By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting - Guelph, Ontario, September 3, 4, 5, 1947
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting - Guelph, Ontario, September 3, 4, 5, 1947" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
|                                                                        |

  Northern Nut Growers



  Affiliated with
  The American Horticultural Society

  38th Annual Report



  SEPTEMBER 3, 4, 5



  Officers and Committees                                              3

  State Vice Presidents                                                4

  List of Members                                                      5

  Constitution                                                        21

  By-Laws                                                             22

  Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention                  23

      Address of Welcome--Dr. J. S. Shoemaker                         23

      Response--Dr. L. H. MacDaniels                                  24

      Report of Secretary--Mildred M. Jones                           25

      Report on the Ohio Contest--Sterling Smith                      27

      Report of Treasurer--D. C. Snyder                               28

      Other Business of the Association                               29

  Factors Influencing the Hardiness of Woody Plants--H. L. Crane      30

  Nut Culture in Ontario--I. C. Marritt                               37

  Nut Growing at the Hort. Sta., Vineland Station,
      Ont.--W. J. Strong                                              39

  Soil Management for Nut Plantations in Ontario--J. R. van Haarlem   43

  Report from Southern Ontario--Alex Troup                            45

  Nut Trees Hardy at Aldershot, Ontario, Canada--O. Filman            45

  Report from Echo Valley, 1947--George Hebden Corsan                 48

  Report from Beamsville, Ontario--Levi Housser                       50

  Nut Growing in New Hampshire--L. P. Latimer                         51

  Nut Notes from New Hampshire--Matthew Lahti                         52

  A Simplified Schedule for Judging Black Walnut Varieties--L. H.
  MacDaniels and S. S. Atwood                                         55

  Test Plantings of Thomas Black Walnut in the Tennessee
     Valley--Spencer B. Chase                                         60

  West Tennessee Variety, Breeding and Propagation Tests, 1947--Aubrey
  Richards, M. D.                                                     68

  Notes on Some Kansas and Kentucky Pecans in Central Texas--O. S.
  Gray                                                                69

  Experiences of a Nut Tree Nurseryman--J. F. Wilkinson               70

  Morphology and Structure of the Walnut--C. C. Lounsberry            72

  A Method of Budding Walnuts--H. Lynn Tuttle                         74

  Questions asked Mr. Stoke after his demonstration of grafting and
  budding                                                             76

  Importance of Bud Selection in the Grafting of Nut
      Trees--G. J. Korn                                               78

  The Hemming Chinese Chestnuts--E. Sam Hemming                       79

  Results of a Chinese Chestnut Rootstock Experiment--J. W. McKay     83

  Breeding Chestnut Trees: Report for 1946 and 1947--Arthur
  Harmount Graves                                                     85

  Chinese Chestnuts in the Chattahoochie Valley--G. S. Jones          92

  Some Results with Filbert Breeding at Geneva,
      N. Y.--George L. Slate                                          94

  Nut News from Wisconsin--Carl Weschcke                             101

  Home Preparation of Filbert Butter and Other Products--Mrs.
  Jeanne M. Altman                                                   102

  Notes from Central New York--S. H. Graham                          103

  Experience with the Crath Carpathian Walnuts--Gilbert L. Smith     104

  Observations on Hardiness of the Carpathian Walnuts at Poughkeepsie,
  New York--Stephen Bernath                                          106

  Discussion after Graham, Smith, and Bernath Persian walnut papers  107

  Nuts About Trees--R. E. Hodgson                                    108

  Report on Nut Trees at Massillon--Raymond E. Silvis                111

  Planting of Nut Trees on Highways Undesirable--R. P. Allaman       113

  Nut Growing for the Farm Owner--H. Gleason Mattoon                 114

  Tree Crop and Nut Notes from Southern Pennsylvania--John
  W. Hershey                                                         116

  Notes from the New Jersey Section of the Northern Nut Growers
  Association--Mrs. Alan R. Buckwalter                               119

  Report of Resolutions Committee                                    120

  Report of the Necrology Committee--Gerardi, Ferris                 121

  Exhibitors                                                         123

  Attendance                                                         125

  Pictures Made on 1947 Tour                               124, 126, 127

  Announcements                                                      128


  _President_--JOHN DAVIDSON, 234 E. Second St., Xenia, Ohio

  _Vice President_--DR. L. H. MACDANIELS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

  _Treasurer_--D. C. SNYDER, Center Point, Iowa

  _Secretary_--J. C. MCDANIEL, Tennessee Dept. of Agr., State Office Bldg.,
  Nashville 3, Tenn.

  _Director_--CLARENCE A. REED, 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N. W., Washington,
  D. C.

  _Director_--CARL WESCHCKE, 96 S. Wabasha St., Saint Paul, Minn.

  _Dean_--DR. W. C. DEMING, 31 S. Highland, W. Hartford 7, Conn.

  _Constitution Committee_--L. H. MACDANIELS, GEORGE L. SLATE, MISS MILDRED


  _Press and Publication_---Editorial Section: Dr. L. H. MacDaniels,
  Dr. W. C. Deming, Miss Mildred Jones, Dr. J. Russell Smith,
  Dr. A. S. Colby, George L. Slate, H. F. Stoke

  Publicity Section: Dr. J. Russell Smith, H. F. Stoke, C. A. Reed,
  A. A. Bungart, J. C. McDaniel
  Printing Section: J. C. McDaniel, H. F. Stoke

  _Program_--Spencer B. Chase, J. C. McDaniel, C. A. Reed,
  Dr. O. D. Diller, Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Miss Mildred Jones

  _Place of Meeting_--George L. Slate, D. C. Snyder, Royal Oakes, Dr. A. H.

  _Varieties and Contests_--T. G. Zarger, L. Walter Sherman, Sterling
  Smith, J. F. Wilkinson, Gilbert Becker, Gilbert L. Smith,
  A. G. Hirschi, Seward Berhow. Standards and Judging Section of this
  Committee: Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Spencer Chase, C. A. Reed,
  H. F. Stoke

  _Survey and Research_--R. E. Silvis, S. H. Graham, G. A. Gray,
  E. F. Huen, Dr. Kenneth W. Hunt, Dr. C. H. Skinner, H. S. Wise,
  Dr. G. F. Gravatt, John T. Bregger, Dr. A. H. Graves

  _Membership_--Mrs. S. H. Graham, Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mrs. Harry Weber

  _Exhibits_--H. F. Stoke, Jay L. Smith, L. Walter Sherman, J. F.
  Wilkinson, G. L. Smith, H. H. Corsan, G. H. Corsan, Carl Weschcke,
  Royal Oakes, H. G. Mattoon, George Brand, Seward Berhow

  _Necrology_--Mrs. William Rohrbacher, Mrs. John Hershey, Mrs. J. F. Johns

  _Audit_--Dr. William Rohrbacher, E. P. Gerber, R. P. Allaman

  _Finance_--Carl Weschcke, Harry Weber, Carl F. Walker, D. C. Snyder

  _Legal Advisers_--Harry Weber, Sargent Wellman

  _Official Journal_--American Fruit Grower, 1370 Ontario St.,
  Cleveland 13, Ohio

State Vice-Presidents

  Alabama                             LOVIC ORR
  Alberta, Canada                   A. L. YOUNG
  Arkansas                           A. C. HALE
  British Columbia, Canada       J. U. GELLATLY
  California                 DR. THOMAS R. HAIG
  Colorado                           W. A. COLT
  Connecticut               WILLIAM G. CANFIELD
  Delaware                       EDWARD S. LAKE
  Florida                           C. A. AVANT
  Georgia                       G. CLYDE EIDSON
  Idaho                             FRED BAISCH
  Illinois                        LOUIS GERARDI
  Indiana                         CARL F. PRELL
  Iowa                              IRA M. KYHL
  Kansas                         FRANK E. BORST
  Kentucky                       DR. C. A. MOSS
  Louisiana                   J. HILL FULLILOVE
  Manitoba, Canada                  A. H. YOUNG
  Maryland                     WILMER P. HOOPES
  Massachusetts             DR. R. A. VAN METER
  Mexico                      FREDERICO COMPEAN
  Michigan                       GILBERT BECKER
  Minnesota                       R. E. HODGSON
  Mississippi                    JAMES R. MEYER
  Missouri                       ADOLPH GIESSON
  Nebraska                         GEORGE BRAND
  New Hampshire                   MATTHEW LAHTI
  New Jersey              MRS. A. R. BUCKWALTER
  New York                       CLARENCE LEWIS
  North Carolina              DR. R. T. DUNSTAN
  Ohio                            A. A. BUNGART
  Oklahoma                        A. G. HIRSCHI
  Ontario, Canada                  G. H. CORSAN
  Oregon                         S. M. DOHANIAN
  Pennsylvania               H. GLEASON MATTOON
  Rhode Island                     PHILIP ALLEN
  South Carolina                JOHN T. BREGGER
  South Dakota                 HOMER L. BRADLEY
  Tennessee                    THOMAS G. ZARGER
  Texas                         KAUFMAN FLORIDA
  Utah                         GRANVILLE OLESON
  Vermont                         A. W. ALDRICH
  Virginia                   DR. V. A. PERTZOFF
  Washington                   F. D. LINKLETTER
  West Virginia               WENDELL W. HOOVER
  Wisconsin                       W. S. BASSETT
  Wyoming                          W. D. GREENE

Northern Nut Growers Association

Membership List as of December 1, 1947


      Orr, Lovic, Penn-Orr-McDaniel Orchards, Rt. 1, Danville


      Hale, A. C., Rt. 2, Box 322, Camden
      Harris, Lt. Col. Oscar B., Rt. 1, Fayetteville
      Stanley, Julian G., Rt. 1, Box 239, Camden
      Winn, J. B., Westfork


      Armstrong Nurseries, 408 N. Euclid Ave., Ontario
      Gaston, Eugene T., Rt. 2, Box 771, Turlock
      Haig, Dr. Thomas R., 3344 H. St., Sacramento
      Kemple, W. H., 22 West Ralston St., Ontario
      Logan, George F., 16125 Hoover Street, Gardena
      Parsons, Chas. E., Felix Gillet Nursery, Nevada City
      Pozzi, P. H., 2875 S. Dutton Ave., Santa Rosa.
      Walter, E. D., 899 Alameda, Berkeley
      Welby, Harry S., 500 Buchanan St., Taft


      Brown, Alger, Rt. 1, Harley, Ontario
      Cahoon, Dr. E. B., 333 O'Connor Dr., Toronto 6, Ontario
      Casanave, John A., 909 Patterson Rd., Lulu Island, Vancouver, B. C.
      Corsan, George H., Echo Valley, Islington, Ontario
      Crath, Rev. Paul C., Rt. 2, Connington, Ontario
      Eddie & Sons, Ltd., Pacific Coast Nurseries, Sardis, B. C.
      Elgood, H., 74 Trans Canada Highway West, Chilliwack, B. C.
      English, H. A., Box 153, Duncan, B. C.
      Filman, O., Aldershot, Ontario
      Gellatly, J. U., Box 19, Westbank, B. C.
      Giegerich, H. C., Con-Mine, Trail, B. C.
      Goodwin, Geoffrey L., Rt. 3, St. Catherines, Ontario
      Harrhy, Ivor H., Rt. 1, Burgessville, Ontario
      Housser, Levi, Beamsville, Ontario
      Lawes, E. H., 412 Westmoreland Ave., Toronto 4, Ontario
      Little, Wm. J., Rt. 1, St. George, Ontario
      Maillene, George, Rt. 1, Fulford Harbor, B. C.
      Manten, Jacob, Rt. 1, White Rock, B. C.
     *Neilson, Mrs. Ellen, 5 McDonald Ave., Guelph, Ontario
      Papple, Elton E., Rt. 3, Cainsville, Ontario
      Porter, Gordon, Y. M. C. A., Windsor, Ontario
      Stephenson, Mrs. J. H., 1539 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver, B. C.
      Trayling, E. J., 509 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C.
      Wagner, A. S., Delhi, Ontario
      Willis, A. R., Rt. 1, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B. C.
      Wharton, H. W., Rt. 2, Guelph, Ontario
      Wood, C. F., Hobbs Glass, Ltd., 7 Dale Ave., Toronto, Ontario
      Yates, J., 2150 E. 65th Ave., Vancouver, B. C.
      Young, A. H., Portage La Prairie, Manitoba
      Young, A. L., Brooks, Alta.


      Colt, W. A., Lyons
      Hyde, Arthur, P. O. Box 417, Dolores


      Canfield, William G., 463 West Main St., New Britain
    **Deming, Dr. W. C., 31 S. Highland, West Hartford 7
      Gresecke, Paul, 379 Weed Ave., Stamford
      Graham, Mrs. Cooper, Darien
      Graves, Dr. A. H., 255 So. Main St., Wallingford
      Huntington, A. M., Stranerigg Farms, Bethel
      Kydd, Dr. D. M., 19 Westwood Rd., New Haven 15
      McSweet, Arthur, Clapboard Hill Rd., Guilford
      Milde, Karl F., Town Farm Rd., Litchfield
      Newmaker, Adolph, Rt. 1, Rockville
      Page, Donald T., Box 391, Rt. 1, Danielson
      Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
      Rodgers, Raymond, Rt. 2, Westport
      Rozanshi, Joseph, 130 La Salle St., New Britain
      Scazlia, Jos. A., 372 Matson Hill Rd., So. Glastonbury
      Senior, Sam P., Rt. 1, Bridgeport
      White, George E., Rt. 2, Andover


      Brugmann, Elmer W., 1904 Washington St., Wilmington
      Lake, Edward S., Sharpless Road, Hockessin
      Wilkins, Lewis, Rt. 1, Newark


      Borchers, Perry E., 1329 Quincy St., N. W., Washington 11, D. C.
      Graff, Geo. U., 242 Peabody St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
      Kaan, Dr. Helen W., National Research Council, 2101 Constitution
      Ave., Washington 25, D. C. Librarian, American Potash Institute,
      Inc., 1155-16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
      Reed, C. A., 7309 Piney Branch Rd., N. W., Washington 12, D. C.


      Avant, C. A., 960 N. W. 10th Ave., Miami


      Eidson, G. Clyde, 1700 Westwood Ave., S. W., Atlanta
      Hammar, Dr. Harold E., U. S. Pecan Field Sta., Box 84, Albany
      Hunter, H. Reid, 561 Lake Shore Dr., N. E., Atlanta
      Neal, Homer A., Neal's Nursery, Rt. 1, Carnesville
      Skyland Farms, S. C. Noland & C. H. Crawford, 161 Spring St., N. W.,
      Wilson, Wm. J., North Anderson Ave., Ft. Valley


      Baisch, Fred, 627 E. Main St., Emmett
      Dryden, Lynn, Peck
      Falin, Mrs. John, Riggins
      Hazelbaker, Calvin, Lewiston
      Kudlac, Joe T., Box 147, Buhl
      McGoran, J. E., Box 42, Spirit Lake, Idaho
      Swayne, Samuel F., Orofino


      Albrecht, H. W., Delaven
      Allen, Theodore R., Delevan
      Anthony, A. B., Rt. 3, Sterling
      Baber, Adin, Kansas
      Best, R. B., Eldred
      Bolle, Dr. A. C., 324 E. State St., Jacksonville
      Bradley, James W., 1307 N. McKinley Ave., Champaign
      Bronson, Earle A., 800 Simpson St., Evanston
      Churchill, Woodford M., 4333 Oakenwold, Chicago
      Colby, Dr. Arthur S., University of Illinois, Urbana
      Dietrich, Ernest, Rt. 2, Dundas
      Dintelman, L. F., Belleville
      Frey, Mrs. Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago
      Frey, Frank H., 2315 West 108th Place, Chicago
      Frierdich, Fred, 3907 W. Main St., Belleville
      Gerardi, Louis, Rt. 1, Caseyville
      Haeseler, L. M., 1959 W. Madison St., Chicago
      Heberlein, Edw. W., Rt. 1, Box 72 A, Roscoe
      Helmle, Herman C., 123 N. Walnut St., Springfield
      Hockenyoo, G. L., 213 E. Jefferson St., Springfield
      Holland, Dr. W. W., 512 N. Randolf St., Macomb
      Johnson, Hjalmar W., 5811 Dorchester Ave., Chicago 37
      Jungk, Adolph, 817 Washington Ave., Alton
      Kilner, F. R., American Nurseryman, 343 S. Dearborn St., Chicago 4
      Klein, A. F., 1026 Harrison St., Galesburg
      Knobloch, Miss Margaret, Arthur
      Kreider, Ralph, Jr., Hammond
      Langdoe, Wesley W., Erie Community High School, Erie
      Leighton, L. C., Arthur
      Mandrell, C. Wayne, Box 642, Tolono
      Oakes, Royal, Bluffs
      Pray, A. Lee, 502 North Main St., LeRoy
      Sonnemann, W. F., Experimental Gardens, Vandalia
      Seaton, Earl D., 2313 6th, Peru
      Terril, Mark, 726 Greenleaf Ave., Wilmette
      Urush, R. A., 1022 N. Dearborn, Chicago 10
      Whitford, A. M., Farina
      Williams, Jerry F., 2704 Walnut St., Shelbyville
      Youngberg, Harry W., Port Clinton Rd., Prairie View


      Behr, J. E., Laconia
      Boyer, Clyde C, Nabb
      Cole, Chas. Jr., 220 West La Salle Ave., South Bend
      Garber, H. G., Indiana State Farm, Greencastle
      Gentry, Herbert M., Rt. 2, Noblesville
      Glaser, Peter, Rt. 1, Box 301, Evansville
      Hite, Charles Dean, Rt. 2, Bluffton
      Pritchett, Emery, 1340 Park Ave., Fort Wayne
      Prell, Carl F., 803 West Colfax Ave., South Bend
      Ramsey, Arthur, Muncie Tree Surgery Co., Muncie
      Simpson, Paul F., 5951 Indianola, Indianapolis 20
      Skinner, Dr. Charles H., Rt. 1, Thornton
      Sly, Miss Barbara, Rt. 3, Rockport
      Sly, Donald R., Rt. 3, Rockport
      Stephenson, Walter, Delta Electric Co., Marion
      Stierwalt, G. W., Rt. 4, Greencastle
      Wallick, Ford, Rt. 4, Peru
      Warren, E. L., New Richmond
      Wilkinson, J. F., Indiana Nut Nursery, Rockport


      Berhow, S., Berhow Nurseries, Huxley
      Boice, R. H., Rt. 1, Nashua
      Cole, Edward P., 419 Chestnut St., Atlantic
      Ferguson, Albert B., Center Point
      Ferguson, Roy, Center Point
      Ferris, Wayne, Hampton
      Gardner, Clark, Gardner Nurseries, Osage
      Harrison, L. E., Nashua
      Huen, E. F., Eldora
      Inter-State Nurseries, Hamburg
      Iowa Fruit Growers' Association, State House, Des Moines
      Kaser, J. D., Winterset
      Kivell, Ivan E., Rt. 3, Greene
      Kyhl, Ira M., Box 236, Sabula
      Lanman, Harry, Hamburg
      Last, Herman, Steamboat Rock
      Lounsberry, C. C., 209 Howard Ave., Ames
      Martazahn, Frank A., Rt. 3, Davenport
      McLeran, Harold F., Mt. Pleasant
      Meints, A. Rock, Dixon
      Rodenberg, Henry, Guttenberg
      Rohrbacher, Dr. Wm., 811 East College St., Iowa City
      Schlagenbusch Bros., Rt. 3, Ft. Madison
      Snyder, D. C., Center Point
      Steffen, R. F., Box 1302, Sioux City 7
      Swartzendruber, D. B., Kalona
      Wade, Ida May, Rt. 3, LaPorte City
      Widmer, H. R., Bloomfield
      Welch, H. S., Mt. Arbor Nurseries, Shenandoah
      Wood, Roy A., Castana


      Baker, F. C., Troy
      Borst, Frank E., 1704 Shawnee St., Leavenworth
      Boyd, Elmer, Rt. 1, Box 95, Oskaloosa
      Burrichter, George W., c/o Mrs. James Stone, 3011 N. 36th St.,
        Kansas City
      Fisher, Richard W., 704 N. 12th St., Leavenworth
      Funk, M. D., 1501 N. Tyler St., Topeka
      Gray, Dr. Clyde, 1045 Central Avenue, Horton
      Hofman, Rayburn, Rt. 5, Manhattan
      Leavenworth Nurseries, Rt. 3, Leavenworth
      Mendere, John, Lansing
      Threlenhaus, W. F., Rt. 1, Buffalo


      Alves, Robert H., Nehi Bottling Co., Henderson
      Baughn, Cullie, Rt. 6, Box 1, Franklin
      Cornett, Chas. L., Box 566, Lynch
      Moss, Dr. C. A., Williamsburg
      Palmeter, Clarence, Rt 1, Mt. Sterling
      Tatum, W. G., Rt. 4, Lebanon
      Whittinghill, Lonnie M., Box 10, Love


      Fullilove, J. Hill, Box 157, Shreveport


      Crane, Dr. H. L., Bureau of Plant Industry Sta., Beltsville
      Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc., Dover Rd., Easton
      Fletcher, C. Hicks, Lulley's Hillside Farm, Bowie
      Gravatt, Dr. G. F., Forest Pathology, Plant Industry Sta., Beltsville
      Harris, Walter B., Worton
      Hodgson, Wm. C, Rt. 1, White Hall
      Hoopes, Wilmer P., Forest Hill
      Kemp, Homer S., Bountiful Ridge Nurseries, Princess Anne
      Mannakee, N. H., Ashton
      McCollum, Blaine, White Hall
      McKay, Dr. J. W., Plant Industry Station, Beltsville
      Negus, Mrs. Herbert, 4514-32nd St., Mt. Rainier
      Porter, John J., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown
      Purnell, J. Edgar, Spring Hill Road, Salisbury
      Shamer, Dr. Maurice E., 3300 W. North Ave., Baltimore
      Thomas, Kenneth D., 2826 Rosalie Ave., Baltimore 14


      Babbitt, Howard S., 321 Dawes Ave., Pittsfield
      Brown, Daniel L., Esq., 60 State St., Boston
      Fitts, Walter H., 39 Baker St., Foxboro
      Fritze, E., Osterville
      Garlock, Mott A., 17 Arlington Rd., Longmeadow
      Gauthier, Louis R., Wood Hill Rd., Monson
      Hanchett, James L., Rt. 1, East Longmeadow
      Kendall, Henry P., Moose Hill Farm, Sharon
      La Beau, Henry A., North Hoosic Rd., Williamstown
      Pinkerton, E. G., 177 Lowden St., Dedham
      Rice, Horace J., 5 Elm St., Springfield
     *Russell, Mrs. Newton H., 12 Burnett Ave., South Hadley
      Short, I. W., 299 Washington St., Taunton
      Stewart, O. W., 75 Milton Ave., Hyde Park
      Swartz, H. P., 206 Chicopee St., Chicopee
      Van Meter, Dr. R. A., French Hall, M.S.C., Amherst
      Wellman, Sargent H., Esq., Windridge, Topsfield
      Westcott, Samuel K., 70 Richview Ave., North Adams
      Weston Nurseries, Inc., Brown & Winters Sts., Weston
      Weymouth, Paul W., 183 Plymouth St., Holbrook


      Compean, Senor Federico, Gerente, Granjas "Cordelia" Apartado 141,
        San Luis Potosi, Mexico


      Achenbach, W. N., Petoskey
      Andersen, Charles, Andersen Evergreen Nurseries, Scottsville
      Barlow, Alfred L., 13079 Flanders Ave., Detroit 5
      Becker, Gilbert, Climax
      Blackman, Orrin C., Box 55, Jackson
      Bogart, Geo. C., Rt. 2, Three Oaks
      Boylan, P. B., Cloverdale
      Bradley, L. J., Rt. 1, Springport
      Bumler, Malcolm R., 1097 Lakeview, Detroit
      Burgart, Harry, Michigan Nut Nursery, Rt. 2, Union City
      Burgess, E. H., Burgess Seed & Plant Co., Galesburg
      Burr, Redmond M., 320 S. 5th Ave., Ann Arbor
      Buskey, James, 2932 Marlborough, Detroit 15
      Cook, E. A., M. D., Director, County Health Dept., Corunna
      Corsan, H. H., Rt. 1, Hillsdale
      Emerson, Ralph, 161 Cortland Ave., Highland Park 3
      Germer, C. F., Rt. 2, Burr Oak
      Hackett, John C, 315 Diamond Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids 6
      Hagelshaw, W. J., Box 314, Galesburg
      Hay, Francis H., Ivanhoe Place, Lawrence
      Healey, Scott, Rt. 2, Otsego
     *Kellogg, W. K., Battle Creek
      King, Harold J., Sodus
      Korn, G. J., 140 N. Rose St., Kalamazoo 24
      Lee, Michael, Lapeer
      Lemke, Edwin W., 2432 Townsend Ave., Detroit 14
      Mann, Charles W., Box 357 Saugatuck
      Miller, Louis, 130 N. O'Keefe, Cassopolis
      O'Rourke, Dr. F. L., Hort'l Dept., Michigan State College, E. Lansing
      Otto, Arnold G., 4150 Three Mile Drive, Detroit
      Pickles, Arthur W., 760 Elmwood Ave., Jackson
      Prushek, E., Rt. 3, Niles
      Scofield, Carl, Box 215, Woodland
      Stahelin, C. A., Bridgeman
      Stocking, Frederick N., Harrisville
      Tate, D. L., 959 Westchester St., Birmingham
      Wiard, Everett W., 510 S. Huron St., Ypsilanti
      Witbeck, Mrs. V. H., Rt. 2, Woodland
      Whallon, Archer P., Rt. 1, Stockbridge
      Zeket, Arnold, 1955 Catalpa Ct., Ferndale 20


      Andrews, Miss Frances E., 48 Park View Terrace, Minneapolis
      Hodgson, R. E., Dept, of Agriculture, S. E. Exp. Sta., Waseca
      Mayo Forestry & Horticultural Institute, Box 498, Rochester
      Skrukrud, Baldwin, Sacred Heart
      Weschcke, Carl, 96 S. Wabasha St., St. Paul


      Meyer, James R., Delta Branch Exper. Station, Stoneville


      Bauch, G. D., Box 66, Farmington
      Blake, R. E., c/o International Shoe Co., 1509 Washingtin Ave.,
        St. Louis 3
      Campbell, A. T., Robinson Pike, Rt. 1, Grandview
      Fisher, J. B., R. R. H. 1, Pacific
      Giesson, Adolph, River Aux Vases
      Hay, Leander, Gilliam
      Howe, John, Rt. I, Box 4, Pacific
      Huber, Frank J., Weingarten
      Hudson, Perry H., Smithton
      Johns, Mrs. Jeannette F., Rt. 1, Festus
      Nicholson, John W., Ash Grove
      Ochs, C. T., Box 291, Salem
      Richterkessing, Ralph, Rt. 1, St. Charles
      Schmidt, Victor H., 4821 Virginia, Kansas City
      Stanage, John L., 135 So. Rock Hill Rd., Webster Groves
      Stark Brothers Nurs. & Orchard Co., Louisiana
      Tainter, Nat A., 714 N. Fifth St., Saint Charles
      Thompson, J. D., 600 West 63rd St., Kansas City 2
      Weil, A. E., c/o Dow Chemical Co., 3615 Olive St., St. Louis 8


      Brand, George, Rt. 5, Box 60, Lincoln
      Caha, William, Wahoo
      Ginn, A. M., Box 6, Bayard
      Hess, Harvey W., The Arrowhead Gardens, Box 209, Hebron
      Hoyer, L. B., 7554 Maple St., Omaha
      Lenz, Clifford Q., 3815 Maple St., Omaha 3
      Marshall's Nurseries, Arlington
      Van Arsdale, D. N., 701 N. Fifth St., Beatrice
      White, Bertha G., 7615 Leighton Ave., Lincoln 5
      White, Warren E., 6920 Binney St., Omaha 4


      Lahti, Matthew, Locust Lane Farm, Wolfeboro
      Latimer, Prof. L. P., Dept of Horticulture, Durham
      Malcolm, Herbert L., The Waumbek Farm, Jefferson
      Messier, Frank, Rt. 2, Nashua


      Bangs, Ralph E., Allamuchy
      Beck, Stanley, 12 South Monroe Ave., Wenonah
      Blake, Dr. Harold, Box 93, Saddle River
      Bottom, R. J., 41 Robertson Rd., West Orange
      Brewer, J. L., 10 Allen Place, Fair Lawn
      Buch, Philip O., 106 Rockaway Ave., Rockaway
      Buckwalter, Mrs. Alan R., Flemington
      Buckwalter, Geoffrey R., Route 1, Box 12, Flemington
      Canfield, Roger I., 549 Fairview Ave., Cedar Grove
      Cumberland Nursery, Rt. 1, Millville
      Donnelly, John H., Mountain Ice Co., 51 Newark St., Hoboken
      Dougherty, Wm. M., Broadacres-on-Bedens, Box 425, Princeton
      Franek, Michael, 323 Rutherford Ave., Franklin
      Gardenier, Dr. Harold C., Westwood
      Hostetter, Amos B., 17 So. Beechcroft Rd., Short Hills
     *Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly Place, Jersey City
      Jewett, Edmund Gale, Rt. 1, Port Murray
      Lovett's Nursery, Inc., Little Silver
      McCulloch, J. D., 73 George St., Freehold
      McDowell, Fred, 905 Ocean Ave., Belmar
      Mueller, R., Rt. 1, Box 81, Westwood
      Ritchie, Walter M., Rt. 2, Box 122R, Rohway
      Rocker, Louis P., The Rocker Farm, Andover
      Sorg, Henry, Chicago Ave., Egg Harbor City
      Sutton, Ross J., Jr., Rt. 2, Lebanon
      Szalay, Dr. S., 931 Garrisin Ave., Teaneck
      Van Doren, Durand H., 310 Redmond Rd., South Orange
      Yorks, A. S., Lamatonk Nurseries, Neshanic Station


      Barber, Geo. H., Rt. 1, Stockton
      Barton, Irving Titus, Montour Falls
      Bassett, Charles K., 2917 Main St., Buffalo
      Beck, Paul E., Beck's Guernsey Dairy, Transit Rd., E. Amherst
      Benton, William A., Wassaic
      Bernath's Nursery, Rt. 1, Poughkeepsie
      Bixby, Henry D., East Drive, Halesite, L. I.
      Blauner, Sidney H., 290 West End Ave., New York
      Bradbury, Captain H. G., 30 Fifth Ave., New York 11
      Brinckeroff, John H., 161-19 Jamaica Ave., Jamaica
      Brook, Victor, 171 Rockingham St., Rochester
      Brooks, William G., Monroe
      Bundick, C. U., 35 Anderson Ave., Scarsdale
      Carter, George, 428 Avenue A, Rochester 5
      Cowan, Harold, 643 Southern Bldg., The Bronx, New York 55.
      Dasey, Mrs. Eva B., 210 High Bridge St., Fayetteville
      Dutton, Walter, 264 Terrace Park, Rochester
      Ellwanger, Mrs. William D., 510 East Ave., Rochester
      Elsbree, George Jr., Stanfordville, Dutchess Co., New York
      Engle, Mrs. Charle, Rt. 1, Port Crane
      Feil, Harry, 1270 Hilton-Spencerport Rd., Hilton
      Flanigen, Charles F., 16 Greenfield St., Buffalo
      Freer, H. J., 20 Midvale Rd., Fairport
      Fribance, A. E., 139 Elmdorf Ave., Rochester 11
      Fruch, Alfred, 34 Perry St., New York
      Garcia, M., c/o Garcia & Diaz, 82 Beaver St., New York 5
      Graham, S. H., Rt. 5, Ithaca
      Graham, Mrs. S. H., Bostwick Road, Ithaca
      Gressel, Henry, Rt. 2, Mohawk
      Haas, Dr. Sidney V., 47 West 86th St., New York City
      Hasbrouck, Walter, Jr., New Platz
      Hubbell, James F., Mayro Bldg., Utica
      Iddings, William, 165 Ludlow St., New York
      Irish, G. Whitney, Valatie
      Kelly, Mortimer B., 17 Battery Place, New York
      Knorr, Mrs. Arthur, 15 Central Park, West, Apt. 1406, New York
      Kraai, Dr. John, Fairport
      Larkin, Harry H., 189 Van Rensselaer St., Buffalo 10
     *Lewis, Clarence, 1000 Park Ave., New York
      Little, George, Ripley
      Lowerre, James D., 1121 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn 16
     *MacDaniels, Dr. L. H., Cornell University, Ithaca
      Maloney Brothers Nursery Co., Inc., Dansville
      Miller, J. E., Canandaigua
      Mitchell, Rudolph, 125 Riverside Drive, New York 24
     *Montgomery, Robert H., 1 E. 44th St., New York
      Mossman, Dr. James K., Black Oaks, Ramapo
      Muenscher, Prof. W. C., 1001 Highland Road, Ithaca
      Newell, P. F., Lake Road, Rt. 1, Westfield
      Oeder, Dr. Lambert R., 551 Fifth Ave., New York
      Overton, Willis W., 3 Lathrop St., Carthage
      Page, Charles E., Rt. 2, Oneida
      Rauch, Basil, Barnard College Columbia U., New York 27
      Rebillard, Frederick, 164 Lark St., Albany 5
      Rightmyer, Harold, Rt. 4, Ithaca
      Salzer, George, 169 Garford Rd., Rochester
      Sameth, Sigmund, 38 E 65th St., New York 21
      Schlegel, Charles B., 990 South Ave., Rochester
      Schlick, Frank, Munnsville
      Schmidt, Carl W., 180 Linwood Ave., Buffalo
      Shank, W., 141 Parkway Road, Room 9, Bronxville
      Shannon, J. W., Box 90, Ithaca
      Sheffield, Lewis J., c/o Mrs. Edna C. Jones, Townline Rd., Orangeburg
      Slate, Prof. George L., Experiment Station, Geneva
      Smith, Gilbert L., State School, Wassaic
      Smith, Jay L., Chester
      Steiger, Harwood, Red Hook
      Stern-Montagny, Hubert, Erbonia Farm, Gardiner
      Szego, Alfred, 77-15 A 37th Ave., Jackson Heights, New York
      Timmerman, Karl G., 123 Chapel St., Fayetteville
      Todd, E. Murray, 55 Liberty St., New York
      Waite, Dr. R. H., Willowwaite Moor, Perrysburg
      Wichlac, Thaddeus, 3236 Genesee St., Cheektowaga (Buffalo) 21
      Windisch, Richard P., c/o W. E. Burnet & Co., 11 Wall St., New York
     *Wissman, Mrs. F. De R., G. W. 54th St., New York


      Brooks, J. R., Box 116, Enka
      Dunstan, Dr. R. T., Greensboro College, Greensboro
      Finch, Jack R., Bailey
      Parks, C. H., Rt. 2, Asheville
      Rice, Clyde H., Rt. 2, Box 158, Mars Hill, N. C.


