By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Northern Nut Growers Association, report of the proceedings at the sixth annual meeting - Rochester, New York, September 1 and 2, 1915
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association, report of the proceedings at the sixth annual meeting - Rochester, New York, September 1 and 2, 1915" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |






  SEPTEMBER 1 AND 2, 1915




  Officers and Committees of the Association                           4

  Members of the Association                                           5

  Constitution of the Association                                     10

  By-laws of the Association                                          11

  Proceedings of the Meeting held at Rochester, New York,
     September 1 and 2, 1915                                          13

  Report of the Secretary-Treasurer                                   14

  The Relation of Forest Conditions in New York to Possibilities
     of Nut Growing, Dr. Hugh P. Baker, New York                      17

  New Tree Crops and a New Agriculture, Dr. J. Russell Smith,
     Pennsylvania                                                     30

  Notes on the Hazels, Dr. Robert T. Morris, New York                 36

  An Appeal to Owners of Hardy Nut Trees, C. A. Reed,
     Washington, D. C.                                                51

  Northern Pecan Trees, and Notes on the Observation of
     Propagated Trees, W. C. Reed, Indiana                            58

  Walnut Observations in California, L. D. Batchelor, California      63

  Pruning the Persian Walnut, J. G. Rush, Pennsylvania                69

  Report on Nut Growing in Canada, G. H. Corsan, Toronto              71


    Present at the Sixth Annual Meeting                               73

    Program for Automobile Trips September 1 and 2, 1915              74

    Exhibits                                                          75

    Resolutions                                                       76

    Bibliography of the Year                                          77


  _President_                J. RUSSELL SMITH  University of Pennsylvania
  _Vice-President_           W. C. REED         Indiana
  _Secretary and Treasurer_  W. C. DEMING       Georgetown, Connecticut


  _Auditing_     C. P. CLOSE, C. A. REED
  _Finance_      C. P. CLOSE, T. P. LITTLEPAGE, W. C. DEMING
  _Hybrids_      R. T. MORRIS, J. R. SMITH, C. P. CLOSE
  _Membership_   HARRY R. WEBER, G. H. CORSAN, C. H. PLUMP,
                 LEON D. BATCHELOR, W. C. REED, R. T. OLCOTT,
                 F. N. FAGAN, THOMAS L. ENGLEBY, W. O. POTTER,
                 W. O. RIDGWAY, W. C. DEMING
  _Nomenclature_ W. C. REED, R. T. MORRIS, E. R. LAKE, C. A. REED,
                 R. L. McCOY
  _Press and
                _American Nut Journal, ex-officio_; C. A. REED,
                 W. N. HUTT


  Arizona            C. R. Biederman            Garces
  California         Prof. Leon D. Batchelor    Riverside
  Canada             G. H. Corsan               University of Toronto
  Connecticut        Charles H. Plump           West Redding
  Delaware           E. R. Angst                Wilmington 527 Dupont Bldg.
  Florida            H. Harold Hume             Glen Saint Mary
  Georgia            J. B. Wight                Cairo
  Illinois           E. A. Riehl                Alton
  Indiana            J. F. Wilkinson            Rockport
  Iowa               Wendell P. Williams        Danville
  Kansas             Durrett Winsborough        Argentine R. 2 Box 118
  Kentucky           A. L. Moseley              Calhoun
  Maryland           Prof. C. P. Close          College Park
  Massachusetts      James H. Bowditch          Boston 903 Tremont Building
  Michigan           Miss Maude M. Jessup       Grand Rapids 440 Thomas St.
  Minnesota          Col. C. A. Van Duzee       St. Paul
  Missouri           P. C. Stark                Louisiana
  New Jersey         C. S. Ridgway              Lumberton
  New Mexico         E. A. Clemens              Magdalena
  New York           Th. E. Wile                Rochester 37 Calumet St.
  North Carolina     Prof. W. N. Hutt           Raleigh
  Ohio               Harry R. Weber             Cincinnati 601 Gerke Bldg.
  Pennsylvania       J. G. Rush                 West Willow
  Texas              R. S. Trumbull             El Paso M.S.R.R. Co.
  Utah               M. A. Pendleton            Lehi
  Virginia           John S. Parish             Eastham
  Washington         Dr. A. E. Baldwin          Kettle Falls
  West Virginia      B. F. Hartzell             Shepherdstown


      C. R. Biederman, Garces

      Batchelor, Leon D., Riverside
      Dawson, L. H., Llano
      Tucker, T. C., Manager California Almond Growers'
        Exchange, 311 California St., San Francisco

      Corsan, G. H., University of Toronto
      Dufresne, Dr. A. A., 1872 Cartier St., Montreal

      Barnes, John R., Yalesville
      Deming, Dr. W. C., Georgetown
      Deming, Mrs. W. C., Georgetown
      Hungerford, Newman, Torrington, R. 2, Box 76, for circulars,
        Box 1082, Hartford, for letters
      Ives, Ernest M., Sterling Orchards, Meriden
      Lay, Charles Downing, Wellesmere, Stratford
      Miller, Mrs. Charles, 32 Hillside Ave., Waterbury
    * Morris, Dr. Robert T., Cos Cob, R. 28, Box 95
      Plump, Charles H., West Redding
      White, Gerrard, North Granby
      Williams, W. W., Milldale

      Angst, E. R., 527 DuPont Building, Wilmington, Del.
      Lord, George Frank, care of DuPont Powder Company, Wilmington

      Close, Prof. C. P., Pomologist, Department of Agriculture, Washington
      Goddard, R. H., Farm Management, Department of Agriculture,
      Lake, Prof. E. R., Pomologist, Department of Agriculture, Washington
    * Littlepage, T. P., Union Trust Building, Washington
      Orr, Herbert R., Evans Building, Washington
      Reed, C. A., Nut Culturist, Department of Agriculture, Washington

      Hume, H. Harold, Glen Saint Mary
      Simpson, Ray C., Monticello

      Wight, J. B., Cairo

      Dickey, Samuel, 4 Chalmers Place, Chicago
      Fletcher, Joe, Zion City
      Keely, Royal R. 4720 Clarendon Ave., Chicago
      Poll, Carl J., 1009 Maple St., Danville
      Potter, Hon. W. O., Marion
      Riehl, E. A., Alton
      Webster, H. G., 450 Belmont Ave., Chicago

      Burton, Joe A., Mitchel
      Hutchings, Miss Lida G., 118 Third St., Madison
      McCoy, R. L., Lake
      Reed, M. P., Vincennes
      Reed, W. C., Vincennes
      Schmidt, Hugh C., Evansville
      Simpson, H. D., Vincennes
      White, Paul, Boonville
      Wilkinson, J. F., Rockport

      Williams, Wendall P., Danville

      Winsborough, Durrett, Argentine, R. 2, Box 118

      Matthews, Prof. C. W., Horticulturist, State Agricultural Station,
      Moseley, A. L., Bank of Calhoun, Calhoun

      Darby, R. U., Suite 804, Continental Building, Baltimore
      Hayden, Chas. S., 200 E. Lexington St., Baltimore
      Heapes, J., Granville, Street
      Henshaw, Mrs. H. C., Adamstown
      Keenan, John N., Brentwood
      King, W. J., 232 Prince George St., Annapolis
      Murray, Miss Annie C., Cumberstone
      Newcomer, Aaron, Smithburg, R. 1.

    * Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Building, Boston
      Gilbert, Ralph D., 9 Ridgefield Road, Winchester
      Hoffman, Bernhard, Overbrook Orchard, Stockbridge
      Rich, William P., Secretary State Horticultural Society, 300
        Massachusetts Ave., Boston
      Smith, Fred A., 39 Pine St., Danvers
      Vaughan, Horace A., Peacehaven, Assonet
      White, Warren, Holliston

      Copland, Alexander W., Strawberry Hill Farm, Birmingham
      Jessup, Miss Maud M., 440 Thomas St., Grand Rapids
      Kellogg, J. H., Battle Creek
      Linton, Wm. S., Pres. Board of Trade, Saginaw
      Staunton, Gray, Muskegon, Box 233

      Powers, L. L., 1018 Hudson Ave., St. Paul
      Van Duzee, Col. C. A., St. Paul

      Bauman, X. C., Ste. Genevieve
      Buffam, Frank W., Commissioner of Highways, Jefferson City
      Johnson, Alfred E., McBaine, R. 1
      Koontz, E. J., Richards
      Stark, P. C., Louisiana (Mo.)

      Black, Walter C., of Jos. H. Black, Son & Co., Hightstown
      De Cou, Howard F., Truesdale Farm, Merchantville
      Dietrick, Dr. Thomas S., 12 West Washington Ave., Washington
      Henderson, Howard W., 603 Spooner Ave., Plainfield.
      Lovett, J. T., Little Silver
      Marston, Edwin S., Florham Park, Box 72
      Mechling, Edward A., Wonderland Farm, Moorestown
      Putnam, J. H., Vineland
      Ridgeway, C. S., Floralia, Lumberton, N.J.
      Roberts, Horace, Moorestown
      Young, Frederick C., Palmyra, Box 335

      Clemens, E. A., Magdalena

      Abbott, Frederick B., 419 Ninth St., Brooklyn
      Ackerly, Orville B., 243 W. 34th St., New York City
      Atwater, C. G., Manager Agricultural Department, American Coal
        Products Company, 17 Battery Place, New York City
      Baker, Dr. Hugh P., Dean of State College of Forestry, Syracuse
      Baker, Prof. J. Fred, Director of Forest Investigations, State
        College of Forestry, Syracuse
      Baker, Wm. A., North Rose
      Bixby, Willard G., 46th St. and 2nd Ave., Brooklyn
      Brown, Ronald J., 320 Broadway, New York City
      Ellwanger, Mrs. W. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester
      Felt, Henry W., 238 William St., New York City
      Foote, Avery L., Newark, Wayne Co.
      Fullerton, H. B., Director Long Island Railroad Experiment Station,
        Medford, L.I.
      Haywood, Albert, Flushing
      Hickox, Ralph, 3832 White Plains Ave., New York City
      Hicks, Henry, Westbury, L.I.
      Holden, E. B., Hilton
    * Huntington, A. M., 15 W. 81st St., New York City
      Jackson, Dr. James H., Dansville
      Keeler, Charles E., Chichester and Briggs Aves., Richmond Hill
      Morse, Geo. A., Fruit Acres, Williamson, N.Y.
      Nelson, Dr. James Robert, 23 Main St., Kingston-on-Hudson
      Olcott, Ralph T., Ellwanger & Barry Building, Rochester
      Palmer, A. C., New York Military Academy, Cornwall-on-Hudson
      Pomeroy, A. C., Lockport
      Rice, Mrs. Lillian McKee, Adelano, Pawling
      Stephen, Prof. John W., Assistant Professor of Agriculture, State
        College of Forestry, Syracuse
      Teele, A. W., 30 Broad St., New York City
      Teter, Walter C, 10 Wall St., New York City
      Thomson, Adelbert, East Avon
      Tuckerman, Bayard, 118 E. 37th St., New York City
      Turner, K. M., 220 W. 42nd St., New York City
      Ulman, Dr. Ira, 213 W. 147th St., New York City
      Wile, M. E., 37 Calumet St., Rochester
      Williams, Dr. Charles Mallory, 48 E. 49th St., New York City
    * Wissmann, Mrs. F. de R., Westchester, New York City

      Glover, J. Wheeler, Morehead City
      Heely, Dr. O. J., Andrews, R.F.D.
      Hutt, Prof. W. H., State Horticulturist, Raleigh
      Van Lindley, J., J. Van Lindley Nursery Company, Pomona

      Dayton, J. H., Storrs & Harrison Company, Painesville
      Denny, Mark E., Middletown
      Evans, Miss Myrta L., Briallen Farm, Oak Hill, Jackson County
      Miller, H. A., Gypsum
      Weber, Harry R., 601 Gerke Building, Cincinnati
      Witte, O. F., Amherst, R. 2
      Yunck, E. G., 710 Central Ave., Sandusky

      Ballou, C. F., Halifax
      Corcoran, Chas. A., Wind-Rush Fruit Farm, New Albany
      Creasy, Wm. T., Catawissa
      Doan, J. L., School of Horticulture, Ambler
      Druckemiller, W. C., Sunbury
      Fagan, Prof. F. N., Department of Horticulture, State College
      Grubbs, H. L., Fairview, R. 1
      Hall, Robt. W., 133 Church St., Bethlehem
      Heffner, H., Highland Chestnut Grove, Leeper
      Hile, Anthony, Curwensville National Bank, Curwensville
      Hoopes, Wilmer W., Hoopes Brothers and Thomas Company, Westchester
      Howell, Lardner, Girard Trust Company, Philadelphia
      Hutchinson, Mahlon, Ashwood Farm, Devon, Chester County
      Jenkins, Charles Francis, Farm Journal, Philadelphia
    * Jones, J. F., Lancaster, Box 527
      Leas, F. C., 882 Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Mountain Brook
        Orchard Company, Salem, Va.
      Leeds, Sarah B., Westchester, R. 4
      Middleton, Fenton H., 1118 Chestnut St., Philadelphia
      Moss, James, Johnsville, Bucks County
      Murphy, P. J., Vice-President L. & W.R.R.R. Company, Scranton
      Myers, C. N., Hanover
      O'Neill, Wm. C., 1328 Walnut St., Philadelphia
      Pelton, Joseph L., North Girard, R. 1
      Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Sq., Reading
      Rush, J. G., West Willow
      Ryan, Charles D., Spring Mount, Montgomery County
      Smedley, Sam'l L., 902 Stephen Girard Building, Philadelphia
      Smitten, H. W., Rochester Mills, R. 2
    * Sober, Col. C. K., Lewisburg
      Spackman, H. B., Lukens Iron Company, Coatesville
      Thomas, Joseph W., Jos. W. Thomas & Sons, King of Prussia P.O.
      Walter, Dr. Harry, Spring Mount
      Weaver, Wm. S., McCungie
      Webster, Mrs. Edmund, 1324 S. Broad St., Philadelphia
      Wister, John C., Wister St. and Clarkson Ave., Germantown
      Wright, R. P., 235 W. 6th St., Erie

      Trumbull, R. S., Agricultural Agent, El Paso & S.W. System, Morenci
        Southern Railroad Company, El Paso

      Pendleton, M. A., Lehi
      Smith, Joseph A., Providence (Edgewood Hall)
      Stayner, Horace, 1844 S. State St., Salt Lake City

      Carver, W. N., Cismont, Albemarle County
      Crockett, E. B., Monroe
      Dodge, Geo. P., Lovingston, R. 1
      Engleby, Thos. L., 1002 Patterson Ave., Roanoke
      Lee, Lawrence R., Leesburg
      Miller, L. O., Miller & Rhodes, Richmond
      Parish, John S., Eastham, Albemarle County
      Shackford, Theodore B., care of Adams Brothers-Paynes Company,
      Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Roundhill

      Baldwin, Dr. A. E., Kettle Falls

      Hartzell, B. F., Shepherdstown

      ~* Life members.~



     _Name._ This society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS


     _Object._ Its object shall be the promotion of interest in
     nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.


     _Membership._ Membership in the society shall be open to all
     persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to
     place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and
     regulations of the committee on membership.


     _Officers._ There shall be a president, a vice-president and a
     secretary-treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual
     meeting; and an executive committee of five persons, of which the
     president, two last retiring presidents, vice-president and
     secretary-treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state
     vice-president from each state, dependency or country represented
     in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the


     _Election of Officers._ A committee of five members shall be
     elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating
     officers for the following year.


     _Meetings._ The place and time of the annual meeting shall be
     selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no
     selection being made at this time, the executive committee shall
     choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention.
     Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the
     president and executive committee.


     _Quorum._ Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum,
     but must include a majority of the executive committee or two of
     the three elected officers.


     _Amendments._ This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote
     of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such
     amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a
     copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to
     each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



     _Committees._ The association shall appoint standing committees as
     follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and
     publication, on nomenclature, on promising seedlings, on hybrids,
     and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make
     recommendations to the association as to the discipline or
     expulsion of any member.


     _Fees._ The fees shall be of two kinds, annual and life. The former
     shall be two dollars, the latter twenty dollars.


     _Membership._ All annual memberships shall begin with the first day
     of the calendar quarter following the date of joining the


     _Amendments._ By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of
     members present at any annual meeting.

Northern Nut Growers Association




The sixth annual convention of the Northern Nut Growers Association was
called to order in the convention hall of Powers Hotel, Rochester, New
York, on Wednesday, September 1, at 10:15 A.M., the president,
Dr. J. Russell Smith, presiding, and thirty-two people being assembled.

THE PRESIDENT: Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Northern
Nut Growers Association, the meeting will please come to order.

With an organization of this sort, the main purpose of the meeting is
the dissemination of information, but it is necessary that certain
business shall be conducted to keep the organization going. Some
business is dry; usually the reports of our secretary-treasurer are not,
and the first order of business, I think, should be to hear from our

MR. LITTLEPAGE: I should be glad to have the floor for a
moment, Mr. President. In the Congressional Library at Washington City
are many very beautiful and attractive inscriptions and quotations, one
of which has always appealed to me as a lawyer, and I have repeated it
many times:

     "Of law there can be no less acknowledged than that her voice is
     the harmony of the world."

Mr. President, I have noted very many times that the voice of the law is
sometimes silent. It speaks only through those in authority and there
should always be some emblem of authority. I therefore took the liberty,
Mr. President, of having made for you a gavel from the wood of an
Indiana pecan tree, where as a youth I lived and learned of this most
delicious of all the nuts, and I take pleasure in presenting it to you,
and if anyone doubts the hardiness or hardness of the Indiana pecan, I
authorize you to demonstrate both.

