the
tree early in 1945 and the living shoots used for scionwood in
transmission studies by the Division of Forest Pathology.

An additional case is _Tree Number 795_. This is a grafted tree of the
Graham variety of black walnut that was planted in 1932 within 100 feet
of trees of the Bates and Faust varieties of heartnuts. By 1940 the
latter trees were heavily infected with bunch disease, but it was not
until 1943 or 1944 that symptoms were discovered in the Graham tree. At
this time the heartnuts were removed from the orchard. The Graham tree
has shown only a few small diseased limbs during the past six or seven
years, and in 1950 a fair crop of nuts is in prospect.


Discussion

The following observations should be mentioned briefly before discussing
the questions raised by the case histories:

     1. Out of more than one hundred seedling scions from 13 hybrids
     topworked on large _nigra_ trees, three have become diseased the
     first or second year after the scions began to grow on black walnut
     stock.

     2. The three susceptible seedlings have all been grafted on
     different _nigra_ stock trees, and the three stock trees have since
     regenerated only healthy limbs, after removal of the diseased
     shoots.

     3. Seedlings from a total of 13 natural hybrids between _J. nigra_
     and _J. regia_ have been used, and only two of these hybrids have
     yielded susceptible seedlings. However, only a few seedlings were
     available from certain hybrids.

     4. A total of 156 trees of approximately 36 horticultural varieties
     has been grown at Beltsville, and only one tree of the variety
     Graham has shown well developed symptoms of the bunch disease. Two
     other Graham trees have shown slight or questionable symptoms of
     the disease.

It should be pointed out that a considerable number of heartnut and
butternut trees were planted at random in the same orchards with the
black walnut trees used in these experiments and at the same time
(1932). In many cases black walnut trees grew within 50 or 100 feet of
the heartnut trees. The bunch disease first appeared on heartnut trees,
the most susceptible walnut species, and spread quickly to butternut,
which is also very susceptible. By 1940 most of the diseased heartnuts
had been removed from the orchards, but it was not until after the
top-working experiments described above were completed that the orchards
were cleared of all diseased trees. It is therefore possible that insect
vectors or other agencies may have spread the disease to the scions of
the topworked seedlings from the infected heartnut and butternut trees.

Number 795 is the only _J. nigra_ tree on the station farm that has
consistently shown symptoms of the disease during the past eight years,
and in 1950 only a few limbs are affected. On the basis of the
admittedly meager information reported here, it can be stated that the
black walnut varieties used in these experiments are more resistant to
the bunch disease than are varieties and seedlings of heartnut and
butternut. That this is generally true is also borne out by the fact
that in the vicinity of Beltsville, Maryland, and the District of
Columbia, practically all dooryard trees of the Japanese walnut are
infected with bunch disease, many of them having already been killed,
whereas relatively few black walnut trees in the area show symptoms of
the disease.

The suggestion has been made that most varieties and seedlings of black
walnut are symptomless carriers of the disease, and only under certain
adverse conditions of environment would symptoms appear. This would
explain why trees that are cut back severely, as was the case with tree
Number 838 described above, show symptoms on the excessively vigorous
shoots of the next year's growth.

Little can be said at the present time about the relative resistance of
black walnut varieties to the bunch disease because nothing is known
about how it is spread from one individual tree to another. The case
histories of trees described in the present paper are considered to be
worth recording because they show that black walnut trees may support
diseased scions and later regenerate apparently healthy tops. In these
cases the trees showed a type of resistance to the disease. However,
there are many cases known, the majority of which are seedlings, in
which black walnut trees became so badly infected with the disease that
nut production ceased and the trees later died. Whether the type of
resistance described in this paper is widely prevalent in the black
walnut as a species will be impossible to determine until more is known
about how the disease is spread.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 13: Several common names have been applied to this disease,
among which "bunch" and "brooming" have most frequently been used. The
authors strongly feel that the accepted common name should be "bunch"
for the following reasons: (1). The term is very descriptive of the
symptoms of the disorder. (2). It is the accepted name of a disease of
pecan and hickory species that is very similar if not identical to the
one occurring on walnut species. (3). The names "brooming" and
"witches'-broom" have already been applied to diseases caused by fungi.]

[Footnote 14: Waite, M. B. Notes on Some Nut Diseases with Special
Reference to the Black Walnut. Ann. Rept. Northern Nut Growers Assoc.
23:60-67, 1932.]

[Footnote 15: Becker, Gilbert, My Observations on Witches Broom Disease
of Black Walnut Trees. Annual Report Northern Nut Growers Assoc.
31:106-109, 1940.]

[Footnote 16: Hutchins, Lee M., and Wester, Horace V.
Graft--transmissible Brooming Disease of Walnut (Abstract.)
Phytopathology 37: 11, Jan. 1947.]

[Footnote 17: Gravatt, G. F., and Stout, Donald C. Diseases Affecting
the Success of Tree Crop Plantings. Ann. Rept. Northern Nut Growers
Assoc. 39: 60-68. 1948]



WEDNESDAY MORNING SESSION

A Forester Looks at the Timber Value of Nut Trees

CHARLES S. WALTERS, _Forestry Department, University of Illinois_


What I am going to say will apply mostly to black walnut since it is one
of our most valuable timber trees, but it also will apply to other
species like hickory, pecan, persimmon. I've never seen papaw or hazel
nut large enough for timber, but the Persian walnut has some value and
the Chinese chestnut is a fair timber tree. All of these species should
be commercially useful if there is sufficient quality and volume
involved to warrant a sale.

What I have to say may not apply five years from now. Persimmon used to
be the main source of material for golf club heads and shuttles for the
textile industry. It no longer is.

Today golf club heads are being made of "Compreg," a wood which has been
impregnated with phenolic resins and cured with heat. The resin is
similar to Bakelite. Thin sheets of wood are glued together to build up
the head, rather than using a single solid piece, and it makes a
considerably better golf club head. The developments in wood use are
progressing just as in many other fields. What the wood specialists are
trying to do is to take low quality material and change it over to a
form which is suitable for many uses for which high-quality expensive
material is now used. The timber buyer now wants a tree of long, clean,
bole with few knots, of large size,--at least 16 inches in diameter at
breast height. In short, he wants high quality material.

What I am saying may not apply to nut growing. Foresters grow trees for
the wood crop, with nuts as a by-product. The first 16 feet of trunk or
the butt log is his main interest. It should be completely free of
limbs, knots, and other defects for at least 16 feet. You can use the
logs above the butt-cut but they usually produce lower grade material.

You have two courses to follow. You can grow wood either in natural
stands or in plantations, and the end product is very little different.
It is probably easier to grow a high quality tree in a plantation than
in the wild. What can be easier than growing a timber tree in the
woodlands? It eventually reaches merchantable size and is harvested.
Well, nature can do better if you give her help. Your chances of growing
a high quality tree to merchantable size are better in the plantation.

About ten years ago Dr. R. W. Lorenz of our Department made a study of
150 plantations growing on prairie soil in Illinois. Thirty-six were
walnut which ranged in age from 22 to 75 years. The one thing we had the
most trouble with was determining their ages. One day we stopped at a
farm and talked to a farmer, and we asked him when the trees were
planted. This man said he could tell us the exact day. "I was a young
lad and a neighbor drove by and said, 'Yesterday Abe Lincoln was shot.'"
So we had the historical records to determine the age of that particular
plantation.

These plantations ranged in number of trees per acre from 46 to 330. The
number of trees per acre has a direct influence on the size or diameter
growth of the timber tree. An eight by eight spacing, or 680 trees per
acre, eventually will be thinned to 200 trees per acre. That gives each
tree proper spacing for best height and diameter growth.

The trees ranged in height from about 31 feet to 85, averaging about a
foot and a quarter in height each year. The average diameters ranged
from about 12 inches to 15 inches. Individual trees, however, ranged up
to 24 inches at breast height (4-1/2' above ground level). Each
plantation had had very little or no care. If some of them had been
cared for, or "managed", their owners would have had a better wood
crop--higher quality and higher quantity too.

Now, as to the growth in the managed plantations. We believe it is
possible to grow 300 board feet per acre per year. Compared with upland
oak, walnut exceeded it in almost all growth factors up to 70 years of
age and then they were about the same.

Of the cultural practices, the most important is probably pruning.
Sawing off the limbs growing on the trunk makes all wood produced
thereafter free of knots. When the trees reach about six inches in
diameter, one should select those he is going to call "crop
trees"--about 200 of these per acre--and spend his time getting them to
timber size and quality. The other trees are removed over a period of
several years, so that you finally have only the 200 high quality crop
trees left. The reason I suggest starting the pruning when the trees are
six inches in diameter, is that that is the size of the veneer core
left after the veneer manufacturer has turned the log for the thin sheet
of furniture veneer. Remove the limbs and improve the quality so you get
a 16-foot log free of limbs and knots. That is what the buyer is looking
for.

I know practically nothing about growing trees for a nut crop, but we
seem to have something in common in growing trees both for nuts and
timber. Just a lot of it is "horse sense", with a few rules of thumb
based upon scientific principles. You must give the crop trees space,
give them plenty of room to grow. In the woods they start to grow in a
dense undergrowth. The young trees soon reach a height where they begin
to dominate their neighbors. There you pick the straight,
thrifty-growing trees for crop trees and favor them in your thinning and
pruning operations. Tree density influences diameter growth of the
trees. In thick stands, trees are usually small and spindly. So plant a
large number to give the crop trees good form, then thin the plantation
carefully to make it grow.

Grazing and fire are very harmful to tree plantations. Most of the
plantations we studied were grazed. A good many were burned. I don't
think nut growers would periodically burn their stands to improve the
nut production. It is the same with growing a crop of wood. Once the
livestock begin to trample or compact the soil, tree growth slows down
and when that happens it makes the tree more susceptible to attack by
insects and fungi.

As to marketing trees, let's assume you have some material you want to
sell. The one thing you want to know is, "how much is it worth?" That is
like me asking you what my house is worth. I understand there are
persons here not only from Illinois and Iowa, but from New York, West
Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. Prices on wood products vary not only from
state to state but also within a state as well. The things you ought to
know are the sizes and the grades of the timber that you want to sell,
since they determine price. Now, there are publically employed foresters
available to help you. They know your local conditions. The
manufacturer's markets determine what he can afford to pay you.

For example, we organized some walnut marketing pools in Illinois during
the war. I suppose a half million board feet of Illinois walnut was sold
for gun stock material. One company was buying most of the product of
the pools. Later we found that this company had a market for low grade
stump veneer. Most of the other companies would mark a half dozen trees
for their stumps. This company would buy 35 to 40 stumps. Every buyer
looked at the same quality and quantity of material, since the trees
were all marked. In this case, however, the difference in markets
determined the price the manufacturer could pay.

Another thing that concerns price is what we call "logging chance" or
how easy is it for the buyer to harvest those trees. I imagine anyone
buying trees in Pennsylvania would have considerably more difficulty in
getting them out than he would in Illinois. The differences in equipment
and methods used to harvest the trees all have a bearing on the price
paid the timber owner.

Hickory is commonly sold for handle stock. Wood for striking-tool
handles has a definite restriction in the specifications on the number
of rings allowed per inch of growth. The Federal Government grades
handles on the basis of growth rate. From 17 to 22 growth rings per inch
is specified. Timber buyers don't want logs grown any slower than 22
rings per inch and those grown a little faster than ten rings per inch
may be acceptable.

Now, as to determining the trees to sell. I mentioned a 16-inch diameter
limit. A few trees smaller than this with logs shorter than 8 feet in
length may be accepted if a large quantity of wood is to be sold. It has
to be economically worth while for the buyer to harvest and transport
the wood, or he can't afford to buy it. Each buyer of course has a
different set of specifications. You ought to measure and _mark_ those
trees you want to sell and ask the buyers to bid only on those marked
trees.

Buyers like to approach the timber owner with, "You have some timber I
can use. I'll give you $100 for what I can use." That is the same
approach as if I were to offer $100 for your entire nut crop. You would
probably say, "Let's weigh those nuts so we will have a basis for coming
to an agreement." It's the same way with timber. There are two ways you
can sell your timber. You can either measure your trees and sell on a
volume basis, or you can mark certain trees and state to several buyers,
"I have marked 25 trees for sale. What is your best offer for them?"
Each buyer looks at the same trees, and you have a common denominator
for comparing the fairness of each bid.

For example, we had a farmer in Woodford County, Illinois who had walnut
trees, wild trees, but growing in a pasture grove. I jotted down the
bids that were made. One buyer offered $200 for 27 trees, another bid
$225 for 35, a third bid $265 for 40 or $165 for 35, and the last buyer
offered $425 for 25 trees. The point I am trying to illustrate is that
the farmer, without that extremely high bid, would have been unable to
compare the bids because someone bid on 27 trees and someone else on 35
trees. If all buyers had bid on 27 marked trees, he would have had a
basis for comparing the bids.

Sell on contract. Farm foresters have simple contract forms which they
will give you. The forms can be filled out so that they tell what you
agree to do and what the buyer agrees to do. Both parties sign the
agreement, so there is less chance for disagreement later.

May I have those slides? (Picture showing large tall tree in dense
forest.) This isn't a walnut tree, but I want to show you the kind of
condition foresters like to see trees growing under. Nice tall stem,
free of any limbs, good diameter. These trees show a rather wide range
of age classes. When I talk to my folks about growing timber, they say
"70 years is a long time to wait for your money." Here is a tree that
started 70 years ago and is ready to be harvested. The crop is sustained
yield.

I put this in to show you what we don't like to see. (Picture showing
park-like stand of timber.) When these 100 or so trees are gone, there
will be no others to replace them. Cattle have grazed this stand to the
extent that it will be a long time before any other age classes develop
to replace those you see in the picture.

That is a white oak. I told you there weren't many. Good diameter all
the way up clear of limbs. When the logger cuts that tree he will have
high quality material. The same applies for walnut, hickory, or any
other species.

This walnut tree shows you how to mark trees for sale. One mark up here
so the buyer knows which tree is designated for cutting, and one down at
the bottom so you can assure yourself that that tree was to be sold. It
identifies one of the trees you intended to sell; a penalty is involved
for cutting any others.

I wanted to show you what a good walnut stump-cut looks like. These
trees should be 18 inches or larger in diameter at about two feet above
the ground to be worthwhile. The stump will be cut off when it gets to
the mill, and peeled for veneer.

This is one of the walnut plantations cut for gun stock material. I put
this in to show you how the buyers cut the trees down, and measure off
the logs to get the best grade of material. They aren't interested so
much in volume as in lumber. They want the best grade of wood, and they
want it in that butt log.

I put these in to show poor quality logs that weren't worth taking. This
is an open pasture grown tree. No care or attention given it, so the
limbs stayed on and grew quite large.

This shows how they load logs with a tractor and chain. This "cross
haul" is a trick of the logger's trade. This is the improper way. The
tractor was broken down so it took five or six men to load it because
they didn't have the tractor. There are some good logs and here are some
poor logs.

This is a group of logs, at a railroad siding. Some look small, but at
that time--with the market as it was--they could use the smaller logs.
You see some of nice length, good form and free of defects. I mentioned
metal. Here's a man with an Army mine detector. They tried them out to
locate metal. This company uses this mine detector to test all logs for
metal content.

Here's what happens. The metal discolors or stains the wood. This tree
probably grew in a fence line. The buyers are just a little reluctant to
buy them. If they do they cut them off this high so they are pretty sure
all fence wire is left in the stump portion.

In this grove of walnut a wire is nailed on every tree. Such a practice
ruins the tree.

This shows wasteful practice. This small mill in southern Illinois was
buying these short bolts cut from small trees. Be careful that you don't
sell trees that are too small and too young. It is like, I suppose,
harvesting your walnuts before the kernel develops.

This is the result of fire. That log, from outside appearance, didn't
have a blemish. Loggers left this part because it was hollow. The
infection developed from a fire scar and rotted out the inside.

This shows the same thing. Fire scarred. Bumping machines used to
harvest the nut crop or any defect or injury may result in something
like this and decrease the tree's value for timber.