      Barden, C. A., 215 Morgan St., Oberlin
      Bitler, W. A., 322 McPheron Ave., Lima
      Bungart, A. A., Avon
      Bush, David G., Rt. 3, Warren
      Chapman, Floyd B., 1944 Denune Ave., Columbus 3
      Cinadr, Mrs. Katherine, 13514 Coath Ave., Cleveland 20
      Clark, R. L., 1184 Melbourne Rd., East Cleveland 12
      Cook, H. C., Rt. 1, Box 125, Leetonia
      Cranz, Eugene F., Mount Tom Farm, Ira
      Davidson, John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia
      Davidson, Mrs. John, 234 E. 2nd St., Xenia
      De Leon, Donald, Box 244, Sta. G., Columbus 7
      Diller, Dr. Oliver D., Dept. of Forestry, Experiment Sta., Wooster
      Dubois, Miss Frances M., 4623 Glenshade Ave., Cincinnati 27
      Elliott, Donald W., Rogers
      Emch, F. E., Genoa
      Evans, Maurice G., 335 S. Main St., Akron 8
      Fickes, Mrs. W. R., Rt. 1, Wooster
      Foraker, Maj. C. Merle, 152 Elmwood Ave., Barberton
      Foss, H. D., 875 Hamlin St., Akron 2
      Franks, M. L., Rt. 1, Montpelier
      Frederick, Geo. F., 3925 W. 17th, Cleveland 9
      Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 11190 East Blvd., Cleveland
      Gauly, Dr. Edward, 1110 Euclid Ave., Cleveland
      Gerber, E. P., Kidron
      Gerstenmaier, John A., 13 Pond S. W., Massilon
      Goss, C. E., 922 Dover Ave., Akron 2
      Gray, G. A., 3317 Jefferson Ave., Cincinnati 20
      Grad, Dr. Edw. A., 1506 Chase St., Cincinnati 23
      Haydeck, Carl, 3213 West 73rd St., Cleveland 2
      Hill, Dr. Albert A., 4187 Pearl Rd., Cleveland
      Hoch, Gordon F., 6292 Glade Ave., Cincinnati 30
      Hunt, Kenneth W., Yellow Springs
      Irish, Charles F., 418 E. 105th St., Cleveland
      Jacobs, Homer L., Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent
      Jacobs, Mason, 3003 Jacobs Rd., Youngstown
      Kappel, Owen, Bolivar
      Kintzel, Frank M., 2506 Briarcliffe Ave., Cincinnati 13
      Kirby, R. L., Rt. 2, Blanchester
      Kratzer, George, Rt. 1, Dalton
      Krok, Walter P., 925 W. 29th St., Lorain
      Laditka, Nicholas G., 5322 Stickney Ave., Cleveland 9
      Lashley, Charles V., 216 S. Main, Wellington
      Lehmann, Carl, Union Trust Bldg., Cincinnati
      Lorenz, R. C., 121 N. Arch St., Fremont
      Madson, Arthur E., 13608 5th Ave., E. Cleveland 12
      McBride, William B., 2398 Brandon Rd., Columbus 8
      Metzger, A. J., 724 Euclid Ave., Toledo 5
      Neff, William, Martel
      Nicolay, Chas., 2259 Hess Ave., Cincinnati 11
      Oches, Norman M., Rt. 2, Brunswick
      Osborn, Frank C, 4040 W. 160th St., Cleveland
      Pomerene, W. H., Coshocton
      Poston, E. M., Jr., 2640 E. Main, Columbus
      Ranke, William, Rt. 1, Amelia
      Rowe, Stanley M., Rt. 1, Box 73, Cincinnati 27
      Rummel, E. T., 16613 Laverne Ave., Cleveland 11
      Scarff's Sons, W. N., New Carlisle
      Schaufelberger, Hugo, Rt. 2, Sandusky
      Seas, D. Edw., 721 South Main St., Orrville
      Shelton, Dr. E. M., 1468 W. Clifton Blvd., Lakewood 7
      Sherman, L. Walter, Mahoning Co., Exp. Farm, Canfield
      Shessler, Sylvester M., Genoa
      Silvis, Raymond E., 1725 Lindbergh Ave., N. E., Massillon
      Smith, L. A., Rt. 1, Uniontown
      Smith, Sterling A., 630 W. South St., Vermilion
      Spring Hill Nurseries Co., Tipp City
      Strauss, Jos., 3640 Epworth Ave., Cincinnati 11
      Stocker, C. P., Lorain Products Corp., 1122 F. St., Lorain
      Sylvarium Gardens, L. E. Crawford, 5499 Columbia Rd., North Olmsted
      Thomas, W. F., 406 S. Main St., Findlay
      Toops, Herbert A., 1430 Cambridge Blvd., Columbus
      Urban, George, 4518 Ardendale Rd., South Euclid 21
      Van Voorhis, J. F., 215 Hudson Ave., Apt. B-1, Newark
      Walker, Carl F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland
      Weaver, Arthur W., 318 Oliver St., Toledo 4
     *Weber, Harry R., Esq., 123 E. 6th St., Cincinnati
      Weber, Mrs. Martha R., Rt. 1, Morgan Rd., Cleves
      Whitney, Charles E., West Mansfield
      Willett, Dr. G. P., Elmore
      William, Harry M., 221 Grandon Rd., Dayton 9, Ohio
      Wischhusen, J. F., 15031 Shore Acres Dr., N. E., Cleveland 10
      Yoder, Emmet, Smithville


      Butler, Roy, Rt. 2, Hydro
      Cross, Prof. Frank B., Dept, of Hort., Stillwater
      Hirschi's Nursery, 414 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City
      Hubbard, Orie B., Kingston
      Hughes, C. V., Rt. 3, Box 564, Oklahoma City 8
      Jarrett, C. F., 2208 W. 40th, Tulsa
      Meek, E. B., Rt. 2, Wynnewood
      Pulliam, Gordon, 407 Osage Ave., Bartlesville
      Ruhlen, Dr. Chas. A., 114 W. Steele, Cushing
      Swan, Oscar E., Jr., 1226 E. 30th St., Tulsa 5


      Borland, Robert E., 219 Mill St., Silverton
      Butler, Joe C., Sherwood
      Carlton Nursery Co., Forest Grove
      Dohanian, S. M., P. O. Box 246, Eugene
      Miller, John E., Rt. 1, Box 312-A, Oswego
      Pearcy, Harry L., H. L. Pearcy Nursery Co., Rt. 2, Box 190, Salem
      Schuster, C. E., Horticulturist, Corvallis
      Sheppard, Chas. M., Tucker Road, Hood River


      Allaman, R. P., Rt. 1, Harrisburg
      Anundson, Lester, 2630 Chestnut St., Erie
      Banks, H. C., Rt. 1, Hellertown
      Beard, H. K., Rt. 1, Sheridan
      Berst, Chas. B., 655 Brown Ave., Erie
      Bowen, John C., Rt. 1, Macungie
      Breneiser, Amos P., 427 N. 5th St., Reading
      Buckman, C. M., Schwenkville
      Catterall, Karl P., 734 Frank St., Pittsburgh 10
      Clarke, Wm. S., Jr., Box 167, State College
      Colwell, F. A., R.F.D., Collegeville
      Creasy, Luther P., Catawissa
      Damask, Henry, 1632 Doyle St., Wilkinsburg
      Dewey, Richard, Box 41, Peckville
      Dible, Samuel E., Rt. 3, Shelocta
      Eckhart, Pierce, 573 Haddington St., Philadelphia 31
      Etter, Fayette, P. O. Box 57, Lemasters
      Gardner, Ralph D., Box 425, Colonial Park
      Gibson, Ralph, 331 Center St., Williamsport
      Good, Orren S., 316 N. Fairview St., Lock Haven
      Gorton, F. B., Rt. 1, East Lake Road, Harbor Creek, Erie Co.
      Heasley, George S., Rt. 3, Beaver Falls
      Heckler, George Snyder, Hatfield
      Hershey, John W., Nut Tree Nurseries, Downingtown
      Hostetter, C. F., Bird-In-Hand
      Hostetter, L. K., Rt. 5, Lancaster
      Hughes, Douglas, 1230 East 21st St., Erie
      Johnson, Robert F., Rt. 5, Box 56, Crafton
      Jones, Mildred M., 301 N. West End Ave., Lancaster
      Jones, Dr. Truman W., Coatesville
      Kaufman, M. M., Clarion
      Kirk, DeNard B., Forest Grove
      Knouse, Chas. W., Colonial Park
      Laboski, George T., Rt. 1, Harbor Creek
      Leach, Hon. Will, Court House, Scranton
      Long, Carleton C., 138 College Ave., Beaver
      Mattoon, H. Gleason, Narbeth
      McCartney, J. Lupton, Rm. 1, Horticultural Bldg., State College
      Mercer, Robert A., Rt. 1, Perkesmenville, New Hanover
      Miller, Elwood B., c/o The Hazleton Bleaching & Dyeing Works,
      Miller, Elwood B., c/o The Hazleton Bleaching & Dyeing Works,
      Moyer, Philip S., U. S. F. & G. Bldg., Harrisburg
      Niederriter, Leonard, 1726 State St., Erie
      Parloff, Robert, 2018 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa.
      Ranson, Flavel, 728 Monroe Ave., Scranton 10
      Reece, W. S., Clearfield
      Reidler, Paul G., Ashland
      Rial, John, 528 Harrison Ave., Greensburg
     *Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Sq., Reading
      Rupp, Edward E., Jr., 57 W. Pomfret St., Carlisle
      Schaible, Percy, Upper Black Eddy
      Smith, Dr. J. Russell, 550 Elm Ave., Swarthmore
      Stewart, E. L., Pine Hill Farms Nursery, Rt. 2, Homer City
      Stewart, John H., Yule Tree Farm, Akeley
      Stinson, George, Box 77, Bedminster
      Theiss, Dr. Lewis E., Bucknell University, Lewisburg
      Twist, Frank S., Northumberland
      Washick, Dr. Frank A., S. W. Welsh & Veree Rds., Philadelphia 11
      Weinrich, Whitney, 134 S. Lansdowne Ave., Lansdowne
     *Wister, John C., Scott Foundation, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore
      Wood, Wayne, Rt. 1, Newville
      Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 6th St., Erie
      Zimmerman, Mrs. G. A., Piketown, R. D., Linglestown


     *Allen, Philip, 178 Dorance St., Providence
      R. I. State College, Library Dept., Green Hall, Kingston


      Bregger, John T., Clemson
      Gordon, G. Henry, Union, Union Co.
      Poole, M. C., Cross Anchor


      Bradley, Homer L., Sand Lake Refuge, Columbia


      Chase, S. B., Norris
      Garrett, Dr. Sam Young, Dixon Springs
      Holdeman, J. E., 208 Shrine Bldg., Memphis 3
      Howell Nurseries, Sweetwater
      Lowe, Dr. Jere., Thayer Vet. Hospital, Nashville 5
      McDaniel, J. C., Tenn. Dept. of Agriculture, 403 State Office Bldg.,
        Nashville 3
      Rhodes, G. B., Rt. 2, Covington
      Richards, Dr. A., Whiteville
      Shadow, Willis A., County Agt., Decatur
      Roark, W. F., Malesus
      Zarger, Thomas G., Norris


      Arford, Charles A., Box 1230, Dalhart
      Bailey, L. B., Box 1436, Phillips
      Buser, C. J., Rt. 1, Arp
      Florida, Kaufman, Box 154, Rotan
      Gray, O. S., P. O. Box 513, Arlington
      Kidd, Clark, Arp Nursery Co., Tyler
      Price, W. S., Jr., Gustine
      Winkler, Andrew, Moody


      Jeppeson, Chris, Wildwood Hollow Farm Nursery, Provo City
      Oleson, Granville, 1210 Laird Ave., Salt Lake City 5
      Peterson, Harlan D., 2164 Jefferson Ave., Ogden


      Aldrich, A. W., Rt. 3, Springfield
      Collins, Jos. N., Rt. 3, Pultney
      Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven, Perpetual Membership "In Memoriam"
      Farrington, Robert A., Vermont Forest Service, Montpelier
      Foster, Forest K., West Topsham
      Ladd, Paul, Hilltop Farm, Jamaica


      Acker, E. D., Co., Broadway
      Burton, George L., 728 College St., Bedford
      Case, Lynn B., Rt. 1, Fredericksburg
      Dickerson, T. C., 316-56th St., Newport News
      Gibbs, H. R., McLean
      Gunther, Eric F., Rt. 1, Box 31, Onancock
      Nelson, C. L., 964 Avenel Ave., Lee Hy. Ct., Roanoke
      Nix, Robert W., Jr., Lucketts
      Pertzoff, Dr. V. A., Carter's Bridge
      Pinner, H. McR., P. O. Box 155, Suffolk
      Stoke, H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke
      Stoke, Mrs. H. F., 1420 Watts Ave., N. W., Roanoke
      Stoke, Dr. John H., 408-10 Boxley Bldg., Roanoke
      Thompson, B. H., Harrisonburg
      Variety Products Co., 5 Middlebrook Ave., Staunton
      Webb, John, Hillsville
      Zimmerman, Ruth, Bridgewater


      Cannaday, Dr. John E., Charleston General Hospital, Charleston 25
      Cross, Andrew, Ripley
      Frye, Wilbert M., Pleasant Dale
      Glenmount Nurseries, Arthur M. Reed, Moundsville
      Gold Chestnut Nursery, Arthur A. Gold, Cowen
      Hoover, Wendell W., Webster Springs
      White, Roscoe R., 635 Mulberry Ave., Clarksburg
      White, Wayne G., 833 Glendale Ave., So. Charleston 3


      Altman, Mrs. H. E., 2338 King St., Bellingham 9
      Barth, J. H., Box 1827, Rt. 3, Spokane 16
      Bartleson, C. J., Box 25, Chattaroy
      Biddle, Miss Gertrude W., W. 923 Gordon Ave., Spokane 12
      Brown, H. B., Greenacres
      Bush, Carroll D., Grapeview
      Clark, R. W., 4221 Phinney Ave., Seattle
      Denman, George L., 1319 East Nina Ave., Spokane 10
      Garvin, Mrs. Mildred S., W. 3408 2nd Ave., Spokane 9
      Harrison, Geo. C., Greenacres
      Hyatt, L. W., 2826 West La Crosse, Spokane 12
      Jessup, J. M., Cook
      Kling, William L., Rt. 2, Box 230, Clarkston
      Latterell, Ethel, Greenacres
      Linkletter, F. D., 8034-35th Ave., N. E., Seattle 5
      Lynn Tuttle Nursery, The Heights, Clarkston
      Naderman, G. W., Rt. 1, Box 381, Olympia
      Rodgers, W. R., N. 1411 Mamer, Opportunity
      Shane Bros., Vashon
      Watt, Mrs. L. J., W. 203 16th Ave., Spokane 9


      Bassett, W. S., 1522 Main St., La Crosse
      Brust, John J., 135 W. Wells St., Milwaukee 3
      Dopkins, Marvin, Rt. 1, River Falls
      Heberlein, Edw. W., Box 747, Milwaukee
      Johnson, Albert G., Rt. 2, Box 457, Waukesha
      Koelsch, Norman, Jackson
      Ladwig, C. F., 2221 St. Lawrence, Beloit
      Mortensen, M. C., 2117 Stanson Ave., Racine
      Reische, Frank C., Rt. 1, Plymouth
      Zinn, Walter G., P. O. Box 747, Milwaukee


      Greene, W. D., Box 348, Greybull

  =* Life Member ** Honorary member=



This Society shall be known as the =Northern Nut Growers Association,


Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants,
their products and their culture.


Membership in this society shall be open to all persons who desire to
further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or
nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on


There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a
treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and a
board of directors consisting of six persons, of which the president,
the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and
the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president
from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of
the association, who shall be appointed by the president.


A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for
the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.


The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the
membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at
this time, the board of directors shall choose the place and time for
the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem
desirable may be called by the president and board of directors.


Ten members of the Association shall constitute a quorum but must
include two of the four officers.


This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members
present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read
at the previous annual meeting, or copy of the proposed amendment having
been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of
the annual meeting.



The Association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On
membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on
exhibits, on varieties and contests, on survey, and an auditing
committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the
Association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.


Annual members shall pay two dollars annually. Contributing members
shall pay ten dollars annually. Life members shall make one payment of
fifty dollars and shall be exempt from further dues and shall be
entitled to the same benefits as annual members. Honorary members shall
be exempt from dues. "Perpetual" membership is eligible to any one who
leaves at least five hundred dollars to the Association and such
membership on payment of said sum to the Association shall entitle the
name of the deceased to be forever enrolled in the list of members as
"Perpetual" with the words "In Memoriam" added thereto. Funds received
therefor shall be invested by the Treasurer in interest bearing
securities legal for trust funds in the District of Columbia. Only the
interest shall be expended by the Association. When such funds are in
the Treasury the Treasurer shall be bonded. Provided: that in the event
the Association becomes defunct or dissolves then, in that event, the
Treasurer shall turn over any funds held in his hands for this purpose
for such uses, individuals or companies that the donor may designate at
the time he makes the bequest or the donation.


All annual memberships shall begin September 1st. Annual dues received
from new members shall entitle the new member to full membership until
the next August 31st, including a copy of the Annual Report published
for the fiscal year in which he joins the Association.


By-Laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any


Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are
due and, if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a second
notice, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of
non-payment of dues and are not entitled to receive the annual report.

At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, a third
notice shall be sent notifying such members that, unless dues are paid
within ten days from the receipt of this notice, their names will be
dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.


of the

Thirty-eighth Annual Convention

of the

Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc.

Meeting At


SEPTEMBER 3-5, 1947


The meeting was called to order by Dr. L. H. MacDaniels in the absence
of Clarence A. Reed, our President, who was ill and could not attend the

Telegram from the Rev. Paul C. Crath: "Let the Lord bless you and keep
you. I am sorry I am unable to attend the present meetings."

Address of Welcome

DR. J. S. SHOEMAKER, Head of Horticulture Department, Ontario
Agricultural College.

Our President, Mr. W. R. Reek, had hoped to be here in person to extend
this welcome to you but he has found it necessary to go to Toronto
today. He regrets that he cannot meet with you at this time, and has
asked me to welcome you. Mr. Reek has shown a great deal of interest in
this convention and I am sure you will find definite evidence of this in
our hospitality while you are here.

In looking through your 37th Annual Report I noticed that the address of
welcome at your meeting in Wooster, Ohio, last year was given by Dr. L.
H. Gourley. I held the position of Associate Horticulturist at Wooster
and Columbus for some 10 years, and so knew Dr. Gourley intimately. His
sudden death was a great shock to myself and his many other friends, and
a great loss to horticulture. My 10 years with Dr. Gourley was a very
pleasant, helpful, and exceedingly important part of my career.

I am very happy that you have come to the Ontario Agricultural College
for your convention this year. As a simple matter of fact, the O. A. C.
is one of the oldest and largest colleges of agriculture in the British
Empire. It is the second oldest agriculture college in North America,
Michigan State being the only older one.

We are an affiliated college of the University of Toronto and function
as the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Toronto. I believe
the enrollment at the University of Toronto is in the neighborhood of
18,000 students.

There will be about 1,500 students on this campus in a few weeks. Most
of these will be in the four-year course which leads to the B.S.A.
degree. Some will be in the two-year course. The Ontario Veterinary
College is also located on this campus, as is the MacDonald Institute
which provides courses for girls.

The O. A. C, like the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland,
comes under the Minister of Agriculture, the Honourable T. L. Kennedy.
The Vineland Station and we ourselves co-operate closely in
horticultural work. No doubt many of you have visited Vineland and met
Director E. F. Palmer. You will hear from two members of the Vineland
staff, Mr. Strong and Mr. Van Haarlem on tomorrow's programme.

I spent some 13 years in the United States--at Ames, Iowa; East Lansing,
Michigan; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Wooster and Columbus, Ohio. There are
in this audience some good friends of long standing whom I first met in
the United States. They are probably surprised to hear that I graduated
from this institution, but as an Irishman would say "That I did," some
26 years ago.

I expect that all of you are familiar with the contributions made by
James A. Neilson in the field of nut growing. Mr. Neilson was a member
of the staff here some years ago. He left his mark throughout Ontario,
and in the field of nut growing in general. We are happy that Mrs.
Neilson, who is a life member of the Association, is attending this

I am sure you will agree that the campus here is a very beautiful one.
The dining hall and the residence may surpass what you expected to find.
It is a real privilege to have you in our Horticulture building. We made
certain plans for your entertainment at the mixer and banquet. In brief,
we are delighted that you have come, we know from the programme that the
meetings will be good ones, and we hope that our hospitality will meet
with your full approval. We indeed welcome you here.


Dr. L. H. MacDaniels: "In reply to Dr. Shoemaker's address of welcome we
are certainly happy to be here and appreciate the excellent arrangements
which have been made for our entertainment. Dr. Shoemaker spoke about
the work done on nut trees several years ago by Mr. Neilson in Canada. I
am familiar with the work of Mr. Neilson and hope that at some time
someone on the staff in Canada will give more time to the culture of nut
trees. That goes for the United States as well. Nut trees, if you have
the facilities and good varieties, are something that will make living
more enjoyable and worthwhile. I do appreciate very heartily the trouble
you have gone to in making facilities so acceptable and useful."

=Presidential Address=--Mr. Reed was unable to be present and preside at
the meeting because of illness. This telegram was sent to him:

Telegram to Clarence A. Reed, Garfield Hospital, Washington, D. C.

"The Northern Nut Growers Association last night received the news of
your illness with deepest regret. We appreciate your long and earnest
work in our field. You have been one of the 'spark plugs' of our
organization and we all miss your presence.


Resolutions Committee--W. Rohrbacher, Sterling Smith, J. Russell Smith,
Wm. Hodgson.

Auditing Committee--Royal Oakes, R. P. Allaman, Gilbert Smith.


Miss Mildred M. Jones

The duties of the Secretary during the year were of the usual routine
nature. Three separate mailings of information to all members were made.
The 1944 report is now exhausted, partly because of the long season in
which it was current, and partly because there were several articles in
it which were of vital interest to a number of people who were not
members of the Association. In March of this year an article appeared in
Organic Gardening magazine which referred to our report and the Hemming
chestnut trees which were described in the 1944 report. As a result of
this one article I was obliged to return more than $30.00 which had been
sent to me, a dollar from each person, for this report. I returned the
money with a letter to each person telling them Mr. Hemming would bring
his report up to date at our meeting this year, telling them about the
work of our Association, and inviting them to join our group so they
could keep up with progress being made in nut tree culture as the
information became available. The sale of reports other than membership
this past year amounted to $135.00. This amount includes 5 sets of
reports which sell for $8.00 per set. About $95.00 of this amount was
for single copies at $1.00 per copy to non-members. Since our printing
costs have increased considerably, and since we are handling the mailing
and printing of these reports at $1.00 per copy at almost a loss, it
would seem advisable to raise the price to non-members.

Every member can help us increase our membership. We have a number of
members who are equipped with writing ability and by writing articles
about interesting nut trees and mentioning our Association and the
Secretary many, many inquiries are received. To these inquiries we can
send our four page information folder or answer questions and thus we
can increase our membership by letting people who are interested in nut
trees know about our Association. On February 28, 1947, Mr. George L.
Denman wrote me that at different times he had two articles about nuts
and nut trees in the Spokesman-Review of Spokane. He said the result was
rather surprising and he requested fifty copies of our folder to assist
him and make it easier to answer inquiries. If our Association can be
mentioned in the article, many inquiries will come direct to the
Secretary and thus save the author the work of answering questions if
he does not have time to do so. The article written by Mr. Davidson in
December, 1946, American Fruit Grower brought in over 100 inquiries to
the Secretary's office.

The Secretary's office has a number of calls for information regarding
sources of nuts and nut kernels for private consumption or planting.
Chestnuts seem to head the list the past year--mostly for planting.
Requests are also received regarding information for market outlets, nut
cracking equipment, nut shelling plants, trees, budwood and graftwood.
Anything you may do to supply this and other kinds of information about
nut trees will be appreciated.

The Secretary of the American Horticultural Society, Inc., with whom we
are affiliated, has expressed the desire of that Society for ideas as to
how we may both profit more from this affiliation. Their need, like
ours, is for more members, more and better articles for the National
Horticultural Magazine. Mr. Reed has contributed several worthwhile
articles to this magazine. The Editor would like to have more articles
about nut trees from our members. The National Horticultural Magazine is
nicely printed and bound, issued four times a year, and is well
illustrated with pictures of the horticultural subjects described in
each issue. Dues in this society are $2.00 per year if you are a member
of our Society, $3.00 if you are not. You can ask our Treasurer to bill
you for membership at the same time membership in our Association is
billed, or membership may be sent direct to The American Horticultural
Society, 821 Washington Loan and Trust Building, Washington 4, D. C.

Our membership at present is 621 according to my present mailing list
which has been corrected to paid-up members. During the war all members
who were thought to be in the armed forces were carried along without
the payment of dues according to our Treasurer's report of last year.
For this reason we can use only our income as an indication of our
growth during those years.

The question of a seal for the Association came up at the time of the
Ellis legacy. Our member, Sargent H. Wellman, Boston, Mass., represented
the Association, and payment was made finally without our seal being
shown. It may be well to consider whether we may need a seal in the
future and if so to take the necessary steps to have one made.

The American Fruit Grower magazine has printed quite regularly the
column "Nut Growers News". They also refer nut tree inquiries to us and
have indicated their interest and further cooperation. They devoted an
entire issue to nuts last December.

A number of our members during the year do much work for the Association
and it is here that I wish to acknowledge all of the help and assistance
the Secretary has had from the various committees and members. The
printing of the report for 1946 and the responsibility of getting it
mailed was due mostly to the work and effort of Mr. Stoke, and Mr. Reed.

It was a real pleasure to work with the members of the Staff at Ontario
Agricultural College with whom I had considerable correspondence during
the year in arranging for our meeting this year.

It has been a real pleasure to serve in the capacity of Secretary to
this organization and I regret that lack of time to do this work as it
should be done makes me feel it is necessary to relinquish this post. I
shall always continue my interest in the Association.

Dr. MacDaniels: "More articles should be written for magazines as one
way in which to increase membership."

Telegram from Dr. W. C. Deming was read:

"Infirmities of age detain me. Congratulations on membership and on
accomplishments. Everything depends on good officers. Present officers
are ideal but young members should now take over. Don't wear out the old

W. C. DEMING, Dean."

This telegram was sent to Dr. W. C. Deming:

Sept. 3, 1947.

"We had hoped you would be with us. Your telegram evoked many warm
appreciations of your great and long service to our organization and the
cause of nut growers in the North. Warmest greetings from N.N.G.A.


J. Russell Smith: "Dr. Deming was one of the five founders of the
Association. He did an excellent job on the reports and in compiling the
cumulative index. He is Dean of the Association."

Report of Committee on Time and Place: Prof. Slate reported three
invitations, the most attractive at the present time being the
invitation to meet at Norris, Tenn.

Prof. Slate: "In order to bring the matter to a head, I move we hold our
1948 meeting at Norris, Tenn., or wherever arrangements can be made
convenient to that point."

Stoke: "Second."

Passed with unanimous approval.

Report on the Ohio Contest--Sterling Smith: "The Ohio contest had 692
entries. Mr. Chase helped with the judging. A number of good walnuts
were brought out. The data for the first ten is given in the 1946 annual
report. We are trying to find out what the parent trees are doing--what
they were bearing in the past and also this year. This is to be done for
5 years. Ohio has 90 members which puts them in the lead--ahead of New

J. Russell Smith: "I greatly appreciate the report given. I approve of
the 5 year plan. It would bring in members."

Sterling Smith: "Couldn't we offer $100.00 or more for a really
outstanding black walnut that would meet certain specifications? Our
good walnuts now run about 25 grams and 32% kernel."

Dr. MacDaniels: "Is there anyone present who helped with the judging of
this contest?"

Mr. Chase: "It required over 2 weeks with 4 to 6 persons to crack and
cull out the ones we knew were not worth further consideration.
One-tenth passed the screening test. The nut selected is one in
ten-thousand expectancy. This contest brought out some outstanding nuts.
The judges didn't have much trouble selecting No. 1. The next four were
harder to place. The third prize went to Pennsylvania and the eighth
prize to West Virginia."

Report of Treasurer

For Period from September 1, 1946 to August 30, 1947.


     Annual Memberships                    $1,212.00
     Philip Allen Life Membership              50.00
     Sale of Reports                           44.00
     Ellis Legacy                              12.50
     Miscellaneous                              5.60
        Total Income                       $1,324.10


     Fruit Grower Subscriptions            $   80.80
     President's Expense                       10.00
     Secretary's Expense                       59.50
     Treasurer's Expense                       45.80
     Supplies                                  77.66
     Banquet 1946 Meeting                      22.32
     Reporter 1946 Meeting                     25.00
     Ellis Legacy Bond & Addition           1,000.00
     Treasurer's Bond                          12.50
     Report for 1945                          569.84
     Report for 1946                          821.83
     Postage & Envelopes                       49.03
     Miscellaneous                             19.20
        Total Disbursements                $2,793.54

  Balance on Hand September 3, 1946                   $3,259.88
  Receipts for the Year                                1,324.10
     Total                                            $4,583.98
  Disbursements for Year                               2,793.54
  Balance August 30, 1947                             $1,790.44
  In Walker Savings Bank                              $  633.92
  In Peoples Savings Bank                              1,056.44
  Cash and Checks on hand                                100.08
     Subtotal                                         $1,790.44
  Secretary has on hand                                   26.71
     Balance                                          $1,817.15

D. C. SNYDER, _Treasurer_

       *       *       *       *       *

Member: "The charge of $1.00 to non-members for the current
report--shouldn't the price of the reports be increased to cover the
increased costs of printing?"

Mr. Snyder: "I think the amount should be increased as the cost of the
report is almost $1.00 now, and with handling and mailing we are doing
this at a loss if we continue to sell the report for $1.00."

McCollum: "Shouldn't the price of a full set of reports be raised? They
are sold at the same price now as they were a number of years ago.
Several volumes have been added. I believe the price should be

Prof. Slate: "Some years go out of print about as soon as new ones come

Dr. Rohrbacher: "I move we sell our current and last year's report at
$2.00 per copy."

Second by Mr. Silvis.

Mr. Corsan: "Nut enthusiasts and nut groups haven't the slightest
hesitancy in parting with $2.00."

Member: "A non-member paying $2.00 for the annual report would
automatically become a member."

J. Russell Smith: "I would like to recommend that if at all possible an
index be included in each volume of our report as it is published. A
volume like this has 50 or 75 different articles but no mention in the
title reveals the content of the article which makes it a job to try to
refer back to or use these reports for reference. An index would make
them much more valuable. This is not a job for the Secretary, it is a
technical job. I would like to make a motion, if the Executive Committee
finds it feasible, that this be done."

Second by Mr. Silvis.

Dr. Colby: "Don't you think that index should begin with the volume Dr.
Deming finished? I suggest that the executive Committee arrange for
compiling of the index subsequent to and including 1940."

Mr. Corsan: "I would like to suggest that the nut exhibit be left at
O.A.C. permanently because of the large number of visitors who come here
and who would see it. This would help to increase our membership."

       *       *       *       *       *

Report from the Constitution and By-Laws Committee--Dr. MacDaniels.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. Crane: "I move we accept the report of the Committee and suggested
changes be voted on item by item."

Mr. Silvis: "Second."

The question of whether the entire Constitution and By-Laws should be
read at this meeting or mimeographed and mailed to each member was

Prof. Slate: "I move the Constitution be taken up now."

Dr. Colby: "Second."

The motion was carried. Dr. MacDaniels read the Constitution and By-Laws
and they will be voted on at the 1948 meeting.

J. Russell Smith: "I move that '10 days' notice for change in the
Constitution be changed to '30 days'."

Seconded by Mr. Silvis.

Motion carried.

On fiscal year--Dr. Rohrbacher: "I suggest the fiscal year be changed to
January 1 through to the end of December."

Mr. Snyder: "I can see no improvement in changing the fiscal year. If we
are to hold our meetings the first part of September each year it would
be better to have our fiscal year ended August 31."

Dr. MacDaniels: "I move that our fiscal year be from September 1st to
August 31st and I move that the annual dues include a report for only
the year you join."

Motion carried.

Factors Influencing the Hardiness of Woody Plants

H. L. CRANE, Principal Horticulturist[1]

There is hardly any soil or climatic condition found in the world where
it is not possible for at least one or more kinds of plants to be grown.
This is possible because the plants that can be grown under the most
adverse conditions have special structures and adaptations with regard
to periods of growth and rest or dormancy. One of the most important
adaptations of nearly all trees and shrubs that shed their leaves in
autumn and survive freezing weather without injury for a part of the
year, is that of rest. This rest in plants is somewhat similar to sleep
in animals in that it is a period in which the life process activities
take place slowly. In other words, the plant physiologist defines rest
in living plants as that period in which their buds will not open and
grow even though the temperature, moisture, and other external
environmental conditions are highly suitable for growth.

[Footnote 1: Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Disease, Bureau
of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural
Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture.]

Different kinds of deciduous plants have or require rest periods of
different lengths, just as some people require more sleep than do
others. Two or three weeks may be enough for soft-shelled almonds but
three or four months may be required for butternuts, to cite extremes.
The Eastern black walnut requires more rest than most Persian walnut
clones, and they more than the Southern California black walnut. Even
within a species there is considerable difference in the rest period of
individual seedling trees and certain clones. For example, it has been
found that the varieties of Persian walnut grown in northern California
and in Oregon, such as Franquette and Mayette, have the longest rest
period; and those grown in Southern California, such as Placentia,
Ehrhardt, Chase, and others, have the shortest rest period. It is quite
possible that the clones and seedlings of the Persian walnut brought to
this country a few years ago by the Rev. Paul Crath from the Carpathian
Mountains of Poland may require the longest rest period of all.

The question may be asked what causes or brings on this rest period in
plants and what breaks it? The scientific answers to these questions are
not known at this time, but we do know some of the factors which cause
the initiation of rest and how it is broken.

Tree growth is initiated in the spring with coming of warm weather and
other suitable conditions. At first the rate of growth is slow; but the
rate increases and goes through a maximum and then slows up again and
finally ceases. On the cessation of growth in length, a terminal bud is
formed and the tree begins to go into rest. This period of growth is
determined by the age of the tree, the suitability of moisture and
nutrient supply. Young trees grow longer during the spring and summer
than do old ones. Deficiencies of soil moisture or nutrients or both
cause the cessation of growth and the beginning of rest. In some trees,
such as tung, cessation of growth and the initiation of rest is caused
by the change from long to short day-lengths.

After rest has begun, the longer it continues the more profound or
deeper it becomes until a maximum is reached, i.e., it becomes
increasingly difficult, up to a certain time, to make the trees start
growth again even though optimum conditions are provided. Some trees
such as Persian walnuts and pecans, for example, are slow to go into
deep or profound rest in late summer or fall. For this reason, there may
be several cycles or periods of growth during the summer and early fall,
depending on weather conditions and whether the leaves on the trees have
remained in a healthy condition. Under conditions of dry weather growth
stops on the Persian walnut and pecan and when this is followed by a
rainy period and warm weather growth begins again. In fact in early
summer a walnut or pecan tree may form terminal buds on all the shoots
and remain without growth long enough for an apple or pear tree to go
into complete or profound rest; then later, new shoot growth may be made
from all or nearly all of the walnut or pecan shoots. Not only is this
an important factor in promoting susceptibility to cold injury but in
the case of bearing trees more often than not this late growth prevents
the proper development of the kernels in the nuts and they are poorly
filled or shriveled at harvest. Should the leaves of these trees in
midsummer or later be so seriously damaged by disease or insects as to
result in partial or complete defoliation, new growth is generally sure
to follow even in late fall if growing conditions are suitable. This
habit permits such trees to grow so late that there is much greater
danger of severe injury from late fall or early winter than is the case
with most other deciduous fruit trees. Furthermore, it explains why we
see so much cold injury in the shoots and limbs of trees; they had grown
late and had no chance to develop hardiness before killing temperatures

After the rest in trees has become deep or profound a certain amount of
chilling temperature must prevail before the rest period is broken so as
to permit the buds to open and grow normally on the approach of warm
weather. This is often spoken of as the chilling requirement. If the
rest period is not broken by a suitable amount of chilling, tree growth
is very slow to start in the spring, and then only certain of the longer
and stronger twigs may force into growth; water sprouts may develop on
the trunks and main limbs; flower buds may not open but fall off; and
even though the trees may flower the flowering period is long and few or
no fruits or nuts may be set. The most effective chilling temperature is
not known but we can be reasonably certain that temperatures of 45°F. to
32°F. are just as effective in breaking the winter rest period as are
those well below freezing, if not more so.

This chilling requirement is essentially the same as the rest period.
Almonds have a short rest period and require 2 to 3 weeks of chilling,
while butternuts, with a long rest period, may require 3 or 4 months.
When the tree has been subjected to adequate chilling the rest period is
broken and with the oncoming of warm weather growth, blossoming and
fruit setting is normal.

A distinction of great importance from a physiological and a practical
point of view is made between rest and dormancy in plants. This
difference can be simply stated: plants, trees, or seeds that will not
grow when external environmental conditions are favorable for growth are
in rest, but after the rest period has been broken and they do not grow
because of unfavorable conditions they are said to be dormant.

The difference between rest period and dormancy is of great importance
in the United States in determining the amount of cold injury that may
be sustained by woody plants. Furthermore, it explains why certain
plants may be successfully grown in much colder parts of the world and
yet fail here. Our winter weather conditions are not uniform, in that it
is quite common for us to have quite long periods of alternating warm
and cold weather. Too often during mid-or late winter the weather may be
quite warm for several days, with above-freezing temperatures even at
night, only to be quickly followed by a sudden and extreme drop in
temperature. Such conditions are almost certain to result in cold injury
to at least certain kinds of woody plants in which the rest period had
been broken prior to the occurrence of warm weather, especially so if
conditions are favorable for initiation of growth. The plants that were
still in the rest period at the time of the warm weather or those with
high heat requirement to start growth (as for example, the pecan) would
be the only ones that would escape injury. To illustrate with an
example: The Chinese chestnut tree has a shorter rest period or less
chilling requirement than does the average Persian walnut tree. Now
suppose that during the months of November and December a sufficient
number of hours of chilling temperatures were experienced to break the
rest period or to satisfy the chilling requirement of the Chinese
chestnut but not that of the Persian walnut. Then suppose there was a
period of two weeks or more of warm weather in January and it was ended
by a very sudden drop to below freezing temperatures. Later we would
expect to find that some parts or tissues of the Chinese chestnut trees
had been injured while the Persian walnut trees had survived without
injury. Similar differences would be expected with other crops, such as
peaches and apples, that have a difference in rest period or chilling
requirement. Under the conditions just described the parts or tissues of
the tree that are most likely to be injured are those that first become
active with the coming of warm weather, such as the pith in the wood,
the lower buds, and later the cambium or the leaf buds. This explains
why peach fruit buds and the catkins of the European filbert are often
killed in the East during the winter.

Some kinds of woody plants are very much hardier than are other kinds.
For example, the butternut is hardier than the eastern black walnut and
the almond is hardier than the tung tree. Hardiness is only a relative
term and can be determined only when the different kinds of plants are
in the same physiological condition as regards growth or activity. Just
what it is that makes a difference in the hardiness or ability to
withstand low temperatures without injury is not known. However, over
the years, experience and research have taught us that there are a
number of factors that affect the hardiness of woody plants.

There is a very great difference between the temperature that will cause
injury to a tree tissue when it is in active growth and most tender in
the spring and that required when it is most resistant in midwinter.
With some trees this difference in temperature is as much as 50° to
60°F. or even more. With woody plants, the tissues are least hardy in
spring when they are growing rapidly, and as the season progresses
hardiness normally increases provided that second or late growth does
not occur. There are many changes that take place in the tissues of a
tree as hardiness is developed: the moisture content is reduced; cell
walls are thickened; the concentration of sugars, starches, and other
carbohydrates becomes greater; there is the formation of pentosans,
gums, and waxes; and the respiration and other life processes become
slower. However, none of these offer a full and satisfactory explanation
of why the plant becomes as resistant to cold as it does. All of these
changes and probably many others play a part in developing hardiness in
woody plants.

Maximum hardiness is developed only by trees that support a large area
of normal leaves continuously from the time of foliation in the spring
until late fall when they are killed by frost. Attacks by insects or
diseases that injure the leave or cause partial or complete defoliation
at any time during the spring, summer, or before the occurrence of frost
in the fall, not only prevent the development of maximum hardiness of
the trees, but such defoliation results in reduced growth of the trees
and in poor filling of the nuts. The importance of maintaining a large
area of healthy leaves on the trees during the entire growing season can
hardly be too strongly stressed. This is because trees that hold their
leaves are strong, vigorous trees and are the ones best able to
withstand cold, as well as other adversities, without injury. This,
however, does not mean that fertilizer applications should be made in
late summer or that cultivation should be practiced at that time, which
would tend under suitable conditions to stimulate late growth of the
trees. This is because some trees like the Persian walnut are slow to go
into rest at best and practices that stimulate late growth of the trees
cause them to be susceptible to cold injury especially in late fall or
early winter. I have seen very severe injury and killing of pecan trees
in south Georgia as a result of spring fertilizer applications which,
because of drouth, did not become available to the trees until late
August and early September and then caused second growth of the trees.

In the case of walnuts and pecans, especially, but also others than are
not sprayed for the control of diseases and insects, it is not uncommon
for the trees to become defoliated in late summer and while bearing a
crop of nuts. Very often this premature defoliation results in the
production of a new crop of leaves and some shoot growth. This is one of
the worst conditions one can have in an orchard, for the nuts are
certain to be very poorly filled and the trees especially susceptible to
cold injury.

In such a case as this, the nuts withdraw carbohydrates, proteins and
minerals from the leaves and wood of the tree for their development and
the production of new leaves and shoots has a like effect. This all
results in such a severe removal or using up of the materials involved
in the development? of hardiness that such trees are very susceptible to
cold injury.

Woody plants to be resistant to cold injury must be well nourished.
Unbalanced mineral nutrition of trees is a very important factor in
determining the amount of injury they may sustain from cold weather. In
the various parts of the United States the soils on which fruit and nut
trees are grown generally do not supply in adequate amounts some one or
more of the essential elements required in their nutrition. This
condition results in unbalanced nutrition, in that too much of certain
elements is absorbed by the trees and too little of certain other
elements. Under severe conditions this causes the leaves to be abnormal
in size or in form, for them to be chlorotic or to scorch or burn, or
for them to drop prematurely. Such leaves do not function properly, they
are not able to carry on photosynthesis at a normal rate and hence do
not make sufficient plant foods of the proper kinds to properly nourish
the trees. This results in disorders of various kinds said to be due to
mineral deficiencies. Among these deficiencies that have been found to
reduce tree growth and yield and to increase susceptibility to cold
injury are (1) boron, (2) copper, (3) iron, (4) magnesium, (5)
manganese, (6) nitrogen, (7) phosphorus, (8) potassium, (9) zinc, and
others. In all cases the corrective treatment to be given consists in
supplying the trees with the element or elements in which they are
deficient. These must be supplied in an available form and by such
methods that they can be absorbed by the trees.