I am presenting you duplicate gavels, Mr. President, one of which I
desire to have you turn over to your successor in office as an official
emblem of his authority, to be used at future meetings; the other I am
presenting to you as a personal tribute for your most excellent work in
behalf of northern nut culture. This gavel I shall ask you to place
among the trophies in your beautiful mountain home, where the birds sing
sweetly, the sun shines brightly, and the breezes murmur softly; and
where the days are made to rest and the nights are made to sleep.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Littlepage, not being prepared for this, and
not being naturally eloquent, I am unable to make a speech. However, as
a part of the way out of the difficulty, I accept this one officially
with great pleasure, and personally accept the other with deep
gratitude, and desire to express the appreciation of the meeting.

The pecan is calling the walnut meeting to order. Last year we went to
see the pecan; this year we come to see the walnut, which, has done more
than any other nut in the East.

We will now listen to the report of our secretary-treasurer.


  Balance on hand, date of last report      $7.23

    Dues                                  $379.30
    Advertisements                          42.00
    Contributions                           42.50
    Sale of report                          22.40
    Contributions for prizes                40.00
    Miscellaneous                            1.05
    Printing report                       $233.76
    Miscellaneous printing                  51.80
    Postage and stationery                  41.09
    Stenographer                             2.00
    Express, freight, carting                3.74
    Prizes                                  10.00
    Check J.R.S. expenses, circulars        37.30
    Bills receivable                        10.00
    Miscellaneous                            4.55
  Balance on hand                                 $140.24

This is the best financial report that the treasurer has ever been able
to transmit, and this is chiefly due to the efforts of our president
who, during the year, has sent out numerous notices of, and articles
about, our Association, its purposes, and the desirability of finding
and propagating our best nut trees. He also offered three prizes of $5
each for a nut contest and did the work necessary to get publicity for
this contest. He sent letters to the members of the horticultural
societies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio
which resulted in our getting 24 new members, mostly from the state of
Pennsylvania. Twenty-five dollars of the cost of this circularizing the
president paid out of his own pocket. The rest was more than made up by
the fees of new members. The president also had printed an educational
leaflet on nut growing for distribution by Mr. Cobb with the nut trees
which he sends to the schools and farmers of Michigan. With Professor
Close he was on the finance committee which sent a circular letter to
the members of the Association for funds to help pay for the printing of
the annual report, and obtained advertisements for the report. As stated
in the treasurer's report contributions for this purpose amounted to
$42.50 and advertisements brought in $42.00.


The Association offered last year prizes of $5 each for the best
shagbark hickory nut, black walnut and hazel nut sent in.

Something over a hundred specimens were received and the prize for
hickory nut was awarded to J. K. Triplett of Elkins, W. Va. The prize
for black walnut was awarded to J. G. Rush of West Willow, Pa. Mr. Rush
returned his prize to be used for the purposes of the Association. No
prize for hazels was awarded as only one or two insignificant specimens
were sent in.

Perhaps the stimulation of this contest accounts for our being able to
offer such substantial prizes for this year. In addition to the $80
worth of prizes already announced the secretary has received from a life
member, James H. Bowditch of Boston, a check for $25 as a prize to be
offered by the Association for a hickory nut under such conditions as
the Association may decide. A circular announcing these prizes has been
sent out to agricultural and other papers to the number of 200, the
expenses of which have been borne by another member, Mr. Chas. H. Plump
of Connecticut. A committee on competitions should be appointed or the
direction of them delegated to some already existent committee.


Seventy-four members were added during the interval between this meeting
and the last, one less than in the previous year. Since its organization
287 persons have joined the Association. We have at present 153 paid up
members, 21 more than last year. There are a few members whose dues are
unpaid who are active workers and will eventually pay, probably.

Four members have resigned, though none in anger, and we have lost one
by death, the late Prof. H. E. Van Deman.

_Annual Dues_

Some way should be found out of the difficulties arising from the
dissatisfaction of members who join late in the year when they receive a
notice for dues soon after having once paid.

It is desirable to take in members at all times during the year. At the
same time some method should be found to give the late comer something
for his money. Shall membership continue to date from the calendar year?
Or shall we make some change? Some societies date memberships from the
opening of the annual meeting. It would not be impossible to make
memberships date from the beginning of the quarter year immediately
following date of joining. This would give every member a full year at
least before he would again receive a notice for dues.

It would be quite inconvenient to date each membership from the day of
joining. It would not be so bad if members paid promptly on receipt of

Or a rebate might be made for each month of the year elapsed before new
members' dues were paid.


No field meeting was held this year. It has been suggested, and would
seem to be a favorable subject for discussion, that it might be well to
hold our annual meeting late in the year in some central location, such
as New York City, Philadelphia or Washington, for our business and
formal program of papers and discussions, and the study of the nuts sent
in, perhaps for judging any competition that might be held, if the
meeting were late enough for that; and a summer meeting of informal
nature at some place where nut trees with their crops growing could be

_Nut Journal_

Our official organ, the _American Nut Journal_, has done its part well
through the past year and is becoming, as it should, a very important
element in the success of the purposes of this Association. Most new and
old members of the Association have availed themselves during the year
of the offer of membership and the _Journal_ for $2.50. In spite of the
reduction of 25 cents on each membership, the receipts for dues have
increased from $273 to $331. I would suggest that the membership fee be
still further reduced by 25 cents, when combined with subscription to
the _Journal_, if the editor is willing to continue the present
arrangement whereby the price of the _Journal_ is reduced to 75 cents
when subscribed to with membership, so that the two together will cost
$2.25. Another year it may be possible to make a similar reduction. The
object toward which we ought to work is membership for $1, and
membership with the _Journal_$2. I should like to hear the opinions of
the members as to the advisability of working to reduce our dues to $1

_How Members May Help_

At the risk of monotony I will repeat my concluding remarks of last year
and ask that each member help increase the prosperity and usefulness of
the Association by enlisting new members, by advertising his business in
the annual report, and by paying his dues promptly. The secretary would
much rather spend his time answering questions and imparting such
information as lies in his power, than to have to send repeated notices
to members in arrears for dues.

The secretary will be happy at all times to learn of the plans and
progress of the members.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: You have heard the report of the secretary.
There are two things to be done with it. It is, as you will notice,
first a report of the year's business and, second, it has certain
suggestions for your consideration. I think that as a business report we
can discuss and move its adoption, amendment or rejection. After that we
may take up the suggestions.

[Adoption moved, seconded and carried.]

He has brought before our consideration the amount of dues, and the
question of their payment. I doubt the advisability of a lengthy
discussion in this business meeting. I think it better to refer it to
the executive committee. Unless I hear further suggestions, I will take
that action. The next piece of business is the matter of the report on
the amendments to the constitution. Professor Close and the secretary
were appointed a committee for this matter, and as Professor Close
cannot be here, we will hear from the secretary on the matter. (See
amended constitution.)

DR. SMITH: I am now glad to announce that we have covered the
necessary business ground, and now come to the real meat of the meeting.
We have with us this morning Dr. Baker, Dean of the State College of
Forestry, at Syracuse, who is going to address us on the subject of "The
Relation of Forestry Conditions in New York to Possibilities of Nut



The forester presumes to come before your organization because he is
concerned with one of the greatest of the natural resources of this and
other states of the Union and not with the idea of bringing information
as to details in nut culture. Possibly nut culture as a business is more
closely related to agriculture than forestry. Forestry is not
subordinate to agriculture in this country but co-ordinate with it.
Together they will come as near solving the soil problems of the country
as is possible for man to solve them.

The forester is interested and concerned with the wild nut trees
wherever he has to do with the forests or forest lands of the country.
Throughout the great hardwood sections of the East there are many native
nut-bearing trees, and in the proper utilization of the trees which make
up the forests the forester is concerned not alone with the lumber which
may come from these trees, but he is concerned as well with the value of
the by-products of the forest and the influence of the utilization of
these by-products upon the forest.

In view of the forester's interest in all of the trees which make up our
forests, my purpose of addressing you today is to bring before you the
question of the most effective use of the forest soils of this state. I
shall also attempt to make some suggestions to your organization in the
matter of interesting the man on the street in nut growing. This
profession and the business of forestry have been passing through a
period of general educational work in this country. Some of the lessons
which we have learned through our efforts to interest the people in
their forests may be of help to you in interesting the people both in
the consumption and the production of nuts.

_New York as a Great Forest State_

Twenty-five years ago New York was one of the leading lumber-producing
states of the Union. Today some twenty other states produce more lumber
than comes from the forests and woodlots of New York. Statistics given
out recently by the United States Census Bureau and the Conservation
Commission of New York show that, out of the land acreage of over
thirty-two millions in New York, but twenty-two millions are included
within farms. This leaves something over eight millions of acres outside
of farms and presumably non-agricultural. The forests of the Adirondacks
and Catskills and the woodlots of the rougher hill counties in the
southern and southwestern part of the state come within this vast area
of eight millions of acres. Without doubt with increasing population
there will come some increase in the use of what are now
non-agricultural lands for the practice of agriculture, but with three
hundred years of agricultural history back of us in this state it does
not seem likely that there will be much change in the relation of
non-agricultural to agricultural land during the next half-century.

Out of the twenty-two millions of acres of farm lands in the state but
fifteen millions are actually under cultivation, leaving, therefore,
from six to eight millions of acres within the farms of the state but
lying idle. That is, we have a Massachusetts enclosed within our farms
which is non-productive as far as direct returns are concerned. Yet
there is really no waste land in New York, as every square foot of the
state which is covered with any soil at all is capable of producing good
forest trees. It is this great area of idle land enclosed within our
farms which seems to have unusual promise in the development of nut
culture in the state. There is a great deal of land now idle in the form
of steep hillsides or ridges or rocky slopes upon which we may grow with
comparative ease our walnuts, butter-nuts, hickories, hazelnuts, in the
wild form at least.

The fact that the state is in really rather serious condition
financially should be a strong reason for our association to urge upon
the farmers of the state the planting of nut-bearing trees that the
returns from the farms may be increased by annual sales of nuts which
should in the aggregate in the next fifty years be a large sum of money.
It has been estimated that the total debt of the State of New York, that
is, the state, county and municipal debts, are equal to $47 for every
acre of land, good and bad. On top of this condition the legislature
last year laid a direct tax of eighteen millions of dollars upon our
people, and there is every indication that it will be several years
before it becomes unnecessary to lay a direct tax either larger or
smaller than that put upon us last year. There is ever-increasing
competition among the farmers of the state as the standards in animal,
milk and fruit production are ever increasing. In view of the amount of
idle land and of our financial condition it seems to be an unusually
opportune time for those interested in nut culture to bring before the
farmers and other landowners of the state the idea of planting nut
trees, the products of which will add to the annual income from the

_The State of New York is Somewhat Ignorant of the Value of its Forest

When the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse began its
studies of forest conditions in New York in 1911 it turned its attention
immediately to the very large areas of farm woodlots and woodlands
within farms. There has been a good deal of general information current
among our people regarding the forest conditions of the state, but there
is really very little accurate information except such little as the
college has secured since 1911. As a first step in the taking of stock
of our forest resources and especially the amount of timber in our farm
woodlots and what is coming from these woodlots in the way of annual
return to their owners, the State College of Forestry in 1912 began, in
co-operation with the United States Forest Service, a study of the
wood-using industries of the state. This study has resulted in a very
comprehensive bulletin issued by the College of Forestry upon the
wood-using industries of the State of New York. From these studies it
was determined for the first time that New York was spending annually
over ninety-five millions of dollars for products of the forest.
Unfortunately for the state, we are sending over fifty millions of
dollars of this vast amount out into other states to the south and to
the west for timber which New York is capable of producing in amount, at
least, in its forests and on its idle lands. The report shows further
that New York is producing very large quantities of pine and hemlock and
the hardwoods, and, much to the surprise of those interested in forest
conditions in the state, it was shown that a large proportion of the
hardwoods come from the woodlots in the farms of the state. This would
seem to indicate that there is a real opportunity for the growing of
such hardwood timber as black walnut, butternut, and hickory, not only
on the idle lands of the state which are not covered with forest now,
but also in the woodlots of the farms. That is, it would not be a
difficult matter to show the farmers through publications and possibly
through public lectures that it would be very advantageous to them to
favor nut-growing trees and to plant them where they are not now
growing, both because of the value of the nuts which they produce and of
the value of their wood.

If the people of a great state like New York are more or less ignorant
of the extent and value of their forest holdings, how much more ignorant
are they of the character and the value of a particular species which
make up their forest lands. How few people are able to go into the
forest and say that this tree is a shagbark hickory or that that is a
butternut or that that is a red pine, and if this is the case, as you
will agree with me that it is, is it not time that propagandist or
general educational work be done that will bring forcibly to the
attention of the wage-earners of the state that it is a financial
necessity for the state to consider better use of its forest lands, so
that all of the soils of New York may share in the burden of the support
of the commonwealth rather than a few of the soils which are now being
given up to agricultural use? The wage-earner should know also that nuts
used as food are conducive to health and that possibly a more extensive
use of nuts with less of meat will mean a considerable difference over a
period of a year in the amount that is saved in the living expenses of
an individual or a family.

It is often difficult for the forester to interest the average farmer in
the planting of trees, even though those trees may add to the beauty and
value of the farm or the comfort of the home buildings, but your
organization will make a place for itself most decidedly if it will go
to the farmer or to a group of farmers and show them that they can
actually save money in the purchase of their needed lumber and wood of
other kinds if they will cut their woodlots co-operatively and produce
in the woodlots trees of greatest possible value and trees which will
give such by-products as nuts as well as direct returns from the lumber.
Just as soon as you can reach the pocket-book of the average
wage-earner, it makes little difference whether it is nuts or books or
clothing, they are going to be interested in a thing that will allow
them to get more for the amount which they make from their day's labor.

_The Association May Accomplish Much by Demonstrating the Value of Nut
Trees as Trees and the Value of Their Products as Food_

Many organizations in our Eastern States are becoming interested in the
beautification of communities and the tremendous development in the use
of the automobile is interesting even more organizations in the
beautification of rural highways. It would not be a difficult thing for
the Nut Growers Association to interest civic associations or women's
clubs in the planting not only of forest trees alone along rural
highways but a certain number of nut trees. We are literally in the age
of the "Movie" and if a man who walks or drives along our highways can
see as he passes the growing nut trees and the bountiful harvest which
they may be made to yield, he is being convinced that not only elm and
maple are of value along our highways, but that the nut-producing trees
may give equal satisfaction in beauty of form and comfort of shade and
at the same time yield fruit of very definite value.

Even though the fruit of the nut-bearing trees of our woodlands and
highways may not give an annual return to the town or village or county
it will bring immeasurable joy and possibly better health to the boys
and girls of the future. In many ways the children of this country are
educating their parents and it is not an impossible idea to think of the
parents of the future being converted by the influence of their children
to the desirability if not the necessity of growing trees and nut trees,
the fruit of which will give pleasant healthfulness and at the same time
aid in the saving of the daily wage and in the support of the
commonwealth. I wish to emphasize this idea of considering not alone the
financial return from the trees and the forests of this state. As the
son of a lumberman and as a forester I am, of course, most vitally
interested in the growing of trees as a business proposition, but I feel
that such an organization as yours, especially, should look at this
matter not alone from actual financial returns, but because of indirect
benefits such as the making of outdoor people of us Americans. This can
be done, I believe, to a very considerable extent by giving our people,
especially the boys and girls, a purpose for getting out into the
woodlot and the forests wherever they occur in the state.

The women of this state are interested vitally these days not only in
their own welfare as possible citizens, but in the improving of living
conditions and opportunities of our people. We should have more women
interested in the work of this association and interested in seeing that
the future value of nuts is appreciated by the wage-earners of the
state, both because of their healthfulness and because of the
possibility of cheapening somewhat the cost of living. I urge upon the
organization a campaign of education, a campaign which will reach
through the women's clubs, civic organizations, schools and state
associations in a way that will cause the people to demand more nuts for
food and more nut trees as an absolutely indispensable part of the
complete utilization of both the agricultural and forest soils of the
state. The agencies working for agriculture and forestry in a state like
New York understand these problems, but often it remains for an
organization like yours to bring these forces into active play and to
produce the results for which you are working. Before you can achieve
lasting results and results commensurate with the time and effort which
you are putting into the organization, you must get hold of the man and
the woman who spend the dollars for the living of our people.

_The State College of Forestry at Syracuse Experimenting with Nut

Soon after the organization of the New York State Forest Experiment
Station south of Syracuse the college took up the matter of growing nut
trees and of improving the quality of nuts of native species. On the New
York State Forest Experiment Station just south of Syracuse, where the
college is growing a million forest trees a year, there is a woodlot of
thirty acres. In this woodlot were a number of native nut trees and
these have been set aside for the purpose of grafting and improving to
see what can be done in helping out native nut trees of different ages
and sizes.

In 1913 the college purchased a thousand acres of cut-over land two
hours south of Buffalo in Cattaraugus County. At the same time it
purchased one hundred and thirteen acres lying along the main line of
the New York Central Railroad at Chittenango in Madison County. This
past spring nut trees were ordered from nurseries in Pennsylvania and
planted in the heavy soils on the Chittenango Forest Station and also on
the State Forest Experiment Station at Syracuse. At the Salamanca
station young nut trees are being staked so that they may be protected
and cared for with a hope of developing them as nut-producing trees. The
college plans, as a part of its work in the Division of Forest
Investigations, to see what can be done in the way of grafting chestnut
sprouts and in introducing nut-growing trees for the purpose of
demonstrating that idle lands within farms may be used profitably for
nut culture. The college will be very glad, indeed, to learn of any
native nut trees of unusual value anywhere in New York as it is anxious
to get material for grafting to native stock already growing on its
various forest stations.