I mentioned hickory. Here are some single-trees that are made out of
pecan. Hickory is also used. Hickory grows to a commercial size in
southern Illinois but in most states it is too small and knotty. One
time the Peoria office of the WPB got a release from Washington
indicating that hickory was needed for axe handles. They released it to
the newspapers. We answered letters for a month after that. Farmers who
had hickory they wanted to sell had to be told that there wasn't enough
hickory involved to make it commercially possible to market. In
addition, there wasn't a single handle mill in the state at that time.

This is a couple of loads of good walnut logs. They were cut in Illinois
and trucked to Indiana to be manufactured into veneer and lumber.

Dr. Colby has asked me if I had any methods of getting rid of stumps. We
have worked for five years and we still haven't a method that is
economical or easy. We recommend grubbing or burning them out with a
small stove, or you can cut them close to the ground and let them rot
out. What about the chemicals?--We have worked for a good many years and
we have bored stumps until our arms ached, but we haven't found any of
them that work.


Discussion

MEMBER: 300 board feet per acre per year?

MR. WALTERS: I said we felt that on good soil and by encouraging nature
we can grow that volume.

MEMBER: What are the stumpage prices?

MR. WALTERS: Ranging from about $10.00 per thousand board feet to $300.
There is quite a span and each grade is different. There is a prime
grade, which is the best grade, which must be 16 inches in diameter at
the small end at least. Each company has a little different set of
grades. Even with the same grade the prices will range according to the
size of the log. Maybe a 16 inch prime log may be worth $200 per
thousand board feet and 24 inch will be $300.

MR. CRAIG: Curly walnut would be worth more?

MR. WALTERS: Yes. It is somewhat of a guess as to whether a tree will
have a curly figure. If you let them take the bark off a tree, the
buyers can tell. I know of one beautiful stump on which the buyer wanted
permission to remove part of its bark to see if it had nubby growth. If
it had had the figure, it would have been very valuable. The farmer
said, "I don't want you cutting on that tree because if it doesn't have
the figure and you don't buy it, the tree will be spoiled." Don't let
the buyers chop into the tree to see whether it has figure.

MR. CRAIG: I bought two to get grafting wood.

[Editor's note: Mr. Craig refers to the Lamb curly black walnut, article
on which appeared in NNGA 39th Annual Report.]

MR. WALTERS: There has been some work done on grafting or stimulating
growth for figure. One method was to beat the trees with a rubber hose
and try to stimulate figured or curly grain. Not too much has been
published on this work as yet.

MEMBER: Do you think the figure could be propagated by asexual
propagation?

MR. WALTERS: I don't know. I will say this; in forest trees, the
inherited characteristics are the things we depend upon. If a tree has
curly figure and the seed carries that characteristic, you may see it in
the progeny. An acquired characteristic I don't think you can depend on
so much.

MEMBER: Is it thought to be acquired or hereditary?

MR. WALTERS: I just don't know whether it is acquired or hereditary.

DR. ROHRBACHER: One thought came to me on this black walnut timber. It's
a long pull, and it is one for our posterity. The thought came to be
that it is for those of us who are interested in setting up something
for our offspring. The plan has been brought out before of using a
grafted known name variety of nuts. Plant those, and perhaps those trees
as they grow would first give us that wonderful nut which we were
looking for.



Symposium on Nut Tree Propagation

F. L. O'ROURKE, _Leader_


MR. O'ROURKE: I believe if you get 10 nut people together, you are going
to have eight or nine propagators. It is the one thing that people like
to dream and talk about.

I went through the list a little bit, and in order to save some time I
wrote a resumé of what had been done. In order to accumulate that
material I had to dig into some of the more or less unused volume. There
is a wealth of information in some of those earlier reports of the
Northern Nut Growers Association.

MEMBER: You can get them for $15 a set.

MR. O'ROURKE: It's a good investment anyway. At any rate, I think I am
going to try to make a bit of an analogy. Suppose this was a church
group who had been working on paying off their mortgage. Every once in a
while they passed a hat, but instead of dumping that hat on the table
they let those contributions accumulate, so that after a while they had
the accumulation of 41 years in the hat. Someone has to dump the hat
sometime and I tried to do that this summer, and I found all sorts of
contributions in that hat. We might say this happened to be the hat. You
would find some brand new fresh ten dollar bills, nice new currency, and
then you would find some gold pieces (before Roosevelt). They too can be
used because they can also be converted. Then you could dig back and
come across some stuff, and you didn't quite know what it was. It might
be a Spanish doubloon or an old brass button. Right there is where you
need a little knowledge. You should be able to tell the difference. I
don't know whether I was able to tell that difference. We will, of
course, find a lot of slugs and buttons and this and that among the
valuable pieces, so possibly we should sift those out and put them in
the discard. You never can be sure what to discard.

Just as I said, every nut grower is a propagator at heart. A little wee
paragraph may be a lead to something which would be of quite a lot of
value.

This little brief resumé I passed around yesterday, and now this morning
I am using my school teacherish techniques in passing around a sheet of
paper. There is merely an outline. Pardon me if I insult your
intelligence in getting out that outline. As you notice, we start out
with the seedling and end with nursery practice. This outline should fit
almost any nut species. It should fit chestnut, hickory, walnut or any.
I thought it might be best to have a vote as to which one we talk about
first, and then we will run down each particular species. I think we
should have our panel come up front.

As I said a while ago, we know that practically every person in this
room is a propagator. In order that we have this panel conducted in an
orderly way, please raise your hand when you speak. I will get the
question and pass it to one of the panel members. Which one shall we
take up first?

MR. McDANIEL: Let's take the hard one first, the Chinese chestnut.

All right, chestnut. To be systematic, let's talk about seed. Anyone
having any difficulty? No trouble at all. Who grows most of the Chinese
chestnuts, germinates most of the seed?

MEMBER: I have trouble with rabbits, squirrels, ground hogs.

MR. O'ROURKE: He wishes to know of something to protect his chestnuts.

DR. McKAY: We don't plant in the Fall. I know of one person who uses red
lead. We have never used it. I know that has been done. We store our
chestnuts in cold storage over the winter and plant in the Spring.

C. S. WALTERS: May I interrupt? We tried 50 chemicals, treating walnut
seed with them or putting them on the seed spot after the nut was
planted. The squirrels lifted every nut except those that wouldn't have
germinated anyway. The rascals knew the difference. We tried
allylisothiocyanate--"tear gas." The squirrels would dig those nuts up
and when the vapor got too strong they would go away and allow it to
evaporate. Within two weeks they would come back--maybe two or three
times--before they finally took the nut. We tried cayenne pepper and
n-butyl mercaptan--the main ingredient in "polecat essence." We had
squirrels all over our test plots, and the only nuts they didn't take
were the bad ones.

MEMBER: I have had every other kind of rodent. I found I have to plant
in the spring and always in a tin can, with rock wool over the nut.

MEMBER: We have used rock wool; planted in the spring. They will get
them any time.

MEMBER: I did the same thing with chicken wire and no squirrels got
them.

MEMBER: I would like to ask Mr. Chase if he has planted chestnuts on a
quantity basis.

MR. CHASE: We planted them on a quantity basis and as some of you know
our nursery is adjacent to a wooded area where you would assume there
would be a lot of rodents and polecats, both kinds--four and two legged.
I made that statement once before about never having had any squirrel
damage. We don't have any trouble. We do not lose chestnuts. We mulch
with composted mixtures.

MEMBER. They claim sawdust will help keep them away.

MR. CHASE: On the other hand, a gentleman wanted to get started with
chestnut in the Smokies. We helped him get lined up and he planted in
beds and these are perhaps a hundred feet long. We mulched heavily with
sawdust. The area had been cut over six to eight years ago and had
immense piles of sawdust. We mulched with about four inches and some
animal got every chestnut out. We never knew what animal it was. There
wasn't any evidence on the top. They got every chestnut which was quite
a shock to him. I brought this point out that there _was_ danger and he
was going to build the bed up high and cover with wire or he was going
to get some of this old camouflage netting type and cover that bed for
protection both against rodents and early spring frost. He didn't follow
through on that so I don't plead guilty.

MEMBER: Does the Chinese chestnut seed have a rest period?

DR. McKAY: For some years we have had a friendly discussion with the
Division of Forest Pathology in regard to whether a chestnut seed has a
rest period in the same way black walnut, hickory, or some of the others
do, and we are not absolutely set in our opinion on the matter. We have
the opinion that the Chinese chestnut does not require a rest period. I
will tell you that one species, the Allegany Chinkapin _(C. pumila_)
will germinate very readily as soon as it is matured. It will start
growing immediately. When you go into the oak species, you have a number
like that. They fall to the ground, and put a root into the soil, become
anchored, and grow slowly all winter long. We feel that the Chinese
chestnuts are of that type. Perhaps the old American chestnut was that
way. It fell to the ground in the fall and it sprouted rather promptly
within a month or so and grew slowly. Perhaps the Chinese chestnut is
not so much inclined that way. We have done this: we have taken them
from storage at various times during the winter and planted them, and
have never failed to get reasonably good germination. Others have. The
results there vary considerably. Perhaps we can't be too sure about the
matter. We simply feel that on the basis of what we have seen and
observed, they do not have a definite rest period. Many of the failures
that have been obtained have been due to poor storage conditions, where
the nut started to spoil and perhaps the workers didn't realize it and
planted that nut and the nut spoiled immediately. So you fail, not
because of the inability of the seed to sprout, but because it was
improperly handled and could not grow.

MR. O'ROURKE: Is it not a fact that ... seed has no true rest period as
we know it with trees? On the other hand, about 30 days' exposure to low
temperature and moist conditions will cause all those seeds to germinate
immediately. It may be somewhat the same with chestnut seed.

MR. STOKE: In confirmation, I furnished a man some seed some years ago
and we put them in flower pots and they were a foot high by Christmas.

MR. McDANIEL: The growth is normal from the immediate planting, too. You
don't get the suppressed growth later, as in prematurely germinated
peach.

MEMBER: The chinkapins will often sprout even before they come out of
the bur.

MR. CRAIG: I might say this concerning the California Persian walnuts.
Take one at harvest and plant it, and that seed will germinate
immediately. You hold it in dry storage and plant in the spring and it
will come up in a couple of weeks. I speak from experience.

DR. CRANE: The same thing is true with pecan, in west Texas and Arkansas
and California. We have lots of trouble with pecans germinating. It is
not uncommon to find a pecan germinated with a root as much as ten
inches long grown in the hull. If that nut goes through to maturity and
becomes dry, then there is an appreciable delay in germination. They
won't germinate as quickly. There has got to be a lot of changes in the
kernel after they have once dried out and been harvested before
germination will be initiated again.

DR. McKAY: In connection with this question of germinating nut seeds of
all kinds, we think it is very important to plant the seed in a well
aerated medium. I think that is a mistake many people make. If the soil
happens to be of a clay nature, it keeps out oxygen and air and the
sprout will rot. That is the reason why, when we plant chestnut seed, we
like to plant in sand or the same with any nut seed. Coarse sand has a
lot of air in it. That nut has a high demand for oxygen.

MEMBER: In the matter of chestnut seed, don't put too many layers of
seeds. One is better than two. Even in rather porous soil, they seem to
develop gas. Anyway, I found the bottom ones didn't get enough air and
they rotted, whereas on top they didn't. It is better to plant a single
layer than more.

MR. SHERMAN: What is the best method of treating the chestnut seeds in
the fall to prevent the development of weevils?

DR. McKAY: Of course, there are several ways of treating the nuts for
weevils. One is the old hot water method. All of us can heat water. We
have to heat it to about 120 degrees. So hot, you can't hold your hand
in it. Immerse thirty minutes for an average size nut. Now in connection
with the spoilage and rotting that is another matter. We believe in
harvesting chestnuts promptly, storing them before they dry out. We of
course store our chestnuts in cans. Cans with lids and holes punched at
either end.

MR. O'ROURKE: Are there any other questions pertaining to seeds?

MEMBER: I would like to caution persons outside the weevil belt about
being very careful if you get nuts that may be infested. Leave your nuts
in a small jar and you have the advantage of watching the weevils
actually emerging. You can pick the nuts out about February, and you can
select all the nuts that are sound. Once in awhile a weevil will live
through the winter. One thing we should all be thinking about is that
the nurseryman has to produce grafted trees in order to fill a demand,
and those nut trees must be produced cheaply and he must use methods
which are highly efficient.

MEMBER: Has anyone tried to deep freeze?

DR. CRANE: We tried that just this past winter. For a couple of years
back one individual had asked us why we didn't freeze them. Last winter
we did. We stored three gallon buckets at two temperatures. One at zero
and the other at ten degrees below--hard freezing temperatures. Those
nuts stayed frozen from early October until the next April. We brought
them out and examined them one morning. The first thing we did was taste
them. Those nuts we ate when first opened and you could tell them from
no other chestnuts. They were nice eating, sweet. We let those chestnuts
thaw evenly at room temperature. That evening we examined them and it's
hard to describe what the transformation was in those nuts. In the first
place was the deterioration that had gone on as soon as the tissue
thawed ... They were dripping water. The tissue had burst and the water
just flowed. On the other hand, about an hour after they thawed out,
when we first examined them just as they thawed out, you would be amazed
at how tender they were. They would melt in your mouth. Freezing
apparently breaks down the tissue. The tissue is as soft as it can be.
Apparently this freezing transformed some of the starch to sugar. The
rub is that it won't keep for even two or three hours.

MEMBER: They might keep if you put them in the soil first.

DR. CRANE: The tissue is ruined.

MR. O'ROURKE: We have now decided certain things pertaining to seed
germination. Then we are confronted with the problems of seedling versus
clonal rootstocks. I do not know whether or not there have been clonal
rootstocks selected for Chinese chestnut. I am sorry to have to ask Dr
McKay to talk again but he knows more about it.

DR. McKAY: I can only tell you about the experiment we started this
spring on clonal stocks of chestnuts. We have just this year's results.
Unfortunately we didn't get good results. We took ten seedling trees. We
used nursery trees, large five-year old trees, with vigorous root
system, ten seedlings, and got from them 20 roots. We took roots the
size of your finger with a lot of feeding roots, and we grafted onto
those five times four. We took four per variety. We used five varieties
of chestnuts, and all five of those each had four pieces and we had ten
of those seedlings. We wanted to find out whether any of those ten
seedlings would give us a better set of these five varieties than any
other trees. In other words, we are trying to get a start on a clonal
rootstock. We used a splice graft. We simply took a piece of scion and
spliced it right on the end of the root. We had four of those in the
bundle, and we had five per seedling and we had ten of them. That made
20 in all. We planted in a cold frame, with cheesecloth covering to keep
the temperature from getting too high. Eventually, if this thing works,
we will establish a clonal line. We planted those ten original trees but
you will be surprised. We can go back to the original tree if we
succeed with clonal lines, so a chestnut variety we hope will be
grafted on a line of stock that came from that one original tree. Bear
in mind this is the method and it remains to be seen whether it is going
to work for chestnuts.

The results are discouraging. Only one or two seedlings gave us six or 8
successful grafts on all the five varieties but by that method of trying
all five of these varieties on all ten of the seedings we hope to get a
start. We will try them again, and we hope to get at least a start that
will work. It may be that we will have to start over again. We may want
to take ten other seedlings. That is, in brief, our work so far in that
direction.

We took it off the ground. We didn't have long enough side roots.

MEMBER: How about mound layering?

DR. McKAY: We tried cutting off at the ground level and mounding up
those sprouts and tried to root them, with no satisfactory results.
There was just a small amount of rooting.

MEMBER: Did you try layering?

DR. McKAY: One year we did, but with no success.

MR. McDANIEL: I have seen a few layered successfully but it's a little
slow.

MR. O'ROURKE: Shall we move to vegetative propagation and consider
cuttings first?