The size of the crop of fruit or nuts borne by a tree and the length of
time between harvest and a killing freeze are important factors in
determining the cold resistance of fruit or nut trees. In test winters
many cases have been observed in which trees that matured heavy crops
during the previous summer were severely injured. Cases have been
observed in which the degree of cold injury sustained has been largely
in proportion to the size of crop matured the previous growing season.
Trees that mature the crop of fruits or nuts late in the season may be
less hardy than those that mature the crop early. It seems not only that
some material or materials are made in the leaves during late summer or
early fall which move out of them into the wood and cause it become
resistant to low temperatures, but that when a tree is maturing a crop
so much of this material goes into the fruits or nuts that if the season
is not a favorable one the wood may not attain its maximum hardiness. We
have learned that a high percentage of certain of the minerals,
carbohydrates, and oil that go to make up the kernels of the oily nuts
are transported into them during a period comprising a month to six
weeks before they are mature. In the production of a heavy crop the
amount of minerals and elaborated food materials such as proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats removed from a tree is very large. If the trees
do not carry a large healthy leaf area at the time of harvest or if
there is a killing frost at that time, the leaves have no opportunity to
elaborate more carbohydrates and other materials to replace those
removed in the crop, and as a result the trees do not develop maximum

To cite an outstanding example of this effect of the crop on hardiness,
I want to describe some observations I made several years ago. The late
J. B. Wight of Cairo, Ga., had a few hundred Satsuma orange trees that
bore a very heavy crop of fruit. The fruit had all been harvested from
certain of these trees for two weeks or more before the occurrence of a
freeze the last of November. From other trees the fruit crop had only
been partially harvested and none had been harvested from most of them.
The day and night temperatures had been warm but there was a rather
sudden drop into the low 20's during one night with the result that all
of the trees from which no fruit had been harvested were killed to the
ground. The trees from which a part of the fruit had been removed were
defoliated and all but the large limbs were killed. The trees from which
all the fruit had been removed two weeks or more before the freeze were
defoliated, but little or no injury to the woods occurred. The severe
injury was probably because the materials making for hardiness in the
wood had been transported to the maturing fruits and the temperature
dropped quickly before the trees had time to develop cold resistance.

It is a well-known fact that many kinds of non-woody as well as many
woody plants develop hardiness or cold resistance on exposure to very
gradually falling temperatures. This change, in the case of non-woody
plants such as cabbage or wheat, is spoken of as "hardening off." It is
not known how important this is in developing cold resistance in flower
and leaf buds of woody plants. It is quite possible that buds that have
become extremely tender as a result of rapid growth might, if held for
some time at temperatures too low for further growth, become quite
resistant to low temperatures just as do wheat or cabbage.

Generally speaking, the greatest amount of cold injury to the buds or
above-ground portions of a tree occurs on a single night. The length of
the cold period is of only indirect importance as influencing the rate
of temperature fall or the acquiring of cold resistance by the trees.
Trees that are subjected to low temperatures over a considerable period
of time are not nearly so likely to be injured as are those that are
subjected to a low temperature suddenly. That is really why there is so
much severe cold injury to woody plants in the South. In the deep South
freezing weather may be uncommon but when freezes do occur usually they
follow a period of comparatively warm weather and the temperature falls
quickly. It is this sudden change in temperature that causes the severe
injury. Two different places may have had the same mean monthly
temperature yet at one place severe injury may have occurred and no
injury at the other place with plants normally having equal hardiness. A
careful analysis of the situation, however, would probably show that at
the place where the injury occurred a period of warm weather had existed
which was followed by a rapid drop in temperature to a killing low on a
single night, whereas the trees at the place where no injury occurred
were not subjected to such changes in temperature. On the other hand,
injury to the roots usually occurs only after prolonged periods of cold
weather. This is largely because the soil cools slowly and it requires a
long period of cold weather to reduce the soil temperature sufficiently
and to such depths as to cause injury to the roots.

Under northern conditions where low temperatures for a rather long
period are sometimes experienced, injury to the portion of the trees
above ground may occur as a result of drying out of the wood. It is well
known that a cake of ice will gradually evaporate and disappear when in
the open and exposed continuously to below-freezing temperatures. We all
know that the family wetwash when hung on a line and frozen will soon
dry, especially if the wind blows. The principles operating in these
cases may cause severe injury to trees. In the wintertime the root
systems of trees take up water from the soil that is not frozen and this
water moves in the tree to replace that lost by evaporation. Under
conditions where the soil is frozen to such an extent that the water
absorbed by the roots is continually less than that lost by the top of
the trees by evaporation, drying out of the top occurs. If this is
continued over a period of time a dryness of the wood and other tissues
occurs that causes death of the dried-out portions. This type of injury
does not show the typical symptoms of cold injury but rather those of
drying out. The conditions that are most likely to cause such injury are
a soil frozen to the effective rooting depths, a dry atmosphere, and a
moderately high wind velocity. Injury of a similar nature to that just
described very often affects trees transplanted in late fall or early
winter, especially those that did not have their tops cut back to
balance the loss of roots sustained in transplanting. During even very
mild winters the tops of such trees dry out to such an extent that the
small branches and even the leader may die. In extreme cases the entire
top may die back to the root. In planting bare-root trees regardless of
the time of the year they should be rather severely cut back immediately
after transplanting to prevent such drying out and dying back of the
wood. Cut-back trees generally will make more growth the first season
following transplanting than will similar trees not cut back.

One of the most common types of injury to young nut trees as well as
others is that known as "sun scald" or "winter injury". This occurs
generally on the south or southwest sides of the trunk and for some
distance between the ground and the head of the tree. Usually the injury
is not evident until a year or so after it occurred and then it may be
observed as a narrow strip of discolored and sunken bark which may crack
where it meets the live tissue. This dead or injured area is usually
invaded by borers of one or more kinds. This so-called sun scald injury
is thought to be caused by the alternate freezing and thawing of the
tissues on the south and southwest sides of the tree. On a bright,
sunshiny day, even though cold, the sun's rays striking the bark of the
tree quickly raise the temperature of the bark and wood. When the sun is
obscured by clouds or at nightfall the temperature of the tissues drops
rapidly and they may freeze again. It is thought that the rapid and
rather great change in temperature of the bark and wood is the primary
cause of sun scald. Whatever the cause, we know that it can be prevented
by shading the tree trunk. This can be done by heading the trees low so
that the branches shade the trunk, or by shading the south side of the
trunk with a board 6 or 8 inches wide, or by wrapping the trunk with
burlap or similar material. Much of the injury to Chinese chestnut,
pecan, and hickory trees, especially, is caused by inexperienced growers
who cut off the low branches in an effort to raise the head of young
trees. The Chinese chestnut generally forms a very low-headed or
bush-type tree. Most of the cold or winter injury I have seen on Chinese
chestnut trees has been on the trunks and has resulted from removing the
lower limbs so that they were not shaded.

Hardiness in woody plants is only a relative term and is determined by
the condition of the plant at the time the low temperature occurs. Woody
plants are most tender when they are most actively growing and most
resistant to cold injury when they are in deep or profound rest. Strong,
vigorous, well-nourished trees are much more resistant to cold injury
than weak, poorly-nourished trees. Hence, the successful grower makes an
effort through disease and insect control and proper fertilization and
cultivation to keep his trees strong. These practices should be so
carried out that the trees will make a strong, vigorous growth in the
spring and early summer and then go into rest without a second or third
flush of growth. The trees should carry their leaves until frost as
there are some things made in them that cause the trees to develop
resistance to cold injury. Winter or cold injury can destroy in a single
night the hopes and expectations of several years' work but, in the
main, if one grows well only those trees that are suited to the
environment such losses are only rarely experienced.

Nut Culture In Ontario

I. C. MARRITT, District Forester, Ontario Department of Lands and

It was suggested to me that a paper be prepared on nut culture in
Ontario. The Department of Land and Forests of Ontario has not done
specialized work on nut culture. The reason for this neglect is not that
various members did not realize the importance of nut culture, but that
there was always more work on general reforestation and woodlot
extension than could be done. The work with nut trees has been along
with their general work. We have not, as yet, had a member of the staff
who has gone "nutty" over nuts. It is hoped that your meeting here will
stir up interest in this worthy subject.

We are very proud in Ontario of the work that has been done on general
reforestation and woodlot management. This is a subject that all nut
enthusiasts are interested in, and we would like you to know what is
being done in Ontario.

The Province of Ontario has been distributing trees free to landowners
since 1907. There are three well-equipped tree nurseries, and a fourth
is being developed in the eastern part of the province. A fifth nursery
has been started in the northwest at Fort William on Lake Superior. The
number of trees distributed varies considerably from year to year. The
high distribution years were 1939 and 1940, when approximately seventeen
million trees were planted each year. During the war years, on account
of the labour situation and war activities, the distribution declined to
between ten and eleven million trees. This past season, the demand was
much larger than the supply. All the nurseries are expanding, as it is
anticipated there will be a heavy demand by private planters, and also
most of the counties are enlarging the area of their county forests.

The application form for forest trees includes seven evergreens and
nineteen deciduous trees. Walnut and butternut are the only nut trees on
the application form. Shagbark hickory has also been grown, but not in
large enough quantity to include it in the list of available trees. The
St. Williams tree nursery near Lake Erie has grown named varieties of
walnuts and hickories. These have been given out to interested parties,
and, in future years, will further the growing of the more desirable nut
trees. About ten years ago, the citizens of St. Thomas planted nut trees
two or three feet in height for seventy miles along No. 3 Highway which
crosses Elgin County. A large number of these trees have survived.

A large acreage of forest trees has also been planted under the Counties
Reforestation Act. Under this act the county purchases the land and the
province plants and looks after the plantations for thirty years. The
county then has three options _re_ paying back the cost of planting and
supervision. All the options are without interest charges. The county
forests are largely on light sandy soils that, in most cases, are a
liability to the municipalities if they are not growing trees.

The Ontario Government passed an act in 1946 that gave the counties the
right to pass a by-law to regulate cutting on privately-owned woodlots.
You will be interested to know that eleven counties have passed by-laws
to regulate cutting. They are all based on a diameter limit. We realize
that a diameter limit is a poor substitute for good forestry practice,
but it is better than unrestricted cutting. The diameter limits range
from ten to sixteen inches for most trees, and five to six inches for

Considerable extension work was done on nut growing in the period from
1920 to 1930. Mr. James A. Neilson, an Extension Horticulturist
stationed at Vineland, became very interested and located many
individual trees and gave numerous lectures on nut culture. A bulletin
by Mr. Neilson on nut culture was published in 1925, and reprinted in
1930, by the Ontario Department of Agriculture. Mr. Neilson went to
Michigan and did extension work on this subject until his untimely
death. Mr. G. H. Corsan has also done considerable work to keep nut
culture before the public by writing letters to the different

There has always been a large demand for black walnut. The reason for
this is the high value placed on this wood and the planting of these
trees for shade and nut production, although the consumption of native
nuts is comparatively low. The black walnut grew, originally, south of a
line from Toronto to Sarnia. It has been planted as far north as Ottawa,
and is distributed quite widely in Old Ontario now--being planted
largely as shade trees. These shade trees are producing nuts, and with
the aid of squirrels, the walnuts are seeding up along fence rows,
around farm homes, and in woodlots. Walnut has been observed coming up
in a woodlot, and the only possible source is a shade tree half a mile
away. The walnut caterpillar defoliates the trees but seldom kills them,
although it does lower their value as shade trees.

Walnut has been a favorite species for forest tree planting. It is
planted in pure stands and in mixtures. The largest and best known
walnut plantation was put out by Sir William Mullock in 1926 on the
highway north of Toronto. There are numerous small plantations
throughout the province. Foresters in Ontario generally recommend mixing
walnut with other hardwoods and evergreens rather than planting in pure

It has been advocated to plant walnuts with white spruce. The idea is
that spruce will shade the ground, kill the side branches of the walnut,
and help to force the walnuts to grow long slender poles. It is
understood, and expected, that the spruce will be ruined, as their
leaders would grow into the branches of the walnut. As far as we know,
this experiment has not been undertaken.

The butternut tree is found growing naturally farther north than the
walnut tree. Its northern boundary is roughly a line drawn from Midland
on Georgian Bay to Ottawa. It is widely distributed, but is not in large
enough quantity to have commercial value for lumber. An expert wood
carver, who is employed by the Department of Lands and Forests, uses
butternut largely in his work.

The shagbark and bitternut hickories make up the large percentage of the
hickories growing in Ontario. The northern limit of the bitternut is
approximately the same as the butternut--that is, Midland on Georgian
Bay and Ottawa on the east; while the northern limit of the shagbark is
thirty to forty miles south of the bitternut. The pignut and the
mockernut hickories are found in the southern hardwood belt along Lake

The American chestnut was quite plentiful in different sections of the
southern hardwood belt. It was valued quite highly for the nuts. It has
been killed out by the chestnut blight and it is very rarely that live
suckers are seen.

The beech was widely distributed in the woodland of southern Ontario. It
has rarely been planted as a shade tree and it is not seeding up
extensively in woodlots. There are many stories of hogs being fattened
on beechnuts in pioneer days.

The Japanese heartnut has been planted in various parts of the province.
A heartnut tree in Bruce County lived through a hard winter that killed
many sugar maples and beech in the same area. Nut trees are seeding up
in many pastured woodlots in southwestern Ontario. The reason for this
is that stock do not relish their foliage as they do the maple, beech
and basswood, etc., and because of this, it is likely that nut trees
will make up a larger percentage of trees in Ontario woodlots than
originally, as it is a sad fact that at least seventy-five percent on
the farm woodlots in Ontario are still being pastured.

It is hoped that more interest will be shown in planting nut trees by
farmers and home owners. The Department of Lands and Forests is
enlarging its staff of Extension Foresters, and no doubt they will
include the propagation of nut trees in their extension work.

Nut Growing at the Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland Station,


There was very little interest in nut growing in the early days of the
Horticultural Experiment Station although back in 1914 a few filberts
and Persian (English) walnuts were planted.

The first nut orchard at the Station was set out in 1922 and since then
several lots of nut trees have been added from time to time, principally
filberts and Persian walnuts. Also a few black walnuts, Japanese
heartnuts, Chinese chestnuts, hickories, pecan and several hybrids were

In 1922 twenty varieties of filberts were obtained from a nursery near
Rochester, N. Y. These were reputed to be some of the better sorts
imported from Germany but when they came into bearing only one was true
to name, this being Italian Red. Another un-named variety in this lot
(field number 3 R 1 A T 10, 11, 12), proved to be hardy and very
vigorous. The nuts were only of medium size but very well filled and of
good quality. The rest of these were a nondescript lot of worthless
varieties or seedlings and so after a few years nearly all were uprooted
and discarded.

At this time (1922) four varieties of Persian walnuts were planted,
Franquette, Mayette, Hall and Rush. The Franquette and Mayette have not
grown very well here and have given very poor yields. Both Hall and Rush
made good growth the first 15 or 20 years from planting but latterly,
growth has been poor and yields have fallen off considerably, although
this year (1947) there is a very fair crop showing, but with rather
much dropping. The nut of the Hall variety is quite large but the husk
is thick and the shell is thick and coarse, also in some seasons the
kernel has not filled out very well. The Rush has given good crops of
medium-size nuts. It seems to be rather susceptible to bacterial blight.

Five named varieties of black walnuts also were planted at this time
(1922), Thomas, Ohio, Stabler, Ten Eyck and McCoy. The Thomas has proven
to be the best of these and the value of the others was pretty much in
the order named. The last two were quite inferior as to nut, while the
Stabler lacked vigour and did not yield very well, although it is a nice
nut and the kernel comparatively easy to extract.

Eight Persian walnut seedlings in the same plantation, set out in 1926,
have made poor to fair growth. They have given very few nuts until this
year (1947) when two of them are showing a very fair crop.

About 1928 twenty Japanese walnuts and hybrids with the butternut, and
about the same number of Persian walnut seedlings, which have been
brought in by the late Professor Jas. A. Neilson, were transplanted to
the permanent fruiting positions. The Japanese walnuts and hybrids were
worthless and so were discarded. The Persian walnuts, however, seemed to
be of more value, several are quite nice nuts and one, at least, looks
to be worthy of increase for further trial or limited distribution. This
seedling (field number 13R3T14) has made very fair growth and has shown
only slight winter injury. For the last five or six years it has given
moderately good yields of very nice looking nuts. The nuts are large,
rather long and oval, resembling somewhat the Franquette. The shell is
smooth and moderately thick, well sealed but easy to crack. Usually they
are quite well filled and the kernel is mild in flavour and of nice

Another Persian walnut, set out about the same time, is the McDermid.
The original tree was found on the property of a Mr. McDermid at St.
Catharines, Out. One grafted tree and four seedlings were planted on the
Station grounds. They grew well and showed very little killing back and
for several years gave quite nice crops of nuts, but of recent years the
yield has been rather small. The nut is blunt-oval in shape and of good
size with a fairly hard shell which is well sealed but not any too easy
to open. The quality is fairly good but the pellicle is rather strong

The year 1936 may be considered the high water mark in nut planting at
the Station. A variety block of filberts was set out that year and fifty
one-year-old Persian walnut seedlings (Carpathian strain) were planted
in a nursery row, and in permanent location in 1937. The filbert
planting consisted of from three to nine bushes each of twelve
varieties, including Aveline (white), Barcelona, Bixby, Bolwyller,
Buchanan, Cosford, Daviana, Du Chilly, Medium Long, Red Lambert (?) and
Jones hybrid. These were planted in a compact block, 18 feet apart each
way on the square. A lesser distance no doubt would be sufficient for
upright growing sorts like Du Chilly but some of the more spreading
kinds can use the greater distance.

Most of these filberts started to yield a few nuts at five to seven
years from planting and at nine or ten years were giving good crops.
Yields have fluctuated considerably from year to year, and also between
varieties and different bushes of the same variety. Yields obtained from
individual ten-year-old bushes and size of nut are given in the
following table.

                    Quarts[2]      Pints, nuts      Size of nut
    Name         (with husks)    (without husks)    No. per pint

  Barcelona           11                8                101
  Bixby (1)           11                9                130
  Bixby (2)           22               12                148
  Daviana (1)         10                6                 94
  Daviana (2)         11                7                 90
  Du Chilly (1)       20               11                 93
  Du Chilly (2)       17               12                 92
  Medium Long         11                8                115

[Footnote 2: Canadian measure.]

Higher yields have undoubtedly been obtained from other plantations and
from other individual bushes and certainly lower yields, also, may be
expected. Those given above are for 1946 from the best ten-year-old
bushes in a plantation of forty plants.

Yield and size of nut while of major importance are not the only
criteria for appraising the value of a nut variety. In filberts, such
points as ease of husking, amount of fibre and, of course, quality must
be considered. Also, as in other nuts, thickness of shell and
proportions of kernel to shell are quite important. Vigour and hardiness
of bush and hardiness of flower, male and female, are assumed, as
without these high yields are not to be expected.

Most of the filbert varieties in bearing at the Horticultural Experiment
Station with a few of their outstanding qualities are noted below.

Barcelona has a rather thick shell and too much fibre. It matures early,
first week of September, and the nuts drop out of the husk fairly
readily. The plant is strong and vigorous and somewhat spreading in
habit of growth. It appears to be hardy.

Du Chilly is not always hardy and it is difficult to husk. Some bushes
of this variety have given quite low yields.

Medium Long is a useful nut. It is not as large as the former two, but
it fills well and there is very little fibre; also the shell is thin. It
ripens somewhat later than Barcelona and is easy to husk.

Bixby is of medium size, somewhat pointed with a medium thick shell but
almost no fibre. It is late in maturing, first week of October, and does
not husk readily.

Daviana is a large, attractive nut with a moderately thin shell and has
very little fibre. The quality is good. The nuts are mostly borne singly
but with some pairs and they are apt to cling to the husk.

Cosford is a very nice nut. It is similar to Medium Long, somewhat
smaller and of good appearance. It has a thin shell and is of good
quality. It ripens early and separates readily from the husk. Perhaps
not always hardy.

Bolwyller is hardy, yields moderately well and has nice quality.

Buchanan, much like Bixby, but a more vigorous grower. Rather difficult
to pick. The nut has good quality and very little fibre.

Italian Red, one of the best but not hardy.

The filbert plantings have been added to from time to time. In 1942, 200
open-pollinated seedlings of the hardy seedling (3R1AT 10, 11, 12--1922
planting) were set out and are now (1947) beginning to bear a few nuts.
The main purpose of growing these seedlings is to find a larger nut of
good quality with the vigour and hardiness of the female parent.

In 1944 a bush each of Beethe, Buchanan, Luisen and Volkugel varieties
were set out, also bushes of the following hybrids:

  Rush x White Aveline No. 21

  Rush x Kentish Cob   No. 110 and 111

  Rush x Barcelona     No. 157 and 159

  Rush x Bolwyller     No. 200

  Rush x Red Lambert   No. 394 and 398

  Rush x Du Chilly     No. 485 and 555

  Rush x Daviana       No. 529 and 521

This material was supplied by the New York State Agricultural Experiment
Station for test purposes. So far none of these has come into bearing.

The seedling Carpathian walnuts (1937 planting) are nearly all bearing a
few nuts. Some began in 1943 while other bore nothing until several
years later. One tree in 1946 gave six pints of nuts, without the husks,
another four pints and several two pints, but most of them much less. As
in other seedling trees there is much variation in this lot of walnuts.
They vary considerably in habit of growth and vigour, also in nut
characteristics. They have shown little or no winter injury. It is too
early yet to pass judgment on these seedlings. Undoubtedly many of them
are worthless, others are on the border line, and a few may be better
than seedlings already growing in the Niagara fruit belt. It is possible
that some may have sufficient hardiness for planting in the less
favoured sections of Ontario.

Other types of nuts growing at the Horticultural Experiment Station are
of general interest. The chestnuts and most of the pecans are very young
and so are not bearing. Several hickories, =Carya ovata= and
=C. laciniosa=, and Japanese walnuts bear some nuts occasionally. The
Persian walnut x black walnut hybrids bear a few nuts sometimes but are
worthless; the trees however, are nice as ornamentals. The Japanese
walnut x butternut hybrids usually have a nice crop but the nuts are of
questionable value. The trees are nice ornamentals although subject to
wind injury.

Several seedling Chinese chestnuts were topworked to selected Chinese
chestnuts, grafts of which were obtained from the Division of Forest
Pathology of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Unfortunately these
were all destroyed at the result of construction work.

In addition to plantings made at this Station, nuts and nut seedlings
have been distributed to people who wished to grow a few nut trees on
their own places.

Cultural practices have been very simple at the Station. After planting,
the trees were cultivated for a year or two, then the space between sown
to grass and clover and the space just around the trees was mulched with
manure, hay, etc. The grass is cut several times a year and placed
around the trees as additional mulch. Small quantities of a good
commercial fertilizer such as 4-8-10 have been applied occasionally and
some nitrogen also has been used.

Pruning has been reduced to a minimum, a light thinning out of branches
being given as required. Very little attempt has been made to keep
filberts to a single stem, but the walnuts have been kept to a single
low-headed trunk.

There has been a marked increase in interest in the planting of nut
trees in Ontario since the first plantings were made at the Station.
These Station plantings serve to demonstrate in a small way that nut
trees can be grown in the Niagara fruit belt of Ontario. The
feasibilty, however, of growing nut crops in a commercial way, even in
this district, is still open to question, although it is felt that
farmers and others should be encouraged to plant a few nut trees on
their property both for the sake of the nuts and because of the
ornamental nature of the trees.

Soil Management for Nut Plantations in Ontario

J. R. van HAARLEM, Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland Station,

Fruitgrowers with high priced land, such as we have in the Niagara
Peninsula, are not much interested in using such land for a crop not yet
proven commercially sound. Plantings, whether large or small, are likely
to be made on low-priced marginal land needing good care. It is doubtful
if these locations are best suited to proper nut culture since most nut
trees are deep rooted with extensive root systems requiring the best

At the Vineland Station we have three plantations made up of 110
walnuts, 240 filberts, 14 chestnuts and 6 pecans. These comprise named
varieties and seedlings of black, Carpathian, and other Persian walnuts,
filberts, chestnuts and pecans.

During the first years of the life of these plantations we maintained a
clean cultivation program during the spring and early summer followed by
the planting of a green-manure crop about July 1st each year. Such crops
as buckwheat, millet, rye, and weeds, have been used on occasion. We
soon found that the treatment was not good enough for the trees and we
then changed to a grass sod with mulch around each tree within the
spread of the branches. Since this sod-mulch treatment was applied the
trees have done very much better, making fine growth and maintaining a
large leaf area of good color. This treatment is fairly representative
of the many trees planted in dooryards under sod conditions, where the
grass is cut and left on top.

Most of our Ontario soils are deficient in organic matter and, depending
on location, deficient in phosphate or potash, or both together. The
mineral deficiency should first be corrected by liberal applications of
the required fertilizer before placing the plantations in sod, in fact
it would pay to do this several years before setting out the trees,
growing alfalfa on this land and returning all the hay back into the
soil. For plantations already set out these minerals could be placed in
a furrow cut just under the outer spread of the branches. Our soils have
a high fixation factor for phosphate and potash and we have found that
the best practice is to place the fertilizer under the surface either
with a deep-placement machine or as outlined above.

After the plantation is in sod an application of 500 to 1,000 lbs. of a
4-8-10 fertilizer every fifth year should take care of the mineral
requirements. However, our experience with fruit in general where
planted in sod is that not sufficient care is taken to keep the trees
well supplied with nitrogen, many growers laboring under the mistaken
idea that just the sod is sufficient. Liberal applications of either
manure or nitrate in the spring is necessary to make sure that the tree
gets its required nitrogen and not just the sod alone. Mineral
fertilizers should be applied in the late fall, for under our conditions
fixation of phosphate and potash is considerably less at that time. The
plantation may be seeded down in the early spring but mulch should not
be added until late fall. Applying the mulch in late fall will allow the
material to fill up with water from the fall rains and winter snows, and
so prevent the serious withholding of water from the trees during dry
spells in the summer, because the light summer rains are seldom
sufficient to soak through the dry mulch material. We have had several
instances where a summer-applied mulch has seriously robbed the tree of
needed moisture during dry weather. Do not look for immediate
improvement from sod-mulch, it will take at least two years to become
well established. Improvement should begin to show up the second year
after applying.

We sometimes see a chlorotic condition of the foliage, different from
the pale yellow foliage due to nitrogen deficiency, which occurs on
marginal or shallow soil and often where the soil remains too moist, as
along a water course or low spot. We frequently see this same trouble on
grape foliage in such locations. This is probably due to a lack of
sufficient iron intake caused by a deficiency of manganese. It can be
cured by either spraying with a 1% solution of magananese sulphate or
applying the dry salt under the spread of the branches. The spraying
method seems to give better and faster results.

It has been reported from British Columbia that some die-back is due to
deficiency of boron. Perhaps some of the die-back we see on nut trees
during the summer is due to this cause and not all to winter injury. The
very erratic results from ground application of borax would indicate
that borax should be incorporated with one of the regular sprays as a 1%

Our conclusions therefore are that nut plantations should be placed in
sod as soon as possible and a mulch established the fall of the year the
grass is sown. Each year cut the grass and draw in around the tree to
supplement the mulch. If not enough material is gathered in this way it
can be supplemented by straw or old hay. Manure or nitrate should be
applied each spring and trace elements where needed can be incorporated
in the regular spray program.

       *       *       *       *       *

Discussion after J. R. van Haarlem's paper.

Dr. MacDaniels: "I realize that there are more trees which are starving
to death than are being overfed."

Silvis: "Do you recommend that freshly cut hay be used as mulch?"

Van Haarlem: "Any crop refuse can be used as mulch. Anything that will
rot down. The pH of the soil should be 6.2 to 6.5."

O'Rourke: "Would you use clean cultivation for the first year?"

Van Haarlem: "There is nothing against it. We use sod mulch at Vineland.
The reason that our growers are not growing nut plantations is that good
land, that is good soil, sells for $1,000 per acre. Nut trees grown on
poor land, cheap land, do not produce."

McCollum: "I am surprised that rain would not go through loose straw and
will go through old straw. Where does the rain go when it falls on the
loose straw?"

Van Haarlem: "It is absorbed before it gets through the straw. Dry mulch
should be 18 inches deep."

Member: "How would you prevent erosion on rolling land?"

Van Haarlem: "Plant on the contour."

Dr. Crane: "How often do you renew mulch under trees?"

Van Haarlem: "After first application additional may be needed but after
that enough is grown under trees which when cut and raked will

Report from Southern Ontario

ALEX TROUP, Jordan Station, Ontario

Here in southern Ontario we find that most of the northern nuts do well
in most seasons. Among black walnuts the Thomas, Ohio, and many others
do well. The Thomas does not always fill. The Ohio seems to be the
favorite among Persian (English) walnuts. Franquette, Broadview and a
few others are satisfactory but sometimes do not fill well. Of Japanese
heartnut walnuts nearly all do well. The Mitchell, Stranger, Bates and
others are satisfactory.

All the shagbarks and shellbarks are doing well, although only the young
shagbarks are bearing, and then only lightly.

Chestnuts have done well at times but some trees have been killed by the
blight. We have Japanese, Chinese and some other seedlings. They are
sometimes winter injured.

Filberts are satisfactory and usually bear well. We have Barcelona, Du
Chilly, Troup, White Aveline, Italian Red, Kentish Cob, Daviana, Mosier,
Guy Smith, Nonpariel and Brixnut. The Barcelona drops nearly free of the
husk and is a fine nut. Most are of this variety. We do not have hazels.

Pecans will grow and bear but do not fill.

Nut Trees Hardy at Aldershot, Ontario, Canada

O. FILMAN, Aldershot

During the past nine or ten years I have planted a few trees of some of
the better known varieties of northern nut species, some of them chosen
from the lists of promising selections in the annual reports of the
Northern Nut Growers Association, some on the recommendation of reliable
nut nurserymen. These trees have been planted here and there in various
locations where space permitted on a small fruit and vegetable farm, not
in orchard form nor in a solid nut tree planting.

Editor's Note: Anyone reading this paper should remember that it applies
to an area of intensive growth of peaches, pears, and other fruits in a
bit of Canadian land west of Niagara Falls and protected spring and fall
from extremes of temperatures by Lake Ontario on the north and Lake Erie
on the south. The paper by H. L. Crane in this report should be read in
connection with it.

Aldershot is a fruit and vegetable growing district, about six miles
from Hamilton, below the escarpment, on the Toronto-Hamilton lake shore
highway. This district is almost at the western tip of Lake Ontario and
is more or less a continuation of the Niagara fruit belt which borders
the lake. Consequently the climate is not so severe as that of
localities situated a few miles farther from the lake and above the
Niagara escarpment at higher altitudes. Winter temperatures seldom go
much below zero, although, in occasional seasons, temperatures of-20
degrees F., and sometimes even somewhat lower, are experienced.

The soil is a deep, well-drained, light sandy loam, known as Fox sandy
loam, considered a good fruit and vegetable soil, if organic matter and
fertility are maintained with manure, fertilizers and green manure

Nut trees, which I have planted, include Chinese chestnut, heart nut,
filbert, hickories, butternut, Persian walnut, a few black walnut
seedlings and two seedling pecans.

=Chestnuts.= The native chestnut grew in the woods of this locality before
the blight reached it. I have tried eight varieties of Oriental
chestnuts, and I have trees surviving of five: Abundance, Hobson, Carr,
Zimmerman, and one of Mr. Carroll D. Bush's called Chinese Sweet No. 3.
They all came through a temperature of about-20 degrees, early in 1943
(with the exception of Zimmerman which was planted later) without
showing any sign of killing back or other visible injury. Unfortunately,
I have kept no records of crops but expect to do so.

=Abundance.= One bearing tree, purchased from Mr. Bush of Oregon, and
planted in the spring of 1938. Bore a few burs in 1941. Bore a crop in
1944, missed 1945, a good crop in 1946. It is bearing what appears to me
to be quite a heavy crop this year, 1947. Blossoms in July. Bears a
good-size, attractive nut, which falls free from the bur, ripening in
early October. Abundance has made the best growth of any of the
varieties and appears the most promising.

=Hobson.= Two trees, one, planted in 1940, bore its first crop in 1946;
the other, planted in 1943, not yet bearing. Has been a little
disappointing, in view of the very favourable reports of its performance
in more southern locations in the United States. Probably it is a little
too far north of its natural environment. In some seasons it has made
rather good growth, but not as vigorous as that of Abundance. It bore a
fair crop in 1946, however, of attractive nuts of about the same size as
Abundance. It ripened in late October about two weeks later than
Abundance. These nuts germinated well this spring when planted in pots
in the greenhouse.

=Carr.= One tree surviving, planted in 1940. Two others, planted in 1943,
have died, but I do not believe that winter injury was the cause of
their death. Has grown slowly, bearing in 1944 and 1946. The nut is much
smaller than that produced by the same variety at more southern
latitudes, judging from descriptions of it which I have read. The nut is
much smaller than that of Hobson, as grown here. This small tree bore a
tremendous crop in 1946, more than I thought any tree of its size could
support. The tree was literally covered with burs. The nuts were very
small, not larger than a small native chestnut. They ripened early,
beginning to drop from the burs by September 25th. I stratified most of
the nuts in pots of soil and planted 206 nuts from this little tree,
which is only about seven feet high and not at all spreading.
Germination was good.

=Zimmerman.= One small tree planted spring of 1945. Not bearing yet. Is
not growing fast but appears healthy with good foliage.

=Chinese Sweet No. 3.= Purchased from Mr. Bush in 1938. Planted at the
same time as Abundance, which Mr. Bush at that time called Chinese Sweet
No. 1. He later named No. 1 Abundance, but did not consider No. 3 worthy
of naming. Has grown well, but has borne very few nuts. Mr. Bush
discarded it for the same fault. [See comment following.--Ed.]

I have also tried and lost the following varieties: Connecticut Yankee,
Austin Japanese and Stoke hybrid.

I have quite a number of young seedlings of Abundance, Carr and a few
of Hobson, from seed produced on my own trees, some of which I hope to
allow to bear in order to see if anything promising shows up among them.
The Abundance seedlings seem to inherit the superior vigour of their
female parent.

=Heartnuts.= The Japanese walnut grows vigorously. I have planted a few of
Mr. J. U. Gellatly's varieties, as well as the Wright heartnut. All of
the ones planted seem perfectly hardy and at home. I have only one tree
of each variety.

=O.K.= From J. U. Gellatly, planted in 1942. Transplanted 1944. Bore its
first nuts, one cluster, in 1946. Cracking and extraction of kernel were
excellent. The flavour was fine. Size of nut about medium.

=Okanda.= From J. U. Gellatly, 1942. Said by Mr. Gellatly to be a hybrid
between heartnut and native butternut. Tree vigorous. Nut has a smooth
shell like a heartnut. Cracking and extraction good. Flavour excellent.
Nut about size and shape of a medium-sized heartnut. Bore its first crop
in 1946 and is repeating this year with a fair crop.

=Crofter.= From J. U. Gellatly, 1942. Also said by Mr. Gellatly to be a
hybrid between heartnut and butternut. Tree vigorous. Bore its first
crop in 1946 and has a few nuts this year. The nut has a comparatively
smooth shell like a heartnut, is somewhat larger than that of Okanda but
does not crack as well, or rather the kernel does not come out of the
cavity nearly so well as that of Okanda. Flavour fine.

=Canoka.= From J. U. Gellatly, 1944. A pure heartnut. Tree very vigorous.
Bearing its first crop this year, several clusters.

=Slioka.= A new heartnut from Mr. Gellatly, planted in 1945. Tree growth
is vigorous. Is bearing one nut, its first, this year.

=Wright.= From Benton and Smith nurseries 1946. Seems to be hardy. Tree
growth has not been very strong but appears healthy.

=New, un-named heartnut.= From J. U. Gellatly, planted in the spring of
1944. A new selection which Mr. Gellatly has not named. The tree has
grown vigorously and it is bearing its first crop of several clusters of

=Butternuts.= I have only one grafted butternut tree, a Crax-ezy, from the
Michigan Nut Nurseries in 1940, transplanted in 1942. The tree has been
hardy and healthy but has not grown very vigorously. It is bearing its
first crop this year.

I had one tree of the Sherwood butternut, planted in 1938, which died
last winter as a result, I believe, of a heavy infestation of oyster
shell scale which I did not control soon enough. Sherwood bore early and
heavily. The nut was extremely large but did not crack at all well.

=Persian walnut.= Only one grafted tree, a Broadview, from Mr. Gellatly,
planted in 1942, transplanted in 1944. Has been hardy, but has just
begun to make really good growth, this year. Has not borne.

=Filberts.= I have planted four of Mr. Gellatly's varieties, namely Craig,
Brag, Comet and Holder, as well as Barcelona, Cosford, Medium Long and
Buchanan. Craig and Brag are the only ones which have borne. Trees of
those varieties planted in 1942 bore their first crop in 1946. They have
very few nuts on them this year. All varieties seem to be winter-hardy
in the wood. Craig, Brag and Comet, the only ones which have borne
staminate flowers do not seem too hardy in the catkins however. Nearly
all were killed, last winter, although the temperature scarcely went as
low as zero. Mr. Gellatly states that their catkins survive much lower
temperatures than that in the west. Some other factor than low
temperature probably is accountable. (See paper by H. L. Crane in this

Cosford, Medium Long and Buchanan were planted in the fall of 1946, and
hence it is too early to have any information on their hardiness. They
survived their first winter in good condition and have grown vigorously
this summer.

=Hickories.= Only three grafted trees surviving.

=Pleas hybrid.= One tree, planted in 1938, has been perfectly hardy,
having come through several severe winters without any sign of injury.
It has made good growth and has developed into a fine shade tree for the
lawn but has not borne. It has had many staminate catkins for several

=Barnes.= One small tree, planted in the spring of 1946, has made slow but
healthy growth and appears to be hardy thus far.

=Miller.= One tree, planted in 1946, is still living but very weak.

In addition to these named varieties I have a number of seedling black
walnuts, butternuts and heartnuts, which I hope to topwork to named
varieties; also two seedling pecans which are making surprisingly good,
thrifty growth. The pecan seedlings have been quite hardy.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Discussion after Mr. Filman's paper.=

Stoke: "Hobson is not as large as Abundance. Abundance is always larger
than Hobson. Carr always produced better nuts than Hobson. Mr. Filman
finds that Carr has very small nuts. I am surprised to see a reversal of
performance between Ontario and Virginia."

McDaniel: "Mr. Bush now reports that his No. 3 chestnut has borne better
crops recently. Abundance has not survived in TVA tests at Norris."