DR. SMITH: It was an exceedingly great pleasure to me to listen
to that address by the Dean of the New York State College of Forestry. I
want to assure you that his address marks an epoch. He tells us that the
State of New York is going to experiment in nut growing, give place,
time and money; and this is what I have been long waiting for. I shall
defer my discussion until this evening, when I use the screen and

I rejoice exceedingly that the State of New York is not alone in the
march of progress; the State of Pennsylvania is also in line and comes
next on the program. Professor Fagan has been making a survey of
Pennsylvania with particular reference to ascertaining what it has in
nut trees. He will now give us a report.

       *       *       *       *       *

PROFESSOR FAGAN: The President has caught me rather unprepared.
I did not expect to talk at this time. I had our walnut survey tabulated
in regard to county locations, so that you could see the results of our
work in the state this past summer. This report is in my grip so I will
talk only from memory.

The necessity for this work in Pennsylvania has been increasing right
along. The State Experiment Station has been receiving letters nearly
every week from parties wanting information in regard to the Persian
walnut. The calls for information have been increasing more and more
each year for the past three years.

Our people ask questions about the right kind of soils for the
nuts--what varieties are best suited for Pennsylvania--how to topwork
their standing black walnut--and, in fact, almost any question.

The Experiment Station does not have a nut plantation and it was thought
best to study the growing Persian walnut trees throughout the state.

A publicity campaign was started through the agricultural press and our
daily and weekly newspapers. In this way we have been able to learn the
location of some 1,800 to 2,000 bearing trees in Pennsylvania. I tried
to visit the trees this summer but time would not permit.

Trees are reported in twenty-five different counties. Erie County
reported, likely, the two largest plantings. Here we have two seedling
groves, at least one is a seedling grove. The seedling grove is fourteen
years old and contains 250 trees. They are seedling Pomeroy trees and
this year show their first real crop of nuts.

Since they are seedlings we naturally find all types and variations
among the trees. We see a difference in their foliage, habit of growth,
shape and size of nuts. The trees show no effects of ever having been
winter-killed. The trees have always been farmed so the owner, Mr. E. A.
Silkirk of North East, Pa., has been able to receive returns from his
land. Grapes and berries have been grown between the trees as
intercrops. The trees are planted on the corners of a 50-foot square and
cover about fourteen acres.

In four different counties of the mountain section of the state, bearing
trees are to be found. From these trees we hope to find something at
least fairly good but above that something hardy. Some of these trees
have been winter-killed to a more or less degree, but so have the common
peach trees in the same sections.

The southeastern part of the state reports the largest number of trees.
From Harrisburg east and south the trees become more common. In this
section we find Dauphin, Adams, York, Lancaster, Chester, Philadelphia,
Bucks, Lebanon, Lehigh and Berks counties. In these counties the Persian
walnut is not at all uncommon. They are often called Dutch nuts as well
as English walnuts.

Just north of the above section we find Northampton County reporting a
large number of trees, and even in the Wilkes-Barre and Scranton section
with a higher elevation the nut is growing and yielding good crops.

I asked nearly all walnut tree owners whether or not they thought the
business could be developed, and in most cases they believed it

I have come to more or less of the conclusion from what I have been able
to see, that the business will not be developed in our so-called
mountain land or upon the waste lands. The better soil should be used
for the walnut groves.

As time goes on we are going to find more and more groves of the nuts
being planted in our state.

I came here to learn rather than to lecture. If I can answer any
question I will be glad to do so. Tonight I will gladly show you a few
pictures with the lantern.

I might say that the Experiment Station plans to have a small grove in a
few years; with this and co-operative work we hope to be able to give to
our growers and interested people some idea of the culture and care of
the Persian walnut in Pennsylvania.

DR. MORRIS: I don't like to speak so often here, but it is in
the spirit of setting a pace rather than of giving expression to my own

In the first place, I would like to ask Professor Fagan if he has looked
up the matter of the introduction of any of the oriental walnuts into
Pennsylvania. According to the knowledge of the botanists, all species
of plants from the northeastern Orient are better adapted to the eastern
states of America than are any trees from the central or western
portions of the Old World. Pacific coast plants do well in England, but
not in New England as a rule.

Next I would suggest, _apropos_ of the nature of the seedling orchard
reported by the last speaker, that no nut tree of any sort be sold under
a varietal name for propagation, excepting that it be accompanied by the
statement that it is a seedling. This is perfectly proper and fair to
all parties.

Going back to the remarks of Professor Baker, a number of very
interesting points arose. One reason why the great waste lands of the
state have not been covered with forests of nut trees is because we must
leave something for the people who are to come 5,000 years after us. We
must not accomplish everything in civilization this year. Be generous;
leave something for others to accomplish later. Nut trees grown in
forest form say to themselves: "Here are trees enough. We shall store up
cellulose." Therefore the trees store up cellulose, make great trunks
and timber, and little fruit. A nut tree on the other hand which is
growing alone in a field says, "Here are not trees enough. I shall be
fruitful," and therefore it bears much fruit. Consequently, nut trees to
be grown as forest are out of the question as nut producers, but may be
very valuable for timber.

In regard to setting out trees along the highways, that is a beautiful
idea theoretically. I happen to see one of my neighbors in Connecticut
here in the audience. He remembers when I tried to be public-spirited
and set out a number of fruit trees around the borders of my place, in
order that the passerby might have some fruit. What happened was that
not only the passerby wanted fruit, but he wanted it early, and he
brought others from a distance who wanted fruit. They broke down the
trees, and also entered my premises and carried off my private supply
having been attracted by my roadside bait. I wanted to beautify the
highway for a mile and set out 3,000 pine trees. After they had grown to
look pretty, people came in automobiles and carried them off. These
people could not think of helping to set out roadside trees but when
someone else had done it they came and lugged off the trees.

So long as we are in a semi-civilized state, we cannot talk about
beautifying our roads, as does Germany. Germany has set an example of
efficiency for the entire world, no matter what your opinion may be as
to the present conflict. At the present time she is perhaps believing
that she is carrying on a utility crusade. One of the German methods is
to line the roadways with fruit-bearing trees, including nut trees, in
such a way that the income pays the taxes for some villages. But they
are under government control.

MR. POMEROY: Dr. Morris's suggestion is very good in regard to
marking seedlings. Of course his office is in New York City, though his
farm is in Connecticut and New York has a law which fills the bill. A
customer can get a complete history of the tree from his nurseryman. If
from a barren tree, he must so state. I think this state is about the
only state that has such a law.

One other thing. The first big battle fought between the Germans and the
Belgians was on a highway along ten miles of which stood Persian walnut
trees, and I have often wondered how much damage was done to the trees.

THE PRESIDENT: I will ask the secretary to read the motion Dr.
Morris incorporated in his talk.

THE SECRETARY: "No ungrafted nut tree of any sort shall be sent
out under a name for propagation purposes except with the statement that
it is a seedling."

MR. LITTLEPAGE: That is a matter which I imagine will come
before the executive committee, and I would suggest that it be left in
their hands and worked out by them. With Dr. Morris's consent I would
refer this to that committee.

MR. POMEROY: Just because a tree has been grafted, why is all
this necessary? The nurseryman is bound to tell from what it is taken.
That is covered by the law. He need not be even a buyer, merely a
prospective buyer. What I want to bring out is this. Suppose a
nurseryman here in this state sells a tree,--he must have a permit
before he can do it; he cannot send even a twig through the post office
otherwise. I don't see if a bud is taken from a tree and put on a black
walnut tree that it necessarily makes the bud that grows on the black
walnut tree any better than the parent.

DEAN BAKER: I told you I wanted to raise a discussion on this
subject. I really am a dyed-in-the-wool optimist. I am willing to
sacrifice some nut trees to laboratory purposes for the benefit of our
young men. We want the individuals to profit by the education. This
should be an educational society.

THE PRESIDENT: I will ask the vice-president to take the chair.

MR. REED: At the last meeting a committee was appointed to
report on the Persian walnut, of which committee the president was the
chairman, and will make his report at this time.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I think you
appreciate the chaos at the present moment in the status of
investigation of the Persian walnut. When Professor Fagan reports that
the number of trees in Pennsylvania exceeds 2,000, most of which he has
not seen, this chaos is evident.

The varieties propagated in the eastern United States are experiments. I
have done nothing that will compare with Mr. Fagan's work, but have
found certain interesting facts.

First: I found in Maryland a Persian walnut which does not come into
leaf until June. When the cherries are ripe, it is just coming into
leaf; and it has borne regularly for fifteen years.

While going through the orchards at Grenoble in France, I asked a man
"What is the matter with that tree?" This was on June 9th. "There is
nothing the matter," he told me, "it is only coming into leaf." I want
to call your attention to possibilities of a hybrid of that tree and the
Maryland tree. The Persian walnuts of the Grenoble tree were of good
quality, but low yield. The Maryland tree is a heavy yielder but of
third quality.

In this matter of variety, I want to emphasize Dr. Morris's point of the
great possibilities of the oriental walnut. Great results are likely to
be attained from the introduction of these species into Pennsylvania,
New York and elsewhere in this country.

Second: What is a good walnut? They may be divided into three qualities:

  1. Positively sweet.
  2. Neutral.
  3. Those with a little bitterness in the skin of the kernel, which
     develops as you masticate the kernel.

Most of those which distinguish themselves for good yield here in the
East are unfortunately of the third class. I have taken samples of these
to commercial dealers. One of the largest walnut buyers in Philadelphia
classifies the Grenobles as first class. The California crop he classes
second quality but pays more for it. Most of the California quality is
second class. Eastern nuts are mostly third class. I found one in New
Jersey which was almost first class.

First quality apples are not grown for the market. They are consumed by
the growers. They know the market would not pay for them. They sell
mostly the second and third class apples. The present market for nuts is
like the apple market. The nut dealer told me to send along nuts, like
several eastern samples, and he would sell them, even though they were
third quality. He has assured me that if he had the nuts he could sell

Investigate every good nut tree you hear about. Very good results may
come from this. You don't know what you may learn by doing so. If you
will ask about it every time you hear of a good nut tree, good will be
accomplished. We are going to keep on finding these trees for the next
twenty-five years. Will you help the process along?

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. POMEROY: In the smaller towns, where the grocery men buy of
the boys, if they will ask them about the trees from which they get good
nuts you will locate many good trees.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: I understand in California they have been
planting walnut trees for thirty to forty years but have never yet
agreed on the matter of varieties. One of the very practical questions
before this association is the determination of the best varieties to
set. I would like to hear from some of the members on this question of

MR. RUSH: I would like to say a word about this matter. We
cannot be too severe on quality. We might ask ourselves today what is
the matter with the peach crop. The physical changes and conditions are
responsible not only for the peach crop, but the nut crop as well. The
weather has unfortunate effects on certain varieties of the walnut. So
we must make allowance for weather conditions.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: Excuse me for butting in so often. I should
like to ask Mr. Rush a question. I highly respect his judgment. If he
were planting a walnut orchard of 500 trees in the latitude between
Philadelphia and Washington, I should like to know what varieties he
would plant and in what proportion?

MR. RUSH: Well, that is a question that would require a little
consideration. Now we have some very good varieties. You have a very
good variety known as the Holden. I would like to know more of it. One I
would choose would be the Nebo, and another originating on my place, and
called the Rush, is productive and good quality and a most excellent
pollenizer. We have another fine walnut in Adams County, introduced by
John Garretson, from California. Then we have other types, the
Lancaster, and the Alpine. Hall, in Erie County is noted for its good
size, not strictly a commercial nut. Something like the Holden,
Garretson and Rush Parisienne are my favorite varieties.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: I think we are getting some really valuable
information now. We must plant the best varieties we have. I think we
might start with Mr. Rush's list and have the varieties analyzed. I
think this will be of use when we are called upon to advise people.

THE SECRETARY: If I were going to make a choice of the
varieties of walnuts, I should name the Franquette, Mayette and
Parisienne. Mr. Rush says that his Rush variety is practically a
Parisienne. The Garretson walnuts seem to be of these varieties. These
have been producing good crops of nuts. It is my opinion that at this
time these are the most promising varieties for use in the East.

THE PRESIDENT: I wish to say that a tree of the Mayette variety
or one greatly resembling it has been living in Pennsylvania for fifteen
years and bearing crops. There is little doubt that the Mayette is the
best walnut on the market.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: Well, is there anything really surprising, when
you consider the origin of these trees? These varieties originally came
from the Grenoble district in France. France lies north of the 42d
parallel. This is the northern boundary of Pennsylvania and runs through
Michigan. But France has a maritime climate.

THE PRESIDENT: If I may act as geographer for a moment, there
are two things in connection with the foreign climate. The maritime
climate is cooler in summer and milder in winter. Over here fungus
invasion does great harm but the climate there is detrimental to the
fungi and keeps them in subjection. I call attention again to that
Mayette in Pennsylvania for sixteen years, as a matter of fact, not
theory, an achievement on which we can act with some certainty.

The hour for adjournment has come. This afternoon at 1:30 we have been
invited to visit nut trees in the neighborhood in automobiles kindly
loaned for the occasion. Tonight at 8 we meet here again.

THE SECRETARY: I want to say a word in regard to Mr. Baker's
remarks. The purpose of this association is chiefly educational, but in
order that we may be educational, and in order that we may give the man
in the street some definite information, in response to his inquiries,
we ourselves must first investigate these matters, such as the question
of varieties. This is a point that appeals to me particularly. People
ask me what nuts to plant, and how to plant them. We must advise them.
One thing that we may tell them is that it is advisable to plant about
the grounds high priced, grafted nut trees. It is not advisable to plant
high class, grafted trees along fences or roads. They will usually do
badly or fail. Grafted trees require careful attention and proper
treatment. The proper thing to do along fences and roadsides is to graft
the native nut trees already established there, or to plant native nuts
abundantly in order that later we may have established nut trees to

Adjournment at 12:30 P.M.


The evening session was called to order at 8:40 P.M. by
President Smith. The total attendance of the evening was approximately
one hundred.

The evening was devoted to two stereopticon lectures, the first being
slides by Professor Fagan, illustrating the lecture of the afternoon on
the "Nut Survey of Pennsylvania."

This was followed by an illustrated lecture by Dr. J. Russell Smith,
President of the Association.




We have all heard of the scientist who made a discovery and exclaimed,
"Thank God! This can't be of any possible use to anybody!" This useless
aspect of science in a world with so many possibilities of service does
not appeal to me. I hope that science and service and utility may go
hand in hand.

The conservation of natural resources, the creation of new ones is a
topic which combines the qualities of science, service and utility.

Of all our resources the soil is the most vital. Most of the others have
some possibility of substitution, but for the soil there is no
substitute. The forest burned to destruction can rise again if the soil
remains. Some examination will show that the most vital part of the
whole conservation matter is the preservation of the soil, and that
soil conservation is 99 per cent the prevention of erosion. Soil robbery
by unscientific agriculture can go to its most extreme lengths and
reduce the soil to the depths of non-productivity; but scientific
agriculture can, by the addition of humus and some fertilizer, soon
restore such soil to high fertility. In these conditions of exhaustion
the loss to fertility by soil leaching is small, because of the
non-soluble character of the earth particles. Thus experiments at
Cornell have shown that in the average foot of top soil from rather
unproductive farms in a low state of production, there was plant food
sufficient for 6,000 crops of corn. We have all seen a single thunder
shower remove from a hillside corn field the fertility adequate for the
making of a hundred crops of corn.

American agriculture is peculiarly soil destructive. Three of our
greatest money crops--corn, cotton and tobacco--require that the earth
shall, throughout the summer, be loose and even furrowed with the
cultivator, which prepares the ground for washing away, and by its
furrow starts the gully. The second factor in this peculiarly
destructive agriculture is the fact of our emphasis of rainfall in
summer. Third in the list of factors of destruction is the rainfall
unit, the thunder shower, which dumps water, hundreds of tons per hour
on every hillside acre. A little examination of the facts and careful
inclusion of the time element will show that the old-world saying,
"After man the desert" is quite as true in the United States as in
Europe and Asia, where it has been so fearfully proven in the seats of
ancient empire.

This soil resource destruction from erosion leads to the destruction of
other valuable resources. We appear to be upon the eve of an epoch of
waterway construction and experiment. The greatest injury to waterways
is channel filling by down-washed mud. Pittsburgh has been praised
highly for the energetic action of her Chamber of Commerce and citizens
in appropriating money for the careful survey of drainage basins above
the river, with the idea of obtaining knowledge preparatory to the
building of reservoirs to check floods. They have forty-three reservoir
sites, and the early construction of nineteen of these reservoirs is

A part of the reservoir plan, however, is that the land above it shall
not be cultivated; otherwise the erosion from the tilled fields will
promptly fill up the reservoirs, as the present condition of many
eastern mill dams so emphatically attests. The carrying out, therefore,
of the Pittsburgh reservoir plan necessitates the exodus of hundreds of
thousands of farmers and the restriction of many farming communities to
forest or a new type of agriculture.

We cannot spare all this land from tillage. But fortunately, there are
other ways of using it. Land east of the 100th meridian may be divided
into three classes: First, which in the absence of better estimate
covers one third of the area, is hopeless for agriculture because of
hills and rocks. This is mostly now in rather poor forests. The second
class, also covering one third--by the same estimate--has been cleared
for agriculture, but is so hilly and eroded as to be in a low state of
fertility and production. The third class, the remaining third of the
land, is suited to the plow and should be plowed and cultivated much
more intensively than it now is.