DR. McKAY: Just one thing I think ought to be mentioned at this time. We
know that even the use of clonal rootstocks does not entirely eliminate
variability. All the work that has been done with these Malling apple
stocks shows that, as far as apples are concerned. Now we have an idea
which, in a crop like chestnuts, may have very far reaching influence
and we feel quite hopeful for it. That is growing seedling progenies of
certain parent trees. I want to tell you our experience with it. We
started our work on breeding and selection of tung nuts in 1938, and we
have tested now over 600 parent trees that were especially selected. Out
of those six hundred we have released a total of six horticultural
varieties, for asexual propagation. But out of those six we have three
trees, the seed of which will produce seedling progenies that come very
true to the type of the parent tree. One of those released we know as
the Lampton variety. It will produce from 95 to 100 per cent of its
seedlings, that are so true to type that you can identify them in the
nursery. At the end of the first season you plant 95 to 100 per cent of
the remaining trees in the orchard and anybody can identify the trees.

In the case of budded trees we have the variability of the rootstocks,
which affects the growth. Since that particular variety has been
released there has not been one single nut of that variety crushed.
Every single seed is grown to tree size, to plant in a new orchard. It
has taken us 12 years to reach that stage, but that one variety is
probably the most outstanding thing we have. There is a slight variation
in the trees but not as much as you have in other trees.

Now, with Chinese chestnuts, we planted seedlings that were grown from
the seed of a parent tree at Beltsville. We planted a thousand trees.
There were seedlings grown from seed produced by different parent trees.
Out of those thousand there wasn't a single one outstanding. Yet in one
lot of seedlings which was planted in Georgia, every one of the
seedlings grown from the seeds of that selected tree produced such high
quality nuts that we haven't cut out a single tree. There just hasn't
been any off types. Now we have gone a step further. We had one called
selection 7932 which came into bearing very early. We have had those
trees grown from seed. The seedling at three years of age produced a
pound of nuts, the seedling having the characteristic of its mother. We
have hopes that before many years we shall be able to produce parent
trees or clonal lines in which the seed taken from those line and
planted will give us uniform seedlings.

I don't want you folks to get the idea we have these parent trees or
seed from them that are available. I mention it because a lot of you are
growing chestnut trees and planting them from seed. You could make a
great contribution if you would take the nuts from each individual tree
and plant separately, so that you will know in the future the origin of
every one of those seedling trees you have. Some of these days someone
is going to find one that is going to give us seedling trees that are
good and free from variation.

Elberta peach seed will come practically true to variety from seed,
except minor variations of size, shape, color and season. In a peach you
are facing a very highly specialized market. But with the Chinese
chestnut, color is not so important. What we are interested in is trees
that bear and have enough uniformity so that we don't have pee-wees by
one and jumbos by another.

We need very badly this sort of thing. We need chestnut varieties
planted in pairs in isolated places. Any of you folks could do a great
service if you will let us know wherever trees occur in pairs, or just
two varieties and no others, and then we know that one variety
pollinates the other. When you have a mixed planting of a half dozen
varieties the male is promiscuous. Therefore you have a much greater
mixing of genetic factors. If we have a pair of trees, we get a much
more uniform breeding group of seedlings.

MEMBER: How far removed from other varieties do they have to be?

DR. McKAY: Half a mile or a mile.

MR. O'ROURKE: I think we can go to vegetative propagation of cuttings. I
think that we have any amount of evidence that Chinese chestnuts can be
rooted from cuttings, but can trees grow on from rooting cuttings?

DR. CRANE: You have summed up the situation perfectly.

MEMBER: Just by accident, in our storage house a couple of chestnuts
fell over into a pile of peat moss and they did make roots.

MR. CORSAN: Would you call the Chinese chestnut a second?

MR. O'ROURKE: We should confine this only to propagation. While there
are any number of interesting phases of it, we have to stick to
propagation or we will never get through. We have had remarks on layers.
Any comments on layers?

Let's move on to graftage. We want to have our chestnut produced on a
quantity basis so I am going to ask Mr. Bernath to tell us a good
method.

MR. BERNATH: I don't graft too many outside, but I do my propagating in
the greenhouse. I had more than a thousand graftings growing, some of
them this high [indicating] which greatly depends upon the root system
and the condition of the soil. I think that is the fastest and easiest
way of grafting chestnuts. I do my grafting sitting down.

MEMBER: That's on the potted stock.

MR. BERNATH: That's right.

MEMBER: After you have produced all these grafts, what are you going to
do with them?

MR. BERNATH: Sell them.

MR. STOKE: I tried to contact some nurseries. They are selling your
seedlings, little chestnut trees for $1.75 and they want to give you 75¢
or a dollar for grafted ones.

MR. O'ROURKE: Mr. McDaniel has received a letter from Mr. Hirschi from
Oklahoma City and there is one paragraph that I think the membership
will be interested in. [Letter from Mr. Hirschi is partly reproduced
here.]


                                                  Oklahoma City, Okla.
                                                         Aug. 23, 1951
     Mr. J. C. McDaniel,
     Urbana, Ill.
     My Dear Mac;

     ... In my work with chestnuts I believe I have had an experience
     that will be interesting to the membership. As you well know I am a
     strong believer in selected named varieties. I do not regard
     seedling chestnuts any more valuable than seedling peaches or
     apples. The--Nursery, a member of our association, have been
     customers of mine for a long time. Last year I persuaded them to
     catalog seedling chestnuts at about half the price of Nanking,
     Meiling, Kuling, and Abundance. I was anxious to learn the attitude
     of the public, where they had an opportunity to buy and plant
     selected grafted varieties, when heretofore only seedlings were
     available. To my utter amazement the seedlings did not sell at all,
     but the thousand trees of selected varieties were sold out long
     before the season was over. I could not supply more, neither could
     I get them elsewhere. So far as I know Max Hardy and I are the only
     ones grafting chestnuts in quantities.

     It is amazing the volume of business that catalog nurseries do. For
     instance the above firm does a million dollars gross business
     annually, and many others do a big business. All would be glad to
     catalog grafted chestnuts, and the chestnut movement would grow by
     leaps and bounds. True, they would have to be sold to them at
     wholesale prices, but they want small sizes, parcel post sizes
     preferred, which can be produced the second year from seed. Plant
     the seed in March, the next March graft them, and by fall the
     grafts will range from three to seven feet as shown by the enclosed
     photos.

     I had the same experience with the above firm with Carpathians,
     sold them 500, which were sold out long before the season ended and
     I could not get them any more. They have ordered 2500 for this
     coming season. Unfortunately we had a poor take on grafts this
     spring due to cutting scion wood after a November freeze, which
     killed all other English walnuts. Carpathian wood was not hurt
     except where used for scions. Where left on the trees they forced
     out as usual and are producing a good crop of nuts.

     I must close. I know you will have a wonderful meeting and I wish I
     could be with you. I will be with you in spirit, and in the
     meantime will be doing all I can to promote interest in nut
     growing.--Very truly yours, A. G. Hirschi.


MR. GERARDI: I don't yet have the greenhouse. I depend on field
grafting. I produce my own seedlings. I just use seed from those three
best trees. They run pretty uniform as far as growth is concerned. I
bark graft in the field, when the buds begin to swell nicely and from
there on. You can get a growth like that. [Indicating four to 5 feet.]

MEMBER: He has the same thing. Just as soon as the buds swelled.
Sometimes I do go to the trouble if I am covering more ground, to cut
them off as soon as they start to swell. A chestnut will peel again in
four days. I start in after about four days and set these grafts and I
use this bark graft. I have a sample of the method here. This is the
plain bark graft which is efficient and fast for the production of
chestnuts in quantity. I have to get into bigger production. I am trying
to make speed and I am using this method. To start, the first week of
April, when the buds start. If I get it done, it's the first week or the
second of April.

MR. GERARDI: Four days on chestnuts. In my personal opinion after a few
years observation I don't believe it is absolutely essential to cut
back. Sometimes weather conditions will be a big factor. Sometimes the
temperature is around forty and remains that way four or five days. The
weather has taken the place of your cut back. That doesn't always
happen, but weather conditions sometimes favor this.

MEMBER: What percent of failures do you expect on a hundred?

MR. GERARDI: Well, it is better to take a thousand trees. Out of a
thousand you miss 35 or 40. The percent that takes is high. This is an
important factor; you must have good wood. You are running just a little
on the small size. From a quarter of an inch up to--. I never set a
scion over about 9/16. That is just getting into the rough ... It's hard
on the tool and rootstocks.

MEMBER: Do you wax the graft?

MEMBER: By all means you use the proper wax.

MEMBER: Did you ever try not to?

MR. GERARDI: Yes, if favorable weather permits. I use this Acme
compound. Last season, it was a little stiff and I mixed a little oil
and it cut my rubber bands too quick. That brush wax is about as good as
you can get, but customers come in and I am called away and someone is
always interfering with the work. I was trying to get a wax that I could
just drop and it would be ready when I picked it up again. It is
beginning to be an assembly line production. You can go faster if you
have a helper or two to do the tying and waxing.

MEMBER: I have a rather crude scion storage method. I have dug out in a
hill a reservoir that I keep ice in. If you could keep it at 32 to 40
degrees from the time it is cut in February, or the first part of March
and then store it in this until the grafting time, it will keep readily.

MEMBER: In California I built a little house and there was room enough
to put in at least 40 bushel boxes, 900 pounds of ice and I packed
grafting wood in boxes and kept it until July.

MEMBER: The ice keeps up the humidity.

MEMBER: There are a lot of successful methods. It is what is available
for you.

MR. WILKINSON: I have had very little experience in propagation of
chestnuts. Mine has been limited. I shoulder my scions. I like to
shoulder. My percentage of take varies with the conditions, sometimes
it's fairly good and sometimes not so good. I have a specimen union of
two inches in diameter and you can see what a nice union it makes.
Ordinarily I have had very good success with chestnut grafting.

DR. McKAY: We have done some work on budding chestnuts but it hasn't
been successful. We have had indefinite results. As Mr. Stoke says,
grafting is so much more simple. We realize more work should be done on
budding. We simply do our propagating the way it is easiest. Until the
time comes that we have got more information on budding we will go along
as we do now. One of the difficulties is that the wood is fluted and it
is hard to get a good bud fit. It doesn't make for a good fit. We
carried out a little experiment on one year old seedling at the crown.
There is a smooth area on the stem as it enters into the root condition.
It is a perfectly smooth area and we tried putting sealed buds at that
point. We have had good success in putting those kinds of buds in at the
time when you would ordinarily bud fruits, in the fall, where growth
conditions are still good. Another year we did that same work and we
didn't succeed so well. So we don't know exactly what we did wrong. In
order to keep a set from those buds we don't know just what the
conditions should be.

MR. O'ROURKE: To summarize then, the two successful methods are the
greenhouse method and the field method used by Mr. Gerardi.

MR. STOKE: I mostly use a plain splice. The cut is about four times as
long as scion diameter, if it is on a stock of the same size. It is the
best method. I use also a modified cleft graft with a little trimming.
Mr. Jones brought out that modified cleft graft and I have made a little
change. Here is the stock, and a modified cleft graft is a side graft
with the stock top cut off. You cut in at an angle far enough and you
put your scion in here and there is your modified cleft graft. You get
contact on all four lines. It takes experience and judgment. You cut
your scion wedge and then make your understock cut and you will seldom
make a mistake after you get experience. That is a side graft and a
modified cleft graft. That makes a flexible portion here and you get a
fit on both sides. But with the ordinary cleft graft, if you go to the
end of your stock you still have a split and not a perfect fit.

MEMBER: Would you explain that? If your scion is not the same size it
might over lap or ... how do you handle that?

MR. STOKE: If the scion is undersized, you don't cut so deep. Sometimes
the stock is a little oversize. You simply cut less deep in your stock.
If you have a large stock and small scion I'd make a bark graft.

MEMBER: I should like to bring up one point. That is produce more nut
trees and do it cheaper. It seems to lie between Mr. Gerardi and Mr.
Bernath. Mr. Gerardi can set between six and seven hundred per day, and
tie them himself, and Mr. Bernath will graft between seven hundred and
a thousand a day with someone else doing the tying.

MR. CHASE: We have tried all these grafting methods with varying degrees
of success. Our propagation experiments at Norris have been directed at
the development of more economic methods.

Conifer grafts are often placed in a grafting case for rapid callusing.
This year we tried some black walnut grafts and found that they callused
in 10 to 14 days when placed in a grafting case. These were bench
grafted on piece roots, using modified cleft and side grafts. Later we
tried chestnut with excellent results. Then we made more chestnut
grafts, wrapped them in damp moss and placed them in a lab oven with a
temperature of approximately 75 degrees. These callused rapidly and were
planted immediately in the nursery. They made good growth.

We think that some adaptation of this method has possibilities in our
region. Often our chestnut grafts are damaged by late spring frosts. If
we can bench graft, callus, and then hold the grafts until favorable
weather, frost damage will be eliminated. It may be possible to handle
black walnut in some similar fashion. Then we would be dealing only with
successful grafts. A cold frame provided with heating cable should be
adequate.



Factors Affecting Nut Tree Propagation

F. L. O'ROURKE, _Department of Horticulture, Michigan State College_


Propagation of nut trees is primarily involved with the problems
affecting the perpetuation of selected clones by vegetative means. It
has been indicated by Morris (14), Reed (18), and others that trees
produced from seed are of inferior value for nut production. Seed
propagation, however, must be practiced to produce the necessary
rootstocks upon which the selected varieties are budded or grafted.


Seed Propagation

Barton (1) indicated that while some few seedlings may be produced
without prior seed stratification, after-ripening of the seed for 2 to 4
months at 35° to 50° F. markedly increased seedling production with
hickory and walnut. Chase (4) found that black walnut seed sown in
November yielded more and larger seedlings than when planted at a later
date. Chase (5) also reported that nuts containing larger kernels
produced larger seedlings, and that planting 1 to 2 inches beneath the
surface yielded larger seedlings than deeper placement. There have
apparently been little or no observations made on the performance of
seedlings for rootstock purposes between different parental strains
except for Chinese chestnut as reported by McKay (12).


Clonal Rootstock Propagation

The difficulty of propagating any selection of nut trees by vegetative
means has discouraged selections for rootstock purposes. Only filberts
offer such an opportunity for selection on somewhat the same basis as
the East Malling clones of apple rootstocks which produce different
sized scion varieties after grafting. Unfortunately, no non-suckering
desirable clones of filberts have yet been reported and even the
non-suckering Turkish tree hazel is grown from seed when such rootstocks
are used (16).


Propagation by Cuttings

Gellatly (7) quoted the success of the East Malling Research Station in
England in rooting cuttings of walnuts grown in the greenhouse and
reported on his own experience in producing short roots on dormant
cuttings of heartnut and Persian walnut. The writer (15) has
occasionally produced roots on softwood cuttings of pecan and hickory
set in a mist humidified greenhouse but the cuttings did not survive.
Mist humidification has been a distinct aid in retaining foliage on
softwood cuttings of filbert and Chinese chestnut until roots were
formed but unless the axillary buds were developed sufficiently to make
new growth immediately thereafter, little or no survival was secured.
Apparently when the cuttings were succulent enough to form roots the
buds were too immature to put out new shoots. If one waited until the
buds were developed the tissue at the base of the cutting was too highly
lignified for root formation. The use of synthetic plant hormones on
cuttings of nut-tree species has been of questionable value.


Propagation by Layers

Mound layers are used quite successfully for the propagation of filbert
varieties but have not proven of value with other nut-tree species.
Chinese chestnut has been reported to layer easily but experiments with
both mound and trench layers of selected varieties of this species at
the Glenn Dale, Maryland Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
gave negative results. The writer (15) has occasionally rooted pecan,
hickory, and Chinese chestnut by aerial layering. A marcot box
containing sphagnum moss kept moist by a glass wick immersed in water
from a bottle at the lower end was employed. The time and labor involved
were so great that the experiments were discontinued.


Propagation by Grafting

Bench grafting of walnuts and hickories has been adequately described by
Bernath (3), Hardy (8), Lounsberry (10), Slate (24), and others. This
method has been tested on a commercial basis and apparently should be
considered as one of the most efficient ways to produce nut trees
quickly and cheaply in large quantities. Greenhouse and storage
facilities are required and keen expert attention must be given the
newly-made grafts to assure success.