Report from Echo Valley, 1947

GEORGE HEBDEN CORSAN, Islington, Ontario

The Northern Nut Growers Association visited Echo Valley, Islington,
Ontario, September 5th on the field trip following their annual
convention at Guelph. Some 15 species of nuts and nearly 400 varieties
are growing there. The filberts drew a lot of attention, as the most of
them were seedlings and quite large, some larger than the largest Oregon
varieties. The seeds planted were: Italian Red. Du Chilly, Giant de
Halle, Brixnut, Bollwyller, Cosford, Daviana, and Jones No. 1 Hybrid.
The policy followed has been not to discard a plant because it bears
small nuts or no nuts at all, because such trees may bear hardy catkins
that live through the winter. The female blossoms of filberts are very
hardy but many male blossoms may be killed during cold winters.

Years ago the Dominion Department of Agriculture declared that filberts,
chestnuts and Persian (English) walnuts could not be grown north of Lake
Ontario. I would grant that they grow better south of the lake.
However, the filbert crop this fall south of the lake was very poor and
scanty, whereas mine was large and in fact the largest I ever had. My
Winkler and Rush hazelnuts are crowded on the branches. And the same
with the English walnuts. My crop on the larger trees could not be
better. The Thomas black walnut, as well as other black walnuts, Jap
heartnuts, hybrid butternut x Japanese heartnut cross, chestnuts and
hickories are very large.

Hicans and northern pecans do not develop north of Lake Ontario. Down in
the very southwest corner of Ontario, north of Lake Erie, some small
pecans have cropped well on trees. As a curiosity pecan trees are quite
hardy here, but we lack length of season to mature the nuts properly. No
Weiker hickory hybrid crops and ripens well here. This nut is one of the
very few crosses between shellbark and shagbark hickories, (=Carya
laciniosa=) western and (=Carya ovata=) eastern, hickories.

I have some crosses between the Chinese and Japanese chestnuts that I am
watching. I have one European x American cross chestnut, the Gibbons,
and one native (=Castanea dentata=) that have escaped the blight. So far
this year I have found only one blighted chestnut limb and I promptly
cut it off and tarred the cut well.

At least I have persimmons hardy enough to stand the winters north of
Lake Ontario, but I am not sure about the pawpaw. This fruit seems to
require shade from the winter's sun.

Many but not all of the Crath importations of Persian walnuts from the
Carpathians are hardy and much more so than the Pomeroy varieties. Even
the Broadview is not hardy as many of the Crath varieties. Rev. Crath
did an immense service to us by his importations which far exceeded our
highest expectations. I have here nearly half a hundred varieties of
=Juglans regia= that are doing well, especially the three Rumanian giants
that ripen so well here.

List of Some of the Larger and More Important Trees at Echo Valley,
Islington, Ontario

  =Black Walnut=
     Stambaugh 1926--1st prize.
     Thomas from J. F. Jones, late ripener.
     Troup, cracks out whole in spring.
     Hepler, from Miss Riehl, a long nut.
     Elmer Myers, excellent flavor, the thinest shell.
     Snyder, medium size, large kernel.
     Tasterite, a small nut, origin New York State.
     Clark, origin Iowa, very large nut.
     Gifford, bears very heavy crop every second year, ripens before

  =Persian (English) Walnut=
     David Fairchild, seedling Rumanian giant.
     Senator Pepper, seedling Rumanian giant.
     Paul de Kruif, seedling Rumanian giant.
     Chinese, very hardy, medium size.
     Broadview, from British Columbia but originally from Russia.

     Neilson, a true shagbark, nut large flat and very thin shell, flavor
       is wonderful. A big tree on highway 24 not far south of where
       Alexander Graham Bell perfected the telephone.
     Hagen, a true shagbark, a fast grower.
     Hand, a shagbark.
     Weiker, a shellbark and shagbark cross, a large, heavy bearing nut
       that ripens here north of Lake Ontario. Excellent flavor, grafted
       on pecan.
     Papple, a small good shagbark, cracks out whole.
     Anthony No. 1 shagbark.
     Glover, from Miss Riehl.

     Wright, a good bearer and excellent cracker.
     Stranger, very heavy bearer, excellent cracker.

     Italian Red, medium long with wide base.
     Bollwyller, large round.
     Du Chilly, long smooth.
     Many seedlings of named varieties.

     Gibbons, Miss Riehl, hybrid European American.
     Chinese, test not completed.

  =Jap Butternut=
     Helmick, from Miss Riehl, 14 cluster, regular bearer, very thin shell,
  grafted on black walnut.

Report from Beamsville, Ontario


About twenty years ago I started to plant nut trees, as I decided nuts
were the solution to good health, which I later found was correct. Most
of my first trees died. I started gathering nuts all over the country
until at last, near my own home, I found a neighbor who had ten trees
and two out of the ten were bearing large size nuts of an excellent
flavor. I also added filberts to my collection.

About this time I learned of Prof. Neilson, so I went to see him in
Guelph. He told me about the Northern Nut Growers Association. I also
learned about Mr. Corsan and his work at Islington so I went to see him.
He also told me about the Association so I went to the next meeting and
joined up. I began to add more varieties to my plantings. My first four
acre planting was seeded with oats the second year. All my tress had a
nice start. I spent some three hundred dollars that year for grafted nut
trees. That second fall I hired a man to watch and stand by each tree as
the binder passed. It was impossible for me to be there. The man who cut
the oats in his own stubborn way went alone and cut everything as he
went, trees and all. My heart was nearly broken! I started again. I
bought nuts of good varieties from all over. I decided to make a little
nursery this time then plant out after the trees got bigger. Just as I
got this started nicely the war came. I also had a fruit farm where I
now live besides also planting some grafted stock here. My nursery,
seventy-eight miles away on my fifty acres, I had to leave as gas was
rationed and I was forced to sell, so remaining there are about one
hundred trees which I shall watch. My best trees died but I kept going
on planting every year. Today, after all the calamities I had, I have
around two hundred trees living.

This year I expect two bushels of heartnuts; about two bushels of
filberts; some extra nice ones that ripened early, large and well
filled; about two bushels of black walnuts, some very promising. Besides
these I have about fifty trees of the Carpathian walnuts from which I
have gathered about two quarts of nuts. My oldest tree is ten years old.
One I grafted on black walnut stock and it is a very large nut. I
gathered five nuts from this. The graft is now five years old. Hundreds
of nuts started; nearly all dropped off. Possibly as the tree gets older
it will do better as I have planted several other nut trees not far away
to help with cross pollination.

I have some good sized butternuts and I gathered about 17 quarts of
these so I expect to have enough nuts to supply my daily needs from now
on from my own plantings. After twenty years of hard work and with an
outlay of at least $1,000, my trees, as they grow up around me, are like
children to me. They supply me with food. My nervousness was cured by
them and my health has returned.

My worst enemy here with filberts is they start to grow too early, then
a frost comes and they are done after a week or two of nice weather.
Even though we have this trouble we gathered nearly two bushels from 25
trees which are eight years old.

Our lowest temperature here was 20 below zero a few years ago. My
Carpathians did not seem to mind that nor did the heartnuts. From now on
I am planning my own little nursery and do my own grafting as well. I
top work my young trees that show poor nuts.

Nut Growing in New Hampshire

L. P. LATIMER, Assistant Horticulturist, University of New Hampshire,
Durham, New Hampshire

At the present time there are no nuts grown commercially in New
Hampshire. Those gathered by the residents of this state for home use or
local consumption are comprised almost entirely of butternuts from wild
seedling trees and nuts of the native hickory. The butternut is the most
highly prized among our native nuts. It grows wild over a large portion
of the state. The hickory nuts take second place, probably because of
their smaller size and the greater difficulty involved in removing the
meat from the shells. Black walnuts are occasionally found but do not
seem generally as popular.

Dr. A. F. Yeager of the Horticultural Department of the University of
New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, has several times called for
specimens of superior butternuts grown in the state. These have been
tested for their cracking ability, and size of kernel and ease of
removal from the shell in halves or as whole meats. Several very fine
specimens have been collected, but progress in the development of these
better types has been impeded by the difficulty involved in trying to
propagate them vegetatively. The New Hampshire Horticultural Department
would gladly welcome any information concerning the propagation of the
butternut that would make grafting or budding successful.

The best possibility in developing commercial nut crops in New
Hampshire apparently lies first in the use of the hazel or filbert.
Although the European filbert has not been very successful, such
varieties of the American hazel as Winkler and Rush look promising. The
Winkler has borne heavy crops but in a short summer season the nuts do
not always mature fully in the fall. Although we have had much less
experience with the Rush variety, this does mature earlier in the fall
and seems promising. Some of the Jones hybrids have been tested at the
Experiment Station in Durham, a few of which have done quite well. Of
these Jones hybrids No. 1181, 1154, and 1094 have made quite vigorous
growth. Seedling No. 1094 has been outstanding, producing good sized
nuts which mature well and shell out easily from the husks. In type and
flavor of nut it resembles the European hazel quite strongly under our

So far, none of the chestnuts, including the Chinese species, have shown
great enough resistance to chestnut blight to warrant their
recommendation. We still hope that we may discover a good chestnut for
this section. The hardy Persian or English walnuts have not been tested
long enough to warrant any conclusion as to their promise for New
Hampshire; one difficulty will probably lie in the fact that the nuts of
some do not ripen properly under our cool, short summer conditions.

Mr. Matthew Lahti of Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, has been experimenting
with various species and varieties of nuts for that section. His
location on the shore of Lake Winnipesaukee undoubtedly presents a more
favorable site for growing certain types of nut plants than exists here
in Durham, or most other parts of New Hampshire. At the present moment I
have on my desk a parcel received from Mr. Lahti containing some fine
specimens of one of the hardy Persian walnuts which he is growing in
Wolfeboro. The unusually warm and dry late summer and fall of this year
have favored the maturity of this walnut. (For a detailed description of
Mr. Lahti's experience with nut varieties, please refer to his paper
printed below.)

Nut Notes from New Hampshire


Not being able to attend the annual convention I thought possibly some
of the members might be interested in the following random notes of an
amateur nut grower.

My place is in Wolfeboro, N. H., which is situated in the eastern end of
Lake Winnepesaukee, 43 degrees, 35 minutes north latitude; elevation
above sea level, 687'. The elevation of the lake is 504'. Wolfeboro is
just about at the northern fringe of the climate where peaches will
ripen, that is during favorable years in favored locations. Improved
varieties of field corn will ripen during favorable seasons. It also
happens to be the northern fringe of the American chestnut, in favored
location. I have discovered a number of saplings that are still alive.
As a matter of fact, three or four years ago I was fortunate in finding
some ripened nuts, but the trees that bore those nuts have since died of
the blight. While a certain variety of old fashioned sweet cherry will
live and bear fruit, some of the recent improved varieties will not
live. Every one that I have planted was winter-killed. The Montmorency
cherry, however, does well. It is also the northern limit of the pignut.
Butternuts do very well.

DDT Dust versus Butternut Curculio

I was prompted to write this note by reading Mr. S. H. Graham's article
entitled "An Experiment with DDT" appearing on page 101 of the 1945
annual report, in which he states that the butternut curculio did not
survive DDT powder.

In the past four or five years the butternut curculio (identified as
such by Prof. Conklin of the University of N. H.) has all but ruined my
Crath Persian walnuts and heartnuts, so, acting on the basis of Mr.
Graham's experiment, I had my trees dusted early in the morning when the
dew was on the leaves, using a 10% DDT powder, the first time about May
30 and again two weeks later, and I am happy to say that this dusting
has been very effective. I have been unable to find any sign of curculio
injury this year, although I have seen it nearby on some native
butternut trees.

My Gellatly heartnut was riddled by the curculio last year. This year,
when the dusting was done, this tree was overlooked, so I undertook to
dust it myself, and not realizing that the Niagara duster which I used
was set in the closed position, I dusted the tree with considerable
effort. In spite of the small amount of dust that came out, it proved
sufficient to keep the curculios away or else to kill them so that there
is no sign of any damage at this writing.

Persian Walnuts

In the spring of 1938 I planted a number of Crath Persian walnut
seedlings. Out of possibly eight or ten, only two survive. (I gave each
one about three years, and if it showed serious winter injury, I pulled
it up.) I was pleasantly surprised the other day to discover that one of
them has borne a single nut this year. This particular tree is at least
300' from any other Persian walnut, so it looks as if it were
self-fertile. It now remains to be seen whether or not the nut will

In the spring of 1940, I planted a Broadview Persian walnut graft on
black walnut stock, and this tree is bearing for the first time with
eighteen nuts showing. Three or four years ago this Broadview suffered
some winter damage by a split trunk and split lower branch. I painted
over the cracks with gasket cement, and they are now healed. The
Broadview has also shown some winter-kill of terminal twigs, but not
enough to affect its bearing this year. There has been no splitting of
the trunks or branches of the two surviving Crath Persian walnut trees
and no winter injury to terminal twigs. The Crath walnut trees are now
18" in circumference a foot from the ground and about 12 to 15' tall.
The Broadview on the black walnut stock has a circumference of 16" above
the graft and 15-1/4" below the graft, tending to show that the
Broadview grows faster than the black walnut.

It is interesting to note that the Broadview blooms a week or ten days
later than the Crath Persian walnut, and at the same time as the native

Black Walnuts

I have planted a few Thomas black walnut seedlings, two grafts, and a
Tasterite black walnut graft. A Thomas black walnut graft has borne nuts
in three different years, including this year. The graft was sent out in
the spring of 1939, and the seedlings were set out in the spring of
1940. The seedlings have not yet borne. The Thomas black walnut graft
last bore three years ago, when the nuts on the whole ripened and were
well filled. We had a very cold spring in 1945, so much so that apples
were almost a total failure.

I also planted a Tasterite black walnut in the spring of 1939, and this
is the first year that it has borne any nuts. It remains to be seen
whether they will be filled out or not. There is, however, an important
difference between the Thomas and the Tasterite, which are growing only
50' apart, namely that the Thomas suffers from winter injury to the
terminal twigs each year, whereas there has not been any sign of such
injury to the Tasterite.


I have planted possibly two dozen of a number of varieties of hickories,
of which only nine survive to date, the cause being not winter injury
but what appears to me to have been improper circulation through the
graft union. They would struggle along for three or four years
(producing suckers from the root stock which I broke off), and then die.
None of these has borne any nuts yet except the Weschcke, which was
planted in the fall of 1941, and which is now bearing one nut. This nut
is a mystery to me because the tree bore no catkins. There are no
hickory trees within thirty miles of the vicinity to my knowledge, and
the nearest pignut tree is perhaps three-quarters of a mile distant, in
a direction against the prevailing winds, the intervening space being
forest. Could it be possible that the Weschcke hickory was pollinated by
a butternut or the Broadview Persian walnut? A big butternut tree stands
within 60' and the Broadview is situated about 150' distant.


I have tried a number of heartnuts, including the Gellatly and the
Wright. Only a single Gellatly survives. Here again the cause was not
winter injury so much as either the butternut curculio or other causes.
The Gellatly, while suffering some terminal twig winter injury and deer
damage by rubbing of horns, has borne and ripened nuts.

Filberts and Hazelnuts

I planted a number of Winkler hazels in the fall of 1940, and this is
the second year of bearing. The nuts hardly have time to ripen in our
climate and a good many of the catkins get winter-killed.

In the spring of 1939 I planted a number of filbert seeds received from
Mr. Slate such as No. 128 Rush Barcelona; Medium Long; and Red Lambert.
These are bearing for the first time this year, and judging from the
size of the nuts now, it looks as if they will mature. Many of the
catkins were winter-killed.

Bixby and Buchanan planted in the spring of 1939: While the plants did
very well, most of the catkins invariably were winter-killed, so I was
obliged to pull them up.

I have a feeling that filberts would do better here if it were not for
the very cold winds that blow off the lake in winter, killing most of
the catkins.

I discovered a wild hazel in Lexington, Mass., (which town is located in
a so-called cold air pocket) the nuts of which are almost equal to the
Winkler. I have transplanted some of these to Wolfeboro and shall know
more about them later. I also discovered some wild hazels in
northeastern Maine, between Lincoln and Vanceboro on the border of New
Brunswick, Canada, which two weeks ago had good sized, well filled nuts
on them. I have also transplanted some of these to Wolfeboro.

In closing I should like to thank all officers, committee members, and
others who are responsible for the annual report. To those of us who do
not get to the conventions very often, the report is the Northern Nut
Growers Association, and a source of very valuable and interesting
information, especially to an amateur like myself.

A Simplified Schedule for Judging Black Walnut Varieties

L. H. MacDANIELS and S. S. ATWOOD, Cornell University

All its members would agree that the Northern Nut Growers Association
should have an officially accepted schedule for judging black walnuts
and the other kinds of nuts with which it is concerned. Some yardstick
is needed to serve as a basis for the comparison of varieties which the
members of the Association will use. Persons familiar with nut varieties
are freqeuntly asked to answer questions about the best varieties to
plant. Of course there is no simple answer to such a question as many
factors besides the nuts themselves determine the value of a variety.
The quality and value of the nuts are, however, the most important
initial consideration in selecting a variety on its merit and there
should be some objective test adopted to aid in evaluating nut samples.

During the many years that the Northern Nut Growers Association has been
operating more than a hundred and fifty varieties of black walnuts have
been named. Yet at the present time we are not certain which are the
better varieties except in a very general way. There is no widely
accepted judging schedule being used as is evident in the tables
published by Seward Berhow in his paper in the 1945 Proceedings (2). In
these tables scores are given but these come from several sources and
are not comparable and hence are of little value in making comparisons.

There have been many schedules for judging black walnuts presented in
the past. One of the first was proposed by the late Willard G. Bixby (3,
4). This was complicated and never came into general use although the
testing done by Mr. Bixby was a valuable contribution to our knowledge
of varieties. The late N. F. Drake tested many varieties through the
years according to a schedule of his own devising (5, 6). Professor
Drake's schedule was related to his concept of a perfect walnut and the
various values were related to this on a percentage basis. This schedule
never had wider acceptance, chiefly because it was too complicated and
required too much figuring.

Mr. C. A. Reed has probably tested more varieties of nuts and is more
familiar with varieties than any other person but he does not have a
definite scoring schedule. Kline and Chase (7) summarized results of the
testing work that had been done and Kline (8) compared varieties
according to a system which he devised in which they were rated in terms
of return per hour of labor spent in cracking and extracting the
kernels. Mr. C. C. Lounsberry has proposed a method of scoring which was
related to kernel cavity measurement (9).

In 1935, a Committee on Varieties and Standards endeavored to formulate
a working schedule that would be adopted as official. This committee set
up a score that represented the best thinking of the group at that time
(1). Twenty-five nut samples were used. The score was the sum of the
weight of an individual nut in grams plus twice the per cent kernel of
the weight of the nuts recovered in the first crack plus the total
percentage of kernel plus 1/10 of a point for each quarter kernel
recovered. Penalties were proposed for shrunken kernels and empty nuts.
Through the years a large number of samples have been tested according
to this scoring schedule (11). In 1943, MacDaniels and Wilde (12)
summarized the previous work done, added many tests and evaluated the
scoring system. This was not considered to be altogether satisfactory.
In the first place, it was somewhat cumbersome and had never been
adopted by the Association nor had it been used much by others. The
figuring of percentages and penalties made a score too involved for wide
aceptance. A very serious difficulty was the problem of shrunken kernels
and empty nuts. Obviously, with a score related to the weight of the
sample before cracking, the inclusion of a number of empty nuts made it
impossible to make any accurate correction in the percentages that were
used in the score. Penalties did not solve the problem. Also the initial
weight of the sample varied with the amount of husk clinging to the
shells. From this work it was evident that an acceptable score would
have to be formulated on some other basis.

The next approach was to analyze data of this type statistically in an
attempt to devise a better scoring system (1). The results from such a
study proved valuable in answering such questions as 1) the size of
sample necessary to obtain significant differences between samples; 2)
the significance of small differences in measurements or in scores and
3) the amount of variation that is normal and without significance in
comparing varieties.

The following qualifications were considered essential to a workable

1) The schedule must be easy to use.

2) The schedule must concern itself with objective qualities or
characters which can be weighed or measured. It cannot be concerned with
flavor and other characters upon which there may be disagreement and
which depend upon personal preference.

3) Characters must be avoided which vary with the treatment of the
samples themselves such as color of kernels.

4) It must give a score that will separate samples on small differences.

Considering the problem from these angles and scrutinizing the older
schedules, a number of ideas came out. First of all, why include the
shells? If shells are discarded a number of problems would be solved,
such as the cleaning of the nuts and adjustments for shrivelled and
empty nuts. Also, why reduce any of the weights or measures to
percentages which only add to the complexity of the score? The actual
amount of kernels recovered reflects both the size of nuts and the yield
of kernels. Plumpness of the kernels is reflected in the total weight of
kernels and does not need to be considered separately.

The important elements in a score were considered to be:

1) The crackability of the nuts of the variety. This is measured by the
weight of kernels obtained in the first crack.

2) The yield of the variety. This is measured in the total weight of

3) The marketability of the product. This can be measured by the number
of pieces in the sample. In general, the smaller the number and the
larger the size of the pieces the better the marketability.

With this general background in mind, many samples were tested and the
results published in the 1945 report[1]. In order to secure the data
needed the kernels of the individual nuts in the samples were weighed

NOTE: All samples were cracked with the (John W.) Hershey nut

Some of the conclusions drawn from these tests were as follows:

1) Using kernel weights only gives a rapid and accurate test of
differences between varieties.

2) Ten nuts are adequate for a single sample.

3) The location of the tree with reference to climate and soil is
probably the most important single factor influencing kernel yield. No
evidence was obtained, however, to indicate that the varieties ranked
significantly different at different locations.

4) If reasonable care is used in cracking the differences due to
different operators tend to be non-significant.

The statistical proof that a ten-nut sample is adequate and that
differences between operators are not significant are two findings that
are important in setting up a schedule.

During the past year further testing has been done, in which scores were
computed from ten-nut samples.[A] The samples had preliminary cool, dry
storage to assure comparable moisture content. Enough nuts were cracked
in each sample to secure ten that were well filled. Empty nuts were
recorded. The following data were kept for each sample:

1) The weight of the kernels recovered in first crack in grams.

2) The total weight of the kernels in grams.

3) The number of quarters and number of halves recovered.

Scores were computed as 1) the weight of the first crack in grams plus
2) half of the total weight of the kernels recovered in grams plus 3)
the number of quarters divided by four and, 4) the number of halves
divided by two. In this score, it was considered that the crackability
of the sample was measured by the weight of the first crack; the yield,
by the total weight of kernels secured from the sample; the
marketability by the number of quarters and halves. From the use of this
schedule scores were secured ranging from 83.9 for the variety Thomas
grown in Maryland to 37.4 for the variety Huen, which is a small nut
giving relatively small kernel yield.

Analyses of the data to determine the percentage of the score that was
derived from each component showed that crackability as measured by the
weight of the kernels recovered in first crack gave an average of 54% of
the score with a range of 49 to 58 for the different samples; yield, as
measured by total weight of kernels divided by two, 31% with range of 27
to 34%; marketability measured by number of quarters divided by four 14%
with range of 10 to 22% and number of halves divided by two 1%. The
percentage of the score derived from the number of halves was so small
as to be negligible. It seemed better, therefore, to base the score on
only three elements, namely, the weight of the first crack, the total
yield of kernels and the number of quarters recovered from the sample.

On this basis the problem becomes that of deciding the weights that
should be given to these three components. The score as set up
emphasizes the crackability of the variety much more than its
marketability. This seems logical because the value of a variety is in
large part dependent upon the ease of recovery of the kernels on first
cracking. Several different combinations of the weighting of these three
components were considered and it was decided that the most logical was
to weight the elements as follows: 1) The weight of first crack in
grams. 2) The total weight of the kernels divided by two and 3) the
number of quarters recovered divided by 2. If there are halves, each
half would count as two quarters.

  Table I. Average scores from 18 black walnut samples cracked by three
  operators and computed by two scoring systems.

                                           Scoring   Systems[3]
  Variety         Source             Year     I         II
                                            points    points
  Thomas          Maryland           '46     83.9      93.1
  Snyder          Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46     81.8      89.2
  Ohio            Maryland           '46     79.5      88.9
  Thomas          Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46     76.4      85.5
  Norris          Tennessee          '45     76.1      83.9
  Stambaugh       Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46     75.9      81.0
  Stambaugh       Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46     74.0      83.2
  Thomas          Tennessee          '45     71.5      79.6
  Thomas          Ithaca, N. Y. (B)  '46     65.7      74.6
  Cornell         Ithaca, N. Y. (C)  '46     59.3      67.6
  Stabler         Maryland           '45     56.9      64.5
  Cresco          Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46     55.8      65.2
  Seedling No. 1  Geneva, N. Y.      '46     52.7      62.2
  Seedling No. 3  Geneva, N. Y.      '46     50.6      59.0
  Brown           Ohio               '45     49.7      59.4
  Stabler         Tennessee          '45     47.5      51.4
  Seedling No. 2  Geneva, N. Y.      '46     44.4      52.2
  Huen            Iowa               '46     37.4      44.9
  Least significant difference (5%)           6.3       6.6

  [Footnote 3: Score I=Weight (grams) 1st crack + Total weight (grams)  +

  Number quarters + Number halves
  ---------------   -------------
        4                                                              2

  Score II=Weight (grams) 1st crack +

  Total weight (grams) +

  Number quarters
        2          ]

Calculating the percentage of each component in the total score on this
basis gives crackability 48%, yield 27%, marketability 25%. This
schedule gives relatively more weight to marketability as against the
other two components. The average scores of 18 samples cracked by three
operators and calculated on both the above described schedules are given
in table I.

The table shows that the rank of the different samples was not changed
materially by using only the three components, except in a few cases in
which there were an appreciable number of halves. The Stabler has many
one-lobed nuts which increase the number of halves recovered. It is to
be noted that with both schedules the least significant difference at
the 5% level is about 6 score points.

Table II gives the score calculated by schedule II for five samples,
each cracked by six operators. The difference between operators is not
significant but the difference between varieties is highly significant.

Table II. Scores from five samples of black walnuts each cracked by six
operators according to scoring schedule II.

  Variety  Location          Year  1     2     3     4     5     6  Average

  Snyder  Ithaca, N. Y.      '46  89.2  87.3  78.9  94.4  87.5  91.5  86.5
  Thomas  Ithaca, N. Y. (A)  '46  83.5  79.2  83.1  78.0  84.2  83.8  83.6
  Thomas  Ithaca, N. Y. (B)  '46  73.1  67.4  73.4  74.1  69.6  83.8  73.6
  Cresco  Ithaca, N. Y.      '46  66.0  69.2  63.1  67.2  68.5  60.2  65.7
  Brown   Ohio               '45  62.5  51.0  65.4  60.4  48.1  64.8  58.7
  Average                         74.9  70.8  72.8  72.8  71.6  78.8  73.6
  Least significant difference (5%) for variety averages               6.2

A third scoring system, involving 1) weight of kernels in grams for the
first crack, plus 2) total weight of kernels, 3) all divided by the
number of marketable pieces (as counted following sifting on a 1/4"
round hole screen) was tried, and the resulting ranking of the varieties
was very similar to that obtained with systems I and II. The results
from this system appeared to be the most precise, but it was not
considered as generally acceptable as system II, since the latter would
be easier to record and calculate.

It is the opinion of the authors that Schedule II gives a score that
estimates very well the relative merit of the samples tested as to
crackability, yield and marketability. It is simple to use and the only
equipment required is a scale accurate to 1/10 gram. Calculations are
reduced to a minimum and the characters used are not dependent on
judgment of the individual making the test. It should be pointed out,
however, that differences in score of less than six points are not
significant on the basis of testing done to date. As more tests are made
this value may be reduced. The schedule should serve as a measure to
establish differences between varieties, particularly when a
considerable number of tests are made. It can also be relied upon to
measure differences due to the location of trees of the same variety,
variation of the same variety from year to year in the same and in
different locations and differences of a similar nature. In ranking
varieties which have scores within the limits of variability, it will be
necessary to use judgment as to small differences of appearance. No
scoring schedule can be expected to entirely eliminate the judgment of
experts. Also it must be realized that characters other than the nuts,
such as bearing habit, hardiness, yield of trees, disease resistance
and the like must be considered in finally establishing the value of a

References Cited

  1. Atwood. S. S. and L. H. MacDaniels. Tests of black walnut varieties
  for differences in kernel yields. N.N.G.A Rept. 36: 44-50, 1945.

  2. Berhow, Seward. Black walnut variety tabulations. N.N.G.A Rept. 36:
  38-43, 1945.

  3. Bixby, W. G. Judging nuts. N.N.G.A. Rept. 10: 122-133, 1919.

  4. ----. The 1929 contests and the method of testing used. N.N.G.A. Rept.
  22: 42-63, 1931.

  5. Drake, N. F. Judging black walnuts. N.N.G.A. Rept. 22: 130-137, 1931.

  6. ----. Black walnut varieties. N.N.G.A. Rept. 26: 66-71, 1935.

  7. Kline, L. V., and S. B. Chase. Compilation of data on nut weight and
  kernel percentage of black walnut selections. Am. Soc. Hort.
  Sci. Proc. 38: 166-174, 1941.

  8. Kline, L. V. A method of evaluating the nuts of black walnut
  varieties. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 41: 136-144, 1942.

  9. Lounsberry, C. C. Measurements of walnuts of United States.
  N.N.G.A. Rept. 31: 162-127, 1940

  10. MacDaniels, L. H. Report of committee on varieties and judging
  standards. N.N.G.A. Rept. 28: 20-23, 1937.

  11. ----. Is it possible to devise a satisfactory judging schedule for
  black walnuts? N.N.G.A. Rept. 30: 24-27, 1939.

  12. ----, and J. E. Wilde. Further tests with black walnut varieties.
  N.N.G.A. Rept. 34: 64-82, 1943.

Test Plantings of Thomas Black Walnut in the Tennessee Valley

SPENCER B. CHASE, Tennessee Valley Authority

Native black walnut occurs abundantly throughout most of the Tennessee
Valley. Practically every farmer has at least one "favorite tree" and
each fall he collects nuts from that tree and stores them for cracking
during the winter. In some sections of the Valley walnut cracking in the
home is of considerable importance. Each year, some million and a
quarter pounds of kernels are cracked out at the five modern cracking
plants located in or adjacent to the Valley. Utilization of the crop is
becoming more and more complete.

In early studies of native nut trees, TVA recognized the possibilities
of black walnut, especially the improved varieties. Here was a tree that
produced not only valuable nut crops but also cabinet wood without
equal; in addition, it was a desirable pasture shade tree. Black walnut
has long been a favorite among farmers, but few of them had ever heard
of =improved= black walnuts. Along with TVA, the state agricultural
extension services saw the advantages of the improved varieties and were
eager to test them under Valley conditions. And so it was that a
cooperative testing project was developed. TVA produced the trees and
the seven Valley state extension services distributed them to farmers
for test planting.

The Test

The Thomas walnut was used in these test plantings for several reasons.
In the first place, it produces large, rather thin-shelled nuts with
good cracking qualities. Few varieties are more easily cracked with a
hammer or a hand-operated cracking machine. In addition, fast growth is
characteristic of the variety and it should produce merchantable sawlogs
earlier than the common walnut. Despite its northern origin, 5-year-old
plantings at Norris, Tennessee, seemed well adapted to Valley
conditions. No other variety at the time offered as many advantages.

Test planting was begun in Tennessee in 1939 and then it was extended to
the other Valley states as more trees were propagated. For the most
part, planting sites were selected by extension foresters and county
agents. If the tests were successful they would automatically become
demonstrations, so special attention was given those areas where walnut
cracking in the home was an important enterprise. Many of the test
plantings were located in communities that had been organized for the
study and application of improved farming methods. In general, farmers
planted the trees in low, fertile spots not suitable for other uses,
along fences, or in pastures if they could be protected from livestock.

Through 1946, 9,614 trees were planted in 3,286 test plantings. They
were scattered all over the Valley, in 92 of its 125 counties. The
number of trees per planting varied with the availability of good walnut
sites. Generally, there were 2 to 4 trees in each planting.

The Results

Getting survival and performance data on these widely scattered
experimental plantings presented quite a problem. Examination of a few
plantings showed that trees given reasonable care had survived and were
beginning to bear nuts. So in 1946, the farmers who had planted the
trees were polled by mail for an overall evaluation of the plantings.
Questionnaires asking for information on survival, growth, and bearing
were sent by the state extension foresters to 3,274 farmers. The return
of questionnaires was excellent. Forty-two percent came back and
three-fourths of them were filled out completely.

=Survival and Mortality Causes.= Eighty-one percent of the 1,373 plantings
reported on were still active in 1946; that is, they still had at least
one living tree. Survival reports received on 3,831 trees planted showed
that 2,439 or 64 percent of the trees were living in 1946. Survival was
best in the portion of the Valley north and east of Chattanooga; 84
percent in Virginia, 71 percent in North Carolina, and 66 percent in
eastern Tennessee. South and west of Chattanooga survival percent was
lower: 62 in Georgia, 61 in western Tennessee, 54 in Kentucky, 45 in
Alabama, and 26 in Mississippi (Table 1).

Causes of mortality, as reported, were classified in five categories;
losses prior to establishment, livestock and destruction, drought,
insects and disease, and unknown (Table 1). Cause of mortality was
listed as unknown for 42 percent of all trees reported dead. Field
experience leads us to believe that most of the trees in this category
probably succumbed to improper planting or complete neglect following
planting. Many persons do not follow planting instructions; they often
substitute their own methods with disastrous results.

Among the reported known causes, drought killed most of the trees--29
percent. We know black walnut is very susceptible to dry weather after
transplanting. Weather records for the area show that the early growing
season of 1941 was exceptionally dry; 1942 was also drier that average;
in 1943 and 1944 near drought and drought conditions prevailed
throughout most of the Tennessee Valley. Weather is usually blamed when
a tree dies without apparent cause, but in this case the reported
mortality due to drought appears reasonable.

Livestock, mowing, fire, and intentional removal were reported to have
caused 13 percent of total mortality. Cows are curious animals and newly
set trees seem to arouse all the curiosity in their make-up. Horses and
cows apparently do not relish the foliage of walnut trees but they do
bite at it, and in so doing usually break down the branches to such an
extent that the tree dies. Some trees were accidentally destroyed simply
because they had been forgotten. The next highest mortality cause
reported was pre-establishment loss; this was blamed for 9 percent of
the deaths. Losses resulting from delayed planting were placed in this
category, also those where the report was "trees failed to leaf out."
Insects and diseases were reported as causing 7 percent of the

=Growth and Bearing.= Those who plant improved black walnut trees
naturally want to know how soon they will begin bearing. This survey
shows that bearing begins much earlier than most people thought. Trees
in 32 percent of the plantings established between 1939 and 1944 were
bearing by 1946. Of these 342, 113 began bearing 2 to 4 years after
planting; 120 bore their first crop after 5 years; 109 began bearing
after 6 to 8 years (Table 2). According to the reports, the earlier
plantings were slower to come into bearing than the later plantings.
This probably is not a true picture. We suspect that after six or eight
years the actual date of first bearing had been forgotten in many cases.

Growth was reported in terms of total height for each tree. These
heights were then converted to annual growth rates for trees 3 to 8
years old and placed in arbitrary classes are follows: low (less than 1
foot) medium (1 to 2 feet), and high (over 2 feet). Test plantings in
North Carolina had the highest growth rate; those in Mississippi, the
lowest. In other states, growth rates fell between these two and were
quite similar for the most part (Table 3). Average for all trees was 1.6
feet per year. Trees averaging less than one foot of height growth per
year were slow to come into bearing. Only 14 percent of the trees in the
low growth rate class were bearing. On the other hand, 71 percent of the
trees with a high growth rate had come into bearing. Growth of black
walnut, following recovery from transplanting shock, depends on site
conditions and tree care. Trees set in fertile soil with an adequate
moisture supply and kept free of livestock and other damage make rapid
growth. Trees set in poor, thin or droughty soil do not make much growth
if they survive at all. Black walnut is very sensitive to any wounds
and, if subject to mechanical or livestock damage, growth is retarded.

Cases of exceptional growth and bearing were reported. One in eastern
Tennessee is worthy of brief description. There were two trees in this
planting set approximately 40 feet apart. One was on the edge of a
garden; the other, in a chicken run. In seven years the first tree grew
to a height of 32 feet--an average growth of 4.5 feet a year. It began
bearing in 1943 and produced a crop of nuts each year up to the time of
the survey. The 1946 crop, reported as a light one, yielded 3.5 pounds
of kernels. The other tree, shown in Figure 1, was 18 feet tall, having
averaged 2.5 feet a year. It also began bearing annual crops in 1943,
and in 1946 it had a very heavy crop for its size, yielding 2.5 pounds
of kernels. Here are two Thomas trees of the same age planted
practically side by side; one is almost twice the size of the other, but
they both began bearing annual crops three years after planting.

=Field Survey in Sample Area.= To check on the adequacy of the
questionnaire survey, 108 test plantings in eastern Tennessee were
visited and inspected. Forty of these had been reported on by mail; 68
had not. In general, the trees had been planted on the best sites
available. Some were set out in farm orchards (Figure 2); a large number
were planted in yards as combination nut and shade trees (Figure 3).

Field examination of the 40 plantings which had returned questionnaires
revealed conditions very similar to those reported (Table 4). Survival
was found to be 75 percent compared with a reported 77 percent. Average
tree height was reported as 9 feet; actual height averaged 11 feet.
There was some hesitancy in reporting tree deaths caused by livestock; 4
percent was reported while 23 percent was found. Such mortality was
usually listed as unknown on questionnaires.

Information collected by field examination of 68 plantings which had not
returned questionnaires and the 40 plantings which had returned
questionnaires is shown in Table 4. Trees were found to be 2 feet taller
in the 68 plantings but these trees averaged one year older than trees
in the 40 plantings. Trees in the 68 plantings averaged 13 feet in
height compared with 11 feet. Average age at first bearing was very
similar. And here is a revealing discovery; livestock, mowing, and fire
were responsible for 47 percent of the tree mortality in the 68-planting
group, compared with 23 percent in the 40 plantings. This is perhaps one
reason why the persons involved in these 68 plantings did not return
questionnaires; it also explains most of the poorer survival. A large
number of trees were planted in pastures and elsewhere without adequate
protection from livestock. Even when cattle guards were used they were
generally too small or weak for tree protection. Severe livestock damage
resulting in poor growth and eventual death of trees was encountered
frequently. We are inclined to believe that livestock accounted for a
much higher percent of tree mortality than that reported in this survey.

The high percent return of questionnaires in this survey, followed by a
field check in a sample area, provides a good picture of Valley-wide
plantings. Since survival was found to be lower in plantings which did
not return questionnaires, an actual overall survival of 64 percent may
be slightly high. Other spot checks in the field will give more
information on this point.


Interest in improved black walnut is mounting in the Valley. As the test
plantings came into bearing farmers were quick to see the superiority of
these nuts over the wild ones to which they had been accustomed. Word
spread from farm to farm, and as a result there has been an increasingly
large number of inquiries about sources of improved varieties and
cultural treatments. The interest was reflected in the questionnaire
survey. Nineteen percent of the questionnaires returned contained
unsolicited comments of one kind or another. A large percentage of them
showed evidence of interest such as: "the nuts are large and easy to
crack," "where can I get more grafted trees?" Only 7 percent implied
disinterest: "the trees are slow growing," "the nuts are faulty."