For the first and second classes of land we need a new type of
agriculture, the crop-yielding trees. Our agriculture, which depends so
largely now upon those members of the grass family which we call grains,
is the result of accident, not the result of science. At the dawn of
history man had practically all of these small grains, which have
probably resulted from the selection and seed saving of the primitive
woman, as the race came up from savagery into agriculture. This
primitive woman in selecting plants for her garden and little field, did
not pick out the best of nature, or the most productive, or the
ultimately most promising; she picked annuals because they gave the
quickest return. And man has left alone and practically unimproved for
all these thousands of years nearly all the great engines of nature, the
crop-yielding trees, such as the walnut, hickory, pecan, acorn yielding
oak, chestnut, beech, pinenut, hazel, honey locust, mesquite, screw
bean, carob, mulberry, persimmon, paw-paw, etc., because their slow
growth has deterred us from any attempts at improving them. We have
depended upon and greatly improved the quick growing grains, which spend
most of their short life in putting up a frame work which promptly
perishes; whereas the tree endures like a manufacturing plant. Further
than this, most of the grains have a period of crisis, during which they
must receive water or the harvest is almost a failure. Thus corn must
within a short period receive moisture, or it is too late to produce
even husks.

Yet trees are the great engines of nature. The mazzard cherry tree,
growing wild throughout the southeastern United States, often yields
twenty bushels of fruit. Fifty bushels and upwards are often obtained
from the mature apple trees. The walnut yields its bushels, the
persimmon breaks with fruit.

Europe shows us an agriculture making considerable use of crop-yielding
trees other than the ordinary fruits. Mr. C. F. Cook, of the Department
of Agriculture, is the authority for the statement that Mediterranean
agriculture began on the basis of tree crops, and there are now about
twenty-five such crops in the Mediterranean basin. The oak tree
furnishes five, cork bark, an ink producing gall which enters into the
manufacture of all our ink, the Valonia, or tannin-yielding acorn, which
is an important export from the Balkan states; the truffle worth several
million dollars to France; and lastly the acorn. In the Balaeric Isles,
I am informed, certain acorns are more prized than chestnuts and the
trees yielding them are grafted like apples, and the porker is turned
out to make his living picking up acorns where they fall, and enriching
his diet with a special kind of fig grown in the same way for his use.
We Americans are too industrious; we insist upon putting a pig in a pen
and then waiting upon him. The pistachio, the walnut, the filbert and
the chestnut are all important tree crops in parts of the Mediterranean
countries and many American travelers have probably seen the chestnut
orchards of France and Italy, which I have found by examination are able
to make the rough and unplowable mountain-side, bristling with rocks, as
valuable as the level black prairies of Illinois.

The natural objection may be raised that the utilization of so much
hilly land in fruit and nut-yielding trees will give such supplies of
new food that people will refuse to use them. The above objection is
well founded; but swine, sheep and poultry eat what is given them. I
have an example of a farmer of Louisiana, who planted a hillside to
mulberry trees. The mulberries held the ground in place by their roots
and dropped their black harvest to the ground through three months of
summer, and the hogs gathered them up and converted them into pork worth
$12 an acre, without any effort on the part of the owner. The mulberry
area in the United States is probably close to a million square miles.
Over most of the region south of Mason and Dixon's Line the persimmon is
a hated tree weed; yet it stands by the millions in fields and fence
rows, fairly bending down with a full crop of fruit every other year,
which is much sought after by the opossum and other wild animals, and
eaten when possible by the American porker from September, the end of
the mulberry season, until March, for the persimmon has a habit of
dropping its fruit through the long winter period. The oak whose acorns
probably made the pig what he is, is almost neglected in America; yet
for ages the Indians of the Pacific coast have made their bread from
acorns of two species of oak, one of which is now gathered by the
farmers of California, put into their barns and bought and sold as
stock food. The beechnut and the hickory nut are rich and much prized
swine food.

Legumes, of which there are many species, can be grown between
nut-yielding trees to maintain the fertility of the soil through the
nitrogen gathering nodules upon their roots.

As it often seems desirable to cultivate trees of this character where
possible, the tree crops agriculturist is above all others able to
adjust his crop and the one device that permits the tillage of hilly
land--terracing. Terraces interfere with machinery which is so
increasingly essential in the cultivation and harvesting of the present
crops. But terracing interferes least of all with the tree crop
agriculture, because the trees can stand in the terrace rows and make a
fortunate combination of the heavy yielding tree crops and the soil
preservation through terracing.

We have an interesting example of tree crop productivity in Hawaii,
where the agaroba was introduced from Peru in the last century. It has
now spread until it covers considerable area with forests, and
information from the Hawaiian Experiment Station is to the effect that
it is now the mainstay of the dairy industry of the island. The annual
crop of four tons of big beans to the acre can be and is ground into a
highly nutritious meal food selling at $25 a ton, an agriculture which,
for ease of operation and richness of return, puts Illinois to shame,
for, in addition to the $100 worth of animal food, there is a ton of
wood per acre every year.

The tree crop agriculture seems to hold the possibility of letting the
worst third of our soil (Class 1 as mentioned above) become as
productive as the best land (Class 3), while (Class 2) the hill land can
probably be doubled in productivity. This is a goal well worthy of much
endeavor on the part of the plant breeder.

Tree crops offer equal possibilities for the arid land. The grains with
their period of crisis are an uncertain dependence on land of such
uncertain rainfall as exists in the United States west of the 100th
meridian. This is attested by the fact that some of this land has been
settled three times and abandoned twice to the wreckage of hundreds of
thousands of private fortunes. Yet the tree with its far-reaching roots
and ability to store energy can survive in much of this area where
grains are so very uncertain. The mesquite, yet a tree weed over much of
this area, has one species which produces a nutritious seed that has
been used for bread stuff by unknown generations of Indians. The screw
bean, a legume, with a nutritious seed, grows from El Paso to the
Imperial Valley; while the broad leafed honey locust, with a seed
closely akin to that of the carob, or St. John's Bread, will also grow
over wide areas in the arid southwest. Five varieties of the small but
productive wild almond have been found by a Government botanist growing
upon the shores of Pyramid Lake; while Frank Myer, Plant Explorer of the
Department, brings back from Turkestan accounts of wild almonds
producing good fruit on mountain slopes with a rainfall of 8 inches a
year. These productive plants, several of them legumes, adjusted by
nature to this region, with allied species in other continents, seem to
hold before the plant breeder the possibilities of hundreds of thousands
of square miles of Western orchard ranges of high productivity, rather
than the present would-be grass-ranges of low and declining

I believe that the development of a tree crop agriculture offers one of
the greatest possibilities in constructive conservation of natural
resources. Individuals cannot be depended upon to do it. The work is too
slow. A man might by decades of work create species that would be, if
fully utilized, worth a hundred million dollars a year to a state like
Pennsylvania; yet he would be unable to realize personal gain from the
results, provided he had secured them. Institutions must do it. It is
like the Geological Survey and the Census Bureau and Agricultural
Experiment Stations, which depend upon appropriations. The
appropriations depend upon the realization of the importance of the
work. There are interesting examples of similar work already in
operation, of which the following might be mentioned: The Agricultural
Experiment Station of Arizona has started a twenty-four-year series of
experiments in breeding the date palm. In North Dakota, where the
blizzards kill nearly all the ordinary fruits, an experimenter has done
much work in the breeding of hardy strains of apple, cherry and other

       *       *       *       *       *

Then followed a display of lantern slides showing scenes from Spain,
Portugal, Balaeric Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Italy, Algeria, Tunis,
France and southern and central United States. This collection of
pictures revealed a surprising amount of tree crop agriculture already
worked out but needing wider application.

       *       *       *       *       *

The meeting adjourned without discussion of either lecture at 10 P.M.


The third session of the convention was called to order at 9:50
A.M. with the president, Dr. J. Russell Smith, in the chair.
The opening attendance was twenty-eight persons.

THE PRESIDENT: Owing to the fact that business needs to be
predigested, we have decided to postpone the amendments to the
constitution until this evening's session. We think it will take but a
short time to discuss them. Resolutions, informal discussion on
seedlings, the chestnut, and similar topics will also be brought up at
that time. This morning's session, therefore, will be devoted to the
intellectual, rather than the business end.

I know of no subject in which there is greater possibility of securing
knowledge than the question of nuts for the north. A few years ago a
friend of mine wrote me he had bought some land, and was planting native
walnuts in the fence corners to be topworked with English walnuts. I
wrote him, recommending oranges instead, telling him he would lose less
money. I was basing this advice upon my own bitter experience. The
accumulations of nut knowledge in the last few years and the trees now
growing on my own place show how ridiculous was my position of a short
time ago. This morning I think we are likely to have somewhat similar
surprises in a paper by Dr. Morris. He will give us information on the
hazel nut, giving his experience with the European varieties.



The hazels are descended from an ancient and honorable family.
Impressions of leaves found in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of the
Yellowstone Valley cannot be distinguished from those of the leaves of
our two American hazel species of today.

The hazels belong to the _Cupuliferae_ or oak family. Our American
species are only two in number, although there are many varieties of the
species. The one which is most prized, _Corylus americana_, is found
over a wide range of territory and abundantly in many places between
Canada and the southern extremity of the Appalachians, and from the
central Mississippi valley to the Atlantic coast.

This species bears nuts of excellent quality for the most part, but of
rather small size and thick shell, excepting in individual plants. The
common American hazel, while valuable for hybridizing purposes, will
probably never be cultivated to any great extent, because of its habit
of growth.

The characteristic life history in the Eastern States is as follows: A
hazel plant bears a few nuts in its third year, a fairly large crop in
its fourth year, a heavy crop in its fifth year, a very few nuts in its
sixth year and it dies at the seventh or eighth year of age. Meanwhile,
the plant has been sending out long stoloniferous roots which have
surrounded the original plant with a chaplet of progeny, each one of
which follows the life course of the parent.

One hazel plant when left free to its own devices may increase in this
way rapidly enough to drive cows out of a pasture lot. I have trimmed
off stoloniferous roots experimentally from a number of hazel plants,
for the purpose of throwing all of the strength into the original
stocks, hoping, thereby, to prolong their lives. This, however, appears
not to be effective, as the stocks died at their appointed time.

Like many other wild plants, not yet subjected to processes of
cultivation, the common American hazel does not respond very readily to
cultivation, and too much attention on the part of the horticulturist
leads it into confusion.

Some years ago I expended about six weeks in making a study of fruiting
hazels and examined many thousands of bushes in Rhode Island,
Connecticut and eastern New York state, including Long Island.

In the regions visited, the native hazels are so abundant as to be
considered a pest. Out of all the bushes examined, I saved but three for
purposes of propagation. The best one of these for size, quality and
thinness of shell, I have named the Merribrooke, and young plants of
this variety will be sent to any member of the Association who wishes to
cultivate them. Bushes of this particular wild variety have had a
reputation among the boys of the locality for more than a hundred years,
according to legends of the neighborhood. I have recently budded
specimens of this variety upon stocks of the Byzantine hazel, in the
hope of prolonging the life of an individual plant beyond its normal
seven or eight years.

The other American hazel, variously known as the beaked hazel, tailed
hazel or horned hazel, was named _Corylus cornuta_ by Marshall
(Arbustrum Americanum 37, 1785). Consequently, that is the name by which
it should be known instead of the name _Corylus rostrata_ which was
bestowed subsequently. This hazel has a much more northern range than
the common American hazel and I have seen it in Labrador and in Ontario
nearly to Hudson's Bay. On the Pacific coast it is said to reach a
height of thirty feet. Although spreading by stoloniferous roots like
the common American hazel, these roots are shorter, and it does not
extend rapidly enough to dominate the situation when growing in
competition with the common hazel.

The nuts, while very good, and sometimes of large size with
comparatively thin shell, lack quality, a very important element in any
nut. It is probable that this tailed hazel will be valuable for adding
hardiness to hybrids with the European and Asiatic hazels, when the time
comes for horticulturists of Canada to make fortunes from their hazel

In Europe and Asia and in the northern parts of Africa several species
of hazels are extremely important commercially, sometimes furnishing the
chief source of income for large districts, very much as wheat or corn
make special crops over large areas in this country.

These foreign hazels have not been raised successfully in our country,
excepting very recently on the northwest coast. The reason for failure
depends almost wholly upon the presence of a blight, _Cryptosporella
anomala_, which belongs to our native hazels. In the course of
evolution, host and parasite have come to be peers of each other, and
consequently this blight does not menace our native hazels very
seriously. Introduced species, with the exception, perhaps, of the
Byzantine hazel, appear to carry a protoplasm which has not learned to
resist the attacks of the blight. All organic warfare is fundamentally
enzymic in its nature, and it is possible that through process of
natural selection some of the foreign hazels would eventually become
securely established in this country, without aid from the nurseryman.

As a matter of fact, the hazel blight is very easily managed. Not
knowing this at first, I allowed almost all of my exotic hazels to
become destroyed, and a number of nurserymen told me of having given up
the problem as hopeless. Recently I have learned of the ease with which
the disease may be controlled, and now feel very comfortable in its

The blight is of slow development and chooses the larger hazel stems for
its battleground. All that one notices at first is a depression of the
bark extending in the long axis of a large branch. If one observes more
closely, he will find spore-bearing pustules occurring as little round
elevations upon the depressed part of the bark. The blight proceeds
slowly, and I pass about for examination specimens from two hazel limbs.
In the smaller one the blight has been two years under way, and in the
larger one three years. These patches of blight were allowed to grow
experimentally. Meanwhile, I trimmed out all other blight areas of the
bark with my jack-knife. This is very readily done. If one will look
over his hazel bushes once a year and simply whip out the few slices of
bark carrying the blight, it is done so easily and quickly that we now
need to have no fear whatsoever for the future of hazel culture in this

If the members of the Association will examine these Cryptosporella
specimens which are passed about, and if they will dispose of the blight
according to directions, I feel that the hazel question involving a
matter perhaps of millions of dollars worth of investment has been

Among the foreign hazels which will thrive in this country the Byzantine
hazel, _Corylus colurna_ is by all means the most beautiful. It makes a
tree as large as the ordinary oaks, and in Hungary I have seen a trunk
three feet in diameter at a short distance above the ground. I have been
told that a single tree of this species will sometimes bear about twenty
bushels of nuts at a single crop. This presumably refers to the nuts in
their large involucral mass,--say four or five bushels of husked nuts.
The wood of these species is hard, takes a high polish and is valuable.
The tree itself is strikingly beautiful as the members will observe this
afternoon when examining the Byzantine hazels which Superintendent Laney
will show us in one of the Rochester parks.

This species of hazel in some of the localities about the Black Sea is
said to form almost the entire source of income over large districts.
The nuts are not large, as a rule averaging about like those of our
common American hazel in size, quality and thinness of shell. Grafted or
budded stocks may be made to bear large thin-shelled nuts. I am using
this hazel at present for grafting stock for choice foreign species and
varieties of other kinds, and for the American hazel, although it may be
that the American hazel will not respond well to so large and vigorous a
stock in the long run. Nuts and nursery stock may be obtained through
French nursery firms.

The reason why the Byzantine hazel has not been planted widely in
America as yet, is because we have not advanced that far in
civilization,--people have not happened to think about it. We must leave
something for the people who are to come five thousand years after us,
and not think of all good things at once.

The Byzantine hazel appears to be quite free from the blight and this,
perhaps, is due to its thick corky bark, which is in itself an
attractive feature. In some individuals the corky bark stands out in
ridges almost like that of the corky elm. The beauty of the European and
Asiatic hazels, in general, makes them extremely desirable for
ornamental purposes in parks and in dooryards.

One of the most attractive is the purple variety of _Corylus avellana_.
In many parts of Europe this is held to be desirable for its nuts, but
in Connecticut it is prone to flower so early in the season that the
elongated male catkins are caught by frost. I have seen elongated
catkins in a warm week at the end of February. A very desirable variety
of _Corylus avellana_ is one of which I now show specimens. The section
of the branch which I pass about carried four large nuts yesterday but I
find that one of them has disappeared, and it is probable that last
night in the sleeping car a squirrel got in when the porter was looking
the other way.

The specimen represents a seedling individual among a lot presented to
me by Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld of Bohemia nine years ago. This
particular shrub is rather homely, with small unattractive leaves and
big bony branches, but it bears heavily of large thin shelled hazels of
the highest quality, and the sort which are now bringing fifty cents per
pound in the New York market as green hazels. It blossoms very late in
the spring. I have not as yet given a name to this individual bush, but
as Professor J. Russell Smith caught my description of it and speaks of
it as "the bony-bush" we will allow his nomenclature to stand if members
of the Association wish to call for any of the wood for grafting or
budding purposes. _Corylus avellana_ in its many varieties is the chief
European hazel which gives us the cobnuts and filberts of the market,
and it is the one which will probably be most widely introduced into
this country. The name "filbert" is a corruption of "full beard" and is
properly applied only to those nuts in which the husk extends beyond the
nut. The shrubs of this species commonly reach a height of about fifteen
to eighteen feet, with a spread of the same dimensions. Trimming by the
horticulturist allows of the development of a larger bearing surface,
very much as it does with peach or apple trees.

In some parts of Europe this species serves for hedge fences, indicating
the practical ideas belonging to an older civilization. In this country
we make hedge fences of worthless osage orange, privet, or honey locust
which steal nourishment from the soil, add little to the beauty of the
landscape, and give us no return whatsoever. Such a typical American way
of doing things will be changed when we stop to think. Stopping to
think is rather a painful process and gives us many jolts, but it has
its rewards. When we replace our worthless hedge plants with hazels
which yield heavy annual crops of valuable nuts we shall have made one
step forward.

A fine hazel is the _Corylus pontica_. The shrub in itself has beauty,
and it bears nuts sometimes as large as those of the average shagbark
hickory. The kernel is of good quality, but the shell is so thick that
these nuts are chiefly attractive to squirrels and to men who are out of
work. I do not know the origin of the nut which is known in the market
as the Barcelona hazel, but I imagine the plants bearing this nut are
derived from the _Corylus pontica_. (Specimens of branches and nuts of
various species and varieties of hazels are now passed about in the
audience.) The nuts are beginning to ripen in this first week in

Hazels do not come true to parent variety from seed, and consequently
valuable stock is propagated by budding, by grafting or by layering.