Reports on top-working and field grafting are both numerous and
voluminous. Morris (13), MacDaniels (11), Wilkinson (29), and others
have demonstrated the value of cutting back the stock a week or more
before setting the scion in order to avoid injury from excess flow of
sap. Reed (17), Stoke (27), Morris (14), Shessler (21), Sitton (23), and
others have described methods of preparing and setting scions in the
stock. All writers agree that greater success is secured when dormant
scions are set relatively late in the season. Becker (2) stated that
greater success was secured when scions were set from time leaves were
full-grown until catkins fell. Protection of the scion by waxes, paper
bags, and shading has been advocated by Morris (14), MacDaniels (11),
Shelton (20), Shessler (21), and others.


Propagation by Budding

The shield or T bud has not been considered suitable for thick-barked
trees such as hickory and walnut due to the difficulty of preventing
"air-pockets" beneath the bark. Shaving the edges of the bark at the
side of the shield may eliminate this difficulty. Joley (9), reported
variable success in shield budding of walnut in California. Patch
budding, either by the annular method or with the Jones patch-budding
tool was described by Reed (17), and is reported by Chase (6), Zarger
(30), and others to be the most practical method of propagation with
walnuts. Pecans and hickories are commonly patch-budded in summer in
commercial nurseries. The thin-barked Chinese chestnut is usually budded
by the shield-or T-bud method as reported by Hardy (8) and McKay (12).


Scion and Budstick Handling

Sitton (22) reported that two-year wood of black walnut was superior to
either older or younger wood. MacDaniels (11) advocated the base of the
scion to be in the two-year wood and the tip in the one-year wood.

Shelton (19) reported that scions could be kept moist until used by
storing in a closed container with a small amount of sodium sulphate,
commonly known as "Glauber's salt". The usual method of scion storage is
to pack in moist but not wet peat or sphagnum moss and place in a
refrigerator at about 35° F. Waxes and resins have been used
successfully to prevent undue loss from the plant tissues while in
storage.


Waxes and Dressings

Propagators seldom agree in their choice of a wax and wound dressing. In
a series of carefully controlled tests, Sitton (23), found that a rosin
and beeswax mixture with a filler gave results with pecans superior to
the so-called "cold waxes" or asphalt emulsions. Paraffin and polyvinyl
resin are often used for scion covering and to protect newly set buds.
Shelton (20) has indicated certain qualities of a satisfactory wax.


The Rootstock Problem

In the Pacific Northwest Painter (16) stated that some Persian walnut
varieties on _Juglans hindsi_ (the northern California black walnut)
develop a fatal graft blight due to delayed incompatibility at about 20
years of age. This is the so-called black-line disease. McKay (12) found
great differences in survival of buds of Chinese chestnut placed on five
seedling strains and Hardy (8) suggested that more attention should be
paid to the parental relationship of stock and scion in the chestnut.
Weschcke (28) reported that black walnuts grafted on butternuts yielded
poor crops and that bitternut was a satisfactory stock for shagbark
varieties and shagbark hybrids. Smith (25) advocated shagbark stocks
for shagbark varieties but found bitternut to be practically as good.
Stoke (26), and Smith (25) found eastern black walnut to be the best
stock for all walnut species, including heartnuts and butternuts.


Nursery Practices

Commercial nurseries have adopted various methods to discourage the
normal tap-rooting habit of nut trees and stimulate lateral and fibrous
root production. Planting seed over screen wire, undercutting the
seedling each year in the nursery row, frequent transplanting, and root
pruning are methods commonly used. Attention must be given to the
production of an adequate root system to help the grafted tree withstand
the shock of transplanting to its permanent location.


Summary

The chief obstacle to the large scale growing of selected nut varieties
is the difficulty in propagation. Careful workers with a background of
knowledge and experience and skilled in craftmanship are successful in a
limited way. Quantity production is apparently dependent upon
specialized facilities and efficient labor programs. The need for
extensive rootstock research is keenly felt by growers of walnut,
hickory and chestnut.


Literature Cited

1. Barton, Lela V.--Seedling Production in _Carya ovata_, _Juglans
cinerea_, and _Juglans nigra_. Cont. Boyce Thompson Inst. _8_:1-5. 1936

2. Becker, Gilbert--Notes from Southwestern Michigan. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _28_:135. 1937

3. Bernath, Stephen--Propagating Nut Trees under Glass. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _37_:90. 1946

4. Chase, Spencer B.--Black Walnut Nursery Studies. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _37_:40-41. 1946

5. Chase, Spencer B.--Eastern Black Walnut Germination and Seedbed
Studies. Jour. For. =45=:661-668. 1947

6. Chase, Spencer B.--Budding and Grafting Eastern Black Walnut. Proc.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. _38_:175-180. 1947

7. Gellatly, J. U.--Notes on Nuts and New Combinations of Old
Principles. Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _29_:115-120. 1938

8. Hardy, Max B.--The Propagation of Chinese Chestnuts. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _40_:121-126. 1949

9. Joley, Lloyd E.--Personal Correspondence. July, 1951

10. Lounsberry, C. C.--Bench Grafting of Black Walnuts. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _28_:60. 1937

11 MacDaniels, L. H.--Some Experiences in Nut Tree Grafting at Ithaca,
New York. Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _28_:52. 1937

12. McKay, J. W.--Results of a Chinese Chestnut Rootstock Experiment.
Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _38_:83-84. 1947

13. Morris, R. T.--Top Working Hickories--Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc.
_11_:105. 1920

14. Morris, R. T.--Nut Growing. 1931. Macmillan, New York

15. O'Rourke, F. L.--Unpublished data. 1940-1945

16. Painter, John H.--Personal Correspondence. July-August, 1951

17. Reed, C. A.--Nut-Tree Propagation. U.S. Dept. of Agr. Farmers' Bul.
1501. 1926

18. Reed, C. A.--Seedling Chestnut Trees versus Grafted Varieties. Rept.
North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _32_:79. 1941

19. Shelton, E. M.--Glauber's Salt for Humidity Control in Scion
Storage. Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _28_:70-71 1937

20. Shelton, E. J.--A Laboratory Experience in Testing Wax Mixtures for
Use in Plant Propagation. Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _28_:72-75. 1937

21. Shessler, Sylvester--Grafting Walnuts in Ohio. Rept. North. Nut
Grow. Assoc. _39_:145. 1948

22. Sitton, B. G.--Vegetative Propagation of the Black Walnut. Mich.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bul. 119. 1931

23. Sitton, B. G.--Pecan Grafting Methods and Waxes. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Circ. 545. 1940

24. Slate, George L.--Grafting Walnuts in the Greenhouse. Rept. North
Nut Grow. Assoc. _39_:146-147. 1948

25. Smith, Gilbert L.--Our Experience with Rootstocks. Rept. North Nut
Grow. Assoc. _40_:62-64. 1949

26. Stoke, H. F.--Nut Nursery Notes--Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc.
_34_:96. 1943

27. Stoke, H. G.--Grafting Methods Adapted to Nut Trees. Rept. North.
Nut Grow. Assoc. _37_:99-102. 1946

28. Weschcke, Carl--The Importance of Stock and Scion Relationship in
Hickory and Walnut. Rept. North. Nut Grow. Assoc. _39_:190-195. 1948

29. Wilkinson, J. F--Preparation of Stocks for Propagation. Rept. North.
Nut Grow. Assoc. _28_:65-66. 1937

30. Zarger, Thomas G.--Nut-testing, Propagation, and Planting Experience
of 90 Black Walnut Selections. Rept. Nut Grow. Assoc. _36_:23-30. 1945



Nut Rootstock Material in Western Michigan

Harry P. Burgart, _Union City, Michigan_


It is only natural that those who propagate by budding and grafting are
always hoping to find a rootstock that will accept their scions with the
highest percentage of takes and impart vigorous growth to the scion
variety. Sometimes in our eagerness to adopt a new rootstock we are
likely to neglect a vital point, namely--Future Performance of the
root-top combination we are about to use.

It would take years of observation in a test planting to prove whether
or not a new rootstock material is safe to use. A rootstock can affect
the tree it supports in various ways. Sometimes the rootstock will force
to the top too much growth, which is likely to bring about
unfruitfulness. In other cases, the rootstock may cause a dwarfing habit
in the future tree, with the resulting top being a scant producer of
nuts. Then there is the combination where rootstock and top vary too
much in their growth rate, thus making an unsightly tree. The ideal
rootstock is one that attains a diameter nearly equal to the diameter of
its partner, and is capable of producing a moderate amount of top
growth, together with the production of heavy crops of nuts. Such a
rootstock should also accept buds or grafts readily, and be compatible
with the scion throughout the life of the tree.

My first experience with rootstocks for grafting came about in 1926 when
I was working at the J. F. Jones Nursery then at Lancaster,
Pennsylvania. Mr. Jones used both bitternut and pecan seedling stocks
for grafting shagbark hickories. Pecans and hicans were also grafted on
hardy northern pecan seedlings, and Japanese walnut stocks were used for
butternuts and heartnuts. Black and Persian walnut scions were set on
eastern black walnut seedlings.

When I returned to Michigan I brought back enough of Mr. Jones' trees
for a small test planting here at Union City. These trees were planted
in a heavy quack grass sod and some were lost, but those surviving show
good compatibility between the top and root.

In the intervening years I have made but slight changes in the rootstock
material used in my own nursery. I do not approve of the performance of
our butternut varieties on the Japanese walnut _root_, as it results in
a weak and dwarfed tree. The use of butternut rootstocks is also
unsatisfactory, for they tend to produce trees of low vitality that in a
few years fall victim to blight and then perish. I tried our Michigan
black walnut seedlings as a rootstock and found that they are very much
better rootstock material. The growth at the union is about equal. Top
growth is good, and the butternut tops bear early and heavily, with no
signs of blight during the ten years I have had them under test.

After years of test I have decided to use the northern pecan seedlings
as rootstocks for my shagbarks, pecans, and hicans because they are a
fast growing stock tree. They accept the grafts readily, and make good
unions more quickly than the bitternut stocks I have tried. Mr.
Wilkinson, from whom I obtain my seed, has never failed to send me seed
with good viability, just about every seed germinating. The northern
pecan seedlings have shown no winter injury here in Southern Michigan
during the 20 years I have watched them growing.

An example of the superiority of the black walnut over the Persian
walnut as a rootstock is a seedling of the variety Wiltz Mayette growing
near a Broadview grafted on black walnut. Both trees are the same age,
but the Broadview on black walnut is just about twice the size of its
own-rooted neighbor.



Hudson Valley Experience with Nut Tree Understocks

Gilbert L. Smith, _Millerton, N. Y._


This report is not based on any planned or well conducted experiments,
but is based simply on our observations of results of our grafting work
over the years since 1934.

Our first work was with hickories, so I will start with them.

Our first year's grafting was done in a plot of practically pure pignut
stocks. This was the seven leaflet pignut, which I believe to be _Carya
glabra_. I have never been sure of the identification of the two species
of pignuts. We secured a fairly good percentage of living grafts, which
grew well the first summer. The next spring all of the grafts failed to
leaf out and later were found to be dead. A few grafts which were put on
bitternut stocks (_Carya cordiformis_) grew well, and are still growing
well after more than fifteen years. Several different varieties of
shagbark hickory scions were used in this grafting.

The second year, we again grafted as many or more stocks in this same
area. The results were exactly the same, except that we used some scions
of Davis and Fox. (These varieties were brought to light through the
contests of the previous winter). The grafts of Davis grew on pignut
stocks, are still alive and doing fairly well. They have been bearing
for several years, although the squirrels have stolen all of the nuts.
Grafts of all other varieties which were on the pignut stocks died the
next spring. One graft of Fox on mockernut lived and has continued to
grow fairly well. That same year we started our test orchard of shagbark
stocks (_Carya ovata_) in a different area. Grafts on these stocks have
grown very well.

I believe that for some reason grafts of shagbark on pignut stocks
cannot stand cold weather. Certainly, incompatibility is very marked.

Our experience with hickory stocks to date is as follows:

PIGNUT (_Carya glabra_ or possibly _Carya ovalis_). This species is
worthless as a stock for shagbark, shellbark, and hybrids of these
species. If nut growers have some pignut stocks growing where they
especially wish to have some good hickory trees, they can graft them to
Davis. We have also heard that Brooks will grow on pignut stocks.

MOCKERNUT (_Carya alba_). This species is also nearly worthless as a
stock for shagbark, shell bark, and hybrids, although many more
varieties will live on it than will on pignut stocks.

SHAGBARK (_Carya ovata_). This species makes the most dependable stock
of any we have tried so far, for shagbark, shell bark, and the hybrids.
Its greatest drawback is the long time it takes to grow seedlings to a
size large enough to graft.

SHELLBARK (_Carya laciniosa_). We have never had an opportunity to use
this species as a stock. I think that it would make a good one and
possibly be faster growing than shagbark.

BITTERNUT (_Carya cordiformis_). We have found that this species makes a
very satisfactory stock for shagbark and hybrid grafts. We have not
tried shellbark on it, except Berger which grows well on it. Seedlings
of this species are much faster growing than are shagbark seedlings, and
thus are large enough to graft sooner. We have grafts growing on
bitternut stocks since 1935, they are growing and producing well. We
consider this species as good or nearly as good as shagbark as a stock.

We have received contrary reports from farther south. These may be due
to stock being blamed for something they did not cause or it may be that
bitternut stocks grown from seed of more southern origin may not be as
good as our northern stock.[18]

PECAN (_Carya pecan_). Our experience with this species as a stock is
very limited and has been confined to grafts of only one variety of
shagbark (Wilcox). Results were very disappointing, but we have been
told by others that it makes a good stock. It is much faster growing
than is shagbark.


Walnut

In walnut grafting, we have found that the eastern black walnut
stocks are so much superior to any others we have been able to find,
that we have discarded all others.

BUTTERNUT (_Juglans cinerea_). We have found that it is much harder to
secure living grafts on this stock than on black walnut. It also
attracts butternut curculio to the nursery.

JAPANESE WALNUT (_Juglans sieboldiana_ and variety _cordiformis_). We
have found that seedlings grown from either of these species are a great
attraction to the butternut curculio. They are more difficult to secure
living grafts on, and grafts on these stocks are very definitely less
hardy than similar grafts on black walnut growing side by side. We have
proved this repeatedly.

PERSIAN WALNUT (_Juglans regia_). We have never used this species as a
stock, and in view of the fact that grafts of it grow so well on black
walnut stocks, I can see no use in even trying it.

EASTERN BLACK WALNUT (_Juglans nigra_). As stated above, we have found
this to be the ideal stock for all walnut grafting. It is more free from
insects than any of the other walnuts. Grafts grow well on it and are
more hardy than grafts on some of the others.

We have not had enough experience in grafting chestnuts and filberts
even to offer any comment as to stocks for them.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 18: The planting location perhaps has more influence than the
seed source. At any rate, the poorest growing pecan in the University of
Illinois orchard is on a Wisconsin bitternut understock.--J. C. McD.]



The 1950 Persian Walnut Contest

Spencer B. Chase, _Contest Chairman, Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris,
Tennessee_


The nationwide Persian Walnut Contest conducted by NNGA in 1950
attracted 33 entries from 11 states. The contest was judged by H. L.
Crane, L. H. MacDaniels, and H. F. Stoke, assisted by S. B. Chase.

The entries were first evaluated independently by the judges. Then each
judge made a second evaluation with the knowledge of the findings of the
other two judges. The Chairman then arbitrated the differences of
opinion among the three judges. This action amounted only to the placing
of four entries after the first prize had been unanimously agreed upon.