This test-planting project will be completed in 1948. The plantings have
already yielded much valuable information on the Thomas variety; they
will yield much more as the trees become older. Further studies are
planned on nut yield, nut quality, and tree growth in relation to the
varying conditions existing in the Tennessee Valley.


Farmers in the seven Tennessee Valley states established 3,286 test
plantings of Thomas black walnut in cooperation with state extension
services and TVA during the period 1939-1946. A questionnaire survey in
1946 showed 81 per cent of the plantings still active and 64 percent of
the trees living. Tree growth averaged 1.6 feet per year. Age at first
bearing varied from 2 to 8 years, with 5 years most frequently reported.

[Illustration: Figure 1. The Thomas variety appears well adapted to
Tennessee conditions. This 7-year-old tree began bearing annual crops 3
years after planting. In 1946 it was 18 feet tall and heavily laden with
nuts yielding 2-1/2 pounds of cracked-out kernels. (Hancock County,

[Illustration: Figure 2. Black walnut makes an ideal combination nut and
ornamental tree. This 8-year-old Thomas has been producing nut crops for
3 years. In addition, it has enhanced the beauty of the lawn and
provided welcome shade. (Anderson County, Tenn.)]

  Table 1.--Number of Questionnaires Sent and Returned, Reported Tree
  Survival and Cause of Tree Mortality by State.

                         Questionnaires      Trees Reported
    State               Sent  Returned      Planted   Living
                        no.     pct.          no.      pct.
  Alabama               161      44           274       45
  Georgia                50      28            26       62
  Kentucky              174      49           241       54
  Mississippi            19      58            72       26
  North Carolina        586      40           733       71
  Tennessee, East     1,386      40         1,516       66
  Tennessee, West       720      44           809       61
  Virginia              180      48           160       84
      All             3,276      42         3,831       64

[Illustration: Figure 3. Thomas tree planted in the farm orchard. This
young tree has received excellent care and began bearing at 5 years of
age. (Hancock County, Tenn.)]

                      Reported cause of tree mortality

          Pre-estab   Livestock,           Insects,           Total Planted
          -lishment  destruction  Drought  diseases  Unknown   Trees Lost
             pct.        pct.      pct.      pct.      pct.        no.

  Ala.        11           7        51         2        29           150
  Ga.         30          10         0        20        40            10
  Ky.          2           2        46         4        46           112
  Miss.       19           4        49         0        28            53
  N. C.       15          16        12        13        44           223
  Tenn. (E.)   7          18        20         7        48           515
  Tenn. (W.)   8           9        38         7        38           318
  Va.         32          12        12         4        40            25
  All          9          13        29         7        42       1,406

  Table 2. Number of Bearing Thomas Plantings Established 1939-44,
  by Age of First Bearing and Growth Class.

   Plantings      Age in years at first bearing       Growth rate
  Year  Number   2    3    4    5    6    7    8   Low  Medium  High

  1939    27               1    6   10    6    4    1     19      7
  1940   112          2   14   39   41   16         9     58     45
  1941    89     1    4   17   35   32              1     58     30
  1942    71     1   12   18   40                   1     34     36
  1943    38     1   13   24                        1     21     16
  1944     5          5                                    2      3
  All    342     3   36   74  120   83   22    4   13    192    137

  Table 3. Tree Survival, Growth, and Percent Bearing
  by State and Year of Planting

                 Plantings      Trees,      Growth,     Bearing
    State        reported      survival     annual       trees
                  number        number       feet       percent

  Alabama           71            124         1.6          65
  Georgia           14             16         1.5          18
  Kentucky          85            129         1.5          71
  Mississippi       11             19         1.0          29
  North Carolina   235            518         1.9          25
  Tennessee, East  553          1,007         1.5          32
  Tennessee, West  318            491         1.6          32
  Virginia          86            135         1.6           0

    Year of planting

  1939, 1940       255            627         1.6          64
  1941, 1942       499            693         1.6          44
  1943, 1944       326            558         1.6          18
  1945, 1946       293            561         1.5           0
    All          1,373          2,439         1.6          32

  Table 4. Data Obtained from Returned Questionnaires and Actual Field
  Examination of 40 Plantings and Field Data Only on 68 Plantings.

                            Data on 40 Plantings       Data on
                                                     68 Plantings
                              Questionnaire   Field     Field
  Tree Survival, percent            77          75        51
  Average Height, feet               9          11        13
  Cause of Tree Mortality, percent
    Pre-establishment               33          42        11
    Livestock and Other Destruction  4          23        47
    Drought                         13           0         0
    Insects and Diseases             8           4         2
    Unknown                         42          31        40

West Tennessee Variety, Breeding and Propagation Tests, 1947

AUBREY RICHARDS, M.D., Whiteville, Tennessee

I surely wish I could have made the trip to the Northern Nut Growers
Association meeting, but I simply had "too many hens setting" at that
time. I've been waiting for you [the Secretary] to show up down here for
the big news--at least it is to me--if it holds up. If you have ever
tried to propagate heartnuts on Japanese walnut you know what it means.

Here it is: Rhodes, Wright and Fodermaier heartnuts patch-budded on 10
Japanese understocks (all I had) took 100%. The same 3 varieties as a
control on black walnut gave a take of only 80%.

These trees give me a chance to check on the performance of black versus
Japanese stocks for these varieties. From last year's propagation,
Rhodes on black is beating Rhodes on Japanese and Bates (which was not
used this year) seems fully as good on black walnut stocks.

An isolated tree of Bates did not set a nut. Its pollen all shed before
the pistils were receptive. An isolated tree of Rhodes bore a full crop.

Incidentally, a weak chlorine bleach (Clorox) after these heartnuts are
hulled does for them what peroxide does for the ladies and makes them
look very inviting.

Stambaugh again led in topworked black walnuts, bearing its second
consecutive full crop on a 3-year graft. It seems to be immune to
whatever it is that causes the other nuts to turn black, shrivel and
drop off from the time they set until near maturity. Thomas was second.
Snyder, Sparrow and Myers had no crop. I budded 25 more trees of
Stambaugh this year.

The Carpathian Persian walnut that we pollinated this spring with Wright
heartnuts [no other walnuts were shedding at the time] matured a nice,
large, rather pointed, heavy nut. It also matured another nut higher on
the tree than we could reach with the catkins, but I'm sure it's a
blank. It is still more pointed than the well-filled nut. The good nut
is stored for planting.

Rush hazel that set fruit last year with the help of a bouquet of native
[West Tennessee] catkins set only 5 nuts this year "on its own." These I
have also stored to plant.

I didn't have enough stocks to utilize all the pollen-sterile Japanese
chestnut buds you sent me [in early September]. I put in most of them,
even in some cases several to the stock to see what percentage of takes
we would get with the twin T. [See 1946 Report of N. N. G. A., pp.
87-88, for a description of the Twin T budding method.--Ed.]

Here are the percentage takes for chestnut propagation this year. Of
course I don't know how many of these buds will later drop off.

  1. Pollen-sterile Japanese on Japanese stock. Late summer buds    100%

  2. Austin Japanese on Japanese Stock. Late summer buds             86%

  3. Hobson Chinese on Chinese. Late summer buds                     75%

  4. Zimmerman Chinese on Chinese. Late summer buds                  50%

  5. Colossal hybrid on Japanese stock. Spring grafts                60%

I had a nice crop of Chinese chestnuts on my young Hobson and Zimmerman
trees. The 1947 nuts were exceptionally large. One 3-year seedling bore
1 bur with 3 nuts fully as large. Connecticut Yankee bore for the first
time, 3 nuts to a bur, but very small, scarcely 1/2" in diameter. (You
will notice I budded none of this variety!) (Perhaps mislabeled

I have about 100 nuts from isolated trees that were hand pollinated, as
follows: Austin x Hobson, Austin x Zimmerman, Hobson x Austin and Hobson
x Zimmerman.

I have altogether 3 quarts of select nuts stored in the refrigerator. So
far they are keeping nicely. (I dusted them with Fermate, hope it
doesn't affect germination.)

Notes on Some Kansas and Kentucky Pecans in Central Texas

A letter to the Secretary from O. S. Gray, nurseryman at Arlington,
Texas, October 28, 1947, has some interesting notes on two standard
northern pecans, three new varieties from Kansas, and the Moore variety,
one of the earliest maturing among southern pecans:

We are propagating Major and Greenriver from Kentucky; Coy, Tissue Paper
and Johnson from southeastern Kansas; and Brake from eastern North

Several years ago we used quite a few pecan trees of the Moore variety
in planting around Tulsa. We though it would be a dandy because of its
early maturity in the fall. I find that early fall maturity is only one
important factor. The other is the date of starting growth in the
spring. Moore seems to start out a little early in the spring and that
disadvantage seems to limit it in the Tulsa, Oklahoma area. I also
believe this might be a factor in using this variety in northern
locations. [Moore originated in north Florida from Texas seed--Ed.]

I have been considerably impressed with the Johnson variety. It matures
two or three weeks ahead of Moore in the fall. The only data that I have
was made in 1944 when Moore buds began to put out on March 25, Stuart
and Success--April 5, Johnson--April 5, Coy and Major--April 8,
Greenriver and Tissue Paper--April 10.

The Johnson matures on our place several weeks ahead of Major and
Greenriver although I don't have the exact date on maturity.

Experiences of a Nut Tree Nurseryman

J. F. WILKINSON, Rockport, Indiana

In pioneering a nursery as we did in the early days of propagation of
Northern nut trees, especially the pecan, it was necessary to first
locate parent trees in this section that were worthy of propagation, in
order that the nursery stock produced from them would be hardy in this
and more northern territory.

Along the Ohio and Wabash rivers and their tributaries many thousands of
large seedling pecan trees grew naturally, and to locate some of the
most worthy ones for propagation took the combined efforts of all of us
in this section who were interested, as well as the aid of the tree
owners and nut gatherers.

In the year 1910 three nut nurseries were established here in Southern
Indiana, two of which have long since been discontinued. Before that
time a very few propagated pecan trees had been produced in an
experimental way by some fruit tree nurserymen.

Little did I realize at that time the trials and headaches that lay in
the path I was to travel in this venture, such as locating the parent
trees, securing the graft and budwood from them, learning to keep this
wood from time of cutting until used, methods of propagation, trying to
educate the prospective tree buyer as to the value of these trees, and
to believe that pecan trees could be transplanted, and that they would
bear if the taproot had been cut, and many other things.

Production of nut trees in nurseries in this northern territory is so
different, and more difficult than in the Gulf Coast country, where I
spent a part of two seasons hoping to get information that would be of
value here. What I learned there was of little or no value here, so it
was up to us to solve our own problems in this section by experience, as
there was very little in print at that time on Northern nut tree

One of our first problems was to learn to keep cions from time of
cutting until time of use, not knowing when that time was. We tried all
times from March until May, having little success at any time. At first
we kept the scions in a cold storage plant in Evansville, and at a
temperature of around 32 degrees, and in wet moss. Later we found it
much better to keep scions at home in a cellar at a higher temperature,
and in only slightly dampened sphagnum moss.

In the beginning our efforts were mostly in grafting, then after a year
or two of failure, probably largely due to the way we kept our scions,
we had some results at the McCoy Nursery, with scions kept at home. The
McCoy Nursery was about four miles from my place, and located in a sandy
soil with a near quicksand sub-soil. At that location they were later
reasonably successful in grafting, using the modified cleft graft.

My nursery is in clay soil with a hard stratum of soil three or four
feet below the surface, and because of this I have been unable to graft
pecans in the nursery, though I have tried every known method, and under
all conditions. I could successfully graft at the McCoy Nursery, then
use the same scion wood and the same method at home, but have a complete
failure; therefore, I turned to budding entirely on pecans in the

It is somewhat different with walnut--I can get fair results with
walnut grafting at times, though I do very little of this, as more than
95% of my walnut trees are produced by budding.

I do a lot of topworking on native seedling nut trees for others. Mr.
Sly, who is with me, and I make one or more of these trips each spring.
For this work I use only the slip-bark method, shaping the scion a
little differently from any other I have ever seen used. This has given
splendid results everywhere I have used it, which has been over the
territory from Ohio to Oklahoma.

A certain amount of allowance is made in this work as to safe drainage
of the stock, depending on weather and soil conditions, which vary as,
to season and location.

I do practically all of my nursery propagating by budding, and one of
the most essential things is to have favorable sap conditions in budwood
as well as in stocks.

On walnut I use only the current season's growth of wood for budwood,
and it must be reasonably well matured. Very often sap in the stock may
show signs of leaving before budwood is matured enough for use, and only
the riper buds near the base of the bud stick can be used, in which case
the rest of the buds on the bud stick are lost. Sometimes sap in the
stocks can be held a few days longer by cutting a ring around the stock
above the place where the bud is to be placed, which checks the flow of
sap to the upper part of the stock. Sap in the stock must be in a
favorable condition to hope for good results.

In budding pecan it is different. Either the current or the past
season's growth may be used with about equal results, though the current
season's buds must be well matured. Very often in a dry season when
there is evidence of sap leaving the pecan stocks earlier than usual and
the current season's buds are not well matured, I use the past season's
growth until the new growth is mature.

A nut tree nurseryman has experiences that are both pleasant and
unpleasant in selling trees as well as producing them. This is probably
well known to all of you who have produced and sold nut trees. It is
astonishing how many questions (some of which are amusing) the public
can ask, and very often those that ask the most questions, leading one
to believe they are a good prospect for a large order, may order only
one or two trees, or none at all. Then there are those who have never
bought a nut tree before, and when they see their first one are
dissatisfied because it does not have a root system like a fruit tree;
and there are a few who will try to get replacements whether they are
entitled to them or not, and usually they are not; for, regardless of
the instructions given for the planting and after-care, they will
neglect them, then complain if they have a loss, and certain experiences
have led me to believe they claim loss before having it.

Many seem to think that a nurseryman should guarantee his trees to live
when planted by the purchaser. To do this would be assuming the
responsibility of the handling, planting and after-care of the planter,
which would make it necessary for the nurseryman to put a price on his
trees that would take care of a lot of replacements to the more careless
ones who would have losses, and be very unfair to those who take good
care of their trees, and have little or no loss, as they would be
standing part of the loss of the careless ones.

The most a nurseryman can do is to produce the best trees possible, dig
them carefully, pack them in first class condition and ship them

Discussion after Mr. Wilkinson's paper.

Dr. Crane: "Minor elements are important in plant nutrition The problem
of deficiencies is going to become very important. We do not keep the
livestock we did and we are not returning to the land the manure and
other fertilizers that contain the elements the trees need. Nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potash, also magnesium are needed. We are taking more
from the soil than we are putting back."

Corsan: "In Cuba there are hundreds of sharks. These make fine manure,
wonderful for nut trees."

Prof. Slate: "How many sharks would you need for an acre of land?"

Morphology and Structure of the Walnut

C. C. LOUNSBERRY, Iowa State College

This subject, the structure of the walnut, is discussed in its relation
to propagation. Catkin bearing nut trees, such as the walnut, have a
refined structure that makes grafting difficult. Structure, rather than
form of walnuts, suggests treatment under the headings, bark, cambium,
wood, roots, pith and buds, as well as the sap that permeates them.

=Bark:= When the bark of the walnut is cut, as in budding, it is difficult
to tie down so it will not curl and yet not strangle the bud. The
wax-like covering of the bark is thin. However, the bark itself will
stay green two months or more if weather is cool.

=Cambium:= The cambium dries quickly when exposed to air, and must be kept
covered. Grafted walnuts show callus growth from the cambium, and also
from the pith of stems and the endodermis of the root.

=Wood:= The wood of the walnut is diffuse porous, brittle, straight
grained, and easily split. The wood must be cut diagonally to get
sufficient tension to hold the scion in grafting. The branch grows
rapidly in a short season, May 15th to July 1st in central Iowa. The
upper two-thirds of the one year growth is usually light weight with
pith of large diameter. The base of the one-year growth is the best for
scions. Some varieties of walnut as for example the Thomas, have
relatively large one-year growth and more scions can be cut from its
branches than from the wood of Ohio which is small and willow-like.

Measurements taken in 1940 on 118 common black walnut seedlings planted
in 1939 showed 9/16" average diameter of seedling at crown, 5/16"
average diameter of pith at crown; 3/8" average diameter of seedling at
top; and 1/4" average diameter of pith at top; 3.26 inches average
length of solid pith above crown; 2.91 inches average length of solid
pith in root below crown.

=Pith:= Pith in the black walnut is chambered (lamellate) in the older
wood, but solid in the younger, growing wood. The plates are a light
brown color, getting larger in diameter toward the top of the year's
growth. The leaf traces from the leaf rachis to the pith show heavier
from the bottom buds of the branch than at the tip, and the pith is
usually solid at the bottom of the branch.

=Roots:= When the nut of the black walnut germinates in the soil the lobes
or cotyledons do not rise above the ground like the cotyledons of the
bean but remain in the nut shell under ground, and are broken off in the
growth of the seedling, the root going down and the stem rising above
the ground. Where the cotyledons are broken off, the so-called crown of
the walnut, two rough places appear, nearly opposite on the stem. In
these rough places, two groups of buds are formed, rarely three groups.

Cytological studies at Iowa State College have not shown why there are
not stem initials in the tap roots of the walnut. When the root is cut
off a foot underground, root initials develop but no stem initials. The
sensitivity of walnut leaf buds to water may have something to do with

=Buds:= Buds of the walnut are in vertical groups of two or three in the
axils of the leaves. They have few scales. They appear on seedlings and
current year branches. Some have short stalks. If broken off they do not
usually grow back again. The second year, these buds usually drop off in
mid-season. In cutting off buds, unless the group of buds is taken out
as a chip, some may grow out again.

=Leaf arrangement:= There is a three rank arrangement of leaves in the
walnut, the ninth leaf coming in the same position as the first.
According to the work of Caesalpino, the buds should then rise in three
places at the crown. Only in rare cases does this occur in the black
walnut, although it is usual with the Persian walnut. If the nut is
planted deep this causes much suckering and a tendency to etiolate the
buds so they will stand water.

=Buds are sensitive:= Buds are sensitive to water, and storage material
must be fairly dry and cool. In two large boxes of scions received last
year from Germany, some 20 varieties of Persian walnut, all had dead
buds when received. They were packed in German peat. When buds are
covered with wax the wax must not be too hot or it will kill the buds.
In placing grafted walnuts in sphagnum or sand they should not stay wet
or the buds will die. Either unions must be above damp sand or sphagnum,
or the buds be protected by wax or adhesive.

=Sap:= In spring grafting there is an enormous flow of sap which will
sometimes tear the plates out of the pith. Grafts may be protected by
girdling the stock a few inches below the place where the graft is set,
or both above and below it. In 1937 259 walnuts three years old were cut
off six inches above the ground and girdled two inches above the ground.
171 crown buds came up, 88 started above the girdling. 207 trees were
cut off three feet above the ground, and the trunk girdled six inches
above the ground. 153 started above the crown, and 90 started above the
girdle. The same year (1937) 195 trees three years old were cut off four
feet above the ground, and all buds above ground were cut flush with the
surface of the bark. This was repeated twice, finally taking buds out as
a chip, except the top bud; 126 died; 69 grew from the top but. 203
trees three years old were cut off five feet above ground and all buds
cut off except upper one; 64 died; 139 grew from top bud. 200 trees
three years old were cut off six feet above ground, and all buds kept
rubbed off except top one; 33 died, and 167 grew from top bud.

=Vitality and sap:= Black walnut sap changes color from oxidation almost
instantly. Bench grafts must be made quickly and put in place at once or
the unions will dry out. If the root does not stain hands in grafting
the graft usually fails. In outdoor grafting if the sap stands in
pockets the sugar will ferment, killing the graft. There is a new Jersey
(3) bulletin which shows black walnut sap as unstable, quickly forming
sugar when exposed to warm weather.

=Vegetative propagation of greenwood cuttings:= Witt and Spence (4) in
England working with greenwood cuttings attained 75 per cent success
with Persian walnut and Royal walnut in July and August. They had no
success with black walnut at that time (1926). The Germans in 1936 (1)
working on greenwood cuttings had most success with the Persian walnut,
but used greenwood taken in September.

=Vegetative propagation or hardwood cuttings:= In 1938 the author (2)
using growth substance on saddle grafts of various walnuts found Asiatic
and western walnuts went on their own roots. At this time the Tasterite
black walnut went on its own root. In 1946 and 1947 using about 25
varieties of black walnut, Persian, western and Asiatic walnuts, eight
inch hardwood cuttings were used beginning in December and repeated in
the spring of 1947. Nearly all the cuttings of the larger size (about
1/2") started in about a month and grew about two months. Then all died.
There were balls of callus on many of them. One on Thomas was an inch in
diameter. The bottom heat was held at 70 degrees F. This may have been
too high, as on raising the cuttings it was found the callus had rotted.
This procedure has possibilities.

Literature Cited

1. Institut fur Obstbau, Berlin. Die Walnusz veredlung. (Vegetative
propagation of walnuts). Merkbl. Inst. Obstb. Berlin 5, pp. 15, 1936.

2. Lounsberry, C. C. Use of Growth Substance in Bench Grafting Walnuts
and Hickories. Northern Nut Growers Association 1938 Report, p. 63.

3. Nelson, Julius. Fermentation and Germ Life. N. J. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bul.
134, 1899.

4. Witt, A. W. and Howard Spence. Vegetative Propagation of Walnuts.
Ann. Rep. East Malling Res. Station 1926-27.

A Method of Budding Walnuts

H. LYNN TUTTLE, Clarkston, Wash.

It took man some thirty thousand years to learn to build a
fire--conveniently. I thought it was going to take me that long to learn
how to bud walnuts, but fortunately the period has been somewhat

When I first began to propagate, or try to propagate, walnuts, I
naturally looked to the approved and accepted methods. For me, they did
not work. Before I was through I think I tried them all. I patch-budded
with variations and improvisations. I shield-budded and bark-grafted. I
coated the wounds with grafting-wax, latex, cellophane, asphalt and
paraffine. I trimmed off the bud shoulders to make a smoother tie and
trimmed around the edges to make more contact. I wrapped with raffia,
strings, rags and rubber strips and tacked with small nails. Whatever I
did or however I did it results were all about the same--the sap soured.
In fact over a period of years I tried every way I could think up or
read about to bring the bud and the cambium layer together and make them
stick. Results were surprisingly uniform--the sap soured.

But we must not dwell too long on the shots that missed. As with a
refractory engine that will suddenly sputter, there came some elements
of success. The point to learn was, why? Concentrating on the shield bud
entirely we determined to find these whys. So we tried taking big slabs
of bark along with the bud, peeling out the wood, breaking off the leaf
stem entirely and waxing the scar and making an unnecessarily long cut
for the bud. The bark stuck fairly well but the buds died. This was some
encouragement and I knew that with enough time, reason and a little luck
we would eventually hit the mark.

Now Dame Fortune had decreed that I be raised on a grain and stock ranch
where the only trees we could see were in the distant mountains, or, if
we rode in the canyons, cottonwoods and choke-cherries. My experience
and training was with animals, and animals, especially horses, seem
quite susceptible to accident. The first principle of treating almost
any wound is to give it drainage, otherwise, both literally and
figuratively, the "sap" soured. Thus it dawned on me that a tree-wound,
even if only skin deep should have the same treatment as a flesh wound.
And drainage, being desirable, should be ample.

It was quite late in the season but I went out and set a dozen Schafer
walnut buds on eastern black stocks. These buds HAD DRAINAGE. The
vertical cut of the T extended at least two inches below the bud.
Success ensued, they grew. The following spring we budded as soon as the
bark would slip and continued at intervals all summer. Results were
good. Some of the steps we now use are probably not essential and
perhaps not even the best, but there are two points that cannot be
over-emphasized, namely, drainage and contact. The complete method is as
follows: 1. Trim bud sticks to leave an inch of petiole on the bud. 2.
Make the T cut with a long vertical slash that will extend at least an
inch below the bottom of the bud. 3. Cut the bud long and deep and peel
it from the wood by pinching the sides. Be carefull not to injure the
bark just below the bud. 4. Insert the bud either flush with or below
the cross-cut. 5. Wrap with large sized rubber budding strips just
firmly enough to make good contact. Too tight wrappings curtail
circulation. Do not cover the cut below the bud. The wound must have
=drainage=. 6. Be sure that the center of the bud-cut is firm against the
cambium layer. If it humps of bows and won't stay down insert a
tooth-pick or bit of leaf stem or something along the center line to
hold it down. We usually do this during the wrapping process.

We use no wax. We throw a wrap over the bud, shoulders even though it
may press the petiole forward against the bud. If the center of the bud
pulls out it will not grow although an adventitious bud may eventually
start. Budding seems about equally successful any time that the bark
slips freely. On walnuts this is all summer if not too dry.

Early-placed buds may make several feet growth before fall if sufficient
moisture is available. On walnuts there are always dormant buds. We have
used storage wood but now just cut it fresh. We have not tried draining
patch-bud or grafts. Although we have not tried it we think cherries and
other trees inclined to drown the buds might be better handled in this
manner. Climate is a factor in the type of propagation advisable. One
very fine grower using buds in California could propagate only by grafts
when he moved to Western Oregon.

The kernel of my walnut budding experience may well be summarized in one

       *       *       *       *       *

Questions asked Mr. Stoke after his demonstration of grafting and
budding. [See his paper in 1946 Report, pp. 99-103.--Ed.]

Member: "How do you keep your scions?"

Stoke: "I prefer 'orange' cold storage for scionwood. This is just above
freezing. Walnuts should be in full leaf before spring budding."

McDaniel: "What percentage of chestnuts did well with the 'plate' method
of budding?"

Stoke: "I don't use it with chestnuts for spring budding, but sometimes
for summer budding. It will work well on any variety of Persian walnut,
heartnut and black walnut. Place buds on the north and northeast side of
tree to prevent sun injury."

Question: "Do you find any difference in using buds from an eight or ten
year old tree as against a younger tree?"

Stoke: "No, not so long as it is healthy. For spring budding I don't
care to have any trees too vigorous. Cut tops off young trees three to
five days after budding, and force the buds into growth. If you delay
too long the bud will die. I wouldn't try to bud trees unless bark is

Member: "I have used parapin wax and covered it with old bread paper."

Stoke: "That may work because the wax was shaded. Southern sun may melt
parapin and paraffin waxes."

Mr. Corsan: "Dentists, surgeons and wood carvers make the best

Question: "Can the scions be cut with a small plane?"

Stoke: "Anything you have to cut with a plane is too big. I never use a

Question: "What do you use a splice graft for?"

Stoke: "Anything except walnut. In walnut I use a modified cleft graft,
and I take care of the sap flow by placing the graft down about 1" or
1-1/4" below the cut (where the tree is cut off). Wax the scion but do
not wax the cut. Let it bleed."

Question: "What is the value of cut leaf black walnut?"

Stoke: "Purely ornamental. Weschcke reports that it is very hardy with

Rick: "What about the Lamb walnut?"

Stoke: "We don't know whether the wood of grafted trees is curly or not.
I sent Mr. Reed a limb from Lamb and he gave it to the forest laboratory
and they found no evidence of curly grain."

Rick: "Shouldn't it be propagated until we are sure?"

Stoke: "We had Mr. Lamb himself talk before us at Roanoke and he told us
about the parent tree. He doesn't know what makes one tree curly and
another not."

Korn: "Is that uncommon?"

Stoke: "Not so very. Trees are most curly at the base and in the outer

Question: "Do you always leave that stub on black walnut?"

Stoke: "Yes, but it should be removed later in the first summer."

Question: "Where do you use your splice graft."

Stoke: "On anything other than walnut, if scion and stock are the same
size. Where stock is larger than scion I use the modified cleft graft up
to sizes approaching one inch in the stock. For topworking larger stocks
I use one of the forms of bark graft. For the large hickory stock Dr.
Morris' bark slot graft is preferred. For large, thin-barked stocks the
simple bark graft may be used. My original grafts of the Carr and Hobson
Chinese chestnuts, made with scions received from Messrs. Carr and
Hobson in the winter of 1932, are still perfect unions.

"I believe that grafted chestnuts growing in frost pockets are most
likely to develop faulty unions; possibly frost injury to immature cells
at the junction point may occur. Dr. Crane mentions a similar failure of
unions between Persian and black walnuts on the Pacific Coast."

Dr. Crane: "What cut did you use in grafting those chestnuts?"

Stoke: "Modified cleft. In using Dr. Morris' bark slot graft I find it
best to leave just a little of the cut face of the scion wedge above the
top of the stock. This, with top of the stock cut sloping away from the
scion, as illustrated, promotes quick healing with no 'die-back.'"

Dr. Smith: "Is that top slanting?"

Stoke: "Yes, I cut it slanting."

Dr. MacDaniels: "That is a good graft for walnuts, too."

Note: Mr. Stoke showed the group a picture of a mockernut tree in one of
his fields which he had girdled to kill it. The tree lived four years
and during those years the moisture had to go up through the inner wood.

The substance of Mr. Stoke's talk, together with illustrations, may be
found on page 99 of the 1946 report.

Importance of Bud Selection in the Grafting of Nut Trees

G. J. KORN, Kalamazoo, Michigan

For many years the fruit growers have been improving the qualities of
their fruits in several ways. The early pioneers of our country selected
the best fruits from seedling trees. Chance seedlings that were found in
pastures, by roadsides, or possibly in some out-of-the-way place,
selected because of some special quality or group of qualities, still
dominate our commercial plantings of fruits and nuts. Several of the
apple varieties to be found in the market today are from these chance

In more recent years some of our agricultural colleges have been
breeding fruits. Such breeding has given us several of our more
promising named varieties. In this way a great improvement has been
brought about in our fruits.

Environment too appears to have played an important part in making
changes in fruits and nuts. Nuts that are extremely hardy in the more
northern latitudes, appear to have developed this hardiness gradually
throughout many generations. Because of this quality we are now able to
select varieties that are most likely to succeed in any particular

More rapid and satisfactory methods of improving our fruits and nuts
have been brought about through breeding. This development of the
science of plant breeding has made it possible to blend the good
qualities of two seedlings into a new variety. Man does not have to
follow nature's slow hit-and-miss method of developing more desirable
qualities in her products. Controlled breeding, as brought about by man,
produces faster and more satisfactory results. Man's improvement over
nature has come about through his choice of the qualities to be blended,
and his ability to bring together two parents from widely separated
parts of the earth, if necessary.

Besides breeding, we are able also to use some of the mutations or bud
sports to improve our nuts as well as fruits. Although our progress in
improving nuts may not yet be as spectacular as cross-breeding with
apples, bud selection has already modified the list of our commercial

One of the first requisites in bud selection is so thorough a knowledge
of the variety that any departure from the type will be detected. Then
it will be necessary to start propagation to determine whether the
variation was caused by some environmental factor, or is really a sport
which can be perpetuated by vegetative propagation. You may wonder if
many of our nut growers know nut varieties well enough to detect any but
the most obvious sports. Nut improvement through bud selection within
the variety lies ahead of us.

Among fruit growers the search seems to have been for fruits of
different or more pleasing color. As nut growers we are more likely to
be interested in nut sports having better size, kernel, cracking
qualities, etc. Trees that are able to ripen their nuts in short or cool
seasons are especially desirable in some of our more northern states.

My attention was especially called to the importance of bud selection
several years ago while buying my winter's supply of apples. I was
examining the splendid crop of Jonathan apples in a neighbor's large
commercial orchard. On most of the Jonathan trees the apples were large
and well colored and the crop was heavy. However, a few trees bore
apples of inferior size and color. Upon questioning the fruit grower as
to the difference in the performance of the two types of Jonathan apple
trees, he explained that the better apples came from trees supplied by a
nurseryman who was very particular in selecting a good bud strain. The
other trees were just the ordinary strain of Jonathan.

It was while working in a commercial orchard of the grafted varieties of
black walnuts that I noticed one especially promising Thomas tree.
During the few years that I have observed this tree, its nuts have been
of splendid size and very uniform. The kernels from the nuts from this
tree were somewhat better than those from most of the other trees. I now
have some grafts growing from this promising tree.

There appears to be much promise for nut improvement by cross-breeding
to regroup desired qualities. Although many of us enjoy the nut contests
that are conducted from time to time, it appears that our nut
improvement program might move along faster if more attention were given
to nut breeding and searching out desirable bud sports.

Discussion after G. J. Korn's paper.

Corsan: "Farmers should be encouraged to plant nut trees along boundary
lines. Enormous amounts of fertilizer there."

J. R. Smith: "One tree in ten thousand seedlings is worth while."

Dr. Lounsberry: "We have two trees planted close together--one bears
small nuts and the other large nuts. They are from the same grafting. It
would seem that the trouble is in the stock. The stock makes a vast

The Hemming Chinese Chestnuts

E. SAM HEMMING, Easton, Maryland

The bearing record of our row of 18 Chinese chestnuts has attracted so
much attention that I thought the Association would be interested in
seeing some slides of these trees, also of our experimental orchard, as
well as the large quantity of small trees we grow in our nursery and the
manner in which we raise them.

You will see a number of slides of chestnut trees and hear a lot about
the bearing qualities, but you won't see a single nut, for unfortunately
all these slides were taken between December 1946 and July 1947. You
will just have to let the numerous little trees attest to the fact that
these trees bear. We have 50,000 trees in our nursery.

These trees are now nineteen years old and have borne rather remarkably
since 1937. They are spaced too close--an accident--but I believe that
helps thorough pollination. They are now 12 and more inches in diameter,
some are 30' high and the spread is at least 35' where they have the
room. All but No. 14 are spreading in character; spreading character and
good bearing seemed to be connected.

The bearing record of these trees has been given before but I will
summarize them by years again: 1937--118 pounds; 1938 (no records);
1939-463 pounds; 1940--250 pounds; 1941--564 pounds; 1942--658 pounds;
1943--749 pounds; 1944--678 pounds; 1945--250 pounds; 1946--1,100
pounds; this year's crop will probably run 700 to 800 pounds.

The trees seem to bear much the same, with No. 14 the poorest and No. 19
the best and, like many other tree crops, they tend to alternate good
and poor crops on each tree. The nuts are of good size, averaging 40 to
50 per pound (green) with No. 6 and No. 19 bearing the smallest nuts.
They ripen in September with the exception of No. 19 which is a month
later. Mr. Reed likes No. 16 which has a wrinkled shell. All the nuts
are medium sweet to sweet and all of them fall free of the bur. I think
the most significant thing is that at least 12 of the trees have nut
characteristics so near alike that they are about indistinguishable,
which certainly makes them a good source of seed.

The similarity of the nuts brings up the controversial subject of the
seedling raised tree, and I will make some remarks in defense of this

1. All our parent trees are good bearers.

2. There is no extraneous pollen in the vicinity.

3. I will present as a question: Has the Chinese chestnut, like the rose
and the apple been hybridized out of all semblance of the wild form?

4. The seedling tree should bring chestnuts to the average householder's
table 30 years sooner than grafting will.

5. We now produce a 3'-4' tree for a very reasonable figure.

6. All varietal forms at present are as yet unstabilized (most varieties
of 10 years ago have been discarded). There will probably be some duds
in seedling trees, but we've had no local complaints and I wonder if
they will exceed the "troubles" found in the grafted tree. We have had
customers brag about what their 2 or 3 or 6 trees bore.

To prove our faith in this method we planted a test orchard. When the
trees were 3 years old from 2 year transplants they bore 25 pounds. Next
year, 1944, they bore 800 pounds or an average of 1 pound per tree.
Right then and there we thought that we would have a real story to tell,
but we had misfortune in another direction. Three years in a row we have
had frosts when 6 inches of new growth were on these trees (the orchard
is not as well situated as the parent trees in this respect). So we had
no crops worth mentioning but neither did we have strawberries or
similar fruits. This year the orchard was frosted 2/3 the way to the top
so we will get quite a few nuts, maybe 500 pounds. Incidentally, we have
been here 25 years and we've not had frosts like these before.

We use all of our good nuts for seed purposes, grading out all small or
damaged nuts. In raising these trees, even from seed, we've had our
troubles. We let them cure several weeks then plant them in well fed
soil in a narrow trench about 2 inches deep. We place the nuts 5 or 6
inches apart; we fill the trench with sawdust level with the surface. We
mound the soil over this about 4 inches until spring. Then it is
removed. This method lets the shoots through, otherwise they tend to
send 3 or 4 stems. The nut sends down the root very early in the spring.
We have some trouble with the mole-mice combination; for this reason
heavy soil and sawdust is better than sandy soil. As you know neither
the nut nor the tree likes wet soil.

In raising the young tree the principal difficulty is in getting a
trunked upright tree. A seedling, especially when transplanted the first
year, flops all over like a flowering shrub. To get them up we plant
them fairly close, prune them, and feed them. Our 1 year trees are
usually two feet high and 2 year trees are 4 to 5 feet high. We
wholesale our trees mostly to mail order nurseries and the largest had a
5% request for replacements.

There are troubles in growing Chinese chestnuts just as there are in
most fruits and nut crops and, in a way, I am glad there are because I
am of the opinion there is no such thing as harvesting without
cultivation. For instance, if you plant them and let nature take its
course--it will. It will on an apple, too.

We have found a few small lesions of chestnut blight which were removed
by pruning and then painted with pine tar. They usually occurred at a
previous point of pruning. Some of the transplanted seedlings have
developed a twig canker at a bud, but I've never seen them kill one and
even when we don't prune it out, the tree overcomes it by new growth.

The Japanese beetle attacks the chestnut but, although they were bad
this year, one spraying of DDT was effective. The weevil (curculio) was
bad enough last year so we are spraying this year. Small growers should
put the nuts in metal containers and thus destroy the larvae, if any.

I would like to remark here that we are a nursery growing many
ornamentals, and the Chinese chestnut, although low branched, is a very
ornamental tree. I know of no tree that has a handsomer dark, shiny
green leaf or one whose green color holds so well until frost.

Now I think you will agree I have reported the behavior of our trees
fairly, the difficulties of raising the trees, and have emphasized that
I doubt if you will get success with the Chinese chestnut without
effort; yet in conclusion I would like to step into "fantasy". Our No.
19 tree bore 124 pounds; suppose you had 50 trees per acre bearing that
quantity. You would get 6,000 pounds per acre. The European chestnut,
which is not as good, brought 30c on the Baltimore market last year.
That would mean $1,800.00 per acre. Imagine having 10 acres!

1947 CROP

Pounds of Chestnuts from Original Trees at Eastern Shore Nurseries, Inc.

No. 1, 78; No. 2, 58; No. 3, 51-1/4; No. 4, 7-1/2; No. 5, 49; No. 6, 31;
No. 7, 34; No. 8, 31-1/2; No. 9, 63; No. 10, 40-1/2; No. 11, 61-1/2; No.
12, 64-1/2; No. 13, 56; No. 14, 47-1/2; No. 15, 74; No. 16, 60; No. 18,
106; No. 19, 25-1/2--Total, 938-3/4 pounds.