Personally, I find that the hazel is rather easily budded, although
layering is the method for propagation of choice varieties most often
employed in Europe. The hazels have comparatively few insect enemies,
but mine are sometimes attacked destructively by the elm beetle and by
the larvae of two species of saw flies which are also found upon the
elms. It is a rather curious fact that the insects should recognize a
similarity between the leaves of the hazels and of the elms, which are
somewhat alike in general appearance, although the trees are of widely
different descent.

It brings up an interesting question, if the flying parents of the
parasites from the elm are attracted by the appearance of the hazel
leaves, or if they are attracted by the odor or other characteristics.
Occasionally the exotic hazels are attacked by various leaf blights but
not to any troublesome extent so far as my experience goes, up to the
present time. The chief predatory elements which we shall have to meet
when raising hazels are squirrels, white-footed mice and the neighbors'

W. C. REED: May I ask, Doctor, what you bud the Byzantine on?

DR. MORRIS: I am budding other things on those for stocks. I
bud our American hazels and European hazels on the European and Asiatic

MR. RUSH: Do you know anything of the quality of that nut?

DR. MORRIS: It is the chief hazel in parts of northern Turkey,
and of excellent quality. Hazels form a source of income for some
localities like the wheat or corn in other parts of the world, or the
olive, as Dr. Smith told us last night.

MR. HOLDEN: Do they get these trees from seedlings?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, so far as I know. The nuts are called
Constantinople nuts.

A MEMBER: What kind is it that blooms in the fall?

DR. MORRIS: I don't know any but the witch hazel which blooms
in the fall; has a small yellow flower, but is not a true hazel. Catkins
form upon all hazels in the fall, but these do not really blossom until

A MEMBER: I would like to ask if the Byzantine hazel is
attacked by blight as are the others?

DR. MORRIS: No; none of my trees have been attacked by blight
at all as yet.

W. C. REED: What method of budding do you find most successful?

DR. MORRIS: I have usually used the ring budding. It is not
very difficult.

PROFESSOR HEDRICK: Are there any East Asia hazels that thrive
in this country?

DR. MORRIS: There are specimens in the park here at Rochester
that you will see this afternoon.

PROFESSOR HEDRICK: Our experience with Asiatic hazels is very

MR. MCGLENNON: A friend of mine here has some specimens that he
would like to present.

DR. SMITH: We will ask Mr. Vollertsen to describe the specimens

MR. VOLLERTSEN: They are from a private place of G. H. Perkins
on East Avenue. They have never failed a year since 1886. Unfortunately
we have no name for them, except that this one was always called John
Jones. It has certainly proved a good strong hardy variety.

Then we have another one, a long one, which has never been named, and I
am not able to say exactly what it is. Last year they were exceptionally
well filled. This year there are not quite so many on them, although a
goodly number. They have never failed a single year.

I have one little variety which was given me by Dr. Mann, on Alexander
Street. The limbs are practically hanging down with the nuts. They are
ready for market now, falling out.

I have here some purple hazels which have always borne fruit and no
other hazel in the vicinity is as good. It has sometimes two crops in a
year. These are really beautiful specimens. This little early variety
should be passed round and have special attention. I have given this
variety no name, but for over thirty-five years it has borne good fruit
every year.

DR. MORRIS: If you are in doubt as to the name of a variety, I
think Mr. Laney will find a way for getting you the name for almost
every variety that is found in the markets.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. McGlennon asks that the gentleman advise us
how he has propagated them. We went through Mr. McGlennon's beautiful
orchard yesterday.

MR. VOLLERTSEN: We have been using an ordinary way of budding.
An ordinary seedling can be used to good advantage for grafting. I have
found in grafting in winter they do not seem to grow as well. In our
fall layering we naturally get a larger plant.

THE PRESIDENT: Do we understand that these hazels that have
borne for twenty-five years are European hazels?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: Yes; European hazels. I have had them under my
care since 1886, and never noticed any blight.

A MEMBER: Can't you explain to us, with one of your specimens,
your method of spring layering?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: In layering them, we practically don't cover
them at all for the time being. They are merely pinned down.

DR. MORRIS: Do you cut the bark?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: Not on them. After they have grown some we
cover them up. We find this a very successful way. We get younger and
smaller plants in the fall lay.

THE PRESIDENT: I should like to ask Dr. Morris a question. In
this native hazel, does it keep on spreading under ground?

DR. MORRIS: One single plant, planted in a pasture lot and not
interfered with will in a few years occupy practically that whole
pasture lot. In my part of the country this is true; how is it with you,
Dr. Deming?

A MEMBER: Going back to the blight, will this tackle any size

DR. MORRIS: It usually does not come until your hopes are at
top notch, and then it drops in on you. It does not attack the smaller
twigs at first, but may finally extend to them.

A MEMBER: Are any of your hybrids a success?

DR. MORRIS: There are none in bearing as yet. Byzantines are
little, if any, larger than American hazel nuts, excepting from
selected trees. Pontines are much larger. Both plants make a remarkably
vigorous growth.

THE PRESIDENT: Do I understand that this Merribrooke hazel, put
in the middle of an acre will fill the acre?

DR. MORRIS: I believe this is true. I don't think it is an
exaggeration. The wild hazel is a nuisance in Connecticut.

THE SECRETARY: I know they will cover a very large space, but I
cannot tell how they get there.

THE PRESIDENT: The point I am trying to get after is this, not
the exact extent of spread but the method of propagation. Can we get a
sprout from a good tree, and then have it go on sprouting indefinitely?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, that is true.

A MEMBER: In your experience are fungicides useful in handling
the blight?

DR. MORRIS: I have not used them. I have talked with nurserymen
who did, and they say the blight got the best of them just the same.
They left the matter with employees, who did not give proper attention.
This was perhaps because they did not know that a small jack-knife was
better than a spraying outfit for the purpose.

A MEMBER: Once on, will it stay?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, until the blight area has circled the limb.

A MEMBER: What is the difference between the cobs and the

DR. MORRIS: The cob nut is generally a round nut. The filberts
are longer nuts. "Filbert" is a corruption of "full beard," and refers
to the involucre extending beyond the nut.

DR. SMITH: We may now proceed to the next number on the
program, if the hunger for hazel knowledge abates. Members of this
association have topworked pecans, hickories, etc. I followed the
instructions of members of this association in my work and have had some
success. Some workers report splendid success mixed with very great
failures, so we may be encouraged to the very top notch, and the next
spring we come back feeling very different. Last fall I was as large
almost as a beer barrel with the gratification that followed the setting
of 100 English walnut buds. I have adopted the motto "Blessed is he that
rejoices early, or he may not rejoice at all." In March there were about
ten or twelve alive. In June about nine were alive, and now these also
have failed to grow. Last year I knew just how to bud walnuts. This last
Fourth of July I was very humble.

For some reason or other we have not all the facts. We can propagate
splendidly one year, and the next year we have a fall-down. Mr. Roper,
of one of the pioneer nurseries, said he had 2,000 fine live walnut buds
last fall, and had but 500 this spring, and not one of them grew. While
the technique seems to be simple, there seems to be something lacking in
our experience. I will ask Mr. Littlepage to give us his confessions

MR. LITTLEPAGE: The proposition of topworking is one of the
schemes where art beats nature. In the fight in Congress over the
oleomargarine bill some years ago, one member who favored it, said in
support of his contention, that nature always beat art; and one of his
opponents immediately referred him to a picture gallery near, where
pictures of the statesmen were exhibited, as a proof that art sometimes
beats nature. In top working, art improves upon nature.

The first thing to be considered is what is topworking, and then the
logical question, why topworking. Possibly this should come first. If an
individual is dissatisfied with his friends and neighbors, he must put
up with them; he cannot change them. But if he is dissatisfied with a
nut tree, it is his own fault if he does not change it. It can be top
worked. He does not care to top work maples or oaks. We only top work to
get something better than we have. The trees, of course, that interest
us specially in top working are the nut trees. We have seedling pecans,
seedling walnuts, seedling hickories, and seedling chestnuts. Down at
the mouth of Green River in Kentucky are nearly two hundred acres of
wild pecan trees. So far as we know there are only two trees in that
orchard worthy of propagation. Of thousands of trees there we have
propagated only two varieties. These trees are now too large to top
work, but had it been possible 150 years ago to go in there and select
the desirable nuts, and topwork all the other trees with these, there
could have been a great orchard there now of the highest quality nuts.

Topworking consists in cutting off the top of some undesirable seedling
and replacing it with scions or buds from some desirable variety. It is
just the same as any other grafting or budding process. Almost any size
tree can be topworked but, of course, the larger the tree the more
difficult the operation. A young tree, from two to five inches in
diameter, can be sawed off four or five feet above the ground and
topworked by grafting from two to four scions on it, by the slip bark
process. If the tree is larger than five inches in diameter, it is
better to go up to the first branches, saw off part of them and proceed
just as if each branch were itself a small tree. If the tree is a large
tree, with a number of branches or prongs, it is best to work part of
them one year and leave the remaining branches to maintain the root
system. It would probably kill a large tree to cut the whole top off at
one time. I have seen trees, two feet in diameter, successfully
topworked. It sometimes happens that the scions placed in the tree, in
the spring, for some reason or other, do not grow. The tree then sends
up nice green shoots that later in the season can be budded into just as
if they were small seedlings. The wild black walnut trees, growing
around the fields and hills, can all be very easily topworked to the
English walnut by the slip bark method. The scions must be dormant and
the tree starting into active growth.

The wild hickory, wild pecan and wild black walnut trees, offer the best
field for profitable work along this line. We have topworked a great
many hickories to pecan, but we do not expect permanent satisfactory
results. The experience of the pecan on the hickory is not very
satisfactory. The hickory is a dense, hard wood, that has a short
growing season, and matures its nuts early; the pecan is of the coarser,
faster growing wood, whose nuts grow until late in the fall. This
inconsistency of the growing habits of the two trees prevents the pecan
top on the hickory from producing normal crops of nuts. The pecan
topworked to the pecan, however, is a perfect success and there is no
reason why the wild hickories of all descriptions cannot be successfully
and profitably topworked to the better varieties of the good shagbark
hickories. I believe that there are great opportunities in the state of
New York for successful nut culture by utilizing the wild black walnut
trees and the hickories. I have seen hundreds of English walnut trees
growing around Rochester, some of them bearing perfectly wonderful crops
of walnuts. I am surprised that the people in this section have not
availed themselves more of the opportunities along this line. If the
farmers in this section would take up nut growing as a side proposition
and set five or ten acres of nut trees on each farm, they would soon
find that these nut trees would be producing them more than all the
balance of their farms. We hear a great deal today about the back to the
farm movement, but my opinion is that for everyone who is going to the
farm, ten are leaving it, and the reason for this is that the heavy
operating expense of the annual crops, such as corn, wheat and potatoes,
etc., lay such a heavy toll on the farmer that farming is not
profitable. The requirements of time, labor and money in producing these
crops are so great that it discourages many farmers. I have made the
statement to some of the farmers in my part of the country that they
must produce alfalfa or go broke. I believe that alfalfa and tree crops
will be two of the greatest factors in the rehabilitation of the farm,
especially the nut trees, for the reason that nut trees do not require
the same high degree of care, spraying, pruning, as do apple and peach
trees, nor are the products as perishable. A crop of nuts can be
harvested and stacked up in barrels, and boxes, in the smoke house, the
barn or in a flat car and go to the market tomorrow, next week or next

Recurring to the advantage of topworking, however, it meets the
objection that is often raised by those who say they have not time to
wait for the nut trees to grow. Of course, this is a perfectly foolish
statement; they are going to wait anyhow; it is simply a question as to
whether they wait for something or nothing, and trees grow into maturity
in a surprisingly short time. A few years ago, when I was setting out an
orchard of nut trees, a neighbor of mine came over and looked very
doubtfully with a trace of pity in his expression and said, "When do you
expect all those trees that you are setting to bear?" I replied, "I am
not sure, but I do know that they will bear a long time before those
trees that you are not setting." Topworking, however, gives quick
results and enables one to take advantage of the long-established
thrifty root systems of the wild black walnuts, hickories and pecans
growing in economic spots, around the fences, corners, creeks and

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. JONES: In all our grafting we cut the cleft; we don't split
it. The slip bark method is better in some cases.

MR. PRESIDENT: What is the size limit for the slip bark method?

MR. JONES: Anything less than two inches we would cut.

THE PRESIDENT: Will Mr. Jones tell us about budding with cold
storage wood?

MR. JONES: The cold storage buds would take better, but you
would have more loss in their failing to grow. In other words, a much
larger percentage of buds set with the current season's growth, will
grow in the following spring. I would not recommend either method alone.
By grafting in the spring and then budding, first with cold storage and
later with the season buds, you would have three chances.

THE PRESIDENT: Have you budded any cold storage wood before
this year?

MR. JONES: We have done more or less of it for six or eight
years, and it has been successful. Anyone with very little experience
can use cold storage buds.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. W. C. Reed, have you any additions that we
ought to know?

MR. W. C. REED: Mr. Jones' method and views in regard to cold
storage buds agree with mine exactly. Last year I put in on July 30th
quite a number of English walnut buds that were held in cold storage. In
the fall we seemed to have almost perfect stands from these buds, but
they are still lying dormant. Buds of the season's growth put in about
three or four weeks later gave better results, although our success last
year was very poor. We seemed to have a fair stand on quite a number of
varieties, but this spring they refused to grow. I lay much of this
trouble to the extreme cold we had in November. This killed many peach
trees that were from six to eight years old, and I think it injured many
of the walnut buds. I found the buds that started best were those
nearest the ground, where they were protected by a little grass.

In regard to the topworking of the English walnut, several of you have
seen my trees, the three trees along the highway in a ditch where they
catch the wash where they have made 91/2 feet growth. I am sorry to
report that two of these trees are entirely gone, killed by the cold
spell, and the other is about half alive, but I was not in the least
discouraged by that loss. In September the rains commenced, following
the extreme drouth and started a second growth, and the freeze caught
them November 22d as full of sap then as they were in September, when
you were there.

Other trees that I had topworked had made a moderate growth, and were
not injured in the least. They made a good growth this season, and
should be quite fruitful next year.

The Pomeroy trees in the bluegrass pasture had made only a moderate
growth, and went through the winter in good shape.

I had three trees of the Rush, probably twenty-five feet high. They were
injured a little, some of the growth killing back a third of the way,
and one or two buds were killed entirely.

In regard to topworking pecans, I have not done much of this, but our
success has been very good with what we have tried. I find them much
easier to work, as far as the bud starting in the spring is concerned.
Some varieties, however, do not start readily. With the Major, Green
River, and one or two other varieties, we can use wood five, six and
eight years old, and have it come out all right. I find, however, that
the current season's growth, cut from two-year-old trees, well
developed, will give you at least double the growth in the nursery the
first year that older or dormant wood will.

THE PRESIDENT: Some apple experience of mine is a close match
to the killing that Mr. Reed just reported. The season of 1912 was a
very dry one. All September it rained frequently and heavily. The trees
waked up and grew with such speed that many of them made a sappy growth
where they had been manured, and a very cold spell early in the winter
killed 100 of them. Others across the road were uninjured.

MR. W. C. REED: In regard to grafting in the nursery, this
spring my experience has been somewhat varied. In grafting we started
about April 10th; the first grafting was almost an utter failure. On May
1st it improved. On May 9th we set 900 and have 75 per cent growing
today, some higher than my head. Set with wood some of which would run
three-fourths inches in diameter.

LADY DELEGATE: My sister has on her place 200 or 300 black
walnut seedlings. What would you advise her to do with these? They are
in all ages and stages of growth, from one to ten years.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: That is a very broad question to answer. I
should topwork them to the Persian walnut. I should topwork all of them
on the chance that future developments would leave them the proper
distance apart. The walnut transplants very easily, except that the
larger the tree, the more danger of loss. Trees of that size ought to be
worked very nicely.

Assume that this is your tree, and that you have sawed off the top. Here
is your scion from your desirable tree. It is to be cut on one side
only, and there is considerable art in making that cut true. Then with
the knife split down the bark on the stock a little way and shove the
scion down between the wood and bark, the cut side next to the wood of
the stock (demonstrating), and cover with waxed cloth. Then apply
grafting wax to the cut surface, and cover all with a paper bag for two
or three weeks. There should not be more than two buds on a scion. Don't
leave too many. One bud is better than three, but you may leave two
buds. This scion must be kept entirely dormant until used. Any time
after the bark will slip readily is the proper time to graft, and you
will then get a high percentage of success. Keep your sap circulating to
the top by putting two or three scions around the top of the stock. This
method of grafting is a very simple operation when you know a few little
fundamental facts about it. The kind of wax or cloth is not particularly
important. Mr. Reed and Mr. Jones and Mr. Rush have had much experience
in this work.

MR. PARISH: In doing this, shall we put in a little air hole?

MR. LITTLEPAGE: No. In from ten days to two weeks tear a little
hole in the paper bag. Next time be careful, for it may be full of
wasps. The purpose of that paper sack is to keep the water off the buds.
This is essential.

MR. PHILLIPS: I had about 300 trees planted in 1911, black
walnuts. In 1913 I budded them according to the Oregon method. I failed
to make any of these grow. In 1913 I cleft grafted and a great many of
these started, but they all failed to live. I wonder wherein I failed.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: No one can tell why a particular scion does not
live. I had scions from a very fine hickory and I put them in cold
storage. The wood was in perfect condition. I grafted perhaps 100 of
these scions as I have described. I have four trees growing out of the
100 grafted. In handling the wood I got fungus on it probably. That may
be one reason why it failed. There may be other reasons. If the scions
were not dormant that might explain it.