The following table shows the results of the contest:

                     Results of 1950 Persian Walnut Contest
 ___________________________________________________________________________
 Prize     Entry            Submitted By             Nut   Kernel   Kernel
                                                    Weight Weight Percentage
 ===========================================================================
 1   030             Mrs. W. H. Metcalfe,            11.9    6.5     54.5
                       Webster, New York
 2   011 (Hansen)    S. Shessler, Genoa, Ohio         9.8    5.8     58.5
 3   002 (McKinster) Roy McKinster, Columbus, Ohio   12.5    6.4     51.2
 4   012 (Jacobs)    S. Shessler, Genoa, Ohio        12.9    6.0     47.0
 5   006             Lewis Weng, Dayton, Ohio        12.4    6.4     51.9

  _Honorable Mention_
     001             Mrs. Gale Harrison,             14.7    6.2     42.2
                      Pemberton, New Jersey
     008             A. C. Orth, Dayton, Ohio        14.7    6.7     45.8
     014 (Burtner)   Fayette Etter, Lemasters,       10.4    4.6     44.4
                       Pennsylvania
     016 (S-66)      G. L. Smith, Millerton,         15.1    6.8     44.9
                       New York
     025             P. F. Countryman, Ontario,      13.9    6.3     45.3

     031 (Colby[19])  A. S. Colby, Urbana, Illinois  10.8    5.9     54.1
     032 (S-M-9)     Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Illinois   15.8    6.6     41.5
     033             S. Elwell, Homer, Michigan      19.2    8.3     43.2


A brief history of the prize-winning trees follows:

_Entry 030:_ A Carpathian originally obtained through the Wisconsin
Horticultural Society in 1936 (Rev. Crath's selections). In 1950 this
tree was 14 years old, 22 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 23
inches. It has withstood 18 degrees below zero without damage. The tree
began bearing a few nuts in 1947, 4 quarts in 1948; 1 peck in 1949; and
1/2 bushel in 1950.

_Entry 011:_ This is the Hansen variety which was given second place in
the 1949 contest. The origin of this tree is uncertain. It is estimated
to be 50 years old and 25 feet high. It has withstood 15 degrees below
zero without damage. Just when this tree began bearing is unknown, but
it produced 2 bushels in 1947; 3 pecks in 1948; 1 bushel in 1949; and 3
bushels in 1950.

_Entry 002:_ This is the McKinster variety which was judged the best
entry in the 1949 contest. It is a Carpathian originally obtained
through the Wisconsin Horticultural Society in 1939 (Rev. Crath's
selections), and was 11 years old in 1950. It is 29 feet high with a
circumference of 22 inches. It has withstood 17 degrees below zero
without injury. This tree began bearing in 1943. In 1947 it produced 1/2
bushel; 1 bushel in 1948; 3 pecks in 1949; and 3 pecks in 1950.

_Entry 012:_ This is the Jacobs variety which placed third in the 1949
contest. The nut which produced this tree originally came from Germany
some 70 years ago. It has withstood 15 degrees below zero without
injury. This is a large tree which has been bearing since 1915. It
produced 300 pounds in 1947; 100 pounds in 1948; 200 pounds in 1949; and
200 pounds in 1950.

_Entry 006:_ A Carpathian originally obtained through the Wisconsin
Horticultural Society in 1936 (Rev. Crath's selections). In 1950 it was
14 years old, 25 feet high, with a circumference of 30 inches. It has
withstood 10 degrees below zero without injury. This tree began bearing
in 1949; in 1950 it produced 15 pounds of nuts.

It should be emphasized that this contest was based entirely on nut
characteristics. In another year the placing of the same entries might
be considerably different, because of seasonal variation. However, it is
significant that the McKinster, Hansen, and Jacob varieties which were
among the prize-winners in the 1949 contest were also among the
prize-winners in 1950.

Contests such as this are valuable as a first step in the selection and
development of improved varieties. The prize-winners and those given
honorable mention are all very promising hardy Persian walnuts. The next
step will be to test these selections to determine their adaptability to
our varying conditions.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 19: Named since the close of the contest.--Ed.]



Colby, a Hardy Persian Walnut for the Central States

J. C. McDaniel, _Extension Horticulturist, University of Illinois_


When the Reverend Paul C. Crath of Toronto imported walnut seeds and
scions from his native Ukraine region and adjacent areas of Poland in
the 1920s, he started a chain of propagation and selection which
promises to establish the Persian walnut (_Juglans regia_) as a commonly
grown nut in southern Ontario and the north central states. The best of
his importations, and seedlings from them, are fruiting in such states
as Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and Missouri, showing in many cases a
degree of hardiness which must reverse the conclusion of an older
generation of pomologists that Persian or "English" walnuts were too
tender for successful cultivation in most of the middle west.

The time has now arrived when there are enough fruiting trees of the
"Crath Carpathian" walnut seedlings in many states that comparisons can
be made and the more promising ones named and disseminated for
propagation. The nuts which the Reverend Mr. Crath imported in greatest
quantity during the middle 1930s came from more than 100 different
seedling trees selected in Poland. Their seedlings exhibit much
variability in characters of trees and nuts. Some are much less hardy
than others under our conditions. Not all are as large fruited as their
seed parents (and some of the parent trees bore small nuts). Though many
have smoother shells than Mayette or Franquette, there is also much
variation in shape, thickness, and color of shells. Color and flavor of
kernel vary from tree to tree. The season of nut maturity, though
variable, is generally early enough in locations where the trees are
winter hardy. The parents were selected for good filling of kernels,
and this character generally has carried over to the seedlings fruited
in America. As with other walnuts, some of the Carpathian seedlings are
apparently more susceptible than others to fruit damage by the husk
maggot. Walnut blight has infected them in some localities.

The COLBY Persian walnut, named in August 1951, and released to nut
nurserymen for propagation early in 1952, is the best to date of
thirteen Carpathian seedlings (each from a different parent tree)
planted at the University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station
from 1937 to 1939. It is the first Persian walnut variety to be named at
this station.

The name, Colby, honors Dr. Arthur S. Colby of the Department of
Horticulture at the University of Illinois, who has been in charge of
nut investigations here since 1919. It was given to this variety, with
his permission, by members of the Northern Nut Growers Association
during their 42nd Annual Meeting, held at Urbana in August, 1951. Dr.
Colby is a former president of the Northern Nut Growers Association.

Colby is a seedling of the tree designated as Crath No. 10. The seed was
collected in 1934 from the parent tree near Cosseev, in the Carpathian
mountain region of southern Poland as then constituted, planted in the
nursery of S. H. Graham, Ithaca, New York, and the seedling transplanted
to Urbana, Illinois at the age of two years. It has been fruiting
annually here since 1942, with crops of up to 1-1/4 bushels in recent
years. The accompanying cut shows nuts of the 1951 crop, a little less
than 2/3 natural size. They are thin shelled, like the parent Crath No.
10, well filled with kernels of rich flavor, and are medium in size for
varieties of this species.

[Illustration: Colby walnuts of 1951 crop, showing thin shells and
plump, bright kernels.]

The Colby tree is rather upright in growth, with strong branches, being
the most vigorous among the four hardiest Carpathian seedlings at
Urbana. It was one of two trees on which most catkins survived the
winter of 1950-51, when temperatures at Urbana fell to -19° F. It is
among the earliest Persian walnuts to start growth in spring, blossoming
at Urbana normally in the first half of May. Flowering is protandrous
(male flowers first) but with enough overlap of staminate and pistillate
blossoms to secure a large degree of self-pollination from the abundant
large catkins. Fruit set might be improved, however, by planting nearby
another variety with later staminate catkins.[20] The nuts mature from
the middle to the last of September and have not been seriously affected
by walnut husk maggot or walnut blight at Urbana. The tree is relatively
early in wood maturity, shedding its foliage usually before November, a
characteristic shared by the other hardiest Carpathian seedlings in
Illinois.

Prior to 1952, scions of the Colby walnut (previously designated
Illinois No. 10) were propagated for test by top working on native
eastern walnut (_Juglans nigra_) at two widely separated locations. It
fruited in 1951 at Greensboro, North Carolina, where the early growth
sometimes is injured by spring freezes. (This is common with Carpathian
walnuts in the southeast.) It has survived three winters at Sabula, Iowa
with no cold injury and made unusually vigorous growth there. At both
Urbana and Sabula, it has been compared with Broadview Persian walnut, a
British Columbia origination considered a hardy variety. Broadview has
often suffered winter injury at both locations, and in 1950-51 was
killed to the understock at Urbana.

The suggested test regions for the Colby Persian walnut include those
with a climate similar to central Illinois, and where spring freezes are
not generally a problem. The suggested understock is black walnut (_J.
nigra_) though established hardy Carpathian and other Persian walnuts
may be satisfactory for top working.

Additional wood for propagation of the Colby will be available in small
quantities next August to nut nurserymen and other experiment stations.
(Walnut scions cannot be sent from Illinois to California.) Trees of
Colby should be available from several cooperating nurseries in the fall
of 1953.--Reprinted from _Fruit Varieties and Horticultural Digest_,
6(4):72-75. 1952.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 20: According to U.S.D.A. workers in walnut breeding, pollen
of other _Juglans_ species is not to be depended upon for securing a set
of fruit on this species. Several hardy Persian varieties of good
quality which have won awards in recent contests are being propagated
but have not been grown at Urbana. These include the Lake, McKinster,
and Metcalfe among others of Carpathian parentage, and two
non-Carpathian varieties, Hansen and Jacobs, which have been fruitful in
northwestern Ohio. Before one or more of these can be recommended as a
pollinator for the Colby walnut, however it will be necessary to have
them flowering in the same orchard for a period of several years.

Among the other Carpathian walnuts which have flowered in the orchard
containing the original Colby tree, there is one very hardy seedling, R
5 T 27, which in 1951 and 1952 produced abundant pollen at the proper
time to pollinate the Colby. Tree R 5 T 27 an open pollinated seedling
of Crath No. 23, is protandrous, but later flowering than the Colby with
respect to pistils as well as catkins, and consequently most of its
pistillate flowers fail to set fruit in years like 1951 when there was
no later Persian walnut pollen available. The R 5 T 27 tree produces an
attractive, smooth shelled nut slightly smaller than that of Colby, not
quite as sweet in flavor, and slightly earlier in maturity. Because of
its hardiness and apparent value as a pollinator for Colby, propagating
wood from this R 5 T 27 walnut tree will be available to experimenters,
but we do not plan to name it at present.]



Resolutions


Mr. President and members of the Northern Nut Growers Association. The
Northern Nut Growers' Association, assembled in its forty-second annual
meeting here at Urbana, Illinois, on this the 29th day of August, 1951,
desires to express its appreciation and thanks to Dr. George D.
Stoddard, President of the University of Illinois, and to Dr. H. P.
Rusk, Dean of the Agricultural College, to Dr. C. J. Birkeland, Dr. A.
S. Colby, Professor J. C. McDaniel, and other members of the Department
of Horticulture, as well as to other members of the staff of the
University for the excellent accommodations provided for the
entertainment of the members attending and for the meeting place
provided, and to Mrs. A. S. Colby and other for their entertainment of
the ladies and for the refreshments furnished. Therefore, be it resolved
that the Secretary spread this resolution upon the minutes of the
Association and send copies to President Stoddard, Dr. Birkeland, and
Dr. and Mrs. A. S. Colby.

In the passing of Harry R. Weber, who was a nut culturist, one of the
oldest members of the Association, and a past president, we have lost
not only a real leader and worker in this Association, but also a very
dear friend. This Association is greatly indebted to him and he has been
deeply missed at this meeting. Therefore, be it resolved that the
Secretary of this Association spread upon the record of this meeting
this resolution and send a copy to Mrs. Weber

  Signed, Members of Resolutions Committee
  (s) H. L. Crane, _Chairman_
  (s) F. L. O'Rourke
  (s) Spencer Chase

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 19: Named since the close of the contest.--Ed.]

[Footnote 20: According to U.S.D.A. workers in walnut breeding, pollen
of other _Juglans_ species is not to be depended upon for securing a set
of fruit on this species. Several hardy Persian varieties of good
quality which have won awards in recent contests are being propagated
but have not been grown at Urbana. These include the Lake, McKinster,
and Metcalfe among others of Carpathian parentage, and two
non-Carpathian varieties, Hansen and Jacobs, which have been fruitful in
northwestern Ohio. Before one or more of these can be recommended as a
pollinator for the Colby walnut, however it will be necessary to have
them flowering in the same orchard for a period of several years.

Among the other Carpathian walnuts which have flowered in the orchard
containing the original Colby tree, there is one very hardy seedling, R
5 T 27, which in 1951 and 1952 produced abundant pollen at the proper
time to pollinate the Colby. Tree R 5 T 27 an open pollinated seedling
of Crath No. 23, is protandrous, but later flowering than the Colby with
respect to pistils as well as catkins, and consequently most of its
pistillate flowers fail to set fruit in years like 1951 when there was
no later Persian walnut pollen available. The R 5 T 27 tree produces an
attractive, smooth shelled nut slightly smaller than that of Colby, not
quite as sweet in flavor, and slightly earlier in maturity. Because of
its hardiness and apparent value as a pollinator for Colby, propagating
wood from this R 5 T 27 walnut tree will be available to experimenters,
but we do not plan to name it at present.]



Northern Nut Growers Association Membership List

As of July 29, 1952

  * Life member
  ** Honorary member
  § Contributing member
  *** Sustaining member

  ALABAMA
  East Alabama Nursery, Auburn, =Chestnut, pecan and persimmon nurserymen=
  Hiles, Edward L., =Hiles Auto Repair Shop=, Loxley

  ARKANSAS
  Hale, A. C., Fairview School, Camden
  Wade, Clifton, Forest Avenue, Fayetteville. =Attorney=
  Wylie, W. D., Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
    =Entomologist=

  BELGIUM
  Centrale Kas voor Landbouwkre, Diet van den Belgischen Boerenbond N. V.,
    24 Minderbroedersstraat, Leuven
  R. Vanderwaeren, Bierbeekstraat, 310, Korbeek-Lo.

  CALIFORNIA
  Andrew, Col. James W., Box 12, Hamilton A.F.B.
  Armstrong Nurseries, 408 N. Euclid Avenue, Ontario
    =General nurserymen, plant breeders=
  Brand, George (See Nebraska)
  Buck, Ernest Homer, Three Arch Bay, 16 N. Portola, South Laguna
  Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3021 Highland Avenue, Carlsbad, California
  Fulcher, E. C., 5706 Fulcher Ave., North Hollywood
  Jeffers, Harold N., Lt. CHC, USN, USS Dixie (AD14) c/o F.P.O., San
    Francisco
  Kemple, W. H., 216 W. Ralston Street, Ontario
  Linwood Nursery, Route No. 2, Box 476, Turlock
  Pentler, Dr. C. F., 806 Arguello Blvd., San Francisco 18.
    =American Friends Service Committee=
  Pozzi, P. H., 2875 S. Dutton Ave., Santa Rosa. =Brewery worker, farmer=
  Serr, E. F., Agr. Experiment Station, Davis. =Associate Pomologist=
  Stewart, Douglas N., 633 F Street, Davis
  Sullivan, C. Edward, Garden Highway, Box 447, Yuba City
  Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan Street, Taft. =Private and Corp. Hort.=

  CANADA
  Brown, Alger, Route 1, Harley, Ontario. =Farmer=
  Collens, Adam H., 42 Seaton St., Toronto 2, Out.
  * Crath, Rev. Paul C., Toronto, Ontario
  English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, B. C. =Farmer, fruit and nut grower=
  Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario. =Fruit and veg. grower=
  Gage, James M., 76 Water St. E., Burlington, Ontario
  Gellatly, J. U., Box 19, Westbank, B. C. =Plant breeder, fruit grower,
    nurseryman=
  Harrhy, Ivor H., Route 7, St. Thomas, Ont. =Fruitgrower and poultry=
  Housser, Levi, Route 1, Beamsville, Ontario. =Fruit farmer=
  Lefevre, H. E., 354 St. Catherine Street E., Montreal 18, Quebec
  Lossing, Elgin, Norwich, Ontario
  * Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 Macdonald Avenue, Guelph, Ont.
  Papple, Elton E., Route 1, Cainsville, Ont.
  Porter, Gordon, 258 McKay Ave., Windsor, Ont. =Chemist=
  Smith, E. A., Box 6, Sparta, Ont. =Farmer=
  Snazelle, Robert, Forest Nursery, Route No. 5, Charlottetown, P. E. I.
    =Nursery Supt.=
  Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. =Jeweller=
  Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ont.