=Young Orchard:= 225-1/2 pounds.

Discussion after E. Sam Hemming's paper

Corsan: "Do you recommend the use of lime?"

Hemming: "We do not use lime. We use Vigoro at the rate of 1 to 1-1/2
lbs. to inch of diameter per tree."

Corsan: "Why do you use Vigoro?"

Hemming: "No particular reason, just that it is available."

Member: "What time of year do you fertilize your trees?"

Hemming: "We fertilize during the winter--usually during December."

Crane: "Last year we used a method of storing Chinese chestnuts which
proved very satisfactory. Two thousand pounds of nuts were stored last
year. Fall planting is good where one can use it but in a lot of areas
it can not be used because of rats robbing the plantings. We have to
store the nuts. The procedure we follow is to harvest every other day.
Nuts are placed in tin cans with friction top lids. The lids should have
one to three holes of 1/16" diameter in them to provide air. Cans are
placed in storage at a temperature of 32 to 40 degrees F."

Stoke: "I keep chestnuts in the cellar in a can with an open top in what
we call limestone sand. Keep wonderfully well. Chestnuts must have air."

Gravatt: "Down south we have a lot of trouble with decay. We take nuts
right from the bur and put them in the soil. They give much better

Crane: "The Chinese harvest their chestnuts just as soon as the bur
cracks. They do not wait for the nuts to drop from the trees but harvest
the nuts from the trees and store in covered pottery jars. They plant in
the fall of the year. They do not hold nuts for any length of time."

Corsan: "How about charcoal?"

G. Smith: "Charcoal is good to store nuts in. They are shipped from
China that way."

Smith: "Would chestnuts stand carbon bisulphide for getting the weevil
out, or is the hot water treatment better?"

Crane: "Carbon bisulphide treatment is dangerous, it will kill weevils
but it will also kill the nuts so they will not germinate. Unless
precautions are used it may cause an explosion and fire. Methyl bromide
treatment is better."

Stoke: "The hot water treatment is the best. It consists of immersing
the nuts in water at 120 degrees F. for forty minutes."

Hemming: "I have raised about 100,000 seedlings and have never seen
blight on any of my seedlings."

Dr. Smith: "A tree needs usually to be as big as the small end of a
baseball bat before the bark opens enough to let in the blight spores."

Stoke: "Blight begins where there is rough bark which provides lodgment
for the spores. Rough bark and moisture result in blight, hence the
disease usually starts near the ground."

Crane: "The blight problem in the growing of chestnuts has often been
stressed. I think you will have more loss from sunscald and root rot
than you will from blight. Blight is a minor trouble with us. The
Chinese chestnut naturally grows with a low head. It is a mistake to cut
off the low branches on the trees until they attain some size, they can
then be cut off."

Stoke: "Regarding the protection of nut trees against winter sun scald,
I find that if you take ordinary aluminum paint and paint the south and
southwest side of nut trees it will last for two years."

Dr. Smith: "Chestnut trees have blighted for me where the water table
was too high and trees of same origin or better drained ground nearby
did not blight. Blight is often a sign that the tree wants something it
lacks--much like disease in humans."

Results of a Chinese Chestnut Rootstock Experiment

J. W. McKAY[4]


The propagation of chestnut species by budding or grafting has been
performed by different workers with varying degrees of success. Many
have found that grafted trees could be produced and grown successfully
but that graft union troubles developed in a certain percentage of the
trees either soon after grafting or a few years later. The variety
"Carr" is known to graft with difficulty in certain localities and to
give a high percentage of poor unions both at the time of grafting and
after a few years of growth. The question of relationship of scion and
stock has been considered by many workers to have an important bearing
on the success of grafting operations but no critical work has been done
to determine this point. Some investigators hold that scions of one
species may be grafted upon stock of another species without harmful
effects. The results of the budding experiment with Chinese chestnut
reported in this paper are the first of a series of tests designed to
contribute needed information about stock-scion relationship in

[Footnote 4: Associate cytologist, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops
and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural
Engineering, Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of

Description and Results

The five seedling Chinese chestnut trees used in the experiment were
selected because of their heavy-bearing tendency and because of the
excellent keeping quality of the nuts. Two of the trees bear nuts of
large size while the other three bear nuts of medium to small size.
Seeds from the five trees were planted before the use of the seedlings
as stocks in the budding experiment was planned, and since the seedlings
from each tree were planted together replication of the experiment was
not possible. However, the stock was grown in thoroughly mixed soil in a
coldframe and differences in performance of seedlings could hardly be
attributed to soil heterogeneity.

Buds from the five parent trees were placed on the five lots of their
own seedlings in all combinations of budwood and stock. The work was
done during the first week of September when the bark of both budwood
and stock was slipping yet growth had slowed down to some extent. Buds
were placed about two inches below soil level on the one-year-old
seedlings and the soil pulled back to cover the buds. Budding was done
by means of the familiar shield or T-bud method and rubber budding
strips were used as a wrap. Budwood was shipped from Albany, Ga., to
Beltsville, Md., and was damaged somewhat by high temperature in
transit, a factor which may be partially responsible for the overall low
percentage of buds that grew.

In referring to the results presented in table I, it will be noted that
considerable variation occurred in the performance of the five lots of
seedlings as stock, as well as in the take of buds from the five parent
trees. The totals in the last column on the right are all equivalent to
percentage since 100 buds were placed on each lot of seedlings. In like
manner, the totals in the bottom line are all equivalent to percentages
since 100 buds of each parent tree were used.

Seedlings of stock D were decidedly inferior to seedlings of stock C in
take of buds, and both of these lots of seedlings originated from large
nuts. Also, scion e gave a significantly lower take of buds on all lots
of seedlings than scions c or d. The scion e tree produces small nuts
whereas the scion c and d trees produce large nuts. Scions a and b are
intermediate in take of buds, and the source trees both produce small


At least one significant interpretation may be made from the results of
this experiment, that may partially explain the difficulties encountered
heretofore in propagating chestnuts. Using the take of buds as a
criterion it can be stated that in this experiment the five lots of
seedlings from known parents differed in their performance as stocks.
Moreover, the five parent trees used as a source of budwood differed
among themselves in the capacity of their buds to grow when placed on
comparable lots of stocks. If these results are correctly interpreted it
is clear that both the stock and the scion may influence the success or
failure of propagation technique. Doubtless both of these variables have
operated together in the propagation of existing varieties and, as would
be expected, the results have been unpredictable. It seems likely that
the grafting and budding of chestnut varieties should be worked out in
the future on the basis of using understocks derived from the seed of
special trees or clones found to be suitable sources by tests for
grafting performance.

It should be pointed out that the five trees used in this work
originated from two lots of seed imported from neighboring localities in
China and probably are closely related. The fact that significant
differences were obtained in this material furnishes basis for the
belief that great variability in the budding performance of the Chinese
chestnut is to be encountered in the many introductions that have been
made into this country.

  Table I. Results of budding each of five Chinese chestnut clones on
  its own seedlings and on the seedlings of four other clones. The
  figure for each combination represents the number of buds that grew
  out of 20 buds placed.


               a     b     c     d     e     Totals
  S     A      4     6     4     5     0       19
  T     B      3     2     8     4     0       17
  O     C      0     3     8     9     5       25
  C     D      1     2     3     1     1        8
  K     E      2     2     7     9     2       22
     TOTALS   10    15    30    28     8       91

Discussion After Dr. McKay's Paper

Dr. MacDaniels: "A good scion on chestnut is one problem which we have
not solved."

Dr. Smith: "I find both Carr and Hobson difficult to graft and have
discontinued them."

Dr. Crane: "In California and Oregon they are having quite a lot of
difficulty with graft union failure with Persian walnuts. They have used
the Northern California black or Hinds walnut as root stocks. Now they
find that in some cases the union fails and results in what is known as
the black line disease. At the present time this trouble is the most
important cause of the loss of their trees."

Dr. Smith: "Zimmerman is a good bearing variety with a good nut. I find
that soil makes some difference with this variety."

Breeding Chestnut Trees: Report for 1946 and 1947


The chief aim of this breeding work is the development of a chestnut
tree of timber type to replace the now practically defunct American
species, _Castanea dentata_. For the principal economic value of the
chestnut was not in its edible nuts but its valuable timber, the loss of
which means at present many millions of dollars subtracted from the
assets of the American people; and when we consider the loss for all
time in the future the figures become astronomical.

[Footnote 5: Consulting Pathologist, Conn. Agric. Expt. Station; Special
Agent, Conn. Geological and Natural History Survey; and Collaborator,
Division of Forest Pathology, U. S. Dept. Agriculture.]

_The Chestnut Blight in Italy._ Early in 1946 we received a visit from
Captain John B. Woodruff, of Wilton, Connecticut, who told us that while
serving as Chairman of the Department of Agriculture and Forestry, and
Instructor in Forestry at the Army University Study Center in Florence,
Italy, he visited chestnut stands infected with the blight. _Endothia
parasitica_ was first discovered by Professor Guido Paoli in 1938 on a
private estate in Busalla, about twenty miles north of the seaport city
of Genoa. Since then the blight has been detected throughout the
province of Genoa in the legion of Liguria; and other widely separated
infections have been found. The fungus has been cultured and identified
by Professor Biraghi of the Royal Pathological Station in Rome, as
_Endothia parasitica_. It is believed to have been present in this
region for from five to eight years previous to its discovery. The
manner of its introduction into Italy is not known, but since Japan and
the U. S. have carried on considerable commerce with Italy, either or
both countries are possible sources.

The disease is spreading in Italy at a rapid rate. "By 1942 one half of
the 190,000 acres of chestnut in the province of Genoa had been infected
and spot infections had been discovered in the adjoining coastal
province of La Spezia, also in the region of Liguria."

I am devoting some space to this situation because it means so much to
the Italian people. In Italy fifteen percent of the forest is composed
of chestnut. Not only does the country use the nuts as a source of food
and income, approximately sixty million pounds being exported annually
in former years, but the young coppice shoots are used for the weaving
of baskets, older ones for poles for vineyards, still older for staves
of wine casks, and the oldest for telephone and telegraph poles. "Before
the war, chestnut flour was the principal food in many localities, but
during the war a serious food shortage forced the people in many other
areas to rely solely upon chestnut flour for weeks at a time."

Professor Aldo Pavari, Director of the _Stazione Sperimentale di
Selvicoltura_ at Florence, visited this country in the summer and fall
of 1946, under the sponsorship of the UNRRA, and spent four days with me
at our plantations, learning our methods and getting acquainted with the
blight resistant hybrids we have been developing by the breeding
together of oriental and native chestnuts. Prof. Pavari visited also the
plantation of the Division of Forest Pathology at Beltsville and
elsewhere, and other plantations in the west. In December we shipped to
Florence, Italy, nuts of our best hybrids, and in March, scions for
grafting--also this summer (1947) pollen of some of our best trees. On
October 15 of this year (1947) we sent another shipment of nuts. Thus we
may be able to give Italy the advantage of the progress we have made to

Regarding the susceptibility to the blight of the European or Spanish
Chestnut (_C. sativa_) we have had the following experience. Our winter
temperatures appear to be too severe for this species. Dying back is
sure to occur, at least at our Hamden, Connecticut plantations, marked
more or less according to the degree of cold; and on the dead parts
_Endothia_ then appears, to later invade the parts still living. In 1932
I received nuts of _C. sativa_ from France from Professor Hochreutiner
of the Geneva Botanic Garden, from Professor Uldrich of the Berlin
Botanic Garden, and also from France from Dr. Guillaumin of the Jardin
de Plantes at Paris. Although I have given the resulting plants much
attention they continually die back each year so that we have only two
or three individuals that are more than six feet high. But Professor
Pavari says in recent correspondence (July 15, 1947) "Referring to
Spanish chestnuts, after we have been assured that the fungus we have
found and observed on _Castanea crenata_ in Spain is really _Endothia
parasitica_, we must admit that our hypothesis may be exact that
_Castanea vesca_ [_sativa_] presents in Spain races or types resistant
to the disease." He goes on to say that the fact that the chestnut
blight is so widespread at Naples and Avellino is at variance with my
theory that cold winters are the predisposing cause, for in the regions
mentioned the winters are mild and "very warm in comparison with those
of Connecticut." The essential fact seems to be that the European or
Spanish chestnut is very susceptible to the blight, perhaps as much so
as is our native species, but that evidently certain individuals or
races exist that are more or less resistant.

During the early part of 1947 we had a visit from Professor Cristos
Moulopoulos of the University of Salonika, Greece. Although the disease
had not then appeared in Greece, the pathologists there would like to be
ready for it when it does come.

_Pollinations in 1946 and 1947._ Without going into details, the general
purpose of the pollinations during these last two years has been to
incorporate more and more of the resistant Chinese stock into our
hybrids. Beginning in 1937, we crossed our best Japanese-American
hybrids with Chinese, and we now have a considerable number of young
saplings of flowering age, which have the pedigree: Chinese x
Japanese-American. Unfortunately, in this cross the Chinese is usually
dominant as regards habit, but not always. We have some tall,
straight-growing individuals of this combination which may well be the
forerunners of a blight-resistant forest stock for America.

Therefore, during 1946 and 1947 we have been crossing these fine Chinese
x (Japanese-Americans) with the following:

  1. Our best Chinese
  2. American-Chinese and Chinese-American
  3. American (C. dentata)
  4. Our best Japanese-Americans
  5. Among themselves

For it is the ultimate aim of this work to develop a race of tall,
hardy, blight resistant individuals which will breed true and thus of
themselves re-establish the chestnut tree in the forests of Eastern
North America. As everyone knows, the re-establishment of the chestnut
as a forest tree can not be done in a few years or even a score of
years, but by continued breeding and patience and perseverance it can be
done. The materials are at hand, i.e. tall, erect growth, and blight
resistance; and with persistent effort the desired combination can be

For (1) above we were fortunate in 1946 in receiving a supply of pollen
from tall-growing Chinese trees, through the kindness of Mr. Michael
Evans of Greenville, Delaware and Professor Maurice A. Blake of the New
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.

As a result of our pollinations in 1946, in which 72 combinations were
made, we harvested and planted in our cold frames in October 479 hybrid
nuts, a large proportion of which germinated, so that this summer (1947)
we have set out in our nurseries about 325 hybrid seedlings.

In 1947 we have made 58 combinations in which 213 branches were bagged;
October 10-13 we gathered 380 hybrid nuts resulting from these cross
pollinations. The large yield of 1947 is doubtless the result in part of
a good growing season, for there was plenty of rain--at times almost too
much--in southern Connecticut. One drawback was the cold period during
the latter part of June. From the fifteenth to the twenty-sixth the
minimum temperatures were 55 or below--on three days as low as 50. This
set back the flowering period four days to a week later than usual,
depending upon the species or hybrid.

_Cooperation in Diller's Underplanting and Girdling Method for the
Establishment of Chestnut Forest Stands._ In the 37th Annual Report of
our Association for 1946 is printed a paper by Dr. Jesse D. Diller of
the Division of Forest Pathology, U.S.D.A. entitled "Growing Chestnuts
for Timber" pp. 66-68. Many people seem to think that all you need to do
when planting a tree is to stick it in the ground--just _any_ ground.
This may be true of some kinds, but is certainly not true of the
chestnut. For best growth and development the chestnut requires a fairly
deep, well-drained soil, rich in mineral elements and humus, with a fair
degree of moisture and plenty of sunlight. Two things chestnuts will
_not_ endure are shallow soil and drought, the latter often depending on
the former.

As tree indicators of the kind of site required for the establishment of
a chestnut forest Dr. Diller has chosen yellow poplar, northern red oak,
white ash, sugar maple, and yellow birch, with spice bush as a shrub
indicator and maiden hair fern, bloodroot and other herbs as herbaceous
indicators. Using a small area of about one eighth of an acre, Dr.
Diller's plan is to girdle all the trees and then underplant with
chestnut seedlings. He says: "As the girdled overstory trees die they
gradually yield the site to the planted chestnuts in a transition that
does not greatly disturb the ecological conditions, particularly of the
forest floor. Rapid disintegration of the mantle of leaf mold is
prevented by the partial shading which the dead or dying overstory,
girdled trees cast." This may seem to some a rather drastic method, but
when so much is at stake, namely the re-establishment of the chestnut in
our forests, it would seem a justifiable experiment on a small area.

In March, 1947, we supplied Dr. Diller with one hundred seedlings, one
or two years old, of our best stock, for underplanting in two of these
selected sites, fifty seedlings each, namely on the estate of Mr. E. C.
Childs at Norfolk, Connecticut, and on lands of the T. V. A. at Norris,
Tennessee. Our best wishes for a successful blight-resistant future go
with these little trees.

_Grafting Work._ We are continuing with our method of "inarching" young
"suckers" from below a blighted area into the trunk above the lesion,
the diseased tissue of the lesion being first cut out. This method (see
Brooklyn Botanic Garden Chestnut Breeding Project. 35th Annual Report of
Northern Nut Growers Association for 1945. pp. 22-31--1945) is entirely
successful in case we desire to preserve partly resistant hybrids of
good parentage for future breeding and for scions. (Figs. 1 and 2) But
inarching of the native chestnut is for the most part unsuccessful
because the fungus grows too rapidly and girdles the stem, killing the
parts above before the inarched tips of the suckers can take hold. There
seems to be a certain relation between the amount of disease resistance
in the tree and the possibility of restoring it to health by the
inarching method.

By the common ordinary cleft-graft method, using Japanese, or better,
Chinese stock we are adding to the supply of our most desirable hybrids.

_Insect Pests._ The spring canker worm, _Paleacrita vernata_, has not
been destructive either in 1946 or 1947 and no special preventive
measures have been taken. Japanese beetles have done a little damage.
This year the first one appeared July 11. We find the best method with
these is to pick them off at dusk after they have settled themselves for
a night's sleep, dropping them into kerosene oil. Under these conditions
they will usually slip readily off the leaf into the oil. One thing I
should like to emphasize (which probably others also have noticed) is
that new beetles keep coming, day after day. Apparently the adults are
issuing from the ground all summer. Last year I found a few Japanese
beetles in November. So one must keep continually on the job all through
the season. This summer (1947) we have had a spray program of three
sprayings, August 15, 30, and September 10, with "Deenate" (fifty
percent DDT) to destroy the chestnut weevils which appeared for the
first time rather extensively in our Hamden plantations last year. (See
E. R. Leeuwen; DDT for chestnut weevils, American Fruit Grower 67: 28.
1946) This spray, which we have used on the ground as well as on the
young burs, kills Japanese beetles as well as the weevils. This fall I
have seen very few weevils in our whole crop of nuts.

The louse, _Callaphis castaneae_, appeared on July 5, 1947, at least the
leaves became so much curled that its presence was then noticed. Two
spraying on successive days with nicotine sulphate ("Black Leaf 40")
were sufficient to control it. With us this insect attacks leaves of
American stock only. Japanese-American hybrids are also susceptible, but
not Chinese-American or American-Chinese. The lice, of an orange color,
congregate in great numbers along the midrib of the leaf, sucking out
its juices.

This summer, perhaps on account of the unusual almost tropical weather
conditions--hot and humid with continually recurring showers--we have
been harassed by a new pest which has appeared in one of our plantations
only sparingly for five or six years--a mite, which Connecticut
Agricultural Experiment Station authorities say is _Paratetranychus
bicolor_. Affected leaves have a whitish or grayish color chiefly along
midrib and principal veins, due partly to the deposit of the creature's
shells on molting, and partly to injury to the tissues of the leaf.
Hexa-ethyl tetraphosphate, known in the trade as "Killex 100," was used
effectually twice as a spray. Unfortunately this chemical has no
ovicidal properties, so that a second spraying was necessary to kill the
mites newly hatched out from thousands of eggs. We are informed that DN
111 will kill the eggs as well as the mites and will kill aphids at the
same time. The mites seem to prefer Chinese chestnut leaves, but this
summer they didn't seem particular and spread from one badly infested
tree as a center.

[Illustration: Fig. 1--Japanese-American hybrid chestnut (Hammond 86-31)
34-1/2 feet in height, 16 years old. This is the same tree three years
later as that shown in figures 1 and 2, in 35th Ann. Rept. of Northern
Nut Growers Assoc. for 1944. Note healthy development, as shown by
foliage and long yearly growth. Hamden, Conn. Photo. Sept. 13, 1947 by
Louis Buhle.]

_Chinese Chestnuts._ I am enthusiastic about Chinese chestnuts as a nut
substitute for our old native chestnuts. The Chinese are quite blight
resistant. They are attacked by the blight fungus--at least most
individuals suffer at some time in their lives, and yet the fungus
doesn't thrive and the trees are able to overcome its attacks, in many
cases forming a healing wound callus around the lesions; in others the
lesion becomes simply a granular mass in which the fungus appears to be
living only in the outer bark. Cultivation, fertilization, and judicious
pruning certainly help these trees to withstand these fungus attacks. We
harvested a bumper crop last year and this from trees given us in 1929
by the Division of Forest Pathology, U.S.D.A.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Close-up of lower part of tree in fig. 1,
showing inarched basal shoots which at the beginning were as slender as
the leafless shoot now showing on right side, below, coming from base of
trunk. Note exposed dead part of trunk showing old canker disease. Photo
Sept. 13, 1947, by Louis Buhle.]

_Public Interest in the Problem._ Last fall, September 1946, in an
article in the Yankee Magazine, I asked for nuts and pollen of the
American chestnut. As a result the following persons from many different
parts of the country sent in nuts: Mr. Henry Hartung, Methuen, Mass.;
Mrs. Marie Garlichs, Brooklyn, from Lake Minnewaska, N. Y.; Mr. Charles
Ericson, Brooklyn, nuts from Staten Island, N. Y.; Mrs. Jay B. Nash, N.
Y. City, from Lake Sebago, Sloatsburg, N. Y.; Mr. H. W. Donnelly,
Tacoma, Wash.; Mr. George M. Hindmarsh, Kent County, R. I.; Mrs.
Steiner, Niota, Tenn.; Miss Marjorie Bacon, New Haven, Conn. from
Litchfield, Conn. through Dr. Edgar Heermance; Mr. Harold E. Willmott,
Bethel, Conn.; Mr. W. F. Jacobs, Tallahassee, Fla. (_Castanea crenata_);
Mr. P. P. Pirone, New Brunswick, N. J. (_C. crenata_); Mr. Morton F.
Sweet, Seattle, Wash. (_C. sativa_), nuts, and scions in March '47; Mr.
John I. Shafer, Sparta, Tenn. This lists shows not only the widespread
interest in the subject but also that the chestnut sprouts are still
bearing nuts. In some cases the nuts were "blind," i.e. sterile,
containing no kernel or embryo. In order to develop a good nut there
must be two chestnut trees within a reasonable distance of each other so
that cross fertilization may take place. Isolated trees will usually not
bear nuts. In other words, the chestnut is usually self sterile. We are
still planting all nuts received, labeled with the name and address of
the sender. The resulting trees are being set out in the Yale Forest in
Tolland and Windham Counties, Conn. under the direction of Mr. Basil
Plusnin, Forester in charge. Thus the possibility is being explored of
the existence of blight resistant strains of the American chestnut. When
nuts are sent they should be mailed within a few days after harvesting
and wrapped in moist cotton, peat moss or something similar. Drying of
the nut kills the embryo so that it will no longer germinate. Nuts
should be mailed to me at Chestnut Plantations, Wallingford, Conn.

Pollen of the American chestnut is getting scarce. After scouring the
vicinity of Hamden, Conn. this summer, we found a good supply at
Bethany, Conn. from native shoots. The following persons also sent us
American pollen, for which we are indeed grateful: Mr. George Gilmer,
Charlottesville, Va.; Mrs. M. E. Garlichs, Lake Minnewaska, N. Y.; Mr.
Alfred Szego, Pine Plains, N. Y.; Mr. Seward Pauley, Sumerco, W. Va.;
and Mr. Charles W. Mann, Fennville, Mich. To ship the pollen it is
necessary only to wrap small branches bearing the catkins in oiled paper
and mail to me, preferably by air mail. The catkins should be ripe, i.e.
shedding the pollen.

_Acknowledgments._ It is a pleasure to have this opportunity to express
our appreciation of the cooperation of the above mentioned persons. The
interest of these and many other persons and institutions is
encouraging. During 1946 and 1947 this project has been sponsored by the
Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, and we have as usual
enjoyed the cordial cooperation of the Division of Forest Pathology,
U.S.D.A. Dept. of Agriculture.

Beginning as of October 1, 1947, the work is also being sponsored by the
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. On July 1
I retired from my position as Curator of Public Instructor at the
Brooklyn Botanic Garden and shall now be able to devote my entire time
to the chestnut work. My permanent address will be: Chestnut
Plantations, Wallingford, Conn.

Chinese Chestnuts in the Chattahoochee Valley

G. S. JONES, Route 1, Box 140, Phenix City, Alabama

(Excerpts from letter to Secretary, Oct. 23, 1947.)

Growing trees is a work dear to my heart for I have been interested in
it since childhood. Dr. J. Russell Smith's book on "Tree Crops" is one
of the best I have ever read along the lines of growing trees to produce
food for man and beast as well as producing many other useful products,
and much of the work of your Association seems to be along the same
line. I am sure we can live easier and better on this earth when we
learn to use the trees in their proper place. Man often acts in a
shortsighted way by depending largely on annual crops for the main
source of food for himself and his animals and neglects the long lived
trees which may not have to be planted but once in a lifetime and which,
if given a little intelligent management, will improve instead of
deplete his land and at the same time make a far more beautiful

I only have a few trees (maybe 200 or 250) in my nursery which I usually
dispose of at the farm or use to set on my place. I have not attempted
to grow many seedlings as I don't wish to get into this phase of work.
It would take too much time from other work which I like to do. This
fall I have sold over 600 pounds of nuts to various nurseries for
planting so I would prefer that they grow and sell trees from my
orchard. I gather planting nuts from the trees which show the best
qualities, consistently, and sell the nuts from the other trees for
eating purposes. The trees from which I sell eating nuts have some bad
qualities such as some of the nuts being retained in burs, irregular or
poor production, and nuts that seem to be too dry at ripening so I would
not offer these for sale although the pollen from these trees does mix
with the others causing some of the nuts to carry these bad features, a
thing which will hardly be avoided in open-pollinated seedlings.

Your letter made me more proud of my orchard than ever when you made the
statement that my last year's production of 1,722 pounds for 22 trees so
young as mine may have set a record for production. [See 1946 NNGA
Report, p. 128--Ed.] I had little idea how my trees compared with other
orchards, for Mr. Gravatt had not told me anything about this. In fact I
have never seen him nor did I take the trouble to write and ask this
question. I knew my trees were producing much better than an orchard of
the Soil Conservation Service at Auburn but I attributed that to the
better type of soil (for chestnuts) in which my trees are set, and
better air drainage. I had also heard about an orchard near Blue Springs
above Columbus, Ga., which was not doing so well because the soil was
maybe too heavy or damp. I can say one thing and that is that my Chinese
chestnuts have surely surpassed my fondest hopes and dreams, for that
small area has certainly made me lots of money and has given me much joy
in tending it and watching it grow.

You asked me to give some information about my 1947 crop. This has not
been quite as large as last year as I have harvested only a little over
1,554 pounds (I say a little over for it is hard to get all the nuts) of
weighed nuts. This includes some that were beginning to spoil. I include
these since it is sometimes due to my failure to gather promptly and I
think can be fairly included in production records. I might state here
in fairness to last year's report of a yield of 1,722 pounds of nuts
that I recorded 1,557 as being sold which leaves a difference of 165
pounds, which were either discarded as spoiling or were unaccounted for.
This gives me a loss of approximately 10% for last year.

Although my total production was lower than last year I had one tree (ML
No. 2) which produced 150 pounds of weighed nuts and a few pounds more
(maybe 2 or 3) which were not included. This tree has been a consistent
heavy bearer for several years but I had not checked its yield
separately before. Since it is so early it was easy to keep the nuts
separate (as I was keeping these to sell for seed nuts). In about 2
weeks time it had produced about 130 pounds so I made a special effort
to check the remainder since I was astonished at so large a yield. When
most of the nuts had fallen I had the above figure, to my surprise.

The tree in size is not my largest but about average being 12-1/2" in
diameter 3' above the ground with a limb spread of 30' and a height of
24'. It has a very symmetrical shape with enough rigidity in the limbs
to hold them off the ground so the tree does not appear very large.

I just had to laugh when I got a letter yesterday from Mr. Ralph D.
Gardner, whom I had written previously about the yield of this tree and
sent 2 pounds of nuts from it, asking me if the tree produced two crops
in one year. He said Mr. James Hobson had told him that he gets two
crops from his tree each year. Mr. Gardner had a good reason to ask this
question since knowing about the Hobson chestnut, but I reckon he might
have thought about what I would have thought under similar
circumstances, i.e., surely a tree so young (13-1/2 years from setting)
couldn't produce that many nuts at one time, so must have two ripening
periods to contain the fruit. I will have to say that all these were
produced in one crop. Most of these ripened in just a little over two
weeks. I might say that I do have one tree (ML No. 1) which has on a few
occasions bloomed the second time and had burs which remained green
until near frost but these did not amount to anything and I consider it
undesirable. I have never seen No. 2 tree produce late blooms and burs.

I might tell a few things as to how I handle my nuts. As is well said by
Mr. Reed in his 1946 article about chestnuts they should be gathered
daily (although I sometimes don't carry this out). After weighing I dump
the nuts in a tub of water. The nuts which are beginning to spoil will
practically all float and the sound nuts will sink. This is where the
largest percentage of my culls is eliminated. Some good nuts will float
but very few if the nuts are gathered daily. I then put 20 to 25 pounds
of nuts in a coarse mesh burlap bag. I use chicken scratch feed bags
mostly as these are a nice size, and ties a string near the top of the
bag. Then I place these on a lath frame which is about 12" above the
ground under a large pecan tree which furnishes shade about 3/4 of the
day. I arrange the nuts in the bag so it will be flat, which does not
allow more than 2 or 3 nuts to be on top of each other.

On days of moderate temperature I wet these bags thoroughly with water
once a day but on very hot or windy days I often wet them twice. This
keeps the nuts moist most of the time and lowers the temperature
considerably from the evaporation. In this way I can keep the nuts days
and days and even weeks with very little change except a slight drying.
If any spoiled nuts were missed by the water these too will show up in
about 10 days with specks of white mold and can be eliminated. The other
nuts seem to be as good as the day they were gathered. I only use this
to keep them temperarily (as it is some trouble to wet them) and mostly
for the eating nuts until I can take them to market or put them on cold
storage (30° to 35°F.) If I attempt to hold seed nuts about a week or
more I pack in damp sphagnum in crates and keep these under the shade
tree with excellent results. This year I used green sphagnum with all
its water and the nuts seemed to keep well in it. Some nuts have been in
damp sphagnum for over 5 weeks now and are in excellent shape except for
a few that spoiled at first (which I am quite sure were bad to begin
with). If too much water is used some nuts will begin sprouting but it
is surprising how much they can stand and show no tendency to sour.

I am of the opinion that the chestnuts in my section get ripe
prematurely and that at a time when we often have our hottest and dryest
weather. These nuts seem to need a period to continue their ripening
under cool moist conditions which the wet sack treatment gives (or the
damp sphagnum.) Even if this is not the case I have had splendid results
with it whereas before I began using this method with lots of water I
often became so discouraged that I thought I would have to abandon
trying to put my chestnuts on the market. Now if I can get them gathered
promptly I have little trouble holding them until I am ready to dispose
of them.

I failed to tell you that the bad feature about my ML No. 2 tree which
produced the 150 pounds of nuts is its early ripening period (the latter
part of August and first part of September) which causes some of the
nuts to be spoiled almost when they fall. A few hours of too hot sun
seems to start the spoiling process. The tree has no other objectionable
features except the nuts are only small to medium in size but nearly
every one falls freely from the burs. [Nuts about 70 to the pound.--Ed.]

Some Results with Filbert Breeding at Geneva, N.Y.[6]

GEORGE L. SLATE New York (Geneva) Agricultural Experiment Station

This paper reports the results of attempts to improve filberts by
hybridization at the Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y. The filbert
project was started at Geneva in the spring of 1925 when a collection of
varieties from American sources was established. In later years
additional varieties from European and other sources were added until
about 120 were under test. As soon as the varieties had fruited for
several years it became evident that many of them were inferior and not
adapted to New York conditions. A few exhibited considerable merit and
the range of characteristics in the different varieties indicated that
it might be worth while to start a filbert breeding project with the
object of combining the desirable characteristics of the better sorts.

[Footnote 6: Journal Paper No. 719, New York State Agricultural
Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y.]

It was decided first to cross Rush, a selected form of _Corylus
americana_, with the best varieties of _Corylus Avellana_, Rush
contributing the hardiness of the native hazel, possible resistance to
filbert blight, and the hybrid vigor that sometimes results from the
crossing of two species. The European filberts were expected to furnish
large-sized nuts as well as dessert and cracking quality.

The first crosses were made in 1930 when two trees of the Rush variety
growing on Dr. MacDaniels' place in Ithaca were pollinated with pollen
of several varieties of _Corylus Avellana_ that was brought from Geneva.
Additional crosses were made at Ithaca in 1931 and 1933. In 1932 the
pollinations were made at Geneva, using a Barcelona tree covered with a
tightly woven cloth. No pollinations have been made since 1933.

In the spring of 1932, 535 seedlings were received from Willard G.
Bixby, of Baldwin, Long Island, N. Y., which had resulted from crosses
made by C. A. Reed of the United States Department of Agriculture, at
Baldwin. Including these U.S.D.A. seedlings and those resulting from the
breeding work at Geneva, 1,999 seedlings have fruited.

The nuts from these crosses were stratified in sand in a cold frame, dug
up, and planted in the greenhouse in early March. After one
transplanting they were moved to the nursery to grow for two years, when
they were moved to the seedling orchard. The nuts from one year's
crosses were planted directly in the nursery but germination was low due
to drought.

The seedlings were spaced 10 x 5 feet in the orchard. This spacing was
satisfactory if the trees came into bearing the fourth year, but if
unfavorable weather eliminated the first or second crops the trees
became too crowded to permit satisfactory fruiting. Usually, however,
the trees fruited sufficiently to make it possible to evaluate them and
remove the inferior trees so that the better seedlings would have enough
room to remain for several additional crops.

During the first few years the orchard was clean cultivated until cover
crops were sown in August. In later years the orchards were not
cultivated but nitrogen fertilization was substituted. Satisfactory
growth was maintained, but the grass and weeds made harvesting more
difficult. No pruning was done except at planting time as the seedlings
were all evaluated before pruning was needed. Suckers were removed
around the young trees, but as they became older this was not done and
some of the plants now have several stems.

Evaluating the Seedlings

The nuts were harvested in the fall after they had dropped, or, with the
later maturing seedlings and those which tended to cling to the tree,
they were harvested by picking or shaking them from the tree. As soon as
practicable the nuts were husked and the crop of each tree weighed and
recorded. Samples of nuts of every seedling fruiting were placed on
paper plates, each population being by itself, and eight or ten nuts of
each sample were cracked and left on the plate. The seedlings were then
divided into three classes, those that were obviously good, those that
were poor, and an intermediate class that received further attention.
The poor seedlings were marked for discard and if so marked for two or
three years they were pulled out.

The good seedlings were then examined more carefully and sorted into
three groups, as follows:

1. Those that were outstanding in both nut and tree characters.

2. Those that were good enough to propagate for a second test, but not
equal to the best.

3. Seedlings good enough to keep for further observation. These were
usually good in one or more characteristics but deficient or doubtful in
one important feature. If upon further testing these third group plants
proved to be outstandingly productive or hardy they were given a higher

In examining the nuts, emphasis was placed on size and color of the nut,
the large, bright brown nuts being considered more desirable than the
smaller, duller colored, pubescent nuts. The amount of space between the
shell and the kernel was important. If the kernel fitted tightly it was
easily broken or chipped in cracking the nut. Thickness of shell was of
minor importance as only a few were thick enough to make cracking

The kernel characters were of most importance since the kernel is the
reason for producing the nut. The kernel must be plump, smooth, light
brown in color, and free of the superfluous pellicle, or fibrous
material that is characteristic of the Barcelona kernels. Generally,
seedlings with Rush as one parent had very little of this superfluous
fibrous material and the best of them were much superior to Barcelona in
appearance and dessert quality. Flavor received less consideration since
most of the seedlings were reasonably good in that respect.

Given a good kernel, and there were many of them, it became necessary to
rely upon other characteristics to eliminate the less desirable of these
seedlings. It was here that the records of yields and catkin hardiness
were valuable. After several years it became evident that certain
seedlings were consistently high yielding while others were low
yielding. Hardiness of catkin also varied greatly and rather
consistently from year to year. Weather conditions influenced catkin
killing greatly. Catkin hardiness is important since the pollen is
necessary for nut production and must be present in abundance as its
movement in the orchard is subject to the vagaries of the wind, and only
a small percentage of that in the air ever comes in contact with the
stigmas of the other varieties.

It is the purpose of this paper to indicate the value, insofar as it may
be estimated from the available data, of the different varietal crosses
in obtaining desirable filbert hybrids. Table 1 contains a list of
crosses made, the number of seedlings raised, and the percentage of
these which were of sufficient merit to be retained for further study.
The percentage of seedlings propagated indicates even more definitely
which crosses are of the greatest value in producing superior seedlings
as only the outstanding seedlings were propagated for a second test.
Selections included in Table 1 are there by virtue of their all-around

Crosses between Rush and Littlepage and Rush and Winkler produced
nothing of value. The populations were small, but other equally small
populations from other crosses produced seedlings of value. The
inter-crossing of selections of _Corylus americana_ does not appear to
be a promising line of attack in filbert breeding where hybrids with _C.
Avellana_ will thrive.

Rush and Barcelona were each used as seed parents in crosses with the
same eight varieties. In the crosses involving Rush 1,232 seedlings were
produced and of these 39, or 3.2%, were good enough to propagate. Of the
306 seedlings raised from the same varieties combined with Barcelona
only 4, or 1.3% were worth propagating. None of these Barcelona
seedlings are among the best. Under the conditions of the experiment it
would seem that Rush is much superior to Barcelona as a parent in
crosses with varieties of _Corylus Avellana_.

The cross between Kentish Cob and Cosford failed to produce any
seedlings of outstanding merit.

In considering the productiveness and hardiness of the catkins of the
seedlings resulting from the different crosses the data have been
assembled in Tables 2 to 5, each table containing the summarized records
for different plantings. These plantings were started at different times
and the records are not directly comparable as they are for different
years and varying lengths of time. In Table 1 the total number of
seedlings is given, but in Table 2 to 5 only the data for the selections
are used. Records for the selections are available for several years,
whereas the inferior seedlings were discarded and limited data only are
available. Furthermore, the filbert breeder is interested primarily in
the worthwhile material that may be taken from populations of known

Assuming that we have a fairly good nut productiveness is the most
important characteristic in a filbert. If the plant is productive it
must of necessity be reasonably vigorous and hardy. For that reason much
emphasis has been placed on productiveness in the final evaluation of
the selections.