MR. W. C. REED: I think it is very important that walnut
grafting wood should be cut before severe weather in the winter, though
I don't think it ever grows cold enough to hurt pecan wood. You need not
worry about pecan wood, but in the case of the walnut it should be cut
before extreme cold weather and put in cold storage. I cut some last
year after the extreme cold snap in December and we threw it practically
all away this spring. It is useless. You are throwing away your time to
use it.

MR. JONES: I don't think we had any wood that was not injured
during the cold winter of 1911-12. Out of about 2,600 grafts set we had
two grow.

QUESTION: What do you mean by cold storage?

MR. W. C. REED: I have been storing all of our wood in ordinary
apple cold storage plants. Pack it in damp moss or excelsior. Paper line
your boxes well, and nail them up, and leave them there until you are
ready to use them. I have put wood in in November and taken it out in
good shape in August. Pecan wood can be held the year round.

THE PRESIDENT: What can you tell us, Mr. White, that has not
yet been covered?

MR. PAUL WHITE: About all I would care to say about topworking
would be to ask a question. They claim that the pecan topworked on the
hickory, only bears for a few years, and then stops. What would be the
result in the case of the English and black walnuts? Might there not be
some danger there?

THE PRESIDENT: I have made considerable investigation of this.
I have found several English walnuts topworked on black walnuts, one
done eighty years ago down in Maryland. The tree is reported to have
borne twenty-five bushels of nuts. I think there is good explanation for
the pecan-hickory trouble. A hickory grows for a short time in early
summer and does not grow much, but a pecan grows twice as much.
Therefore the hickory roots cannot feed the pecan top enough to make
both vegetation and fruit. We are, in this city, in a very unusual
place. Not only is it the center of a great wealth of seedling Persian
walnut trees, but we have in the parks a great tree collection under
Superintendent Laney. This is a very fine and notable collection,
including American and foreign trees, some of which we will see this

Adjournment at 12:12 P.M.

Photographs of the convention were then taken on the steps of the City


Convened at 8:20 P.M., Dr. Smith presiding.

Attendance about twenty.

A Nominating Committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Littlepage,
C. A. Reed, J. F. Jones, Webber, and Teter.

At this point was given the address by C. A. Reed.



Ever since the colonists first established themselves in the Western
Hemisphere, nut trees have been planted up and down the Atlantic Coast.
One of the species oftenest included in such planting was a walnut, a
native to Persia which, with Romanism, had spread across Europe and the
channel into England. In the Old World it had variously been known as
Jove's nut, under the supposition that it had once been the food of the
gods; Royal nut, meaning King nut; and by other common names which would
be interesting to discuss but which are not pertinent in this
connection. In England it had been known merely as the "walnut," but in
the New World, in order to distinguish it from the walnut found here, it
was called the "English" walnut. In the trade today it is commonly known
by the Old World name, other walnuts being distinguished from it by
prefixing their common names, as Eastern, California, Mexican or
Japanese black walnut, etc. However, being a native of Persia, it was
long ago decided that the correct name of this nut should be "Persian"
walnut, and not "English" walnut. As such it has now been referred to in
scientific publications for well towards a quarter of a century.

Subsequent to this rather limited and scattered planting on the Atlantic
Coast, by perhaps three hundred years, the Persian walnut put in its
appearance on the Pacific Coast. According to Bulletin No. 231 by the
University of California, it is probable that occasional trees were
planted in that state long before the discovery of gold in 1848.
Following that date, planting became much more general, but usually with
hardshell strains and always with seedling trees. From these early trees
the crops were never of great importance. In 1867 Mr. Joseph Sexton of
Santa Barbara, planted a sack of walnuts bought in the markets of San
Francisco, which he had reason to believe had been grown in Chili. Of
the resulting trees some were very good, others mediocre, and some
worthless. Later on, nuts from the best of these trees were planted, and
second generation seedlings produced. In this way the famous Santa
Barbara Papershell type of walnut was evolved. With it developed an
industry which among the tree products of southern California is now
second only to that of the orange. In 1910, the census takers found that
in the year preceding, the crop of walnuts of southern California,
which, by the way, came almost entirely from four counties, was valued
at more than that of the total crop of all other nuts grown in the
United States put together.

Four years after Mr. Sexton of southern California had planted this sack
of walnuts from San Francisco, Mr. Felix Gillet of Nevada City, in
northern California, began the introduction of French walnuts both by
seed and scions. Out of his efforts and those of others who subsequently
joined him, developed the walnut industry of northern California, which
now bids fair some day to equal that of the lower part of the state. The
famous French varieties of Franquette and Mayette were introduced by Mr.
Gillet, and from seedlings of his growing evolved the Concord, the San
Jose, and no doubt the Chase varieties.[1]

A nut which probably has received equally as much, if not more,
attention at the hands of experimental planters in this part of the
country is the chestnut. Just when the introduction of foreign strains
began, history seems to have failed to make clear; but according to
Powell[2] general dissemination in the Delaware section began with
introductions by Eleuthers Irénée du Pont de Nemours, made at about
1803. It is said that some of the original trees planted at that time
near the present site of the du Pont Powder mills by Mr. du Pont, still
survived when Mr. Powell recorded their history in 1898.

The spread of both European and Japanese chestnuts and their general
trial throughout the Eastern States has been narrated at former meetings
of this association. The chestnut blight, discovered on Long Island in
1904, after it had apparently gained several years' headway, and which
now seems fairly certain to have been introduced from Japan, has so
monopolized the attention of orchardists, foresters, landscape gardeners
and others interested in the chestnut that for the time being little is
being done with it, other than to study and discuss this disease. What
the final outcome will be no one can predict, but it is not improbable
that our pathologists will discover some practical means of control, or
that a natural enemy to the blight will appear. Nor is it unlikely that
immune strains of chestnuts, either native or foreign, will replace our
present groves and orchards, in case other efforts fail.

Another nut which has received a large degree of attention at the hands
of the planters and upon which hopes have been built from time to time
is the hazel, or filbert. Here again, history seems to have failed us,
for as yet the writer has been able to learn but little regarding the
early introductions into this country. In his _Nut Culturist_, published
in 1896, Mr. Fuller (A. S.) reasoned that at that time plants of the
European hazels must have been grown in the gardens of this country for
at least a hundred years. Writers on pomology make little reference to
this nut, but according to Mr. Fuller, nurserymen's catalogs listed
hazel varieties all through the early part of the last century. It was
believed that the hazel promised much for the gardener and the general
planter who wished for early returns. The species seemed capable of
readily adapting itself to cultivation, and being a shrub rather than a
tree, it required little space. It could be cultivated along with other
garden products at little additional expense for labor. Being an early
bearer it doubtless appealed strongly to the normal American demand for
quick returns.

Nevertheless, this nut met with its mortal foe in the way of a native
fungus which in a great many sections has proved entirely too much for
the European species. Where once this species was well represented up
and down the Atlantic Coast, few of its representatives are now to be

Some early attention in these Eastern States has been paid to the
almond, another foreign species. It is supposed that this nut is a
native of the Mediterranean basin. Just when it was first tried on the
Atlantic Coast is not known, but of the nuts thus far mentioned it has
proved to be the least promising for the Eastern section. Sometimes said
to be "as hardy as the peach," it has been found to be the most exacting
in its requirements of soil and climate of any important nut now grown
in this country. Except with certain of the hardshell varieties, no
almonds are now known to be in any sense successful east of the Rocky
Mountains. According to Wickson (E. J.) in his _California Fruits_, the
almond is known to have been introduced into California previous to
1853. At that time efforts to build up an almond industry on the Pacific
Coast began to assume a somewhat serious air. After a half century of
trials and more or less persistent effort by the California planters the
culture of this nut has developed into the third most important nut
industry in the United States. As for the time being, the growing of
Persian walnuts centered in southern California, so did the growing of
almonds in the Sacramento Valley of northern California.

During the whole of this period of early American nut growing history,
little attention in any part of the country was paid to the native nuts.
However, in the southeastern part of the United States there existed a
large portion of the country to which no choice species of nut trees
were either indigenous or had been introduced. Necessity, curious
interest, and, more probably intelligent purpose, prompted sea captains,
plying from West to East Gulf Coast ports, Easterners returning home
from visits in the West, Westerners visiting in the East, and no doubt
nomadic bands of Indians, to carry pecans from the Mississippi River and
beyond, to the coast of Mississippi, to Alabama and the South Atlantic
States, where they were planted as seed. For fully a century the species
gradually spread over the plains sections of the eastern Gulf and South
Atlantic States. In 1846, according to Taylor (William A.) in the
Yearbook (Department of Agriculture) of 1904, a Louisiana slave
succeeded in grafting a number of pecan trees. So far as can now be
learned, really intelligent interest in pecan culture began with that
date, although history records no further successful propagation of the
species until about 1882 when William Nelson began to propagate this
variety in his nursery near New Orleans. Soon afterwards, C. E. Pabst of
Ocean Springs, Miss., and E. E. Risien of San Saba, Texas, joined in the
pioneer work. The late Col. W. R. Stuart of Ocean Springs soon took part
by giving publicity to the early varieties. Gradually, but steadily,
choice varieties developed, were propagated and were disseminated.
Orchard planting followed, but did not assume great importance until
since about 1905. The orchards, therefore, were still too young at the
time the last census was taken to have been in bearing to any extent.
However, the crop of pecans from the native forests and from single
trees left standing in the open space where the forests had been cleared
is shown by the census reports to have been the second most valuable of
American nut crops in 1909.

In quantity, the production of cultivated pecans is still slight in
comparison with that of the wild product or with cultivated walnuts and
almonds of the Pacific Coast. Just now, however, a great many of the
orchards, planted this century, are beginning to bear and not improbably
the production of cultivated pecans will soon eclipse that of the forest
product, and before long will overhaul the lead now held by the Persian

Thus, briefly, has been the separate history of the principal nuts of
this country. Collectively, the history of American nut culture has been
as follows: Nuts from foreign countries which have been under
cultivation for centuries have been more inviting than have the native
and undeveloped species, and so have received the major portion of
attention in America. Then too, human nature has shown itself in the
greater interest taken by nut planters in foreign nuts instead of those
near at hand. It is in sections remote from their place of origin that
many of the leading nuts have attained their greatest degree of
perfection. Thus, the average pecan of the Atlantic Coast is distinctly
superior to that of the western Gulf; the Persian walnut scarcely known
in Persia is best known in France and in southern California.

Progress has been slow and not concerted. Seedling trees have been
planted under the firm conviction that they would come true, or because
methods of propagation other than by seedage were not understood.

The Persian walnut orchards of California from which today the bulk of
the production is being realized, are of seedling trees. However, the
Californians have learned their lesson and today are replacing their
orchards with budded stock as rapidly as possible. They have found that
while the Persian walnut, which for centuries has been grown from seed,
will reproduce itself fairly true to type, it does not repeat true to
variety. Every tree, no matter how carefully its parentage may have been
guarded, is unlike any other. The seedlings differ in traits of vigor,
hardiness, susceptibility to disease, time of beginning to bear,
productiveness, and longevity, and the nuts vary in size, form,
thickness of shell, ease of cracking, and in kernel characteristics.

The people of California have also found that in many ways, Persian
walnut trees on their own roots are less desirable than are those budded
or grafted on the roots of some black walnut.

The earliest pecan planters likewise set seedling trees, partly because
no others were available, but more largely because of a supposition that
such seedlings would come true. Later on, planters chose grafted trees
of large varieties, irrespective of others' merits or demerits. Today,
the orchards of both seedling trees and illy-selected varieties are
being topworked at great expense of time, labor, and money.

In the northern and eastern part of the United States, the situation
until very recently has been one of practical standstill. Efforts with
foreign nuts have resulted in our being but little ahead of the starting
point of a couple of centuries ago.

The great majority of the Persian walnut, chestnut, and hazel trees
which have been tried have failed us; some have even brought fatal or
near-fatal diseases to us.

At first thought, we would feel compelled to abandon all further efforts
with the foreign nuts; but not all that have been tried are guilty of
offence or failure. Here and there, from New England to Michigan and
from Maryland to Missouri, we are finding occasional nut trees either in
groups or standing singly, which because of their age, vigor,
productiveness, and quantity and quality of nuts, appear to be fit
foundation stock for the varieties so much needed in this part of the
country. A number of such are being propagated by the nurserymen and, as
the members here present know, are being disseminated.

The present great need is for knowledge regarding the location of other
such trees, not only of the foreign species, but of the natives as well.
The Northern Nut Growers' Association and the Federal Department of
Agriculture at Washington together are seeking to find Persian,
Japanese, or black walnut, Asiatic, European or American chestnut,
European or American hazel, and native butternut, hickory, pecan,
chinquapin and beech trees of more than ordinary merit. Upon the
locating of, and the propagation from such trees, as new varieties,
apparently depends the future of nut growing east of the Mississippi and
north of the Ohio and Potomac Rivers.

The appeal therefore is made to the owners of hardy nut trees that they
drop a postal to the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C.,
stating that they desire a mailing box and frank for sending in a few
specimens of the nuts which they believe to be of more than average
merit. The only expense necessary to incur will be in the price of the
card, and in the trouble of collecting and packing the nuts. Before
mailing, the package should be plainly marked with the name and address
of the sender, and a note should be inclosed giving information
regarding the location, ownership, bearing habits, etc., of the tree
from which the nuts were obtained.

If more convenient, the nuts may be sent to this association, which in
any case will be apprised by the Department of all new varieties of
apparent merit which may be brought to light.

However, no one should anticipate a great fortune as the result of any
nut tree of which he may find himself the owner. It is not possible for
a variety to be of especial value, no matter how promising the parent
tree may appear to be, until it has established proof of its
adaptability and merit in other sections remote from that of its origin.
Except in rare cases it has been only after a variety of any kind of
fruit has become well known by many who have tested it and spoken for it
that it has become popular or in great demand.

Therefore, all there will be "in it" for you, if you chance to be the
owner of a nut tree of merit will be the thanks of this Association and
posterity and the probability of having the variety named in your honor.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. LITTLEPAGE: I should like to drop a word about the
_American Nut Journal_ published here at Rochester, N. Y. I would like
to ask all the members of the Association to make as much effort as they
possibly can to get new subscribers to the _Journal_. I don't own any
stock in it, but I am talking purely in the interests of nut culture.
Without a magazine nine tenths of our work would be entirely useless
because it would be lost to the public. One of the duties of the members
should be the support of the organ which puts forth the information for
which this organization stands.

THE PRESIDENT: Methods of propagating pecans, hickories and
walnuts have been discovered and used, at times, for a century. I know
of a man who grafted them twenty years ago in New Jersey, but he left no
records of his methods. The _Journal_ helps us to keep these records.

This association has a great variety of contributors. We have with us
men who work on the exceedingly practical end of propagation. W. C. Reed
is a combination of the student and the propagator.




In considering varieties of the northern pecan, there are many points to
be estimated, such as size, thinness of shell, cracking quality, quality
of kernel, growth of trees in nursery and bearing records. The latter is
perhaps most important. What we want are trees that will give us a fair
crop annually; next would be the cracking qualities. If they crack
easily and come out of the shell with a large percentage of whole meats
the size does not make so much difference, for ultimately the value of a
variety will be gauged largely by the number of pounds of whole meats a
bushel, or a given number of pounds, will produce. I would therefore
place prolific bearing and cracking qualities as the two most important
points to be considered in selecting a variety worthy of planting.

_Crop Records_

In considering crop records of the different northern varieties; we have
no grafted or budded trees old enough as yet from which to make
comparisons, and in considering the crops of the original trees it is
well to keep in mind that many of these trees are located in the native
forest without cultivation, without proper sunlight and with a poor
chance for the full development of the tree; also it is well to remember
that scarcely two trees have the same surroundings and conditions, and
that it is not often that the owner is able to secure the entire crop
from any one tree, being located in the forest where a large part of the
crop is carried off by others. With these conditions it is often
impossible to tell what a certain tree may yield, except by comparison
with former crops. In giving you these yields I am giving my own
knowledge so far as I can, and then information and estimates from the
most reliable sources at my command.


This variety is perhaps the best known (owing largely to its name), and
has not failed to produce at least a partial crop annually for the past
fifteen years. Since it has been under close observation, which has
been about seven to eight years, it has usually borne from 100 to 300
pounds. Often a large part of the crop has been stolen. Crop 1912 about
200 pounds; 1913, 250 pounds; 1914, I am confident would have been 300
pounds. The owner secured 125 pounds; balance carried off by others.
This year, 1915, is almost a failure; just a light sprinkling of nuts;
was full of blooms but owing to heavy cold rain, failed to pollenize.
The tree is located in a cultivated field, circumference of tree is 5
feet, height about 60 feet, spread 50 to 60 feet.


This is almost identical with Indiana, and the owner tells me has borne
as many as seven bushels to twelve bushels at a single crop. The tree
being very tall, the entire top was cut out of it a few years ago and it
is just now commencing to bear again. The lower limbs, however, of older
wood that were left, have borne annual crops. In the nursery this
variety has shown a tendency to very early bearing; most one year trees,
spring 1914, set full of catkins, and one tree produced 16
well-developed nuts. These, however, dropped during the extreme drouth
of August. The past spring most Busseron trees in the nursery again set
full of catkins and at the present time we have one tree, coming two
years old from bud, bearing one nut that is full grown and looks as
though it would mature during the next thirty days.

Several other varieties have set full of catkins in the nursery row but
have not developed any pistillate blossoms. The Busseron has furnished
much propagating wood and at the present time there are, perhaps, more
trees growing in the nurseries of this than of any other northern
variety. Crop of 1915 promises to be fairly good.


Crop of 1912, 100 pounds; crop 1913, about 50 pounds; crop 1914, 225
pounds; crop 1915, I would estimate at 100 pounds. This tree is very
deceiving; the top is rather open and the nuts are usually scattered all
through. The crop of 1914 was not considered heavy until after it was
gathered. The past spring this tree bloomed very full, but owing to wet,
cold weather when in full bloom did not set well. Size of tree 18 to 20
inches in diameter; 50 to 60 feet high with 40 feet spread, and is
located in a cultivated field.