  Walker, J. W., c/o McCarthy & McCarthy, 330 University Ave., Toronto 1,
    Ont.
  Wharton, H. W., Route No. 2, Guelph, Ont. =Farmer=
  White, Peter, 30 Pear Ave., Toronto 5, Ont.
  Willis, A. R., Route No. 1, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B. C.
    =Accountant=
  Woods, David M., 48 South Front St., West, Toronto, Ont.
    =Vice President, Gordon McKay, Ltd.=
  Young, A. L., Brooks, Alberta. =Dairy Farmer=

  COLORADO
  Forbes, J. E., Julesburg. =Banker=

  CONNECTICUT
  Daniels, the Honorable Paul C. See Ecuador
  David, Alexander M., 480 So. Main Street, West Hartford
  Deming, Benton H., Radio WTHT, Hartford
  ** Deming, Dr. W. C., Litchfield. =Dean of the Association=
  Fruch, Alfred J., Route 2, West Cornwall
  Graves, Dr. Arthur H., 255 S. Main St., Wallingford.
    =Consulting Pathologist, Conn. Agr. Expt. Station, New Haven, Conn.=
  Hapgood, Miss Dorothy A., 745 Farmington Avenue, Hartford
  Henry, David, Blue Hills Farm, Route 2, Wallingford
  * Huntington, A. M., Stanerigg Farms, Bethel. =Patron=
  * Newmaker, Adolph, Route No. 1, Rockville
  Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
  Risko, Charles, City Tobacco & Candy Co., 25 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport 8
  White, George E., Route No. 2, Andover. =Farmer=

  DELAWARE
  Brugmann, Elmer W., 108 Thomas Drive, Monroe Park, Wilmington.
    =Chemical Engineer=
  Logue, R. F., Gen. Mgr., Andelot, Inc., 2098 du Pont Bldg., Wilmington
  Wilkins, Lewis, Route 1, Newark. =Fruit grower=

  DENMARK
  Carøe, Mr. J. F., "Meulenborg" Helsingør
  Granjean, Mr. Julio, Hillerød
  Knuth, Count F. M., Knuthenborg, Bandholm
  Pers, Mr. Plantageejer E., Edelgaard, Vejstrup

  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
  American Potash Inst., Inc., 1102-16th St., N.W., Washington
  Ford, Edwin L., 3634 Austin St., S.E., Washington
  Kaan, Dr. Helen W. See Maryland
  Reed, Mrs. Clarence A., 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N.W., Washington 12

  ECUADOR, SOUTH AMERICA
  Acosta Solis, Prof. M., Director del Departamento Forestal, Ministerio de
    Economia, Quito. (Exchange.)
  Daniels, The Honorable Paul C., American Ambassador, American Embassy,
    Quito

  ENGLAND
  Baker, Richard St. Barbe, The Gate, Abbotsbury, Weymouth, Dorset.
    (Founder, Men of the Trees.)
  Commonwealth Bureau of Plant Genetics, School of Agriculture, Cambridge.
    (Exchange.)
  The Gardeners Chronicle, London. (Exchange.)

  FLORIDA
  Avant, C. A., 940 N.W. 10th Ave., Miami. =Real Estate, Loans.=
    =(Pecan orchard in Ga.)=
  Estill, Gertrude, 153 Navarre Dr., Miami Springs. (Summer address under
    Mich.)

  GEORGIA
  Hardy, Max, Leeland Farms, P. O. Box 128, Leesburg. =Nurseryman, farmer=
  Hunter, Dr. H. Reid, 561 Lake Shore Dr. N.E., Atlanta. =Teacher, nut
    farmer=
  Noland, S. C., Box 1747, Atlanta 1. =Owner, Skyland Farms=
  Wilson, William J., North Anderson Ave., Fort Valley. Peach and pecan
    grower

  HAWAII
  Keaau Orchard, John F. Cross, Manager, P.O. Box 1720, Hilo.
    =Macadamia growers=

  HOLLAND
  Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding. Herenstraat 25.
    Wageningen. (Exchange)

  HONG KONG
  * Wang, P. W., c/o China Products Trading Corp., 6 Des Voeux Rd., Central

  IDAHO
  Dryden, Lynn, Peck. =Farmer=
  Horn, Anton S., 920 N. 20th St., Boise. =Ext. Horticulturist=

  ILLINOIS
  Allbright, R. D., Allbright Nurseries, 4237 Western Avenue, Western
    Springs
  Allen, Theodore R., Delavan. =Farmer=
  Anderson, Ralph W., R.F.D. 3, Morris
  Andrew, Col. James W. (See California)
  Anthony, A. B., Route No. 3, Sterling. =Apiarist=
  Baber, Adin, Kansas
  Barrow, J. M., P.O. Box 209, Urbana. =Architect, University teacher=
  Best, R. B., Eldred. =Farmer=
  Booth, Earl, R.F.D. 2, Carrollton
  Blough, R. O., Route No. 3, Polo
  Blyth, Colin R., Math. Dept., U. of I., Urbana.  (Farm in northern
    Ontario)
  * Boll, Herschel L., 2 Hort. Field Lab., Univ. of Ill., Urbana. =Asst.
    in Pomology=
  Borchsenius, Wayne L., R.F.D. 2, Sheridan
  Brock, Arthur S., 1733 North McVicker Ave., Chicago 39
  Canterbury, C. E., Cantrall. =Seed Grower=
  Churchill, Woodford M., 4323 Oakenwald Ave., Chicago 5
  Colby, Dr. Arthur S., U. of Illinois, Urbana
  Dahlberg, Albert A., D.D.S., 5756 Harper Ave., Chicago 37
  Daum, Philip A., North Sixth St., Carrollton
  Dietrich, Ernest, Route No. 2, Dundas. =Farmer=
  Dintelman, L. F., State Street Road, Belleville
  Douglass, T. J., 309-1/2 North St., Normal
  Eigsti, Dr. O. J., Funk Bros. Seed Co., Bloomington. =Research Botanist=
  Estill, Mrs. Harry, Power Farms, Cantrall
  Fordtran, E. H. Route No. 2, Box 197-A, Palatine
  Frey, Frank H., 2315 W. 108th Place, Chicago 43.
    =Asst. to V. P., CRI & P RR.=
  Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 W. 108th Place, Chicago 43. =Housewife=
  Fuller, Owen H., 1005 Oneida Street, Joliet
  Gerardi, Louis, Route No. 1, Caseyville. =Nut and fruit nurseryman=
  Glidden, Nansen, West Lincoln Highway, DeKalb
  Grefe, Ben, Route No. 4, Box 22, Nashville. =Farmer=
  Heberlein, Edwin W., Route No. 1, Box 72A, Roscoe
  Hermerding, Ted, c/o Russell Miller Milling Company, Jerseyville
  Hockenyos, G. L., 213 E. Jefferson St., Springfield. =Business man=
  Jennings, Charles L., Box 321, Grayville
  Jungk, Adolph E., Route No. 1, Jerseyville, Illinois
  Kammarmeyer, Glenn, 1711 E. 67th St., Chicago 49
  Knoeppel, J. A., Bluffs
  Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Route No. 1, Hammond. =Farmer=
  Langdoc, Mildred Jones (Mrs. Wesley W.) P. O. Box 136, Erie.
    =Nursery, farm, housewife=
  McDaniel, J. C., c/o Hort. Field Lab., U. of I., Urbana.
    =Horticulturist. (Sec'y of Ass'n.)=
  McDaniel, J. C., Jr., Urbana
  Marsh, Mrs. W. V., Route 2, Aledo
  Moeser, William W., Route 1, Belleville
  Musgrave, Carl, 419 W. 61st Street, Chicago 21. =Machinist=
  Newman, Roy, P. O. Box 51, Martinsville. =Orchardist=
  Oakes, Royal, Bluffs (Scott County)
  Pierson, Stuart E., Carrollton. =Bank President=
  Pray, A. Lee, 502 N. Main St., LeRoy
  Price, Harold G., Sr. (See Utah)
  Reisch, Louis C., Route 4, Carrollton. =Farmer=
  Robbins, W. J., 885 N. LaSalle St., Chicago 10. =Insurance=
  Robertson, Virgil E., Virginia. =Retired farmer=
  Schubert, Kenneth, Rt. 1, Millstadt
  Sokolowski, F. W., M.D., 2503 Donald Ave., Alton
  Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia. =Lawyer, farm operator=
  Sparks, Maurice E., 1508 Ash, Lawrenceville
  Spencer, H. Dwight, 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur. =Attorney=
  Vortman, Elmer, Route 1, Bluffs
  Wahle, Fred, Route 1, Fieldon
  Warnecke, Martin H., 714 South First Avenue, Maywood
  Whitford, A. M., Farina. =Nurseryman=
  Zethmayr, Gordon, Route No. 1, Box 130, West Chicago

  INDIANA
  Aster Nut Products, Inc., George Oberman, Mgr., 1004 Main St., Evansville
  Bauer, Paul J., 123 S. 29th St., Lafayette
  Bolten, Ferd, Route 3, Linton. =Farmer, fruit grower.
    (Carpathian walnut seeds.)=
  Boyer, Clyde C., Nabb
  Buckner, Dr. Doster, 421 W. Wayne St., Ft. Wayne 2.
    =Physician and Surgeon=
  Clark, C. M., C. M. Clark & Sons Nurseries, Route 2, Middletown
    =Nurseryman, fruit farmer=
  Cole, Charles W., Jr., Madison Rd., Rt. 6, Box 112A, South Bend
  Coleman, Robert G., =Field Editor, The Indiana Farmer's Guide=,
    Huntington
  Cunningham, Earl E., 612 E. 4th Street, Anderson
  Dooley, Kenneth R., Route No. 2, Marion. =Gardener=
  Eagles, A. E., Eagles' Orchards, Wolcottville. =Walnut grower, apple
    orchardist=
  Eisterhold, Dr. John A., 220 Southwest Riverside Drive, Evansville 8.
    =Medical Doctor=
  Fateley, Nolan W., 26 Central Avenue, Franklin.
    =Auditor and cashier. (Carpathian walnut seeds.)=
  Glaser, Peter, Route No. 9, Box 328, Koering Road, Evansville
  Grater, A. E., Route 2, Shipshewana
  Harrell, Franklin M., Route 1, Griffith
  § Johnson, Hjalmar W., Rt. 4, Valparaiso. =V. P. Inland Steel Co.=
  Kaufman, Ray, Route 4, Peru
  Kodera, Shunzo, Goshen College, Goshen
  Kyburz, Benjamin E., Route 1, Idaville
  Neimeyer, Harry D., West Lebanon. =High school principal and farmer=
  Newman, Jesse D., Jr., R. R. 2, Culver
  Pape, Edw. W., Route 2, Marion
  Prell, Carl F., 1414 E. Colfax Avenue, South Bend 17
    Office: 821 J.M.S. Bldg., South Bend 1. =Treasurer of Ass'n.=
  Reed, Frank, Daleville. =Toolmaker=
  Richards, E. E., 2712 South Twyckenham Drive, South Bend.
    =Studebaker Corp.=
  Risko, A., Tioga Orchards, Monticello
  Russell, A. M., Jr. 2721 Marine St., South Bend 14
  Skinner Dr. Chas. H., Rt. 1, Thorntown
  Sly, Miss Barbara, Route No. 3, Rockport
  Sly, Donald R., Route 3, Rockport. =Nurseryman, nut tree propagator=
  Wallick, Ford, Rt. 4, Peru
  Ward, W. B., Horticulture Bldg., Purdue University, Lafayette.
    =Ext. Horticulturist, Vegetables=
  Westerhouse, George F., East Ohio Street, Monticello
  Whitsel, Gilbert L., Jr., 515 S. 15th Street, Lafayette
  Wichman, Robert P., Route No. 3, Washington. =General farming=
  Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport. =Nurseryman=

  IOWA
  Berhow, Seward, =Berhow Nurseries=, Huxley
  Boice, R. H., Route No. 1, Nashua. =Farmer=
  Carlson, R. J., M.D., 2025 College Street, Cedar Falls
  Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut Street, Atlantic
  Eads, Carroll, R.F.D., Miles. =Farmer=
  Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point. =Nurseryman=
  Ferris, Wayne, Hampton. =President of Earl Ferris Nursery=
  Greig, John E., Box 157, Estherville
  Huen, E. F., Eldora. =Farmer=
  Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg. =General nurserymen=
  Iowa Fruit Growers Assn., c/o Sec'y, State House, Des Moines 19.
    =Cooperative buying organization=
  Kaser, Mrs. J. D., Winterset
  Knowles, W. B., Box 476, Manly
  Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula. =Nut nurseryman, farmer, salesman=
  Lysinger, Addison, Lamoni
  Martzahn, Frank A., Route No. 1, Davenport. =Farmer=
  McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant. =Lawyer=
  Orr, J. Allen, 535 Frances Bldg., Sioux City 17
  Rohrbacher, Dr. William, 811 East College Street, Iowa City. =Practice
    of Medicine=
  Schlagenbusch Brothers, Route No. 2, Fort Madison. =Farmers=
  Snyder, D. C., Center Point. =Nurseryman, nuts and general.=
  Snyder, Paul V., Kalona
  Tolstead, W. L. See Nebraska
  Wade, Miss Ida May, Route No. 3, LaPorte City. =Bookkeeper=
  Welch, G. L., Mt. Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah
  White, Herbert, Box 264, Woodbine. =Rural Mail Carrier=
  Williams, Wendell V., Route No. 1, Danville. =Farmer=

  KANSAS
  Baker, Fred C., Troy. =Entomologist=
  Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee Street, Leavenworth
  Breidenthal, Willard J., Riverview State Bank, 7th and Central, Kansas
    City 1. =Bank President=
  Funk, M. D., 600 W Paramore Street, Topeka. =Pharmacist=
  Gray, Dr. Clyde, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton. =Osteopathic Physician=
  Harris, Ernest, Box 20, Wellsville. =Farmer=
  Leavenworth Nurseries, Carl Holman, Proprietor, Route No. 3, Leavenworth.
    =Nut nurseryman=
  Mondero, John, Lansing
  Stark, M. F., Hawthorne Place, Hiawatha. =Supt. City Schools=
  Thielenhaus, W. F., Route No. 1, Buffalo. =Retired postal worker=
  Underwood, Jay, Riverside Nursery, Uniontown
  Wales, Max, 1534 MacVicar Street, Topeka

  KENTUCKY
  Alves, Robert H., 302 Clay St., Henderson
  Armstrong, W. D., West Ky., Exp. Sta., Princeton. =Horticulturist=
  Bray, Terrell, Bray Orchards, Bedford
  Hopson, J. R., Route 2, Cadiz
  Magill, W. W., Horticulture Dept., U. of Ky., Lexington
  Miller, Julien C., 220 Sycamore Drive, Paducah
  Moss, Dr. C. A., Williamsburg. =Bank President=
  Rouse, Sterling, Route No. 1, Box 70, Florence. =Fruit grower,
    nurseryman=
  Shakelford, Thomas B., P. O. Box 31, Compton
  Taliaferro, Philip, Box 85, Erlanger
  Tatum, W. G., Route 4, Lebanon. =Commercial orchardist=
  Usrey, Robert, Star Route, Mayfield
  Walker, William W., Route No. 1, Dixie Highway, Florence
  Widmer, Dr. Nelson D., Lebanon

  LOUISIANA

  Hammar, Dr. Harald E., USDA Chemical Lab., 606 Court House,
    Shreveport 47. =Chemist=
  Perrault, Mrs. Henry D., Route No. 1, Box 13, Natchitoches.
    =Pecan grower=

  MARYLAND

  Case, Lynn B., Route 2, Box 208, Federalsburg
  Crane, Dr. H. L., Bureau of Plant Industry Station, Beltsville.
    =Principal Horticulturist, USDA.=
  Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., P. O. Box 743, Easton. =Chestnut growers=
  Graff, George U., Harding Lane, Rt. 3, Rockville
  Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville.
    =Research Forest Pathologist=
  Hodgson, William C, Route No. 1, White Hall. =Farmer=
  Kaan, Dr. Helen W., 8335 Grubb Road, Silver Spring. =Research Associate=
  Kemp, Homer S., (Proprietor) Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne
  McCollum, Blaine, White Hall. =Retired from Federal Government=
  McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville. =Government
    Scientist=
  * Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 5031-56th Ave., Roger Heights, Hyattsville
  Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown. _Farm Owner_
  Quill Farm, Barclay
  Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Avenue, Baltimore 16. Physician