The selections in Table 2 are from the U.S.D.A. Bixby plants which were
the first to fruit at Geneva. Considerable variation in productiveness
is evident in the different populations. Rush x Kentish Cob and Rush x
White Aveline selections were only about half as productive on the
average as Rush x Barcelona, Bollwiller, Red Lambert, and Daviana. Rush
x Italian Red also failed to produce high-yielding selections. In a
later planting in the same orchard, as shown in Table 3, the Rush x
Kentish Cob selections performed no better, the Rush x Red Lambert
selections outyielding them by a substantial margin. The Barcelona x
Italian Red selections were very low yielding.

In orchard 22, as shown in Table 4, where Rush and Barcelona are crossed
with the same varieties, the resulting selections from the Rush crosses
are about one third more productive if mean yields are considered, or
one-half more productive if only highest yielding selections are
considered than with the Barcelona crosses. Cosford has been outstanding
in transmitting productiveness in crosses with Rush, Italian Red, and
Nottingham. Rush x Kentish Cob selections in this orchard as in the
other planting, were only about one half as productive on the average.
In the crosses with Barcelona the combination with Medium Long, Red
Lambert, and Italian Red were considerably more productive than crosses
with Purple Aveline, Halle, Daviana, and Bollwiller.

The Kentish Cob x Cosford cross was less productive than most of the
other combinations made. Kentish Cob definitely appears to transmit
unproductiveness when crossed with Rush, Barcelona, and Cosford.

In orchard 8 as shown in Table 5, the trees soon became very crowded as
the discards were not removed and the yield records were less reliable
than in the other plantings.

Winterkilling of catkins were recorded on the selections for several
years. In early April the percentage of winter-killed catkins was
recorded by estimate. Tables 2 to 5 contain the mean of these estimates
and a considerable variation in catkin hardiness in the different
populations is evident. Red Lambert, which had the hardiest catkins of
any variety of _C. Avellana_ tried at Geneva, produced a higher
proportion of catkin-hardy seedlings than any other variety. Cosford was
fairly good in this respect and in orchard 16 Bollwiller, Italian Red,
and Barcelona when crossed with Rush produced selections with moderately
hardy catkins.

Winter injury of catkins was nearly always very high in crosses between
varieties of _Corylus Avellana_.

Of the 1,970 seedlings included in Table 1, 340 or 17%, were retained
for further observation and of these, 52, or 2.6%, were considered good
enough to propagate for a more extensive test. Of these 52 a few thus
far have been outstanding when compared with the others. Possibly the
best and most productive selection is No. 1265, Rush x Purple Aveline,
that is the heaviest yielding of all and the nuts are also among the
best, being of medium size, plump, and free from fiber. This seedling is
far superior to any others from the same cross. Nos. 1408 and 1467, both
selected from a Rush x Cosford population, are close seconds to No.
1265. In the Rush x Cosford population are several others nearly as
good, the general level of merit in this combination being fairly high.
Farther down the list, but still among the best, are No. 110 Rush x
Kentish Cob, and No. 157, Rush x Barcelona. Filbert breeders working
under similar conditions would probably find it worthwhile to make these
crosses and also to produce more seedlings from Rush x Red Lambert than
were raised at Geneva.

No crosses have been made at Geneva in recent years, but all of the nuts
from the selections, sometimes several hundred pounds a year, have been
planted by the Soil Conservation Service and the resulting seedlings
planted in various parts of the country. Undoubtedly, if these could be
examined when in fruit, some worthwhile selections could be made. Those
in New York State will probably be worked over during the next few

  TABLE 1. Results from filbert crosses.

                              Number of  Num-   Percent- Number Percent-
                              Seedlings  ber Re-  age Re-  Prop- age Prop-
  Cross                        Fruited  tained   tained  agated  agated

  Rush x Kentish Cob (Du Chilly  430      63       14      11          2
  Rush x Cosford                 447      52       12      11          2
  Rush x Bollwiller              165      18       11       6          3
  Rush x Italian Red             118      17       16       2          1
  Rush x Red Lambert              36      10       28       6         16
  Rush x Daviana                  13       2       15       2         15
  Rush x Purple Aveline           12       3       25       1          8
  Rush x White Lambert            11       0        0       0          0
  Rush x Barcelona               119      20       16       3          2
  Rush x White Aveline            54      10       18       3          5
  Rush x Imperial deTrebizond     24       5       21       1          4
  Rush x Nottingham               23       7       30       2          8
  Rush x Brixnut                   8       2       25       0          0
  Rush x Littlepage               12       0        0       0          0
  Rush x Winkler                   6       0        0       0          0
  Barcelona x Kentish Cob (Du-
     Chilly)                      42      21       50       3          7
  Barcelona x Cosford             57      27       48       1          2
  Barcelona x Bollwiller          11       2       18       0          0
  Barcelona x Italian Red         66       9       13       0          0
  Barcelona x Red Lambert         41      12       29       0          0
  Barcelona x Daviana             21       5       24       0          0
  Barcelona x Purple Aveline      25       8       32       0          0
  Barcelona x White Lambert       43       1        2       0          0
  Barcelona x Medium Long         45      16       35       0          0
  Barcelona x Early Globe         78       0        0       0          0
  Barcelona x Halle               12       6       50       0          0
  Barcelona x Red Aveline          9       1       11       0          0
  Kentish Cob (Du Chilly) x
     Cosford                      35      22       63       0          0

        Total                   1970     340       17      52     2.6

  TABLE 2. Yields and winterkilling of filbert catkins, Orchard 16, 1935
  1937, 1938 and 1939. Yields are 4 year total. Catkin injury is
  5 year mean

                              No. of   Mean    Highest    Mean     Lowest
                               Selec-   Yield    Yield   Percent-  Percent-
                               tions   per Se-  per Se-  age Cat-   age of
                                       lection  lection    kins     Catkins
                                         in       in      Winter-   Winter-
  Cross                                Ounces   Ounces    killed    killed
                                                          per Se-

  Rush x Bollwiller              18       81      143         21       4
  Bush x Kentish Cob (Du Chilly) 12       38      117         36       3
  Rush x White Aveline            9       44       73         42       0
  Rush x Barcelona                6       94      147         26       8
  Rush x Imperial de Trebizond    5       81      100         28      10
  Rush x Italian Red              3       79       80         15       3
  Rush x Red Lambert              3       88      116          7       3
  Rush x Daviana                  2       82      110         33      26
  Rush x Purple Maxima            1       37       37         17      17

  TABLE 3. Yields and winter injury of filbert catkins, Orchard 16, 1937-41

                                         Mean    Highest    Mean     Lowest
                                        Yield    Yield   Percent-  Percent-
                                       per Se-  per Se-  age Cat-   age of
                               No. of  lection  lection    kins     Catkins
                               Selec-    in       in      Winter-   Winter-
  Cross                        tions   Ounces   Ounces    killed    killed
                                                          per Se-

  Rush x Kentish Cob (Du Chilly) 26       38      102         68       5
  Rush x Barcelona               14       52       89         90      38
  Rush x Red Lambert              5       67      117         12       5
  Barcelona x Italian Red         3       18       20         83      73

  TABLE 4. Filbert selections. Orchard 22. Yields 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942,
  1944, 1945 and 1946. Catkin injury records 1939-42, inclusive.

                                        Mean    Highest    Mean     Lowest
                                        Yield    Yield   Percent-  Percent-
                                       per Se-  per Se-  age Cat-   age of
                               No. of  lection  lection    kins     Catkins
                               Selec-    in       in      Winter-   Winter-
  Cross                        tions   Ounces   Ounces    killed    killed
                                                          per Se-

  Rush x Cosford                 26      129      229         42       0
  Rush x Kentish Cob (Du Chilly) 25       68      185         70      13
  Rush x Nottingham               7       96      180         31      14
  Rush x Italian Red              3      114      181         45      30
  Rush x Purple Aveline           3      114      240         42      25
  Rush x Red Lambert              2       90      127         21       8
  Rush x Brixnut                  2       49       51         62      58
  Barcelona x Cosford            27       90      138         62      32
  Barcelona x Kentish Cob
     (Du Chilly)                 21       69      126         69      25
  Barcelona x Medium Long        16       93      257         83      71
  Barcelona x Red Lambert        12       83      147         52      13
  Barcelona x Purple Aveline      8       50       73         78      55
  Barcelona x Italian Red         6       84      133         90      81
  Barcelona x Halle               6       52       79         52      23
  Barcelona x Daviana             5       53       75         67      59
  Barcelona x Bollwiller          2       66       94         62      58
  Barcelona x Red Aveline         1       91       91         56      56
  Barcelona x White Lambert       1      103      103          5       5
  Kentish Cob (Du Chilly) x
     Cosford                     22       62      151         64      33

  TABLE 5. Filbert selections. Orchard 8. Yields 1940, 1941, 1942 and 1944.
  Catkin injury records 1940, 1941 and 1942.

                                        Mean    Highest    Mean     Lowest
                                        Yield    Yield   Percent-  Percent-
                                       per Se-  per Se-  age Cat-   age of
                               No. of  lection  lection    kins     Catkins
                               Selec-    in       in      Winter-   Winter-
  Cross                        tions   Ounces   Ounces    killed    killed
                                                          per Se-

  Rush x Cosford                 26       25       47         30       2
  Rush x Italian Red             11       25       39         27       0

       *       *       *       *       *

Discussion after Mr. Slate's paper--

_MacDaniels: "Of the 1999 seedlings tested at Geneva, 52 are being
carried on for further observations. Prof. Slate is doing a fine work."_

_J. R. Smith: "I want to express my appreciation of the work Prof. Slate
is doing. To care for 1999 seedlings and keep the performance records is
a big job and just the kind of thing on which progress depends."_

Nut News from Wisconsin


This year at River Falls, Wisconsin, which is only 35 miles southeast of
St. Paul, Minnesota, the season started off with much rain and a delayed
cold spring. All the grafting had to be postponed from two to four weeks
later than normal. The stored scion wood suffered some because of this
long storage period, and some of it was quite dry when taken out. This
was particularly true of the Weschcke butternut and these scions looked
so dry that I was tempted to throw them all away, but instead I gave
them to two young horticulture students to practice with. None of them
grew, however, so we had a 100% failure on butternut grafting. About a
dozen years ago I had much success grafting butternut on black walnuts
and was unimpressed, therefore I did not make any notes as to the
process I used. This was a mistake for apparently I have lost the art.
The last five years has probably produced only about five or six plants
successfully grafted on black walnut. Hickories respond much better and
I usually get about 50% successful grafts on my native butternut stocks.

Although the insect pests, such as the butternut curculio, were delayed
in their attacks, they eventually caught up and destroyed most of the
big butternut crop and did their usual damage to heartnut and Persian
walnut growth. I noticed in the American Fruit Grower that plum curculio
was controlled in the peach orchards through the use of hexaethyl
tetraphosphate. If this chemical poison controls plum curculio, it ought
to control any of the curculio family, such as the hazel curculio,
chestnut curculio and butternut curculio. The butternut and hazel
curculio appear to me to be the same insect. I am not troubled with the
chestnut curculio yet, but if this chemical gives control over the
curculio insect family we will certainly be able to raise large crops of
all of the nuts mentioned.

Quite a few of my grafted test trees, both in the forest and in the
orchard, which in some cases were grafted on bitternut hickory stocks
fifteen years ago, are beginning to bear. These varieties are the Woods,
Fox, Taylor, Platman and Davis. Others which have borne a few times
previously also have good crops set. These are Bridgewater, Glover,
Beaver, Kirtland, Deveaux and Fairbanks. The trees setting the largest
crops of hickory nuts are the Weschcke, and they are the only ones that
I can really count on maturing early enough to escape our usual early
fall frosts.

I derive great pleasure in observing new seedling plants of filberts,
hazels and their hybrids coming into bearing for the first time this
year. There are about two hundred of these new varieties. Of course most
of them will be worthless commercially. The ideal hybrid hazilbert has
not yet appeared, but when it does we will propagate it for sale as
rapidly as possible.

At this date, August 20, we have suffered from an extremely dry August
and will apparently lose many trees that we cannot reach by irrigation
or some other means of watering.

We have been busy at the farm and nursery erecting a small pilot plant
for grinding filbert butter which we expect to be able to put on the
market between October 15 and November 1.

There is about a one-fourth crop of black walnuts in my orchard trees,
with the Thomas leading. Many of the Ohio trees are barren. Usually the
Ohio bears freely.

It is my observation here that the wild hazels and some of their hybrids
will drop their crop of nuts when it becomes too dry. This probably is
an excellent feature from the standpoint of the plant as it no doubt
saves the plant from being killed by drouth.

There is no doubt in my mind but that the hazel-filbert hybrids
(hazilberts) will make a large agricultural crop in the corn belt. When
these crops are shelled in local plants and ground into butter the
industry will fall into much the same category as country creameries.
However, we have not reached the point where we have the right
commercial plants for this purpose and for the time being will have to
use the Pacific Coast filberts until such large crops of the ideal
hybrids appear.

Home Preparation of Filbert Butter and Other Products

MRS. JEANNE M. ALTMAN, Bellingham, Washington

Filberts may be prepared in different ways at home to make a delicious
food. To make filbert butter first shell a roasting pan two-thirds full
of kernels and put it in a 325° oven. Stir the kernels thoroughly and
often to get an even tan. Cut a few in half to determine when they are
brown enough. Cook about thirty minutes. Do not leave in oven any longer
than necessary because the kernels begin to brown rapidly upon further
cooking. Cool and stir when not too hot. Most of the brown pellicle can
be removed by rubbing kernels between one's hands. Run the kernels
through a food chopper or meat grinder to make a Crunchy butter. To make
a more delicious product, however, first run the kernels through a
coarse knife, salt them and then run through a fine knife. This results
in a butter with enough oil of its own to make a delicious dish. It
takes lots of nuts to make much filbert butter.

In preparing salted filberts in quantity I cook them in a strainer in a
kettle of deep fat. Check the temperature with a thermometer and do not
let them get too hot. Cool them quickly by putting them into a cold dish
and stirring. When salting the whole kernels put only enough fat with
them to coat the pellicle. After they are sufficiently brown take them
out and salt them as they are cooling. Stir just enough to coat the
kernels with salt. Eat pellicle and all; it holds the salt. Stirring too
much tends to remove the salt.

You can treat a pound of nuts at a time in a heavy iron skillet on top
of the stove stirring constantly. When we follow that practice we eat
them salted just as they were instead of grinding them. I think they are
better than salted peanuts.

I sent a recipe to one of our west coast papers and they added a note to
drain them on a paper towel. That is wasteful and unnecessary. A
Bellingham dentist put whole nuts into his false-teeth baking oven in
the evening. I do not know what temperature was maintained but it must
have been low because he left the nuts there all night and the next
morning he found them all roasted and ready to eat.

Filberts, even the green ones just as they come from the tree, may be
boiled and then salted and buttered. They may be used to advantage in
many cooking and baking recipes.

Notes from Central New York

S. H. GRAHAM, Ithaca, N. Y.

This summer has been a difficult one for black walnuts. A late spring
delayed starting and three freezes during the week beginning Sept. 22
prematurely checked development so that poor filling seems to be the
rule. The Persian walnuts again demonstrated their ability to ripen
their nuts in a short season.

Some of our Persian walnut trees are growing in the partial shade of
larger black walnut trees. We prefer to keep these larger trees as they
may be valuable stocks to be grafted to the superior varieties that one
is always hoping will appear later on. This condition gives a good
opportunity to observe the effect of shade. There seems to be no doubt
that even light shade is detrimental in our latitude to the Persian
walnut and results not only in more spindling and unsymmetrical growth
but also interferes with proper ripening of the wood making it more
subject to winter injury.

One difficulty with the Persian walnuts in the East is premature falling
of the nuts. The female flowers on the young Persian trees that we have
seen are usually more numerous than with black walnuts of the same size
and age, but even hand pollinating often fails to give a good set of
nuts. Last spring we took pollen from eight of our Persian trees to the
pomology department of our State College of Agriculture for germinating.
The best sample showed 45% viable pollen; the next best 15% and the rest
from O to 5%. This had been collected and stored for several weeks
according to the methods given by Dr. Cox in the annual report for 1943,
page 58. It is possible that this lack of viability may be due to some
soil deficiency such as insufficient lime or boron. Prof. Schuster of
the Oregon station writes that they find that Persian walnuts readily
accept good Persian pollen but not black walnut or butternut pollen. If
the viability of the pollen falls below 50% they consider it
unsatisfactory. On some of the Oregon soils an application of boron in
the form of ordinary borax under the trees in the spring has greatly
helped in getting a crop of nuts. This should be well worth trying in
the eastern states.

The filbert crop this year is better than usual. Out of over a thousand
crosses between Rush and Winkler with European and Pacific Coast
varieties, in our estimation, only one has proven worthy of propagation
considering size, flavor, abundance of bearing and resistance to filbert
blight. Some growers think lightly of blight but our experience in
fighting it through the years in cutting out cankered wood has convinced
us of the futility of this means of control in infested areas. Control
measures may apparently succeed for a time but when conditions of
moisture, heat and air movement are just right it can spread like
wildfire. Therefore, to us, resistance to this disease (Cryptosporella
anomala) seems of paramount importance. The prevalence of blight has
been almost universal in the scattered plantings which we have visited
in central New York, usually without the owner knowing why his trees
were dying. All our European and Coast varieties, as well as most of the
hybrids, take blight readily but there is an occasional hybrid that is
clearly resistant. Bixby is one of these.

We have always used a knapsack sprayer equipped with a mist nozzle for
our trees but this is inadequate as the trees grow taller. This summer a
much more satisfactory nozzle was found that may be quickly adjusted to
throw a mist for low trees or a far reaching one for the taller trees.
This is made by the D. B. Smith Co. of Utica, N. Y.

From time to time articles appear on insects injurious to nut trees.
Frequently mentioned are the web worms and the walnut caterpillars. With
us, the damage they do is as nothing compared to that caused by the
curculios, the strawberry root worm beetles and the leaf hoppers. We are
getting the upper hand of the curculios by the use of cryolite spray but
the root-worm beetle problem is still unsolved. Until Rev. Crath wrote
of leaf hopper damage (Annual Report 1938 p. 111) we had not regarded
them as at all serious. Subsequent observation has convinced us that he
was right and that they are often the cause of the blackening and dying
of the tender young leaves of Persian walnuts and the curling up of
older leaves. We were especially impressed during the Wooster, Ohio,
field trip last year and, later on, in seeing how Mr. Sherman had
overcome this trouble on the Mahoning Co. farm simply by adding DDT to
his spray mixture.

In closing, we would like to call the attention of new members to the
wealth of information that is to be found in the old Association annual

Experience with the Crath Carpathian Walnuts

GILBERT L. SMITH, Wassaic, New York

In the spring of 1935 we purchased from the Wisconsin Horticultural
Society two pounds of the nuts which Rev. Paul Crath had imported from
Poland. We planted these nuts in the nursery row. Sixty-two seedlings
resulted. We assigned a number of each of these seedlings and
transplanted them when they were two years old. Here we made our first
mistake. We selected what proved to be a very poor site for them,
adjacent to and nearly surrounded by woodland, in which were a goodly
supply of butternut curculios which we have found to be by far the worst
insect enemy of the Persian walnut. It attacks the terminal growth doing
some damage by feeding but principally by laying eggs in the terminals
and the fleshy base of the leaf stems. From these eggs grub-like larvae
hatch which bore into the terminal and the leaf bases, greatly dwarfing
the terminal growth. We have found as many as six larvae in a single
terminal. Of course they also like to lay their eggs in the young nuts
which then drop from the tree in mid-summer.

In the spring of 1937 we started to graft from these seedlings on black
walnut stocks, giving each the same number as that of the seedling from
which the wood was taken. It is too bad that we did not start this work
sooner as we lost a few of the seedlings, largely through the ravages of
the curculio, but possibly some of them were just not rugged enough to
stand our climate. We still have 49 of these varieties living, either as
grafts or the original trees. To this collection we have added a few
varieties, securing wood from seedlings being grown by others. We have
had living grafts of some of the named Crath varieties which we suppose
developed from some of the wood imported from Poland by Rev. Crath. All
of these have failed with us except one, Carpathian D. Apparently they
were not hardy enough for our climate.

So far we have had only one severe test of our Crath seedlings, as to
hardiness. This was on February 16th, 1943, when the temperature at Mr.
Benton's farm was thirty-four degrees below zero. This was not official
but was registered by two thermometers which Mr. Benton knew to be very
accurate. Many of our Crath seedlings showed no injury at all on this
occasion while others showed varying degrees of injury. Our grafts of
Broadview were damaged quite severely, Carpathian D to just about the
same extent. One other named Crath variety, Crath No. 1, was killed
outright. Only one of our seedling varieties showed as severe injury as
did Broadview. This was S 12. This tree has now fully recovered but we
will not grow any trees from it except for more southern latitudes and
then only if it shows exceptional merit when it begins to bear.
Therefore, according to our experience so far, there is quite definite
evidence that these Crath seedlings are hardier than Broadview. McDermid
was killed outright.

We have found that practically all Persian walnut trees, when young,
will bear pistillate blossoms for several years before they bear
staminate blossoms (catkins). This fact has delayed us in securing nuts
from these seedling varieties and has compelled us to resort to hand
pollination. However, they are now beginning to produce both kinds of

The first one to bear was in 1944, when one tree bore twelve nuts which
had resulted from hand pollination with pollen sent us by Mr. Reed. This
variety appears to be the most promising one that has borne so far. We
have named it Littlepage and have had a booklet printed which describes
it fully. We will be glad to mail a copy to anyone who wishes. We have
now found a good pollinizer for Littlepage, our No. S22 seedling. This
variety produces pollen at just the right time, some of which I used
this spring to hand pollenize the Littlepage tree. A fine crop of nuts
is now on this tree as the result of this pollination.

Last year (1946) we had a few nuts from each of five other seedling
varieties. While we did not consider any of them equal to Littlepage,
they were all worth growing and compare quite favorably with English
walnuts as found in our markets. This year we have nuts on each of
eleven varieties, five of them and the same ones that bore last year and
six new ones. Now that these seedlings are beginning to bear we are able
to cull out any that prove to be very inferior. As our facilities are
far too limited to thoroughly test the promising varieties, we have
started to propagate them and offer them in many parts of the country
and subject them to many different conditions. Thus it should be only a
matter of time until the truly worthy varieties will prove themselves.
If we were wealthy we could propagate them and distribute them free of
charge but I doubt if it would prove as satisfactory as it is to charge
for them, as it seems to be a trait of human nature to take better care
of that which costs us something. We will not name these new varieties
at present but will put them out under their test numbers. Later the
ones that prove best can be named.

To facilitate the distribution of these new varieties we are getting out
a folder showing natural size pictures of the nuts of the six varieties
which were produced last year, with a brief description of each. I am
very sorry that I was unable to get these folders from the printer
before coming to this convention. However we will have them very soon
and will be glad to mail a copy to anyone who requests it.

As stated before we have found that the butternut curculio is a very bad
pest with the Persian walnuts, also heartnuts and butternuts. It does
not injure the black walnut at all. There are also several other insects
which feed on the Persian walnut, most of these chewing insects that
simply injure the foliage more or less severely. Last winter I was
advised by Dr. Dean of our experiment station staff, to try benzene
hexachloride (hexachlorocyclohexane) for control of the curculio. He
stated that in California they have found out that the Persian walnut is
quite susceptible to arsenical injury when a spray containing arsenate
of lead is used on it. Also tests so far indicate that D.D.T. is not
very effective against the apple and plum curculio, therefore not likely
to be effective against the butternut curculio. So last spring we
secured a supply of benzene hexachloride. Just as we were about to spray
the trees I discovered a swarm of orange colored insects with black wing
covers, feeding on them. So I checked the compatibility chart in the
February issue of the American Fruit Grower and found that benzene
hexachloride and D.D.T. were compatible when used together in the spray
mixture. I thought it would be well to use a double barreled dose. So we
made up a spray of four pounds of benzene hexachloride, four pounds of
D.D.T., 50% wettable powder, and 6 pounds of wettable sulfur to 100
gallons of water. This first spray showed a slight burning of the
leaves, which I suspected was due to the sulfur. We omitted sulfur from
the later sprays and did not note any more burning. We put on three
sprays at about two week intervals and a fourth spray about the middle
of July. The result of these sprays appears to be excellent. I have
found only one nut showing any insect injury and this one was only
slightly injured, whereas last summer we lost a considerable percentage
of the nuts from curculio injury. A day or two after applying the first
spray, I wanted to secure a specimen of the orange-colored insects with
black wing covers, but I could not find a single specimen.

We did not apply our first spray quite soon enough and curculio larvae
had already invaded a few of the terminals. The first spray should be
applied about as soon as the leaf buds separate and quite likely should
be followed by the second spray in about a week, as new growth is very
rapid at this time and the scant foliage at the time of the first spray
would hardly hold enough of the chemicals to give control for more than
a few days.

Observations on Hardiness of the Carpathian Walnuts at Poughkeepsie, New


In our section we have very good Persian walnut varieties of Carpathian
and other European sources. I have planted some of all strains and
varieties. My place faces northwest on a good elevation. My experience
with trees there is that we have no winter injury. We can grow trees
there that cannot be grown on some place which is situated low, and
therefore does not have enough air circulation. Damage is done after
heavy frosts when the sun comes out suddenly. That is what damages the
trees--not the cold.

If you take trees and put them in a temperature of 35 to 40 degrees
below zero and bring them out to thaw gradually no harm is done. Most
people buy trees and plant them in low places; that is the error. We
have planted trees where the wind is very heavy throughout the winter
and in the spring I found that these trees stood up wonderfully well;
whereas, we have European walnut trees with a trunk diameter of about 12
to 14 inches that in one year froze two to six feet--about three to four
years growth. If you plant your trees on a fairly good elevation you can
be assured of a good nut crop. In planting nut trees I do not know what
kind of fertilizer you use, but I always use well decayed cow manure and
put a little right around the root system. I never use fresh manure and
never use poultry, sheep, or horse manure. They are bad for trees as
they are very high in ammonia and this does damage to the trees.

Discussion after Graham, Smith, and Bernath Persian walnut papers.

Corsan: "Is using lime a good idea? I always use a lot of wood ashes."

Stoke: "Use ground agricultural limestone. Burned lime may cause

J. R. Smith: "Barnyard manure is the best."

Stoke: "With the Carpathian walnuts there is no uniformity in winter
injury. I have had the Crath variety kill back to two inch wood. Most
others have never shown winter injury."

Corsan: "When is it practical to take mulch away?"

MacDaniels: "If you take mulch away too late you will get more injury
than if you don't take it away at all."

Member: "Why does my young walnut tree not bear?"

Bernath: "English walnut trees may produce pistillate blooms for a
number of years before they produce pollen so that if you have only one
tree it may be due to lack of pollination."

Member: "With English walnut is more than one tree necessary for
pollination? The male blossom appears a week or 10 days before the

Crane: "Persian walnuts should be used to pollinate Persian walnuts--do
not depend on black walnuts. In growing Persian walnuts it is best to
have trees of two or more varieties in a planting so as to provide cross

Stoke: "Persian walnuts may not pollinate black walnut, but black walnut
has pollinated the Persian walnut in known instances."

MacDaniels: "Control or uncontrol of pollination is very complex."

Crane: "We find that we can not readily produce Persian x Eastern black
hybrids under conditions of controlled pollination. We have found a
number of natural hybrid trees but they bear very few nuts."

Nuts About Trees

R. E. HODGSON, Superintendent, Southeast Experiment Station, University
of Minnesota.

When hiking with a Boy Scout troop, they often asked me, "What tree is
that?" In summer I could usually tell an oak from a box elder but had
never had much reason to go further into the subject until the boys
exposed my ignorance. In self defense I began to hunt up the names and
found it a most interesting hobby.

The University of Minnesota has a branch experiment station some 80
miles south of the Twin Cities and it is here that a few acres have been
roped off as a testing site for whatever trees of interest we can
persuade to grow. My job is with field crops and livestock but my golf,
fishing, hunting and bridge are mostly played with a spade and pruning
shears or wandering around in the brush somewhere looking for something
new. Our soil is a heavy clay loam of Clarion type containing plenty of
lime but often poorly drained. It is very rich and productive being at
one time part of Minnesota's big woods. Native trees are basswood, oak,
elm, ash, walnut and their associates.

My ignorance concerning trees is still profound and becomes more
apparent as acquaintance matures, but it has been a lot of fun to start
about 130 varieties of trees and shrubs and watch their development. The
Latin names are mostly a mystery to me, but their habits, methods and
rate of growth along with soil preferences and winter survival have
furnished more entertainment for me than picking shot out of a dead bird
or furrowing the turf on a putting green. It has been a real thrill to
see cypress, sycamore and even a few yellow poplars, survive our rugged

The project began with an attempt to collect native trees and expanded
to make room for some exotics, just to see what would happen to them.
Detours and by-paths included attempts to grow various conifers from
seed and persuade cuttings to root. Somewhere along the line nut trees
began to enter the picture and now these have an alcove all to
themselves. Perhaps it started when a neighbor offered me $5.00 if I
could tell whether a young sprout in his yard was butternut or walnut.
He died before I found the answer which was probably common knowledge to
most people. The color of the pith did not seem reliable, but at last a
book pointed out the little moustache a butternut wears just above each
leaf scar. It worked, and the thrill was equal to catching a 10 pound
wall eye!

I was raised on the prairie part of southwestern Minnesota and it was a
delightful surprise when I moved 140 miles east to find that one could
gather almost any desired quantity of black walnuts from remnants of the
old forest. After a few years these trips to the woods became less
glamourous and the pickeruppers more critical. Many of the wild nuts
were small and hard to crack. Perhaps a friend's Thomas tree in full
bearing with its heavy crop of huge, tasty nuts inspired a wish to grow
bigger and better producing trees near at home.

It looked easy to transplant vigorous, 6 foot black walnut whips which
could be had for the digging. It took 10 years to learn that nuts
properly planted would make larger trees in a decade than transplants.
Digging 2 deep holes to move one tree seemed a waste of labor when one
planted nut would better serve the purpose. Of course nut planting led
to a contest of wits with the squirrels.

It was a funny sight to watch a helper carefully placing nuts at regular
intervals in an open furrow and a big fox squirrel following 10 feet
behind him, removing the prizes as fast as he could scamper up and down
a nearby hollow oak. Our ideas concerning appropriate locations for
walnut trees did not coincide with those of Mr. Bushytail. We learned
that the simple way to plant walnuts in the woods was to pile a half a
bushel here and there. The tree climbers took their toll, but did a good
job of planting. Survival seemed better than when we placed individual
nuts and "stepped them in."

The desire for bigger, better and more useful nuts led to the planting
of a couple of acres to seed from various trees of known value. These
will not come true of course but it is hoped that some day they may
serve as material for a small nut breeding project in which an attempt
will be made to combine some of the more desirable chromosomes into a
single tree that retains the best of what we have in present selections,
and adds a little more hardiness between growing seasons. Who can tell?
We might find a tree that the walnut worms didn't like!

The squirrels didn't fancy our plans to grow trees in rows according to
parentage, so they tried to improve our technique. We almost called in
the F. B. I. to circumvent their machinations. Jamming an open tin can
over the planted nut seemed to help. When the sprout came up we turned
up the edges of the split can bottom just enough to let the tree
through, but the sharp jagged edges seemed to discourage marauders. A
lot of other methods were also tried.

From the Wisconsin Horticultural Society we obtained a pound of English
or Persian walnuts in 1937. So far we have some 23 seedlings struggling
to keep alive. They range in height from 18 inches to 7 feet and are
definitely out of their range. Some years they grow 4 feet of new wood
and some winters it all kills back. There seem to be differences in
hardiness and--who can tell?--they might even bear a nut some day. Bark
injury, which may be winter sun scald, has damaged some of the trees.
One tree of the Broadview selection is alive after four years and may
make a go of it.

Hickories grow wild in certain parts of Minnesota, but this doesn't
happen to be one of those parts. They seem to do best where soil is acid
in reaction and here we are amply supplied with lime. That may account
for the slow growth of a grafted Hales hickory tree. It was 3 years old
when set out in 1921. For the first 9 years it had just 2 leaves per
year. Now approaching 30, the tree is 7 to 8 feet high and going up at
the rate of 8 to 12 inches a year.

Nuts from Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota wild hickories, have done
better. At 8 years the trees are from 1 to 2 feet high, with a couple of
Shakespeares, (geniuses) towering a foot above them. This may not be
hickory country, but, by gum, they're growing! A couple of years ago,
Dr. Brierley from the Central Station, Division of Horticulture, who has
nut propagation as one of his minor projects, gave us 7 seedlings of
shellbark hickory, (Carya laciniosa), from a tree planted many years ago
by Peter Gideon of Wealthy apple fame. After 2 winters, these 7
seedlings are still with us and seem to grow faster than the shagbarks

Other attempts to vary our diet (if we live long enough) are a few
Chinese chestnut seedlings. A couple secured from the Nut Tree
Nurseries, Downington, Pa., in 1940 are now 3 and 4 feet high and
apparently in a good state of health. They are leisurely growing, which
may be a good thing. Trees like the Manchurian walnut which grow 6 to 8
feet of new wood in a year, seem to freeze back and start over more
frequently than the trees which poke along but harden their wood before
cold weather. In 1946, a few more seedlings from D. C. Snyder, Center
Point, Iowa, were set out and most of them have survived the first
winter. Carl Weschcke reports that chestnuts do best for him at River
Falls, Wisconsin, in sandy soil with an acid reaction. If I ever raise a
chestnut, I'd like to send him one.

Fooling with nuts has led to another activity which has been pleasant
though not very practical so far. Each spring, Dr. Brierley spends a
couple of days with me trying to graft some of the named varieties to
our available wild trees. We have raised nuts on some of the hickory
scions grafted to the plentiful native bitternuts, but in general our
grafts have failed. We have had good advice from many sources and have
tried most everything but our successes have not been numerous enough to
cause any inflation of the ego. We're inclined to think that the sudden
wide variations of temperature which are common here in May, can be the
controlling factor. We've made a few walnuts, hickories, and hicans
grow, but still have too many zeroes for any complacency. This year may
be our bonanza. Most of the grafts on some 40 trees are shooting buds.
Perhaps it's the grafting tape we tried this spring. In 1948 we'll be
able to write it all down in the book--and try again.

Nuts are not the only food crops growing on trees. We have read the
glowing reports of sweet pods of honey locust grown on such varieties as
Millwood and Calhoun, as told by John Hershey and J. Russell Smith. Our
Millwoods all killed the second winter and this year we're trying
Calhoun. Meanwhile, we're hunting for a hardy, northern grown sweet
tree. Miss Jones asked nut growers to tell me what they had and several
interesting replies and samples were received. The quality of the pods
varied all the way from the sweet Millwood to our native honey locusts,
most of which are so bitter and astringent that they remind us of a
combination of green persimmons and red pepper. No sensible animal will
touch them. Cions were received from a tree in Omaha, Nebraska, through
the courtesy of F. J. Adams. These were grafted on local trees this
spring and perhaps they will answer all of our needs.

Our attempts to grow better nuts in southern Minnesota have not caused
even a ripple in the local economic situation, but it has been a lot of
fun. Perhaps the greatest return so far is the interesting
correspondence with like minded people in many localities. Amos Workman
of Hurricane, Utah, sent seed of his best black and Persian walnuts,
pecans and figs. The figs didn't even start (probably my ignorance), but
we have trees coming from all the rest. J. Russell Smith has been most
helpful with suggestions and the "Minnesota Horse Thief" as he calls me,
has enjoyed his letters immensely. John Hershey has passed along some of
his enthusiasm for trees and many others have contributed to the
pleasure of a fascinating hobby.

It's fun to grow trees even though some of the unusual things provide
only exercise and entertainment. Our persimmons grew from seed, were
transplanted and came through the first winter! One pawpaw is still
trying to get ahead of the winter set-backs, and a Macedonian white pine
(said to produce edible nuts) is doing fine. Perhaps I'm the biggest nut
of all, but I'm happy about it!

Report on Nut Trees at Massillon

RAYMOND E. SILVIS, Massillon, Ohio

I will first give an account of plantings observed recently in or near
Massillon, and, secondly, a condensation of my own introduction to nut

Louis Bromfield in his richly descriptive book "The Farm" writes, "On
the way one passed the big orchard which was Jamie's pride, and beyond
one came to the field where the big hickory stood. It was a memorable
tree, famous in the countryside for bearing enormous nuts with shells so
soft that the faintest tap of a rock or a hammer would lay open the
bisque-colored kernels." He also writes a reference to the ingredients
of candy making at Christmas time in which a good many recipes called
for hickory nuts and walnuts.

In Massillon Mr. Alvin Schott, when he drove by the farm of Mr. Lester
Hawk and read his sign, "Chinese Chestnut Trees for Sale," thought of
the chestnuts he used to eat. Since he, like the rest of us, cannot go
out along the road in the fall and pick up chestnuts as of old, he
declared to plant some nut trees on city park land so that the younger
generation could in a small measure recapture that which now is only a

After making numerous talks and speeches to all the lodges, civic clubs
and P. T. A.'s, he received donations and publicity to help him in his
project. He enlisted the help of other civic nut-minded personnel to
help him select the trees and locations for planting. Boy Scouts and
school children dug some of the holes. When it rained (it seems to rain
every time a shipment came in) Mr. Schott would call us away from our
work and have us dig holes. We have planted in city parks: 13 Hawk
chestnuts, 10 Thomas black walnuts, 8 hazel, 4 mulberries, 2 Broadview
Persians, 2 Josephine persimmons, 3 pecan seedlings, 1 hican, 9 large
seedling black walnuts and several hickories.

We have additional money for another spring planting. Thus Massillon has
joined the list of cities that own trees that will produce something
else besides leaves.

On August 17th Mr. Gerstenmaier and I drove to Ira, Ohio, to visit Mr.
Cranz and take advantage of his invitation to inspect his nut planting.
At this moment I believe that his invitation was made with the subtle
purpose of bragging about his excellent crop of Thomas black walnuts and
filberts. The trees were originally planted by squirrels and later
grafted by Mr. Cranz. They grow at the bottom of a huge hill or
escarpment 200 feet high at the top of which is his planting of 20
_mollissima_ chestnuts. It's a long climb through his neatly scythed
pathways on a hot day. Afterwards I felt like I needed the can which he
usually carries.

Recently I found a young black walnut which I hope may be a good
selection for further work. It is too early to make any predictions, but
I can assure you that a careful check on the tree's performance will be
interesting. Thin shell, good kernel cavity, etc.

Near Bolivar, Ohio, stands a young shagbark hickory which bears a nut
about the size of a Pleas hican with a very smooth kernel cavity and a
thin shell. Even though small this is another nut which will bear

I believe the greatest interest in nut trees will develop when a
definite program of controlled crossing is instituted.