Crop of 1914 was 125 pounds saved; this tree is about the same size as
the Niblack, located in the edge of a cornfield near heavy timber,
being far from any house. A large part of the crop is often stolen; the
crops of 1911 and 1912 were not so heavy, perhaps 50 to 75 pounds. It
usually bears a fair crop, however, but I do not consider it a heavy
cropper like the Indiana or Niblack. Its large size and splendid
cracking qualities, however, will make it a popular variety and it may
prove to bear much better on budded trees under cultivation.


This giant tree stands out in the open field, measures 14 feet in
circumference, 90 feet spread and perhaps 100 feet high, and usually
bears from 5 to 7 bushels. The owner tells me he has owned this tree for
forty-four years and that it has not missed more than two or three crops
during that time and that the former owner told him he owned the tree
for fifty years and that it was a good sized tree when he bought the
farm and bearing regular crops.


Crop 1912, 160 pounds saved, and from what information I can get this
tree usually bears 100 pounds or more; tree about 3 feet in diameter,
120 feet high and 60 feet to first limb. Owing to its height and size it
is very hard to get much of an estimate in regard to the crop it may
carry until after it is gathered. Being located in the dense forest a
large part of the crop is often carried off.


Tree is located in the same grove with the Major, is about 3 feet in
diameter, 35 feet to first limb, crop 1912 reported 260 pounds and has
not missed a crop in twelve years. Have had no report for 1915.


Crop 1912, 41/2 bushels; since that has borne good crops, but do not
know the exact amount, but fair crop this year. The owner says it has
only missed two crops in twenty years.


This tree bears very regularly, but owing to the fact that it has been
cut so severely for propagating wood has not made any heavy yields the
past few years. The old wood has heavy crop this season.

This practically covers the named list of varieties for the Indiana
pecan belt. I might say, however, that most of the native trees are
bearing a very good crop of pecans this season in our country.

_Observations on Propagated Trees_

The Busseron has shown a stronger tendency to early bearing than any
other variety. The Major and Greenriver seem to be the best growers in
the nursery, with very heavy foliage. The Posey makes a very stocky tree
but seems to be one of the most difficult to propagate.

_Southern Varieties_

The summer of 1914 we had the Stuart, Delmas and Schley. The first
killing frost was a severe cold snap; mercury dropped to 10 above zero,
November 22d. Foliage on these perfectly green as well as the nuts. The
Stuart seemed to have about matured fruit although foliage was green.
Husk on nuts had burst open ready to drop. The fruit which looked to be
ripe, however, when cracked, the kernel looked plump, but when cut open
was found pithy and more like a piece of cork.

Stuart tree bearing this season nuts at present, September 1st, only
half grown, while Busseron alongside in nursery row is full size. The
northern varieties usually mature ready to gather October 1st; the
Indianas in the jar on the table were gathered September 28th last year.

_High Land versus Low Land. Pecans in High Land_

There have been a number of articles written by men well posted claiming
that the pecan will not bear or thrive except on the cultivated bottom
lands of our valleys and streams. The writer wishes to disprove this
erroneous idea. It is not borne out by facts. On the farm of W. J. Coan
of Bruceville, Knox County, Ind., there are a number of pecans planted
from ten to fifteen years ago. Part of these trees are on bottom land
and part on high land. This high land is heavy clay underlaid with
considerable hardpan. The writer visited these trees two weeks ago and
has photographs showing four trees in a group that were planted fifteen
years ago that have borne for the past six years, each crop getting
better. At the present time I would judge they are bearing at least one
bushel to the tree. A single tree in the barnyard has not made the
growth owing to the compact soil around it. However, it has borne quite
heavily, commenced bearing at nine years of age from seed. The trees on
the bottom land are not as large and have not borne half as many nuts as
the ones planted on high land. This is Mr. Coan's report and he says
that were he planting again he would plant entirely on high ground. The
trees shown in these photographs are located on perhaps the highest
elevation in Knox County, Ind. There are a number of other trees near
the writer's home planted on high land 150 feet above the river, back
from three to six miles, that are large trees, measuring 18 to 24 inches
in diameter and bearing regular crops. Heavy clay land seems to push a
stronger and more vigorous growth than does the more loamy, darker soil.
I submit here a number of photographs taken August 10 of pecan trees in
the nursery row, budded one year ago, showing a growth of from 4 to 6
feet, many of them 5 to 7 feet and some 8 feet high and still growing
rapidly. These were budded on four-year-old pecans.


We have tried all known methods of propagating the pecan with varied
results; one of the methods you do not want to try is the Edwards
method. While it may be a success in Texas, where it originated, it is a
miserable failure in the North. Grafting above ground is done after the
sap is well up, and gives fair results. However, best results have been
obtained by the patch bud method on seedlings three to four years old.
Good strong seedlings, well-ripened buds cut from the scion orchard or
from trees two years old in the nursery have given best results--in some
cases, as high as 85 per cent stand the past season.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. JONES: Mr. Rush had a Stuart bearing last year in
south-eastern Pennsylvania. The nuts were not very large but they
matured fairly well. I am more encouraged than ever that the Indiana
variety will be safe for use in Pennsylvania.

MR. REED: I think that if the Stuart bloomed as early as the
others it would be all right, but it is about two weeks later.

MR. LITTLEPAGE: I don't believe in the Stuart very much: I have
better pecans myself, hardy in the north.

THE PRESIDENT: I wish to corroborate Mr. Reed's point about the
success of the pecan on high land. One man is, I believe, responsible
for that widely circulated statement that the pecan will grow only on
alluvial land. I have travelled a thousand miles in investigating that
fact, and found it a fallacy. Some of the biggest pecan trees I have
ever seen were growing at 900 feet elevation down in Georgia. This was
on clay hills. I have seen the same thing in Raleigh. That alluvial soil
business is a hoax.

This ends the intellectual side of our program.

Business meeting.

Meeting adjourned _sine die_ at 10 P. M.



The walnut industry of California is just entering a transition period
from the planting of seedling groves to the established plantings of
grafted trees. Just as other seedling fruit trees, such as the orange,
apple, peach, almond, etc., have been eliminated, so too, the seedling
walnut groves of California seem doomed to be replaced by clonal
varieties. In many ways this industry is as much in its infancy as the
apple industry of New York was sixty-five years ago, when varieties
first began to be propagated in a commercial way by grafting and
budding. This readjustment in the walnut industry is well started, and,
although it is likely to be gradual in its evolution, and wisely so, the
change seems nevertheless certain. There are but a very few seedling
trees for sale at the present time by the progressive nurseries, and, in
fact, only a very few such trees have been set out in groves during the
past four or five years. The demand for grafted trees has been brought
about largely by the wide range of variation in walnut seedlings as
regards their productivity, commercial value of the nuts, season of
harvest and ability of the trees to resist the walnut blight.

In view of the very recent propagation of the walnut by grafting, which
has extended over only about ten to twelve years, it is reasonable to
expect that the majority of the varieties thus propagated so early in
the development of the industry are only partially suited to the needs
of the walnut grower. The nuts from many of these grafted varieties fall
considerably short of the commercial standard for high-grade walnuts.
Some of the heaviest-bearing sorts, such as the Chase, Prolific and El
Monte, produce nuts that cannot be sold in the very best grade of the
commercial product. On the other hand, the Placentia, which produces one
of the most nearly ideal commercial nuts, is not a heavy-producing
variety, especially in the northern walnut sections, and is quite as
susceptible to walnut blight as the average seedling tree. Again, the
Eureka variety, which seems to successfully avoid the walnut blight
during many seasons by its lateness in coming into bloom, is a very
moderately yielding variety in the southern sections. The above
examples are only a few of many that might be cited to show the
short-comings of most of the varieties of walnuts now being propagated.

The wide range of climatic and soil conditions makes the eventual
propagation of quite a large number of varieties inevitable. While the
coast regions are bathed in fog nearly every morning during the growing
season, the inland valleys experience an extremely dry climate with high
maximum temperatures. Walnuts are being grown at the present time on
soil types varying from the extremes of sand to heavy clay loams. Many
of the future varieties must be especially adapted to some one of these
particular environments if they are to stand the test of time.

Many of the present seedling groves are of uncertain origin and
represent greatly varying values. No doubt some of these groves are the
progeny of especially selected trees known to have considerable merit.
On the other hand, it is very apparent that many of them are the result
of a great demand for seedling trees when the industry was in its
infancy twenty or thirty years ago. At that time without doubt, great
quantities of walnuts were planted without due regard for their
parentage. Again, there is a wide range of variability among the
individual trees of any grove, as variations in type of tree, blooming
season, character of foliage, resistance to disease, productivity and
character of the nuts.

_Type of Tree_

The tree types vary from the upright, sturdy individual to the more or
less spreading, weeping types which droop nearly to the ground under the
burden of the crop. The upright, vigorous growing type is well
exemplified in the Eureka. On the other hand, such varieties as the
Prolific have a spreading, bushy habit and an almost semi-dwarfness
characterizes their growth.

_Blooming Season_

It is not unusual to find the blooming season in an ordinary seedling
grove extending over a period of from a month to six weeks. A few
individual trees leaf out and blossom with the first signs of spring.
Then the great majority of the trees in the grove come out in full leaf.
But there are frequently trees still leafless after the nuts on the
early individuals are of the size of a marble. This variation in the
blooming season has considerable economic importance in relation to the
harvesting and marketing of the nuts as well as the avoidance of
diseases and frost which may be more prevalent during certain periods in
the spring.

_Foliage Characteristics_

The character of the foliage varies from the broad-leaved types, whose
foliage somewhat resembles that of the horse-chestnut, to the
narrow-leaved varieties whose leaves have a tendency to curl up like the
foliage of the Winesap apple. The broad-leaved types are much more
densely foliated and this factor has considerable bearing on the
problems of sun-scald on the twigs and trunks of the tree and the
exposure of the nuts to this injury. For this reason, the densely
foliated varieties may prove best adapted to the inland valleys, where
the difficulties of sun-scald are most prevalent. The more sparsely
foliated types often appear to have less blight on the nuts and leaves
because of their exposure to the sunshine.

_Disease Resistance_

Probably one of the most important limiting factors in walnut production
in California, and especially in the older walnut sections, is the
bacterial disease commonly known as walnut blight. The inroads of this
disease have caused a very heavy dropping of the nuts during many
seasons of the past, and although a great deal of time and scientific
effort has been devoted to the control of the trouble, there is no
satisfactory known means for the prevention of walnut blight at the
present time.

It is a well-known fact that in the vegetable kingdom closely related
species suffer in different degrees from the attacks of the same
parasite. This difference in resistance is often as marked among
different varieties of the same species as between the species
themselves. The absence of blight is not necessarily an indication of
immunity. There is a great deal of difference in the amount of blight
prevalent at the present season in the different walnut growing
sections. Again, the immunity from blight of a particular tree for one
season may be followed by more or less prevalency of blight on the same
tree the next season. The degree of resistance must be tested out
through a number of years before any variety can be pronounced resistant
to this disease. The observations must also be carried out in different
localities as certain varieties seem to behave differently on different
soils and when growing under different climatic conditions.

Some varieties seem to avoid the blight the majority of the seasons but
really have little or no resistant qualities when the seasonal
conditions and the growth of the plant happen to coincide with the most
favorable time for the spread of the disease. An example of this is seen
in the Eureka variety the present season. While this variety has
maintained a reputation during a majority of seasons for freedom from
blight, during the present year the Eureka is badly diseased in certain
sections of Orange County. This may, perhaps, be explained by the
prevalence of damp, cloudy weather for about a week or ten days during
the first of May when this variety was in full bloom. In one grove under
observation the trees were thought to have lost at least 50 per cent of
their blossoms soon after blooming. At the present time on these same
trees, 32 per cent of the nuts are afflicted with more or less blight.
To be sure, some of these will likely mature, but the appearance of
blight on nearly one third of the crop shows that this variety has very
little resistant power against walnut blight. Its freedom from disease
in the past has no doubt been due largely to its dormancy during the
most favorable weather conditions for the spread of blight.

The field for the selection of blight resistant varieties must
necessarily be in the badly blighted sections. A tree with only 10 per
cent blighted nuts in an orchard having an average of 70 per cent to 80
per cent may really be more resistant to blight than a variety which
appears to be positively free from the disease when growing among trees
which are only 15 per cent to 20 per cent blighted. In making
observations and selections, therefore, it is quite as important to know
the amount of blight on the surrounding trees and the grove, as a whole,
as it is to know the prevalence of blight on the selected individual.
The extreme variation of different seedling trees in their
susceptibility to this disease is well illustrated in some of the
following observations which were made the present year. The percentages
which follow the varieties named were determined by counting at least
100 nuts on a tree just before the blighted nuts began to drop. In a
seedling grove in the Whittier district about 300 trees were examined
and 100 nuts counted on each tree. The individual trees varied from 2
per cent to 85 per cent blighted nuts, while the grove as a whole
averaged 25 per cent. There were at least a dozen or fifteen trees in
this grove which were blighted less than 10 per cent, although some of
the nearby trees were blighted as high as 60 per cent or 70 per cent.

Another seedling grove in Orange County which was counted in the same
way, averaged 47 per cent blighted nuts during the second week in June.
In making this determination 105 trees were examined. In this same
grove, there were, however, at least three trees which averaged less
than 6 per cent blighted nuts.

It is interesting to know that the Placentia variety, growing within a
stone's throw of the aforementioned seedling grove and under identical
cultural conditions, was blighted to the extent of 71.9 per cent on the
same date.

Observations of the Prolific (Ware's) in the vicinity of the above
mentioned grove, showed less than 1 per cent blighted nuts on the trees
and practically none of the nuts have dropped to the ground at the
present time, yet in the past this variety has not had a reputation for
disease immunity. The original Chase tree was observed during this time
and showed a percentage of 37 per cent blighted nuts. These examples are
given neither in support of any particular variety nor to discredit
others, but are noted merely to call attention to the wide variation,
and this variation is a great source of encouragement in our endeavors
to produce a disease resistant variety.

Of course blight immunity is not the only factor to be considered in
selecting a variety of walnut. A profitable yield of good commercial
nuts is the real test of the superiority of any variety. A very heavy
yielding tree with a small amount of blight may prove more profitable
than a light yielding variety that is totally immune to this disease.

The production of a medium grade nut which would grade only as a
seedling No 1, might prove more profitable if the tree is at least
partially blight immune than the production of such a high grade nut as
the Placentia with its susceptibility to blight. These things must be
considered and weighed carefully by the growers who are planting walnuts
in the blight sections. The various areas where walnut blight is not a
factor might profitably sacrifice heavy production to superior quality.

From our present knowledge it is very apparent that the disease
resistance of individual trees varies considerably from year to year and
under different soil and climatic conditions. The thorough testing of
resistant varieties will require considerable time.

_Nut Characteristics_

The character of the nuts is as variable as the trees themselves, not
only in the exterior appearance, but in the character of the meats as
well. The ideal commercial nut should be of medium size, about one and
one-eighth to one and one-half inches in diameter, of regular oval form
somewhat elongated, with smooth surface, and light brown color, and
uniform for these characters. The cracking quality of the nuts is quite
as important as their exterior appearance. The nuts should be well
sealed so they will not crack open in shipping. The shells should be
thin but strong, so the nut may be easily opened and the whole meat
taken out intact. The pellicle surrounding the kernel should be light
tan colored or silvery brown with a glossy waxed appearance attractive
to look upon. The meat should be smooth, and plump, averaging 50 per
cent or more of the total weight of the nut, and with a mild, pleasant
flavor, free from any astringency.

The shells vary all the way from extremely rough and unattractive
specimens to the smooth commercial type, as the Placentia, while the
color of the meats varies from dark brown to nearly white, and so on
through the other characteristics mentioned.

In the selection of varieties the walnut breeder is exceptionally
favored by the occurrence of large areas of seedling trees. According to
the 1910 census there were in the neighborhood of one and a quarter
million seedling trees growing in California. With this almost unlimited
material for selective use, it seems indeed reasonable that many
varieties will be selected in the future which are better adapted to the
demands of the industry than some of those now being propagated. By
means of hybridizing methods it is also hoped that some of the desirable
unit characters of the varieties now in cultivation may be recombined
into more nearly ideal varieties for future generations. The fact that
walnut breeding is necessarily a long-termed, expensive problem has made
it rather unattractive to the practical breeders. Such work will depend
largely upon public or specially endowed institutions for its support.



Pruning is as old as horticulture itself, but the Persian walnut has
escaped this treatment thus far. Practical experience, however, in
growing these trees for fruiting, shows the great importance of
systematic pruning. It is a common occurrence to see a young tree with
straggling and irregular growths. Very frequently we see that growth
takes place on part of the tree only, leaving the other part
undeveloped, which would throw the tree very much out of balance in
course of time. Pruning should begin early in the life of the young tree
and as soon as it leaves the nursery the pruning shears should be in

There are two important objects in view in proper and systematic
pruning. First is form, with a well balanced head. Second, to increase
productiveness by having more lateral branches properly distributed all
over the tree. As a matter of course productiveness will follow.

It is a singular fact that a misfortune can sometimes develop into a
blessing. Last year, 1914, was an unfortunate one in that an early and
late drouth caused poor bud development, and, of course, they were not
in a condition to withstand our usual winter weather.

In the spring of 1915, as soon as bud development took place, I
commenced to prune. I cut off all weak branches to a strong bud and
sometimes went over the trees a second time in order to insure that the
work should be well done. These trees referred to are mostly three years
old and at that age the pruning should be done very systematically.