  MASSACHUSETTS

  Babbitt, Howard S., 221 Dawes Avenue, Pittsfield.
    =Service station owner and part time farmer=
  Bradbury, H. G., Hospital Point, Beverly
  Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State Street, Boston
  Bump, Albert H., P. O. Box 275, Brewster
  Davenport, S. Lothrop, 24 Creeper Hill Road, North Grafton.
    =Farmer, fruit grower=
  Faulkner, Luther W., R.F.D., Westford
  Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro.
    =General foreman, instrument company=
  Ganz, Dr. Robert Norton, 262 Beacon St., Boston
  Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon
  Kerr, Andrew, Lock Box 242, Barnstable
  La Beau, Henry A., North Hoosic Road, Williamstown. =Stat. engineer=
  Murphy, John D., 19 Boulevard Rd., Wellesley
  Rice, Horace J., 5 Elm Street, Springfield. =Attorney=
  * Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Avenue, South Hadley
  Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton Avenue, Hyde Park 36
  Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topsfield. =Lawyer=
  Weston Nurseries, Inc., Weston
  Wood, Miss Louise B., Pocassett, Cape Cod
  Viera, Manuel, Main Street, Vineyard Haven

  MICHIGAN

  Andersen, Charles, Route No. 2, Box 326, Scottsville. =Nurseryman=
  Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Avenue, Detroit 5
    =Sec'y of Mich. Nut Growers Assn.=
  Becker, Gilbert, Climax
  Boylan, P. B., Route No. 1, Cloverdale. =Homesteader=
  Bumler, Malcolm R., 2500 Dickerson, Detroit 15. =Insurance trustee=
  Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Box 33, Union City. =Nurseryman=
  Burgress, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Company, Galesburg
  Burr, Redmond M., 320 S. 5th Avenue, Ann Arbor. =General Chairman, The
    Order of Railroad Telegraphers, Pere Marquette District, C&O Ry. Co.=
  Cook, Ernest A., M.D., c/o County Health Dept., Centerville
  Corsan, H. H., Route No. 1, Hillsdale. =Nurseryman=
  Dennison, Clare, 4224 Avery, Detroit 8
  Drake, Virgil, Route No. 2, Bangor 2
  Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Avenue, Detroit 3
  Estill, Miss Gertrude. (See under Florida, Summer Address: Route 4,
    Box 762, Battle Creek)
  Hackett, John C., 3321 Butterworth Rd., S.W., R. R. 5, Grand Rapids 6
  Haesler, L. M., Route No. 4, Box 130, South Haven
  Hagelshaw, W. J., Route No. 1, Box 394, Galesburg. =Grain farmer,
    contractor=
  Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence. =Farmer=
  Kennedy, Robert M., 45354 Deneweth Rd., Mt. Clemens
  Korn, G. J., c/o Mrs. Arthur Howell, Onaway
  Lee, Michael, P. O. Box 16, Milford
  Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit 14. =Engineer, nut
    orchardist=
  McCarthy, Francis W., Box 392, Algonac
  Miller, O. Louis, 417 N. Broadway, Cassopolis. =Forester=
  O'Rourke, Prof. F. L., Hidden Lake Gardens, Tipton.
    =Professor of ornamental horticulture, Mich. State College=
  Pickles, Arthur W., 760 Elmwood Avenue, Jackson
  Prushek, E., Route No. 3, Niles. =Plant breeding=
  Ricky, Lowell L., 1009A Birch, East Lansing
  Schmidt, Wilhelm G., 22037 Poinciana, Detroit 19. =Printer=
  Sherman, L. Walter. See Ohio
  Simons, Rev. R. E., Flat Rock
  Somers, Lee, Route No. 1, Perrinton. =Farmer-nurseryman=
  Sweet, Dale V., 530 South Capitol, Lansing
  Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester St., Birmingham
  Ullrey, L. E., 1209 Cambridge Drive, Kalamazoo 27
  Wyman, Miles L., 40 North Street, Highland Park 3. =Certified Public
    Accountant=

  MINNESOTA
  Dubbels, Charley, Elgin
  Hodgson, R. E., Dept. of Agriculture, S. E. Experiment Station, Waseca
  Hormel, Jay C., Austin
  Wedge, Don, R.F.D. 2, Albert Lea. =Wedge Nursery=
  Weschcke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul. =Proprietor Hazel Hills
    Nursery Co.=

  MISSISSIPPI
  Gossard, A. C., U. S. Hort. Field Station, Route No. 6, Meridan.
    =Associate Horticulturist, USDA=
  Meyer, James R., Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville.
    =Cytogeneticist (cotton)=

  MISSOURI
  Bauman, Ivan T., Bauman Brokerage Co., 4350 Taft Avenue, St. Louis
  Biggs, Dutton, 248 Elm Avenue, Glendale 22
  Degler, Roy H., 1305 Moreland Avenue, Jefferson City
  Hay, Leander, Gilliam
  Howe, John, Route No. 1, Box 4, Pacific
  Huber, Frank J., Weingarten. =Farmer=
  James, George, James Pecan Farms, Brunswick
  Logan, George F., Oregon
  Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove. =Farmer=
  Ochs, C. Thurston, Box 291, Salem. =Foreman in garment factory=
  Owens, LeRoy J., Willow Springs
  Richterkessing, Ralph, Route No. 1, St. Charles. =Farmer=
  Rose, Dr. D. K., 230 Linden, Clayton 5
  Sims Fruit and Nursery Farms, Hannibal
  Stark Bros. Nursery & Orchard Co., Attn. Mr. H. W. Guengerich, Louisiana
  Stephens, A. F., G.M. & O.R.R., 721 Olive Street, St. Louis.
    =Gen. Agr. Agt.=
  Wuertz, H. J., Route No. 1, Pevely

  NEBRASKA
  Brand, George, Rt. 5, Lincoln
  Caha, William, 350 W. 12th, Wahoo
  Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron
  Sherwood Jack, Nebraska City
  Tolstead, W. L., Department of Botany, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

  NEW HAMPSHIRE
  Demarest, Charles S., Lyme Center
  Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro. =Investment banker=

  NEW JERSEY
  Anderegg, F. O., Pierce Foundation, Raritan
  Blake, Harold, Box 93, Saddle River
  Bottoni, R. J., 41 Robertson Road, West Orange. =President of Harbot Die
    Casting Corp.=
  Brewer, J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn
  Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Route No. 1, Flemington
  Cox, Philip H., Jr., 30 Hyde Rd., Bloomfield
  Cumberland Nursery, William Wells, Proprietor, Route No. 1, Millville.
    =Nurserymen=
  Donnelly, John, Mountain Ice Company, 51 Newark St., Hoboken
  Dougherty, William M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton.
    =Secretary, U. S. Rubber Co.=
  Ellis, Mrs. Edward P., Strawberry Hill, Route No. 1, Box 137 Keyport
  Kass, Leonard P., 82 E. Cliff St., Somerville
  Lamatonk Nurseries, A. S. Yorks, Proprietor, Neshanic Station.
    =Nut Nursery=
  Lippencott, J. C., 15 Mundy Ave., Spotswood
  McDowell, Fred, 905 Ocean Avenue, Belmar
  Parkinson, Philip P. (See Quill Farm, under Maryland)
  Ritchie, Walter M., Route No. 2, Box 122-R, Rahway
  Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Box 196, Andover. =Farmer=
  Sheffield, O. A., 283 Hamilton Place, Hackensack. =Dun & Bradstreet=
  Sorg, Henry, Chicago Avenue, Egg Harbor City. =Manufacturer=
  Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Road, South Orange. =Lawyer=
  Williams, Herbert H., 106 Plymouth Ave., Maplewood

  NEW MEXICO
  Gehring, Rev. Titus, Box 117, Lumberton

  NEW YORK
  Barton, Irving, Montour Falls. =Engineer=
  Bassett, Charles K., 2917 Main St., Buffalo. =Manufacturer=
  Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Road, East Amherst.
    =Dairy Executive=
  Benton, William A., Wassaic. =Farmer, and Sec'y, Mutual Insurance Co.
    Partner in Benton & Smith Nut Nursery=
  Bernath, Stephen, Bernath's Nursery, Route No. 3, Poughkeepsie.
    =Nurseryman=
  Bernath, Mrs. Stephen, Route 3, Poughkeepsie
  Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I. =Executive V.P., American
    Kennel Club, N. Y. City=
  Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham Street, Rochester 7. =Sales Engineer=
  Brooks, William G., Monroe. =Nut tree nurseryman=
  Bundick, Clarkson U., 35 Anderson Ave., Scarsdale. =Mechanical engineer=
  Caldwell, David H., N. Y. State College of Forestry, Syracuse.
    =Instructor in wood technology=
  Carter, George, 428 Avenue A, Rochester 5
  Cassina, Augustus, Valatie, Columbia County
  Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Road, Hilton. =Building contractor=
  Ferguson, Donald V., L. I. Agr. and Tech. Institute, Farmingdale
  Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo 14. =Executive manager=
  Freer H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport. =Typewriter sales and service=
  Gibson, Stanfard J., 56 Fair Street, Norwich
  Glazier, Henry S., Jr., 1 South William St., New York 4
  Gould, Mrs. Gordon, 419 East 56 Street, New York 22
  Graham, S. H. Bostwick Road, Route No. 5, Ithaca. =Nurseryman=
  Granjean, Julio. (See Denmark)
  Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., 19 Grove St., New Paltz. =Post office clerk=
  Hill, Francis S., Sterling. =Letter carrier on rural route=
  Iddings, William A., 1931 Park Place, Brooklyn 33
  Irish, G. Whitney, Fruitlands, Route No. 1, Valatie. =Farmer=
  Kettaneh, F. A., 745 Fifth Ave., New York 22
  Knipper, George M., 333 Chestnut Ridge Rd., Churchville
  Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park, West, Apt. 1406, New York
  Kraai, Dr. John, Fairport. =Physician=
  Larkin, Harry H., 189 Van Rennsselaer Street, Buffalo 10
  * Lewis, Clarence. (Retired)
  Lowerre, James, Route 3, Middletown
  * MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca. =Head, Dept. of
    Floriculture and Ornamental Hort. (President of the NNGA.)=
  Metcalfe, Mrs. Ward H., 710 Five Mile Line Rd., Webster
  Miller, J. E., Canandaigua. =Nurseryman=
  Mitchell, Rudolph, 125 Riverside Drive, New York 24.
    =Mechanical engineer=
  * Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E. 44th Street, New York
  Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo
  Newell, Palmer F., Lake Road, Route No. 1, Westfield
  O'Brien, Esmonde M., 25 South Street, P. O. Box 2169, New York 4
  Owen, Charles H., Sennett. =Superintendent of Schools=
  Pura, John J., Green Haven, Stormville
  Salzer, George, 169 Garford Road, Rochester 9. =Milkman, chestnut
    tree grower=
  Schlegel, Charles P. 990 South Ave., Rochester 7
  Schlick, Frank, Munnsville
  Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Avenue, Buffalo
  Shannon, J. W., Box 90, Ithaca
  Sheffield, Lewis J., c/o Mrs. Edna C. Jones, Townline Road, Orangeburg
  Slate, Prof. George L., Experiment Station, Geneva. =Fruit Breeder=
  Smith, Jay L., Chester. =Nut tree nurseryman=
  Spahr, Dr. Mary B., 116 N. Geneva St., Ithaca
  Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook. =Artist-designer=
  *** Szego, Alfred, 77-15A 37th Avenue, Jackson Heights, New York
  Wadsworth, Millard E., Oswego
  Wheeler, Robert C., 36 State Street, Albany
  Windisch, Richard P., c/o W. E. Burnet Company, 11 Wall St., New York 5
  * Wissman, Mrs. F. De R. (Retired)

  NORTH CAROLINA
  Brooks, J. R., Box 116, Enka
  Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro
  Finch, Jack R., Route 1, Bailey. =Farmer=
  Parks, C. H., Route No. 2, Asheville. =Mechanic=

  NORTH DAKOTA
  Bradley, Homer L., Long Lake Refuge, Moffit. =Refuge Manager=

  OHIO
  Ackerman, Lester Route No. 3, Ada
  Glen Helen Department, Antioch College, Yellow Springs
  Barden, C. A., 215 Morgan Street, Oberlin. =Real Estate=
  Beede, D. V., Route No. 3, Lisbon
  Bitler, W. A., R. F. D. 1, Shawnee Road, Lima. =General contractor=
  Borchers, Perry E., 412 W. Hillcrest Ave., Dayton 6
  Brewster, Lewis, Route No. 1, Swanton. =Vegetable grower=
  Bridgwater, Boyd E., 68 Cherry St., Akron 8. =V. P. Bridgewater
    Machine Co.=
  Bungart, A. A., Avon
  Button, Fred, Route 2, McArthur

  Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20. =Housewife=
  Clark, Richard L., 1517 Westdale Rd., South Euclid 21. =Sales manager=
  Cook, H. C., Route No. 1, Box 125, Leetonia
  Cornett, Charles L., R. R. Perishable Inspection Agency,
    27 W. Front St., Cincinnati. =Inspector=
  Craig, George E., Dundas (Vinton County). =Fruit and nut grower=
  Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira
  Cunningham, Harvey E., 420 Front Street, Marietta
  Daley, Jame R., Route No. 3, Foster Park Road, Amherst. =Electrician=
  Davidson, John, 234 East Second Street, Xenia. =Writer=
  Davidson, Mrs. John, 234 East Second Street, Xenia
  Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Ohio Exp. Sta., Wooster
  Distelhorst, P. E., 3532 Douglas Road, Toledo 6
  Dowell, Glenn C., Jr., M.D., 116 26th Street, N.E., Canton 4
  Dowell, Dr. Lloyd L., 529 North Ave., N. E., Massillon. =Physician=
  Farr, Mrs. Walter, Route No. 1, Kingsville
  Fickes, Mrs. W. R., Route 1, Wooster
  Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, East Blvd. at Euclid Ave., Cleveland
  Gerber, E. P., Kidron
  Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond S. W., Massillon. =Letter carrier=
  Goss, C. E., 922 Dover Avenue, Akron 20
  Grad, Dr. Edward A., 1506 Chase Street, Cincinnati 23
  Hake, Hanrey, Edon
  Hansley, C. F., Box 614, Sugar Grove. =Contractor=
  Hawk & Son Nursery, Route No. 2, Beach City. =Chestnut trees=
  Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Road, Cleveland
  Hinde, John G., Route 1, Sandusky
  Hornyak, Louis, Route No. 1, Wakeman
  Howard, James R., 2908 Fleming Road, Middletown
  Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland 8. =Arborist=
  Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Company, Kent
  Kappel, Owen, Bolivar
  Kerr, S. E., M. D., Route No. 1, North Lawrence
  Kintzel, Frank W., 2506 Briarcliff Ave., Cincinnati 13.
    =Principal, Cincinnati public schools=
  Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9. =Electrician=
  Leaman, Paul Y., Route No. 1, Creston
  Lorenz, R. C., 121 North Arch Street, Fremont
  Machovina, Paul E., 1228 Northwest Blvd., Columbus 12. =College
    professor=
  McKinster, Ray, 1632 South 4th Street, Columbus 7
  Meister, Richard T., =Editor, American Fruit Grower=, Willoughby
  Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Avenue, Toledo 5
  Oches, Norman M., R. D. 1, Brunswick. =Mechanical Engineer=
  Osborn, Frank C, 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland 11. =Tool and die maker=
  Page, John H., Box 34, Dundas (Vinton County)
  Pataky, Christ, Jr., 492 Hickory Lane, Route No. 4, Mansfield.
    =Produce market, grocer=
  Pattison, Aletheia, 5 Dexter Place, E. W. H., Cincinnati 6
  Pomerene, Walter H., Route No. 3, Coshocton.
    =Agricultural Engineer, Hydrological Research Station=
  Purdy, Clyde W., 19 Public Square, Mt. Vernon
  Ranke, William, Route No. 1, Amelia
  Roberts, J. Pearl, Rt. 3, Freeport
  Rogers, T. B., P. O. Box 296, Lakemore
  Rummel, E. T., 16613 Laverne Avenue, Cleveland 11. =Sales manager=
  Schoenberger, L. Roy, Green Pines Farm, Route No. 2, Nevada
  Seas, D. Edward, 721 South Main Street, Orrville
  Sebring, R. G., 1227 Lincoln Road, Columbus
  Shelton, Dr. Elbert M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood 7
  Sherman, L. Walter, 220 Fairview Avenue, Canfield
  Shessler, Sylvester M., Geneo. =Farmer=
  Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Avenue, N. E. Massillon. =Realty=
  Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South Street, Vermillion.
    =Telegrapher, NYC RR=
  Spears, Ernest G., 4326 Forest Ave., Norwood 6
  Spring Hill Nurseries Company, Tipp City. =General nurserymen=
  Steinbeck, A. P., East Nimisilla Rd., Route 7, North Canton.
    =Rubber worker, Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.=
  Stevens, Robert T., Jr., Route 1, Lucas
  Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F. Street, Lorain
  Stolz, Thomas O., 334 Claranna Ave., Dayton 9
  Thomas, Fred, 773 Bedford Road, Masury
  Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus 12. =College Professor=
  Underwood, John, Route No. 4, Urbana
  Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Road, South Euclid 21. =Mayor=
  Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Avenue, Apt. B-1, Newark
  Von Gundy, Clifford R., R. F. D. No. 8, Cincinnati 30
  Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland 18. =Consulting
    engineer=
  Weaver, Arthur W., R.F.D., Box 196B, Cass Rd., Maumee
  Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore
  Williams, Harry M., 221 Grandon Road, Dayton 9. =Engineer=
  Williams, L. F., Box 386, Mt. Vernon
  Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Drive, N. E., Cleveland 10
  Yates, Edward W., 3108 Parkview Avenue, Cincinnati 13. =Mechanical
    engineer=
  Yoder, Emmet, Smithville