When I became a member of this organization in 1939 I was managing
almost 1,000 acres of farm land. My own 90 acre farm was being farmed up
and down the hill because the fences were built that way. My plan was to
change over to a contour operation. After reading "Nut Growing" and
"Tree Crops" I decided to plant nut trees at 100' intervals along the
edges of the contour strips. I had a twofold purpose, to produce more
revenue and preserve the contour method of farming.

I ordered grafted nut trees from Jones Nurseries, Crath seedlings from
Graham and 200 northern pecan nuts from Wilkinson. Homer Jacobs, really
"sold me" on the Nut Growers Association and then sent me scions of the
Wilcox hickory. I was successful in getting two to grow about 100'
apart. Miss Jones sent me Pleas hican wood and one graft grew between
the two Wilcox. All were grafted on shagbark stock, breast high using
the late Mr. Fickes' method. The pecan nuts were stratified and given
the usual nursery care and at three years of age were transplanted to
the farm along with 200 seedling black walnuts and 100 chestnuts. These
seedlings were to be used as stocks for grafting the newer and superior
productive varieties. This was 1943. The farmer became dissatisfied with
my soil conservation tendencies and moved away. The war developed in
earnest and I matriculated at a defense plant. The farm just grew up. I
was not dissatisfied. I was just tired. I couldn't find enough time to
manage 1,000 acres of farm land 20 miles south; work at a defense plant
20 miles north and operate my insurance and real estate business. So I
sold all the farms including mine with the nut trees.

Now it is 1947. It was only two years ago that I made a decision to
relinquish the 90 acre farm. A short time ago I found all the grafted
trees bearing fruit except the hickories and hican. The grafted
Zimmerman, Stoke and Hobson chestnuts have died and most of the pecan,
walnut and chestnut seedlings planted on the contour strips have
succumbed to the mower, etc. I could find none of the grafted hickories
purchased through the years except one Fairbanks. The present owners are
enthusiastic over the early bearing chestnuts and are taking care of all
the remaining survivor trees.

I have reached the conclusion that any farm in this section of the U. S.
with enough hope to warrant contour farming is usually marginal land.
This is land which barely pays the cost of working or using; land
whereon the costs of labor, coordination and capital approximately equal
the gross income. I believe that a planting of grafted nut trees on the
edges of contour strips will increase the value of that farm and should
have the attention of every county agent and farm owner.

I am no doubt the worst "grafter" in the business. When I get one out of
20 sets to grow I am startled, not so much with the statistical
percentages but because a small stick of wood from Kentucky can make its
home on the roots of an Ohio cousin. I believe that scion storage is
important and I wish to report that the method which Dr. Shelton
explained in the 1945 report is very satisfactory. The next best is John
Gerstenmaier's apple storage cellar, which he and I have used ever since
my interest in nut bearing trees brought us together.

It is still 1947. I'm still in the real estate business. I recently
purchased 160 acres of land in an adjoining county and placed title in
my son's name. He is six years old. I should be free of any inclination
to sell this for fifteen years. Since there are no buildings I won't
have a tenant problem. This spring I purchased and planted grafted
hickories and grafted black walnuts and set them in supposedly
favorable locations where I hope they will maintain themselves. In
addition I planted about 200 Hawk seedling chestnuts spaced about 20 to
30 feet apart. These were planted in three different locations. One
group was planted under the canopy of a locust grove, another on an
exposed hilltop which faces the prevailing westerly winds. The third is
on a broad hilltop field which does not have the best drainage since the
top soil is clay underlaid with sandstone shale. All of these groups
grow on land abandoned some years ago. The soil fertility is generally
low. Volunteer native growth of cheery, ash, dogwood and hawthorn

If I can continue to plant for the next fifteen years I should have
quite an orchard, or else my son will have a good hardwood forest. I
hope that all of us here can meet there then.

Discussion after R. E. Silvis' paper.

Mr. MacDaniels: "It is a good idea to have nut trees established in the
parks. In your home town there is usually a park in which nut trees can
be used. Very often it just takes initiative to get these things
started. Boy Scout organization is very good at starting projects like
this. Chestnuts are more difficult to establish than other trees."

Dr. Gravatt: "Nut trees should not be grown along the curbs because
people will gather the nuts that fall on the road. This is very
dangerous where there is much traffic."

Stoke: "Walnuts are much more satisfactory as park trees than Chinese
chestnuts. People are so prone to break off branches bearing immature

Dr. MacDaniels: "Wire guards are excellent to keep mice, rabbits, etc.,
away from your nut trees."

Planting of Nut Trees on Highways Undesirable

R. P. ALLAMAN, Harrisburg, Pa.

Having always opposed this practice when it was under discussion, I have
been asked to prepare an article on the subject. This paper was prepared
in collaboration with Mr. Wilbur H. Simonson, Senior Landscape
Architect, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D. C.

Since the beginning of the roadside improvement demonstration program in
1933 the policy of the Public Roads Administration has never favored
planting of the showy, garden type of fruit and nut trees on highway
roadsides for several reasons:

1. =Traffic Hazards=--Dropping of fruits and nuts on pavements tends to
make surface conditions slippery and dangerous to traffic.

2. =Police Problems=--Ripening of fruits and nuts tends to invite passing
motorists to stop on side of highway pavements to gather the fruits,
adding to traffic hazard. Also such trees tend to invite vandalism by
boys together with clubbing the trees to get down the fruits with the
possible results of not only injury and damage to the trees themselves,
but throwing sticks, stones and clubs into the tree branches is likely
to result in hitting or striking passing motorists and otherwise cause
loss of control of vehicles by drivers, a very dangerous road condition
especially because it is an unexpected situation to have clubs or fruit
come down on the highway when driving through.

This all means more intensive policing of the highway by the responsible
authorities with added costs in maintenance budgets.

3. =Maintenance Problems=--Not only do dropping of fruits, and the results
of vandalism, cause extra cleanup of pavements and drainageways,
(clogging of pipes and gutters with debris from the trees) all hazardous
to traffic; but also the questions of insects and disease problems are
added. This all complicates public maintenance problems and especially
the proper pruning and spraying of the trees.

It is not considered a proper function of public authorities to carry on
operations that compete with private property developments.

Administrative policy and procedures shall encourage the planting of
shade tree types along public highways, and avoid the above described
difficulties that are =bound= to occur if nut-bearing types of trees are
placed on highway areas.

References: Bennett's book on Roadside Development, 1929, pages 6 and
52, also page 527 of the proceedings for the twentieth annual meeting of
the Highway Research Board in 1940, regarding the selection and use of
trees on highway areas, as recommended by the Committee on Roadside
Development. I quote from these the following extracts:

"Profusely flowering fruit or nut-bearing trees are not desirable, as a
rule; very showy garden types of flowering, fruit or nut-bearing trees
should be avoided in roadside planting. Experience indicates than
vandalism is encouraged by planting any species of tree commonly used in
garden, commercial fruit, or nut orchard planting."

"Trees which drop heavy masses of petals, fruit or nuts on highway
surfaces are not desirable. Horticultural varieties of flowering trees
(particularly those of exotic origin such as the Japanese cherries)
should be avoided in roadside planting because a too garden-like
appearance of planted roadsides will usually indicate excessive annual
maintenance costs, and probably heavy future losses of planted material
because of competition with superior and more rugged native tree
species." _Re:_ Vandalism, parents are responsible for acts of their
children and public plantings should not encourage children towards acts
of a vandalistic nature, with trouble not only for the tree but also for
the parents in keeping the children in order.

Nut Growing for the Farm Owner


It is with trepidation that I present a paper on nut growing before a
group so much more learned in the subject than I. But two things impel
me to do so. First, the firm conviction that nut trees, carefully
chosen, properly planted and intelligently cared for, have a place on
many farms as a cash crop for the market and a food crop for the farm
family and, second, the poor results from many nut tree plantings on
farms. As may be imagined, my conviction is not based upon results seen
but upon the possibilities I know are inherent in nut trees.

When the first wave of publicity for soil conservation was at its zenith
back in the late 30s, I listened to a talk, the substance of which was
that there are no such things as submarginal land, and problem areas.
There are only submarginal people and problem people. Land does not
destroy itself nor is squalor self-created. Human qualities create both
conditions. Therefore the problem to be tackled is the ignorance,
cupidity or stupidity of those who create such conditions.

This made a profound impression on me. It has influenced my thinking in
all things connected with our renewable resources. Our success in
growing anything, whether it be cotton, corn or nut trees, depends
largely upon ourselves. If we mix three parts of intelligence with one
part of effort, the yield will be manifold.

Much of this intelligence should be of the "green thumb" variety, a
mixture of common sense and keen observation. The one using this kind of
intelligence would plant black walnuts in a deep, rich, well-drained
loam, because he has observed that this species grows best and yields
more heavily in that type of soil. He would plant the trees with top
roots not more than one inch under the surface of the soil because he
has noted that is the way they grow naturally. He would strive to keep
foliage on the tree as long as possible because he knows that the leaves
are the manufacturing part of the tree. Without them the tree could not
grow and would not produce filled nuts. He would do many other things
essential for proper tree growth and yield.

But unfortunately several of the farm nut tree plantings I have seen
show a woeful lack of "green thumb" intelligence. I recall one in
particular because of the condition of both the trees and the owner. The
planting originally consisted of twenty Chinese chestnuts, fifteen named
black walnuts, four hicans and four Persian walnuts. The owner
originally was an enthusiastic convert to nut growing. Today the
planting is a failure, while the owner is an irate backslider who would
not plant another nut tree even though it bore ten dollar bills. Four
years after planting, nineteen of the twenty chestnuts, all hican, three
Persian walnuts and ten black walnuts were dead. Of the remaining seven
trees only one could be called healthy. Examination soon focused the
picture. Most of the trees had been planted on an eroded hillside
deficient in humus. In addition, many of them were planted from three to
ten inches too deep. The only thriving walnut was planted at the proper
depth and in a pocket of top soil at the base of the slope. Under
questioning, the owner said that he had purposely planted them deep to
"keep their roots cool." That is a widely held horticultural fallacy
which is unconsciously fostered by many nurseryman. In their
instructions they say to plant the tree one inch deeper than it was in
the nursery. Too many laymen reason that, if planting the tree one inch
deeper will help, then the tree should do even better if planted six
inches deeper.

After eighteen years of trying to learn why transplanted trees do not
thrive, I am convinced there are four main causes. I list them in the
order of their prevalence. First and foremost, too deep planting.
Second, fibrous roots allowed to become dry. This may occur in transit,
in the hands of the purchaser or because of air space around the roots
after planting. Third, deficiency of moisture due to low humus content
of the soil or drought. Four, rodent damage. While some nut trees are
possibly more difficult to re-establish than a few other species, if
care is used to see that none of these four conditions occurs, there is
no reason why a well-rooted tree should not grow and remain healthy.

Up to this point I have been dwelling on the negative side. Though it
must be confessed that the preponderance of such planting has not
fulfilled the owner's expectations, we must remember that the fault does
not lie in the trees but in the human element. If the purchaser of nut
trees has received proper instructions and carries them out faithfully,
the trees will grow. Not all of the fault, however, can be placed upon
the purchaser. The nurserymen should remember that there is a place for
gilded pictures and glowing generalities but that place is not in the
directions for planting and care. These directions should be practical,
precise and detailed, with no implications of Midas returns from a half
acre grove. Every grower of nut trees knows that problems and troubles
continue to arise which tax his knowledge and experience. How much more
baffling such difficulties are to the layman who is just embarking on
the venture of growing trees.

I have planted nut trees and have seen them grow to maturity and yield
bountifully. I have seen a few farm tree plantings which have more than
repaid the time and effort. Though the varieties now grown by nurserymen
are inferior to those that I am confident will be produced at some
future time, they still have sufficient merit to warrant planting.

You who are interested in nut trees which thrive in the northern states,
must recognize that two factors contribute to the development of
superior strains. One is hybridizing and the other sport development.
The former is a long term project which should have institutional
backing. The opportunity for the latter, that is, chance development of
a superior or unique variation, is in direct ratio to the number of nut
trees growing in the area. Successful farm nut growers, dotted over the
region, will, therefore, increase the chance that finer strains will

But whether the farm nut grove ever abets science and produces the long
sought superior nut, is of little importance compared to its value to
the farm. It is incumbent, therefore, upon every nut enthusiast, who has
a hand in bringing to the attention of farm owners the value of nut
trees, to be meticulous in giving instructions for their planting and

Tree Crop and Nut Notes from Southern Pennsylvania


_Broadview English Walnut_--This hardy variety seemed so good it took a
lot of effort to keep from recommending it commercially. The oldest tree
in our section, owned by my brother, bore lightly for several years.
With its fine flavor, tree beauty and hardiness it edges closer and
closer to where we can recommend it commercially. In its seventh year it
bore a half bushel; the 8th, this year, it's really loaded. I have
planted 30 trees.

_A Southern Persian Walnut_ The northern man in the south loves the cool
climate, Persian walnut. I have found chance seedlings here and there,
even down to northern Alabama. One tree, northeast of Knoxville,
Tennessee, had a good quality nut and was seemingly resistant to sun
scald. Starting late in the spring it avoids the late frosts so damaging
to horticulture in the south.

_Cornell Black Walnut_--This new variety, a Thomas seedling, named
Cornell by its originator at Ithaca, New York, bore one nut for us in
1946. The boys at Cornell like it because it fills even in an abnormally
cool season of the Finger Lakes region when natives fail. You can't
decide an issue with one nut, but our specimen was as large and full of
high-flavored, white meat as the Thomas, and as thin-shelled as the
Stabler. So attractive does this variety appear that I am reserving it
this fall in order to plant several in orchard form to produce scion

_Honey Locusts_--The latest report on their performance comes from J. C.
Moore, Soil Conservation Service at Auburn, Alabama, on February 3,
1947. Their laboratory tests of Millwood show a sugar content of 36.65%,
and Calhoun 38.95%. The animal husbandry department of the Alabama
Experiment Station at Auburn has found the pods equal to oats, pound for
pound, in a dairy ration. A team of mules fed for 30 days on pods showed
satisfactory results. Cows and hogs showed equal success. At 5 years of
age, Millwood averages 58 pounds and Calhoun 26 pounds per year. At
eight years, Millwood bore 200 pounds, and Calhoun 60. The pods fall
from October 15th to December 30th. Lespedeza sericea planted between
the trees yields 2-1/2 tons per acre annually. This gives us courage to
continue emphasizing their great value for pasture and rough land
planting. The trees we planted in our swampy, worn-out meadow are doing

_Mulberries_--This great chicken, bird and hog feed will some day fill a
definite place in the sun of the American farmer, just as it does in
Asia. The drawbacks are lack of hardiness and short bearing season in
the north. The Hicks variety bears for six to eight weeks but is not
hardy north of the Mason-Dixon line. This year we have grafted eight
varieties of which seven are new. One from southern Indiana, an American
seedling selected by a mulberry enthusiast, bears for six to eight
weeks. Will it be hardy farther north? We shall know soon. Six are from
select seedlings of L. K. Hostetter, of Lancaster, Pa., the mulberry
king of America. The other is a fine white, a chance seedling from 75
miles north of Pittsburgh. It has not borne yet but was far hardier than
Downing last winter. I have a few of these to sell this fall. Mulberries
need sweet soil to prevent winter killing. On worn out soils we have
discovered that they do well until established, by applying a few
handfuls of lime around the tree at planting time. Not only are they
excellent for the above mentioned uses but the right varieties are
better than raisins when dried.

In 1945 we set a leaky corner of sandy meadow to honey locusts. I saw
them growing in semi-swamp land in Alabama, but here all but two of the
18 trees died. When replanted in 1946 also they died. I found the two
that were living were carelessly planted too shallow, with the top roots
sticking out of the ground. We replanted more trees in the spring of
1947 with the top roots above the ground level, mounded soil over them
about 6 to 10 inches, then mulched. They are all growing fine.

_Starting a Tree Crop Farm. What Is It?_--It consists of a blended,
balanced program of cattle, hogs, poultry and sheep pasturing under
mulberries, honey locust, persimmons, oaks, etc., plus the hog feed from
the refuse chestnuts, walnuts and Chinese dates. The great secret of
nature is that your security lies in a balanced land use between animal
and plant production with crops for animals, and animal manure for the
crops, with a margin of each for the profit book. I bought this
abandoned swampy, rocky, sandy soil farm of 72 acres, to show how it can
be done on land too rough for the plow. The first requirement was to
work out a program with permanent crops to bring in a continuous return,
while planting and developing the slower bearing nuts and crop trees. I
have found you must live on the farm a year to learn which soils and
sites are best for a species. For instance, the field that fitted my
plan to plant walnuts is too wet, so there we shall plant the hickories,
pecans and hicans with persimmons as fillers. The place where I wanted
walnuts was too sandy, so we shall plant chestnuts and filberts, and
where I wanted chestnuts the soil is good for walnuts.

_Starting a Profit Cycle_--To create a return as quickly as possible on
such a cycle we started a small flock of chickens, ducks and geese. The
next step was to decide what to plant of a permanent nature to make a
succession of crop income from spring until the nut crop comes in
autumn. In the spring of 1945 we planted an acre of asparagus and one of
raspberries. In 1947 both started bringing in returns. In 1948 they will
be in full production. In 1946 and 1947 we set an acre or more of
blueberries. Half of the blueberries were planted in a semi-swamp,
useless to farm or pasture, but the home of blueberries after we drained
it. These will start bearing in 1948 and increase in production for ten
years. We have 2 cows for family milk as I nearly live on it. The
surplus we use in vealing calves as well as to start a herd.

The first year we took in about $100, the second $150; to date we've
taken in $850, plus an inventory increase of 5 nine months old bulls and
6 year old heifers. No soil can live without manure and, due to the
results of over 20 years of organic soil management, we use no chemical
fertilizers. Hence, we need lots of manure. I can not afford to buy
straw so we use shavings and sawdust for bedding.

We apply to the manure in the stables about 100 pounds per animal of raw
phosphate rock a week, which sweetens the dust and helps feed the soil.
We also buy straw for seven riding horses for the manure, as this is
great fox hunting country. While this young stock is supplying manure
for the soil it is increasing in value. Our program is expensive because
time needed in the nursery and orchard prevents us from growing grain,
but when you start you can grow grain. We shall soon be having stock to
sell each year which will add to our income.

While these crops are contributing to our keep, our time is used in
developing the slower-bearing, permanent tree crops, 600 mulberries for
hogs and cattle, 350 honey locusts, nearly a 100 persimmons, 50 oaks, 50
Chinese Jujubes and 90 filberts, all going well. To this we added in the
spring of 1947 5 acres of Persian and black walnuts with chestnuts
interplanted in the row. These are our future feeds for a bigger and
cheaper hog, cattle, sheep and poultry feeding program, as well as
providing food and cover for wild life. We have yet to plant 5 acres of
mixed hickory, hicans and pecans interplanted with over 100 seedling
persimmons and a six acre boulder field of black walnuts interplanted
with chestnuts and a 5 acre sandy field of chestnuts interplanted with

The rest of the farm will be in nursery, hay and cereals. Now hold in
mind these vital factors. To get rich just planting a farm of nuts or
any other one crop is a delusion, with the bankers eventually holding
the bag, the soil and owner taking a licking. Nature is a balanced
force, soil undisturbed is a delicately balanced flour barrel of never
ending life. Learn of nature how to protect this soil, that shallow
insulation board between man and disaster.

After feeling our way over 3 years this is what we found best in
handling trees. In the meadow where we planted honey locust, and on a
rocky knoll with oaks, the first year we applied a shovelful of night
soil and a light mulch of leaf compost. The second summer we mowed,
raked, and forked the hay to the tree in a wide circle. It was amazing
the life activity that was created under this mulch by the next spring.
Mice were controlled by pulling the mulch 3 inches from the tree in
early fall and with poisoned wheat under the mulch. In the spring of
1947 we mulched a 4 to 5 ft. circle around each tree with manure two or
three inches thick. You should see the trees growing. One-half was mowed
for hay and on the other half electric fences were put up along the tree
rows and the field was pastured. We planted the walnuts and chestnuts in
a sod of natural white clover and timothy. Walnuts were planted in 60
ft. rows with a chestnut tree every 30 ft. Here, three rounds were made
with the plow and disk and the ground was manured before the trees were
planted. After planting one shovelful of night soil, or two or three
shovelfuls of cured slaughter house tankage, were applied to each tree.
The rows were kept clean until June and then sowed to soy beans.
Sufficient manure was available to make it possible to complete a manure
mulch around these trees. The field where the hickory and pecans are to
go has the tree rows plowed, manured and soy beaned ready for planting.
We plan to use the same method in future plantings.

Notes from the New Jersey Section of the Northern Nut Growers


(As a suggestion to some other State Vice-Presidents the editors print
parts of a letter from Mrs. Buckwalter whose husband was long a valued
and active member of the N. N. G. A.

"After receiving the annual report I sent reply post cards to each of
the members in New Jersey. I received answers from about one-third of
them and have assembled some of their reports and questions to send you,
along with a few notes about our orchard.")

Wm. M. Daugherty of Princeton reports that his three hundred
ten-year-old black walnut trees had a fine set of nuts this spring.
However, a hail storm in midsummer stripped the trees of both leaves and

From Saddle River, Dr. Harold Blake reports that his black walnuts are
doing well, but a late spring frost killed the catkins on the Cosford,
Medium Long and Italian Red filberts. Mr. Blake suggests a theory of
bark rot and asks the opinion of other nut growers. He noticed that in
several instances of bark rot on Thomas and Stambaugh black walnuts the
diameter of the scion was larger than that of the stock. He concludes
that the scion was taken from a faster growing tree than the one that
was used for the stock and that the so-called bark rot is cambium rot
due to the fact that the smaller stock does not completely feed the
cells of the naturally faster growing section. Dr. Blake therefore
suggests more study of the compatibility of scion to stock, especially
in regard to growth and bearing. He notes that in fruit trees the root
stock is of importance in this regard and it may be that the variance in
reports from different localities on black walnuts and other nut trees
may be due to the difference in root stock as well as climate and soil

Edward Fuhlbruegge of Scotch Plains has long tried to grow pawpaw
seedlings with no success. He wants to know if any other New Jersey
members have been able to raise pawpaws from seed.

     (Ed.--He should keep the seedbed moist through the summer. These
     seeds germinate slowly and the seedlings cannot emerge through a
     hard soil surface.)

The observation of Gilbert V. P. Terhune of Newfoundland is that the
native chestnuts continue to sprout and occasionally produce nuts. He
predicts that in years to come we will again have our native chestnuts.
[Ed.--Someone should carefully save his nuts and grow trees from them.]

John H. Donnelly of Hoboken asks other nut growers for their opinion of
using cut grass as a mulch for nut trees. [Ed.--Excellent.]

From Fairlawn J. L. Brewer states that his black walnuts do not seem to
have any bad effects on raspberries and strawberries, thus adding
another note to the long controversy as to the deleterious effects of
black walnuts on the soil. His Texas pecan and Indiana hickory
seedlings, although planted in favorable location, have not made a good
growth. [Ed.--Did he feed them?]

Louis P. Rocker of Andover reports his Thomas and Stabler walnuts had a
good crop in 1946 but this year have few nuts.

This planting (Buckwalter) consists of _Castanea mollissima_,
_mollissima_ hybrids and _Japonica_ (crenata). Due to circumstances
during the war years, we have not been able to do much with this
orchard; however, we hope gradually to build it up.

In 1946 the part of the chestnut crop that was harvested was infested
with the chestnut curculios. About fifty per cent of the nuts were
affected. No infestation had been noted in previous years, although in
1945 the crop was not harvested at all. [Ed.--That gave the worms their
chance to propagate.]

We will not be able to spray our entire chestnut orchard this year;
however, a few of the trees will be sprayed to determine the
effectiveness of DDT as a control. In the December, 1946 issue of "The
American Fruit Grower" it was stated that DDT as a wettable power (four
pounds of fifty per cent DDT to one hundred gallons of water) should be
used. Three applications gave best results, and this will be tried on
our trees.

This year we have a good crop of nuts and hope to select the best of our
trees, which will be included in next year's report.

Report of Resolutions Committee

The Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc., is bringing to a close the
38th annual convention with deep appreciation of the complete and
satisfying hospitality which we have enjoyed at the hands of our hosts,
the Ontario Agricultural College. We have enjoyed the beautiful, well
kept, and spacious grounds, the substantial and well planned buildings,
the thoughtful and pleasant help of all of the personnel with whom we
have come in contact, especially Dr. J. S. Shoemaker, head of the
Department of Horticulture in whose building we have had satisfactory
meeting place, display room, use of lantern and operator, and the
esthetic satisfaction of looking at beautiful flowers harmoniously

We have been well nourished with good food, well prepared and
expeditiously served.

We especially appreciate the courteous entertainment that the faculty
ladies have so kindly arranged for the ladies who accompany us.

For many years Clarence Reed has been one of the "war horses" of the N.
N. G. A. We were expecting to see him cap this long service by presiding
over this session, and it was with great sorrow that we learned of his
inability to be with us.

Your Resolutions Committee wishes to call attention to the excellent
manner in which Dr. L. H. MacDaniels has conducted the sessions of this

It is with great regret that the members of this Association learned of
the resignation of Miss Mildred Jones as Secretary. Her work in that
office has been of an unusually high order of efficiency and devotion.
It was the kind of work which shows the enthusiasm that arises from deep
personal interest. Her services will be greatly missed.

  Dr. W. Rohrbacher,
  Dr. J. Russell Smith,
  Sterling Smith,
  Wm. Hodgson.

Report of the Necrology Committee


Mr. Joseph Gerardi, 78 year old nurseryman, died at his home in
O'Fallon, Ill., on April 3rd, 1947.

Mr. Gerardi was an enthusiastic and especially well informed student of
nut culture. He was always looking for new and better seedlings, some of
which were named as they were found worthy. His Gerardi hican is
probably one of the best in that group. He also introduced the Gildig
pecans (Gildig Nos. 1 and 2) and the Fisher pecan. Mr. Gerardi was quite
successful as a propagator and always tried to have nursery stock of the
best varieties. His loss will be keenly felt. His son, Louis Gerardi,
will continue the propagation of nut trees at Caseyville, Ill.

(The following notes are supplied by Louis Gerardi.--Ed.)

Joseph Gerardi was born in the year 1868 on the old Hagamann farm, five
and one-half miles northwest of Lebanon, Ill., in O'Fallon Township. He
was the fourth child of John and Catherine (Haas) Gerardi.

When he reached the age of five years, his parents moved on a farm three
and one-half miles southeast of Trenton, Illinois, in Clinton County.
His early schooling was obtained in the McKee School near his home and
in St. Mary's School in the town of Trenton, Illinois. After graduating
from the eighth grade, he helped his father through the spring and
summer months with the farm work, but in the winter attended McKee

In the year 1894 at the age of 25 years he left the home farm in Clinton
County, and moved to a farm two and one-half miles southeast of
Jerseyville, Illinois, in Jersey County. Here he began the study of
fruit growing, and became an agent for the Stark Bros. Nursery.

In 1907 he married Eleanor Collignon of Trenton, Illinois. To this union
six children were born: Eleanor Barbara, Sharlotte Catherine, Eugenia
Ruth, Louis Joseph, Bernice Marie, and Gertrude Beatrice.

In the spring of 1918 he sold this farm and moved to Trenton, Ill.,
where he worked with his father-in-law, John Martin Collignon, doing
construction work. During this year he searched for a farm with soil
suitable for fruit growing.

In 1919 he purchased a 110 acre farm situated two and one-half miles
west of O'Fallon, Illinois. The next year he set out twenty acres of
Stark Bros. trees.

While living on this farm in the fall of 1920 the little family had its
first great loss. Here the oldest girl, Eleanor Barbara, died from a
railroad accident.

Julius Rohr, watching him work with his trees, encouraged him to start
his own nursery because he knew so much about trees. With this
encouragement, he started his own nursery in 1923. As demand increased
he added a general line of nursery stock.

Being interested in better varieties of fruit trees, he also became
interested in better varieties of nuts. Having some native nut trees on
his farm, he began to buy the better varieties of nut trees grown by
other nurseries. When these came into bearing, not being satisfied with
the known varieties of nuts on the market, he began his search for
better nuts.

In the fall of 1930 while searching in the river bottoms of Clinton
County, Illinois, he discovered the Gerardi hican, and began its
propagation and distributed it among other nurseries. It is now known
the country over.

A few years later while hunting in the same river bottoms with a friend
named Frank Gildig, he was shown a very fine pecan which now bears the
name of the Gildig pecan. And also the Queens Lake Pecan originated in
the same locality. These were introduced in the year 1936. His health
failed and in 1942 he discontinued growing general nursery stock and
grew only nut trees, until his death, which was caused by cancer in the
spring of 1947.


Our Major Hiram B. Ferris, of Spokane, Washington, died May 14th, 1947.
He was a valued member, and his loss is keenly felt. He has been a
source of inspiration, and a highly esteemed bank of information and
instruction. His passing is very much regretted.

(Submitted by George L. Denman, Spokane, Washington.)

  Mrs. William Rohrbacher,
  Mrs. John Hershey,
  Mrs. J. F. Johns.
  (_Committee Members_)

Exhibitors At the Annual Meeting of the Northern Nut Growers
Association, Guelph, Ontario, Sept. 3, 4, 5, 1947

  A. B. Anthony, Sterling, Ill.
        Black walnuts, Anthony shagbark hickory.

  Mrs. F. L. Baum, Yellow House, Pa.
        Black walnut kernels.

  G. H. Corsan, "Echo Valley", Islington, Ont.
        Black walnuts, Persian walnuts, Japanese walnuts, heartnuts,
        filberts, shellbark and shagbark hickories.

  H. H. Corsan, Hillsdale, Mich.
        Black walnuts, Persian walnuts, Japanese heartnuts and walnuts,
        pecans, hicans, butternuts, butternut hybrids, shagbark and
        shellbark hickories.

  Dr. R. T. Dunstan, Greensboro College, Greensboro, N. C.
        Black walnuts, filberts, shagbark hickories, pecans.

  Fayette Etter, Lemasters, Pa.
        Black walnuts, Persian walnuts, Chinese chestnuts, filberts,
        shagbark and shellbark hickories.

  J. U. Gellatly, Westbank, B. C.
        Hybrid filberts, hybrid butternuts, photographs.

  A. G. Hirschi, Oklahoma City, Okla.
        Pecan clusters, various varieties.

  E. F. Huen, Eldora, Iowa.
        Black walnuts.

  G. J. Korn, Kalamazoo, Mich.
        Black walnut kernels, black walnuts, Persian walnuts, Persian
        walnut hybrids, shagbark hickories.

  Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, N. Y.
        Black walnuts, Japanese heartnuts, Turkish filbert, shagbark and
        shellbark hickories.

  J. C. McDaniel, Nashville 3, Tenn.
        Shagbark hickories, heartnut, Texas walnut.

  Papple Brothers, Brantford, Ont.
        Black walnuts, Japanese heartnuts, filberts.

  Jay L. Smith, Chester, N. Y.
        Filberts, Japanese chestnuts.

  H. F. Stoke, Roanoke, Va.
        Black and Persian walnuts, heartnuts, filberts, shagbark and
        shellbark hickories, Chinese, Japanese, American and hybrid
        chestnuts, papaws, chestnut grafts.

  Kenneth Thomas, Baltimore, Md.
        Black walnuts.

  Lynn Tuttle, Clarkston, Wash.
        Persian walnut nuts and shield buds, filberts.

  U. S. Department of Agriculture, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Md.
        Persian walnuts, heartnuts, pecans, Chinese and Japanese chestnuts,
        Allegheny chinkapin.

  Vineland Experiment Station, Vineland, Ont.
        Persian walnuts, filberts, almonds.

  J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Ind.
        Black walnuts, hicans.

[Illustration: PICTURES MADE ON THE _1947_ TOUR]

The photograph on this page was taken by Sterling Smith, those on pp.
126-7 are by Dorothy Milne. Groups of NNGA members are shown examining
nut trees and other items of interest on G. H. Corsan's place, "Echo
Valley," Islington, Ontario.


  Mr. and Mrs. Royal Oakes, Bluffs, Ill.
  Mr. and Mrs. Henry Gressel, Mohawk, N. Y.
  Mr. and Mrs. F. L. O'Rourke, East Lansing, Mich.
  Mr. Ford Wallick, Peru, Ind.
  Mr. Carl Prell, South Bend, Ind.
  Dr. Arthur S. Colby, U. of Ill., Urbana, Ill.
  Rosamond H. Waite, M.D., Perrysburg, N. Y.
  Mr. and Mrs. Raymond E. Silvis, Massillon, O.
  Mrs. Herbert Negus, Mt. Rainier, Md.
  Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Gravatt, U. S. Plant Industry Sta., Beltsville, Md.
  W. M. Churchill, Chicago, Ill.
  Edwin W. Lemke, Detroit, Mich.
  Wm. C. Hodgson, White Hall, Md.
  Ivor H. Harrhy, Burgessville, Ont.
  Gordon Porter, Windsor, Ont.
  Dr. and Mrs. Wm. Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Ia.
  Betty Rohrbacher, Iowa City, Ia.
  Anne Clarke, Columbus, Ohio.
  G. L. Slate, Geneva, N. Y.
  Mr. and Mrs. John H. Connelly, Milford, N. J.
  J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Ind.
  Dr. L. H. MacDaniels, Ithaca, N. Y.
  Sterling A. Smith, Vermilion, Ohio
  D. C. Snyder, Center Point, Iowa
  Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pa.
  Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Stoke, Roanoke, Va.
  Eugene F. Cranz, Ira, Ohio
  Victor Brook, Rochester, N. Y.
  George Salzer, Rochester, N. Y.
  Dr. and Mrs. H. L. Crane, Hyattsville, Md.
  Spencer B. Chase, Norris, Tenn.
  Ira M. Kyhl, Sabula, Iowa
  Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Allaman, Harrisburg, Pa.
  H. A. English, Duncan, B. C.
  Wm. J. Little, St. George
  W. J. Strong, Vineland, Ont.
  Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
  G. J. Korn, Kalamazoo, Mich.
  Roy E. Ferguson, Center Point, Iowa
  Elton E. Papple, Cainsville, Ont.
  Merle H. Papple, Cainsville, Ont.
  E. F. Huen, Eldora, Iowa
  C. C. Lounsberry, Ames, Iowa
  Ralph Emerson, Highland Park, Mich.
  Joseph C. McDaniel, Nashville 3, Tenn.
  Mr. and Mrs. Blaine McCollum, White Hall, Md.
  H. W. Guengerich, Louisiana, Mo.
  J. S. Shoemaker, Guelph, Ont.
  Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Bernath, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
  William S. Clarke, Jr., State College, Pa.
  E. Sam Hemming, Easton, Md.
  John Rick, Reading, Pa.
  Lewis E. Theiss, Lewisburg, Pa.
  Ralph Gibson, Williamsport 15, Pa.
  Gilbert L. Smith, Wassaic, N. Y.
  Levi Housser, Beamsville, Ont.
  Mr. and Mrs. Philip S. Moyer, Harrisburg, Pa.
  Ernest Chitton, Norwich, Ont.
  H. Lynn Tuttle, Clarkston, Wash.
  Mrs. J. A. Neilson, Guelph, Ont.
  Mildred Jones, Lancaster, Pa.
  J. R. VanHaarlem, Vineland Station, Ontario






Fall, 1947 and Winter, 1947-48 numbers of "The Nutshell", news bulletin
of the NNGA, have been issued by the Secretary's office. It is intended
to have this bulletin distributed to members four times a year. It will
carry news of the Association's activities, supplementing the "Nut
Growers News" column in the American Fruit Grower magazine, as well as
reprints of items from other sources that concern nut growers in the
northern two-thirds of the United States plus southern Canada. Beginning
with the Winter, 1947-48 issue, advertising is being accepted in "The
Nutshell." Members who have not received the first two issues, and
others who want additional copies, may obtain them by writing to the

This Report is a few pages short of its anticipated size, because of the
withdrawal for additional entries of a "Bibliography of References on
Nuts of Special Interest in the North." We hope to have this brought up
to date for publication in the next Annual Report.


All members can contribute to the strength of the Northern Nut Growers
Association, Inc., by showing its publications to their neighbors, and
by calling them to the attention of local farm paper and newspaper

Several of our members have helped swell the NNGA membership by
mentioning it in nut tree articles for local and regional publications.
As an example, Mr. H. F. Stoke wrote a short article on Chinese
chestnuts for the "Southern Agriculturist", February, 1948 issue. At the
end he stated that a list of nurseries selling Chinese chestnut and
other nut trees could be obtained from the NNGA Secretary's office. To
date (January 26, 1948) more than 50 requests have been received and
each day brings more. Along with the nursery list, these correspondents
receive information about the Northern Nut Growers Association, so any
sudden increase in our membership in the States from North Carolina to
Texas can be ascribed to this bit of publicity.


Mr. Clarence A. Reed, our retiring President (1946-47), has a suggestion
for writers for publication:

"An authoritative guide for writers is the _STYLE MANUAL_ issued by the
U. S. Government Printing Office (Washington 25, D. C.) Its use by
Association writers would go far toward standardizing their papers and
in simplifying the work of editing. The 1945 edition contains 435 pages.
Cloth bound $1.50. Paper cover 35c. There is no charge for postage."


The dates selected by the Directors for the 39th Annual Meeting of the
Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc. are September 13, 14, and 15. The
place is Norris, Tennessee. Norris is about 25 miles from Knoxville.

  J. C. McDANIEL, Secretary,
  c/o Tennessee Department of Agriculture,
  Nashville 3, Tennessee.

Hybrid Walnut Scions Offered for Nut Breeding

(The following note seems to me to belong in the NNGA Report, even
though it wasn't on the program. It is an invitation to the
experimenters to get something they might want.--J. Russell Smith.)

Thomas R. Haig, M.D., 3344 H. St., Sacramento, California, reports a
promising cross of northern California black X Persian walnut: "The nuts
are fertile. This hybrid produces =pistillate flowers only=, lending
itself easily to pollination with the various varieties of Persian.
Should any experimenter wish scions he is welcome. Such scions could
save considerable time.

"The tree is now 9-10 years old. I obtained 5 nuts in 1947, by
back-crossing the hybrid to Persian walnut. One seedling obtained
previously by this hybridization is not yet bearing."

Other members who have available scions of promising hybrids or other
new varieties of nut trees are invited to communicate promptly with the
Secretary. A list of these will be published in =THE NUTSHELL= for Spring,

Hybrid Oak Information

Mr. Thomas Q. Mitchell, 16 East 48th Street, New York 17, New York,
calls our attention to his article on "Hybrid Oak Crop Trees," in
Harper's Magazine for February, 1948. He adds: "A much longer article is
in preparation (in collaboration with Mr. Charles Morrow Wilson) for
Scientific Monthly. Can you report any hybrid or exotic oaks there, or
put me in touch with any Dendrophiles interested in oak hybrids as crop

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting - Guelph, Ontario, September 3, 4, 5, 1947" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.