It is a mistake to have a tree three or four years old in bearing. You
will have branches from 2 to 4 feet long without any laterals, quite
differently from other fruits, as the apple, peach, pear, etc. If these
long branches are allowed to remain you will find that the terminal buds
will develop nuts and weigh down the branch. But with proper management
the life and productiveness of the tree can be improved by pruning. A
branch 3 or 4 feet long should be cut back one half. Of course great
care must be taken where the cut is made, for the future welfare of the

I have a very fine five-year-old Hall variety on my side lawn that
shows the neglect of proper pruning at the right time. The branches are
entirely too long and drooping. In order to overcome this defect I will
have to cut back to two-year-old wood and force the dormant buds for the
future tree.

There is another great advantage in the proper method of pruning the
young Persian, that is, that the finest kind of bud wood becomes

You will please remember that in pruning the walnut we are not pruning
for color as with other fruits.

The tree should be as round headed as a Norway maple, and if some of the
limbs should show indications of weakness by crowding then cut them out
for the benefit of others close by.



Not being able to meet with you this September, as I have to go down to
the State of Mississippi, I send this paper to your president whose
paper on the Garden of Eden we all read in the _Country Gentlemen_ of
July 7, and so much admired.

Progress has not been made on my place sufficient to warrant my inviting
you to Toronto next convention, but I will say that the year after next
I will certainly have something worth seeing. But Dr. J. H. Kellogg of
Battle Creek, Mich., extends an invitation to you to hold the next
convention at the Battle Creek Sanitarium where nuts and nut
preparations are used exclusively in the place of meat and fish and
fowl. Here at Battle Creek on Dr. Kellogg's private grounds and on the
Sanitarium grounds may be seen Colonel Sober's Paragon chestnuts, Mr.
Pomeroy's English walnuts and Mr. Reed's grafted pecans, as well as some
grafted persimmons of named varieties. In my statement in the _American
Nut Journal_ last May or June I mentioned that all the grafted
persimmons sent from Washington were winter-killed. I find on returning
in August that the Early Golden is very much alive. Twelve other
varieties have been planted to see what this winter will do to them. The
persimmon is exceedingly interesting to us northern nut growers because
where it will succeed the pecan will also, without a doubt. Now I also
find that my statement in the same paper that the grafted pecans sent by
Mr. Reed were winter-killed was an error, as only certain trees failed
to grow above the graft. Those that are growing are the Major, Busseron
and Indiana, the Busseron showing most decidedly better than the
Indiana, both here and at Toronto. All pecans lived, both here and at
Toronto, if I include those that sprung up below the graft. Out of
thirteen varieties that I experimented with at Toronto, Major, Posey and
Niblack were the only ones that lived well above the graft and showed no
winter-killing. Others were more or less winter-killed. Kentucky,
Mantura, Appomattox, Luce and Greenriver showed no desire to live in the
north. Mr. Pomeroy's English walnuts showed a most distinct dislike for
Toronto, but all forty-eight are doing well here and are being cared

Colonel Sober's Paragon chestnuts showed the most determined attempt to
not grow the Paragon part of the tree, and an equally determined mind to
grow good and strong below the Paragon part--may this part yield good
trees! I have three or four Paragons left out of 135 trees. Pecans grew
as many as four feet both here and at Toronto this summer.

Of the new trees sent from Washington two specimens of Castanea Crenata
(from the north Island of Japan), six specimens of Castanea Mollissima
(almost blight proof, from north China) all are thriving.

Juglans regia sinensis lived to the tip through the winter and budded
out strong from the top, as did J. cordiformis--may it always be so.

_Re_ Dr. Deming's question as to the farthermost northern pecans I said
Charles City, Iowa. Now these forty trees were planted twenty years ago
and are all alive and yield crops, but the nuts are small as they are
seedlings. Write Mr. Charles D. Patten _re_ how his trees are doing and
their history. He has been asking Mr. Reed for scions of better trees.

I have five types of soil to grow my trees in, stiff clay, rich gravel,
quicksand and humus, light sand and silt or bottom land, well drained. I
have no sour, undrained spot on my fifteen acres.



  Henry T. Brown, Rochester
  Mrs. McLean, Rochester
  Rev. A. C. Crapsey, Rochester
  Prof. Fairchild, University Rochester
  Chas. E. Bunnell, Rochester
  S. W. Taylor, Stamford, Conn.
  Herbert E. Ingram, 432 4th Ave., New York
  Dr. J. W. Jackson, Dansville, N. Y.
  Martha Rush, New Providence, Lancaster Co., Pa.
  Edna Mylin, Willow St., Pa.
  Paul White, Boonville, Ind.
  J. G. Rush, West Willow, Pa.
  J. F. Jones, Lancaster, Pa.
  John S. Parish, Eastham, Va.
  Thos. P. Littlepage, Washington, D. C.
  Dr. and Mrs. Wm. C. Deming, Georgetown, Conn.
  Ralph T. Olcott, Rochester
  Dr. Robt. T. Morris, New York City
  Dean Baker, Syracuse, N. Y.
  E. R. Angst, Wilmington, Del.
  H. L. Grubbs, Fairview, Pa.
  M. E. Wile, Rochester
  Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio
  Frank A. Bailey, Rochester
  E. E. Streeter, Rochester
  C. K. Sober, Lewisburg, Pa.
  W. C. Reed, Vincennes, Ind.
  M. P. Reed, Vincennes, Ind.
  Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pa.
  Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Reed, Washington, D. C.
  Carl J. Poll, Danville, Ill.
  Walter C. Teter, New York City
  Jas. S. McGlennon, Rochester
  Conrad Vollertsen, Rochester
  H. L. Reynolds, Canandaigua, N. Y.
  Prof. and Mrs. F. N. Fagan, State College, Pa.
  Jas. Rissew, Macedon, N. Y.
  J. C. South, Rochester
  R. L. Fitzgerald, Rochester
  H. M. Brown, Fairport, N. Y.
  Nellie Doty Butts, Barnards, N. Y.
  H. Goodall, Spencerport, N. Y.
  John Rick, Reading, Pa.
  W. A. H. Reider, Reading, Pa.
  Adelbert Thompson, East Avon, N.Y.
  Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Pomeroy, Lockport, N. Y.
  Daniel Pomeroy, Lockport, N. Y.
  Howard Pomeroy, Lockport, N. Y.
  C. C. Laney, Rochester, N. Y.
  John Dunbar, Rochester, N. Y.
  E. B. Holden, Hilton, N. Y.
  Mr. and Mrs. B. S. Abrams, Charlotte, N. Y.
  Henry Hohener, Rochester, N.Y.
  Dr. Charles Forbes, Brick Church Institute, Rochester, N. Y.


1ST AND 2D, 1915

The program below is intended as a guide only. It may be necessary on
account of conditions to vary this. It is therefore highly important
that all automobiles follow one another along the lines later designated
in this sheet.

On the afternoons of September 1st and 2d, we propose to drive in
automobiles to the various trees of interest in the immediate
neighborhood of Rochester. The limit of the trip on September 1st will
be Hilton, N. Y. The present plan is to visit the trees in the following

     1--230 Saratoga Avenue, Persian Walnut seedling;

     2--Kramer, Emerson Street and Lake Avenue, Persian Walnut (This is
     the parent tree of the Thompson Grove seedlings at East Avon, N.

     3--Riverside Cemetery, Hybrid Hickory Laneyii (tree named after Mr.
     Calvin C. Laney, Superintendent of Parks, Rochester, N. Y., by Dr.
     Sargeant of the Arnold Arboretum);

     4--Westgate farm, Stone Road, Persian Walnut seedlings and filberts
     (nuts for the seedling trees and filbert bushes imported from

     5--W. H. Anderson and Wm. Twitchill, Ridge Road, seedling Walnut
     (of these one tree 105 years old);

     6--Hilton, N. Y., Holden trees, from which the Holden Walnuts

     7--McGlennon Nursery, Denise Road, filbert plantings, two years

     8--Clifford Avenue, between St. Paul Street and Clinton Avenue
     North, seedling Walnuts;

     9--Spiegel Park, seedling Walnuts;

     10--Culver Road and Parsells Avenue, Hybrid Walnut and Butternuts.

     (End of trip September 1st, 1915)

     _September 2d, 1915_

     1--Gregory Street, McGlennon Nursery, filberts; 2--Highland Park,
     Hazel; 3--West Brighton, Mrs. W. J. Miller, seedling Walnuts;
     4--Golah, N. Y., King Nut Hickory; 5--Seedling Walnut grove,
     Adelbert Thompson, East Avon, N. Y.

All automobiles intended to convey members of the Association will have
a sign "Northern Nut Growers Association." All cars will follow a pilot
car, which will be plainly marked. There will be one relief car, which
will be plainly marked, and will carry no passengers except in
emergency. In the event of any break-down in an automobile, the
emergency car will immediately pick up the passengers of the one
delayed, and transfer its sign to the delayed car. The delayed car,
after repairs, will act as a relief car in its place.

The start of both trips will be made from Powers Hotel at 1:45 P. M.
All members are requested to be on hand promptly, as the several
stops will consume considerable time. Unless delay in starting is
provided against, the trip may be prolonged beyond a comfortable limit.

  _Local Committee_

  Ralph T. Olcott
  Supt. C. C. Laney, Park Dept.
  Asst. Supt. John Dunbar, Park Dept.
  M. E. Wile
  Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger
  James S. McGlennon
  W. Robert Bruce
  John Hall, Secy. W.N.Y. Hort. Soc.


  Corylus cornuta   Beaked Hazel    Branch              Dr. R. T. Morris
  Corylus avellana  European Hazel  Stem showing blight Dr. R. T. Morris
  Corylus colurna   Byzantine Hazel Branch              Dr. R. T. Morris
  Corylus avellana  Purple Variety  Branch              Dr. R. T. Morris
  Corylus pontica   Pontine Hazel   Branch              Dr. R. T. Morris
  Corylus avellana  Var. Barcelona  Branch              J. G. Rush
  Corylus americana Var. Rush       Branch              J. G. Rush
                    Long Hazel                          Joseph Risseu
                                                         Walworth, N.Y.
                    Round Hazel                         Joseph Risseu,
                                                         Walworth, N.Y.
  Hicoria ovata     Var. Taylor     Nuts                Dr. R. T. Morris
  Hicoria ovata     Var. LeFevre    Nuts                J. G. Rush
  Hicoria ovata     Plate           Nuts            Miss Ruth N. Reeves
                                                           Newark, N.Y.
  Juglans regia     Var. Alpine                     Miss Ruth N. Reeves,
                                                           Newark, N.Y.
  Juglans regia     Var. Nebo                       Miss Ruth N. Reeves,
                                                           Newark, N.Y.
                         Rush                       Miss Ruth N. Reeves,
                                                           Newark, N.Y.
                         Hall                       Miss Ruth N. Reeves,
                                                           Newark. N.Y.
  Juglans hybrid    supposed J. regia               Miss Ruth N. Reeves,
                      X cinerea                            Newark, N.Y.
  Juglans regia     Var. Holden spec.                   E. B. Holden,
                                                           Hilton, N.Y.
  Juglans cathayensis               Foliage             Park Board,
  Juglans rupestris                 2 clusters, 4 nuts  Park Board,
                                      each and foliage        Rochester
  Juglans sieboldiana               cluster 7 nuts and  Park Board,
                                      foliage                 Rochester
  Pteryocarya stenoptera False Walnut Foliage           Park Board,
  Castanea sativa   Var. Paragon   Branch with one very J. S. Parish,
                                      large bur            Eastham, Va.
  Castanea pumila   Common chinquapin Branch with cluster
                                       of nuts          Dr. R. T. Morris
  Castanea pumila   Southwestern   Branch with nuts
                      chinquapin                        Dr. R. T. Morris
    Panel with general collection of pecans, hickory nuts and walnuts,
      W. C. Reed,
     Vincennes, Ind.
  Juglans nigra     Var. Rush      Nuts                 J. G. Rush
  Juglans regia                    Branch              Mrs. B. S. Abrams,
                                                        Latta Farm,
                                                         Charlotte, N.Y.



No chestnut stock should go out unless it is thoroughly sterilized by
some satisfactory method and tagged by proper authority to show that

States that are still clear of the blight are advised that effective
quarantine is desirable to delay, for a time at least, the spread of the
blight. Four infestations of chestnut blight have been found in Indiana
in July and August, 1915. This fact, and the continued spread of this
fatal fungus, are some of the reasons for this recommendation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Nut trees may and do sometimes come fairly true to type but they do not
come true to variety. Consequently our association does not approve of
the sale of seedling trees under variety names; and this association
further recommends to all journals that they take no advertisements for
nut trees if such trees are not sold under conditions that clearly
comply with the provisions of this resolution.


The Chestnut Bark Disease on Freshly Fallen Nuts. J. Franklin Collins.
Reprinted from _Phytopathology_, Vol. V, No. 4, August, 1913. With One
Figure in the Text.

Melaxuma of the Walnut, "Juglans regia." (A Preliminary Report.) Howard
S. Fawcett. Bulletin No. 261, Agricultural Experiment Station, Berkeley,
California, November, 1915.

The Pecan Business. From Planting the Nuts to Gathering the Nuts.
Catalogue of B. W. Stone, nurseryman, Thomasville, Georgia, containing
cuts and information about pecan growing in the South.

Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Convention of the National Nut
Growers Association, held at Albany, Georgia, October 27-29, 1915.

Report of the Proceedings at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Northern
Nut Growers Association at Rochester, New York, September 1 and 2, 1915.
(In press.)

Walnut Aphides in California. W. M. Davidson. (Professional Paper.)
Bulletin of the United States Department of Agriculture No. 100, August
31, 1914.

The Possibilities of Nut Growing in the East. W. C. Deming. _Women's
National Agricultural and Horticultural Association Quarterly_, August,

The _Walnut Book and Horticultural Digest_, A Monthly Publication
Devoted to the Production, Distribution and Consumption of the Walnut.
Vol. I, No. 1, November, 1915. The Walnut Book Publishing Co., Orenco,
Oregon. One dollar a year. Official Organ of the Western Walnut

Nut Trees for the Country's Waste Places. Gilbert E. Bailey, Ph.D.
University of Southern California. _American Fruits_, July, 1915, p. 8.

The Inside of a Graft. F. A. Waugh, _The Country Gentleman_, February
20, 1915, p. 328.

Progress of Nut Culture in the East. Possibilities of a Coming Industry.
W. C. Deming. _The Rural New-Yorker_, March 6, 1915, p. 327.
Illustrations of methods of budding and grafting nut trees.

Air and Wind Dissemination of Ascospores of the Chestnut-Blight Fungus.
F. D. Heald, M. W. Gardner, and R. A. Studhalter. Reprint from _Journal
of Agricultural Research_, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.,
March 25, 1915. Vol. III, No. 6.

Grafting and Budding the Walnut. E. R. Lake. Weekly News Letter to Crop
Correspondents, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.
C., April 7, 1915. Vol. II, No. 35. Numerous cuts.

Neglected Northern Pecans. Dr. J. Russell Smith, University of
Pennsylvania. _Country Gentleman_, January 9, 1915.

Riehl Fun for Nuts. Dr. J. Russell Smith, University of Pennsylvania.
_Country Gentleman_, October 9, 1915.

A Georgia Tree Farmer. Dr. J. Russell Smith, University of Pennsylvania.
_Country Gentleman_, December 4, 1915.

Shade Trees that Bear Nuts. Dr. J. Russell Smith, University of
Pennsylvania. _Country Gentleman_, January 7, 1916.

Grafting Nut Trees. Dr. J. Russell Smith, University of Pennsylvania.
_Country Gentleman_, January 28, 1916.

       *       *       *       *       *


[1] Bulletin No. 231 by Prof. Ralph E. Smith of the University of
California, is authority for this history of walnut introduction into
that state.

[2] G. Harold Powell, Bull. XLII, Delaware Agricultural Experiment
Station, 1898.

[3] Paper No. 21, Citrus Experiment Station, College of Agriculture,
University of California, Riverside, California.

       *       *       *       *       *

~"No, we would not think of planting a tree without using dynamite."--~

Extract from a letter received from Edwards & Patterson, Milledgeville,
Ga., who are amongst Georgia's best known pecan growers.

[Illustration: Pecan nut]

Edwards & Patterson's pecans, actual size, sent to us as fair average
samples of nuts grown on unblasted and blasted trees. The pecan at the
top was grown on a tree in unblasted soil,--at the bottom is the pecan
grown where the soil was blasted.

[Illustration: Pecan nut]

Blasting with RED CROSS EXPLOSIVES shatters the compact soil, extends
the feeding area of roots and increases the water-holding capacity of
the ground.

Tree-planting in blasted ground is "life insurance" for all kinds of
fruit and nut trees. Plant your pecans in blasted ground, and stop
first-year losses.

Write for HANDBOOK OF EXPLOSIVES telling about tree-planting and other

E. I. du PONT de NEMOURS & CO.


       *       *       *       *       *

Vincennes Nurseries


  _The Pecan_
  _The Persian Walnut_
  _The Hickory_
  _The Chestnut_
  _The Almond_
  _The Hazelnut_
  _And the Persimmon_


We offer also a general line of Nursery Stock

  W. C. REED,


       *       *       *       *       *

Plant My Hardy Pennsylvania Grown, Budded and Grafted



       *       *       *       *       *

You can't afford to experiment with trees of doubtful hardiness, neither
do you want seedlings or inferior varieties

_My 1915-16 Catalogue is yours for the asking_

       *       *       *       *       *


J. F. JONES, The Nut Tree Specialist


       *       *       *       *       *



Choice Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Cherry Trees on Mazzard Roots, Hardy
Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Hedge Plants, etc. Originators of the


JOS. W. THOMAS & SONS, King of Prussia P. O., Montgomery Co., Pa.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Northern Nut Growers Association, report of the proceedings at the sixth annual meeting - Rochester, New York, September 1 and 2, 1915" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.