  OKLAHOMA
  Butler, Roy, Route No. 2, Hydro. =Farmer, cattleman=
  Cross, Prof. Frank B., Dept. of Horticulture, Oklahoma A&M College,
    Stillwater.
    =Teaching and Experiment Station Work=
  Gray, Geoffrey A., 1628 Elm Ave., Bartlesville
  Hartman, Peter E., 3002 S. Boston Pl., Tulsa 5. =Nurseryman=
  Hirschi's Nursery (A. G. Hirschi), 1124 North Hudson, Oklahoma City.
    =Dry cleaning business, nurseryman=
  Hughes, C. V., Route No. 3, Box 614, Oklahoma City
  Keathly, Jack, Marland. =Farmer=
  Kissick E. A., State Board of Agr., 122 State Capitol Bldg.,
    Oklahoma City.
    =Marketing Specialist=
  Mayfield, W. W., General Delivery, Sallisaw
  Meek, E. B., Route 3, Box 16, Wynnewood
  Pulliam, Gordon, 1005 Osage Ave., Bartlesville
  Scales, Charles D., 3200 N. W. 26th St., Oklahoma City 7

  OREGON
  Countryman, Peter F., Rt. 1, Box 275, Ontario
  Graville, Ed., Route 3, Box 363, Junction City
  Miller, John E., Treasuredale, Route No. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego
  Pearcy, Harry L., Route 2, Box 190, Salem.
    =H. L. Pearcy Nursery Co. (Nut trees.)=
  Trunk, John E., General Manager, Northwest Nut Growers, Dundee

  PENNSYLVANIA
  Allaman, H. C., 1812 South Pine St., Harrisburg
  Allaman, R. P., Route 86, Harrisburg. =Farm superintendent=
  Amsler, E. W., 707 Main St., Clarion
  Anthony, Roy D., 215 Hillcrest Ave., State College.
    =Retired Professor of Horticulture=
  Arensberg, Charles F. C., First Nat'l Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh 22
  =(Chinese chestnut seed grower.)=
  Banks, H. C., Route No. 1, Hellertown
  Beard, H. K., Route No. 1, Sheridan. =Insurance agent=
  Beck, Dr. William M., 200 Race St., Sunbury
  Berst, Charles B., 11 W. 8th Street, Erie. =Inspector, Lord Mfg. Co.,
    Erie, Pa.=
  Blittle, George, 107 Lincoln Highway, Penndel
  Bowen, John C., Route No. 1, Macungie
  Brown, Morrison, Ickesburg
  Buckwalter, Geoffrey R., c/o F. H. Levey Co., Inc., 1223 Washington Ave.,
    Philadelphia 47
  Clarke, William S., Jr., P. O. Box 167, State College
  Colwell, Dr. Frederick A., R.F.D. No. 1, Collegeville
  Comp, Alton, 5 North 2nd St., Newport
  Damask, Henry, 1632 Doyle Street, Wilkinsburg 21 =Telephone man=
  Deagon, Arthur, 61 E. Main St., Mechanicsburg
  Ebling, Aaron L., Route No. 2, Reading
  Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters.
    =General foreman for an electric company=
  Gage, Charles K., 1429 Newman Road, Havertown
  Gardner, Ralph D., 4428 Plymouth St., Colonial Park, Harrisburg.
    =Assistant State Fire Marshal=
  Good, Orren S., 316 N Fairview Street, Lock Haven. =Retired=
  Gorton, F. B., Route No. 1, East Lake Road, Harborcreek.
    =Electrical contractor.= Chestnut and Evergreen Nurseryman=
  Hales, Alfred R., Jr., Apt. 9-C, Cloverleaf Village Apts., Pittsburgh 27
  Hammond, Harold, 903 South Poplar Street, Allentown
  Hershey, John W., Route No. 1, Downingtown. =Nurseryman=
  Hostetter, L. K., Route No. 3, Lancaster. =Farmer, black walnut grower=
  Hughes, Douglas, 1230 East 21st Street, Erie
  Johnson, Robert F., 1630 Greentree Road, Pittsburgh 20
  Jones, Mildred M. (See Mrs. Langdoc--under Illinois)
  Jones, Dr. Truman W., Walnut Grove Farm, Parksburg
  Kaufman, Mrs. M. M., Box 69, Clarion
  Kirk, H. B., 1902 North St., Harrisburg
  Knouse, Charles W., Colonial Park, Harrisburg. =Coal dealer=
  Leach, Will, 406-410 Scranton Life Bldg., Scranton 3. =Lawyer=
  Mattoon, H. Gleason, Box 304, Narberth. =Consultant in Arboriculture=
  McKenna, Philip M., P. O. Box 186, Latrobe
  Mecartney, J. Lupton, 918 W. Beaver Ave., State College. =Pomologist=
  Miller, Elwood B., Mill and Chapel Sts., Hazleton
  Miller, Robert O., 3rd and Ridge Streets, Emmaus
  Moyer, Philip S., 80-82 U. S. F. & G. Bldg., Harrisburg. =Attorney=
  Neiderriter, Leonard, 1726 State St., Erie
  Nonnemacher, H. M., Box 204, Alburtis. =Line foreman,
    Bell Tel. Co. of Pa.=
  Reidler, Paul G., Front and Chestnut Streets, Ashland. =Manufacturer
    of textiles=
  * Rick, John, 438 Penna. Sq., Reading. =Fruit grower and merchant=
  Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy. =Laborer=
  Schieferstein, William B., Box 457, Temple
  Shade, Earl L., 1027 E. 26th St., Erie
  Sherman, L. Walter. (See under Ohio)
  Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore. =Retired teacher,
    writer=
  Smyth, C. Wayne, 1 Prospect St., Troy. =Attorney=
  Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, Route No. 2, Homer City
  Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., 110 University Ave., Lewisburg. =Retired professor=
  Thompson, Howard A., 311 West Swissvale Ave., Pittsburgh 18
  Twist, Frank S., Box 127, Northunberland. =Salesman=
  Washick, Dr. Frank A., S. W., Welsh & Veree Roads, Philadelphia Il.
    =Surgeon=
  Weaver, William S., Weaver Orchards, Macungie
  Weinrich, Whitney, P. O. Box 225, Wallingford. =Chemical engineer=
  * Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore
    =Horticulturist=
  Wright, Ross Pier, 235 W. 6th Street, Erie. =Manufacturer=
  Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., R. D., Linglestown

  RHODE ISLAND
  * Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance Street, Providence

  SOUTH CAROLINA
  Bregger, John T., Clemson. =Research Supervisor (Soil Conservation),
    Orchard Erosion Investigations=
  Gordon, G. Henry, c/o Union Dry Cleaning Co., 1314 Main St., Union.
    =Returned Mariner=

  SOUTH DAKOTA
  Hanson, Oliver G., Route 2, Box 194, Yankton
  Richter, Herman, Madison. =Farmer=

  TENNESSEE
  Alpine Forest Reserve, Alpine. (c/o Dr. H. S. Randolph, 156 5th Ave., New
    York City)
  Boyd, Harold B., M.D., 3418 Waynoka St. Memphis 11. =Physician=
  Chase, Spencer B., T. V. A., Norris. =Horticulturist=
  Collier, Robert H., Lutie Rd., Route 2, Knoxville
  Dulin, Charles R., Brownsville. =Fruit grower=
  Dye, Mrs. Sherman, Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater.
    =Chestnut and Ornamental Nursery=
  Garrett, Dr. Sam Young, 1902 Hayes St., Nashville. =Surgeon=
  Holdeman, J. E., 855 N. McNeil St., Memphis 7
  Jones, D. T., Route 2, Midway
  McDaniel, J. C. (See under Illinois)
  Meeks, Hamp, c/o Jackson Elec. Dept., Jackson. =Electrical Engineer=
  Murphy, H. O., 12 Sweetbriar Avenue, Chattanooga. =Fruit grower=
  Richards, Dr. Aubrey, Whiteville. =Physician=
  Roark, W. F., Malesus. =Farmer, chestnut grower=
  Robinson, W. Jobe, Route No. 7, Jackson. =Farmer=
  Saville, Chris, 118 Church St., Greeneville
  Waterhouse, Carmack, P. O. Box 258, Oak Ridge

  TEXAS
  Arford, Charles A., Box 1230, Dalhart. =R. R. engineer, amateur
    horticulturist=
  Brison, Prof. F. R., Dept. of Horticulture, A. & M. College, College
    Station
  Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan
  § Kidd, Clark, Arp Nursery Co., P. O. Box 867, Tyler. =Nut nurseryman=
  Lancaster, Carroll T., R.F.D. 2, Box 206, Palestine. =Electrolux dealer=
  Praytor, T. J., Box 667, Seymour
  Reasonover, J. Ray, Route 2, Kemp
  Winkler, Andrew, Route 1, Moody. =Farmer and pecan grower=

  UTAH
  Dabb, Clifford H., Route 3, Box 448, Ogden
  Ericksen, Keith, 883 N. State Street, Orem
  Petterson, Harlan D., 3910 Raymond Avenue. South Ogden.
    =Highway engineer=
  Price, Harold G., Sr., 1270 E. Crystal Ave., Salt Lake City 6.
    =(Farm in Putnam County, Illinois)=

  VERMONT
  Aldrich, A. W., R.F.D. No. 2, Box 266, Springfield
  =Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven. Perpetual member, "In Memoriam."=

  VIRGINIA
  Acker Black Walnut Corp., Box 263, Broadway. =Walnut processors=
  Cooper, Lawrence E., Belle Meade. =Nurseryman-landscaper=
  Curthoys, George A., P. O. Box 34, Bristol
  Dickerson, T. C., Jr., 316-56th Street, Newport News. =Statistician,
    farmer=
  Gibbs, H. R. Linden. =Carpenter, wood worker=
  Jenkins, Marvin, Brightwood. =Farmer=
  Lee, Dr. Henry, 806 Medical Arts Building, Roanoke 11
  Moore, R. C., Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg 13
  Narten, Perry F., 6110 N. Washington Blvd., Arlington 5
  Pinner, Henry, P. O. Box 155, Suffolk
  Stoke, H. F., 1436 Watts Avenue N.W., Roanoke
  Stoke, Mrs. H. F., 1436 Watts Avenue, N.W., Roanoke
  Thompson, B. H., Harrisonburg. =Manufacturer of nut crackers=

  WASHINGTON
  Eliot, Craig P., P. O. Box 158, Shelton. =Electrical engineer,
    part time farmer=
  Erkman, John O., Apt. 85, 1219 Washington Way, Richland. =Physicist=
  Fulmer, W. L., 505 Boylston, No., Seattle 2. =Lily grower=
  Latterell, Miss Ethel, 408 N. Flora Rd., Greenacres. =Greenhouse worker=
  Linkletter, Frank D., 115 4th Ave. North, Seattle 9. =Retired=
  Naderman, G. W., Route 1, Box 353, Olympia. =Caretaker of summer resort=
  Ross, Verel C., 4025 Rucker Ave., Everett
  Shane Brothers, Vashon
  Tuttle, H. Lynn, Lynn Tuttle Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston.
    =Nut nurseryman=

  WEST VIRGINIA
  Eckerd, John K., 305 William Street, Martinsburg. =Engineer, steam=
  Engle, Blaine W., Mutual Fire Ins. Co. of W. Va., Goft Bldg., Clarksburg
  * Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale. =Retired=
  Gold Chestnut Nursery, c/o Mr. Arthur A. Gold, Cowen.
    =Chestnut nurseryman=
  Hale, Daniel, M.D., Princeton
  Hartzell, Benjamin, Shepherdstown
  Long, J. C., Box 491, Princeton. =Civil engineer=
  McNeill, John Hanson, Box 531, Romney. =Chem. Engineer=
  Mish, Arnold F., Inwood. =Associational farmer=
  Reed, Arthur M., Moundsville. =Proprietor, Glenmount Nurseries=
  Williams, Mrs. Dan, Romney

  WISCONSIN
  Eiler, William, Benton
  Ladwig, C. F., 2221 St. Laurence, Route 2, Beloit. =Grocer and
    (hobby) farmer=
  Mortensen, M. C., 2117 Slauson Ave., Racine
  Snowden, Dr. P. W., The Monroe Clinic, Monroe



  Standing Library Orders and Advance Subscriptions
  for the 42nd Annual Report

  Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Main Library), Auburn, Alabama
  Brooklyn Botanic Garden Library, 1000 Washington Avenue,
    Brooklyn 25, N. Y.
  Library, College of Agriculture, University of California, Davis, Calif.
  Clemson College Library, Clemson, South Carolina
  Cleveland Public Library, Leta E. Adams, Order Librarian, 325 Superior
    Avenue, Cleveland 14, Ohio
  Connecticut Agr. Exp. Sta., Genetics Dept. 123 Huntington St.,
    New Haven, 11, Connecticut
  Cornell University, College of Agriculture Library, Ithaca, New York
  Detroit Public Library, 5201 Woodward Avenue, Detroit 2, Michigan
  University of Maine (Library), Orono, Maine
  Massachusetts Horticultural Society Library, Horticultural Hall, 300
    Massachusetts Avenue, Boston 15, Massachusetts
  Library, University of Miami, Coral Gables 34, Florida
  Library, Missouri Conservation Commission, Monroe Bldg., Jefferson
    City, Mo.
  Library, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire
  North Carolina State College (D. H. Hill Library), Raleigh,
    North Carolina
  Oregon State College Library, Corvallis, Oregon
  Peachey, Enos D., P. O. Box 22, Belleville, Pennsylvania
  Pennsylvania State College Agricultural Library, Room 101,
    Patterson Hall, State College, Pennsylvania
  Purdue University, Agr. Library, Lafayette, Indiana
  Rhode Island State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston,
    Rhode Island
  Rutgers University, Agricultural Library, Nichol Avenue, New
    Brunswick, N. J.
  Seattle Public Library, Seattle 4, Washington
  St. Louis Public Library, Olive, 13th and 14th Streets, St. Louis,
    Missouri
  University of Wisconsin Agricultural Library, Madison 6, Wisconsin
  U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Library, Washington 25, D. C.
  Main Library, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  Superintendent, Dominion Experimental Station, Harrow, Ontario, Canada

W. F. HUMPHREY PRESS INC. GENEVA, N. Y.





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